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I <■ /■ 



-m ^ 






. / J 



I'MtT R OI>U CTI ON 

T O T H 15 

H i S T O R Y 

O F T H E 

rriricipal St AXES of EUROPE. 

Begun by BAkow Ptf FFENDORF; 
Continued by Mr. D£ LA MARTINI£R£. 

• 4 

■ » Mi r - I 1 1, ' I if 1 ^>Ali r I i | -- ii l i - • Hi i aiii m ' i ,< ,i, - ,i,— rfi^ ^ 

, I M P.K O V ED ^ . 

fiy JOSEPH SAlfER* Serjeant at Law. 

Nffiire fuid antequam HatUs ji$ acdderit id ejt femptr efe Puerum. 
" ' '^■- - ^ Cic. de Orat. 



■ '>-jT Atil^tifcrniin r iiin iiiiV 11 . ■ i h 

.S j;^ In Two Volumes. 



V O L. X 

■,V-f, 



'^^'A 'MEW EDITION rcvifcd and w^reft^d. 



L O N D O 1^: 

l^ted for A. WiLDE, A. Millar, B. Dod^ J. Hintoi^, J. RiviMcroiVf 
l«*HAWts« W. CtARKB and R. Collins, W. Johnston^ 
T. LoMQMANs and B. Law. M.DCC.LXIV. 



i 



' ■' ■ lit 



t^imti^im^tim^mmi^km 



TO HIS 

ROYAL HIOHNBSS, 

PRiiSfCE GEORGJE. 



THE eftabliiliedltfeputatlon of ttieori* 
ginal Author^ and the Figure made 
by the Continuer of this Introdudion in the 
learned World, will it is humbly hoped ia 
fome Meafure cxcufe the Prefumption of ad- 
drcffing it to your Royal Highness ; and 
this will further be excufed by the Nature of 
thcSubjedt.^ 

j . History the Mirrour' of paft Times is 
I ffiorit pcculiariy the Concern of Princes- In 
this, if not fuUied by the Breath of Pre- 
jadice^ nor obfcured by the Flaws of Par- 
jdality, the Anions of the Opprcffors of 
; tiacir Fellow-Creatures appear, as they juftly 
ougjit, raoft horrid, moft deteftablct On the 
A 2 con- 



iv. D E D I C A T I O ISf. 

contrary, fuch Princes as have been indeed 
Fathers of their People are herein rejprefcnt- 
ed, that others may be excited to an Imita- 
tion of their Godlike Qualities, in the moft 
amiable Forms 5 and' their Images, which 
will be refleded down to the lateft Pofterity, 
will^frbm Time to Tfmc be more and mdr« 
admired. 

MaV all the Virtues of yOuf llhiftrious 
H'oufe center in your Royal Highness : 
But efpecially%iay that Freedom from falfc 
Ambition, and that Eafinefs of Accefs, which 
fo remarkably adorn your Royal Father, 
ftrike deep Root in your tender Brcfaft. Alas! 
what UneafinefTes, what MisfortunWto thein- 
felves 5. what Miferies to Nations ^ arife from* 
the ambitious Views of Princes? And Eafi- 
nefs of Accefs is in Prii|ces a moft endearing 
Virtue: The Ears ofj fuch as are thereof 
pofleffed being like Heaven's Gates always 
open to the Prayers of their Subjeftsj and 
they delight in nothing fo much as in grant* 
ing their reafonable Req[uefts. 

This. laft Virtue, befides being infinitely 
beneficial to the Governed, is moreover g£ 
the utmoft Importance to Governors. How 
many, who might otherwife have pafled. for 
good Princes, have fufFered their Confidence 
and Authority tp be engroficd and abufed by 
Favourites; Juntos or Parties j who under the 

Pre- 



DEDICATION. 

Pretence of Zeal for their Maftcr*s Inte- 
refti when nothing was intended but the 
Gratification of their own Lufl: of Riches 
and Power, have laid Load after Load upon 
their Fellow-Subjedls. This has by De- 
grees dienated the Minds of Subjeds from 
their Sovereigns ; and fome Princes have been 
fo deceived or blinded, as not to fee the Mi- 
flake until their Ruin was inevitable* 

That Flatterers the Difgrace of human 
Nature, the Curfc and often the Bane of 
Princes, may be ever far from your Royal 
Highness i that your Soul maybe betimes 
fire(^ with the Love of every heroic Virtue ; 
and,;that.-you n^^y for a long Time be an 
Honoaf ?ind Bleffing to your Country j is the 
ardqii^'Wifh and earneft Prayer of, 

YouK Royal Highness's 

..' \.^. Moji dutiful, 

Moji obedient^ 

And moft bumble Servant^ 



I') -t 



Hi. 



i74»*' . ' J. S A Y E R* 



i 



1 • • ' »■ 



Baron PUFFENDORF's 

PREFACE. 

Ir being allowed by the learned that Hifto- 
ry is a moft ufeful as well as pleafant Study^ 
and particularly fo to thofe who are intended for 
publick Employments, young Gentlemen of Fa- 
mily fliould be exhorted to apply themfelves there- 
to while young ; becaufe their Memory is at that 
Time in its full Vigour. It is moreover to be 
feared, that fuch as have no Relifii for Hiftory will 
not make any conHderable Progrefs in the other 
Sciences, 

Some of the antientHiftorians are indeed read in 
Schools, and fo far from condemning this Prac- 
tice they fhould in my Opinion be always begun 
with: But it feems to be a great Miftake in 
thofe to whom the Education of Youth is com- 
mitted to negleft the Hiftory of later Times; 
for if it be true that young Perfons ought to un- 
dcrftand thofe Things moft which will be moft ufe- 
ful, it is certainly more proper for them, and ef- 
pecially for fuch as are likely to be employed- in 
Affairs of State, to underftand well the modern 
Hiflory of their own and the neighbouring Na- 
tions, than to be ever fo great Matters of Corne-^ 
lius Neposj Curtius or any other of the Anti,ent 
Hiftorians. 

In order to remove the f)ifficulties that obftrcft 
the Study of Hiftory, which arife principally 
from the Extenfivencfs of the Subjedt and the 
Variety of the Languages in which it is written, 
I not many Years ago drew up, for the Ufe of 
fome young Swedijh Gentlemen my Pupils, a com- 
f cndious Hiftory of fuch States as had any Con- 
A 4 nexion 



\U 



pexloi) wich i^e Kingdom oi Sweden. This at 
firft quite i^ rcH)^ Sk^cph was <kfigfie4 oply ^r 
jthcir piiyaie Improycmcnt: Buc jCopiet thereof 
haying fallen into divers Hands, I had Ktafon to 
fear that fome Bookfejler would,, as it has hj^r 
pened to n^any Qthgta, publilb \t witbput my Conr 
fcpt or Knowle%e. Her<5upoi» nmwftbftandiag 
j;he multiplicity <3fBufinefs at that Titnc upon 
my Hands I irevjifed it; and hating made it 
fomewhat Qiore perfcdt chofe rather to publifh it 
piyfclf, than fufFer a furreptitious Copy thereof tq 
J>e publilhed. Thefe Confiderations will I hopp 
difpafe the R«idcr to judge favourably -of a 
^ork, which was not introded for IVlen adr 
vapccd in JLearnifjg^ but adapted ia the Appre-r 
J^onQons and Capacities of young PjerfonS ; whoq;! 
I was willing to induce, by thus paviqg the Way 
jind giy |ng them as it were a Reiiih pf tte Subjeft, 
%q fcarch farther into Hiftory. 

/\$ J have in the. general taHcn the Hiftory of 
f very State from its own Hiftpriatis, the Reader 
pught not to be furprizcd, if he fomjtimcs meets 

. yntli a Jpifagreemeet in the different Accinintsof 
the fame Tranfaflion : For as Hiftorlans have 
usually a P^rtialijcy xo theit* refpcftiue Coun- 
tries this copld not bp av(oided,v^x.cepfi which 
was nqt my Province, I had taken Upon royr 
if If tq decide ot r^^oncile all fuch Diflj^reopes. 
> .Fpr the Sake of giving a clearer View of the 

, Hiftory 9f every Staffi I have, without defigncdly 
fiatteripg or undervaluing any one, added fuch 
Obfervations a^ have been ufuajly made upon the 
J^aturc of its SoiU th^ Manners of its Inhabitant^, 

.its Strength, the Fornj of its Gctvcrnmcnt, an4 

jps Infereft with regard ,to other States. TheDe- 

jrigo.of thcfe is tQiincUtin young. Gentlemen a 

,.. " . ' Curioficy 



JBaroa PtrFPENDOnr's Preface* \x 

(Euriofity to inquire when th*y travel, or whfcfj 
they coDverie mth Mgn of Experiencei into fuch 
Things What I have &id of the Intereft of State* 
muft be utiderftood as applicable chiefly to the 
Time when this Book was composed. It muft 
be codfbifedi chat the Knovtedge of th?j is not fp 
eafily to be" attained by young rerfons as by Ihofe 
of riper Years : Yetl could not pafs it by ; for 
unle& tlsr Ifitereft of a State be tmderftood^ no 
good Jpdgniei^t can be formed whether its Afivirs 
are vreil aBftiiniftred. 

It is £f<oper for the AfCftance of yoqng Perfon$ 
in this PartkruUr %o obferv^ that the Intereft of 
a Stmbmiy be divided into its imaginary and real 
Jntefeft. ' The fornftr of tbefe, which I take to 
confift Inf aihiing at univerfal Monarchy, a Mo- 
nopoly, OT' Ibme other Thing of the like Kind, 
canti^^ft^ ht purfoed by a Prince without infinite 
Expence and Deftruflrioii to his Subjedls;' and 
jbefid^s'diat^no fdlid Benefit would arife therefron) 
if ii^'lbclUld^fijiccced, the Attempt at any one of 
thefewOliM* certainly fall: It being for the Inte- 
reft ctf'^ (Jtber States to oppofe it with «!! their 
f^i^iti' '-''pJkh fi vo$ omnihis imperar} vuUis fe- 
qmtkr m y^fifim firoitutm aceifiant ? In ofher 
^i§xdlfi'1^^her9any'Reafinibat becaufeyou 'Woul4 
b9 M^f-sf^aitMen all jkould fubmi tamely 
iO':^mf^$'^kh ? I'he other or real Interrfl of a 
Stifte tet^ 'ht confidetied as permanent or tem- 
poraryv^^ Thcj*fdrmcr of thcfe depends upon -the 
Sicuatfoh^ of lis Domimons, its Gohftitucfon and 
the Difp(ificti)h of its People : The latter ujpon the 
Strength bf -W^akncfs of the nefehbourihg States, 
An Alf^i^afTOft in cither* of'th& muft viry the 
tempdrary Interdft of futft^ State ; aAd herice it 
happens^ that it is ac fome Times prudent in order 
%q preibrve the Baliance of Power for one Scate to 

affift 



Baron Puffendorf's Preface* 

afllft another, which it is. at other Tiroes equally 
prudent to join againft. 

As thettt^porary Intereft.of a State muft one 
would think l)e in the general obvious,, it may be 
aflced, how it comes to pafs that fuch great and 
perniciou* Miftakes'are fo 'frequentfy made there- 
in? One Anfwer is, 'that thePerfons, in whom 
the fupreme Power is veiled, ace fometimes quite 
ignorant of the true Intereftsof their rtfpofliv^ 
States ; or which is ftill worfe that they are entire^ 
ly governed by their Paffions, or by thofe of fome 
Favourites. It likewife. happens, where the Admi- 
nillration of Affairs is committed to Minifters, 
that thefe do not in many Cafes fee what is mod 
proper to be purfucd; or that they prefer. theijr 
own private Interell to that of the State j or, 
which too often, happens, that being fplit \nig, 
Fadions they are more intent upon ruinir<g their 
Rivals than ferving tljeir Couatry^ 

Upon the whole K appears that,, although th? 
temporary Intereft of a State be for the moll Part 
obvious^ no good Judgment can be formed whe- 
ther this wUl be purfued, withoyt ki\owi^ the Ca» 
parities, Itclinations, Caprices and pflyatc Views^ 
of tbofc; wto have theManageipent of its^ffairs j 
for it '.ibmetimes happens*, that a State if\ itfelf 
weak is made r^fp^ftable by the Prydenqq of >ts 
Diredtors : And on the contrarj(, a jNfation natur- 
rally powerfql is frequently brought. by the weak 
or wicked Conduft of thofe who, fit at the Helm 
into a moft contemptible Conditiop. The Know^ 
ledge of thefe, whicli is quite neceflary to all 
who have the Care of the foreign Affairs of a 
State, mufl: as the Scenes are often changed in 
Courts be very diSicult to acquir^e ; becaufe it is 
only to be V^rncd by Obrervatipn, pr from Men 
v/ho are well acquainted therewith. 

Mr. 



ifr. Serjeant SAYER'i 

PR E F A C E. 

TH E Reception of this JotroduAion, m tnoft 
Parts of Eu^ofe^ having been fuch as was 
reafonably to be e^>eAed irom the great Repu- 
tarion of Baron Pttfendorf in the learned World, 
Mr. Mariimerej who has given fufficient Vrooh 
of his Knowledge in Hiftory, was prevailed upon 
about the Year 17 19 to publifli an Edition there- 
of brought down to that Tinoe. It was after- 
wards continued by htm to the Year 1743. fie- 
ficks cootinuing the Baron's Chapters^ which were 
bucthirteeoo oamely of the ancient Empires j SpaiUj 
Poriugal, England, Prance, Holland^ SxviJ/erland, 
Germafty^ Denmark^ Polandj Mt/covy^ the Pope's 
fpiritual Monarchy and Sweden^ Mr. Marttnieri 
has added liiany pew Ones. 

Sofn$ of thefe, as ihe Chapters of Sardinia^ 
Naples and Stcify^ 'Prttffia^ Genoa, ^Hfcanj^i tt>i 
fopt's Doniifiihs^ Venice aiid *Turkjy which are 
too confiderable States to be omitted in a B<Sbk 
of this Kind, ^re retained : But as the Defign was 
that the prcfent Edition fliould be confof maWc 
to the Baf6h'tPI*n,it;his been thought proper to 
omit the Ch|pter$ of Lorrafn. Parma^ Pkcentia^ 
Mantua^ Moienuy MaUa^ the Houfe of RadzivH^ 
Geneva, Hungary, Bbbemia and the German Prin-- 
w. Several of thefe are not of Confequence 
enough to have Place in' a Book which profefles 
to treat only of the principal States of EuropHf^ 
7 and 



3^ Mr. Scijcant Saver's Preface. 

aad. the Hiftory of fome other States, or at 
leaft the Modern part thereof, which have loft 
their ladepcndency, is interwoven with that of 
che Sjta(e to which they are at this Time fubjedt. 
TheMienaoirs of the Houfe of Radzivil are fo* 
»ign to the;Sub}e& i an4 as the principal Ac- 
tions of t^t German Princes are mentioned in the 
Chapter of G^r/»ai/^, it was neither neceff^ry nor 
proper tp continue Chapters, which contain very 
little more than the Genealogy of their refpec- 
tive Families. As to the Intercft of the refpeftive 
States, which is in divers altered iince the Baron's 
Time, Mr; Martiniert\ Opinion is in the general 
adhered to : But in fome Inftances, where this 
fccmed to be mifundcrftood, the Liberty has been 
taken of differing from him. 

Perfpicuity and Brevity have been principally 
aimed at: Yet no Pains have been fpared to 
make the Style correft, and as elegant as the Na- 
ture of the Subjeft where Tranfitions are fo fre- 
quent would admit. It is feared that many Faults 
will be difcovered in the Style : But it is at the fame 
Time hoped, that the Declaration of having en- 
deavoured to come up to the Purity and Beauty 
of the EngUflj Language will procure more In- 
dulgence from the judicious Reader, than an Af-- 
fedation of having been regardlefs of thofe Things, 
in which the Publick has a Right to expeft from 
every Author the utmoft Care. 
. The Freedom taken with Mr. Afoitf/wrr^'s Edi- 
tion may perhaps be thought too great : But this is 
\\X 2L great Meafure if not altogether juftified by 
the following Paffage in his Preface. H feroit i 
foubaiter que dans la Suite quelqtCnn prenant cet 
Qworage^ tant du Baron Puflfendorf que de moi^ re- 
tmnidt k tout^ ^ lui donnat une Fornix ajfez par^ 

faite 



Mr. Serjeant Saver's Ptckce. xiil 

faite pour i^'farire m Livre (XaJJ^t en Favmr*ih 
jeuns Ct^3 miliaivent amir une Teintun ieVRiJ^ 
toirer% otWWords r // h Po he wijbed tbatfim^ 
Perf^rwiiiiTdr hereafter take H itpon bim to feviff 
ibis Work; as ivell Baron Paffcndorf'^ Pari a$ * 
mme^ /mdgi'ie itfuch a Degreie of PerfeSHin as H 
make it a a^M Book for the ujtof young Ptrfons^ 
who im^hi ly all Means to ban:t fome Knov^ige 
in j^d^;;Tftct)eflgn was to make it fddh « 
Bcjok : Ho'^ far thUf is executed muft be fobmittcd 
to the,Jteiaer*S Judgment. 



^n.\-; 






CO NTENTS 

OF THE 

FIRST VOL UME. 

HAP. I. Of the amient EmpreSt Page i 



C 



II. Of Spaitt, 


21 


III. Of Portugal, 


1 20 


IV. Of Great-Britain, 


142 


V. Of France, 


216 


VI. Of the United ProviriceSt 


310 


VII. Of the German Em^re, 


345 


yni. Of SmfferUnd^ 


399 



AN 






:o .11 

• > .V 
v.; .17 



« « » 



■^ Z" '. •v V 



A I? 

INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

History of the principal Kingdoma 
and States of Europe. 



C H A P, I. 

Of the anqieijt Ei»p;res, arid particularly of 
the Roman, m the Ruins of which many nevi 
Kingdoms mid States were formed. 

AT the firft peopling of t\\t World every Father ^^ ^le pjf 
had an xincontrouled Power in his own Fa- States/ Mani 
mjly; arid it'is probaMe that no pivil Govern- iind. 
nient was conjftituted before ^he Flood j fox; it 
k fcarce credible, that there could haye beerj fuch an uni- 
verfaiand monftrous Depravity of lyianners.as to pro- 
voke the Almighty- to dr6wn the ^vhole Species, if JMan^ 
kind had been fubjcft to Laws and Governor?., Thi9 
Suppc^tion 18 nnLoreov«r confirmed by thie Confid.eration^ 
that altiiottgh Men have at all Times Jiad the fame Pafr 
iionsand Prppcnfities,^ tKcy have not fince the Forpiation 
of civil Societies been io the General guilty of fucl]f 
enormous Crim^ a^ before exifted. 

The Difputes aWjQs^irrels betwixt neighbouring; jjjie Origin of 
Families, which could fe decided' nb other Way than Civit Soci* 
by force, was perhap^ tHe-'firft Induteipent, fpr it ap- ^^^H 
pears that the paternal Power continued for fome Time 1 , 
after riwf Flood; Id theifoAiFtig pf clvir'Societies.' '4$ *. 
the World ii^drtOW'g«xr pc^dloiis, * tliere were of / " 
Courfe many Villtikf^ r afld' *^s u* (idmbiuatipn of thef^ 
was f4^.cicnC'io^ ruiri ' aUj^nxn^ Fa^iily ^''^ it *1)e.came nc^ 
■ Vol..!. S ^eff^ry 



i Of rAr Ancient Empihis. 

feSiry (or frrersl Familiet t6 iiAke- for their mtttuarl 
Defencse. The better to execute the Defignt of thefe 
imall Societies, which at firft,<oiififlecl perhskjps of a few 
neighbouring Families that could conveniently aflifl; 
each other, it was proper ^hat (ome cme or more, whofe 
Wjrdom and Courage were.oonfpicuoui, fliould have 
the Di region of their Affairs ; and to prevent DiviCons 
among themfelves that all, Matters in Difpute fliouM 
be referred to his or their Decttlon. It is likewife pro* 
bable, that when any Number of them agreed to feek 
out new HiiibitatiQas thty choft a Leader from amongft 
themfelves, to whom the Caxe of th^ Expedition and of 
fettling themfelves in (bme neighbouring Country was 
committed, Hence it appears, that the moft ancient 
Jorm^of civil Government was vAatArl/htU calls Hi^ 
J Toical, It is not however to be imagined, although 
for the good of themfelves ^ey; Inigjlt lodge the execu- 
tive Part thereof in the Hands of one or more, wliofe 
'Authority wa^ confideraUe enotsg^ to give Weight to 
lus or their Orders;, that the Fathers rf Families, who 
before had' the whole Poweri ftM^ it once, dlveft 
themfelves of all Share in the Government. 
^befirfi State At what Time the hx& Civil Sopeiy in the World 
»5f i^Jifyto h was formed it is hard to detennuoe, o^ wINiok ou^t to 
M^rmned, be looked upon as the moft Amcienti for aUhou^h the 
Myrian is commonly reckoned the firft Monarchy, it 
xiob not follow tlxat it was the fiift Civil Sockty. I^ay 
it is evident frotn the Accouiit w$ ha^vf of the Wars of 
the ftrd; Jjfyrim Monarchs, ths(t there Were H that , 
Tin^e other States. As other hu|aai» InveiHions do not 
prefentty come to Perfe£lioti, fo k i$ probable that the 
firii: Civil Societies were rude and. imf^^eAi and that 
Laws and other R^uiations neceflary for the carrying 
cm of Civil' Government wei;e ly Degrees imds. It is 
Kkewife p^ain that they were ffoalj^ fi^ace the fii^ier one 
looks t^f k intQ Hiflory the- more i^pf ^dent States, are 
.tobefoun(); which in Procsfs of Tinie were' either iuii- 
^ tfed together, or the lefs powerful ^xa^M weceiubdtMd hf 
• - the: more powerful ones. 
Of the A ssY' '^^The Jj^ri(in is |eneraU/ alWf4 to he: the moA 
K,iAN Empire. Ancient of the larger Monarchies. The bsft Rnrfbii that 
can' perhaps be sivifi fbr this is^ tfM ttMs.Part of the 
World w^^firft jcMpM; Eat i*. ffHigm rf Courfc 



tfttt ht ixH Cirit'^kff^i^ here form^ ; and it 1| 
inud&lR|ii^ f&r'a Society thlt is already eflablifheJ'to 
Cdii^M^l^liel^Hboiinng one -in its Infancy, than fbFa 
ticf# iWblfc wile, whofe McinBcre arc under a Kcceflicjr 
0f tli^ %l^Grduhd or dffi V^ flarve, to fubdue the 
cid»'0»(tJ^ ^thie Vaft Armies employed by Ninui and 
SfiwAWrfr in conquering very diftant Countries do iti^ 
deafttt^f iht common Ghronofogy and Hrftory of the 
firftTHMfi^ a little ftifpcScd ; Wh without entering ml- 
nutttf ihHi^'this Matter, which h not our Bufinef^ a^ 
preAM, h'frtty tstfily be conceived that when any ono 
Stait^ 'IismI faBiufed divers pthcts, ft might, with the Ad- 
ditioif thefe %^u1d*-maK6'te its Strength extend its Cort- 
qoeA^ i gj^t'Way. Amongft ptfiir Midthody made tffe 
rf by 'A* 'j^g^an Moiiarchs tb Iccep the many Nations 
of wHScH thtit vaA Empif^ icoiififted tn Awe, the two 
foUbwlHg'W^HB'the mdtt rcmaAabfc. They were in the 
firft Ft«d^ ftMpHi Teen by any except their favodriie Mi- 
niftaii} WMcb-made the Ptopld entrain a Kind of Vc- 
neratfftat' tor their Pferfbns as if they^Mjretc more than 
Men^Mlt'ln^^ f(§cohd a large Art^^ fMiRcWnY to fttlkb 
Termr fc<^ at Home and Abroad, of #hich feliic'truf- 
ty Q6mM had the Cbmmand, xi^'iklv^ays quartered 
nesr iMfc tikct tif their ^Sfidencer'" Tliis Army com- 
pofedW a-cArtain Noiriber from "every Pravince was 
dilba«l*<f iWefy; Year, iM'^tit^'otK; ^^ faiftd. By 
thfo Mi^M' Wtt^t maiiy ftatn ^ti f^t^ 6t thcf £mplre 
had lf| Pibcieft W^rnfc'in Op^??amiy "of feeing and 
aSmifli^tM^* Grahdeut and^Pb^ tff rhefr Iting; amji 
it wttl^mreW^ jptft'ottt of an^'Geheral's Howj^r fo to, in*» 
gnitHil#«1«ih«If'#ith the Att^y as t<jr erfdatfger tWEmr 
pire. -Th^ k\iiJPt:tf W/-"Emi5TW under hrdanap^ 
was li6f»*«cA. dWing to his Eiffemlb^cy as to the In^ 
adtvitv ijf fMnS -|*etrifiWg* Klng^,* Whp by giviliig 
then*6lve» trp t4Vc9uBtaodfflf(?fs Mlpft their Autho- 
rity • «Jteir4ft» ^ hitptt ': "^fe^fiirniiiiea tfee Go*er^ 
noA «f;P^Af*i««P#f^h aii^-C^^ of Increafing 

theh* PkfW» ;;*!* a¥^ te%fr n*o" dt them^' Arbaces Oo- 
vomei-tif'MpdhsLnd the ^t>verw6r <}t J^ahyhh^ affumcd 
the 8«?*Md|»i?J*'of Ihch^TFfe^^Ve^ which ai- 

terWAMTttoteSe fitt tJPtHfc ^iWfo)i Empire. 

ej/ha'tif9''9iMA^t tlf^^Ker^^ Monarchy joinca cf tie Per- 
grcat^artof leffer jffut titM^iO^oms'^JMiJtd and u^^ gmfin 



4 Of^tbe Akci;«;^.t* EMPint^i 

faiykn. Ajnongft other wiie InftitutiQns thifPrinCr 
t;>uiU CaAles in all the Provinces where he b^d- Goyer- 
riors, and gave the'G>nimaod of thefe to Offii;er$ of no 
great Raiik ; who were not to obey any Ordecs fjFCtm the 
/efpedlive Governors but to receive their Orders immei- 
^diately from the King. This had a great Tendency to 
preferve the Peape of the Monarchy ; for wit^^out th^ 
^Conniv^nce of thefe G)nimandant$, who were (o.msLny 
Spies on their Condud, the Governors cquld 4iot carry 
any ambitious Defign into Execution.. On the other 
.Hand nothing was to he feared from the Commanr 
dants I for a Combination of A)any of them ^ould oot, 
as they were of low G^nd^tyiin a|id their fow^- was 
.aiuch limited, baire been fuf^knt to formally confide^ 
rable Party, againft the King. The Kingdoni of ^^^/ 
Ws annexed by Cambyfif ^o this Emfire^ b^^ fonE)P At- 
tempts, made afterwards to ««tend it further failed*. The 
Defign of the isuxit Camhyfe^ to fubdue /Ethiopia (;A^e to 
nought ; nor had Darius Hyisfpis any better Su^cjefs la 
his Enterprife againft the Scy^bftm^. The Sucqeflbrs of 
^erxesy warxiod by the (hamefi^l liTue of bis G!r4^'4» Ex- 
pedition, iqflicad. of atucking. the Grmmt.^m^ toolt 
the Advantage of their Diviftons; and byt jpakJAg. it a 
^ule tP affift the weaker ones kept them always tcgether 
by tlie Ears. ]^eii^ at^ length tilled find exhaufied with 
.J^tefline ^^ars^ the preeks were glad to .^c^t tbc^ Pr o- 
pofalsof ^eace.ofiTecedby.P^iSI ]iyl)ichal|hpMgi\ (<^m<- 
Jngly V^afonaole^ for every pity was to J)§,feef wdi in- 
dependent^ wore .calculated to prevent tjiqir attempting 
for thf future any Thipg of . Jfotyvsithi- 

llandlng ^ this Precaution the Psrfian Empire was riiined 
}>)^^Macedoma an inconfid^r^bl^ Part of Qxace. Its 
"Ruin mu{{ however in fomc J\dqi(fure,be.tmpi|tied to the 
Iij^prudeuce^and Neg^i^nce of its owa Monarpbs Had 
thefe -attended properly to tbegroiyi/i§»Pjow^r,pf PW//j> 
and AUxaniir His Son, t^y woujd» -as. if. bad -bNcen a 
>Iaxim with their Preiopcflbra.tp/dflit ^i^c ftiircd up 
Xl^tever the Expei^ eJE it'haA beee ^c odber ^t^tes^ 
anil by thts Means , have . c^ out .W^Jc -ei^iugb for 
thefe Warlike Princes at Home: Bi^ being enftryated 
by Luxury, and bavijqg too meaf aor Opinio^ c^ 
^tlier Njitionsy they dr^W ^piop .thwfclvf^jthftiir.Qwn 
"'• '.' Dcftruftioii. ' '* ' ... 

Crceci 



^ KKl 



'O/'ehe AN^iii^T^EMP ire's; ^ 

• Greece in andent Times was divided into many Com-CyGREEci* 
fnonwealths, every one of which had its peculiar Laws,' 

In Procefs of Time the City of Athens, whofe Inha- 0/Atke»s. 
bitants farpaflfed the other Greeks in Uftderftandingi 
Civih'ty of Maftners, and the Love of Arts and Sciences, 
gained the Afccndancy ; and its Glory was greatly encrea* 
fed by the brave and prudent Conduft of the Atbeniam ia 
the Pff}^fl« Wars. The commodious Port of Pyraum 
being afterwards annexed to this City it acquired im- 
menfe Riches by Trade; and its naval Strength became . . ^^.rr^^-y 
conflderable enough to fubdue the Iflands in the Archi^ 
pelage and the Coaft of lefler A^a. Elated by this 
Succeft the Athenians grew overbearing and wanted to 
be Mafters of Greece, This being perceived a Confe- 
deracy headed by the Spartans, who could not bear td - .^ ^-^ 
fee the Pride of the Athenians, was entered into againft .. , u^ 

them by the Peloponnejidns and other States. After a ^ ^ 
long War, ih which the u^/^^/ii^w behaved bravely, they 
were routed in Sicilian which with the Lofs fuftained 
by their Fleet on the Thracian Coaft entirely ruined 
their AflFairs. Athens was afterwards taken, and the 
BpartaHs eftaMWhed in it thirty Governors who carried 
it wiA a very hi|h Hand. Their Tyranny becoming 
infupportable they were at length expelled by Thrafihu-- 
las; and the City recovered itfelf a little, but never 
could arrive it its ancient Grandeur. Thus the Athe* 
nians by grafping at too much, for as their whole Num- 
ber WM not more than io,ot)0 it was fcarce poiTible for 
them tofupport themfelves in large Conquefts, loft alf: 
And indeed, as the Lofs of a Battle or two coipmonly 
ruins fuch States, it is much more for their Intereft to. ^ t\,, , • 
•mind Trade and the Security'^ themfelves than to at- 
tempt any Thirig againft their Neighbours. 

Nc>tt to Athens Sparta was the moft famous City of Qf Sparta. 
Greece, its Inhabitants being bv the wife Laws and Se- 
verity of Manners introduced by Lycurgus fitted for war- 
like Atdiievements. While .the Spartans adhered to 
the former of thefe they were able to defend themfelves 
agatnft a4l' o!her States ; and while as a Confcquence of 
the latter a noble Contempt of Riches prevailed amongft 
them, they had no Thought of difturbing any of their 
Neighbours. • Aiming afterwards at vaft Things, thpy 
fourtd a vlHde DifFerente betwixt defending themfelyes 
aad luWttin^pdW^rffQl'Seatcis. Not conteiu with van- 
I B 3 * quifhing 



^ Of the AN<iJE»iTlE;MTift»$» 

quiflnng the Athenians mA becoming Mafteriof <7r/9r^9 
the ^rtans conceived Rope of .conquering ,PtrJia,% 
but their General Ajg^/Ilaus. w^s fcavce; Jan^ before 
they found it neceflary to regdl him for the JDefcnca 
bf themfelvcs a^amft the other States of Gr^f^^ who 
being jealous of their Greatneis and ^fpi^rlted 4ip ^ tba 
King of Perjia had taken Arms againft tiiemi. Tha 
^ Spartan Fleet was afterwards worfted byC^noni ^tp4 be- 

ing theoifelves defeated at the Battle of JUuffr^ ky M'f^-^ 
monidas tbev had much ado to defend their own Wall»» 
Cy*TiiB9>t« While Epamonidas who comni;?nded t.he TMan^ a-r 
gaihft the Spartans lived, the City of yS^ri^r wa$ by his 
Wifdom anid Valpur raifed to a gr,eat Pitch of Glory ; 
f^ but it afterwards returned to its former ' Stat€ and was 

in the End ruined by AlexaniUr, 
Of ihiVlK' * ' ^Macedonia^ inconfiderable in ttfelf and expoftd to the 
CBDONiAH Inciirfions of the Thraciam and other barbaroips Nations^ 
S^^^f ' " was before Phi Up- s Time looked upon as 0ie fijoft 4c- 
fpicable of the Grecian Stites : Yet by the military Pfow** 
efs of two fucceeding Kings it beca^^ fo poweffu}., 
that it conquered great Part of the World.. After cb^f^ 
tinnig th^ neighbouriiig Nations who were jni|rf:h a<l-» 
"dialed to Robbtries PW/i^ cmtert^ned. tbs ThPVgtH cf 
making himfelf the Head of Qree^e. In orihtf.to ttMS, 
' for notwithftanding their ancient Glory wa? loft tbcy 
would If united fiave heea too much for thf Hdf^cadir 
nians^ he made it* his Study to foment Qt^tari^S' betwixt 
thcf different States. Being hereby weake^^ and ren- 
dered averfe to the helping of each other, be by attsci^ 
ing one after another be/ore they were ^y^w^ ^ it be^' 
came too powerful for them alL 
ChmrnBer tf\ TTiis Prince, who. laid the Foundation of tb^ Jkfocif 
Fmtir. ioniam Empire, was i^lj qualified for contriving and 
executing vaft Defigns. His Judgment was, quick and 
penetrating, and the Thirft of Glory was ftrong ia hiiK. 
He would if pofljble find out a fair Colour for big Ac- 
tions \ but in Caf<» of Neceffity would ftick, it Aotbing 
to carry. his Point. He was fo great a MnAer of his 
own PaiSons that no fiody could Jcnow his . Defign ; 
] and at the fame Time would inilnugte fo %rtf«iily as to 
itnd out if it was poffibje to do it the Intention of sne<« 
tber, Under the pretence of Fricndftip to two Fartiet 
at Difference he would betray both 3 anil he would 
if u could be done fct Ms^^m w«rf Frieiida iMt Vs* 



moae. He-cniM iilk (orjoufly or morcljr ; and fpartrf 
for Qo JExpcoce tbab was necei&ry lo the carrying on 
ot Us JPurpofes. He ivas a^ confummatie Gencrar and 
had CMKie fas Men iock good Soldiers, that die Mea^ 
daman Pbabnx imxtntni h^ Juai was ttrribk even £o the 
Ramans. He' ahsa^is^ iittiddl and cxefcifed his ownr 
Troops, and took Ca^r to fee them pun^tualijr paid. 
Beiag arrived at the iitinoft pitch of military QreatDer% 
hit W98 prodaimed .with the Coofent of all ^e States 
Geacial of Gnua a^pABSt the Perfiam ; but whiJe he 
was preparing iot: an Expedition againfi P-erfia^ be was 
afiaifinaoed a«d kit the c^rying of it into/&cecotioii to 
his Son AUxanin. 

Th^Hiftory: of- thiS'Prfnce juftly fumamed the Givatv iMctfs tf 

who with an Army 49f: nbt n^re dian 30,000 'Uok fub*. AtaaAtf- 

daed vaft' Kiflgdom^^aftd: tarried his vJAorious Anm MR. 

(tQBAt\ie.Hdl^f$rt3tL$m ri^ hdfSj is.&aice to be pacal^ 

leM. rrbisiurpnfiiigProgiers is next' to tie Pcovidenci 

^fAInapgiRy God, upon.which the Dunatiea of every 

Empim dependo, to 6e afcribed to the perfonal Um*' 

very of jikxander and i30>the Goodnefi of hisTroopa^ 

which fa^fng,€om|;otfddio£; cbofen and exf^erienced Men aU 

ways fell on with, fuch Vigour, that no new xaifed Troops 

how minaeroits foevier thii^ were could .ftaad agaiaft tbeni. 

ItOioeid bowef<rbe^:ebii9r^ed, that J^rriui was gutltv 

of a great Miftake> ih^-comiiig to an: Engfigcmeot wiai 

AU^umtUri for be&dei itaat hiis Troofts were raw and 

undiiciplK»ed^ it- had: been always foiindodia^ tlie Crgek 

were much fuperiop in a pitched Battlq to the Ptrfianu 

His'Bufiiieft was to have lengthened out the War; 

and in the mean Time by: cutting off his Supplies and 

other StratagMid of War ta have brought AlttunuUr into 

fuch Difficuities, that hil Army muil either have retreats- 

ed or fought at a^seac Difadvantage: As this Prince, 

whom Peace and llixtiry ha^enervated and infatuated^ 

did moreover negieft tocaufeaDiveriibn at Home, foe 

the Gr0^h who envied^i^MM^s GreatneTs might eafily 

have beoQ excited to this, nothing lefs than his Ruin 

and that of theP«r^e Empire were to be expe^ed. 

By the fudden and untimely iDeath of AUxandar the 

Fruit of this glotioua Exedition was entirely loft, l^s 

Cbildreti being yoang were not only robbed of their 

Father's herediury Kingtiom ; but fuch * Coated^ arofr 

^\ hiSrGeAmki &t the qoiiqueriBd Nations wece 

B 4 'for 



fbf a long TiQie expofed ta alt tbtMiki'miof MTaii^^ 
It muft indeed- be allowed, that fudden Gicatndb ift:fel-- 
dom lafting^ and that the keeping of IConqueib- & nK>rc$ 
. diiScult than the making of than ; nor could a firiz» 
Union betwixt famany Nations have been brought abour 
without thdch Time and the utihoft Prudence. It iraa 
th6refor^. necefikry fot JUxandn-^ith^gimpcfEblcfor 
9.*Handful of Maadaniaru to. keep fuch .great .Nuiiii>ers 
in Awe, ^o treat the conquered; with. Tenderaefs^ tbae 
ttey might be {Jsnfible of no Change but that of having 
a better King/ He knew this very wdl, and notwiths- 
tanding the.denrurcs of fome Authors was certainly; 
right in marrying the dead King's Dat^htef^ and in 
> . . ', cfmfortning : ta-the Habit and- Manners of the P^rfians .- 
%..& .: For it«vias.nottQ be. fuppofed.ithat they (bould con-* 
*^ feot to the JMroduiSfioii of th^.Mtudsmak L^aws and 
Caftoms. .Itis;iispDiIiblb ta fajr what the Event wiould 
fcave -bceiiv'butrit is pJ-obaUe: Ihat If Jlixand£^^,mh<^ 
hefides beii^ liberal^ brave and endoKcd whh unbbm^ 
moa greatnefs of Soul was a Prime of fingular Pdj^ 
\ dence, had lived or left a Son capable of fucceedihg him^ 

\ tbePerJians would have continued eafy under t.beic Sub-> 
jqftion to his Family* 
Tbi Dinjjfioft ,;.Up6ni the Death of Jhxaniir his Qenerala. thought 
'^f^ f *''' °f themfelre«'too»4keat to ohey^. nor was the. Authority 
ihe MACfiDb- ^f JrU^f who. poor Man ! had. only the iNamc of 
NiAN2j«r//r^.,jj.;^g fuffictcnt to keep fo many ambiuouf Mcn^ .ef 
,whom each thought himfelf entitled to the Wjbple or 
Part of the Empirc> in Awe. After a Ipng and bk^ody 
.War in which divers of the Competitors wcrelflaihi 
three K^ingdoms^. i;/». .Xhok. t^iMacedoma^ Syria and 
sEgypt were eredted. .. As to /that Part of tim.Perfian 
Empire which lay Eaft..of. the ^Rivcr, Eupbraie^, the 
^ Macedonians Mrere driven frojii it^and. it became Part of 
a new Empire called the Parthitm Empinei^ In Procefe. 
of Time Phiiip King of Macjed$ma attempted to. mftk^ 
himfelf Mg.fter of Greece: But the! Commonw^ealthi. of 
Rdmt then grown confiderable thoi%bt proper to in- 
terpofe^ left he fliQuld by the Addkkin this would have 
made to his Power become formidable to Rme. A 
League being hereupon enteted.uUoby th^K^mam with 
the Cities oi Greiece-.PhHipyf^Atvif^ back into Jl^tr- 
kioma^ and the Cities t>i Grnct .vrtto, reftored to ib^r 
, ancient Statse of Independenc;/, ..This .apt, only #iJfid 
• 1 * " and 



toJ con(c<}uently made the Power cf Greece Icfs dangew 
fous to 'Rmte^ Rut as it endeared the Romans to the 
(?r«i&, who looked ut»n them as their Deliverers^ M 
pavtd'the Way for tbcff future ConqUcfts on this Side. 
In the Time of Perftus the Kingdom of Macedonia wai 
tmirelf fttbdued by tYit Romans. Syria had afterwards 
the fame Fate ; and which compleated the kuin of (he 
Mrcedmian Empire^' the Kingdom of Eg)'pt was at 
Length brought by the Emperor Aitguflus Cafar^ who 
defeated Cieopdti^a together with his Rival Alark Antony^ 
under the Roman Power. 

Before we fpeafc of Rotrnc it Is pt-oper to fay fbmcthin^ Of CaiI- 
d Carthc^ei, which for along Tirfie contended wittj tuaoEa 
t^i for the Superiorly. This City ^dmrrably' well 
lltuafced'for Trade^ having thereby acquired immenft 
Riches^ became fo populous and powerful, as to make 
great Part of Africa tributary. Not content witH 
this it feht vaft Arfliies into Sicily^ Sardinia and Spain^ 
vrtich by giving Umbrage to the Romans kid the Foun* 
dation &f the \Vtr6 that enfu^d betJW4x^ 'the two Re- 
publicks. In the two firft the Carthaginians defended 
Ibemfeives with great: ftavefy; but'ih thekft for ho- " L^**^-^ 
thii^ Icfs would fatisfy The i&irttf«^ they Were entirely *^' v* '^ ^*** 
ruined. It was a great IVItftake in' thefe People to con *- 
ccivc a Itefign of making- ^terge Congucffts; whereas ff 
they had cenfultecf their own true ilfttereft a feW 
Lands for the^pport of thefiifclvesi^ and fo/neSea Ports 
in Sicily atid Spain for ther ConvenienCy of Trade, whici 
ou^t to'haVe. bceft their principal Ohjeil, "^ would havfe 
been fufficient for them; By thus aimirig at too great 
Things they drew upon them felves * the Jealou fy of 
^^e ; and the very making of ConqueJls abroad, aS 
it put too much Power into the Hands of their Gene^ 
relSf iiiore than otice threw their CorJftitution into 
imminent • Danger. Befides this the Sea being tbb 
natural - Element of the ' eoftlttginians they were u h^ 
fit for Land Setvrcc; G> thst they were under a No- 
ccffity «f fuppl^ifig tiheir Armies with' hired Troops. 
On tbefe as the Quatrrf is not their own there 
^ be but Kttle t)epetidancc, and their Fiithfulnefs 
» alwaya to be fufpe£ted; for as they have ad^ed 
"poll a hiife toercanary Principle in letting^ out Hieir * 
fiodies for Hire, is it' probable that they (how Hi 
if Chert b€ » QHii. JMiia: x^uh ^t(>;itt^ i^ut *tl>^ 

Souls . 



J9 Of fh-Ai^ ti kv^ Euf ih^^s 

Souls for hire sMb? It is nKM-ecrv^ etidetit 6^ att 
Hiflory tfiiAt thefe Hireling^ wHJ» wbf never vehepe is « 
proper Time for cloUig iu Ay m their MiAcrs Rks^. 
As there was then this Diftw^nce* thut wWIt ^he'iSiiffMvrx 
|ou{ht pro arisV /acisy the Cavtbaginutm trufted* princi-- 
pally to Wretches v'ho haA nothing in Vic«r fciit tino 
Hope of Pelf or Plunder, it i^ ik^ -Wonder thit the fer- 
merfliould in tbe.End prei^ail, - Tnifltng morieover to 

'fhis ftrange and to them wns^unll Way of cfttryiog ^a 
War, they negle<9t?d. wbat f>ught always to he the pfin— 
apal Care of a trading Nation their Marine ; an«l ha- 

. ving thereby loft the Sup^Jor^y tt Sea, tliey oookT ex- 

?8t nothing l^fs,than to fte. ^yHsman Flret 'At- (bras 
ime or other in iKeir dwn Port Hanmbal was m^ 
deed once in a fair Wj^y of ruining the Rsmenu: But 
i^irhether it was ofwmg' to a Jealoafy ofiiim. or wfcat- 
ever elfc was the Cliufe, for flrant'of His being properly 
iuppHed the i^^/Rtfiarj recoviered tbemfelves^; and wiire fo 
' quickned by the Remembranee of this imminent Dtnger^ 
that they never refted tiU Carthage wis laid .even wkfa 
fhe Ground; . 
^/ivRo- As no State over eqM^M: tbe Jbananr iir Yomtx and 
Greis^tnefS) jud asjt is ntoefftry thai young /Nfinds, for 
'^fixm^ this Xn^rodMf£lion is t^dly intended, flioulilha^e 
a clear Uhd^rftAndtng ^cftof^ we ihail go hack to its 
Origin. The firft Inhahitants of Rome ^ the Situation of 
which was quite unfit for Trade, being $iRabbie of indi- 
gent Wretches c(41e£ted from aU Parts, and fa aume^ 
lous that had they underftood; Agriculture. the Lantbari^ 
joining thereto could not have fupported them, tbey (boh 
found themfelves under a Neceffity of flarvitig onr plun- 
dering their Neighbours. Being thus as it Were a Dea 
of Wolves who Hired Igr Prey it was proper tO'Hiake 
this City populous, and that its Inhabieaitta ihouM be 
trtined up to Arms ; for notbif^ Ie6 could befoppofed 
than a Combination of limr ir^red Neighboars a^g^ft 
them. With a View to the former .Rmaib oidaioed 
fhat no Child, which bafbaioiis C«ft<fn preraifcd hi 
Gnecfj IbovM he killed except it was <ieformcd ; and 
that Slaves IhoUld not only be made Iree but enjoy 
lill the Privileges of Citiaene. It was moraavtr* bis 
Prafii<x, which contributed merre Am all the reft fo the 
' peopling of tbe City, infteiKi of putting thei» to Ooath 
•rjiellij3CtUm for Slaves, taailhe^ eke PliiMante look 

in 



ig Iftde teeioE Am. itliiis beeit^bftrved bjiheJQJ^ 

mmi^AatM^ ttet the ibort Dorttiota of die Rejpufah. 

Kcks oiAibiHs and Sparta was prind^llj owing to tbe^ 

not naniraMBiag Foceigaiin'; whereas it was the Cuftom 

of Brnmbm to aotoriire tbQm at CitiaeM in the Eveninr v 

with whom he faad fought tn the Morning t And it is 

CBstan that War cannot be long nsainCained or Oofi- 

qucAs he prelhrvtd without eonftant Supplies of Men« 

That iZoai^ bomowr fliould not be overihxked nor th^ 

Gonqsered Placet be quite abandoined, he from many of 

thefe hc^ouglM only the moft opulent and brave of the 

Inhabiiana^ and £Ued up their Places with fome Jbmam 

Citszens of i!he fcweft* Sort. Thus lUmf became rich 

as wcU as A^Mig^ 4nd theft b& made good Garrifont 

for many . Towns in the conquered Countries. 

It is.hoice pfaMA thai Neceffity made the Rnmms va- 0/iii Ro- 
liaAt» yot this was not at all ; for their warlike Kings, man mUta^y 
wlio «ook Qure .to efiaUifli the beft Difcipline among^ Cris^atfiM. 
them, had a gieat Ha^d in bringing them to fuch t' 
pitoh of miUtsrjr Gloiy. The B^n State whdb 
Conftitution was as it appears qtiite Military fiourifte^ 
a groat whiles yet.it mutt be allowed that it was tipon . . . ^ 

the whole a had Confticutbn ; for ft is not hk for aiij ^. ^^ h 
Saac that mttrtiarspirits fli6Bld teo much prevail in itt 
And we find this Ohferv^ion verified amoi^ th^ J&* 
mam^ who.as feon as thqr had got rid of foreign £n^ 
naies could not^xipitain from flieathing their Swords ii^ 
eacli> otfaeis Bowds. AmomgH the Regulations for the 
Eneouragement of Valour that of Strvius ^Hdiius pii||it 
^to 4e tdsen pisticular Motice of. Whereas before his 
TiSM esrery 9er4oA ferved without DifKndion in i^ito 
Army, ha ovdaiiMd that the Foor (houM be exempted 
itMn this cKept on prtfing Occafions. It is not pre- 
tended that Kadies snake any Man brave ; yet a$ all ' 
fervted at diat Time without Pay, it was proper for tbo 
Borthcii of War 16 lie on thofe who were bei{ able to 
hear it; and thejF were more to bedepended upoo. A 
poor Man has nothing to lofe, and he is befides tinder a 
ftrong Teosptation to betray hii Party if an advantage- 
ous Odfer is fltade to him ; hut a rich Man's Wealth is 
a Pledge to tiie PyUick for his Fidelityii for who in bis 
Senfts would 1«BV0 certain Pofleflions for the Hope of 
Reward fiwa sm Enemy for Treachery. This R^iH / 
iatioia WM iJAAA 4iwkf di» Jjiqpaoni yet to jiuHicsa 

' thi 



j/3 (if^the A;k C r e-J4 t: E-NtP i JftE Si 

. thi Soldias to i^e dilMul psrt of their ^Pay wts kc^ in 
@«/^^'"^ ^^'i^ tb^'evpr paid thotr full Arfeam titt 

^ey wcrcdifhanded-. ; - 

y /^f^.hk r^mark^bjc that although the JJiawawi had- fre- 
/tf»fjr ^ ^^''qucntly aScrii?! of.ill §ucce(i, .they. in order tp laecp up 
oMANs. ^he Spirits of their Pepple never icontbiilc^ to. diflianour-- 
aUc Terms, e^c^pt.with Pjfrfijnuk;kXid..tht Goals called 
S^nMrtis. To tha firft, which was ib^ftameful th^tJdicir 
' . j^iftor^nsiaTolii the fpeaking of it as iwscbai poflible^cbey 
gave Hpflages for the performaoco of 'a Treaty ; bjF an 
Afti^l^ of which they obliged tboixlfei^es- oot to nmke 
^y other \J(q of Iroi^. tbanjbr tilling tfab Ground. The 
fatten had at pn^. (^e. undou|^tedly» thcGapicol being 
^fieg^d and redujced to great £xtfeiniiy,uput ao £»d to 
the Common wealjth^ iJF he had jnotr:i)OBa. paciiiedby a 
/ T '. large jQ^antity Gi[.Gpl4 : .^<kL lbQ:Sl)M:)ri that Camlllus 
^. r^ifed,ttic/Si«ge,^i]Q..theGpW/\|ra» woighingis'lo^^ 

-'>'*** * tipcia.as fabulous. . It^nnot bc^deniedt that in aU- otlier 
tJaf^/,however.fIefpcrate thQir Ailkirs* inr^re the Ru^nt 
^eh^ed with ^tj^ordinary jCoafiag^ ^and Conflancf* 
Monnibat had thern in . , the. fecond ptmUiJUlar alnibft iJn 
)us Power, being advanced at the Hend of a vi<9orious 
A^my to the G^tes of Rome ; yqt tfap Word Peace was 
ivev^r mentioned amof^g; them. * l4[i'Iikc mannei when- 
ever ^heir Generals m^ a fc^odaiou^ Peapc* a$ was jlone 
ji( the. Defiles of Caudhm va\d:H, Naxfiawiiaf th^-iit^ 
^ead of ratifying it delivered the Autii9fstherl:6f into the 
Hands of the Binemy. In prder .moMdver^to siMce 
iheir Soldiers meet'.Qsai^ haldly^^and ibal;. they might 
'tHVk of nothing but ofjO^fiqi^ingihraifelye&tin Iviwfo^ 
ever great Danger thcj:Mrcr^., it v^MlA in th« atoiaft 
•Contempt for aoy Roman t^p&^Qi^miiiJmi than tidkidi 
jaothirig can more exeitf ^lylcn to fight drfpcratcly tBe 
^^koman^ feldom ran&^ied f^ch as w^ijt taken Prifonert. 
Of their Reli', It is proper to .Jake Notice that the Religion of the 
gion. ^komansy although .ftju^decj iijjpn ^\^ Qrak ftipiwftition, 

was calculated to/erve;§njirp.aP)S.QtcaikjnB PAifp^fct of 
^ the State. As nothing copduces^^fo miichto^iSpaiage 
jMen in the Execution of an E<it«f priz^ a§ the f rev»- 
^Jenceof,a Notion thjit, it is favQwred J^jf thq Gpds, it 
.was from the Bagi(irnng.4 Ma}pm-^n|o<igft tiie^/n^x 
•not to undertakc.apy Th|ng of, Qo9(i»}|icme)wi(tNMi£:a 
Jucky Omen. ,. jhe taking o/ Ottpi^ f#^m Birik wis 
Jfcunded on an ajiqig^. 5^ 9Hpi\ flf,; tf)^^5^^il^ tM tke 
0.;; Go«^8» 



IDf th AK C I^ N T E M P I R B s"!; l\ 

Gods, whofe Refidence they fuppofed in the RegloA 

next above the Air, make Ufc of the Crfeaturcs of th& 

Element to interjlref their Will to Men. Theft Pre^ 

didionsfrom Bi^cb were- mof-eover thought heft becauffe 

they could be takeii at all Times \ dud nothing was lb 

proj5cr to anfwer'th^ Defigns of * Qovernmcnt : For 

their Motions and Chirping, whieh' are Infinitely vari- , 

ous, CDuW ahviys be explained as if teft'fuited the Ex?- 

gency of Affairs.' Henc'e artful ^iefts could infpircthc 

ignorant Vulgar wJtfi'Hope or Defpair, Boldnefs or 

Fear: The Prediflions from Birds being founded on fudi 

uncertain Priricff)les, that the old Cato^ who was him- "** ♦*. "^ 

fclf an j/ajtor, did'iiot fcrui^\c to hyy* he wonder td'hotu ' ' ^ 

ene Au^r could *iodk afiirlher in the Face without laughing. 

Further in wtiat'wfes called jRelfgton amongft the R(f^ 

mansj noCare'wa^ -taken to expfeii) to^the People the 

Nature ahd Vfi\l'6f God ; nor wifre they inftrutted how 

theym'^ht gbv^Wi thfelr Anions and Paffions fo as to 

pleafc him. If Qeicrlfices and outwar^ Cerepionies were 

but complied with the Priefts never troubled themfelves 

about any thing furthef : Kay the great Doflrines of ihp 

Immottality of the Soul and of a future State of Bfetr{- 

iution were either not mentroried, or they were in thb 

general looked' upon as State Tricks to keep the Pcoplfe 

in Awe. "Ott the eontrary their Religion confiftcd lA 

Sacrifices, In the Celibffttion of Holidays,' and in other 

things of an external Nature. In thefe Matters the 

greateft' 'Pomp and Ceremony were in Order to daxilb 

the .Minds of the People made Ufe of: And left thb 

chaaging of any thing (houW take ofF their Veneration 

for the Whole the utmoft Exat^n^fs K^'is obferved in theii^. 

The i&w/7w Temples wertalfo maghiftcent ; and in,Or- 

<icr to'cajble^he Petople, who oftert jtidge of the Exccjr 

fcney of a^ Religion from the Dighity of the Perfon'J 

«m][^oyied about it, ;their ' Pflefts were commonly choffc 

«it or«t?he mod cdnfiderable* Families. 'It-was befidb 

^Wolutely necefliuyy Religion being the grand Engrne-fi 

Wnfi:ihe People into theVfews'bf their Goverijors, that 

^« Puidfts 'QidiiM'undeillfedd^'well 'the Intereft of thi 

*'ate, ^nd'h^viP^RemfejTes'g Iferge Shnre ih the M^m^^ 

'ttent^i^fAffrfirr-f- AWi tf ffkf iheanerSort had been raSeS 

<«) lte.*rieftly'Offi<3e; t*»ey n^ight" h^ve formed Pattfci 

Wicng|jk:Uie/Peojlti-^Jio^w^^.ejp^f)> e^^ fmpoftd-up* 



on a»f>y Priefts, agaiaft the kading Men < of Ibr Wkil( 
of being in the Secrets of State- chef could not Inye 
jcfiown which Way to inftienct tbeia. Tha^ was 
jnoKeover another Reafon for this^ the addiifting of 
.Priefls who are always fond of Power to & confir 
derablc a Share in the Management of Ailair% was the 
only Way to prevent their ^mbiniog togather and 
ttfurping at the Whole: Which as the Religioo of 
S^ome was calculated for the Peoples b<ring decetvied 
^A rid bj Priefis, they might in all PiohabHity have 
eflFcacd, 
MMfmtJSm §f After Rifmg had beeti governed by King?, above two 
jgiMgs frmn bundred Years another Form of Ooyfrninen^ was in* 
RoMt. troduced by Brutus. The Handle for this was the Rape 

committed upon LMtrem\ but k has been doubted whe- 
ther this Crime was a fujficienc Reafon for the dethrone 
ing of Tarqtdn. It was indeed ib brutifti and barba- 
rous that it was not lo be fbrgiven ; and there ai^ many^ 
Inftances in Hiftory of Princes who for violating the 
Cbaftity of the Wives or Daughters of their Suiijc^ 
^have been deprived both of their Dominions and Lives, 
in this Cafe however it ieems a litde haid, that a King 
lO&ould be depofed and his whole Famify excluded for a 
.Crime done by his Son, which it does not appeap* that he 
.either was privy to, approved of, oir reftifed to give Sa- 
tisfaAion for. Upon the whole it may be obfin'ved that 
the ftrid Rules of Juftice are not. ;ilways adhered to 
in Revolutions ; and that the principal Agents in bring*- 
ing them about, notwithftanding fheir Outcry againft 
the Faults and bad Condud of the reigning Princes, are 
for the moft Part influenced t^ Ambition, or Envy. 
Without entering any further into this Affiur it \& not 
likely, whether it had happened or not, tliat RqgM 
Power would have continued long ti> Ronu^ for although 
jMmarchjf be heft when the SubjeSs are difperM in dif* 
tant Places, it is certain that an jfrifidiratical i^ Denm^ 
aratUal Form of Government w^ tf^ iiutabie to fiich 
a State as the tUnmn, which con&fted of oo# bigs poi^ 

fulous City. This will not afpear ftrange if it b0 coa*- 
dered that as moft Men are by Nature wtl4 and un- 
f uly«' and very apt to free themfdves from the Rcmiinta 
^ of Civrl Power, it requires the Affft^^lice ,of mwy to 
ikeepagreatMul(ittt<i(iindtvSubj«dti8li. AKii^tfaeref 

foit 



a^ibt AN«f BUT £»rFIRl8{ |^ 

faieiriia ii Mif Miifer of ,#im Jhip 
fer a$ bis SttlmCb are already » tbe faiac Place thcf 
am^uiM wy DiiJEuft quidUy aiembk and deprive him 
of (k&wre^ty. He may indeed ftrengtheo himfelf 
witbMgn Uuards and a ftrong Caftk: But this w<niJ4 
not da i for vrtien oiKe a Prinee becDines odioua, whidi 
vxMai, ii fi> likfihr v theie Methods to oocafion» the 
10i&&»qn uk a Scate where the Peo{Je all live near 
tcigfltber 4>fcadt idclf at once through all Ranks and 
like aoiigbty Tprfeal hoan down all before it. On the 
Contrary. where the People live a few ia one Place and a 
few in another, it req^ijm fo m^ch Time for them to 
coafidi and get t<%e^r> that the Kinj would ^ave z$, 
OppfilriiHHty tx) aflemhk his Friends, and would for the 
wA Ifm Iw able to fupprefs a Rebellion before it could 
come to any grea^t Head. . Be uiis asj't,will, it is cer« 
tiin thltvdie Jtlmiwk Pow^r encregied prodigioufly upoa 
cheagtng; the Form of Govermnent ; nor is it piobable 
tbat it:.f99Hi2d ever have arrived at Aich a Pitch if th^ 
State had cioicilinucd to he Mmarchfcgl: for fome Kings 
would without Doubt have found it nece^ary for their 
owo Security to damp the. martial Spirit of the Cifiaenss 
and the Weaknels or bad Ck)ndud <^ others muft in 
fome MeaTore have weakned the State. 

Tboi^mif Empire after bfviog been extended ovtt CoKfit rf the 
a great Part of tl>e World became a Prey to the Nor<^ jtmiu of this 
them Nations : But as the Way to its JDeftru^ion was Emfin. 
paired by lafieftine Troubles, it. is proper for the Under^ 
fianding of thefe clearly to look baqk to the B^nning^ 
of th^ The People of Rme being naturally Kave and 
tndobd up to War their King/s» who knew they had 
ao o&er Way to keep a Multitude oC fuch and all ia 
oae To#A ander SubjeAion^ (sodeavoured to do it by 
mild 'trisaimem. Thi$ MeUkod. which the firft fig 
had eb(hrved was neg}e<Sked by Tarfttm 4he Srmd: 
But it cofl him dear » for having by Jaying on heavy 
h&pofilbna loft ihe; Affcdions of the People it was ea^ 
kihruiusy efpccially as the >^enging of the Qutragf 
done m/^af^ fnrai&ed him wi|h a good Pretence for 
fo dc^'^4f| jdrive hii^ from the Tbrone.. Suddei| 
ChaaMjofaXzetvtrnatfsnt.^ .becanTe , there is no^ 
Tii&i^'|ni^..8£aiibi(.ail Acqi4enas oommonly theijt. 
OdSMil.. ib/MJ tins, j^i tfae.Ckwernpient of Rom i 
4 *"** 



MJ tlfe OtrerfigliW conftttnitfci at'thi8'jun<aurelald thh 
Foundation of infinite Troubfes. • ^ It is highly probable; 
that Brutus and his ASbcktcs intended ^o introduce an 
Arljiocracy ; for it cannot be ebiKciivcd^ that being them-r 
felves Noblemen they would at the Peril of their Lives 
bavecxpelled Tarquin^ if they had had nothingelfe^inVicw 
than to fubjed themfelves to the*common People : Yet 
in Order to pifeafe thefe, who^ouW at-any Time if they 
had found no Benefit f^otti the Change h^ve opened the 
Xjate$ again to Turquin^ xt tvar proper to make large 
Conceffioiis to them. With a view to this Valerius 
' Puhlicoia weht (b far as to catrfe the Pafces, which were 

the principal Enfigns of Authority, to be lowered before 
theiA.j and as a tacit Confeffidn that the fuprcAie Power 
was > in the People, he allowed Appeals to bertade'to 
them. It was moreover neceiTary, jf they exptOed' to 
taatfttain theirji^w acquired Authority, for the Nobility 
to iife the tx)mtyiah People well and to provide for the 
Poor, left the^fe (hould be compelled hy Want,to'difturb 
tbej PuWick Peace : But neither of thefe Things was at^ 
tended to. There being at that Time 4io written Laws 
<hc Nobility, who were in PoiTeffion of all the Offices, 
carried it with fb high a Hand that a middling. Man 
was never fure of having Jufticei done him : And the 
. Citizens who fe'rved in War without Pay often found 
. themfelves reduced to the grtateft Poverty. Having in 
' , this Diftrefs no other Refource they were forced to bor- 
row Money of the richer Sort j who inftead of confider-^ 
Ing that they had exhauJfted their Subftance in pefencc 
of the State treated them with great Rigour. At 
Length the Commons exafperated at this unequal Di* 
ftribUtioii of Juftlce and at the Sufferings of their Body^ 
fome of whom were every Day thrown into Prifbn and 
loaded wkh' Irons, unanimoufly quitted the City; nor 
would -they rietorn before the Senate bad confentcd that 
they flionld eteft from aniongfl: chenifelves Tribunes, 
'whofb Office it was to protect them from the laiolence 
tad OpprefSorti of* the Nobility*' . . v . 

Ctvt/fs he- - From tins Titiie the J?d«jw were divided *into two 
pwixt the PA-fiodieH Pttirih'ans or NtiUUty and fkbMns.tkx. Com- 
tric;ans Indn" J^etJpJe ; w«hofe Jealbuiy «f each'otlier was the 
^wrf'Pa.EBEi. Oceafi/wi «>f-ttlmoft con ftant Feuds, It was ^lighly tea- 
-* * ^' ioftkblp «ba* the -iat^es^llhoald -be- fcxc^awd &m tbe.T}&r 

^•'"^ ^ ranny 



Of the AitcttUT l^MPtKtsl iy 

tenny • of the Nobility : But by thus empowering the 
People to chufe Tribunes,, the Commoi?wealth became 
as it were double Headed. . The Imprudence of thU 
Step foon difcovered itfelf ; for the Tribunes, infti.- 
gated by Ambition and that Hatred which is ufual froin 
5ie common People to the Nobility, inftead of contcuit- 
ing themfelves With freeing the Plebeianf from the heavy 
Taxes impofed by the Nobility foon wantpd to raift 
themfelves above the Senate, Having after a warm Con- 
tcft forced the Senate to confent, for as the Plebeiant 
were vaftly the Majority it would have been dangerous 
to have rdFufed it,- that the Plebeians might marry intp 
Patrician Families, their next Step was to have one of 
the Confuls always chofe out of the Body of the People. 
By Degrees Things were carried fo far, that the Tri- 
bunes made Laws without the Confent of the; Senate, 
a9.d ufurped alJ the Prerogatives of SovereigiUy. In 
order to employ the People the Senate took Care to keep 
them CQnftantly engaged in a foreign War, that they might 
not have Leifure to create Difturbances at Home, This 
did very well for fome Time, and the Power and Do- 
minions of the State were thereby greatly enCrcafed. 
There arofe however fome Inconveniences from it 
which in the End ipadeTbin^ worfe. If the con- 
quered tands had been diftributed amongft the needy 
Citizens, Romt would have been delivered from many 
whofe Want made them fit for any Thing: But the 
Nobility under a Pretence of farming them got all into 
their own Hands. By the Revenue arifing from thefe 
and the Plunder taken in War, moft. of which fefl to 
them as Commanders in Chief, they acquired immenfe 
Riches 5 while many Plebeians were fiat vine for Want. 
The Animofity of the Plebeians to the Senate was hereby 
increafed, and being joined by fome difgufted Pairician^^ 
who although they cxprefled great Regard for the Li- 
berties of the People meant nothing more than to carry 
on their own ambitious Vrews, they foon came to ^ 
open Rupture with the Senate ; and nothing but cutting 
each others Throats was to be feen in Rome, Further, 
the vaft Increafe of the Empire, together with Inadver- 
tency and little Power of the Senate, had laid the Foun- 
dation of another Misfortune. Large and rich Provincies 
having been committed to the Government of Citizens 
V o L. L C who 



i8 QjT if£^^ Ancient Empire^; 

^ho had the Command of great Armies, and this for 
feveral Years together, fomc of them could not bear Che 
Thoughts of returning to a private Station. It is cer- 
tainly a great Miftake in any State to throw too mucfh 
Power into the Hands of a General : For he that has 
the Army at his Devotion is under a ftrong Temptation 
to do it J and it is not eafy to prevent his obtaining the 
Sovereignty. Attempts of this Sort which proved fatal 
to many were made by Mariusy and by Sylla : But the 
Liberty of Rome was not quite ruined till the Time of 
yulius Cafar. Thus nor indeed could it be otherwife, 
for the Senate had loft all Authority, the Laws were 
trampled 'Upon and tiie Soldiers had more than once 
tafted the Sweets of Plundering the City, the Common- 
weahh oi Rome wKen arrived at the utmoft Pitch of 
Glory degenerated into the worft Sort of Monarchy ; 
if. e. one founded upon military Power. 
^he Soldi- Dating the long Reign oi Augujlus^ who being a wife 
ERs engrofs PriftCe kept up the Dignity of the Senate and the great 
the ivboU Officers of State, and only took upon himfelf the Di- 
Powcr^ ycdlion of what concerned War, Things went on pretty 

ieafy : But the Difcontent of the Nobility, who could 
not brook the being fubjeft to one, difcovered itfelf 
foon after his Death. Attempts being frequently made 
by them to recover their Liberty, the Emperors on 
their Side did all they could to humble or exterminate 
. them : So that in about 200 Years Time very few of 
the ancient Nobility were left. All however would not 
do to eftablifli this Monarchy ; for as the Soldiers found 
Ihat the whole Power was in them, the Senate and 
People being but empty Names, they made no Scruple 
'of murdering Emperors who did not pleafe them: And 
fuch Generals as could, by encreafing their Pay or other 
A£ls of Liberality, gain their Favour were fure of being 
raifed to the Throne. Hence arofe great Confufion and 
Mifery ; for as other Troops as well as the Prsetorian 
Bands, who were the Emperor's Guards, ufurped this 
Power, an Emperor was fo far from being fure of 
tranfmitting the Imperial Dignity to his Children, that 
he could not, as it depended upon the Caprice of licen- 
tious, covetous and unfteady Soldiers, promife himfelf 
tha Enjoyment of.it a lingle Day. Brave and virtuous 
Princes. were frequently affaffinated to make Room for 

the 



Of the A ^ c 1 fci/i* Bm p > li Is: 1$ 

the meaneft and worft of ^Wretches. Tifcrd or fnoft 
Were fometimes declared Emperors at the fame Timej 
and it coft the Lives of many worthy Cit'itdns' before 
any one of them Could maktf his T*itJe good. It ihzy 
from hence 'be cafily accounted for that fo kw of the 
firft Emperors died a natural Death ; and the Strength 
ofthis vaft Monarchy was greatly impaired by thefe in- 
tcffine Struggles. The Removal of the Imperial Refidence 
from Rome to Conftantinopk by Canflantine the Great 
haftened a good Deal its Ruin : For the old Legions^ 
ftationed along the 'Rhine aiid Danube being thereupon 
called into the Eaft> the weftern Provinces Were expo- 
fed to the Infults of the neighbouring Nations. The 
Empire being further weakened by the Divifion thereof 
hThtodofiuSy who gave the Eaftern Parts to his Son" 
Arcadm aad the Weflern to his Son# Htfhbrtks^^ the 
latter were foon over-run by the barbarous Nations; 
who being tempted by the Richnefs and Fertility of 
the Roman Provinces poured into them in prodigious 
Numbers. 

England the Romans quitted becaufe they were not <rifg njjefiern 
able to defend it againft the Scots \ and having other Parts of the 
Eftemics upon their Hands they wanted the Legions Empire onjer* 
which were there nearer Home. The Vtfgoths fettled run by the 
themfelves in Spain \ the Fandals in Africa: and Ga«/ Northbrm 
was divided amongft the G^/ij, Burgundians znd Franh. Nations. 
Rhetia and Noricum were conquered by the Suevi and 
Bavarians ; the Huns took Pofleffion of Pannonia and a 
good Part of Illyria: and to compleat'the Ruin of the 
weftern Empire the Ofirogoths erefled a Kingdom in 
M \ who did not think Rome before Miftrefs of the 
World worthy to be the Refidence of their Kings. 

The eaftern Empire did indeed continue fome Hun- f^g Eaflem- 
dreds of Years: But its Power and Grandeur were hy fubdued by the 
no Means to be compared with thofe of the ancient Turks. 
Empire. Agathias fays that the Roman Forces, which 
had before amounted to 645000 Men, did not in the 
Time Q^yujiinian amount to I50000, In the Reign 
^^ this Prince Belifarius drove the Vandals out of 
-^/r/Vfl; the Ofirogoths whom Peace and Plenty had 
enervated were driven by Narfes out of Italy ; and the 
£n\pire began to recover fomething of its former Splen- 
dor: But by the Effeminacy of fome fuccceding Empe- 

C 2 Tors 



ige^rH'^bQ ^ve* theinfpiv^jii^ to Safe and .Loxury, ani 

^y <hq PiyifiQtisi w|ii^h arpf?). it was fy weakfnf?4 as t^ 
^come an eafy CpJti<|ueft.,to the n^igbouFing^Naitioii^ 
The Bulgarians fubdivBd Part of it y s^nd th^N Sarpcen^ 
madq the^txfdves l^2&%x% of ^Sj^r/^r^ FalsftuiA^ £^pt^ Ci 
j^a mdi o(bcr Pirovifices. The City pf Tr0l4Jm(i togcj 
tber with fome neighbcHiring Countries er.e^e^ tbemi 
felves into an tndepeivjent Empire ;. and the Priocq 
of Greece rcfufed to ackitowlcdge any longer the Eml 
pjfor oi Conftantin^le. . Jn procefs of Tinie the lurJt 
pver-ran^the. .Provinces wh^^h the Saracens had fubdued 
and Greece it being divided anio^gfl: feveral I^ri|[|ces bej 
came an eafy Prey to them, T.hey afterwards . fubdue^ 
the Remainder of theEq^piren zj^ikConJfantinQpU whicj 
was taken by Storm becamcf th^ Refidepce of the Ot\ 
toman liim^tiot%- 



CH a1^. 



> " W; ' *' ■' ") . ■ ! \i ' '■■ .- * " ■ * . » 

C H KT. II. 

Of, J" PC^ I N. 

SPJfN itke fmft ^6r Countries was ^nckntif Thi Jmcki^ 
divided tet<^imanyVtt3^Slaee6; whkh being inde- Static/ 
pendenRctf «ach othtr ihrd; wi^dut experienced 'Leatfen Spa^ir. 
became ahAfy Cbnqui^ftto' otlierKations. It tvOuM 
(ate up'tbd'Hmch Tkttc w refateparticularJIy by whit ^ 

Means the CW^af ftt>m G<i«</ ^vcr-ran the Provinces it 
Spt^^ytdkpttigQpbnCaul^ a^ being incorporated widi 
the Bm&tn W^^ QaHedby tte ^ominbD Name of dhi*' 
iirim-f ifn mim^tc^i&&h I^fit was built hyihtRio^ 
^f^y Safrntifa-byf^mc Advcmvtrtrs from Zaht', and 
Milagai\(TMiik>^fA' feme ttthcr Tdw/w^ by ihtPbiatni-^ 
cuins,:\ Mbfi*fllall»*^e but juft ilAemioil Chat the iikrfho^ 
iimehi\ Aif<i^.khk.5«rft PmiU War cariquered a great 
Pare o^J^<^/il.»c iff" tfie^fecbnd it was for a long-Tlbm 
tte U&t ;i>f W«>Y *tit a god* Part of it wa& -atl^ft- re- ' ' ^ ^ - 

dui^d^by^^i^' afterwards furhamed jIfiiconUi Mi) ^^ 
'^nkn !i^i4K^.r: T^he RmaHs continued to g&rh 
Ground in Spain till the Time of Jugujiui-y who 
having inemfj^ iiibdiie^ the GMUihidns annexed the •- ' 

whofc of it to Ms Einpire. ' Undap the Rsmtim^ it en- 
joyed a longipbaoe^ being onrly diftorbied by thtf^ Share 'it 
^omiiimes ncctti&rily had in thei^ civil DiflenfiaDs. 

tJpon tiie Efcdenfion of the weif^rn Empire and about Goths ani^ 
the Year ^ CaftrsT 410 the Vandahs, 5/%/, ^w^ft;/ SuEVi.>//& 
and'i&i|f:conqoeped and divided amongft-^hcmfelvcs a '^^'''•^ 4*^^ 
gTcat Part of Spain. Shortly after the T^'dfef/* went 
over into w^Artfy. and the Alans and Silingi being dri«- 
•^aotftty die 5^^* thofe- laft became Maftcrs of kit 
this Part of Spain ; and if they had not been ptevented 
V the Gothr woul* have cafily nude themfclv^ij'Vo of ■ 
the Whole,- . ^': ^ ' - : 

Sarii^ 4he Gtah well known for his ravaging «f ArvLi^tt/ib 
itohf^vm filiDoeeded li^ his Bt-oith^ Aiulph. This Prince Goth*. 
having married i^&^ii/i^ Sitttr t^ th^ Emperor Bcmmsy M 

J^hilc Cbc w^. a'Prifoner among the G^/j&x, £pon made 
'^^ce with his Brother-in-law } and quitting J^aJy w^nt 

C 3 tcx 



22 0/" S P A I N. 

Td'eftabtith'himfelf in the Gallia Narlohenjts * . Tht 
Sueviy P^'andals and Alans^ not being contented with the 
Settlement they, had wkh.the Confcnt-if fome Empe- 
rors made in the tvfo Pannoniasfj had before fettled 
themfelver in tlus Part^of G^/; But upon the Aj^proach 
of the, Goths they in order to avoid a Cfehteft with 
this brave People palFcd the Pyrenees and threw them- 
v;«. fclve4,into ^^*//f ; whefe; as tbey well khew^ the i?*fw^« 

\-f P6w'£r Was much declined. JtulpA meetiog with no 
V RrfjftaliCe extended hist.Caoquefts btyondth^ iPjrfn^s^s^ 
Co *^.|oAake in the Rouffilbn.^T^i Catalma. ; Inrtbis Man* 
4'S- n^whe G^ty.^t Y-^i&^gi'm^p^in about^the Y«ar 415. 
The/e6<?/^f todiftinguiihtjiem from tIjeifC<5tic^tiy men in 
JVi?!^,; who w^re called Ojlragoths^' h^i obtained' the Name 
^tVifgaths. Being fatisfiediwithihh prs^ ^cif{iiifitions 
^tulfi»'\>eg^n to enjoy rte'Swiqets ^(^Pj^ce, and Tcfidei 
fojpQtim<?s T^xtfarbvint atiPthfer T^itnei^:M:JBeirtfbm4t^: But 
^iatbjVDifpofition^if >his<iid not fuit tM<r^Ws TpXBp^r of 
X\^Vijgoths^xhef af&ffina^d him togf^th^r'^ith.Chlp fixSohs 
^wi|tct>.he had by a forihtc Wife; wiM^^^lK^^PlacidU 
whofe only Son Ihecdofiui cJi^Jd ^afofs^Pl asTna tioftage. / 
SioiRicK, . ^ Aftjer ;tbc Murder of Jtujph in the.'YSpSfr 4*7-j&^rr/*r* 
4^7- a fa.ypurite Commander was ele&ed Kiiig^-v^utilhe'fame 
pacifisk DirpOJjkion '.proved kui to «hioSiva.ri^ hia.vfite 
.Sgfis.-- . *♦..■•[' : • . ". . • :. j : ; 

Wallia. . ,: ffa^i^ his. SuCceflbf, wisrifed by titffe £xampl<es 
• was determined to find Em(>loymQ0t ^.hisSul^efts. 
With a. Vieiifr ta thib he '«mba^kcd an A?my (or Jfrica 
againftjthe Romans^ *but great Part of it being loft by a 
ShipWpect, h^ was fdrced to make P«ace with tbe £m- 
i.' •» . peror and to .reftore his Sifter Placiiif, * He afterwards 

.;. .. .) for the Sake of bufyi^g. hi? Subjeifts affifted Confiantius 
the^Rfiman General againft the Suevi and Vandalt: which 
fo^^ pkafed Hsnariks that he gave him Guientu and tbe 
. Ol^y of 7%oloHfe, He died ^t this bA Place in the 
■ Year 420... j .-.—■/.. : • .. ' ' 

Theodorid The Line ofjitalp^^^yns hereupon reftored in riic 
420. Perfon of Theodored his neareft Kinfman an experi- 
'/ . • . I v^ * t.enced.and fortunate Warriouh He affifted the Ramans 

-Wixi Franks agalnft Amla.ti\e Hsm,y aDd.bada great Share 

Defeat ofkr, in the Viaory gained over him in.tbfr Vcw 45 ' •' B"* ^^ 
TXLA451. * Provence ZxA Languedxk, -f^Loi/l^^/fuftnaiVid 

Hungary, -- ..;'/!;: 

cofl 



0/ S ? A 1 N. 23 

cod him dear, for being thrown from his Horfc he 
was trampled to Death, by his own People. 

Torri/mnd the cldeft Son ofTheodcred fucceeded his ToRRr.-*- 
Father, and followed bis Steps in affifting the Romans "osd 451. 
againfl Jtiila 5 who was a fecond Time defeated at the 
Battle upon the Loire. He was foon after, in the Year Battle oftht 
454, aflaffinated by JfcaUrne his Favourite at the In- Loire. 
fligation of his Brother gnd Succeflbr 7%eodoncJt. 

This Prince obtained Leave from the Emperor FaUn- Thiodo- 
tinian to, make Conquefts on the Suevi and other Fo- Rigt 454. * 
reigncrs in Spain, Rechaire the firft Chriftian King of 
the Susvi^ who had married Theodorickh Sifter, endea- 
voured tooppofe his Progrcfs: But he was defeated, taken 
Prifoner and beheaded. As ^eodorick had no Male IP. 
fue his youoger Brother Eurick grew weary of waiting 
for the Crown ; and following his own Example caufej . 
him to be murdered in the Year 467. 

Eurick confiderably extended his Dominions both in Eurick 467* 
^a'm and France, In the former he made himfelf Maf- 
tcr oiPampelona^ Sarragojfa and great Part of Lujita- 
nia. In France the Limouftn^ ^ercy and Rouvergue to- 
gether with the Towns of Clermont^ Marfeilles and Aries 
fubmitted to him. His Reign will be for ever memo- Romans 
rable for the.giving of their firfl written Laws to the dri'ven from 
yifgothsy and. for expelling of the Romans from Spain after Spaik. 
they had been eftablifhed there near 700 Years. 

Upon the Death oi Eurick in the Year 483 Alarick Alarick 
his Son fucceeded. This Prince maintained a long and 4^3- 
bloody War with Clavis King of France. It came in 
the Year 506 toa deciflve A<3ion near Poi-ficrs; where. Battle of 
l>oth Kings being. per fonally engaged the Goth after gi- Poitiers. 
ving fignal Proofs of bis Valour was difmounted and flain. 
This Defeat together with the Minority of -//Ajr/V^'s Son 
-dmakrick.gTLMt Clovis an Opportunity of recovering the 
Southern Provinces of France from the Vifgoths. 

Amahrick being an Infant the People raifed Gefalick Gesalick 
natural Son of the late King to the Throne. Upon 500. 
this Tbeodorick King of the Oftrogaths fent llha with an 
Army of 80,000 Men to maintain the Right of the 
young Prince his Grandibn againfl Gefalick ^ and at the 
fame Time to flop the rapid Progrefs of the French : 
Who fluihed with their late Succefs had gained a fecond 
Viftory near Cajllertfiudaru They afterwards made 
tbcmfclves Matters of Tholoufe^ where all the T/eafu-re 

C 4 taken 



24 0/! Spa^n^ 

feized at- the faciei ng of Rami by Jlarick the, Brotficr of 
Frogrefs of the Atulph was dcpofitcdj and had in one Year's Time taken 
French. all in France except the two Ndrhnne Provinces from 
the Ktfgoths. Ciovis was now wjt;h an Army beffore Car^ 
cajfonne where Gefalick had fliut hiftifelf up ; but'on the 
conjing vp o^llha he decamped^ and joined his Forces to 
thofe oi'Gondebold King of Buf'gunify who had hid Siege 
FRCMeR anJ to Jr lis. \Ilha attacked them; and cut off above 30^000 
BuRCUNDi- of the French arid Burgundidnst."DvLTir\g thefe Tranf- 
AUs^iTf/eateJ, z&ions Gefalick retired to Narbofine, He was foon after 
* * * befieged by Gofidebold an4 iforccd to fly to Barcehna ; 
where he was glad to make Peace with Chvts on any 
Terms; Ciovis foon after found it convenient to ac- 
commodate Matters with Theodorick alfo. IWa after 
takin^.'-Pofleflion of allin (r^z//that remained to the Vif- 
goths.in the'N'ame of the youiig Prince maVchfcd-with ' 
Lis Troops into Spain, Gefalick. Hcteupon went- over 

,- into Jfrica'f from whence being fuppUed ^ith Troops 

' ' by Tbraftmond King of the Vandals he returned into 

JhtVfurper Catalonia \ but being met by //^fl within twelve Miles 
Gesalick of Barcelona his Army was cut to Pieces. He after- 
fut to Death, wards cndeavoured^'to fly fbr Refuge into Burgundy: But 
was taken Prifoner at the Paflage of the Durance and 
fliortly after put to Death. ' ' 

Am A LA- ' Amalaricli being about th6 Year5io put into the full 

lucK. Pofleflion oF his Pominioh^,. the Adminiftration of Af- 

fairs was-diiring his Minority' committed 'io Yheudh his 
.Grandfather's Mafter of the Hotfe. Clovif who died in 
the Year ,5 1 i left four Sotii and a Daughter r. And al- 
though' theeldeft Son was illfegftimatc ordered the Emg- 
.. dom of France to "be dlvidcd-^amongft tftem. 'The Fzjf- 
goths foon took the Advantage of 'this divided State of 
] France to recover* the Rouver^ue and fome Places in Lan^ 
guedoci, ' Amaldrich being grown up married Clotilda 
Sifter to the four Kings ; and had with her as a Portion 
. TJjoloyfe and other Places in France, ' This Match although 
advantageous enough in Point of Interefl: proved very 
unhappy. Sh*e being rigidly Orthodox endeavoured to 
perfuade him to be fo to. He on the contrary ufed all 
Methods to force her irtto Arianifm, ' She bore his 'ill 
Ufage a great while; but complaining at laft to her 
Brothers, they united fo heartily and fpeedily in her 
He is Jlain at Quarrel that Amalarick was furprifcdand fluin zvfiarc^" 
Barcelona, i?/^ ill the Year 531, 

* • • -• • •' •• - ■ The 



Q/'.Spaim. fi^ 

The Royal Lioc being now Extin^ l^iudh wiK>reTHBupis« , 
late wife Adminifttation had won thfe Hearts of the 531- 
People was advanced to the Throne. The French " 
Kings were prevented by their Wars with the Burgun^ 
dians and Quarrels amongft themfelves from difturbihg 
the former Part of his Reign : But about the Year 543 French ur- 
thej marched an Army into Spain under the Pretencjp 'va^ Sp Am. 
of rooting out Ariantfm. They had over-ran Arragoh^ . 543' 
and laid Siege to the Capital ; but werd fo touched with 
the Solemnity of a religious Proceflion bn the Ramparts, 
that upon a Promife *bein^ made thatHerefy fliould be 
difcouraged they agreed to return home. In repaffing the 
Pyrenees they were attacked by TheodegeJUus Lieutenant of 
Tbeudhy and made to pay dear for this unjuftlnvafion. 
Soon after a Plague which lafted two Yedrs made great Afi^en 
Havock in Spain. Upon the ceafkig thereof T^eudu Plague in 
went over into Africa arid laid Siege to Ceutd-, butSpAiiiJ " 
having loft great Part of his Army before "the Place He 
returned home, where he was murdered by one who 
feigned himfelf mad in the Year 548. The Motive of TnEUBisa 
this Adion was neV^ known. It was however a juft ajfaffinated. 
Punifliment of Theudis who ha4 formerly aflaffiiftted a 

General he ferVed under. . , • '-'* '■ '■.- " 

^heodegejilus Lieutenant of Tbetidrsi and Nephew Ify THBoiiEdi- 
his Mother to 7J//7<t King of the Oflrogoth in Italyy silus, 548. 
was on account of hfs high pirth and Valour next raifcd 
to the royal' Dignity. 'He verjr ill anfwered the good 
Opirtrori entertained of ^ini ; for he gave himfelf up 
to all manner of Lewdnefe and Cruelty. His SubjeSs 
after Enduring his Tyranny about a Year did themfclvis 
Juftice on him, . 

A^ila a Perfon of obfcureBirtH was now cfeofen King. Agila, 549. 
The Cordovans refufing to acknowledge him he made ^n 
attempt to reduce them to Obedience by Force ; but 
mifcarrying therein he was obliged to ily for Safety to * •..* 
Merida. Being rendered xontqmptiHle" by this. ij! Sue* •• - \ •.-. 
cefs Athanagilde one of his.Subjefis raifed Forces agamft ••. ^ > ' 
him, and begged Succours from the Roman Emperors. 
Some were readily granted him by "Jujiinidn Emperor '• i * ' • 
of theEaft; who having lately been fortunate in dH-" • ^^ 

ving the V^andaU out of Africa was glad of this Op- ir-R»oMAW*» 
portunity to fend a Roman Army mxo^Spfiirt. Agtla affcr "A^^fikt ikta 
being defeated by the Romans Wis put to^Dfeaih at Aie- Spain. 
f/Vtf' ia the Year 554. . , x • >^ t 

♦ - - •' ^ • M 'Matia^ 



i6 CffSpAiif^. 

Ath AKA-* ' Jthanagllde who fucceeded having aafwered his Purpofe 

6iLbr,'554, Qf Qbtaining Pofleffion of the Throne wanted to get 

rJd oif his Reman Ally : But Jthe VJew of the Emperor 

,was v^ry different. Being an ambitious and politick 

Prince, he flattered himfelf that, while Narf^s was dri- 

...... ... Ving the QJirTgoJtl^s out of Italy^ this Body of his beft 

Troops might, under the Coipur of affifting an Ally, 

hx themfelves in fome advantageous Pofts, arid thereby 

make the Conquefl: of all Spain eafy to him. Athana- 

^^ilde plainly perceived this Defign and oppofed it with 

.;ill his Mighf : But aJthoug^ jie ftruggled hard during 

•his whok^ign h.p.was not; able to diflodge tht Romans 

from the Settlements they hfid made in Jrrqgm^ Valencia 

and Toledo, He-died in, the Year 567 : And leaving no 

,.' " Male IfTue the People reaflumed their Right of EleSion, 

Leuva» 567. Leuva the , Governor of Gaul was the Perfon they 

fixed their Choice upon : But he had not reigned above 

a Year before he divided the Kingdom with his Bro- 

^ . - ther Leuvigilde^ giving to him all, that Jiay in Spain and 

rcferving to himfelf only what belonged to the V'lfgoths 

jn GauL . , . 

Leuvigtl- Upon f he Death of Leuva in the Year 572, Lewvi^ 

^l» .S7*' - gilde then- fole Monarch took upon himfelf to ufe the 

/^ ,, Scepter, Crowji and other .Erifigns of Royalty. Being' 

a valiant and fqccefsful Prt'nce he drove the Ramans 

from the grcateft Part of their TolTeflions in Spain, He 

made Toledo the Refidence of the Court:, Which had 

been by his Prcdcceflbrs kept at Seville, Under the Pre- 

, text of aiding. Eborick King of the Suevi^ whom Au- 

duca his Father-in-Law had fliut up in a Monaftery, he 

, ; marched an Army into the Kingdom of that\ypun^g 

Prince : But having made himfelf Matter of afl his 

Dominions, inttead of bettowing them on Elmick he 

Jn 2nd tut /,^"^c*c<J them to the Kingdom of the Vifgoths, Thus 

the Kingdom of ^^ E"^ Was, put to .the Kingdom of the Suivi about 

the SuEVi. 174 Years after their EftabliQiment in Spain. 

Suarrel he- Some Time before this Leuvigilde's eldefl Son Her^ 

tnvixt Leu- ^tnenigilde had married Ingonda daughter of the King of 

viGiLDE and Aujirajia. The Wife of Leuvigilde having in vain tried 

bh Son Bf ER- all Arts tp convert this Lady to Arianifm came at laft 

: I4EKIGILPE. to ufe her cruelly. Ingonda fufFered all with, fo iliuch 

Patience and Confbncy that her Hufbind embraced 

the Orthodox Faith : Which fo exafperated his Mother 
. that fhe prevailed upon the Kinfg to treat him as*an 

Enemy. 



Gf: S.p A f ^1 ajr 

Enemy* Opon ibis HgrmemgUde fled for Prote6Hon to 

A£r0tt King of the Stavi »Fzther of the young Prinod 

jufk DOW mentioned. After a War of fome C>>ntinu-( 

2,nc^Jiiiivijilde W3S' reconciled to hisSon^^ but foch id 

the infaciable Rage of Bigotry the Queen could not 

jeft till fhe had once more incenfed his Father againft 

him* The Prince was again ai&fted by Mirmznd by the 

Emperor's Lieut<fnant in Spain : But the former of thefe 

being (hortly .after .(lain in Battle the Lieutenant defer<* 

ted the Caufe.of Hermenigilde^ and perfidiouily kept his 

Wife and Infant Son who were bc^ed for Safety in 

bis Camp Prilbners.- The Prinee was'^now obliged to 

ihelter himfelf in- a'San£iuary. He^was decoyed from HsKimiir ' 

thence by fair Promises, and foon iaftei' beheaded by hit gildb m Ar- 

Father's Order becaufe he would 'not re-embrace y/r«* beaded. 

amfm. The imbappy Ingmda .npcibdng permitted to 

return into her Native Country died of Grief a& the 

Romans were carrying 'her to Conjfantinopli. 

LeuvigiUe^ apprehending the imi-ted Refentment of Z^/'^jS*'' ^ 
th^ Kings of '^France) for this Treatmeiyt of » their Rela^ LEuvicit- 
tion, amufed one of them Chilperick King of Nniftria ^^ ^ '^ 
ior fome Time with: the Propofrf of: a Match between ^*^'< ^ 
Rgcarede his Son asid Rtgovte the Daughter of Chi^idt, ^r amc«. 
After thiia heAmitarted Matters to.fiich a Ddgree betwtxt 
the Colirts of^'NiSJMa and AuftrAfia^ that Pttdigmda 
the Wifd of 'iC^/i^^/ri hired Affaffihs to murder her 
own Sifter the Queetl of Aujhrafia4j All his Arts cduJd 
not howcv&'prcveiit'G^wtr^nrKingof 5ttr^ttte^ Uncle 
to the injured Ingmda from marching againft him with 
a powerful Army. To bppofe thkRecandi was feat 
with a large. army from Spain. As the two Armies /^^Vz^^Vj; 
came to no decifive Engagement Liuvigildt, being ad- GoNTtAir 
vanced in Year^ and. wiiling to leave his Son in a State Kif/g c/ Bva- 
of Peace, fent Ambafladors more than once with large cusor. 
Prefents to Gmtrani but this laft would hearken to no 
Terms of Accomniodatioh : Nor had Leuvigilde to the 
Time of his Death in the Year 5S6 the Satisfadion of 
bringing about a Peace, akhough be mofl ardently de- 
fired it, 

Recaredf being now at the Head of a Kingdom, Rhcafidi, 
. which by his Father's brave Conduft had been ex^- S^^ 
tended fo as to take in « very near all Spain j the Pro- 
vinces of Frana^thtscW! adjoining^ and part of Jdau- 

ritania 



inlaftf^An*^m\ he married a Princdft caltefl Bada xX. 
Brilijfi or as others (i^y. xk Gothiik £xt!ra£hob» Ma^ 
thruf I/kiwi ,.of Sevik and oihtt \ Sfafufi Hifloriana 
iientiOr> a fiitde.Jn tliis Reiga. near £ara^aHe;^.in 
^cb Clfiudiui jDoke of Lufitnnia a Lieutenasst o£ 
Rccarfdis with tftmse hundred Vifgnibs ' defeated 'in 
Al-my of 6o,coo Fr'eneB commanded by ' A^ • Lieute- 
nant of Gmiran King of Burgundy^* T^is is exploded ai 
fabulous by the French Hiftorians.; :Wh6 objed the Si^ 
ItDce of their own HifbriaaGn^^v^of T^urs ; and they 
hy moreovier tbakt:ihere'waff not.at that Time fucha 
Be abjures Perfon as GlaiuHuT'DiAc of Lujiiania. Kaareie having 
Arj^^&i4, abjured Ananifm wak reconciled to the /*•««* Courts \ 
• and upfon the- Deifihof \fiffjb iiis firft. Wife married 
GhdofuinU Sifter to.iChildehert King of^ Auftrafia^^ Af«. 
^cr' a. jprofperous^^eign of fif^eni Ydavs be died in.tbe 
JVrea3:.6oi. * - ' ■ • • 2v.:.v/i r' . 

Leuva ir. Leuva II. the eUeft Son and St cceflor of' £rrar^ had 
6qi.» '. ^ignoiirfca^ce fcwK>:Yeah iiefoiie 'he. was deprived of 
' hhXffe and Crown By one W- the J4obHity tailed 
■ .ff^iiudcL • ■ . '. .\ \ ^ • . ' ,. . '..:' . : ,'\.^ 
WitrkRrcife . .>^fai, lUfuriner .t«i- ingratiate htmKtf' with kbe Seople 
tt/um tU' • endeavoured jto.:difpoircfi:thc R&manse:ai:^\izi thcy^ffill 
"fbrane. :5cai)oy^d in S^/«. . He)3va$ at 'firft^inttfinjciAfirf, buth&d 

i^erwjifds thb Ad'^aJ'ta^ dvor tlwX^Enipdror's BWces Sn 
7arf ASion near Sigiuhfit. \Whtkrick^X!tki^dL.tSrt'dBai^ 
iblifli^ri&w/m.whiclvfe enraged tte PoptJace: that tbey 
•broke into .his' Pftlace, jnurdered ^him^ lind dragged' his 
. Body throug^'ithe Streets. Thus -zx^ Ebd. <wa5 put to 
:bja Ufarpationinihe Year 610/ ' t .. . , 

G9NDEMAR» ' '. Hereupon the People beftowed the Crown oti^Giuuk- 
610. ifttar a Peribn of great Courage and Prudence: Bot.we 
find nothing retnarkable ia.Jiis Reign,, except 1 the fe- 
fentlfig of an Affront done to his Ateibafiadors. by the 
. Frencbi. and the jreukin^ of: two Places in Gaul whilb 
Recartde had by Treaty ceded. He^die* iii thr Yfear 
6j2 much hmentcd^for his Piety and-Wifilom. •• * 
SiGEBur, The Choice fell next pa ^igebtt, z Me. reduced the 

612. JJluriam who had refufed to acknowledge him to Obeli- 
/ ' ' enfce ;. gained fome Advasttagesioveii * the Empbror^s 

]e^s iamJi?eil>¥orccs in Spain i and^ banifbed the'5^rt(;jj>hi8 Dominions. 
from Spain. He died in the Year 6?2i having all Bbng«pFdckvcdiflbc 
CUaracStor of a br^e* and pious J^iikiCQ*:' . . 4 : • . < v\ 
\k Recaridt 



' JUacarhk TL fucceeded hit Fathc^r Sigiiut. At'liis Recacedb 
t>eath which happened within a few Months, the Fk* U, bzu 
ItakAy of .Ricaride I. whofc Memory Itbe Vifgoths greatly 
revered was reftored to Uie Throne in the Perlbn \d 
Suinibila. his fecond Son. 

SjMMtbila, who had while a private Perfon given SvurTHiia, 
great Proofs of his Courage and Prudence, was after 621. 
his Advancement to the Throne h charitable as to be 
called tbe Father of the Poor. He' was fucce&ful in ne Romam 
quclKng the Sedition of the Gafafts in Navarre^ and in Power in 
accomplilhing what his PredeceflS>rs had in vain at* Spain f«i/t 
tempted the entire Abolition of the Ibnuin Power in ruintd. 
Spain: And his Reign would have been moft happy and 
glorious, if he had not for th^ fake of making the Crown 
hereditary in iiis Family aflbciated his Son Rechimir in 
the Government with him. As the People who were 
not confulted in this looked upon it as an Infringement 
of their Right of eleAing their Icings, they in the Year 
630 chofe Sizenand for his Succeflor. The Kingdom 
being on this Occafion divided into two Parties, that of 
Si%enand ftrengthened by large Succours from Dagohert 
£.ing of Franci marched to attack the King's Party. 
At his Approach Suinthila was deferted by his own Depofitiw of 
Troops; and he had fliortly after the Mortification of SuimthilA. 
feeing his Opponent crowned. 

Sizinand^ finding the Nation not perfeSly united in SizaNAfto^ 
his Favour, aflembled a Council at Toledo \ and took 63 1« 
great Pains to bring the Bifliops of which it was com- 
poied into his Intereft, ite b wrought on them by 
begging upon his Knees with Eyes full of Tears the 
Affiftance of their Prayers for his governing well, and 
by expreffing thegreateft Regard for Religion, that after 
fettling fome Church- Matters they came to the follow- 
ing Refolutions. 

I. That no Perfon do prefume to take upon him the Hefihltomof 
R^l Authority without the free Confent of theNobi- the AJfemhhf of 
lity and Bilhops. Toledo. 

n. That no Man dare to vidate his Oath of Alle- 
^aace. 

III. That no King ought to abufe the regal Power 
whkh is veiled in him for the publick Good On l y. 

IV. That Suinthila and his Family be anathematized 
for his abufe of .the regal Power. 

The 



'30 £y Spain* 

"> Tte Kti^n of Sizenand wis after 'thli'uhdifturbed* 
.. He died in the Year 635. 
Cbinti LA, The Nobility and Clergy were unanimous in the Choice 
635. of Chintila for his Succeflbr : But it was thought proper^ 
for the fake of quieting the Minds of the People laud* 
ably jealous of their Rights, to Confirm this Eledion in 
two general Aflemblics. Having reigned near four Years 
he died in the Year 639. 
l*irLGA,639. Tulga the next Succeflbr was chofen in the fame 
Manner. He although very young is by Hiftorians 
represented as poflefled of all vij-tues that could adorn a 
publick or private Life. He was to the great Grief of 
his People carried off fuddenly by a Diftemper in the 
third Year of his Reign. • 
Plavius The unexpeded Death of Tulga gave an Opportunity 

Cmimdua- ^q Flavius Chlndmftnte Commander in Chief of the 
cuiBTB,64x. Army to feize the Crown. The Wifdom however and 
Equity of his Government with the good Laws made 
by him in fome Meafurc atoned for this Violation of 
the People's Right of Eleftion. Having reigned feven 
Years he, notwithftanding the like Attempt had fo 
lately coft Suintbila his Crown; ventured to aiTociate his 
cldeft Son Flavius Recefuinte in the Government. He 
managed indeed fo as to carry this Defign into Execu- 
tion ; but in order thereto he was forced to give the 
. Power fo much out of his own Hands, that although 
he lived three Years after bis Son's Reign has been 
always reckoned to begin in the Year 648. 
FlaviusRe- By Flavius Rece/uhte z Toi'igiQus and prudent Prince 
CEsuiMTC, the Laws of the Vifgoths were very much improved. He 
648. chaftifed the Infolence of the GafconSy who had taken Arms 
•and committed great Havock in the neighbouring PrO'- 
A nmarkable vinces, and reigned happily near 23 Years. In his Time 
Ecliffi. there happened a remarkable Eclipfe : Which was looked 

upon by fome to portend great Misfortunes to Spain, 
Wavba, Upon the Death of Mavius Recefuinte without Iflue 

672. the People paffing by his Brothers fixed their Choice upon 
tVamhy a Perfon of great Reputation for his Conduft 
both in the Field and Council. He would have execufed 
himfelf, and with Tears in his Eyes reprefented, that he 
was by Reafon of his great Age ititapable of the Fa- 
tigue of Government ; but he confented at laft to their 
lm.portunity, on Condition that he (hould be crowned 
at Toledo in a full and free AfTembly of the States. 

His 



Qf S p A 1 m; 3.1 

His Reigo notwitfaftanding all this Precaution was foon 

difturbed by Infurredtions in the Provinces of Navarre 
and Bifcay. 

While he was perfonally engaged in fuppreffing thefe Rebd!i§m «p 
a much more dangerous Rebellion, headed by HilpericiGi^vL. 
Governor of Nifmesj broke out in Gaul. Wamba fent 
Paul an experienced General againft him with a power* 
ful Army s but inftead of haftning with his Troops to 
crufii the Rebels he debauched them to his ambitious 
Views, and by flow Marches gave an Opportunity to al( 
the difaffefied of joining him. The Cities of iarceh^ 
nay Gironne, Vic d^Offom and divers Towns were, by 
the Intrigues of Ranoftnde Duke of Tarragona and /fi/- 
d'lgife 2, Perfon of great Authority, likewife brought in- 
to his Intereft. Having thus ftrengthned himfelf, he 
joined his Forces with thofe of Hilpericky an(} caufed 
himfelf to be proclaimed King and crowned at Nar^ 
hmne. At the Approach of Wamboy who being appri- 
zed of this Treachery marched with all Expedition againft 
him, Barcelona and many other Places in one of which 
Ranoftnde was taken Prifoner fubmitted to him. Com- 
ing before Nifmesy where Paul who expefted large Suc- 
cours from France and Germany had ihut himfelf up 
with his Accomplices and fome Foreign Auxiliaries, it 
was foon obliged to furrender at Difcretion. To pre- 
vent his being engaged in new Broils JVamha thought 
proper to difmifs the French and Germans found with the 
Rebels. * Having quelled this moft unnatural Rebellion 
he foon after made a publick Entry into Toledo. The 
Chiefs of the Rebels followed him in Chains, their 
Heads and Faces having been firft (haved which was set 
that Time a Mark of the greateft Infamy ; and Paul 
was ridiculoufly diftinguiflied from the other Prifoners 
by a Crown of Black Leather. They were all after- 
wards condemned to perpetual Imprifoiunent. 

The Meorsy by which Name the Saracens who fettled TIfe Moors 
themfelves in Mauritania were called, had entirely driven attempt to in* 
the Emperor's Forces out of Africa^ and were in thc'"^^'^*** 
Poffeflion of all Places on the Coaft of the Mediierra- 
ntan except Ceuia and Tangiers. As they were now 
making great Preparations for War, fFamba apprehen- . 
five that thefe might be intended againft Spain put him- 
felf into the beft Pofture of Defence both by Sea and 
Land, By thus timely Arming he veas able to deftroy a 

Fleet 



ITcet of ayo S^il of their Ships ; which were foon aftc^ 
fent to make a Defcent on Spain. Some Hiftorians 
: fay, that the Jlfoors were put upon this Entcrprizc by 
^ ^^Ervigi Nephew to Rece/usntf. However this was, he 
JDOt long after found Means to give the King a pK>i- 
WAt^BA en- foncd Cup : the Effefts of which were at firft fo violent, 
ti^s into the ^jj^^ WawAa fuppofing he fliould fcarcc live the Night 
MoHASTicK ^yj according to' the fuperftitious Cuftom of that Tunc 
State. j^^ ^^ ^Yit Monaftick Habit. He fo little fufpeScd Er* 

vige^s villany that he figned an A<^ appointing him his 
Succcflbn Recovering from the Diforders brought up- 
on him by this Poifofij Wamha was concerned to find 
hlmfelf changed from a powerful Monarch to a con- 
temptible Monk : But being prevented by a Decree of 
the 6th Council of ToUdo from returning to the World 
again, ho fpent the remaining Part of his Life in Exer- 
cifes of Devotion. tVamha had at this Time reigned 
eight Years. 
IERvice 68o» Although Ervtge had acquired the Crown by thefc 
moft wicked Praftices^ yet being a Prince poffefled by- 
Nature of many good Qualities he governed with Mild- 
nefs and Prudence. The Affair of the poifoned Cup 
being difcovered it rendered him odious to the People, 
who defer vedly held Wawia high in their Eftcem ; but 
he took Care, by encreafing the Power and Inte- 
rcft of the Clergy to attach them ftrongly to his In- 
tercft. Befidcs this to atone in forae Mcafure for his 
Crime, and to fecure to himfelf the quiet Pofleffion 
of the Throne, he gave his Daughter Cixilona in Mar- 
jiagc to Egicay a Perfon of great Merit and Intereft 
who was nearly related to TVamba. Having reigned feven 
Years and appointed Egica his Succeflor Ervige died 
in the Year 1687. 
EciCA 687* Egica now no longer concealed the Hatred he had all 
, alonff born to bis Father-in-Law. As he had married 

• ' Cixilona only for the Sake of paving his Way to the 

Throne, he immediately divorced her notwithftandxng 
he had had feveral Children by heri and having made 
ftri(^ Enquiry into the Depofition of Wamba^ he moft 
rigoroufly puniflied ftU that were Accon^pliccs in it. 
neatithori e^jufti^^g being done by this Severity to Wamt^ who 
^^^^.^^ was ftill living, the Reign oi Egica ,v;2ls ;^fterwards 
J>^.7?w« Yo merciful, fo prudent, and fo happy, tl^at he wiU 
^J^f! :cyer be rememberM -amongft" the bcft of Princes. 
7«A^- - 3 He 



Of S p A I N.^ 33' 

He left three Children Witixa his Succcflbr; Oppas 
Arcfabilbap of Seville who was fb deeply concerned in 
the JU^tJk Invafion we (hall prefently fpeak of j and 
Fandina Mother of Ftorinda whofe Violation was the 
Caufc rf the Revolution that followed thereupon. 

Notwxthftanding ffitixa had for fome Time (hared the Witiza, 
Government with that good Prince his Father, he was 7®** 
no foooer in the full PolTeflion of Power, than he aban- 
doned himfelf to every kind of Lewdnefs and Tyranny, 
Fearing that the People who detefted him for his Vices 
would depofe him and beftow the Crown upon Theodofred 
Duke <tf Cordova^ or upon Favila Duke of Cantahial 
both Sons of Chindafumte heretofore King, he without 
regarding their great Age, or that they were his Grand- 
mother's Brothers, cauied the Eyes of the former to be 
put out and the latter to be aiTaffinated. Roderick Son 
of Thiodafrid and Pelagius Son of Favila^ both after- 
wards Kings, had alfo fallen Sacrifices to his curfed Jea- 
loufy if they had not timely faved themfelves by Flight. 
This cruel Behaviour to his Relations drew the Hatred 
of his Su1)je£t& more upon him, which would have cer- 
tainly proved fatal if he had not had Recourfe to the 
laft Rciburce of Tyrants the. difmantling of Town's 
and difarniing of the People* Having thus reigned or 
to fpeak more properly tyrannized ten Years, he died 
leaving two-Sons Iba and Sizebut, 

The FtS;ofhs to fliew their Deteftation of the Me- Roderick; 
mory of Wtitza fet afide his two Sons, and declared 7**2 
Rodertci the Son of Theodofr£d King. This Prince was 
by Naitqre poffefled of great Accomplifliments both of 
Mind ' and Body \ and as thcfe had been improved 
by an Education in Adverfity the School of Virtue, 
the People flattered themfelves with the Hopes of feeing 
better Days ; but being advanced to the Throne he was 
fo intoxicated with Power that he outdid Tf^ttiza in all 
Manner of Wickednefs. The Sons of Wiiiza ha- 
ving borit .h?s ill Ufage a great ii^hile fled at laft for 
Safety ' tb":^/Vtf ; where Count Julian Hulband to 
their Father's Sifter was Governor. Thefe Princes, 
who were not excluded from the Throne for any 
Fault of their own,- had always a confiderable Tarty in 
Spain headed by Oppas ArChbifliop of SiviiU^ their 

Vol. I. D Uncle, 



34 Q/^Sp A ^'^^ 

pndf : Which wasooiifidorably incrcaied by ;theprefent 
wicKed GbVerfnent and their own Sufferings. RoiUricJ^ 
quite funk in fenfualitjr togk no proper Meifures to 
ilrengthcn himfelf againft their grqwing Intereft: On 
the contrary, fancying ibft People would -b6ar with him 
as they had done wi^h hfs PredeceiTor, be Tec no ^OLuids 
to his unbridled Xuft. 
Rape of FiO' /%riW<i the Daughter of (iount yiw/ww was qr^c of 
EiNDA. the Maids of Hoaomr to the 'Queen, Beipg very. beau- 

tiful neither her great ]^ank nor the Regard which ^<7- 
'^ierici ought in Prudence to have had for her Father, a 
brave CM^cer and. ^ Man of great Intereft, coulid pre- 
vent her from falling a Sacrifice to his Brutifh Luft. 
^ Count Julian being informed by Fkrinda hcrfelf in the 
.moft moving Terms of tins Outrage he vowed Re- 
venge upon Roderick \ but in tbe mean TimediiTcm bled 
fo .well that bis Inrcpt^io^ was to the laft never fufpe<9:ed. 
While Oppa's his Brothgr-in-Law managed' amongft the 
Friends of their Fami.Iyih Spain^ Iha apd Sfzelut his 
'Nephews wJbp wffhed (or fiothjng fo muc^ jfis the r>e- 
ilrudiion of Roderick requellejl Succours fro^ the Maors. 
Moorish/*-. Itejng. convinced of the Si^ncerify of th^'Perfons who 
njafion^ 713. pow jnvited them the i?/^V-f» iyho had'long^ w for 

.^p Opportunity togetFoptihg. there, m the Year 713 
landed a larae Army in Spaij^i. . Roderick' z^t^oASi^ his 
Forces immediately which wcr;e numerous enough ; yet 
«.;..-:-:: as the Pcpple had been difarmcd in the' preceding 
• : . ; Reign ?nd all Military Difcipline had in thepji^efeht been 

neglcdcd the Moon carried every Thing before them. 
Finding his AiFatrs were Ijke to grow wor(e an^ worfe, 
^for being generally hated the Spaniards went over \n 
great Numbers to the M^rs> Roderick refolved to come 
.to a dcci(ive Aftion as foon as poffib/e. In this which 
happened jiear Xeres Oppas 2nd Julian botK^rcw- off 
the Maft:; and inftead of a/Tifting the Ktng attacked 
hipn with the Troops upd«r th^ir Command in the Rear 
while the Jl<foors clJarg^d him in Front. After an obfti- 
^jjatc Elefii^nce his Arptiy was entirely routeaV and ^^- 
Jerick who bfid during the Battle given great rxopfs of 
his perfonal Bravery was very near being made Prifb- 
ncr. Ai all the ftrong Towns of Spain remained in the 
^ifmantled State wherein ff^$iiza had left them> there was 



after dm Defeit do Place for the Natiires either to col- 
let tlKJf Ihattered Forces in or to make a Stand at. The 
Confequence was that the Moors foon over-ran ail 
Spain. '» 

Rnkrick died fliordy after having reigned three Years; beatb cf 
and wkh turn ended the Powler of the f^ifgQtht which RoDtRiciCy 
had ccA three Ages to eftaUiih in Spain. Thus the nuitbnvbomtbt 
MfffTs m lefs than eight Months and by a fingle Battk Pc^ertftbo 
po&ffird tiiem&lvey of a Country; which it coft 800 Vmootms 
Years mod more than four T^mes that Number of En*- '^^'^^ 
gagpoients ta driire them from. The Conqueft of Spain 
being compkated Count Julian and the Princes Ka 
^nd Shttkity who as we have fcen facriitced all regard 'for 
their Coontry to the Gratification of their Refentment, 
met with the Fate they juRiy deferved ; for the Mocrs 
did net think themfclves fecure while rhefe enterpricting 
Men. who bad had fo large a Share in overturning the laft 
Goveramem were alive. 

p£LAOXVS the Son of fbvila was on the Account Pklacivs 
t>f his having been a Companion of Rpdirick in his^^^"*^'^' 
Sufferings under Witiza always a great Favourite^ and ^^*»^^'«'* 
had bore a ^reat Command in the Army of Roderick at ^*^ 
the fatal Battle of Xirts. After the Defeat there this 
Prince fled withfome few (hatttttd-Troops to the Moun- 
tains of AJbsaria. While' thfe' A^r^ were buiied in 
making fure^Work in the fouthern Provinces that their 
Communication with Africa might be preferved, Pela^ 
gius had gaiherod together aconfiderable Army ; and had 
io fortifi»l the Pafies/ that finding it both dIfScuIt and 
dangerous to attack him they were glad to accommodate 
Matters with him. 

Not long after Jl^&Hfaus a Spaniard by Birth, but in Bis Sifier is 
the Intereft of the Moors and bf them entrufted with>''"^4' «Mr- 
theGovernment of the Province xAAfturiay did by fome '"''' h 
Means g«?t the Sifter of ftiagim into his Pdwer and^^^^VZA. 
forced her to marry him. Pilagius reprefented this to his 
Fotlowenr as a great In fult^ and having infpired them 
with that J^ge which actuated it)- his own Breift led 
them on to attack Munuza. He- at fir ft gained fome Ad^- 
vantagb over Munuza : But tAis hift' being greatly reinfor- 
ced Ptlagim thought it beft to retire into the Mountains. 
Tht Ainr-s wbu purfued him held him in fuch Con- 
tempt t\^% they fent Oppas to fummons bim to furren- 
D 2 deri 



36 Of Spain. 

der ; but be returned fucb an Anfwer as the Inrolence 
of the Meflage delivered by this Traitor to bis Country 
defer ved. ... 

Moors An A£lion being he/eupon commenced tht Aioorsy 

routed^ and though vaftly fuperior in Number, were by the Con- 
Pelacius duft of Pelagius and Bravery of hb ForiCes cntiiely 
.iakes the Title defeated with the Lofs of their General and tweaty thou- 
of King of f^j^j j^gjj. And. of thofe who endeavoured by Flight 
AsTURiA. j^ regain the Low Country many were cut off by Par- 
ties pofted for that Purpofe in the Defiles. Tlus almoft 
miraculous Victory animated the Chrtftiaiis and.firuck 
Terror, into their Enemies. Felagius snadt fo^ood an 
Ufe of it that he in a little Time became Mafter of 
Leon^ AJlorga^ Gyon and other Places ; stfid at. the Re- 
qucft of his Followers took upon himfelf the Title of 
King of JJiuria. It muft however be confefied that the 
DIvifions amongft tbe Moorijh Chiefs* together with that 
impolitick Expedition into France^ where after ravaging 
' fome of the ftHitbern Provinces they were.enlirely rout- 

ed by Ch&rUi Martel^. coottihuted ini fome meafure to 
the Succefs of Pelagim^ This Prince who is jiKlly 
called tbe Deliverer of bis Country died at Cangas m 
the Year 737, leaving Iffue Favila his Succeffor and 
Erme/indayrho was married to Alphonfi. 
Favila, FavUa ffiVQ himfdf up to Voluptupufnefs and Indo- 

737» lehce, and was it) a 4nk Way of ruining ^vubat hrs Fa- 
ther had fp glorioufly begun,: But happily forthc Baople 
before he bad reigned quite two Years a Bear he vras 
' hunting turned- upoaaiut IciUed him. As h^ dkd with- 
out Iffue the Crown paffcd to his Sifter's Hufband ; 
and this which was the firft Inftanceof. any Perfon's 
u - . fucceecjing in |he Right' o£ a Female-ha* been fince the 

conftant CuAom in Sfaw» . 

Alpwonso, Jlphonfi, who had been a. faithful Gontpanion of Pe^ 

739- laglus in all his UjqdftrtaJkijTgs, continued to prcferve the 

great Reputation he hadgawd ui^der this Prince* Having 

b^t the Moor» in divers Engagements and taken many 

Places in Galicia and Partugal from them, he died in 

the Year 757 after a.gJi:^ious Reign of cigbtcen Years : 

. And was for his grfiat . Pipty canonized. His Children 

by Bxmefinda were Fmla bis immediate Succeffor ; Vi- 

j?7/7r^9^ murdftred by hjs Brother ; v/iaY/id. .afterwards 

King i and a Daughter called Adofmda, 

' *^ FroiLiy 



Of S? aikI 37 

Frfiila the Founder of Oviedo Was ^ brave Prince and Froila» 
fuccefsful in War. He foon reduced the G^mx who 757. 
had revolted to Obedience ; and in one Battle flew fifty 
four thousand Moors. His potting a Law in Execution 
which forbid Priefts to marry laid the Foundation of a 
ConffMracy to dethrone him and make hisBrother ^z- 
marane King. Thinking thereby to fecure himfelf he' 
caufed Fimarane although he had no hand in the Plot 
to be aflaffinated : But to wipe out this Stain upon his 
otberways glorious Reign he afterwards named Vere- 
mmd the Son of Yimarane for his Succefibr/ This Di<^ 
pofition was however prevented from taking Place by 
Aurelio his other Brother: Who caufed Fraila to be 
murdered in the eleventh Year of his Reign and feized 
the Crown, 

Soon itfter the Ufurpation of Attrelio his People took AuRELii; 
up Arms againft him. Being confcious of having abufed 7^8, &c. 
the Power he had fo wickedly obtained, and confequent* 
ly jealous of his own Subje^b, he called in the Moors 
to his Affiftance ; and in Return for this infamoufly con- J^famous 
fented to furnifh them )fearly with many Virgins of good ^'^(y w/^ 
Families. He died without Iffue in the Year 774; but *^^ Moo*»- 
took care ftili to exchide the Children of his two Bro- 
thers^ by appointing Sih his Sifter Adofinda*% Hufband to 
be his Succeflbr. -km - 

About this Time the Mm-s^ whofe Divifions had^^®^**^*" 
been of great Ufe to the CbriJUans^ were all united ^^J^^^^^^^^^ 
der jihderame K\ti% of Cordova and became much more^**^**** 
formidable. 

Silo having need of the Jldaors Affiftance againft hisSiLo» 
rebellious Subjefts in Galicia renewed the Treaty con- 774» ^*^* 
eluded by his Predcccffor with them. In this Reign the ^^^^ 9f '^^^^ 
Order of Bim Hombres which had many Privileges ^^*'*'"^^-» 
annexed to it and gave Rife to that of Grandees was 
founded in Spain. 

After the Death of Silo in the Year 783, Alphonfo the Maure* 
Son of Froikt was advanced to the Throne ; but he was'oATi, 
ihortly after difpofleffed by Mauregate a natural Son of 7^3> ^^*^ 
JlphonffL This PjrinCe, for the fake of having the 
Affiftance of the Moors in maintaining himfelf on the 
Throne, agreed to furniOi them with a hundred Virgins 
annually ; fifty of whom were to be of the beft.Families^ 

D 3 He 



He died in the Year 788 without Iffuc; aAd^ (faffing 
by Jlph&nfo appointed ynemmd Sod of VihUirane lo fuc* 
cced him. 
VkRtMOND, Vfremmd x^'xtvci the Monaftitk State whteb he* had 
788. entered into and tOf>lc dpon himfelf theKiegal Autho- 
rity ;. hut was fo inflaenccd by the SuperAition of the 
Times that after marrying atid having Chiidreii h^ re- 
newed his Vow. He was fo confcientious that notwith- 
(landing he had Sons of his own he adlnittod Atphmfo^ 
to whom the Crown of. right belonged^ to be a Sharer 
inr the Government daring .Ms Life; and at his Dteath 
in the Year 795, which was va(Uy lamented by the Peo* 
pie, left him in Poileffion of the whole of it. 
Al^HOuso Alphonfo II. was from his extraordinary .Cobftnency 
*'• furnamed the Chajfe. His Sifter Cbimena who was of a 

. 795" .' quite difierent Difpofitibn had married privately to Smncho 
Count of Saldagnes ; by whom fhe had Bernardo Del 
Carpia fo fanious in Romance. This being difoovercd 
the Count was arrefled at am Aflembly of the Stat-es ; 
9iM after putting out hvs Eyes he was confined in a Pri- 
foo where he ended his Days mifcrably. The Child 
was' neverthelefs educated with as great Care by the ICing 
his Uncle as if he had been bis own Son. It was not 
likely that a Prince x)f .his. auflrere Virtue (hould vril* 
. lingly proftitute fo many Chriftian Virgins every Year ; 
and. it -luckily happened that ^i Moors had with do- 
nneftick Broils and foreign Wars fo much upon their 
'Hands that they were not in a Condition*to force him 
to do this. On the contrary Alphonfo gained many Vic- 
tories over them and took Lifbon. During his Reign a 
Moorijh Chief called Mahomet flpd to him for Protec- 
tion againft the JRefentment of Abderamo King of Cor^ 
dova. He was well received by Alphonfo \ but being 
afterwards reconciled to Ahderame he ungratefully 
joined in an Attempt to furprize Alphonfo. The Moors 
perfuaded of the Probability bf this Scheme onited all 
their Forces; and being conduSied by Aiahomn had 
Signal nsiory dlrezfiy penetrated imo his Kingdom. Alphonfo was 
o^er the however apprized of this Danger time enough to put 

Moors. Mmfelf in a pofture of Defence) and although his Forces 
were far inferior in Number he cut to Pieces 50000 of | 
the Moors^ 

Notwith- 



^ Spa IN. 39 

Notwithftanding this Succcfs againft the 'Moori tfic DoMEiricK 
Reign of Alpbanfo was not free' from intefiine Troubles. frouHa. 
The rebellious Galicians had at one Time reduced him 
to the Ncceffity of hiding himfcif in a Monaftcry : But 
as the Moors were not at Liberty to make Ufe of this 
Conjuncture, he was by the Steadinefs and Fidelity of 
tlie Nobility foon reftorcd to his Authority. He was 
a good deal perplexed oh another Account. Bernardo 
Del Carpio who had given many fignal Prbofs of his 
Courage and Zeal for the King's Service firongly rolli^ 
cited the fetting of bis Father at Liberty ^ and fome 
other Circumftances confpired to make it imprudent to 
difoblige a Mao of Bernardo^ % Merit and Intereft in the 
Army. Abderame IL King of Cordorva having redu- 
ced his revolted SubjeAs to Obedience was prepring 
to attack Afphonfo-, and Charkmain at whofe Name 
the A&ors had fo often trembled being dead, his Son 
was far from being able to caufe any Diverfion in Fa- 
vour of Alphonfi : Yet notwithftanding thefe Confidera- 
tions and the Intreaties of the whole Court he would 
not confent to the Enlargement of Sam ho; Which fo 
difgufted Bernardo that he retired from Court. 

After a glorious Reign of forty-eight Years he died Death of 
in the 85th Year of his Age, having appointed Ramire Ali^hou so, 
the Son oi Fenmond from whom he received the Crown 843* 
to fucceed him. 

In this Reign , the Provinces of Navarre and Arra- The Kitigdoni 
gon which C^flr/^ww/« had conquered, being expofed to^^NAVAf. *i 
the Incurfions of the Aloors and not at all protefled by ^f^fd. 
Lewis the Son and Succeflbr of Charkmain^ formed 
themfelves into the Kingdom of Navarre ; arid chofe 
for their King Inigo Count pf Bigorre furnamed the 
Bold, This new Kingdom was at firft much enlarged 
by the Conqucfts made bf Inigo on the Moors ; but becom- 
ing afterwards equally powerful and fometimes clafhing 
in its Intereft with that of AJiuria^ the two Kingdoms 
inftead of uniting againft their common Enemy fre- 
quently turned their Arms againft each other. At the 
£le£fcion of Inigo a Charter was drawn up for fecuring 
the Liberty of the People from all tyrannical Exten- 
(ions of the King's Prerogative. The People of Na*^ 
varr€ afterward negligently loft the Benefit thereof; 
but the Arrogonefi being wifer would never give it 

D 4 ttp> 



40 0/" Spa IN. 

FoR£ DB u{V, and do to-thxs Day enjoy many Privileges founded on 
SoBRABE. this Compaft, which was from the Place where it was 

agrocd upon called the Fore de Sobrabe, 
Kami RE, Ramire was fcarce pofleflcd of the Throne when 

843. Nipotien one of his own Subjefts endeavoured to fup- 
plant him; but by the Diligence of Ramire this was 
prevented, and the Traitor being made Prifoner was 
puni(hed with the Lofs of his Eyes. Not long after 
jibderame at the Head of a powerful Army demanded 
the Tribute of Virgins. He was met by Ramire near 
Alveda ; and a Battle enfued v/hich lafted two Days. 
On the firft the Moors had the Advantage; but in the 
following Night Ramire dreamed that St. "James appeared 
to him and aflured him of Succefs. In the laft Reign a 
Tomb had been difcovered in Galicia: In which the 
Spaniards perfuaded themfelves that this Apoftle was bu- 
ne Moors ried. This Circumftance together with the King's Vifion 
rcutedhvith fo animated them that they next Morning renewed the 
great lofs. Fight with great Vigour : And entirely defeated the 
Moors with the Lofs of 6c6oo Men. In the Heat of 
the Aftion, fuch is the inchanting Power of Superfti- 
tion, the Spaniards fancied they faw St. James^ whom 
they now looked upon as their tutelar Saint, carrying 
before them a white Flag with a red'Crofs in the 
Middle of it. 
De/cent of \^ ^his Reign the Normans made a Defcent on Ga- 

the Nor- , ^— ^ . jj^^ Ramire having cut off a great Part of them 
^^^^' and burnt fome of their Veflels the reft were glad to 

retire. They afterwards ravaged that Part of the Coaft 
in Pofleffion of the Moors which extended from Lifbon 
to the Straights of Gibraltar. After this active Reign 
Ramire died in the Year 850 at Oviedoy which was 
now become the Place of the King's ufual Refidence ; 
and Ordonio his Son fuccecded. 
Ohdonmo, Mufa a Renegado Goth had fome Time before revol- 

^5°* ted, and had made himfelf Matter of Toledo ^Saragojfa and 
fome other Places which belonged to the King oiCordcua 
his Sovereign. Elated with his Succefs he in the Begin- 
ning of this Reign penetrated into the Kingdom oi JJiuria 
as far as Logrogno ; and in his Way took Alveda ; But Or- 
donio marched agaiuft him and repuifed him with confix 
dcrable Lofs. 

* ' Lopez, 



Of Spain. 41 

Lopi% the Son of Mufa^ who died (bortly after of the.^/ forces an 
Wounds he had received, finding himfelf h'kely to ht dtfeated by tht 
attacked by the King of Cordova was. willing to make King of {2,^%^ 
Peace with Ordonio. This laft glad of an Opportunity ^<>va. 
to divide and fo weaken the Moorijb Intcrcft affifted 
him with 12000 of his beft Troops i But thefe Allied 
Forces being entirely routed he was thereby fo much 
weakened, that he could not hinder the Normans who 
fhortly after invaded his Dominions from ravaging the 
Coafts. The Divifiohs however of the Moors ftill con- 
tinuing his Affairs had begun to take a better Turn, 
when the Gout put an End to his Life in the twelfth 
Year of his Reign. 

To Ordonio fucceeded Atphonfo his Son who on the Alphomso. 
Account of his heroick Difpofition was furnamed ihelll. 
Great. Soon after his Acceffion Froila Count of Ga^ t(iz^ 
licia forced him to quit the Throne and go for Shel- 
ter into Cantahria: But the tyrannical Behaviour of 
the Ufurper was fuch that the People quickly aflaf- 
finatcd him, and by that Means made Way for Al- He is njery 
phonfo^s Reftoration. His ivhole Reign of forty- eight y^^^C/V*^ 
Years was almoft a-continued Series of Succefs againft ^^^''^j^ '^ 
the Moors or his Own rebellious Subjeflsj and he ^^^^•* 
made it his Bufinefs in the Intervals of Peace to re- 
build, fortify and People the Places taken from the 
Infidels. 

Bernardo del Carpio reftored by Alphonfo to his Com- Bernardo 
mand in the Army had a confiderable Share in his del Carpio 
Vi<ftories over the Moors. After this great Man had ill ufed. 
thus fignalized himfelf,' he requefted ' the Liberty of 
his Father who was ftill langmfliing in Prifon. 
This being refufed he again left the Court, and re- 
tiring to his Caflle of Carpio great Numbers who 
either refented his ill Treatment or pitied the Suf- 
ferings of the Count of Saldagnes reforted to him. 
The King,* who was already engaged with the Moori^ 
dreading the Confeqnences of this agreed t6 deliver up 
his Father to him, Bernardo immediately delivered up 
his Caftle to Alphonfo ; but inftead of reccivino; his 
Father into his Arms he was fliocked with the News 
that the venerable old Marl was dead in Prifon. TJje 
Reputation oi A^phohfo was riiuch hurt by dealirig thus 

,3 * ' fr'audulently 



4* ^'$-TAt^^? 

fra'tiduWfttly a'i\(! aiflionourably wKh a Man w^o fi^d 
dcferV[cd,weIl at his Hfands : And'hc was moreover very 
unhappy irt bis own Tamlly. . ' 
<rhe Sons of His W ife a Frend Lady having for fomc Tim? eh-; 
Ahvnom^o teftaihcd a deaBly Hatred of him, flie prevailed at laft' 
take Jrms ^^^ ^^ ^^^ -^^ j^'^^ ^j^j^ ^iti in it. Having by long 
agatnft bim. y^^ . • : ^^^ expenfive; Buildir)jgs cxhaufied his Treafure 
lie* laid new Taxes upon ^tli^ People :', At .which they 
were- greatly diTgiiffed.' . His S6n§ €hcoi^*r;|igcd thereby 
toofc.up'Arms againft him:* An^ being, joined by the 
Majority of the People Alphonfo vi^as after a Civil War 
of two Years forced in the Year jQio to give up his 
Crown to Garcia the eldcft of them. 
Gavlcia, ' Garcia enjpyed the Fruits of his unnatural Rebellioa 
9x0. ■ but three Y^ars j during which riotliing remarkable 
happened. 
OnBOHioII, Ordonio 11. updn the Death of his Brother fuccceded 
idtkes tbi Title td the Throne : And making l.e(m the Seat of his Reii- 
cf King of dence the Title of Kin^ of Afluria^ which began 
L10K4 91 4^ ^ith Pehgius^ was changed by him and his Succef- 
ibrs for that of King of Leon, He was at firft fuc- 
ccfsful againft Almanzor King of Cordova: Bi^t the 
latter receiving Succours from another Moorijb Prince 
in Africa he became an Overmatch for the united 
Forces of Leon and Navarre^ although thefe were com- 
manded by Sancho Abarca King of Navarre one of the 
braveft Princes of his Time. The Counts oi Cajiile^ 
who had been long endeavouring to render themfelves 
independent, were now fo formidable that Ordoni$ durifl 
iiizei the not openly attack them. Pretending to want their Ad^ 
Counts of vice in an Affair of great Confequence he defired a 
Castili. Conference with them ; But upon giving him a 
Meeting they were all feized, and being fent Prifoners 
to Leon were (bortly after beheaded. Being with good 
Reafon apprehehfive that the Cajiiliam would refent 
this Piece ofTreachcry he v/as arming to prevent it, 
when he died at Zamora in the Year 923 leaving two 
Sons Alphonfo and Ramire. 
FtotLA 11. I^^ila II. on the Death of his Brother feized the 
923. Crown; but after a Re^n of 14 Months remarkable 
only for Weaknefs and Cruelty an End was put to his 
liife by a Leprofy. 

Thp 



Of' SrAii^i 4 J 

Tba CaftiB)ans irritated b^ tbe laftPriiftie tml cuPCastilb he^ 
couraged by the Weaknefs of this no# entireljr tfaravr ^^^n^i nn Mi- 
oflF their Dependence on the Kingdom of Lem. They' pffuiini State. 
wefe at firft goveraed by two Judges^ .of which one had 
the Care of civil the other of military Affairs : But on 
the Death of thefe the whole Power devolved on Gmfalva 
Ntittes defcended bom zGirman Nobtenap^ who com*^ 
ing imo Spain on a Pilgrimage to the Xomb of St. 
James had fignalized himfelf againft tbe Msors. 

AlpbmfolY. tbe elder of froila*s two- Nephews fuc* Alphomso 
ceeded : But being a .weak Prince Gonfalva Count of IV. 924. 
CaftUe extended his ConqueAs on the Kingdom of. Leon 
as far, as the River Pifuerga. . The C^'/ur;! \ having af« 
terwards attacked S^ho Abarca King of Navarre the pr^efs of 
two Soveraigns engaged in a iingle Combat at the Head thi Cemt cf 
of their Armies. Sambo being in this mortally wouhd- CASTiLa. 
ed bis Troops Were afterwards defeated. Jlpbonfo 
more fit for the idle Life of a Mbnk than to gpyerii 
ifi the Year 930 abdicated the Crown in Favour oF 
his Brother ; and retired into a Monaftery. He would 
afterwards have re-afcendcd the Throne; but watf 
prevented by Ramire who caufed his Eyes to be put 
out. 

Ramire II. being naturally of a warlike Temper, Ramirs II. 
and knowing it would endear him to his Subjc£b,. en-* 930. 
gagod in a War againft the Abort. Having obtained IsjioifsfMl 
feyeral Victories over them and taken Madrid,, he bad ^g^fft fbt 
a Mind to attempt the bringing back of Ca^le to its Mooas. 
Qbdience : But Gmfalva Count of Cajlile reprefented to 
him, that fucb an attempt would by weakhing both 
States make them an ^fy Conqueft to their Infidel 
Neighbours. Hereupon Katmre being a Prince of 
good Senfe defifled from his Purpofe; and was after* 
wards affifled bv Gmtfaha wbofe wife Council he had 
followed againft the Moors. He died in tbe twentieth 
Yeaf of his ficign and was fuooeeded by Ordonio his 
eldeft Soil. 

Sancho^ Brother of this Prince, bebg affifted bf Ordomio ' 
^ King of Nnmrre and Gonfaha Count of Caftile^ IIL 950. 
forced him to abandon hia Capital : But he took Care 
to ftcure himfelf in an inacceffible Fortrefs till the 
Uavarrefe and CaftiUam were called Ikmm to defend 

their 



44 Of Sf Ai N. 

' their own Country againft the Moors. Ordonio having 
now only his Bpother to deal with foon defeated hi£» 
Troops ; and being returned to Leon divorced and fent 
borne Uraca bis Wife the Count of Cafiile's Daughter. 
Johis 'with Gmfalva bad during tbefe Tranfadions obtained a fignal 
GoNSALVA, ViSory over Algahib the Moorijh General ; and was re- 
Count of Qa^' turned about the fame Time in Triumph to his Capital. 
TILE, og'iiffft Jbderame King of Cordova trufting to the Animofity 
the Moors, between him -and Qr<&»w fent another powerful Ar- 
my againft bim: But in this he was miftaken, for 
the King of Leon attentive to their •common Intereft 
and that of Chriftianity affifted Gonfalva with all his 
Forces; and the Moors were a fecond Time defeated 
with great Lofs. Ordonio died foon after in the Year 
955, leaving an In£ant Son named Veremond whom he 
had by Elvira bis fecond Wife. 
^ANCRo, Sancho furnamed the Fat, who had ftill a confiderable 

955' Party, taking the Advants^e of his Nephew's tender 
Age got bimfelf to be proclaimed King ; but by the 
Prevalence of a Party who backed the Pretentions of 
Ordonio Son of Alphonfo IV. he was foon obliged to quit 
Ufitrfation of the Crown and Kingdom. Ordonio for the Sake of 
Ordonio. fupporting bimfelf had married Uraca Daughter of Gon- 
falva the late King's divorced Wife: But he grew fo 
odious to the People that he was called the Wicked. 
Sancho it , After a long Ablence Sancho returned at the Head of 
refiored. ^ powerful Army which he had obtained from Altnanzor 

the Moor, Ordonio having nothing to exped from the 
People on the Approach of Sancho fled to hb Father* 
in*Iaw : But he was fo enraged at this cowardly Beha- 
viour that he took his daughter from him and would 
not fuiFer bim to flay in his Dominions. Thus defer- 
vedly abandoned he went for Shelter amongft the Moors^ 
and (hortly after died in an obfcure Village near Cor-* 
dova. Sancho was not a little difpleafed with Gonfalva 
for giving his Daughter in Marriage to Ordonio i but 
he had for the prefent enough upon his Hands to rec- 
tify the Diforders which the Kmgdom had l^ the late- 
Management been thrown into: Anditwiis moreover 
for his Inteteft to cultivate FriendSiip with a Pfince> 
who by many fignal Overthrows of the Moon had done 
great Service to the common Caufe. 

There/a 



. Of S p A I n; 45 

Therefa the Mother of Alphmfo touM not forgave Inirigmes rf 
Gmfalva the Death of Sancb9 Aharea her Father. As Theresa, 
(he could not prevail upon her Son to attempt any Afo'^^ ^ 
thing agatnft Gonfaha (he propdfed a Match between Sancho.. 
him and her Sifter Blanche*^ and under the Pretence 
of its being cekbraced with greater Pomp decoyed 
him to Navarre where he was thrown into Pri^n. 
Being delivered by the Contrivance of Blanche he car- 
ried her with him to Burgps: And after marrying her 
marched againft the King of Navarre^ who contrary to 
a fokmn Tr^ty had taken the Opportunity of hb 
Confinement to invade Cattle. Having defeated bia 
Army he made him Prifoner, yet he was prevailed on 
by his Wife to fet him at Liber^. The King of 
Navarre was toached with this- genefeits Treatment ; 
but nothing Could fatisfy his Sifler l^betefiifs implacable 
Hatred of Gonfaha^ She contrived afterwards to get 
him again into Prtfon ^at Lem^ whither he was invited 
to fettle fomeMatters^in difpute between this Kij^dom 
and CaJiUe\ He however once moce notwithftandtng 
the Orders for ftridiy guarding him regained his Li- 
berty ty the /Affiflahce of Biancbe his faithful Wife. 
The A&itt's had during, thefe Trania£U6ns made foiae 
Conquefts in ^ his /Dominions: Which, a& the like had 
never before happened to him, with the bafe Ufs^ of 
the Houfe of Nawtrre (o afieded this great Prince that 
he fhortly. a£ter MltAck and didd. Smie Tinie before DeatB ef 
his Death he took Care to have the Independency ^f Gonsalva, 
CaJiiU on Leom dedaied by a formal Treaty, This Ce««rf ef 
Bulwark of Chriftiamty being now. dead, and the Chri- C astile# 
ftian Prihces being divided amongft themfelves, the 
Power of the Infidels in Spain'vfss ^eatly encreafed. 

Sancbe died in the Year ^67, and was fucceeded by Ra* R amirb Iltj 
mire his Son : Who being young the Goverment was 967. 
adminiftred by his Mother and Aunt. Verermnd Son 
oiOrd&mo llh- talcing the- Advantage of this Minority 
made himfelf Mafter of Galiciay and was declared King 
thereof. ' In the Reign of Ramire - the M90'$ pf 5^- 
ravojfa having vanquifhed Count BoreUi took Bar(^' 
ceUna ; and anotheiv Body -of them laid Siege to Pampe- 
iona. the Capital oif Navarre, . Jttbazeb who at the . 1 . T 
fame Time - entered . G^/ivVi with a powerful ^^^y^ Progrefiofthi 

had Moors, 



46 .0/ SjLJBLiv.' 

had taken Cmp^lla^ and ^ms in a £iir Vfty of Tub- 

duihgall Spain If ^ Dyfentery^wbiob ieized his Arm^ 

' had nqt put a* Stop to his Prognefs. 

Veremond • Upon ihRlk»h 4fRafnir4 in the Year ^2, Vkre^ 

IL 9S2. 0ioui King .of Gaiicia. ^fucoeeded. to the Kingdoai of 

£e9ft. In h'ls*^ Time Jibazd was defeated by Garcias 

RrJinafid Count of CafiiU Son of the great Gmfahfa : 

Defeat ^Al- ^^ '^^ proud M»r weho had ravaged the Territories 

BAZBB. of the Ohriftians no Jeis than 52 Times laid it fo much 

CO Heart that he died loon after. Hie Divifions of the 

Moov4 oa the £>eath of this great .Soldier gave the 

Chrijiians^z ftfir iSipportunity of recovering what they 

iiadiibftt Butinftcid of this Ganias being deferred by 

lialfilus Forces, with his Son Safuio Garaat at their 

iiead> the' Infidels attadoed him, aind* having rxiuted 

4hs Army mtde-Mm Prifoner. Barcdma was liow- 

jogcF about, dib Time re^^taken by BortUii and' the 

i&itageof J^^^n w«s raiied by the King of iS^Kwrr/. 

iCgi^tiftond having *retgned feventeen Y^s without do^ 

^JM aiiy Thing femarkafale was fucoseded by his Son 

Alphokso y^ jflpbmfo V, ki ^Cox^dion with his Allies the Oouat 

V . 999- ^of QiafiiU and King; of Nawnre recovered all their Pre- 

.'deceuors had ioft f k»6i the AAtrs* He afterwards puOi- 

•edihtm vigofoaflyion.the Side of P^tugMl% bitt ap- 

tproacbingtoo near die Walls at the Siege of Fifcu In the 

*>Y«ar toaS he was kfiled by an Arrow from the Ram- 

c 'pat;^^. He lived In Amity with' Jhdalhh one of the 

A&orijh^y^k ^and ^iih a View:.<if:con verting married 

his.Sillel' to-him.- - She- took, great Pains with ' him but 

* in was'ai! in Valir:;' and at Jaft to get rid of her Impor- 

tudit^ he fet^t he«r ^^back to Lion, In this Reign the 

/• T Mother of Sund^Oamas Count of Cajtiie fell defpe- 

rateiy in Lov)&- with |i M$orifl* Gentleman. Forefeetng 

thai her Son w4uld never confent to her marrying him, 

.file prepai^ed ife^'h^f Son a poifoned Cup; wUdi being 

. di&overeit he conipelled her to fwallow it herfelf : But 

this A£lion>waeJthe Caufe of great Uneaiinefs to him 

dfii»?flg4be Remainder. of his Life./ 

Veremond V^R£Mokd III* .although very young was upon the 

IIL X028. Death of (i^/^)^««>V. bis Father crowned by the Nobi- 

' /^ /^ lityl* Hd applied hlnfifelf to the:. Arts of Peace and .to 

\ . .' - - the Reformation of the Laws. Garcias 



. Qaigflit S€m}» Sob ^xA Succeflbr .of BamJf^ GioroMs UiAmffy 
Q^ntd Qfi/iik M Wo Sifters; .the. elder qf yffhom^^^^^ 
wa» ^mrried to Sanch the Greft King of Navmrr§ Garcias 
the otkcr to the Kin&of Lm. To la^c the Allianq; ^^^^"^» 
beuTOu tbefcPfiiM^es.ilUl ftronger it was agreed tt^it p*":^*;, 
the j^g Count of C^i/r ihould marry VirfmmJf^^^^^^^^* 
Siifer; Ifc fet out \s\ Q)inpa,ny wixh t]^ ^Ciag of il^ 
^,e t6 celebrate t^is Nuptials at Lem\ but riding^Ojpi 
teforc- tbfQugh Jini?atiencc to fee t^e ^ancefe he,^|ia|a 
jfdJkffinatod by three Mifcr^uijts tb^ S<;ms of a Jlebol t^ 
his Father^ who ^ter tbeir .Father's JDlcath bad Ibecjd 
reoelved |>y .hiin 1.0(0 Favour, On the coming up of tl^ 
Kiog^f 2V0f/^r/ be,.purfued thefe ]L|ngratefuI ViUiajUr: 
Ai¥t^'tbi\y jufily deferved put thei^ tq^n ^jnopinpyp 
Death-, ! * . . . . 

By .t|ie De^th of this Viinct.&qncho the Gruu .aW Castilk 
JcadytMaft^r of iiavarre became pplTefled of CafiiU 19 armepetd t9 
the Right of bis Wife : And *as Vermand had pp.Cbit Navarrb^ 
jdxea nor pothers, he for .the Sakjc of fecuring the Sue- 
cdfioQto that Crown alfo in his .F^ijy propofed-a 
Match between one of his Sons and Sancha SiAer to tbe « . • 
Xing of Le&n» The . Nobility^ atiprehenftve of this 
l^ingdom's becoming a Province to JSfavarrt rejedetl 
the Propofal: But upon Sancho\ d^la^ing War and 
pufliiiig his Conque(fs as far as Mount Ofr^ they wer^ 
jW.Jppomply. Tihqy.mpreover were forced to con- 
ient,"that the Frincels {bould have iouiiediately Part 
of the Kingdom'as a portion and the Remainder after 
the peath of her Brother. 

Ti)is brave and politick Prince fell jnjtq the Mift«^lie Mifiah ^f 
of dividing .h» I^QJcninions, as Charlemain and other Sam cHotbr 
grj^t Kings before hioi had done: But this Divifioe fo Great indt' 
fatal Xf> tSe, Caufe of Chriftianity mjght perhaps be^a 'viding bU 
gpod deal oyring.' to the unhappy Quarrels Jh his own Domimons, 
Family. '*.,_• 

While be ^aa e^aged whh the Meon his eld^ Son ^attih in^^ 
wa$ very defirous of riding one of the King's f»vouri|e hit. Familf. 
Horifesj which b^ing opppfed by his Mgther and- the 
MaAer of the Hpr^ he pubjickly charged hi» Mothqr 
aad the Matter of the Uorfe with z, cri^i^al Intimacy. 
The Queen was hereupon impri Toned Mid a D^ was 
fixed for her Trial by fmgle Combat 3 by the Lgw^ of 
. ' 4 which 



48 Q^Spaik: 

Whlclr if nobody did cfpoufc her Quarrel fbe was to be 
bufrnt alive. Her ofWn Family and Friends deferted her; 
yet when the Time came Ramire a natural Son of the 
King's boldly ftept forth in her Defence. While they • 
were fixing upon another Champion for the Prince, a 
venerable Ecclefiaftick having firft pacified the King a 
little convinced him of the Inconveniencies and Un- 
certainty of this Method of Trial. Then turning to 
^arcsas the good old Man dealt fo roundly with him, 
thatliis Confcience pricking him he confeffed the Crime 
t>f having falfly accufed the Qliccn' «id threvj^ himfelf at 
lier Feet. She like a good Chriftian forgave him ; but 
infifled' that he (hould never enjoy, any Part of Cafiile^ 
and that her Champion Ramire (hould for his'Qcnero- 
iity have the Kingdom of Arragon free of all Depen- 
dency tipori NavafYe. Sancho who was fliortly after 
• aipTafiinated dlfpofed of his Dominions by Will in the 
following Manner. 
^he Will of To Gafcias his eldeft Son he gave Navarre^ with 
Sancho the fome Parts of the neighbouring States which lay convc- 
G&EAT. nicnt for it. • 

To Ferdinand bis fecond Son Cq/Iilc^ it had been 
enjoyed by the laft Count his Mother's Brother. 

To Gonfaha his third Son the fmall Territories of 

S^brabe and Ripagorca, 

• And to Ramire his natural Son Arragon yiS'X}\^ 
Queen had procured it for him. 
Six indefen- ■ . Chrijiian Spain was much weakened by being thus di- 
dent States in ylded into fix independent States, the fourjuft mentioned, 
CltfiiltaQ that of Leony and Barcelona which was fubjefl to its own 
Spain,. Count: And the Moors^ who were in Poflc/Eon of the 

Provi!nces which lay all along the Cpatt from Catalonia to 
^Gibraltar and from thence as far as Galicia^ had it in 
their Power whenever a favourable Opportunity offered 
to attack any of the Chriftian Princes, 
NaVarrb Garcias being fet out on a Pilgrimage to Romey to at- 

attacied by ^^^ perhaps fot his Crime againft bis Mother, his Do- 
Ramire. minions were attacked by Ramirey but Gardai return- 
ing expeditioufly he was furprizcd while he lay before a 
Town, and being foon after ftrippcd of his own Donii- 
nions was forced to fly for Refuge to Gonfaha King of 
Sobrabe, • 

la 



t)f Spain; 49 

tn the Mean Time Viremmiy hoping to recoVef What tt^ar bitnvixt 
bad been conquered from Lion by Sancho the Great, dc- Lb oh and 
dared War againft ^trSnani King of C»/^i7< j but ex* CMTiLi. 
pofing hixnfelf too much in a bloody Ai^ion upon the 
kiver Carioh in th^ Year io37> he was ran through with 
a Lance. In him, for he left no Children, the Race of 
Kings defcended frodi Peld^tts ended; ind the CrowH 
oi Lem devolved in Right of bis Wife pn t^erjiinand, 

This Prince being groWn by the.Uniott of the King- fzxti^titi 
doms of Cdfiik and Ltm under him v^rv powerful, he 1037. 
refolved tp turn his Arms againfl the Mtars. Garcids Leon unitiJ 
his Brother did thefiime; and fuch was the Succeifs of /tfCAirtLi. 
thcfe Princes, that after taking a great NHtmbet of 
Towns both in Spain attd Portugal feveral of the Moorifk 
h\Tict% were obliged to pay th^m an anouieil Tribute.' 
They had tlow a fail* Opportunity to abolifli entirely Sketefs againfi 
the Power of the Moors in &pain\ but this was pre- /i^/ Moors. 
Vented by an unhappy Qjiafrel which broke Out between 
themfelves. After mutual Stratagems to make each 
other Prifoners it came to a decifive Battle iii the Val- 
ley of Mount OtcA: In which ^W^; was killed bv oni( Death ^ 
of his own SubjeAs whom he h^d formerly injured* Garcias. 
and Jeft the Crowns of Navarrt and ArrQgm to his 
Son Sancho a Minor. Kotwithftanding that Firdinan4 
tould now have taken what he pleafcd froih his Nephew^ 
as he had all^ ^long fhewn great Moderation^ and would 
gladly have been reconciled while the Armies ftood ready 
to engage^ he contented himfclf with fome few Places 
Vrhich heretofore belonged to CaJilU. 

Some time before this Gonfaha King of 5^inji^ GonsalVa 
Was a0affinated; and leaving no Children RdfUinwho^ afuJinaiiuL 
as we before obferved had ^d to him for Refuge fuc* 
ce^ded. Taking the Advantage of Sando^s Nonage he 
alfo conquered J^ragon^ and made fuch Progrefs in Na-- 
^am that the yCung Prince was glad to give up Part 
of it by T'reaty to fccure the reft. Ramn afterward* 
attacked the MoorSy and made the Kings of Saragoffit 
W)d Urida tributary to him. 

Ferdbiand^ Who ftill maintained his Superiority over FftRotii AHH 
the Msors^ having about this Time taken upon himA^lf takes the TitJi 
the title of Emperorj it was Complained of by HemyUh <fEmfir$r^ 
Who infiftol that as Roman Emperor nomage was 

Vol. L £ due 



due to him from Spain. It bciag referred, to Pape 
Vi£!or JI. fie decided in Favour 6? Henry\ aii<l Ferdi^ 
* I ' ' nando out of Regard to the Pope's Authority would 
have fubmitted ; but tht ^panijh Nobility affcrted ftre- 
puoufly:» thaf all DependaiKC,of 5/><7/Vz on any foreign 
Power was put an End to by the Gothici Conqueft, 
While this was under .Confideratlon, Don. Rttdrigo Dias 
it Bhar (b well knojjvjp .i^ Romance by the Name of 
the.Cidy whofe Valour, and Condu£l had not a little coti- 
* tributed, to Ferdinand's Suqcefs againft the 4/ewrf, cam€ 

into the Council; and after declaring loudly fof Inde- 
pendency took it upon himrdf to oblige the Pope to do 
the Spaniards Juftice. . He for this Puirpofe put himfelf 
at the Head of a powerful. Army : Which had the de- 
fcred Effeil, a.Legate being immediately. fen t to declare 
, . the Independency of $p^ in on the Empire., Ferdinand 

^. who was for his Bravery furn^med the Greats and- who 

was canonis^ed for his Piety, fell Into his Father's Mi(^ 
^ke of dividing his Dominions by Will. To Sancbo his 
eldeft. Son he gave CafliU \ to Alphonfo Leon ; and Cal^ 
licia to his other Son Garcias:. Nor were his Daughtera 
t/raca and Elvira forgojt i one had Zam^a^ the other 
TWo with its Dependencies. 

Sancbo Ih being by this Partition much weakened, the 
king of Navarre, affifted by Ramire King oi Arragon 
attempted to recover what had been by Ferdinand an- 
nexed to Cajiile 5 but he was by the Condu£l of the 
Cid foon compelled to fue for Peace. Although Arragon 
was comprifed in this Treaty a new War foon broke 
out, occafioncd by ^ancho\ attacking ^he Moars of Sar^ 
ragojfa who were under the Prote<ftIon of Arragon ^ 
Which encled in the Death pf Ramire and the Reduflion 
pi Sarrag^a, 
He aitach SonthOy who dli ring his Mother's Life had carried it 

Garcias. fair to. his Brothers, as foon as flie was. dead refolved 
to ftrjp them of their. Dominions ; and having lulled 
\f/{lphmfi into a Neutrality ^afily found a Pretence for 
attacking tjarcias. In this War, which the Cid con- 
jfciou? of its Injuftice with great Reludlance took the 
Management of, Garcias was defeated i and dying foon 
after under Confinement in the Caftle of Luna his Do- 
minions were annexed to the Kingdom of Cq/lile. The 
... '^^ „^ King 



Sakcho IL 
Kiffg of 
Castile, 
overcomes 

Ramire. 



king ofiegn now too jate fzW his Folty in being dn iditf 
Spe&tor of his Brothef^s Ruin ; for be was Ibon told 
by the^mqaeror, that it was net in the Power 6f their . 
Father td give nway irotn him, being the eldeft Son^ 
the Kiftgdom of Z^^ which taihd by their Mbtbeh 

AlVai* cnfaing Jlphonfi was robbed of his ICirtgdom; fjg Jefri^ei 
h\ithjibe Int6rceffion of his Sifter his life was (pared, Alphohs0 
It Was hitl^eVer on Condition that he (hould go into a o/Le&s^ 
Monkftery. As this was forced upon hrm he would « 

never put on the Habit ; and takiilg the firft (!)(^portu- 
nity of efdaping flieltered' himfelf at Toledo, Sancho did 
not ftop here, for he took Toro from his Sifter Elvird^ 
and laid Si^b to Zdmofd whith belonged to tfraca ; but 
i^hilc h^ \<^ before this laft Place, he was in the Year 
ibyj murdered by a Deferter from the Totyni 107 j. 

Alfhakfi VI. fuccfeeded his Brother Sanchd in the King- Alphqi? so . 
doms oiCaftile and Lebni and.uniting with Sandho Ra- VL _ . . 
rtiVf King 6f Arrdgm they made great Conquefts oA 
theMdi^ji Yet he h44 fo. much Regard to Iha kind 
Treatment he received during hi$ Rctfeat to ^oUdby that 
hedifgfaciSd the famous C/^/ for making an Incurfiori 
upozi the Territories of this City, The CH although Expats d/th 
divefted of his Command' put himfelf at the tiezA of C10 itfiei^ hh 
fome brave Volunteers 1 and conquered ft> tniich from Difgrdca 
the MotfS'Cti the Side of Faiehcidy that 'had not the 
Love of his Countty and Loyalty to his Matter re- 
ftrained him he might eafily hdve formed a ne# 
Kingdom. 
I About this Time Sarttho King bfi^vdrteins afia(*- NAvAkk^ ' 
! finated by his BtothtfRvymnd. Ai his Sons Weire very anfuxeJ to 
young th^ Navdrre/ky being determined that the Mur- Arraoon. 
derer flioiild not reign over them, conferred the Crown 
On the King of Arragtrn. 

^ Hiaya King of loledti the Soti of Almanhoh hd- ^Uge of 
^ing rendered hihifelf hateful to his Subjedls the Modri Toledo* 
begged the Proteiftion of the King BadajoXy as did the 
Chriftiarts at the fame Time that oiAlphonJh. They both 
accepted the Invitation i but the Moorijh King oh the 
Approach of ^^A<7)i/2i quitted his I*arty and retired. As 
the Mo9rs however chofe rather to be reconciled to 
^eir own wicked Prince than to fubmit to a Chriftian 
King, Alphonfo unwilling to lofe all the the Trouble h€ 

E % had 



53|, Of $?4J«. 

h^digivch hu»felf rcWvc^.uppabclicging.TiJfifc. ThU 
Si^ge made a great Noifc in the WorU, and, brought 
to hU? oi^ny VoluDtpera of high Rank from diSbreot 
Nariposj. Ad4 amongft others thtfrencb Princcj ftcy* 
mind Count of fhshujj^ and iir«r; and Rofiri^ of. A»r- 
. pindy. After a long aiki vigorous. Siege and many fruk- 
left At^^mpt$ of the Motft ta raife it the Town qapitu- 
4oSj. lated. Tlie Terms were that the Moorf/b. King -(houW 
have fafe Conduft to Vakncia^ ; ai^l that the A&^^/ who 
choie to . fta^ in T*okd9 (hpifild not be raolefl^cl. la tiie 
Enjpyrociot of tbetr religioi^ ot civil Riglits or have 
any ne^ .Taxes impof^il upon them, 
MADRtD and As Madrid^ Medina a{i4* <^^^y ^^^^^ ^}^^ ^^VF^^ 
ethef" Placei fubmitted. yoJi^ntariJy tp him^ be uoLted th^rti aU iAto 
treaidinto the one Province under the Name or New Cfijlili: And 
Proyime tf having encouraged many (jiferiftian Families ta ^om:;^ and 
^""' "^^^'^ »" ^}^^^ eikbli(b«J . an AKclpbifhopfic^ <hera 
TILE*- 1^ Rewrardrfbr their fi^al Services -^A^.gjitjf his 

three DaHgt^ters in Marciag? tq the Trtnch^ Prrfic;e$ who 
had afted as. Volunteers iiqdpi[, him. T[p. Raymnd of 
Burgundy h^ gaye his li^iightef t/r^j^i? by Ctm^nce his 
. , .. ^leeh wj^ -the Title. ffi^(^<^px ol Gm^iip^: j^ to 
.;," j^«ry, if ^njTgundy Sbtxefa a- natural Daugjjteif^. and 
he creatied. bw Count ot PortugaL .Rayntond, of *tho^ 
ioufcy to whom ne gave JShrra another natural Daughter^ 
having received .^r Dowry in Money and Jewels re* 
t\xri\ti,int(iJprdncf' with her. . . 
Infurredlon in Settmg*out foon after on a Journey to LeonAlphonft^ 
T(U..Ep0» left the Qpyernment of Ttdedo to tlw Qiipcn zxABtmard 
the new ^rchbifliop; who being hi^i^ried on by intern- 
jperato ^eal took an Opportunity to feia&e the. principal 
Mofque yirhi<fh by the Capi(^latioa had been left to, the 
Moors, As thefe were more numerous than the Cbrifii^ 
ans tb? City was hereupon tljirpwn into, the utmoft Con- 
fufion: And had not the King returned the Confequencea 
might haye been fatal. He was highly incf nfed at this 
unjuft Proceeding and offered todo juftice to his Moori/h, 
Sul?je£fe: ftut thfcy, forefeeing that whatever Sajtiisf^itioa 
they might hav^ for the Prefent it would ii^ the End 
turn out to their Difadvantage, endeavoured to pacify 
the King ; arid by giving up their Mofque with a good 
Grace greatly recomniei^ed themfelyes to his Favour. * 
3 / Alphanfi 



OfSpAifsl 5 J 

Alphnjo lifter this tiirVi'eJ his Atms againA Benhadet A^^^ov^o 
King oVSevilU\ <>ut '.falling vioJetitly in Love' with ««'^'«' 
laida his Dairahtcr, he aftisrihc was baptized married ^^*^*» * 
her W received fomc Towns with their Dittrjjfts as ^^'^'V!*^ 
a Portion. Depending on the Affiftance of ,hi5 Sbn-in- "'*'*'^' 
law JBwWf/' now amufetl JhfmfeffWth this Thought of 
uniting all that the f^ms poflfetfed in Spain to the Crown 
ofSiviUe. At his Sojlicitation the King of Cijliliy who 
was fo fond of his Daughter that he could refufe hiftj 
nothing and yet did not choofc to aflift openly an Infi- 
del Eintr, obtained for hinl St powerJiil Anny from 
Jofepb Tephht King of Morocc9 

Mmaxa whb commanded it ^Ing arrived near Sevilky Abbnaxa 
he (nding himfelf (Wronger than B^nhadn contrived tp iefiats Bsit* 
quarrel with, hfm; and having defeated and flain him HAPkr,'tfji/ 
in Battle tdofc upon himfelf the Title of Mramolin\ ^«^«'^ ^'>A 
which Title the firft Moorrjb Conquerors of Spain had S^Miramq- 
made ufe 6f. After thi^ hfc declared War againft the *'**'' 
King of Gq^k^ and hart th^ Advantage in twb En- 
gagements againft <P<7r^ft/.ani R^rfrr;]^^; but in a third, 
in which -rf/;^©)^* commanded iri Perfon, la? was worfle4 
and obliged to retreat to Csrddvk,' 

The King of Moroicca ^r^ged at the perfidy of Abknaza 
Manexa came over at the Head of another large Army j w Miadci, 
and having made himfelf Maftcr of SevilU^ he caufcd 
jfbenaxa to be beheaded and took the Title of A/iVa- 
moliH upon himfelf. This fudden Revolution s^larihdd 
the Chrijflam : Bat the Alarm was fodn over j for on 
the Approach of the Forcep of Arra^on Tephin who had 
done no other Mifchicf than that of plundering th^ 
Country a little thought proper to retire. 

Sancho Ramire King of Arragon and Navarre . being T)eafh of 
killed while he was before Huefcoy his cldeft Son and Sancho 
Succcflbr Pei& continued the Siege with great Vigour: Ramirie^ 
The King of Huefca joined b/ fdme CaJ^iti^in Troops 
endeavoured to raife the Siege: But Peter ^ ahhough bis 
Forces were much inferior, attacked them fo briikly 
that he gained a compleat Vittory^ atnd having car- 
ried the Place made it a Biffiiop's Sec. Dying wiihoue 
Children in the Year 1104 he w^s facc!^e4ed. by. hi?, 
firothcr vf^^^ff^J, ' ' : ;' " 

El The 



|;4 tySpAiN^. • 

fr^zxefioftU The renowned C/W, -whom the King of C^iFe^ 
Cii),' bad before the Siege of T^aledo found it neccflary to 

employ againfl the ^fqars of An^lufia^ acquitted him- 
. _ ftlf in. this War with his ufual Succefs. IJe after 

this greatly extended the (jJonquefls begun in Valeria 
(ia while he was banlQied from Court; and having' 
takeii the Capital he efiabiiihed a ^ift^prickf there^ 
5ind made it the Seat of his ^cfidcn^c. The Moors. 
\xi his laft Illnefs laid Siege to this PJace; hut fo ppjden^ 
W3S his Condu6l notwithftanding bis very wea]!^ Con- 
dition that they could not take the Place- ^ill a^tQr hi^ 

Death." ' ..\ . 

C ASTi)L2 The Miramiin Jofeph Ttphin lived in conftant Amity 

in^Ja^fAhji tbi with, his Neighboiif tt^e. JCing of Cajiilty by whofi? 
Mooi^Sj j;ncouragem?nt be h?i4 g^ footing in %fain : ."Rixt 
. * * upon his Pe^th CapUe was attacked with ? powerful 
Army by his §on and Succcffor tialu 4^^^ b«- 
. . ' ing JU fciit againl^ hi|n twQ of ^his beil Generals ; and 
was Xq jniprudent ^s tq fend his only Son no more 
than .i.i Yqw of Age to fee the Campaign, In a Bat- 
tle fought (p.thc Plains of Vekz^ called from the Num- 
Rattle of the ber of Counts flain in it the Battle of the fcven Counts, 
Seven the ^^ilian^ wcr^ beat ai>4 the yovpig Prince was flain : 

CgxJNTS, But as Hali did not f^fh this Advantage, MphQufo had 
jin Opportunity of putting hiipfelf into fuch a Conditioi;| 
that h9 (hprtly after braved it to Halt z,t the very Gates 
q{ SevilU. 
Contejfs con- Jlphotifi hzving no Cluldren the Succe^pn of Right 
rertfittg the belonged to Unxca his Daughter, who had a Son but juft 
hccefion. o^t ^ ^he Cradle called after his Grandfather Alphonfo, 
As this Prince was ai; Infant and the Son of a Foreigner 
. the Npbility could by no Means brook the Thought of 
bis reigning over thepi : And their Diflikc was increa-r 
fed by thq Neglcft of his Mother, who fmcc the Des^th 
pf B^npnd Count of Galicia her hufband had taken 
no Care to have him educated fuitably to his Birth^ 
, To prevent the A^ifchiqfs ariftng from a difpMted Suc- 
ce£^oh it was refoJved th?it fome Perfon fit to reign 
(hould parry XJraca : But the Difficulty was whom to fix 
upon. Th^I^obility infift^d it i^ould be "a Cajlilian-y 
and judged the Count of Candefptna the nioft proper 
Perfon, Others and efpecially the Clergy preferred the 

King 



King of Arragcn^ that Chrijltan Spain might by the 
Union of the two Crowns become more powerful': 
And their Choice teing approved of by the King (he 
vras married to him, Jlphonfo died foon after at Toledi 
in the Year 1 1O9 ; which was the 79th of lis Age and 
44thof'his Reign. 

Jlfhmfo VII. King of Arragm^ confiding in the Alphonso 
AbiJities of Don Pedro Anfure% who wa^ left Regent VIL 1 109. 
and being bufied in making Conquefts upon the Moorsj 
did not fet out immediately to take Pofleffion of th0 
Crown, Sending l/raca before flie under the Pretence Castile and 
of her Marriage being voidi becaufe it was as (he faid Arragon 
a forced one, would have excluded him from all Share »«*^ 
in the Government of Cajlile, The King diflembled 
\\\s Rage at this Condu£t : But made a Handle of he^ 
Lcwdnefs to confine her ; nor was he oppofcd in fo do- 
ing by the Nobility, to whom it was notorious that (he 
intrigued with Don Pedro de l^ra and the Count ife 
Candefpina. By the laft of thefe (be had a Son named 
Hurtadoy from whom fprahg an illuftrious Pamiily. 

Alphonfo the Son of Raymond^ who was ntyt grown His Marriage 
up, being very promifing the Clergy of Leon and Ca^iU 'jwVA Uraca 
declared inf his Favour: And bis Mother's- Marriage " dect^f>ei 
^'vii Alphonfo oiArragony which was found upon Enquiry ^^* 
to hei within the forbidden Degrees of Confanguinity, 
being declared void by the Pope the Pepple of Gaticia 
did the fame. Upon this' -^/jp'^ff;^/^ .divorced the Queen 
formally arid fet h^r at Liberty j hoping that her proud 
and letcherous Difpofitiort vfrould create Difcord amongft 
the Heads of her Son's Party. He was in this miftaken : 
For fljc was forced to give up Galicia entirely^ to her 
Son and governed in CaftHe herfelf/ 

Preparations being now made cm all Sides for a War ^ucee/s of 
the Queen's Troops were comipan.ded by her two Alphonso 
Gallants; and thofe of the young Prince by DonagahjfiU'^K^ 
Pedro de Trava and the Bi(hop of Cmpoftella. Al- ca and hnt^ 
fhonfo foon defeated the Queen's Forces, and the ^^• 
Count* A Candefpina was fliwn in the Action. Having 
afterwards' the ^me Succefs againft the GftlUciam he 
took J)on Pedro' Prifoner; and the Prince -was with 
great I)ificulty prevented from falling into his Hands. 
Thcfc two Vi£loi-iw were foHowcd with the Reduftion 

E 4 o£ 



|6 Q/'.S.PAiNv 

of BwfBSf' LiOH and many other Places ; but while Iw 
was before Jftorga the Bimop of Compoflella liavihg re- 
ceived large* Re-inforcements from Galicia raiTed the 
Siege aodx^ligei! bim to ^ut himfelf up In, Carton. Tliis 
brave Bifhop by convincing them it was for their mutual 
Intereft brought about a Reconciliation Wtween th^ 
Queen and her Son. It did not however lad long; for 
Lull being her ruling Paffion flic gave up herfclf entirely 
to her lewd Commerce with D$n Tedro ie Larft^ and 
countenanced him in his lafolence to the NQbllity. 
Having hereby rendered, her Government intolerable me 
was foen obliged to reiign it to her 3on Jlpbonjoi 
AlphoWm) Jiphonfo VIIL the Son of Raymnd of Burgum^ being 
VIII. now in the Pofleflion of Cafiile and Oalicta^ ihp King 
of Arragon fortified fome Places whidi he bad taken \ 
find giv4ng over all Hope&.of making further Conquef^a 
r^rned home to Arragotk^ Shortly after being jipined 
hj fome ,/r^«r A Lords who werie not Time .enough to 
^gcompanj; Godfrey of Boukign in bis E^&pedition to the 
ffofy Laud he laid Siege to Sarago^a. The Md^rs at^ 
tempted., twice to relieve it ; but being both Times un- 
fucceff ftil it was after » Siege of eight Months taken 
lu^. ., ift the Year I J 14, and became the Capital of his Km^- 
iQmoi Arragon* 
hfiituiimofkn \\ is by fome thought that about this Time the Qfi^ce 
O^er tailed ofj^'fff'.wias^nftitutedj a Magiftrate whofe Bufi* 
JUSTICIA. ' uefs cpnfifted in lim^i ting the rpgal Power, and defending 
the Privileges which the People of Arragon had referved 
to themfelyes when they (ubmltted to the K'ng of 
fJavarre. Others fay that this Magiftrate vi^as long 
before Prefidentof a fiody called Rim Hombra com- 
posed of the greateft Men In the Country; who had 
fucfaa Kind of Power as the parliament of £;:;£'ii3;74/ at 
this Day have. 
Wur koith ' After this a War broke out between Arragon and Caf-. 
AftRXooN. ^^^i but no Advantage being gained on either Side, the 
two Alpbonfo^i were. by the Mediation of Pope Galtfio II. 
a near Relation to the King of QqftiU reconciled. Af-i 
ter a mutual Reddition of Places the King of Arragon^ 
|o ihew bis Siivcerity, made, up a Match between his 
Brother of CaJ^iU znA Btre^gn-^ a beautiful pTiiicefa 
Paughter of Exymmi jfrnm Count of JSiar^hn^ 

whidi 



^ S P A W. j^y 

which W99 cekbnted in the Ye«r i laa. Hcaccfor^ 1 1 xt. 

ward they united in attacb'ng the Moors : And while Smcafi ugahjl 
the Cqftilian plundered all their Country between the *^o Moors. 
Guadtana and the Tapn^ the Arr^gonian penetrated into 
Andalujia and defeated twelve MHrijb Kings in 4 
pitched Battle. 

The Troubles which now arofe in Ptrtygal put TmAks in 
a Stop to this rapid Pro|ref8. T^erefa the Sifter of Portvgai»* 
27^7^17 after burying her nrft JEIufband Henry of Bur^ 
prndy^ who bad been made upon marrying her Count of 
Vsrtugaly was married privately to F^rdinind Patz Count 
it Tranfidmara ; who carried it to the Nobilrty with fo . 
high a Hand and ufed the young Prince Alphmfo Soa 
oi Henry fo ill, that they united againft hifli end an 
Amy was levied under the young Prince. Ferdimmd 
who immediately matched againit him was defeated; 
and being taken Pri(bner was af^r taking an Qath 
never to return into Portugal banifiied. Hereupon 
Thenfa whom her Son had thrown into Prifon called 
her Nephew of Cqfitli to her Afiifiance ; and promifed 
him the Kingdofh of Portugal which her Son had as (he 
faid by his Behaviour rendered himfelf unworthy of. The 
Cafillten who. marched immediately to her Relief was 
inet on the Frontiers by bis Coufin and defeated. He 
raifed frefh Forces; but being ag^in repulfod by the 
young Count he thought proper to come to an Acoom* 
modation with him' in the Year 1127. 1127. 1 

The three A^bonfo^s being thus at P^ace wrnoh^DhatbtfAi.^ 
themfelves they now flattered themfelves with the'"^***^^ 
Thought of driving the Moors q}x%oi Spain ; but on the^**^^^^** 
Death of the King <^^ Arragon without IITue^ who W|IS 
cut oiF foon after by a Party of the £nemy as he was 
going to join his Army, a new Conteft arofe about his ' 
dominions. Out of nis Zeal for the Chriftian Cauft 
H had given them to the Knights Tempktrs: But the 
Kmg of Cajiik who as well as himfelf was a Defcendant 
from Sancho the Qreat laid Claim to them. 

No kegard wa& paid either to his or the Knights Ttm^ Nax'a^rs 
fkrs Pretenfions ;. for the Arragomfi being determined detached frdh 
to have a King of their own chofe Don Ramire '•vbo had A^Raooh. 
hcen forty Years in a Mopailery for their King ; and 
the ^^^^;t/^ pf Q^laimcd (?47rf If f So4^9(^^V^by fhe 

Ci(i\ 



CfW's Daughter and Grandlbn of '^^2iXSanchd who wai 

aflaffinated by his Brother Raymond, As this Divifion 

gave Jlphonfo of Cq/iile an Advantage over them Lc 

took ^aragoffa and many other Places from the former, 

jKid obliged both of them to do him Hbmage. Thinking 

thereby to make good his Lofs J^amire attacked Navarre 

under a pretence that it belonged to his Kingdom of 

' '^^rragon\ but his Conduft in this War rendered him 

contemptible. Endeavouring afterwards by cruel Means 

to recover his Authority he became fo odious to liis 

Subjeifls that they fent him back to his Monaftery. 

Raymond, • Hi»' only Daughter 'P?/r»w7/tf having while flic war 

Count of Very young married Raymond Bhenger Count of Barce^ 

Barcelona, ij^;^^^ it was agreed by the Spates of Arragon that Ray^ 

/tticeedsto ^ffif^ytd who was a virtuous Prince Ihould have all the 

Arbagon. ;^ujhQf}ty of a King, but that the Title Ihould he re- 

fervcd for Alfhmfo his Son by the ^rincefe PetnnUfa. 

Thus Arragon was ftrengthned'by i« Union with Bar-. 

eebna, whofe Counts, for it had long been hereditary, 

had by Marriages or Conquefts niSide themfelves Matters 

of near all Catahnia and good part of Languedoc and 

Provefice, Bcfides this Atphonfd ' p*f CaJIiie who had 

married Raymsnd^ Si&tv Berengera difchar^ged him of 

the Homage due to CaJi'tU^ and gave him back Sara^ 

goffa with all beyond the River* ^fo-^ which bad' been 

taken from Ramire, 

Atpwonso^ Alphonfo of Portugal being proclafmed King in the 

Portugal, Year J 1 3(9' By Rfe Army, which Title has ever finc.Q 

proclaimed been continued to his Succeffors, it gave Umbrage to 

Xnigi ii39« Alphonfo of Cajlile 'who had taken upon himfelf the 

Title of Emperor ; but being of a brave and generous 

Dtfpoiition he was prevailed on, by the Confideration 

that- this new Dignity would excite Alphonfo to diftin* 

gui(h himfelf ftill more againft the Moorsy to defift from 

the Purpofc of op)pofing his taking this new Title. 

ItmarkahU Alphonfo ^f Qeifltle was moreover grown fo attentive 

Prudence of ^^ ^j^g commoti Intereft of Chiiftianity, that he came to 

ALPHONso'er^ Rcfoiution never to go to War again. but with the 

CASTIL5. M6vrs: Inftead of falling in, as an ambritipus Pfmca 

^ would have done, with a Scl^errie pi-opofed to hinri of 

dividing Navarre between Caftik and Arragsn^ he for 

lh« fake of confeming th^ Urtiofl'by his Means brought 

1/ ' . about 



<y S p A I ». 59 

about in Cbrifltan Spain gave Uraca his natural Daugh-» 
ter in Marriage to (jWrr/tfi T^ing of Navarre ', and ai* 
though he could not oiake his Son-in<-law and the King 
of ifmr^^tf quite good Friends, he prevailed upon them 
to furpend th^ir private Quarrel and unito in an £xp6-p 
dition be had concerted againft the Moors, 

This which lafied ten Years commenced in the Year ^^cpeMtiw 
1146. The City of Cordvm which had long been the^^V '^ 
Metropolia of M^orijh Spain foon fubmittcd to Alphmfo\ ^^^^^* 
Bacca was taken after 9 vigorous Defence j and Jlfneria^ * *^ 
Calatrava and many other Places ihared the fame Fate, 
Tortofa^ Ltrida^ Fraga with other Places, in Barcekrm 
were taken by Raymond Bermger ; and the King of Ptr-^ 
ti(fa/whQ was alfoadtlve.on.his Side after taking other 
Places made himfelf Matter of Lifhm in the Year 1 147, Li«boh tahn 
A Stop was for a while put to thefe Conquefts by thcA*'" '^* 
Death of Raymond and by Jlphonfo's Marriage with Moors, 
Bicbilda of JPoland'i and about the fame Time Garcias • ^^^7^ 
who had alfo been vigorous ^ainft the Jlffoor^ was killed 
by a Fall from' his Horfe, His Sot\ Sancho who fucr 
ceeded being very young the King of Arragm renewed 
bis Propofal to Alphot\fo of dividing Navarre. Alphonfi 
was averfe ta it. as the £vent plainly (hewed r yet to 
avoid 4 ]S.upture at this Time with Arragm he by a 
Treaty made at Tudelin confented thereto. 

Lewis th$ Young King of France, who had married Lewis ^ 
Cenftance Daughter of Alpbonfo by JSirengera^ about this Francb • 
Time made a Vifit to his Fathcrrin-law in Spain. He '"'''"' '^ . 
was magnificently received by the Emperor at Tciedoy Tol5D<U- 
and the Kings of Arragm and Navarre together with 
dlphmfo^s two $ons, the eldeft of which had fince his 
Father's taking the Title of Emperor been called King 
of Caflile^ repaired thither to pay their Compliments to 
him. At this Interview Sancha's Behaviour fo recom- 
mended him that the French Kipgy who had always 
been a faithful Ally of his Father^ aflured him of his 
Friendfliip ; and the Cajlilian proh^ifed him his Daugh* 
ter Beatrix in Marriage. As foon as I^ewis was returned 
borne the Ar^'^gonian^ who perfift^d in bis Defign agaioft 
i^avarriy for the fake of haftening the Execution of the 
Treaty of Tudelin propofed a Match between the Infant of 
Arrago?^ ^pd ^ Daughter of AIpho»fo*s by Richilda. The 

Cajiilian 



0» C^ Sf<kiif\ 

C/S9(tf^ ««tef fW 'bf *?s ^ropoTar V but a new ft*jic5i tioti 

fumJKlned him With li flkiMftlel^^dnde for'cfeferr?ag the 

Exeeution •oT the Treaty; Jltphoffif nwaPcherJ agaihff t hi 

Aftifr-^ arta hid ^riVied lbm<5 Advantages bver tfiem in y/«. 

• dalujja J when i^ot' being ible to bear the cxcfefRte Heat 

• «rf rfitf Sfcalfon h^ Jcft tti* Command to ianch his tWeft 

Sbh,' ami was rieturnhig to Cajtile kft the Benefit of t^ie 

Pftf/^ ^ Air; ftefbi-e he co«M reach C^/& a Fever put ah End 

ALi»fl6>Jso, Koch to his, Life and Rergn in the Year thy^: Thh 

Mof^rcfl fel! alfo into the Miftake of dividiufi: hjs D:o- 

8t>ft lje9\i tG«gether with GatHcia and Ot/redo. 

SanchoIII. iSd«?At7 ni. endeared WttifelF'td tW6 PeojJle a$ mucb 

''••S?* ' a^Md Ihort Rrfgrt would admit of J fof hfe reigned only 

onfc Year. Alphonfi his Son hj B&jkhi cf Navirr^ 

fuccteded hirti. . . - \ . • .. : 

ALFH^fiio A^hofffi IJt.; befnS at his Father*! Dekh btit four 

ff Years or Age the Kingdom of C/r/}ile \Vas. diiring his 

»Jp* Minority greatly difturbed by Fiftiohs* it i)6mc j and 

tot the -falWe Time attacked by Fh^dinhfM df tehn and 

€anch$ of Navarre, .After he came of Age it coft'him 

felm feme Tirtie CO extricate iiimfaffrom thcffe IXf- 

ftcukifcs : But the -three Princes *^ere,at feft rtcbncilcd, 

and having agreed bow their Conquefts fiibuld be.divided 

they united ih attacking the Motets, This. War Was 

aft firft attended with divers Lofles: But thefe were 

;ibundantly made amends for by the Battle of to/a in 

Batih tf the Year I2ta The Succefs of this Battle, in which 

LosA. 200,000 Men ^ere left on the Field, being in a great 

liiO. :|^eafur6 owing to the Intrepidity of the King of Na- 

wm^ who flrft bi'oke the Chain with which the Moors 

An Addition /e had environed their Army, his Succefibrs have ever fince 

thi Arms of borne in their An^s a Chain with an Emerald in the 

Navarre. ^ jMiddle. Alphonfo died in the Year 12 14 leaving many 

Children by Eltanor Daughter of Henry of England: Of 

which the moft remarkable were -H>«ry his Succeflbri 

Blanche married to Lewis VIII.. of France \ Ber^gera 

married to Alphonfi the Son of Ferdinand of Leon who 

after her Brother^s Death enjoyed the Crown of Cafirlei 

and Uraca W\k\o Aiphonjb'lt. orPoitu^ah 

• • • As 



Vear^ old hi$ Mother i{^ ih^ Ad n:\iAiftratioiii o| A^mts^ . 1214. 
but on b.er diyU% wi^bi^i ^ fev^ Mopt^s it G;a(niQ iptQ t^ . 
H^nd^ cS iUr0ngerw bi9..3iftcr wta b^ .b^i> divorqcd 
UqmJlp^fJ^ of Z^H. i^ry (fied la ^<5 foMfth Yfa^ If kilUdiy tbi 
of his Rieig^ Qf aJH,iwti "[cc^iv^d by the ftjiiog q£ ^ Tylf; k^lo/a 7>/^ 
on bis Headf The QqfiiHam ^pprel|^h4li9g tjm 4fpi^ogfi 
mi)]4 k\z^ thp Qj^Qwn.^pucsaWd th^D^atb of their 
Kingj ^jd rpqucAe4,<fea; \i^ Son S^r^nftj^ piigjit q^ipi? . 
toaffifthis^K^d^m-.m' the, R^ w))ipb ^eing c^<^ 

fented to'fhe immediately refigned tbe.wb^^ Ppw^ ia. 
his F^our ami fai^ i^s^dedared KiY)'g» 

AJfbmjo rcfcnt^<j this'^Rdin^r^cb^^giwftth^ C^fn.FBtDiH^ns^ 
i>»;v but QtMing tbiem ready t<^ opppfe hlfl* bo.awa«" |I. 
modatied libe AflSJrwil.h Ws Son. 4*1 Jfj^Si.Piia^ i<litbfi.. i2;j7, 
Yeari^30.£miji^^s4;euinitedyithC^ii^VIP^ ^eon ^si 

The J%^ of ir^^ Kioiyifq of Z^;«a; Wjho 4«ITi|>g tl»fti- pasxiLB 
gcncy of hi? Mother M Cftufed grjtat .Cliftnrbjiwwti:«««'''^- 
perfiftiog ill iheir faflioufr I^ligqs they. ,wf 19 J4(lly U-r - 
ni(hed by this Prince, .^tXurniBg hj$ AriDf 4f(ef w%IC^ M^ ^''^^^^ 
againflf.theiKf^? hp rtfjqed aJJ (iifiir Cwi^Uy siP 4r;as«>» Mo-^RiH* 
Granqdfi and ¥fil§ncuf^ ^d- forced both-:|jl|4^ K^ing:doi;|p(j|,3p^lH»t 
to buy peace, |n ;h^ Y^r 1^36 be o^ngiueF^a tihe . . 
Kingdo%\ of Cordova together with Mmida^ 2^4 o|b^r 
Places. Jkhtru4 fobmitted to him in tb(^*Year i^40t^ 
Jaen in the Year 1243, aind Si^ille witfe:.t^e, g'catisft. 
Part of Andahfift jn, tbci Yeai: 15^4^. Whil^ he w«i^ 
thus puihing his Spcqefs ag»m$ the J^^ Dea^ p)29 
ap.End to his Hppe^ qf driving them ^ uit^^uc Qf.^/^vn. 
ia the 35th Year of bi3 ?.a^gru , . > 

The King o^ Arn^on t^ok ^I(p^ i^ ^U i^%n Uxm^umfs of 
the Infidels the LS^nds of Minorca and Minorca^ an^ Arraoo* 
in the Y!ear i^^jg mgde hinjfelf Mjifter of the Citjf a«d f^'"'"-/^ '^' 
Xxv^^tm^i Vuhda,; Moors. 

Alpbofrfo fyrnamed tiie Wife who fucceeded his Father Alphonso 
was univeirfaHy eft^emed for his Leaning and p^rticu^X. 
larly fgr his Skill in Aftronpmy. The Ptolfmic S^em. >252. 
^hicb aj that Time prevailed feemed tp hiin fo conftifedy ^^ nmllfiillti 
that he faid ; ^^ If be had heen fGt^i'y Cmml ^hm he^" ^^'^^^Z 
" mdi thf World he could have giveH, im g»f4 ^i-^.^X* ,•* 
** wV." An irreverent ExpreffionT bat not fo i^jpiwf 
pcrhiaps a& it is qonii^<?ply imagined.i. if ^le jiP?^i|t np 

more 



6a ofitAtu: 

more than tbtt foch a compfesr tininti^IltgKle Syftem toiiid 
^ not be the Ffddudion of Omftifcfente. T6c Wif- 
dom of this Pfince <Md not however appeir in govtftn- 
ing; for hdvifAg ekhatafted ^bc royaJ Treafurc he railed 
the Value of the Coin and fixed the Induito on the Mer- 
chants Goods fo high that all Trade was ruined.; By 
thefe and Other. Oppreffion3 he became fo odious to his 
SubjeAs that he durft not leave Sfah to go and fup- 
p6rt his 't'itle to the Imiterial Dignity, which was con- 
feredon him by feme of the GtrnUm Ekftors^ againfl: 

Defcent of the In the Year 1 275 J^tcob ahefl^ joftp^ King of Motoccb 
Kkq^iaf . " taking the Advantage of this Situation of Things mad^ 
Morocco. . ^ Defcent upbn Spain^ TTic Chrifiian\ were defeated in 
*^?S* ' ofte Batde w'ith^the Lofs of 4000 Men and their Gehe- 
i^i ; which fo difcouraged them that ih a fecond En- 
gagement a^ foon as the A£tion was commenced they 
foandaloufly^ betook themfelves to Flight. Their Com- 
mtf^der the A^(3ibiflk>p of TaltdohtxxMg tabeh by the /n-^ 
jiieh they bafbkrbufly piithim to Death in cold Blood. 
ji^ibiKoH About the fame Time iS<»»r^d the fecond Son of Al-- 

beaded Iff hh fhonfo^ his elder Son Ferdinttnd being dead, rebelled 
S<m Sancho. againft him, and had fo flrong*a Party amongft the No^ 
tlHty that he was crowned during his Father's Life; 
and ncither-the Curfes of Aljfbmfi not the Ejtcomftiu- 
nication of the Pope were fuffident to make him quit 
1284. the Throne. Jlphonfi n5t beiflg able long to bear the 
Mortification of fteing hihifelf defpifed and his Son reign 
died in the Year 1284. His Children by a Daughter of 
James of Arragon were Firft Ferdinand furnamed Lei 
Gerda^ that is the Hairy^ who died in his Life-time, 
^ ' from whom fprarig an illuftrious Houfe of that Name of* 

which the Duke de Medina Celt is a Branch. Secondly 
Sancbo ; Thirdly John^ from whom by his fecbnd Wife 
Mary Dias de Har& are defcended feveral noble Fami- 
- lies at this Time cxifting : And laftly Peter whofe Sons 
died without liTuCi He left befides thefe two natural 
# Children, a Son named Alphmfo and Beatrix Wife of 

' Alphtmfi III. of Portigal. 
•AliCffO IV. NotWithftanding that his elder Brother Ferdinand left 
two Sons Alpbonfo and Ferdinand^ to whom their Grand'^ 
father ^/j^^»/& A,. had devife4 the Crown^ BanchoVx^t 

PQifeffioA 



Pdffcffioft of4t :' and ho|>iiip; thereby to brijig over his Te- 
ther's Friehdi ftiflcd bis Refentment for their Attiich- 
ment to him. His. two Infant Nephews/inftead of find- 
ing I^roteSion from .the Kitig of Arragm to whoai 
they fied were at firft thrown into Prifon : But he-- 
ing afterwards by the Interceffion of PbiHp of Francs 
tbeir Mother's Brother, fet at Libtt^ty» the cideft was „. » . . 
proclaimed King of C^ile. Thi$ occafioned a ^^^^\^J/%!^ 
tweeo San£ho and Alphonfo of Arragm ^ but it '^cvcf^;^^^ 
came to a decifive Action : And upon the Death of thia * ^ 
iall James his Brother and SucceiTor abandoned the 
Intereft of the yOung' Princes and made Peace with ^ 

^ambo. Soon zfter, J^lm the Brother of Sancho^ wfad 
bad fied to P^rtogal and afterwar^$ to -MorKCOj returwL" 
ed with a powerful Army and laid Siege to Tariff^^ 
where A/ptonfo Peres des Gufman was Governor. 'Hiis' 
great Man had an only Son taken Prifoner by the £ne->. 
my; yet fuch was his Loyalty that rather than give, up 
the Place he Offered his Son to be put to tfae.moft 
cruel Death. The, Reign of Sotr^^^ beitdes the three 
before his Fathei:'s Death iafted eleven Years. Ho • 

^itA in the Year 1295 : Leaving hy Mary of the.Houfe^ 
of Molina his<M^rria^ with wbcin had been declared 
unlawful Ferdinand, his Succeffibr ; Peter afterwards 
Governor to Alphonfo XI. his Grand(bn ; Elizabeth firft 
married to James II. of Arragm^ and afterwards being 
divorced from J arms on the Account of Proximity of 
Blood to John Duke of Britany j and Beatrix Wife to 
Alphonfo IV. of Portugal. His natural Daughter ViQ'^ 
ionte married ,Don Fernanda Ruis de Caftro ; and was 
Grandmother to Jane de Caftro Queen of CaJliU 
and Agnes de Caftro Queen of Portugal, 

As Ferdinand III. was by fonae looked upon as ilfegi-FERDiNASO 
timatc his Title was disputed by John his Uncle whom ^^r* 
the King of Portugal affifted,. and by Alpionfi de la „. '/95* . 
Cnda whofe Caufe was efpoufed by Arragon. ThefeYtr'^-, ' 
twoFrinccs agreed to unite their Forces, and to divide ^^^^^^^^ 
the Dominions: of perdinand which they feemcd coofi- ■ ' • u 
dent of conquering betwixt them: But they found 
themfdrcs much millafccn, for Ferdinand being weH fup* . , , . « 

ported by the Cortez entirely fruftratjed their Attempts. 
In the Year l2dg^8 iae united himfelf ftrongly with Por* 
' ' ' . ' tugal 



htial hf marfj^ing <Siafimce the Daughter t^^ Rektu 
mi by giving his SiSxi Bknche to Atphcnfi the Brother 
of C^nflimci: And the Princes De la Cerikt being t\x% 
longer fupported by the Iting of Arragm went inta 
$tanu* Frefli Drftuf bances facing ihortly after ftirred up 
fa;^ feme PrifM^sof the Blood, the Princes Z)ir ta Gerda 
ustrc invited back imvix V^anei^ and the King of Ar^ 
nigvit: once more ci{)ouflsd their Intereft: But a Treaty 
being fooa aftetr b/ought about by the Mediation of 
iitaus^ Alpbonfo iU la Ceria was delivered up as a Vic 
tkit to Ardinand, 
Jtnfiimionofa The Year 1300 IWto fenlou$ for the Ihttiliition of a 



Jubilee 
t^oo. 



Order of 
Knights 

I'kMPLARS 

rmfud. 



^biiee in Spam t^ Pope Bonifaei;^ who ordered it to be 
ceUnuied once m a CJuntury. 'fhis Term was reduced 
hf GimtHt^l. toVi»ty5 hj Urban Vl, to thirty J and 
\if Sitxtus V. to twe)ity*-ftve Years. About the feixw Time 
Biika in Bi/cay* was built. 

s/Ehe Order ot Knights Tempbrs being 'fuifled about 
tbe. Year 1^09 Perdinand became Matter of thirty 
Towns which tihey poiHefled in his Dominions. He 
afterwards attacked^ the Moors^ and having taken Gt- 
brakat^ ^4ha4a and| ' Bedtnar extended his Cpnquefts 
as far as Ahfm, tie at this Place condemned upon 
iperyHight Evidencetwo Brothers to Death for the- Mur- 
der of Gwnt% of Bine^tda who had been aflStffinated at 
g'akncia'y nor could theit Proteftations of Innocence or! 
ihe Intreatics of their Friends move him to aker his 
Sentence, As they were going to fuller they appealed to I 
60D for their Innocence; and fummondd the King to! 
appear at the Bar of Ifcaven to anfwer for this Injuftice 
witdio thirty i^s. The Ming laughed at this: But he 
foon fell fick; an^'thottgh he was on rfic 30tb Day 
muchl betoer than he had been for fome Days^ he was 
t^iatti'MAM that Day fou nd dead }n his Bed whither he had retifedi 
dtestnanun- io repoie himfetf^. This happened in t\\Q feventcenth 
Year of his keign. Re left a Son xiamed Jlphonfi andi 
a Daughter married to Alphofifo IV. of Arragon, 

As Alphmfi XL afterwards furnamed the yufi was 
at his Father*i5 Death but little more than a Year old, 
his Mother Cmjlance;^ his Grandmother Mary of 
MaliHOy his Unci* PHet and John his great Uncle, 
were equally ambitious of getting the Regency into 

their! 



€o^mm Man 
ter. 

ALVltdllBO 
Xt. 

tjta. 



Of, Spain. 6c 

Acir Blinds V But it was in the Year 1314 rdphred by 
the State? thgt^ the fuprcine Power fliould be in a Council 
of Regencjr | chat the Princes Piter and John (hould 
have the joint Command of the Army ; and that Conftance 
(hould have the Education of the infant King. Peur 
having bad the good Fortune to defeat a condderable 
Body of the Moors^ John that he might alfo fignalize 
him&If ou^cched with ti^ Forces under his Command 
to jQ^Ti hrqij -aifd they atteix^)ted together the Si^e of 
Granada^ ^ -If'^Uing in this th^ JIdoors fell upon them in 
their R^tre^t •:ar)d cut ofF the two Princes with great 
Pan of thcii; Army. Upon the Death of thefe I^rinces ^'/^^' ^^ 
things were thrown into fuch Confufion bythcDivifi- ^^f^h^fth 
ons amoBgft the Nobilit/^ that it was thought proper for p^*^'^ ^ 
the King although fcarce. fifteen Years of Age to take j^jj^,]^ * 
the Government into his own Hands. As. Dan yoitn 
Manuel and Don John of Bi/cay continued in Arms 
ig2imik \^\m^ . -^Jphonfo fpr the.fa/ce of fetting thefe two 
at Variance married tbe.Djiughterof the former^ Ha- 
viflg by this Means an Opportuiiity of putting the latter 
to Death he quickly divorced Don Manuet% Daughter, 
and married the Princefs Mary of PortugaU , Don Ma* 
nd enraged hereat went over to the Moors^ and en- 
deavoured to bring' the King of Arragon into an Alliance 
againft Qafiile : But Alfkonjo^ took Care to prevent it 
by marrjing his Sifter Elear^of to this Prince. Shortly 
after the King$ of CaJiiUy Jrragon and Portugal united 
in attacking the Moors ; and haying taken fome Towns 
oi>li8&d the King of Granada to go over into Africa for 
Succours. 

Aiphofffo of Lacerda having, lofl all Flopes.of obtaining Alphonso 
the Crown he about this Time fubm|tted to the reigning o/Lacukda 
Prince i who therei^pc^.^flGign^ certain tands :o him "';^<"f«'^'^*<''» 
for his Support. ^ ^ the Itftg^ 

The King of Granada ; being retucned with a largp Rebellion in 
Army commanded by Abomelic Sons of the King of fitsc ay. 
Moroccoy heretook Giiraltav. Jlphonfo was endeavour- 
H to put a flop to the rProgr^fs of the Moon: But a 
Rebellion in Bifoay ftirred up by the Arrxig^nefy obliged . 
him to clap up a Truce with them. Turning, now all . 
his Forces againft his rebellious SubjeiSlS' he. foon redu- 
ced thon ta Obedience^ and caufed Dm John de Haro 

Vol. I, * ' ' ^ *"F their 



26 Of Spaiv. 

their Chfcf to be beheaded. This Atoeflarjr Example 
of Severity ftruck fuch Terror into IhnManud and the 
reft, that they were glad to fubmit to his Mercy. 
Suectfs of hi.' Caft'tU being attacked in the Year 1335 by the Kind 
PHOKso ^{ Arragon and Navarre^ they were both defeated by jtl^ 
againft Ar- phmfo\ and he had not long after the fame good SucceA 
kagonW ^gainft the P^/«^»//i Fleet. 

^^^^*'!*- The Chriftian Princes being again retolicilcd jfl\ 
MooTs P^^fi g*^"^^ ^ compleat Viaory over the Mfdri ; thei^ 
Gfeneral Abomelic with 10,000 Men being flain. Hi^ 
Father piqued at this Misfortune embarked with thi 
Sattliof largcft Army that ever came out of- Africa: Afkj 
Tariff, after defeating the Spanijh Admiral with great Lof^ 
134.0. laid Siege to Tariff. The Infidels^ though they wer^ 
vaftly fuperior in Number, being in the Year 1340 at- 
tacked by the united Forces of the Chrijlians they wen 
repulfed >lvith great Slaughter. Two Sons of the Kin§ 
of Morocco fell in this Batfle, and Abohamar another Sor 
was made Prifoner ; and the two Moorifh Kings wri 
much ado faved themfelves by Flight. This Succef! 
was followed with the taking of many Towns; am 
gave the Chrijiians an Opportunity of putting their Ma- 
rine into fuch a Condition that they foon became Maf 
tcrs of the Sea. 
J fevirt In the Year 1348 a Plague from the Levant aftci 

Plague. making great Havock in Itafy carried off vaft Num- 
bers in Spain. In the following Year it feized jfl- 
fbonfo while he was hcfotc Gihraltar^ and put an En( 
to his Reigff of thirty-eight Years. He was fucoeedec 
by his Son Peter. 
ttrt% the Piter furnamed the Cruel united Bifeay to the iCing- 
Cruel^ dom of Cajfile. While a Treaty of Miarriage was 01 

1340. Foot between this Prince and Blanche a virtuoos anc 
beautiful Lady Daughter of the Duke of Bmrbon, 
Henry a natural Son of the late Krng raifed a Re- 
- " bellfon in Anuria. Peter going in Perifon to fuppreC 
it unhappily caft his Eyes on Mary of PadiUa ; witt: 
whom he was fo enamoured that he privately marriec 
He ma$^ies her. He ncverthelefs married Blanche with great Ccre-j 
three Halves, mony ; but foon left her. Being afterwards charmecj 
with Jane de Cqftro Peter married her alfo j but he fen^ 
^er away the BdotAiog after Confummation, Her Broi 

theJ 



Iter bfff.JSftdiamidf dt C<fftra provoked «r thb Trcs»* 

iiient of his Sifter joined with other difcoaienied Lordt 

in taiiiig Aritis agaiiyft Pttn: : Add he was foccod to (but 

himfelf up with his Mother to Tord^Ugs. She made 

her Peace with the Rebels and w«nc into Portugal: 

where leading a kwd Life flie was poifooed. P/ter wa« 

obliged to . give up fomit Favourites, and for bis own 

Safe^ to (confent to all. the Demands of the Rebels^ 

Yet getting afteiwards ipine of their Chiefs ittio his 

Hands, fa^ put ihem to Death. The Fr4Hcb in Revenge 

for the Death of Bhnchi who k^i been poiloiudd affif- 

ted Ihnry fo powerful!/, that in the Tear 1366 all ^J^ • 

C^iZ/'acknowltedged him : But l^rif^te Eduwd of Eng- 

knd coming to the Afiftance of P^ter he was bj the ^ 

fiattle of Ni^tiraj which was fought in- the following 

Vear^ refloiipd to the Tbrotte* Inflead of making good 

his Pfomifes to Prince Edward^ who went home di(- 

tonteftted^ his only Care was to .wreak bis Maiioe on 

tiie HoKh of the Malecontents. At Length.his Subjeds 

ia general being tired out with. his unheard of Cruelty 

ahandonded him i and joined with Henry who was 

again fopplied with Troops and Money from France, 

Hereupon! i'^f^ retired to Jkbntsel', but being delivered if /^^i/«W 

up he was put to Death by, the Order of himy in thc/«^ ^» Diath. 

Year 1369. Hm two Daueb^ers Con/lanci and £//sMr- 

heth were marrkd to the Dukes of iMmtJhr and /iri 

both 8ons of Eiwatd III. 6f England. 

Hmry II. foon made bimfeif Mafter X)S CarnwMaHtn^r IL 
where Peter had depofited his Sons and Treafure^ and iJ^e Bafitfird^ 
threw the young rrinces into.aPrifon in which the/ i|6o«: 
fhortly nfter died. His illegitimate Birth however to« 
gether with his manner of getting the Crown prevent* 
ed his enjoying it peaceably. The King? of Arragvn and 
Navarre endeavoured to get what lay convenient lor * , « 
them ) the King of Porttfal in Right of his Grande- 
mother Beatrix Daughter .of Sambo laid Claim to. the 
Whole i and J^n Duke of Lanc^er Huibaod of Cs»- 
fiance did the fame : But as the BngHjk wert in Pofief- 
fion of GtdeHntMeury was moce. appreben£nre from this 
laft who had already takeathe Arms of CaftUe* iknry 
had by J ant great Graiid-daught»r of PereHnand IL Jebii 
bia SucceflKar, and a. Daughter married to the King of 

F 2 Navarre. 



t^8 0/* Spain'; 

Navarn. After an un«iafy Reign of feti Y^im^he died 

in the Year 1379. 

John, • Jobh-yvTA foon attacked both by the Englijhznd P^rtti- 

'379* f»^> but after a War of fome Continuance, in -which 

nothing remarkable happened, it was in the Year 1382 

agreed that Beatrix Heirefs of Portugal fhouUtnsLrry 

Ferdinand^ fnfiint of CaJHU. Having (hortly after loft 

Eleanor his Wife John marl-i^d this Princefs himfelf : 

But the Portuguefe refolved that a CaJHtiaw-ihould 

«iever- reign o^irer them; and upon the Death of their 

.. King^hich happened not I<yng after^ prochirmed* fohn 

SatHe 9/ -his natural Son. . The Foundation of a "bloody War 

Aljuba- beiftg hereby laid^ l^t Portuguefe obtained ^ fignal 

ROTTA, yiiSory over a fupewour Army of Ca/liliems n&x Jljuba^ 

'3^4- n9//0<-ihthe Year 1-384.- ^Being much weakened by this 

'Battle^ ^Hid~£adiilg that yobn~^ Lancafter Wa&Mming to 

the ABiftatree of the P(»tugu$fe virith an* Ri^^ kxxny^ 

'Kh^Caj^lian Was glad to tome to an' Accommodatitm with 

Jobn^of Portugal ; and to fatisfy the Duke of Lania/ier's 

''Prdtfenfions 'to bisCnwtfJf he con{entQl that his eldcft 

• Son (hioold- marry the Daii^hieF of this Prinie. - He was 
killed by a* Fall from h^s-Horfe in the Year 139b. 

HsiiRV III. ,. Duting the Minority if Henry IIL his*SAi theKing* 

' 1-390. ^Qpfi foffefcd a good deal by the Faflions of the Nobility. 

Nothing-^rermarkable happened in his Time. ' Ije died in 

■ the Year 1407, leafving ^tfA^ his Sonwh©*wa«^ftly two 

Years of Age under the Care of the-Qoeen and his 

Uncle Ferdinand. The States of C^i^ offered the Crown 

to Ferdinand ; but he would not confent to take it from 

- * his Nejjhew, Providence did not fuffcr this Generofity 

• to go iinrewarded ; for Ferdinand was afterwards advan* 
ced both to this Throne and that of Arragon. 

John II. John II. having been educated by his Mother with 

» 407* too much Fondnefs he gave himfelf over to his Pleafures ; 

and -Committed the wKolr Care of Governing to his 

i Favourite Alvar do Lumt. The Infolence and Cruel- 

- ty of this Minifter rend^ed him \iniverfally odious ; but 

- he wa» for fome Time proteded by his Mafter from 
the Refentment of the People which he had juftly 

\ drawn-upon himfelf. . It canie at laft io an open Rebel- 

'■ lion^ and fuch was the Steadinefs and Refolution of the 

Nobility., that- y^Av was, though vafiJy againft his In- 

• -• • ^ - - clination. 



Q/* S P A I N. 69 

dinatiOD, obl^cd for his own Safety to give hfin up !it 
the Year 1+53. He died in the following Year. 

About; the Year 1420 fane Queen of Naples having Warwtb 
no Children adopted Alphonfo King of jtrragsu. Upon France 
a Quarrel which happened afterwards Oie fct him afide, concerning 
and appointed ZnwV Duke of Anjou her Succeflbr. A ^^**^'**' 
War breaking out on this Account between France and 
Arragm^ ifipbmft fubdiied the Kingdom of Naples and « . 
g2Fe it to FerdinoTid his natural Sbn. 

Henry YV. who fucce^ed John his Father was the Henry IV, 
Difgracc of Cq/lile, Having to take oflF* the Sufplcion 1454. 
of his own Impotency hired Bertrand de la Ceuva to 
lie with the Queen, be for this infamous Service made 
h'lm Count de Ledefma y and declared Jane the liTue of 
the adulterous Converfation Heirefs of Cajtile. The Domeflick 
CaftiUans enraged hercat expoled him in Effigy on the Troubles. 
publick Stage'; and proclaimed his Brother Alphonfa. ^ 
Hence arofe a Civil Commotion, which after feveral 
Battles ended in the Year 1468 in the Death of Alphonfo. ; 

About this Time Ferdinand Heir apparent of Arragon 
married Ifabelk Sifter of Henry ; upon whom to fatisfy 
the People Henry fettled the Succeffion. He would af^ 
terwards have altered this in favour of Jane^ who was 
promifed in Marriage to Charles Duke of Aquitain Bror 
ther to £«<;« XL of France '^ but he died in the Year 
1472 before he had accomplifhed this Defign. 

In the Beginning of this Reign Alphonfo of Portugal^ Firdinani;^ 
under the Pretence of beiog engaged to marry Jane^^d Isa- 
Henry's fuppofititious Daughter, attacked Cajlile and bR^la, 
caufed her to be proclaimed Q^ueeri : But this -Prince H72« 
was defeated, and to put an End to all Difturbstnces 
on her Account JaU was flxuC up in a Nunnery. 
Ferdinand had fome Difputes with the States of Cajliie 
about fettling the Extent of the Regal Authority. 
Thefe were however amicably ended, and the Spa- 
^ijh Monarchy was by him raifed ta fuch a Pitch 
that it has ever fince been the Terror and Envy of its 
Neighbours. * *r. il -r . 

In the Year 1478 he eftaUi&ed the Court of Inquifi- ^*',f£^'''* 
tion, which was at firft fct up for punifliing the Moors f/^jT^ * 
and Jews: But under the Pretence of preventing Dif- 'g^ 

oiders fjog^ a Divcrfity of Opinions in rcligioas Mat* ^' 

F 3 tw 



jrd O/* 9 FA IN. 

itr% it Bis been fince t«rned agiinj): tbe Cbr^anu 
The Proceeding of this Court are very cruel, and as 
it is calculated only to make Men HypocrttcB, bat caii 
never promote rbe Intereft of true Rdigion, it faas boea 
conftantly cried out agaipft by all Pr§teftants^ and has 
never been introduced into niany* Catbilici Coun* 
tries. ' ' * ' 

Aitn^oow The Strength of Ferdinand being greatly incmfed by 

snnexid to his Acceffion on the Death of his Father to Arragmy 
Castile, fae commenced in the Year 1481 a War againft the In- 
fidels. The Chrtfttam were in the Bqginning thereof 
• worfted near Malaga : But having great Suocefs after- 

wards they in the Year 1491 laid ^kgt to Granada. 
Boaidll its King was obliged after a long^iege to furr 
render ; and thus ah End was entirely put to the Jkhorijb 
Power in Spaip which had continued there fevcn hun- 
dred Years. To take away all Poffibi^ity of its Re- 
n^MooMSH eftablifliment Ferdinand banifihed the Mors and Jrufs to 
Power tn ^^ Number of 170,000 Families. Spain was however 

•^'iT fToz ^^'■^^y gfc^itly impoveriflied f and to this it is ;owing 
fiunea^ 4.9 . ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ j^^^ ^^^ g^^^ j^^^ uninhabited and 

uncultivated. He after this conquered Mazalquivir^ Oran | 
and fomc other Places on the Coaft of Africa. This vafl: 1 
Succefs of Ferdinand may be a good deal imputed to his 
having brought the Qrandees under an entire Submiffion 
to him, and to his having taken upon himfelf tbe Dig- 
nity of Grand Mafler of all tbe Orders of Knighthood ; 
for fome Grand Maft^rs had heretofore made them- 
felves fo formidable as to be able to oppofe the Dedgns 
of his Predcccflbrs. 
Amerxca About tbe Year 1494 Cbrific^bir CoknAus by Birth 

difcovered^ a Gemrf^ made the Difcovery of America. His Propo- 
1494* fal was rejeAed with Scorn by the En^t/b and Portu-^ 
guefe to whopi he firft applied; and it coft him feven 
Years Solicitation at Caftil^ before he could obtain fe^ 
venteeii thoufand Ducats to fit out thfce fxnall Ships for 
this Purpofe. At fo trifling an fxpenoe. did the Spa- 
niards firft get Footing in America. It would tj^ke up 
too much Time to fh«w with what Eafe th^ tnade vaft 
Conquefts [ what immenfe Riches tliey have frofp thence 
drawn ! and how cruelly they have in Return treated 
f he poor Natives! 

Shortly 



Cy Spain* 71 

Sionty after a War broke out betwceo ^mc£ and ^^ '^^^ 
Spain of which all Eunfe Wu the Effeds. Charles VIIL FaAHci. 
of Franci having a Mind to attempt the Conqueft of 
Naples^ Ferdinand confidered that this would be a vaft ' 
Aoquifition of Power to a Monarchy who was by the 
Marriages of his Daughters already in Alliance with 
Ef^land^ Portugal and the Nftherlandfi and notwith<f 
ifamding that the Frmcb King had lately for the fake 
of keeping him quiet given him the Rm/tUon^ Ferdinand 
determined to oppofe it. As be could not prevail on 
Cbarlis to defift from this Enterprise he entered into an 
Alliance with the Pope, the Emperor y the Republick of 
Venice and the Duke of Milan againft France ; and fent an 
Army under Gonfaha Ferdinand of Cerdcva afterwards 
called the Great Captain to the Affiftance of the Nea^ 
politans: Who jiot only drove the French out of Itafy 
but made an Irruption into Langued$c. 

About the Year 1500 Ld%vi$ XII. of France and Fbrdinawo 
Ferdimnd^ under the Pretence of its being ufcful in their f^^comes Mafier 
Wars with the Turks^ agreed to divide Naplex betwixt e/'NAPts?. 
themt But Difputes arifing about fettling their Shares is^^ 
it came to a Rupture ; and the French being twice de-* 
feated by Genfalva were obliged to abandon the whole. 
Gmfalva was ill requited for thefe good Services, for Ar- 

dinand^ furmifing that he would deliver Naples to Philip 

of Aujiria who bad married the Daughter of Ferdinand^ 

under the Pretence of rewarding him decoyed G^nfalva 

Spain and took away his Command. 
The Death of Ifabella during thefe Tranfaaians laid Phui^ 

the Foundation of a further Mifunderftanding between ^^^i'" '^ 

Ferdinand and Philip his Son-in-Law. This Jafl came Casth.^^ 

into Spain in the Year 1506 and made faim&lf Mafter 

of Cajiiley which he claimed in Right of Jane his 

Wife : But dying (hortly after the weak Admioiftrai- 

tion of his Wife caufed fuch Diforders, that notwith- 

iianding the Claim put in by the Emperor Maxima 

lian in the Name of Charles his Grandfon the 

Crown of Cajlile was fettled during his Life upon 

fcrdinand. 
An Alliance was entered into about the Year i$io Navarrr 

between the Pope^ France^ Spain and the Empire againft conquered fy \ 

Vmri. but x)^^'Popi and Ferdinand apprehending that F«<^i>u«Aai»a , 

F 4s France 



72 . , O/St^aih: 

'/hfr«r^ -already in Pofftffion of the Milanifewouhi become 
too powerful in Italy refolved afterwards to fupport the 
VtnetHms. A War being hereupon commenced with 
Fr^me John King of Navarre^ who affifted the French^ 
was excommunicated by the Pope^ and Leave v^as 
given for any Pbwer to feizc his Kingdom. This Fet-^ 
dinand did ; and the French fo far from being able to 
carry their Defigns upon Vefuce into Execution' could not 
fecovcr Navarre for their Ally. 
1 iizpoLi About the fame Time the Spaniards to6k Bugie and 

faken hy the Tripoli itt Africa ; but they were defeated Jn a naval En- 
Spaniards. gagemcnt near the Ifland of Gerti. Ferdinand, who is 
allowed by all to have been the moft politick Prince of 
bis Time, after this glorious Reign of fbity-foar Years 
died in the Year 15 16. He never had any Sons. One 
of his Daughters was married to Philip Archduke of 
Attftria J the other into the Houfe oiLifion, This Prince 
for hrs Exploits againft the Infidels was fumamed by the 
Pope the * CathoUck ; and his Succeflbrs have been ever 
fince diftinguiihed by the fame Title. 
Charlbs, Charles the Son o{ Philip o\ Aujiria^ J^^^ bis Mother 

1516. being ftill incapable of governing, was on the Death of 
Ferdinand put into Poffeffion of the whole Spdnijh 
Monarchy* Being beAdes Heir to the Auftrian Domi- 
nions and of a warlike Difpofition he became more 
powerful than any Prince fince Charlemain bad been. 
In the beginning of his Reign he put a Stop to the 
Attempt made by John for recovering. the Kingdom of 
Navarre. 
War tviih Francis of France jealous of this Prince's Power, who 

France. fey pofTefSng the Netherlands as well as Spain almoft 
furrounded him^ left no Stone unturned to prevent 
the imperial Dignity from falling upon him. As he 
Toold not do this, and apprehended from the vaft De- 
signs which Charles was continually forming t at he 
aimed at nothing lefs than univerfal Mt>narchy, he 
thought it beft to come to -an open Rupture with him ; 
cmd' jtiining his Troops with thofe of Robert de la Mark 
Baron of Sedan^ who was alfo difgufted with the Em- 
^ * Y^t6T^ ihty ziidickti Yi\tnm the Netherlands, Upoa-this, 

* 'TV/ 'very probable that the fetting up of the, Inaulfttkn 
hetpei a good deal to procure him Wis 'Title, ' ' ' ' 

' - Charles 



Of^ Spain. jr^ 

Charlii made an Irruption into Mihtn\ and having 

obtained a Vi^ry over the. French near Biceea eafily Battle of 

made himfelf Mafier of this Dutchy. Francis wentBicoCA. * 

into Italy with all his Forces to recover the Miknufe ; 

but after taking Milan his Army was entirely routed FnANcrs L- 

by the Imperialifls before Pavia; and being himMii^ ^arriul 

made Prifoncr he was carried into Spain. The Troofis Pri/oner iuf 

of Cbarlis wcrB at the fame time fuccefsful in FlamUn Spain, 

againft the united Forces of France^ Rohcfi Baron of 5/4 

dan^ and Charles Duke oft Guelder knd who had entered 

into an AUiaoce with thefe. Notwithftanding Charles 

was by fome advifed .that the rcleafing of the French 

King without Ranfcm would lay him under a lafting 

Obligation, heliftened to others who perfuaded him to 

make all the Advantage he could of this Accident, The 

Terms he propofed were vtry difagreeable to the French ; 

yet fearing that their King, whofe long Confinement 

and Uneaiinefs had thrown him into a dangerous 

Dideraper, fhould die a Prifoner they at laft confented 

to them. 

The Emperor's Acquifition of the Milanefe gave fuch Rome plun*' 
Umbrage to the Italian Princes, that at the Inftigation dered iy (be 
of the Pope a large Army was fet on foot to prefer ve droops cf 
the Liberty of Itafy. His Generals in Revenge marched Chahles. 
diredly to Rome ; and after plundering the City,, which 
was taken by Surprife, laid Siege to the Caftle of S$. 
Angeh where Pope Clement VIL had (hut himfelf up. 
Charles^ although this was done by his own Troopa, 
^id not fail to caufe publick Prayers to be daily made fox 
his Deliverance. Provifions at laft failing the Pope was „ . -• 
forced to furrendcr in the Year is^jy and to renounce 
the Alliance he had entered into. 

Francis for the fake of obtaining his Liberty had ^artvith 
agreed to give up to the Emperor the Dutchy of Bur- Frakcb 
gundy with the Brovinces of Flanders and Jrtois j to rtnewed. 
renounce alt Pretenfions to the Kingdom of NapUs and ^^^T* 
Dutchy of Milan ; and to marry his Sifter : fiut being 
returned \xkXo France he declared that he did not loojc 
upon himfelf to* be bound by a Treaty extorted from hiei 
while he was in Priibn. Having foon af^r entered into 
^n Alliance with England^ Venice^ Swijerland and the 
Town of Florence he lent an Army undor the B^ron de 

Lautre^ 



74 Of Spaik. 

Jjttitfic into Aafy, This Army made at firft feme Pro« 
grds ; but being ruined before NapUs Francis was glad 
Treaty •/ to comply by the Treaty of Canir^ with the Term* 
Cambkay. he had before agreed to. 

Cbarlksit In the Year 1530 Charles was crowned as Empe* 
crowned hf xoT by the Pope; and it was agreed that the Town 
tbe Popi, jjf Florence (hould be ereded into a Dutcfay for Alex* 
'530- ander de Me£cis who had married Margaret Cbetries^n 
natural Daughter. About the fame Time the Provinr 
ces of Utrecht and OverygeU fubmitted to the Eoipe* 
ror, as Guelderland^ Zutphen and Grmmguin had before 
done. 
MxfeAtien In the Year 1535 Charles went over into Africa^ 

into Africa, and took Tunis and Goulett. The former he reftored 
1535* to Mttfy HaJJen its King whom Haradin Barber^ffa had 
depofed ; the latter a ftrong Place commanding the Har- 
bour of Tunis he put a Garrifon into. 
Warimth A new War was kindled by Francis in the Year 

France, 15379 who could not ftomach the Ceffions he had made. 
>S37- Thinking thereby to open a Way to Milan he feized 
the Dominions of the Duke of Savoys but he was forced 
Tmeeforten to retire on the Approach of Charles, The French ha- 
Jfears. ving likewife fuftained great Lofles in Flanders a Truce 

often Years was concluded at Nice. by the Mediation of 
Pope Paul UL and the two Princes at an Interview on 
this Occafion gave each other fuch ftrong Proofs of 
being heartily rccontiled, that an Infurre£lion happen- 
ing foon after at Gbe^t Charles ventured to go through 
France in his Way to the Low Countries. 
geJIiRties re- In the Year 1541 this Truce was juftly broke by 
^mmenced^ Francis ; becaufe bis Ambafladors in paffing through' the 
'54*- Milane/e in their Way to Turfy were al^ffinated by 
order of the Governor. The Duke of Cleves attacked 
Brabant ; Luxemburg and fome other Places were taken 
by the Duke of Or bans ; the Dauphin penetrated iflto 
the Roujillmi s^nd the famous Corfair Barber^a at 
the fame Time ravaged the Coaft of Calabria. Here-r 
upon Charles finding hini&if attacked on all Sides facri- 
ficed the Intereft of Catherine his Aunt to his own; and 
« concluded an Alliance with Henry VIII. of England. 
Tt being agreed between them that Henry Cbould pe- 
netrate into France ^ough ficardf wbik Qbarles did 



Qf Spain. 75 

the £sflle tbrougfa Cben^ipa^ this laft took the Fidd Chailbs /#- 
with fifty-thoufand Men ; and having defeated the Duke netrata inf 
of Clevis (bon retook Luxemburg and fomc other Towns. '*' ^^* ^ 
He nert ^entered Cbampa^g by forcing the Pofb of ^*^"^*' 
Lagni and St. Dizkr : Nor did the Fntub King, who 
was encamped on the other Side of the Morrn^ dare to 
give him Battle. Jnftead thereof he after ruining the 
Country, that the Progrefs of Charhs might be flopped 
as mud) as poffible, niade the heft of his Way. to Parity 
to put a StK^ to the Conflernation which this City was 
thrown ioto on account of the near ^Approach of the 
Emperor's Army. If fliwwjhad according to the Agree* 
mem now advanced to meet him, they might eafily h&ve 
fubdued all Prance ; but he bufied himfelf with the Sieges 
oiBoMgn and Montrueil\ and fent word he would come 
no farther till he was Mafter of thefe Places. Upon 
this Charles finding himfelf unfupported by his Ally, 
and refie£tin^ that a long War with France would re- 
tard the Execution of a Scheme he had laid for oppref- ^^^' ^f ^ 
fing the Prdtejlanu in Germany ^ thought proper to con- Crepi, 1544. 
dude a Peace at Crepi in the Year 1544. 

Being now at Peace with France he very cafily ro- GwV JFarin 
incd the sillied Forces of the Pretejiants in Germany \G%%iAhVir. 
and m the Year 1547 i?iade their Chiefs the Eledor 
of Saxetfff and Landgrave of Hejfe Prifoners. To thefe 
Misfortunes of the Prpteflants the Divifions amongft 
the Heads of their Party, which were with great Ait 
and Induflry increafecl by the Emiflarics of Charles 
and the Popfy contributed a good deal 2 And the Deaths 
of Francis L ?ind HemyVlU. which happened at thb 
Time, who would undoubtedly have Qppofed the fur- ^ 
ther Extenfion of his Power in Germany ^ were alfo very 
fortunate Events for the Emperor. He did not how- 
ever long enjoy the Fruit of this Succefs ; for many 
were diigufted at his treating the Vamjuiflied too rigo- 
roufly and ufing the Princes his Prifoners ill. Having 
moreover ^xafperated Maurice of Saxony^ by paying no. 
Regard to the fafe Condu<% he had grahted his Father^ 
in-Law who went to treat with (Iharlesy that Prince 
who was before fpirited up to a<!^ againft his Kinfman 
the Eledpr of Saxony fell upon him fo unexpe£ledly,^ , 
i^X h$ ^s <Qrc9<} to fey^ ^iinii?lf by flying in the 

Night 



Treaty cf 
Passau. 

Hesdin and 
Teroubwre 
le*oellid ijjitb 
ibi Ground, 

Charles 
refigAi the Go- 
nfernment^ 



76 QT Spain* 

Night to Infpruck. Soon ifttt a Treaty for* fecn ring 
the Proteftanc Religion was concluded at Pkjfau. 

During this Confufion in > the Empire Henry U^ o^ 
France had taken ^rte, 7ml md Verdun. CharJes^SLt" 
temptbd to retake the former ; bat was repiilfed ivith 
Lofs. He in Revenge raied Hefdin and T'ermenng to the 
Ground and put the Garrifons of both to the Sword. 

Being quite worn out with* the Fatigues of a long and 
a£l':ve Reign Charles refigi^ed the Throne in the Year 
1556 to his Son. Philif>'y and refervtng only ioo,oco 
Ducats a Year/foTri)i8 SubMence retir^ into a Mona- 
ftery where he died about two Years after. His Will 
being penned in very free Terms gave fo great OfFencc 
to the Inquifitibn, that if his ConfefTor and fome others 
his Companions in the Monafiery had 'not follicited 
firongly it would have been burnt as heretical. . 
Philip TI. . In the Reign of Philip IL the Grandeur of the fi/gj- 
'S5^* m}% Monarchy which his F^hec and Grand fiailier had 
carried to fo great a Height began to decline. X'his 
was in fome meafure owing to Charles's giving all of the 
4uftrian Succeffion in Germany to his Brother Frrdi^ 
nand^ and cauftog him to be elected King of the Ro- \ 
mans. He flattered himfeif indeed . that Ar^/«^m^ would 
jieturn the Favour to his Son Philip ; but Ferdinami yfi^ho 
had a Son of his own was-quite averfe.to thir: Aiid \f 
he had been willing the Germans were too feniible of 
the fad £fte£b of Spanijb Councils in the Empire to con- 
> fent to it. 
His Impru' ^^^ Power of Spain was ftill more hurt by the im- 

dencemjith prudent Management of PhiUp xn tht Low Cmtntri^s. 
Regard to the Inftead of going in Perfon.to put a Stop to the. Dif- 
Nethbr- turbances there, as his Father formerly had done only 
LANDS, upon a flight Infurrodion in Gbent^ he fent. amongft the 

Flemmings who had been always ufed to mild Governors 
the cruel Duke d^Aylva. He treated all of them aa well 
thofe who had no hand in pulling down the Images 
as the Guilty with fuch Rigour, that it gave Rife to 
the following burlefque Saying of a Spanijb Officer : 
Haretici fraxerunt iempla^ boni nihil fas^eruni contra 
ergo omnes dehent patibulare : That is, The Hereticks 
, have plundered the Churches^ the CatboUcks did nothing 

t9 hinder it therefore all <mght to fuffev^ Beiktes this 



Of ^S^p A lui 77 

Pimp inftead of 'ad^ptWig tJie Manners' of the Fhm^' 
w'fff; 'as CharUs bad iJone and -fpen^irtg-fom« Time 
amongft them liircd arffogether \nSp€nn\ and cared foe 
nothing but to fxiake h»h)(elf' as^l^foluK^'as'poffible' \ii 
the Luiv CauntriSs. "- On '"the othei* hand fhe Flemmings^ 
whahad the u('m<)ft Hatred to the Pride of the Spaniards 
and were tenacious of' their Liberties, cotild not bear to 
be ufed like a ton^iercd People. When Philip thpre- 
fore would have put i^w?}^ Gar rifohs 'into their Towns j 
and for the fake of their admitting this quietly wouM 
have given the Com mattd thereof 'to the Prince of Ofan^ 
and Count E^mojft^ jhiy told hini plainly, that all the 
brave Stands they had' made agatnft; thtf P6wer of Frante 
availed them but Httfe if they'muft'at laft be enUaved 
by another fprtign 'Powcf. » " ' i 

Some neighbouring }*owefs and cfpecially the Englijh^ The Flem- 
pleafed with tbis^-Oceafion of ifeflehihg the oVdrg^-eVi^n mikgs urr 
Power and Riches oi -Spaint^fi^^Wd ' \h^ Pri&e' 'of^#A^4r 
Orar^e ^ffho headed >»hfc: MaleeorfterttS a^ 'nlUcK as^**^'^*^^" 
poffible: And the "Proteftants \n Oerm'any who had the *-^^^^^^^ "• 
greateft Avefiiort to 'the SfKtniards did the feme. As 
for the EtaiperoV; if no jDiffercnce had fubfifted between 
him and his- Nephew about theSucc^ffion to the Erb.pirf^ 
le would' have been unwilling to diftuf b fo foon the Re- 
^^ko\ Germany-^ which was fcarce recovered from its 
late violent Agitatidtis'. ' ' » 

As this gave ' Dce^fidn to a War betweert PhiHpWarmuith 
and Elizabiih of ^ngland^ this Pfincefs fupplied* the England. 
hm Countries with every thing ♦hey had Occdfidn 
for 5 and by her Ships of War'greatly atlTnoyefd the 
^anijh Weft India Tra^e. The - famous - Sir Vr^»^:7V 
^rake at the fame Time pilteged the South-Sea 
Coaft ; and got vaft Booty there. ' Philip on his Side 
not only fupported the - Rebels • of • /r^/tf«^/ againft 
Eiizahethi but had formed a Defigh of entirely con- 
quering England: With a View to this he after many The rNvi». 
Years Preparation in the Year 1588 fitted out a Fleet cible Ar- 
of 150 Sail of Ships; which carried 6co brafs Guns and mado, 
above 1000 Iron ones. In tbefe Ships were embarked *S^^- 
Widcs .8000 Sailbrt and a great Nuihber of Volunteers 
^0,000 * regular Ti'oops. The Ekpence of this vaft 
A^matn^Bt Wa* it^'leaft 30,000 Ducats a J)ay : And it 

was 



was calkd byths £o^ who hadcxcoininuAie^ted Eit- 

xahetb and given h^r Dominions' to Philip the Iiwincihh 

Armado. After all this Fleet the like to whirh hac 

never been feen before fuftained lucb LoiTes by Tern- 

pefts and thci Eneipy, that on its Rieturn to Spain al 

the noble Families went into Mourning. The Firmi 

n%^% and Equanimity of Philip pt| this OccdGpn waj 

very furprizingw Being informed o^ -the Misfortunes o| 

his Ships he faid without (hewing any Uneafine(s, ^i 

m Us ai pas iwyes iombattre Us. Vents it Us fi^ts de l\ 

Mir : That is^ I did not fend thim to .fight vHth the Wtnd\ 

Battle of and thi Wames of the fea. Anothei Sp(tnijh Fleet was eighj 

Cadiz. Ycafs ^ifterwards beat off Cadiskhy .tbci.pombined Fleej 

^of England and Ifolland\ whi<;h^aft(^r $dl(ii>g many riclj 

Prizes made icfelf Mafter of t^«T(>WA: But the Ear 

oi Effix Geneml of the Englijh not attending to t^ 

great Importance it was of to keep PofleiEon aM 

plundering the Town quitted it. 

Intrigues of The IntrigMea of Philip in France w^re equally un- 

Philip i» fuccefsful. For the; Sake of excluding the Houfe o 

France. Bourbm and annexing that CrQw;n (o hi^ Monarchy 

or at lead of raifing fome Creature of his own to it 

be joined wi^h the League zg^inAIimry IV. All thi 

DefigDs of his Enemies were however baffled by thi 

VakHir and Condud of this PriiKc: And at lafi u 

take away all Pretence for continuing the League hi 

conformed to the Qiurch of Rofoe. Thus Pbilip did no 

only lofe the Pains and Expence be was at ; but whil< 

the Duke of Partna Governor of the Lo%a Countries wa 

gone into Frame on this Account the Hollanders ha( 

Time to ftrengthen themfelves. 

War with Henry was befides fo enraged th$it having reduced hi 

FaANCE, rebellious Subje^ to Obedien|:e he in the Year 159* 

1S94- declared War againft Spain i and his Army in FJaruler 

under the Count de Fuentes took Casphray. In the fol 

lowing Year Calais was indeed taken by the Archduk 

Albert: But Henry made himfelf Mafter oi Ut Fere\ an< 

after an obfiinate Defence he retook Amens which ha< 

been furprized by the Spaniards^ Notwithftandiog thi 

Succels, having now revenged himfelf^ Het^ M '^ 

much Regard for the Condition France was by civj 

Broils brought into that he liflen^ to the P^opofals i 

Pbilitl 



Of SpAI^t. 79 

Philips and a Peace was conctuded towards the End dftruty 9/ 
the following Year at Vervins, Virvin$. 

5/i2i>r was alfo in thrs Reign embroiled with the War witi $he 
Turks: The famous Gwfair Dragut having about thte Turks. 
Year 155 1 retaken Trip^Ji ^fter it had been forty Yeara 
fubjeft to the Spaniards. The Fleet which Pbiitp fent 
in the Year 1 5 60 againft them after taking the Bland i56<x 
of Gerii was worftcd in an Engagement with that- of 
the Tvrks; in which it loft 10,000 Men with 41 
Ships and the Ifland it had juft taken. In the Year 
1^64. PeftTion de Vele% was recovered from the^&^i^ *S64» 
and about two Years after Malta which the Turks had 
befiegcd was reh'evcd by Philip. 

Befides all thefe* Difficulties which Philip had to en^ JJUvoit 
counter with a dangerous Infurre£{ion was ftirred up in amongft thi 
the Year 1567 amongft the Mwrs 6f Granada. This coil Mooas in 
him three Years to quell ; and if the Succours they re- Spaim, 
ceivcd from Jlgiers had arrived time enough the Con^- 
fequence would have been fatal to Spain. 

In the Year 1592 fome Difturbances broke out in Rihellhn in 
Arragony occafioned by the Stickling of the Arragme£e AaaAOoii, 
in Defence of AnHnio Perez, who by Virtue of- the >S92. 
Privileges claimed by them refufed to fubmit to a 
Trial for murdering an Efcovedo a great Favourite of 
Don John of Aujhria. Although this was done by an 
exprefi Order from Philip he fpirited up the Profecti- 
tion againft Perez, hoping thereby to remove the Sufp?- 
ciort of his being concerned in the Aflaffination and at 
the fame Time to revenge himfelf on Perez; who ha- 
ving been employed to procure a Miftrefs for his Matter 
had kept her for himfelf. This AiFair did not indeed 
turn out to his Credit -, yet he^ fo availed himfelf thereof 
to retrench the Privileges of the Arragmefe. 

In the Year 1568 Philip put his Son Dm Carbs to 
Death. The Reafon given for this was that he hadDo,iC^,^j^^^ 
made Attempts upon Philip* 5 Life : But it is more pro- executed, 
bable that it was done for the Sake of marrying Ifabella 1568. 
to whom Dm Carlos was betrothed. 

Upon the Death of Henry King of Portugal m thePoRTTrcAt 
Year 1579 many pretended to this Crown; iii\d annexed to 
amongft th? reft Philip King of Spain as being Son ofSPAiw, 1579. 
•I - J^ateHa 



8o .OfSPAiiti 

Ifapetta the D^ug^ter of Emanuel -^IwtQg^ of Portugal. 
The Duke de Alva who was fent.witb a powerful Army 
. y . • toaflert his Right entirely conquered the -Kingdom; 
, an<l •obliged the Baftard Antony whom the Portugu fe 
Jiad proclaimed to fly for Shelter into England. He 
lifter this went into France where he died in the Year 
.: 1 15^55 y nor coy Id be ^ver, althqugh afliftcd by the French^ 
recover any Part of his loft Dominions. Notwithftand- 
ing the immenfe Revenue drawn by Philip from the Eajl 
^ndWe/f Indies^, yet his Treafures in which -he trufted 
. were quite exhai^led.by the Wars |iis Ambition had 
' " hurried ^inijn^; ..Pyinef in the Year 1598 he in his 

laft Illnefs declared that the War in the Netherlands 
. V alone had coft him 564,000,000 Ducats. 
PHILIP III,r Philip IIL .his .Sou , foiund the War in the Low 
..^59?A,.;. Countries more and fljore troublefome. His Fath^er ha- 
..::..: ' ving a little before his Death married Ifabella Clara 
Eugenia Philips Sifter^ to y//^^r/ Archduke of Aujiria 
and given her the Netherlands .j^fi , a. Portion^ the 
■> ' f Spaniards conceived great Hopes that the united 
. ' - ; Provinces would be brought to fubmit to Albert: 
But the Hollanders gave fufficient Proofe both 'of their 
Power at the Siege of OJlend which followed foon after, 
and that they would never come, again under the Do- 
minion of Spain^ however artfully, the Pretence for 
inducing them to it was coloured over with the Nu- 
ATreatywitb tion of haviflga Pfirice of their own. This with' the 
/^HoLLAN-.pf^^refs ^lade by the HQltandersym the £^ Indies made 
^^^^' it.neceilary for the Spaniards to accommodate Matters 

with them, at any Rate. It is however fcarce probable 
that fo haughty a Nation as Spain would have confented 
to a Treaty, by which amongft other Things the Dutch 
were allowed the Liberty of carrying on a Trade xo the 
£q/i and fFefi Indies^ if it had not been apprebeafive 
of an Attack in the Weak Condition it was thc^n in 
from France: whofe Power had been conftantly encKea- 
fmg during the long Peace it had enjoyed under ^hc 
au(]picious Reign of Henry IV, \ 

MooAs ia- In the Year 1609, the fame Ye^ that the Truce vdas 
niJhidfiQtn made with Holland^ Philip under the Pretence of the^t 
Spain,. 1609. having fomented a Rebellion and requeued Succoud 
. from France baniihed 900,000 Moors from Spain : AifiJ 

towar 



Of Spain; 8i 

towards the pldfe of this Vear t}ie Spaniards took Port 
Arache on ^1 e. Coaft of Africa, ' * 

Aout the Year 1619 x!t\i Spaniards ^ who had been Philip ^r^l 
fpme Time !NIafters of /&<?/, afcfted the Inhabitaiicsof /^^/^jR^^/Zj «« 
the ValteUnf in their revolt frolnthe Grifons, Their Dc- /^* Vaiti- 
fign was'to annek this Country to their Dutchy of Milan: «•'»»# *6*9'. 
But thc.Gr^«ji)eing powerfully fupported by France znd 
the Pcpfy Wno could not bear the Thought of any fur- 
ther Extenfion of the Spanijh Power in Italy even ar the 
Expence^of a Proteftant State, they were after a War 
of many Years continuance again put into Pofleffion of the 
YqlteUne, During the Troubles whicfj foop after broke 
out in German^ Amhrofe Spinolq^ who jfommandcd fri the 
Spanijh Nethej-lands^ made an Irruption into and fubducd 
Part of the P/7A2//»2/^. • / . 

Pi///]^ TV. fucceeded at his Father's Death in the Philip IY# 
Year 1621, lie immediately difmifled all the Cres^hires *^*f: 
of the Duke DfLerma^ who had been fo great a Favou- 
rite in the preceding Reign: But the Duke apprpfiending 
that the jStorm raifed againft his Dependent would ii^ 
the pnd fall heavy upon hlmfelf, for the Sake of fe- 
cu ring his jLifc found Means to obtain a CardiriaFs Czp, "• 

The Triice for tweive Years being now expired the Whr.^itb th 
War with Holland ' yfz% rjEf^kindlcd. In the y^ar 1622 DsutCHW- 
Bergen^oP'Zoom Was belte^d by the Marquis of S^^/Wj; newed, '^^f*. 
but on the^/Vpproach ot the.Duke of !Br/y^/ttJjfV^ ana 
Count A^mfleld who had cfefeated the Spanidrpli near 
Eeury he wa^ forced to r^lfe the Siega with* ^'reat'Pre- 
cipitatiqft/ Fri'tHe Yeai' r'piS'Pftfr Heyn tbqk tlie Spa]^ .l6^?f 
mjh Fleet the Cargo of wbkh'w^s Vorth 12,000,000 
Livres : and ^about the fanieTiriip the Dutch made a Dc- 
fcent on the Coaft of Brazil and becrame Maifteri of 
PUinda. In the jfollpwfng Year the Spqniards^ for the ^'i^ ^ 
Sake of obllsirig the Dutch to give over the Siege of Bois ' - ' * 
le Duc^ threw themfelves |nt6 tht Fflaxu and' took 
Amersffrt : But fP^efel being Turprifed by tW. Trqpps of 
the States they Wre obliged to retreat haftily in or- 
der to fiJcore*t]Jjeii Paflige over .the Ijfel In the Yeaf |6|^; 
1639 a confiderable 5J^ff^ Fieec under 'the Commapd SPfK^sff 
pfU^ueniff w^s entirely ruined in the Downs by tfic Fleet deftrtyeJ^ 
fhttcb Aiim'irzl Marthi Trtftnt. J'he Defign of thfj «» ^he 
Armament waa liot ttieh kxiov^n ; but it appeared after^ ^^V^f* 



\ 



8a 



INati vdtb 
AotLANPy 
^1648. 



ConteJIsfir the 
Sueceffion t9 

l6i8. 



IVar <wiib 
1635, 



wards, that it was to have tal^ twenty*tboufai|d I>ane: 
on Board at Gottenbwrgh in order to attack Sweden. 

This War, in which the Spaniards bad general I; 
the worft and which had coft them no le(a than 
15,00,000,000 Z>«rjix, was ended by the Treaty oi 
Munfler in the Year 1648 : By which the Dutch were 
acknowledged to be a free Nation and abfolutely inde- 
pendent of Spain\ and all the Places they had taken in 
the Courfe of the War' were left to them. Trancm then 
at War with Spain uCeid her utmoft Art to prevent the 
DuUbfrom concluding a fcparate Peace: 3ut they 
would not llften to her, juftly fearing that if Spain was 
too much reduced the French would eafily over- run the 
^panijh Netherlands \ and that the united Provinces "(vould 
in the End (hare the fame Fate. Befides ^bat Reafbns 
could the Dutch have for continuing a War which had 
already gi[eatly run them into Debt? when tht Spaniards y 
for the oake of being in a Condition to z& with greater 
Vigour againft franee and Portugaly were willing to 
grant all they had fo long contended for. 

On the Death of Vincent II. Duke of Mantua in the 
Year 1628 the Emperor would have excluded . C^^^r/^i' 
Dulce oiNevers from the Succeifion i becaufe be ^wras a 
Frenchman and had n^IeAed to receive > in. a propecj 
Manner the Invefliturc of this Dutchy. Hereupon the 
Duke of Savny renewed his Pretenfions to it, and the 
Spaniards hoped to ^in fomethiog by the Squabble : But 
the Duke or Nevers being fupported by the Frtnch^ he 
was put into PofTeffion of the whole Dutchy ; and the 
Spaniards hefides the Charge they were at o^ this Oc- 
jafion loft their Credit in italy very much^ 

In the Year 1635 War was declared by France againft 
the Spaniards. The Pretence for it was that they had 
made Philip Chriftopher Eleflpr of Treves Pritbner, and 
notwitbftandin^ there was in it a French Garrifon had 
taken bis Capital: But the true Reafon was that the 
French being by the Enjoyment of a long Peace in 
a fiouriibing Condition had a Mind .to, xediice the 
Power of the Houfe of Anjiria^ which by the .Battle of 
Norlinguen and Treaty of Prague was become very 
formidable in Germany. After beating Prince Thomas 
jMOLV jdvennes the French Army marcM into Flandtrs, 

.. . * ■ \ ;. It 



It 'lio«nev«r made but Kttl^ Progrefi mtfiittiog In 

Strength) iior did the Affairs of France inltafy fiiGceed 

much better. In the npiu Campaign the Prince of i^S^* 

Condi was forced to quit th^ Siege of DoU ; and the City 

of Paris itfelf was tbroii^ ^nno great Co^ernatioo bjr 

the News of the Suo^ of the Spaniards in Picardii. 

The hnpgrial General Gailas^ attempted to penetrate at 

the fame Time into Burffmdy \ but he failed in his £n- 

terprize. Ijpi the Year 1637 the Spaniards loft Landrecy^ *^J7* 

and were xsk the following Year repulfed with great Lofs 

at Fort Lmcate: Bift the Prince of Condi had on the 

other Side no better Sujccefs s|t the 3iege of FoutaraUa. 

In the Year 1639 the Spamards^/Qhtain^ fome ad van- 5««/<? »f 

tage near Tbionvitte ; but they loft in th^ f«n|e Year Thiohvi^ 

Hifdin^Salfis and SaUnes. The Spaniards lo&Arras^^* »^39- 

next Year; And being defeated before Cafiil they could Battlt of 

not mufier a fufficient Force to oblige, the Duke of /&r- Cas ai>. 

court .to pve over the Siege of, Turin. 

In t^ fame Year a Re^Uion kfokis ofi|t in the Army ; Re^lt of th$ 
the firft. Sparks of which, vwjre owing to a Difguft Cataloki* 
taken by. the Cataloniam at the Duke de Oiivanz. ami« i640» 
They had often complained > bujt inftead of having any 
Redre6 the Duke wb9 was a, great Favourite took 
Occafipn from thence to pppc^f$ them more and more. 
Being befides irritated at (b^ Behaviour of the Ca/H" 
lians^ who did not fupport them properly when they went 
to the Relief of Salfes^ the/ (cparsted from the other 
Troops a^nd went hQme« Upon this fome of their Pri« 
vileges were at the Duke's Inftigation taken away : And 
to keep them in awe he quartered a great Body of 
Troops amongft them. At length all Things being 
ripe for a general Revolt the City of Barcelona declared 
firft, and the Catalonians foon drove the Cajiilian Troops 
out of their Country. As all Hopes of Pardon were by 
this Step quite taken aWay, they afterwards craved the 
Prote&ion of the Fnmh King. and fwore Allegiance to 
him. It coft the Spaniards a great deal of. Trouble and 
eleven Years Time to recover this Province \ nor had 
they done it at laft if the Divifions in Franci had not 
prevented the fending of Succours to Barahma. 

The Spaniards had moreover in this fame Year J^iW/ in - 
another ftiH worfe fiufine&on their Hands. Notwith- P^rtvoaI, 

G 2 fianding 1:640^ 



94 Of S p A I nV 

Aandfftg tfeat PA///> II. who ftibdued tht Pcrtuptefehy 
?orcc of Arms,* endeavoured by* the mfldeft Treatment 
and greateft Regard for therrliiberties to moderate the 
inveterate Hatred they had to the Cajiilians^ it' came at 
laft to fuch a Pitch that their Priefts exclaimed againft 
them in t-heir Pulpits, artd conftandy put up this Prayer: 
Daignez Seigneur nous AffraniiAr du Joug de la l)omi' 
nathn CaftiUant\ that is j y6ui:hfafe O Lord to deliver 
' • * us from the heavy Toke of the.Ca^ilians. Fitidifig that 
. gentle Means would not win their Affeftlons,* it was 
refolved by the Spaniards 't6 tit^t tht PorH^Ue/i^ more 
rtgoroufly. Being enraged her^at and perceiving that 
Forturie began to frown U(^n the Spaniards ^ they in the 
*"y ^ * Year 1636 mutinied in feveral Towns. The Sedition 
* was at that Time eafily queHed ; and it was thought 
proper in order to^bufy reftlefs- Spirits to give fpme of 
** ' ^ePoriuguefeCommifRons in the Army, and great? Num- 
bers of the lower Sort Wete taken into it. Ui*>n the 
^ • breaking out of the Rebellion in Catalonia thitPdrtti^utfe 

" ■ were ordered to ntarch into this ProvintJej which be- 
• - * - • ing refufed the Jealoufy- of- the Spaniards was much in- 
dreafed^ and great Paihs were taken to entice the Duke 
Gf Braganza B. vaft Favbtirite in* Portugal t6 Madrid, 
* He however excufed himfelf very artfully from go- 
ing* At length it being infifted upon that theyfbould 
ferve in the CataUnian War, the Portuguefi N6b*rlky, 
having firft> founded' the Ihclinations of the Duke of 
Sraganza^ <ietermined to throw off thefr $ubje(9!bOn to 
the Caftilians.' They immediately took the Field J And 
having fefced the Oaardji eafily became Matters of 
7he Duke of JJfhon, Their next Stfcp was to proclaim the Duke of 
BaACAWZA Braganza by the Title of John IV. and ' in about 
isproelMmed ^jg^j^ D^y^ having put to Death VafconceHo the Spanijk 
King of ?o^' g^retary who had always been proud and cruel with 
TUQAL. .^^ ^j, j^^ more, they entirely ridded the. Kingdom 
of Cajliliafis. This Evcrnt is a remarkable Infence, 
how eafily a Revolution may be brought about in a 
Country iwhpre the People have no Afle^ion for their 
OoverhOPS. 
ne Spanish Befides this great Blow to the Monarchy of Spain ia 
Ga^fimturn- the Year 1641 the Prince of Monaco turned out the 
o^oia of Mo- Spar^ Garrifon and fubmitficd to Runco. The French 
•iA«%-»64i.^ .... .V afterwards 



•fterwurds took Pirpi^mU and attempted i» pentlralft ^ ^ -^ 
into 5^fff $ but the Siege of Liridoy at wblipHihe Prince • - - . - 
of C^uU commanded, mifcarrjing the^ .Were glad to 

give over this'£nterprwe« ' ^ . .:-•• \ 

In. the Year 1647 a dangerous tnfurredjon headed by Mxt-AntL* 
Mas^Anelk^ a poor Fi(herman was ftirred up in ffapUsy ^o\ hfir- 
by w^h, if he had been in Time affifted byt** Frenci^ ^^^'^ «' 
the whole Kingdom would have been thrown -into the Naples, 
utmoft Confufion : But it was happily fupprefled by the '^47* 
good ConduA of the Count tfQgnanu Gi>Mernor of N&^ 
pies. About the Year 1650 the English became Mafiers Jamaica 
of yamaica. l9fi. 

The Spaniards having now their Handr full on all Peace nvi/i 
Sides were glad to make Overtures for a Pc^ice with Francs. 
France I which was in the Year 1660 eoopluded in the 
Ifland of Faifan near the Pj^renees by thofe two gre^ 
Klinifters Cardinal Aiazarine and Count de ffaro. By 
this Treaty it was ftipulated that the French fhpuld ke^ 
all the Rm{/ilkny and ail the County of Jrtois except St. 
Omers and Jk^ei and GravelineSy JSourkour^ &. Venam^ • : . ^ 
Landrecjti ^efneij Avefne^ Marienbourgy Phuipvilky i^ 
Thionville^ Montmed^^hry and DamvilUr were more- 
over given up to /r<7Uf^. . - 

Things being thus accommodated with France the War^ miith 
Spaniards turp^ their whole Force .agaiaft Portugal \ Portvcai-. 
but having entered this Kingdom and taken fome i/icon- 
fiderablc > Places they were worfted Jn^/evefal Engage- 
mcnts: Of which the n^oft remarkably were the Battle Battles of 
^iEftretMs in the Year i(>6?, and. that of ^///^ Viciofa in Estremos:. 
the Year 1665, In the jformer of thefe Don John of J^^Y^^^*. 
Auftria commanded,, in the latter the Marquis of Caru- V iciosa.. . 
cena. The Succefs of the Pertugtufe^ who. in both en- t 'a^a : 
tirely routed the Spaniards^ was in a great Meafure 
owing to the ConduS. of Marflial Scb^mberg a German 
who had been in the French &rviee. 

To Philip who died in the Year 1665 fuccecded Chae^e^H. 
Charles II. his Son : The Guardianlhip of whom, he he- i665« ; f 
ing but four Years of Age^ waa committed to the Queen 
his Mother. The War with the Portuguefe having been 
continued with little Succefs it was in the Year 1668 

♦ The Man's Name*was Thomas Anillo, Mas heipg a 
Cerrupiwi of tie Word Thou At. « 

G 3 'found 



fj 



ftaci 'with 
War nvitb 



Alliance, 

1667. 
Peace o/AiX 
LA ClfA- 



W^ tenev^ed 
wjtth 

167a* 



1678. 



ftofi^McAit «i» make Up MMters ^tli ^HeiA in or^er 
to repel the ttench i»ho had ti^^ded ftOiukn. 

Nctwhhibnding that AAri/i Therefa Daughfeei^ of the 
late King had on her Marriage with Lewis' IV. re- 
nounced hfeF Right to the Spanijh Succefion, this Prince 
was determine not to lofe the Opportunity which 
the flourifhitig Condition of France add declining one 
ct Spain gave him of extending his Dominions. Be- 
fide thefe farourable Circumftances he well knew that 
the War between England and Holland would jprevenC 
both oJF them from affifltng Spain. To juftify his Con- 
duct he pretended that by a Cuftom of Brabant, which 
n called the Right e/Devalutisn^ the real Eflale tnuft 
defcenit to the Iffuc of the firfl: Marriage. The I^encb 
meeting with little Refiftance Ibon made ctemfelves 
'Matters of the whole Franchi Cwtpie^ and took Thimeyf 
UJli^ Charleroj^ Dottay^ Oudtnarde and many other 
Towns in Flanders, This furprizing Progrefs' haftcned 
the Concluiion of a Peace between the Maritime Powers, 
and gave Rife to the Triple Alliance between England^ 
Sweden and Holland in the Year 1667 ; the Defign of 
which was the Prefervation of the Low Countries, 

A Peace being foon after made it was agreed that tbe 
French (hould give up the Franche Comptefind keep what 
they had conquered ' in Flanders : But on the Breaking 
out of the War betwixt Lezvir and the Dutch in the 
Year 1672, the Spaniards well knowings that their In- 
tereft in the Netherlands was infcparable from that of the 
thitch joined their Forces to thofe of Holland. 

W^r being thereby renewed the Franche Compte was 
1^ fecond Time conquered by France^ and the Town ol 
Mejfina at that Time in Diforder ftibmitted to the French 
King: But he Toon after abandoned it. In the Courfe 
of this War Limbttrg, CondeyFalencienneSy Cambray^ IprtSi 
St, Omers, Jire ztid'^Ghent Were taken by the French, 

• By the Treaty df Nirhe^en, concluded in the Year 
1678, the Rrench were to remain Matters of Ac Franck 
CmptCy arid of all Fn Ftarideri except Limbeta^g, GbenU 
Courtray^ Oudenard^ Atb and Charier ety. Some Difr 
cuhies arifing about fettlirig the Frontiers a Congre/"^ 
was held at Courtray^ but it broke up without coming 
any /^recmcnt, hereupon LuxaiMrg and fowc cthc 
. ^ Places 



Places were feized by the French: Yet fhc ftrongeft 
Declarations were all the while made by the French King 
of his having no Inclination to come to a Rupture; and 
that V Spain would give up Luxembourg he was willing 
to quit his Pretcnfions to AloJI and fome other Places, 
which by the Treaties of Nimegueny Aix la Cbapelle and 
the Pyrenees juftly belonged to him. 

As the Court oi Madrid could by no Means relifli this War nuitb 
Propofal, It was refolvcd in the Year 1682 to declare Frakc^, 
War againft France \ and the Affiftancc oi England and *^^i» 
Holland^ who had not only taken upon themfelves the 
Guaranty of the late Peace but were nearly concerned 
in preventing the entire Conqueft of the Low Countries^ 
was depended upon. The Englijh Miniftry were how- 
ever fo blinded by fair Promifcs and Bribes from France 
that they ivould not meddle ; nor could all the Pains 
which the Prince pf Orange took prevail on tlie t>uich 
to go into this War. As France made good Ufc<)f this , .^ 

Conjun^re Dixmunde and Couriray were taken in the 
firft Campaign ; and in the next Luxemburg which 
(he had fo long fet her Heart upon after a mod obfti* 
nate Defence fell into her Hands, The French Marihal 
Bellefmd was indeed beaten before Gironne ; yet the Battle of 
Spaniards^ finding themfelves deferted by their Allies Gironkb. 
and having nothing to hope fcfr from Germany then 
engaged with the Turhs^ were glad to conclude a Truce A Truce for 
for twenty Years, The Conditions of it vftrt xhzt twenty Tearj^ 
France ihould keep Luxembourg : But that Dixmunde and 
Courtray (hould be re({ored. 

Notwithfhmding this the Spaniards^ hoping to reco- 1688. 
ver what they had loft, joined with the Emperor. and fTar ivitb- 
Holland in the War which was in the Yeax i688:Frakci^ 
commenced againft Finance. The Allies began with d«- renewed^ 
molifliing Guajlalla, which the Puke of Mantua had. 
fortified as it was fuppofed at the Expence of France : 
But their Army under Prince Waldeckj who was not 
apprised of Mar(hal Ijuxembourf^^ being joined by a large 
Body of Troops under Marfliall Bouflers^ was after a 
bloody Battle fought in July 1690 entirely routed near SaHle of 
Fiturus. Moms and Namure were taken in the next Fleurus,. 
Year; and in the Year 1692 a fecond B^tle was fought 1690.. 
^y M»stbai Luxembourg at Steenkirk: Isk which Lieute- Battle of 

Q 4 nant* Steshkirr^ 

169a. 



K^ jQ/! Spain. 

. * ' pant* General Mackay was killed on the Side of the A^^ 

lies and Prince ^urenne on that of France. As thfe 
SUUg^htier was great on both Sides each laid claim to 
the Vijftpry j but it looks as if the French had the Ad- 
vantage, Eiecaufe they in the following Year took Char- 
1693. leroy after an obftinate Siege. France had equally good 
Succcfs on jthc Side of Spain, The Duke de Noailles 
who attacked the Spanijh Army in Catalonia cut off 
above 4000 of it, and afterwards took Palamos and Gi- 
1695. ronne by Storm. In the Year 1695 the Allies took Ca- 
fal 2Li\d retook Namur\ hut Dixmiind^ and Deinfey not- 
withftanding their numerous Garrifons,' by xht Cowar- 
dice of their Governors Ellenberg and Offerei^ iht fohner 
of whom was afterwards beheaded, furrcndered to thb 
' Pren^h at Difcretion. In the Year 1697 they reduced 
good p2ir% of ^Brii^els by Bombardment to Ames; and 
^th; and Barcelona luBmitted to them. ' An End was 
put;to th^fe Conquefts by prance herfelf ; who towards 
4^reaty 0/ the' Clbfe of the Campaign confented by tHe Treaty 
Ryswicic, of Ryfivick to reftore all Die had taken in this tVat from 

1697. the Jllies. . '".:*'. 

War tvitb the - Spain Was- equally linfuccefsfiil In tl)e W^r about this 

Moors. Time carried on againft the Moors ; who took Mamorfa 

and Fort Arache and have ever fince blocked up Ceuid. 

The Furtiiion The Joy, which fo advantageous a Peace as that of 

frtaty. Ryfwict muft naturally give Charles^ was foon difturbed 

by a* Treaty whereby fome Powers had agreed to divide 

the Spanijh Monarchy. Although this was kept as fecrct 

as poffible it got Air and gave great Difguft to the 

§paniafds', who took it for granted, that as 'the two 

Maritime Powers were Parties to it no I'efs wais intended 

than the Introduflion of Proteftantifm into ^'pain. tlere- 

upoh the King, provoked 'to the laift Degree that' any 

i^owers fcould take it into their Heads to difpofe of his 

Dominions and in his Life-time without his knowledge, 

appomted by a Will made on his Dfe^th-bed the Duke 

of Anjou to fucceed him. 

7he Duke of The Court of 'Vienna ^ive it out,, that this Will 

Aiijovisap' was. forged by the. Cardinals Ptfr/^^rr^fr^ and Borgia 

fointtd Heir and Others whom xMq Prench had bribed into their 

/•'Charles, Jntereft ; and it was moreover*' infifted upon as a 

Thing unlikely, that i^B'aflts^ who had always ihev(?n the 

. ., . * :. * ' • : ' • ^ gfeatgft 



|rcatcft Regard for the Court of Vienna and had^Iatcljr 
fent the Duke of Mclez thither to treat fecretly atout 
the SuccefEon, (hould fettle it in a manner fo contriry t6 
the Profcffions he had conftantly made. Others thought 
that the Spanish Minifters, after making fome Altera- 
tions iti this Will whicK thfey fnppofed to be drawn up in 
Frafitey had taken the Advantage of the King's weak 
State arid of his Prejudice againft the Partition Treaty 
to prevail upon him to fign it. However that was, the 
Will figncd by the King and confii'med by a Codicil 
(Contained in Subftance, that the Dukfe oi Anjou fecond 
Son of the Dauphin fliould be Heir and Succeflbr to 
the whole Spanijh Monarchy. In Cafe he died without - 
Ifliie pt fucceeded to the Crown of France it was to 
go on thfe fa'rtie Teriii^ to his Brother the Duke of Berr), 
On the Failure of his Iflue it was given to Charies the fe- 
cond Son of the £mpcror Leopoti: And after him to the 
Duke of ^avoy. During the Abffihce of the Succeflbr 
tlie Adminiftratioh was to be in a Council compofcd of 
the Prcfideht of the Council of Cti/Mie^ the Vice-Chan- 
cellor> the rirefident of the Council of Arragon^ thie 
Cardinal PortocarrerOy the Inljuifitor- General, a Gran- 
dee and a Member of the Council bf State. All Mattehi 
under Deliberatibn were to be determined by a Plurality 
of Voices : And if they happened to be equal the Queeii 
Dowager Was to have a Cafting Vote. The fame Re- , 
gency was alfo to kak6 Place whenever the Succeftor tb 
the Spanijh Throne (hould happch to be undei- Age. 
Charles dying within a few Days aftdt tht Execution of 
this Will the Duke of Anjdu was proclaimed King by 
the Name of /^A/Vjif V. 

Upon his Arrival at Madrid \n February i^ot thePHiLt^V. 
Queen Dowager wis ordered to retire to Toledd\ thp ijou 
Inqjifitor-General to his Biflioprick of Segovia \ and the 
ConfelTor to the late King Wis fertt into a Monaftery. 
England^ Portugal^ Holland ahd the Duke of iavoy^ 
whofe fecond Daughter Ptfilip rtiiarried Ih the Nobimber 
following, acknou^ledged the net)i^ Kihgi and having 
taken the GoVeri)ment into hit owh Haiids Milan^ 
NapUsj Sicily^ Sardinia and the Netherlands im- 
mediately fubmitted to him : But the Court of 
i^ienna was particularly afioniihed that Prince Voude^ ^ 

Hioni 



90 



Of Spa IK. 



BmttU9f 
Carpi. 

Tfvgtifs of 
Trinee 



mnt Governor of the Milanefe^ whofe Obligations to 
the. Emperor were remarkably ftrong, and the Ele&or of 
Bavaria Governor of the Netherlands (hould do this fo 
readily. The French Troops hereupon fent into Italy 
made tbemfelvcs Mafters of all the Fades into Germany, 
Prince Eugene made Shift however to pafs the Alps at a 
place which was looked upon to be inacceffible ; and 
having with incredible Difficulty brought over his Artil- 
lery and Baggage he defeated the French Army under 
Catinat at Carpi \ and obliged them to retreat in great 
Difordcr to Goito a Place belonging to the Duke of 
Manilla who had declared for Philip. Prince Evgene 
then pafled the Mincioy and gained a Vidtory over the 
United Forces of France and Savoy commanded by Mar* 
foal Villeroy near Chiari. They endeavoured to rally at 
Urago ; but were forced to decamp and met with feme 
Liofs in pafling the Oglio. Having afterwards taken 
many Towns in the Mantuan fome Grandees of Naples^ 
encouraged by the Nearnefs of his Army, formed a 
Confpiracy in Favour of the Houfe of Aujbria : But 
this being difcbvered the Duke de Medina Celi Vice- 
roy put an End to it by imprifoning the principal 
Perfons concerned^ one of yirhom Dm CarUt de Sangro 
was beheaded. 

The Spanijh Nation being much more eafy than 
could have been expeAed under tBe Government of a 
French Prince, Philip fet out his Queen accompany- 
ing him as far as Barcelona for Italy ; and arrived at 
tuples on the 1 6th of Jprii 1 702. He was received there 
with all poffible Marks of Joy i and was Compliment- 
ed in the Name of the Pope by the Cardinal Barberino. 
Having given the neceflary Orders for maintaining the 
Tranquillity of this Kingdom, he parted from thence in 
yune to go by the Way 6f Leghorn j Savona and Final 
to Milan, In the mean Time Prince Eugene had fe- 
cured Berfelh and taken Quarters in the Parniejan^ not- 
withftanding the Proteftations of its Duke who infift- 
ed that a$ his Country was a Fief of Rovu this was an 
Infringement of the Rights of the holy See. 

In the fame Year Prince Eugene failed in his attempt 
ViLLBROYirto furpria^ Cremona: The Marfhal ^/fcrqp was bow- 
takeaerifomr. ever taken ?rifoner. The Duke of Vendopn^ fuccceded 



pHltlffitS 

out fir 
Italy. 



170a. 



' Of Sf AlV. ^t 

Ftllerof in Commanding the Army of the two Crowm: 
Which by the Time Philip arrived at it was increafcd 
fo as to be 50,000 ftrong. As the Army of Prince 
Eugene was greatly inferior he left Mantua which he 
had for feme Time blocked up 5 nor could he prevent 
Caneia and Cajligh'oni the Garrifons of which were made 
Prifoners of War from falh'ng into the Enemies Hands ; 
and Vifionti an Imptrial General was in July defeated 
near &araa Viti&ria with the Lofs of 800 Men killed 
and wounded by a large Detachment from the Ene* 
my. Prince Eugene attacked the Army of the two. 
Crowns in Auguji near Luzara ; but as the Battle con- B,aHii of . 
tinued till Night the Vi£lory was claimed by bothLvxARA. . 
Sides. Luzara and Guaflalla whofe Situation preven- 
ted the ImperiaKjfs from proteSing them being alfo 
taken by Philip'^ the two Armies a^er lying for fome 
Time in the Neighbourhood of each other went into 
Winter Quarters. 

While Philip was in Italy England and Holland de- ^' JrchJuie 
dared in Favour of the Archduke Charles ; who looked Charles 
upon the Will as a Forgery, and infifled that the Houfe '^''^ '^' 
of Bffurhon was rendered incapable of fucceeding to the ^^'^''' 
Spanifb Monarchy by the Renunciations of the two In- 
fanta's before their Marriage into this Houfe. Having 
taken upon himfelf the Title of King of Spain by the 
Name cf Charles III. the combined Fle^t of the Mari- 
time Powers endeavoured to furpfize Cadi%. Faihng 
in this they afterwards attacked the Gattews at Vip ^ but 
as moft of the Treafure was prudently unloaded and 
fent fome Miles into the Country they got but little ' 
Booty. Philip hting informed of ihefe Things returned 
to Madrid : w here a ftrong Party was already formed 
in Favour of Charles. 

In die Beginning of the next Campaign, white Prince Oh Awtis or* 
Eugene was at Vienna folKciting a Reinforcement, the riw^ in 
Duk« of Vendofine well knowijig his Superiority hadPoaruoAL, 
hid a Scheme to penetrate into the Trentine; and *7^3« 
by joining the Bavarians to cut oflp the Communi- 
cation of the Imperial Troops with Girmany: But 
Count Stabrtnburg who was left to command in his 
Abfence took care to fruftrate this Defign. This Ge- 
neral marpbed afterwards through a Country which the 

Enemy 



9^ ^ Spaiii. 

Enemy were in PofleiSqn of^ . in order to join (the Duke 
of Savoy who had deferted the Party of his Son-in-Law 
Philip: And the Mortification of Philip was cncrca- 
fed by the Arrival of Charles in Portugal, Cbariis im- 
mediately pubJilhed a Manife({p fetting forth that he 
was come to t^kc Poflcflion of a. Kingdom which by 
the Laws of God and Man belonged to him, and to 
rid hb faithful Subjects whom he extorted to join him 
from the Yoke of an Ufurper. Ah Anfwer to this was 
jfbon publiflied by Philip: And he at the fame Time de- 
clared War again ft Portugal, 
.1704. . Philip took the Field in Perfon in the Aday foilowing, 
Gibraltar ^jjJ niadc himfelf Matter of fomc Places on the Frontiers 
/ufTendered^ ' ^f Portugal^ but he could not long keep them.. The 
Prince of Darmjla4t who by being Governor of it in 
the. late Reign was well acquainted with Barcelona at- 
tempted to furprize this important Place ; his Dcfign 
however was difcovered and oppofed by the Ir)habitants. 
He in Revenge bombarded it. The important Fortrefs 
of Gibraltar which was blocked up by Sea being obli- 
ged to furrendcr in Augujl to the Allies, Marflial Teffe 
was fent to affift the IVlarquis of f^lladari^sjn retaking 
it : But the Squadron under the Baron £)e Pointis being 
deftroyed by that of the Allies they in Jpril following 
gave over the Siege. The tmperialifts in Itafy who 
could not in this Campaign look their Enemies in the 
• Face retreated into the Trei\tine, 
Progri/s of The Allies being early in the Year 17Q5 Matters of 

the AhLiiRS, yalenciay Jlcantara amd Albuquerque^ Charles who 
1705. went on Shipboard in Jugufi 2.fter receiving the Ho- 
mage of Gibraltar paflied the Streights and landed near 
Barcelona. After U king /^r/ Affl«(/^, at tlie Attack of 
whicli the Prince olharmjladt was killed by aMufqutt 
Shot, the Town was forced to furrender befqre the Suc- 
. , cours from Pi///]p could arrive. The piverilon made on 
, the Side of Portugal W4s of great Ufe to the ^^Viy And 
jiotwithftanding all Correfpondence was forbid on the 
fevereft Peqaltic» with Catalonia the Ptoph of ^Falencia 
were prevailed upon by Lord Peterb^ougk, who had been 
very ferviceable at the. Siege of Barcelona^ to fubmit to 
Charlfs, The fame was £bon after- done by thofe of 
ArragoHf All the Pailes into Italy being iu the Hands oi 

the 



Of' ^y A IN. ^• 

the Enemy l^rincc Eugene was forced to conduft the 

Imperial Army, w^ich had been confidcfaSly reinforced,. 

over the Mountains of prejfat\. He afterwards palled BatiU of 

the Oglio and took fome Pfacei which lay Inliis Way ; CassXKq. 

but attempting to pafs the }fdda near C4ffano he was after 

a bloody Aftion obligpd'to Retreat, By this however 

he hindered the jyyxktot Vendofnu froip, undertaking the^ 

Siege of ^urin, ' 

Notwithftandfng the ill Situation of his Affairs in '70&- 
Spain Pbiiip\ having received Advice that the Frencff' 
Succours under the Duke de Noailles had joined hii]" 
own Troops cbmmatidfed by Marflial Teffe in Cata^ 
Ionia,' f^V out from' Madrid early in the Year 1706 to 
put hiinfelf at their 'Head, 'the Campaign was begun Siege of 
by opening the Trenches before Barcelona about tbe?ARCEtoii4. 
6th oi April y the Town being blocked up at the femp 
Time by the Fleet of Count Toloufe the French Admi- 
ral. The Siege was carped on fo VigdroUfly tftat Fort ^ 
Monijoj was taken and the Town reduced to the laft 
Extremity : But as the whole Fate of the War de- 
pended on relieving this Pl^ce, fince Cl^arles who was 
there muft have been made Prifoner, th^e. allied Flee? 
flipped by that of the Prencb in the Night and landed 
ieven "thoufand Men. The Befiegefs Upbrt this raifttf 
the Siege and quitted paii^loniifi with great Precipitation V 
Well ktiowing that If the GarrifoQ frorn" whom they 
every Day expe^ed a Sally Ihould have, the ^Ady^rirage ^ 
their Army muft be' entirely ruined, all thp Inhabitants , , . 
of the Country beingj in the Intereft of Charles. A re- 
markable Eclipfe of the Sun which bappcnfed at thli; 
Time was by fbrtife looked upon as ppttending Misfbr- 
junes to Lewis XIV. who bore a 8fii;i if) ])is Arms. 

While almoft all tht Forces oVPbiRp were emp!ovc<( ^'•ir^'-^ (fthi 
at this Siege, tbc allies under the Marquis de h^^ Mi. Allies one^ 
ms and Lord Gatwaj ^fily became Ma Rers pf Alcan^^'"^' ^/ ^<^*- 
tar a and othpr Towns on the Side <>V Poftugal : Nof'^^°^\ 
could the Duke of Berwick whofe Army Was very fmall 
have prevented Af<i,<A"/W from falling into therr Hands.; 
but they deferred marfhing thither till ihe'Succefs of 
the Siege of ^arcelom w^ known. Upon hearing.,the 
News of its teipg raifed they advanced towards that Ca- • •' 
pital; ^herp the Confternation was^ifudi that PhiHp 



9^. Of S?AtJ!U 

who came Poll far jhe fake of quieting the Mind» of 
the Inhabitants fou^cj it neccffary to retire with his 
TnttiT lim/ii CovLTt towards Navarre: Nay lo dofperate were his 
Madrid. Affairs that it was fufpe£led in his own Army he would 
return into France. To remove thefe Jcaloufies be 
declared at the Head of his Troops, that he was re- 
fplved to 0ied.the laft t)rop of* Blood rather than de- 
fert his faithful Subjefls. Upon the Approach of the 
Army of the Allies Madrid wjth thp "other Towns in 
Cajltli acknowledged Charles i and Caribagena and 
AlUant were about the fan;e Time taken by their 
fleet. Every Thing being now ready for proclaiming 
Charles at Madrid the Generals j who. well knew no 
Time ought to be loft, reprefent^ to him in the moil 
prefiing Terms the Neceffity of hi? coming thither as 
faft as poflible. Inftead of this following the Advice of 
Count Cifuettio, he went to be proclaimed at Sarragoffa^ 
and determined to receive the Homage of Arragon belK)re 
he fet out for Cajlile. As the Army q{ Philip being by 
Reinforcements^ beconie fuperioc to that of the Allies 
appeared, foon after at the Gates of Madrid y thefe laft 
who. were ii) Want of Provifions thought proper to 
retire to. the Qon£nj:s of FaJencia ; for the fake of cover- 
kig this Province, Arre^on and Catahniay and that 
they might at the fame Time preferve a Communication 
with the Fleet. Cdrtha^ena was afterwards retaken for 
philips but the Allies m Return concniered the Iflands 
Defeat of of Majorca ani Ivica, While tjiefff Things were do- 
RkvsKTLAU |i)g the Duke of Vendofme who commanded in hoij 
attacked the Imperial General Reventlau^ who was de- 
feated with the L^ofsof 2000 Men. and ail bis Artillery: 
Yet the Joy hereby occafioned in France was foon put 
an End to by th^ ill Succefs of the Siege of Turin and 
. Lofs of Milan. The Citadel of this kft held out for 
fome Time ; but the Milanefe and Lombardy were intire- 
ly evacuated by the Armies of the Two Crowns in the 
following Spring, The Garrifons of the feveral Towns 
retired according to Agreement to Sufa ; the Duke of 
Mantua to Venice ; and the Duchefs his Confort went 
with Prince Faudemont into France, 
^707. The AfEiirs of Philip in Spain fuccecded much bet- 

ter in the Year X707 : where the &d ESe^ of Charles's 

ConduS 



Of ,S P A I Nt 9^ 

ConduA in th^, preceding Year were already felt. A^. 
the Army of the AUiei was furrounded on all Sides and 
could receive no Supply of Ammunition or Provifioa 
but from the Fleet, which was fubjed to great Delay 
and Uncertainty, it was refolved by the Generils to 
attack the Duke of Berwick before he was joined by 
fome frefh Troops he expeded. They began with de* 
ftroying hb Magazines and then laid Siege to Ftllma. 
The Duke willing to relieve this Place gave them Battle Battle 0/ 
iitiT Almaftza I and after an obftinate A£tion in which ^^^ an z a* 
the Duke loft 4000 Men the Allies were defeated, and 
befides 2000 taken Prifoners left 8000 Men all their 
Cannon and a good Part of their Baggage upon the 
Field of Battle. This ViSory was followed with the 
Submiffion of- Valencia and Arragon to Philip j who to 
chaftife the Dcfeflion of the People abolilhcd their Pri-r 
vile^es, and incorporated both thefe Pjroyinces with Cj- 
fiiU. The Town of Xativa flood it out againft him j^^**"'^.^ ^^ 
but being taken after an almoft incredible Refiftance it ^^^^^ ^^e 
was entirely demoliihed^ and a Pillar was erected on the ^^**'*"* 
Spot were it flood with this Infcriptlon : Ic| A ete' un^ ' 

ViLLE NOMME XaTIVA, QUI EN PuNITION DE SA ' 

Trahison et be SA Revolte contle son Rov 

ET SA PaTRIE a ete' RASE'E JUSqu'AUX FoN- 

DEMENs. In Other Words ; Here stood a Town 
CALiED Xativa^ which as a Punishment for it^ 
Treachery and Rebeilion against its K1N9 / 
AND. Country was rased to the Ground, 
After the Battle of Jlmanza the Duke of OrUam 
took the Command of the Spanifi) Army ; and while 
tbe Duke de Noailles took Livia ^^nd Puicerda be 
made himfelf Mafter of Lerida. The Joy of Philip 
for the Succe6 of this Campaign was doubled by the 
Birth of a Son on the. 20th of Auguft : Who was called 
LeioU Philip and horwured with the Title of Prince <k 
Afturias, 

Charla got Ground in Italy as f;j^ft as he loft it in Succe/s of the 
&paiv J and Cpunt Taun had Orders to pafs through th^lMPERiA- 
P^s Dominions who had been all alDng partial to^""^*'* 
Phiiip,..iii bis Way to Naples^ Being arrived on thf^^^'"^' 
Confines of this Kingdom be detacb#d General F^^ 
ionr^t t^fCapma^ j^hklik lie advMCc4.wi^ t^ main Body 

'I tQ 



»6 



i^oSt 



<rW Minor- 
ca conqutred. 

Kegociatictn$ 
for Peace 
€omes to no* 
iking. 

1709. 
FORTU- 
cv USE defeat' 
id at Bada- 



CHARtlSS // 
acknowledged 
^ theFovEf 
1710. 



Battled/ 

Sarra- 

.QOSSA. 



Of^S PAIN." 

tb the Capital which opened its Gate$ to" him ; an'<f'th(j 
GarnToi^ were ma3e Prifoners of 'Wirr* The Vicerbjr 
together with the Duke 6f Brifaccia and Prince Celta- 
fhotiey who had fled toGaetay were on'taking this Place 
<:^rnpd'back Pt'iToriers to the Caftl^ 6f Naples. The 
H^hofe Kingdom foon fubmitted to the Imperiatt/is i and 
nothing but the IJles 1-emained to Philip nn I^ofy* 

In the enfuing' Campaign the Duke of Qr/Sww took 
Tartofa ; but the Allies were f6 ftrqng on the Side of 
Portugal that they gained fome Advantages over thq 
Marquis //^ J5d'^. The Englijh MtnxxdLV^ Leake reduced 
Sardinia to the Obediance of Charles \ and with the 
Lots of np more than fe^en Men betame ]Mafter of 
IPort Mahone and the* whole Ijland of ^finorca', • 

Negoc(ations for Peac? were ftt on 'foot in the next 
Year'; bat it heing among other Preliminaries ihfifted 
'U^bn'tha't Philip {hpuld renounce all Pretenfioiis to the 
Spdnijh Mbiurchy they were foon broke off,* and his 
Troops dcfe^fed the Portiqueff at. Badaj[cx, Qtx the 
, other Sjde Siahreribur^ thp Imperial General pafled 
the ^egre within Sight of the Enemy and took Ba- 
taguer, Philip p'lhed his Army with a Defigrt to attack 
him ; but ajtefed his ^ind upon flndihg him advantage- 
oufly ported. 

'' The Pope fot the fake of gettjitg rid of the Troops 
quartered in his Dominion? acfcriowledged Charles iq 
the Year lyicfa'S King of Spain; 'which * notwith- 
f{andrr)g Its being againft the Grain was' fo refentcd by 
Phfiipy that he-Njrdcred his Nuncb to leave Aladrid 
and forbid -all Ihtercourfe with Rome. The Army of 
'Charles being'-' Reinforced, and thaft' of the Du?ce of 
'jNi<i/7/^j , weakened by fending a large '6etachnr)erit into 
Languedoc which was threatened with a Dcfcent, his 
A'i&irs in Spain grew much better i arid Getterjil Starr- 
hope after ro^itrhg his Cavalry iidar'-^»fi2«»r<l obligfed the 
Army of Philip to retreat in great H^fte towfftb Le- 
rid0. By this Advantage a Way wto no!C 'only opened 
into Ca/fHe; but the Army of PhiHp''^^ «n gry^t Dan- 
^rof being fiirrouhded. To prevent thi$ he marched 
t6 Sarragoja: Charles followed him and aBfttrl^was 
thcire fought, ^wiiich it ^Rras fuppofed wqul«| hivif'deci- 
^ the ^at« of th* Spanifi^ Monard)^ 1 for ti^ Twp 
*" * Crom 



Crowns 'ihfl Iweke Pieces of Oannon, all tfieir Bx^gagS^ 

fevcnty-two Colours, fifteen Standards and Several thou- 

fand PrUbn6r»: And PhiSf^^ who fled' almbft alone to . . . t^ 

Madrid^ cadfed his - Army .> to > 4tiave towards JS&vtffr^ v - ^ 

and his Court to Vittoriar ChatUs being by tkis ViAory .:/ . ; 

become'Mafier of both j/frag09t saxd Cnjlilt be itqpaired '"^ 

immediate^ Ko Madrid y^tA ftwri thenoe weirt to pay a 

Vifitto ttic Qa«en Dowiger zK'fFdido. • T^Pcriuguefe 

inflead'^f aAing vigoroul^ 'ftt'this Junftupc pLX^PMlip 

an Oppi>rtuiM€y of returning iv^i^h great ReinfoF^eoitsnts 

to MkdAdi and C^i^/t/rx >wa9'in> his Turn farced to quit 

this Capital and rerii^e' into lC<fft}i!9l7//f. Iiis.'Ard)y in 

Arragon having, exhauftcii the Oountry Was- aboil! ttie 

fame Time .{forced to''decailif»j..and for tho SaL& of 

being ' fubfilM * to maiichv.'iQr.^verai . Goluasns. Do 

this hafi^ Retreat i t vnu;* owing that tbe lEngli/k '^tic 

fcat up. i«; Brihu^en z waHed Town. Genetal StAH- ^^"^^''^ 

hope th«ir*Commanderaefc^iKted''the'Plgc«'wrt1i P^^^^J^^^^p^ 

Bravery v-b^'Wng owirpotvered by Ntimffir^ be at^ ^ 

lad futrendeDed hianitlf With his'Corp» cDnfifting of eiglst'^ 

Squadron^ aiui as msiAy -j&ttalions Prifoners 6i ' W«r. 

Counts takrenherg^ vfhT3s waa juft coixw upiaHthe Time, 

being quits a Stranger 'toe his>fu it rendcmg. attacked the 

Spani/h^'Army^ whk^ ktf^'i^zr'Ffi&i''Fnicfa with %x&it Battle •/ 

Vigour; '> The Battle iafted irdhi' tfcrce i^ the-After- Villa 

noon till Ni^. Botb.Siriw .boafled of ■ having- jKwffd Viciosa. 

and ruinei^ tl^ Arn>y' othth^ Esdmy 4 and*?e JS^«;7^ was 

fung bothi $st'Paris and l%»ffftt. - The Ti-oops of Charles 

afterwards fetitedfurthW 3htp-;^r^jf8ff^2 ; > 

Noihnigyeaiarkable happened in )th8.iiext Ounpaign Giromnk 
except the taking bf Oirwtti^ by the D«k4 dt NcnrU&i. , '^^^»» * 7 ^ ' • ^ 

TheM>eath of the Empcrbr L^ld -oh the Sth of Charles 
Jkby i705:iiiade no Aheeaciin' jn* the AfFairsof Spam \ is advance^ f^ 
for Jtifiph h\% eldeft Sail and- SucceflW cantinucd \Qthe\uvt^\K^ 
efpoufc bis BrotheiV<3«arfad3 with ail hit Eetccit nor^^°'**'^^' 
was ^hc Ardou'T of the Alliis for the Intcrcftof. Charies " 

in the lead abated. 6e»i^ 00 the Dear b'o^hi^- Brother 
Witboitlfilie/ifl April I'j VI ^tuiv?Lw:eAxQ the Inipe rial 
Dignkjr^ C^r/fi iv't^as obliged CO leave £^irii< m-Sfptem*, y 

her hi *thc fake of goiiif^ to be croweeu at Frmifer^ * • 

which^ flotwithftandinglbafihe left htfi.SpkMA'fe m Caia* 
bnia as a Pledge thac:i[e: by n^ Me»iu:£^VQ up. ^is 

Vol.. I. . H Pietea- 



Pretenilbak \o ^m, tiffnM ottt vcfy'mttck t6 ^W Ad- 
vantage of Pbil^, '» « . 
Tnatiis of On the Renevi^ of the >hgoCiatkms in ite Year 1 7 1 2 
efface with aJJ^bt Englifi Miniftry, who could, have, no ptbfr View in 
the Ah^i^s this Wac than the Pecfejfvation of the.^&dlan^e of 
gxcrpt the Power, appiehendiog. he- would become jtQo.foepiidaUe 
tmperor. ^y poffe^Qg at the hm^ Time the Aufiriamhx^xf&xxdy 
'7'** the Spauifi^ MonanJiy^ «nd the loiperielr Dignity, 
(grew cool to -tfic Intetcft tif Charles. Thie I>i(|x)fitk)n 
being hid hoTd of by>X«ic/ff.XlV.: wbo'iirifliod for no- 
. thing fe much as Peate iprovided it could, b^/bed with- 
out ffacl^ficing the Imeidb of.his Grandfoa PMUp^MUrt- 
. jy^ TrcatterolF Peace .wem^coliduded with all.thePowfrs 
at, Wat except the Empmr,. idyhooi Bothing kh than the 
Ceffion^the whotew^d«(i& .Monarchy brouid: conteot 
To prevent the .Union: of. the 'Crowns of ffwke and 
SpsinMndct 'the /ame Sovereign if waft flipulated in 
thcfe Treaties, that \tii»Sn PiUip.ot^ bis Hcira ifhould 
* * " . , at any Time accept the Oown of Frana iWjof Sffain 
fbould be ceded to the>Hdufe.Qf Satfty, ..Tbeodier ma- 
lenal Articles wtre, that ;ibe Buke of :&R^rAduki be 
r put into immpdnite Pofleffion of the Kingdom 6ff&n7jp; 

• that all ifift^ihoaJd.be.neuterrandremiin m^Sfatu^^i 
> ^v ' :«iid that Ci7/#&enr (boiiid' be ^evacuated' by 'aU foreign 

' Troopa. ' A fokmn Renuaciatioh c^f his'Rigbt to die 

-— Fr0KhCr€imiw^fiHia3^tfttti^kdchyFhiiip9it.M 

md « Reneriobtion of all Right totthe CroUvnrof Spain 

• .was <deinaj^dcd from .the frmcb Gouct-^ ku^t in - being in- 

• fifted upon by the Marquis ^i/^.Tikirjr: thai fucb. a Re- 
" ^ ' itvuncnttion/ was contrarjr^to the fundamcmat Laws of 

' ' ^ /hnn^ th& Maritime Powers for the fake of • fame Ad- 

/' ' ' vantages in Trade waved- it aad reneWed.tfaeir , Acknow- 

' - ' kdgmentsjof Pbiiip tSStKiag of S^/n aqdrthe ImBis. 

'^ '* ^ The Treaty with Portugal there being fome Things to 

* ' ^ ' be adjisftcd was not indeed jietUed fo f^ii as tbofe with 

: the other Pbwers; but all Hoftilities ceafed and a^ Fi- 

' nifliiagibad waaput to it in the next Year« _ 

MisfirtuMs tf As^ta Ca/^i/MTMrit.was qirneftly contendad^i^ the 

th$ Catalo- Emperor tfaet 4he Privileges of thia Provtace ihoidd not 

MIAN 8. \ be leilehed for its Adhefion to him. Pbiiip on the con- 

^ 4rary iofiftedtbat this, as it waaa Matter which depended 

on his Clemency, mull be left to his Diicretion s and that 

' - ' ' * - : .though 



though he had the greatcft HegsMd for the Empeldr, it 

could not be expeAed that the Cataiomans^ w|io had 
been tke>moft obftinately rebellious of all biaSubje&s^ 
{houkl irhlm they were in his Power force him into 
their T^m». The Queen^ of Enghnd promifed to in- 
tercede lor them and did do- it. The Fruit however 
of her good Offices was loft by their refufing to lay dowa 
their Arms % and Adfmiral Wifhari had Orders to affift in 
reducing them. They were 'by him >pretnaikd upon .to 
leave tfa^Matter to the Enf^ifi) kxc^^Atxzt Madrid^ and 
a general Papdon wa« obtained : But as Bbili^ perfiAed 
in cefiififig>to confirm their Privileges they wouM not ac- 
cept di it* The Trenches were hereupon opened. before 
Bareikna in Juiy 1714. The Ii^bitams after being 
reduced 'flo the greateft Extnemity reprefented to the 
i£«^/^ Admiral^ that all they had done for Charles was 
doneat the /Requeft of the Queen of Gnat Britain^ and 
be^ed that Hoftilittes might ceafeat leaft till the Re- 
turn of' an Exprefs they ^would :fend once more to X«a- 
dan. Nd Regard was paidtothefe Remonftrances :• And 
the Dttkeof BiTwkk had moreover Orders from his 
Mafter Lewis XIV. who being on the Point of maitimg 
Peace with die Emperor and in a bad State of Health 
wanted to fee an End of all the Troubles of Europe^ to 
prefs the Siege. The Inhabitants fttll held out defpe- 
rateiy, and oiled upon God at their Altars to revenge 
this BreaiA-of Faith upon the Efiglifi}^ who had fo often 
given them the moft ibiemn A'ffuiances of Protection. 
The general Aflauh bemg made on the i ith of Sipim- BARcatoitA 
her^ all this unhappy People could obtain- wu, that /tfi/v, I7>4*. 
their Lives (hould be fpared and the Town favod from 
Plunder, upon Condition that tbey would give up Car- 
dsnne and aiilft in bringing back the Ifland of Majorca 
to its Duty. 

In^the fame Year died Moria Lmiifa GabruHa oi Death of ii^ 
Savoy Queen of Spain \ and the King was foon after ^een^ 
married to BUxabetb Daughter of the Duke of Parma, Spaiji. 
Alherom an Italian Prieft and vaftly intimate with the 
Duke ii Vand^fme bad a great Share in making up tbia 
Match. A Cardinal's Ctp was in Return procured for 
him by the Queen \ and he was foon placed at the Head 
of the Miniftry. 

H % , A$ 



Hoftilities re-C 
commenced by 
Spain. 



^adruple 
Alliance^ 
1718. 






A K^pfure 
fwith Eng- 
land and 
France. 



. Q/.Sta IK* 

A$lhe Evacuation of CataUnia^vw upon Gon^I- 
fion and quite difagreeable to the Imperialijisj. they took 
.Care to leave the Seeds of DifaiFe^lion of which they 
hoped one Day to avail themfelves amongft the People. 
The Emperor moreover would never hy. any publlck 
Aft renounce his Pretenfions to th^ Spanijh Monarchy. 
So that although the Neutrality prevented for the pre- 
sent ail Attempts in Italy the Reconciliation betwixt 
the two Rivals was far from being hearty. The Vene- 
tians being attacked by the Tterks in th^ Year 1716 
the Emperor was prevailed on to affift them. The Court 
of Spain^ was follicited by tlie Pope to do the fame ; and 
the more readily to bring Philip into it he confcnted to 
the raifing of large Sums on Ecclefiaflicks. A Fleet 
was hereupon. fitted out by Philips which: fa v^ Corfu 
this Year and did ftill greater Things in the next: 
But this was not all he aimed at; forjudging the Op- 
portunity favourable be reiblved to attack the Domi- 
nions of the Emperor in I^fy, His Pretence for this 
was that Charles had forfeited, his Right to Naples and 
Sardinia ; which were ceded to him on Condition of his 
giving up Majorca to Philip, 

The Spani)b Fleet eafily became Maftcrs of Sardinia: 
But this Blow which was quite unexpedkd aiarnied the 
Powers of Europe,, ahd laid the Foundation of the ^' 
druple Alliance concluded at London in the Year 17 18. 
The Defign of this Treaty being to bring .about a gene- 
ral Peace three Months Time was aHowed for the 
Acceflion of Spain to it. Inftead thereof the Spaniards 
attacked Sicily^ which the Diike of Savoy had accord- 
ing to the Tenour of this Treaty exchanged with the 
Emperor for Sardinia^ and foon made tbemfelves Maf- 
ters- of great Part of that Ifland. Upon this the Court 
of London interpofed j and after fome Threatnings fent a 
Fleet into the MediUrrdnean which entirely ruined the 
Spanijh Fleets 

A ' Rupture enfuing France was called upon by the Al- 
lies. ^ but it is probable (he would for fome Time have 
excufed'hetfelf from fulfilling the Engagt^ments entered 
into by. the ^adruple Allianu^ if it had not happened 
that the Duke of Orleans was juft then highly iqcenfed 
againft the Cardinal Alheroni^ who liad laii a Sdieme 

. ^ in 



In Concerr with Prince Cellamere the Spdnljh Amiiaf- * 
fador at' the*/r/w^A CoUrt to remove him from the 
Regencyl Thid being diffcoVered by Letters found oa » 
the Abbot PortO'Carrero the Spantjh Ambaflador * 
was fent borne guarded and War was declared 
againft Spain, Thus by the Intrigues of the Cardinal 
Minifter the Regent, who as it appeared by the Mani- 
fefto he publiflied had taken upon him to procure the 
Reftitutlon of Gitraltar^ was fo provoked as to engage 
with the Houfes of Aujlria and Hanover in a War' 
againft a King oi Spain of the Blood Royal of France. 
Such an ' Event would about feven Years before have 
been thought fcarce poffible ; yet fo it fell out and .. * . ^ -» 
Bifcay was attacked by the French. Negociations were 
hereupon entered into at the Hague under the Mediation • ,.. . ~ ; 
oftheZ>tt/r*; but the Succefs of them maybe prin- 
cipally afcribed to the Difgrace of Cardinal Jlheroni in 
the Year 17 19. * . r 

ThisPWate forgetting the Obligations he lay under ^'^'^J*^'^^'' 
toa Qiieen, who had fo generoufly rewarded his Services, '* ' ^ UyA- 
prevailed on the King to banifli her from his Council and a, , i^nck 
afterwards from the.Kingdom. Philip foon faw his Mif- i72o« * 
take; and haying difg raced the Cardinal was prevailed 
on by his true Friends to accede in February 1720 to: 
the ^adruple Alliance^ and thereby to put an End to a* 
War which would'have fo foon again involved all Eu^: 
rope in its Misfortunes, He was defirous of adding fome 
Things to what had been agreed upon by thecontraS- '"• * • 

in^ Parties ; the chief of which were the Reflitution of* 
Gibraltar and Port Mahone^ and the SuccelTion of Don^ 
Carlos to Parma^ P lacentia :Lnd Tufcany: But all thefe- 
were left to be fettled at a Congrefs for a general Peace 
which was to be held immediately at Camhray. 

In the next Yeat two Marriages were agreed upon : J double Mar^ 
The firft betwixt Lewis XV. and Maria Infanta of Spain riage bet<wixt 
then but three Years of Age; the fecond betwixt theFRANCE tf»^ 
Prince of JJhirias and Madamoifelle de Mohtpenjier^^^^^*'^!^^* 
Daughter of the Regent. Great Expeftatibns were hence 
raifed of a happy Union betwixt the two Crowns ; and- 
thefe were ftill more cncreafed, when the People not- • 

only faw thefe two Princeffes exchanged, but another 
Tieaty of Marriage fet on foot in the fame Year be- 
ll 3 twixt 



:«>* 



French 
Rbobnt; 

1723. 

Abdication of 
Philip, 



J^Bwrs. 






Of Spain. 

t^ixt D^ Carhs of Spain and the Regtnfs fifth baiifgh-* 
ttr' Mademoifelle di Beaujohh, Ai a gooif Underfland- 
ing fubfiftcd at th* fame Time betwixt the two Crowns 
and England PhiUp entertained great Hope? of focceed- 
ing in his Demands : But he was quite miftaken ; for 
the Emperor upon various Pretences put off the Ihvefti- 
ture of Dm Carlos ; and the King ofi^re^ Britain did 
not think proper to break v^ith the Emperor, from 
whom he was follicitirrg the Inveftiture of the States he 
had newly acquired in Germany, Befides this the Englifh 
Nation wop Id by no means confent to give up GiBf altar 
and Port Mahone ; which had coft' them dear and were 
of vaft Importance fo their Trade in the Mediterranean, 

Before tliiefe Difficulties were adjufted the Death of 
the Regeiit in December 1723 produced an entire Change 
in the French Miniftry. 

The next Year was introduced with an Event which 
aftoniflied all Europe, The King of Spain declared on 
the 15th of January^ that having ferioufly refle^cd on 
the Miferies of this Life, and called to Mind the Mif- 
fortunes of War and Rebellion it had pleafed Goi> to 
try him With; and having alfo confidercd tha^ his Son 
v^as come to Years of Ntiturity, already married, and 
fufficiently capable to take the Reins of Government in- 
to his Hands : He was for the fe Reafons fuUy determined 
to abdicate the Throne in favour of Prince £nc;«his 
eldeft Son. 

An Abdication being made next Day in the moft 
folemn Manner, the new King w&s immediately pro- 
claimed in Council and at Madrid with the ufual Ce- 
remony. Ort the 9th of the next Month the Marquis 
de Grimaldo Succeflbr in the Miniftry to Alhermi re- 
tired with his Matter, and the People conceived great 
• Hopes ff'om the Reign of this Prince a Native of J^^it; 
but an End wa^ put to thefe together with the Life of 
the new King by the Small-pox in the Augvfi fol- 
lowing. 

The States being hereupon afiemWed it was ixfof- 
Ved that Philip (bould be entreated fo rcfume the Go- 
vernment ; and they at the fame Time irprefcntcd to 
hrm the great Need the Kingdom had of hihi. Some 
Divines fatd xtfat the Abdi«fation was annuHai-'bytlTe 
I • *: t)eatl» 



Of Z:9ia:x^\ IP3[: 

Ds«di4# tbeiPrince bi whofe Eayour alone k \ssA been 
made ^. ^y tte Mtnority. of his Brothers ; and by the AI* 
teratioa pf tfac Ciicumftances which were the Occafion 
of it* . Otiiers )vere indeed of a contrary Opinion : But 
that noble ^Maxim the Good o£ the People is the Tu- 
preme X#aw prevailed ; and Philip who bad been in- 
duced bjr pious Motives to put* oiF the Grown con- 
fented to put it on again. He refer ved however tbe 
Liberty of toying it afide again as fcon as Ferdinand^ 
who was ihurtly after declared by- the Corttt Prince of 
AJiurim^ fliauld be of Age to reign. 

The Duke of Bmrhn^ who fucccedcd to tbe Regen- TbeCMgre/srf^ 
vf of R-amey did not look upon bimfelf to be bound by Cambray 
the Piomife of hk Predeceffor that Giin-altar (hould be ^''^^ **• 
reftored^ efpecially as he found the Britifl) Parliament 
would bear nothing of it : But ^pain infifted on the * ' 

fulfilling of this, without which (be had never acceded 
to the ^ua0truple AUianct. • The two Courts were fur- 
ther embroiled by another Incident. As Levuis XV. was 
very inficm and his Spoufe quite young, it was feared 
be woutd not live bng enough to have any Children by 
her. I^ar this Reafon another Princefs was found for 
him and the Infanta of Spain was fent home ; which 
fo provoked the Court of Spain that her Plenipotentiaries 
were recalled, and thereby an End was put to the fruit- 
icfs Congrefs of Cambray, 

It was hereupon propofed by the Baron de Riperda^ A fefarate 
formerly. Ambafl^or from the SAaUi General at Madrid Featfwkhtk*^ 
i^ow in the Service ot Philips to clap up a fcparate Peace Emperor, 
with the Emperor ; and Negpciations being fecretly en- J7^S» 
tcred into fpur Treaties were eoncluded atFiinnae^rly 
in the Y«ir 17x5* By the firft it was agreed that 
Frame zsid Spain (hould never be united ^ that ^ain 
&ouId give up her Right to the Reverfion of SiciJy ; that 
tHe Eventual SocceiBon to Tufcanyy Parma and PZn- 
ctniia Ibould be granted to Dm Carlos ; tbat Leghorn 
fcould for ever remain a free Port ; and that the Pof- 
fefiion of Sardinia Ihould be confirmed to the Houfe of . 

Sav9y. The fccond was between Spain and the EmptrK 
"The third was a Treaty of Commerce ; and the fourth a 
^efeofive one between thefe two Powers. France^ Sng- 
l^vii iblknd were all di%ufted at thefe Treaties. The 
H 4 formei 



:^¥4i 



Treaty of 

Hanover. 



RiPERDA 
refi^ns his 
Employments^ 
" 1720. 



Jf^ar nvith 

Great- 
Britain. 



furnKb the Emperor withj^and Engl^md i\si^.M&<ies h^v 

Ft:ars .foc/!xiA4^//dr,good Re«iiVn ko.unite.jWfith i|he Duub 
in codiplaioHH; oC (He >/^^ //^tifiV? Cpn>paiDyi >«Mdch was 
to be^eHabliibed -^t Ofiend «oder the £ncQias(g4K)«At m^d 
Pfoteftion of P.W/>. .1. .. j . i; .. ■, -.a 

The Eivperor and King^ ^^ifljjpinf: Jby t-Ws ciofc 
Union become forixudabi^ to £Krx?/>.f,.a- Xipaty<»t A^ 
liajckc.e betSKixt Franc$.,7ksii^ Gr^at Britain M^sl^ ^^oteied 
'Wio.^^.iifii^iP^r la xW.&ept4mher following. iTb^ K. ng 
of Prujfia was a cor^trading. Party but' he. i^fiew»^ards 
difagreed tb tbisTnesuy,. Ji;,wa^acced^,to]»y.liie2<S^#/^i 
General i but thi^ w^s, dpi;w with fuch R^fthi^^if^m as 
ihewed their M(;»c|er^tipn,af>4jh4t they: had; np.ofher 
View than that of fecuriagt^e-TraequllIify/^jjE'iiy^^ . 
. AUl^ourgh the Peace, with the EiiLperor-ivasfi^ from 
being ^advantageous to Spain,, the Baron Je^ JR^perda 
w^iQ uegpciatcd it.uppa.hj[S Return to Court^eccived 
tie higHeft Mjirks of Efteei^, bping made a u^t and 
prime Miiiifter ; but ca.r«;yjng it with too h/gh a hand 
he became fo odious to ^the Gr-^indsety that iK>t jtjhiinking 
himfclf fafe he ia M^^ IJ2.6 begged l§|ive tf) refign his 
EoipU^yments. This \^'as gr^tf;d JhiiP with a £f#fipn: 
Yet being ftill apprehenfive he (heltered hirtiC^ in tbe 
Houfe of Mr Stanhope th^ Britijh Ambaflador. . . As this 
llrarigc Conduct betrayed Guilt he Was. d^aggied frpm 

, tbje^^ce. by.Ofder of tlie Court and coniiqed in a .Cattle : 
By which Proceqdi.'ig the Co/plnefs between '^;H?m and 

> E/igland, was encrcafed. The; Marquis, de la P^% fuc- 
ce^ed Riperda j h\^t^ he yi^as foon flifmifled iox\^\t fake 
of the Marquis df Grmaid^. who hf^ Ijeen. prini<$ Mifii- 
fter befo:e,.the Abdicatippo..* 

1 Tite. Court qi Imdm^' ^^'^g informed -Xrpm Ri- 
perda and other, tjand^ . th*t ^he Sp^iards ^^f^i^ .\z^ 
folvcd to x€cov^r Giirftltifri .which a^ .tb^yr.fatd was 
prpmifedto them at. the A<^<5cffi<^>n of Spain sq t^c^a^ 
drtiph Jlli/cin.cey thought^ it the b<;ft.Wjay,tQ fend t Fleet 
:tp ilpp. t he .Ual leons» w^ thereby put it .p^t P( her Power 
tp.fur niflv the Eojp^rpr. with ^he ftipulatedS^Abfidijes. Ho- 
•ftilit^es being now coipjpcpc^d isi^^piefiAfi^.tb^ M^i^^P 
furffeige^'great Loffe3. there itBiOr ^ii the,|nt^eftof Spain 
fuffsr . iii .njii^ch by .,$b^-i>€tqAtipa, .of •ihiP.,6i»Uf«iw -as 
: ,' ii that 



ttet of FoAfgfkrt who had Eff«fib oft Board'. Ttif^cad^ 

of xhlsthfe Sptmiar^i Ifad a ispod Preieticfe for not 6V'' 

trawimg-m Tiittddf War'tiie Tifcafttrr<if tbtf t^^ntyJ 

two Sail, which Admiral Csjhgneta had fnide'(h{ft to' 

bring tnic^ C^fdm. A? War was thds begun fti America 

Philip made no Scruple of befieging Gioraltat*: But as Gibraltab ^ 

the Pbcc* wa) f>f0^ed iFor a vigorous Defence, as the^£^<'^^^- * 

Emperor fuftiilhed.hiln with n6' Alifl^uce,^ arid as the', '^ 

M'tifoi BrifAift'deiJ^Ted they would" joift ajgainfi Spain if 

(he refufed their A/kediation Prclimmarie^ of a general ^ . ^ 

Peace were agreed upon zt Boris i aild a Congrefs was 

appointed to be -held zt&oiffons. 

The Y^i»-i 7*28 wis fpcnt in fettling theLoffes which Congrefs of 
Guat Britain had faftained by th^^ Spani/h Guard de^^^^^^^^» 
Cs^asin yfmeriskhi^And in perfijading the Emperor to »728. 
fubmit to fome rAieefations concermng "tJi© Succefiioh of. 
Dm Carhr to T»fcany^ Parma and PJacetifia. ^ 

The QotMft tA Madrid vf^s »lfo this Year taken Vip'A dcuhk Mar- 
with tke Marriage of 'the Prince of Afturias with Tirioge luUb 
Princefs q\ Portugal^ ard with that or the fVmce of Portugal, ' 
hazxl with the Infanta of ipain. . •- ■ ^ 

As Things fticceedeSi* no better M Sdljpifis than they"*? aki shecomes 
had done»brfardat Gamh-ay the Couff oi^France becamev^^ Center of 
the Center of Negociations, iCanJinal rpleury; ^f^)^^lleg9ciattom. 
Was prime Miwifler there in the DtSikeof Bourb^'d 
reom, took great Pains to prevent a Rupture berwrxr 
Spain and the Emperor: But this lail, as the Allies of 
^^^adjryipk Al^ance had acknowledged "9»/^/7»y, PatmH 
and fUtteniia which depended before on the See oi Ronii 
to be Fi«fs of the Empire^ and he- wi» in Poffefli^i o^ 
Sicily^ became l«f*:aiid leis traftaible.." ■ 

At length, as Great Britain whofe Trade fufFered mfucM Treaty cf Se- 
by the5^u^ Wart grew-urteafy^at the'Driay ot the Ne- ville, 1729. 
gociation^, ar.Treaty was concluded at Se^iite' in tk\Q 
Year 1729 between Great Britain,; PtanceikvA SpliiitL 
By this'ic wa:4 ^eed that Great Bfimin flioald have &i 
tisfaflioa ibr the Deprerfations^toi&mirtted'o'n her Mer- 
cbants.; ?that.'fhe ^in Conjundioir' with Pronce fttouJd 
Secure the Succeflion of Parmal lupasty and Platentik 

^ Don Garkt'y.^n^ tho more' effe(5h:ally to do' this *• ' '" • I 

^t 6000 S^»w>. Troops fhoiild be introduced as Gar- 

^^^•'vAmJimJy,/k$Ai^ 'Of the fatne.Nuinber of Stuifs^ ^ *• 

which 



10^ Of^FAin, I 

^lu<h llad )lty f<Sitmr Trc^ues beea agmeif y|K>a. The: 

contracting Powfcs tooisM upon thrmMves at the fame | 
Time (he peepetual. Guaranty of thefii States to kb 
Sftneots H»^n€f&an<i hi(^ Succcfflaj^, 
Origin p/thi M th^ Affair of fotKing the £^yiSQ^ Merchant Ships 
^garr^ f^' hf. tie Spamfii Gu^rda de Ctfiat^ for v^ich Sattsia£tion 
#«i;i>/ St Aim vf^ to be «iade» became more and oaore fecious^ it will 
4MMf Great {^ secefl^Ry tamplainr this Matter. During tbe Mino- 
BaiTAiHwif ^.j^y ^ C*tfrif IL t»\e Qiieen Regent hia Mother con- 
tinung Dtfrt^ ^,^j ^ p^^e with EHgland^atiout the Year 1667. By 
daiwu. ^^j^ ^j^ cQntca3ki«g .Pactiet^contented thenfelves with, 

regulating the Commerce oi-Eum^: But aU that con<r 
cerned the /ii^-//f<A'<i Tfade waa kit to be fetthd by 
awthef Treacy three Years after, which was called the 
. Treaty cl^i»^/iw. The £f(f/^ who dui tag that W^r 

hud mAt great Advantages hy eradti^ with the Sfmi^ 
ards continued to do the fitme: And as Jamaica was 
* ill rl^ir Hands they never wanteda Pretence for £uliog 
near the Spanifi^ Coaih < The COurt of Madrid being 
top much engaged %o attend to it. this illicit Trade had 
. greatly encreafed^ and muft in tbe End have quite ruin-a 
ed the SjMnf> Tx^. To put aftop to it Philips who 
was by the Treaty xATJkretbt left in Pofieffion of Spain, 
S0id tbe IndifSy fiationed Ships of Wat on the Sfanifo 
Coafts. By tbtfe not only fuch. Ships were fiurched as 
were a&ually carrying on an illicit Trade, but aU ihac 
were fufpe^ed to have done it -, and whenever any Spa^ 
nijh Goods were fouad on Board the Veflels were coa^ 
ifeated. Spain con&nted by the Treaty of S^iUe that 
Satis&^lon (bouki be made for all unjuft Captures : Yet 
inftfted that all fuch as appeared by their Lading to have 
been , carrying on am unfair Trade. weve good Prizes. 
This Matter :w^ left to be decided by CiOHnifiaries at 
JMadrid ;..and to them alfo it was left to/ettle the LoiTes 
pf the Sgutif-S^a Compar^^ whofe £fFefisin Amenrica were 
' CVA the breaking out of dbe War with Engiand feized con- 
Uary t5^ the ^in<e.(^fra^; But the Conferenfces open- 
ed for thefe Purpofes continued fome Years without 
«)ncluding tipan any Thing, 
DonCaslos ' Tbe Introdu^i;E>fr iof D$n Cta^lds being, ia the mean 
introduced into Tixtie deferred Orders were given to the Sptmifo htU" 
Ita t Y. bafikdor-at JP«r//,toidcclasf> that as tbe Mn koA i^ 
• ./. ifl 



Qf SrAiN/ 107 

in their Et^igeminfi^his Caibtlici Mftjefty thought h!m« 
(^ difdiarged from the OUigalions of the Treatjr of • 
Sevilk. Upon thb Gre^t ^rrArnr beftirrtd hcrfelf; and 
having firft prevailed on the Smpir§r t(y coiifcnt to the 
change of Troops, &e by an AA figned in Jttfy 17 31 
promifed lo introduce D^ Carlos into liafy wkbiii five 
Months and kep€ her Word. 

In the Jamary fdlowing Anthwrt Duke of Pwrma Deaib ^Ah- 
^niPlacentia the laft Prince of the Fantt/e Family died: thom y Dmk^ 
Yet 23 the Emperor had with the greateft Reludance e^ Parma* 
agreed to the IntroduAion of the Infant into liafy^ he 
pat off lus Invellkure to thefe Dutchies for fame Time 
under the Pretenlce thtt the Du^cheft Dowager «»as preg^* 
nam. When thh stppeared to be without Foundation 
Dm Carbi teokPofleflion of them ; but freih Difficult 
ties with Regard to the Invefttture were ratfed by the> 
Court of Vttmta. 

Upon the Death ot Attgv/fus IL King cf Poland in Wa rot iff- 
Fibrnttrf 1733, Lewis XV. ufcd his utmoft Endeavours f^**^ ^f '** 
to advance his Father-in- Law Staniflaus to this Throne Polish 
which he had before poOcflcd. His Eteaion bcfng op-'^^*^"^'^** 
pofcd by the Emperor with great Warmth a War broke* ^lil* 
out: And the Houfe of Sawy^ which had long and in' 
vain hoped fdr the Redre6 of fome Grievances from 
the Emperor, joined with firaftca and Spain. The Stater- 
General judging it not proper to engage in a War which 
no Ways concerned them, and which they had taken 
great Pains to prevent, contented themfelves with ob- 
lainrng a Neutrality for Ae Netherlands which was rfeli- 
gioufly obfecved ; and as the Dutch would not come 
in Great Britain mieddled no further than by offering her 
Mediation. Af tei' the Emperor had lofl' all in liafy ex- 
cept the Town oi 'Mantua France in the N«ime of the 
Mitt propofed an Accommodation ; and Prelim inariea 
were figned -privatdy at Fienna, 

By thefe it was agreed that the Mibmefi and Man^- Prelimtiaries 
tunn fliottM be reftorcd to the Emperor, and that hee/'ViiKKA. 
ftotiM have the Dutchies of Parma and Placentia in 
Exchange for Naples and Sicify ; that D^ Carbs^ who 
had duriAg the War taken PoffefBoA at firft in his " ' * 

Father's NanM of N^les and Sicily and afterwards 
in his Diwti NattB upon the Ceffioa of bis Father, 

(hould* 



toSi Of Sp'ain.^ 

fbould be acknowledged as fCfng "of the, two ElcUui \ 

and that the Duke oi Lorrain ihould have'71/;^<7»y in 

Exchange for his own Dutchy, ' whic^h Stanijlaas was to 

have to makfe amends for his Lofsof the PoUJb Crown, 

Spain being by no Means fatKsfied with this Difpofition, 

hy 'Which the Infant was deprived of three Dutchies, kept 

* PoffefEon of thefe as long as poffible; and although (he 

. ' ^was at laft forced to evacuate them ftiy laid' Claim to 

: the Allodial feftates of the Famefe Family. 

DcprddaiioBi The Court of - Madrid - t)OW a2;ain at Ldfiire fe- 

in the West, fdved to put k Stop 'to the ilKcit-Trade of the^'Ehgli/b 

Ikdies CM' 5n America ; and Orders were fent to the Comnaanders 

•"'^- of the G^ard de Cojias' to be very ftriftin fearching, 

• and to feize a!l Ships which had any Spahifb Goods on 
board. Complaints being hereupon made by the Sritifi 
Goart;, it was againft confcnted to 'by the Court cf 
Madrid that Satisfaftion fhould be made fdr all unjuft 

• 'Captures:; and 'Commiffa ties W b(5th Sides were ap- 
pointed. A long Lift of their Ebffi» wa^ grvien in by 
the Englijh Merchants ; but as rhcfe were even in the 

' Opinion of the EngRJh Commiflaries too much, exag- 
gerated, it was agreed to reduce them tti 2co.ooo Pound 
Sterling. Oathe other Side Gr/nt Britain' hid by the 
' ' Treaty of Madrid m the Year 172 1, and by that of Se- 

%ilk in the Year 1729, confented torcftore or pay for'the 
Sfpanijh Ships, taken by Admiral Byng in the Year 1718. 
I^ was infifted Wiat thefe were worth ifio^ oca Pound: 
But it was a^ecd by the CommiflFaries that 6o,oco 
Pound fhould be 'allowed 5 and they moreover ,agrced, 
that for the Sake of having the Balance paid by Spain 
diiredtly there ihould be an Abatement of 45000 Potind. 
By thfefe Deduiftioiis the Ballancc on .the SWe x^England 
was 95 000 Pound. A'& iothQU^uth- Sea Company t%OGO 
-Pound was afck«owledged to be in Arrcar from them to 
the Court of Madrid \ but according to therr Reckon*- 
. . .. • -^ ing:a*muth greater Sum was due to the Company frcm 

•' / this G6urt. ' 

The Conven- ,. For the Sake of adjufting- this Matter the Sighing of 
tion'witb the Convedtlon,' which was Tcady in September iT^t 
Spain. ^gg ^ut off; but it was figned* the Jamiury following. 

By this it was agreej^, that Conferences fiiould be open- 
ed at, Aftf6fr/rf for. regulating what concerfied' the TrW* 
. . ' and 



andiWr^jw/iW pf the two Nations ; that ifttj 7*faiiig 
in Carolina and Florida Ihould remain in* the prefent 
Condition til! Plenipotentiaries had iixed the Limits of 
thefe Provinces; and that all other Matters in difpilte 
ihould be determined by a new Treaty, of which the 
Treatiesof the Years 1667, 1670* I7»5> 172^1, ijtg 
and the Affiento Central of the Year •9716 wese to be-the 
Pafis. Spain engaged to pay the 95000 Pounds to Jthe 
SrrV/^ Merchants, within four Months: But it was oa . 
Condition that 68000 was payed her hy the Svuth»-Sta 
Company, In Defaott of this his Catholick M;^efty \j 
a Proteft entered at the Time of Signing :ie declared the 
Convention to be void ; and referved to himfeif the Right 
of fyfpending the Privileges of that Company. .The 
Ei^lijh Merchants, Wbo had for a kfog Time contrary 
to Treaty ^traded 'witb..conftderable /Ad'ODtagc to: the 
Spantjh WiJf'Indiet, were by no Means Willing} to leave 
the A^ir of vifiting to be fettled*, and demiimftd 
that their Ships (hould be neither vifited nor iliopped 
upon aay Pretend ^whatever except they were found 
in Spanijh Ports.) «On ithe other Sidfc>4he Spaniards iaai 
that there was.na o^her .Wayto pievent the contraband 
Trade 'of the EiHglifif: And iniiO^d ftreniioufly on the 
Right of vifiting.. - . . - . . . : '•'{ 

So great a Fermentation was ratfed onthisOccafi0n.by^47r with 
the Enemies to the Britijh Minifter thfat it was decer- Great B&i* 
mined, to declare War agatnft Spain ; But the Alli^ of t ai v. 
Great Britain^ who were not under the fame Obligations 
to affift her as if (he had been attacked firf^, would not 
meddle in the Quarrel Prizes werctaken on both Sides : 
B\jt the Theatre of War was chiefly, in -^«^r/Vtf. . 

In the Year i740.Admiral ^^riw«appdared before C^- PoRToBsiLa 
tha^tna: Bu,t he retired without attempting any Thing, taien. 
He afterwards took and deftroyed the Fortifications bf 
Porto Bilio: And'tbe Magazine and Port at the Mouth 
of the Cbiagre had^ the £ime Fate^ Great Britain encoa- 
raged by this Saccefs fent a ftrong Fleet xato. America 
with 2ooo vcterai Troops. Thusfbongly re-inforc0d 
the Britijb Admiral . returned to Cartbagena^ and foen 
made himfeif Mafter of the Harbour. The Troops wde 
landed, and . an iAflatilt was made on the Place j but 
being sepulfed- witin fonie.Lois an^ many of them beiag - 

carried 



no .^QT S>A«K 

. diiiM aff b7 Sicknefs it wm thoii^t pr^r to gh{ 
1 over this Bntefprize. 

t Hftvmg thus gcven a Ami View^'df ,the princlpa 
; 'BTcnta in the Spatri/k Hiftory, - we >fliall before tire cM 
• this-Ghapter ghrc fome Acoomit of the Cokiim^y ; of the 
I Genius of its^ Inhabitants ; of its Strength ; and where 
• In the latereft ef Spain With Re^rd to Other States 
; Doiififts: 

Nature af tbr Tiic SpMiards who »re aUo^^ed' not to wan t Genius 
Inhabi- rare.remairkable tfor being flow in^nxfelvingi Some Ot)- 
TANTs. vtportunities areby rfib Means loft; but when, they once 
rrOQune ito a Determination they ace teery-fteady in car- 
rying it into Exetution, nor atothey difcouraged by 
any Diificiritiei. .They are very good ^Soldiers, fince 
vtb^ not onfy attalcii with great Briflin«& but will fland 
u:A long: Ttiiie.':.;Aml. their Temperance and Dry nefs of 
Habit enable/thrmto bear weiLai) i^e^Fatigiiea of War 
^Sucfa as > have: Vi^ttd^z good Whrle iSAiongft them aiTure 
r H9 that tfaeir>*GkieMriiy^ which nidkesjthem fo di^ignseable 
f to Strangers^ is? not fo muoh bwisigTta.{Siughtinefs as 
.'to a mebncbdlick Difpofitibn obid to xht fma]! Ac- 
ofltuaintaoKe they .^haive < with /For^tgnors. T^ey ^are in 
^^•the Genea^ljgoeat Bigots to ike ^^M^ .Religion, :and as 
Bi^ts ever will be much given to perfecute 'all whofe 
7 f dtgiotzs'' Opinions ;are dUfisroDt. 7i)cy are aatoraliy (o 
lHoud.and flothfttiy that Agriculture and Trades which 
':fequLre Painsare* for the moft Part> onrried on amongft 
. thm by Strangerr^ With- thefe they abound ft> much, 
that if Report iay^ true there are in the fii^le Town 
. jo( Madrid natefs^tkan 4-0000 French Mtn 5 'Who being 
generally Merchants or Mechsinitks ior the Sake d 
•ftKoiding the Hatred of the Spaniards t6 tfac'in go by the 
Name of Bnrgundians. The Haaghtinefs^ Avarice and 
Cruelty of . the ' Spaniards render them odious to the 



Nations ^ho are in. Sybje^ion to 'them. As Spain 
~ thinly peopled/and ^oonfequeoitly ibcapable of fettiog 
vlarge Armies on Foot, it is very difficult to keep under 
L Subiefiion .her eittenfive Dominioaa. Divers Reahm 
rare to be given for.thia. Their Womeh being by the 
: Heat of the Air of a> dryer Habit are Ie& fruitful tHan in 
7 Abrthern Countries ; aiul the Inland tParts am in many 
« Places, incapable.of piaducing what.is necefla^ to fup- 

port 



fort'Ltfe. lAnoAer iUaibii may fce:tte great NoBbar 
of Eccidiafticks who take the Vow.t^f Celibacy. Tkc 
Wars df ibis: Nation in hafy ami %fae NethirUmtk havt 
moieovar vaftly kfiened the NiHUb^ of.its IhhebtttmtSiS 
but noclMAg has .morecontributtd to <fce us^opling't^ 
Spain, Aarn \^ Amiriim Colonics i.Tcwhidi thc^^ 
ttmn^YcquitefeBdjofugoiog^ because fiMn fmail fitginh 
nings they foomare enabled . to tnadce k himcKonic-FigiOQft. 
Taail tfaide RfadMs. jnay be added tbebanifkifig'of fis 
maoy.thoaiand Mmts, frons Sfttim^hj PenUmbul trnid 
PiHip. .' 

l%e Soil-^oC'-^MMs iMiich. is '^olllaxgt £a[ti»nt*iis iaof iJ^ Stit 
fome.Faita irery dry i and 'barren, afiirdiilg Ycaroe»«ny «»/ Girtaw 
-Thing tds,ijtm> Suflename of Mitibn^BaAz Butt l^ ^fiiiis rf 
Pycmces<K>iiBrds'^e>£Af iC#^ sreTpj^am: and'^ncit- Spaiii. 
ful« \^ Caatletare chiefly Sheep, m Tfacsra are inciedli 
fine Hot res ; butitlieie ore in no great^uniber. • TAe 
Situation of &pdm is confentent 'for Tmde, betng almoft 
ferfovndcd by- theObean Und Abdiufniiium and sniU 
furniflied' tritb^HO^lHiieboisns/. ITirts JExponU of.ihia 
Kingdom are WoolirSIk^. Wine; ifiado, Oils, Raififtt, 
Soap^, iron, -Sak^ttrft ^ The GoM-^asrf-SflverjMines.f^f 
Sfdin^ which' were hrrecDfore very ftdiable^are' liiMr 
prohibited frdfla beinp worked upon the4ev^(tPenaldds« 
The Reafon is thoughtr t^ bd that the: Hreafiire of tbdfe 
• may4)e.preferved.fos fooM great Emergency. - The fie* 
vetioe of tUt Eingdcinv is .pmncipally drawn, from. the 
Uyi^indiis : }Frmi< wBenee v^ft Qcnuitkies of GoM and 
Wvttr are yearly i^rmighe into ^ain. 

We* have alVeady mentioned at what Time Amtrka O/theWtsrl 
was aa fome Hiftoriana fay iirft dUfeovored by the JSu-^ In dibs. 
tvpeAnP: Butiit onf^t^not to be palled ^rer in Siien^, 
thai this 'Difaovery isrfaid by others to hate been niatie 
in the Year 1*09 hfMadoc&on of Gai/mth a ifVch 
Prinee^ ^o after ^having made two Voyages died 'in 
Amiriem. They «dd that he built a Fort in Florida or 
Virginia > or as others hy '^ MAcice, - Hence they^ 
accoijkit for the Bnitifif Words wiiieh are met with* 'in 
the American Language ; -and to this it may be owing 
that'fcMiie Roouiins of Chriftianity were found amongft 
the Atnmami when the Spaniards firfl knded : So tluit 
if a Right to* a Country be founded \n making a 

Difcovery 



LMfcoverjr of 4t''the BngUp have w ibett^ tor i/fli#rai 

:tliah the Spaniards. However tim ^2S^ih& Spaniards 
;had certainly ho juft'Pretefice to fubdtie' thefe f^pie l^ 
fForce of Arms. As to the Glatdi under a Bull of Pope 
•Jlexandsr yi,- by which he gave tht^Wkft-Indm to the 
•<>6wn of 8fain^.'\ti% ridiculcms; and the Jmeruam 
•have jmerrily.obferjired,^ that the Roptmmji In a ^uter FA- 
)iil0jo,givi away: what he had noti&fg:SaA with. The 
t-Spimiards "how&ftr think it fufficknt that t^y are in 
tPofleffion^: An^'i to f^y the Tmith 'if a ftri£t. Enquiry 
was made the Title to moft conquered Countries, would 
V \ ••* ' < ibe4otlad none i^ khs heft. . All cba&ieiilious Spaniards 
•.....«.. .. '.fjpcaic with the/utmoftDetcftationvcif the horrid Cruelty 
: :>at firft:exerci&di>y their Cotunti^yjnoa againft thefe un* 
• * ' Hap|^3C:PeopIe) who had never dt>ne. them the leaft 
'hipay. Aitsrl many Hundred" T^ooA&ds had been 
'hafbaroufly put ?to^ Death in- coU Blood the reft were 
ilforced tofubmit'to the ihoft intolerably Slavery;. At 
liuigih€lMrJes ^V^bdiig infiDrinedky their mi fef able Con- 
edition ^iRiercd thtiti to be iet at Iiiberty« Cbiiii Pfru, 
^Mexico^ and 4be'il{bmds andidbt^ieD ^arts. of America 
iviorv. fuAjefir to ihtr^paniarA Are hf&siiited by .five. Sorts 
iK«£«Pcoplei- ^'Rwr firtt^ arc ftich>«d come froih'oW Spajn 
.^by whom «U«;|!>iibKcIo'OiBce8 «r» exsoat»d« Thej fecond 
„ bdiig h&j^h af^^^Ani/b . ftiteatsifimi Jmeriea are called 
*aCWff/rtfw. . ;T.hc Reaibn .tbcfe- j^rei.Jiot truftcd by the 
3£tate. is, .le& being ;bor^ r.imn/ifflmifitf they ifliouU be 
t iodaced byJtheidLove of thoicreC^mjiitcy itq atteini^t the 

delivering of it from the Yoke of the Spamardit :whom 

i' '"^thcy hate. For' the fame Reafen the Governours'who 

'^ .« might by long Continuance in. Power render them- 

felves independent are changed once in three Years. 

On their Return into £/>^/» . they Vonunoniy i)ave a 

Seat in the Council for the Jndiet^ as. being the moil 
. proper Perfons to judge of what 'Concerns tbem^ The 

third Sort from a Mixture of Spaniards Vfithjndms 
'is held in great Contempt. Some of thefe who are 

born of ^n Indian and a Spaniard are. called Metifr, 

others of a Spaniard and Metif^xe called ^uatraim') 
. and others of an Ifidian and Metif are called Trejalvos, 
; The fourth are the Remains of the ancient Inhabitants, 
t^ who are by no Means fo ignorant and barbarous as 

miny 



Of SpAiV %x% 

l\mt\ having amohgft' them LUKr/aM'CtTr- 
toiii» frfkMi Mwapums mzj bli4h ar the Want of. The 
fiftk Seiit ate Neeroes, who btxiig bought in ^rrctf^ 
are carrikNl Jnto^^«ri40 and put upon the moft hibo* 
rioi» Serviiel^ 'Such as are bdrn of a Negrot and an 
Indian W S^fik^d are called Midattos. The Negrois 
are gooA ^Scf vkms and traAiibfe;' but are withalF fa 
treacherous «nd ftabborn that it is necef&ry to keep 
them under iitrith great 8lr\dn^. Nbtwithftanding 
the Numbers which have frrtit Time to Time been fent 
x\at}Buct'fr€xm Old Spam znd'^Afrtcay America has never 
recavefri'»tfae" Lof& oi Inhabitants it fuftained by the 
Butctery of ^-Spaniards at tbekfirft fetjthng : It it not 
however eafy to driv<e the SpaiHikrds* from any Towns 
they are in^Poffeifion offor the fdlowing Reafons, 
In thov,£rft fflaoe the Aocefs^io them is generally diffi* 
cult. ' The'Ekpence and Danger of tranfporting a fu^ 
ficieot N« rtiber. of Troops- from ^^»r^^ is another Ob» 
ftacJe« If cbefe two are furmounted, it is highJy prO'^ 
babb that an Army^ would for want <if being enured to 
the Climatoifuffer fo much from D.fbmpers as not to 
be in a Condition to do much* - As their Settlements in 
Chili and P^u are fcarce to be come at by Land,' an4 
the Voyages to^ them, which muft be by t^ Ea/i- Indies 
or rotoid South Anwfica^ are too long and fickly to be 
undertaken by a large Body of Forces, they look upon 
thcmpichres co be very fccurc there. The Spaniards at 
their firfl Janding in ^mmo?^ found ho Coin, the U(b 
of this bciiigc lun known to the 'Natives ; but this was 
fufSoicHKiy made amends for by an incredible Quantity 
of GoM and Silver^ wrought without the Heip of Iron 
Tools into Vcflek of various Sorts. Of thefe immenfc 
Riches -aH of which theyfeited a good Part was fwal- c ] 

lowed up by thp Sea in carrying them Home, The Ri- ' " . 

vers were alfo -by Degrees cleared of their' Golden Sand, 
ib that aH the Gold and Sihrer which at this Time comes 
from .the fi^-'Indies h dug out' of the* Bowels of the 
Earth. Vafi Quantities of Silver are ftill found in tA0 
Minesof Bmfi- in Peru^ with which and other ^ich 
Goodsia Fleet is yearly laden* for Spain: Yet of this ' ^ 

fo littl?. remains when the Frtncb, Britijkizvd Duub' * 



1^4 Of SPAI!f, 

Merclmktft klife had their Due» that it it wi0 gaoi 
Keafon bid, thi Stanigrd^ keep the Cew hi ^ker* drink 
it?e Milk. In AlluftMi to this when the Spanifli^ Am- 
kilEidor, in a DUpute which bapf)en€d at Mflisie in the 
Year 1536 with the Fremh Mioifter about Precedency, 
to fet forth his Mafter's Greatneft IpoJke of the Riches 
of the Weji^lndiu^ thii laft anfwered, thai all Europe 
^gsi particular^ Spain had fyffered greatly kf every Thing 
keing pmmk nmeh demef .9m this Accetmt: That fince the 
^ Difufoerj of the new JVerU the Spaniards were groum 
Slothful and their Country depopulated and unatkivated -, 
That their Ki^gs trying in their Rithes have.engagtd 
in motif wmeeejary Wars ; ami iha^ netwi$hjlanding her 
^ B^i/is Spain %fHis the feorefi of aU Na:ions^ heif^ drain- 

ed ef her Treafures by other States who fwm\fit btr with 
Tro^s and goods^ Emeralds are alfo found in America 
m were formerly Pearisi but the Stock of there lafi 
if long iince by the Avarice of the Spaniards entirely 
^baufted. This Country produces great Quantities 
fd Dmggs ufed in Medicine and by Dyers. Sugar is 
A)fo brought from thence and Hides in fuch Quanti- 
lies, that one Fleet in the Year 1583 had on board 
IDO lefs than 90794. The Bulls and Cows which the 
Spaniards firft carried into Ameriea having encEeafed 
prodigioufly, they (hoot them for their Hides Sake, the 
Irieih being of fmall Value. . As the Dependence of the 
Spaniards is lb much upon the fVeft^-hdies they are very 
c^tious to maintain their Power in them. With a 
View to this they will not fufFer any Trade or Manu" 
/afiure to be eftabliflKid there ; nor are the Inhabitants 
.^Ikiwed to receive any European Goods which ihey can 
BO Way ihift without but in Spamfb Bottoms. 
^f '*' Befides thefe vaft Dominions in America the Spa- 

CAVARy .iirwrir are in Poffcffion of the Canary Iflands, from 
Islands. whence are exported great Quantities of Sugar asnd Wine. 
Of the laft of tbefe it is reported that Great Britain 
.sdone takes annually 13600 Pipes at near 30/. Sterling 
>rKpe. 
Vothing new As the united Provinces are feparated from the reft of 
remaim to ^ t)ie low Countries, and as Part of the other Provinces 
SfAiH in the ,^igi^ by the Treaty oiUjreteht left to Franee^ Pruffie 
NKTHsa. J i ' - * .and 

1.ARDS* 



and TBBemd^ and th^ Remainder to the Hc^tQK^fAuftria^ 
Spain retains at this Tiii^e nothing of what belonged to 
the Houfe of Burgwufy e^f cept the Golden fleece in iti 
Arms. • 

The Spanfdrffs^ hzve ix) the ^afi- Indies the PhilEptni Seitiemeiifs 
IJlei, Thefe are however of fo little Confequencc ipfn/^EAsti 
theinfelyes, that w^s it pot for the Trade which h^ IfiDils* 
the Help of Manilk their Capital Is carried on between 
the Etift and fFefi-lndifi ](faey had been long ag9 
abandoned. 

Although Spain be naturally powerful^ having uiidef Of th 
it many rich and ^oufifliing Kingdoms^ which ace not Strength ef 
only pfoduftive of whatjs neiceffary to fupport the In- Spa in* 
hahitants but are alfo able to fpare ^ great deal to other 
Nations, and' althoxigh thfi Spaniards are neither bad Por 
liticians nor bad'.^ldieifs, yet this Kingdom inftead 
of being formidable to it$ ^feigbbqurs can icarce fup- 
port itfclf. Amoiigft other Keafons for this the moljfc 
confiderable is, that the Inhabitants of OH Spain aif 
not nuraeroys enough p keep us exteofive Provinces 
naturajly pron^ toSeditipn quiet, and at the fame Tim^ 
to make Ffpad againft a powerful £nemy. This can- 
not fafely be made Anie^^ds for by drawing Succours 
from the Countrbs fubje£l to them i becaufe it is ne-^ 
tefiary to difdourage in thefe ^11 Valour and military 
Skill/ left the Inhi^^it^nts (houl<^ in after Times be abl^ 
to throw off their Ypkp : And whenever ,ihc|r do levy 
any Forc^ in thefe Qountriis, they are never trufted 
vith the Defence of their native Country but eiiiploycd ' 

at a Dtftapce under Spqnijb Commanders; Thtis it corned 
topafs^ that when Spain js engaged in a fo^-eign Wax fkt 
Is obliged tp hire Trpops: Which befidespelng very 
txpenhve can never be fo well depended upon as Sub- 
jcfta. By this Want of People Spain is alfo orevented 
from keeping up a largje FJeet, notwithftandinj^ this is 
fo necci&ry for the gecprity of her Monarchy. Thd 

S^t I^iftanc^ of fome of iti D<3ffiinions is another 
isfbrtune to this iCingdoni* it being ali^oil impoffibl^ 
for the King td know how his jGovernours behave, qt 
for the People when ppprcflcd to reprefent their Gric-« 
tafteeit6 Kim; And thft tranfporting of Tro^pi for the 

la Pefencg 



ii6 Of Spain. 

pcfcncc of diftant Countries befidcs other Inconyenl* 
encres exha'ufts the Blood and Trcafure of Spain. .This 
Kingdoni being moreover liable^to be 9ttac|^ed on many 
Sides, it muft always greatly divide its Forces : So that 
although thefe united would be confiderable, yet as 
fomc Provinces cannot by.reafon of the Diibnce receive 
Afliftancc froni others . they become an eafy Prey to 
Invaders. Tt is alfo to be confidercd, that Jmerua.from 
whence the Trcafure of Spain entirely comes is, fepa* 
rated from her by a vaft Ocean ; for which Rcafon 
whenever the Fleet which Ihould bring it borne i« loft, 
'^ taken or flopped, * (he is rendered incapable of doing 

^ ^ any Thing, NotwFthftanding the fFeJi-India Trade is 

oxfo great Confequence to Spain^ it is fo ill managed 
that moft of the Trcafure comes into the Hands of 
Foreigners, and is often made ufe of againft herfelf. 
Another Thing which has fnuch.^^eakeped Spain is, that 
after the Death of Philip XI. the Supmenefs of his Succef- 
fprs and the long Minority of Charks IL gave the 
Grandees an Opportuifity of encreafing their Power and 
Riches to the Prejudice of the Publick. It remains to 
fie added, that the Clergy as is generally the Cafe in 
Roman CathoHck Countries have too much Power : For 
although gopd Part of the Wealth of this Kingdom is 

fot into their Hands, they pretend to be exempted by 
Light pi vine from all Taxes; nor will they contri- 
bute but In XJafes of the greateft Neceffity and with 
<he Popi?s 'Cdnfent to the publick Expence. It is inr 
^ deed trueV that the Kings oi Spain have by aOrant from 
pope Adrian y\, the Power of prefenting to all confide* 
rable Ecclefiaftical Benefices, and are grand Mafters of 
all Orders- of Knighthood in Spain: Yet this Kingdom 
if always zealoufly attached to the See of RoirUj becaufe 
the Spaniards z\^ in the general Bigots and there are 
many Jefuits in it. 
Inttriflt 9/ Spain ftill retains on the Coaft of Barbary the For^ 
Spa I II 'With of Pehnm de Velez^ Or an and ArviUa. It is of Con^ 
regard t%iu fequencc for her to keep thefe and if flie could to get 
Neighbours. \Jlgiers and Tunis. Notwithftanding the Nearnefs of 
Barbary. their Coaft (he has no Need to fear an Invafion from the 
'Moors: For the whole Racc^.of them is now e^tin^ 
' • : ; ' * in 



>» 



0/SpAtif. ijj^ 

iti ^S^f^in. As to the Piracies of tlmr Cdfalrs this * 

ICiogdom <l6es not TuSer fo much by them as others t It 

being not cuftomary for the Spaniards to carry their 

Goods to other Parts of Europi ; but for the Ships of 

other Nations to load in Spantjb Ports and trade to Itafy^ ^ 

Turky and other Places in the Mediurranean. 

h% nothing in Italy now belongs to t\it.Spanifl> Mo* TuacT. 
narchy, tlpe Turks are at too great a Diftance to have . 
any Influence upon it* 

Spain has nothing to fear from Itafy^ it being a Italy /« 
Maxiin amongft the Italian Princes to be Hi Peace with Gefurai. * 
Spain^ that they may have her Aififiance againft the En* 
croachitients of France. On the other Hand,'^if Spain 
was to attempt any Thing againft fiafy all the States 
would join againft her : And ff they were not able to 
cope with her^ France would without DotAt be ready to 
affift dsem. 

The Pope and Venetians have'firice her being dc^nefoft and 
tadied from Itafy noiAiwg to quarrel with Spain about, Vbnhtians* 
but on the contrary great Reaion to be upon* good 
Terms with her; the former on Account of the large 
Sums of Money he draws from thence -, the latter fot 
the Sake of having a powerful Ally of Spain in Cafes of ^ t : "^ 

Need. * • — * 

It was formerly of great Confequence for Spain to Gnno»^ 
be in Alliance with the Genoefe\ becaufe upon this tbcr 
Prefervation of the Milanefe much depended. With a 
View therefore to make, them dependent on 9painy 
Charles V. formed a ProjeA of building a Citadel in 
Genoa. As the Genoefe being convinced by Andrea 
Doria of the Mifchief of this would .not confent to it, • ' " T 

the Spaniards contrived to borrow large Sums of them 
upon the Security of the King's Revenues in Naples. 
They afterwards, to put it abfoiutely out of the Power 
of the Genoefe to cut ofF their Communication with 
the Milanefe^ made themfclves Matters of Final. As * 

the Spaniards have now loft both the Milanefe and 
Final they have nothing to fiear from Genoa: But it is. 
much fDr tlie Intereft of the Genoefe to be upon good 
Terms with the». 

I J It 



$41tDIllIA 



OfS^^Ai.ni^ 



It mttdi'fOQQeriis Sp4iin taicultura|t)9 afoodUador^ 
Aanding with Sardinia i for tbe Frend(hip of this Couit 
may be very (ervice^ble on many OccaAons. 

SvissiR- It is for the Intereft .of Spain to be upon good 'ferms 

|.A«D. with the Su^ryi. Cantons, .becaufe thefe have Troops to 

\ttt 9 and although they are divided in Religion Mi^ney 
is the ruling I'rincipie of nhem all. The Influence of 
Spain prevails mpft in the CathqlicV as d9es thfit of 
France in the Proteftant Cantons > but thefe laft are the 
moft powerful,. ^ 

JfpiiA^O. Before jthfi Tres^ty of J^m^sr the Dmch were the 

word £nemie^.£/<7in had 5 but it is now for the Intereft 

of both P<^.wer| to be in Amii^, fince t^e^r.Trade would 

mutually -fuffcr by 9^ W^. There is no Need to ap* 

prehend any Thing . from thiland in the U^efi-ixtidSi 

fiecaufe it cg^c^rfs Frana and Gr^t^ Britain, af weU 

jis Spaittj th^t the Dutch who are already I^^j^^i^ >a 

' the Mafi (bduld not become fo in tbe fFt/f -Indies, 

. . . While the Netherlands belonged to Spain It much conr 

^rned Holland tp prevent their being conquered by 

France : Bqi this Matter is fince the Treaty of Utrecht 

f|uite altered. 

, Qai AT . It is in the Power of Great Britain to annoy tb^ 

Bftf TAiiff Spaniards by Sea and in the ffyi-hdies 5 yet a Waf 
with Spain wouk] do her more Hurt than pood : for 
he|r Trade with Old Spain which is yery confiderable 
would be quit^ ruined, and that in the JMiditerranean 
yrould fuffer much from ^0^ ' Privateers. Befidei 
France and H^n^ WQuld not bear to fee Great Britain 
make much Prpgrefs in the ff^eft-hdies. 

yf>aTVPAf- fortt^al alone can do Spain no Hurt. It muft be 
rilowed, that if ^in be ^t War. with other Powers 
tbe Poriufuefe by making a Diverfion may do her s^ 
good cfeal pf Mifchief i but tiiey epuld get nothing and 
|night in the £nd loft by it. 

FifANCB. France is the moft fcrmidable Enemy to this |Cing- 

dom,^ being by her Situation and great Power able tq 
give *much Oi^rbance to Spait^ : For which Reafon, 
iloc witbAandjfig the good Und<erftanding which at prefent 
fubfiib betvyixt thp two Courts^ it fnucb coficerns 



Of Spa tv. fif 

Spain to guard againft any further Aggrandifement of 
FroJUJt. 

As the Empire is moft capable of affifting Spain in GtaMAVT, 
Cafe of a War with Frana^ it is for her Intereft to be 
upon good Terms widi the Houfe of Auflria^ and 
to cultivate a good ITnderftanding with the Qimmnici 
Boty. 



i 



tm^mmr^tmfmr^m^f'^mmm 



1 4 CHAP. 



!*• 



c h;a K III. . 
O? PORTUGAL, 

^dlitUOAi, T N the Reign of Roderick the laft King in Spain o( 
tkuith the Title * the (^A/ci Line, Portugal^ which comprehends the 
9fCount,gi'veHpt2Xt& rart of. what was by the Romans called Lufitu^ 
io HfitiRY of Ttioy fell with a great Part of Spain under the Dominion 
lltyR<Ju!iDY, of the Moors. When Jlphonfo VI. King of Leon about 
1080. the Year 1080 muftered all his Forces and craved 
the Affiftajice of Foreigners againft the Moors j amongft 
other Volunteer Princes who ferved under him there 
was one named i/wry. Hiftorians are not agreed as 
to his Extraflion. Some fay he was a younger Bro- 
ther of Robert Duke of Burgundy^ Who Wajs 5on of 
Robert King of France and Grandfon of Hugh Capet. 
Others will have him to be of the Houfe of Lorrain^ and 
•Hedge that his being born at Befanfon was the Reafon 
of his being generally fuppofed a Burgundian, However 
this was, ^i^^o^, in Return for 4he -Bravery he fliewed 
on that Occdfion gave him Therefit his natural Daugh- 
ter in Marriage 5 and all in Portugal which at that Time 
belonged to the CbriJliaHs with the Title of Cotiiit for 
her Portion. He further granted to him as much of 
the Country beyond the Guadiana as be could conquer 
from the Moors ^ On condition however that he fliould 
be a Vailal of Leon,^ and fcrvc under the King in the 
Time of War with three hundred Horfe. This Prince 
died in the Year iii2j leaving Alphmfo a Son very 
young. 
Atf ItftHso t. During the Minority <XAlphonfa his Dominions fuffer* 
ill*. cd greatly by the Ufurpation of Ferdinando Pae% Count 
di Trajfamara his Motl;er*s fecond Hufband : But being 
arrived at Year* of Maturity he took Arms againft 
him, and after driving him out of Portugal (hut \i\& 
Mother up in a Piifon, Aiph^JoVll. of Leon was prc- 

vaiicd 



♦ailed upbrt by licr Prbmife of difirihcrlting her Soni 5nd " ' 
giving him Portugal to come to hcf Affiflance : But he 
was defeated l^ the Count ; who not long after took 
an Opportunity of throwing ofF all Subjedion t* Lt^y 
and was in the. Year 1139 ptoclaimed King by his Ar- Hetbrtwscf 
my at Cahuas des Riyes^ white he was upon an Expcdi- ^*>«^*^'<'« ^« ^ 
lion againft Ifmar^ whofe Dominions Jay beyond the^*^"' ^^ ^ 
%;, and four other M»r/> Kings. The Soldiers ^'^^jj^^^^ . 
were fo animated by this new Title, that they obtained ' ^' 
foon after a compltat Vifiory over the Moors^ and took ^' 

their Standards from the Body Guards of the five Kings ^ 
In Reniembranct of which five Standards afe to this 
Day born in the Arms of PufrtygtiL Alphonfi took af- 
terwards many Places from the Ahors^ and amongft the 
reft UJbon was with the Affifhnce of a Fleet from the Lisbow 
tfethirUnds taken by him in the Year 1147. He wa8/«^^»f ii47« 
afterwards taken Prtfoner by Ferdinakd tA Lim\ but he 
fethim at' Liberty without any other Ranfom than bis *t.^ 

reftoring to Ltm fome Places he had taken in GaRcia^ 
After carrying the Bounds of hifr Kingdom ftill farther^ 
an End was put to his glorious Rdgn'4n the Year*! 185 
and eighty-firft of- his Ag»». ' • . .. ' ^? • ^ 

Sanch9 his Son a(nd Succeffi^k- built and peopled k3any Sam cho I. '" 
Towns; and-bein^^ affifted by a t^teet from the' Zinlr 1185. 
Countries ht -took Selva 'from thtJfwrs. Having 4)eeA 
during his vvhoje Reign conlfantly engaged with the 
A/wrjhedied in 1112. 

He was fucceeicd by Jlphoiifo It his Son furnamed Alfhouso 
the Fat. In this R)etgn nothing happened worth Notice^ ^'• 

except the taking of Jkaffar froW the Mmts. * ' • ' ^ ' ^* 

At his Death in the Year 12235 Sambo II. his Son fuc- SxMctiorir. 
^edj but being quite indolent and governed 1^- »223, 
his Wife the Portttguife depofed him, and raifed i^ 
f^ his Brother to the Throne. ' He died in Exile at- 
fc/f(iin the Year 1246. ?' * • 

^iplmfo III, put away his Wife JMhtUdd Cour^reft <if Alphoks.o .. 
^^nia on account of her Age, and married -jB^tf^iHf All* 
Daughter of Aiphtmfi King of CtiftiU: With whom hft 
*»ad the Province tsf Al^rvt as i Pbrtion. He was ex- 
tommumcated -by the Pope on this Account; His keigii 
^88 hoWer hippy and mfuy^Towns were by him 
«iW to the Klutttom. '-•- .''' ^. c 1 

Ta 



Deh 1 3^1279. To Jlplmfo who died in the Year t%f^ 

his Son Dtni$ \ whofs Juftice and Generofity are much 
extolled by the Pw^ti^tfi. He laid the Foundatioit of 
the Vvverfity of C^imbm and (b many other maf;n\h^ 
\ cent publiqk Buildingii, that they have in P^rtygal this 

Saying, King Denis 4ouli do what hi plioftdk He died 
* in the Year 1325. 

AtPBoi^so Jlpbonfi IV. furnamsd tb$ Brwot hit Son arid Sue* 

IV. ceflbr was fuccefefui both in Peace bnd War : He k 

1325. however blamed for ufing ill and afterwarde faatiifhtng 

his natural Brother a great Fairourite of the hte King 

and of the People ; and for putting to Dbath Onmm 

Jgnes ds Caftro a bwitiftil young Lady vdbo was prt^ 

vately married to his Son Pittr. This young Prince 

being thereby greatly ^xafperated fomented a Rebelltoa 

againft his Faiiherj.^nd obliged him after great L^ies 

f^ained to come to Terms with him. 

Ptn-ta 1357. P//^hia Soft who fucceeded in theY^r 1357 was 

furnamed ih$ Oud ; yet ibme Hiftorians fay that he by 

|io Means deferved that Name beirig tsnly rigorous in 

pttsi^ing Male(a(^9. fie died in the Year 1368 and 

was fucceeded by Ferdinand hit Son. 

PaiDiwAHO, This Prince difpuied the Right to ^ Crowa tA Caf^ 

*^'- 4iU With Henpy the Baftacd ; who became Mafier of it 

l>y murdering Ptt^r hit Brother, The Pretenfions of 

Perdinamdy which were backed by itiany df the Nobility 

of this Kingdom, were founded on bis Mother Bea-- 

^hd% beii^ Sifter to Sancb§ IV. But as fitmj was 

fiicosfiiful in a War which broke out on this Occafion, 

Ferdinand waa glad to make Pieace The War being 

1373. ipenewed in theYiear 137^ becaufe Rrdimmd Atitcrcd 

ibme Tmtors who had fl^ frem Qtftilfy Himj sdvanr 

as^ with bis Army into the Heart of Pmufai. The 

Deftt^ . of Henry wjiidi kippencd at this JunAurc 

gave Ferdinand an Opportunity of making up Matters 

wichhii Son John: Yet bis reftlels Temper could not be 

•«|uiet I for having loft all 'Hopes of making good his own 

:Ciaim be put 7^^ir Duke pfZ^^r^^, wbo^ad married 

.Geefiance of C^ilePeter^s Daughter* upoti i^rting 

hit Right fbffftto. A confideraUe Aimy was here- 

4ipon brought w^Jnm.Bptland .under that Prince; 

little was faDwe^er donc^ and a RtcofioiKsitiM was iboa 

* 'l* broMgl^ 



JM'oiightJiboutbecwixje all the Parlies concerned. Attir 

this Uiotrict the Daughter of Ferdinand married Jvhn 
iLiiig x>{ £^ile i but it being agreed that the Ifilte >f 
this Ma^tch fliould fucceed to Portugal a Fouodation- 
was tfaeret^^laid pf a cruel War. This Prince wbofe 
ill Mai^gement had been the Caufe of great LoScb to 
the Kingdom died in the Year 1383; «od with him 
emled t)2e Race of the £rft King* ot PwtuguL 

It was ^recd by the Marriage CoDtradl of Ferdi- Orui Difimry 
pani% PaHghter, that the Rj^ncy of Portt^al (houl4^'!'«^^<« 
be ia fi^irkt during the Minority of the Children &e Portugal. 
fuigbt have by the King of CaJiiU. This Princeft 
entirely loft the AfFedion of the People by leaving 
tvery Thing to the Management of her Favourite the 
Couot dd Jnd^ira , who having rendered himfelf odioua 
to the Nobility was murdered ,by John a natural Soa 
of Peter SLing of Portugal ^^ this Aftion John re* 
commended himfelf to a great Part of the Naeion^ who . . . ; 

^r^dedl the Y^fai of the CaJOliaKs \ whereupon Bta^ - 

trie* finding the People irritated to the laft, Degree 
againft her^ Joined with fucb as did ndt like John \n beg^ 
ging the King of Ca/iiU to. take upon himfelf tbeOown ^ 

In all i«ikelibood this might have been done if be \M "^^^ ^^i ^. 
fet oikt ifume^iately ; bu^ by delaying the Party of John Castile /t 
W l^in^ xo-ftrcogttien tbcmfelves ; And upon hb Arri- ^^^^'"^ '• '•* 
val in Portugal be found the People, to whwn his i«fer. ^^*^' 
ved MfiRier wa^$ not at all agreeable, tery cool towarde 
liiai. Some indeed of the Nobility and fome few Townji 
(^claredlor l)im ; tbo Ma^\\/f bowser adhered to John^ 
who BOS a Prince of gfeat Seoff ftnd Courage a«d much 
beloved by. the Pec^le. ,Aftet atiemfUi>g the Siege of 
l^on the C^klians^ who bad :)oft a great Pan. of their 
Army by a Plag¥^f *f^^ forced t0 rel^ire* 

h X^ foil^yripg Y^r Joinvm proclaimed King. J^"" '^^ 
He fo^nredmawJ the Places wbicii reluftd co fitboHt %^^¥^d, 
^i a^dwhen th^ C^ifiiiknis ,&tofig]^ reinfor^d again '^^^' 
«nter$d P^ti^alj he obtained a %*»»! Vi^ory over them Battle of 
^^ Mjubar^tg, w*iich Ja |o tWs IHy awiually celc- Aljvba- 
»^^^, .Th(i ^^tiugu^ in .their Turn attached C^- rotta, 
jij^'^^^r^PSj Atfi^riflg hii^i^^*^!* ^« Hopes of thi* 
r^H^ pfSvaiied ¥(^ the Puke ^f l^ami^ot to join wi^ 
* " ' . tliepa. 



tH 



Fedee nvUb 
Castile, 

1399. 



Madeira 

dijciyueridt 

1415. 

Edward, 

'443- 
A Plague 
makes great 
iJavoci, 



At'BONSO 
V. 

1448. 



Of ToUTUQAti 

ijkem. After great Havock amongft the E^S/h bjr Skk* 
nefs a Peace was made ; the Condition of which was, 
that the King of Cafiile*s Son (hould marry the Duke*4 
only Daughter Catherine^ whom he had by Confiana 
Daughter of Peter King of Cqftili, Upon tbe £xpira« 

V tion of a Sufpenfion of Arms at the fame Time agreed 
upon between Portugal and Cajiile the War was renew- 
ed ; but the Caftilian was glad to mak^ Peace in the 
Year 1399; and John^ who had by his Bravery cfla^ 
blifhed Jiimfelf in the Kin gdon^ o^ Porti^al^ reigned a 
Idne: Time over it with great Applaufe. Having iettled 
all Things that concerned the Quiet of his Kingdom 
he carried his Arms into Africa^ and took Ceuta on the 
Coaft bf Barbary. In the Year 141 5 the liland of 
Madeira was difcovered by his 9bn. He died in the 
58th Year of his Rei^ much lamented by the Pffrtu- 
gutfe ; who have ever fince retained the greateft Regard 
for his Memory. " 

. The Reign of Edward hii Son and Succeflbr was ve^ 
Ihort, it being put an End to- in the Year 1 148 by a 
Plague; which aVt^r ravaging the Kingdom for fomc 
Time was conveyed to him by a Letter. His Brothers 
who had a little before his Death made a £>e(a9nt upon 
Africa were taken Prifoner^ \ nor could they obtain 
their Liberty vnthout^ a Promife that Ceuta fliould be 
reftored to the Moors, One of them Ferdinand was 
left as an Hoftage; and as the Portuguefe would .Dot 
make good this Promife he fpent the Remainder of bis 
Days in Prifon, - 

Alphonfi V. was only fix Years of Age at the Death 
of his Father Edward \ who by Will appointed the 
Mother of this Prince Regent. The States of Ptr* 
tagal diOiking the Adminiftration of a foreign Prtncefs 

, transferred the Regency to the Duke de Ciimira Ed^ 
ward^s Brother : But it coft him dear, for being accufed 
to the young King of fomenting a Rebellion, be was 
afiaffinated upon the Road as he was going to jMfj 
himfelf. Aiphonft being a brave and wife Prince tn his 
Reign Tangier^ ArziUa and other Places on the Coaft 
of Africa were taken by the Portttgnefe i and he caufei 
a large Quantity of Gold brought from Guima to be 
eoined imo Cnt^dei* • 1 ;..•<..;* . 



O/- P o R 1^ u d A i'. i25 

< I A;CorftraA of Marriage was made between MpbQtlfi Wmr ^itb 
fuid Jane a nomtnal Daughter of Henry IV. King of CastiU* 
CafiiU^ but begotten as it was generally believed in 
Adultery. A Difpenfation was after long Importunity 
obtained for this Marriage from the Pope^ (he being hil 
Sifter's Daughter : bat Jipbonff was (o cunning as not 
toconfummate the Marriage till he could fee what Ufip 
was to be made of her Right to CaJliU. Having fiiil 
taken the Arnas and Tf|le he feized fome Places bc-r 
longing to this Kingdom. Some of the Nobility at 
the fame Time declared for him, and he received Suc- 
cours from Franci \ yet Fortune was favourable to 
Firdinand^ who after recovering all the Portkguefe had 
taken from CaftiUy and beating them twice, at Taorg in The Pqrtu- 
the Year 1476 and at Albuhera in the Year 1479, ^^*"* Ouis* hemi ^ 
ricd his vi£torious Arms into their own Kingdom* '» *"**» ^*'' » 
Finding he could get nothing 'by this War Alphwifi was I^^'^'*'**^^' 
|lad to make Peace by renouncing his Pretcnfions both 
to Jam and the Kingdom of Caftih. A Marriage wa^ 
afterwards propofed between this Rrincels and John the 
Son of /^^riliW^TJsithen an*Infant; but being deternfiined 
to be no longer the Sport of Foriune flie in the Year 
1487 went into a Nunnery. As Alphanfo died fliort* '^^l- 
ly after, his Death was fuppofed to bie a good deal owing 
to Uneafinefs occafioned by the tDifappointments he 
met with. 

Hif Son JohnW, was hardly feated o^i the Throng Johk IL 
before a dangerous Confpiracy was formed againft him; 
which being difcoyered con maay their; Lives, an^ 
aimongft others the Dukes di Braganza and de Fife^ ^ 

whom the King ftahted with his own Hands, Thi^ 
Prince it was who paved the Way to a Trade in the 
^oft Indies: For he not onlv caufed an exa^ Survey to 
be made' of the C2oaft ol Aftw as far as the Cape of 
Gofd Hope^ but {Kfjpatcbed dome over Land to learn the 
Slate of the Country. Having afterwards builjt Fort 5^ .. f 
George de la Mina on the Coaft of Gmnea he died witbr 
out Iffue in the Year 1495. . , * ► 

To John fucceeded his Coufin Emanuel Son of Fer- EMANuat, 
^iwwJDukc ^^7^9 and . Grandfon of King Edward. J495* 
A Claim DO the (^t^inrn^iK^f.put in^hy the £(Dperor il/j- 
^ntduuiy in Right of bis Mother £//ii«jr.paughter oT* 
^ fame K\ti% Edward \ But the People ^declared for 

Emanuet 




126 Of Pe)At«fdAt* 

Emanuel who was much cftcemed for his good <!||^^Uf' 
ties. To eftablifti himfelf on the Throne he married 
JfabiUa eldeft Daughter of Ferdinand of Cajiile i hy 
'-'whonri he had a Son nanied Afitbdely who if he' liad 
lived would have been Heir to afl the Kingd'onns in 
Spain except Naimrre. In Complaifance to his ^%Vifc 
ne publiihed an Order requiring all Moors and yetjus to 
depart the Kingdom of Portugal withJir a Time Iiixiited 
upon the Pain of Slavery. The Mom-i Sed into Africas 
From the 7^ti;^ all their ChtHreti under fourteen were 
taken by Force and baptized \ and fbme were fo ill ufed 
ahd plundered upon their going away, that many of 
them confented to be baptized although they ftill retain- 
ed their Prejudices' againft Chriftiaftity- 
trade em^M In this Reign the Navigation to \ht Eafi Indies^ to- 
0ti^Seato wards which fome Steps had been taken in the precc- 
iheEAST ding, was carried ?nto Execution. Fifeo de Gama m 
Indies, the Year 1497 made the Tour of y^/V« and landed at 

'4.97* Calicut * But the Portugu^fe met vdth great OppoQtiofi 
from the Sultan of Egypt and Republick of Venia, As 
iiH the EaJI InSa Goods which before this TTmc 
W^re brought into Europe czttiz by 'the Way of Egypt 
and Venice^ thefc two Nations United in udrlg their 
utmofl Efforts to prevent the tnterferftig of the Perrif- 
'ptefe in a Trade fo Advantageous to them, Thdr-* En- 
deavours were however incfieftual ; and the P&rtUgueJe^ 
ftot caring to truft to the 'farr Words of the niian 
Kings, took Care to build Fort^ In the Places mo^L 
convenient for Trade. In doing this* they met ^ritb 
little Refiftance ; partly befcaufe the Indians were ^ef¥»fied 
at the Artillery and Ships of Europe i and partly bEcatife 
they were ignorant of what dangerous Confcquende thefe 
Forts might be. 
Pfogrefs of The Conquefe of the Poriuguefe in the Eaji Tndiet 

the Duke were much enlarged by the Duke t^ Albuquerque^ who 
D'Albv- made himfelf Mafter of Ormusj Malacca^ Cochin and 
qwERqj B Goa : The feft of which was made the kefidence of thcit 
in the East Governor. This India Trade was not only in itfelf very 
IaBU«« valuable to Partugaly but the m6re fo, bccaufe it gave 

them an Opportunity of making Settlements in all the 
proper Ports on the Southern as wett as Weftcm- Coafts 
of Africa^ and tliercby cngroffinjg the African Trade. 

Sefides^ 



Of PoitTiroAt. 127 

B^detall tbis, id the Year 156O Bratil Prts fts Brazil i£/- 
bme fay diTcovercd by Pear Alvarez Gapralh\ or as r^v^r^ 1 500. 
)thers fay by Jmiricus Vejpufius \ and riiany Colonies 
P7ere eftabliflied there by the Portugueji, In the Year 
152 1 Emanuel diedy during whofe Retgn fuch immenfe 
Riches were brought into P^tugal that it has been ufu« 
dly called The GMen Age. 

J^ HI. bis Son and Suceeflor fent f^anek Xavter Jonn ITL 
and other Jefidte to preach the GoTpei in the Indies t >S*^* 
vrho boafted of converting to Chrtftianity and baptizing 
great Numbers of the Inhabitants. 

At the Death of Jehn in the Year 1557 Sebafiian \m StBAsTiAify 
Grandfon then but three Years of A^e fucceedM^ >SS7* 
and upon the Refufal " of the Queen his Grandmo^ 
ther the Regency came into the Hands of Cardina^ 
Henry his Father's Brother. Sehaftian being of a warm 
Temper and fond of Fame he was eafily led by Parafite» 
into Schemes, which by no means fuited his Age or 
the Circumftances of the Time. As he thought of no- 
thing but War his whole Study was to revive in hb 
Subje£b their ancient Valour ; which by the long Con* 
tinuance of Peace and their Application to Trade was 
in a great meafure loft. 

He had once a Mind to attempt fomething in the Eaft His Expetlitiea 
Indies. This was however laid afide, and a RedJution int§ Africa. 
was taken of afifting il&//y Mahmet King of Aie-- . 
rocca^ whom his Brother A&ley Molucca had drove 
from his Dominions : Nor could all the Perfuafions gf 
Philip of Spain and other Princes his Friends pre- 
vail upon him to defift from this Enterprise. Having 
landed in Africa he contrary to all the Rules (rf* 
Prudence advanced fo far into the Country, as to 
put himfelf under a Noceffity of engaging a much 
larger Army and of better Troops than his own. The [j defeated ead 
Event was fuch as his Raflinefs deferved, * great Part,ofy7^/ff. 
his Army being cut to Pieces and the reft made Pri- 
foners. This Battle, which was fought in the Year 
1578, was remarkablegfor the Death of three Kings oh 
the Field : for Sebaftian and Mttly Mah&met were flain rn ' 
the AAion > and Muley- MeHuco died of a Fever du- 
ring the Engagement. 

His Uncle Cardinal Hfnry was now notwithftand- Hinry^ 
iog his great Age advanced to tha Throne;; but -fiis i;7t. 

Right 



12?. Of . Bqr t u 6 a l; 

. ^ ' Itight to. it was during the two yean he mgcied con 

fiantly difputed.^ 
1 ^80. , Upon his peath Philip IL of Sfmn concluded, i^iat 

Portugal the bcft and (hoyrteft Way to m^ke goodhts Pretenfi^ 
united t9 vjuj to do it Sword .in Hand. Being no Stranger to the 

Castile. Averfion of the P^rtuguife to the Ca/iilians^ and to tho 
Party which was forming in Favour of Antheny natural 
Son of iMtiiB. DmI^c of Bila^ wbo was Son to King 
\pmanuel, he immediarely jent the Duke JDH^jf ha with a 
powerful Army into Portugal: Who in a few JDays fub- 
dued the whole Kingdom and obiigpd Antbei^xo quU 
it. The Ifland of Terara having recehred fome Suc- 
cours from /r^«c^ held out £ms# fome Time ; but ate 
the Lofs of a Battle it waa forced *to acknowledge 
Philip, This Su^^aion to C<ijiiie fo hateful to thi 
^^/i/^2/^ .w^s« attended with very bad Confequences. 
Philip i|nagifii|!& thereby to reduce the Nifherlands tQ 
Obedience forbid them .all. .Commerce with Spain and 
Portugal: Bi^t inftead of anfwering his Pwrpofe this 
f^t the Dutckt who till then fetched all their India 
Goods from Spain and Portugal and carried them to the 
|Xo;thern Parts of ^Htope^ upon attempting tbeVoj^age to 
the Eaji Indies, 
fiJf DuTqH' . After great IJifiicultics *they gp* Footing there, and 
g^ Footing Jttt, drove the Portuguefg.hei^re fole Matters- of the Afiatid 
the East Commerce from fome of their beftSettfenients: Nor did 
Indies and ,the Affair end here ;„for in the Year ©630 they made 
Brazil. themfelves A^afters of Part of BramK ^^r^ of many 
»^30- Plac^ on the Coaft of ^rw. . It: is- highly ''prbbablc 
that the 23i^/<A. wquld neither hrtii|» attempted' nor- f*i<> 
ceeded in thefe Cosquefb^ if t\^^ P^^guifi iiod conti^ 
j)ued under a King pf their own.i ... «• , 
y^fPoRTu- About the Year 1640 Pbilifi, funimoned»#e ft'*' 
GV]fspg€t tuguefe Nobility ta affift m luppreffing a tftBhei^^o^ 
rid of the in Catalonia. Being armed and affembled^on tMs Oc* 
Spanish cafion they concluded it § proper Timcf' to delit^ 
Take: and themfelves from the Spai^/b Yoi;e, and forthwith ?f<)' 
proclaim claimed the Duke de Bragatfyia .by;theiNam«.©f ^"^^ 

John ^V. jy^ Tht Spaniards were to be fare very remirs^ no? 
* fecuring the Perlbn of this Duke i whc^nbefeles-being 
greatly beloved and having an apparvot^dOghVi^ the 
Crown, wa* in Poffeffion of at leaft a fourth Part of the 
^ K^n|;dom. As Spain wa$ aP the faoie Time ea^rp<^ 



Iritli F^rnia *mA fhUand a»* well as Catahda^ dur 

PfiTiuguf/i had a fine Opportuliity of re-efbbli£hing tbeiri 

A&trs.* Their next Step was ta^zgreQ.wiA^'IMiandi 

that cachKarion.ihould keep what it had: But fliortl^ 

after the Hbces in- Brazil belonging ta the Dki^ch revoK- : ' \ 

ted the Poriuguefe, '=^ " » • 

The i>ju^c^ inTifting that thiswastoccafioned by Hint War njoith 
Intri^es of the PortugUefe , dechtcd "Vfzr immcdiatelyj Holland. 
againft them i. and. in Revenge for the Lofs in. Brazii 
took from them many Places in die Ea/f Indits. After Conquep of 
loCng .MWtKroi and all on tkcGoaflsof C^yAw and Co^ //ArJ^uTcari 
nmandd^ together with Canemar 2vA other Place* oh the ^^ '^^ Bast- , 
Malabar Coaft, the Perktgmefe Vf6tt. glad .to fave what wai ' ^ °\^ ^- - 
left by making Pieaoe with Holland itk'the Year i66i^ n4 . ' 

^AlplmfiuYh. the. Son of yifhn\ beiag at his Fathcr^J Alphonso 
Dea^i in the Year 1651 a Minor, his Motheir goVer# VI. 
ned with great Hudence duringrhis' Minority; After, j fJ^SV. -T 
the War between J^ance and. SpatK iwas fmt an iSnd t^ tVar tiuitb 
by the Pjiy«»A»9.xXreaty; the Spaniards tuxhed ail tlielc Spain. 
Foroes againft P^ti^aL Jrance had promifed by thii 
Treaty to give law^iAfliftance to the Pirtttguife\ yet 
Qoani &ebQiAerg'WdA othcfsFrmA Officers were.pcrmtt- 
ted to go intoltheii^ Service; The P(7r/c^i^if/^ defended 
themfelvcs with great Bravery ; and after gaihing' tfefe 
Advantage.«oavlbyera\ Occafions eiktirely .defeated, the ^T^utf/^^Scir/u^ 
Spaniards )at2tii£fiiSimos In the Y«ar xhtz^g and neat7S&ew«r /^v ,. ,;^ 
VUirfa im 'the Year itbii\ iThc ^aberlands \mtsg at- Spaniards. 
tacked tqr Pp^ctMXk the Year ii6J'B Spain was glad tb Peace with 
make Bl-opQ&ls{^^ Peace, /which were readily liftqi^d toSpAiN, 166S.' 
by Par/l^a/:.!Wl3b[wiAked for'notlhing fo much aaitb 
get homattisbUt; o.ut. of % -rtrOiiblefome Waci? By.i 
Treaty fo^ after) mad^ij^mr^gaVe itp all JicrTnetenibtls 
Xf>P§rtu^L iw'^'" i '''\ -^'h fii ■' . ' '^^ '^-v : >ui 

Alphomfa as Dm Peter's Friea<^s(. relate. Was a/ Priiidb Alphonso 
of a v«ty ^;p'oq^j^X)a;pai»tjr^/I^Ihad :in bis Youth ton- '^^ '^v. ;' 
tfaaeijA^Difch?pte...wtifchorftt(hftd: him. incapab^ of^'^K^'*?'^^'.'. 
govcr6uiB.'-v:How^«err^4Wav.wff^jdjbing^3Mfi^ 2^''!^" ^^ " 

Agc,he!«iiK*»<l§ai«fl hei iwdlniutbn took th^)Admiiii- .^^^ • -- i 
fiiatioaifjKto.rluil Mblt^er^ am^ not long after naart^ijed/a 
PrillCQfs^jiyf rthci Houfe oi.Sj^oy N^nsikri^ Thir Prin- 
ccfsL rftO: cohprbking with, hm fiatcen. Months retired 
into a Monaftery ; and in order to be divorced fjconi h.ihi 
aUedgcd not only that he Was Impotent, but that he 

Vol. I. . K w©uld 



130 Q/* Paat-T-uG A tv 

w6aU k«ie Ittd htr (vhtait to tfacEmbiaocsof one ol 

his Favourites^ to the End that there m^ht be an Heir 

to the Crown. The: Mifunderflanding between^ the 

King and Peter hia Brother came at laft to fuch a Fitch, 

Hi is detbro' that the latter fufpodsd a Defign vfxmdiia Life* Having 

net!. hereupon engaged the greater Part both of the Nobility 

and P^ofkle in hiar>Fwour) Alphmfo was forced to refign 

/the (governments to hiAi ; the Sqm of 270,000 Lines 

yearly, with the Palace of Braganxa and its ./^ipurtanances 

being re&rved for his Support. 

D6ir Pbter D^n PtUVy who contei^ted himfelf fcv the pteBnt with 

marrits his the Title of Regent, having 'Obtained a Difpenfation 

Brother' t from the Pope married the Qiieen hi& Sifler-4n»Lav ; 

^^fi* and to put it entirely tetof his Brother'^ PoiKwr to give 

; -\ &im any Diftarbaace, he ient him under a^dng Guard 

to the Ifland of Ttrc^ra: . . . . . ; 

PErtR 1683. At his Brother's D^th in iM*^ Pita* who had be- 

^ .' .?{ fore, all .the Authority tbok Hpon>>hHttielf.the Title of 

. i - King. :«.He Ind by. the Vtwatig ^t^Saifdf^lietlnms an 

only /Daughter, who. ws» engaged t<A'but did not marry 

the I>iike of Savofi For when thtPw^i^uefi Fleet wentj 

foir.himy he 'having ^tof a fuddbn idicr^^ bis: Mind feat 

U baclEv ^^ iiot long after married' 41!) Daughter of the 

^ Duketof Or/^ff«r. »*»« • . > . .. . 

» marrih a BfefoiK . the Deatk of the Ihfanta JPlr/^ was ftrongl]^ 

fecondWife. ibllictted by Kisc9iibje£br to^Jtake a;fthttid::Wife< I^ 

,« i«^w. . at this Prhiccfs Was. ver)r infirm, tbe^King^oni ihouW 

\.... . 'he pltmged into tbe^Sifericsr which commonly arife froi^ 

.<oC ' , a* difpiited SuccdHon, • They 4it length piteivailed upoij 

.him^ ahdhe niiarheA\Af^iii f^i» dj^tf^ht^ ^.fM^ 

jDuhe off Neubmerg. £leat>r ^akiit»:y i^iwisom he \d 

iJAtt his Sacoeflbr^ i^agM' Xaviitn born: » the Yeai 

1 69 1 5 Anthony born in the Year 1694; ivB^Enmrd 

^ > borninthe Yeat ^69^' w ' > *v v.nCa eti ^^^ 

He ojers his Peier having befdicilHe TxiMsf olJtyfin^ck pftred hil 

i/k^atiwfor Mediatbn. at itheCitturt'Of f4?j^a&fj: .AifciOourt g^j 

the treaty of him forAiiteer, tht^t ftBs^was wiUtng toicce^ the^^ 

Ryswick. -diation of anjr neutral Fmler if thei*^ftewcw.iembwite 

. with her would do the hmit^ Thi^ bttinj|cJodked tpo^ 

as a genteel Refufel he Mve himfelf nditame^Troubj 

about the Mediation^ wnich was afceridbd imd^take^ 

.by Swtden, '*♦ 



tTkj'Bihiafibtt ti fiS^'riloiiiteions woulS W fuficr yir#«(j^ -wiV* 
P^^ tcy^c h^ter''iii*yi!r5 which arofeori/thc* Ac- Philip V. 
fount ^-JfT'tfe'^tf*^ Sii^&Bloh. •; He at firff fiacif>ith ^f Spaiw, 
Ae DWfe Sf^Jpfjoui iiJrf conduded with hhtt* a /Treaty 
*Ria?^c&nfflfed of rfifd 'fcUa^ifig Articles V.l'liaf th^ 



Tmi*^ B^n*e^h the tW0 Matidhs'-concladerf lli't^e Yea^ 
iMffr llftltfld be invi0la«j^^ DjreftV^^^ ; that i^r^V*"ftipul4 
make\i0 /urtfter -iniiroifalM^iife on ti\^' Poriuguefiiii 
Amtfitd^ ^ jBtetrid make S^fisfeaiori td'Pifrusdl Qoik- 
cerning ^.Negroi Ti^adis j fhit P</<?r (hould acknow^ 







CAor-Jl^.^Tc^wis' in'orebver %fe4, tft^ IfP&rWfa/feiould 
be attiet^^ bn' the Accoatit bf ttiiS^rpaty Wance fcoald 
ifend talifet/tSttftaticc' tfciiif'SaiTof Men of^War'j Ih'at. 
in CSffiiliSf^ of a: SiMdy of joo,OOo'Crowhs jto be 
atnhttiiry^'^W UV >>-^^'a^fing the War;"JF>^/^r: ffibuld 
fefdbfc^sr STW* bf.Wpv'^ Ship*1ii%pprt otihe com^ 
ht6ft:^C*jfei a^d-«tfi« jR^tf*^* ilrould Wfitf in recover injg 

viWPtShli maf'ncJt Kc)\^ever\'fi3uce the'fcouft.c2f T/VZ^cA 

withteuaing: tftfe ftroygr'^flicUatlohs made iifc of for 

W rlJ^M plafely 'VMtS .^haf "Ae*l3c|l|ri''bF thu Treaty ^ith 

'i7<53r 

Otciriorff;Ft^^ 




teme%*fcFn^^Wtis iit'CraKri^i tbgebfier with. all jri the 
SP^jf'T*2R^'ttiat Jier 8&^tc« '^'raz^^^ and tHe River 

Ka la 



^ ^, In. Qo^fiHjveiHpe of this Tf^^f 9h^h i?*.l^; f^'- 

^,^ ^/ . lowing Year, being fjurpift^wiui jqwraty-»ci^t^,;^^ of 

. . . « ^ Men of War and an hundrefjaacf ii^ Traniportl^ £rom 

England ' kni Holland^ emt>^rlf^ed with*, ten thooiaiid 

Land^;fqfroes.for,P^/w^tf/. Having already giv^o, mi 

AccotinVof; the Succefs of this Exp^ition wefljall pnl^ 

obferve, that the /i9^if^ hi? .intended Bride died^^sout 

fifteen I)ay8 befpre his . Ai^nval at Z^«^ - On.th^ 9th 

of becem^ in the fame Year Peter ^ed ; aod was fuo- 

' ceeded by y^bn Prliice of JBrazU his^ eldeft Soij^ 

Jo»N V. ^!? Haying in the prcceding.Chaptcr taken |Hr^'t;o^'pf this 

1704* ^ i^rinc^s5hare in the War .on the account of; A^^ 

Succeffion, we (hall >i^j^]«ft,^w» . that aWut ifc .{Tiinc 

of concluding the Tifeat^ of pT^p^^/ the Kii}gcl,(|m pj^ Par- 

^2/^^/ was brought iotb unminent Danger. Chqrifs after 

his .Acceflgori to tl?e I^rial,X>ltff\ty quitted ijlfip^ and 

turned his whole Ford^ agarAR fri^\Tfaii^{fvsa un* 

equal of herie'lf toahe united Forcjp^ (* Ui^ -fwW*:- fiut as 

ir6me**pfjthe/e.were wcj^ry of the War, and.^ers jm^ged 

that tfftXKapge PJoiw^.^j the path o£ the J^pcror 

^offffh^indAcr' Its Contiijkui^ ujpnccei&i^ ficQpcmlom 

for. a locate w«re let on fob,tr. In this 5Ituatt^.^-^bi»g> 

li wai5.,Tilghl[]^ncceff^ for Portugd to be coii;ip^;i;i|pnded 

In ii "f Fea^' made w The'doing^. thi3 

•U^is 'indeed attended with"" DSficttHiIw'; tor ^^^n not? only 

, , exp^aed that all j^A^r^i ^4 ,Rromifq^ tp Smifqal%xm\A 

• ;; ; \k n^adc'gqod^ bii inCftccf that (?^/^, 'Cfpi^d t^drigo 

*' J and fotto'oUier PlgkceV^OuJ^^ allb b^addled tq ^i$ Barr 

VierC ' ;Qft^ W contrXi^ tjfe ^Coiirt, pf . Jm^'i^ whick 

Vas Willing to pay, p¥(bat jura? ^'e ib the i*«r>agjf^^JVIer*- 

ih'ants^ on t||c' Actyiunfc^^^ wonlcliiflen 

to rion^ of thef^, t>kmi}4l^ ' ' f^JWk. this wide pi^tcncc 

fubfifted between the'^^,]Cottr(»' the Tx^ty of itJ^cif 

was opnclud^, ^*i^?*'^i^.%'W^ ol 

Arms\havrngbeeri*lttipulaiteij^^^^^^ - ,^",'- 

Teaci nuitb A Peace however was in ^pr^l'lj 1 3<:oncIuQf4b^|iret9i 

Francs, France ^nA^P&rtugal on the f^ljJpwXng Conditions : rThaC 

17' 3* the Prifoners and C^nque.f{s dn b6th Sides j(bpuU.lr given 

lip ; and that CaJ>'e de Mr/ loathe Braz^l;^3^,iind ajl 

the Country between the ^ivcf of the Amazons wi the 

River fapoco in (?i!//W 0iould be ceded to the Pirtuatiefe. 

Still 



Stili S^wfiheld'out ;;n6f waa z Treaty ConcTucterfwIth * "^ 

this Cbiirt tilj the Year 1715. The PrintipSL] Articles Peaa wifS * 
of it were; that S//2/« (hbuld rcftore the Caftle of Mi^- Spain, 171^. 
dafy the Ifland of FirdoejVvind the Territory of Ar. Sa- 
cranunt ; that flre^oum pty the Pwtuguefe Merchants 
at three equal Payments 600,000 Crowns due on. the x 

Account di 'Negroes \ and that Pcrtuga! fhoM reftorc 
Albuquerquf and PueUa, 

Since t^at Time this Kingdom hte enjoyed an ttnin- PrrfoMnJPeace 
terrupted Peace: ttaviflgwith great Prudence miviAoA^W^h 
her, ovwi Trade* and kept out of the Qtiarrels which have '•*tuo a l, 
embroiled other Powers; yet fomc few Things have 
happened which deferve to be.nientioned. , 

Li the Year 1714* the Abbe de Livri went to Lifim Dif^uies njoitb 
with the Gharaacf of Afaibaflador from Prance,^ He the Friivcu 
was received with all Marks of DiflinAion ; but D&n Ambajfador 
Diego di\MeHd<^a Secretaty'Of State rcfufed to pay him ^outaPunc^ 
the firft Vifit, virhich he infifted utx>ti as a cuftomary ''^'^» '7*4» 
Thing. The Secretary afleited there was no fuch eftai 
bliflied Cuftom ; and Aat if there were Inftaooes of it> 
they were' only friendly Virus amongft Mjnifte^s who 
were before acquainted or on the Account of private 
Affairs. Each perfifting in his Opinion, and the don- 
dud of both being approved of by their refpeSive Courts^ 
the Abbe returned homd feme Months after without 
having had ari^AtidicnCeof-tbc King; yet this Difputc 
had no bad Confequences. . ' . 

Upon a Difference between the Pwrtuguefe and Dutch Difference 
African Companies? about the Meaning of fome aficicnt between the 
Treaties which related to the JV^^r^ Trade, the Abbe Port u. 
de Mefidofa Son of the Secretary was ient to. their cuese and 
High Migbiineffes. Meeting^with a good deal ©f Dif- ^utch 
fkulty in this Affair fbme''Perfons at the Duuh Court ^^^'^^* 
were by him prevailed upon to interpofe; but'thii -?^"'*''' 
rr\»d^ Things worfe, ahd the Affair was at laft by 
hard Words and nice Cfiftin£lioo'$ brought almoft ta 
a Rupture. Upon. this, he was recalled, and- Den 
Lewis d^ Aucme was f^nt in bis Rpom ; by whofe 
more moderate Condufl the Matters m Difpute: were 
amicably adjufted. 

K 3 The 



J3* ^J FPR']^V.©AL> 

GnaiConiefts ,!|^ V^r^wfe Mi niijlfy nwe after |fcfai& /groitljr em* 
nvUbtbeCuuifi bartaflfed with ;tte Afl&ir of .the Nupcio '3^:^. H^s I^r^ 
^f^^^fft^ muffcMiyi%y rpqveftc^;. ttef;t|?i«.Mipifter(hoAiW ojj> 
IfkeFrtmotion ^hc Cftdingpf bi9Nun$:f^t|ire af;^fi^^nbc.prorootai to^hc 
S/cIrdi- C^^^i'^^tff^'h tW i«-w»$: F|if«fed,;by.,the Court of. i!^w^, 
VALSHiF. " *''^^-^ ^ Pretence that Cpmpl^*JH«;had jbqeu often ^nade 
$^mA hira.' The Fogndatfci^ pf theft jiyas jtbis,. When 
the Emperor Charles VI. was in, Spain^ ^ kept a 
.'w . GouBt ^t.Bdrcehna under, the. Tule.^fjQi^iyr/if^ JII. 
. .. -v ^ Mr. 5/VAi. wa3,. at the R?^ii«?\^fl4at4^: pf I^U LTndp 
• - • ^ ©^^ CartiinaJi ;BiV*i\ fcnt . fey ^Ifmsn^ XL .yi jtl^V^^- ^f 7 lo 
io,Li/hn in thc,Quallty-<)f -J^jWVi? aft^j*hf;^ypiie <4r 
X«W«i fet 5ut about the faqap Time for ;t|^ PpfMrt of 
• Barcelittay where he w^ lefi^ed iin^Ai^ieDcebec^ule he 
. . . bad only ftcCharaiSter of Jfftefr^tm^. :'As ISlicbg 4id 
v.r not in his. Way pay fcis jCpwpl/ipe^ts , to Charfes be 

coittpJained 6f bim at JS^m^^od .Z^j^^Mi^/^find. the King 
: J of P*r)te^fl/wComplaioe4.iHfep6;hi9^Pl9<liMft; but being 

afterwards, better jnf<)rm#.J|&4|fl.hifP.JuAi^e and had 
the.utaioft Regard fociiiai..: JS^was glfqacfiufed by the , 
Ahht..Bn'.nabi atid other: E^lefiaftkks lybofc Promo- I 
tion tp Benefices he had- oppofed oi Simwfr And it 
happened unluckily fof Bkhf thAt his Uncle died about 
fhis Time. His Eniem^s. bei^g herjcby e^co^rag^d re- 
farefented to the P^, that it. would be very impru* 
^nt to admit into the fajccerf .CftD^c a Perfon ac- 
cufed of fuch a Crime; and 4t the iame TiiTie^ ib dif^ 
dJige to powerful a Family aa. that of J^m< The 
Court of CbarUs being by. bis Brpther'^ P^th^ removed 
to Vienna^ he defifted from oppofipg th^ Promotion of 
B'tchi :. Which was yet more and more contended for by 
the Court of Lijhn^ It waa ftijl refufed by the See of 
Romes, and Innocent XIIL Buftcdlprof Clement paid fo 
little Regard to the SoHicitatioi|i«.of his /?^/(/^«^ JVIa- 
jcfty; that he recalled 'f/VAi and fent another Mi|iif|pr to 
JLifian, . As the KingofF^r/«gf<7/wouId neither admit the 
new NunciOf, nor let the old one go without a.Pconiife 
of hisbeing made ^ Cardinal, a.Congregatiofi was h^ld at 
Rme ; in which, if the Peatb of that Pope had not in- 
tervened, it would have been refolved jp recall him upon 
Pain of incurring the mofl fevere Ecclefxaftical Cenfures. 

BenedUi 



Qf P O R T U Q A ij 13^ 

Betudt^XIU. the of xt Pope was billing to hAre om- ' 

promifed this Afiair with the King of Portugal, if it had 
not been for the Oppofition of the Sacred College : The 
Majority of whom were determined to exclude Bichi 
from the Purple. Being at lafl ordered to leave Lj/ion^ 
he did it and repaired bv the Way. of Madrid to Italy. 
Hereupon his Pertuguefe Majefty piqued at this con- 
tempOious Ufage broke all Meafures with the Papal 
Court;' ordered alL the P$rtuguefe at Rume who lived 
in great Splendor there to omie home ; and put a Stop 
to th^ Revenue which was annually drawn from his 
Domtnkms by the Holy See : But the Cardinal Corfini 
Succefibr of BemicUii in the papal Chair, who endea- 
voured at it in gpod earneft, brought about a Recon- 
ciliation between the two Courts. 

Upon the fending back of the Infanta of Spain from ^ ^*^^ 
Frtmc^ the Court of Portugal^ finding that Philip was ^"^'^ '^''^ 
eftablifhed in the Throne and acknowledged by Charles^^^^^* *729- 
his Rival* {>ropofed a Match between the Prince of Bra- 
zil and this Princefe ; and another between the Prince 
of yf/lurias and tbs Jrfahta of Portugal. It was agreed^ 
that tbcfe Marriages (hould be celebrated with great So- 
lemnity in the B^inning of the Year 1729 : And that 
their CatWck and?. Portttguifi Majeflies {hould have 
aiK Interview, and-ixfake the Exchange of the twoPrin* 
ceffes in Perfpn. The Ifland of Pegpn near Badajox 
being the Place fixed upon, a wooden Palace was built 
with two Gates one lipon the Spanifl> the other upon 
the Portuguifi Side* that the two Kings might enter at 
the (ame Time without either giving the upper Hand. 
The King of Spain being arrived at BaicqoxzxiA. his iV- 
tugiufe Majefty at Ehuat^ they on the i8th of January 
congratulated each other upon their happy Arrival. On 
. the 19th they had an Irtterview, at which the Marriage 
Contra£is were read and the Princefles w«:e exchanged. 
The iame Night the Prince of Afturias and his Con- 
fort received the Benediction from Cardinal Borgii at 
BadajeK% as did the Prince of Brazil and his from the 
Cardinal Jimiida^ at Elwas t But the Confummation of 
the latter Marriage was; deferred becaufe the Spanijh Prin- 
cefs was no more than eleven Years of Age. On the 2^1^ 
the two Moaafchs had another Interview i ^d fome 

K 4 Difcourfe 



^36 Of^I^oU'etfdAiT. 

Bikovitfk. pa(Ebd.alx>at 'their mtttaal In^reft. 'Thejr 
faw one another forjhc laft Time three Days after, 
and parted with the greatcft Profeffiorts of Friend- 
fliip. At thia. lafl; Meeting hk*P^mgue/e Majefty 
prefented Mr. de BebndnU to the King of Spain 
as his Miaifier ; and he "went with Che Court to | 
Madrid, . ' 

JPrifonerai In February 1735 a Beafant, who had cortimftted 
Madrid r^/^-fome great Crime, f)ed iof Shelter to the Chapel of 
cued by the this Minifter ; from whence he was forcibly taken by 
Sernfantsofthe Order of the Prefident of CafiiU. As they were con- 
PoRTu- during him to Prifoii and in the Way pafled by the 
^^^a -Pardo^ he was refcued by the Servants^ of the For- 

Mim/ier. ^^^^j-^ Minifter in the Sight of inany Pcoide: Who it 
being of a Sunday in the Afternoon were upon the 
publick Walks. Mr. Belmonie was all the while in his 
Garden with rome Miniflers who had dined with faim, 
and knew nothing of it tiU it was over. He imme- 
diately wrote to the Prefident of Cajiile to declare his 
Ignorance and Difapprobation of this' ASair ; but the 
prime Minifter Don Jofeph Patinho was fo incinfed, that 
he gave Orders for fcizing in his Houfe all the Servants 
of the Portuguefe Minifter who had any Hand in it. 
The Court of Lifbm having in its Turn arretted the 
Domefticks of the &pamjh Ambaflador Mr. Caficelatr^y 
thia Minifter imn^ediatdy fet out for Madrid^ at did 
Mr. BelmmU for his Court ; and Orders were given for 
fome Spanifl) Troops tq file ofF towards Portugal. As 
his Portuguefe Majefty could not be prevailed upon by 
Qfeaj Britain^ to declare for the Emperor in the War 
at that Time carrying on in Jtaly^ it was by fonne ima- 
gined, that the Court of London had bribed Don Diego de 
. A^endo^a^ to concert this odd Bufmefs with hrs Brother- 
in-Law Mr. BeUmonte on puppofe tO' embroil the two 
Courts: But this was not the Cafe; for the Court of 
Portugal fo far from thinking of a S:4apture had fcarce 
Troops enough on Foot to defend Lijion. -The Marine 
^of the Portuguefe had befides been fo much^ negleded, 
that their j5ri7z// Trade was chiefly carried on by Sri- 
tifh Ships. His Catbolick Majefty infifted upoA Satis- 
faftion J which the King of" Portugal was fo Ar from 
thiiiking due that. he demanded 4t himieif. - The Portu- 

guefe 



jpiefe Conrttroiild have (iltotitfed this Affiur it the Me- 
diation of Gnat Britain^ as ^/nmld iheCoart ^Madrid 
to that of France. Neither of thefeofltrs being accept- 
ed, it was on the Plirt of Sfain i>rofnt(ed thztPcrtti^at 
ihould not at prefent be attacked ; and on the othef 
Side, that the Britijh Fleet then in the Tiigus fliouM 
not z6t but in Cafe of Hofiilities being committed 
againft Portugal, Orders were at the fame Time 
given for Mr. Vandermeify the 2>»/^ AmbaiTador at 
Aiadridj to ad in Concert with Mi-. Vaugrenani 
the French and Mr. Keen the Btitijh AntbafTador, 
in bringmg about an Accommodation. By an PA 
which tiiefe Minifters figned it was agreed that Por^ 
tugal was in the wrong ; that the Prifoners at Madrid 
znA,LiJbm fliould be fet at Liberty at* the fame Time; 
that Minifters ihould be reciprocally fent from the two 
Courts \ and that Satisfadion (hould be made on both 
Sides for all HoftiKties committed in the fVeJi Indieu 
This Declaration figned in 'Jvij 1736 was quite fatif- 
ft£tery to the Zpamjh Court 5 but the Portugmfe could 
not brook the Words being in the wrong. Some Di(^ 
putes were hereupon raifed, and other Negociations were 
fet on Foot which lafted till the March following. 

About the Year 1729 Hoftillties were commenced ^e/^''/'V'«' /« 
by. the Indians againft Francis Jrfiph de St. Payo Viceroy '^ East 
of 60a: And as the InMans have ever fince harraficd Indies. 
the Porttiguefe^ thefe have never been without Fear for 
this impowaiit Place. 

The Poriuguefe have all the haughty Airs of the Spa- Mannenofth 
niards% but are not allowed to be fo wife or politick. '^^ Portu- 
They are too much elated with P-rofpeiity, and in Ad- ^u*»** 
verfity are too apt to become defperate. Their Go- 
vernment of their Colonies is very rigorous : And fuch is 
their Avarice that they will ftick at nothing to get Mo-- 
ney. They are moreover acculed of being naturally 
malicious and wicked. 

Portugal confidering its Extent and how many Fa- 0/the SoiL':n4 
milies have went from thence to Brazilj Africa and the Commodity of 
Eaji Indies is pretty well Peopred: But the P^r/ft-^wr/i Portugal. 
are fo far from being able without hiring Foreigners to 
keep large Armies on Foot, or fit out coniiderable Fleets, 

that 



^5 



Qff^Aft:riV(S^Ai4 



ikatrthty Imve Imt ;jiift Ff^otk, eoougli to flRfriion thcir 

Frontier and ^rry .W) tbeir .ext^nfiveTfadci. , The Soil 

of P^rtugtd being: in the general l^arren t^ Portuguefe 

%xt fupplied^ witfi. moft of ijieir CoFn^|)y FoMJgners } but 

this Country haft many good Cities and Towns and 

]kboii9fis with comraodtous Harbours. Its pirincipal Com- 

^ modities are Salt, of which large Quantities are tranf- 

I^Qfted into the Northern farts, and Oil and Wine, of 

whkh laft great Part. i«. fincjok the Wge Duty laid there 

on French Wine fent into Great Britain. There is alfo 

in Portt^al a SilvecviViifir near Gfkfdalcfiwly the annual 

Produce of which: is'iiwaffnfelyv^Kiable. r 

0/BtiAZiu Amongft the fepfigH Domimons of the Pcriugtieje 

Brazil is the CbiefJ. Thb Country, which .aitbough not 

.wide is of great Extent along the Coaft, is boafted of for 

its fine Air and Fertility. Befidea great Quantities of 

^gar, with fonle of which the delicious S'iruits that 

grow there are. preferved, it produces Gingjrr, Cotton, 

Indigo and a beautifMl fort .of Wood^kng^wn by the 

iNansie of Brazil Wood. Here are alfo ^ujk) Djanvonds > 

' 4>Ut the exporting .of thefe is |>rohibit^ by tbi^-King of 

JPmriHgah left tbey Ihould become to^ cooiraoa in Europi. 

As the Natives of Bra^l ane naturally flotfaful and 

averfe to every Thing which reqiiires Laboor, theP^r- 

itigutfe' are obliged to buy Negroes on the Coaft QfJfrice^ 

which th^icarrytbitherand f^ likeOxeaiA a Market 

ior Slaves. i 

Of the Poa- The Trade of the Portuguefe on the wefiern Coaft 

ti/GvisE ^'Africa has been very lAcOhfiderable fmce the Dutch 

"Tratkm. fc^ve eftablilhed themUves there; nor, to fay the 

Africa. Truth, do their Settlements :on the Eaftern Coaft ferve 

for any other. Puipofe than to enx:i/ch the Governors who 

are fent there. 

OftheirSettle- What they have ftill left in the Ea^ Indies, is of fonic 

ments in the Confequence. Gm. is ^ Urge City, and. a profitable 

East Trade is carried on there with many Nations, Itw?s 

• In»i«8. ^ imprudent Condua of the Pertuguefi in the Eaft 

Indies^ who by regarding only x\\t, G^tification of 

their Pride, and Avarice rendered themfelvcs odious to 

the Natives, which made Way for the great Progrcft 

€f the Dutch tber^ : They have, how^yjur. at ^tbis Time 

the 



Ihc Liberty of tradbg 4i«ftly to CbUfa^ fvl«fh t^€ ^a(- 

hnders. whom X^d phintfi A\ihox l^vfi ^t j:^<J they ai^ 
in PoiTeillioi^ pF tl^e Ifimd oi^Macao^ wi^ch by lying iiea(r 
the ,£iQpir« Q,f ^Qi^in/^ .fs^wry $g(9tpis^iou$ ior <tbait 
Purpofe. 

The Rortuguiff beiiig; foroneriy well .leftgi^tiSir^ inTi&f Por'tv^ 
Jtf/i<7» by the Induftry ot thci^ Miffion^ri^s^hfi Jf/uhh oubii /rr^ 
above 406,60b of the Natives were bapti^pdi- »i?d tk^/^cuteJat 
conceived great Ho^ of the whole CQMfiM'/^if n^t>f ^^ing J * f-?.** , r 
Chriftiajwty,: B^t about ninety Yfgfs ag0 .they werp 
lesiierpd 4^pcfled fp the EaoffGf or ^iy, the lotrigofes of « .^ ;. 

a Dutfbman named .(^a;v *. ; fiavixig. intprcppced H 
Letter tp the BopSy.ifi which . the. 5^^yiiVi ^ur^d . hiaoi 
that in a &w Ypars all 5f«7^;j would* bq bnpught uoder 
Subjeaion to- tjje See.of ,i?flm*, he pjej-fuaded the Em- 
peror, that a Scheme wa^. laid by tl^ J^ftiits in Con^ 
jun£tau with their /lew Profelytes to drive him frc«B 
the Throne. He moreover infimiated at the Court of 
jfapon^ that the Pope made a Pradico of taking. Kin^ 
Eoms frpm one a^d ^gi^ing them t)d a)iother jufl: as he 
plcafed ; and that the King of Spain, who then poffe&d 
Portugal wz^ a gftat Favourite onf his. There wa$ OP 
,reat Difficulty to make tfce JapoPefi UV^^ til thia^ 
'or they were before jefilom of the greftt^e^rd whlob 
wasibcwn,by thic.new Con vert8..fO' their Pricfts; an4 
many Qovernor^ . GQRiplsiined th«| their cuftomary 
frefenu fell ^ort,. .beguife tb^ neiy Profelytes carried 
every '^JDg that Wf^> precious t0!the J'tfuiu^ whofe 
Hands .were alwajic open tp rccffive, -.A Geographical 
Cij^it was at the fam^ Tiiw* flifiyvn to the Emperor ; 
from which it appeared eafy for the Kiflg of Spaiuy wha 
had {ilready pu(]^ bis Conqutfta: flo.Ane Side as far as 
Uacm and on the other as far as MamUa^ to make 
^'imfelf Mafter of the Jappn^fo^m^t^. A moft horrid 
Perfecution was hereupo|i r^ifed ; and fuch Torments as 
are hardly to be defcribed were inilided upon tbofe who 
^ould not renounce Chriftianity, which, for newConvertf 
are cominonly ftiff iq th^ir Opinions, very few of them 
^^' It was carried fy far as to root out Chriftianity en<* 
^ V tirely^ 

* fl> is fy fime thought to havt he en encouraged 'hjf ihi 
♦^VTCB East India Company. 



f 

^ 



/j!^t> Of PoKfVGAli. 

ilrp\y ; anti the Pcrtugue/e wcro- forbid upon )P^m of 
Death* to fct a Pobt within this Empire: Nay to this 
Day although the Dutch are allowed to trade there, 
they are not fufiered in the leafi to exercife the Chri- 
Jitan Religion, 
Of dm The Iflands called Jzeires belong al(b to the Portuguefe : 

AxoRBs* of which the two 'principal ones 5fJr^^tf and ^fld&^^/r^j 

arc very fruitful. ' - . . . 

Inter ejtorthe Upon the whole it, plainly appciars that the Profperity 
FoRTU- of Portugal AepctiAs upon Trade ; and that its Forces 
cvESE inge- are not fufficient to attempt any Thing againft the other 
mcraL Powers of Europe. It is confequently for the Intereft 

of this Kingdom to aim at nothing but the pre- 
ferving itfelf in its prefent Stare, and to keep Out of 
War ; and efpeci^Hy out of one with v^ Nation that li 
powerful by Sea ; fince its diftant Provinces on which 
ks Revenue principally depends may eafil'y be invaded. 
With Regard Although it is no hard Thing for the Spaniards to en- 
to Spain. ter this Kingdom: Yet are they not much to he feared ; 
partly becaufe it is fo barren that an Army of above 
20,000 Men Gould not be fubfifted without great Diffi- 
culty, ind for fuch a Number the Portuguefe would be 
a Match ; and partly becaufe Spain is not able to fit out 
•a Fleet fufficleftt to ann6y the Coafts of- Portugat, It is 
befides not to be fuppofed, that the other European 
Powers would- fufier Spain to conquer this Kingdom. 
On the other Side,' it can never be fbf the Intereft of 
Portugal to join 'at the Sollicitatiohof^any Power in a 
War againft Spain ; finCe all it cbiild gain would not 
inake Amends for the Men and Money it would be 
thereby drained of, 
France. ' Portugal has nothing to fear from France^ Which I'es 
at a great Diftance and is not ftrong enough at Sea 
to attempt any thing againft this Kingdom or its Settle- 
ments>: Nor is it likely that France fliould quarrel with 
Portugal^ it being for her Intereft to prefcrve the Inde- 
pendency of this Kingdom. 
HoLLAKD, ' The Hollanders have been hitherto the moft dange- 
rous Enemies of Portugal^ nor does it feem a hard 
Matter for them to drive the Portuguefe entirely from 
their Pofleffions in the Eajl Indies • « Yet as it has been 

fcr 



Of PoRTUGALr il4t 

\t feme Time a Maxim with the Dutch to attempt ria 
*H Conquefb^ and t(> keep up no more Shrps of War 
than are neceffary to proted their Tra3c, there is no 
Reafpn to fear this :' And if it was attempt^ Gnat Bri- 
tain would cercatnly exert herfelf ^igainft any further 
Progrefs of the Dutch in the Eqft Indies. ' 

As her Fleet is powerful and 0ie is in Pofleffion of Gas at 
the Piirr of Gibraltar^ it v would be eafyrfor Grtat Bri^^ Britaiw; 
tarn to ravage the Ceaft of Portugal j ^ to* invade its 
Settlements in the Eqft or fFeft InMes : But befides that 
(he would thereby 4r^^.,Mpoi) herfelf th^ S^^ntment 9f , . 
other Powers, the Trade with Pwtugul \sk ^valuable r ;. r*. 
to Great Britain^ that it can hardly be fuppofed Ihe 
would willingly come to a Ruptuie. with this Kiii^ 
dom. -■ . \ • • . J 



• i zv\ 



.11 ■ i 



'•- e ' 



I i I I » I i I ■ I I ■ ' ■ • n Vr * ; ;• , ^V I ' u rn rn'"'i i Viitln' ■ ' ; " ^ ' ■ " ■ ' ■^' 












H* 



T=^ 






Jncient State '*>JW7'^'^' 1h*»'k«^ft 1flaW<f;^Kfch Ac' AlldenW 

5^ Britain. JD* fcfttfi^ 6f,'^^s forrfi^riy Akf>j'eia''t6 iftiifiy frtdepc^n- 

itiAt CMifft; ^P^^li»•efcI^ 6^5*^ tReTitte WKing. 

many Sovereigns involved the Inhabitants in ahVibft | 
conftant civil Wars; and rendered them although natu- 
rally brave and hardy incapable of repelling any foreign 
Force. 
CMoueredby ^ Dcfcent v/as after fubduing Gaut made on this 
/i&« Roman s« Mand by Julius Cafar \ but notwithftanding he had the 
Advantage in fome flight Skirmiflies he was glad to re- 
tire with his Troops, without having penetrated far into 
or maHe any Part of it tributary. Difcouraged at this 
ill Succefs of the beft General Ksme ever faw, no fur- 
thers Attempts were made by tlie Ramans on Britain till 
the Reign of Claudius. A powerful Army being landed 
. by this Emperor; at a Time when the People divided 
^mongft the pifelves co uld malfe litUe . Refiftanocw Part 
of the ^tfffi was. fubjeSed to the Roman Power. The 
Romans gradually extended their Conquefts, but not 
without beinff feveral Times repul fed with great L.ofs. 
At length Julius Agricola^ appointed by the Emperor 
Domitian to command in Britain^ carried his victorious 
Arms through the fouthern Part thereof; and aftei- ob- 
taining a compleat Viftofy over them fubdued the Cale-^ 
donians *. As however the extreme Parts of Caledonia 
were fo mountainous as to be almoft inacceffible^ the 
Romans gave over all Hope of reducing them entirely ; 
and to prevent the Incurfions of the Inhabitants a 
Wall was built from Sea to Sea by the Emperors Adrian 
i|od ^^^Kw After having been Mafters of Britain above 
C^bc/V^s tfie Romans quitted it, in order to oppofe the 

Irrup- 
* The Inbahitants (f Scotland werefo called andentfy. 



(y GR t AT BfcIT AlWw' 143 

Imiptioo of iihe nordietn Naftions on the veftem Rirear 
i tfaetr Empire. ' " f • 

As the Romans did not only tranfpoit thfeir ownXe^ Saxons ^910 
ons, but canried with theni to the CoiAm^nt xh9into^ntr4n»t 
[iiitia compofed of the Flower of the lAhabitaots;' tisb 45^* 
juthern Parts of Britain were foon ovet-iun and iniir 
{otyably ravaged by the AjTj aW Smsl Iti'this Diftrrfs 
t\^ Britms having 'no Hopes of Succour from the>J3^ 
mans chofe V&rtigem for » their King; who 'findm^ 
kimfelf unable to make Head ig^inft thefe Spoilers caUed 
in the Angles a Saxoh People who dwelt in Hd^n to 
his Affiftance. By •thein*Hetp4: Itrho came over ia H ' h'^ 

krgc Body^undtpHihgi^MdJ^faii^ theYcai^oif '\ - -'i 
Christ 450^ the Scots v^iietf dn^XiH'^ b«t likihg tfed "''^'\ 

Country a R^folutton was ts^kiefi of efhibiilhing tbifb^ :-^:i 

felves in it. Tie Natives (b^n faw nherr Miftake jaiid 
endeidvbured • to dcive^ht Jnglte oit« of the IJknd^^ but i. -1 
beiiig re-infdreed by^many Thoii&hcb of their Country^ • w 

Aieif theeaftern Parts of » it was Joon brought iinder the 
Sa^oH Yoke* • • • - j- . . . .; . 

The ^^9JKWi!P< gradually extended their Conqu^; yet CAiryirALu»4 
the Ancient 'InhabtiaMtii fapportcd themfel^d in the der r//»*«# 
weftefit Parts 'till the Tvm^ oi CaimUadet;''^"T^^into FRAwce. 
Prince dielaft Kttigof the oM Bri^ Race,' bis Fbrces 
beii>g fo diminiflied by a Plague Md Famine iwhich:ooti^ . M 

cinued fov the Spaiie of eleven Y^^s that he ceutd" not 
make Head d^ainft. 4he ^^Ar^j, retired int6 a^f^'rt df 
Pranct- fince- ddled firom' his ^Followers Breinnf. He 
condnuied th^eior foitiOtTone: But finding b)^ Af- 
fairs quite fii^reco^ablb he went to Btme ^^m l(he 
Ycar'Ogg/airf threw himfelf ')i\^ a MonafleiylWhercr *>. - -" : 
'hedied;^ •-- ' • '^" •' ^'- ..-.;/" • • - -«^- 'jT^ ^ \ y^ 

All the fodtiier A Pki r of Bfit^' except tW Pi^ovii^ Origin Y '^ 
of ffiifiis ' feiihg 'in' Proccfs of Tfene fubdued ^ bj^:^ iV:«?«^ Eno- 
5tfA«tf«i it waf^JcilkdUrom. the-;^wi^///,"Who w^ri 
firft of this Nation that felttei^lhemfc^ver irt< ki Ty 
theNskne'of.'off^^yibnrf. ' ''v.C, .:. r , ' , . -^ ;;.v.a 

As the Sta-W^lned Ground JTeveral KingdohtS^'dre Sr^ khvj^y 
formed ; which at' iaft amounted tofeVei^. The Codniiy ^oms etkshtf^ 
of Kent was about the Year 455 firft ereftcdintO a ^^^ Saxons, 
Kif^oioi^ ^nd' d($WtIm]eJ'underJ fevemeen Kings above K^^*^* 
350 Yearvr -The ttext called the -Kiiigdom oi'Suf^^ Sussex. 
I which 



144 



Of G» t AT Brit»i^. 



Wbst 



vhifh .compceheuded ibe .Oxinties. oi. Suffix zni Surry f 
began in the Year 488, and after being gDvcrncd by five 
Kif)g9 «nded about -^he Year 60 r . . The third bounded 
on the Eaft by the Kingdom of Sufexy on the North by 
tbie Tbamesy and oh the South by the Channel extended 
weftward js hr ar the Lands End, and was called 
the Kingdom of th^ tfyi Saxws. This Kingdom, 
founded in 'the Year 519 in the End fwallowed up aJI 
the 'reft. Ina the eleventh King, thereof ordained, 
thtt >every. of his Subje£b worth ten Pence fbould 
giye one renny annually to the Btfliop of Rsme ; . which 
Tax at firil called. Kinffs Alms was afterwards called 
P€ttr*sPtnce. The.Foiittb comprehending the Coun- 
ties of Ejffixs AfidHifiK and Part of H^tfml/hirsy and 
which was diftinguifhed by the Name of the Kingdom 
of EfiXf began in the Year 527* jand lafted under 14 
Kings till the. Year ^08. The Kingdom df Ntribum- 
berlandy which toojk in all of England that lies North of 
the Humber sund Mtrfyy z^^^s fcumcted in. the Y»r 547, 
and governed by twenty-three fucceffive Kings till the 
Year 8aS. The fixth /called the Kfegclom of the Eajl 
idngUu CMiprehendiog .the Counties of Norfolk^ Suffolk 
injSCPut of Cambridg^ri^. began iji the Year 5^1, and 
continued under fifteaflL Kings till tin; Ye^r 792. The 
feventh called the Kisgdom qf ^^^cm.. was hounded oa 
the South by the Tbamesy on the Weft by t^ Sevirn^ on 
jthe North by the jCingdgim o( :Nof.^umberhni^ and on the 
-Eaft by the Kingdoms of iE]^* and ^'^ Efiji AngUs. This 
was ftwinded in the Year 585* acd aftet-hmog governed 
.by ewe0ty' Kings ended about the Year Raj.. 
Egbert iirm|::^.rAU thde Kiogdo«in6» called from* th6k::Number^he 
^England^ Heptarchy, were fubdued by or fubmitted themfelves to 
•/ ' 8a«. -* <^*rr/''the' fow)©t^nUi;King of .*e ^ Saifm. He 
;. \t. :. h^gam to reign in tb^1f ear 800 ;: 9nd ha;i(ins compleated 
' A T jiip CopqwiW about the Year 8a8 tottk.upon himfclf the 
Titjft of Kii)g.Qf Kpgi^.. T 

In his Reign the Dimes beg^n to itoVJade England, 
,Tbey wfire for fome Time repulfed wi$K great Vigour J 
but at length found Means, to ^ftabliih then^felves in 
the North. . , ., 

After having^for feveral Reigns Hyjwt there quietly they 
during the Reign of ^/*^Mll,..wha lucceeded to the 

i Throne 

3 



Pbtbh^s 

Pence /rff 

faid. 

Essex. 

NORTHUM- 
BKRLAND* 



East .Aii< 

GLSS* 



McitcxA. 



DaKBS Iff- 

Ethelrsd 
II,, 979- 



Of G^R E A f' B R- 1 T A 1 I^J ' 14 5 

Throhc in the Year 979, made Inroads into the fouthern 

Parts ; where they exacfted large Sums of Money from \ 

the Englijb, raviihed their Wives, and carried *U with fo 

high a Hand that they obtained the Name of Lord- Danes. 

In the Year 1002 all the Danes that could be found Danish 
were murdered in cold Blood ; but this barbarous Maf- Massacre, 
facre was amply revenged by Sweyn King of Denmark^ 1002. 
who in the following Year made a Defcent upon Com* ^ 

ivall. All the Preparations* of i?/A^/r^^, who had juft 
Reafon to expe£l the Kefentment of Sweyn^ were render-* 
ed ineffeflual by the Treachery of Edrick : Notwith- 
ftanding he had made him Duke of Mercian and given 
him his Daughter in Marriage; and Ethelred was forced 
after feeing great Havock made in his Kingdom to fly 
for Safety into Normandy. 

Siveyn being killed by an unknown Hand at the fack- Sweyn; 
ing of Su Edmunds Bury irt Suffolk Ethelred returned- 
from Normandy^ and forced Canute the Son of Sweyn to 
retire into Denmark, Whilft Ethelred was concerting- ethelred 
Meafures for flopping the Progrefs of Canute^ -who noVreturm . 
long after, landed with a powerful Army, he dipd in the 
Year 1016; and was fucceeded by Edmund-hh Son. » 

This Prince furnamed Ironfide defended himfelfwitK Edmund 
great Bravery againtt the Danes ; and had it not been Iron sid£» 
prevented by the Perfidy of Edrick would have driven 1016. 
them quite'out'of the lilahd. It being at length agreed 
by the' two Kings to determine the Fate of the War by ' 

fmgle Combat^ Edmund vtsls viAorious ; yet for theT'^^KiNC- 
fake of Peace he confeiued to divide the Kingdom with dom divided. 
Canute, The Enjoyment he hereby propofed to himfelf 
lafted but a fliort Time ; for he was in the Year 10 17 
affaffinated at the Inftigation of Edrick. >' 

Uppn the Death of Edmund Canute having convened Canute,' 
the Englijk Nobility aiked them, if on the Divifion 1017. 
of the Kingdom there was any Provifion made for the 
Succeffion of the Brothers or Children of Ethelred} 
Being anfwered in the Negative, for they durft not an* 
fwer otherways, he was crowned King of all England^ 
After extirpating all of the Royal Family he could lay 
his Hands upOQ Canute married the Widow of Ethelredi 
and bavins: Jto. render himfelf agreeable to the People fent ^ * 

home the D^es he reigned with great Applaufe. In orddr 
Vol. I. L to ' 



ii|.6 Q^GreatBritAim. 

J remarkable tQ expofig tbc Flattery of certain farafitis^ who had at* 
J^ionofbis. tributcd (bmething of Divinity to him, he caufed him- 
felf to be f<st in a Chair on the Sea Shore ; and with a 
loud Voice commanded the Sea not to wet his Feet. 
The Waves rolling on as ufual and beginning to beat 
upon him 5 you may fuy fays he to the Specters, ym 
may hy this fit how immftderable the jP^uw of Htrthly 
Kings is. He died in the Year 1035. 
Harold, Harold his Son and Succeflbr, furnamed from his run- 

^°55' ning fall Harefooty was remarkable for nothing but 
the Murder of Emma his Mother- in-Law, and fome of 
her Children, whom he enticed by fair Words out of 
Normandy. 
Hardi Ca- Upon his Death without Iffue in the Year 1039, the 
NUTE,io39. Heads of the Kingdom pitched upon Canute^ on the 
Account of his great Strength called Hardicanute^ his 
• Brother by the Father's Side to fuccced. This Prince 

who was born of Emma the Reli£l of Ethtlnd is faid 
to have byeen fo voracious, tl^at he would eat heartily 
four Yimesv every Day. Growing quite odious to his 
SubjeAs, they at his Death, which happened in a little 
more thap two Years, made publick Rejoycings j and 
the Dams now grown contemptible were ridiculed in 
the open Streets. With him the Danijh Government 
in England ended. 
Edward the ; Edward furnamed the Confeflbr, fon of Ethilnd and 
Confessor, Emma., was upon the Death of Hardi^anuti invited 
J04t* from Normandy^ whither he had fled for Safety, and 
crowped. In order to ingratiate himfelf with the People 
he immedi^Ltely remitted a Tax called Dane^gdd^ which 
they had for forty Years groaned under. His Reign 
was fometimes ditturbcd. by Di7;i^ and Irijh Pirates: 
But h^ always cha£kifed their, Infolencc. He was the 
firft King to whom the Virtue of curing the Diftcmpcr 
called the King's Evil by Toudiing was attributed. 
Dying without Iffue in the Year 1066' be appointed 
his Kinfman EJ^ar Atheling Grandfon of Edmund Iron- 
fide to fucceed : But as this Prince was very youngs fi^' 
rold Son of Goodwin Earl of Kent his Tutor contrived 
. . to haye the Crown fet upon his own Head, 

, Harold II. I^roldll. enjoyed the Fruit of this UfurpatJon only 
io66, ..nine Mofltsbsj for he was. at the End of this Titnc 

.> defeated 



Of Gvi^ KT Britain* 147 

defeated and flain in Battle by William Duke of Nvr^ 
mandy^ 

WiUiam furnamed the Conqueror, was a baftard Son William 
of Rohert Duke of Normandy by JrUtU a Y\xrx\tx*%ihe Conquerorl 
Daughter : With whofe Beauty he was ftruck, as flie iot6. 
one Day danced with other young People in the Fields, 
His Family was of Danijh Extraflion, being defcended Jiis Extrac* 
from Rolhy who with fome Dams and Ntfrmans made tien. 
a Defcent in France about the Year 900; and after 
committing great Ravages compelled Charlts the Simple^ 
to cede the Province of Nfuftria called afterwards Nor^ 
mandy to him and his Heirs. Notwithfianding his be- 
ing a Baftard, Robert prevailed on the Nobility to ac* 
knowledge tf^tUiam as his Succeflor when he was only 
nine Years of Age. As bis Father died foon after, this 
Prince had in his Youth many Difficulties and Dangers 
to encounter with : But by his Valour and Prudence all 
were happily furmounted ; and being informed of Ed^ 
ward^s Death, he determined to attempt the Conqueft of 
England, Some fay he founded his Pretenfions on Ed^ 
ward*s having left him this Kingdom by Will, in re- 
turn for the Favours he received from Robert his Father 
while he flieltered himfelf in Normandy : Others that 
there was only a Promife f?om Edward: but that Harold 
while he was in Normandy had been obliged to confirm 
this with an Oath. 

However that was William embarked for England with t^^ in*vatle$ 
a confiderable Army, compofedof Normansy French and'^NCLAND. 
F/emmingSy and landed without any Oppofition j for 
Harold was engaged in the North againft his Brother 
and Harold Harfogar King of Norway. After vanquifli- 
ing both thefe and recruiting his Army, which had fu- 
ftained great Lofs and was fatigued with long Marches, 
as much as the fhort Time would admit of, he on the 
fourteenth of OSfober came up with the Norman near 
Hajiings in Sujpx. A Battle enfued, and it was Battle of 
fought with great Obftinacy on both Sides: But atHASTmcs, 
length, Harold being mortally wounded, Vidory de- '* 'wlftcb Ha- 
clared for Williamy and he was unanimoufly proclaimed ^^^^ '' ^^j\ 
King. As he did not at firft invade any Maa's Proper- '^'^J' ^^^»ded. 
ty, and only gave vacant Lands to his Followers j as he. 

L 2 was ' 



148 tyj G R E A T B R I T A 1 N* 

was allied to fomc of their former Kings, and jvas re- 
commended by the Pope, the Englijh wercttf* fbme 
Time very well fatisfied with him. He. nevqrthelefs 
thought proper to difarm the People ; and to prevent 
• noAurnal Affemblies, it was ordered, that neither Fire 

nor Candle fliould be fecn in any Houfe after the Even- 
^he Corfe^M ing Bcll, Called the Corfew Bell, had been rung. Forts 
Bdl. were al fo built in feveral Places: Yet notwithftanding 

all thefe Precautions his Reign was greatly difturbed. 
Edgar A- Edgar Atheling^ who had fled with feme of the prin- 

THELiNG eipal Nobilityinto Scotland^ in Concert with (ome Danijh 
(itfturhsthe Pirates committed great Diforders in the North : And 
'North. after burning the City of York he put all the Normans 

found in it to the Sword. Having got the Better of 
rhefe Enemies a dangerous 'Con fpi racy was in the Year 
1076. 1076 formed againft lVtlliam\ but it was happily ftifled 
before ithofe concerned could unite their Forces. He 
was likewife obliged to carry over an Army againft his 
Son Robert^ who endeavoured to make himfelf Matter of 
Normandy, The Father and Son being perfonally en- 
gaged in a Battle there, William was thrown from his 
Horfe ; but Robert knowing hlrti by his Voice to be his 
"Father immediately difmounted, embraced him, and 
Wales con^ they were reconciled. He after this conquered Wales ; 
quered. and forced Malcolm King of Scotland to take an Oath 

of Fidelity to him. 
William Finding his Clemency had been abufed by fome, ffll- 

grokvs Ty- l^^^ in the latter Part of his Reign fell into the contra- 
RANNicAL.' ry Extreme, and became quite a Tyrant. Religious 
Houfes, in which Gold and Silver had been depofited as 
the moft fafe Places, were plundered by him ; he impo- 
fed heavy Taxes; and having feifed moft of the Lands 
of England gave fome of them with the Referve of an- 
nual Rents to his Favourites. He took upon himfelf 
the Guardianftiip of Minors; and allowing them what 
he thought fufficient for their Maintenance, the Remain- 
der went into his own Coffers. Old Privileges and 
Laws were aboliflied or changed by him ; and new 
Laws being introduced written in the Norman Tongue, 
of which the People were ignorant, they unavoidably 
ftU under fevere Penalties. 

Before 



(y G R E A T B R I T A I N.' j^g 

Before his Time the Ufe of the great Bow, by which Tl^e Vfe cftbt 
his Vi£tory over Harold was in a great Mcafure gained, Great Btnu 
and which was after ward^s of great Ufe to the EngUJh \ti}ntroiuced^ j 
their Wars with France^ was unknown in England, His 
Son Robert being again ftirred up againft him by Philip I. 
of France^ tf^tlUam went over into Normandy,. Mattejs 
were foon made up with his Son ; but falling fick at 
Roan^ the French King fent a Meflenger to know, haw 
long he intended to lie tnT jyUliam fent him for An- 
fwer, that as foon as he had been churched, he would offer 
a thoufand Tapers in France.^ ^ Being recovered he kept 
his Word; . for he made an Irruption into France ^ 
and put a large Extent pf,. Cpyntry to Fire and 
Sword:. But over-heating himfclf in this Expedition, 
he fell ill.'^pd died, leaving by Will Normandy to '' 
Roberty and 'to JVilUam his" fci:ond Son *the Englijh 
Crown. 

The Title of JViUiam 11/ fur named Rufus was Witt i am 
oifpured by his. Brother ;K^^^r/; and divers Lords re- Rufus. ^ 
belled againfl him. The former he made ^ii^^^ by agree- 
ing to pay nim 3000 Marks yearly, and that lie (hs-^uld 
fucceed. Of the latter fome were bv fair Means, others 
by Force brought to Obedience. This Rebellion was 
of great Service to the EngVi^ ; for as the Perfoiis con- 
cerned in it* were for the rnoit part Norfnons^^ tlie former, 
were a||erwards mcire refpe£ted bv JVtlUam. fie w^s 
fiiccefsfiil in two Wars againfl: Malcolm Kipg.of 5'^:'/- 
iond, arid maintained his Authority over the IVclJh^ 
Amongft other Expedients of his to raife Money the fol-/^^-f artful 
lowing was remarkable. Having raifed an Army oi ^^^y ^f ^^^Ji^Z 
2O3O00 Men, he when they were" going on Shipboard to ^^^^^ \ 
be Carried into Norinandy caufed it to be proclaimed, 
that whoever would pay twelve Shillings might flay at 
home : Which being preferred by all, it anfwered his 
Purpofe of'raifmg a large Sura. He was killed in the 
Year nob, by an Arrow ffiot by one of his Domefticks 
while he was hunting, 

Henry his younger Brother took the Advantage ofHENRy^ 
being preferit when this happened, and of j^is jBrotfier Hoq* 
iJp^fr^'s "bem^ engaged in the Holy Land y to get* himfclf 
proclaimed King. He endeavoured to gain the AfFec- 
Uans of the People by eafing them of fome Grievances: 
L 3 V And 



Matilda's 



Normandy 
annexed to 
England. 

War n^itb 
France. 



1 50 Of Great BRiTAi^k 

And in order to fecure the Fricndfliip of i?<3^tfr King 
of Scotland he married his Sifter Matilda, 

It has been faid that this Princefs had vowed a Vow 
of Chaftity : And that when her Brother forced her to 
marry, fhe wifhed the Ifluc of the Match might never be 
happy. Whether this was fo or not, her Children and 
their Pofterity were very unfprtunate. Robert being re- 
turned from Palejline landed in England with a powerful 
Army : But by the Interpofition of feme Friends Things 
were prevented from coming to Extremities ; and on 
Henrfs agreeing to pay him a yearly Penfion be went 
back to Normandy, Repenting afterwards of this Agree- 
ment Henry made a Defcent on Normandy ; and having 
vanquiihed Robert^ not only conden^ned him to perpe- 
tual Imprifonment, but caufed his Eyes to be put out. 
From this Time Normandy was annexed to the Crown 
of England, 

Umbrage being taken at the growing Power of Henry^ 
by Lewis the Fat of France^ he in Concert with Fulk 
Earl of Anjm and Baldwin Earl of Flanders under- 
took to put William the Son of Robert into Pofleflion of 
Normandy, After a long and bloody War one of the 
principal Terms of Accommcdation was, that ff^illiam 
Henrfs Son (hould fwear Fealty to Lewis for the Dut- 
chy of Normandy. The Title of Duke of Normandy 
was ever after while it belonged to England born 
by the King's eldeft Son. JVilliam the Son of Robert 
becoming afterwards Earl of Flanders^ he made a fecond 
Attempt to recover Normandy : But it was to no Pur- 
pofe. Henry was as fome Hiftorians fay the firft Prince 
Commons who admitted the Commons to deliberate upon publick 
admued to Affairs ; and in Confequence thereof the Parliament, 
parliament, which before confifted only of Peers and Bifhops^ was di- 
vided inter the upper and lower Houfes. His Son WiU 
Ham being drowned in his Paflage from Normandy M^ 
England^ Henry managed fo as to have his Daughter 
Matilda^ who was firft married to the Emperor and af- 
terwards to Geoffry Plantagenet Earl of jfnjou^ acknow- 
ledged by :the Parliament .as Heir to the Crown ; and 
an Oath of AUegiar^ce vras taken to her in his Life 
Tmie^. 

Upon 



Cy G R E A T B R I T A I >?. h'^\ 

Upon the Death of i//«r7 h riteYear 1 1 'iS^Stephen fearl Stephbm, 
of5tfiif»Ws Siftcf'sSoiT, by promifing to reftorc thfc »i35- 
People's Privileges and the Saxm Laws^ procured him- 
felf to be crowned. He had joitied in the Oath to 
Matilda ; but it was now infided upon hj hfm an^ his 
Partifans, that as it had been extorted from them it 
was not binding. In order to fulfil in fome Meafure 
his Promifes to the People divers Taxes were remitted 
byhim, ami he fufFered the Nobility to butki CaOles; 
and the better to eftabli& himfclf upon the Throne, 
be caufed bis Son Euftact to marry Cofiftance Daughter 
of himU of France 'f yet bis Reign was full of 
Troubles. 

The ScHch and afterwards his own Nobility con- Hh Reign cen- 
fiding ifitte Strength of thdr Caftles gave him muchA»'0'^«- 
Difturbance ; but his greatcft Contcft was with the Em-/«^*^^* 
prefs Matilda. Upon her landing Numbers- flt)cked to 
her, and Stephen was ftwn after defeated and made Pri- 
foner at C/!»e/?^ r nor could any Thing have prevented 
herenJQying the Fruit of this Succefs, had (he not im- 
prudently difobliged the Londoners^ by refufing* to re- ^ ^ 

ftore King Edward^s Laws. -The Party of Stephen 
being hereby ftrengtheued, (he was herfelf within a little / * 

of being taken Prifoncr at Oxford \ and her Rival was 
fet at Liberty. Some Years afcer her Son Henry ^ 
Heir by the Father's Side to Anpu^ by the Mother's 
y^Nmnandy^ and poflcfljed in the Rightof Eleanor hh 
Wife, Heirefs of the laft Duke of Guienne^ of Guienne 
and Poi^otti having attained the Age of nineteen de- 
termined to affert his Right to the Englijh Crown. . 
Landing with a powerful. Army, he had iiot much Dif- 
ficulty in accomplifln'ng;his.Defign ; for as Stephen^% Son 
Eujiau dyed fuddenly, be cOnfented to adopt and ap- 
point Henry his Succeflbr. In the Year 1154 not long 
afcer this Agreement Stephen died. 

Henry Ih took the fxrft Opportunity of demoKfhing Hen ay IL 
the Caftles built by the Nobility in his Predeceflbr's iiS4' 
Time. After a profperous Reign of. eighteen Years, 
he in order to fecurc the Succeffion .to him would 
have his Son, who was married to Margaret of France^ 
crowned and aflbciated with him in the Government: 
But this imprudent Step involved him in many Dif« 
L 4 , ficuhies. 



1^2 Of Ck E:ATr B R I T A^ I K^ 

ficultica.' His Son wYnibd *ia affume the whote Power ; 
^: Lewis K\ng of Franee iopked .with jealous Eyes on his 

being Mafterof fo 'much in this Kingdom; and the 
Scotch wifhed for « nothing more than an Opportunity 
of iplundexing England. Upon the whole thefe two 
Kingdoms united with the young Prince againft Henry \ 
but he defended himfelf fo .well, that the Sc(as were 
repulfed; with great Lofs, and the French came to 
Terms. Alue DaughtcF^of Z^zwx being afterwards be- 
trothed to Richard his .feicond Son, it \i reported oi 
Henry ^ that falling in Love with he privately enjoy- 
ed her^ and cpntrived Ways to retard the CoiiAin^ma- 
tion of the Marriage. The young Prince, Who was 
. . , by the Death of his Brc^her Hmry become- Hefr to the 

Crown,; being juftly exafperated hereat, he'-ftirrcd up 
an Infurre<Slion againft his Father; zt\& Philip of France 
took the:. Advantage of this rQuarrel to make himfelf 
Mafter of Mans. Finding himfelf thtts^ a< oncfe at- 
tacked both ..by Rcilations and Friends, it broke his 
Heart;, and he died jihortly after of Grief in th^Year 
1189.. ...;, ,, ,, . : ■ 

Ireland Ireland y72k'& conquered by thid Prince, and annexed to 

ion^uered. the EngliJhCro'wn. ; It wast pbflcfled with the Title of 
Lord Qf IreU^nd, by him and his Succeflbrs, till Henry 
VIII.' in defpitfiof the See of Rome^ which claims an 
exclufive Right of ercfting Kingdoms, took 6pon him- 
felf the ,Titl0 of Kipg thereof. ' ' ^ ' 
Centefl with He had alfo. a long Conteft with Thomas of Becket 
Thomas Archbifliop of Canterbury^ who afferted that it was 
jBecket, derogatory to the Honour of God, for Ecclefiafticks to 
be on any account fubje£k to fecular Tribunals: But 
the King infifted upon it,. that for Murther and other 
atrocious Crimes they ought to be and fliould' be tried 
like other Subjects. . As the Archbiihop being backed by 
Rome would not give Way in the leaft, he^ Wasf after 
-^ , . giving Henry an-. infinite dWl Tof' Trouble affafcfiated at 
'*' ' . J the Altar^. ' ! • - ' .' : 
Richard I. Richard Son and Succeffor'-of /J?«r;y was- fo- in fa- 
il 89. tuated with the Superftition of the* Times, that he under- 
w F V ^^^^ *" Concert with Philip of France ah Expedition to 
tiLt?tbe' ^^'^ Holy. Land, In his Way he took th'^ Ifland of 
Holy Land. ^^/^^"^» whjch being aftcpwayds given Xs> Gu%d9 Lit- 

ftgnan 



Of G R E A T Br I T A'l N. J53' 

fignan, the latter refigned all Pretenfions to Jertifakm. 
Having a confidcrable 'Share in the taking of Ptolemais 
in the Year 1 192, Rithard czufcd the Standard of Leo* 1192. 
pold of Auftria to be pulled down, and his own to be 
put up in its Stead. Great Hopes wete now conceiv^* 
of retaking yerujhlem \ when all at once Philip refolved 
to return home, and Hugo Duke of Burgundy followed 
his Example. The l\irks being hereupon re-animated, 
and News being received that Philips notwithftandin^ 
his Oath to Richard before he fet but from Pale/line 
that he would attempt nothing againft h?s Dominions,' 
had attacked Noryn'andy^ Richard made Peace with the 
Sultan Salladin,^^ He attempted to pafs Incognito through! 
Aujhria\ but was difcovered ; and being fh Revenge for 
the Affront put oh Leopold at Ptolemais thrown into ^ thrown int4 
Prifbn, he was farced to pay ic6,ccb' Livres for h\i^"f^* 
Ranfom. Upon his Arrival at hdmfe* he found 'every 
Thing in the utmbft Confufion. ^ht French had over- 
run Normandy \ and bis Brother ^^^w was endeavouring 
to rob him of the Erfglfjh Crown : , But he obliged fohn 
to aft his Pardon,, and'drqve the French back into their 
own Provinces, fle'difecflfhortly after in fhelfear II09> 
of a Wound he received at the Siege? of a fmall Ptode ,^. 

\n.Prance. • ■ • - * . ' , . , 

His Brother 5^<7i», furnamed becaufe 'hfs Father leff JoHn, i 

him no Inheritance LdcMand^ managed' fb'as' to havcf i'99» 
the Englijh Crown fet trporihis Hekd'rBiTt his Right wasl 
difputed by Arthur -puke of Bretany^^^^tc'xA Qeoffij 
his elder Brother ; and the latter implored the Affiftance 
of France. This bcihg granted By Philips who wai 
glad of the Occafion, manv Towns in France were taken 
from the Englijh.' 'To balk 'however if poffible the Ex- 
pedations of his Nephevjr, ^ohn confented to a Match 
betwixt Philip^s elddl Son a*nd Blanche Daughter of 
Alphonfo King of CaJiiU'hy his ^\{ktr Eleanor ; and gave 
her as a Portion '^11 the 'Towns except v/w^/Vx, which, 
had with the Aifi fence of the Frenth been taken from 
him. As John afterwards married Ifabella Heirefs of 
Angouleme, the ETirlof Marche, to whom this beautiful 
Princefs was engaged, in Revenge fided- with Arthur: 
But their united Forces were routed in the Year 1202 5 ^^^ Death of 
and Arthur being made Prifoner died IhortJy after in the Arthur, 

Caftle of iJ^^w. • • - ^- ' •' »202. 

I ft 



»;5+. 



Philip r«r- 
futrs Noil- 

IIAHDY. 



JoHii refigm 
i^s Crtywn to 



Bis War 
woith ihe_ 
Bab.onI. 



Magna 

Charta 



Of GreatBritaim* 

It bebg fufpeded that this young Prince had foul Play, 
biS Mother Conftana complained to Philip ; and "John 
was cited to anfwer as a VaiTal of Frana for his Death. 
Not appearing bis Dominions in France were declared 
%C) be forfeited : And Philip made faimfelf Matter of Nor^ 
W^h which had been fevered from the Frmch Crown 
above 300 Years. The French afterwards attacked An- 
giers ; but being repulfed with L06 9 Truce for two 
Years, which gave Jihn an Opportunity of chaftifing 
the Scats and quelling a Mutiny in Ireland^ was agreed 
upon. War being at the Expiration thereof renewed 
in France^ the Englijh were defeated i and J$bn was glad 
^p conclude a (pcond Truce. 

A Quarrel which.arofe betwixt this Prince and Pope 
\ jfnnKenty concerning the EleAion of an Archbi(hop of 
. Canterburyt^ was carried fo far, that he was excommuni- 
cated 5 ..and Philip at the Inftigation of Rome made vaft 
Preparations for invading England. Apprehending no- 
thing ejfe would prevent his Ruin, John laid his Crown 
and other Regalia at the Feet of Cardinal Pandulph the 
trope's Legate : And notwithftanding he did this Ho- 
inag^yand took an Qath to obey the Pope in all Things, 
It was five Days before they were reftpred to him. 
"" The Mmds of his Subje<£ls, who were before difgufi- 
T ^^r bein^ by -this Mfe and (haineful Submiflion quite 
' alienated^ the BarQji;s took up Arms againft him ; and 
Ooaanded that the People (hould be.reflored to ail the 
Pfiylfcges they enjoyed before the Conqueft. . Inftead of 
<^>j(^pI]Hng with, this demand^ be for the Sake of having 
^e^Pppe^s Protedion refigned his Crown a feoond Time 
ii the Pope's L^ate; and confented to every Thing 
that Wii5 required of him on the Part of the Pope. The 
^i:Qfw Jiowcver adhered bravely ta their Purpofe, and 
f^ thpr Caufe was good their Party encreaied daily: 
Nor virould they give over Hoftjlities, till Jokn^ agreed 
to fign the Great Charter and the Charter of 
JPore/if. On his refufing afterwards to confirm thefe, 
Z,ewis the Son of Philip being invited by the Barons 
(came over into England with a powerful Army. While 
yohn W2LS preparing to make Head againft this Prince, 
whofe landing feemed quite agreeable to all Ranks of 
People^ Death put an End to the Cares and Misfof' 
tunes that bad long overwhelmed him. 

A$ 



Of GxEAT Britain* 155 

As Hemy III, who fucceeded in th? Year i2l6 ivas Hihry III. 
very young, the Prejudices conceived ^gginft his Father i«i6, 
fubfided, and the French were defeated by the Earl of 
Pembroki near Lincoln. A confiderable Body coming 
to their Aififtance being after wgrd^ deftroyed at Sea, 
Lewis renounced alj Pretenfions to Br^land^ and rcr 
turned into France, Great Uneafipeffes arofe in this 
long Reign \ which were chiefly occaHoned by the 
beftowing of Places of Profit and Truft on Foreigners, 
No lefs than 300 Italians were fent qver at one Time by 
iht Pope, who having got PoflefEon of the beft Benefices 
encreafed the Revenues of them as much as poiEbI«. 
Heavy Taxes were at the fame Time laid upon the 
People : Yet the King was poor ; fox the Relation^ 
of his Wife, who was Daughter to the E^rl of 
frwence^ took care to enrich themfelvea out of his 
Treafury, 

The Difcontents hereby occafioned came at laft tt^Warivitb 
an open Rupture with ihe Barons : During which the ^^^ Bailoms. 
King fold all, his Claims on Normandy^ Anjou^ Poi£iou^ 
Touraine and Mons to the French King for I,8o0>000 
Livres. In the fiift Battle Henry was taken Piifoncr j 
but the Earl of Leicejier being afterwards defeated by 
his Son Edwari^ Henry was fet at Liberty, and the Re- 
bellion was entiiiely fupprefled. He died in the Year 

1273- . / ; 

Although Prince Edward was at his Father's DeathEowAiD, 
in falgjliniy and continued there a, Year, he on his Re-, **73- 
turn to England took Pofleffion pi the Throne with-* 
out any Oppofxtion. Lionel the, laft Prijice of Waler 
having rebelled againft him, he was flaih in Batitle v. 
And this Principally was perfeftly- united to England, Wa \s» 
In this Reign the Animpfity betwixt tb^ &coUh Tia^^nited to 
^H^ijhy which lafted fo many Yeaj-s, and was thei^''®*'^''^* 
Caufe of fo much Blood&ed, began on the following^ 
Occafion. , , . 

Alexander III. of Scotland dying without Ifltic, Ed^ Origin of tin 
'^ard^ as feveral Scotch Kings had done Homage to hhJ^ars with 
Pfedeceflbrs, took upon him to determine the Rights Scot laud. 
^^ the feveral Competitors for this Crown. It appear^ 
*"g that the Pretenfions of John Baliol 2ind Robert. Brua^ 
Mfere beft founded, Mdimrd fent. privately for the latter^ 

and^ 



J'S^ O/^GreatBritain; 

and promifed to determine in his Favour, provided 
Jie would take an Oath of Fealty to him. Bruce 
honeftly difdained the Offer, and told him plainly, he 
wa3 not fo fond of Power as to facrifice the Indepen-^ 
dcncy of his Country for it. Baliol being lefs fcrupulous 
accepted of fuch a Propofal, and was crowned. A Suit 
arifing^ betwixt the Earl of Fife and the Aberneth Fa- 
mily, on6 of whom had killed the Earl's Brother, it 
was determined by the new King in Favour of the lat- 
ter : But on the Earl's appealing to the Engltjh Parlia- 
ment, Baliol was fiimmoned to appear and vindicate the 
Juftice of his Sentence. Being not allowed an Advo- 
cate, but forced like a common Man to plead his own 
Caufe before the Parliament, it was looked upon by the 
Scotch as a moft grofs Affront ; and on his Return into 
Scotland he declared the Oath taken x.o Edward to be in 
itfelf void, for that he had no Power to take fuch an 
" . 0.ath. The ancient Alliance being hereupon renewed 
vj\xh France^ and War being declared againft £«^/tf«//, 
Edward mdiichtd. inio Scotland i and having forced the 
Scotch to fwear Fealty to him brought Baliol PiKoner into 
England. ' The Forces Edward left there being fliortly 
after driven out by the Scotch^ who were commanded by 
i private Man named William fPallisy he went a fecond 
Time j and having defeated 40,000 of them near Fal- 
kirkyAht Oath was once more rammed down their 
• Throats. The Crown of Scotland hdng sifterwards 

' * conferred on Robert Brudj the Succefs betwixt his 
Forces and the J?w^/^ was various. At length in the 
1307, Yfear 1307 £^z^tf^<3? marched againft him in Perfonj 
but he fell ill in the Way and died. 
Edward Some of the Subjeds of this Prince m Aquitaine 

lofes many liaving committed Ravages on the Coaft of Normandy^ 
Flalesin' ' he was fummoned to anfwer for thefe before Philip the 
fRANCE, Handfome-y which being refufed all his Poffeffions in 
France were deemed confifcable, and feveral Places 
^ .'Wrcre feized. . Entering afterwards into an Alliance 

with the Emjjeror and Earl of Flanders he went 
ovcf into Flanders \ but finding his Affairs in France 
quite irrecoverable he concluded a Truce with Phi- 
jEvrsBan/fi^ l^P* In the Twenty-fourth Vear of this Reign the 
cdf 1297. Jews were- ordered to quit England i and all their 

Effca$ 



Of G R K A T B R I T A I N- 157 

£(FeAs except what they could carry with them were 

feized. 

Edward IT. married I/abella Daughter, of Philip the Edward II. 
Handfimey and had with her Guienne, and Pmthleuy^ *307- 
which had been taken by the French from his Father. 
This Prince was very unfuccefsful in the War with 
Scotland. At the Battle near Bannockfloreugh an Ar- 
my of one hundred thoufand Englijh were defeated by 
thirty thoufand Scotch \ which ftruck fuch Terror into the 
former, that they durft not look a Scotchman in the Face, 
The Scotch encouraged by this Succefs made a Defcent ^ruee tjoitb 
on Ireland, They were forced to retire with fome Lofs; Scotland. 
yet Edward was glad to clap up a Truce with them. 

Refufing to give up Gavefton and afterwards the Spen-^ His Imprudeuci 
cers his Favourites^ who were become odious to the "' proteBing 
People, the Barom flew to Arm's ; but the King's Party '^''^'^ ^^'f; 
being viSorious it coft many of^them their Heads : And^,^!'^'^''^^ ^'"^ 
the Queen herfelf from whom the Spencers had alienated ^'f^ r(rwnan4 
the AfFedions of her Spoufe fled into France, She re- "^ ' 
turned with an Army, and the King being made Pri- 
foner, the Spencers with fome others felt the EfFefts of 
the People's Refentment which they had fo long defpifed. 
After being carried from Place to Place, and treated 
with the utmoft Contempt, this miferable Prince, who 
too late faw his Miftake in fuflFering his Power to be 
abufed by Minifters, was depofed by Order of Parlia- 
ment ; and about fix Months after in the Year 1327 
was murdered in Prifon. 

During the Minority oi Edward III. who was very Edward III. 
young at his Father's Depofition, the Qtieen-Mother 1327. 
and Mortimer her Favourite had the entire Manage- 
ment of Afiairs. At the beginning of their Admini- 
ftration all Claims to the Sovereignty of Scotland were 
formally renounced ; and the Scotch gave up their Pre- 
tenfions on Cumberland zni Northumberland. For agree- 
ing to this difhonourable Treaty and for other Reafons 
the Queen was within a few Years thrown into Prifon, 
and Mortimer was hanged. 

After the Deaths of Lewis^ Philip and Charles Sons of He lays Claim 
Philip the Handfome without Heirs, Edward in the tothePKEncH 
Right of his Mother I/abella their Sifter laid Claim Cro^j:n, 
io the French Crown : But Philip of Valois their Fa- 

■ ther'a 



tfrcr^s Brothcr*sf Soft way ptcfetrtd by Ae States of 
France f notwithftanding his being a Degree further off. 
Although in Excufe for thid Edward was faid to be 
excluded by the Satique Law^ tlic true Reafons were 
without doubt the Averfion of tAe French to a Foreigner, 
and the SolHcitatiori of Robert E^tl of Jrtots in Favour 
of PhiKp. The going of Fdioard into France to do 
Homage for Guyenne^ was indeed a tacit Ceilion of his 
Right : But his Youth and the troubled State of Eng- 
land at this Time did in a great Meafure excufe it* Ap- 
pearing in the Church of Amiens with his Crown on his 
Head, he Was ordered to lay that together with his 
Sword and Spurs afidc, and to take the Oath of Fidelity 
Jcnecling : The Engiijh Nation were however highly ex* 
afperated at this Treatment of their King by Philif^ 
and France paid dearly fof it. 
hfiucejjful About the fame Time the Prctenfions of Edward ^on 
mgaitifi the of John Bal'tol to the Throne of Scotland were fupporfcd 
Scotch. hy Edward^ notwithftanding the ybung K\ng David 
had married his Sifter. Aft^i* fevefal Vidlories over 
the Scouhy who loft in one Battle 30,000 Men, Baliol 
was crowned and did Homage to Edward, The En^- 
lifl) took moreover the Opportunity of this Quarrel to 
recover Berwick, 
His Expedition Being arrived at full Age Edward took tbe Arms of 
into France, France^ and at the Perfuafion of Robert of Ar tots deter- 
*3+o. mined to affert his Right to the French Crown. The 
French Fleet fent to prevent his Landing was defeated 
with the Lofs of 30,009 Marines in the Year 134O) 
and Tournay was inverted ; but a Truce for a Year be- 
ing concluded he gave over the Siege. In the mean 
Time the Scotch headed bv David Bruce had driven 
out Edward Baliol, The War with France being renew- 
ed Angoulefme and fome other Places were taken by the 
Bnglijh\ and a Defcent being made hy Edward on 
Normandy great Progrefs was made in this Province 
Battle of and in Picardy, In the Year 13A6 an Army of 60,000 
Crbssy, French was defeated by half that Number of EngUJh near 
1346. Crejfy, No Quarter bein? given the French loft in this 
Battle 30,000 Men, amongft whom were 1500 of Diftinc- 
tion ; and a Body of 7000 Men coming to join the Army 
were the next Day eye to Pieces. About the fame Time 

Dav\i 



Of Great Biiitaih. 159 

hmd King of Scoihni^ who entered England with' 
60,000 Men to make a Diverfion in Favour of ' France^" 
was defeated, and he was taken Prifoner. The Viftbry 
of Crejj^ was followed with the Redudion of Britany 
and Guitnne ; and Calais fubmitted in the Year follow- 
ing to Edward. 

Some Years after the young Prince Edward Was knf Battle ff 
moGuiettnfy and gained great Reputation there: BufPoiriiRS. 
advancing too fer in the Year 1356 with only eight* »3S^* 
thoufand Men, he was met near Poitiers by John King 
of Frame at the Head of 60,060 Men. The French - 
King imagining he had hini in his Power would liften 
to no honourable Terms : But the Prince pofted hi* 
Men foadvantageoufly amongft the Hills and Vineyards, 
that the French Horfe which began the Attack were 
after being much galled by Arrows entirely brofcei 
The whole Army being hereby thrown into Confbfioh, 
John and one of his Sons were after great Slaughter 
taken Prifoners} and no lefs than 1700 Perfons of 
Rank were left on the Field of Battle. 

The Kingdom of France being afterwards over- run hy Treaty of 
three Armies, which were Commanded by Edward^B^^ETiGHr^ 
the Prince his Son and Jchn Duke of Lancafter^ a Peare i36o, 
was by the Pope*s Mediation concluded at Bretigtj \n 
the Year 1360. The principal Conditions were, that 
Wo«, Sainttmgue^ Rochelle^ the Pais d* Aulnis^ Peti^ 
iord^ Jngoumoisy Bigorre^ Limoijin^ ^ercy and the 
Angemis with the abfolute Sovereignty of all thcfe (hould 
he added to what the Englijh had already in France : 
That Calais with the Counties of Oye, Guifnes and Pon^ 
thieu fhould be kept by Edward ; and that 3,000,600 
of Livres, for the Payment of which three of his Sons, 
his Brother and thirty pf the principal Nobility were to 
^ Hoflages, (hould be given for the Ranfom of Jahn'. 
All other Places taken by thie Englijh were to be reftored-: 
And it was agreed that Edward ihould renounce all Pre^ 
tenfions to the French Crown. 

Prince Edward^ whom his Father made Duke of Gui- j^ar <wtth 
^''^ had afterwards a confiderable Hand in reftoringP^*- France re- 
^«r King of CaJHle to his Dominions ; but having ther6- newd^ 
^ drained his Coffers he found it necefTary to lay new 
Taxes on his SubjeAs. Complaints being madie of this 
°- was fammoncd to appear at Paris, On his anfwer ing 
J that 



i6o 



Richard IL 

1377. 



His Reign is 
very unhappy. 



parrel be* 
tiuixt the 
Dukes of 
Norfolk 
aWLakca* 

STBR. 



<y G R B A T Britain. 

that he would come with 60,000 Men, Charles V. de- 
clared War againft England i and in a Manifefto declared, 
thzt Edward had by conamitting fome Hoftilities for- 
feited what was ceded to him by the Treaty of Bretigny. 
While Preparations for War weie making on all Sides 
Prince Edward died ; and with him the good Fortune of 
the Englsjh ended. The Lofs of thii Prince and the Succefs 
of the Frenchy who foon became Matters of all Guienne 
except Bourdeaux aod Bayonney to aifefted Edward^ that 
he furvived him but ten Months. 

Richard II. Son of Prince Edward was only eleven 
Years of Age at his Acceflion in the Year 1377. The 
French defpifmg his Youth burnt fome Places on the 
Englijh Coaft ; and the Scotch made at. the fame Time 
fomehavock in England. The War with France^ feveral 
Truces intervening, was continued many Years without 
any remarkable Event on either Side, 
^. This Reign was greatly difturbed by fome inteftinc 
Commotions. In Kent and other Counties the Popu- 
lace provoked at their ill Treatment by a Receiver of 
the PolUTax gathered together, and threatned nothing 
lefs than to deftroy the Nobility and Clergy ; but by the 
King's perfonal Valour this Tumult was foon appeafed. 
It having been for a good while obferved that Richard was 
difpofed to rule arbitrarily, fome R^folutions were come 
to in Parliament for reftraining the Prerogative. No 
Regard being paid to thefe, l^hings were in another Sef- 
fion carried fo far, that he was forced to give up his 
Favourites whofe Infolence had made them univerfally 
hated to Death or B^nifhment ; and to promife upon 
Oath that he would for the Time to come be advifed 
by the Lords. A Confpiracy againft him being foon 
after difcovered, it coft many of the principal Perfons 
concerned their Lives, and he feemed to have got tlie 
better of the Malecontents : When the following Acci- 
dent happened, which though inconfiderable in itfelf laid 
the Foundation of his future Misfortunes. 

Henry Duke of Hereford afterwards Duke of Lanca^er 
accufed the Duke of Norfolk of fpeaking difrefpedlfully 
of the King. The latter denied it, and mutual Challenges 
enfued ; but when they were ready to eriter the Lifts the 
King forbad the Combat, and they were both bani(hed. 
Lancajicr went into France and great Numbers of dif- 

afFcaed 



Of Great Britain. i6r 

a/&ded Pcrfoiw invited him over with Promifes of rai- Lancaster 
fing him to the Throne. He ventured to land in Eng- '*' tn^vitedinto ' 
leruiw'ah only a few Friends ; but as Richard w^is in Ire^ England. 
land, he had Time to take his Meafures ; and luckily for 
him the Meffenger fent with the Account of his land- 
ing was detained fix Weeks by contrary Winds. The 
King was likewife guilty of a great Miftake in al- 
tering his Refolution. of coming immediately into £«rg'- 
knd. His Friends were for want of his Prefence difpi, 
rited j and many of the Troops raifed for his Service 
were eafily difperfed. Finding when he did arrive that 
his Enemies carried all before them, he not knowing 
whatCourfc to take fubmitted to the Duke of Lancajier. 
Many Things being laid to his Charge in a Parliament Richard // 
forthwith held, he was declared incapable of wearmg depo/ed and 
the Crown any longer ; and he was (honly after hi the murdered. 
Year 1399 murdered in Prifon. 

If the Right of Henry oi Lancajler who fucceeded be Henry IV, 
ftrif^ly enquired into, it will appear to be grounded en- >398. 
tireiy on an Order of Parliament : For the Story of Ed^ 
rnmd the Founder of his Family being the eldeft Son of 
Henry III. and fet afide for his Deformity, is givdn up 
by all good Hiflorians as a Fidion. He was at firft fur- 
rounded with Difficulties ; but he happily extricated him- 
felf out of them all. 

The Defign of the French to reftore Richard' lafted He furmounts 
all his Life; and a Confpiracy of fome Lords was dif- great Difficult 
covered even before Richard died. The Scotch paid dear ^i^*' 
for quarrelling with him ', and the ^elflf^ who wanted 
to rid themfelves of the Englijh Yoke, were notwith- 
fianding their being joined by the Malecontents oi Eng- 
land routed with great Lofs. In the Adion with thefe 
laft Henry is faid to have killed thirty-fix Men with his 
own Hands. Another Confpiracy being difcovered the 
Heads of it fled into Scotland^ well knowing that the 
Scotch were glad of every Opportunity to d\^\xxh Eng- 
land: But they fucceeded no better in this than in their 
former War with Henry, He died in the Year 141 5, 
and was fucceeded by Henry V. his Son. 

This Prince, who in his younger Years promifed very Hinrt V. 
indifferently, behaved after his Acceilion fd^a& to be ^\^i- 
juftly reckoned among the bed Kings that ever fat on 
the £«^/i/Z> Throne. 

Voir. I, M Being 



l62 , (yGRBATBRlTAl«. 

th demandi filing determined to fignalize inrnfelf, befent.Am6al^ 
the French f;^doTs to demand of Charles VI. the Refignation of the 
Crown. French Crown, with a propofal to marry his Sifter Ca^ 

iharine. On his refufing, nor indeed was it to be ex- 
• peded he (hould reltga tamely, Henry went over Into 
France 'j and after taking HarJUur obtained a fignal 
Viftory over the French^ who as the Englijb Hiftoriana 
relate were fix Times the Number of their Q>untry- 
Battle of men, near A%incourt in Picardy. The French left 
AX1NC0UB.T. ] 0,000 Men upon the Field, and as many were takea 
Prifoners : Yet Hemy who only loft a few hundred 
Men negleded to improve this Advantage. The French 
Fleet was afterwards worfted by that of England^ and 
in. the Year 1419 Henry made himfelf Matter o{ Roan 
and other Places in Normandy^ It cannot however be 
denied, that the Fa£tions France was fplit into during the 
Incapacity of Charles VI. made Way for this Succefs : 
For the Queen and Duke of Burgutufy were more intent 
to fupport themfelves in the Regency, than to op« 
pofe the Progrefs of the Englijh \ and the Duke of^ Bur^ 
gundy being afTaffinated, at a Conference held with the 
Dauphin for a Reconciliation betwixt them, his Son 
Philip openly efpoufed the Caufe of th^ Englsjb. 
Treaty with At his Perfuafion a Treaty was concluded ; by which 
CharlesVI. Henry was to marry the Princefs Catherine^ to have the 
^France. Adminiftration of Affairs during the Life of diaries i 
and at his Death to fucceed him. After the Celebration 
of the Marriage this Treaty was confirmed in the moft 
folemn Manner by the Eftates of France ; and the Dau- 
phin was fummoned to anfwer ,for the Death of JFobn 
Duke of Burgundy. Not appearing he was doomed to 
perpetual Baniihnient ; and being driven from one Place 
to another by the Englijh^ he was in Derifion from ma- 
king it his Refidence called King of Boitrges. As Henry 
was in the. Year 1422 marching to the Relief of Co/he 
which the Dauphin had befieged he fell ill ; and being 
carried to Boss de Fincennes^ he died there in the Flower 
of his Age and Meridian of his Glory. The Duke of 
Bedford was by him left Adminiftrator of Affairs in 
France ; and to his other Brother the Duke of GIou- 
ceJUr the Government of England was committed, 

• Hmrj 



Of O KB A 'f B KIT AT Vtl rdj 

Hemy Vt hU Son a.C3iiW but eight Months old fuc- Hihry VU 
ceeded. On the Death of Charles^ which happened foon >4**» 
after that of his Father, he was proclaimed King of 
Francg ; and the Duke» of Burgundy and Britany renew- * 
ed their Confederacy with the EngUJh: But the Dau- 
phin being likewife proclatmedand powerfully fupported. 
War was carried* on with great Vigour by both Parties* 
In the Year 1423 the French were routed near Grevant^ 
and in the following Year near VerneuiL St. Jaques de 
Biuvron being reduced to the greateft Extremity in the 
Year 1425 by the French^ the Garrifon prayed with a 
loud Voice to St, Gicrge of Salisbury ; which being over- 
heard by the Befiegera, they imagining the Earl of Salif" 
bury whom they dreaded was coming up raifed the Siege 
with the utmoft Precipitation. While the Siege of Or-' 
leans was carrying on, the French were defeated in an 
A£bion, called beotufe they intended to intercept a Con* 
voy of Provifions It^e Battle c/ the Hekkikgs ; and The Battle 9/ 
the Town having lorf all Hopes of Relief offered to fur- thi Hbr-^ 
render to the Duke of Btirgunify. ^ As the EngUfl) would aiNos, - 
not con&nt to this, the French animated by yoan of Arc Joan ^Aac 
fell upon them foon after wifh-fuch Vigour as to drive or the Maid of 
them from before \i. J^n 6i Jrc^ fo called from Are Orleans. 
in Lerrmne where (he was born j was from this Succefs 
called jTi^ Maid of Orleam. After caufing Charles to be 
crowned at Rheims^ for which (he pretended a fpecial 
Commiifion from Heaven, (he did Wonders againft the 
EngUJb ; but being at length made Prifoner in a Skir- 
ini(h, the was carried to Roan and burnt there as a Witch. 

As the Coronation oi Charles had been followed with Henry is 
the Submiffion of many Towns to him, it was judged cro^mi at 
proper by the Englxjb for Henry to be crowned at Paris ^^^^h >43'- 
in the Year 1432. Not long after a Truce for fix Years 
was concluded under the Pope's Mediation ; yet feveral 
Places were induced to fubmit to Charles: Which being 
brought about by artful Infinuations was faid to be 00 
Violation of the Truce. This Condufl fell in with a 
Maxim conilantly obferved by Charles ; which was to 
avoid fighting as much as poffible, and to ruin the Af- 
fairs of the Bnglijh by Stratagems. 

The Mifunderdanding that arofe betwixt the Dukes 
pf Be^ord and Burgundy was moreover a fatal Stroke 

Ma to 



164 



Of Qrba* Brit a 1 nJ 



ijoith 
Charles. 



FORD. 



Ricpnciliatkn to the ' Englijh i flnce it mdde Way for the Reco!Ktlfa- 
e/'//'f:Z>I/*^''/tion of the latter with Chariest. There had been for 
Burgundy fome Time a fecrct Grudge, to. remove which a Confe- 
rence was propofcd at St. Omers ; but the Time for hold- 
ing it being come, a Difpute arofe which Ihould rq[>air 
thither firft. The Duke of Bedford mCfted» that as Re- 
gent of France he ought not to give Place to any Vaflal 
of that Crown. The other (landing on his Prerogative 
a$. being Sovereign of the Plaqe appointed for their Meet- 
ing none was held ; and from this Time all Meafures 
tN^ing broke with the Englijh he al&fted Charles with his 
whole Forces. 
Death of the i^he Death of the Duke of Bedford which, happenisd 
?*fl^^^^°" foon ?fter, as it gave Rife to a Contcjl for his Office 
betwixt the Dukes oi Somerfet and Yorky proved another 
great Misfortune to the Englijh : For although the lat- 
tej; did carry the Point, his DeHgps WfffQ. fo. thwarted 
by. .his Rival, that tbeCity^ oi Paris ^ which .h^d been 
f&v^ntepn Years fubjeil to the Englijh^ fubmitted tp 
CharUs in the Year 1436. The Puke oiGkucJier was 
indeed afterwards fucce^ful ag^inft the J^yxi^^^iBurgundf 
in Flanders y and the brave Talbot did groatMifchicf to 
the -Fr^«^A on another Side; yet all w^s jn/ufficicnt to 
retrieve the Affairs of the Englijh npw faft* deoI«ii«g. • 
- During a Cdlation of Hoftilities (hortlj^ aftetx agreed 
upon, a Treaty of Marriage was concluded betwixt -f/iw- 
f;y apd the Earl of . ^rw^^/f^r's Daughter^ h^X, Charles 
prevented i; from^ taking Effedl by fei&jing both the 
Earl and his Daughter. Another Match was hereupon 
propofed, by the Eivl ^of SujfM Ambaflkdor'from Erg- 
land to the French Court, with Margflrei Daughter of 
' Rene Duke of Anjou and. King of Naples \ and notwith-* 
{landing its being dope without his Order Henry con- 
fented thereto. The Duke of Gloucejier endeavoured to 
prevent this Marriage, .. by alledging th^t her. Father 
had only the Titles of Puke and King; and that it 
would be doing great Jnjuftice to the Dgughtec of the 
£arl of Armagnac, 
Marriage of . , /Thefe and other Reafons being difregarded it was 
Hbnry. confu m mated ; and fpr the Sake of obtaining her w/«- 
JQU, and Maine were ceded to the Frenehi As Henrj 
afterwards fuffered^himfelf to be governed entirely by 
the Queen and her F^vparites, (he in Revenge caufed 
3 the 



14^6, 



Ceffation of 
lloftiiities in 
France. 



<y Great Britain. i6^ 

the Duke of Gloucejler to be feized for Male Admiriiftra-'D^ij/^'.^ t]^ 
tion, and he was fecretly murdered in Prifon : But the ^uke of 
Death of this brave and innocent Man fell afterwards Gi-ouces-. 
heavy upon her, ter. * 

In the Year 1449 the French made themfelvesMafters^i&f Encli^h 
of alJ Normandy ; and the Englijh being in the next Year driven out of 
driven out of Guyerme^ Calais and a few other Places France. 
thereabouts were all that remained to them in France* H49* 
This great and fudden Lofi may be in fome meafure 
imputed to the bad Behaviour of the Englijh Governors 
and Garrifofls ; but it was chiefly owing to the Troubles 
fecretly ftirred up in England by the Duke of Tork^ 
which -prevented the fcmHng of Succours into France, 
Being fenfibic of the King's Incapacity, and of the Difla- 
tisfac^ion of the People with the Queen's Government, 
the Duke of York hoped "tliereby to pave his Way to the 
Crown ; to which as he was defccnded from a Daugh- 
ter of IJonel Duke of Clarence tWrd Son of Edward III. 
he thought himfelf more judly efititkd than Hinry^ who 
was defccnded from ^oA^ of Gaunt fourth Son of the 
fame King. 

Having got an Army on Foot under the Pretence offrouiies in 
removing fome><langerous Favourites and efpecially the England. 
Duke of Somerfet^ he came up with and defeated the 
King's Troops near St. Jlban*s: And the Duke ofSomer^ 
fet being flain in this A6lion, he was with the Confent jr^^^^ ^ ' 
of Henry declared proteftor of the King and Kingdom. Somerset ' 
A frefli Mifunderftanding arifing it came again to znis Jlain, 
open Rupture ; in the beginning of which the Duke of 
Tork was worfted and forced to fly into Ireland, The 
royal Army being however afterwards defeated by the 
Earl of IVartuick, and the tCing being taken Prifoncr, 
the Duke of Tork was again declared ProteSor and Heir q-j^^ j^^j^^ ^^ 
to the Crown; but it was agreed that Henry (hould y^j^jj. y^^^^ 
luring Life enjoy the Title of King. Not long Protcdor. 
ifter the Queen, who had levied a confiderable Army 
n ScotUmdy gained a compleat Vidory over, the Duke's 
Forces, and put all the Prifoners to the Sword : Yet 
lotwithftandmg the Duke of York feJl in this Battle, his 
Jon having in Conjunction with the Earl of ff^arwick 
aifed frefli Forces maKlied to London^ and :wa» in 
he Year 1460 proclaimed King by the Name of Ed- 
vardlV. 

M 3 ; ... . \. This 



i66 : Of Git-E AT Br i -t a i H. 

^EdWaiid IV. This Prince immediately marched i^itift JSnv^, wlio 
r46o. was in the North at the Head of a powerful Army, and 

J bloody Bai' the mod bloody Battle ever fought in England enfued. 

tli in the jJq jgfs than 30,796 Men were left upon the Field ; for 

NoaTH. Edward knowing the Superrority <rf his Enemy had or- 
dered that no Quarter (hould be- given. Henry who went 
into Scotland returned with another Army; but being a 
fecond Time defeated, he with great Difficulty iaved 
himfeif by flying into Scothnd, Coming afterwards tn- 
cognito into England^ this unhappy Prince, who was more 
fit for a Prieft than to govern in thefe diflnifbd Times, 
was feizdd and thrown into the Tower. 

Kefw TrouUes This did not however give long Repofe to E^lanJ: 

ittEvoLAVD. Tot Edward^ notwithftanding his having fenttfae Earlof 
, Warwick to conclude a Treaty of Marriage with Bm 
Daughter of Lewis Duke of 'Sawy^ m *the >radan Tine 
clapped up a Match with EtizaHitb'Widow of yobn^ra^. 
The Earl irritated hereat declared for Henry; and 
having brought the Duke of Clarence Edward's Brothei 
into his Party, they fell fuddenly upon and made him -a 
Prifoner. The Carelefsnefs of Edward^s Keepers far- 
niflied him with an Opportunity of efcapii^, and he 
came to an Agreement with fyiarwiik : But HoAiHtiea 
being foon recommenced the latter was routed and fled 
into Prance, 

Hekry ^rtt;rVif returned intO-Biyimrfand was fowellreceived. 

isrefiored. ^hat Edward was glad to fly for Refuge to Charles Dufa 
of Burgundy; and Henry zixxx having been nine Years 1 
Prifoner was again raifed to the Throiie. Edward hnd' 
ed afterwards in England with fome Bstrgmdians ; bui 
finding hrmfelf ill fupported, he|>romifed withan Oati 
to live quietly upon his own Elbte and never to difiurl 
Henry more. It being however perceived that he wa 
fecretly raifing Troops, the Earl of Warwick niarcha 
againft him : But a Reconciliation being brought abou 
betwixt the two Brothers, the Duke of Clarence wid 
all his Followers went over to Edward. Warwick be 
jng hereby rendered incapable of flopping htr Progrefs 
Edward made the beft of his W^y to* London^ and wa 
joyfully leceivcd by the Londoners^ to whom he owe 
'large Sums ; and he was likewife faid to be a. great Fa 
vourite of their Wives. / 

Having once more fecured Hepry in the Tower, W 
the Y.ear 1 471 marched againft the Earl of fFartvid 

Afid 



Gf Cheat Britaim. r6*^ 

'After an obftiiiJiee Batrie Vidory feemed to endine to Warwick 
the Earl ; but a thick Fog anfing his Troops were w dtftattd. 
thrown intio Confiriion, and himfe}? with many other 
Lords betng flam Edward remained Mafter of the Field. 
It was moreover fortunate for Edward^ that ff^rwici 
was defeated heforc the Winds would fuffer the Queen 
and the young Prince Edward^ who had a confiderable Henry i$ 
Force in France^ to come over into England^ Arriving murdertdfy 
afterwards .fhe was made Prifoner ; her Son was aiTaffi- /^' Duke of 
mted ; aad the cruel Duke of Gkucefitr killed Hitirf Glouces- 
with hU own Hands. tek. 

Tranquillily being now relfored in Engbndy Charles War with 
DukeofjBfffTMr^f, hoping to drawfome Advantage from Francs* 
their Qaocre}, ftnrced up Edward againft Lewis IX. of 
J^raMM. The tPrufch King dreading this Storm endea- 
voured to accoramochte Matters with Edward^ and fow 
'Dtfcocd betwixt the two Princes. The Failure of 
Charbs in not fending the promifed Succours for carry- 
ing t>n the Siege of Nuys made Way for the latter ; and 
4be magnifioent Pnefaits of Lewis contributed a great deal 
<to the Succe6 of his Negociations with Edward. To 
confirm the Peace Lewis propofed an Interview with 
Edward I and inftead of ftanding upon Ceremony not 
only went firft to the appointed , Place, but ordered a 
large Quantity of Wine to be diftnbuted amongft the 
Engltjb Soldiers. Edward behaved bravely in his Wars 
with the Scotch^ and ended them with great Honour 
I to himfelf. 

White .thefc Things were doing, the Duke of G/w- DtatB of tie 
cejler^ for the Sake of getting a Step nearer the Throne, Duh of 
\ had caufed the Duke of Clarence his elder Brother to be Cla&£NCE^ 

aflaffinated. Finding he had been a Dupe to Ltwis^ who 
i after bis Return home payed no Regard to the Treaty^ 
\ Edward lefolvcd to renew the War with France : But 
^ while he was preparing for it, he fell ill and died in the 
\ Year 1483. 

Edward V. his Son about eleven Years of Age was EdwardY 
prodaimed ; but his Uncle Richard Duke of Glouce/ier^ H^^. 
•the greateft Monfler that ever appeared in human Shape» 
deprived him of his Life and Crovirn in lefs than three 
A^bnths. After putting to Death their beft Friends, he 
iecured the King's and his Brother's Pcrfon, under the 
i PreicilQe of .tiakiugitpon himfelf the Cace of their Edu- 

M 4 €alk>03 



'i68 

Intrigues of 
the Duke of 

Glouces- 
ter. 



Richard 

III. 

1483. 
Edward 

is murdered in 
the Trwer. 



Bucking- 
ham // be- 
headed* 



Richmond 

ian'ds in 

Wales.. 

'Battle of 
BOSWORTH. 



HenryVII 



Of Great Britain^ 

cation^ and caufed Himrelf to be declared Protefior. Be 
next bv the Help of feme Churchmen circulated a Report, 
that the late King his Brother was begotten in Adultery ; 
aqd that the Crown of Right belonged to liimf A Pro- 
pofal btfing herfepppa made by the Duke of Buckingham 
to the Lord Mayor of £»«A« of ofibfing Richard the 
Crown, and received with great Acclstmations by fome 
Wretches aflTembled for that Purpofe, his Ufurpation 
was coloured over with the Appearance of his being 
called to the Government by" the unanitttous Voice of 
the People, 

After being prodEahncd'^wd crowned, be caufed Ed- 
ward and his Bi:otherwho were both confined in the 
Tower to be murdered. A DifFerence ariiing betwixt 
him and Buckingham^ who had been chiefly inftrumental 
in raifing him to the Throne, this Duke- left the Court 
in Difguft; and concerted Meafures for 'delivering the 
Kingdom to Henry Earl o{ Richmond i\\txi' in Exile in 
Britany. His Defigri was difcovered and cofl him bis 
Head; but this did not hinder the Embarkation of Rich- 
mond in the Year 1484. Being driven and detained on 
the Coaft of Normandy by contrary Winds, he b^ged 
Succours from Charles VIII. of France: Which were 
readily granted. Many Englijh Men who rcforted to 
him while there fwore Allegiance to him ; and he bound 
himfelf by an Oath to marry Elizaheth Daughter of 
Edward IV. For the Sake of marrying this Princefs 
Richard had caufed his Wife to be fecretly murdered ; 
but the Danger which threatened him from Richmond 
obliged him to defer the Marriage. 

In order to prevent its Confummation i/rwry landed 
as foon as poilible in Wales ; and was joined by great 
Numbers. Richard met him, and a Battle enfued in the 
Year 1485 near Bofworth\ but as Lord Staniey and 
others went over to' Richmond^ and Part of his Army 
refufed to fight, he was after giving great Pfoofs'of per- 
fona4 Vajour defeated and flain. His -Crown being 
found upon the Field of Battle, it was immediately ftt 
on Richmond^ Head j and he was proclaimed King at 
the Head of his Army, 

England had for many Years been miferably rent in 
Pieces by the fatal Quarrels betwixt the Houfes of 
Tork and Lamajier \ the firll of which bore in its Arms 



Of Great B^ i t a i n; 169 

as a Mark'of Diftinaion a white Rofc, the othcV a red 
one. By the Marriage of Henry with EUxaheih Daugh- 
ter of Edward IV, the two t>'ainilie$ were happily uni-. 
ted ; and by hia Prudence an End was put to many Ca- 
lamities. 

This Prince via& however difturbed by infeftine Com- Lambert 
motions. One LanAtrt Symnel 2l Baker's Son, who took Stmnel f# 
upon himfeif the Title of Earl of Warwick^ was pro- proclaimid 
claimed King in Ireland ; and his Impofture firft con- -^^^ 
trived by a Piieft was countenanced by MargaretWidow 
ci Charles Uukeof Burgundy and Sifter of Edward IV. m 
order ta>giveviF/Mr/ whom 4he hated Trouble. Landing 
in England he was eafily defeated ; and being made a Pri* 
foner was forcei to do the Office of Turnfpit in the 
King's Kicchcn. In the Year 149 1 Henry made a Dev 
fcent on Franu^ and laid Siege to Bmloign : But he wat 
prevailed upon by a Sum of Money, to defert his AUianoe 
with the Emperor and return home. 

In the mean Time the Duchefs Margaret fet uppERKtir 
another ImpoAor named Perkin IVarbeck ; who took Warbecc^ 
upon himfelf the Name of Richard^ and pretending t6 another Im- 
be a younger Son of Edward IV. formed a confiderable 'ostoe. 
Party in Ireland, From thence he went into France^ 
and was well received ; but on the Conclufion of Peace 
with Henry he retired to the Duchefs Margaret. He 
returned to Ireland^ and going afterwards into Scotland^ 
was not only received as the Son of Edward i but the 
King gave him a near Relation in Marriage, and made 
an Irruption into England in his Favour. There was 
an Infurreftion at the feme Time in England on Ac- 
count of fome new Taxes ; yet the Rebelrwere fup- 
preffed, and the Scotch were repulfed with great Lofs: And 
by a Peace made with England the Scotch engaged nei- 
ther to harbour nor aflift Warheck for the Time to come. 
He went' back into Ireland^ and coming over into C&m" 
^l^ was proclaimed King : But' finding that no Perfons 
Would join him, and that the Forces of Henry drew 
>)ear he took Sanduary in a Church. Being dragged 
from thence be was committed to the Tower ; and 
H he (hould efcape, to do which he made feveral At- 
tempts, and ftir up frelh Difturbances, he was fome 
Time after hanged. • Hehbanged* 

In 



tJO Of GHEAT fi^lTAIW. 

James Kng ' Iit^the Yeair 1501 the Mxtmgiof Jdma' of Scothki 
^ScoTL AKD with MalrgarH Daiigbler of Henry^ which laid the Foua* 
marries Hbn- Jiitioii for uniting the two Kingdoms, wis celebrated : 
^r%Daugb' p^ not Jong after iisa^'s eideft Son w(fr/^r dpoufcd 
^^» Catberim Daughter of Ferdinand the CathoUck. On 

^5^** the Death of Arthur (hortly ^fter^ his Father being un- 
wiUing to repay her Dowry, and defirous of prefervti^ 
PrfW^ HtN* the Friendship of Fvdinandy caufed Hienry his feconj 
jiv marrits Son>then only twelve Years of Age to marry the Prin- 
his Broiher^s ^^f, Catherine. As (he firft Marriage had not been, as 
V^*^*^ it was faid, confummated the Pope readily granted a 

Difpenfatlon for the ftcond : But it occaftontti flrange 
and unlooked for Events in Et^land. Henry was juftly 
reckoned the wifcft Prince of hia Tifne:: £ut it is faid, 
dot -ibe was of an avaritious TempeiT:! and that in | 
prder 'to extort Money from th0m m^ywealtt^ Per- ! 
4qm were in his Reign falfely aocufed. lie died in the \ 
Year 1509. I 

HEKit-YVIIf . . Hinry VIII. in Obedience to his Father** Injunfiion 
1509. celebrated upon his Acceflion to the Throne his Nup- I 
tials with his Brother's Widow, altliu^ugh it was not ! 
quite agreeable to his own Inclination : And fo long as 1 
be lived on good Terms with her^ nothiAg but Mirth and I 
^Splendor were to be feen at Court. 
War with Under the Pretence of protefiing the holy See, he en- 

Fa a N Cfi. tered into an Alliance with the Pcpt and Ferdinand againft 
France. As an Inducement thereto /IrriiWiy^f'promifed to 
• affift him in recovering Guyenne ; but the Army he for 
'this Purpofe landed in Bifcayy for want of bd^ng fupported 
by his Father-in-Law, who was whollj taken up in con- 
quering Navarrei^ was forced to return home. In the Year 
151 3 he went overinto Flanders with a powerful Army, 
. and having in (pite of the Attempts of the French to relieve 
Terouane ,it taken Termane^ he rafcd it to the Ground. He bc- 
tfWTouR- ^jjjg aftcfwards Mailer oiTwmay^ which rh^ French 
HAY taken^ ranfomed for a Sum of Money : But whether it was 
'5^3* ,.Qu( of that Carelefsnefs which young Men are liable 
to, or becaufe it was the Pope's Quarrel rather than 
his own, he did <Bot pu(h his Succefs. lo^gining that, 
Ferdinand only wanted to amufe him, he in the next; 
Year accpmmodated Matters with France^ and gavei 
' bis Sifter Mary in Marriage to Liwis XII. While he^ 

waa 



©fijRBAT BRIT>Alft. ttfl 

w^ abfent, Jamts of Smland had at the Inftigttion bf 
France invaded England'^ but he was defeaced'wkh great 
Lofs, and loft his Life in the AAion. 

In theYear 1522 War was recommenoedwith ^f^ann^; Riniwat^ 
but the Troops Henry fent over made little Progreft in fTar wth 
this or the next Campaign. The taking of Framisl. FiANci. 
Prifoher at the Battle of Pavia gave him an Opporfu- 'S^^* 
nity of ftriking a bold Stroke, and efpecially as he had 
a Fleet ready to make a Defcent on Normandy : But iti- 
fiead of improving this, he miitted his Alliance wkh 
Charles and made Peace with France. After this Charles 
paid lio R^ard to Henry i and breaking off the Match 
conduded with his Daughter Mary married a Portuguife 
Princefs. Some have thought, that the accommodattag 
of Matters with France was the only Way to prevent 
tlie too great Aggrandifement of Charles, It has how- 
ever been more generally believed, that this Step was 
taken by Cardinal Wholfey who managed every Thing ; 
becaufe Charles had not only hindered his Elevation to 
the Popedom, but had likewife after giving him Expec* 
tations of it lefufed him the Archbiflioprick of Toledo^ 
Whatever might be the Motive, it is certain that Frame 
was thereby extricated from the moft imminent Danger, 

After twenty Years cohabitation with the Queen, Hskrt 
'Henry b^n to have Scruples concerning the Lawfulnefs ^^*f *he 
-of marrying his Brother's Widow. Some thought thefe ^^"^Mnefi ^ 
were put into his Head by the Prefident of the Parlia>" ^^'''^*-' 
ment of Paris j who came over to propofe a Match be- 
-twixt Henry's Daughter and the fecond Son of Francis, 
-Others faid that he wanted to get rid of his Wife, 
'l)ecaure (he flood in the Way of his marrying Anna 
Bulkn: But the more general Opinion was, that Woelfiy 
put him upon divorcing Catherine^ on purpofe to mortify 
Charles and pleafe Francis^ by paving the Way for 
a Match with the Duchefs of Jlencm his Sifter. 
The Matter being carried before the Pepe, it was re- 
ferred to the Cardinals Campegius and fV^lfey and 
fome others. The Pope had at firft a Mind to gratify 
Henrfs Deiire, and it is faid a Bull for this Purpofe 
was aftually fent to Campegius ; but as Things took fuch 
• Turn before the Time intended for its Publication 
-was come, that bis Holinefs durft not difoblige Charksy 

he 



J7* 0/*-Gre A T Brit AiN* 

be was oridered to burn tr, and fpin out the Affair af 
long as poflible. The Queen who refufed to anfwer 
before the Commiffioners appealed fo the Pope himfelf; 
• .. and the Commiffion was protffied againft both by Cbarks 

and his Brother Firdinand. Th^ King's Love for 
jtfma Sullen being inoreover pcrcerved, IVoctfey^ who 
' imagined that bis marrying of iier would^ ruin his 

Authority, fccretly follicited the Pope to refufc the 
Divorce : But the Artifices of this ambitious Prelate 
vrcre f€en through, and being dtfgraced he died fhortly 
after in a miferable Conditions - 
He Irtaks It being at length perceived by Henry^ that the Po^e 

nvitb the Pope trifled witjb htm and attended only to his own Intereft, he 
eatd di*uoreej |>rohibttcd the appealing to Rome by his Subjedh on any 
Catharine, Pretence whafotever. Many Univerlities in France and 
'533- Italy were now*cohrulted, who all agreed that fuch a 
Marriage was contrary to the Law of God ; yet the 
Pope coftftantly found fome Pretence for deferring the 
Decifioi^ of the Matter, Henrys Patience being at 
length worn out, he with the Advice of his Parliament 
divorced his Wife; to whom he had in all Things ex- 
cept bedding with her carried it very civil while the 
Affair was depending. 
Fe marries ^ ^^^ Months after this which happened in the Year 

Anna Bul- '533 Henry mzxntd Anna Bullen^ and had by her Eli- 
&aN. zaheth afterwards Q^^" ^^ England. Having in the 

fame Year caufed himfelf to be declared Head of the Eng- 
lift) Church, John Fiftyer Bi(hop of Rochejfer^ and Sir 
Thomas More Lord Chancellor were beheaded for refu- 
fing their Confent to the annulling of the Pope's au- 
thority in England, His Antipathy however to the 
Pope did not go fo feir as to receive the Doftrincs of 
Luther \ againft whofe Opinions a Book had fome 
Origin of the Timcbeforcbeenpublifhed under //ir«ry'jNamej for which 
^itle o/DE' the Pope gave him the Title that his Succeffors have ever 
FENDER OF - fmcc retained of Defender of the Faith. 
THE FXiTH. Luther wrote a fevere Anfwer to it ; and to fay the 
Truih expreffed himfelf in fuch Terms, as a private 
Perfon ought not to ufe to a crowned Head. 
Dtjfolution of Monks being looked upon as an Ufelefs, and by 
MoMASTB- Reafon of their Devotednefs to the Interefl of Ronu 
»XE8« as a Dangerous Set of Men, Monafteries were by De- 

grees 



OfGlttAT BHITAIN. 171 

p-ees diflblired ; and the Reventies of ' all Gonventv^ 
Colleges, Chapels and. Of the Knights of St. Jolm ot 
Jerufaifm vrcie appropriated to Henrft Ofc. Part of- 
thefey which as fome fay amounted in the whole ta 
above 500,000 a Year, were fpent in foiMidmg fix new 
BKhopricks and in Donations to the Uni^erfities. The 
Remainder he granted to the moft confiderable Famtlies 
of the Kingdom, to (he End chat their Support in the 
Changes he had made and was refolved to ^make might 
be fecured. He moi'eover entirely aboliflied Image-^ 
worfhip, and made fuch other Aiteratiotis in Ridi*-^ 
gion, diat he may be juftly faid to have laid the Foun- ' * 
dation of the Reformation. About -tjiis Time many 
Catholicks were executed for refufing to acknowledge' 
the King's Supremacy; and as many Friends to Pro^ 
ufiantifm fuflfereid for denying the real Prefence : But it 
muft beconfefled, that this Effufton of Blood was net- 
fo much owing to the King as to fome Biihops, who 
were forward to make and rigorous ia* the Executldn 
of penal Laws* 

The Hccich who in the Year 1543 made an Inroad {n^'ScoTM^ 
into England were* beat back by a Handful of the' En^ refu^i^ i543« 
l\fli\ which gave 7tfj»7^x V. fo much :Unearm^rs that he 
died (hortly after. For the Sake of uniting the twd 
Kingdoms, Hmrj would fain have married his Son Ed- 
ward. x,o Mary the only Daughter of Janus ; and had it 
not been for the Oppofition made to it by the Arch* 
bifhop of &. Ahdrnus^ the Marriage would in all proba.^ 
bility have takeri £fed. 

Another Treaty being entered into with Charl^ ^ar tmA 
againft France, it was agreed that the Armies of Henry Franc£^ 
and Charles fliould meet near Parish and after pkin* 
deririg this City ravage the Country as far as the Lotre. 
Inftewl of purfuii^ inis Scheme Henry iwafted the Cam« 
paign in taking Bouloign ; and he engaged by a Treaty 
made in the Year 1546, that if the Freneh would pay 
600^000 Livrcs. within eight Years it (hould be reftored. 
The Money was pai4 > and Edward his SuccefTor made 
good this En^ement by reftoring the'Place in the Year 
1550. . ' 

This Prince bad after divorcing Catherine of Arrdgen He war a»^ 
I feveial Wives ;..Ia^aioft of which lie was very unfortu^ uttfbrtunate h$ 
1 nate. ^« ^^wv'. 



'^^ Of G^t At BnJT A fin 

nfitfi* The firft of OmkJfma BuiUn ^w«s beheadod for A« 
dultery and Into^ft ; but it bqing generally believed thai ' 
ihe fuffered for fav9u,(ing the Ref^rips^tion, the Pntejlanttl 
ia G^jntmfy w^o> before intended ta make i/^rnr^. Head of 
tbe League^ would from that Time hold no Coriiefpon- 
dfHdfe with bim. Jam Seymour hi& next Wife diedt ini 
Cbildbed: And he put vmy.jbmi of CUves whomhd 
ayCterwarda married under the Pretence of fome bodily 
J^firoKty. The fifth, Cathmm Hward was beheaded 
fbs Adultery. . Gatbrnsu Par Widonr of LoidL Lamer 
hi« If^ WitQixtYiv^ him. 
^DWARD VI. . -At the Death of Bmrj, in tke YeaH IS47 Edwardyh 
1547. hi»Son fucceediq^i who being only nini Year of Age, 
tbe I>uke of Smtrfit^ his «iat^»al Uocle bad the Ad- 
trnv^fdiion of ASura Is order to force a Marriage 
fcjf tyi^iyt bis Nephew and Aitrji Qvoea of StHi^ be made 
9/^ IsfuptioB into S£$iiand ; and defealied the Scotch in | 
tbe bloody &ittk of Muffilbmugb: Yet he could not 
i^sgqyi bU Pokil ;. for !ii« Q^epn w»i^ conveyed int^^ 
and married to the Dauphin. \ 

TlmPpoi^^MiK Un^ei^ thb Prince the Pr^teftant Rdiigiba was efta- 
jieiigien is. . bliihed^ and lihe Celebcalion of the* Ma6 inas prohibited. 
9]tahltp?ei. |{e met with greait .Diftcul ties in this Afiair : But they 
were all happily fqrmMOted. FaUing.dangerouify ill the 
Duke of Nifr^wimhmiy who had before procured the 
Pilk^of j!^i9M^/a Death, prevailed upon hkn under the 
PceleaiGe of leaking the Reformation fecure to exclude his 
SiAera Mfti^ and £litabetb. As to the Quoen. of Scan 
no Notke was taken of her, and he fettled the Crown by 
Will c^ Jan$ Gray Daughter of the. Duke of Saffilt by 
^ry a UiUgbt^r to Henry VII. 
Jake Gray This Projeift proved fetal both to yane and its Author ; 
(sfroc/aimid. for notwithftaoding Oie was upon Edward}s Death in 
the Year 155} proclaimed Queen^ great Part of the 
Nobility, on her promiiing to make no Change in Reli* 
gion, d^Iared for the Princefs Mary^ Her Party being 
lengthened by Part of the Army and Fleet, and by the 
Majority of the Privy Council, the I/sndoners declared 
fet bef i and ftie.was proclaimed (^een there : Nay the 
Duke of Nortbumterland himfelf, who underftood well 
^ . tboxAvt of temporizing, proclaimed her at Cambridge % 

. hui tbia Tri^k did not fave him fima the Scafibld. 

Mary^ 



QfGmBAt B&i'SA I K.> 175 

i&ry from thft Moment of hci^Aoeoffi^ir fetabotet ^'Mart,i553« 
tle-eftabliibin<^nt.of the Rmtan CatMkk Religioa ; and 
the Pope's Authority was ag^a foimaUy ackxiawledgeii> 
10 England. Maay Pnoteftants were ^\xt to Deaths aocL 
Cardinal Pool was fent to re-unite the Kingdom tathft 
See of Rsnm : Bat ifae did not attempt die ReflorattoQi of • 
the Chuich Revenues, foe fear of difobligiog. the. Faou** 
lies who ¥fere in t)^e PoiTeffion of them. 

The Conditions of her Marriage with Plnlip zki^^She manhi 
wards King of Bpam wore, that (he (hould have thePHiLtv ASkif\ 
DiTpoddof all Offices and RevenueB iaiierown King-V^^iv* 
dum *, that if ihe had a Son. he flimld cojoy England^* 
Burgmd} and the Netherlands ; and in Cafe Den Carhtf 
^e Son of PMlip \sf a fbimef Wife^. ta whom Sp9im 
and the Italian Provinces were aUotted,. flkould die with^> 
out Iflue, he was:to inhecit the wUe Spamfi Suceeflion. 
This Match did not pleafe the People'; becaufe as Marf 
had beca thirty Years before offered in Marriage to 
her Hufband's Father, it was very unlikely fhe fllouU 
have any' Child. . . 

To put a Stop to fome Inforref^ions on tkis Acconnt^ Jane Gaaf^ 
the Duke of SuffiU^ Jam Gray his Daughter who had am/ others bi^ 
been for fome: Time a Prifon^r^ her Hufband lAmibeaded^ '" 
GuiUford^ and fome others who were Jaoked upon to be 
the chief Promoters of them, were put to Death. Eiixa» 
hth afterwards Queen had alfo fufiered the fame Fate, 
^^ it not been for the Interpoftiion of Philip and the 
Spaniards in her Favour ; and this was not fo much out 
of Reg^d for her, as that they feared the taking of her 
off might, finCB Adhry (^setn of Scots the next Heir was 
married to the Dauphin^ make Way for the iannexing 
of England and Scotla?ut to the French Crown, 

Notwithftanding it was amongft other Things agreed Makt mP, 
that Maty (bouid not be obliged to engage in PhiUp^s gages in the 
Wars with France^ fhe fent him fome of her beft Troops 5 ^^ tf^««jf 
to whofe Valour, in Reward whereof Philip gave them Prance. 
the Plunder of this Town, the important Vifliory near Battle 0/ SrJ 
St ^intin was in a great Meafure owing. This fur- Quiwtin. 
niflicd Henry vjrith a Pretence for attacking Calais 5 which 
Place being ill garrifoned the Duke of Guife made 
himfelt Mafter of .it in>a few Days ; and the Et^Hfis who 
Were obliged to quit the City-imgiediateiyi wecejoot 

fuffered 



Xyb Of 'GkZ AT BKfl T ATV^ 

ftffiirod to carry away a»y T4xii;if V9\\9^9^i^'^uexn. 
The Caftles of Gu^ms m^.^Iiami.i^i^'.^^fyefm^i^g^ 
taken, nothing remained xo thci £pil{/h*\^^yi^t^c^,{. 3^ 
the Year 1558 i^-loAgr- aft?r':4hifftfr/^*^ \^^Jt 
died. , ... * '*>■/-.:>? nirinuK* -»'■ 

Elizabbth, Elizabeth being fbftbwith prQclaI»(jd3^jtljS4||J9»^ 
■SS^- mous Confept of "the People, i^&V//>;i>i!C]q^ 

her; and would ha«e taken it upQn^'i9^^$¥)iHi90u;c 

Shi tififii a Difpenration, Th^ > Queen wia uawiUip^c^PiaiSF^ooA 

Philip's Philip to whom;fhe had been fo BiM4h,ol)liged,^^ot.AS 

^ferrf Mar- ^j,g Divorce of her Father Ssoaii^albftm Yf^^tiofis^d 

ri^ge* pn ^ Suppofition tliat'tbe Pope had np.^wer j^cj^^ifMni^ 

with the Laws of God, atid as Aie ^id fioi ,C3|re t^jf^^e 

any Concern with tlie Pope,.ihe e^cu^ Vheri^l&^n^.tbe 

genteeleft Manner {he could. ^ - [ . , ^.u ^ . . 

Episcopacy , 7?^^ Proteftant .Religion and Epifcopftcy heiflg.i|» her 

iseftablijbedmr,^'^^^ eftablifted by Aft of ParliamiJnt, the/j|»^cife 

I2.NGLAMD. ^f ^ Catholick Religion was • forbid"; ;an4.Pin/e^ were 

let on all who did iiot auend publkk Wctrf^iia.^ the 

eftablHhed Churches every Sunday, AH . her S^bje£i.^ 

..; bring by another k& obKged .to. :^ffknQ.^(|g(^ ,hcr 

as fupreme Head- in Spirituals as well 'as Xejcoppiralsy 

• only 489 Ecclefiafticksy.amongft whom were ^9fi*tfVTn 

Biihops, lefufed :to. take the Oath fet forth for. ihis 

Parpofe. . * : 

PuRiTAKs . The Puritans^ who difliked Epifcopacy and aU C«e« 

inri/ Papists monica that had the leaft RefcmbJance to tbofe pf the 

tfrri^/aaAr. Qhuj^-h of Rmiy ai^d wanted to have every. Thing 

regulated according.. to the Model of. Genew^. Jbelxig 

very numerous,. the)^ gave her much Troybl^y biit ^)be vi* 

joroufly ftipported her Authority over them. . Cpntpiracies 

were formed againft her,and Attempts^efpeciallyfaft^r^Oj]^ 

" ' Pius V, had excommunicated her, were frequentj[y i^ade 

• * upon her Life by Papifls : but being all fr4^||;^t^d^l tki^j 

fcrved only to make Work for £xecudonprs,,aip^ytp qc- 

cafion more rigorous Laws againft tho(^ of'tKigr^^C^^ 

Communion. Seminaries were hereuppn .&>Mg^a at 

. Dmvayy St. Omen and. other places,, for initru^|g thf 

'En^lijh Youth in .the Rsmifly Doaripesj" ;|n^ l^^^i^ 

has never fince been without Prielb ^nd f>ther'En^^^ 

from thefe Schools, who caki great <|^aias V i>C^gate 

-tfa9 Catholick Religiw.^. \. .; . /^^ J. .^V, ^ 



Of GHEA'i* BftlTAlM?^ 17^ 

^//aQ>&ifi batrlng been at the Sdlticitatfon c^ Mary Intngues of 
Queeoof.^^^ and faer French Psartifans, notwithftand- Mary ^em 
ifkg the O^poQcioii fecreil)" made thereto by SpatUy de-VScoxs. 
dared iH^dmate by the Pope, Miry iii concert with 
the DautMn took the Arms 6f England, In Kevenge 
i&mhtA jbined with ' the' Earl of Murray a natural 
BMthcCTrf:ifc6r/s in dtivin^ the Fnrich out of Scothndy 
aad iff.'intrKlucJng the reformed Rcfigion there. Af- 
tvrtkb0Bith of faer VHbdLM -Mary returned into Scot* 
W, anSfttWrted Henry Stiikrf Lord ZX7r«&y the; hand- 5i&* marries 
ibmeft UaQ hi Britain: By vt^iom Ihe Had a Son na- lord Darm- 
med ^em.' I>arntey beihg pftrfuaded that flie granteil iey. 
Grimiail Favours to Da9id Rtt± an /f<y/w« Miifician, 
be mtii the AfSftance of foittc Gentlemen dragged hrm 
fifooi Ibc Qaeen'8 Clofet wheri he was at Supper, arid 
ftibbedKrti in the Anti-chfeim^r. Fronl this Accident, 
at vMdk his .Mother then big' with him ' Wafs jFrighted, 
jffliwjafcerfrards King coiild -as it is faid never bear the ' ^ «'• * 
fight ofz naked Sword. ^Her Hufcand being' foon af- He h ajajfi\ 
tcf murdered' m the Nightl,^it was given* out by the noted, 
ihrray Party, and Buchanan the Scotch Hfftbrian affirms 
^t bmk^thzt George Eari bf Bothwett whotn Maty af- 
terwards m^ried was the affaffln. OtherisTay that the 
Stories of .fter Intrigiies' with Jj/te, 2trid of BamU/^ 
Death, were forged by the Earl of Murray, and her 
other Eiiemhrs, in ortle'r' to-n^ake her ddious/ \How,- " ' - 
ever thisvwas, art rnfurreftiori being railed Bothwell 
was forced *'to fly info 'DenMarky where hc.cfied fome 
Years after" mfiferably;2tnd the C^eerl *as confined. . 

Finding a Way to escape ftie m the Year 15166 levied ' 

Troops: Btit theft were defeated j and having retired' in to 
England^ was' made ^Prifoner by EKzabeth.^ VThWt She is made 
Marywzs in Pfifon, a Confptracy was fbrmdl* by the Wy^»<ir m . 
Dufcerf?^r^if, Whomflie mtehd^d to marry,^tb make firoLAi^p. 
her Que^n of Engtemd: Which being -difcoyeted the ' 
Duke waa confined. Ifc was after wards" fet^ at Libei^- 
ty : But 'bfirtg again^ deteded' in caVryiifg' V^y nfe feme 
Schemei^ rhrlwas "MmAtd xte the Yeaf ♦ ^ijt'i ii}3 a more The Duke of 
ftriSGoant was kept ovbr Mary, Nfeny Attferjipts for Norfolk 
fetting her at Liber^ haWrig been in Viin mad^; Nego- fnf^rs Death. 
ciationsfor this Purpofe Wire fctoii Fboty. but $s no 
fi»«cii«ii'Sec»ritjs that 4I«f ^ould no monrdiffiirb hei*. 
Vol. I. N could 



>7$ ^ 6 R E A •t Brit A i ill 

touM be give)i to £litahfh^-thej dime^tD^iifydBiAr/ At '^ 
; . length growing imp^tieHt (he Ml in with OttVitAgm tf ' 

5'^7»9 th6 P<^^ and the Gutfis -tg^mASKiMffi^.' And'' 
her Privity thereto beinrg <jircovered fraiH fethfeiMftrc^ptrf^ 
Lettcn of Atary*s own fiand-ifrfiting, a Comitttffion ^' 
appointed to try her. Beuif oohdeoi^ned to^ tiie Faf* - 
liament prejfed the Execution of the S feii t Ait ei ; - bat 
J^/iztfA^/^ liftened to the Solkitations of 3^i»«Hier Soil 
and of the firenth on her Behalf.' Ah AttMl|;yE bdng 
afterwards . made at the Inftig^ation tA^AM^tHf the 
Frmb Ambaflador to aflaffinate ER%ab9tb^ M%vrt 
Way to the Importunity of the People land figntd the ' 
Warrant for Mar^t Execution, Her Secretary Dmi^ 
fin to whom it was delivered) flotwithftahding an Ia»' ' 
jun£Hon laM upon him to keep it till finttr^ €)rder9, ' 
Maky ^een delivered jt to the Counci); and the Qu6eii-Qf*5(tffi was 
^jScor sisbt' beheaded in, the Year 1587. Eiizabeth^ #Ii* hi thc| 
beaded^ 1587. whole Courfe of the Affair had or feented-td'have a 
Defire to fave this unhappy Prince6 from tfae^ScaJfbld, 
(hewed gr^t Concern for her Death and retttOV€rf /fe- 
vidfon from his Place. Jama ICing of Scotia^ im ur- 
ged by many to join Mrith Spainy and revenge his Mo- ' 
ther's Deadi) i but Elizabeth found Ways to pacify faim, 
and there w^. ever after a good Underftanding betwixt 
them. 
Elx2abetr In order to mortify the G»/)!x her mortal Etkemies,^ 
fupports tbi EHzahith fupported the Prdteftants in Franat widi Men] 
French Pro- and Moitey. They in Return put Htm-t di'GnuH Into" 
TE8TAHTS, hqy Hauds ifi the Year 1562 : But her TroOps were 
'5^^ forced to quit this Place in the Year folldtj^ng. The" 
Fnnch engaged by thtTrtaxy of Chateau Camiff^s^ which 
was foon after entered into,, to reftoi^ Calaiii But fte 
y \ never could prevail upon them to dp it.. 

^be^Jis iift. She afterwards entered into an ABiancc wirfj ^Uatry IV. 
NJETHik- ' and affifled the ^/A<rZ^«&rr*in throwing^tjfftthr S/tf»r> 
LANDERS. Yoke* ' they twice offered her, *e Sovereign^ of the 
.Low CouAtrtes ; but fhe refufed it: And^dtiip^^ flir 
. . ^ - ient the Eail of Likefter her Favourite to be their Go* 
!\ vcrnofj jt wa$ thought proper to recall hhb in fhc fc* 

J * icond Year, becaufe his'fupine.^^haviout' oontt^ted to 
the embroiling of Afiairs there, Sbd %tt9X\f ixiwmi 
the 5^0»MriA by ber Admjrat A*^ 'mti^m/i^iuoesi 
. w and 



bff G It EAT Br I t a I jtv lyg 

WS^: J»til»'«IW>«ptji»f|> Paffeffion of. it. The Spa* 

iirk^t.^c^j9S^j«9i4^j/W, fi(t;ed out a. Fleet called 

j^ow,. V3,,g^Hfi^ jhe immikf^'^rmaJ^hrthk Pur-' 

»fe>; ^ji*W: Fl«tti . airfMMigh fuch an ortc a». had fj^ Spahis* 

lever heec^.&ea bcfoie, fufiered IbinucbffOte.Tfim^gARMADO m 

^nd,:ibp;,>^f)|f#i, }jbalr,Qnlji x fewr Ships and.thofe in zdeftroj^, 

niftr^lf4^<Jo^di^iQ» returned home, » Nqtwithftwiding: 

*«*^«^vlnV*«ir.Tttm;fupportcd thriJ^iftJlebcIs,. 

*cie weja'geiiemlly worftedj^ b»t Ihe never codd bring 

*em ffl%#y tg Qh^^e» ..Th«? Eail of ^ir heiiigr^^^/^yBssEt 

irrdlcdt\%.hU .bad;<;i)ndMa:Jn Inlaniy .he tdob it ft>,v i/Wirf. 

ill^ tl^ Qotwiiibft^pding he^^as foon f<Qt at Liberty, 

he endeavonred to ftir up an Infurredioii ia Laadon: 

Which; ,c^ft him bis Hcsifl. Ncgpcifttions for a- Peace 

with %?^^ jjirerc .fet .on Foot, in the Year j6o6^ «nder, 

the Mp44«io«, pf //W3^ I Y/ a« fl<?«/^^ 

for Rse.qj!|e}jfy ,;|rifing they =ww (boa broke off, wd the 

Wat: w;aS;Q>fUinucd. . ^ \, ' 

The..Suhjqas.o££iVif^A M fclicited h(sr toELiiABExit 

marij ; J^tt4 Offbr$ of Marriage were made her by Phi^^'wouU nrvtr 
lip oiSp^inj^^ CbqrUs Archclike pf Aufimi -fiWcJCing oitonftnt /» 
Jiw^iaj the DuJke oi Jnjou} t)^ Dujce oiJUnftn hia**'^* 
Brother; the Earl oi Leicefi^r and others. She never 
gave a ^ Qeoial ; but aijiured ihem srfl with {Iope% for 
the Saleq of procuring or kc«)jiig their Frieiidftiip. Ill 
Purfua^gf of t^s s4zx\nx,CbarUs of Afiftfia . was . kept 
ia Sufp^Hg (even Years : And the Affair went: fo far 
with ttic^D^ke of,>i74Mif«(r,, tha( .the Marriage .Articles 
\^re drayrn ; yet Ibe took C^r^ to have fonie Qanfea 
ioferted, vbicti give her jn Qppp^^unity oC brodping of 
the Match. ., • I 

, Io,l^.?'iaLthe 'En£lijh^ ;>egan to miA/if^ the Eitft^ f^, i,^ 
f^^:?Ofli"*;2iriy; Anjl bjr.^he, Help otjtheAfeAwi /, /^i 
terffr^ j^rhp .flfjd ^bith^r for Shelter., O^.ManwfiiauKa of .. ^ , 
Bays agd%gcs. were. cl|^^^ ... 

havalForce of England cpi^fi^jpn^ble : Nay.^r Jealonfy ^''' Sut^eruritj 
^ «?^ffl&>°ffl8 ? jSapf riwiifc at .Sea., wa^ -fef bi:>.thatt zU ^ Saau . 



*»«8feJ^?ifiave the -tt/^<r* a]l the ACAaace.flie 

couW.j^i^ t^^ ^famqrdK,.x^ yrixt not Ai^ficd to 

>* a build 



boiU.^Shspsnif War. > f or W^t 6f gieiMdlingfl^gjl&^ this 
in tfie .eiFo (dcceeding R^'^m^ ishe Jdi^^^ tb^e ytt^ 
formtdaUe^ ar &si $ Mt ^mi^ tKe jDc^li>e»^-th)6r€or 
with CnmiCillzad ChWik Q;' Aftk iK^i}ftiii% ^^j^ff 
VI. <lf Bi^lani^htrSwii^^f) i^t^je^jst^it 
M . / ^ died ini]ch:.taHici»t0^ iff the Ytur I §02^ Mi^ V^foit^^ 



u o... fourth of liceileigrt. •^ «-» 



tAMK» I. * ^itmrx.'beitkg b6Ad€«^ m^&^ iA^'^i tko^)i'i^'&6;tamf^ 
1 602. by thc:Minrfageof Jl^hAri' TM^SbfJ^oii^ VH. 

ill £;i^U«rf with the utAiote Jilarfai 6f J^f f^cf^Con- 

22. /(H«»t fca^^lhrmiiig Um ^m nifit^ Hie lil^^tl^drieft 

".u»w,..'., Jitaiellk^^taf^t 'tO tfie Thidnb,' Whb wis YiHiWifc it-- 

fcenddd. frMn :tile Cune Mirgeird^ w^ fo6ta'ift6r Ifis Co- 

roirittiott ferim*.- ■ ^- ^'^ K " ' * »..!,<.-r-'^- ■ - 

JConfpiracyin : After fhe I>8a<h of }^<?t1V. Marjdnt ^ztxitS^ Ar- 

favour of ebibaU Eirl- of Diu^m 'i ' By ^i^bdih ffie^ fca Miii^H ; 

/ir^ I^-»> whofc t&ir* Son C*tfrAi \fj thfe^B^I df"&;*lPii^Tathfcr 

Arabella ofJkablh> & was agreed Hhiethli Lkdy' ffiaSW.^arry 

Stuart, ^^e Duke of Savoy, and that by the AmMntcJW Sfiain 

K . J t - - the ei/Wfi* Meltglaft-fti)ili'*bif reftored ;' fiiit^Si^ Con- 

'-*: J fpiracy bftefg^difcbvefid, Ih^'prihctpal Peribtfi- 6oiic&riiea 

»m It, ambugft: whom wer€-rtie Loi-ds C<rA&W:a^ Ghgfj 

were pmi&od^ with Dcf^h/ ' — ^ ;'J i' 

^it^ Powder Atfovdre ItoW'a^ftJfiil'^^^/V^ aficl'iitf P6{)iftr' Pridls 

Plot. beii^g-paXfedi ki 'the ne^rt'-Seffion of !P^HMrifeft,« fome 

P^/>i>;'Mffcreants hiFcd a Vault utrf^tf^^lliPHlWffe d 

Peeise«f«d'«i^veyed Guiit^o^det intd1t:|W9af|ff2-In^ 

tent- Jtd fMtfw up iS Ag, ' Lords and G6tiitobiia. f' Some 

Sufjpicbn^^iiflg rskfiMf fron^ aiLdtter delivm1^5}r'kn utt- 

knovm ifetid to a Strrvtr^Mif'Lotd'Montm^fff^hcTtin 

aftgriflMijP airVilHgubm^S^^dlioh^y^ Ik)A}ffift( 4^\con- 

jured not to be in the Houfe of Peers on the nrft^p^ay d 

^. .; the'Sd(a*i*iiffeia'Scai^'-4ivai^faade5- a^^^ 

JnjOaii 9/ ' ContAv^^watdlfcdV^ea^ Hereupon a Rifciljifidn Waa 

ijilem 

k; am 

'mhroH4mi%i'i^^'Mvi 

P^a« -^ifA*' * ^ hkihe!fm tdti^f'amH coAcludSda P&d6 With Spain's 

Spain, 1604. jutdijc4iad5 ft^ great 8hare^tti^Wft)g?ri^ SHi kbdtk bctWixt 

JSpam mi^ ^ l/;i/r/(/ Pfwi^r: Wbdn hiir Sbn-m-hm 

:. .4 ^ '^ th( 




. ^ 
* t 



BS 



}\e l^lj^or/foi^iff^ was driven frpm his Po>mrii9n8« bt 

I Tr^ty .p|Mar"riage tjclpg afterwards fef ^*^,Foot bc- 

^''^^'i^^'^'^w-^-^^^ andthe fnfantq^ %7//?^ it was at 
the iJeffrcdrihe £j^/j^, pfation'b^^^ pi^'te^ufe the 
^«/>r/5 . Vrould not confent ]to the *l^!!^oVj^g^ pf that 
rriw^^^^' Jtlonejr was alio voted })y:Parlia;ri«|ptVQr put- 
dpadfe^ifeftor by,Forc^^ the rcITcffi^n- C|f.|ii» Do* 

^''*'?^** ji^ noUifng was <JoAe for hin;^ '^\ ,. ,,, ^^^ 

Anltlrip^ put' to the Quarrek w^iich^iafj fp^ftei) ^<p takes the 
^fo(^^glamznd Sco^lan^ infinite ^afapltie$ hj^ ^itie of King 
his Ac^Bon'io the Crown of tfie former, James In or.- 2/^ Great 
dec ^/j^revent Jealoufy^on Jh^ APfPJurjf Pf Rr^ccden* ^?;?'^A^-^'* ' 
cy in't&.^oyal Title, took upOn bi^fcTfahe Title '. 

pf i^fllg^of UttEAT pRfTAIN,,.4P; Attempt was '::\l 

pojr^pvriP ai^<Je,Jo unite the' two Kingdonjs j but this di^ 
iiot.ftcccB^J Becaufe th^ $(otch looked uppp it .as becomr 

19 tbiB^jf jgn feyeralCploniesV i(^ th^T/^r Colonie 

JnJus.\j^t fome^Tiavc hijen of Opinion chet Englan4 w^s planted in 
jther^W jweajccncd, and thai it would, ha v.e, beeij morf '^^ Wbst- 
^dvantafieouj. to have employell. jtfiei^ PpQjjlj' at hpme ip Indies. 
toahulafikircs andm the Herripg KiflieF^ ^^^^^^ whi<^ 
Jiift tiik^Dutch have drawn vaft Riches.. * Otlj^rs have 
ttought, t'Bat In order to preferve Tranquillity 'at hom?, 
^t was^TCQeffary to eet rid in this M^njaer-pf./nanyjdle , ^ ^ ,^.^-^ 
turbi0C{|at^5pirijts- The ^^Z?"^'^^^^ Trade. ;.^a?.;alfo'en- . 
.^cre^led'j but as ih»r>utch had*jppt the Start in this, ^ tl^e ^,. . 
'£«^/^c6ijgf4 never Xie wuh th^ni. . fjte dijcd in ttjc .vw-c*l 

' ' (^ha^fes^m Son an^' Succejfcrl j^^^ 

ijomtti^nt^'in 't^e SpamJ^M^ff^ %i^ ,)^ixm^r^n^i^i\? »^*S* 
J^ajjihfttr^to'H^IV. ofFraticiy Sittfi^^ont^^ 
Jble'J^^t jn the Ywr f^6 3garnft,M/>BiU4bp £fl^^ 
Ji&.^ftijr.h^akjrig a pefi^m.n^ar Ctf^;?..*wc;:e 4;epulfed 
jjVith ^jtbfv- arid fl{ Copmerce tetwi^^t. i^h^- tv^b .l^atiops 
[y^]jl^o^T^^ fo^,a;J^^uxe .^ith 

Trance i^ Bu'f'feinhg m Jjjjp^ A^ttjcn^t?' tq. /^^eljevc iS!p^ 

..^'I^^H'^.^^^^^ Na- /j|^^.wV4t. 

tion^ a|id in tne Year fojlojving wi^b Vf^^/w,^ As^thq,^- Ficajic^ ^ 

two formidable Powers.; at tb^^ fame Tw^ was impr^u- .-. jjja i 

• *"^ '^ *- ^^ ***N J ' dent, ■. :^im 



\ 



ient, and Terved only to ru^ h|fx^.ifi^ ^Hk P^^ 
tions of bis People wcr^ thereby K«tly ai»l4£^ ,. 

This Prince had JFrcqu^nt DifFerences witjbjnij f af|i»- 
mcnt : Into the Qrigja of whicj^ as they jpn^itt a. fitr— 
prizing Revolution it is worth whik j^cnq^ire. ,; 

Elizobith^ who wii(ely Taw that the natiu^ Str^gth 
of an Ifland iajnavaj, (teidily;attciwjcd tq'^c Aitfp 
ing of her Fleet ; and althou^ fof thcL§ki:e rfcWjcing 
the ex<n:bi(ant Power of t^ ^bufe oi j^uJirif^M^^ /up- 
plied thie Z>iv/^^ and other Enemies olSfain w^.^fpme 
Troops, (he always took Care to preferVe the £^,ftpe^^^ 
at Sea. ^ ./* . ^ .,^^ 

As Jams a great Le^er of Peace applied liimfcif 
more to Books than to the Art of War, the^ Peggie w}^ 
commbrily fall in with the Inclinations Cjf t^l/ 'Ptince 
neglefled al! niilitary Excr(ciftsj and ti)^ ^^^^ 
generally aHfe from Peace a^d Plenty preyailedl.y Being 
befides too fond of Power, he hoped that ttp K^rva- 
tion of bis Subje£b by. ^xury and Eaie, would nuke 
Way for the Extenfion of his Prerogative, /Xoc.ZJwtcJ 
took the Advan^ge of , the Indolence and' Inattention 
of Jamis ;. and in a few Years encreafed ihtfi ^hips of 
War, which Mlizabith would not du ring. her Rei^ Hkt- 
fer them to do, fo' as to vie with the riaval Force of 



CflAaLXS 

ihirJIs oft^ 
arbitrary * 



fruJent Con- 
dua of Eli. 

SABETH. 



VTifiaies in 
thi Riign of 
James. 



ney njoitbottt 
ib€ Confint of 
Parlia- 



His Son Charks had more Spirit : Yet as be haj^ been 
unhappily educated with too high Notions of Preroga- 
tive, he preferred the bei;ig at Peace .v?iiji^fbreign 
Powers, hovin^er diflionourable the Ternxi' wcjW to the 
afking of Supplies from. bis People for c^rryjng^on War. 
It having becfn ufual for Parliaments to allow th^Xipg 
an annual "Revenue for the.Supporf of his^Cr^ft and 
Dignity j QUt of which he was ^ to keep u^, a^^^t for 
protefling Com'n^rcei tlie^ $ri^ Ifarliainent .cajpid by 
CharUs granted the Cuftbnis for fhikPurjjpfc:^ he 

afterwards diffblved it in 'an extriaorginary Mariner, the 
People thinking thb Want of Money would force him 
tocall a nei^ Pkrliihient were unwflung to pay thefc. 

Being confifmed^in his JBLetJ^fiffiorivOf governing with- 
out a ParliainibAt; b^ the AH vice of Come 'corrupt Law- 
yers, Who''fcbn^i«7 to' the' /untfamehtai tavvs of the 
Kingdom* tolil ' him^' f5Ji/^AV''iw/^A/'/^r We'puMick 



Q/* Great BrijaxNp iBf 

Serxfk^ rfttft JUhtuy h his $um Authority^ Yk under the » 

Colour of pkyh^ feme Debts ctetriAed by ki) Fslihblf ^ 

and liftnftif, ertc^faifed M^ Retefitfe bf %ifig on new 
Taxes.^' If^ ihditover tmpo(M % Tast on ifoufe^ called 
Chimnasy^~9tf6h^ for keeping Hf^ the Navy rand ]a}d 
Claim to tbeTorefts and Woods whteh had < formerly 
been gi fa i tftia l by the- Crown, Suits beiftg commbAced "^^ 

for ttm^ imMcf which were ftubbed op and converted 
into 'Arable' ]>snid, it toft the fingte County of EJ/}m 
300,ti6aP6iind Sterlhig to buy them off: And it fe pro- 
bable ichit bthei' Counties wbaid have been ibrced to pay 
in PfOpDnrrioh, had not the TnmUes whtch^ broke out 
prevented it. 

The 2V^&nr being oppreflkd, towhfch the Council 7*^ Ptrit- 
of ArcbbXbop Laud a hot-'headed Bigoc contributed a i'ans ^nr 
good destf^- and the Pj^yfj being at the iame Timt^PP^^f'^^ 
treated with Letii ty, the former eonceived a great Hatred 
again&C&iHkr : And' did not Tcrupie to accufe him in 
fome X/ibeh handed about of a Dcfign to introduce Po- 
pery. At length the Flame which had long been fmo^ 
thered burft out in Satland. 

Beitig perfuaded that Epift^paty^ as Bifiiops are depen- Ht efuhavoun 
itnt on the Crown and have a Seat in Parliament, htft^o eJlMiJh 
fufted'hjs Purpofe of extending the Prerogative, Jt was^Fisco^Acif* 
a coitonion Saying with Jamei m Biflap m King \ and.'" Scot- 
he took great Pains to eftablifli that form of ChurchGo- *'^"**' 
vttnm&itinrSc^land. Inftead ofrefleding on his Fa-** 
therms iiot having been able to do this, and ho«v ill*, 
timed .tiie Attempt was, Charles abrogated all Ciailes and 
prQvindal Synods ; and a Lrtorgy being composed ho 
enjoined the tffc of \t\ti'. Scot land upon fevcre B?nalties; 
It being moreover ordered that the* Sctteh ihotrld con* 
form to E^ifcobacf and. all the Oeremonie6' of the 
Church of England^ the Prffbteriam in general took 
up Arms in the Year 1637. There was too another 
Thing' which belped to promote this Infurredion in 
Scotland. 

At the introducing, of the Reformation there, mo^Here^hsth 
of the Church Lands were leafed out by the Crown to Grants of his 
the younger Sons of the beft of Families. As the ^tt\tPretlstejfifH ' 
paid was inconfidcraWe, and- many of ithefe had contmued. 
from Time to Time in thp fame Families, thejr began to 

N 4 look ' '— 



A DireSory 
tailed the Co- 
nftnoHt^ is 
drawn up. 



hwn.mmm^ to the siaft^cdftfideribb^.tdi^m^ Theft 
heii^ Prised hf Gi^rh tbe lalls MSUbr$.of tJtem«|oieed 
i^'ixh thfi Pc^ftyteriaasy triio were headed; hfl^^aaaJer 
Zi^V>« Smffman, ivho hwl fetved' liindor' His King of 

t A Council wft$ a|)poiii tcdrfer tlie Mao h gem mt :of the 

Ailf«ira(o£ St^tlmd: AnistUkc&orji^Mci^bff^thtiisimt 

0f ^e CowmanU quite .diffi&ceiit frmi. the iDitiscgfi. being 

oooipQfed, ta order to..draw in the icommoflrPee^e hy 

the venerable Natnes of. Reli^on and Goftifeisnoe, tbi 

Nobility as w.dl as^.Mtniftera .took an O^^to npaihtain 

it even againft the King himfelf. 

ThMoffuuef ,To divert this fitorni thr'lV&rqitir of tfinin^m Xffris 

Hamilton ^^m i^^ ScHland^ with Qrderafor putting a:JStDp to tke 

rigotbus Proceedings tbeiepbut H ody^ferved-ao rbaks 

Ihe Rebele more c|}fl!tiia<>e; A Parliament iaras : called 

fliortly after by the Kthg;' but infiead*. of :tts ^coming 

into hra Views agamft the ^Infargehtd^ tbt^Oovauiit was 

confirmed) Epifcopacy.nhcMixcA^ ViVi^ Prtfythy^tt&Qxed^ 

Recourfe to Arms being now the only fFlmi^ left, many 

RMMk Gatholicks entered ' into the Kii^a •'Service, ind 

thefe/4ip(p)ied him whh fome Money ;; bu'tlas JiisiCoffin'b 

wefe empty, and moft of his iSufajeds cefufiod'to adiiiaftoi 

any, |his ^ae ^ not fuifident 'to put a confid^raUe* Army 

on Fobt'i Nor did the Story given out,. ivififa, Intent to 

idght.the. People into a Compliance, that :^vaif{: Number 

of Jrrjfii.iLai. German Papifts were at the ^King!s Call, 

anfwefiany Purpofe except'cth^t of encreafin^^tfaeirLAni-' 

m6itty... It. is probable however that the tbofpit Army 

wouldfthave been too* many foitithe Scotch] had ie fallen 

imoiediaielje upon them. :F6c:«tant of fO'doipg^^ they 

had Wimtto reGeiVe"Ammuitiaion:^and Money from 

Srancel^ndJiolimdi and their i2bfe .beiiig.&vttirafaly re^ 

prefentedri]^ BipuiigSy the Eng^ prevailed oh the King 

to mmpramife . Milttefa witfa^ tbem.. Befidias that his 

Authority was hereby greatly Icffcned, Charhs foon 

found ^hat the 'Scakh .'coitinded ^difidetkc^anU tdnly "in-^ 

tend^^to/ga«l Time; ov.. . •. , .-,u. ; ii;iiwu 

A' List tec being, moreover infl8rt»pted::wlmrdii the 
Scintb foilicieed Officers and Tk^arlike'StoresiiiDaidiiRctfttrf, 
Cit^f^do^bmpdia IWIiamenti and hopiogaD jQCBdec tiie 

^w 1 a. irl Scotch 



is fent into 
Scotland. 



^he Cove. 
NANT is con 
firmed by the 

Farliaa 

MENT ^f 
ScOTI'AND. 



A Compromfe 
nmtb the 
§CPTPH..' • 

He c^tts a 
Parlia- 
ment in 
England. 



^^ 6 It 6-».3r Bit I r^ i n. iSj 

tiiUh cn^^tM WmifSkgU/icsaiftA it f4l he r^ : But M 

Regard beiAgpaidtbcisttaib^tbe^Lowei' Hotife^ and Stjp«> 
plies bmngt iU]l:ttthifc& ifakSxrliaaMtit' o/iis In a Iktie 
Timcvdfffoted;:' ij> ' -- 

As filurr/irt fadniitftfir<m«fddl'a^&a^r^Cbmm}fr^ v^o Hoftilities 
had figned that Letter iobe feized in i^w^^v^Hoftitittri commenced. 
were c awa iett cmd i^ajid ttheiV^f^^ib miKid themfdi^s 'Maf- 
tei8«C&^/>rlkr^tCaiiHe;'v iCA^/#rma!^l»hi agfainft them 
with- what :3Tt6opbTiie:oiuldraife: BUt-pArt of theft 
were. iCj^iiUis! in ttt'tenapttng to force « Pafs ; afid^reat 
Comfdo^ts were^tiiiaiie in all the Counties he pnffed 
throQ^ liBcmrfs hi» Soldiers having" do Pay lived by 
Plunder. Ten thodfand Men- ralfed for ^ him by th^ 
ir^B2rfiamenti)€dogilkewife^d(ft>an4ed for want of Pay^ 
he was reduced tc/the Neceffity of making a Truce with ^ . . ^ 
tbeStrfcAvuinttofxJillmgsmwhef Parliament into ^^w'j^Arif^. 

In tbk.Parliaaiem, which aflenibled \ti N^ember m thi Another Par- 
Ycari64o, theRaticiur which bad long been in People -s liament /> 
Mind8dacG4/^rWi»ftfifp<ain3y : FdrfofarfromjcHffl cWA^; 1640. 

th&Kihg rt-cA^ettdidmoan Agpcement to pay die Scotch 
Affiiiy,;iwhich'wa&'«oiite at its Difpofal: Having cxtof^ 
ted a.Promifeifoi»4be King, that -he Wbj^W nor diflblve 
this Pariiattoenir Wickitfti^ tihe Got»ifent of \tB Members^ 
which .was in EiFeA giviiig'^U{^ hte AutHority, the J^t) 
rf Sfr«i^^Iii»dTLaeuwnai>t of- *^/^f/^ mipeached{ 
He took cgreati Pains, to proVft hJtfifeir %floceiit j and 
the Kthg 'm%&po€^m his Fa^mir'^ mubh ^s pc^le; 
Betag condftmnttd by^the Hodfe oiF Ldi^ih,' Checks fefiafeU 
to fign the Wattamfdr -hi* Execution ; but as the Piri 
liament sW^e vepy im^tttftate, artd* tV»e Lrnhners called . 
out loudly for Vittfgtatic* upon the Earl, he at length did Z^Vr^/SxRAF- 
it. Sohteof 'tlit-Kiiig'» other Minifters we^e impri-i »=^ciRD « .^ 
foncd;: othett fortdlhettifeWes- by FBght, The-Bf(hops hk^^<^'^^, , 
weM.eKdiid«d:4he^iioy(b}feK^iffel;a^^i^Wpaff^ ./ , : 

Pfl;h>; the htx^t\QX\ef''oi \h^ "StM^ChitmhefS 'P^^ , . .. 

ftiflia^andia^i&'C*m»^;^«C*j«^f#6rdfo^ ^'r^ 

the Oriteitis and CoAimand of thfe^fl^ werd tak^rt '' 

ftom: die King : All Wftldh h^ feefttlWgry ' cbiVfen'ted- <&i •"*"' 7 '♦ 

Gomg aftetwarda irito Scdthkdy be in drder to miftji 

thcv^Ji/^i, tafy granted whatever • rhcy afted. ^Irt[;\th% 

»ea» Tim^ the«*i>*/CJwA»&>^5 ander the Pret^tie d? 

teaiiRiMBiBg ^hemfelvteriii tbe^Exireite of their-llefigftm 

-* flew 



X86 jQ/* G-REAT RmTAl?!- 

^«w to Arms,' wd a moft borribk Sl»jgbt«r,QF.tlie 
Pratiftants enfued. As Refolutions for reftraining the 
Prerogative continued, .notwitbfiandijaig.aU bisCpacer- 
ftons, to pafs in Parliament, the King refolved tox»ert 
his Authority j and without confiderk^ the great Dan- 
ger of fuch a Step, infifted on having fix ,G>mmoners9 
TKbom he accufed of High Treafon, delivered ij|U .His 
Demand not being complied with, be went in.Perfon 
to the Lower Houfe, and delivered himfelf i» (harp 
Terms from the Speaker's Chair : But as bis Power ivas 
known to bear, no Proportion to his'Rage^.the Houfe paid 
no Regard to hjm^ nor could there be a ftronger Is- 
fiance of hb Weaknefs, than his SubixiifSon and as it 
were aiking Pardon fur this Violatton of the Privileges 
of Parliament. 
'Jnhfumaion ^^ Infurrcflion being hereupon fticrcd up .by the 
i« London. jL^^er Houfe in London and the, neighbouring JParts, 
the King not thinking himfeff fafe retired into the 
Country. He would now have fecured HuUi kut as 
the Parliameut had forbids all Governors of Sea Ports, to 
obey his Orders any longer, Admitunce was^ refuted to 
j^im there except. he would. difmiifs bis Followcars« .After 
many I^efTages, Declarations and Anfwers. betwixt the 
ICijRg and the. Houfe of Commoos, for fince the Biihops 
were voted out of it, and .the King':^ Friends had left, it, 
the Nuinber and Authority of the Lords in the. Upper 
Houfe were incopAdorable., it cfimie to an lopen ilupture. 
[The King b^ the Advanuge in one or two A£Uons; 
but:on the coming ,of a Scotch Army to thb AiSftance 
^bi King is of the Parliafttont he was routed. near 22ri, and not 
Mli'vered^ by j^Qoviring wbaf Courfc to take foireadered himfelf to 
the Scotch ^j^ 5^^^^^ q^ Condition that no Injury ibould taf Jone 
^H^ ds of tbe ^® ^^^ Perfon, h^ wa^ delivered inio,tbq Hands of^the Engr 
Engli sH. ^ ' '^^ ^^ ^**^ ^"*^ ^ 4PO,ooo Pburids SurXnfy . and carried 

(ipin.Plju:eto Piaceasa Prifoner. . . ;.^. , 

Tbe Indepen- NegQciation$ for. an Accommodation ,wcrfi:c»teired.in- 

dents ^^/ tbe t^. butj the Independents ,yirh9{j^ Violent. Zeal and* Pic- 

Uffer Hand, tgufions to. e^tr^orrfipajy Sanftity^h^d »Mw ©ainfid: tfctm 

the Afc^ndpAicy q6uld..n9t h^ar th^ Thc^gbts /of ii^. .TJ*b 

Pr(fb^tirian,sf{)^o^ttn4^d to have ingroffed^iil the.rower, 

j^odifig vhatt tbtjt^d^ndentf had' by ^beiirfForwartfn^fs ia 

lb<l <^ujre-a4}d.Cunniifg innnua^^drtbejiifQlves ^lo moft af 

the 



Of Gr* AT Br i TAIN. 1^7 

the mifitarjr Employments, bioved theFToufe thatParf of 
the Army might be fent into Ireiand\ and that the reft 
a feW^ Forces being Itcpt to prcferve Peace in England 
might be difbandcd. It being' hcreupoti reprefented by 
Cromwett Lteu tenant- Gen ef a 1 of the Army, an artful 
Man of the Indeperident Party, to the Soldiers, that 
they were after all their fignal Services to be difbandcd 
without Pay or fent to ftarve in Irefandy they' tntertd 
into Affoctation agaJnft tl.e Parliament. 

Tinker the Pretence of feiting him at Lihtrty ihcy TJ^ Jrwy em- 
foon after took the King into their Cuftodyj and ^vtry ten into am 
Thing that had been done by the Houfe towards an Ac- ^Jifdati^ 
commodation was declared void. In order to put a Stop ^g^^ft ^ht 
to thcfe violent Proceedings, which difgufted theConfi- Parlia- 
deratc of every Party, the People took up Arms in fe- ***"'*• 
veral Places, ^nd the Scotch came into England to fuc- 
cour the King: But by the Prudence of Cromwell all ^ROMwutt 
Infurreftions were fu ppre (Ted ; and after defeating thc*^*'''** 
Scotch hxm^ he made their General Hamilton Prifoner. Scotch. 
Durii^ his Abfence in the North the Parliament renewed • 
their Conffcrences with their King ; and thefe would in Maty Meu- 
all Probability" have fucceeded, had not many Members, bbrs an 
who were for making up the pifferences,' been turned turned out ^ 
out of the Houfe 1^ /r//<?« ,Son-in-LaW oi CromweU^^^ ^^Hfi* 
Comniiffary General of the 'Army. 

The ^ Houfe being \>y this Means reduced to zhout It is refil'Dfd 
forty Niembers,* all which were Officers or Favourers oito treat m 
Independency^ it was refolvcd to treat no more With the ^^^e witJ^ tbt 
King J* 'and that the fupi-eme Power flioiuW ifbr the Time ^^^i* 
to come. be lodged in the Conimons. A' Tribunal _con- 
fiftirigibf 150 Perfons being irioreover ereSed, with' full 
Power' to ti-y condemn and punilh th^ King, no Re- 
gard Wai paid to the ClanficJuf 'of the Pibf !e, the Preach- 
ing of the Pfejhyterian Min'ifteri, the Pr^otejfdihn of the ' ' 
Scotchy and the kepreifcrttation of the Dutek and other 
foreign Miniffiers agalnft it. Before this Coort, in which 
many of mean Birth fat as Judges;' the Iting was kccufed 
not only of HighTreafon and Tyr^anny, buValfo of all the 
Murders and Devaftations U'hich had happened fince the 
Beginning of the War. Refufing to acknowledge Fts 
Authority he was condemned to De beheaded by fixty- 
fcvco 'Members of thfcXCmrt j the rcff amongft whohi 

was 



ids 



Q/^tGreat hsumitfi 



W9S Riirfix xbpo6ng to be abfent: And after receiving 
feme ignominious Treatment from the Soldiers, the Sen- 
tence was executed upon him befdre Bis Palace offp^ite- 
ball on the thirtieth of January ,1'648. 
; Upon his Death the Parliament who' would be ibougbt 
to have the fupreme Power, which was in fad In the 
Armys declared it High Trealbn topl'oclaim thclCing'^ 
Son ; and many of his Adherents were put to Death or 
baniflied. The Royal Party being ftill ftrong in Irelank 
Cromwell was fent thither ; by wfaofe Course and Con- 
duS it was in the Space of a Year entirely fupprefled. 

In the mean Time the Scotch haying confented upon 

fome Conditions which he did not half like to proclaim 

Charles Prince of IValeSy he arrived there fromV Tranc't 

and^ was crowned. Upon d>!s Cromwell was recalled 

from Ireland ; and being made General in the room 

of Fairfax^ whom the Parliament began to diftruft, 

he marched into the North, After defeating the Scotch 

arewtrftedhy in ieveral Engagements, and particularly at the Battle of 

CaoMWELL. *)Uithj he amongft other Places took jSi/«Awr^i&*Gj/%,- 

—^ Which had always been judg^ impregnable. While 

thefc Things .were doing Charles tntcrcd £r^lan3 -, but 

. as the Forces be t>roi^ht wjth iim were few, and his 

Expc£Utioq 9f beU»g.,weIl fu^ported was baulked, his 

Army was routed near Jfircjeftir l>y Cromwell. He was 

iorced to fly im Di^tfe s and a^tpr efcaping many times 

the Danger of being killed or'takeh..Prif6ner §pt over 

into Franct^f^ general Monk who was .left to cbmpiand 

in Scotland exitkfsily fubduead ^his Kifigdoni ; aad 0^Scotch 

wereobligi^drta.fubtnit to very bard Terms. / \ !^''' ' 

Jnew^KVL- ' The^ariiampnt.,having now a Mind to diflft^t*art 



ne King is 
hebeadeJ^ 
1648. 

It is diclarid 
High Treafm 
to procleim 
lis Sen. 



The Prince 
^Wales 

arrives in 

SCOTLAMD* 



The Scotch 



Satile of 

WORCSS 




the 
,xiew one ot 144 Members- v^J^ich he called, cJnl^d* 6f 
^>tfj&2j^(2^f and 'Others, whoni be knew to be dcvoteti to 
and .capable .of fcrving him, Thcfc . fill v i whtmticil 
jPeople .fbon lounged themferv^ into* AbTurdiltes and 
..Difficulties J and not kjQowing how to ext^iciite themfelves, 
^ tbey.caiaie eafily into the Propofal of CfWi^^iTs-SFneni, 
^vhich "wasto o|Fer hitn the fupreme Pbjy^r. He accept- 
ed ft with .the.Tillfi.of^Protcilor i;j* the'Yea^^ 
And thus a ikb.w Monarch w!Iia governed ihe''thr^e 

TKlilg- 



Kiagdbms widioot ^Gmcroul was fct op^ bf thofevvsrp 
Feopde^ who had taken lb much Patn9 andnin fo many. 
Hazaids to aboUfii regal P<>wep. .. :. 

That he might ^avf a fpcdoDtPMlfrioe for keeping: Cromwell 
up hb Forces, on which he well knew his Cpntinuance is made Pr§' 
in i^Dwer te depend, «o4 in order to cfaaftife the Dut<S*f^^9 ^^Sl* 
who treated hin^ contemptibly, be reibUred to^ufli the 
War b^ua ki the Year 1651 agaiiift them. In this 
War 170Q Merchant ^hips were taken from the Hol^ 
hndtn ; and thsf weise defeated in five' Engagjements at 
Sea: In the laft. of Which thelt Admirai Tr^m^ wan 
kilted- and iy Men oi War were funk 01^ uken. They 
hereuj^ fued for Pisace; and amongft other Terina 
prefcribed by Cromwell Gonfented, that the Prince et He forces th 
Qr^izfid hk Deftendants ihould forever be exclu-;HoLLAN0' 
ded from the Office of Stadboldir which his Prcdeceffot* ^^s into his 
fead cBjoyed ; and that Cbarks 11. fliould never be fuf- <w» J>rw. 
feted to reMe 111 th^ MwW -Pr»w/»r^- 

T^ conducing ttiA happy End t>fi this War gained Alltbi £u- 
CnhmeU dsch Reputation, that the^moft confideraUd Rope an 
Powers of Earwpe {mat Ambttfladoi^ tp4Uid were glad<tb f ^^^.^ j^!'* 
te on good Terms with him. He afterwards with oni ^" ^^^'^^'f- 
Fleet curbied the Infolence of the CpKjbini oi Barbary^ 
^nd {tn\ another i^i0t\\GWeJi buUa,, 'HifirDefigo upoit 
^^^ I^mngd miSckit^ii Bnt }^4f9iiwfr» was notwith*^ 
Ending many died by the Diitenspem^ incident to ihe 
Climate conquered ; and the Spaniards fuSered incrodi* 
biy hy the plundering of their Piate.Fket. In Return 
for feme Tioops fent to the Afllftaiice of ih^, Fr4n6b ia 
fionders' they futT?ihddred JOunkirk to» him ; and. after "The Death of 
carrykg: the Glory of iS^^Engti/b Aiins as fer as .aay Cromt 
King had ever <^one he died in the Year 165&. . : w^ll. 

By indulging Liberty of Confcieivio to all Jie gainnd Some Acamnt 
*e AffcAions of the different Se^ties. fo far that no tfhis Condua.. 
conftderaUe-Paity couU be made againil him : And if 
any Copfpiracy was formed, his Spies, who knew tlx^r 
Vigilance an* Faithfuliiefs would- be well rewarded ne-,; 
Y» /wltA to acquaint i^fn of it in titoe^ He is accitfod . 
^^ malting Reltgidtl a Cloak t& his'&ifot^ious Defigo& $ . .. 
Hot can- it be conceived, tl»t.hiij; ^f^ofe of obtaaniig 
*e fuprcine ?ower by the Hdp of' Fanaticks and Vi- 
fu^a&riet oould ke carried on wthioi&t il^iflcmbling: £:x- 

l^ept 



19Q Cy G R 1 A T B II f T At »• 

cept;which n li»r% to kfi A^fl^fed (^.9l M^fV.^f'sMi/ 
Uodoftandiag be wss really «<» .tupoiftitiRMji fs jthfrnft. 
It muft be allowed chat h^ hadgnsal: Faults : Mut)^ caa» 
' jief«r be denied tbat be was oi^e :q( $h$ :^hk& GefiprskU . 

England ever Taw; and which contribiHe<}-v^ftly t^ bia 
- Succefe, that he oiadfs if bU Study to ficnl o^t updj^ploy 
Men of Courage and Capacity. .^ 

RrcH ARD) His Sou Rnhani who Atccceded . to. tbe, Pr^e^qrftip, 
i/i 5wr >f- being uneqoaL to the Weight of .Goji^eriH^e,nt« wa? (pon 
^#a6 /« /A< depofed by the Parliament j but as its . Membefs wcrv 
pROTEc- q„j|^ divided amongil themrdy«9,\P0thing a^W be Expd 
TORSHiP. j^p^j^ General Mani Goyernof of $cpUan4 took the 
Advantage of tbe..CQAfufi.on 5^j$hj.eQrued to.marf^ ior 
to England y and bavirig ma4e 'jbinfifelf MajfterTtof the 
City of l/mdm^ tbt Reftoratioo. of: Charlas- 11^ m^f^^l/ 
effcdted in the Year: 1660. 
Charles IL This Pjrince revived the ancient Forpj^p/.QQveraipe^st 
i$ rtfiorei both in Ecclefiafiical and Ciyil Aff^ir^ 1 l^r M he amch 
i66o. Difficulty in doing.^his. : For as .Xhf P^pje jn general 
bad fuiFered greatly, by the Stryggles of the di^rent , 
. Parties for Pow3er» they were.n^vy almoft mad with , 
Loyadty. . , 

Warvoitb ^ ordec to iuinible the HaUanders^ ?vho. began to 

Holland, look big again at Sea* and in. lUvfflg? ps^haps f^r their 
1665. agreeing, with Crmwill that he:(bptMM:90^ reilde ia .their 
Dominions, Cbarlis in the Ye^r; 1665 declared War 
againft them. After feveral Engagements in . whic^ no 
grfAt Advantage, was.gabed gn either Side, the DutcH?^ 
who for the Sake (4 putting an End t^ the W^n<fk^er^ 
mined to ftrike a bold Strojce, to. tbe grqat Pi^h^jpour 
EngliyS^ Skips of the E^gli/b Flag came up tq Ci»<z/^^fR.an4;buf9t|tbe 
are burnt at King's Ships in the Harboiir. Clim-ffis ^ing.he^f^y.Jaid 
Chatham, under the Neceifity of making or^,^ Peace wa^ ^occlu- 
ded by tbe Mediatioo. of Swfdfn ; but if. J8:proi^bie>^t^at 
the Succet of the Ftftjfh in tbe JYfi^^riWi C9JWrihuj§^ a 
good deal to bring tbe i?iiri:^..inti>,iit,, t, , . , ^. .-^ .^. 
Afecimdfrar Hit Refcnimcnt hQweve^icof\tinue^'l afvl bei«ig,«af- 
tAfitb Hot- perated by the ijl-umed Bqaftipff.^f ^^jPftf^iCJbarJft 
t AND, 167a* in the Year 167* while.tb^f/Y.jjr^ iRyadect'fbcqa ^jLap^ 
attacked them by Spa;. . But this W^ (^$Gecde^ ^ ^i^ 
•than the firft ; for the Effgl{/h Merchants lo(|^gu^y;Ships 
and no AdyaAtag^df«:9AgiU(^ m^. t^c^lh^ib^Ji^ Igggth ^ 
. • . ^ - ' as 



€f GUtAi fiftlTA'lN.' igt 

al^the^fi^^ Natbn looked iAth j^ilotis E;^e8 on the 
Progrtfi W Ffmety Charltf "w^s in orcMff to f2ktkffhi$ 
?eo^46tt6d to fitftktf a feparate Pi^&^e rt^nd a TreHty 
was «ffteir«rards mlde undei' hie Mediaition between the 
other Fon^ert at Wah 

As\ die Dufk^ bf'tiri Brother to the King profefled 7^iUMfi c/ . 
the Roman CatheUtk Religiofi) the People began to be /^^ Dmkt ff 
unfcr App*'e*eftfidns, that If he came to the Crown, to- Yoka, 
which be 'was fieirt Heir,' be would endeavour to rc*dta- 
bllQi Irin £ngiand; ■ -' 

'In tlSe Year 1678 Captain BiJhw and Tttus Oata a Oatss^s 
Man of no extraordinary Charader^ who after being PUt 1678. 
educated ' in !Pr(?/^^»/j^ had entered into the Order of 
Jefuitty mitde Oath^ that the Papi^s had laid a Scheme 
to niake Way fbrthe'Diike of T&rA^i Acceffibn by kill- 
ing the King, and to root out the Proufiant Reh'gion. 
The Sari of Stajfird^ Coleman Secretary to the Duke 
of Thri, and fome Jejkits were executed for being con- 
cerned in this Plot) fand thd Duke of Tork himfelf 
went by the King's -Advice into Holland. His Wnh-^ The Duh 9/ 
drawing did not'^iAitenf the People^ moft^of whom fa- York goes 
fpefied him of Defigns againft the Protcftant Religion ; ^^^^ ^^^' 
and a K!l for excluding him from the-Succeffion pafled ^^^^* 
both Hoofes: But tnftead of giving his Aflcnt to this TbeBiliofE<* 
Bill, the King, who teokfcd upon it as an Invafion of the M^^Hh' 
Royal Prerogative^ dilfolved the Parliament and called ^''^^ ^"^"^ 
his Brother home. 

The Duke of Tofrk^% Party getting afterwards the /.^n/RussiL 
Afcendency, Lord Ruffel^ Algernoon Sidney and others, etnd others art 
who wdte in the Year'i683 convi£ted^f *elAg concerned executed^ 
in a Cohfpiriief, fufiked Death :• And th^ Earl of J^> >^S|* 
one of the Parties accuied was» bcfbre his'Trial. found 
dead in the ToiMr, It Wfts given out that he cut fats own 
ThttMit^; but feme Circumftances occafioned a ftrotig 
SofpiYctoA that he was murdered. It bdng fald that the 
Duke of Mmmwti a natiml Son of the King's was the .7^ j)«^^ ^ 
Contriver of this P4dt, and that the Defign of it was to Mohvovth 
advstnee^hhn'to^ Che Thronie, he vi^baniftied' by Chafiet is ban^bed the 
from <}o(firt ind went into Heiknd.' At the Deathof Court. 
CiafksAn the Year 1665, his Brother' James Duke of 
7M fucceeded. -^ 

'Ehe Kew» df this Pr ince'^ A^ceflion being r^ccivUdf Jambs TL 
in HoMand^ the Duke of Monmoutb m& the Ear! of 1685. 

Argyle^ 



Jrffh fet out from thence. The £w9ie;r. bi 

figa was to (dethroQe Janus: But as- ^bo. t^^jif^ 
*n D i r withftaading their J^aloufy of. the King gr^ ^ ^ 
Monmouth ^^ ^** Religion, were not generally. diQxjfcd , to, tal^« 
0mdEarl of Arms,^ the few who joined the^ J^q tvef.^, quH^^jr^di 
Argyle P^*"^*^^ ^^^ '^ <^oft them both .tJ^y Jfga^J. X^Jf^ C^ 
itrebcbiadtd. }^^}^ JeferySy who wa$feflt o^.tW^Occafion {ry^Q^^^ 
ff'ijl to try thp Re.bcls, pi:oqeedfA:Vi«fe great S^erifgc ;. 
Nay he did not fcruple to boaift, th^- he^ha^, i^ JChif 

, . .one AiBxe cpndemofd more th^ ^att « t\k. Jf u^j-jhaid 

*/ done fipcctlie Con^uicft.. : ,; ... ., ,.,./ , ,..., v 

f^fP^APisTs It was fo<)n jpenceived that ^^fn<i^ .gave^gi^ En^i 

«r<«if(?»r^^*//.coyragcfnent to t;he Pa^s ,\ P^ fer^.^thf^Jafcc of\An- 

chiding tl^**, (iccaufe the Peo^lftj^wsQeM . havfr Jifen 

quite arcrfe to the Toleration; <rft Pi^pcfy in s^ipreft 

Terms, an A<a for the Toler aeiotl . of ait JEle{igio|ifi 

VMS paffed. ^ A College of J^fkiU^i^ h^r^Hppa^crcJ^r 

cd in L9ndm\?ifii foinc .v^p^ JtMJg^s having fgiv^a 

- • it as their O^nipn that , the :Kil»g ..tnight difpeaijj with I 

tb>5 Laws, none of the penal X^witivfir* put u)tO;^«CM^ 

tion againft the Paf5ifts. In/tgad ^ym<li cnany o£ tfibqi i 

:- . were i;aifed to Places of great Tf uft ^ Pigoi^. .In 

^ . tl^ Year rWft ..jtf/iwj publiflicd a JPioc^amatiw foe 

univerfal Liberty of Confpience ii ai>d fon^ ,£|f(hops 

who refufed to prde; the re^dicigof ii in their Dilnceies 

were committed to the Tower, Under . all U^is tjb^ 

r;-,,, ; People coovfor<ed themfelveji^.wJth ih^. Hopes* tb^ as 

..,.,hi$ Daughters were Protefts^Cs Tilings migiit - a€lcr 

r.Jbi$. Death bp fet right again: BMt^wJhea»the,.QeQro'i 

Pregnancy wa» nMe publicfc, 'ihe 'Fpajr » of Jbiea.JhJiviAe 

a &>n, who iiiight fintfli wibat ,h)ia father had :b^ua 

jn Favour of Pofjery, made th/eqt vojgy un«ify.<,. *Jp^ 

on the Declaraim that. tUsC^^ni^JiraJi deltyer^l^^fiC t 

$on, the Prince og<>irtf)B;g^ wft^.itttvil;fi< over, hyxmrnrnfij 

. , . . th4 principal Nobilijty and Gmtfy 4 Some ^iW^m^'ba^ 

doubted of her b<ing with CbUd. ^Arjtbiaf cinctf ibi&db 

i^is ftrqng: AMa^holent jto tfaei^miiefiafiiiSieligiiiiii'^wk tt» 

. . (^Mfe.of .Lib^rty^ w^ conc^Ofdi in Boint of InMisfeft,fii»t 

^e Right of h\s~Wiit s\itT Qm%hta0^^^ 

Crown of England (hould not pafs to a PriotrdttteMkI 

. ' luppofiticious, l)f»/<Piiiplietf jwiib the iSdUicttalklBa. made 

IQ bim: And the JKr^lrx. (?^fBrr^..^Qin t|ie jfUlbniqi 

lately 



Of G R k A T Br t t a I m. 193 

ifely crfi^tiudcd betwixt England and Frana had dir* 

fted, rcidily affifted him with Ships and Forces^ 

He IkridicJ without anjr Oppofition from Lord Bdrt^ ^^^ t^rina tf 

mth i^ii'ifi^iijh Admiral at Torbay on the 5th of No^ Orange 

inher x€i^''y and the People, who were plcafcd with ^"^^ ^' 

s Decfafitid'd that he came to deliver them from a * °*"^'*'* 

'dfijh Kmg and' to fee a free Parliament called, locked 

I to liim^ *As whole Regiments of the King's Forces 

^ent alfo over to him, the Queen and the pretended 

'rincc of Pf^dles were fent away for Franci^ and Jamfs James goes 

itnfelf ftjiowed them. The Prince and Princefs of /'»/« FkA/jcfcJ 

kange being (hortly after crowned, as Kirgand Queen 

f Enghfui^ they were acknowledged by the Scotch as 

awful Sdyercigns. 

Inordet* to regain the Dominions which he had loft William 
)y 1ms Bigotry to the Romijh Religion James landed in I^^- 

be Year 1690 with fome French Troops in Ireland i «»^ Mary, 
and \\itt>kUh Fleet not being well fupported by the *^^^* 
f^^^Flfeet under Admiral Torrington was worfted by 
^^'io^ h'ame: But James*^ Succefs was fliort-lived 5 
for he failed at the Siege of Londonderry^ and his Army 
fuffcred an entirfe Defeat at the Battle of the Boym. In Battle of tbi 
this Adfon which was decifive the Duke of Schomberg^ Boynb, 
oneofthfc bcft Officers that ferved under ffllliamy and 1690. 
one of the braveft Men of his Time, received a mortal 
Wound. Giving over all for loft Janus now returned 
intoi?rfl«ff- ,-ind Dublin with fome other Towns fub- 
R^itted teethe Conqueror. In the next Year the Army 
^hich ftai adhered to the Infereft of James was defeated 
fcy Gericfatl Oinkk near Athlone ; and their General 5/, Battle of 
^th being killed all that were left of the French got Athlone, 
k^meas M^efl a^ they could. ' ' .1691. 

Being now Mafter of the three Kingdoms William William 
j^fertd Jrttoth^ Alliance, which the Stales General and enters into th$ 
poafo-df A/?r//7 had concluded for checking the am- Grand 
wotisDfcfigii^ tsf'Lems XIV. As feveral other Powers Axliancb. 
■*fiM afW^Vra^rds "into this Alliance it was called the 
^(^ Man^e: ' In the Year 1692 the French Fleet 
JJ^erWirlhi* TmrviHe was defeated by Admiral Ruffel^ 
Jjj^o com&land^d- the combined Fleet of England an<l Brittle of 
^^'tfitttt Ll Hogue^ and to prevent their f^ljing I-a Hooo«, 

*• Vowl. O . into »69^- 

I; , ■ '...••'•-' 



^94- ^f CrR;EAT BrI TAtlTi 

into the Hands of the Enemy the Fr4nch f^Y\it to fome 
of their own Ships. . 
Death of Upon the Death oi Mary in the Year 1 694 Jm^s ame 

Mary, 1694. from S/.G/rmfl/wj to the Sea Coaft, in order taegfi^kwitt^ 
Marihal Bouffiers and a French Army for England \ but 
as the Confpiracy agalnft fFUliamy tfor which Charnoci 
Kt/ig and others wefc executed^ had been d-ifc^vered, ao4 
he was known to be generally efteemed by the Ef^lijii 
the Expedition was laid afide. 
Treaty of By the Treaty of Ryfwick^ concluded in Sifiimhet 

Ryswick, 1697 under the Mediation of his Swedijh,^r^y% Lewis 
1697. acknowledged fPilUam and engaged not to 4^uib the 
Succeffion to the Engltjb Crown, which had 1h(^ fettled 
by divers Afts of Parliament in the Proteftmt Lifle, 
. . Some Things moreover which concerned Tfftde were 

fettled by this Treaty; and Reftitution b^ing made of 
all that had been taken in the Weft Indies^ it wa« agreed 
that CommifEojiers ihould be appointed for aA^ertaining 
the Boundaries of the Etjgiijh and French Colonic ichcre. 
W^PxRTt- The Partition Treaty, which was concluded foon af- 
TioN tfcr that of Ryfwick^ drew upon WiiUam tfee.fodignation 

TrREATy.' of the Spanijh K\r\g. Complaint being hereupon made 
in reproachful Terms by the Spanijh Minifier at Lmdsft^ 
he was ordered to come no more to Court 3 but when 
the Will of Charles II. was publiibed Williamjom^ ^ 
had been, deceived, and that all Meafures had been (e- 
cretly taken hy France who \vas a contr?.3iag Patty to 
this Treaty to prevent the Execution of it. Being un* 
able to withftand the Power of France alone .the Duke 
X>f Anjau v^as acknowledged by him as King^ Spai^ 
But he afterwards entered into an Allian^ witb 
Holland znA the Houfe of Auftria in Favour of Chark 
lecond Son of the Emperor LecpeU, While Prepara- 
tions were making for putting this Prince into Poffeftoa 
^eath cf of the Spani/h Monarchy, Wiiliam died in the tear 
Vi^iLLiAM. 1702 being the 51ft of his Age by a Fall from bis Horfe 
in Hunting. Bdbre his Death he had tjbe A/fectifieatioa 
to hear that the pretended Son of Jatmu^ who died a 
few Months before fFilUanij was acknowledged by Ff^^^ 
as King of England under the Name of Jams JIL 

"/ Jnni 



Of Gr^ AT Britain. ^l<^^ 

Arme Prificefi of Denihark fecond Daughter of Anve^ ^7^* 
James U. was fcarce upon the Throne, before the £«- 
^/^ Parliamertt^ provoked at the Behaviour of France 
withjRegard to the pretended Son of James^ came to 
vigorom^ Refolutions for carrying on the War againft War *witt ' 
France; and hot only confirmed the Succeffioh in theFRANCB. 
iiouk of Manbveri but all Papifts were for ever exclu- 
<icd from the Throne. 

. W^Jiik, the Duke qf ^Marlboroi^h commanded in 7-^^ Gal-. 
Flandin, a. Fleet of Engli/h. and Dutch Men of War leons 4^! 
under thcfp^ke of Or/tt(7«^ attempted to (urpnxc C adit; jiroye</ at ' 
but as tlic Inhabitaats whq adheri^d to Philtp -wetc ap- Vico, 
frifed ia tune of the Defigti it could not be carried into 
Execution,, The Spanijh Galleons were afterwards at- 
taciced in the Port of /%<? ; and notwithftanding the 
Precaution of carrying as^much as pofEble of their Cargo 
into the "Country, the coxnhined Fleet got ^ confider- 
able Booty and iurntfomp, of the Ships. In 1703 Bofin t7 i' 
and Limbur^ were taken l^y the Duke of Marlborough ; . ^* 
and which was of great Confcquence to xht^ Allies the 
King of Portugal declared againft Philip. The Battle Battle of 
^^Hockfitt in the next Year was a fatal .Strode to the Hocksteti s 
Hoife of Boufboh; for from this Time the Affairs ^704. 
of Francs began to decline/ As ;io Icfs than Ac faving ^. ., v a. ^ 
of the Empire may be afcribed to this Viflpr^/the Eng^ ^ * . ]y ^ 
|i^ General to whofe Condu<St it' lyks 'f>^nci|^n)^ p.w- . ;: .--x .; 
ingwas i^ade a Prince of thp. Empire;' and when he . "•^- v'.- 
returned home received all B(i?irks of Refp^cl ffom his *^ ' • 

Miftrefs and Country for b^s ^nlportant Services!. The >7^J* 
next Campaign Was fpent In obferving the Motions of 
hetnemy; but. the Year 1706 was one of »th.e moft 
tmarkabie in this Reign, ,. 

Englandznd Scotland althoyigh united fincc theTimeT'-^f UNign^ 
^ James I. under one King hacTieparate Parliaitients, and the tixjo Kit^:-^ 
ach was goy.ert,ed by its own Laws independently i^i ditms, Jsnce . 
fe other. The Union, of the two Klingdoms which ^^^^,^^ 
'ad been before in vain attem:pted was brought about ^^eat 
n this Year 5 and both -Nations have been eveV rtnce ^^^'^ain, 
inder the DireSion of one Parliament and callci^ Qreat ^^^ ■ 
Sn/tf/«. While thefe Things were doing at cHome, . 
he Duke of Marlborough who was aftive in the Field 
7 ^^ RBff^J^al Brayery contributed a good d^I to 
* ' O a ; ' thi 



1^6 Of Gr-E AT fe R I T A I '^l 

iatile of the Succcfs of the Allies in the Battle of Ramillies, Jni^ 

Ramillies. werp^ MalineSy Louvain^ BruJpJs and '. 2^X Brabant te 

ing likewife taken in this Campaign, Proppfals of Pea^ 

were made by France through the Hands pf tfc'e EkSo 

of Bavaria, Thefe were received with great Coolijcls] 

and it was refolvcd in the Brifijh Partianjcnt to profccutt 

the War until the Houfe of B(?i/r^^« would jrehouncc al 

Pretenfions to the Spanijh Monarchy. 

^ht Pfitender The Scotch had by the Union fome "AdvariUge^ k 

mSarhfor Trade and otherwife ; yet many of therp \rere dfflatif 

ScotLAND, fied with it. It being hereupon reprefeftte^ by fomi 

i7c>8. of the Malecontentis at the Court of St.Germaim^ thi 

the Scotch were all ready for "a Revolt if the frettn& 

did but apipear amongft *thefn', a Sqiadron.wSs witbia 

credible Diligence fitted out- at Dunkirk -^ 2lnd he weiH 

on board it' in the Year 1708. After being retarJa 

for fome 't'fme by Winds he Iteer'd towards Scotland \ bill 

finding his 'Expe£lation of an Infurreflion in his Favcni 

difappoirited he foon made the beft of his 'Way fad U 

Dunkirk,^ 'A French Man of War on board of whid 

were (Ime Perfons of ' Diftinflion was talten by tb 

' " . Engtijh Admiral Byng \ and he was very near .falling ifl 

ivith the vi^hole Fleet. ' 
ihiteal^ The Zeki;; vCrhich notVithllanding the End^^vours Ol 

Great France at ihc Conferences of Gertrudenberg to dif 
J^J'^A^^>^'* unite the ^AVi had aH '^ilong been ffiewn By Qm 
ihe *^Vi^ ^'Britain for carrying dh^the War, was towards tfa< 
€/iagf 1700 End of* the Year 1709 obferved to decline; tn'thenexl 
.> 7 V- Y^^^ jj^g Doftrines of Paffive Obedience and JJpn Re- 
fiftan(ie were publickly avbwcd in two Sermons preacW 
by Dr. Sacheverel: For which, as thcadmittiiigof thefi 
Dodrines was quite inqonfiftent with th^ RevoTutiomtA 
Sachbve- the Protejfant Succeflion, Articles of Impeachment. went 
'kis.h imfeach' exhibited againft him by the Houfe of Com nions. Nd 
^•*/ Pains were on this Occafion fpared. by the CommODSj 

yet by the Intrigues of fome great Perfons this Trum- 
peter of Sedition, who had thrown the whole Nation 
into a Ferment and whofe Trial had coft an immenfe 
Sum, was only filence^ for three Years. The Favoun 
and Prefents he afterwards received caufedjt to be be- 
lieved tha't he was the'Tool of a Party, who perceiving 
the Qucctf ar ill State of Health wanted to make Way 
** ' ^ ■ . for 



OJ Great B r i t a i h. 197 

br the brjingiog in of d»6 Ptttmder : Nay Ibmc fufpcded 
bt ihe hmbif was not avecie to it. 

In the Jcear 1710 the Lords Sunderland and GedcU Change of the 
itwwerc fuccccded in the Polls of Secretary of State ^'*'/'^» 
Ud firft Lord of the Treafury by Henry St. Jo'hn^ Efq; *7*o- 
iterwanb' Lord Bolittgbroke zn^ Robert Harleyy Efqj 
on yi'hbm th^ .Queen conferred the Title of Earl of Ox* 
firi both known Friends to the DoAor. 

Peace b^ipg refolved upon by the new Miniftry Kegociatiom . 
Mr;frjrtr was fent into France to fettle the VreWmh" entered intQ ' 
haries. Mr. Menager^ than whom no body in France ^^^^ 
vnderftood iTcade b.etter, cam^ :^t the fame Time from^**^^** 
%t Frefuh Court to JL$ndpn ; and confiderable Remit- 
tances being made to Count Tallard^ who had been Pri- 
foner in England ever fince the Battle of Hociflet^ he 
Jjby a prudent Application of the Money fuAciently made 
^od what his Country had fufiered by his Defeat. Com- 

Slaint^ being made by (he JJIies of the Engli/h Mini- 
try for treating feparately. Lord Raby afterwards Earl 
^ Strafford protefted at the Hague that England would 
Wer defert the common Caufe^ nay while the Ncgo- 
ciations were carrying on the Engltjh Troops were or- 
dered toa£l in Concert with ih^ Allies. As this however 
was done only to amufe the Allies^ Count Tallard fet out 
from England for Verfailles in the Year 17 1 1 to forward 
the Peace; and, in Return for a Prefent of Horfes and 
Dogs carried by him to Lewis XIV. a Quantity of moft- ' . 

^delicious Champaign and Burgundy and fame very rich 
Silks were fent into England to the Qiieeo. The En- 
mity which had long fubfifted was now quite forgot; 
' and great Hopes were conceived of mutual Advantages 
; in Trade from the Revival of a good Underftanding 
betwixt the two Nations. 

As foon as ^he Preliminaries were agreed upon, thePasLiMiNA* 
Queen declared her Intention to treat of a Peace 2i,tUtrecbt mbs agreed 
on thi^ Plan laid down by thefe. The principal Articles *'^- 
of th^em were : That Frznx^tjhould acknowledge the ^ueen 
and the Succejfton as fettled in the Protejlant Line \ that 
allpo^ble precautions Jhould be ufed to preventive Junc*^ 
iion of the French and Spanifti Monarchies und^r. the 
Jame Sovereign j that reafonable Satisfa^ion Jhould . be 
given in the Treaty to be concluded to every one of, ihe 
ddies s that the United Provinces and the Empire Jhould 
O 2 have 



igS- 



7 bey are not 

fatisfaSlory to 

"the Allies. 



Conferences 
pptned at 

Utrecht, 



rbe Duke of 
Ormond 
commands in 

Flanders 



bdo^ a ^fi^iekt Barrier \ Hfai ^hknk fik>u» m ih 
Payment of an EquiwtUnt in Montf he derMiybtt\ ant- 
that biJideS' being re^infiatBd iff tii Ddmnidm' fmt 
Cejfion in Italy, conformably t\^ tb^' Engagemlffr/s of the 
AUits $n his dechring fir ihfffiy fi>ould be ifHtde to- tk 
J^uke of Savoy. The Jtlies cbjeSM 'to tfcdfe Prtlraii*^ 
naries, and' Prince Eugene was fent to Lendbn t>ir Ppn* 
pofe to expoftulate with the Btitijh Minilifry ; fttit it 
fignified nothing, and the Duke of MmS«rmtgh was 
given to underftand the Queen had no further CXcafiott 
for his Service, becaufe he ojicprefled fais Di^atisfadion- 
with the Preliminaries. After i long- Debate in the 
Houfe of Conunons it vras < revived to addrefs her Ma- 
jefty not to conclude a Peace, except t^e wbok 'Spenifii, 
Monarchy was ceded to the iioim of A^Jhria.: And the 
jnaking of eighteen new Lords, 'for the (ake of 'fituring 
a Majority in the Houfe of Peers, (hews the great Pro- 
bability that otherwife it would have been fo rcftilvcdin 
this Houfe lifcewife. 

Early in the Year 17 12' the* BtAop of Bri^l znA 
Lord Strafford repaired to U&echti at which Plate 
the French Miniflers who had Orders to zSt in Concert 
with them were before arrived. Every Thing betwixt 
Great Britain znd France was fodn adjufted ;but thefign- 
ing of the Treaty was deferred for the fake of giving the 
Allies Time to fettle what concerned them. In the 
mean Time the allielf Army took the Field, and the 
Duke of Ormond who fucceeded the Duke of Marlbth 
rough in his Command ieemed willing to a^ with the 
oth^r Generals : But wheii it was propofed to attack 
the French he declared that he had Orders from hi$ 
Court not to rifque a Rattle. Upon this ^efnoi was 
befieged and taken. Not long after he declared that he 
had Orders to publifli immediately a Sufpcnfion pf Arms 
for two Mopths betwixt- Gti?^^ Britain and Franct\ 
and to m«rch fome Troops to take Pofieffion of Dunkiri^ 
which tfie French Court had agreed^ to put into his 
Hands as^a Security for the Uprightnefs of its Inten- 
lions. As the nationel Troe>ps a«d Tome others in the 
Pay of Great Britain from this Time formed a feparate 
flamp, the French Army was fupcrior to that of the 
pthcr AMes, 



Qf- Gr E AT Br I T A I N. 199 

In the next Seffioit fome Lords protefted againft v^Jii Majgrt/ji 
*ace, unlefe there was aCeffioi^ of the whole Spani/hin both H(mjei^ . 
ifonarcby: Buc the Majority 0/ this Houfe were for ^*^'^'^'J'«/^ 
t; and the Queeri was addreflcd on the Profpcfi of ^^*^^*> /^ 
'eace by the City of Undon. ThcHoufc of Com- ^'^^*' 
nons moreov^ was now fo altered, that inftead of c m- 
ng to fuch Refolutions as the Heads of the Oppofition 
ixpefled, the Conduft of the Duke of Marlharough 
ind of his Friends who had been at the Head of 
ihe late Miniftry was inquired into : And Complaint 
nras made that the Allies had been ■ deficient in their 
^\ds for maintaing the War. 

In order to fulfil the Promife which the Allies had Stipuiatiims im 
luuJe of dbtkining advantageous Terms for the Duke of F^^'^ouroftbt 
^avoy it Was propofed hy England that he fliould have Sicily\ ^^^ ^^a- 
And it i^as like^ife propofed that the Eledor of Bavarta ^ / « ^ 
Diould, to make Amends for his Difgrace and Sufferings b^varia. ' 
in having beeh put under the Bann of the Empire^ be 
made King of Sardinia. The former was eiFe^ted ; as 
to the latter it wa§ ftipulated, that he (hould have Part 
of the Netherlands till the Emperor reftorcd him to his 
own Eleflorate. 

In the Beginning' of the next Year the Britijh Mi- treaties Jigned^. 
niftefs informed thofe of the Allies^ that they had Qr^'with^Y^K^Q^ 
<lcrs to fign a Treaty with France ; and that if the other ^^^ *^''^ 
Powers, and efpecially the Dutcb^ did not haften to fettle S^^^^' 
Matters they muft make Peace without them. A *'^*5" 
Treaty was at length figned, and the principal Arti* 
cies of it which concerned Gnat Britain were j That 
the French King fliould acknowledge Qu^en Anne and , 
the SuccefEon in the Houfe of Hanover ; that Dunkirk 
Oiould be demoliflied ; and that all Acadia^ the Ifland 
of &t, Chriftopher's, Hudfin's jB^ and N^wndLand^ 
the Right of filhing and drying Fifli, being only referved 
to the French^ (hould be ceded to Great Britain. This 
Treaty was followed with another, by which foaws 
Things that concerned the Commerce of the two Na- 
tions were regulated. A Treaty with Spain fignei 
*" July the faine Year, which was alfo negociated at 
^Wi/, was little e\fe than a Confirmation of the Trear 
^i^sof ih^ Years 1667 and 1670. 

Q 4 M 



200 0/* Great Britain^ 

Jialmfy of As it was agreed by the Treaty; wjtb Fr^m^i thrt 

Difigns carry- the Chevalier de Geor^e^ a Title the PreteuMJer had takca 

ing on i Fa- f[^^Q jjjg Scotch Expedition, who. b^ pr^ftoJ. by aa 

vwr 9/ the ^^ j^^^^j ^^ G'ermains April the 25 th 1712 ag^iinft all 

Frbtimder. jj^^^ (Jj^j^jj {^ ftipulatcd in the Cqngrefe of J/tre^H to 

his "Prejudice, fliould quit that Kingdom fe^ w«t into 

Lorrain^ ^^ing ftill thought too near jB«gi^«rf by fuch 

as apprehended Defigns to be fecretly carrying on ifl 

hfs Favour, many Addrefles were prer^nted b^^ing 

that the Queen would fct a* Price upon, bi3 IM: 

And it 'was propofed to fend for the hereditary fringe 

of Hanover^ that he might take his Plapc in the Houft 

of Peers as Duke of Cambridge, The Queen did not 

think fit to comply with the firft Requeftf and being 

provoked at the latter Propofal (he in a Letter to Haruh 

ver dated in jUday 17 14 expreiTed her Di{like of it in 

very (harp Terms. 

tordOx' Lord Oxford being (bortly after removed from the 

FOR0 Office of firft Lord of the Treafury, he at taking Leave 

if removed told the Queen plainly that his Rival's, meaning Bolini- 

from his Office^ broh's^ Counfel would be the Ruin of the Proliant Re- 

'7 '4* ligion. As this was underftood to mean his advifingriie 

Queen to raife the Pretender to the Throne of Great 

Britain^ and her Health declined a great Pacc» all the 

Friends of the Houfe of Hanover beftirred t^emfelv«5. 

Peatb of The fudden Death of the Queen on the firft of Augiifi 

Anne. following entirely broke the Meafures fuppolcd ^^ ^ 

carrying on in favour of the Che<uaUer; And Q^H^ 

Eleftor of Hanover was proclaimed King. 

George L ^^^^ Duke of Ormond and Lord Bolingbroke drcad- 

1714. * ing the Refentment of this Pi:inpe for their notorious 

Oppofition to his Intereft went itnmediately over to 

France: And from thence repaired to the Pretender's 

Court. The new King was received in London with 

all Marks of Joy j but the Solemnity of his Qoronation 

'was in fume Places difturbed by the Acclamations w 

the Populace in Favour of 7^/7^^^ While Precautions 

were taking to ftop the fe Tumults of the People th^ 

The Csndun Parliament m?^de ftrift Enquiry into the Management of 

^the Late the'late Adminiftrauon. ,JJj' fpme /Ex tracts from Beml' 

• JvIiNisTRY ir^^?8 Papers which were publiflied by a Committee a^r 

inquired into, pointed to infpcit them it appeared, that the late Mi* 



^ 



C^ Qrsat Britain. 201 

ifiAers and fome others were abfolutely devoted to the 
latereft of France ; and that great Pains had been taken 
to fecure the Throne after the Death of Anm for the 
Pretender. 

In a Manifefto dated AuguJI 29, containing his Rea- A Maniffft^ 
Jmis for aflertiii^ his Right to the Brit'tjh Crov^rn, the of the Prb- 
Pretendct' ttfed thcfc remarkable Words, which ihew tender's 
fafficient})^ what Intrigues had been carrying on : Sines J'^^'^^^**^ 
the fudlitHl^ath cf the Princefs sur SiJIer has prevented 
the'B»ecktion of her kind Intentiom in our Favour: IFbicb 
Ufe have far fome Tears been fenfihle of and which have 
heeH'the^'Caufeof our lna£fivity^ &c. The Minifter of 
IjdrratH being- fufpefted of fpreading this Manifefto hit 
MaAer endeavoured to juftify himfelf by a Letter ; but 
as he continued to harbour the Pretender his Protefta- 
tions of Regard for the reigning Prince were looked up* 
on as infincere. 

In the enfuing June the Chevalier by a Declara* He is pro* 
tion fixed up at the Royal Exchange^ and at other Places claimed in 
in London, acquainted the People of his Intentions to Scotlawd, 
delivef tfJem from Ufurpation, and exhorted them to *7>$- 
affift him : And the Earl of Marr having fet up his 
Standard caufed him to be prdclaimed by the Name 
of James VIII. of Scotland in moft of the Towna 
North of the 7<7y. This Earl who did not care to 
•pafe the Firth was reinforced by General Gordon^s and 
Lord Seafyrth^s Men ; and fome Scotch and Englijb 
Lords aflembled an Army of about 3000 Men at Kelfi 
in Northumberland. In their Way towards Lancafhire ^be Rehelt 
this Army encreafed ; but being lurrounded at Prejlmfi^^^^ ^ 
by the- King's Troops under General WilU they fur* Pr^ston^ 
rend^^ at Oifcretion : And the Lords Derwentwater 
zvnA Ma^iniojh yNith about 1500 Men, amongft whom 
were* above -200 Lords and Gentlemen, were made 
' Prjfoners^' In the mean Time a Battle had been fought Battle of^ 
at Dundee \xi^w\xt the Troops under the Earl of Marr Dundee, 
and- ^h6 King's Forces commanded by the Duke of 
Argjle. ^Jn this the left Wing of the rebel Army was 
router and notwithftanding that the Duke's left Wing 
i^jS^^^ ft good deal the King's Trpops b^d upon (he 
WhO)^ t|ic Ad/ahtage, 

This 



aoa^ Of G nn AT B KIT A-in.^ 

The Pritin- TWb being howcvc^ not thoagfat decHWe the Chi* 

PER iamis in y^^r^ who was now arrrvedi mdde his piibiiek' Entry 

Scotland. -^^^ JJundet^i and had lie not refttfed to take the ufual 

Oath his Coronation would have been folemhi2«d at 

Pirit. As fome were hefely di%uAed, and it appeared 

plainly that his Zrrefolution joined' to the prudent 

Meafurcs of George made it impoffible to'#ftabli(h him, 

• the Lords Seaforth and Huntlty left him arfd vi^nt 

He reimharks home .with their Clans. At length finding hinorfeif at 

for France, t^ , Head of no more thair 50a Men, and' that iht 

Duke 'of Argyle advanced towards him, he embarked 

with the Earl ot Marr and fome others of \i\% Fol- 

The Lords loWers and landed at Gravetine. The Chiefs of the 

Derwent- R.et)el Prifohers were tried in London ; and the hox^% 

WATER and Dar^fntwater and Kenmure were beheaded: The Earl 

\h^^l^^ of Niihfdale made his. Efcape the Night before he was to 

hebeadtd, ^^^^ ^^^ executed ; and the Lords WtdringtWj Corn* 

waih and Nairn were reprieved. 

Treaty nvith This Rebellion, whicK as few Counties bad been free 

FRANCE ««^from Tumults gave the Courta great deal of Uneafinefs, 

Holland, beiiig fuppreflcd, to prfvent the rekindling of it a Treaty 

■7*7* ^as entered into wiih Frame and theStaies General. The 

Sttbftance of this figned at the Hague in Japmary ipj 

was : That the Chevalier then at Jvigmn (h^uld pfs 

the Jlps and not return into France upon any Pretence, 

fior have dh-eSly or indiredly any Affiftance from his 

moft Chriftian Majefly 1 that neither of the corttradtng 

Powers (hoald Iheiter the Rebel Subjects af< the others ^ 

that if the Dommions of either of thofefHduld^be'dir- 

(urbed by inteftine Commotions, th6 otben* fbouid affift 

it at their own Expence within two Months after the 

Requifition of Succours ; ' that no new Port fllouH be 

made at Mardyke ot. Dunkirk nor at- any bthasr Place 

with two Miles of eitheh af thelt Pkfees; and that 

the Succcffion to the Crowns of Great Britaij^ 

and France, as fettled byi the Treaty oP fZ/r^ri^J 

fliould be guarantied by the three Powers^' 

Intrigues of All the Precautions which could be taken did not hawr* 

Sweden, in ever prevent the Intrigues of Sweden in Favour of the 

Ta<vour of the J>ret^er, Charles XH, bad engaged t<J land 20,cco 

Preten- Men in Great Britain^ and his Ambaffador at the Bri- 

"^^^^ tijb Couit Count Gyllmburg took great Pabs to difpo/e 



Of G* rfA* T B « I T A I ki 20J 

die People for reoeMAg and joining them: But the 
Britijb Court being informed in Time of it that Mint- 
Aer vna- feieed, and on examining His Papers the wholv 
Scheme of thioPEnCerprise came otit. At the fame Tioms 
Baron Gortz who had put hi^ Mafler upon Ic was arreft- 
ed in HaRand: And fo this Expedition for defraying the 
£xpenc0 of which tf appeared ti*^ at large Suitis had been' 
advanc<fd b^ the DifaiP^dled iri Gre^t Britain came ta- 
nothing. 

The Attack of Ae Hfend of Sardinia by the Spa- The Qua- 
tfiards being confidered as an lofraftion of the Treaty druple Al- 
of TJtrethu Negoeiations were entered into at London liance, 
for checking thdr ambitbus Defigiis: Who after con- 1718* 
quering Sardinia had attacked and aJmofl fubdued Sicily. 
In Purfuance of ihefe a Treaty, called the ^adruple 
AUianvt becaufe it wa« fijppofcd the Dutch Would have 
entered into it, was figned on the 2d o^ Jugnfl in the Year 
1 7 1 8- by t he Mi ni fters of t hei r Imperial^ moj} Chrifiian and 
Britawmk Majefties. Its principal Conditions were, 
that the Emperor fhould keep Naples^ the Milamfe and 
the Netherlands ; that if Sicily ^ now looked upon a«? 
Joft to its pew King the Duke of Savoy, fllouid be fub* 
dued for the Emperor he fhould give up all Pretend 
fions to the refl of the Spanijh Monarchy ; and that Sar* 
dinia with the Title of King fhoukl be given to the 
Duke of Savof in lieu of Sicily. To prevent the Dif- 
putcs which might arife concerning the Succefiion to 
Tufiany, Parma and Placentia^ and their Onion with 
the SparHJb Crown in Cafe the ptefent Dukes Ihould die 
without Heire, it was agreed that thefc Dutchies fliouM 
devolve upon the eldeft Son of the King oi Spain by his 
fecond Wife- I^aughter to the late Duke oi Parma \ and 
that in order to fceure the Po&ffioo of them Lighomy 
Parma and Fktentia ihould be garrifoned by Swfo 
Troops, the whole of which weie not to exceed 6doo' 
Men. Three Months being given for the- Kings i:^^^^ he Duke of 
Spain and Sicily to accede to tto AUianoe the latter did'^^^°^ ^^' 
itontheeighthofiSfef^m&r, ^ cedes to tt. 

As the Spaniards continued to puih Things in Sicily^ The Spanish 
where only Syracufa and Melazzo remained to the Fleet <i?- 
Imperiali/ii whom the Pitdmontefe had called to their deftroyed, 
/^ffiftance, their Fi^et in the ^$4i}^rr(miaTi was defiroye<i 



204 Of Great Brit^ ik. 

nhiDukeof by the Britijh Fleet The InAiffglifts by this. S^okc 
Savoy^- and the Affiftance of the fame Fleet foon gaineid the Su- 
Mus King of periority in Sicily: And Sardinia being, reconquered was 
Sardinia, ^j^^^ ^^ ^j^^ j^^^^^^ ^f J^z;^, who has ever Utice t^ken 

; the Title of King of this Ifland. 

War witt 'Ybt ASion in the Mediterraman being, followed with 

SrAiv. g^jj ^^pgjj Rupture betwixt Gr^^/ Britain and S^/7/», France 

declared againft the latter.' The Pretender and his Ad- 
herents hoping to r^ap fome Advantage from this Quar- 
rel repaired to Madridy and prevailea on his Catholick 
Majefty to attempt a Defccnt upon Scotland: But as 
the Ships fitted out in the Year 1719 for this Purpofe 
were feparated in a Storm, onlv two of them arrived 
at Kinfale in Scotland, The Troops jhcy landed were 
joined by fome difcontented Lords ; But the Court of 
London had taken fuch Meafures that the. Army formed 
at this Time was foon difperfed. 
Treaty nuitb By the Death of .Charles XII, the ChevaHer^s Hopes 
Sweden, of Affiftance from Sweden were loft ; for his Siftei; who 
fucceeded entered into a ftrift Alliance with the Britijh 
Court. In Confequence thereof the Dutchies of Bre- 
men and Verden were teded to his Britannic k Majefty 
as £le£ior of Hantruer ; and Great Britain engaged to 
pay a Subfidy of 72,000 Pounds Sterling to Sweden. 
Treaties tvith That he might alfo have in cafe of Need tlicir Af- 
the Empe- fiftance, George entered about the fame Time into 
ROR and Treaties of defenfive Alliance with the Emperor and 
FoLAND. his P^//;* Majefty, 

SfniH accetUs The Face of Affairs in Spain h^ing quite changed 

Utl}eQ^h' by the Difgrace of that enterprizing Minifter ^/^^r^y^f 

DRUPLE Al- in the Year 1720, his Catholick Majefty acceded to the 

XIANCE, ^adruple Alliance. In order to bring Spain into this 

^7*^" the Regent of France engaged for the Reflituiion of G/- 

hraltar, and when the Evacuation of Sicily was infifted 

upon the 5^«^ MIniftry demanded that oi Gibraltar-^ 

but as the Britip> Nation would hear nothing thereof 

Sicily and Sardinia were ceded to the Emperor and King 

of 5«r<//«w 5 and other Things were referred jto a future 

Congrefs. m 

^ ^'^T'r*' ^* ^^^ Czar's Terms appear^ to his fyiitjh Majefty, 

tatothenhi.' who offered his Mediation to accommodate the DifFe- 

^'^** icncc betwixt Kujfta ai^d Swden unreafdjtabJe, a Fleet 

' ' ^ of 



(!)/*Gr£atBritaiii; 2051 

of EffgJtjb, Men of War wis fent in the fame Year to 
join that of Sweden in the Baltick : But this did not pre- 
vent the Ruffiau Fleet from ravaging the Swedtjh Coaft. 

This Year was alfo remarkable for the South- Sea The SouTH^ 
Scheme : By which many Families deluded with the S'ea 
Imagination of getting great Fortunes in a little Time Scheme, * 
were ruined ; and the Government was forced to inter- 
pofe to prevent the ill Confcquences of the People's 
Defpair on this Occafion, Upon Enquiring into this 
Affair it appeared, that bcfides Stockjobbers and Direc- 
tors fome Perfons of great Diftin<ftion were concerned 
in working the People up to this Pitch of Madnefs. It 
ended in an entire Change of the South-Sea Dire<9ors : 
Some of whofe Eftates were confifcated for the Benefit 
of the SufFerers. This fatal Stroke to the Briti/hTrzfk 
vras in fome Measure remedied by the AJfiento Contraft 
concluded at Madrid in June 1721. In the fame Year Death of th^ 
the Funeral of that brave General and able Statefman Duke of 
the Duke of Marlhorottghy who fince the AccefEon ofMARLBO- 
Georgt had been refto red to the Honours he juftly defer- Rough, 
vcd, was folcmnizcd with great Funeral Pomp. *72i- 

A Confpiracy for exciting an InforreAion being dif- Atterbij* 
Covered in the Year 1723, the Duke bi Norfolk^ the Lord ry's Plot^ 
^nth- and Grey^^ the Biftop of Rochejler, Counfellor Layer 1723- 
and fonie others were taken into Guftody. The Bifliop 
was after a long Trial banifhed j' Layer was hanged. 
As France and Spain were now reconciled both Courts 
prefled his Britanick Majcfty in the Year 1724 to give 
^^ Gibraltar: But he could not be prevailed upon to 
part with this important Place. 

An Eaji India Company, projefled \^ fome EngliJB- Ti/OsTENBl 
^f« who preferred 'their own to the Intereft of their Company 
Country,^ being in this Year eftabliihed at Offend^ Great eftablijhedy 
Britainy Prance and Holland complained of it at the *7*4^ 
Court of f^nna and endeavoured to ftop its Progrefs. 

For the fake of counterpoifing the Treaty of Vienna Treaty of 
a defenfive Tfeaty betwixt Great Britain and France^ Hanover, 
to which Holland afterwards accedecf, was entered into *7*S- 
^t Hanpver in the Vear 1725. As great Advantages 
jvcre by the Treaty of Vienna granted to the Emperor, 
'^ was feared he had (engaged to aflifl: Spain in attacking 
Gihrqttar. AFkct*Wal immediately fent to the Spanf^ 

Coaft^ 



•4O0 O/* C R E AT- Br i T A 1 if'i 

^oaft, siod anethcr into the 0^fj9 Indies: Wiicfc ly 

blocking up the Galleons di^rjefled the Spaniards a good 

GiBRAL- deal. The Siegeof Gibraltar was hereupon undertaken 

TAR o^JS^« by the Spaniards ; but as the Place was well provided and 

. • ' ^thic Englijfyviere Matters of the Bay ijt carne to nothing. 

Pr^imn^rus The Britijh Court had moreover for fome Time 

•/^ Pa Ri s, complained of t' e Depredations <A the Spamjh Guard k 

*727- Cxfiat in the Jf^s/i Indies; and the two JCourts were 

^further embr,^led'6y the forcibly dna?gingof the Baron 

.de Ripperda from the HoiiTe, of Mr. Stanhope the 

J^ritijh Minifter at Madrid^ for lybich his Mafter de- 

-inanded Satisfa<5^ion : Yet by the Modiation of Prance 

Preliminaries for a general Peace were figncd at Parii 

ia Aiay 1737. By thcfc the Charter granted to the 

OJiend Cmipany was fufpended for :fevcn Years \ and the 

.Rights which either* of the contrdjdjpg Powers , had ac- 

. . ifluired by the Treaties of C7/r^r A/, JSaden^ the Quadruple 

rdlliance QT any -other Treaty concluded before ik 

Year 1725 were, confirmed. Every Thing which con- 

.terned Trade was alfo ^o be regulat^ by the Treaties 

which preceded tl^e Year. 1725 ;. ;>nd otlier Matters were 

• ta be fettled* by a Congrcfs to be forthwith held at 

Ty^atbof \Cambray. On the. irth of^tbe.enfuirig June Georit 

Geo-RGE I. ,^je(j ^j Ofnaburg m the fame Chamber where he was 

born aged 67 Years. 

George IL The News b^ing carried to Z^wfo« Georgetl. bis Son 

1727. ^was j^oclain^d ; and his Cofoiiftion >yas folemnized in 

jbc Cfe7c3^r; following, Althoa^ the Preliminaries of 

.^fafis \\2Ld removed fome Difficulciei ; yet the Reparation 

demanded by the Englijh Mertbants, and the Objections 

- ilarted by the Emperor concerni^ng tl^ lotroduftion of 

, ^Don Carlos renflered jthe Ncgociations at Ca/nhray for a 

general Peace friu^fs. i 

Treaty ef : .The Congrefe held at S^ijins in the Year 1728 

Seville, fu^ceeded nol>ett9Br than that at .C<7ix^r/7y : but in the 

1 7^9* folbwing Year a Treaty was concluded zt Seville. By 

this the Spaniards agreed to make the South-Sea Com- 

.pany Satisfaaion for the Prince Frsditick fe^ed at U 

J^era Crux ; and that the Loffes (M^talned from, the Spanijt 

G^ard da Cojias (boukl he adjufte^ \fy Colnmiifaries. Th^ 

CommiiTaries noet forthwith ; bul ^ .ihclntrodiidion of 

Spanijb Trop^S ipft^ of Swiff iQt^. fte^fy^ which Grest 

Britain 



QT Great Britain. 207 

BriiainzBd Franci had by this Treaty taken upon'fteir-' 
felves to procure was negleded, the Spantjh MinifWr'de-^ 
dared at Parii in January 17 31 that his Mafter looked 
upon hmifelf as free from the Engagements of the Trca-' 
iy of Seville. Upon this the Britijh Miniftry by en*' 
gaging to anfwer for the iH Confcqitenccs which m%ht 
arife from the Introduftio^i of Spantjh Troops inftcad of 
thofe of Swifferlond^ of which 'Nation' they purfuant tp ^. 
the Sluadruple AUiance ought to have been, pftevaflcd orf 1 

the Emperor to obnfent to it ; And a 5r///)fc Fleet yjrjw 
Tent ia the Year 17 31 to carry Dm tarlos into Itttfy: 

Thje Court of Vienna however under various Pre-^ Don Cak.*^ 
tences put offforfome Time his lirveftiturc, which was i^^s w^nV 
demanded upon the Death of Duke Anthony Fdrire/e c'"'^''^'^^^^' 
And it coft the Britifi Miniftry great Pains to prevent ^ *^^*' 
Rupture hetwixt the Empire and Spain. When' thii 
Point v^as gained, the Spaniards became more "and more 
untradable as to the Satisfadion required by the Kngtrfi 
Merchants. ^ 

During the Reign of Charles IL of Spain^ as he had "^^e Spanish 
frequent Occafion for their Affiftance againft Francey ^t Guard da 
iihcit Trade carried on by the Etrglijh in the Weftlndits Ccstas con- 
was connived at. To put a Stop to this, which'had ",««y^ /"^ 
greatly cncreafed during the War on the Account of the ^j^^^^^^^^ 
^ponijh Succeffion, armed Veffcis w^ere ftationed' by ^f^^ ^" 
Philip upon the Spanip Coafts. Many Ships were feifed ^'^ ' 
t>y thefe: but as fomC Spaniards found their ' Account 
in a contraband Trade as well as the 'Englijh; and tb* 
^(inlJh Coaft was very extenfive,; ft.;^§ .not eafy ti 
prevent it entirely while they only feized- fuch Ships ;^s 
^ere taken in the Fafl. Orders were hereupon fen't 
to the Commanders of the Spamjh Guatd da Coftas^ t6 
vifu all Ships found near the Coaft and to feize fuch as 
Y^y Thing of the Produce of Old Spain on Board. 
Complaint being afterward made to the Court oiMa- 
^< that many Ships of the Britijh Merchants hati 
°^n unjttftly. condemned jsmd confifcated, it was a- 
U^ that Reftitutipn fhoilkl be made for all fucb. 
^Wk the Conferences for fettling tiie Value of thefe 
^^Wful SeLfures were held, the War on the A,c- — - - 
^^nt of the Pt?# Efeaion broke out. The Court 
^^ i^nm took great Paina to form ^ft Alhancc in Fst- 

vour 



i>o8 Of Great B r i t a t »; 

TOUT t>f the Emperor, but as the Dutch rcfufed to eritef 
into it it was thought proper not to engage in this 
War. The Plan offered in concert with the ^taUi 
Gnural for an Accommodation wa$ rejeded by Franct\ 
nor were the Maritime Powers acquainted with the 
Contents of the Preliminaries of Vknnu till fome Time 
ijftcr thefe were iigned, 
tu!t^lmt^ A Difference arifing betwixt Spain and Pi^tugal in 
Lisbon, ^ ^^^ '735> ? Briujh Fleei was fent to jt^tfaand 

^jY* continued for fome Time in the Tagus. 

A CoNVEN- '^^^ Value of the, Lofles fuftained by the' Depreda- 

TiOK nmtb tions of the Spaniards being at length fettled by the 

Spain, 1738. Commiffaries at* 200,000 Pounds Sterling, it was agreed 

by a Convention figned in January 1738 that 60,000 

Pounds of this fhouJd be allowed as a Recoropcnce for 

the Dcftru6lion of 'the Spanijh Fket in 1718 ; and that 

45,oco Pounds more (hould be abated for prompt Pay- 

ffient. The- Balance of 95,000 Pounds was to be paid 

within four Months; but a Claim of 68,000 Pounds 

^^, was fet up on the South-Sea Company, and by a Proteft 

' entered fome Days before the figning of the Convention 

. hisCathoiick Majefty leferved to hipifelf the Right of 

. iiifpending the JJfunto ContraSi if it was not paid in a 

ihort Time, Xh^ 0?urt oi. Madrid offered to give a 

' Draught on the Soupb^S^ea Company for this Sum, and 

to pay 27,000 Pounds to mak? up the 95,000 : But as 

the Right of. vifiting their Ships W2»s not given up by 

ipain the Convention was far fronj being fatisfatSory to 

the People of Gheai Britain, . \ 

War with The Britijh Plenipotentiaries, fent purfuant to tbc 

Spain. Convention to treat at Madrid^ had Orders to infift 

upon it as a Condition ^ne qua nony that the Merchant 

Ships of Great Britain (hould not on any Pretence 

whatever be fearched upon the open Sea. As the 

Spanijh Court refufcd to give up this Point, an Order 

for making Reprifals on the Spaniards was publifbed in 

June 1739, and it came foon after to an open Rupture. 

Tbc Attempt made upon 5/. Juguftin^ by General 

Porto- C^kthorpi faiJcd ; but Admiral Vernon made himfelf 

Bbj-lo /«^«». Matter of Porto-Bello. This beir^ followed with the 

ReduSion of Fort St. Laurence on the River Chogrty an 

Expedition against Carthagena which Place the Admirai 

had 



(!^(5reatBritain. ^ 209 

kd endeavptuecl befpre the taking Porto-Belh to for* 

Srize wa$ . r^tfjvpd upon* It was undertaken and the 
'pmr^s )fere,4nyen from the Forts at the Entrance of 
tBe Bay |n*d the Troops were landed ; but thefe being 
repulfed.y^ij^ fonne Lofs at the Attack of Fort St. La-^ 
mre^ and many of them being k>ft by a-Diftemper 
which, bjcQkc..c\i^t in. the Army the Fleet retunied to 

The Englijh arc ,4 bcave warlike People ; bnt being Mannersofthi 
accuflomed to live plentifully they cannot well bear fear- English* 
dteaaJd^JB other Jnconvcniencies of War. Hence it was 
^mi%mQilMaurici Prince of Ordnge^ who knew their 
Intrepidity^ to. eowby them when they firft came from 
hoQie Qa..ibtne desperate Service; iuhil/i as he ufed to 
% the roafl Be (f was in their Stomachs. They are Very 
ingenious in all handicraft Trades and good Manufac* 
turers^ but a$ they love to eat and drink well and are ^ 
fond of amufuig themfelves fomc Hours every Day m 
walking or other wife, they cannot bring their Goods ta 
foreign Markets fo cheap as fome other Nations. To 
this it may be added, that the heavy Taxes on moft of 
Ae Necelfarics of Life make Labour in England vcrjr 
dear. Amongft the Englifl) who are naturally grave there 
are many Men of fine Senfe and folid Underftanding^ 
The extravagant and abfurd religious Notions in £i7f-* 
W, more of which are to be met with there than in 
any other Country, are partly owing to the Toleration 
of all Religions that are not de(bu£tive to its eftablifhed 
Governmental , and partly to the melancholick Temper of 
its Inhabitants. The lower Sort of People in England 
^re much addi^ed to Drunkennefs and Theft. The 
^figlijh have always been fond of Novelties ; and their 
own Hiflory (hews fufficiently that they are prone to Se-* 
ditlQn. . • ' . 

The Inhabitants of Scotland are proud and envious i Manners of the 
but they arp excellent Soldiers, and being ufed to fare Scotch, 
I^ardly at ^lome they can eafily undergo the Hardihips of 
War. Being naturally implacable family Quarrels are 
fometimes cpntinued from Generation to Generation* ' 
£very Clan in Scotland pays as much Homage to its Hdhl 
as to a King; ^d formedy. has. not l|iicl^;to^carry Fire 
and Sword at his Command into the Eflatc of a neigh- 

V L. I, ^ *" P bouring 



210 * CyGREATBiRlTAIN* 

bouring Chief. ^ antes VI. took great Pains to abolifh 
this cruel Way of revenging Injuries. The Scotch arc 
remarkably obftinatc in their Opinions ; and eafily flir- 
;^d up to rebel. As all the immoveable Eftate defcends 
by the Lav^ of Scotland to the eldeft Son, younger Bro- 
thers who are for the mod Part above Trade apply them- 
felves to Books or the Art of War, and they frequently 
go into foreign Service. The Scotch do in the genera! 
underftand the Latin Tongue ; and many of eminent 
Parts and Learning are to be found amongft them. When 
Till Europe was over-run with Barbarifm the Sciences 
were preferved in Scotland i and the Revival of Literature 
was principally owing to fome of this Nation. The In- 
habitants of the Southern Parts are very polite and courte- 
ous; but in the Orkneys and Wejlern IJIands^ and in the 
Highlands^ they are quite a rude and uncivilized fort of 
People. 
Manners of the The Irijh who arc generally cftecmcd crafty and re- 
Irish. folute are very lazy: Yet will they endure the Fatigues 

of War tolerably well. Their invincible Bigotry to the 
Romijh Religion and Obftinacy was fuch that Cromwell 
had once determined to extirpate the whole Race; and 
fome thoufands were aftually given to the King of Spain 
on Condition that they (hould never be fuffcred to return 
home again. 

England is a populous pleafant Country abounding 
Soil and Com- with all the Neceflaries of Life. It is plentifully flocked 
modities of with Horfes and Oxen. The Mutton in England is well 
Great Rri- flavoured, and no other Sheep in Europe bear Wool in 
TAIN and fy^i^ Quantities or fo valuable to the Manufiafturer. As 
Ireland. ^j^^ Riches of the Nation arife in a great Meafure from 
the manufacturing of this, fo many and fuch large 
Flocks are to be feen no where as in England ; nor are 
they in any Danger from Wblves. There are in Eng- 
land fcveral Mines of Lead and of Tin : The laft of 
which is of an incomparably good Sort. A confiderablc | 
Profit arifes to the Englijh from Fifhing, the whole Coaft 
being well flocked with Fifh, and that much more Pro- 
fit might be made appears plainly from the incredible 
Gain drawn by their induftrious Neighbours from ^^ 
Herring and Cod Fifhery. As only a trifling Acknow- 
ledgment is paid for the Liberty to fifli by the I>ui^\ 

and , 



Of Gre AT Bkit Ain. . 2ir 

And that only when they have Occafion to dry theit 
Nets on Shore, it has been frequently the Foundation of 
War betwixt the two Nations, The Situation of Eng^ 
land almoft in the Middle of Europe is very convenient 
for Trade, and it has on all Sides commodious and fafe 
Ports : Yet the Dutch vie with the Engli/h in Trade, 
becaufe they are more induftrious, Hve more frugally 
and content thdmfelves with a finaller Profit. The 
filken is next to the woolkn Manufafture the moft con^ 
fiderable in £«^/(a«^, and this is doubly advantageous ; 
fince it not only finds Employq[ient for many Hands, 
but the Raw Silk is for the moft part imported in Ex- 
change for Woollen and other Englijh Goods. The Pro- 
hibition of Exporting Gold or Silver Coin, except to 
the Value of ten Pounds for the Conveniency of a Tra- 
veller, tends very much to the Encreafe of Wealth in 
England. The principal Commodities exported from 
Scotland are Salt, falted Fi(h, Lead and Coals. Ire- 
land abounds with Cattle and Sheep, but the Wool of 
thcfe is not fo good as the EngliJhWoo], This Coun- 
try is in the general pleafahter and mote fruitful than 
Scotland, 

Hudfon*s Bayj New England, Virginia, Carolina , the Brit is tt 
Summer IJIands, Jamaicay Newfoundland and moft of the Colonic. 
Caribbe IJlandi belong to Great Britain : And befides 
all thefe Colonies in America the Inhabitants of Great 
Britain have fome Fa£lories upon the Coaft of Africa 
and very confiderable Settletnents in the Eajl Indies. 

By the Conftitution of the Britijh Monarchy the^^^wmr- 
King cannot do many Things without the Confent of^^t of 
Parliament. This is divided into the Upper Houfe com- ^'^^at 
pofed ofthe Lords Spiritual andTemporal; andtheLower ^^'^*'** 
which is made up of Reprefentatives for Counties, Cities 
and fome Towns chofen by the People. Befides the 
Privilege enjoyed by thefe in common with the Lords, 
namely that no Law can be made or repealed without 
their Confent, the Commons have;^ this additional one, 
that all Bills for the granting of Supplies muft begin in 
their Houfe. As it is a Maxim in the Englijh Confti- 
tution that the King can do no Wrong, Minifters have . 
been frequently queftioned and punifhed by Parliament 
for Male Adminiftration. This laft cannot indeed be 
done without the King's Confent, and it is in his Power 
P 2 to 



aia Of Great Britain. 

to dilTolvc a Parliament whenever he diflikes its Proceed- 
ings : But as the fcrecning of a Minifter who Is grown 
deteftable to the People, or the hafty Diff-lution of a 
Parliament, may have very bad Confequences a wife 
King is extremely cautious ofexercifing thefe Aftsofthe 
Prerogative. For the Sake of preventing the Difprders 
and Misfortunes an eleflive Kingdom is often expofed 
to the Britijh Crown is hereditary : Yet the Succeffion 
has been altered by the People upon fome extraordinary 
Occafions, Although this may feem ftrange to Fo- 
reigners on whom the Chains of defpotick Power arc 
faft rivetted, a true EngUJhman rcfle<9:s with infinite 
Delight on the brave Stands made by his Anceftbrs, 
without which his Country bad long ere this Time 
been deprived even of the Shadow of Liberty. Up- 
on the Wi,iole the BrltiJh Conftitution, which lodges 
as niuch Power in the Sovereign as a good Prince an 
defire, is fo admirably contrived for fecuring the Liber- 
ty and Property of the Subjeft, that fuch as have thi 
Happinefs to be born under it need not to defire any 
Change thereof: And the thought of tranfmitting it 
inviolated down to Pofterity Ought to fire the Heart in 
every honeft Breaft. 
lis Strength, The Situation of Great Britain environed by the Sea 
^ gives it unfpeakable Advantages. While her Superiori- 

ty at Sea is maintained all the Powers of Europt can 
never hurt Great Britain ; and it is in her Power greatly 
to annoy any one of them that is acce/Iible by Sea. If by 
defeating or flipping by any Part of the Britijh Fleet a 
Body of Troops could be landed in this IJland^ except 
they were fuiBcient to. make an intire Conqueft, which 
if the Inhabitants were well united would require a vaft 
Number, as retreating or being reinforced are fcarcc 
poffible they mufl in all Probability be quite dcftroycd. 
htereftof If it be true that the Safety of Great Britain depends 

GiiBAT chiefly on her being Miftrefs of the Seas, and thati 

Britain in the Trade of England has never flourifli^d fo much,! 
the general, jior her Glory been fo far extended, as in thofc Reigns 
when her Naval Strength was principally attended to, 
it follows that this ought at all Times to be the Point 
in View, To give fome Affiftance on the Continent 

when 



Q^ G R E A T B R i T A I N. 2 I3 

when the Liberties of Europe are threatned is un- 
doubtedly right, provided there be fiich an Alliance 
formed as is likely to fruftrate the Defigris of an ambi- 
tious Power : But it has been the Opinion of many con- 
fiderate Men, that the going into Land Wars ought as 
much as poffiblc to te avoided by Great Britain ; bc- 
caufe as her Strength is thereby divided her naval 
Power muft be diminiflied. As it has moreover been 
found by dear bought Experience, that Dominions 
on the Continent coft more either to get or to keep than 
they are worth, nothing but the Prefervation of the 
Ballance of Power can induce Great Britain to meddle 
at any Time upon the Continent. When this is really 
in Danger and ftrong Confederacies are formed for its 
Sup^rty the Weight of Great Britain thrown into the 
Scale may have glorious Confequences ; but if other 
Powers cannot fee or will not heartily bppofe this 
Danger which concerns them more immediately, it 
feems her wifeft Way to fave her Blood and Treafure^ 
and to provide by augmenting her riatgral' Strength 
againft the worfl. Suppofing that by' the Supinenefs 
or Infatuation of other Pov^ers upon the' Continent fome 
one Prince Ihou Id vaftly extend his Dominious on the 
Continent,' it is probable he would have feufinefs enough 
upon his Hands to fupport himfelf in his new Con- 
quefts. If this was not the Cafe and he fliould have 
a Defign upon this Ifland, it would require many Years 
to get fucK' a Fleet together as could look that of Great 
Britain in the Face j And in the mean Time by his 
Death, or' by many other'Accidents, the Face of Af- 
fairs upon the Continent inight be entirely changed. 
To fuppofe further, which can fcarce tvtt happen but 
by her own ill Conduft, that the Superiority of Great 
Britain at Sea Ihould be Joft, as the invading of fo po- 
pulous an Ifland whofe Inhabitants are naturally brave 
would be dangerous and^expenfive, and there is no In- 
ftance in Hiflory of its ever having been conquered ex- 
cept the Inhabitants were at Variance amongft them- 
felves, it may juflly be. prefumed that the Conqueft of 
Great Britain would even then be very difficult, 



P 3 Great 



214 

With Regard 
/0 Ger- 
many, and 
Poland. 



Portugal. 



Spain. 



paAlfCIE. 



f-^^NoRTH- 

jrnPowbrs, 



O/* Great Pritain. 

Greot Britain has nothing to fear from Germatty^ Po* 

land and fuch other States as have no Maritime Force. 
On the contrary it is for their Intereft to be upon goo4 
Terms with her, who may by cauilng a Diverfion 
on fome Qccafion^ in their Favour be' pf great Service 
to thera, 

it is of Importance for the Bortuguefe tq be qn good 
Terms with Qreat Britain ; becaufe (he is capable of af- 
fifting thpnj greatly in Cafe of a War with Spain. On 
the other Side as her Tra.de thither is very advantage- 
ous it would be very imprudent for Great Britain to 
break with Pqrtygal,^^ 

The naval Force of Spain bears no Proportipn tp that 
of Great Britain j yet as the Confumption of Britijb, 
.Comipodities is great both in N^ju and Old Spain it is 
for her tntergft to be in Amity with Spain, No Ports are 
befides more'convenien't for anpoying the Er^liJhTLi2^t 
by Privateers than tjigfepf ,i^^?/ff. 

]pQ"of5vitbftanjding that'/r^^ftf j's near three Tinges a^ 
large as Gr^at Britain her Maritime Force could never 
yet come -in Cpmpetition with that of England: Which 
is perhaps in a. great Meafure o^ing to the Number of 
Xfoops kept up in France for Supporting arbitrary Power 
and garrifoning an exten|ive f'rpntier. As while Tq 
many Hand§ 2(re thus employed (be <:an make tyo great 
Figure at.Sea, ,it is. of great Confequence for Great Brir 
tain to keep up a Jealoufy of the Defigns of France ii\ 
the neighbouring Powers, and to prevent if i( can with 
Safety to hetfelf be done ^1 ifurther Acquilitipns of the 
French in the Low Countries \ for if France (hould ap- 
ply herfelf to th^ improving pf . her Marine fome Ports 
there would fee yerj ferviceao^e for this Purpofe : And if 
this was not done. Great Britain might by hpr being in 
Pofleffion pf thefe lofe the Trade carried on in and 
^h rough the J^eiherlands. 

Athough the r«forthern Powe^,$ arp not to. he feared 
by Great Britain^ it is for her. Intereft to fupport the 
Ballance of Povyer ^et^ixt them ; becaufe if any one 
pf theft was Matter pf the Baltick, he might obftruft 
Ker T-rade there and in the ,End vie yritb jbc naval 
force of Great Britain^ 



Tbc 



Q^GreatBritain. 215 

The Land Forces of Holland being vaftly inferior and Holland. 
the Naval not equal to thofe of Great Britain^ it is not 
likely that the Dutch fliould break with her. On the 
other Hand as the Hollanders are the Rivals of Great 
Britain both at Sea and in Trade, the Conduct of Queen 
EUzabetby who conftantly fupported them and yet al- 
ways took Care to prevent their becoming formidable 
at Sea, feems the wifefl that can be purfued : For the 
falling of the United Provinces into other Hands would 
be a terrible Blow to the Proteftant Religion, and might 
in the End prove very prejudicial to Great Britain. 



P 4 CHAP. 



2l6 



CHAP, V, 

Of F R A N't^E. 

Of ancient ti ^ the Accounts now extant it appears that Gaul 
Q^yL. J'-' anciently bounded hy the Mediterrdmatiy the P>'- 

renees^ the Or^^n and the Rhine was always well 
peopled ; and that the Inhabitants if united under one 
Head would have been able to have refifted the whole 
Roman Power. In the Beginning of the Roman Repub- 
lic the Gauls pafFed the Alps and occupied a confideraUe 
Part of Italy ; which was afterwards called by xhtRomafa 
Cifalpine Gaul. They like wife fpread themfelvcs on 
both Sides the Po ; whence came the Diftinfiion of 
Cifpadane and Tranfpadane Gaul: And a Colony of 
them being eftabliOied in JJta the Country they pofleffed 
was from them called Galatia. Others of them ^^^ 
the Rhine ; and Bohemia took its Name from the Beim 
a People of Gaul who fixed fhemfelves in this Part of 
' Germany, 
Romans./^- ' ^bc Conqueft of Gaul^ attempted by the Emm 
hlijhed in under jultus Cajar : Who by making a proper Ulc ot 
GtiVL. the Q^iarrels betwixt the different Nations gradually 

fubducd them all. The Romans continued Matters bere 
above five Hundred Years, and introduced amongil the 
Gauls that Corruption of Manners which Luxury had 
pccafioned amongft themfelves : But the Weaknefs of 
the Roman Power in the Time of Honorius made Way 
for the Irruption of the barbarous Nations both into 
Italy and GauL 
hruption of After ravaging liafy the Vifgoths threw themfelves into 
|i&<f NoRTif- *^^ Gallia Narbonenjis \ the Burgundians fixed thcm- 
ERH Na- felves in another Part of Gaul fince cMj^A Burgunij) 
J IONS. and the Franks a People of Germany about the b^^ 

Time pafTed the Rhine. Thefe \z% who were compofe^. 
ql the Ch^aviy Cberufa^ Sicamiri^ S^l^ Bruchten 



Q/* F R A N C »• -lljr 

snd other Nations that heretofore dwelt on the Borders 

of the JRiine^ the Main and the Elie, did about the 

Time of Theodojtus enter into a League for defending 

their Liberties againft the Romans^ and took upon them* Origin of ib$ 

felvcs the Name of Franks^ Notwithftanding this Name ^^^ tf 

was common to them all every Nation retained its own ^*^'''^** 

Laws, Cuftoms and Independence, and was governed by 

its proper Chief : But when the Opportunity of invaoing 

Belgick Gaul * prefented itfelf, they united under jonc 

Head who was ufually chofen from the moft illuArious 

Family amongft them; and tiiey afterwards as w^s 

the Cuflom of other Nations gave him the Title of 

King. 

Pharmond the firft who had this Title was as it is Phara- 
generally believed raifcd to it about the Year of Christ mond, 420. 
420. This Prince. took great Pains to bring the diffe- 
rent Nations under Obedience to the fame Laws, and 
had Succefs in it. The Tinie and Place of hi* Death 
are not knpwn. He left two Sons Clenus whofe For* 
tune we are ignorant of and Ckdion his Succeffor. 

Clodion from his long Hair at that Time efteemed Clodion tin 
the greateft Mark of Royalty was furnamed the Hairy. Hairy. 
In his Reign and about the Year \^v ^tius the Roman 
General drove the Franks from, their PoffciEons in 
Gaul ; but upon his being foon after called away to quell 
an Infurreflion amongft the Jutungi ^nd, Norici, thePRAKKs^%" 
Franks re-entered X^(iiJ.-^ 'SHu's at; his Return again. jde- f^en quf ef ; 
feated and forced them t.0 pafs the Rhihe^ Gaul, 431, 

About this Time fome Britons being no longer able Britons 
to bear the Tyranny of the Saxons cam,e over into Gauh, come inf 
and having by Degree? fpread ihemkh^^ over Jrmorica Gaul. 
it took from them the Name of Bxetfigm. Thus was 
Gaul divided b^t^jj^t tfe Rm^y ^^'^>. Burgundiqf^ 
anid Aritons. I . . 

Clodion J^ftpV thi3,a^4i(i p^%d th^ Rhine witjh a jarge Clodioh r#; 
Body pf Troops, ar^^ not <:Qntenting bimfcilf with that ^^' Gaui., 
Country 01^ tl^ Rff^ers pf the Rhin^, Yr|iich had b«eeii 
befoje occupjc^ by tfee Franii ' ady^^efl ^s fer a^ 
Toum^. Thf Romff^Qi^^^l Mtius mfrched again^. a^^ 
attac|;:ed U^ : ^t i^ltliaugh he h^d ^e Advantage 
|n t^e A^^^ it GQil ^ifiii fo dear th^t i^e ri^iqlved tp tur^t 

his 



ai8 Of France.' 

his- Arms for the future againft other lefs powerful 
Nations, and to leave the Franks in PoflTeffion of Hainault 
and the Country about Tourriay and Camhray, The 
Huns ealle4 Hum being called In to aflift the Romans in driving the 
to the Af- other Nations out of Gaul^ they were at firfl: fuccefsful 
fifiance of the againft the Burgundians ; but their Troops being fliort- 
RoMANs. )y jjfj^j. ^y^ jQ Pieces the Romans gave over thi&Deiign, 

In the Year 447 Clodion died. 
M^ROvivs, It is not known in what Degree Merovius his Succef- 
447» for was related' to Clodion, As the Huns meditated an- 
other Invafion of Gaul^ and a Son oi Clodion difputed 
his right to the Crown, Merovius fent his Son Cbilderick 
to cpnclude an Alliance with the Romans ; Which being 
taken well he was acknowledged as an Ally and Friend 
of the People of Rome, 
Progrefs of Attila Maftet of all the Nations of the //i/«jat theln- 

At-bila the ji^ance of the Son of Clodion pafled the Rhine at CoUgn j 
HuNi 451. and, burnt this City. In the Year 451 he pillaged 
Triers^ and after burning Metz put the Inhabitants 
thereof to the Sword. Rieims had the fame Fate ; and 
Cambray, 'Bejanfon and other Piaces were afterwards 
pkindered by him. Merovius hereupon joined his 
Forces to thofe of the Romans ; and his Example being 
followed by Th/oddr'ed King of the Fi/gothsj Jitila not- 
withftanding his Army confifted of 500,000 Men was 
Battle of defeated near Orleans. The Rofnan General would not 
Orleans. p^Qj ^y^\^ Viftory, fearing that \i Atiilqvf^s quite ruined 
the Kings, who ai&fted him would turn their Arms 
againft iht Romans J Infte^d of this he perfuaded Tor^ 
rlfmond the Son of theodored who fell in the Battle to 
* go and fecure to hirnfelf the Kingdom of the Vi^oths', 
and found out a Fretence for (Ending home A^ovius. 
This prudent ConduA of AStius was ill requited by his 
ungrateful M^ft^r VftUptutian^ who. having iirft dlf- 
' ^ ^ ^ graced him flew him with his own Hands. That 
'" '' which Mtius the laft great General of the Rmans did 
ferefee came to pfs. Theodorick who had caufed his 
elder Brother Torrijmnd to be aiJaffinated because King 
t)f Fijgoths ; and afterwards made himfelf Mafler of 
Aquiiain *• Gandiocbus King of Burgundy poilefled 
liimfelf of Fart of the Country of the Htlvitii, E^i 

afld 
^ Uov) callid G^$tonr an/Gv\unv(%; 



Of F fi AH c eI ^ zi^ 

«nd Seqtsani: And Merovius having firft fubdued the 
Country near Ment%y Worms and Spire greatly extend- 
cd his Dominions in the Netherlands. He afterwards 
added tp thefe Conquefb a good Part of Normandy and 
the Ifle of France. 

To Merovius who died in the Year 457 his Son Chil^ Childb- 
derick fuccpeded. He was a brave Prince : But render- R?tK, 457, 
ed himfelf (o odious by his unbridled Luft that not 
thinking himfelf fafe be retired tp Thuringia *. 

His Friend Wiomade whom he left to manage for Gil on; tio 
him, knowing that the Franks were intent on chbofnig ^^oman Go- 
a new Kingt recommended to them Giion- Governor *^^'''^'* '^^ 
of all in Gaul which remained to the Romans. The ^^* 
Argi^mcnts he prevailed by were, that all the Provinces 
und^r him would by this Means be united to the Do- 
minions of the. Franis ; and that if he abufed the Au- 
thority committed to him they might at any Time de- 
|[)ore him. fFiomade in order to ruin GJlon encouraged 
him in the Profecution of a Defign to make himfelf ar- 
bitrary. After bearing the Tyranny of GiUn for fome 
Timp the franis^ complained to ff^tomade : Who having 
reprefented to them their Fault, in preferring a covetous 
and cruel Foreigner to a valiant and generous Prince of 
their own Ns^tiiin, the jnoft virulent Enemies of OA/7- 
diricJt agreed with tht reft of the> Franh to recall 
him. . 

With the Forces brought by ChilderM^ out of 6^- Childerick 
piany ^nd th^ Franks who joined him he defeated Gil^n ; is recalled. 
and. ha YM% driven him from C^j'm and Uriers^ which 
laft^ptacebe burnt, Childerick eafiiy made himfelf Mafter 
of what is now .called iVr^iiy. 

A Body of iarpns having about this Time fixed Defeat of the 
themfclves ia the Neighbourhood of Jnjou^ Childerick ^^^0^% 
who dii) not like his new neighbours marched againft 
and obtained a compW&t Vidory over them near Orleans. 
The. S^^9nf unable tQ r«triev« this Lofs fubmitted to 
htm. s. and they .afterwards affifted Iiim in fubduing the' 
Jians whtofe Country lay on both. Sides of the Loire, Alak^JuB^ 
Upon Jii$» Return &0DPI this Expedition in the Year 481 dued. 
he died of a Feyer, and was buried at Tournay. 

Chvis fince called Letvis I, who was at Childerick Qtovi% or 
bi^ father's J)«^th np i^orc than fificeii Years of age, Lewis I. 

^nt 481. 

5 'Ihat i*tfr; ofGzf^mLiAYfiom whence the Franks came. 



220 0/* F E A N C ?i 

ipent the firft five Years of his Reign in leaming the 
Exercifes of the Field, and in difciplining his Soldiers. 
An 'Eniput to Ckvis having afterwards attacked Siagrius the Roman 
/^^ Roman General, the latter after various Deieats fled for Safetj 
Powir. ^Q jjjg yijgothsi but being demanded he was deliver- 

ed up and put to Death. All the Rotnans hereupon 
fubmitted to Ckwis ; and as he made no change ^ther 
in their Religion or Laws, they were very eafy un- 
der his Government. Gondiochus King of Burgundy at 
his Death divided his Kingdom between his four Sons 
Gondebaudj Childerick^ Gondemar and Godegifihif. The 
Second and Third of thefe tfonfpired againft the eldeft 
and drove him from his Capiul ; but after he was fup- 
pofed to be dead heaflembled his Friends, and when his 
Brothers did not in the leaft exped it furprifed and put 
them both to Death« He however took Care of the two 
Daughters of Childerickj the youngeft of whom Chtilda 
492. a beautiful Lady was in the Year 492 married to 
ClvoU. Being educated in the CbriJUan Religion /be 
prevailed on her hufband to let his Sons be baptized. 
FBANCE/r/? About the fame Time the Name of France^ by which 
fo called. was meant what the Franks had conquered in Gaul^ was 

§rft knowo. 
Regulations in A Divifion was now made by Clovis of his Domt« 
Government, nions into three Parts. The Franks poi&fled one of 
thefe; and the ancient Inhabitants who from having 
been fo long acctdlomed to the Laws and Language 
of the Ramans were called Ramans had the other two; 
All Refolutions of . great Importance were taken in an 
Afi^mbly annually held on the firft of Mcir^bj which was 
compofed of the King, of Duke» who had the Command 
of Armies, of Counis to whom the Adminiftration 
of Juftice VBaai committed and of the whole People. 
Their Cuftom was to meet in a Field called the Field 
qf'.Marsi and as War was ufuallytiie Subjeft of De- 
liberation they came armed, that they might be ready to 
BULTch if there was an Occafion for it u^n the break* 
ing up of the Aflembly. ' 
GkVhln^ . . In .this Reigii the Pepple eaUed Gtermansj who pof- 
nfaded by tbt fefied but a fmall Part of what now pailes under the 
Qf RMA)!^. .^;iQ)e.Qf Girmotifj joined with ^ Suevi who inhabited 
^H(tiid in. an Invafion of Gauk Chvk being* h^orm" 
fA thereof by Sigifi^rt King of Colcgn he marched 

againil 



Q/* Fr A N C E. t2i 

pgaiaft and gave them Battle near Zulpkh. In thii 
Engagement Chmis^ who had been always ufed to 
conquer faw ht$ Ally Sigifbirt fail ; and his own Army 
began to give Way. In vain he invoked all his own 
Gods; but being put in Mind of Jesus Christ by 
one of his Generals he called upon him and promired 
if fuccefsful to be baptized. The Germans being here^ 
upon defeated and forced to repafs the Rhine Clevis fol* 
lowed them, and after ravaging their Country obli- 
ged them together with the Suevi their Allies to fub* 
mit to him. By this Succefs he became Mafter of Ba^ 
9ana and of all Germany between Bavaria and the 
Main. Many of the Inhabitants of tbefe Countries fled 
into Jtafy. To thofe who fiaid he allowed the free 
Exercife of Paganifm, and he gave the Bavarians leave 
to choofe a Governor from amongft themfelves, who 
was not to hayc the Title of King but that of Duke. 

Having fettled thefe Things he fulfilled his Vow, and Clovis mi- 
after being inftru£led in Cbrijiianity was together with^'"««'CHRis- 
three tboudind of the Heads of the Nation baptized in tianity, 
the Year 496 by 5/. Rbemi Bi(hop of Rheimsj in the 49^^ 
fame Church at Rheims which he had about ten Years 
before plundered. This King obtained from the Pope 
for bimfelf and SucccflTors the Title of eldeft Son of 
the Church ; becaufe he was the only Prince who pro- 
fefled that which to diftinguifli it from the other Seds 
of Chriftianity was called the CaihoUck Faith. 

After the Succefs of Gmdebaud againft two of his Gondsbavd 
Brothers he was preparing to attack Godegijilus ii\t becomes MafUr 
other. This laft fccretly requefted the Afliftance of of oJIEvk- 
Cltvis: Who being glad of an Opportunity to revenge gundy, 499. 
the Death of Childerick his Wife's Father readily gran- 
ted it. Gondehaud being apprized of the March of Clovis 
fo little fttfpeded it to be at his Brother's SoKcitation,, 
that be fent to this laft for Succours. Godegijilus joined 
l^m with his Troops ; but as he upon the Approach 
of Clffois went over to the French the Army of Gon^ 
dihaud was foon routed, and his Flight was fo precipitate 
that he. never flopped till he came to Avigmn. While* 
Gims purfued him Godegijilus went to take Poflefllcn' 
of Vietme his Capital. Gondebaud havmg afterwards by« 
^tthamtingto pay a Tribute reconciled himfelf to Clevip 

he 



2Z$ O/^' F R A N C eJ 

he ^oofl recovered his Dominions ; and putting his Ad^ 

thef to Death became fole Mafter of Burgundy. 

Saliqjjb As there were fome Things in the Salique Law, whicfr 

La'w reform^ was made while the Franks were Heathens, contrary to 

''* 5®^- Chriftianity Clovis about the Year 501 reformed it. He 

foon after fubdued the Kingdom which the Britons had 

ereded in Armorica, 

War nvith In Imitation of Clovis Gondelaud fet about the re- 

BuRcuNDY, forming of the Laws of his Kingdom: Yet he did not neg- 

503, left- to put bimfelf in a Pofture of Defence againftC/;- 

visy well knowing that as it was for his intereft todo 

it the Pretence of revenging his Wife's Fat '.er's Death 

would at any Time be an Excufe for attacking Bur^m-^ 

^. All this Precaution was ineffe£hial ; for his whole 

Kingdom was about the Year 503 conquered by Cltroir. 

But upon humbling himfelf and giving Security for his 

good Behaviour for the Time to come he was reftored 

_ to it. 

Warnmththi The Catholicks who were perfecuted by AMck 

Goths. jj-j^^g ^f ^j^^ jq^^h^ ^^ j^^^^ j^ji^g^ ^be Profeaton 

of Clovis : Which being told to Alarick he fearing 
Clovis fought his Friendftiip. The two Kings had 
afterwards an Interview in the Ifland of St. John near 
Amhoife^ and fome Things which concerned the mutual 
Good of their Dominions were agreed upon : But at 
his Return he ufed the Catholicks worfc than before, 
and baniflied the Bifliop of Rofes whom he fufpefted 
r to be principally concerned in begging the Protedion of 

Clovis. This laft was determined to fuccour the Catbo- , 
licks '9 yet being unwilling to break with Alarick till 
all other Methods were tried he fent Ambafladors to 
him. The Anfwer he received not being fatisfaftory, 
it was refolved in a general Affembly convened by 
Clovis to declare War againft Alarick. Tbeodorick King 
of the 0/irogoths, who was in Alliance with Clovis^ did 
all he could to avert the impending Danger from M- 
rick his Son-in-Law : But all would not do; for Clovis^ 
having firft made a Vow to build a Church in Paris and 
dedicate it to St. Peter and Paul if he returned vifiori- 
ous, marched with all fpeed towards Aquitain. Upon 
his Approach Alarkk retired firft to Auvergne and after- 
wards towards Pgitiers. Clovis came up with him and a 

Pattlc 



(y F R A N C E, 223. 

Battle enfued : In which the Goth was defeated and ftaitt Battle 0/ 

by the Hands of Clevis. This Viflory was followed Poitiers.' 
with the Conqueft of great Part of Guienm and Langui-- 
doc by Clovis and Thieri his Son. Having left an Army 
in Aquhain to aft againft Gefqlick a natural Son of yUa- 
ricky whom the Vtfgoths had preferred to Amaralick the 
light Heir, Clovh fet out for Paris : But he was pre- 
vailed upon by the Ambafladors of Anajiaftus Emperor 
of the Ea/i^who over took him near Toursy to go back and 
oppofe the Army of Theodorick King of the OJirogotbs j 
which was coming to the Affiftance of AmalaricJt hisGrand- 
fon againft. Gefalick, Thefe AmbaiTadors prefented to bim 
a Mantle, a purple Robe, a Crown of Gold fet with 
precious Stones and the cpnfular Dignity : Which was 
quite agreeable to the Gauls^ who from being long ac* 
cuftomed to the Roman Government had the greateft 
Veneration for tliofe Ornaments and this Dignity. Be- 
ing defeated by Ilba Theodorick^ Lieutenant Cloivis ac- . 
commodated Matters with him, and on his Return to 
farts laid the Foundation of a Church which was dedi- .. 
cated to 5/. Peter and Paul and. is at this Day called 
5/. Genevieve, 

This pious Aft oi Clovis was foon followed by sl Clovis /ui' 
wicked Refolution to fubdue all the fmall States thzt dues mofy fett^ 
belonged to Princes of his own Nation : Which by open Princes. 
Violence and privately fetting thefe againft each other 
he as none of them were very powerful compleated in 
a few Months. He died in the Year 511 leaving fix jji^ Deaths 
Children : Two of which 'Thieri a Son and Theudigilde ju, 
a Daughter were by a Concubine. The other four C/a- 
domir^ Cbildeberty Clotbair and a Daughter called after 
her Mother Clotilda he had by his Wife. 

The four Sons of Clovis (bared his Dominions; but i//i DomimoMs 
in order to underftand what Share each had it is fit to £viied. 
remark that a little before Clovis's Death France was 
divided into two Parts. One of thefe which compre- 
hended all that lay betwixt the Rhine and the Maes 
Was called Auftrajia ; the reft of the Kingdom was cal- 
led by the Name Neufiria. Thieri had befides that 
Part of Guienne which he lately conquered from^ the 
Vtjgotbs Aujirafia^ and he refided at Afe/z. ^Neuftria 
being divided betwixt the other three the Capital of C&- 
dmir was Orleans ; that of Childebert Paris ; and Clo^ 
thairc had his Refidence at Soijfons. By this Divifion 

Frame 






224 Of T HAN ci. 

Franei was thrown into great Confufioii and iftucK wea-: 
kened ; nay the Infatuation of dividing went further; 
for the Dominions of thefe Princes were afterwards 
fub'divided amongft their Children. 
Cvil Wart The Kingdom remained in this unhappy State above , 

mndAJfaffina'^ g Century: And befides fufFering all the Miferies of ' 
/J«w. Civil War was the Theatre of moft (hocking Afllffina- 

tions, Amongft the reft two Queens Brumcbild and 
Fredigonda are mentioned with the greateft Infamy for 
their monftrous Crimes. 
Clothairb In the Ytar 614 moft of thefe petty ^tcs were again 
XL 614. united under Clothaire 11. and the Kingdom Was in 
fome Meafure reftored to its ancient State. 
Dagobert, Dagobert his Son who fucceeded in the Year 628 gave 
628. "P ^ tP^ P^^^ ^f '^^ Kingdom io his Brothert Aribert: 
And divided what remained amongft his Sons. From 
this Time the Kings of France gave themfelves entirely 
up to Indolence and Pleafure, and the Rein» of Govern- 
ment came into the Hands of an Officer palled Mayor 
Pbpih M^rfor of the Palace. One of thefe Officers named Pepin^ who 
of the Palace, was defcended from the royal Family of Auftrajia^ had 
the fole Adminiflration of AiFairs under feverai Kings 
for the Space of twenty-eight Years. 
Charles Charles Marul who in the Year 714 fucceeded Fe- 

Martbl ,pm his father as Mayor oi the Palace greatly extended 
Mayor efthe y^^}^ ^^ Authority and Power of this Office. Befides 
Falace^ 714. ^^^y o^^er fignal Afiions h^ obtained in the Year 732 
He repulfis the ^ compleat Viftory over the Moors in Ldnguedoc ; who 
Moors, 732. ^fjgjp conquering Spain had penetrated into France. 
From this Time he took upon hlmfelf the Title of 
Duke of France^ and nothing but an empty Name re- 
mained to the King : Who being generally kept in the 
Country was once a Year carried by Way of Shew for 
t the People through the Streets of Paris., Charles Martel 
died in the Year 741. 
pEPiU the Pepin the younger his Son and 3ucceflbr having 

younger de- gained over the Heads of the Kingdoms to his Intereft 
>^/''^y^^^^depofed Childerici III. and caufed himfelf in the Year 
V^^ r^^^^ 75 1 to be procIaimed.King, Pope Zacbary who wai con- 
"'7C1 fulted on this Occafion came eafily into the Views of 
^ ' Pepiny becaufe he much wanted his Affiftance agaiAft the 
Lombards at this Time become formidaiblp in Italy. 
.' ' ' ■ ' Thus 



Q^ F » A KCfi* i2f 

Thus an End was put to the Line of Mercvingiofi K\ng$ 
in France^ who were fo called from Merevius, 

Pipin had before the Depbfition of Childarick fubdued Exploits of 
almoft all Germany which bordered upon the Rhine :y^Tf^^* 
And being now in Ppfleffion of the Throne, he by ' 
his Behaviour in an Expedition againft the Saxont 
foon (hewed that he was worthy of it. Not long after 
an Opportunity . prefented itfelf of fignalizing himfelf 
in Italy. Atu^h King of Lombardy being after con* 
quering great Part of Italy upon the Point of befieging 
Rmey Pepin aft the SoUicitation of Pope Stephen, 111, 
marched againft and foon compteiled him to quit his 
Conquefts. By giving the Revenues of the Places re- 
covered fronci Jtulj^h to the Pope; and taking the Church 
under his Proteftion, Pepin had an Opportunity of (hew- 
ing his Zeal for Religiqn and of getting at the fame 
Time a footing in Italy. He afterwards reduced TaJJillon ^ 
Duke of Bavaria to a State of VafTalage, and forced 
the Duke of Aquitaine to fubmit to him. At his Death* 
in the Year 768 the Khigdom was divided betwixt 
Charles and Carloman his two Sons ; but by the Death of 
the younger the whole foon came to Charles: 

This Prince juftly called Oharlemainy that is Charles Charli- ' • 
the Qreatj carried the Glory of the French Monarchy ma m, 768; -. 
to fuch a Pitch as it never had before nor has ever (ince * 
arrived at. The Lombards having renewed their At- 
tempts in Italy Charlemain marched againft them, 
and obliged Didier their King to furrender himfelf with' 
his Wife and Family Prifotiers. Adalgifus his eldeft 
Son did indeed (ave himfelf by Flight 5 but being 
in no Condition to recover the Dominions of his* Father, 
who was- fent into i^r^w^ and died a Prifoner there; 
the States of' Lombardy fubmitted to Charles and be was 
folemhly cwwn'ed King of Lombardy at Pavid. TaJJillon Ik is crowned 
Duke of Bavaria^ who had married Luitperge a Daugh- Kifrg ^/^^^z 
ter of DidieTy having notwithftanding his Oath of Al- barpv, 
legiance to Pepin afEfted the Lombards againft the 
Fronts hi$ Dominions were fubdued by Charlemain ; but 
his Son with eleven otifers being delivered as Hoftages he 
was (iijSered to keep Bavaria. This Prince afterwards at 
the Inftigatioti of his Wife joined with Arichifus Duke 
gf Benevrnt^ Who i)acl sdfo married one of Didier^t 
Vol, I. Q Daugh- 



%2& 



Huns an J 
Grecians 
iie/eatet/, 788. 

Charle- 
main's Ex- 
pediiions to 
Spain and 
Germany. 



Hi is pro- 
claimed Em- 

pK9r» 800.. 



^eAipops.oX 
bis Domtmons 

iy'iriU/9o6. 



Of France* 

Daughters^ in fccretly calling the Huns and Irffte^m^rth 
of the Eq/i to their Afliftance againft Charlemain: 
Which being difcovered he and his Sou were both fliut 
up in a Monaftery. 

The Hum were twice! defeated about the Yea'r.788; 
And Adalgijus who fucceeded Arichijus in the Command 
of the Grecian Succours being alfo vanquiftied ncar.A*^/rt 
Charlemain became Mafter of all Italyl 

He went foon after into Spain and made him felf 
Mafter of good Part of this Kingdoni \ but in |epalling 
tlie Pyrenees his Rear Guard was fallen upoii. in the 
Defiles ^nd part of bis. Baggage was tatcen. As they 
who took this difperfed themfelves immediately amongft 
the Mountains it was impofliblcto punifli them. Af- 
ter a War of thirty Years Continuance the ^a^cons^ who 
had been often brought to Terms and as often rebelled, 
were entirely fubdued by Charlemain and embraced 
Chriftianity. This was followed with the Conqucft of 
all Germany ; fo that being now in Pofleffion of Framty 
Germany^ Italy and Part of Sfaln he wanted nothing 
but the Title of Emperor. 

With a View to this he in the Year. 800 went to 
Bjime to celebrate the Nativity of Cmrist j and was 
while there with the unanimous Confent of the Pope 
and People proclaimed Emperor of the Romans, Having 
thus by hfs Valour got Pofleflion of the weftern Empire, 
a Propofal of Marriage ^as made to him 1^ Irene Erj- 
prefs of the Eaft ; But wbilft the Negociations for this 
were carrying on (he was arrefted in her Palace at 
Conjlaniiniple^ and Nicephorus was declared Emperor 
of the £aft. He found Ways to reconcile himfelf to 
tlharbmain^ and was l^ft in - the peaceable Poi&flioii of 
the Eaftern Empire. 

In the Year. S06 Charlemain being old made a Will 
which was figned by the Pope ; and an Oath was taken 
by the Nobility of Ft ana to obfcrve it. * By.^hi? P^pi^^ 
his fecond Son was to have Italy "^ and jtm^/Vjiis yqungcft 
Son Aquitaim. The reft of his Dominion's with the 
Title of Emperor were to go to Charles his eldeft Son: 
But by the Deaths of Charlts and Pepin before that of 
Charlemain the whole came to Lewis. Ch^lemaiv died 
in the Veaf 81^. 

: \ •■•'•' After 



QfFRAMCK. 22/ 

Aftcf (he Death of Cbarhrmin khe Frenth ManarShy Liwia I. 
leclinedi for bis Son Lewis furnamed the Pioiis had 8.14« 
:nore of the Pricft than Soldier in him : Whereas fo ex-» 
renfiDcah fUtime^ which: vras in a great Meafute conji* 
po&d'.Qf.n«ar Coilquefts, niqiiired a Pcince-.of Spirit, and 
Dp great m^\Wy £xpericnce. He moreover fell into 
^v6 MrAiHes'^;6iie*aif whicb was the difpofing of his 
Docainii5n»/toqillboD^ the other was ^he dividing of them 
betwi^xtt'ihi»;6dn8. The>firft of thefe made him an- 
happji tn*hihirc]£ ;/' the •fecond' coairibiited much to the- 
RiAn ofttheiEmpul;: .. ^ ; ; . . .. 

HisVongmtcftil Sons as? fobrr as the Will was made, not^^ h ^oiry 
bavin^ IGuience to wait for his Death, rebelled againft»0/6!a^, 
bim, and 'being joined by the fii(hops whom* hisfe-' 
?ere Difcipirne had difgu fled they forced him to refign 
the Government ; but lipdn Tcfle^ing on the Unjuftnefa* 
of this A&ion they repented and .reftored hinfi to the 
Throne. Having aftcrward*s forg^iven them and by a. 
new Settiel^efrrt confrmed his foamier Difj^ofition he . i .'. 
died in thie* Year 840, ' '- - /-• .:, .i 

The iix%\ Effc^s of Sividipg' the Ennrpiresvrere ^ti' Ci'vil PTaf. 
felt. Lophaire' th^^ ddcft, '^whb retained the Titlje of 
Emperor, wanted to dep^iv^.his Bi*othcrs-of thrirlSharcs ; * * • . ^ 
but tfaeyi iini«ed againft Mm', and after a^blbody fi^ttki S^//^^^^ 
near Aux^frk in which ^^oOyOOO Men oPthd Flower of Auxirri, 
R'c«rf'v«f»'e lift upow the? Re Id compelled' bim to do 
them Juffice. Purfuantt to their Yh)^H WxWlfitbairi 
iad Italy with a confiderable Part of Fr4n^ that lay 
ibng the JfeAji^/;. .£/«<;» Bad:(?ir»/tf^> 'which Aas Been * 

tver fifrtce ' fopkritcd fr-oJh' Ranoe 5 the reft • of franci 
vas given to' iC%<ar/^r the^yonngcftSon, ^ ^ , 1 • • -. 

In the Reign of Charles furnamed the Bold the A'^-'CdARl jj H* 
^ns made' a 'Defcerft . ancl ^mmitted' great Havock , Za^z >. 
ipon the ^^oafts'of 'Fr^wf/, As the Kir^gdom ' vjeakncd'. 
It tfieUafe. /atiVBattle and' its DiVrfion* couW • not get' .; . , . 
b of thefe Robbers, it Was irttlie Reign o£ Chirks the NcRjfAirt 
\mple agreed Chat they ftipold' have a riut'oC^Mn^'ria ^ f^u/g ,> 
hich was after wards caiW^d^Noman/iy. Upon the Death Fran cj£, 
t the EmperQt Ldlhairi without Mue Charlil the Be^li , 
4. the ^oh of Xm/i Kin^ of Cermany divided hi? D<'un?- 
ftns. Thar Part ^f tKrfe which lay in Fr/ahce Titil to 
It Share of CAwf*/*'/,. Skttdilie afterwards obtained the Iro^ 
Hal Dignity. He died in tlic Year 877. 

0^2 Lewis II. 



8^ ther ;. faut.he iaftbr a fliorc Reigii divided tbeiA^b^W 
' betwij^c his two? Sons Lewis and Carkman..] lii i' - 
Lewis III. rXhe/fidl df tfaffe dipd \n^ thfi-Ycaf SSai ftc other 
Ca R LOU A N, fram. vrlapm Xxsuu Knng ;of :X!rr^ff)t;;to.Q)l, £iMrit«»:died 

882. in:the:yiear 884;;-: t. j .?:•:.'•-:■? : J.;':::, 

CharlesIII, To^ OWIwwiij fodcecded CharJiS the Awj^/rHifBrbiker 

884. ' byhis F^fhetVBide : But ai bei«r^ only five .Ycafi>if 

Age the Hbgcficy was in^theH^nds of 'tlic Emperor 

Chsrks ithi Fat \ns lUnck. . .The Xkath ofMihe latter 

which happened during the Minority ofjChfrk ihi 

•r »- •• SimpU.^y^'^n Qpportuattjr to, the Gby£i;n<m)g'of Pto- 

^ . . lA. .vinces, iviitx'had,for along iTi que been enGBetfS)g..thtir 

Power, tcrthrow pflTall Dependence on ^If Sovereigo: 

And it tcofti'lfoiwe C^^turies; to remedy tfce Difordcrs 

thereby: ccxaiioned.: On* of -thcfe Eude^Qmnt<A 'Parh 

caiifed himfellf.oo bet proclaimed |Cing aod fde^red.Wftf 

againfli ffitwifiii . .' ,*.... , . ,/ ^-.^v . <;- 

RpDOLPH, . At the Pe(akh .of .£'W#. in ithfi Tear S^l^^^yfe had 

891. another Competitor Rudolph Duke Qf\S»r^»9:.v.Wl)o 

„. • . after \maf^'6i(frmki'K\^]bl.'Fra^^ 

Prifon;tni4fie Titncjof his Defith in thciT.Wi&i!^. . 

liwis IV. , To'3J»ife^*wbadied intheYear 936 fwccce^eli^* 

93^f\\ ftirnaiheid'iWw^ heywd. 5^<?^,becaure he h^dj^'l^Oercd 

.» himfelfi iii E^gl2ind daring tJwL Sufferings of ^lJifi fother 

Cbarhs thd Sim^/fr.:! ThrtfvReigft <rf 'fhi^:trW;WasaIl 

along dlflurUd hy Initeftine Cofnaiotions, .-|i6 4!cit io 

the Yaear 954ir\ :\;-ri -;r'.i/l'.' ■ .,• A^-h ' \ 

Lothaire, . His Son and Succcffor" Lothairi ^f tci A diftittW 

9S4» Reigripf thfrty-one Yean msiiuqceeded ,by)2<wtf ft^' 

Liwis V. earned the Slothful hisvSohi'pf Whomi.fiiftoriaiMODly 

:i 9?S- t; fay thatlhc^id nothing..! • *! // ' ..zitT, . . 1 

rl fi!' f ' ^^ ^^ ^Dcath a Son of im^/V IV. l^wd C!3«» .^*^ ^''^ 

CHAitLt. Qwirn J but he was oppofed vigoroufly hjJ^hC(ipfn 

MA^N /&/^/A* *^ whom idle, entire Admiriiftration of Afikirs "hid M 

FRiBca . o '-during.' die^ Reign of Z^wiV .the 5/o/^/W,...AW^^ 

G-OTVff.*' • i JWt dfeiifthcj was fhut up in Pjrifoni and .the JCnJwn w 

.! . . . Jra«^ wasrconferred on Hu^lh Capet. Tfews Ujc CiH 

lofuingian- Line, in which it had been. a3&'t*^^rs> I^H 

theCmwn by falling into Ihe fomie IVIillalci? jif (fividiflj 

the Kingdom, as the Mer9viKgian 'Fi^mWY.W '^^j 

done. By ;his .Mean» together with Aie fndokn<30 o| 

1 : • • '\bm 



.,'Jt.^ 



Gf^. F 1. A S c\ja «29 

feme Kills' the ^Governni^nt ifiomid <fanl^^ t^* ' 
abroad ; 'which fceingtfc'eafc itii8'iiorj»'tfcd)J&ft for* •'--" • 
prifing tlat itih6ul4 be trampted upoii^cp^Bbmb^l x^ / * 
.t^UugkkCUtpet from.ivfaoiii the prefeartei^iiii^Faj: Hugh Ca- 
mil/is f*feacfcil:iwa8n i^aifed* by "tbe.:I*D*ttityMo!tht ''"t, 987, 
Thrpiii^;tht/e were confirmed by him in* 'tfte'Pofiefflon 
of the:%ov|nced Vhfch they had- in the latC'COnAifcd 
Timilsf^i^uiiredl 'He annexed to «the- Cho v^ 10- whiYfa 
fcarceiiy Thing before belonged, theCbuntjf^icrf Arrt^ 
the &iitii^-6f '^^ included 'aU^riie-fOouhtry wir.a\* 

ktw^ttbe^^fv^ and Ldif^^iiffd tht'C6iivt\yjbfOrliafT». ^^^'^• 

Amoft|(i!^ihe Nobility who ihared ther^ftof^ the Kingv JWtf»F Sovi* 
dom^fflj^chief wer*5thc£>ulccs of N&rmM'J^.'^^Bt&^andy RficNTiEa 
and^ijarttf/w; the ' Counts of fldndkr^si Cbirmpaign^^''^^^^^^^ 
m^fiH^' Viinnf\ PAvince\ DauphiUf'iMdr&miy: ^But 
the^Stic^orsi diUi^hCapet Ikd thrPleafilreaD iee b^ 
DegTfics.the^ Teri^itopjes^ q^ all .tfaefist petty:> %mcmpm 
i»oi(od ttMfae^Oo9S9i« . Hb died ni:the'¥tai"d96r '. ^ 

>£0ii»r thfe Sott^and Sttciieflbt 6f Hugh'Cafit became Robert^ 
l>y tbrJDfeth* of hisnthtae Matter' of the-Dutchy of 936. 
burgundy.?. ^6 afte'r^rards- ntarried Bertia of t*e Houfe 
of J3iff;;v7M^ ^ but as >(he Was withiii thb Degrees of 
CioaGu^umtty prohibidsd by the CanoA Lavyr heiirft 
obtaijQfidrthc Confitnt^of his Blfliops.. Being for xhh He Is excom- 
cxcooiiniiiiiGated by the Pope, ithad fuch aft KflStft that munkated. 
l)€Wai abaxidoned by all his Servants exoept two dr 
tbree,.aihlJho Body would Itaftc any Thing \^hich came 
^0(R^ bfs Tahie. He died after a long ^nd peaceable 
Reign in the Year 1033- ■ ' . ^ . . * 

HeAry^hv^.^oTiy who l«id foiheMBcoiifiderab.fe Wars fiENiytl. 
Vidi hii'Vafiak, gave t«e 'Dufchy of BUrgimA to his J0S8- 
Brothct iaj«#r/*^'fcbm whonf ihe firft I,raie of Dukcirlof 
Bttrgurufy^Of the Blood royal .fprahgL • ' - .. . i 

At thcDeadi of fifc«ry;in the Year 1060 hife Son #Af- Philip T. ^ 
^ a Pctiioe of .no jgtczt Reputation fuccedded;.. He as 1 ^^*^- 
his Grandfather had before been was excomoRrnrcated 
0^ the A^unt of his hKrridi^e 5 but he^^t lift: obtained : r r .„. t 
a Difp^lktion from. tTye" Pope.^ In, this Rei^n ffliliamConquffi^of 
^^ktHf £formanJy conquered England y v^hkh laid the E»c».akp, 
Founda^ien of unfpcakable Mifchiefs to France^ the two - 
KingdQDM being for many Years after perpetually at 

War. .-^ * • .;. ' • wi: • ' 

0^3 About 



Crpsadis, A^NKit tbe firme Time Cru/adfsi^ for vhtpk(Jse1kfa<l« 

y^/ 09 yo0/. Dcft lafkd<»bo«e*two hundred Yc^fs^ were firft tbeugbt 

of, Thefe Expedkions were very pfofiiabie to Popes, 

who not only:: took upcm tbfioifelvKS so appotiifvaKd pro* 

; > tcSt the^Camimnders m them* but/had. at&anOpport 

iunity of fellmg many. lodu^iocicB* Asmher great 

Advantage to Popes waS| that ill Dooatbns^ tou'ardi 

the carry LDg of <hem onisrerecQilodedaAddi&fibuted 

hy thelf Nuncio's. / . • 

Jltjleffiomw \ ,Thc.King$..ot. Francs and jpther Priiice^. concerned 

fim. in thefe Expeditions, befide^. that, many tuibuldot Spi- 

^ " fits were, thereby employed, had the Benefit of fucceed- 

* i i«g to tie Eftatcs of fucb :of ihc Nobtiity as died with- 

" ' * out Hcks^ Which as many tif them we/e -carried off 

.was fre^ntly.che Cafe.* The Number of People at 

that Time .too foest in I^-ame being al(b berlsby ilefTcAtd 

at ;heaune eafter. for Kiog^ t^ keep the. Refixttte^io Sub* 

jeftion ;,^3ut ^henevscr ;«ily fuifaxeigauiPpi^^i didi^lthcr 

,12 :: >.: at the Soijlicitation of thit:P«pc m/fu^m Alt town In- 

. iclii^tioft go to PaleJUni in BcrfofT^ .the fatai Iffefls of 

leavjng his Dominions w^erc fdon felt, j Opon.t)ie wbok 

' thi« War "althtotigh calted a.holy one was a- mere:\^laugh- 

terhoufe for the CbrijHans: It being. f<;arce poiflibic for 

. them in tfcie Way it wa&cari:ied totetainanyXonquefts. 

If It was at all prjoper to have engaged indt the firft 

, iStep (ho!uld.have been ;to have made themMveo Mailers 
pf Egjipt^i *9r if tbi$:coiild .tovcf bcea. effeSed, £^i 
^ would have made a «y cry .convenient Place of Arms tor 
carrying on the War againft the Injidilsi » 
JLjE^isVf. • ^ffilAX>y^s in tbe Ycar^.^a^8. fiiccficdcd by his Son 
ttoS, -i^ifUiis «ie Fat, This Bri«:ejbf fides being at' War with 
".Jienry I. of England, w^^ gKatif difturbed .by fomc Ba- 
rons 'jX Home. Thefe ap^^^ced in -open Arms apin^ 
:....: hirn^ and. by the Strens^tb .of theAr .Caiftles gave him a 
• 1 ^gpod deai pi Xxouhte j But he iajchje EndgoCf Ac Better 
lofxhcilJ^^ii.-, w. j -;..; .,. _ u, .:.--.; i-. • •.:.....' 
Lewis YIJ. - ^^^^^ ^^^ Dfiath-> iij the. l&atiil ^355 iwVSon; i>« 
Wv^fi • fkifnamrd tfep Tomgn at; tf^(^i Sotticitation ofiSf. ^j^fi?^^^ 
Hisiifkfiiyf^tU' .undertook an Ei(^ifjoh:tei:th&ii&^.£i2W»' ThiscoA 
' . note ExpedU > Wm^dear : For .by thq.Rout at Pampbilia,^ i^'k^^M^ 
tim to the Siege.of.P^wj/iKJ And Jor^v Marches in-, aii(;.Ertem^^^ 
Holy La 11 d. Country the fine Army he carried was fo ruined, that 

be 



he Rad lo^uth ado to brrng back a few Mattered ^Troops 
to FnakG^: ' Ht ce^ttihted another great Mfftake in 
dfvordng* EtHHkiir his Wife Heirefs of Guyenne and 
hitcu:" But it. is not known whether this was the 
Eftdof'§"e^loufr or Confirfence flic being his third or 
foarth Cobfin: This Princefs was immediately married 
to //fwy Duke of Normandy afterwards King 6f 
En^md k>y the' Name of Henry II. find thereby thofe 
fine Provinces were annexed to the Englijb Crown. 
The rtft'of tife long Reign was fpcht in Quarrets^ith 
bis o#n fittrons and with Hemy II. of England. He died 
in tlie Ycttr ^irio. 

His Son PiHip 11. furhamcd the Con^eror took Philip II. 
many Plated which Vclonged to Henry II. of England m » »8o. . 
France i biit reftofred them to his Son Richard with 
whom he ftt btit fof the Holy Land. They agreed fo ill 
that after taking Puiemaii Philip feigning Illnefs re- 
turned hofne : And the Troops he left under Henry War with the 
Duke of Burgundy inftead of affifting Richard fruftrated English. 
his Attempts upon Jerufalem. - Upon the Rtturn of ^ 

Philip hi^attieked the Dominions of Richard in Prance : ^ 

Ajid ^Sbt* content with taking from him Ntrmandy^ 
^«;w, M&inej Tiurrainy Berry and Poitou he fccondcd 
the EndeavtHirs of his Brother John to fupplant him 
in En^and. PhlSp ruined the Count of Thohufe 
^om the Pope had cJccommunicated for aflifting the 
^^^igenfes: And after this obtained a fignal ViAory Battle of 
over fhe united Forces of thfe Emperor Otho IV. and Lisli, 
the Count of Flanders amouhtirig to 150,000 Men 
J^ear LiJkJ Ndtwlthftanfling an Invafion was at the 
femeTitne' made in Aquitaine by the Englip Philip re- 
pulfed ihertfti and the War was carried into England by 
Lrtvis hbSdn with fome Succefb. He died in the Year 
1223. • 

The Reign of Lewis Vllf. his Soft was very Ihort. Liwis VIIL 
^c took however from the EngHJh Rochelle andfome 1223. 
otk> PiaCd-y !h France. ■ 

Tb» ^Prince -Was focceeded in the Yeir im6 by Lewis IX. 
^i^jf^rnaiwui St. Ltii^'s his'Son : During whof« Mino- i«a6. 
^'ty theNiSbility corifpli^ed, bttt it wais Without Succefs, 
2?ainft BAwfA*? of Cajiile his Mother who had the Ad- 
"^iniftratiou of Aj&if$. The ToWa of Jernfaleni being 

0.4 in ^ 



Berfioj iams at diat Tiine^nger<^fty^<iUfVot«edithuif 
he recovered he would in Perfon undertate'^d^BxpeditioA 

againftitht /jT^tfSr. i . Mi*.-, jr.v / 

17^ jr^f/ /9 Before fetting out he gsvc fyublkk Noeke that he w^ 
the Holy Wtdy to make Sati«fa£tiait. to any of'his Suhjed^ whom 
LAVi>t ' ^ had wronged or- injurbd ;. and it .was^idooie; 'In. tliis 
£xpedicioa hs took; Dit/mitiifzni after -the Waters of 
thft Niie whidh &>f iome Time ito{»ped hri;.Pro8fre6 
.;«;«re doivn hegatnti two> Vifbties civer tbti/2^«&} 
but as thefe were confiddrably-re-^filbpoed'aq^FrDirifioBs 
failed in the French Army, amongft whc)i|i tM'Scuf^ 
at the .fame^ Timeraged^ he 4bpl3ght pvdper to retreat. 
In returning to Damiet^ hia Army wa&. -defeated) wi 
' .beiog himfdf made Prifoner ht >vas f or ka$ Raafom 
iforc^ to give D{» Damieia^ and > pay 4o6yOap' Livns. 
With the Reouuns of his Arnay^ reduoed^'fi^ thiity 
to fix thQufand Men he made the bfi^'of jii^Way to 
Ptolinmsi and after giving aU the AfiftaaQe>hC'Coald 
to the Ci)rijiiam there returjned home^ j ^^w^...i 
f^f Duke of C9Hrade King of N^pks and J/W^.iBe^.a&iEiiatai 
Avjou Ac- in this Reign by Mainfroy, a natural Soa of.tiie EiD- 
r^/j^ u Na- pcror frt^iHci II. his Dominions wwe oflfemi by the 
fi¥^* Pope, of whom they were held as a Fief, to Chark 

Duke of 4nJ9u Brother of Lmjtis, He accepted of ^'^ 
. and was frowned at Rime in the Ye«r vskti* Tb 
Terms wre that, he fhould |>ay th^ Pbpeifiofeo Ounces 
of Gqidi and that fhefe.Domiaions ^kOfild ncver.be 
annexed to the Empire-: The Pope being.«iiiwilliffg there 
ihould be any Power in itahf greater - tfaaii hiiaielf. 
Charies foon vanquished Mahrfr^ i i^ad having put^on 
and bis Children to JQeath b^ tookPofic^iof tiM 
Kingdom. An Attempt was i^cwaiids madfe \ff C^n 
radin Son of Cmrade to recover thefe Dominions^i but 
being defeated by- CbMrle^ in the IS^ef^ loB^ xikar the 
]^ke of C^kw add ta]cen Prifooer^ lie JfM iJ^ the fol- 
lowing Year by the Pope's Advice iiefaeaded:>al: i^^* 
With h'lOi ended the ilhtftrious ibcex>f DakesrOf iytf^ii?' 
Whea Char Us aiked the Pope vtfhar ha4hoa|d doii^iti) 
bis Prifoner? The Aofwer m^s Viia^Q^m^^mMn 
Carcdi ; Mors Conradini Vka Carol i : s ThaK. is tbt Ufi 

^ ' , gonrjdifl 



ien£tOim oft> JFiMiP^^lMpfiEix iSTn^x ; iflienhasJicnrcvec daevelr 
got any; Thm^by iQeddltng in- Itofy. . r. id 

Notwitbiftaoding liis former unfortunaetf ExpfldHioo Expdititm o^ 
IjioiV ikl:eFAiixked io attempt tfae Conquofi: o£ ^»ri>. Lewu. ^ 
lis flafitrrffdl^fnifelf^ that befides liie jCOBy«aient SitxtHh ^^^/ 
lion. 0f tfais J^>f>gdom i^r fail Bcotsbex iCAorib a ^^}r Tvmis«I27o* 
voi&ld bib thereby opcaed btixxii^wnti%£gyfty y(^}i' 
cot wiucb hQ^hini nodaing :wa$ tobe.idbne'in tVe Hdy - 

Zitfif^v\Bat nebtle boiwas be&fe:3««;.r in the Yter 1270 
a &iGkwfr:bi$j0e& out which carried off himfelf and *a 
;grttf|t'JWt ofi Ai%ArKniy» From Robert a younger Soaof 
j^s Kiog i?img ^ ^IK of Anir^;« wtacbat ithuDay 

-'if?igp^.ii^-^aa^^-:i*- . -. ' ", •: 

His Son ^biHpllh fcrroaaaed -tbt fiardjn fucceedcd. Philip III* 
By him the Q^untf ol ThotUmfimtky^^^ . 1270* 

by the Death of, bU Brother Jiphonh without Iflue, > who 
h^ manjed ^Hq .H^irefa of- the Thmioufi Fdmiiy), ims 
.annexed * to . t^> Crowa« In thisi. Reign the. SiaUan 
Maflacre was peiepetrjited : By which the Frffub wiere at 
•'onc^ j;ie)»te4 owt of £/^^« It was thc^ occafioned. 

SmmeiiFrm^hmem havings ravifbed the Wife- of Johi The^tciHAM 
Pr9cb^iay^f Saltmimy be begged. the Affiftancc of fuer Majfatre^ 
•• Kkig -«f ,Atitagon to drive the French wbofe. many * *®*» 
!>Outnig^»i^ tendered tlieni deteftable out of Sidfy. A 
v.Confptracy bieiog.iiereupon fet on Foot^ it was ooun- 
teoanced by Pope Nubolat V. and by ^hc Emperor 
: .of Qtnjlantimpk^ who w^rc both jealous of Charleses 
I fPoiMec. fT}sl^Jnl^T^4ye^m difg^ifedhimfelf in the Habit . 

of a Monk, « tad went InceiTaiitly froi^^ ona Place to an- 
i other ^Uv/the. People werfe fufficiendiy^fpirited up for his 
'■ Purpde.:i • Which « notwithflanding it had been above 
thKe¥«His.ini Agitation ' and fo.many were, privy to it, 
waa.Jiever difcoveiro^- l^ was, at Jail agreed, that on 
Uefiirifioni%y in the Year i%&z 2^.%\^ Toll.of the^fiell 
for EYcaiflg-sSer^rke. thcce &ouki be a general Mafiacte of 
the Rreieebx\ itiid the Signal w^s . i> puntaually and uni^ 
vetfajdy. ob&rved that in :abou|;;) twfi Hours .Time a 
moft JboffiibkrSiaiqBhter waa mader fcarce any Raping, 
This 1. bciiigi over Seter Kk% of Arragm took PoiTejQion 
of Sm1f4i^ The Pope hereat enraged .excommunicated 
fikr^ . mk fS^^ 1^8 Kiogdom oi Jrragm to Cbiirles 

Iho 



«34 ^ F » A N c «i 

tiie fecond 5m of J^J^//^. Tbb hft fet out wMi t^power^ 
ful Army; but he -was not aUe to €Aiibtifli lits Son 

in Arragvn, t . . ; 

P«itif IV. PlniiflVn fttf namei the jySf ff^wii?, wfno in tfce Year 

1285. * '^5 fitcceeded his- Father, upon fome fHv^otis Bv* 

tences commeiKcd a War with the Sf^lij/htmd trnk 

' ftom chem H great ttirt of Guyetme ; it was however bj 

« Treaty of Rjace foo«> after rcflored. 

Se atfath the BeiDg angry* *vrHh (he Count of Phnder^j Who at the 

Count of loftiguton of the En^iijb had united with (bilie other 

Flanders. iLcNrdi againft him, PhUlp invaded his emlntry Bhi took 

many Towns from him : But the JRtfmnittgs vAio wtre 

footi cit«d of their- ill TtcMmnhH ^kV^ht Fr^fiek Ga^ 

rifons to pieces. An Army was hereufldn^'ftliit againft 

' them l^ Phiiip uHder the Coitimahd of Rti^ert Count 

Buiilf tf 4>f Artou ; which was defeated WPth the I>f^ df^ 20,000 

CouRTRAY, Men in the Year 1302 near Comtr^. This Defeat 

1302. was a good deal owing to the inconrttleAiti! dalle of x\^ 

Ffffuk Cavalr}', who fode mto a Ditch. The French 

bad the Advantage in an A6bn»n abot^t two Years after 

and cut ofF 25,000 of the Enemy f yet as the Flem- 

mings foon brought into the Field an Army cif 60,000 

Men, the King of France was glad to malcc Peace 

with and leave them in their ancient State. Philip after 

this with the Pope's Confent fupprefled the ridi aitd 

powerful Order of Knights Templars. He died in the 

Year 13 14. 

Lewis X. Lewis X. his eldeft Son, furnafned fietin^ after a 

1 514. ' fl^oxt Reign in which nothing remarkaWe happened died 

in the Year 1316; ' '■ 

Philip V. ' ' ^'^ Daughter fupported by her maternal iUhcle <1<fi 

irib. ' Dlxike oi Burgundy laid Claim to the Crown ^ but it 

•was by Virtue of \.\\e Salique Law dctermthed ht-Fa^<^u'' 

. of Philip the Long his Brother. In this Ri^igii'the 5'^«''^* 

- were banilbcd on a Sufjiicion of their haWng pOifoHecl fW 

Waters. 

Ca ARLE s IV. At the Death of dn^^Prince in the Yea? i jf* Cftw'/^' 

1322. IV. furoamcd ttn Handf^me^ third Son ^i - Philip i^'- 

fuccecded. The L&mbards an'd kalians'^mt^ oH <!« A^* 

count of their Extortions from' the Peop'.e iilltii Tin^^ 

expelled the Kitigdom. He commenced a 'War ^f* 

£ngkml\ but the two NatioHs vtere ^n ^faODnditd ^V 

• . ; ^- tbc 



0/ Fkamck; 235 

Ac loterporujon of J/aiiffa bis SIfler Wife to Edward 
Kijig of England. He died in the Yetr 1^28. 

As neither of ^he Sons of Philip IV. left Iffue Mak P"'**'' VL 
Fr^^£,mB& 3lm^ rumed ' by the loiig ContinuaiKe of a *3»8» 
Civil War on Aocount of^ the Succ^oh, the Right to 
which wascpmeftedby Pkiiip ^ Vahk a Brother's Son 
of Philip IV. and by EdivardllL Kiflg of England Sort Edward 0/ 
of Ifahdla Daughter -of Pi^itiplV, It -was pretended England 
tfadt .chistJaft Wj^'CXXrluded by the Salifue Law : But he c/^iMi tJbt 
iofifted .ibat Although the Siicceffic/r was by this LaWkCr^wii, 
barfcd.^o Females, it could not be fuppofed to extend 
to the .&>os of the Daughters <^ France' \ and that no 
Inftaoce could be prqd^jced where a King's Brother's 
iAyn had been pre^E^rrod t<o his Daughter's Son. Not* 
withftandi»g. this the States of France^ who were un- 
willing to be dependent on England and ftrongly foliicited 
ib. to. do by ii^^^rr jCount iAArtrn^ declared for Philip.* 

At &iO:. Edward ftiiled his Refentment,. and ^wtx^ War declartd 
ia Pcrfqn to do Homage to Philip for the Provinces h ^'^' 
which belonged to him in France: But beihg irritated 
to the laft Degree at the Treatment of Pljilip^ who 
obliged^ him at taking the Oath of F^aky to^lay 
afide his Crown, Scepter and Spurs, and being pref- 
fcd by his Englijh Subjeds not to givie up tamely fo . * 
well grounded a Right, he foon declared War againft 
Franc£, . He was befides fecretly encouraged , in thi^ 
by Robert Count of Artois Brother- in-Law to Philips 
whom the* laUer had difgufted by not allowing his Pre- 
tertfions K> the County of Arici's, 

In the Year 1328 the Plemmings who had taken up Battle of 
Arms jigainft PA/Aj^ received fuch a fatal Overthrow in 'Mont-Cas- 
the Bai;jte .of Mont-CaffeL, that of futcen Thoufand "^» >32^- 
Mea very few efcaped. 

The. War Wxih England was carried oh, a Truce or Battte of 
two intervening, wkhouf much Advantage on either Cressy, 
Side uniW Ed'ward landed in Normandy, After taking >347! 
maay Phwta and braviiig this French at the Gates of 
Paris he was marching through P/V/tt^^ for i%7«rfifr^i 
but being overtaken by ^iiip a Battle was fought at 
CreJJ) near Abbe%nUe\n the Year 1347. Some Circum- 
ilaacea Were favourable to the Bngti/h: Namely The 
French Tt^^ were fo^igui* by a Icmg March on the 
2 - ^ • Day 



'Day of Battfc "/hm^dermfe f\)ot hc^rcatuig tomfedRatefi 
ly their Bows . being rendered ufeWfs bjr the S:£tL t{ie 
* ' ' ' :. '' piricc of Jlenfon • lufpeQed Treachery, and, W! ridli^ in 
- * gtnongft th^.m;?KUh bi$ Horfe^^ cmkiaiik firfl: Ckj^fu&Q^ 
j^f^A^. had four (5r five large/^Pkees oflCahiiqi 
Vhicb as they bad not^^eartf tHe like before ftritck T4r* 
irot into the Frincki a»d it in^iy [)fe addled tb^'t mail; 
'fr^ch Jtords beiiig dif&tisfijWl with xheir King :u^d itf 
diflfercnt'about his Succ^sfs. It was liowever aiidft §b- 
. /j-iotis yifftpry; For ;ahhouj»h thei.Sngli/^ accordti^ to 
the Account of ihe French Hiftorians had nb^f^ore^ti 
.24,000 Men, whercaa the Fnitih Atmy confifled of 
above 100,000 Mpn, above thirty Thoufahd of the lat- 
ter were left upon the Field. Amongft the .Slain' wa$ 
^ohn King of Bohemia j who being blind had tied his 
liorfe between the Horfes of.two i'Tiends,} ahi being 
in this Manner cpndu£fed . into the.Thitfeeft of the 
• ;,.'. Battle they were all found dead together. A great 

Slaughter was the next D^y made amongft.foine 
Troops; who ignorant 6f what had i^ppcnbd wierc 
coming to joip the French Army,,: After this tjjc Eng^ 
took Calais^ notwijhftanding that Philip bad with afl 
Army of 150,000 Men attempted to r/elkv^Stj ' 
Dauphiny . Amidft thefe . Misfortunes iPA/Zr]^ had thc'&ttirfa(!li« 
annexid to the qI feeing fhe County pf Z>/?«(^A^y annexed hy^Sumberi 
Crown, its laft CouQt to the Crown, upon Condition that the 

- »349^ eldeft Son of France (hobld be for the Time* 6> come 
called Dauphik. This Count;. V^ho 'had bcfbifeput 
himfelf ^nder the ProteSion of Fnina, againft the Die 
• of Savoy^ upon the Death of his Son accideflttalfy killd 

. . . . by his own Hands retired into * J^onaftery,' atod^ 
. . , . - took Poffeffion &f his Count/ in |bfi Year IJ^V- 
«^Gabel In this Reign the Tax on. Salt:calW;tfce (?*^' 
impofid* - was irapx^fed : Which as it rnadc the SubjdS&tpay '^^^ 
; for the Watei; of the Sea and JUys/of tte-Sun &^ 
' upiverfal Difguft io France\ ;.and 'Was the OjiicAfion ot 
Edmrd;% calling FhHlip ironicaUy th^ v/irfi*;' ^ ^ 
Saligue L^w. . - /i -J • •' . ,*»'V,' .. 

JoHH, 1350. PbMip Y, was in thf Year m 350 fMCce^de^I %/^*'^{!J 
^ .gon, who wsjs ftill p^ore unfortunate te liU War^, ^ 

,£»^Wtlwnhtt Father. Prfepe£tfta^rivl^obipi^^ 
Till (J^j'^^ip Vv^ Wiicorajid witfi Only vifiXfoM^\ 




«37 

Battle of 
••Poitiers^ 
had done J hot J^n imaginiiig he y^^ in his »3S9* 
^^vvtj^puld liften t6 no Ttffmsr: Add Orders wore in* 
iSantljf ^iven to fall upon the Enfll/hj without regardiiig 
^Tt' ^dvants^ous Situation amongft t\)e Hedges aa4 
V iijdj^'r^s. % the Bravery however of the Prince and. the . 
i^Q^Hfty of his Men the Fnncb Army cohfifting of 
jli^oo Mcn'wastt^^ 6060 being aocording 

to -a^^irown Hiftori^ns ki<!fed upott tbe S)pi^ ; of which 
twch#J|fuiidTed were; Oeademert, and fifty of thent 
Vcrc.^i^^Tenlen. -CEe;King aitd his youftgeftSon werd 
takcsi'^jrifoper^. Tlie three eldeft feVcd thcmfelves by 
AyiT^mvh thefr QoVeniOur before the Adioh was over.' 
;' p&tng ibe Imjirifonirient of J^in who'Was OLirieS GrMt Qmfk-' 
into England France was reduced to A ^Ailfefiafble Condi->« >** 
tion; ' . The People taving been a lorig' Time oppreffed France. 
woqIcT iipt fubniit to the i>tff(^£m wb<^ tt)6k upon him 
the'JVJaiihiflnitFon ofAfikirs ; the Ffea&'nts ^aid no Re-" 
g^rd to i^e Authority of the Nobility ? aid the Soldiers 
being , lit payed lived by Plunder. CAirto King of- 
Nawiri took the* Advantage of this cortfufcd State -of 
Tbitt^ to hy Claiin to the Crown ; MatttrsWere hoUff 
ever ^ripcommpdated*witht him; " . * ' 

At'tSe fame Time,' as tbe$tates of FfdHce xtf\x(ti Treaty of . 
to- accept the Terms pflfefed, the King of England at Bretigni, 
the: H»d of a powerfiiFArmy raV:^d jgrcat Part piP ^l^* 
, ^nipoi: ^But a Treaty^-Was at length concluded 'ktf 
few^JBwrin the Yelsr «3i&K^ By this it was agreedi thati 




their Sovereignties ihould be added ; thi^ Edward (hould 



kx^fialdif and tfte' Counties ^^fOfey Guifnes and- 
B^^fifHuyivA thaNt^tb^ee MilliOAS of Li¥l^s &ou)d b«' 
paye<f , for the King's Ranfom. Jc^htitig In Wattt 
of IfeEpnqf did after this a very- difliohourablc THmg r 
|o,l|iai>a^hter? Whotti he fold Jn Marriage «>jhe ' 
Dife' ^ ^Kb«i feii 600 The Dutchy' - 

1^ 5iKrr««^ 'Wdming/ vacant lA biS' Time & gave it 
tfe hw »ii ?|^#' khc-SW ;^ Ftcsm whom defecpded thofe^ 
^'.,/ famous 



as* 



Of F R A N. c «. 



Charles 
V. 1364. 



War nniih 

England 



laft to the H^fe of Akjirta: 'He died in Engtend\ ii» 
, the Year 1 364 : , Whither he ad A>md Tay Had given' Kis 
Word to.r^(uri^^..havirtg.telV his Son aa aii Ifblj^gc^ 
Q^herfi^ fav th^c h6..t>nly weuit ithitber. to .ftd a tWyr.be 
was in LoyeyjFijh- / :. » . , ':. 

; QharliuM^ Son and SuoccfTorj^ furnamed the JVtfe^ 
itavrng nothif^ ifa him of hisGrapdfe|ficfVof'Father*s* 
iiaflinef^al^v^^iaf^okled toming t6' a Ba'rtle wit^ the 
EngUJh^ and .>iHfca^o\|red iy, gaining Time to tire 
them out, Heg %Af a^ Niwsltet of; Scddi^rs who lii&ig. 
^ifbanded c<>u)d; Aot ,be eafiiy kept in* order into Spain j. 
where P^*r then^rwrfand Hfihryl. '^ere^ at Waf'about 
^ Crown oft Oa^ttf.' Thefe So Will's in thcSV- March 
committed fivtl^ Ha*^ck, that the Popi fo twcvent ^j^'eir 
paflii^thriHigh Jlnt^nm &nt them'2o<\6oo'Liv;res With 
a good StoRf^. ^ffbv4ulge<icies. 

Prince S^VMird of Bngliinel^ wht> alfo. took Part, in- 
^e War, . h^yinf , • tfetteb/ hurt his Cohfluutiotl and 
dradtied his.jPufft,- .he laid. ft>mrT;axe$ on his SiibjeSs* 
lA' Guyemi4 Com^aint being hereupon i^ade* to the . 
Fr^mh CoWfi'Cfyrles^ who wafe {jreparcd for *ii War 
a^weil knew ihtf PrhKe's ill S(^e of Health,^ ikm^ 
moned him ,to appear at Paris \ prefetkdii^^that as 
Hoftiljties had been commitWd. by the* Jf'/g^^/^^ contrary 
- . • «o the Trei^ty of i^r^l^;fj? the Sovjcr^jgnry of Gujikne 

^ ¥fas- foJrfoiCed.' Upipn re^eivibg.adifdamfui Anfwer from 

flic Prihce C/^^zkAv- declared ^W^/l ; »nd having ori^red^ 

maily Fafts and Proteffions^^Jie^meofiimendellt^^it to th^ 

' Prills to preach up iin the nwilft ^athrfck.Tcmis tkfe 

Juftice of hM Ca^fe and tho iiijuftice:; >f . thb ^^^i^ 

' Thiy had a.g:oodii;feat ' Foi' W> dwn Stttg«afio^t o^' 

iQCMrtribaied fr^lyi-i?<i»w<ards^ carrying-on t,he Whr^.l^tit tt 

fo reeommended Mm- to the Priiich ilndefr the DobbCthidn. 

ef the EngUfli^ t4»at fifty Cities. aftd*^GafHes werfc tt^' the: 

Influence of th^ Ar^biOiop df ^hdul^ei iloAt brougfa't 

over to hislntefeft.^ ' .: '--^i '-/li ; *' 

Tii Affairs 9f • The' EngUJh Fkfct: being morcbver deftWyed byf^tJialt 

/A^ Lnglish of 5>*/V ofF aSW*^^, preat! Bart*^* wtet^. th^'i^B^ft* 

i« France, had gaihed 6^ tte hfr Treaty wad toft befolrb the'Sbtf. 

^^tf/r«/ greatly, coure- for .Prince'£Atvfrrf» which /were tfctai'ned^ by don- 

trary Winds, cottld-ferxive in Jf/W^,5 'Thirty .Thdufand 

.. Men 



Of F.R A N c £. a.^9r. 

*^en bei^fftvwMs landed at Calais^, tbcfe aaarcbri - 

from thence ravaging the Country as they, went cowards 
Gkyenne\ yet Charles would not hazard a Battle but con- 
tented himfclf with annoying them in their March. Whilft ' 
the Pope^ was emcleavQuring a Reconciliation^ PrtacA. 
Edward his Jllnefs increafing left the Arn^y^ wA Ihortly* 
afterdied ill Engkund. CharUs toot the Advantage of his 
De^th ^ t^ a.ttacji: the £ngli/b with fivc^different Armiirs ; 
and was fo fucgefsful, that in a Ihort Time nothing fo««s 
mained. ^to E:ngtand in France hut Calais^ Bourdedux, 
Baymne and Cherburg. In gaining thcfe AdvaoA^^t 
over the Englijh Bertrand du Guefiim ConQaUe .df*, 
France had a .great Share* . Charks fome Tioic . afcer> 
took tl|e Opportunity of EngJancPs being weajuied By k 
Plaguy and eng^ed.,wtth th^ Siotch tp make a Defceot 
upon £nglflnd\ but he got nothing thereby. 

In the Year 1378 the Emperor paid a Vifit to Charlei^^t Empergr 
at Paris^ and ojade the Dauphin iErcvocable Ficar qC^'J^'^ 
the Empire in* I)aupbit^ : Wbich^as the French fay wa»/^"**^*** 
giving up all the Right of the Empexors of Germam^ to* 
this Province and tl.e. .Kingdom of dries. 

Mvsx the Death of Charles in the Year 1380 the At^CHARLisVL 
fairs of Fmnce. w^nt on ill : tW his Son and Succeilbr ^ *3?^- 
Charlej exhauffed hisTreafury in maintaining the Rigiit' 
of Lewis Duke of Jnjou^ whom Jaii& Queen of Nupies. 
bail adopted, tath-a Kif-J«;dom. : 

The Duke of Anjoii after taking. Rofleflion of Pro*- ExpeJititm 
vence ^fhich . belonged to Jane^ notwiihftandii^ tha^/tf Naplik 
Charles.de Huras who had put her to Death was ini 
Poffisffioa of this Kingdom, fet'«ut with an Army of 
go,ooQ Hor/e fox Naples: But after great Fatigue with*i 
tut gaining aay Advantage againft Durashe. in the Yeaft 
[384..dii(d 10 ^ mtfcr^able. Condition, and very few. o£ 
J)is fioje .Aytiiy?ever returned to France, i ., - . . 

In. .the: Beginning of this. Reign the Miniftry i^xo* h/Urreaion ht , 
nifed to Jake off. ^ome heavy Taxes: fiui inftead «f FaANCi. 
his new ones were laid on and fwallowed up by Fa* 
^ourites.;. wJ)ich fo enraged the People that in' Paris 
md many other Places- the Inhabitants took up ArcvM; 
\ Srop.waa put totbcie Infurredions by cutting off 
|.o,ooa of the. Rebels in Flanders together with Artemlk 
bcir Geni^rali The iJl.Succtfs however of the Was 

againft 



ZJ^O 



Origin of tbi 

Claim of 

FrAI4CB t9 

Milan, 

1389. 



Charles 
htiomes mai^ 



FnAticz/plii 
into Parties, 



Duie ofOn^ 

LBANS a/' 

Jajfinated^ 

1407. 



T'z&^Enlish 
land in 
France, 
1415. 



Of Y^ ANfciw' 

afflithft Englandy which coft great Sum^K^ eii€f«afed tlie 
Difcontent of the People. • 

In the Year 1389 Lewis Duke of Orleans Brother 
to the King smxtuAVakntina Dattghier of the Duke of 
Milan ; and was to have with her befides Money and 
Jewels to a great Amount the County of Afii. It was 
alfo agreed, that in Cafe her Father ihould die without 
Ifftie.Maie the Dutchy of Mian jbould defcend toVa^ 
/^iifi»tf and her Heirs. 

The King, whofe Brain was nkudi hurt by the De- 
baucheries of his Youth^ as he was going on Horfehack 
into *:\8r//iiffy fell quite mad. This was faid to beoc- 
cafidned in the following Manner, in the Way a tall 
Mack Man appeared to him and faid: Step King! whi- 
ther W9uld ym g(r? Tou are heiraftd! Prefently one of 
his Attendants 'Overh>me with Sleep let his Lance fall 
upon the )Helmec of another wHo rode next before 
him I • At which the King imagining it to be a Signal 
'was exceedingly f rigbtned. Whether it< was owing to 
this 'or to the Heat of the Weather^ it being in Augiifty 
he loft his Senfes ; ' and although he bid fome Intervals 
never came rightlyt'to bimfeif, 

Charles being hereby rendered incapable to govern, 
gl-eat Difputes arofe concerning the Regency betwixt his 
Brother the Duke ^Orisons and Philip Duke tABurgun^ 
his Uncle* As the latter had* had more Experience he 
was declared Regent; yet although the Duke of 0^/r^' 
failed in his Attempt to get PoCeffion of the Capital he 
had a Jarge Party. At the Death of his Father in tlie 
Year 1404 John Duke of Burgetnefy- took Pofleffion of 
tbe Regency. The Hatred between John and the Dub 
of Qr/^ffx being hereby increafed, tb&'foraiernotivith- 
flanding a pretended' Reconclliatitmcaufed the latter to 
be dfiaffinated in the Year 1407 as he was walking the 
Streets of Paris by Night. This Piece* tif Villany in 
ftead of ftrengthening his Party increafed- that of tl 
Sons left by his Rival ; and the whole Kingdom beii 
divided into tw6 Parties Murders, Devaftations and 
the Miferies ofCivil War enfued. . 
: Thefe inteltine Troubles, which at laft ended in 
Ruin of the Burgundian Party, gave the King ofErigk 
an Opportunity of landing an Army in N^mandf: B 

afl 



^hcri^kmg'Ifytfieurin ihc-Year 1415, the EfrgH/b their 
Army being much weakened by Sicknefs were retiring 
to Cdeis.*. 

In d5e Way they were m^t near Jzincourt by ^ Battle of 
FrentbAxsnyz -Which, their own Hiftorians allow to^ziNCouRT* 
be at leaft four Tiroes the Number. of the Englijh, Not- 
withfianding this^reat Inequality and the Sicknefs which 
reigped>^iapopgft them, the Englijh fought fo defperately, 
that 6000 pf th^ French were killed on the Spot and a 
great Number were taken Prifoners: Amongft whom 
were ropy. of. the Firll Rank.. The Englijh Hiftorians 
make the Lo& of the French much giieater ; and indeed 
it feldom happens that the Hiftorians of two .Nations, at 
War agree in their Relation of 1 hings of this Sort : But 
however that was, the Engl'Jh were not in a Condition 
to pufli' the Advantage they had gained. This Defeat 
was fo far from conipofing the intefline Divifipm amongft 
the French^ ^ that iiotwithftanding the Danger from a 
foreign Enemy they grew worfe ; and the Duke of 5«r- 
^undy finding his Party decline went over to the Englijh: 
Who in axiother Caxripaign n^ade great Progre& in Nor^ 



The Government had been for fome Time fhared hyTbe ^een' i^ 
the Queen and the Conftable of France ; but her im^tM^baniJhed. 
dent Conduft having excited the King's Jealoufy fbe 
was by the Advice of the Dauphin baniflied from Court : 
Which {o ea^afperatcd her that (he joined with the 
Duke of Burgundy againft the Dauphin her own Son, 
and Civil War raged again with frelh Fury. An Ac- 
commodation was afterwards propofed with the Duke 
Q^ Bur gundy \ but in the fecond Meeting had for this Pur- ^'^^ ^"^^ ^f 
pofe the Dauphin caufed him to be aflaffinated. This ^^^^^^^^. , 
inftead of putting a Stop at once, as the Dauphin hoped it'^ ajfrjfi^^ted. 
would, to the Diforders of the, State had a quite contrary 
Effeft; for it Vendred him fo deteftable to the People in 
general as to give the Queen an Opportunity of ex- 
cluding hin^'f/om the Succeffion* 

To do this effedually a Peace was concluded wjth The Dau- 
HenryV, of England 'y and it was agreed that Henry ^ni^ is i»» 
ftould marry Catherine Daughter of Charles VI/ that h^^^f^- 
fijould have the Regency of Prance during the Life of 

VojL. L R Chariest 



$4« Q/'Franc** 

Charhs; and that after Ixts beath the Cwwn of Prm} 
ttouW be united to that of ^ngktni: fladi Kingdom 
Was however to be governed by its own Laws* A Day 
Vas a!fo fixed for the 'Dihif)inio appear at Paris and 
infwcr for the Marder of the Duke of Surgun^: In 
Defauh of which he was declared incapjfljfecif fuccecd- 
ing to the Crown and bant(hed the Kingdotri. Prom 
this Sentence he appealed to Goo and his SlroVa, and 
Tet up his Standard at Poitiers \ but only tJie Ppovrnces 
'of jfnjffu, Poiiouy Berry ^ Tours, Auvirgne and Lanptt' 
dock fided with hiili. Itliappened fcowcier^ luckily for 
liim that 'Henry idicd (hbrtly after in rfit Mcridiaii of 
liis Gforyj and the Death of Charles^h'iPttAiit^ whofe 
\Life had long been an Ejcpeftce and of no Ufe td Frum^ 
follov^ed in the (3me Year 14M. - 
Charles The DoMphin Was immediately pr6claiinCd 'by the 

Vir. Name of iiharhs VH. He had however greatDifficul- 
1422. 'ties tb ilirfholint; for.the Duke of BeHford appointed 
Henry Vl.-Regertt of ^France, having caufed fli?»ry 'VI. King of 
of 'Eiic,hJiiii>£„gjayfd'to be proclaimed at Paris; cndeavourcd'inGjn- 
ij proclaimed.-^^^'^Q^ ^j^.^. ^j^c Dukes of Burgundy ^niBretmjV) 
drive Charles out of the Kingdom. His Forces were fe- 
veral TimeS beat, and being abandoned hy many Cities 
at once he was in Derifipn, froih its being hisufiial Re- 
fidence, called King of Bourges^ ' He was at laft reduc- 
• cd to the greateft NeceiBty being fcarce ^le to iccep 
an open Table; and had it not l^n for the*Mifunder- 
•ftandidg' which at this Time arofe betwixt the 'EngEfi 
and the Duke of Burgundy his Affairs mufthave been 
entirely rUined. 
•MifuHder- T^h^ Occafion was this. Jaquiline'Qovmt^f& of Hd* 

'■ ftanding be- nault after being divorced from Jihn Duke of Brahaii 
twixt the Coufin to the Duke of Burgundy had married to the 
En GLisH<7«tf Duke of G/?r/r^^r Brother 16 Henry V. whereupon the 
-the Duke of Duke of Bttrgundy joined 'with John in his Refentmcnt 
Bt/RGuNDY. a-gainft-the'DukeoPG/^^r^^. Great Rains wcrctakea 
by the Duke of Bedfbydxx> reconcile thefe two: But it 
Was in vain; for the Bargundhn had at the Bottom an 
Averfion t6 tht'EngiiJb\ 'and this was latbly'encreafed 
bv tbefr fefufing to let the Town of Orleans xm put into 
'his H^ds. While the EngUjb were before this Placci 

wbicfc 



wbkh ijkras^ reduced to the laA £xtretnity, the /Vir^ at- 
tacked a Coiivoy going to their Camp. Being worAed 
in this Engagement, which has always been called, per- 
haps from fome Herrings carried by the Convoy J ibt 
BattU of tbt Herrings^ Charles defpaiHilg of Succcfs was 
about -to retire into Dauphirrf^ ' when an uhlopked for 
Blcffing happened to him, - ^ ^ - .. 

A Pamfel of A^c in Lorraine named Joan being in- Exploits of 
troduced to him, Cbt told Charles (he had a CommiflionJbAK ofAKci 
from God to relieve Orleans and to Tee him crowned at 
Rheims. As both thefe predictions came to pafs, the En* 
glijb were difmayed and the French began to take Cou- 
rage. This. Maid who afterwards, did Wonders was 
taken Prifoher at the ^iffge of Csmpeigne; and ^^'^^gShe'hLmt 
deliirerffd .to ,the EHgliJb Was to their great Diigrace biirpt^ Roan. 
as a Witch at .Ro^« ift the Year 1431. 

For the Sa^e of re-eftablifljing thdr Affairs the -E^-Henrv is 
gUJb caufcd, /j&wrjr VL tc^^come over to France^ apd crowned ai 
he was crowned at Paris, They alfo to keep him faft Paris. 
to their Intereft gave (be Counties of Brie and Cham^ 
paig^e to the Duke of Burgundy ; but all yirould not do. 
After the War had continqed fome Time longer with- 
out any thing confiderable being done on either Side, 
Negociations for a'Peace were at the Solicitation of the 
Pope fet on Foot at Jrras : But as the EngUJh woiild 
abate nothing of their Pr^tenfions, a Treaty was conclud- 
ed in the Year 1435 betwixt Charles and the Duke of 
Burgundy^ .which was very much to the Advantage of Death of the 
the latter. Soon after the Englijh had the Misfortune' to Dtt^^ of Bed* 
lofc the Duke t>f Bedford^ who had all along conduced ^o^^* 
their Affairs with great Prudence and Bravery f Which 
was followed with the Submiffiori of many Cities and 
amongft the reft of Paris to Charles. 

France already quite exhaufted by War Was after- Famiae and 
wards vifitcd with Famine; and to this fucceeded 2l Plague in ^ 
Plague : Which caufed To gre^t Defolation| that Wolves Frahce. 
came into the Suburbs of Paris and- devoured young 
Children. « 

A Truce being at length concluded with Eifgland^^Truet *wtth 
Charles JFor the fake of bufying his Soldiers fent a large England* 
Body of them to difturb the Council of Baftl: But atfter 
Ra an 



244 df^K A li C E.^ 

an Engageftvent with the Swlfs in which eight TBoa- 
fand Qf them were killed' the reft returned home. 
ne English ^ The ancient Valour of the EngUJb being leffened their 
Jri'venoutef^yxpi^i^^i^ France vftt^ biit fewi and thefe being ill 
France, payed Jived by Plunder. England was befides much dif- 
H49* turbed by inteftine Troubles; an4 it had fufFered greatly 
in two Battles with the Scotch. Charlis judging this Con- 
jupflure favourable under a Pretence that the Enilijk 
had broke the Truce attacked them in the Year 1449 ^'^ 
great Vigour : And in about three Month*a Time drove 
them quite out of Normandy, In the next Year he became 
'Matter of sil Guyenne except Bayonm; whicii being 
1451. jakenin.theYear 1 45 1 nothing remained to the Enghjhk 
pranu except Calah and the County of Guifnes, I'hus 
" *' the Kihgdbnt of France^ great part of. which had been 
, above 300 Years fubjeflt to E^Jglandf was almoft ^11 uni- 
' . ted under Charles, The Joy hereby occafioncd was 

however leffened by the Quarrel betwixt Charles and 
his 3on:; Who kept away from Court for the Space 
of thirteen Years. ' Charles Being at'laft perfoadcd that 
a Defign was formed agaihft his Life,' he laid it fo 
much to Heart that he died of Grief in the Year 1461. 
Lewis XI, : Lewis XI. his Son and JSucceffor, who was a cunning, 
refolute and cruel Prince, laid the Foundation- of that 
abfolute Power which the French Kings haVefince en- 
joyed. His firft Step was to remove all the Miniftry 
.. ^ > ,. who would not come into his Meafures : The Confe- 
_ , , .quence of which being forefcenj a League was entered 
into by many of the principal Nobiiity for preferving 
the Liberties of the People againft the Encroachments 
of the Prerogative. Into this, which was called the 
League for the publick Goody the Dukes of Burgundy and 
V Bretany entered : .And the former having entered Frmct 

Battle of with a powerful Army came to an Engagement with 
Mont- , Lewis near Mont-Vheri. No great Advantage was 
L*HERu gained on either Side; yet as the King retired with his 

Troops in the 'Night following the Duke claimed the 
. " r Victory; andjhe was thereby encouraged to form toogreat 
Defigns, which in the Encl coft him his Life. 
Intrhues of To extricate himfclf from thefe Difficulties Lmi 
Lewi* ^^ off fomc Taxes and amufcd the People with fair 

Proroifes; 



(y F R A N^ C E. 545 

Promifes ; all which as Toon as the Danger was over 
he forgon Having; bought off feme of the Heads of 
League he found Means to fow Dlfcord amongft' the 
reft; andatlafttodiflblveitquite. Still the Duke of \S«r- ' 
gundyhM it out, and having in' the Year 1468 furrounded 1468. 
him at Feronne Litvis was very near being taken Prifoner, Burcun or 
This troublefome Enemy being in the Year 1477 kil-^^^^r^^ /^ /^z 
led by the Stvi/s before Nancy Lewis feized his Domini- French 
ons; and it was thought he would by Marriage huvtCrowM, 1477. 
annexed them to the French Crown : His Enmity how- 
ever to the Burgundian Family was fucli that he rather 
chofe to ruin it entirely. 

Two Years before the Duke of Burgundy's Death Eowarh ^ 
Edward TV, of England landed in France v^hh a JargeENCLAWD 
Army : But he was prevailed on by the Prefcnts and l^ds in 
Promifes of Lewis to return home. Provence, Anjou^^^^'^^^* 
and Maine were afterwards annexed to the Crown of 
France : Charles the laft male Heir of the Family thefe 
belonged to having bequeathed them by Will to Lewis ; 
nor was any Regard paid to the Claim put in by 
Rene Duke of Lorrain in the Right of his Mother. It 
Vas the Praftice of Lewis to borrow Money of his 
Officers, and whoever refufed to lend was difcharged. 
Hence that vile Cuftom in Francs of felling Offices took 
its Rife. The latter Part of his Life was quite miferable ; 
for he was continually tormented with the fear of Death* 
He died in the Year 1483. 

His Son Charles VIIL had in the Beginning of hisCHAHtKs. 
Reign a Quarrel with the Doke*of Bretany^ and took VIII. 148 j. 
the Field with a Defign to fubdue this Province: But 
underftanding that a Match was agreed upon betwixt 
MaximilUan of Aujlria and Anne Heirefs of Bretanf^ 
and being unwilling that a Right to this Dutchy fliould 
pafs to the Houfe of Aujlria^ he by Perfuafion and 
Threatning prevailed upon the Lady to break withBaiTANT 
Afaximillian and marry him. By this which hsip* annexed to 
pened in the Year 1491 Breiany v^zs annexed to the /^* French 
Crown of France. Crown^ 1491. 

Henry VII. of England having (hortly after laid5'/>^r^ 
Siege to Bouloign, he was prevailed upon by a Sum of Bouloion. 
Money to give it over, Henry was the more willing 
• R 3 to 



246 0/ F K Avcn. 

to do this i becaufe Maxim! Hi an^ wHom Chdrhs had afr 
fronted not only in robbing him of his Mlftrefs but 
^I|b in fending bsick his Sifter Margaret to whom he 
was engaged, did not join him ^s he had promifed. Af- 
ter this feparate Peace with Henry Maximtllian, who 
had already taken Jrras and St, Omers, confented that 
his Son Philip Governor of the Netherlands fhould come 
to an Agreement with Chaneu 
The RousiL- The Roufillon and Cerdagne were foon after ceded by 
C^l ''Igne ^V^'^^ ^o Ferdinand of CaJiilU. Some think tliia was 
ERDAGN ^Qj^Q (Q prevent Ferdinand's oppofing his EntcrpriTc 
SfAtN. againft N.iples'^ others that-his Confeffor bribed by/>r- 

^//j^»i perfuaded him to reftore thefe Provinces to their 
lawful Sovereign- As France was now in a flourllh- 
ing Condition Charles^ under 2^ Pretejice* that the Right 
of the Houfe of Anjou to Naples^ ^hich .was by the 
Will of the laft Duke given to Lewis %\. devolved 
upon liim, refolved to attack this Kingdom. He was 
encouraged to do this by Lewis Sfor^a furnathed the Mo^r 
Duke of Milan^ which Dufchy he had unjuffly taken 
from his Nephew John Galeace to whom he was Go- 
vcrnour. The Moor hoped thereby to divert the Re- 
fcntment of Ferdinand King of Naples^ for this ill Treat- 
jment of John Galeae^, who was by Marriage pearly allied 
to Ferdinand, 
Naples eon- In the Year 1494 Charles fet out for Itolj ; ai^d being 
fu^re^^ J494- arri vcd at ^i?OTi^ was declared by the Pope who durftnot 
r^fufe it King of Naples^ As Ferdinand and his Son 
* were .botl^ univerfally detefted for their Cruehy^e cafily 

became Mafter of the Capital \ and the wKole KingdoiiJ 
except the Ifle of Ifchia and the Cities 6{ BrunJiJi 
.^nd GallipoU fubmitted to him. , The Cohcjueft of fo 
fine a Kingdom, and within five Months alarmed the 
Suitanjf who well knew the Difpofition of, the Grei^^ 
to revolt upon the leaft Affiftance from the French *"^ 
Jnftead of taking Pains to fecure himfelf in his new King- 
dom Charles minded only his Pleafures : By wWch and 
other ill Condua he foon loft the AfFcaidns plf the K^a- 
ftliians, ^ ; 

'4lHanc9 Thjs Acquifition l^eing alfo looked upon -with jealous 

f^^'V Eyes by the other Power<§ of Europey an Alliance was 

Cl^Ai^l'Bs, '*'^ * entered 



Cy Franc?! 94? 

cntessd intp by the Emperor, the Pout, * fifriliuand 
Kiogt of CaJliUj the Puke of Mian anq the Repub-r 
licj^ Qi( Fema for driyii^g the French out of li^ily ; 
tJpoQ vp^cb CbarJes fearing his Retreat might b^ pit 
off made the beft o£ his Way for France without 
leaving a fufficient ,Ni|Qiber of Troops for the EXefeace 
of Naples* In their Way the French had an Engage-: 
ment with and defeated the allied Army near the 
T^ra*,^ t|i«y however continued their Rouf iif'^tb gre^( 
Diligence. 

As Charles had takeq fo little Care for the Freferva- Naples re^ 
tlon of NapliSf this Kingdom was to his great D\t*conquind* 
grace ^e-conq]mered ^ithin the SpacQ of s^ Ytzt : ^nd 
^exy few of the French left there had the Ff^ppinpf^ 
\o return home. In the Year 1498 Qbar{e$4ii^ Without 
leaving any Ifllie. 

Uw^s XH. Puke of Orleqn^ yhp (vp^^qpd^d for Lewis XII. 
the ia]^e di keeping Br^tany married th^ l^te . King's 1498* 
Wijpw. He fpon after his Acceflion fet up a Claim 
to Miian, founded on the Right of Falef^i^^ his GraQd<» 
mother; and took PolTeffion of it withqu^ (l^edding 4 Milan cotn 
Drop of Bloody Lewis the. Moor fleeing with his f^-quered. 
mily into Germany* He however returned with aa 
Army of Swi/s^ and as his Subje^s irritated at the Lir 
berties taken with their Wives and Daughters by the ' 
Frenck received him wkh great Joy, he ipop recovered 
all except the Caftle of Milan and City of Novara* 
Upon the Arrival of frefc Troops from Frana the 
Snji)il[s Troops refufed to fight ; and the Diike endeai- 
vouring to efcape \vi the Habit of a comnion Soldier 
was di^overed and put into a Prifon ; w(iere*he died tea 
Vears ^jft^r. 

plqflied with this Succefs Lemii refolved to attempt the Naples ««- 
Cqnqufift of Naples ; and the better to fucceed -entered quered, in Cen^ 
into an Agreement with Ferdinand th^ Catholick for^^''^'^''^ '^' 
dividing this I^ingdom bptwixt them. This Conqueft^^^'^'^'^"'^ 
cofl: very little Trouble?: For in the Year 1 501 /Jy^iriVi '^o** 
Ki^kg pf Naples fubmitted to Lewis^ And was fupported 
in France afterwards' with a Penfion of 30,000 Crowns. 

A? the two Nations could not agree about fettling ffjg French 
their refpeQive Sh^r^s it came jtp Blows : In which the dri^ven from 
R 4 FrenchNAFLit. 



24^ 



ClNOA, 

1507. 

War ivith 
VSNICB. 



jfllianee 

frainft 

1510. 



tyFRANCEJ 

Frtneh had it firft the -Advantage ; biil^ by the brave 
ConduA of Gonfalvo o{*C'orduba the Spamjh General 
they were in a fhort Time driven out of the Kingdom, 
To make Amends for this^Lpfs Lewh in the next Cam- 
paign fct five Armies on Foot; yet finding he. could 
gain no Advantage he was glad to make Peace with 
Ferdinand, 

In the Year 1507 the City of^ Genoa at that Thnc be- 
longing to the Dutchy of Milan revolted : But it was 
foon reduced to Obedience.. . , , . 

A War was not long after commenced a^ainft the 
Venetians \ whofc Encroachments on all their Neigh- 
bours could no longer be born. To humble this proud 
State an Alliance was entered into at Cambray betwixt 
the Emperor, the Pope, and the Kings of Prance and 
Spain. Being hurried into this Confederacy with his 
natural Enemies, and againft a' State whofe Friendfhip 
he ought to have cultivated by a Notion thaf the fe- 
netians had contributed to his Lofs of Naples y Lewis W2s 
the firft who took the Field -agaihft them. ■ The total 
Rout of their Army near Oiera in the Year 15019 flruck 
fuch Terror into the Venetians that they abandoned all on 
the Continent : And if Lewis had pu(hed hrs Suicccfs they 
muft have been quite ruined. Inftead of this he by 
returning to Milan gave the Venetians Time to recover 
themfelves ; efpc!cially as they faw the other Allies of 
Cambray were not in earneft. 

In the Year 15 10 the Pope, Ferdinand^ Henry WW' 
pf England and the SiJoifs united with Venice againft 
France. The two firft were grown jealous of Lewis's 
Power in Italy; Henry being juft come to the Throng 
had a Mind to diftinguilhhimfelfj arid the Stvifs were 
angry- becaufe their Subfidy was not paid, in this 
War the French General Ga/lan de Foix behaved 
extremely well. Having relieved Bttlagna he obtained a 
Viftory over the Venetians in the Brejfan^ and cut in 
pieces above 8000 of them. He afterwards routed 
the Confederate Army near Ravenna : But by purfuing 
too far he was flain. The Death of this Hero was a 
fatal Stroke to the French ^ who foon loft all in Italy \ 
904 Maximillian Son of Lewis the Meor was reftorcd 



Of F R A N C E. ^49 

by the Swifs to Milan. During this War John 
D'Jlhgrt an Ally of the French loft his Kingdom of Na- 
varre: Nor could the French recover it for hikn from 
Ferdinand King of Spain. 

As L^ivis fet his Heart much on Milan he made Peace Milan re- 
with the Venetians^ and had in the Yca^ 151 2 r^g^intd covered and 
moft of it : But by the coming up of fome Swifs Succours/^?/ ^f ^*«» 
the Siege of Novara where Maximillian had (hut him- *S'2. 
feif up was raifed, and the ir^»fA were once more 
forced to.evgcii^te this Dptchy.. In the mean Time 
France was attacked by the Emperor, England and the 
Swifs \ and if Henry of England had joined the Swifs Lewis 
would in all Probability have been ruined : But inftead of 
advancing into' tfie Heart of the Kingdom Henry amuf- 
ed himrdf .'With the Siege of Terouane. The French 
endeavouring to relieve it were defeated near Guine- Battle of 
gaft. This Battle, in which the French ufed their /y^^ Spurs. 
iSpurs more than their Swords, has been always called 
the Battle of the Spurs. Henry having afterwards taken 
Tournayht went back to England: And the Duke of 
Tremouille by promifirig that their Arrears fhould be 
paid; that the Council of Pifa fliould be broke up; 
and that all Pretenfions to the Milanefe fhouid be waved 
prevailed' on the Swifs to raife the Siege of Dijon. The 
Excufe for not; fulfilling thefe Engagements was that 
they were made without the King's Order ; it would 
however have coft the Hoftages left by the Duke dear, 
if the Swifs had not preferred the large Sums offered by 
them to their Blood. In the next Year Lewis conclud-TV^^/y tvAth 
ed a Treaty with England^ and married Mary ii?«r/s En gland. 
Sifter, Lewis who was fo beloved by his Subjefls as to 
be called the Father of his People died in the Year 15 1 5. 

Francis I. his Kinfman and Succeflbr, having con- Francis I. 
firmed the Alliance with the EngUJh and Republick of 1515. 
Venice and entered into one with Charles King of 
Spain^ niade an Irfuption into Italy ; and meeting with 
little Refiftance became Mafter of Genoa and a great 
Part of Milan. Being foon after unexpcftedly attacked ^.^rz/Zf of 
in his Camp at Marignan by the Swifs bdth SidesMARiGNAH, 
fought defperately ; yet the Sivtfs were repulfed with the 
J-rofs of jOjOOO Men. This Viftory was followed with 

the . 



iS^ 



He is a Can' 
didatefor the 
Imperial 
Crow^, 
1519. 
War luitb 
Spain. 



Fre^ich 
abandon Ml- 
X.AN, I5ZI. 



Charles 
Duke cf 
Bourbon 
goes into the 
Emperor'/ 
9fr*uicf» 



Of Fk AH Cti 

the Surreoder of Mutimillian and bis whcifi JPMAj 
to Francisj who aUomd bim ^.y^^arly Peniioa of 30^000 
Ducats : And the SwUi fiodii^ ^t Francis was will- 
ing to pay their Subudy (hortly after entered into "an 
Alliance with him* By an Agreement with Pope Leo 
X. Francis was to have the Right of PrefentatiQi^ to 
all Ecclefiaftical Bcniftces iJt Milqn ; but the Pope was 
to have the firft Fruits of the 019ft. cqnilderabkt In 
the Year 1518 the EugHfii ion a Sum of Mon^sy de- 
livered up Tourite^^ 

Upon the Death of the Emperor 'MaximUliM m the 
next Year Ft^ncis ufed hia utmoft Eodeavoura to ob- 
tain the Imperial Dignity. The Archduke C6^rl^,Jbe- 
ing preferred ,to htm his next Care was to guar4 agaioft 
the Defigns of this enterprifing Prince ; At^ bis Jea- 
loufy of Charles foon (bowed itfelf by decl^iqg War. 
As Spain was difturbed by domeftick Feudf he found 
no great Difficulty in conquering N^varr^-, but iathe 
Year 1 5 z i the Spaniards drov« the French out pf Ncvarrtj 
and HoftiJities were commenced in the L9w C^uMries : 
Where Robert Baron of Sedan after putting himfelf 
under the Prote&ion of Francis had attacked Luxemburg. 
Charles foon reduced him to Obedience* mi concluding 
his Revolt was fpirited up by the French took £rpm 
them St. Amand and Tournofm 

In Italy, the French were defeated by the Germans 
near Bicoca: And having abandoned JMilan Francis 
Sforfa was by the Emperor and the Pope eflj|blilhed 
there. Fontarabia in Flanders was retaken UkewiCe in 
this Campaign, for the delivering up of which Charles 
had before of&red to make Peace : But this ill Succefs 
of the French was in a great Meafure owing to the 
going of Chatles Duke of Boiurbon into the Emperor's 
Service. 

His Reafon was iuppoied to be the ill XJ(^ he met 
with from the Queen-Mother ; by whom la Suit was 
commenced for lakipg away his Dutcby pf ^^curion: 
which as he had no Hopes of fucceediqg ^gainft fo 
powerful a Rival . deteimii^ed him io enter^ into an 
Alliance with .the. Emperor and ^k)g of Ef^nd, 
It was a^effd by them that Frame ibou|d bp rdv^ided 

betwixt 



<y France. 2^1 

fc;t#lilc( {RfW6 lift; and that the Duktfcyf'Aftrj^ • 

as to marry tHc! Emperor's lifter fliouM have the King^ 
'dom of Arbip , While a Defeent was made on Picardy 
"by the EngliJH^ the Duke of B$krhoH in the Year 
1 524 rtpulfed with great lx)<s a French Artny in the 
Milaruffij #hid) Was commfanded by the Admiral Bon^ 
I nivet. Francis being in the next Garhpargn perfitaded l^ 
' Bonrnvei to take the' Command on the Side of Italy in 
Perfoti, he was the more willing t<^ db it beeaufe Charltt 
had already entered Frmence and laid Siege to Afer* 
ftilUi. Being arrived in Italy Francis fit down before 
Pa^0 ; But after his Troops had for two Months been 
fatigwd with the Siege of this PlaCe, *^I^« o'f -Bw«^ Francu is 
ton, who at firft retired, having received a confidcrable/^i^P,./^gii.. 
Reinforcen^ent fell lipon him in bis Cam^^, and after 1^2^. 
routing his Army made him Prifoner. 

As the dofe Confinement of Fronds^ who was car- jjg {^fif gg 
ried into Spain, threw htm into a dangerous Dittem' Liierty. 
per, his Mipiftejs fearing he would die a Prifoner coti*- 
fented at laft to the Terms of Ranfom propo(ed by 
Spain, 

About this Time a Confederacy was entered '^^'^ ffg jai„s in a 
by England and the States of Italy for checking th^ Confederacy 
Power of Charles, which feemcd to threaten the LxhtV" againft 
ty of Europe. The Conditions of his Releafe bcingCHARLE^, 
very di&onourable Francis^ notwithftanding he had 
given his Word to return if they were not performed, 
declared them hot binding beeaufe they were extorted 
frotn him white he <iva8 a Prifoner ; and that as they wens - 
ifioreov^r contrary t6 his Coronation Oath it was out 
of his Power to perform them. The fame was afferted 
by th^ States of Prana^ and the Burgundians infifted, 
that he could not feparate Burgundy to which he had 
only a Right for Life from the French Crown. Francis 
toon after allied himfelf to England and the States of 
ita^y^ and as Terms of Peace could nt)t be agreed up- 
on War was declared by all thefe againft die £mpe- 
roh Beihg hereupon taxed by Charles with having 
broke his Word Francis gave him the Lie in plain Terms 
and fent him a Challenge; this Behaviour was hoWf 
pi^x lool^^d upon as t)uite unbecoming si Prince. 

Th? 



i$z Of, Fr a n,cX 

Sie^ •/% The Army of France, which vfz% comwikn^^ \jg 

Naples. Odet^ ii Fo'tx Baron of LautreCf\zfttr malting **jgrcat 
Progrcfs in the Milanefe: penetrated into Ifafles and 
laid Siege to the Capital : But a Stop was put .to th^ 
Succefs by the Imprudence of /r^ wV, wlio Vefufed u> 
beftow the Government of Genoa on Ajfmiral Jlndr}^ 
Doria a Native, and to reftore the Town '^f \$qvqr 
na to this Republick. Hereupon por ia vt^love^ to 
the Party of CharleSy and had a great Share in dta^ 
ferving the Communication with Naples by Sea^ , Du- 
ring the long Siege of this Town a rJague'^brQke 
put in the French Army; which having parried' off 
great Numbers with their General the left were made 
Prifoners, 
Brave and dif'^ This was followed with the Lofs of all in Milan ; 
intrefted Con- znd that great Man Dorta acquired immortal GIo- 
d/ua cf Do- yy by preferring the Liberty of his Country/ when it 
RiA. ^as in his Power to take upon himfelf the fovereign 

Authority. 
7reaty ef ^^ length, Francis being defirous that his Children 

Cambrat^ left as Hoftages fhould have their Liberty, aTreaty was 
1529. in the Year 1529 concluded at Cd!/«Artfy : By which he 
agreed to pay a large Sum for the Ranfom of his Sons ; to 
give up the Sovereignty of Jrtois and Flanders to Charles', 
and to renounce all Pretenfions to Italy, 
Betienualof The War being renewed in the Year 1535 Franr 
the War nx^iihcis had a Mind to open himfelf a Way to Milan through 
Spain, 1535. s^^^j,. and having fet up Pretenfions to this Dutchy 
in the Right of his Mother he foon became Mafter of 
moft of it. On the Death of Sforca, which happened 
about the fame Time, it was refoived by the Emperor 
to annex the Dutchy of Milan to the. Dominions of 
the Houfe of Aufiria. Having after making fure of 
this Dutchy thrown himfelf iato Provence with an Ar- 
my of 56,000 Men, he pillaged ^A'** and laid Siege to 
MarfeilUs\ but his Army falling fick he thought pro- 
per to retire. Another Army from th» Netherlands^ 
which penetrated at the fame Time into Picardy, was 
after taking Guife, St Pol and Montr euil defeated be- 
fore Peronne. Upon this Succefs Francis pretending 
that the Sovereignties .of Jrtois and Flanders were in- 

' ' ' Teparabfc 



feparable from the French Crown fummoned Charles to 
appear as. his Vaflal for thefe Counties j and he like* 
wife entered into an Alliance with the Yuris^ Th« 
firft of thefe appeared to all Mankind ridiculous, and 
the fecond was thought extraordinary in a Chjriftiaa 
Prince -, but Franch endeavoured to excufe it by faying 
that the EmperoY bad endeavoured to do the .fame. 

By the Mediation of the Pope the Truce concluded the Truce ecndai* 
Year before at Nice^vns in the Year 1538 prolonged^<^tf<NicBt. 
for the Term of nine Years j and thefe two Princes, »557* 
who had been fo long deadly Enemies, in an Inter- 
view at Jigffes-Mertts gave each other the ftioogeft 
Affuranccs of bieing heartily reconciled. In the fol- 
lowing Year Charles ^ fuch was his Confidence in Fran^ 
CIS, went through France to quiet a Commotion in Ghent. 
He however for his greater Security made the French 
King Believe he would give up the Milanefe to him. 
This being afterwards refufed, the Conftable Aiontme- 
rency was difgraced for advifing Fronds not to infift 
on a Promife in writing from CSjarles^Amxi he was at Park. 

In the Y^ar 1542- the Truce was broke by Francis ^HoftUitiet re* 
whofe Ambaffadors Cafar Fregofa aad Anthony Rincen commenced^ 
were in their Way through Mian to Venice murdered. >S4*« 
and as it was fuppofed by Order of the Governor : And 
as Charles had lately fuffered fome Lois before Algiers^ 
he thinking the Opportunity favourable refolved to at- 
tack bim.'with five Armies at the fame Time. One 
of thefe. took many Places in Luxemhurgi and a Di« 
verfion being made in Hungary , by Selyman Emperor of 
the Turh Gran ' and fome other Towns on that Side 
were taken. The Pyrate Barbarojfa came alfo to the 
Affiftancc of the French i but his C&rfairs did them 
more Hurt than Good. CharUs on his Part concluded 
an Alliance with Henry VIII. of FnilanJ, whom Fran* 
CIS had difoufted by aiEfting the Scotch -, and after chaf- 
tiCng the Duke of Cleves for his Attachment to France 
fat down before. Landrecy^ His Attempt on this Place 
failed i and the French in the mean Time obtained a 
VlQory over the Imperiall/ls near Cerifoles in Piedmont i 
but they could not pufh it, becaufe many of their Troo^ Battle ef 
were recalled tooppofe the Empergx and Henry^ whoCsRisoLis*; 

had 



*54 O/FKAVdlt. 

ted agceed ^to tMcx Frwfd ^ilh vn Armj 6f ttb^dSO 
Men. The Empcfor bad ^fter talcing Luxemburg 
advanced ti far a$ GbaUiawTbUrryj aod the City of Pa- 
r/f was in tbfe gieateft Coofternaition. If Henry liad at 
l^is Time made the beft of his Way through Picard% 
^Gcordii^ ito* feke Agreement >hetiiui^ him and GiutrUt^ 
that Metsopolia^nouft have ftlka. iatd itheir Hands, and 
:they ought have^xnetraced into the Heatt of die Kiiig^ 
7fTetty tf ^s he did qpt Charles cboeliided a Treaty with Frwais 
C'RfesPY. '^'Cfefpy iathe Yea^ i$47 ;by ^htchtitwaiagreed tbat all 
1547. -Haces.taken A»ii)d;be Miftosbd «n tbolh Sides. Cherks 
mpceoioer pronsftd to thfrDt|keof<2r/M«r^ feCondSon 
-<}{' Framis^ hh Daugbfier/in Marriage, with ^either the 
Dutchy o£ JUiian or AzNetherlai^di as a Portion ; but 
•this Adatch .wasi'^Ytented foom itaktng' i&St by the 
>Dtrke's Death. 
Hbnry II. 'i^rwiw Iv-whoiditd in Ac Yeaf ^547 waa/iictcedcd 
1 547. by Hemj'llk. hrsuSen. TJiis Prioce foon after bis Accefion 
took jtofisiioii)^ the^Marquifate ofjStf/tfrr^^ which fell 
•to hiitP by the Death :of XSahiel the . Jaft Marquis with- 
out Heirs. • ln:the'-YeaTii549.be..^verely puniflied the 
inhabitants iof Boer demix mho ^di revolted ; and in the 
next Yezr^Bouhlgn waa. bought .of the Englijb for a Sum 
ofMaoey. 
tt^ar nvith ' *As^thc fjnperoTwasrengagcd with the TurisznA withhis 
Charles -SrofeilantSubj^ifk in^G^nrMMry, Henry in the Year 1551 
1552. «eiblvedtoibreak.«litli him* Having oonckded an AUiaoce 
- ^nAtlt JMStn/riVif- vEiefiocxof ^Saxeny^ he in the Year 1552 
^nnircfaedant^knny 'towards the Rhiney which in its Way 
'• furprized oA/^z, 7a»/iand/Vn^ffyand was very near do- 
ing the fan>e to Strit/beurg : But a ieparate Peace being 

• inaftJd^by Maurioe withthc Emperor, and Henry being re- 
queftedbyvfome O^rxvan Princes to go no farther into 
the Einptre ^he retired. Henry in his Return took feve- 

• 4-al Places in :LiMr#in^8r^. Metz being after this bc- 
-fieged by Cbar/es with an Army of 100,000 Men, the 

«^Duke. of Gaife itftadcd it fo bravely that after great 

• Lofe he gains over, the :Siege. In Revenge for this Diftp- 

; *pfOTntnient he threw himfelf into' the County jfrteis-, 

' mtui having tsLkenTerouenne entirely demolifhed it. He/- 

' din Jiad>tbe iisime(J^«ate$ and the Gs^rifona of both Places 

wcw 



0/Framc«. 255 

tme put t& ft# Sword. I» Italy the Fnwh todc Siitine Bank of 
and ftme^aces in the Ifland ^f GQrpca \ but being de- Marciano, ' 
feaied in the Yew i 555 iicvr Maram^ they abaadjMied » S $S • 
the fdrtner^ 

G&itf'^j whom the Year 1556 refigncd th^ Spam^Su/penfion •/ 
CtO'Mi> hteifig deliioiis that the ficginmog of bis Son's ^'Wi. 
Reiga ibould bff p^iKreable, had a^ed upon a SuT- 
penfion of Amis j Sut this was fcarce figned before 
Hoftilitie8> were at^he laftigation of Fope Paul VL re- 
comtiiesited. - - 

The Duke of Gulfe was hereupon fcnt into Itdiy Hoftilities rf^ 
with a powerful Aimy j but he did nothing remarkable. ;«wW. 
Pibffi^'liavitig engaged England on his Side befieged £/. 
^intim with an Army ^f so^oco Men. The Conftablc j5^i//^ »/St. 
Montm§y0uy atteitt^tpd-to Relieve this Ptaoe : 'But he wasQuiNxm. 
entffdy defeated. If tHis viftorioue Army had maiicbed 
difedfy towards Paris Prana wotid iiave been iina 
bad QMiditiont But PA/tf/>, fufpeaing that the Duke 
of Savoy his AHy might for die Sake of obtaiping 
good Terms reconcile *imfelf to Frma^ Would, nbt 
fufFcr it to advance into the<Jountry, After taking St. 
^ifittn by Storm the refk of the Campaign was 
wafted in taking HaHy (Sbaukf^tid 'Nny$n. The J^rrnr^ 
havihg by this Means Time -to re-eftaiblifli ctheir Mf- 
fairs, "Tbimvilky Cktlais mA feme other Pkccs rwcre 
afterwards taken from the Bnglijb byithe Duke of Gttife. 
In the Year 15^59 the 'French Army uirfer Mafeflial 
DeT'ermes was beat riear GraveUfits\ and with aView Battle of 
tothe annexing (^5iv/fiMi;to the Crown of Frwwtt theGRAVB- 
I>auphin Was 'marticd to iftfefy- Queen of 5Gilj;-fbut lines. 
there being np Iflud <tf this Marriage the ScheroeWiled. 
A Treaty being in the fame Year ODttclnded at Chateau freaty of 
Camhrefit^ the Conditions were x\i2X Chatelet^ Han,£tXHATEAxj 
^intin and 198 other Towns fliould be ghren'uputoCAMBREsif, 
Spain and other ^Powers 5 fend that the Duke of Samoy » 5 S9* 
dould be fully reftored to his Dominions. After dhe 
making of this Peace, which was indeed very prejudicial 
to Friincij it was i^folvcd by the States to meddle 510 
more in Italy -^ and to break the Alliance with .die 
Turh* 

Shortly 



'256 Of F RAH Ct. 

Death pf ' , Shortly, after fl>«ry in Tilting with the Earl of JhUtif* 

Hbnry. ^om^ry received- a Wound in his £y:e» ^which inllamly 

^took ?way his ^Senfes and Speech, and .carriejd. him off 

at the End of .eleven .Days. TWs unhappy Acdde^nt 

entirely fpofled.tbe Mirt)i at the Mailrigge whi^ had 

before been concluded bctwixt^is Siller Maf^qr^t aqd 

, Phil'tbertThfiii^oi Sa^. . .. -; ,.is. . 

t^fiANcis II. V Soon after the Acccflion of .Fr^mk iL.his Son the 

1559. cruel civil Wars^ by which i^f4»^,ta^. beca^ fo.Joog 

. . javagcd, were commenced. In ordpr to under^b^fijlthe 

Origih of theTe;:aright it is jopc^ffwy t<D.jQol;4>a<dfv -' 

Origin ef the The Houfe of Bourhon, which npxtto ihcj^prefcnt 

tiitlWars refgning Family 6( Falois had the beft Ri^t to. the 

Crown, had for a Ipng Timp encreaftd fp^ijjuch in 

Riches and Ppwer. a? tq makp ..fogie fgrfinei^ .JCings 

jealous. ' Francis I. did indeed jn,|he,3?giflWigiof his 

Reigo make Cbarltr- Duke of Bmrkg^ Sh^^^^^ ^ 

' France and Prime Minifter : .But ^ the J!4axii?a^.oC,kccft- 

; ing this Houfe under, which his, Fret^ec^rs ia4 H' 

- lowed, foon prevailed. This ^hcM^g pprceiv^d Qfarlts 

. went into the Emperot's Service;. and he it^,was^hqcom- 

mandisd the ImpicrJal Army at the. Battle of P^ti^, where 

^ Francis.w2Ls made Ptifpncr. Afte/jmany Signal Sejfyjc^^ 

he was flain at the ftor^ning of JRoiifiin thp ^ear .1527. 

•- The reft of the iB^a***^ F^foiiyj^^ire frqm tl|^t Time 

looked upon .wtb au evil , Eye, an^ ((leijoules ojf Gtafe 

zndJkfontmorehcyyferQC^nfkd hy Francis. The.iyftof 

thefe which had for. it^ Chief C4?^ P^i^^ of ^^^^^ .^^^ 

a Branch of. the.,Houfe,of i<7r^^/»j t)ie ptb^ <jne, of 

the moft ancient Fan^iUes oi- France, was. headed 

. hy Jnnas Montmirency ConA^ltoS France^., Towards 

the Clofe of tb<it Reign botluthefe^ial]ing into t^ifgracc 

. wfre baniflied the Court }>an4; i| js^fiy^ ^hat JFramis 

upoa his Death-Bed advifed his .^n.^tg j^ployjieithei 

. of them ; repreff^pting to him that ^t wa^ dangiefious to 

• have Minifters .pf fiich Abilities, and Intercs^.*.- Npt- 

Withflanding jtbis. Advic^ 4^^^ of Jjdpnfmsrengi and 

I Francis Duke oi,Gt{iJe rjwere bpth r^ceiyeii,^ into Fa- 

1 vour: But a Je^Iojiify foon. arpfe betwixt thern^ for t)ie 

former valued hinpfelf . upon his .political Capacity, and 

the latter piqued liimfelf on his miliury Abilities. The 



O/' F R A k c fi. 257 

Dnke of Guife^ who had always been popular, gretr 
more fo by defending AUtz againft Char/is and taking 
Calais from the Englijh, On the contrary M ritmifreruy 
was much blanied for lofing die Battle of St. ^intin^ 
and he was looked upon to be principally concerned in 
advifitig the difhonouraMe Peace. 

The Guiftt grew more confiderable by the Mar«71(f Gvistt 
riage of fronds to Mary Queen of Scots their Sitttr^BJireff e*utry 
Daughter* and at length every Thing in France wzsThin^ in 
ihttStei by the Duke and the Cardinal his Brother* F&amcb. 
This not only mortified Mmtmarencj : But the two Bro« 
thcrs of the Bourbon Family Anthony King of Savarre 
and the Prince of C^^r could not brook it. Anthony 
indeed being of an eafy Difpcfition had nothing more 
in View than to recover his Kingdom of Neevcttre^ and 
in the mean Time wts contented with the Revenue he 
received from Btam ; but the Prince of Conde was am- 
bitiousy" and fo poor withal that he could not live up to 
bis high Rank without fome coniiderable Employment. 
Befides this, the Admiral Coligny an artful proud Man 
and hts Brodier D^Andeiot^ who was of a bold enterpriz- 
ing Temper, were continually inciting the Prince of Conde 
to affert the Superiority of his Family. This was the Situ* 
ation of AiFairs when Francis II, who was only fixteen 
Years of Age and by Realbn of his Incapacity and ill 
State of Health whoRy unfit to govern, came to the 
Crown. 

While the Heads of the Bourbcn and GuifeTzmWyej^g^ggj^ 
contended for the Regency, the Queen Mother Cathe* Metber o^ 
rine de Medicis by craftily fomenting their Quarrel con- tains tbt 
trived to get it into her own Hands. As the Ouifes wertRigency. 
her Favourites (he gave the Command of the Army to 
the Duke ; and the Cardinal had the Diredion of the 
Finances. The Conftable Montmorency under the Pre- 
tence that his great Age wanted Repofe was defired to 
retire from €Jourt ; and to get him out of the Way the 
Prince of Cmde was fent Ambaflador to the Spani/h Court. 
Seeing themfelves thus excluded from all Share of the * 

Government, it was refolved at a Meeting held to de- 
liberate on what Meafures were fitted to be taken, that 
the King of Navarre ibould by cajoling the Court endea* 

Vol. I* S vour 



1 j8 Cf Fn AiJtt. 

rtowT torpW>carc iheif Advancement. TWs #*► tri^jf 
Ibut after being many TtoKs deceived with vain Hopes h^ 
gave it over. ., • - 

Th Prince of Still the Prince of €(mif was ^determined to pufli his 
CoNDE joins Fortune ; a«d having no great Intereft he by *he A4- 
wiV^ the Hw vice 6f Colfgny joined himfirff Mth the Hugumv^: by 
l«<rw//. ^j^|j.|^ Name air of the Reforiocd Religion ki i?rtw? 

were called. Thcfc People at this Time under a fevere 
Perfi^cutbn mortally hated the Gm/es, whom t)iqp looked 
vpon to be the Authors of it, atid readily ttihrntA 
him for a Ldader. It was agi^ed thlftt the Hngitmii b^ 
k)g afiembled fecretly foihe of thism (hocrld 4leiband at 
Court the htt Exercrfe of their Rd^gion ; wbSch being 
fefufed the reft were to go in^ntly in a Body^ ^n^ 
iftcr murdering theGn^^j fbrce. the King to con- 
fer the Regency on the Prin€» of (kiuk» r A <JefltIe- 
man named RetHaudig fcTok idpon bimfetf the Esieciitioit 
of this Ddfign : but as it was deferred on tbt'' A<coimtof 
the Court's Rethoval to Bids and froih theitoe tb j/fmioifii 
' it took Air ; Jartd above i2o'd HuguMoU WereTfeizcdiml 

put to Death. The Prinde oC^ Cen'de Wa9 confned and 
ftntenced to die ; btrt: luckily for htm the fudden Death 
ef Francii in thte Year 1560 .entirely changed the Face 
of Aflairs. . . .• "^ 

Charles . His Brother and Succeflbr 'CtorAtf IX, bemg only 
IX. 1560, eleven Years oH the Qpeen Modier thought hcrfdf ft- 
cure of the Regency, and efpecially fo long as flic could 
- kfeep the fibufts of B^tirbon and G«#yi embroiled. In 
order therefore to prevent the Ruin of the .Priace of 
Gondii Party &e pretended to have no Diflike to the 
Reformed Rehgic^n, and rather encouraged it at Court^ 
but Mmtmormcy^ Gtdfe and* the Marfcal 5^. Andn 
adhered to their PuVpdfe ' of » extertniiiating \t^ ^^ 
the King of Navarn was^ brought over to their 
Party. ^ 

£onferenctat There was 'afterwards a- Conference at P^gj^***^^ 
Poissr. Divines of both Religions ; and an Edift was in Jwum 
%^% publiflied for the Prefervatidn of the Reform^ 
Religion, which was called the Edi& ^ijtmtuxfy. Tto 
fo Incenfed the Guife iParty that fome ot. them entered 
the Village .of Vffffyi andtwiogiirft dtfturbed the Prt>- 



(y F R A N C E. ' i^g 

feftants in the £xercife of fhe?r Religion put tHrceftare 
of them to Death. From this Time HoftiKtie^ were' 
committed bn both Sides ,- but as i^ does riot foit 
with our Purpofe to give ydtxtiimihihtialDetS^ 
many Battks and Skirrrii(hesV' or'*6f • the Riage and 
Cruelty exercifcd 6'nfboth' Sides, we (hall only give 4 
brief^'AtcJdiint of the principal Events in theft civii 



£' 



I 



Wars 

fii tfic-firff War tHt Kiii^of Navarre died of a'WoiinrfF/>>f CMl 
received at-the Slefee of Roan, A Battle teing fought ^tf'"* 1562. 
near ii^r^SFffte' Priftceof C(7;7^/i had at firftthe Advan- 
tage j birt'Hh* Men falling to plundering too foo^ they 
were rcpuHfe*, and he Was taken Prifoner. In this Aflioii 
the Marihal St. Andri was killed upon the Spot ; and 
about 4000 of each Party were left upon the Field. The 
Dnkt K)i 6uifi was foon after treacheroufly murdered at 
the Siege iof Orleans by*ohe Poltht^ at the Inftigation a^f 
it was fuppofed of Colighy^.^ • 

In the next Year a Peace was made : Yet notwith- 
ftanding the fliort Continuance of this War it is com- 
puted that\t leaft 50,000 of the Huguenots were killed s ' ' 
and both Parties had (uffered fo much that the Queerf coula 
now manage -Either. Aftef the Peace the Englijh were 
obliged "to quic Havre de Grace':' v^hich the Huguencts 
in Recompence for their Afliftance had put into' theifi 
Hands. As r^ Huguendts' mkdG no Scruple of taking 
Plate out of the Churche's and coining it, Silver was a^ ** 
ter this War more plentiful in France than it had ever 
been before. 

In the Year 1567 the Queen Regent had an IntervicT^^^^^^^ cMi 
with the Duke D'/tlva at Bayonne : in which the De-^^^^ IS^/. 
ftrucHon of the Huguenots was fuppofed to be rqfolved 
upon. This'Apprehenfion with the Perfecution' imme- 
diately fet on Foot with great Warmth againft them de- 
termined the Huguenots to renew Hoftilities, Annas of 
Montmorency being in this fecond War mortally wouildcd 
at the Battle of St. Dennis, he faid to a Monk who 
was impertinent in his laft Moments : Let me alohe'^ / 
have not lived fourscore Tears without learning to die a 
garter of an Hour. The Proteftants. who wetje vdWy 
inferior In Number-got great Reputation ty this Viftoryj 

S 2 and 



26o ^ 0/ F R A N.C Z^ 

and the City of RochelU which for fixty Yeat^ aptarwjv6 
ferved for, a Retreat declared for tbcm. '" -^ -^ 
<rbirJ civil Jn the Ycaf i s68 a Peace was figne^ ; j)ui% neShcf 
«FV, 1568. Party. wei« fatiiificd with the Conditiohs Ihe Wir broke 
out again in the fame Year. ThtVfincec/PC&ftA being 
killed by. a Muftet Shot at the Batt1e*"8f f^arlSr in the 
Year 1569, henry Ktngof Ne^arrei^tSpns^jSitbe^ 
who *focceeded afterwards eo the Frekeb Grown, , "mi » 
pilChod'upon by the Protdftatt^i for thjtfr Ctrreft But 
the; Admiral CoUgny had in F aft the whole Dirofitoti of 
their Affairs. This laft fai ed in his Attei^iDt ajginft 
• .' Bdiiersy in DefencjS of which tlie ypitng I^i^ of uw/^ 
^ * gave the firft Proofs of his Bravery ; and loft 9000 Meii 
iiTthe Aftionnear Moncouiour. His Reputation jHd not 
however fufFcr by tliefe Mifcarriag^s ; and being foppiied 
with Money from the Queen of England ahd Troops 
fronj the Eledor Paktme he foon after, aflembled ^ 
^at Army. 
A Peace very Upon his advancing in the Year 157a towards Peril 
adnjantagious * very advantageous Peace for the HuguenotT was con- 
f the j^tf^y^- eluded ; the Towns of ^tf^^^//^9 Montauhan^ Cognacimi 
notSf 1570. IffCharite being given up to them: But the Defisnof 
the Court in this was, that as the Proteftmts could not 
be fubdued by Force they might be thereby Iizlled into a 
flangcrous Security. 
MaJJhcre of With a View to this they were flattered -witti vajl 
Paris* 1571. Hopes; and the Admlrd Coligny now much* cfarcffcd at 
Court vvas often confulted concernin| an int^^odt^ £xpe- 
tion againft the Spaniards in the Netherlands. 'A Mir- 
riagc war next Year concluded 'betwixt ffenry of Havnrri 
and the French King's Sifter ; to the Celebration of which 
all the moft confiderable Perfons amongft th^* Proteftants 
were invited, that their Throats might/more conveni- 
ently be cut altogether at Paris, As the A^tfiiral was 
going, home one Night from Court; h^ ^al WdkrtideJ 
in the Arm by fome Ruffians hired by the Duk^iof C5«//i 
to (boot him. This was followed with an Aga^emeiitj 



that on the twenty-fourth of Augujl at thtf i^rffrg «f 
Bells for the firft Prayers in the Mofning'the «%*«** 
fljould be all mafl'acred; and the 'DuV ^1^^^ ^^ 
upon himiclf the Execution of it. 'yhtJdmtaltotAri^ 



. b/" F'R A N C E. ^il 

tb Us &ed oy bis Wounds was the firfi: who fell , a Sa* 
criGice ; aiK) Ihe Sil^gbter continued for feven Days with \ 
moft uiiMard of Cruelty, The Example .fee at Paris 
being foUoy^ed in many other Cities above 30,000 Prti- 
i^tf«/j-wcremaflap!ed I and the Kmg of Navarxi with 
ti^ j^i^ng Bcjace of Condi were compelled to abjure the 
Heformed-IUIigioo. This horrid Bufinefs, which is com« 
mcply polled the We^iding at Pari^^ has been (candal* 
oully repi;ef^nted4^ Gabriel Nauie as a Mafter-Piece of 

Policy- i.a.. ' . . 

Tficy jjqnfteraatipn being a little over the War ^^Twrth CMl 
reoQmmenced with great Animofuy by the Huguentftuf^ary 1571. 
In diii fpurth War the Royal Army beficged RocbeUe^ 
buty after being eight Months and lofing 12000 Men 
before it, the Duke of Anjou who commanded took the 
Opportunity pf his being eleftcd King of Poland to raifc 
the Siege with Honour i and Peace was in the Year 15/3 
again conf luded. 

In the next Year the War was re-kindled; and zFifthCi'vil 
third Pa£b*oa being formed in France who called them-^^''> ^S74v. 
fclvcsthc Political Party, thefe protefted that without 
?ny Regard tp Religion they only meant the good of the 
Publick, the Exclufion of the Queen from the Regency, 
and the Banifliment of the Guifes and all Italians from the 
Kingdom* At the Head of this party was the Houfe of 
Ahwmormcy ; which tho* it at firft propofed nothing btit 
its own Aggjrandifement bad afterwards a great Share in 
the Advancement of Henry to the Throne, lathe fame 
Year while all thefe Divifions .Wfite at tbe Height C^nr/n 
IXh died without Heirs. 

His SiKxeffor Henry III. at that Time in Poland fet Henry III. 
out immeidia^ely f and victit Jncognitp by the Way of ^574« 
Vie»nq and Venice to Franaef, Haviog taken Poffeffipn of 
the Crown he by no Means anfwered the Expedations 
pf the People J. for a^awloning himfelf to Idlcnefs.and 
SenfualLty the Adminiftration was iiill in the. Hands 
of the Qsjieen Moth.er and feme Favourites. In .the 
mean Time the Strength of .the Huguenots was greatly 
encreafed by an Army fronpx Germany Axni^t the Prince 
of Con^SLud y&hn Cafmir Co^t PaicFtini* I'he Dtike 
t4 4^^f^^ brother to the King came alfo over to them % 

S3 ^nd . 



and the King of Navarrt made bis ^fc^pe.frcfm Prifon* 
Air thefe Confiderations made it neceiTary for .the other 
)?arty to clap up a Peace >yith them upon more advanta- 
geous Teems than any of the^ former. 
The LcAGUB About the fame Time another Party palled the H$ij 
cr Holy. U^ ion or League wa? fet on Foot by the Duke of Quife^ 
Union* who finding himfelf hated by the King but in great 

Efieem amongft the Priefle and People h^d a Mifid to 
fet up for hiqafelf. He was befides encouraged by the 
Contempt the King's Management had brought him 
^- into : And pretending to be deffcended from GharUmatn 
be infilled on haying a better Right to the Crown thaa 
Henry ^ whofe Predeceflbr Hugh Capet had unjuftly ex- 
cluded his Family. Thefe were the real Reafons for 
^his League ; But the pretended ones were the Defence 
of the Catholick Religion, the Eftabliflirnent of Henr^ 
on^he Throne, and the Maintenance of publick Liberty; 
^nd all who entered into it took a folemn Oath to beio 
all Things obedient to the Heads of it. The King 
moreover, who did not at firft fee to the Bottom thereof 
hoping that the HuguemU might be thereby more eaSly 
ruined figned it at the Aflcmbly of Bloii in the Year 
1577 ; and declared himfelf its Head, 
Sixih Ci'vil A fixth War ,was immediately commenced againft 
^ar, 1577. the Huguenots \ but notvyithftanding their Afa^rs werp 
in a bad Pofture nothing confiderable happiened, and 
iPeace was .conclu.ded in the. fame Year. After this 
Peace the King returned to his luxurious Way of Living) 
to fupport the Expence of which new Taxes were laid 
on the Subjefts ; which with the Infolence of his Fa- 
vourites increafcd the People's Hatred to him, and hcight- 
Spai|j comes ncd their Efteem for the Duke of Guife. The Dukeof 
into the Jlenfon Brother to the King having about the fame 

League. 'j-jjjjg ^^j^^^ ^^^^^ himfelf the Title of Lord of tjie Nf- 
ibir lands, Philip of Spain in Revenge enf€;red into the 
League. 
$e*venth Ci'vil In the Year 1579 War was for the fev^qth Time 
Wia-, 1579. commenced againft the Huguemis : Jn which .they b*d 
ill Succefs; but the King fearing that if tfeey were 
ruined quite the League would become too ppwerf"' 
made Peace with then? in the next Year. This plcaftd 



(y* F^ A t^ C 8/ 263 

4ic Ofil^^ of AUnfni ;Wbo W9ii|;e4 the.TcQO^ of fr4«cr 

in Flanders : Where he cxpedled an Attack from Philips 
Still tl^.e exorbitant Defiant)? of the King's Favourites 
on the I^eople cncreafed ; which with his Hypocrify in 
aiFe6Uog the Severity of a Monk rcndred him univer* 
fally desft)ifcd» The Power of France was moreover 
much din;uniibed by the Duke of Jlevfofi's bad Succefi 
in FUin4erj^ and by the Ruin of a Fleet near the Ifland 
of Tir^a which Henry had fent to the AiBftance of 
Anthny of PorUigai. 

After the Duke of Alenfgnh Death as there was no Intrigues of 
Profp/eft of the King's having KTue, the Duke of Gujfethe iMike of 
nowvaftly poiyerful cqnceived great Hopes of comingGuiss. 
to the Crown : Fpr the fake however of concealing his 
Views and effedually excluding Henry of Navarre he 
pretended to be in the Cardinal of Bourbon's Intereft. 
It being fufpefted that Henry was not averfe to the King 
of ^/ra;arn?,,the Cry of the Catholick Rdigion being, 
in Danger was rung in the Peoples Ears from the Pul- 
pits ; and Spain promifed to furnifh a large Sum of Mo« 
ney in Support of the L^ague^ The Caude of Religion 
and the raifing pf the CardinaJ of Bourbon to the Throne 
were plaui^le enough, Pretences for this ; but the main 
Thing intended by ^pain was to keep France loW by fo- 
menting its Divisions. Hoftilities being foon after com^ 
mltted by the Ltagueri they became Mailers of many • * 
Cities i and obliged the King tQ forbid the Exercife di 
the Reformed Religion* 

In this eighth War the Duke of Joyeufn was worfted jj,>^,^ CMl 
inan Eflgagerijent with the King oJF Nauarre near Cou'ifTar, 1585. 
iras in thp YeJ^r 15^7. This Viflory was nor however 
pulb^ » ^pd an Army af Swifs and Gertmms under 
Fabian d* D.ona^ which caope to the Aififtance of the 
Hug^emUf^ wa$ for want of a good General routed by 
the Duke of Guife and forced after great JLofs to return 
home. After this Succefs no Regatxl was ihewn to thd 
King who was fuppofed to be at the bottom a Wdi- wither 
(0 ti^ Hugmnfiti 9 and Priefts had the Inlpudtnce to caH 
bim Tyrant in their publick Semions. This determined 
him to pMniih Tome of .the moft hufy : «But as the People 
in Parif Sfiw to Arii^s »sd bcggpi qS tfaie fiiukie of Guiji 
S 4 * to 



264 <y.F R A N C 1; 

tQ protefi them, he thought proper to re^re from tide 

Oity by Night. 

Finding he could not withftand the growing Povi^r of 
the Ltagki he ful^mitted to the Duke of Guife% own 
Terms ; and pretending to forgive all Injuries^ prevailed 
upon-hin^ to come to an afTembly of the States at JBlaJs,^. 
The' ^fembers ot this moft of them his Creatures inlifted 
on^h€iDuke'$ heing made Coniiable, and that the King of 
A/7z;4r/ihou!d be declared incapable of reigning: But 
Hinry caufed him and his Brother the Cardinal to be 

Duke of both.aflaiinated. The Citizens of Pans hereby exafpcr*. 

Goi. E fljfrf^ atcd. declared that Henr\ had forfeited the Crown. Moft 
Jinated. ©f ihe>great Cities did the fame ; and the Duke of Mam 

Brother to the Gu'ifa was ' made Lieutenant^ijenera) of 
the Kingdom and Head of the League. Being beitdes 
excommunicated by the Pope Henrj was for his Security 
compelled Co join with the King of Navarre and the Hu' 
gueriots; and having aiKmbled a large Army laid Si^e 
to Paris. In the Evening before the Affault was *t0 be 
made a Monk from the City named James ' Clement 
brought a Letter directed to the King; and pretending 
moreover to whifper fomething privately ia his Ear 

HiNRYiV ftabbed himin the Belly with a Knife. On the next 

fobbed, 1589. Day the 1 2th of Auguft 1589 Henry died of the Wound, 
and with him ended the Line of Valois. j^^ . ^* * 

HiNRT IV. Henry IV- whom we have hitherto known by the* 
1589* Name of King of Navarre^ notwithftanding that the 
Crown of right belonged to him as Head of the Bmrben 
Line had many Difficulties toencounter with at his Ac- 
ceffion. He well knew that fo long as . he cootinned in 
the Reformed Religion the League^ the. Pope 'knd Spain 
would never let him be quiet ; yet^ befides thatit would 
. Iiave been unbecoming to have all aV once facrificed his 
Religion to his Interett, he did not Care to deprive bim- 
1^. of the Support pf hi9 faithful Huguenots. All the 
great Men in the Army promifed to obisy him, provided 
he Would in fix Months r be inftruded in the Catholick' 
Religion : But he would not be confined to any Time, 
and only gave them general Hopes* ' it ix^asr^ sifter wards 
agreed that the Htquin^s Ihould be tolerated in the free 
£xerci(e of. their Religion ; but that t^tCftb^icf Religioil 

' fliould 



fliould be eftsbiifhed^^ and thar^the^Revnities dFthe 
Church fliould in all Places be rcflored to the CatboVcks. 

In the hnran Time the Duke of Maine, who had not The Cardinai 
Confidence enough in the League to take ^pon himfelf^/* Bourbon 
the Title of King, caufed the Cardinal of Bottrben Uncle'' protlaimeJ. . 
to Henry ^ an old- decrepit Man at that Time in Pri^fon, 
to be proclaimed $ and-xontented himfelf with the Title 
of iyieutenant' General of the Crown, The Parfifans of 
the L f^gue, who were the common Pedple, mod of the 
large Cities, all the Parliaments except thofe 'of Baur^ 
deaux and Rvmes^ near all the Clerg^, the Pbpe and all 
Catholick States except Venice and Fhremey were indeed 
vaftly powerful : Bot as ^l|e Headis of it ^TTagreed the 
Duke of M^nfHi% Author jty- was not fujGcie'nt to unite 
them. In the King's Party were moft of th^ Nobility, 
the Mimftry of the late Kin^, all the Prottftant States 
and th)^ /fiif«irr0/i: Which laft^did him great Services, 
and they would hav6 done more for him if thejr had not 
miftmfted his Defign of changing his Religion. 

The Dukeof ^^/V/ made an Attempt xo rurprize2)jKir ^ 
the Kim? near Dieppe: But he was repulfed with great Mainb « 
Lofs. This was thought to forbode 111 to the League \^^''V''^ "^ 
yet as Henry coxAA not make himfelf Mafter of Paris *^^^^^^* 
the- Waht of Money to pay his Troops made it diffi* 
cult to keep them together : And the Spaniards hoping 
either to oonqtier the Kmgdom, or at leaft to ruirt it by 
keepbija^ up^the Divifions, began openly to meddle in 
the Affiirs of France, Their Defign was feen through 
and fecredy oppofed by the Duke of Maine : Who if 
he cottM* not get the Crown -^for himfelf was by 'no 
Means willing the Kingdom fliould be fiibjed^o Spain, 
In the Year 1590 Henry obtained a Viftory ov^HlH^Duke 
hear Ivry: And having blocked up Fatis it maft have )SattIe of 
fallen i»ta his Hands, if the Duke of' Parma GovertwurlvRV, 1590, 
of the Netherlands' had not come to its Relief. • In'tfite 
Year 1591 a third Party formed in A«Voor of tfie young; 
Cardinal of Bourbon was foon ruined by ^he^'KiHg:^ 
But he was foon after anathamatifed' b}^ Pope Gregory 
XIV. and his Subjedks were enjoifted to 'withdraw their* 
Allegiance from him. The Confeqtied^^ of thi§ had like; 
to have been veof bad w Henry** "-: . .^ 
'• Th^ 



b66 i^F r auc X, 

#ir Spanish in Fhilifs dFesing bUI)a<ighl»r Jfabelk^Uitu Mugmis 
CHtrt. (of Queen of France. This was approved of by the 

y^uog Duke of 6'm«^, wbofe Efcgpe from Prifon was 
as imc ibink cofinived at b^ Henry, ^ who pr^fumd 
he wquU oppofe the Defigns of bi$ tf^dfi tbe Pui^c of 
JUaine^ and thereby ibw Di(car<l in the l>eagi^» After 
the Duke of Parnui h^d rajied the Sieg^ of Rm 
Spain was more urgent for having the Princefs Ifabelkt 
jwhofe Mother was of Fr^me^ chofep Qu^^n i and it 
<wa$ propofed to the States thei? aiTembied at Vm 
that file (hould marry Ermfi Ai-c^hduJiEie of ^/^f/<7. 
^9 «the Fremb would he^r nothing of a F<)feignfir 
/or their ilCing the Court of M*{inid ojSered to marry 
her 'to Umriu. Dukc of Qmfe: jSiut ih^ Pulf^e of 
yAiainej highly affronted (bat any Pei^on Ai^ld b« 
pififerred to hicnftlf, ufed all bis J^pfii^ce and Ar- 
tifice to prevent ^he AiTembiy from cloiiMg wMb this 
Propofal. 
Henry ^;»-' ^ Heory is^w he could »ever ^rry bi$ Point with- 
ira:es the ^^^ f l>sw»g«9« his Re.ligiw, and wa€ th^^^teped with 
CATHOLiCKP«fertion by the C^diolicis in hi^ Intej-^l if he ***y 
Religion^ longer deferred it, he fent for fpn^e Bi(bof)s to inflrud 
J 593. him in the Catbolick Religion ; |ir\d ^itfif: receiving Ab- 
folution WAnt to Maiis at St. Dennis's '\n thf^ Ye^r 1593* 
That the People might tafte the Swtm of .Quiet aSufpe*- 
fion of Arms was declared by hin^ for three Moptbs: 
^hichihad a good Efted ; fpr it gave then? Time to 
confidor, that the principal Reafon for contiouiog the 
JLeaj^ namely the tie^efy of the j^iiig. wa$ i^W ^^ ^ 
JEnd. . . : 

Many Cities Toward the End of the fame Year Vitri jiivJ M^^^* 
fahmt ta i'/^tf^lurrendred to Henry j and the Cities of Jix^ l.ym^ fl^' 
4e4iA5 and B^urges having foUaw^d this ]£,y^m^^ be tp 
4nduce others to do ijpe fj^de €auf<;d tbig^feJi* i;p b^: aoqintr 
«dand xrorwned 9t Chart m: Rhems b^ngit^U '^^^^^ 
Handts of ihe Le^ue, Shortly sS%€t.Bri£ac its GftVCxnQUf 

tut Ptirij into, his Hand^j^ iS^d tl^ S^n^ Gf^^^i^ 
eirighifled out ^ this City be w^f^. receivM W^^^ ^^ 
ftreateft Demonftnilions of Jqy. . Afi h^ig^lPM i^^^' 
aUe Conditioiis.ta Ac,.%Qm3L^ mI^ ^Sf^^^^^f^ 



QfV R A K ci^. a6f 

foon ftckaowMged by many others : And the Ddce of 
Guife^ being reconciled to him was made Governour of 
Provence^ 

Being now in Pofleffion qf near all the Kingdom^ heir^ir nmth 
in Oi'der to revenge the Injuries done to himielf and toSPAiN, >594> 
pleafe thp Huguenots in the Year 1594. declared War 
againft the Spaniards ; and this was all that Phitip got 
for the many Millions he had fpent in fupporting the 
League. 

In the Beginning of this War a Knife, which waft Attempt of 
fhruft into Htnry^ Mouth by a defperate Ruffian called Castejl. 
John Cdftelj beat out one of his Teeth : And if he had 
not, for the Villain aimed at his Throat, luckily ftooped 
in the very Inftant it muft have done his Buiinefs. k 
being afterwards foimd out that the Jefuits who ftick at 
nothing had been tamperi'ng with this Wretch, they 
were baniOied the Kingdom and not fuffered to return 
for fome Yfears. 

The Pope, finding that /Jf«ry would in Spite of aHHsMRV re- 
he could do keep the Crown, at laft granted him Abfo-^^'*^'^ Ah/du- 
lution, which he had for fome Time obftinateJy refufed :^* f^^ ^^ 
Arid the Dukes pf Maine and D^Epernon having fubmit- ^'' 
ted to him Marfeilles was put into his Hands. 

The War with Spain did not fucced to his Wiih. In 
the Year 1595 the French made fome Progrefs in the >595* 
Franche Comte^ and drove the Spaniards from Han in 
Picardy: But on the other Hand the Spaniards took 
Dourlens and Cambray, In the next Year the French loft 159& 
Calais and Jrdres\ and took from the Spaniards only 
la Fere. In the Year 1597 Amiens vfzs furprixed bv l^gj* 
the^ Spaniards ; and it coit much trouble to retake this 
Place. 

In the following Year the Duke of Mercetur who had EdiS ef 
till then held out in Bretany fvibmitted to Henry j and toNxNTz, 
quiet the Minds of the Huguenots an Ed'tSt was publiflied '59^* 
At Nantz for fecuring the ivet Exercife of their Keitgion. 
A Treaty was at length concluded with Spain at V$r^ Treaty of 
vins.; by which all Places takenon both Sides fince they £,^vi2,g^ 
Year 1559 were to be refiored. 

Henry now refelved to chaftife the Duke of Savoy^ War ivith 
febolA the pisoedixig JUigA iiad^aade -hinfelf Maftet Savoy. 

•;, gf 



i68 Of FRAi9\)t^ 

of t\it'M^fqmkio(8al0zz^i itii ^^^^^V^^aM% 
Wars flitred up. feme C<iihWic»iorik^iiil; ;Pr^ 
Datrphhf. The Duke came intt> ff^W'^an^ oi 

eain Time till Spain <^ouId afilfl: hi^, or'l^itilfr'^^fiM^ 
' Bmn with whomhe cbrr^'ondtd had' agatii emBrpiledJ 
-J^rmee, the Kkig'^iittabked htm. Hai^iW^ t^lcen Tro^iJ 
Wmallonthwaifctheil?^; a Treit;^^i^X^he 'My^.' 
ation. of the Pope: 'concluded in' the Year 'i6'oo» ,By 
timit was agreed that PramefhoxAA 1iave Jh^ Excliange 
for Aiiizt^ ftitBriPi ^B^, VhlrSfrwi and G/i,, ^Tbc 
baUaH^ Princes w^e dneafy at this Treaty : ' Whereby 
Frma being (hut qiittc ioat of hafy they vyere left ex- 
pofed «»/she Infliits of Sftim; but Henry tiied with the 
MMoi>tunes and Fatigves of War had a Mind to tafte 
the Comforts of IHracc. Not long after a daiigerpiis Con- 
fpicitty^brmed by Marlhal BironW^s di(cbvered: Who 
lit Contort with the S/uw^ Court had. laid a "Scheme 
for deihrohing -Henry and dividing the K!in^doni^ jnto- 
mahy States ; of which he was to have for his'owh SWc. 
Marfial Bi- Bmrgumly^ Refuling to accept the King's Mericy, which: 
RON // h- in confideration 6f his p^ft Services was offered, he was 
• hiaiieii, 1602. beheaded in the Year 1601.' * .. 

The Silken Henry after this fet about the rcfiifyftig of the 'bflP' 

M^ntfaSure 43spitt% which during the Civil Wars had gained Oround 
tfidVJbed. ifl France^ and the augmenting of his Revenues; He alfo 
eAabliflbed divers Manufadures ; and stmoi^g others that . 
of 'Stlk: Which has fmce been fo profitable to the King- 
dom. . . ' . 
jSn Alliance Ashc ftill met with much Uneafinefs from the Queen's. 
eg ,infl the Jisaloufy of him, and the Spaniards Were conftantly plot* 
Hfjv/e of trng agattift him, he at laft formed a Defign efle<3ually 
Austria* to^l^cdude the exceffive Power of the Houfe o\ Aufiria^ 
and to confine it for the future to Spain and its hereditary 
Country 'A^ftrta. With a View to this he allied likn- 
felf with the northern Powers, the States of H$Uand^ 
the Proteflant Princes in G^iRtf/ijr, Bavarsa\ Swiffirland^ 
&My and the Rope. The Quarrel that happened oh the 
Account of the Succeffion to the Dutchy of Jfliirf ^as 
pn Excufe for breaking with the Hbufe of Auftria^ who 
wouVi have ^eifcerirtUa Di^tchy ^ h^t it muQ be allowed 

ttat 



€^ f .R^ A vU ;c gBv iie^ 

^^thc. Armies of Mtnry and hit Aliicf^ 

^^n^^^^^^ Veo^coo. Meiif tb« Hotife of Auftria 

s^i^iKoiicernpd as .if it bad cwaixily kaowa wluti 

^Di|1d;^<^t)v att^r bappem . v 

. Tif^-'^(;^lCAr^^ was on lU Mar»hfori%wf*«, and Henry w ^ 

the K!ingJ fiavtng a^ufcd the Qiieen lo.bc crowned unA^tf^^^-'^^'' 

ippbjjitfcdf hcr^egcntt firt out. with- Uc£gji ta follow, i«P«^^» *^'®- 

a few' Days after,; JBut hia Coacb being ft pped by tbe^ 

Crowd ia paffing a Streeit qI Faxi^^%,y\\i^\nstuo»h 

Fraicis 'R^dlac took tbit Opportuiiicjr to flab bint inr 

the BeU|,with. a Kiiife^ ^od bc.dicd.witbout fpeaking^ A 

Wor4f . « was, generally believed tbat -the Wrcicbwat 

hired,to dp.this defp^rMtf^ted ; and that the Queeii 9ar 

well ,as the Hoiife oi,Aj^ria was jpri vjr to it* T tea tin A 

Hero« after having rur/nQuntedjonuoiftriiUe DifficnUivsim. 

his Way to the Crown, and ftifled above fifty ConijpwV 

racies again(l \xi% Life» oioil of wbicb were fomied bf 

Churcbmofy di«id by the. Hands, of, a. pitiful Scoundrol** 

His Death whjsh^l^pened Mey libe i4tb 1610 waartfae 

greater Mij^fcjrtuQexo^the. Kingdom y, becaufe the MiiwA 

rity of bis Succ^flbr gave the Nobility Time to encfeafiit 

their Power, and the Hugfanots an Opportuaity of bafoh<»' 

ing^up ^nocher R^beJlion. ..*.*. 

Levui^^XM, at .his F«t^er*s Death biu. nine Years oftLa wis XHL 

Age b^|ng under the Care of hi&.Mothpr JlAiry th Me^^ , 16 lo* 

dicily fhe endeavoured by contra^iog AllianeeB to pM«. 

fer\/e Feace abroad, and by A<3a of cieaseftcy and Qene** 

roiity to remove all Uneafinefs at home : Infurredions 

were h^wes^tr jraij[ed by foane ql the ^Graadees ; and not t 

being in a. Condition to quell them flie was obliged 

to* give Way to ibeir Eqcroachments. The King having- 

in thieYear i^ijitakciii bis AfFaira into bis own Hands^ 

htf caufed^the A}ar£ha] D'Ancn a iiloKintiiie by Birth to 

ber pUt^jr9 Death.. As this Jtoiian had by takii^g (bo. 

mubb (i^^on, binr).,durjng the. Regency renderad bunfelf 

obn<5j(i9^.s V the Fnmch^ it was hoped, that bis Deatb 

Wduld^l^lp t<5 piit a Stop to the Marwiorings of thet 

Pec^fe. I The Qye<?n was moreover confined at* iS/ofi: 

But flie was carritd ft^m thcnpe.,by jdie JDuk-o ^ Ekptr^. 

rtUft^ the y6a;.^6;,9, .Th& Uj^cafm^ ffes. were hQweire^ 
v..;o2--.- - • 'at 



a( liA hxppXly Ttmovtd by mdang Fttftiif» to tklTgrcse 
Men. " "*'■ 

tirfi Appear- - About this: Time RkBeUett aftervtard^ « Cardinal be* 
gmce of Ca R.gan to make a Figuc&at Court. - He it Was who advi Asd 
DiNAL Ri. the King to root out the Seed* of Rebellion in FrAna ; 
CHBUEu. f^^ jjg laid it doWn. 'as a Maxim, that it ought to 
' be put entirely ool oi the PoM^er of' the HugsdfMs to 
difturbhtfny hno^xhtrf were sAv^SLy^ tcatiy to join' with 
the Difafiedied. tWith a View to this Lewis began to 
introdoce the Cathplrcic* Religion in* Mearn; which fo 
enraged the Htigunmtpnh^t they» flew t6' Arms. Upon 
thi^^he took f^^vei^I Plaatts from^'tbdnl; but ke iofi 
naay Men tn.his Atteliipt.:o|kin Hfeftt^u^cm. A Peace 
was afterwards: made;, the Condittoria of which were, 
tfaat the new .Fortificatioiiviii ail the Towns of ^he Hu- 
gftjnots exsept Ahntmiihen: zvA^AifiMle fhould be denio- 
bfced. 
HopiHties Cardinal jRiVI^/^tt' being in^the Yebr 1^25 made Prime 

tjcith the Miiiifter the. War- with the HygeieHPis'WBSTctfcwcd; 
Huguenots becaafir the Cim^aar k^ Rochilhyvf0a\d'*not itilEkt^ Fort 
re-commenced, Lggfis to be built jiift under their Wall*. • *h^being here-. 
1625. upojj refolvcd'to kake RocheUe from them, "ihtt Wacc was 
fodofely bkxiked^up.bothbySeaaAd Land thdt idthough 
the Englijb landed on the Iflefiof i^j^'th^jr co^M^ not 
^licve.it. Thft: Obftinacy of ':riie Bcfieged being o¥er- 
RocHELiE come by Famine, which reduced them from eighteen to^ 
(urrendin. five jthoufimd, they after warning Bread thirteen Weeks 
finrveBdered : And as the Strength of ^^MagueH9U wa» 
now entirely broke the Inhabitants of Mor^auhm. d|)on 
a SuAimons from the Cardinal deftroyed their Fortifica- 
tions: The Duke of Rehan^ who had given the King 
fp much Trouble in Languedee^ agreed alio that the 
Works of Mantpilier and Nifmes Cbould be demolilbed : 
Ra'vages iu- Batiho Change was to be made in Religion. Thus an 
ting the Ci*vil'£ni was put to the Wars on a ReKgious Account which 
^^fj. [)m] fo long ravaged France. Hiftorians fay that in tbefe 

Wars above a' Million of Men loft their Lives; that 
150,000,000 Livres were ipent in carrying them on; 
and that 9 Cities, 400 Villages, 20,000 Churches, 2,coo 
ft^onafteries and 10,000 Houfes were burnt or other- 
wife deftroyed during their ContiiMance. 

Lewis 



<y France* a^i 

Ktwf^s: Whom the Spaniard woukl kme excliMldblTALr,i62S. 
A«n ifK2ceecHii§ito AeJjiike^of AUmnm bcomfe 1» mag 
^ Fr^mbmm* .' One of thc.noft icmafluble. Etcnto; kt 
thU^WTftr ma lhe:i&ie|Br,9f £«r/£f/: Which tho /^ravhl 
dcfemifiid virith gicht Bfavcry. -ThbtDifierencc was ko<iM 
ever^anodimdiliteA bf the Pni4lefK3e> of 3£aMrfi» thia 
PopeV44ttrid<s* whb tbeivbf kM «be Founditiotl of iHaK 
GreMieft he wIm irftcihilqirdf itiifed.to ia Frtmaz AnA 
by 'fhe> fFveaibfvcff iSbieita/i,^ ^vfakh tnfiied the Bake j^ 
NiVe%s WM le& in Pdfeffi^m vt Abntitm and iMp/^;^4rmrt» 
£«i€M^ aftrriKards.iKMight;>^ifnirf/ of itfar SfudBe' of'-^svA^ii 
to the Ecid thaa ha itiigh»jMif e^a- €aiiniiiiinnti0a wiiki 
Italy.. ^ i ' ■ '■»•..' , . .'» 

The 6f^fm» weMi^«k)«fc this Time fvppoMJ fajrORisoNt 

being aflifted by ^(^Ncft had revolted; amd thereby tbi< 
Gounlryi ^V0«r preYenCvd^ojii^iUing iatathe* Hands df 
ijie Sjffdmsrtkv 

A Treaty of SiMdy beittgiti the- YdaovX^jr eatetol Tz-m^ miktr 
into vrfth'fwfd^'.for reduebg t&e fowcr^df ti»\HmA^^i»f 
^'jhjifiit Qujhvas Jddpbm entcfed: Gtrwlan^iv atid.^Mr <^i<* 
diftfogMifliiigJiiQifillf upon the.i&^r tookih^ KleAor 
of 7'W49nr under hfo Prereaion : Tbe Gifrifon hbtKvtr 
vrfaich jicrpiit into .££rn«ati^'«rwaa in the Yete i<^96 
forced; t6^ farrco^r*. 

^ 4he mean TiiB^^GdiHiBDliona Jiad betfn raifed Jbjr Intrigmrfi^^ 
theOyelMt Mother and her Sdn&e Dofaerbf Qrkami ^iffesM^dier* 
Wb6 eiivied the Gretlsieiii of Riiiittus AUfttrnfrtrnp . ... . 
was bebehdedfof facing ccmcemed'.theriMi^ atidXa ihb 
ancient Fariiily, vrhich had the Glory of being thifc 
firft amongfl the NtibiUly in Fruftci thit ^inli^acQd 
Chnftiamty, ended tgnoatiirioufly. Tke:<j;9e€a Mother 
was pardoned and received into Favour ; but as her aa»- 
bitiout Spti-it'cauld rfot"4}e tcafy vrithout ^dVerhing dhe 
s^rediittto i«yirai^ri'attdffrocn thence to £»^ibi^ Aim*' 
wards Ae went to <Utgfh and died there tnifeiably^ ia 
the Year 164a. 

la the Year 1633 Lnuis made himfelf Mailer of Ltr^ War nvitk^tk 
rainy becanfe its Duke had fided with the Emperor; Emperor, 
and aifter the iU 8tcoe£i of 4be Aec^^i^ at the. Battle, of 1655. 

Nordpn^uin 



2^2 0/F ti Aii cn: 

Nordlmgum he came to m open flufinire liHth the Hoirier 
of Auftria which bogan to recouer kfelf. • The I^etence 
for this was that the Spamard$i)\9A{wtpiluaiTri$n^ snd 
taken the EleSor who- < was -under the Pvotofiion of 
Franct Prilbner. War was now coitinlencc^d in A«i^, 
Girmatiy^ FiuntUrs and the RmftUm : In which afteriFC^ 
rious Succefs the French had in the End the Advantage 

163 ^ The firft Campaign in FUuubrs iii the^^Yeff 1635 ^a 
unfortunate; the i^r«i»db bemg^cAliged irfter'greatiiefsM 

1636. give oftt the Siege of Lommin. • in the Year 1636 ?/^ 
€9kmini entered Pie^infy^ at did OmAis Bt^jgrntfyt but 
no great Progreft was rnkde hy eitber/^ Oir*tfee other 
Side the French rmkd the Sie|e of LmtaU ill the Riuji^ 
hn; and the brave Duice of H^eimar carried Bi^ifkc. h 
this Duke was fupplied with Money from f^mee^ the 
King at his Death Ihortiy wSbst tooki^flMkni«^ fin- 
frc aiid continued his. Troops in P\iy#' Tbit'Frentb in 

1638. the Year 1638 failed in their Attemptrupoii' St, 0mm 
and Fontarabiei before which laft the Prince (rf'OW/ 

Birth 0/ foftained great Lofs. On the 5th of September in the 

Lewis XIV. fame Year Leunt XIV. was- to the Surprise of every 

Body born, his Mother hanng had no ChHdren for 

1639. twenty Years. In the Year 1639 the French were de- 
Sattle of feated before Thionville: But in the foilowtng Year ihej 
Thionvil- took Arras \ and Catetlmua having revolted from Sf^v^ 
X. B« begged the ProtcAion of Lewis. A dangerous Rebellion 

i64n v^s '^^ ^c ^^^ i^4< nkifi^hy the Count of Seifmi 

Rebeliion in But being himfelf killed in an Adion it ferved greatly 

France. to eftabliSi the Authority of Richelieu. In the Year 

1642 Perpignan at the Siege of which the King and 

Cardinal were both prefent was taken. At this Siege 

it was that Monfieur Cinq*Mars who endeavoured after- 

'wards to fupplant Richeiieu was firft taken Notice of bjr 

Lewis* 

. Cenfpiracy 0/ For the Sake of this he entered privately into a Con* 

CiN<^MARs.fpiracy with Spain: But it being difcoveied by the 

Cardinal Cinq- Mars was beheaded, and the younger 

Thou fufFcred with him notwithftan<fing be had adviiy 

his Friend agatnft it ; becaufe he did not declare what 

he knew of it. The Duke of Bemlkn being aKo con* 

oemed in this Plot he was deprived of Us Cafile of 

.4 5rA». 



Of¥ R AN cti fijrj 

ieJAB. 14 tt^ fanus Yetr luckily for h\m(A( iKe CariTif 2>fa/^ e/T 
4kial<U«d T For although he had fo well laid a Founda-RiCHfiLUc;. 
tiao ^, chcijA^raodifeinent of the /Vvn^ MonaiK:hy 
the dKiX)g''.i«W igrowft quite < weary of hini. On ihi^ 
.ii4ik of AfhyoifhXlit nexl Year LeUfls died aUb : , And 
vm^^i0:^^ by hie nSoii L^U then but five Years 
rf-afep'*;./, ->♦ ci;,.! ; ;... 

Duf^ lil9 MUterily of:3v£^/i XIV. furfiamed theLEWis XiVi 
6ceat!hi<)^other bad the. Name of.Regent; but Car- 1643; 
di|}4l 4^ArfUfriire laaiiaged enpry Things For the fake 
«Cfef(^(^^igr|he NiObiltt]^ t^ia Afkniniftratiofl he was 
fdffad^bcidrinj Mbeml 1 wbich^ iitneceflartly exbauft- 
ed Av^ %mdmc^^,i^t .him > under a Neceffity of impofing 
new T«3«e$i The Peotple were hereat much diflattsiied : 
3ut 1^ cpatrnreclvfo aa to in^rye Peace pretty well at 
faoaie/or4pme 71(11^4 afidt/itjebeiamc Time carried oii 
Aeiyi^ivwUhSucwfil. ., . , . 

Jatbf'Vinir,jt643 ibft Duke: of £*^«/Vii obtained VLTbeWarcu^ti 
^<m^e^ Vii^tery over the Spianwds ntzx Rocr&y^ Thion-'the Emperor 
WjUi wa^afterw^lrda- taken by him ; as was Graveline hyis continued, 
Gifjiom ijjoele to the King. Ii» the following Cam-i^4^< 
I^ign jtbe^Puke revenged the Lofs of the fnnchtht^^^^^^f 
YWib^fore^near Dutlingeny by defeating the Bavarians^^^^^^* 
ftcar FrUurgbi and made hirnfelf Matter of PhlUpfiurg. *°44- 
In the Y^^r 1646 he again beat the Troops of Bavaria 
^^r t^diifiguen .ViVii took Dunkirk ; but he was forced i6±6i 
in^thenexf Campaign to ab^dpn the Siege pf Lerida* 
In the Year. 1 648 a Treaty was jQpncluded with the Em- 16^7. 
PcrpT at 4iw\/ier in We/iphalia 5 by whi^h Brifac, Philipf Treaty of 
^^^ii tPgcthpP with the SmdgGU and great Part of yf^^a Wbstph a- 
were ceded to Frtfii«. , l'a, 1648. 

After* this a ftrong Cabal,:;w?a8 formed. for the excluding Par/iV/ are 
ofik&ztfr/izf from the Adminiflration; not as the KAii^formed againfi 
was young would the Nobility pay any Regard to h^x^CardinalMh'^ 
^^oth^r who was a foreign Princcfs. The Prince of marine. 
^^^fbeingremarkably violent, the Cardinal endeavoured 
^ win. him over by propofing a Match for him: But 
vihen he faw that Mazarine w^s bent on maintaining his 
Superiority in the Miniftry, which was the thing aimed 
^^l>y the Prince himfelf, he rejeded the Propoial with 
liifdain. .Some Women of a reftlefs Spirit were, al/o 

V.ot. t T concerft'eS 



274 O/' F R A N C E. 

concerned in there Diftitrbances : The^ chief of whom 
were Madame de LongueviUe Sifter to the Prince of C$nd£^ 
Mttiami de Chevreujg and Madanu di. Momhazan. After 
many Libel$ had been (battered about Paris a n^w Fsaty 
arofe: Who called themfelves Sling4rs\ and threat- 
ned to knock down the Cardinal as David did Goliah by 
a Stone from a Sitng. The Heads of this were the Duke 
of Beaufort^ Gondi Archbishop of P^rii afterwards knawn 
' by the Name of Cardinal Retz $ and the Parliament of 
Paris which pretended to have great Authority joined 
with them. The firft Infurredion, which began becaufe 
Brpuffel a Member of Parliament wasioiprifoAed, being 
^ppeiifed by complying in Part with thp Demands of the 
People the King who had left Paris returned; But 
upon the Infnrredion in the Year 1649 he retired again 
from Parts J and the ^Cardinal was formally condemned 
by the Parliament, This Party eooreafing greatly 
Turenne who commanded in Germany doclured for it* All 
Differences were a feoond Time accommodated at St* 
Germaitis; yet the It^trigues againft the Cardinal were 
continued at the Inftigation of the Prince of CiMib who 
had brought the Slingers into his Intereft. As the Prince 
was however only for humbling the Cardinal and no- 
thing but his Ruin would ferve the Slingers, the latter 
worked up a Difference betwixt them ; and by exciting 
the Prince againft the Slingers found Means in the 
End to reconcile himfclf to thefe. The Cardinal laid 
hold of this Opportunity to confine the Prince and his 
Brother the Prince of Conti, and the Duke De LonguevUU 
their Brother-in-law: Yet Fuel was only hereby added 
to Fire; for all the People murmured at it and the 
City of Bourdeaux took up Arms. The Spaniards made 
u(e 6f this Conjundlure to take from France Pi^mbine 
and Porto Longone in Italy \ and the Archduke Leap§id 
made fuch Progrefs on the Side of Flanders as to alarm 
the City of Paris itfelf. The Cardinal did indeed defeat 
Turenne who was gone over to the Spaniards near 
Xethei; yet the Hatred againft him encrea&d ; and the 
Liberty of the Princes was loudly cried .out for by the 
Slingers, the Parliament and the Duke of Orleans. Find« 
ing it muft be fo the Cardinal in the Year 15 61 re- 
leafed 



Q/* P R A N d «* 87^ 

leafed tte Princes ; and to avoid the fury of the I^O|)tl- 
lace retired to the Eledor of Cologn^n Court. Being 
hereupon baniCbed the Kingdom for ever by an Order He is banijhei 
of Parliament, the Prince of Omdt took greater Liberty/i>^ Kingdtmi 
to inAik the Government; and having entered into 1651. 
Engag^ents with Spain fet up his Standard at Bnurdeaux. 
As tt5 Spaniards had thereby an Opportunity of recover- 
ing 'Barctltma and the whole Province of Gatalmia the 
Cardinal was re-called by the Queen : And having uni- 
ted ihe Troops he eould raife to the royal Army he 
had the better in two Engagements with the Prince of 
Gmdfi The AveHion however of the Parliament and 
Siingers to him flil) continuirig he declared publicklyi 
that he n^uld for the fake of the PubKcfc Quiet retire from 
Court and leave the Kingdom ; hoping hereby to throw all 
the Blame of contimttog the Dtfturbances on the Prince of 
Cande*' This anfwered his Purpofe; for the People began 
now to believe that he meant nothing but the Intereft 
of the Kingdom ; and on the contrary that the Prince 
aimed wtioTly at bis own Aggrandifement. Relieving 
ai(b that Dunkirk and Grt^tline had been loft during this 
Conteft the Prince loft their Favour entirely : * Which 
being perceived he retired with his Troops into the He prfvMits 
Netherlands ^ and the Cardinal, who in the Year 1653 ^'^'^ ^J^ ^^ 
returned to Courts had till his Death the fole Manage- ^»^^'''' 
ment of all Affairs of Confequence. Spon after the Town 
of Paris fided with him 5 the Faction of the Siingers was 
ruined ; the Duke of Orleans retired from Court ; Car-* 
dinal lUtz was taken into Cuiiody and Bourdeaux fub- 
mitted to the King. 

Hofttlities being in the next Year commenced again ft War *ujith 
Spain the French took Montmedi and raifed the Siege of 3pain, 16544 
Arras \ but they were repulfed with great Lofs from 
Valenciennes TiTi^ Camhray. In the Year i6i;8 an Alii- Cromwell 
ance was concluded with Cromwell \ and Dunkirk was^j^^'^' 
befieged by a /^r^wA Army under Marflial Tureme in^''^»^^^"* 
Conjunflion with the Englijh. Don John of Auftria *°5^* 
and the Prince oi Conde who endeavoured to relieve it 
Were forced to retire with great Lofs, and the Place being 
taken and delivered to the Englijh^ it was bought of them 
by the King for four Millions. Gravthm was likcwife 
retaken. 

T a Tbb 



i76 0/*Fr A N ct. 

Treaty of ■ ThJs Wat was at length tndcd by the Treaty of P)ft 
Pyrbnbes^ renefs concluded in the Year 1659* by the Cardina 
»6s9* and Dm Lewis Haro "Ptime^xti^tt of Spain. The 
Conditions were, that France fliould keep the Rwfib 
and moft of the Towns conquered in Flanders j tbif 
Maria Thenfa Infanta of Spain Ihould be' ttiarricd to 
the King ; and thiit the Prince Cff Condi (faouM be ic 
teived into Farour : But this laft Article was not with- 
Deatb ff/MA-out great Difficulty confented td. In the next Year tlie 
zAiiNEy Cardinal died; and it is faid that he amongft other 
1660. Things adv^ifed the King a little before his Death to ex< 
ert his own Authority and nottruft entirely to any Fa- 
vourite. 
Mi/manage- Lewis being in the firft Place determined to bring hiJ 
f}^nts in the Ftnances into good Order arrefted the Supcrintendant 
Reytnueen^ Pouptet ; and by iftquiring iMo the Conduft of ihofe 
fKtrea mto. ^^^ j^^j ^^^ concerned in managing the Reveniiej 
he found Means to fqueeze enough from iUch as hid 
enriched themfelves at the Publick Expence to fill his 
Coffers. In the Year 1661 a Treaty was concluded with 
thd Duke of Lorrain : By which he exchanged brrain 
for fome Dominions in France'^ and his Family was on 
Failure of the Pr ince^of the Blood to fucceed to the FftfiA 
Crown. The Duke repented afterwards and wo 
have annulled the Treaty 5 but the King would not con- 
fent thereto, and obliged him to give tip Mar/al^ a Se- 
curity for his adhering to it. 
Difpute hi' ' Upon a Difpute for Precedence betwixt the Frmhiri 
fwixt the Spanijh AmbaiTadors in the Year 1661 at Lenden^ when 
Spanish ^ff^^Count Nils Brahe Ambaffador from Sweden made hii 
FRgitcH /«- publick Entry, the Coach of the Feneh AmbsrfBidorwas 
tr ^^^rcibly puflied back. It is likely this wofild bare re- 
* '' kindled the' War if the King of Spain had not given his 
moft Chriftian Majefty Satisfaftfon, by agreeing that his 
Minifters in foreign Courts (hould never appear on pub- 
lick Occafions if the Minifters of France were prefent; 
Which has been fince underftood by the Frettch to imply 
that a Spanijh Minifter is always to give Place to a Frm\i 
one of the feme Charafler. 
parrel tjuith About the fame Time Monfteur Crequi Ambaf&dot 
tbe?ovE. -at Rome was infulted by the Pope's Corfican Guards; 

. which 



0/ F R A N c «. .'i277 

which fo enraged the King that he feized Avignon : Qut 
by the Interpofition of the Grand Duke of Tu/cany the 
Difference was compo(ed at Pi/a^ and a magnificent 
£rabafiage« was fent by the Pope to make the King Satis- 
Fadion at Paris^ Not long after the Fnn^h^ who had 
poflefled themfelires of Gigiri on the Coaft of Africa^ 
were driven from thence by the Moan with great; Lofs. 

In the Year 1664 f*^"*^ Frtncb Troops were fent tt^The Emperor 
the Affiftance of. the Emperor againft the Turh ; zxAfuccoured fy 
had aconiiderable Share in the fignal Victory gained over ^^ ance, 
the Infidels near St. Godart: But notwithftanding this ^^H* 
Advantage the Emperor appreheniive of an Attack from 
France in the Low Coumries clapped up a Peace with the 
Turku The Fr09chFoict9 fent into Candia in Concert 
with the V4nitUns by beginning the Attack too haftily 
were defeated i and the Duke of Bumfart who command- 
ed them fell in the Adion. 

In the Year 1665 Liwis found Means to ftir up War The Ne* 
\ittm\xt England and Halland: Which befides that heTHRLANos 
hoped hereby to ruin the naval Force of both Nations «''<'^^''' 
enabled him the more eafily to accomplifli his Defigns on 
the Netbirlands. In the next Year he entered Flanders 
with a powerful Army and took Lajle^ Tcumayj Charle^ 
rey^ Douay^ Cmrtray^ Oi/Axitfr^^ and many other Places ; 
which as be pretended belonged to him in the Right 
of his Wife by a Cuftom in Flanders called the Right of 
* Devolution^ notwithftanding flie had before her Mar- 
riage renounced all Claim to the Spani/b Succeffion. 
Having afterwards conquered the Francbe Comte^ it was 
reftorc^ the Fortifications in all the ftrong Places being 
firft demoliflied by the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle in lYi^Treaty of Aix 
Year 1668: But all that he had taken in Flanders was^-A ^ha- 
ceded to him. pblle,i668. 

ThisProgrefs of the French gave Rife to the 3ri>/^TRiPiE Al- 
AUiancg betwixt Sweden^ England and Halland^ for^iANCBy ' 
the Prefervation of the Spanijh Netherlands: But 
Lewis contrived to detach England from this Alliance ; 
nay further (he joined with France againft Holland. 
France had been in Amity with Holland ever fince 

* By this Cuftom the rial Eftote fajfes to the Childten of the 
Pji Marriage, . 

T 3 the 



Zy$ C/* F R A N C E. 

the Unioii of the feven Provinces ) but the feparate Pace 
made by the Dutcb ac Munfter^ and their Oppofition 
in the Year 1667 to bis Conquefts in FUmders^ had de- 
termined Lewis to break with them. It was thought 
by fome Perfons that the Englijb Court, which could 
not forget the Affair at Chatham and was by no Means 
fatisfied with the Treaty of Brtdoi meant no more bf 
entering into the Triplt Alliance than to bring in the 
Dutch, and confequently to expofe them the more to 
the Refentnient of France, 
War in Con- However 'this was, in the Year 1672 War was dc- 
cert nvith clared by England and France againft Holland i and in a 
"^^ohh^ (hort Time the whole Provinces of Utrtcht, GueUerM, 
agatnft HoL- ^^j Qyeryjfel together with great Part of Holland were 
^ANP, i^/2.Qy^^.^y„ rphc Biflj^p ^£ M^ft^ however one of their 
Allies failed in his Attempt upon Gromngen ; and' be ioft 
Coeverden which he had before taken. At Sea the DuUk 
behaved bravely, and had the better in four Engagements: 
Which was by the Englijh imputed to the Want of their 
being properly fupported by the Fleet of France* The 
Sufpicion that France intended to play the Mmtim 
Powers dS againft each other and ruin the naval Strength 
of bothy together with the great Progrefs of the FrmK 
bad fuch an Effed on the Engli/h Parliament that, the 
King was obliged to make a feparate Peace with Hdlatd, 
England . In the beginning of this War the Emperor and theElec- 
makes a Jepa-^ox of Brandenburg endeavoured to make a Diverfion on 
rate Peace, .the Side of Germany • but it ferved only to ruin fiwnc Pro- 
vinces in the Empire, and gave Turenne a Handle for 
1673. ravaging the Circle of Wejlphalla. In the Year 167 J 
the Ele61or of Brandenburg concluded a Treaty wiih 
France at Vojfitn ; but being in Confequencc of it put into 
Poffeffion of the ftrong Places in his Dutcby of Cl^'^ 
g he afterwards payed no Regard to it. In the nextCam- 

paign Maeftricht was taken by the French ; who during 
the Siege gave great Proofs of Valour as well as Sicill in 
carrying it on. In Franconia however the J-mperiali/ii 
gained Tome Advantage over Turenne j nor couW be pre- 
vent their joining the Spani/h and Dutch Troops on the 
•lower Rhme. This was followed with the taking of 
Bonn ^nd Narden j and the French w^re forced to aban- 
don 



0/ F R A N C B. 279 

don all ttelr Coii<|ucfls m the United Provinces except 
Gra^e and Ma^richt. ' . 

War being at the fame Time declared by the Empire Tit^ Empire 
and SpamyAt was looked upon as a thing certain that ^''^^ Spain, 
the Potrer of France woidd foon be curbed i but it it\Ueclari againft 
CBt otherwaysr. The Imperialifti did indeed take PhiUpf"^^^^^^' 
hurg afid defeat MadObal Cngui near Trurs: Yet the 
Gtrmans were on the other Side worded near SintfiUm^ 
and meeting with the fame ill Fortune in Alface they 
were, glad to repafs the Rhine. 

Turff2ne in the Year 1 675 paffed the Rhine and attack- Death of 
ed the Germans; but this illudrious General being killed Tur en ne, 
by a random Shot his Troops after a warm Engage- i^ZS* 
ment retreated into Jlface. The French afterwards made 
themfelves Mafters of die Franche Comte^ and of Lim- 
hurg^ Conde^ Valenciennes^ Camhray, Ipresy St. Omers^ 
Aire and many other Places in Flanders. Mejfina having 
voluntarily received a French Garrifon a Dutch Fleet 
was fent upon the Coaft of Sicily : Which got nothing 
but Blows and their famous Admiral Ruyter was fl4in. 
The French however foon abandoned Mejfina, In the 
mean Time the Prince of Orange re-took Grave : But he 
was defeated at the Battle of Senef and fudained great 
Lofs at the Siege of Maefiriebt, 

By the Treaty oi Nimegutn in the Year 1678 all th2X<freaty of Ni- 
belonged to Holland was redored $ but the Franche Comte m ecu en, 
and all the fine Towns in the Nether lands which had 1678* 
been taken from Spain were ceded to France. As to 
what concerned Germany the Treaties of Wejiphalia and 
Copenhagen were renewed: Saving that France exchanged • 

Pbiiipjhrg for Friburg. 

Tbe Repofe of Europe was foon again difturbed ^^y Hoftil ties re- 
Lewis: Who, pretending that they belonged to that Vd^n commenced in 
of Mface which had been ceded to hi^n by the Treaty of Alsace. 
IVeJlphaha^ feized ten free Imperial Towns and feveral 
Lordikips dependent on the Lahdgraviate of Alface. In 
the Year i6jBi he made bimfelf Mailer of Cafal^ and the |5g|^ 
important Town of Strafburg was treacherouily delivered 
up to his Troops. 

In the Year i68a a Treaty of Commerce was con- jreaty nuith 
duded with the King of Morocco : W hich being obferved Morocco, 
T 4 but i6S2* 



jS© 0/*P R' A NC E. 

but a (hort Time, the Infults of the Aigirinf Ctr fairs on 
the Ships of Pranci were fuffictemlf chaftifed by dm 
^ejki the French Admiral, who having bombarded Al- 
gtirs obliged the inhabitants to fut for Peace. The fame 
Admiral had the Year b^ore brought Triprii to Terms 5 
and Lewis XIV, might now be juftly faid to be in the 
Meridian of his Glory. 
tf^ar nvitb In the Year 16^3 Spain being no longer able to bear 

gr^iNy 1683. the Encroachments which France was continually making 
rekindled the War. The Frencl? took Dixmntde, Ccur- 
fray and Lupcemburg\ but they were repulfed widi great 
Lofs from Gironne. Being foon fenfibJe that nothing 
could be got by this War, into which they had entered 
alone, the Spaniards propofed a Truce for twenty Years: 
Which was figned at Paris in OSiober 1684. 
fiimbar/fment As the Genoe/e had (hown great Partiality to the Spa- 
ef G^NOA^ n'ards, a Fleet was fcntin the Year 1684 under the Mar- 
9PH? quis iii Segneiiai to propofe an Alliance with this Re- 

publick i which being refufed he bombarded Gema 2nd 
laid ipany fine Palaces in Aflies. Attempting to make a 
Defcent the Genoefe defended themfeives fo bravely, that 
after the Lofs of great Numbers amongft whom were 
the Chevalier Leri and other Officers of Diftindion be 
was forced to retire : But it being impoffible for this Re- 
publick to fupport itfelf againft fo great a Power the 
Pope interpofed and an Accommodation was brought 
about. The principal Condi tioti was» that the Dogg 
with four of the chief Senators (hould go and aik Lewises 
Pardon at Paris: Which was complied with. 
^fmhaffadors In the next Year Ambafladors arrived at Paris from 
Jroi^^ Si AM Siiam^ ^ith Complinients from their King to Ltms 
Arrive at Pa- aqd Orders to conclude an Alliance betwixt the two 
IIS, 1685. Nations. The Occafion of this EmbaiTage, which 
made fuch a N^ife in the World and with which 
France was fo much puffed up, was as follows. The 
Mlffionaries f^pt into the Eaft-hdies to preach the Gof- 
pcl having wrote Word that the People were w^I 
(Jifpofed, but that although the Harveft was ready 
tM Labourers were too few, fome Ecdefiaftics of great 
|A(rit in Ftytnce fet out with recommendatory Letters 

from 



0/*F R A N C E. aSi 

from the Pope and other Catholick Poweh. Being 
well received by the Sieur Cmjiana Prime Minifier 
to the King of Si^m, they foon built a Church and 
erefied many Schools in the Capital. Siam by this 
Means became the Center of all the Miffionaries in 
that Part of the World, and Accounts were conftantly 
fent to Frame of their Proceedings ; from whence they 
were in Return fupplied with Money and Priefts for 
carrying the Defign on. This was the Situation of 
Things when the King of Siam^ fearing the Dutch Eaft^ 
India Company fliould attempt fomething againft his as 
they bad done ag^infl the Dominions of other Princes 
his Neighbours, determined to fend Ambafladors to 
Lewis: Who was reprefented to him by the Miffiona- 
ries as the greateft Prince in Europe. A Veflel being 
for this Purpofe fitted out, on board of which the Am^r 
bafiadors with ridi Prefents for the French King embark- 
ed, it was loft between Maic^eifcar and Mafcar eigne. 
The French fiirmifed that the Dutch funk this Ship on 
'Purpofe to prevent an Alliance from taking Effed ; which 
they apprehended would be prgudicial to their Com- 
merce. However this was, the King of Siam upon 
hearing the News immediately fent two Perfons to en- 
quire into it, with Orders if the AmbaiTadors were not 
faved to proceed to Parts in their Stead. Thefe two 
Perfons being arrived at Paris the Chevalier de Clairmout 
fet out by Order of Lewis for Siam in the October fol- 
lowing; and with him went fix Je/uits Mathematicians 
bound for China: Who have unce given u^ a much 
better Account of that Country than any before extant. 
The Work of Converfion went on fuccefsfuUy in Siami 
and the Commerce there which began to flouriih muft 
have been very advantageous to France, if their Affairs 
had not been thrown into great Confufion by a Perfe- 
cution at home. 

While the French were bufy in planting Chriftianity g^^^ ^^ 
in- the Eaft the King at the Solicitation of the Clergy i^j^^tz re* 
endeavoured to ruin the Proteftant Religion at home;^^i^i^, n 

^nd notwithftaoding the Remonftrances of the Duke of 
JHe^ufier and others the EdiA of Nant:s^ publi&ed by 

his 



ZZZ ©/* F R A N C E. 

hh Grandfather Hmry thi Great was revoked; The 
Exerdie of the Refbrmcd Religion being hereupon pro- 
liibited ; the Churches of the Proteftahts being dento- 
•Kflied and their Minifters being baniflied ; mojfl 6f them 
fled into Proteftant Countries : By which meails Frmnce 
was deprived of many induftrious SubjeAs. As dl who 
ftaid were fuppofed to embrace the Catboltck Religion, 
foch as were found in the Exerctfe of the bther were 
treated with great Rigour. Others who would not de- 
clare themfelves Cathdicks had Dragoons quartered upon 
them and were moft cruelly ufed ; all ^hkh the Cstho- 
Itcks pretended to be authorised by that Pafi^ge of 
{Scripture Compel them to come in. 
Difference This Zeal of Leivis was quite pleaiing to the See of 

» with the Pope, Rome y yet Innocent XI. would not grant htm die Li- 
berty of prefenting to Bifliopricks in the Countries ac- 
quired by the 'Treaty of Nmegtten. This Pope more- 
over, who was of a very pofitive Temper, took it into 
his Head to deny the Privilege of free Ciiarters to the 
Foreign Ambaifadors at Rome\ and all the Foreign 
Minifters except the Marquis de Lavardin Envoy 
from France confented to this Innovation. Hia Rc- 
monftr^nces to Innocent were fo far frorti hiavitig'any 
^EfFef^, that his Chapel was put under an Interdi^ 
and he was forced to leave Rome without having an 
Audience; which fo enraged Lewis that he fei^cd Mg' 
nehy and would not reftore it till this obftiftate Pope was 
dead. 
VTar fwitb the In the Year 1688 the Emperor was again attack- 
Allies, ed by France. The French Hiftorians fay there had 
1688. been for fome Time good Reafon for this 5 but that 

France would not attack the Emperor till he had pretty 
well got rid of the Turks left the common Intereft of 
Chriftianity (hould have fuffered. However this was 
War was in September declared ; and the Tranches 
being opened by the Dauphin before PbiUpfiurg it 
was taken in twenty Days. The Dutch having about 
this Time furnifced the Prince of Or^i^f^ with Troops 
for his Expedition to England France declared War 
againft them. This Prince being crowned King of Eng- 
land 



QT F R A N C E. 883 

iaffd h0:fr4vziiei on tdp ParliafAent to. eoter into the 
War againft Lmfls^ • who tndtavoured the Reftoration 
of jAhtes. II« and foon after aioigft all Europe was allied 
agairiH France. The Begimiiog of this War was unfor- 
tunate to the Germms^ the Towns of KeyhrJIautern^ Spire^ 
Worms, HeidMurgf Franckendek^ Mameim^ Mentz and 
Hailbren being taken^ and the Circles of Suahia^ the 
Upper^Rhine and Franconia being laid under Contribution : 
But in the aext Year Aiet^z and fome other Places were 1699* 
retaken. 

In the Year 1690 the Army of the Allies under Prince i69o«, 
IValdeek was defeated by Marflial Luxemburg near FUu- Battle of 
r«j, with the Lofs of 6000 Men killed, 7000 taken Fleurus. 
and fifty Pieces of Cannon ; and eight Days after this 
Vidory the Dutch Fleet was beat upon the Englijh Coaft 
by the Frmcb Fleet commanded by Count Tourville^ 
becaufe the Englijb Admiral Tarringten would not fight. 
Lewis^ fufpeding that the Duke of Savoy was going 
over to the Emperor^ infifted on having Verrue and the 
Citadel of Turin put into his Hands as a Security for 
his Neutrality : Which being refufed the French Ge- 
neral Catinat entered Piedmont \ and having ^thzttA battle of 
the Duke's Army near Staffarde took Sufa and fame other Staffardi. 
Places, while St, Ruth on the other Side made him- 
felf Mafter of all Savoy except Montmelian. In the 
next Campaign the King put himfelf at the Head of his 1691. 
Troops and took Mons. In Italy Catinat took Nice 
and Villa Franca j but the French were afterwards word- 
ed ia ah Engagement with Prince Eagene near Com\ 
and they loft Carmagnole, This Campaign was finished 
with the Surrender of the Citadel of Montmelian to Ca^ 
tinat* 

In June i6g2 Namure furrendered to the Erench ^' ^^.-^^^^ 
King after having held out a Month; and a Vic- ^/j^^, 
tory was gained by Marflial Luxemburg over the Al- 1692. 
lies commanded by the King of England at Steenkirk, 
Thefe Advantages were hoivever in fome Meafure 
paid for by the Battle of La Hogue: In which ^^^ Battle of Lk 
French Fleet under Admiral Tourville was worfied andHoGUB« 
fpyeiiteen Ships wo^e loft* Befides this the Duke of 

Sapoy^ 



g84 Cy F H A N C £• 

SoMy who bad penetrated into Duuphif^ took GuU^fi 
Ambrun and (7«^; but bis retiring into Ssvoy tsm^xh 
the End of SepUmb$r made fome tiunk that a Rccxmi- 
ciliation betwixt him and Francs W9s upon the Tafii, 

1693. In the Beginning of the following Year /« rn^ foireiv- 
dered to the Fnncb Army in Flanderi: WhiJft tbat in 
Germany under. Marflial de Lvrgt took JiiMhurg and 
Chateau. Huy was carried on the thiid Di^ after 

Battle 0/ opening the Trenches by Luxemburg ; and b^ obtaiiv 
Nbrvindb. ed another Vidory over the Allies near NerviaJer who 
were under the joint Command of the King of Eugiand 
and the £le£^or of Bavaria. In this Battle the Allies 
loft 12,000 Men, Seventy- fix Pieces of Cannon> Twenty- 
two Pair of Colours and Scventy-feven Standards. Re/es 
in Catalonia and Cbarleroy ia Flanders were alio taken 
after ah obftinate Defenee, In the fame Campaign 
Tourville fell in with the Englijb Smyrna Fleet between 
Cadiz and Lagos ; and befides four Men of War their 
Convoy took, ' burnt or funk eighty Merchant Ships. 
The whole Lofs was computed at upwards of thirty 
Millions. The Duke of Savoy being before Fort St, 
Battle of Briggitte was furprifed with the News of Cafmath 
Marsaillb. having entered the Plain of MarfaUle. He immediately 
marched towards him \ and a Battle enfued. The Action 
was fharp and the Vifiory a good while - doubtful ; but 
the Savoyards were at laft routed with the Lofs of 5K>oo 
Men killed and 2000 taken Prifoners. The Duke of 
Sehomberg was amongfi the flain» 

1694. In the following Year Diepe was bombarded^ and re- 
duced to Afhes by the allied Fleet; but its Attempts to 
do the fame at Havre de Grace and fome odter Places did 
not fucceed. The Duke of Noailles^ who commanded 

^ , . , in Catalonia^ gained a compleat Vi£lory upon the Banks 
Tor7 ^ * of ^^® ^^ o^c' *c Spaniards ; Of whom 7000 were 
killed and 2000 taken Prifoners ; and it was followed 
with the taking of Patamo^ and Gircnne^ 

As that able General Luxemburg was now dead the 

1695. ^^^^ Campaign did by no Moans anfwer the £xpec- 
tations of the French Court. Namur. furrendered to 
the Allies, and Cajal in Ment/errat was taken. Thefe 

Advantages 



Cy F R A N c J6. iSj 

AdviMUge^ 6f the AlKes were howevel' paid for by the 
Loft of Dixmtifide zt\d Deinfe : Of both i¥hich th^e 
<9^rffofis were made Prifbners of War. Bmjfils like- 
wife fuflered greatly by a Bbmbstrdment from the Duke 
oP FiHiT9j : But the ASkirs of the Allies were more 
diicdncerted by the feparate Peace which the Duke of Siparait Peace 
Sav^ made -^ith France in 1696. By this Ptgnervlwth Say^y, 
after demoKihing the Works was to ht reftorcd; and 1696, 
a Marriage was concluded betwixt the 'Duke's eldeft 
Daughter and the Duke of Burgundy prefumptivt Heir 
to the French Crown. Having hereupon joined his 
Troops to thofe of France Valentta was in veiled ; bitt 
a Neutrality being agreed upon for Italy Hoftilities oh 
that Side ceafed. 

In Fitmary 1697 the Plentpotentiariies from **>^Pow-yy.^^ ^ 
era at War aflembled at Ryfufick : Yet the Opera- ryswick, 
tions of the Campaign being carried on Ath in Hain- 1697. 
ttuk )axA Barcelma in Catalonia were taken by the 
Prenei.' A Treaty being concluded in September all iii 
C4talma and Flanders was reftored to Spain. By this 
the Emperor regained Brifac^ Philip/iurgy Friburg and 
Fert Kehl; and Dinant, Trarback^ Bitfch, Homburg^ 
Kim and Mont Royal were after deftroytng the For- 
tifications alfo reftored to him* The Duke of Lorrain 
was put into Poflefflon of his whole Dutchy except 
Sarhuis and Longui ; which together with all Jljface were 
cedui to France. - 

The Surprize which the Moderation fhewn by iiic A Propofal 
Court of Verfailles towards Spain in this Treaty had occa-/»r raifing the 
iioned loon vaniibed when the Reafons for it wereELBcroRAL 
known. Charles 11. of Spain^ who had no Children, '''^^"^ e/" ^a- 
being very infirm and not determined upon a Succeffor,^^^^^ '* *^ 
it was of great Confequence to France that he did n^t^^^^^"" 
die at Enmity with the Houfe of Bourbon. To pre- 
vent a Gonteft between the Emperor and the Dauphin, 
who both avowed their Claim to his Dominion^, it was 
propofed that the Electoral Prince of Bavaria by the 
Ardi-Dutchefs Mary Daughter of the Emperor fliould 
fucceed to them. As the Houfe of Aujlria was thereby 
exchided France Teemed fatisfied with this Expedient; 
and fince it had a Tendency to preferve the Balance of 

Power 



286 Cy F R A N C «• 

Poorer the o^ber Powers ei Emrop^MlinvrithiH ^4 
9s the Emperor vas the 6to\y ofie who oppofed it It 
would probably if the Death of thsKt young Prinooh^d 
not happened hav^ been carried ioft) Executioa. 
Partition After his Death England and fkHfind to prerest the 

Triaty, RecommenQeoKfit- of War upon, the Account of fte 

Spamjh Succeffion entered in Contot with Fnmci into 
another Tveaty s whereby it w^ agreed, that the Dau-^ 
l^io (hould haye Noptn and Sicity^ the S^ D^lPrtfidih 
fhat Part of Spain which lay beyond the Pyren^ and 
larrain } that ttie Duke of X^rr^V fllould baire ^r/ao ; 
«nd that the reft of the SpatfiJ^. Monarchy (bouhi go to 
the Archda|:e Charts. This difpofition was srfterwards 
agreed to by the Court of Lijbon : But in the meanTiacie 
the King of $pain by the Advice of Pope Inmcent-Xlh 
appointed PH&t Duke of Anjau frcond Son to the Dan- 
phin his SMCcofer. 
The Duke of Afxordkflg> to the Ordinary Courfe of Succeffion it 
An jov is ap' ihould have been the Dauphin htmfelf : This was how* 
pointed Succef^^ytX' broke into, by CbarUs left the Spttrnfi Monarchy 
for to /i'^SpA-ihouId be annexed to and fo become a Pfovmceof jHrfl«fr. 
NisH Monar- Philip having in purfuance of Charles the Seconds Will 
^h' which wasconfomed by a Codicil taken Pofleffion of 

the Spanip> Dominions, hi? vm aiiter fame Delibeiation 
acknowledged by England^ H^Uand and Portugati and, 
the Dukes of S/woy^ Tu/cafly zn6 flhntua declared for 
him. Pope Clement XI. out of his great Zeal fbr the 
new King prevailed upon tbeGirdies of SttaUa zniFran- 
C9nia to entei» Into a Confederacy for prefcrving a Neu- 
trality in the War which he fotefaw impending ; jretthefe 
Circles afterwards joined with the Emperor. The 
Electors of Sa^tony^ Bratidenimrg and Hanover did the 
fame : And the Eleftors of dhgn and Bavaria having 
declared for a Neutrality they were by the Julick- Coun- 
cil, whofe Authority they however refufcd to acknow" 
ledge, put under the Ban of the Empire, 
War on ^c- Hoftilitiesbeingcommenced Prince fi«^^w# cut to Pieces 
tount of the a Detachment of 1500 French. The Marquis of Cam- 
SvAuisuSuc^bout^ and the Duke of Chevreufe's Son were among 
cejion, the Slain. Soon after the Duke of Savoy^ whofe fecond 

Daughter Uie Prince of Cariguan bad Orders to cfpoufe 

in 



Q^ F R A N c «• 287 

in cbc Name of Pbfffj^,tQok tik^Q^sm^ as G^urih' 

Uffimo of the FuTfcb vfA &pmjb Aripi^. , , 

Englfiwl axui Holk»4% wha Wff» quite aycffeto tlK^^^^^^° 
Enjoyment xrftthe Iwo Crawins by (tut Eioufe of B^urbot^^^^ ^ol- 
eotered into an AHiaoc*^ with the Ea^eror: AmJ thfifirft^^'^Y"'^''' 
of ,tHcft; Coum w«w «tweQVer |^voke(t.at the CoadufSlp^^^'j^^g 
of L^tism-p wbPf <iiplwithftan4irig h^ )ia4 by the Tresaty 
of St^fmci acknouMged the Pniw:^ of Orange, a^ King, 
of Eoglmds upfMt^heJDeatb of y««^i IL ac^nowtedg^d 
his Soa tih£ pretetidcd Pf inee of IV^s a$ King (kf ^ngf- 
land b}t<' thie Name of J^m€s III. It w^^ indeed infifte4 
upon, by him to, circular LeUers to all the Powers of v&'a- 
fipi^ that beiog determined to obfer V4( the Treaty of Ryf^ 
wzi:ki» had. no Intention of d^utrhing William in the 
Enjoyment of the EngHJh Crown : Bpt ^hat having before 
acknowliedged the Son of Janus XL, as- Prince of W^^les^ 
he was obliged to acknowledge hioi as King.of £x^/4^ 
Upon ^ Ucath.of William the P^oeipality of Orange 
was feized by the Frtnfb'^ and aU the Proteftapts v^e 
driven out of it. .• 

Thp^ Prmcb Trapps, whieh the 51e<S:or of Ologn had 1701. 
received uader the Denomination of Troops of the Circle 
of Burgundy^ cpuld not hinder the taking of Kayfirwcrtb, 
Venlo^ Rurmwnde^ hiige% Steven/worth and Landau in the 
Year 1702 by the allied Army, Thefe Lofles were bow- Battle of 
ever made gfCMod by the Defeat pf Prince Lewis of Baden Fr i d l i n- 
near Fridlinguen^ for which Viflory the Marquis of ^/7- cue n. 
lar$ who commanded the French Troops was made a 
Marflial of .Av7^#; and by the Advantage gained over 
Prince Eugene in the Aflion at Lumra. 

In the Year 1703 Benn and Limhurg were taken by the , 703. 
Allies : But their Ajrmy under the Baron D'Obdam was Battle of . 
worftcd by.Marflial Boufflers with theLofs of 4000 MenEKEREEN. 
at Ekere^n ; and the Prince of Hejft-Caffel who attempt- 
ed to relieve Landau was defeated by Count Tallard Battle of 
near Spire. In this A<3ion five thoufand of the Imperia- Spire. 
li/is were kiUed and four thoufand were taken Prifoners : 
But the French k>ft the Marquis of PracontaL Landau 
foott' after fell into Tallard's Hands, and BrI/ac was. in 
this Campaign taken by the Duke of Burgundy^ The . 
Eledor oi Bavaria on his Side.m;ade bimfelf Mafter qi 



a88 cy F R A N C fe; 

^figfhirg : But ^ ACteropt cff the Duke of FM^e (d 
penetrate thro' the TyrtiUfi mil join the Bavarians faild^ 
His Prefefice was moreoTer wanted in Aaif the Doke 
of $^iv«y being gone oret to the Emperor, The F^ttuhM- 
pefiing his DefeAioti had diftrmed the Tfoops of dm 
Prince; butluduljrferhimCoiimAMhrmiArjrcaaiei^for^ 
ced Marches through the Ma^Ouan to his Afllftance. 
1704. In the next Campaign the Elector of Bsvaria beidg 

joined by a large Body of French Troops under Count 
Tallard^ it was expeded fome coniideraiile Blow would 
be ftruck on that Side. To prevent this fdme Eng^uA 
Dutch iotcts joined the Troops of the Emperor^ and a 
Battle of Battle was fought near H9ckftet upon the DemtAc. Mir- 
HocKST£T. fhal Marcin^ who commanded on the left, broke the 
right Wing of the Confederate Army where Prince ^«- 
gine commanded feveral Times ; but the left Wing com* 
manded by the Duke of Marlbvrwgh having pafied a 
Morafs which was thought impaiTatrfe, the rkht Wing 
of the French and Bavarians under Count Tallard was 
attacked in Flank and entirely routed. In this Aftion 
France fuiFered more than in any for fome Centuries pad. 
I2)000 Men were killed or drowned $ and near dut 
Number with Count Mallard and numy general Officers 
were made Prifoners. Their Colours, Baggage and 
Artillery were all loft; and this important ViSory was 
followed with the ReduAion of Landau^ Triers and 
Traerback. 
Iftfiirreaim Encouraged by this fatal Stroke to Frame the Pro- 
in the Ce- teftants in the Cevennes took up Arms, in order to de- 
v£MNBs. liver themfelves from the Hardflirps they underwent on 
the Account of Religion. Being joined by all who from 
the Fear of Dragooning had embraced the Caihe-ic Re- 
ligion, and by many whofe defperate Circumftances ren- 
dered them fit for any thing, they in Revenge for the 
SufFerings of their Friends committed great Exceflb. 
Thefe Diforders were increafed by the violent Mea- 
fures of MontrevelU who caufed all he could catch to 
be put to Death; but by the milder Treatment of the 
Marquis of Villars they were in fome Meafure appeafed. 
At length the Chief of the Infurgents, confidering he | 
muft pay dear if taken for the Blood, of the manf 

Pricfts 1 



frktisirix(^ TbiMts lii^ 9^fff had cut, accepted t|p 
King's ftirdm ; aird aii^ll#wa8^\q[ttickly put to this R^ 
bclftn/ . ■ ' • ' ■ • . 

In iht ftitne Veiwr^e /^mi overrm'Savoy and made leoj, 
lli€mfelnJsr;»M#ft#fe 6f ^ircetl stnd '/t;ry. In the Year Savoy 
1705 ^mti 'in 'l^tHhnMf waa talcen hy the A-i;^7cA ; tmi^^^rrwt, 
the Ehftc df^ife/«^ 'gained a Viaory over Prince Eu- Battle of 
gm 5flt 'Gdffmo. Nothing remarkaWe happened fn thisCAssANO. 
Cftiupaigli on ^rtfe Side c^Smnany or of FlanSers. 

Trie following' Year was Mi of Events. The Duke 1706. 
tiBirimak took AWr^ after a Siege of twenty I^ys ; and Villa as 
Miaftial'^rtifrj forced the Lines of the hnperraltfts nearA^^' '^ 
Haienm. <rhtfe;good Beginnings encouraged the Court ^'"^' ^ '^ 
of Vti^riSii ^ attempt three Things of great Confe- **'^^*" ' 
quence this Campaign r 'Namely the Siege of Turin^ ^^ alisti, 
deeifiTe'Batrte in Fianders ^nd the Srege of Barcelona, 
Succ^fe inthe'firft would have made every Thing furc 
in It^ly% a^Vi^tery in Flanders would have oWiged the 
DfrfrAto have'made Peace for their own Safety: And if 
SufirfOTM 'had'beeiT taken^ Charles called by ^t French 
Archduke, by the AHies King of S/»tf/«, who miift have 
been made a Prtfooer, 'would it is likely for the fake of 
Llberty-ha«Btemottnced his'Pretenfions to Spain. Thesiegi 0/ 
Siege of Banehna was fifft undertaken; but SuccoursBARCKLONA* 
being fent to this Place by Sea it was railed whh Pre- 
cipitation. In 'a Battle fought near RamWes on the 23d ^^^^^ ^ 
of Mzythe French and Bavarians commTLtvieA by thcRAMiLias. 
Duke of S^wrmand'Marflial Vilkroy were defeated by 
the Duke of Marlburough with die Lofs of 20,000 Men. 
All their Baggage and Artillery fell' into the Enemy's 
Hands ; nor were they in a Condition to take the Field 
again in lefs than two Months. The Confequence 
of this Vi^ory, befides the Redufiion of all Brabant and 
good Part of Flansitrs properly fo called, was the taking 
of ^niv/irpj Matines, Oftendy Menin^ Dendermonde and 
M by the Allies. The Siege of Turin next engaged xhcSiege of 
Attention of Eunfp,e\ before which tbe Trencr)cs were Turin, 
opened by the Di:^e of Feuillade on the 2d of June. The 
Duke of Means appointed to fucceed the Duke of 
Vmdofme^ to whom' the Command in Flanders which had 
been taken from.Marlfaal*/^&r0y was g^ven, in Concert 

Vol. I. * U with 



2190 



Battle of 
Almanza. 



Q/* F R A N C E. 

with Marfhal Mardn puihed the Siege; but the German 
fbeneral Count Djuii defended the Place with great 
Bravery. Upon the unexpeded coming up of Prince 
Eugitii the Ftifub Army was attacked in its Trenches; 
and after a Refiftance of two Hours, during which the 
Duke of OrUoMi was wounded and'Marihal Marcin was 
killed, it retreated towards PigmreL All Ptidmont be- 
yond this Place was hereby abandoned ^ and the French 
were forced in the next Campaign to evacuate Italy en- 
tirely. As thefe three Schemes failed, Succefs ineidier 
of which would have much mended the Affairs oiPranct^ 
Propofals for a Peace were made in November to England 
and Holland by the Elector of Bavaria ; which Being 
refufed the utmoft Efforts were made for carrying on 
the War in the following Year. 

In the Year 170;^ a Viftory was gained over Lord 
Galway in the Plains of Almanza by the Duke of Ber* 
wick I the Duke of Orleans made himfelf Mafter of Va- 
lencia and Saragoffa ; the French Admiral Four bin fell in 
with the Englijh Convoy bound to Portugal and took 
two Men of War and twenty Merchant Ships : And , 
the Lines of Stoloffen being forced by Marlbal ViUari all 
the Artillery, Ammunition, Tents and Baggage of the 
Germans fell into the Hands of the French. The fame 
French Admiral was again fuccefsful againft the Englijh 
Pieet in the fFhite Sea ; of which he burnt twenty-two 
Sail: But the Joy thefe Events gave to the People of 
France^ for fcimc Time before accuftpmed only to Dif- 
ap^6rntments, was in fome Meafure lefTened by the Re- 
volt'of Naples ,^hich followed the Evacuation of M- 
The Attempt however of the Duke of Savoy upon T^qu' 
Ion was the Thing which in this Campaign principally 
commanded the Attention of Europe. This Prince in 
order to vindicate himfelf from the Reproach thrown upon 
him \ViGer?nany of not a£ling vigoroully againft Francty 
and being animated by Prince Eugene^ furprized the Paf- 
fage of the Var with a Flying Camp of 2500 Men. The 
Governours of Nifmef and Baucaire^ who afterwards 
paid for their Treachery with their Lives, deliyercd uy 
both thefe Places to the two Princes and they in £▼< 
Attempt upon £)ays reached Toulon. The Attempt upon Toultm whid 
Toulon. ' WM 



Naplts 
revoitu 



Q/'Fr A N CE. 2gt 

was favoured by the Englijh fleet was begun on the 29th 
«f July \ but the Allies were in a few Days driven by 
Mar(hal TeJJe from Tome Pofts they had taken : And on 
hearing that the Duke of Burgundy was coming up with 
a Reinforcement all their heavy Baggage and Artillery 
together with their Sick and Wounded were put on board 
the Britijh Fleet, and they decamped in the Night of the 
2 1 ft of yfugujl. About twenty Houfes were deftroyed 
by fome Bombs thrown into the Town by Admiral Shovel; 
and two Veflels in the Harbour were burnt. Thus ended 
this Proje(5i j which coft the Allies the Lives. of the Princes 
cf Anhault and Saxe-Gotha and above 10,000 Men. 
Although Prince Eugene was with him ftill the Germans 
fufpciS^ed the Heartinefs of the Duke of Savoy \ and that 
he delayed making the AfTault upon Toulon on purpofe 
to give Marfhal Tejfe Time to prevent it. The French 
afterwards became Matters of Nice ; but Sufa notwith- 
(landing its being well fupplied with Ammunition and 
Provifion furrendered to the Allies. 

Early in the following Year the King for the fake of 1708. 
bufying the Troops of Gr^«/-Br//fl/« at home furniflied ^* Emharka^ 
the Chevalier de St. George with fome Troops for making "'^'^'''^^*^*«'' 
a Defcent on North- Britain : Yet although he was at^-f '^'^^"^' 
the fame Time fupplied with large Sums of Money fromg-. Geoilge. 
Romey where Prayers of forty Hours had been put up for 
his Succefs, this Expedition came to nothing ; and being re- 
turned into Francehe mzdc the Campaign as a Volunteer 
under the Dukes of Burgundy and Berry. At the Com- 
mencement of this Campaign Brigadier de Faille^ who 
had been heretofore Grand Bailiff of Ghent, entered 
this Town with five Soldiers in Difguife, in an Even- 
ing. Having the next Morning at the opening of the 
Gate feized it he was feconded by fome French Troops 
which lay in wait for this Purpofe, and eafily became 
Matter of the Place. Bruges furrendered foon after to 
the French ; but this favourable Scene was changed by. 
the Battle of Oudenarde, In this which lafted from four 
in the Afternoon till nine the French did indeed keep the ^^''^-^ ^f 
Field ; but the Confequence which is much the beft Rule^^^*; 
to judge by plainly fliewed that the Allies had the Ad- ^^^^^* 
vantage. The Troops of France retired to Ghent ; whilft 
U a Prince 



292 CypRANCB. 

Prince Eugene who had joined the Duke oi. Marlborough 
juft before the Battle and aded a great Part in it advan- 
ced towards L'tfle, 

Srege of This Place, the Siege whereof is one of the moft 

Lis LB. remarkable in Hiftory, was invefted on the 12th of A- 

gujf', and the Trenches not with (landing the utm oft En- 
deavours of the befieged to prevent it were opened on the 
22d. The Elector of Bavaria in order to make a Di- 
verfion attacked Bruffils ; but after repeated. Affaults 
in which the Lofs was pretty equal on both Sides he df- 
fitted. Many Motions were made by the Army under 
the Duke of Burgundy to fatigue the Allies ; and the Ac- 
cefs of Convoys was rendred fo difficult that Prince Eu- 
' gene advanced to meet one with a large Detachment. By 
this Precaution a Convoy was for want of having been 
attacked foon enough by General De la Motte after 
a bloody AQion conduced to the Camp. On the 22ci 
of Oiiober in the Evening Marfhal Boufflers who it is 
allowed on all Hands had defended the Town with great 
Bravery beat the Lhamade ; and the Capitulation was 
figned next Day. The Caftle which held out till the 
8th of December being alfo taken,, the Allies notwith- 
ftanding the Sharpnefs of the Weather ret6ok Gheni to- 
wards the End of this Month. 

^ v^'lf ^* Z,r^^ which was thought impregnable being taken and | 

*n% r ^ F*''^'"^ prevailing at the fame Time in the Heart of 

great ^V^rJs.^^^ Kingdom, the People of France could not be kept , 
within any Bounds. In order to appeafe them Lewis uM \ 
all his Efforts to bring about a Peace ; and it was fup- 
pofed that Counfellor Pitkum MiniRer at the Hague ^ 
from the Duke of Hol/lein-Gottorp had difpofed every | 
Thing for a general Accommodation. The Marquis it 
Torcy and the Prefident Rcwlle repaired to the Hape\ 
and after feveral Conferences returned with Preliminaries | 
figned by the i\4inifters of the Allies : Bat the Conditions 
of them, which were the abfolute Renunciation of the 
5/tf«(^ Monarchy J the Reftoration of 5/r^?^£fr|^, Brijac^ 
and Landau to the Empire j and' the Demolition of all the 
Fortrefles upon the Rhine from Bajil to Philipfleurg] , 
were fuch as the King could by no Means fubmit to. 1 
The Publication however of tbefe had a good EfFed : For 

notwith- 



CyFRANCE. 293 

notwithftanding the exhaufted Condition of France 
no Perfon deftrcd Peace on fuch hard Terms 5 and new 
Efforts were made for continuing the War, 

Count Mercy having in the Year 1 709 entered J! face 1 709. 
with a Body of Imperialifls he was entirely defeatid bylMPERiA- 
Count du Bourg. Of the Germans 1800 were left on th^ lists 
Field, 900 were drowned, s^nd 2500 were madePrifon-^^A^'^^'« 
crs; and befides their Colours and Artrllery all Count ^^*-*^^' 
Mercy's Papers fell into the Hands of the Frcn,h. On the 
7th of July the Alliesht down before Tournay, The Town 
iurrendred at the End of this Month ; and the Citadel in . 
the beginning of September * The Duke of Marlborough 
and Prince Eugene having next undertaken the Siege of 
Mons^ the Marfhals Boffflers and Villars deierminecj 
to hazard aBattle. In this which was fought ntzr Mai- Battle ef 
plaguetf and a very bloodyt)ne it was, ViSory for fomeiVlALPLA- 
Time doubtful at length inclined to the JWes; itcoft(^ET. 
ihem however very dear*" As the French Army were not 
able to attempt again the Relief of Mons it furrendered 
on the 21ft of OSiober. 

In January 1710 Conferences were again opened 1710. 
at Gertrudmhurg^ and thefe were continued until yuly. Conferences at 
The Marfhal D'Uxelles and the Abbe de Pt^lignac offer edOEKT9.V' 
on the Part of France to acknowledge Ci^r/^j as King d^n burg. 
of Spain and to give no Afixftance to Philip ; to reftor'e 
Landau and Strdjburg 5 and to demolifh the Forts built 
on the Rhine ; But as the JHies would abate nothing of 
their Demands at the Conferences at the Hague the 
Fnnch Plenipotentiaries returned home. In this Campaign 
the French were furprized in their Lines; and P »^7,Douay, 
Bethune^ Aire and 4S/. Vinant fubmitted to the allied Army.^W ether 
A Defcent was alfo made byfome Britijh Troops in Pro- Places taken, 
vence ; but after a fmart Attack from the Duke 6(NoaiIles 
they were glad to reimbark with fome Lofs. 

Upon the Death of the Emperor Jofeph in Jprii 1 7 1 1 1 7 1 1 . 
his Brother the Archduke was raifed to the Imperial Dig- Dea/h of the 
nity. As this Prince was befides in Poffeffion of Hungary E^pf^^^r 
and Bohemia and of all the hereditary Dominions of the Joseph. 
Houfe of Auftria^ it was looked upon hy fome of the Al* 
lies as dangerous to the Liberty of Europe, for the Pre- 
fervat'ton of which the War had been fo long continued, 
• U j ^ that 



294: ^ (^Frakce* 

that he (Lould have alfo the whole Spanijh Monarchy. 
England particularly where the Tdry Party had now the 
Afcendant grew cool to his Intereft j and the#more fo in 
pure Oppofilion to the IVb'igs who were for continuing 
the War. After taking Bouchain the allied Army did 
nothing in this Campaign j Prince Eugene being called 
from Flandsrs to guard againft the Attempts of the Elec- 
tor of Bavaria^ who as well as the Eledor of Cologn had 
refufed to acknowledge Charles VI. as Emperor. Lexh 
faw with Pleafure this Difpofition of the new Britijh 
Miniftry: Who were determined if a general Peace 
Death of the could not be had to make a feparate one. In the Month 
Dauphjn. ^f jp^ii jhis Year the Dauphin died, 

1712. In the beginning of the next Y edit Lewis had the Mif- 

T^LO other fortune to lofe the new Dauphin the Duke oi Burgundy^ 
VAVYMivt ^hQfg promiiing Virtues had endeared him to the whole 
Nation. To add to this Misfortune the Duke of Bretany 
cldeft Son of the Duke of Burgundy furvived him but a 
Month ; and there were but fmall hopes of the Life of his 
other Son the Duke of Anjou. The Inaftivity of the 
Britijh Troops commanded in this Campaign by the 
Duke of prmond entirely changed the Face of Affairs 
in Flanders. Landrecy being invefled by the Prujfian 
General the Prince of Jnhault Dejfau the Siege was covered 
by Prince: Eugene \ and Lord Alhermarle with eighteen 
Battalions and fome Squadrons had the Care of the Con- 
voys from Marciennes and the other Magazines on the 
Scarpe, Marfljal pillars having caufed a Body of Troops 
Battle of to advance within S ght of this Lord's Intrenchments at 
D£NAiN. JDtnainy Prince Eugene for the fake of enabling him to 
keep this Poft reinforced him with fix Battalions, 1 he 
Intrenchments were however forced and a Convoy was 
taken. A great Number were in this Aflion killed or 
drowned in the Scheldt and Lord Alhermarle with many 
qthers were made Prifoiiers. Jliardennes (urrtridrci after- 
wards to the French^ and they made themfelves Mafterof 
divers Magazines at 5/. Amand^ Ancbin and Hafnon. Prince 
Eugene was alfo forced to give over ihc Siege of^e/noii 
nor could he prevent Douay from falling into the Hands 
of the Enemy, 

Matters being foon after accomqiodated with Gnai- 
Britain the Dutch unable to bear alone the Expence of 

the 



the War came alfo into Terms, and a Treaty was figned 1 7 1 3 . 
2tUtr£cht in the Year 171 3. By this it was agreed, "TV/tf/jr ^ U* 
that the Princes of Frana fliould renounce all Pretenfions^aicHT, 
to the Span^ Crown; that bis Catholic Majefty ihould 
do the fa(ne to the French Crown ; that the Spanijb Ne* 
therhnds as left to CW//J II. by the Treaty of Ryfwick 
fliould be left in the Hands of the Spaniards till Things 
were fettled with the Emperor and Empire ; with the 
Referve however of the TJpptr Quarter of Guilderlandfot 
the King of PruJJiaj and as much of Limburg as the Re- 
venue thereof was worth 30,000 Crowns, which was to 
be erie^d into a Principality for the Princefs of Urjins. 
It was alfo ftipulated, that the Duke of Bavaria Ihould 
receive the Revenues of the Dutchy of Luxemburg and* 
of the Counties of Namure and Charleroy^ until he fliould 
be put into the full Poflefiion of his own. Dominions. Lijle^ 
Bethune^ Aire and &• Venant were to be reftorcjd to 
Frances and a Treaty of Commerce very advantageous 
to Holland was agreed upon* 

The King of Pruffia who had fome Matters to ftii\tTreat^ tv'uh 
in which the Emperor and Empire had no Concern^PRVssiA. 
made Peace at the fame Time. Being acknowledged as 
King of FruJJia and Sovereign of Neufchatel he gave up 
to France tht Principality of Orange in the Franche 
Cotttpte\ and took upon bimfelf to fatisfy the Claims of 
the Houfe of Uaffau on this Principality. As to what 
related to Seeuoy and Portugal an Account has been and 
fliall be elfewhere given^ . 

The Emperor and Empire ftill held out and protefted l^he War it 
agaioft every Thing which was concluded to their DiM* nntmuedf with 
vantage : But although the Terms oflered by France w«re ^be Emfirb. 
refufed no great Preparation was made for continuing 
the War with Advantage. In this Campaign Marftiai 
yillars took fVermsy Spire ^ Kayjerfiauttm^ Woifftein^ Kim 
and Landau ; and having afterwards pafTed the Rhine for- 
ced the Lines of the Germans at Ftibourg ; laid the Cir- 
cle of Suabia and Dutchy of IFertemberg under Contribu« 
tions ; and made himfelf Mafter of Fribcurg. Not* 
with(ianding all this Succefs, as France was much ex* ' 
haufted and the Heir to the Crown quite young, Lewis 
was very defuous of feeing before his Death a general 
U4 Peace. 



1^6 Of FltAKCS^ 

f tice The Gttierals Prince Eugwe aiid ' VilbtPi lleld » 
Conference at Jiadftodt % but a^ the Efihpor^r «9cpe£ked the 
'^ i^e Terms as when viftoriotis \.mti' rrunt^otk the con* 
frary infifted upon die ForiiikitiorB of irifoi and J'r/- 
bourg being demoliflied ; upon keeping. Zott^^ni 7 and thai 
the two Eledlors (houid be re^eflaUkflicd and indemnified 
^r what they had fuffered during the War ; it war im- 
poffibte any Thing could be agreed upon. 
Treaties 9f At another Conference hAA'm March 17 14 at the 
Radstadt fame; Place a proviftonal Treaty was s^eed upon by 
iw*/ Baden, thcfe two Generals: .Whereby cv«ry Thing i«i Dif- 
^1^^* pure betwixt France and the. Empire ivas left fo be de- 
cided in a. Cotigrefs to be immediately held at Badtn. 
The Plenipotentiaries repaired tbither ; and it- was a- 
g^eed» that the new Treaty ihouid be ifbanded oif thofe 
of WeJ^^aliaf Nimeguen and R^Jivici $ that M taken 
fronit t^ Empire in tbtt War (hoirid be rfiftwed^; that 
the Duke.pf Hanover flMMiid. be acknowledge^^ as an £- 
leAor ; that the two EleAors QtouiU be futty re^eilabKiied 
in their Ooniiniohs; that his EleAoral HlghMefs of Co- 
lo^m (houid in «Cale of War receive an Imperial Garri- 
fon into bis Town of Bonn; that the Emperor Ihould 
have the Sp^ni/h Ntiherlandsy \nft with the Referue of Na- 
mnr^ Chaikroi, Nieupsri^ M$ium^ T^utftay, DiMmunde, 
Jfrn and fowe other Phces.as a Barrier for the i>ir/r^; 
that every ^ing in //^i^ihduld reoiain in &atu fus ; that 
no CoAfequenceihould follow f«om the Tittes madeufe 
of by his Imperial Majefty on this Occafion; and that 
noProtefl fliouU be fdceived. Imti anf Power againft 
this. Treaty. . ,, 

y^iMrahSons The- Death of the Dtikr of fl^rfji together WiA the 
cf Lewis de- Renunciation of Philip his Bnolbeis after the Lofs of To 
^lareii Prihcei ^any PHhces ot the. Blood in a Ihort Times V^< Lewis up- 
9/thi Blood, oa a Prf>>ea in Favour 0/ the ewo Sons he had by Made- 
moifeile di^ Mmtjpan, Not fatlsfied wit^h Ifcgftimating 
tbcfe iie declared them Princes of the Blood and capable 
of-fpcccediog; and took Care to have'dhis Edid regiftcrcd 
with aj) the Formalites ncccflary for paffing it i-nto a Law, 
J>i/putQs he- AbQUt this Tinie the ttffertmws^ Which had for a Fong 
i-wUe the Je- Time fubfifted betwixt the Divines, concerning Grace 
/utti ^i/jAN-aiid Free will came t<> iiich a H<?ighth a^ to throw the 
s^??fsTs. King- 



Kiftgdom int6 gfeat Dtfirfders. TTicy began thui. 'A 
DoAor of LoMffatn afterwards Bifllop of Ipres having 
as he beiieved given in a Book he publtfhed the true 
Scfife iff Si, Aufl'm as to thefe Matters, it was wrote 
agafivft bjF a Jfcfuit; and the Pop6 being appealed to 
five pj^opoTiekms in the Bifiiop's Book were condemned; 
Hie Followers catM iroiai Jafifenius his Name J^nfi- 
nifis^ who to6k upon them his Defence, were divided 
into two Parties. Some agreed with his Holtnefs that 
the Fropofitiorw condiemned were heterodox : But that 
they were notfeirly deducible from the Book. Others 
Went fo far as to lay, that if they had been contained 
in it there was nothing in themv heterodox. The for- 
mer infifted, that ahHough the Pope was an ihfalJible 
Judge of the Orthodoxy of an Opinion he might be 
miitaken as to the Matter of Faft whether an Opinion 
Was ebntatned m a Book or not. It being on the other 
Hand ftremioufly maintained by the Jefiiits that he was 
an equally good Judge in both Cafes, Pope Clement 
Xr. for the Sake of compromising the Matter waved 
the Right of judging as to the Fad : But as worldly In- 
terrft and Ps^on had a great Share in the Difpute this , 
woufd not db. The yafifenifis decry td the Chicanery 
of the Jefiaits and expofed their wicked PrkStkes in 
CafuiAry. On the cbntrary they were reproached by the 
JefuitS with the Name of MtUnifts^ and with being go-» 
verned by Principles of Ambition and Covetoufnefs only. 
The Cardinai NoatBes at one Time fo zealous agalnft 
the Janfint/k as to ruin the Abby of Port Royal came 
at laft over to their Opinion. The tireach occafioned 
by this Difpute was further widened by an artful Book 
wrore by Father ^efhel of the Oratory, called moral 
Reflieaions on the New Teftament. The Bifliop of 
Chalons having feen this Book in the Manufcript recom- 
mended it to his Clergy ; many othpr Biihops did the 
fame; and it had the Approbation of Cardinal NoailUs. 
In every new Edition of this Book it grew more and 
more fevere ; and its Author, who had voluntarily accom- 
panied Mr. Arnaud a n'oted Janfeniji in his Exile, went 
after his Death into Holland. The reading of it being 
g( laft forbid by three Bifhops the Cardinal, who 

was 



tpS Q/* France. 

WIS alfo Bi(hop of Parity complained to the King. 
' The latter not being able to reconcile the Parties refer* 
red the Matter to the Pope ; by whom the Book was 
condemned as containing », Hundred aild One heretical 
Propofitions. From this Sentence of the Pope, called 
from Its Beginning with the Word unigenltus the Confii- 
imion XJnigenitusj many of the Clergy and fome Parlia- 
ments appealed to a general Council : But the rooft 
forward of the Appellants were baniflied and the King 
feemed determined to have it univerfally received* A 
Stop was however put to thefe violent Proceedings 
againft the Janfenifts by the Death of Ltwis^ who died 
on the I ft of September'} 7 1 5 in the 7 3d Year of his Reign. 
LiwisXV. Lewis XV. being a Minor the Duke of Orleam 
1715. was appointed by his Grandfather's Will Regent, and 
DnkeofOx* fome others were aiTodated with him : But the Diverfity 
iBANs ap» of Opinion which enfued foon gave him an Opportunity 
^"'''-^'"'•of affuming the whole Power which of Right belonged 
tf^^^V*/ 1^ Y\^ gg jQQJ, gj.g^( Pains to reconcile the Jefuits and 
i^nMMff* JanfeniJIs: And not being able to do' this he wifely re* 
folved that one Party (hould not perfecute the other. All 
in Prifon for refufing to fubmit to the Conjlituthnal Uni- 
genttus were fct at Liberty ; he recalled fuch as were 
baniflied on the Account thereof; and he reftored their 
Right of EleSion to the Sorbmne. Enquiring next into 
the Abufes of the Revenue, he by making the. Farmers 
thereof refund what they had unjufthr taken from thePub- 
lick, and by abolifhing all unneceilary Offices, brought 
great Sums into the Treafury. ,A Publick Bank was 
eftablifhed under the Direftion of Law an Englijbman 
who was a very good Accomptant; the Trade of the 
Jndiay African and American Companies before almoft 
mined began to revive ; and a rich Settlement being pro* 
ieited on the River MiJJiJippi in North America many 
Families were carried thither : But this came fo nothing* 
In the Year 17 j6 a Sort of Paper Money was ifiued to 
the Amount of the whole National. Debt; and aftcrthc 
Publick Creditors had been forced to receive this in lieu 
of their Adions* the Value thereof was to the great Lofs 
of many of thefe much reduced : And fuch of them as 
bad converted their Actions into real Eftates were o- 
bilged to pay heavy Fines. 

The 



Q/" F R A N C E. 299 

The Princes of the Blood, who had connived at tbtSitthmint 0/ 
Settlement of Liwis XIV, in favour of his illegitimate Lswis XI V« 
Sons, now took great Pains to annul it ; and after Pjro-^ '* ^'' *^'•- 
ceedings had been carried on wilh much Warmth for fy ^'^ 
fomc lime they were by an Edia in the Year 1717**^'* ^7^7* 
deprived of the Honor of being Princes of the Blood* 

A ft rid Union was entered into by the Regent w'uhTntrigmes if 
the Briti/h Court ; and in Confequence of it the Triple ^<a^^'«»/ At- 
and Quadruple Alliances were formed. The Cardinal ^^.^oivi; 
Alhermi chief Manager in ^fainy having a Mind to re* 
cover what this Kingdom had loft, laid a Scheme /or 
removing the Duke kA Orleans who he was fatisfiedi 
would oppofe fuch an Attempt from the Regency and iat 
getting it into the Hands of the King his Mafter. A ge- 
neral infurre£iion was for this Purpofe projeded by- 
Prince Cellaman thei^^;ii}2» Ambaflador ; which being dif* 
covered in Time he was fen t home guarded and War 
was declared againft Spain. After taking F»ntarahiai Si* 
Sebajiians and the whole Province of Guipufcoa from the 
Spaniards a Negociation was fet on Foot } but the £n^ 
creafe of Domeftick Oiforders prevented the co&clufioii 
of a Peace. Befides th^Difputes ao9Qagft the Clergy^ 
which grew every Day warmer, the People were foot* 
afperated at Law the Contriver of the Paper Money now 
funk to half its original Value, that had not.the Regent 
interpofcd he muft have fallen a Sacrifice to the Fury o£ 
the Populace. 

The Tumults being in fome Meafure quelled by re- A Match 
ftoring the Seals to Mr. Dagueffeau the late Cbancellor«^//'u;f>/ 
a Match was propofed by the Regent who was intent on ^^ wis and 
making Peace betwixt .Z>tt;ii X v. and the Infanu q{^^' ^rf^n^a ^ 
Spain fcarce out of her leading Strings : Which being '^*"* 
agreed to by the Court of Maarid the infanta was fent 
into France. The Regent alfo married one of his own 
Daughters to the Prince of JJiurias \ and a Treaty of 
Marriage was concluded betwixt Dm Carlos and an- 
other of them : fiut this was never confummated. 

The King being in the Year 1722 crowned at Rbeims fj^ Kh^ h 
he was in the next Spring declared Major by F^tlh- dedare/l M^ 
ment : Yet the Authority of the Regent continued; foryVr, ijzy 
thp Cardinal dfi Boh r^ifed by bis Intexeft to the Dig- 
nity 



30O <y P R A N C E. 

nlty of Mme Mititfter was gOYerned entirely b^ him. 
Upon tht Death of this Prelate in the Jtigu^ follow- 
iiigy the Duke of Orleans fearing his Succeflbr wouM not 
be fo fubfef viem to hioi procured the Office of firft Mi- 
nifter for himfelf ; he however enjoyed it but a ihort 
Time, being carried off by an Apoplexy on the 2d of 
Bscgmbtr in the fame Year. 
Cen^nfs of The Cardinal siu Bsh took Care to have Camhraj^ 
CAMBRAr. of which he wasArthbi(hop» appointed for the holding 
of a Congrefc toadjuft the Matters in Difpute between fe- 
vecal Powers:- Bv^ Paris became the Center of Ncgocia- 
dons ; and great Pains were taken by the Marfiial Te[fi 
and the Duke of RicMUut AmbaiTadors from France at 
Madrid and- Vienna ^ to remove the Difficulties which ob« 
fl^uAed an Accommodation. In the Year 1724 the Dif- 
ftusfi|6tion of the People fliewed itfelf by the afiaSinating 
of feverat Perfons, Who had taken the Advantage of the 
Fondnefs at firit (hewn for (he Paper Money to raife large 
Fortunes. The Nation being greatly alarmed in the 
Spring following on Account of the Ktng*s iU State of 
Heakh, it was^ eafy for the Duke t^ Bourbon^ fole Mana- 
ger fmce the Duke of Orleans* s Death, to (hew the Necef- 
nty of bis haviing a Wife capable of bearing Children. 
Infanta ef l^be Infanta was hereupon (ent home, and the King in 
SvAiff fmt tile fame Year married Mary Daughter of Stanifljus 
heme. King of P^and} by whom he loon had Children. The 

King of Sfain enraged at the fending back of his Daugh- 
ter infffted, ib^t: feme exemplarjr Pum(bnient ihould be 
inili^M on the Duke of Bourbon to whom he im* 
putcd it ; which being refufed, he recalled his Ambaffa- 
dors from Cambray and made a feparate Peace with the 
Emperor. Not long after the Duke of Bourbon rendered 
himself fo odious to the People, and efpecially to the Clergy 
who pretcildiilg an Exemption refufed to pay it, by lay- 
ing en the Tax of the fiftieth Penny, that Infurredions 
being fpirited up in many Places and Remon(h'ances be- 
ing made agaiiyft ft by divers Parliaments he was difgraced. 
Mr. Di Air. De Fleury Preceptor to the King heretofore Bi- 

FlveryiV fliop of -firr/w being upon this raifed to the Purple and 
made^ C^ri':-Office of Prime Minifter, he immediately fupprefled the 
nal and Prime Edift for- levying the fiftieth Penny ; and thereby ingra- 
Minijier. t|gj,ed himfelf vaftly with the People. 

The 



cy France. joi 

Tbc Treaty of Viifma concluded in the Ywir ija^pRANCB ac- 
betwixt Spain and the Empire was foon followed by z^'^^' to ^bi 
Counter Alliance at Hanover i into which Ae Cardinal ^'"'^0' ^ 
whofe Delight was Peace entered. The Suddennefs ef ^^''®^"' 
that Treaty with the large Sums to be furoiihcd in Pur- *^* * 
fuance of it to the Empire greatly difgufled the FnnA 
Court ; and the maritime Powers looked with jealous 
Eyes upon the Advantages granted by Spain to the Oftoni 
Company : Yet notwithAanding the great Preparation 
for War, as the Cardinal chofe rather to detach if poflibie 
Spain from the Empire, Hoflilities were not commenced* 
In the Mean Time the DiiFerences betwixt GreauBri^ 
tain and Spain grew wider, and coming at length to a 
Rupture Gibraltar was belieged : But the Uniuccefsful* 
nefs of the Attempt againft this Place pavvd the Way for 
an Accommodation, mkI Preliminaries were by the Inter- 
poHtion of the Cardinal figned at Paris in A^ 1727* 

That the Cardinal might be able to affift at it without G^^r^ of 
being too far diftant from Court Scijfms was the Place Soissons. 
fixed upon for the holding of aCongreft. The Conferences 
were opened^ and after getting over fome Difficulties ae 
to the making Reiiitution by Spain to Great^Brhain the 
IntroduSion of Don Carles into Italy came upon >thc 
Carpet. Spain by Virtue of a fecret Article in the Quad- 
ruple Alliance expe^ed, that inftead of 6000 Swift 
Troops the fame Number of Spanijh fhould be introduc-- 
ed : ^ut the Imperial MiniOers would hear nothing of 
this. It was however hoped that the Emperor, who had 
confented to fupprefs the O/imd Company, would not 
oppofe in this the general Inclination of the Powers of 
Europe : And if he did the principal View of France^ 
which was. to break the clofe Union betwixt the Courts 
of Fimna and Madrid^ would be thereby anfwcred. 

At length France^ England znd Holland enp^cd hy^efreaf/of 
Treaty of Seville in the Year 1729 for this Change of Seville, 
Troops, and to affifl bis CafhoHck Majefty in Cafe of «729- 
Need agatnft the Emperor. The . Birth of a Dauphin 
which happened in the fame Year gave great Joy to the 
People of France : And from this Time the Cardinal 
avoided as much as poflible without failing in his En- 
gagements to Spain the coming to a Rupture with the Eni- 

pcror 



302 (y France. 

(>eror. Great- Britain having by the Treaty of Vienna 
in March 17 31 engaged to guaranty the Pragmatic Sane- 
iian (he took great Pains txi prevail upon France to do 
the fame : But the Anfwer was that the King would not 
actede to any Treaty made without his Participation. 
After the Death oPthe Doke of Parma in January 1 732 
the Emperor, who much againft his Inclination had con- 
tented to his Introdudioa into Italy^ found various 
Pretences for putting off the Inveftiture of Hon Carlos to 
this Dutchy t And the Court of Vienna was equally 
flow infinifliing the Negociations which had been long 
carried on for ceding Part of Mmtferrat to the King of 
Sardinia ; hoping by thus delaying to fecure this Prince 
in her Intereft. 
War dfi Je* When Augujlui II. King of Poland died Lewis dc- 
€9unt •/ the termined to fupport the £ledion of Stamjlaus his Fathcr- 
PoLxsH Ekc' in-law to the Polijh Crown : Which he had before worn. 
tim» The Oppofition made to this by the Emperor in Con- 

cert with Rujfta gave Rife to War betwixt France and 
the Emperor ; in which Spain and Sardinia both difTatif- 
fied with the Conduft of the Court of Fienna joined : 
Aiid as Holland contented herfelf with obtaining a Neu- 
trality for the Netherlands Great Britain did not en- 
gage in it. Fort Kehl and Philip/burg were taken by 
the French \ but the Scene of A6tion was principally in 
Italy, The King of Sardinia with the Affiftance of the 
French Succours under Marihal Viltars made himfelf 
Mafter of the Milanefe : While the new Duke of Parma 
Generalifffimo of the Spaniards was bufied in fubduing 
Naples, After endeavouring in vain to defend it the Im- 
periaiiih quitted this Kingdom ; and Sicily foon fubmit- 
ted to the Conqueror. ^ The Auftriam were moreover 
defeated in two bloody Adions : And Mantua the only 
Place which remained to them in Italy was incapable of 
holding out long. 
Wr Marriage This ill Succefs determined the Emperor to defer the 
•f ^he Arch' Marriage of his Daughter with the Duke of Lorrain ; 
dutchejs is de- y,}^^ had been brought up at his Court and was looked 
firred. ^^^ ^ j^jg jj^j^. . ^^y ^^^^ Politicians imagined that 

there was no Way fo likely for him to get out of his Dif- 
ficulties 



Of Vjlahce. 30J 

ficokits as to give this Princcfs to Don Carks the new 
King of Naples. 

Many Plans of Peace were offmd: but one from PrtRmwdrm 
France was accepted $ and Preiioiinaries were figoedyViEWKA, 
fo fiiddenly and fecretly at yhnna in O&ober 1735* ^ '735* 
that her own Allies for whofe Confent ihe engaged 
knew nothing of them. The Conditions were, That 
Don Carlos who had upon the Ceffion of his Father been 
proclaimed King of the two Sicilus ihould keep thefe 
Kingdoms, and in Lieu thereof give up the Dutchies of 
Tufcany^ Parma and Placentia to the Emperor ; that Sta-^ 
nijiaus who was to wave all Pretenfions to the Polifo 
Crown Ihould have the Dutchies of Lorrain and Barr ; 
that Mantua and A£lan^ a Part of this laft Dutchy be- 
ing referved for the King of Sardinia^ ihould be reftored 
to the Emperor; and that France (hould guaranty the 
Pragmatic SmStion. Spain was quite unwilling to give 
up three Dutchies which belonged to Don Carlos ; and 
Tufcany one of them was not evacuated till the Begin- 
ning of the Year 1737* The eventual Succeffion to 
this Dutchy having been by a Diploma from^ the £m^ v 

peror granted to the Duke of Lorrain he took Pof- 
feffion of it in July the fame Year: His own Dut- 
chy of Lorrain having been taken Pofleffion of three 
Months before in the Name of Staniflaus and his Son 
in Law the moft Chriflian King ; to whom after his 
Death it was to defcend and to be annexed to the Crown 
of France. The other Articles of thefe Preliminaries 
were after fome Explanations in their Favour acceded 
to by the Kings of Spainy Sardinia and the two 
Sicilies; and a definitive Treaty was figned at Vs' 
ennOm 

For the Share the French had in the Bufinefs of Cor-Two French 
foa the Reader is referred to the Chapter of Genoa. Squadron* /ent 
Having in vain endeavoured to prevent the Rupture '»'*'^*W^«T 
betwixt Spain and Great-Britain and Jier Mediation^^****^* 
having been refufed France declared for a Neutrality ; 
but the formidable Armament fent by the latter into 
America determined the Court of VerfailUs to fend two 
Squadrons thither \ both of which upon the Failure of 

the 



$04 



The hba^ 
iitautj atid 
Sinngib of 
France. 



ikt EirpodHtion agtinft Cartiagna oetiirfiect widioiit Jokig 
any thing. 

FRAiroB/«/^ Upon the Otftth of the Emperor Omrks Vi. his 
againf th$ il>tughter the Arcbdutchels was attadLed knaiedtatdy 
Jrcbdiitche/s. y^y ^^^ jQ^g ^f ;>^^ i,^ siUfw-i and Claims on the 
Juflridn 8ucceffion wece put in bj Bavaria and if/onv. 
France alfo declared againft her ; and to guard agamft 
'the Defigos of Great- Britain^ by nrhooi vigorous £e- 
feiutioBs Mrere come to in Support of the Pragmatic SoKe- 
Ji^pt^ Batteries were eteSbtd £or the Security of Dunitirk. 
France abounds with Towns and Villages and4s b 
well peopled, that in the Time of Cbaries IX« above 
2o»ooo«oco of Perfons paid the Poll-Tax. According to 
the Computation of Cardinal Rukelieu this Nation can 
raife 600,000 Foot and 15O9OOO Hbrfe : fiut it has 
:been often remarked, that although .the Frenib attack 
-withigrea;t Vigour their Courage iinks if .^y:aieet with 
an obftinate Reflflanoe. They, aoe better at making' than 
Jceq[>iBg Conquftfis : For their iofolsnt Treatment of the 
vanquiibed mslkes their Dominion intoleribie. TheJ^o- 
btlity very numerous in this -Kingdom ase in the general 
Soldiers ; nor do they ftiok at the greatoft Dangers which 
Vnt in the Way to glory. The French Infantry i being 
formerly of no Repute msny Swfs and 8c$ub Troops 
were taken into the Pay of France : They are however 
at this Time very. good and remarkably io at the Siege 
of a Place. Their Love and Veneration for their. King 
)is fiichy that while he fupports his Authority they«lo4vitb 
'Ae greatcft Willingnefs hazard their Lives and Fortunes 
'in his Service. The Inhabitants are of a gay and fpiight- 
-iy Temper; of aneafy, free aHdaf&ble*;Hehaviom'> and 
they have a good Tafte for Drefs. Whenever ^ocfaer 
Nations of a more fertous Turn endeavour to imitate the 
French the AfFedbtion f iainly difcovecs itfeif; and jufily 
cxpofes them to Ridicule. The French are very ^capable 
of Learning and expert in -ail Trades and Manufec- 
tures ; but they diftinguiih themfelves in fuch of the lafi 
as require more Ingenuity than Labour. On the other 
Hand the French are blaloied for their Levity, Incon- 
flancy and Fondnefs£or Intrigue; and the -Freedom in 
£ehaviour they fo much value themfelves upon fre- 
quently 



0/* F It A N C E. 305 

qiiently, and efpccially among the younger Sort, dege- 
nerates into Licentioufners and the utmoft Dillbluteners 
of Manners. ^ 

The Situation of this Kingdom is quite convenient //; ^//v^/mr. 
for cortefponding with all Parts of Europe and interpof* 
ing in the Quarrels thereof, fiefides its many fine Ports 
upon the-Ocean and Alediterranean, France abounds with 
navigable Rivers. Two of thefe ihe Garonne and Aude 
were in the Reign of Lexms XIV. united by a fpacious 
Canal ; by which a Communication very beneficial to 
Trade ts opened betwixt the Ocean and the Mediterra- 
man. hs France is almoft round one Part thereof can 
eafily fuccour another; and the Alps and Pyrenees are 
a Sort of natural Ramparts to it on the Side of Italy and 
Spaim It does indeed lye expofed on the Sides of Ger^ 
many and the Netherlands: For which Reafon the French 
have been long endeavouring to fecure their Frontier by 
getting the ftrong Places- on both thefe Sides into their 
Handi. The late Acquifition of Lorr^in is a great Ad- 
dition to the Strength of France on the Side o^ Germany. 

France fituate in a pleafant Climate is in the general j^^ Commodi- 
very fertile, being produAive of ail the NecefFaries of Lifc//^^^ 
and of nfUny Delicacies. The principal Commodities 
exported from thence are Wine, Brandy, Salt, Silk, 
Woolen and Linen Goods, Hemp, Paper, Glafs, Saf- 
fron, Aknonds, Capers, Olives and Soap. As Vines 
will not grow either in Picardy or Normandy the com- 
mon People there drink Cyder t>r Perry. Scarce any 
Metald are found in France^ nor are there any Gold or 
Cilver Mines ; but the want of thefe is made amends for 
by the Induflry of the French and the FoUy of other Na- 
tions : For their Manufa(Bures, and efpecially fince the 
Efbblifliment of that for Silk by Henry IV. have brought 
a vaft Quantity of Money into France. It has been com- 
puced that France receives annually from Foreigners for 
.Si'ks 40,000,000 Livres; for Wines 15,000,000; for 
Salt 10,060,000; and for Brandy 5,000,000. Mr. 
FiYcy an Engitjhman who wrote about the Year 1660 
fays, that the yearly Exports from France to England ex- 
ceed in Value thofe from England to France above a 
Miliion Sterling: And it is notorious that great Part of 

Vol. I. X the 



3?^ 



Thi French 
Settlements, 



The Govern" 
ment of 
France. 



Cy F R -A ^ C E.. 

the Tre^fure from the Spanjjh IVfJi Indus [pfomv itAo 
France. Maritime Affairs are^ fo negleded ,in France^ 
that notwithilanding the Seamen are all regifired, and 
obliged to (erve. in theKing,*$'Sbip^ when cailed upon, 
no Fleet cap. hp fitted put. ^qal eithel* to the Fje^t of 
Great Britain or that of Holland* , 

The French have made fome SettlemeiUs in the Eajl^ 
Indies \ but no confiderable Proiu has been as jet drawn 
from Trading thereto. .In Anurka the Country on one 
Side of the River Miffifi^pl^ fai,^. of ^he Jfla^d of St. 
DomingOi the Ifiands of Martin'm^ Guac^alouff St*^ Lucia 
and fome other of the C^rri^^#^.^^;7ir belong to the 
French ; and the Right of fiHiii^g on th^ Banks ol'NeW' 
foundlandh very advantag/CQU^jto.tliem. . . ,. , , ^ 

Formerly fome Dukes afid .Coi}nts held lafgc Farts 
of France as Fiefs of the Crown;,' oyer which they main- 
tained an Authority independent. of the lECing : But ali thefe 
petty Sovereignties are noui^ aoj;Mej^d to the Crown.; and 
the Perfon hpopured at this Timfi with, one of thefe yitlts 
has fometimes not an Inch of Land in the Place from 
which his Title is taken. The, Aflemby of the States which 
is-compofed of the Nobility, Clergy and Cc^mons had 
once a great (hare in the Goyernoient, and the Power of 
the King was much limjite^ ; but by the Man^ement 
of thofe artful Minifters iiiV^^//^» and Mmqrim the 
French Monarchy became.. an. abfolute one. ,The Prote- 
ftants heretofore fprmidable to the Kings, of frame 
h^ve fince the Lofs of ft(>chelle been incapable of .giving 
them any Piftiirbapce* . Many of thefe ftill liye in. the 
trading Towns ; nor are-ihey^ whilft they behave. quietly 
molefted. The Parliament of Parts ufed to infift upon 
h as a particular Privilege, that nothing of Confe- 
quence to the -State could be done without jts Confent; 
but fince the Reign of Leu^is XIV. it has ^een only a 
Court of Juftioe, and dare&not to give Advice unkfs it is 
a{ked by the King* The Gallican Church always claimed 
fome Exemptions from the Pope's Authority : And in 
Confequcncc thereof the King has the Nomination of 
all Bifhops and Abbots. Upon the whole this King- 
dom is by the Introduction of arbitrary Power much 

more 



0/ F R A N C E. 307 

more poU^erful^ provided the Reins of Government be 
in ihe Hands of a * wife and good King. 

Tbere*was a Time when France was conquered and Tntereft of 
brought into a very low Condition by the Englijh : ButPRANCB 'witb 
as their Infantry is now better, the French muft by "Si^^* Regard to 
fon of their great Superiority in Number be an over-^*^^**"' 
match upon the Continent for GreaUBrita'm. The^*'^^'*'' 
Power of France at Sea is not indeed to be compared 
with that of Great-Britain. It is not however in the 
Fo^wtr of Great- Britain to (ubdue France ;' fbr if the Navy 
of France was quite ruined, as Great-Britairi is not in the 
Pofleffioir of any ftrong Place in France a Defcent there 
would be dangerous and anfwer no Purpofe. On the 
other Hand if Great-Britain fliould once lofe her Supe- 
riority at Sea, (he would as the French can fpare a great 
many Troops be in Danger of becoming a Province to 
France : And having no inland Places of Strength her 
Fate might perhaps depend upon the Iflue of a fingle 
Battle. Befides in the Cfafe of a War with Great- Bri- 
tain it would be in the Power of * /r^^rif to flir up In- 
furredHors there in favour of the Stuart Family ; and 
France \iiiS moreover many Ports whehccitls Privateers 
could conveniently annoy the Britijh Trade. 

In former Times Spain wis an Over-match for Frances Spain. 
but befides that the Art of War is much neglefted \ti 
the former and as much improved in the latter, the two 
Courts are fince the Acccffion of a Prince of the Houfe 
of Bottrhn to the Spanijh Throne fo united by the Tyes 
of Intereft as we'll as Blood that nothing i& to be feared 
from Spain, The Netherlands alfo from whence the Spa- 
niards ufed to attack France are now in other Hands. 

France has nothing to fear from Naples: It being vaft-NAPLEi, 
ly for the Intereft of the King thereof, vvho is alfo Maf- 
ter of Sicily^ to be upon good Terms with the Court of 
Vet failles^ for the Sake of having a powerftil Ally in the 
cafe of a War the Turks or the Maritime Powers. The 
prefent reigning Prince is moreover defcended from the 
Houie of Bourbon. 

• But as a King may mjant one or both of ihfe ^alities^ it 
had been undoubtedly for the Benefit of ihe People to hwve fre'^ 
fervid their Share in the GGnfemment. 

X 2 The 



3og O/T R A N C E. 

Italy. The other States of Italy have neither Polwrer nor In- 

clination to break with Frances and are afraid of nothing 
fo much a^ that the French (hould pafs the Alps and di- 
fturb the Peace of Italy. 
Holland. War with France can do the Dutch no good. Their 
Fleet is indeed fuperior: Biit their Trade on which they 
principally depend muft fufFer greatly from the French 
Privateers. The Land Forces of Holland^ which are for 
the moft Part Mercenaries and inferior in. Number, arc 
not able to cope with thofe of France : So that it is not 
likely that Ho/land will without fome very cogent Rea- 
ion for fo doipg come to a Rupture with this Nation. 
SwissBR^ France is in no Danger from the Swi/s Cantens : For 
LAND. befides that the large Sums received from thence for the 

Hire of Troops make it their Intereft to be in Amity 
with her, they are incapable of making a (land againft the 
Power of France. 
Germany. . Germany \sczitd\ii\y'zn Qvcrmatch by itfelf for the 
Power of France : Since it could, if its Princes were well 
ynited, bring into the Field more numerous Armies and of 
full as good Troops as the French. The Conftiiution how- 
ever ot the Empire being fuch xhat the Interefts of its va- 
rious Members are often diflfercnt and fometimes contrary, 
it is almofl impoffible that they (hould either unite or 
long agree in carrying on a War with France vigoroufly. 
It may be, added, that although the Empire is upon the 
whole fuccefsful fome of its Members muft be ruined 
by a French War. On the contrary if France (bould get 
ihe better in fuch War divers of them would unavoid^ 
ably be Lofers by it. 
Dangtr to The only- Way then for France to fuffer much is from a 

FRAN.cE/rww Confederacy^ and it is nor likely that any very powerful 
a Confederacy, one Aould b^ formed agaipft her^ For Inftance Portu- 
gal will fcarce ever join with ^ain againft her ; Sweden 
with Denmark I or Poland with the Houfe of Aujlria : 
Such is the natural Jealoufy betwixt thefe Powers. If 
the Italian Princes have not a. Mind to be ruined them- 
felves they will never join either with the Emperor or 
Spain ixi conquering France. The Advantages in Trade 
which one of the maritime Powers would reap while 
the other is engaged in a War with France are fo great, 

• that 



0/* F R A N C E. 309 

that if they confult their feparate Interefts one of them 
will for the moft Part be very averfe to the joining heartily 
with the other againft her. It is not probable, that the 
Proteftant Princes of Germany (hould ever defire to fee 
the Houfe of Auftria add France to its Dominions ; (incc 
fuch an over-grown Power in that Houfe would render 
both their Religion and Pofleffions precarious. The En- 
mity betwixt the Swifi and the Houfe of Auftria is fuch 
as to make it very unlikely for them to join with this 
Houfe againft France* It has however been feen, that con- 
trary to thcfe Conjediures all the Powers of Europe ex- 
cept Sweden have united againft the Houfe of Bour^ 
hon. The French will not it may be reafonably fup- 
pofed, except they are in the moft imminent Danger, 
defire the Affiftance of the Turks -y and if they did the * 
latter would be cautious of meddling : Having been 
often convinced, that the Chriftian Princes will clap up 
a Peace amongft themfelves without regarding their In- 
tereft. Upon the whole France appears to be a very 
powerful Kingdom, and fome fmall States which lie 
convenient for it are in Danger of being fubdued : But 
if the French Nation (hould aim at univerfal Monarchy 
the Attempt would be vain ; and by extending its Con- 
quefts too far it would become weak at home. 



X 3 C H A P, 



1X0 



CHAP. VI. 
OF THE 

UNITED PROVINCES. 



JncUnt Staii HP^ H E Country commonly called the Nethertandi was 

cf theNE' . X formerly a Part of Gaul or Germany^ as it happcn- 

THERLANDs. ed to bc ficuatc on the one or the other Side of the 

Rhine: Which was then the Boundary of thefe vaft 

Countries. That Part thereof which belonged to Gaul 

being fubdued by Julius Cafar it became with the reft 

of Gaul a Roman Province. The Inhabitants of Holland 

and Z^tf/^ni fubmitted afterwards to the Romans'^ but 

it was rather as Allies than Subje£ts. 

The Franks About the Year of Christ 506 the Franks^ who had 

9<ver'run /^V cftablifhed themfelves in Gaulj made themfelves Matters 

Country^ 500. ©f this Country: But on the Divifion of the Empire 

by Charlemain the greateft Part thereof was annexed to 

Germany, 

The Governors of this Country, which was divided into 
feventeen Provinces namely the Dutchies of Brabant^ 
Limburg^ Luxemburg 2Lnd GueUerland ; iht Ezr\doin% of 
Flanders^ yfrtois, Hainault^ Holland, Zealand, Naniure 
and Zutphen\ the Lordfliips of Frijeland, Malines, 
Utrecht, Over^Iffel and Groninguen, and the Marquifate 
of Antwerp \ did in procefs of Time throw off their De- 
pendence upon the Emperc^^ and became fo many inde- 
pendent Sovereigns. . Several of thefe were afterwards 
united by Marriage or otherways under the fame Prince ; 
and by Degrees they all fell under the Dominion of the 
Houfe of Burgundy. 

Being by the Marriage of Maximillian I. to Mary only 

Daughter of Charles the laft Duke of Burgundy annexed 

' '• ' • ' • • -• ' - to 



li is divided 
into 17 Pro^ 
winces. 



0/* ^^^ U N I t E D P R O V I &r C E 9. 311 

to the Domintons of thcHoufe o^ Auflrtc^Charki Grand- f^&c/^ on ««- 
fonofthis Emperor took great Pains to form all thcfe ^xo-nextd to tht 
vinces ioto one Kingdom; but as their Laws and Pri.^<^'»'»'«« ^f 
vileges were for the moft Part different, and every one'/^ ^'"■* ^f 
W9S unwilling to admit of any Change in its own, this 
was found to be impr^dicable. His Government over 
them was however undifturbed and profperous; for 
being born at Ghent and educated amongft them be 
knew how to conform to the Humours of the Netherlands 
ers^ and they were in return very affe^io'nate and faith- 
ful. After bis Death they were rent into Pieces by a long 
and cruel civil War 5 of which as it gave Rife to a Re- 
publick fince very powerful fome Account ought to be 
given. 

Inftead of carrying it with Rf fpeft to and refidingC?/^/^/ of tht 
fometimes amongft them as his Father had done, jnC/i;// fVar in 
whofe Time the Netherlanders were frequently employed '^^ Nethir- 
in Aliairs of Confequence, Philip treated them with the^^**^*- 
utmoft Contempt and lived altogether in Spain, The 
Alienation of Minds hereby occafioned was greatly en« 
creafed by the Artifices of IVilliam Prince of Orange. 
Being of an ambitious and artful Difpofitlon he wanted 
to have the Adminiflration of Affairs committed to 
Cbriftiana Dutchefs of Lorrain\ and hoped by marrying 
her DaMgbter to have the principal Management him- 
felf. As his hopes were bauHced by Philips who con- 
ferred the Government upon Margaret t^^ Parma a na- 
tural Daughter of Charhsj the Prince of Orange fecretly 
promoted the Difcontent. The Counts D^Egmmt and 
Horn with others of the Nobility were likewife dif- 
gufted at the Partiality of Philip to Spaniards ; and the 
Clergy difltked the ereding of new Biftiopricks becaufe 
he would have appropriated the Revenues of fome A bbies 
to their Support : For befides that this was a Prejudice 
Jo the prefent Poffeffors of thefe, the Power of iMonks ; 

who choofe Abbots for their refpedtive Monafteries was ^ 

thereby leflened. All of a turbulent Spirit, and all who j 

hoped ^o mend their defperate Fortune in a Time of ^^ 

civil Confufion, joined as they always will with the f^ 

,difafFeded Party: But nothing encreafed it fo much ) 

M the Pcrfecution of the Protejiants fet on Foot by 

X 4 , Fhiiil;.. |; ; 



3 la Q^ /i&^ U N I T E D P R O V i N'C E B\ 

Philip. In his Father's Time.tbt. Exercife of .any ex- 
cept the CathMci Religion was iqdeeci forbid^ and ia 
order to deter others fome were puniihed feverely: 
But as AJa^y Sifter of Charles then Governefe of the Ne* 
therlands perceived that this only ferved to enrage and 
encreafe their Number, which was before of difl^rent 
Denominations of Protejlants very large, fte in a great 
Mcafure fufpended the Execution of the rigorous £di<5ls 
publiflied againft them. 
Efiahlijhmeni Since nothing lefs than an entire Extirpation of what 
^«fr EccLE- he called Herf/y wou\6 fatisfy the blind, imprudent and 
siASTicAL intemperate Zeal of Phi/ip it was refulved to enforce 
Court. ^jj^fg . ^j^j ^ Tribunal of the fame Kind as the Inquifi- 
tion in Spain w^s eftabliflied. By this Court, invented 
by Satan or by his never-failing Tools defigning Church- 
men, the Life, Reputs^tion and Fortune of every Man, 
who refufed to pay an implicit Qbedience to ivhat was 
impofed upon the Laity for the Commandoieut of 
God, was rendered infecure. from it there was no Ap- 
peal ; nor could any Interceffion even that of crowned 
Heads avail ; for Priefts notwithftaoding the Tidings of 
the Gofpel they profefs are Peace on Earth and Good- 
will towards Men, wherever Cruelty is necefiary to the 
Gratification of their Pride, Refentment or Avarice, are 
always inexorable and will not fiick at the {bedding of 
Rivers of Blood. As the Netherianjers wore natt^rally jea- 
lous of their Privileges, and from their gre^t Cominercc 
with Foreigners had been ufed to think and fpeak freely 
in religious Matters, they conceived the utmoft Horror 
of this Court. To make it go down the better, for tbey 
deteAed the Name of Inquilitipn, it was called an £c- 
defiaftical Court \ but as the Proceedings were to be in 
the fame Manner and Priefis were to be the Judges 
this DiftindUon, |;>ecaufe thefe are known to be al- 
ways the fame when in PoiTeflion of an incontroulable 
Power, did not lelTen the Averfion of the People to it. 
It has moreover been thought that the Spaniards^ who 
forefaw a Storm gathering, inftead of trying to difp^I 
It intended to make a Handle thereof for oppreffing and 
enflaving the Country, that it might afterwards ferve 
as a Place of Arms for carrying on their Wars ^ainft 

England 



Of the United Provinces. 313 

England and other Nations. However this was it is cer* 
tain the Netberlanders were fecretly encouraged by fome 
foreign Princes ; and particularly by Elizabitb of Eng-^ 
land to whom the Power of Spam was grown formi- 
dable. 

By the Difpofitton of Philips who after fettling tht Violent Pro* 
Regency fct out for Sptun in the Year 1559, the {a'-eetiiings »f 
preme Power was to be in the Hands of the Regent and Cardinal. 
Council of State. Of this the Prince of Orange with Granville. 
the Counts D*Egmont and Horn were appointed Mem- *559* 
bers ; but he had privately left Orders with the Gover- 
nefs Margaret to follow the Advice of Cardinal Gran- 
vilU* It being foon perceived that the Cardinal managed 
every thing divers Members of the Council were deter- 
mined to oppofe his Meafures, and efpecially fuch of them 
as were concerted for the Perfecution of the Proteftants. 
As thefe Members were for Moderation and the Cardinal's 
Advice, which was followed, was for complying punc- 
tually with the King's Orders the People were greatly 
incenfed againft him. The Prince of Orange and fome 
other Lords hereupon wrote to the King, that if he was 
not removed from the Council it would be impoifible to 
keep the Populace quiet 1 and this Matter being prefled 
the King cpnfcnted to it in the Year 1564. The Joy 
hereby occafioped was very ihort lived ; for as the fame 
Meafures were purfued, it foon began to be faid publickly 
that although the Cardinal's Body was removed his Spirit 
ftill influenced the Council. As the People now grew out- 
ragious and would not fufFer the King's Orders to be 
fsxecuted, the Count D'Egmont was fcnt by the Council 
to inform Philip how Things ftood. He was received 
at Madrid with all Marks of Refpe£l ; but inflead of 
gaining any Relaxation of the Edids concerning religious 
Matters he was told that the Moderation of the Re- 
gent bad ofily ipade Thing? worfe j and Obedience to 
them was again enjoined upon more fevere Penalties than 
})efore. 

A Report being at the fame Time fpread that at 
an Interview betwixt Philip and Charles of Fifawe the * 
entire Ruin of the Protefiants was refolved upon, (otiip 
^'' ■ ' " ■ ' " * ■ of 



314 Of the \5^ IT ED 'F^RO VINCES. 

Some cf the of the Nobility entered inta sn AiibcUtion, called the 
h ability inter Com^amife^ /or mutualty defewding each other in cafe 
imt9 fin Afo- they fliould be. molefted on the Accofunt of Religion. 
aatiott. This being figncd by above 400 Perfons of (^ality, 

who all protefled that they meant nothing but the Ho- 
nour of God, the Glory of the»King and the Good of 
their Country, they met at Bruffeis in*the Year' 1566, 
and petitioned the Regent to revoke the Proclamation 
concerning Religion. She gave them for Anfwer in 
very civil Terms that ihe fliould as^ foon as poffible 
* know the' King's Pleafure : But it is faid that Count 

BarUfmni^ by whom flie had been guided fince the Dif- 
miilion of the Cardinal, told her, that they were only a par- 
eel of Gueufen, which word means Beggars, and that it 
was not worth her while to give herfelf any trouble about 
il^em. From this infolent £xpre£Bon the Word Gueufen 
became famous in the Low-CmntrUs \ and the Nobility 
cf the Aflbciation took for their Arms a Beggar z Pouch. 
As the Deputies fent afterwards to Madrid were ill- 
treated, and Philif would, confent to no Relaxation of 
the ,£di£ls concerning' Religion the Fury of the Peo- 
ple encreafed; and not content to refort publtckly 
where the prohibited Religions were exercifed they broke 
into and pulled down the Images in the Churches. 
By the Prudence however and Mildnefs of the Re- 
gent, only a few of the Ringleaders being put to Death, 
the Infurre£iion would have been foon quelled, had not 
the People been exafperated by a Report fpread (bat a 
large Army was coming from Spain, The Council gave 
the King good Advic6 upon this Occaiioiu which wa$ 
inftead of fending an Army to Obme in rerfon ; and 
it is thought if he had come and ufed the People gent- 
ly Peace would have been <)uite reftored : But the 
Duke D*Alvas*s violent Counfel who propo(ied the en- 
tire Abolition of the Liberties of the tJetherlandefs was 
followed. 
Doie D'Al- In the Year 1568 this Duke marched at the Hpad of 
Sk ftnt into *z powerful Army into the Low^ Countries. The Counts 
tbehovi' D'EgmontTtnA //orn were immediately feized, under a 
CovNTR I Es. Pretence that they had fecretly fpirited up the People to 
»5^S, Difaffcfiion: 



0/'/£'^UnitedProvince8, 315 

Difaffiedion : And all who had figned either the Com* 
fromife or Petition were declared guilty of High Trea- 
ibn -and anfwerable for what had happened. A Coun- 
cil confiding of twelve Perfons, called from its cruel 
Proceedings the bloody Council^ being inftituted for try* 
ing the accufed, from which there was no Appeal^ the 
Prince of Qrange with fome other Lords who had fled 
upon the Approach of the Spanijh Army were fummoned 
to appear . before it ; and in Default thereof they were 
condemned and their Eftates were confifcated. Thefe 
Proceedings ftruck fuch Terror that the Inhabitants of 
the open Country retired in large Bodies ; and in many 
Places particularly in Antwerp Citadels were built. In 
the mean Time a confiderable Army was formed in Ger^ 
many by the Prince of Orange: Part of which under the 
Command of Lewis his Brother having defeated the Duke 
D'Artmberg Governor of Fri/eland, the Duke D^Jlva^ 
after caufing the Counts D'Egmont and Horn to be be- 
headed, marched in Perfon againft the Prince of Orange 
who had made an Irruption to Brabant. The Prince Prha of 
being repulfed and his Forces being difperfed the Duke Orange r#> 
caufed a magnificent Statue to be erefled in Antwerp \fuljid. 
and thinking to enflave the Netherlanders at their own 
Eitpence a I'ax of the hundredth Penny on all real Eftates, 
the twentieth on all Moveables and the Tenth on all 
Goods fold was impofed. 

While he was in the Year 1571 fqueezing thefe Taxes Brill taken 
out of the People News came that fome of the Nether^ by fome ^^^ 
landers^ who had fince leaving their Country on Account t h e r l a n d. 
of the Pcrfecution fitted out twenty-four Veflcls and lived e»^s, 1571. 
by Piracy, had under the Condufl: of Count De la Mark 
DJade themfelves Mafters of Brill:^ Upon this, which 
was owing to the Duke's Imprudence in not fecuring the 
^'oaft, the people of all the Towns in Holland except Jm^ 
ftsrdam and Scobnhoven flew to Arms : And the Prince 
of Orange being decliared their Governor, they, that 
It ihight be thought the Revolt was only againft the 
Duke D'Alva^ took the fame Oath to him as if he had 
|>ccn appointed by their Sovereign. Thofe VefTels being 
joined by many Englijh arid French Ships there was in 
about four Months time at Flti/hing the Place of Ren- 
" ' dezvous 



Ji6 ' (y/i^UNITEDPROVlNGES. 

dezvous a Fleet of 150 Sail; which afterwards annoyei} 
the Spaniards greatly. About the fame Time many 
Places in Guelder land^ Fr if eland and Overyffel were 
taken ; and Prince L^wis of Naijau with the Affif- 
tance of feme French Troops had made himfelf Maf- 
ter of Mans. The retaking of this laft Place being re- 
folved upon by the Spaniards^ the Prince of Orange who 
with another Army coilefted in Germany had made great 
Progrcfs in Brabant endeavoured to raife the Siege; 
but failing therein he retired into Holland and the 
Town capitulated. In order to frighten the other revolt- 
ed Towns into Obedience Malines and Zutphen were 
plundered ; Naerden was dcftroyed ; and the Inhabitants 
of Harlem which held out nine Months were put to 
the Sword. The Affairs of Spuin being however al- 
moft ruined by thefe Violences and by the monftrous 
Cruelties of the Duke D' Alva^ who ufed to boaft that 
be had in fix Years Time caufed i8,oco to die by 
the Hands of Executioners^ he was recalled in the Year 

1573- 
•WIS Rh- His Succeff)r Lewii Requefenes had the Misfortune 
in the Beginning of his Adminiftration to be an 
Eye-Witnefs of the Ruin of a Fleet fent to the Re- 
lief of Middleburg : But the Lofs of this Place, which 
furrendered foon after, was fufficiently made good by 
a Vict<»ry gained in the Year 1574 near Grave over 
fome Reinforcements coming from Germany, After 
this Battle in which the Counts Lewis and Henry Bro- 
thers of the Prince of Orange both fell, the Spanijh 
Soldiers who mutinied for Want of Pay lived by Plun- 
der. 

The next Thing widerlaken being the Siege of Z.(y- 
den the Inhabitants after holding out as long as Famine 
would permit them broke down the Wall of a Dyke : By 
which Means as the Wind proved favourable and it was 
at the Time of Spring-Tide the whole Country was 
laid under Water ; and the Spaniards after fuftaining a 
confiderable Lofs were forced to retire. 

\n the next Year the Emperor endeavoured to ac- 
commodate Matters ; but the Conferences opened at 
Breda for this Purpofe came to nothing. In the Year 

157^ 



UESENES 

jvemor, 

'575- 

Ute/e of 

fRAVE,' 

i74- , 



t'tege ^ Ley- 

DEN. 



»575- 



O/* /if U K I T E D P R V Ln c E sr 3.12; 

1576 Zirickzet in Zealand was after a Siege of nine 

Months taken by the Staniardi, As Re^uiftnes ^itii 

during this Siege the Council of State took the D'wtc*' Regencjf in tbt 

lion of Affairs into their Hands, and they Were confirmed CoMttCii9f 

therein by the King. ^^'^^'t «57^- 

The Mutiny amongft the Soldiers who had commit- 
ted great Outrages in Antuerp and other Places being 
continued, they were deciard Enemies by the Council ; 
and Leave was given for the Inhabitants to defend them* 
felve% Negociations .being alfo entered into betwixt 
the Council and the Prince of Orange at Ghent, it was 
agreed that Hodilities (hould ceafe ; that all the £di£ts 
of the Duke D^ Aha (hould be revoked ; and that the 
Natives (hould unite in driving away the Spaniards, 
This Treaty was ratified by Philip'^' but the^ Ev^nt 
(hewed that he had no Defign to obferve it. 

His natural Brother Don J^hn of Au^ia heing ap-P**JoHw tf 
pointed Governor the Prince of Orange warned the A^i- Austria , 
iherlanders againft truftinghim; yet on. his agreeing {(^Gt^uerf^r^ 
fend home the Spanijb Soldiers he. was received by a 
Plurality of Voices* This MiAake was (bon:feen; for 
under the Pretence' of fecuring his o\^n Pcrfon he feized 
the Citadel of Nt/rriu^ ; which fo enraged {he Peopfe 
that they not only drove him from theikre, but obliged 
the German Ga^rrifons j.o evacuate all Places of Strength; 
and the Prince of Orange being .iiivited to Brujfels was 
made Grand BjMliff of Brabant.. As this .Aggrandirc;^*/'/^^ /*r//fY^ 
ment^irew upon him the Envy of other Lords, a confi- O r a n g e 
derable Party headed by the Duke D^Apfiot ^fjc^Bailifof 
in calling Matthias Archduke of Aujlriatd' xha Go-^^ffi^^v 
vernment of the Netherlands To th'ts which was done 
in the Year 1577 the Friends of the Prince of Orange 
confented : On Condition that he (hould be his Lieute- 
nant; and that nothing of. Con fequence (hould be done 
without the Confent of the States. 

While thefe Things were doing Alexcn^er Duke of 
Parma had joined Don John with a large Body of Vete- 
rans; who having not long after defeated the Army of T'Z'^ //nwj^ e/* 
the States near GembUurs, he made himfelf Mafter cf the States de^ 
Louvain^ Phillipvill-y Limbu^g and feveral other PI aces. /'^'^^^^ 
In this Diftrefs the States offered to put tbemfelves un.GEMBLowai, 

der 



3i8 0/"/^ United Provinces; 

der the ProCe£lion-t)f Hmry IIL of France i and on bis 
Refufal the fame Offer was made to the Duke of AUn- 
f9H\iis Brother. 
TheStatef/ui' He accepted it;. but found on bis coming into the 
mit t9 the Netherlands the principal Peopk fo divided amongft them- 
Duke of felves that nothing of Moment could be done. There 
ALBif90K. happened moreover about this Time a Difference a- 
mongft the People on Account of the free Exercife of Re- 
ligion granted to the Protefbnts ; which fo difgufted 
the Inhabitants - of Artois^ Hainault and ff^alloon Flan- 
ders^ all zealous Catholicks, that they formed them felves 
into a feparatc Party called the maUcmtents. In the 
midfl of thefe Difprders Dm John of Aujirla died, and 
Alexander Duke of Parma to whom he left the Care of 
Things till the King's Pleafure could be known was ap- 
point^ to fucceed him. ^ 
AxBYANDan As the Makcvntents were foon after his being con- 
I>«if^ Par- firmed brought over to the King's Party, the Prince of 
MA Gever* Orange finding itialmofl impoffible td unite Provinces in 
«*^« which different Religions prevailed began to think of pro- 

viding for his own Security and that of the Proteflant 
Religion. Having with a View to this prevailed on the 
States of the Provinces of Holland^ Zealand^ Guelderland^ 
Fri/eland'^nd Utrecht to meet zt Utrecht in the Year 
^'$79» ^^^ agreed to unite themfelves into one Body for 
their mutual Defence and the Maintainance of the Pro- 
teibnt Religion; and that nothing which cohcerned 
» . Peace or War or the^levying of Taafts fliould be reiblved 
upon but by common Confdnt. 
Fojiffdationif This Union, into which the Provinces of Overyjfd 
the Republic (fzni Grentngen afterwards entered, was the Foundation 
/i'^UNiTBD of the Refublick of the United Provinces of 
Provinces, the Netherlands. The Profpeft however of this 
. ^579* new State was then fo dark, that a Medal was flruck 
on whicli was a Ship without Sail or Rudder expofed to 
the Mercy of the Waves, and underneath this Infcrip- 
tion Incertum quo Fata ferant. As the Spaniards who 
had already taken Tournayy Valencietmeiy Mecklin and 
other Places continued to gain Ground, the Prince of 
Orange fearing they might at fome Time be able to re- 
venge themfelves on him and his Friends prevailed on 
4 the 



Of tk Xi tff^T^TiVliPt L'N C E S*, JIJ; 

the tefk oi ihe. Nith^kttiers to reiibim^e att AikgixiKcr/ 
io PhiUfh\ .yf\^\^:COmx%iy to his^Qath .violate their* 
Privilege^i^ 

Tbei^vereignty of the other Proviacsr^ being \n theThe Duh 9/ 
Year fi^i by tbePrinc6!s .Advice confermi:t>ii the Duke ALBN90N «ff- 
of Jienfon, he raifcd the fitege of Cambray^ and wte in thev^/fi the 80- 
next Year :propljaiiiiedJ>ufce of Braiant-^^uid £art t^i'Vircignty tf 
Flanden: But not being content with l^eBAivrer vefted io'^ ^*^ ^'*- 
hioi by.ibc States hcrofolVed at all Events to makc'^i^^^^ »S««* 
himfelf jkbfolute. .In ordex 10 this., a Scheme was laid 
for furfM-iziog Antnarp and many other Tcfwns; wbldhr- ./. . 
being cK(icQyereil..the Fnn^b Soldiers who ihould have^ 
done it were driven out of divers Towns wkb.great Loft;' • * 
nor did their Deiign fucceed except tt, D^ndirm^d^,* 
Dunkirk^%Tii Dtjcmundi. .By this Atteniptthe French loft«FRBNcn 
aN CredU. hi tht-NetheriamUi and. the^IMce chagriAedVri<z;^0 «»/ ^ 
aSL the.£^i(ii|^mnieiifi'Ai«de the beft<of 'his Way ini<yFLANDBa9» 
Frmct^ ibis meddiijif of the. /V#i7A6;in thd Affttiftf 
of the Netherlands Waiasiomover produdfre of-anoibbri 
had Confequence j.for itr^^ave :Occafioii to the Dukd*o^ 
Parma of recalling the foreign Troops, which pnFfiilHtf'' 
to thr Agrecmcnr W&hVfo'me'^ Prdvinces- had tvw&oktti ; • 
the^Neiherkndp^ lii the Year. E583 thii bftimade-bim-^xwustf ig/^/Ar. 
felf Mafter^ of Duntirk^ : Jk&mn and feverah other Phce^>J>uie^/ Fam^ ' 
\n Flimders^ and^iathroext Gainpafpi l^xandiSrer^^p^^' 'S^3* 
fell into- his Haxidsr? •■' -» ^ >• '^ »'i" •> -^ • 

l^he Prince of^Ormnge being in thefanieoYedP ft^bbed'WiLLiAii 
in Jifs( Palace at Del/thy Baitha/arMMT^rd^Wts Son i^/*i^- >/"/«««/ 
rice was chofenjiStadttotferji but'vbdngT'oWy^d^ 
Yeacs of Ageoihi^Coqor^^ Hahenki was »ppohitedivh*w>^^^*^^' 
Lieutenant. ;The Di»ko of PtfrnS^' talking Advantig^* "5**-^ 
of the. CQi^fuft6n occtafioaied by. this^Ai^dUlent 10 ta^ 
fiege> j|n/iwr/>, it was after. hotding^ oat Wtwehe Month 
forcgd to furj:eQdei;fo£ Want'of Piovifioiis ; and heT(k>nt 
made }Dimk\^ M2Li\^t' otDendirimndei Gheftty' Bruffelsi^ 
Malines zni\Nlmegu£n* As the iRr^flSJiKing waliJ m 
no Condition 'having a;civil War UpoiTuhis Hands -W 
accept the Sovereignty.of the Unitird Pf&mncet^ the Peopte 
ch<x>ni)g to,. be fufajeS .to aay Power rather than ^paine 
ofFerecl it to Eltzahtth of England. She like wife refafed' 
it :. But flie refolvcd to affift the Vnited Provinces which 

were 



320 Cy /Ar U N 1 » B Di P t d ir IN c E ** 

w^ now 6ii ths Briaia of'&iao.' * HsfMUg MgiMcf 

taJurniih .and i&tpport a. Body: of Itpoop^ liti ^di^^^f* 

tb^rkmls^ ivbo together with the Forces of tins ^DMs 

wcce to be cooMPMided bjr- m' Jig^> Otfnttftl^'« the 

Towns, of Fb^fbhf§^ BriUmud Zubtmg^ which^ twere ttfiMr*- 

wpcds jeftorad to the St^ftesioa thb ^ynmnt of^ 7,oo€,ocO' 

Cfowo89 wrare. put into.ber Handi av a Security for the> 

Egicpeivre dba ihotild be at. 

Barlo/h^i- ^**^ Ead:o£ Ltiafttr, whom^the Qtieen fentvin (tie 

CESTBR Year isS^.tocommand in Hdbndi wat' tmftdd bf the 

€omman4lsin Statoa With' more >Power ifaan^his Mifttiefs ddit«d|'-6ur 

Holland, as he did n&thing of Coofeqiience, and the Duke oT 

1586. Pa^via jrfter takiog Gr^Tt/^ andt^^M^ strove htm-^r^m 

befoieZiri^/ify' the States begaat tv grow fQ({Ach>tls ^^ 

his Abilities lOrHaoefty. Their. Suipicidne encreafecf- 

whftn thc^ £Mt Dmstair fcandaloiifly- giveb yif hf^fyit-^ 

Uam Stanly wiiom 'he had apfsoiftsed^^Gtow^RO^; ahd 

> failing afterwarck 10 his* Attends to • relieve Sluy4^iui}ii 
a.Gpolnels arafe lattwixt biiiioaad»«he'«^tates; thatt his 
Mi4<e6 Of dcrod him to refignrthe Gdiomand and rctura 
home. ..••-. T ' • - 

fbe Affairs of The Affairs of the XJniitd Prwumis, which* W6 
HryLLAiTD &^i ftom this Tibie cailHsOaudi began now to put 
iegin to mnd. on a - better Faceif To this theRcdudiiMi df^-^Sra- 
iant oiiid fJaitdens by PiU/r^^contriiwted a good deal; 
for as all who would not profefs the Gatbolick Re«' 
' ligiOn were foceed to quit tbeft Provtdces within ^ cer- 
tain Time Multitudes flocked into Hdlandi atid thd* 
Trade of 'Jwmurp- was in a great Meafur6 reikiov^ 
UkrJn^frdMmi .It moreover happened^^io Pir^ ier« it 
will always to a Man who has too manylrdnl in- 
the Fire. Inftefad^dF foHo wing the Duke d( Pattia\s 
Wbolefome Advice» which was to engage in libthiiig 
elfe till the ifoliaMirs vrere fubdued^* he in 'the Year 
1588 attempted to <invade Evgiand\ "and \n the Dcxt 
Year ordered* the Dttke to march xuxx^Fntme and affitl 
thfi- League* By thefe Expeditions neifter* of 'which 
^eeeeded he wafted much Biobd and Treafore; and 
the HMakderi had befides an opportunity* to ftrengthen 
tbemfelves* • . •' u 

-In 



Of the UNiTtD Pkovinces. 321 

In the Year 1590 Count MaurkeoS Orange^ whoq^ Succe/s tf 
the Statf$ of HMand had on the Refignation of Liic^er Count Mav- 
made Generaliffimot began to give Proof of his Abili-^'cs rf 
ties in the taking of Breda by a Stratagem. In the fol- ^^ ^ ^^'* 
lowing Year he became Mafier of Zttipint^ DruinUr^ '59^ 
Hul/i and Nimeguin; and in the Year 1592 of Sutnwick 1592. 
and Loeverdsn. The Spaniards had befides in the fame 
Year the Misfortune to iofe that brave General the Duke 
oi Parma. In the Year 1593 Girtrudgnhirg was taken 1593. 
in Sight of the Spanijh Army ; and Gr&ningen being taken 
in the enfuing Year the Repubiick had as it were a 
Barrier on the other Side of the Rbint* 

Albert oi Auftriawi^o in the Year 1596 fucceeded the Albbrt ^ 
Dukeof /^tfriTzu retook Hu\ft\ but being il] fupplied by Austria 
Fhilip whofe CoflFers were drained, be infiead of being ^^'^**''* 
able to undertake any Thing was in the next Year de- 
feated with great Lofs near Tumhoot. 

Ecouraged by this Succefs ac home the Holland" 
ers rciblved to undertake the Voyage to the Eaft- Indies^ Trade opened 
hoping thereby to make good the Lofs they fuftained from ^^ ^^ Ea$t/. 
not being faffered to Trade in Spain or PcrttfgaJ-, and^^'^'^^^'S^^* 
failing in their Attempt to go North about they went the 
ufual Way. by the Coaft of Jfrica. Having after incre- 
dible Pains, and not without great Oppofition from the 
Portuguefe^ eftabliflied a Trade in the Eajl-Indiei^ many 
monied Men formed themfelves into Societies for the i:ar- 
rying of it on. All thefe were by a Charter, ftom the 
States formed into one Body called the Eaji' India- Com* 
pony: Which by Degrees almoft difpoilefled the Portw- 
guefe of their Settlements ; and has fince by extending its 
Trade brought immenfe Riches into Ualland. 

In the Year xyfiMaurice became Mailer o( Rhineiurgj Rhiniburc 
Mews and all the other Places which belonged to thc'«^^> '59^* 
Spaniards in OverjffeU It being now plainly perceived 
that the Hollanders would never fubmit dire£kly to 
the Spanijh Yoke, Philip in the next Year made ufe of 
the following Artifice.. He married his Daughter Ifa- Artifice. 0/ 
bella Clara Eugenia 10 Albert Archduke of Aujirtay and Philip 
gave him the Netherlands ^nA Burgundy for a Portion; 
on Condition that if be had no Iflue by ijbis Princefs, to 

Vol, I. Y prevent 



322 Of the M^ itt^ Provinces; 

prevent which Mjedicroes bad 1>oen given her, ihek 
SjouU revert to the Crown pf Spain:, This at firft 
Sight faemed.(£> he making the Nftberla^ indepen- 
■iem i and it was hoped the HoUanArs would hi^ve coaie 
Jnto it, efpecially as they muft aow» a Treaty having 
bcca conciiKicd bejtwixt the. French King and Philip at 
yjTvim^ loEfe a^jowexfui Ally ; But the Bait did ript take ; 
'.for they comimiedftedfaft to their Purpofe, «nd would 
iiuDt confent to .diilblve their Repuhlick^ adthougj) very ad- 
.vantagebtts Ternas were oiFered them both by the £m- 
4>eror'and the Archduke his Son* 
Bnttle cf ^Maurice having m the Year x6oo .entered Flanders 

NiEupoRr, with a Defign to befiege Hteupart^ Alhfrtc^mt up with 
i6co« him before he expeded it and a Battle eofued. la 
this A6^ioa Maurice wlio had the Advantage gained 
•great Glory; .but as it had been a confiant Maxim 
with him to av6id a general Engagement^ ^d a Oc- 
■feat at this Ttoti^ might have proved fat4 to the Re- 
publkk, he did not think proper to/ollow the Ene- 
my^ . . . 
5/Vfr^ of The Siege of 0/hnd being undertaken in <tic next 
OsTEND. Campaign, this Place was defended by the Hollanders 
with great Obfiioacy until the Year 1604^ At which 
Time Amhrofje Spinola carried it by Storm. It 15 faid 
,that the Hollanders loft during this Siege 70^00 Meu, 
and the Spaniards a much larger Number : Nor will this 
appear very improbable if it be confidered that the Place 
•could be fupplied by S^a y that it held out more than 
three Years; and that it was not at laft taken till there 
was no more Ground left for the Garjrifoa to intrench 
themfelves in. In the mean Tigie the Spanijh Fleet 
commanded by Frederick Spimla^'w^s entitely defeated 
• by that of the United Provinces ; and Sluys in Flanders 
was taken by Maurice. In the Year i6q^ L'mgeny 
Grot and Rhineburg were taken from the HoUanden \ 
Battle of and Maurice had the worft of it \^ an Engagenaent 
AiTTWERP, near Antwerp, . The laft A£llon of Importance in 
1605. this .War was the burning of the Spanijh Fle«t ia the 
Bay of Gibraltar by James Heemjkerk', who loft hij Life 
in the Adion, ,. 
' • • * ... At 



QjT fie ]Jv It ^D Provinces. 323 

At l«tigth the Spaniards hw there was no Liioeli- Spaniards 
hood x>( reducing the Dutch to Obedience; and being ^^'^^i^* 
apprehe»fivc of an Attack from Henry IV. oi France^^^^''- 
they refolved to put an End at any Rate to a War 
whiefa .h^d greatly impoverilhed and weakened them* 
Spinoia him^k' b^iflg fent to treat at the Hgue^ 
the St^Us jftreniK»Mfly infifled upon the declarmg of 
the I{$ll^nd€r$ a free People. As the Spaniards could 
not brook the doing of this abfoiutely, they in or« 
der to gee over the Difficulty confented to. treat with 
the H$ll^mdirs as with a free Peafds, 'This Manner 
of ExprejCon wa$ at^ firft dbje£ted to ; but at the 
Perfunfion of yemin the Premh Minifter, who faid 
that the Word gs m^ither leflened their Power nor enr 
created that of Spaifi^ SHid that however clearly their 
Indepefidpncy was acknowledged by Words they ought 
always to be upon their Guard, a Truce for twelve Trj/r^/or 
Years w^s made in the Year i^og. By this both Pslt* twelve 'Tears, 
ties were to keep what they were in Poffeffion of j 1609. 
and the Hollanders much ag^inft the Inclination of the 
Spanh^rds retained the Liberty of trading to the Eafi-' 
Indies* Thtf HMn^ders Came the more readi|y into 
this Truc^ becaufe they began- to dread the Defigns 
of Frame upon the Nether landi. They .were more- 
over j^abu^t that the great Authority which the War 
had iti^de it necefiary to veil in Maurice might prove 
dangerous to their Liberties. 

Not long after the Dutch had a Conteft concern! ng^/^rrf/^i^<?«/ 
the Dutchy of 'J utters ; which the Emperor wanted to7/^^ Succ^J/jon 
annex to the Dominions of the Houfe of Ju/irlajo JunE^i^ 
With the Affiftance of fome French Troops thjy drove 
the Archduke Leopold from the Capital, which he had 
upon the Death of the laft Duke taken Pofleffion of; 
but a Di^erence arifmg betwixt the Houfes of Bran^ 
denburg and Neuburg about the Succeffion to thi$ 
Dutch/, the laj:ter called irt the Spawjh General Spi^ 
nola to his Afliftance. Upon his fcizing Wefel the 
Duteh to^ Ppffeffion of Rees and Emerlck for the 
£!e£tor i and hence it was that the County of Clevei 
became afterwards involved in^e Wars of the Low'- 
Ceun$rif$» . 

Y 2 In , 



?H Of the U«iT<D Proviii^^b^ 

Vi^mtei h" In the meftii Time die Dutth were raoe ui. Pictc^ af 
#q«)ir/ /i^^ Ar- home by theDiiiputes of the Armim0HsMA Remn^t^ffnU^t 
MiKiANs andyii^i^^ ^^rc partly owing to a pdtcical Jealoqfy.'ftiid 
GoMAtifT^.j^ly to fome hol-bcadcd Divinw. mUit^m Prftce of 
Orange bad before hit Death takeaa gnttt 4e^ of JRai^ 
to obtain the Sovereignty of the United Prmm^ f maA 
it was feared he would have fucceeded if his unitioiely 
Death had not prevented it* As his Son Ainnrice di^ 
txiVered the fame Defign the chief Men oppofed jt| md 
faid their Labour was ill beftowed^ if «t laft they Jbad 
so other Advantage ihan to change • powerful \M4f* 
her fdt one lefs powerful* Amongft thofe who cotia^ 
ieraded the amihttioua Defign of Mauriie^ no one 
^iftin^tfhed himfelf more than the Pepficiiiary Jetm^ 
Barnevett : And with a View tb this, he forward^ 
cd iHe Negdciiitions for a. Truce vniR'S^in^ becaiife 
it would dimtnifli the Authority of the CaptainrGe- 
lieraU Mdiitia did all he could to prevf nt the Con- 
tlufioR^ of this Truce % and could never forgive Bartti^ 
veh^s Condud. James ArnUnius Profeilbr of Divinky 
in the Univerfity of beyden did about diis Tiei^ pu« 
bltlh his Sentiments conc^hing Grace i in which he 
differed from the Opinions of the Cahimfts^ An An- 
iwer thereto was after hb Death wrote jby Francis 
Cojnarus. The Difputes which arofe upon this, Sub- 
jeA 'being in the End' carried to a great Height the 
Clergy fided with Gomarus; but the Heads of the 
^ Governiiietit Fell in with the Notiorts of Aminiw^ The 
commoh People who as is their ufual Cuftom fidlow** 
cd the Example of tbe^ Clergy g^ew^ tuD^uituous in 
many Places. Upon this A^anriee became by bi^ Bro- 
ther's Death Prince of Orar^e^ who had declared for 
the O^marijli^ depofed fon^'e Magiftrates ' he cUd ns^ 
like under the Pretence that they were of JtmiirUan Prin* 
ciples* BarneveU and Hogo Gratius being heteupoa 
taken into Cuftody, the former was witbouf Ib^wiilg 
any Regard to his former Serviced) or, to bis being 
John Bar- in 'the fcventy-recdnd Year of his Age, h^Jieaded by 
2Y/j^ *" Order of the States, and the latter was coodeained 
to perpetual ImprironmeDt ; from whence, he by the 
^If of bis Wife who conveyed kita awfty in n Cbcft 

made 



(y/& United Province si 325 

aiade^hb^ Sfcape. The DoSrines of Jrmiaus were alfo 
coodettified in the Synod of Dm: Yet oiaiiy'.fenfiUe 
Men in U^Uand ftiU adhered to them ; and all maiot 
rate Ferfoas cried out agatnft the Prince's Condai^ 
to ti^oft Iniluefttte BsrmPil^^ Death was fiippcrf^d to he 
principaUf mowing. - . .1 

Tbk drntieftick QjMrrel gave Way to the Danger XTorivi/^ 
wbick^threatned^ the Republklc from Spain: Bjr wliom Spain* tdzu 
upon the ExpirttionoT the Truce inrthe Year 1621 Hofti* 
Uttes were'eommtnceit. Spimla being driven bf Count 
AimsfieU'^mA the Duke of B^nfiiitki who after the 
Batde ofFlHtry came to the Affiftance of Aclblbmiar, 
frdtn btlovc^ Bergen- op^%om be in Revenge bid Siege to 
Br^da. Maume attempted to relieve it ; but fatilfaig 
therein and in his Defi^ upon Jntufirp he fell in^ Deaths/ 
a meiancholy Way, wbicb carried faim off in tlie YearMAxfRics. 

ffidmdt Hmry Prince of Orang$ who fuccceded hisFRSDBRicic 
Brother' m all bis OfliceB made himfelf in the Year Henry y«^- 
J627 Matter of GroU^ and in the fame Year the Spa^ceeiij him, 
mjb Plate^Fleet was taken by Petit Htfn. During the *^^5* 
Skge of B$h'l0'dtt€ which Himy undertook' in tbef Yea^ 
1 6^8, the Spaniards for tbe Sake of making a I^iverfion pe* 
netrated ihto the Viiaw. This caufed, great Confternai- 
tioii ail over HoHand; but upon theSurprizal of ffyil 
by the DkUb the Spaniards repafied the IJii in gres^t 
Bafte. 

In die Year 163O the Hollanders began to eftabli(b7'^/ Dutch 
themfelves in Bravui: And in the next Yeair fome ihouf eflablijh thtm- 
£inds of' Spaniards going upon a fecret Expedition wcre^/^j ^f Br a- 
furpriB^ fiear Birgen-^^xsom. zil, 1630, 

in the Year 163a Henry took Ruremondy Venky Limr Battle af 
iurg ttid Ma^ricbt\ znd Papenbeim who attempted to^^AEsr* 
relieve the iaft ^ thefe Places was defeated. In thc^»cH'*''>63*' 
next Ckmpaignf he made himfelf MaAer of Rhinehtrg* 
J>ut the Spffniiirds On the other Side retook J^ir^urg:. 
Jrt the Year 1^35 by a Treaty made betwixt tte Re- 1635, 
publick miA Fra$ice it was agreed to ihs^re the Spanifi) 
Netherlands^ As the //<^i/tfn^/rx however did not care to 
have the /r^^ for fo near Neighbours this Agreement 
Cgme to npthitlg* Ar| Sibrnk fur^trised thisYear by thej^;^ 
Y 3 nkrdy 



32$ Of the Un I T E i> PRovi nces. 

9r/V^i was retaken but U6I vNthout gretft Dfffietoify in 
ihe Y#aK fo)1o\i^ing. A-a/^ was retaken in 163^ *, hot 
tl»c Holian4in Ibft ^#»Af and Rftremdnd. The/ In the 
Battle of next CaDipatgn wef^ defeated near C«iK»^ but this LoTs 
Ca l lo, Was made good by theff Admiral Trmp .• Whtf^lentirely 
1638. dcrtroyed in t\\t D'wm a Spamjb Fhtt Hiten4ted to at- 
tack Swidett iri Conjun6H«n with the >Datmy 
William H. In the Year 1644 Ghtnt and in Ae Year following 
Huf/twR^ taken by WWfam II. Prtflte ^ Or4ffgt^ who 
had facceeded Henry his Father ;• and k w«a *thoiight he 
^99bu\d have* taken j^iWw^^jhadtiof the^©ity of Am- 
Jfird^m grown greSit by irs'Riiiti O^pofcduWs. At 
"Treaty ef length by a Treaty concluded at M^nftir in* tte Year 
M^uNSTER, 1648 a glorious End was put t'0 this War-; tbe/fti- 
164S. landers being thereby acknowledged to be a free Re- 
{Hrblick and entirely independent <of ^ain^ fhinet and 
the Prince of Oravge endeavoured to render the Negoci- 
ations at Munfier'^tMitk: But as the very 'Phterthey 
hkd fo long contended for was acknowledged, the%tates 
were glad to put an End lo a War which although the 
Spanidrds were cioft diftrcflld*y it hiA run them greatlj 
into Debt. From this Tli«e FrnnceViXi^ 'England, who 
had all along fupported the HsUandersj began to grow 
jealous of thc4r Power. ^ ' 

Itevo/t 0/ Not long after Brazrl ^ flve great Lofs of the fVe/- 

Brazil. Jndh Company revolted- t6 the PoPtugwffi t Bet the 
Portvguefe paid dear for it; /or a War being kindled on 
r ' this Uccafion they toft near «H which b^fonge* to them 

in the E aft' indies. 
iyiv:Jwt J7J In the Year 1650 a Divifion which iitlgHi; hrave had 
tJje Stafef, very bad Confequences happened aniongft the- States. 
r650. Some of t^iefe and efj>ecia)ly thofe of Holland having 
^ propofed a Reduftidn of the Army the Prince t^TOran^t 

opffofed- it ; and he Was perfuaded by tiis friends as the 
Matter coulJ not be fettfedtb i;i«ftt thfe Cities %[^hkh were 
for ^o doing in Perfon, and to repnefent to cliem the Im- 
propriety of taking this Sttp %vhilft Frdnee and Spain 
were at War. As fome Cjlies paft4c«laf]3r Ampr* 
dam, fearing he would change their Magiftrates or do 
fome other Thin^ inconfiftent' with, their Liberties, pe- 
titioned ^galnft this, the Prince infifted it was done toaf- 

froct 



firiMtt M1114. but ttoCilMis taftead't>f makiiTg him angi 
SittiafiiAiQn inftfttsd thftft tbeir Petitiontr was quite agrw^ 
able to |h« ConAkutton; ofnthe Repubbck. Six Meow 
be«a of th«<G)ttfifel ot Slate, amangfl rwhom vi^ J}a 
tVk Awego^maA^ of D^^drtcht^ were.faectfu|ioii coou 
miteed't^ the Cadie oiLouveftein^ and fame YTOofs 
were afiemb]«d viob aalntsnt to ^i^ize ^imfierdcmi 
Miftakiog their Wiij^ ia the Night the Inhabitants a {><^ 
prised of. the Defiga» by 4he //i7in^ffip^PoA>boy opened . 

their Slakes s' and .by ia^ii^ the Coaotr^^ nound' thcsd . - 
under Water hiadeoed . the- Executioa thereof^ The 
Matter beiag afierwarib . accominodated the^Peopie of 
Amfiiriam were fofced to confent that Ekh^r. their Buvi 
go-mafter ibould be'depoTcd ; aiid the fix Prifoiserfi wafi^e 
on Condition of their being removed • fi^om their Of* ^ 

fiees fei'at Liberty : Bui it is thought*that if the Prince's ^^^ of the 
Death b^d not hftppened foon after, the AfFair ^oidd ^''''^^^ ^^ 
not hwe ended herei j Seven Days after his Death; ^*^''^^^' 
which .faapperied oa- the^ijtb <if ^<7i^«»»^^r 1650, the ^ ^°' 
Priheeft his Sfioufe wds< delivered of a Son after wardt 
KiAg of England^ Ia the next Sf^ping the Uhtted Pr^ 
winces now without a Stadtholder in a general Adembly . v 
confirnnd their Union.} and came to fon>e Refolactoos 
for regulating the Go^erimtent. 

DHiflannf AnDihaflidor from the Englijh Parli^aneiit ^^^ 'w-vV^. 
to the States being- about thisTim^ affaffmatcd by fome Engl and. 
Sestchmtn before he had had his publick Audience, and no 
Satis&Aion being made for this it was tahen \cvj ill ; 
but as Cromwell was then bufy in fubduing Sect land the 
Pariiament thought proper to conceal its Rerencoient. 
As the AmbaiTadors fern afterwards to the Hague vreA: 
trifled with and infuked feveral Times by the Mob, 
the Parliament at length prohibited the Importation 
of foreign Goods except in EngUJh Bottoms ; and Let- . . 
ter&of Masque and Reprifal were granted againft the 
Dt^ih.. Tbcijj Trade being hereby gseatly diftreffed 
the Hallavdersy who iaw their Miftake in being fo ftifF, 
fent Ambaffadors to England \ but as it was proper 
to bexupon their Guard a Fleet was fitted out. The 
Englijh Admiral' £i^i)f nteeting with their Admiral Trompj 
upon bis refufing to ftrike a defperate Adion- enfued 
Y4 in/ 



gociaiioof vircrs«U,-d)e«ilfhtki omtifittg 5pir.^ £Andm 
- tbe X^Jidit pretended tbftMhii'w»# iMtddettt^'lPrepa- 
i:9Uoiii .havevar Wfi^. mHe qo fcodnSidci Mhit xame 
iboo aftar^D 40 opei^^JUtftuMu -AftrK feveril JEn- 
ffgcneo» io wfaicb tbe U$lbmSert hA gm aa Xl f the 
worft 9f H9 4b^ loft in one AQioff Ctreol^-ibirea Ships 
. of War I and their. AdmUai. .being lulled 'Afjr -were 
glad to fue for Peace*. Bya Treatjf(.«oochK)ed with 
Crmwtll \n tbe Year 1654 tfaejr aml^iigft^' other Coa« 
ceffions agi«ed, that no rnnce'of; the Hdufe of €>« 
r4ii^# fliQuid ever after be Sudtfaolder. kibe^g ob« 
fervcd \n the Coorfe of this War 4bit thetrdBbips xS 
,War were too finall the IMkitJin 400k Caie^tO'bviM sdl 
new ones larger. 

In tbe following Year the Dmteb jealous of hb Rro- 

gpefe. in Poland and Pfmffia prevailed on ihe i>«)B^ 

p breal^ with the Swfde.^ The King of Dmmaitk be* 

ing after a Series of ill Succeis bcfieged in his Capi* 

Ul they fent a Fleet to bis Affiftance; and aiharp En* 

gagement enfued betwixt the FkeU ^H^Uand^^tiA Swfi- 

4tn in the Somdf in which the Di^Ub loft two Admirals : 

But which was (he Thing chiefly intended the* Swedes 

were driven from before Ccpei^gtn* In tb% Year 1660 

the Dane^ who did not in this Wat^meet with iht M- 

fiftance he expeded and ought to hare had from the 

HuUK was glad to make Peace* Tbe Apprehenfioa 

.that EegJand and Framt would . declare in Favour of 

£wMlen and jointly fail upon them wa» it is probable the 

Keafon for this dLGngenuous fiebavioiir of the DuUh^ 

who certainly did not 2^ vigoroufly. 

ffflr njoiih HoftHities being in tbe Year 166^ committed by tbe 

Skqland, ^H^^fi^y '^^^ looked with jealous Eyes on the Trade 

1665. aod naval Power of the Republtch,<tbe FrtnA for tbe 

iSa,ke of weakening both Nations fomented the Antmofity 

betwixt them as much as polisble. In the Begioning of 

this War the Englijh had the Advantage \ but on the 

.burning of their. Ships jn Gb^A»m Harboor»: ^irbtch was 

indeed a bckl Undertakin|^in \\!m Dutch Adnitral, they 

^xiaty of g*^^^ weary .of it ; and 3 Treaty was by the Mediation 

Breda. ^ Qf Sy^eden concluded at Breda. 

. Ifl 



Treatf ixiib 

CaOMWELLy 

1654. 



War nuitb 
bWEDEN. 



SoUNEi. 



hfs^kft Ar^^ wSw^ sisnd lie^'Pr<»iin«i5irfleittg» at ^England 
AupolTtinc^iaVwM Wfhtifr^'flli iiMrM >^d be on the««^ Fa anci, 
finakvfOUiiai^ Tte llapid^pMl^rtftfYtf Yte fV/HrA; Who *^72* 
in .•fa ;iinir>Ds^ ibecanoft; MaAei«- ^ fhb Province^ of 
OmelfiiAm^-OiJS^chr^i^tiA &v&^e^ threw the P^le 
ioitxK' fiidi^ CoiiitMMtt6ti, -that h»i' the3r maif^ the heft 
06 abeir ^Way ita jb^MdaM\it vtnoukf i^ al^ Probability 
iave *Braeiidiere<k Bui the Delay' tjf<5eherja'^iJ«rf?i;%r^ 
wbo^tarritd t^i> ikiif s to i%ca|ve QM){^limdnty ztUifitht^ 
givJikTtfaidrfatlaMantbi ^ Time to * pluck- up thfcir Coiiragt 
and >^re(lar4 fbr->a'ti)efc«cc.'' The HoUaniits in the 
oexrGitopaiign loft -Matfttii^ht \ h*t In feverai Engag^- 
iDeliit«iatfie»«hey(g«ve jS-^ofi^ «>f ext^aordiitary Cbrtdcif): 
and Bravery. At length the j£ir^//^ Parliament, who could 
ncA^ heir to.to' iheSuccef^ erf Frmti^ prevailed* on 
Oharlet^ to> make a fepardce Peace. As the EmpererSeparatt 
and vfj^Ma^aniiier' «faf>fe Medktion thts was* concluded ^^^^^^ '^'th 
dedatred afbr^vrarda openly for the Duich^ the fr^^dJEN^^Aw^* 
katib^firft raifed beai^ Contrrbutions thought propel- 
to evacuaae adrch^ eonquered Towns except Nttetdm^ 
Grout and Afaijhitbi $ %nd the two former of theffe were 
retakem- ^ - ♦ •-.•..-, 

By this .War thc^ Prince of Orange was raifed to zGreai Pcpi^r 
highckf Pitch of Power than any b( his Anceftors had ever of the Prince 
erijoyodt: 'If or the common People, who imputed the fur-^ Or ano£« 
prtBin^:Succef» of the French to the Treachery of fome 
that had the £)in36tion of AiFairs, and looked upon him 
^ the only Perfon who could refiore the Affairs of the 
Republick, grew tumultuous in many Places ; and wotM 
not be fatisfied till he was declared ^dtfaoldtr afnd all 
r Places -were filled with hi? Friends. In one of thefe 
Tnmults.'CtfinsWitfi and John de ff^t "two Mothers were 
renc in Pieces by the Populace at the Hague ; yet- many 
wereofOpinton that both of them, and particularly the 
latter, who had long fat at the Helm, defer?ed better of 
.thetrConntrymen. 

The Prince foon reftored Quietamongft the People j 
but hia Snccefs againft the Ft each did not anlWer their 
*£xpodatiQf|. IJ<fi fuftajned great Lofs in the Battle 



330 



Bmtfk tf$t 

Ou*9i9, 



The States 
enter into the 
Grand Ah- 

LIAIfCE. 



Battle of 
Fleury, 
1690. 



Battle of 
Leusb» 

1691. 

Battles of 
LA HoouE, 
and Steen- 

fLlRK, 1692. 



Of tbi Mytt-tzT) l^vi9^\vi'^%%. 

9i Simfiti the Year '16^4 r MhdhvvrYtptiiM tMi Years 
after from- before Minftrieht, AtiMabptingf to kelieve U. 
^mtr% in the Vetf' 167*7 fam Amfy was defeat^ ^ »d 
the Fleet feat rft the Ainie Year to theAffiAaacrof 
Sicthf was worftcd. It being at length feare^'tiiat the 
Princd*8 Authorky might bjr centiiming the* War be- 
come Altai tcr their Liberties x\xtrHtMani*ri made a fepa« 
rate Peace with Frtma-^ by which \Mt^r/VJ/ wav re* 
ftored to them. 

Umbrage being taken ar the ftriA^ AUianeo entewd 
into befwtxt Liwh XIV. :attd Jama H; of whkb one 
Article wto ftippofed to be thehumUiag of the Dafc^, 
the S/^«v General came readily Into the Views of tbe 
'Prince of Osrtfwgfe, The Revoladoii in\£ir^/ixa^^ which 
was in a great Meafiirc brought about by the AfSlance 
of the Da^ff^, drew upon them 'the Refentmena of Letms: 
But by the Gondufion of the Gr^ai Aiiittnce their 
Country was happily deiivered frotH' heh^ the 8t2t of 
War. 

In the Year 1690 whilfl Wtttiam^ who n/kwithibDd- 
ittg his AdtancemetYt to the Thnme of Enghaci never 
would' gtv^'opr the Office 6( Stadtholdcr^ wasrbitiir in 
fubduing Ireland^ the Troops of Holland and the other 
Allies commanded by YrinceVafifirr^'were defisated aear 
Fleury by Marfli&l Luxemhurg, In this Adton the Al- 
lies, who ioft fifty Pieces of CMMaon, had fix tfioufanil 
killed upon the S^ot^'and more thaa that Namber were 
made Prifoaers* In the fame Year the contbtned Fleet 
of England and Ihiland vns woffted by the Frmxk Ad- 
miral Tcurviiki 

The Brittle* of Leufe fought in the next Campaign 
was ftill moreiglorioiis to Luxemburg \ for notwi^- 
flanding hir Army was greatly inferior he defeated 
the AlKes with confuierarble Lofs. In the Month of 
May following the Fnnch "P^ctt wa* fuincd'off /a 
Hogve: But the Joy heteby ocoafioned Was feon in- 
terrupted by the Account received, that Lui^mhtirg had 
•obtained k Vtdory over the King- of Mngbmfi who had 
taken upon himfeif the Command m Fkndnr near Stsen- 

In 



Ofihi Unit e d Proving es. 331 

In the Year 1693 *^ Pf'^eh Marfbal took Huy-^ and 
the allied Army commanded by the King of England 
and the Heftor of Bavaria being defeated at Nervinde Rattle of 
V^^ith the Loft o^ fifreem thoufand . ft4en ci^r/rr^j' fub^NEnviNDB, 
mitted td hiro* A Divcrfion being made by a Defcent 1693. 
in the Year 1694 on the CoaCi of France the Al- 
lies retook iF/irf ; and they in the n&xt Year made them* 
felvcs Matters of Natnttr. The feparate Peace concluded 
by the Duke of Savoy which difconcerted the Allies ;• the 
many Captures cftade by French Privateers ; and the Dif- 
truft whkh fome fay began to reign amongft the Allies ; 
paved the Way for a general Treaty at Ry/wick in the 
Year 1697 : And thfc Freneh Court for the fake of faci- 
litating its Defigns on the Spanijh Monarchy was not 
averfe thereto. 

A fufficient Barrier being obtained for the Dutch byPARTiTioH 
the Ceffion of* all the French had conquered in the Spa- Treaties 
fiifl) Nethtrlawh^ they in order to prevent a new War 
on Account of the Spanijh Succeffion acceded tO the 
Part4tion Treaty .- As the Execution of this was prevent- 
ed by the Death of the Elcfior of Bavaria a fecond 
Partition Treaty was agreed upon; but the Meafures 
therein concerted were quite broke by the Will of Charles 
i¥b« appointed the DuTce, of Anjm his Heir. It being . 
judged improper for the States to break immediately 
with- France thcjr acknowledged Philip V, as King of 
Spain', yet they came readily into the Defigns of fome 
Powers, Who were determined to prevent if poffible the 
Union of the ^tfw]^ and Frtnch Monarchies in the Houfe 
of hourhon. 

By -the fecond Grand Alliance concluded at the HaguaSg^Qf^j 
in September 1701 it was agreed: That the contraSingQaANO Al* 
Powers ihould apply themfelves principally to the reco-LiANCE. 
Bering of the Spanijh Nether lands ^ which the French had >70i« 
feized and obliged the Di^teb Garrifons to evacuate the 
Barrier Town« thereof; that the Milanefe ihould be re- 
covered for the Emperor; that the Maritime Powers 
(hould keep any Thing they could conquer from Spain 
in the fVe/i*India ; that no feparate Peace fliould be made ; ' 
and that none fhould be made until the Demands of the 
Houfe of Aufiria upon the Spanijf) Succeffion (hould be 

fatif- 



33* Q/"/Atf Unite P PmoF IN e«i^ 

Cttisfied M^ the Trtde. and Nmngadoir o£ St^kmd ^nA 
//d//4ii^ fttffickfitly ri«ttrcd.. White Preparatioiis.*wem 
makinjc for adding conformably to this AUknce.A^^A 
Death qf ' /iV^f ]IL ^f Englani who iiad t^kien great Pakis to 
William, forot it and was confidcrcd at the Head .thereof died,- 
T(ic Fr^ncb Court h^eupon .coocetv«d Hopes of cah 
joHng tkt.Dutdf to ak^ cheur Cpadafii and 4t .was 
(aid. m a. Memorial ivKfetited tbt hk moft Cbr^ian 
\lh^&j had for fome Time confidered their Bcha^ 
viovr asi iofiueaced by foreign Gounfels: 6m this In- 
fifitt^tipii difpleaied the States i and. they gs|ve him to 
iinderfland» that although they had the higheft £& 
teem for ff^iiliam^ they had alwiys .faeeR^Kfafier of 
their own Refolutions and were deterinined -at^ - all 
Events to purfiie them. Whether it was that there 
was nd Peribn proper for, it» cht (hatthi^ Power be- 
longing to the O^e was i^ught to be inconfiftent 
with the Liberty of the jRepublick, no Stadtbolder ^m 
upon the Death of fFiUiom chofen. 
Plfpufew" Upon the Death of this Prince a.^Difpute aiofe, 
femingtbe (concerning the Right of fucceeding: to the Eftatea 
Succfffion to of Qr^tngut betwixt the King of Prt^ and the 
the tftates of prij^e of Najfau J>iltt% hereditary^ Stadtholder of -/V;>- 
Orakob. land: But as the difQuiBog of this would have taken 
a good deal of Time and it was not preiper to di£- 
oblige either Party in the prefent Con}un£lure, the Statis 
Gentral^ who were to decide it, agreed that for th€f 
prefeot the Profits of the whole iboidd.be nceired. hf 
. tbeoofelves and paid Fart to the one andPart lo the other; 
War being declared in the Year 1702 agaiaft Frafk$^ 
War •ujitb the' Troops of the 4lli$s by talung KayferfwtrAs- B»nn 
France, and other Places foon put it out of the £ie^r of 
M^^* . . QokgrC^ Power ,^0 jnake good the En^genuoits,.. which 
his Attachment to the Intereft of his 'iiephew Pbilif V. 
had drawn him into. . As. the Heat of the War, in 
which the Putfb bore 4II aiong a gjlorious Part< was 
for fotpe Time in Italy^ on the Rhine or on th^DamAf,' 
we (baJi having inother Chapters alrea^F giv^nan Accon^ 
of what )i»ppened there at once come to the Battle of 
Pat/Ie of Hamiimi By this important Vidlory obtained in the Yea^r 
Ka»^ilxss, 1^06 the Con^ueti of ail Brrfmnh ^^ ^i M^Hn^ 4>^ 
1796» ' wrp 



wiff and many otter Places fn FltmArs wai ntade ettfy to 
the iMlitt}- and ihe Frincb tegan tcs traenbte fdr ttaeif 
own Town^i . • 

lathe Year 1707 the Actentidn ^ M-£ufipi VftfJitackof 
fiaod upon the Ateack of Touhn: Whkrh althoa^ ieToutoK, 
iyitm flioccod drew oSx\it Fnnth Forces from FUn^ ^ly- 
dirs^i fo that nothing coniiderabte happened xkdt^. In: 
the Battle ofOjidmirde^ which was fought next Yekr, P^///^ #/0u. 
theLofs was fo nearly equal that Aic Fnnch clahnedDSNARDB., 
the ViAolry : fiut the Redudion of Obent and Bruges 17^^* 
toon after plainly ^ewcd that the AlUes had the Ad- 
vaiitage. *^ 

hsFiWttg bad more than once made Oyertmes (cjt Barrier 
a Peace the Staus Gemral^ whofe principal View in tVxsTreaty. * 
War waato hanre a lafting Barrier, in the Yea^ 1709 coh- i709' 
eluded with GreauBritMin dio Bartiet'Treaty. By thii 
it Was ftipulated that Furnes^ F^ruKnockj IprtSj Mtnin^ 
fwrn^y^ (^karbrt^^ Nanrnr and Ghini^ and the Forts 
Finely Philips Damm and D^naas (hould be the Barriier 
Towns; and' Ihoald have Duich Garrifens to be aug- 
mented or kiTened as the SMes (hould judge proper. On 
the other band the Republick obliged herfelf to maintain 
the ProteAanC Succeffion iathe Houfe of Hanvuer againfll 
all Oppofers. The Conlequence of this drift Union be- 
twixt the Marithtie Powers would it is probable have 
been faifeal to France^ if the Bntifii Mhiifters had not de- 
parted from it by treating feparately. Purfuant to therr 
Negociations foroe Alteration was to be made in thd 
Barrier: and it plainly appeared in the Courfe of them 
that the Difpofition of the Btitijh Minifters, of whom 
there was- an entire Change, was much altered with Re* 
gard to the Pretender. 

Whatever were the Motives,' or whether there wasTreaty <w:ii 
anjr Reafbn for the Complaint that the ft^publlck hadFRANce. 
not duly ftimiflied her C^ocas, as the Britrjh Mihifteri 
Were determined nponr Peace the State f G^mrai did not 
thJftk it prudent to bear the Burthen of the War alone $ 
aad not%itbftanding the reiterated* RemonfiranCes' front 
4c CoqH of *Vifnna a Treaty with F^a*tt^ vfiS figned by 
them at l//r^rir^ at the fame Time that the Treaty h^ 
(Wixt Gr/Mtf jBrform and iVtfTst^ was figned« - ^ 

By 



334 0/ the VmTED Prov tNCEi. 

Treaty wftb By a Treaty concluded a little be&re wkb cbe 4^^-^ 
Algiers, r/W, who had for fome Time greatly difiiHrbed the 
>7>3* Commerce of the Hollanders y it was ftipulated ansiongift 

' other Things, that the Dutch Merdiants fliouM pay 
only five per Cent, for Trading at Atgien \ whereas they 
before ufed to pay ten. In treating with &pain^ whofe 
Minifters were not admitted to the CongrefeofZ/zr/r^/ytbe 
Dutck hoping to pleaTe the Emperor by thi$.Diftid^ion 
infifted, that during the Conferences the Sfamjh Minifters 
(hould be only called the Minifters of King PhWp ^ Be- 
caufe the acknowledging of him asKing of &^n was 
the principal Point in (^eftion. TTlis and fon^e other 
Treaty with Difficulties being got over a Treaty, by which the fame 
Spain, Advantages were sranted to the Hollanders as had beieii 

1714. to the EngUJby and they were confirmed is all Privilegei 
enjoyed in the Reign of CharUi ii« wa^ bgrnA with 
Spain xnjune 17 14. 
SecetiJ Bar- '' being upon the Ceflion of the Sp^nyh Netherlands 
RiER TkEA-to the Emperor by the Treaty of Baden provided that 
TY, 1715. the Dutch fliould have a Barrier, Ncgpciations wef« en- 
tered into at Antwerp under the Mediation of Grnd* 
Britain. The fettling of this, which may be confidcr* 
ed as the Conclufion of the grand Work of the l^ace, 
coft the Britijh Minifters great Pains : fiut at length a 
Treaty was figned in November 17 1 J. By thif fc* 
cond Barrier 7>eaty it was agreed: That a Bqdy of 
Troops to the Number of 30,000, or in Tioae of War 
of 40,000 Men, of which three fifths were to be main* 
tained by the Emperor the remainder by the Republickt 
(hould be kept up in the Netherlands ; thift Namur^ 
Tour nay y Menin^ Furnes^ IVarmton^ Ipres and firl- 
Knock fliould be garrifoned by the Troops of the Repub* 
lick ; that the Garrifon of Bendermoni (hould confift 
partly of Imperial Troops and partly of Dutch i that 
the Governours of all thefe Places, v;ho were to be apr 
pointed by the States General and approved of by the Em- 

KTor, (hould take an Oath to preferve them fof the 
oufe of Auftria ; that the Ganifons (hould be allow* 
ed the free Exercife of their Religion and have conve* 
nient Places appointed for this Purpofe \ that all Animu* 
nicion and Provifion for the Dutch Garrifons^ for tl|efc 
2 - were 



Of the U N I T*E45 Provinces. 335 

were to be 00 Ciargc to his ImperUl Majcfty or the 
CounUj^ ihould be exeoipted from j>a;ing any Cuftom or 
Toll y and tliat the Citadel of Liegi and the Fortifica- 
tions of H^f ihould be demoliffied* The Bailiwicks of 
Venk^ JPort St. Micbail^ Suvm-Waert and Mont/art, 
lubjedl howeVcr to the Debts contracted upon them by 
Charles II. were moreover ceded to the Stcat$ Gemrali 
all that had been done by GreauBritain and ii/o/- 
kni^ whilft they had the AdminiAration of the So- 
vereignty of the LoW'CountrUiy was confirmed by the 
Einpcrpr; and Gnat- Britain took upon herfelf the Gua- 
ranty of this Treaty. 

TheKepubJick wasacontradii^Party to the defenflve Triple A'l- 
Alliance x:oncluded foon after httwixt France znjiGnat-LiAfiCE. 
Britorpt^ J^y this Lewis XV. engaged that the Pretender 
ihould ^luit France and not come into this Kingdom 
again; fiut the Article of moft Importance to the hutcp 
was that Mardyke, which would have been full as dan- 
gerous to the Maritime Powers as Dunkirk^ ihould not 
be fortified. , 

The Treaty of Alliance, figned in the Year 1^1% ^tThe States 
London by the Mtnlfters of their Imperial^ moft Cbrifiianrefufe to accede 
and Briiannick Majefties, was called becaufe their Ac-^^ ^^e Qua- 
ceffion w^s taken for granted the j^^ruple JlUance :^^^^^^ ^^" 
But the States General inftead of acceding thereto rather^^^**'^^' 
aded as Mediators; and by their prudent and mode- 
rate Conduct on this Occafion the Renewal of War 
was in all Probability prevented. 

KnEoJi-India Company having been etti^ed by aOsTEiiD 
Charter from the Emperor in the Year 1722 at Oftend, itQoMPAVY 
by the AiTiftancc of Foreigners, and efpeciaily of fomc Eng* treQed^ 
lijhmen who preferred their own Intereft to that of their '722. 
Country, foon came into a flouriihir^ Condition. As 
this would have ^ecn very prejudicial to the Trade of 
the Dutch Eqfi- India Company, the States General in- 
fiftcd that the Charter which was, as tbe;^ faid, contrary 
to Treaties ought to be revoked ; And the Courts of 
Paris and Londcn,, whofe 5aibjefts were allowed by Trea- 
ties to import India Silks into Germany and the Empe- 
ror's hereditary Dominions^ backed the Renionfirances 
of the Republick, The £mf eror det^ied that his Sub- 

jefls 



336 Of the Umi te © pRdvit*cii«; 

jedsin the AnftrioH Nithtrlands were byaa|r Tn 

excluded from trading to the Eaft-Indi$i\ aod 

of liflcnnig to the Powers who folicited ira tkfl, „^^^ 

he obuined nany Privileges for this nevtr ^Zos^^j. 

i by a Treaty concluded with Spain. Thje Tcea^y of 

Hanovir was hereupon concluded ; and Hoftilittes were 

commenced againft Spain by Great* Britain in the ff^e/t- 

Indies : But the Emperor being previiiled upon by the 

Dutch, who adted as Mediators, to confcnt'diat the 

It h fy^emiedChsiTtcr fhould befufpended for feven Years, PreHoirna* 

1727. lies for a general Peace were figoVd at P^rii ja Jlay 

' 1727- 

The Congrefles of CawAray and Soijhnt which follow- 
ed having been ineffe^tualNegociations Were cateted into 
treaty rf >^ StvilU \ and by a Treaty iigned there the ^tatei GiHeral^ 
%vni0i,i. Great'Britain and France engaged to guaranty die Suc- 
ceffion to Parma^ Plaientia and Tujcany to Don Cat' 
los : But as the Sjtatcs forefaw this Treaty would give 
Umbrage to the Court of Vienna^ their Minifters did not 
iign it till fome Days after it was iigned by (he Minifters 
of the other Powers, nor were they forward to carry 
It into Execution. By a Treaty in the Year 1731 
Great- Britain, for the Sake of obtaining the Emper- 
or's Confent to the IntroduSion of Don Carhsy took 
upon herfelf the Guaranty of the Pragmatlck tSanfficn, 
The Republick was fuppofed to be a contracting Par- 
ty to thb Treaty ; but ttkc did not accede formally there- 
to until the next Year. 
The States On the Profpeft of a War concerning the Polijb 
refufe to enter Election the States General^ who took great Pains to pre- 
into the JVar^ vent it, told the Emperor in exprefs Terms that they 
on Ac<QVMt would not take Part in it \ nor could the Britijh Minifters, 
of the Polish notwithftanding their Reprefentations that the Balance 
EleSien. ^ Power was in Danger, prevail on them to depart 
frpm this Refolution. Inftead thereoi^ they concluded 
a Treaty of Neutrality with France : By which* their 
Barrier and the Aujlrian Netherlands were fecured from 
Hoftilities. The great Care taken to keep the Prelimi- 
naries of Vienna fecrct for fome Months gave Rife to a 
Sufpicion that fomething in the Netherlands was deded 
to France : But the Dutch were foon made e^^fy by Af- 

furancca 



OJ/^rtR/irViirED FitaviMCRs. 33.7 

(hi^tices dflft ftothlng preju^dat to the Intereft of the 
Rip^<l ^9 tfieriein comaineil. 

F<* %k^ Time bdbfc the brealc'mg 6ut of the WztThe War he- 
htt^i^Criat-'Brftein and Sfaik the fbrmer had folli- /'&t/>/ 
citcd*^ States Genettil to make it a common Caufe^^^^RfiAT- 
antf tdfiklcfce them thereto a Handle wai made of thfe^^^^'^AiN and 
taking of feme D«/r* Vcffefs by the Spanifif Guard de^l''^'' ^''^^^ 
Cofiaii hisi they chofe to compromlfe this Matter. '-^^'''"^^^^'" 
mir niorebver tBought it high Time that the illicit'^ "^^*''''''** 
Traai dafried on by ilhe EngK/h Merdiants in the 
Wift'fifdiH fcould be flopped : It being for the Intereft* 
of every trading Nation to confine the American f'rade 
to thcifiMiards^ by whom the Profits thereof are fprcad 
a!I oftt Eftfope, ' Inftead of joining in this War the 
HonihSirs made vaft Advantage by fupplyirtg Spain 
with ftrch Commodities as (he ufed to have from kng^ 
land. 

The AhfWer given by the SMis General to ^^ ConduB of the 
Archdutcbefs, upoft her caufihg the Emperor*s Death States, on 
to be fiotified, plainly fhe wed that they would not coxotthe Emperor's 
into her Vi^ws : Nor would they interpofe further than Dtatb. 
by gootf^'OflSces wjien the King of Fruffia attacked 
Sitejltir' ;.' . 

the Poptrloufnefs of the United Provinces makes f^^ United 
Tradd abfolutely neceflkry ; for the Produce of thefe is Provinces. 
not near fiifficicnt to fupport the great Number of In- ludl peopled. 
habitants. Many of thefe came from other Countries ; 
as fronn France during the civil Wars ; from England 
to avoid the Cruelties exctcifcd in Queen Marfs Reign ; 
fi'om Germnny during the Wars on Account of Religion ; 
and particularly from the other Provinces of the Netber^ 
lands viVxcYi after the Revolt were reduced by Spain tdi 
Obedience. Nor is it flrange that Foreigners when 
weary of their native Country fhould chooft to Tettle 
here, if the Equity and Freedom of the Government 
together with the Toleration granted to all Religiorts be 
confidered. 

The Hollanders who arc in the generial of an ^^^^ Genius of the 
and faithful Difpofition are remarkable for Franknefs in Hollan- 
ihcir Converfation. They arc not foon provoked; butofias. 
when angry it is not eafy to pacify iherti; By falling 

* Vo t. L Z in 



33^ Of the United P r o v i n c Ee^r 

in with their Humour tfaey may be led to any Thing: 
But they will not be drove. Hence it was a commoii 
Saying with CharUqumu That although no People ab- 
horred the Thoughts of Slavery fo much none if ibcy 
were artfully managed fubmitted to it with more Pati- 
ence. The Dutch and efpecially the lower Sprtj which is 
fometimes a Confequence of Liberty, are apt to take 
too great Freedom in rcflefting on the CocduS of their 
Governours, The Guelder Landers and aH that, inhabit 
near IVeftphalta arc tolerable ^ood Soldiers ; but at Sea 
which is their Element they arc equal, and particularlj 
the Zealandsrs^ to any Nation both injuourage and Con- 
duit. Being temperate, frugal and induftrious^ they can 
underfeli their Neighbours in foreign Markets' and at 
the fame time grow rich ; and Dutch Mercbanb are ia 
all Parts of the World efteemed for their Punfluality and 
Fairnefs in Trade. From the prudent Condud of this 
Nation, amongft whom few of fine Senfe are to be 
found, it has been inferred that a cool Bead and a 
moderate Underfianding are fuiBcient to make a good 
Statefman. 
S't t' ni '^^^ United Provinces make no great Figure in a 
Soil of HoL' M^PJ ^"^ ^1^^ Smallnefs of their Extent is well mzk 
LAND. Amends for by the great Number of large, flrong and po- 

pulous Cities. As the Soil of Holland which is very 
rich turns out to much more Advantage for Pafture the 
Hollanders fow very little Corn, The Want however 
of this as well as of fome other Neceflartes and Deli- 
cacies of Life is well fupplied by its convenient Situation 
tor Trade. Holland is liable to one Inconvenience 
which England its Rival in Trade is free from. This 
is that fome of its Ports arc in the Winter Time 
froze up for three Months or more. Great Part of it 
being overflown in Winter it muft be fubjci^ toFogsj 
butthefe are a good deal dtfpelled by the Eatft ^Vind 
which providentially for' the Inhabitants _ gcnirallf 
blows. Its Situation in almofl: the Middle of Eur^ft 
is vaftly co|nmodious*for Trade; aiid to die Encrcafe 
of this the large Rivers of the Rhine, the Maes^ the 
Scheldt the Elbey the Embs and others confrtbute a great 
deal. 

• It 



Of the United Provinces, 339 

It h^s ' b^en computed that the HoUandtrsy fo ex- Tradt and 
tenfiv€ i^ their T^ade, have more Ships than all Eu^ Settlements of 
rope; und if what has been faid by fome Englijhmen be Holland. 
true, tnefe induftrious People make yearly without 
reckoniog. their Home Confumpcion 1,372,000 Pound Herring- 
Sterling of the Herring-Fifhery. They trade confider-J/^^ry^ 
ably to moft Parts of the World \ but the prefent rich 
aod flourifhing State of the Republick is principally 
owing to the immenfe Profit drawn from the EaJI- 
India Trade. The Company carrying this on tradesEAST-IsDiA 
all along that vaft and rich Coafi from Bajfaro in the Company. 
Perfion Gulph to Japan: But the principal Places 
which belong to it are the Ifland of Java; iht Mo^ 
lucca and Banda Iflands^ Malacca; fome Places on 
the Coafis of Sumatra and Ceylan; Paliacatay Mufw 
kpatam and Nigrapatam on the Coaft of Coromandel ; 
and Cochin^ Cranganor and Cananor on the Malabar 
Coaft. Befides thefe and many other Places, to fome 
of which the Chintfe trade largely, the Dutch Eajl- ' 
India Company has an exclufive Right of trading to 
Japan, Of all thefe Settlements the Governor-general, 
who refides and keeps a magnificent Court at Batavia 
the Capital oi Java^ has the Dire<5iion ; nor is he ac« 
countable for his Conduct to any but the Company. 
Upon the whole this Company is fo very rich and 
powerful, that it can alone fit out fifty Sail of Men of 
War and keep up an Army of 30,000 Men. The /i^'^- West-India 
India Company which fet out with a larger Capital th^inCompany. 
that of the Eaji-Indits was very fuccefsful at firft : But 
by making too large Dividends and extending its Con- 
^uelh too far it hurt itfelf greatly, and the Revolt of 
BraTal was a fatal Stroke. At prefent it is in PoHeifion 
of St Georgi de la Mina and fome other Places on the 
Guima Coaft j of Curacao and Bonaire two of the So- 
iovento J^nds : An<i »t has fome Settlements betwixt 
the Rivers Caygnne and Oronoquo in Guiana» It has been 
obfcrvedby confiderate Men, that feveral Things which 
arc not all to be found in any other Country confpire 
U) advance thsTrzde oi Holland; as its Populoufnefs ; 
its fecure as well as commodious Situation ; the Low- 
Acfs of Intereft and Duties paid here ; its naval Strengtl^ 
Z 2 for 



340 Of the United P r o v i n c e r. 

for protefling Trade; the Carefulnefs ahd £xa£inefs 
of its Merchants ; the Bank of Amjierdam ; Us Supe- 
riority in the Eaji- Indies ; and the exemplary Ponifli- 
ments inflidcd on Robbers, Cheats and Bankrupts, To 
thefe it may be added, that the Members of the Regen* 
cy being generally concerned in Trade hav«, an Intereft 
in encouraging it; hilt the main Thing is the Fru- 
gality which runs through all Ranks of People. They 
are Matters of the Spice Trade yet, very little thereof is 
confumed amongft themfelvcs ; and they are fo far from 
wearing; the rich Silks imported from Perjia and other 
Countries, that they export the fine woollen Cloths made 
at home and cloath themielves with a cheaper Sort 
from England. Upon the fame frugal Principle they 
export their own Butter ; and content themfelvcs with 
t more ordinary Sort frorri Ireland znd the North of 
England,. They do indeed fpend a good deal in 
JFrench Wines and Brandies, of which laft they are 
very fond ; yet even in their Entertainments and De- 
bauches they are not over-lavifli. It is however faid 
by fome that the 1 rade of the Hollanders begins to 
decline, and the following Reafons are given for it; 
that the Profits of their Eaft-India Trade are much lef- 
• fened by the vaft Quaotities of India Goods of late 
Years brought into Europe^ which has greatly reduced 
. their Price ; that their Sale of Corn which they have 
from the Baltic k in Exchange for Spices has de- 
creafed ever fince the Lands in England^ France^ Spain 
an J Italy have been fo much improved ; that great Sums 
of seady Money which might have been employed in 
Trade to Advantage have been expended in fumptuous 
Buildings 2X Amjierdam \ and which is worfe than all the 
reft if true that Luxury daily gains Ground amongft 
them. 
Strength of From what has been faid it appears that the na- 
Holland, tural Strength of the Republick is naval. This ought 
always to be attended to; for without being able to 
protect their Trade the Hollanders muft, as th^y do not 
grow the fourth Pait of the Corn they eat, be ftarved. 
As the common People are employed at Sea the Dutch 
.cannot keep up large Armies \ for which Reafon that 

Part 



Of the U N itpdProvincks* ' ' 341 

t^art of tieir Country which is not to be laid under Wa- 
ter by opening Sluices muft be expofeii to the Infults of 
the neighbouring Powers. They have indeed Money 
enough to hire foreign Troops ; but as Mercenaries can- 
not be depended upon and may under the Condu<5t of an 
artful and ambitious General be dangerous to their Li- 
berties, it is for their Intereft to avoid Land Wars as 
much as poffible. 

By the Conft;tution of Holland each Province has Ocvemment of 
its Deputies, of all which are compofed ihe States General, Holland, 
conftantly refiding at the Hague to take Care of what 
concerns the common Good ; But when any Thing 
of Confequence is tp be determined upon, thefe confult 
their jefpcdlive Provinces and condudi themfelves ac- 
cording to their Advice. Further in every Province 
each Member treats with the reft as with Confede* 
rates J and in many Cafes a Plurality of Voices in a 
Provincial AfTembly is not fufficient the Confent of 
every one. being neccffary. Hence it appears that the 
Seven Provinces are in efFeft fo many Common- 
wealths ; and that the feveral Towns in the fame Pro- 
vince are no further united than it is for their mutual 
Intereft fo to be. As this form of Government muft 
neceftarily^be fubje£l to all the Inconveniencies of flow 
and divided Counfels, ic has been conjectured that by 
lodging the fupreme Power in a fingle Hand the Af- 
fairs of Government might be carried on with more 
Secrecy and Difpatch ; and that Tumults in which the 
Kabble, who in ail the large Towns are thereto prone, 
arc quite outragious might be more cafily fuppreflcd. 
It is not our Bufmefs to determine as to this Point; 
but from the Jealoufy always entertained of the Houfe 
of Oriinge while its Power and Influence was great, 
and tke Oppofition made to fome Princes of this Houfe 
when fufpected of aiming at the Sovereignty, it is plain 
the Hollanders will never willingly change their prefent 
Conilitution for a Monarchy, it is moreover not pro- 
bable, that the obtaining of the fupreme Power in HoU 
land by Force would anfwer the Purpofe or any Prince 
who has no other Dominions ; for as fo many Towns 
couid not b^ kept in Subjection without large Gar- 
Z 3 rifonS) 



342 Of the United P r o v i n c « s. 

rifons, and military Power is deftru£^ive to Ti-adc, the 
United Provinces would foon be ruined and of Cdurfe 
his Power could nqt laft long. Notwithftanding it has 
been thought a wrong Maxim to tolerate all Religioos 
in Holland^ this has without doubt contributed yafily to 
the Populoufnefs, Strength and Riches of the Repub- 
lick : For what ftronger Inducement can there be for 
Strangers, when it becomes on any account neceiTary 
for them to leave their native Country^ to fix here than 
that they may without any Moleftation profefs that 
Religion which fcems beft to them. The reftraining 
of all Perfecution here has given Occafion for a Say- 
ing, that Religion has in fome Countries done more 
Good but nowhere fo little Mifchief as in Hollands 
The Revenues of the States do in the general arife from 
Taxes on Provifions. Before a Difli of Fifti \s brought 
Vpon Table it has perhaps paid thirty difFerent Taxes. 
Such Taxes muft of Courfe as moft of them are brought 
from abroad make the Neccffaries of Life very dear. 
The Republick if the Wealth of private Perfons be 
confidered is very rich ; but as a Body the Load of 
Debts which have for fome Time been coutra£led lies 
heavy upon her. 
Jnterefl of It is for the Intereftof the Republick to be in Amity 

Holland with Great-Biitain^ becaufe the latter may be a good 
m,ith fi^ard Ally; nor can the Repdblick propofe any Advantage 
to Great- by ^ War with this Power. Inftead thereof while the 
liRiTAiN. Maritime Powers were weakening each other k is not 
unlikely that the Republick would be attacked from 
ibme other Quarter ; and if this did not happen her 
Trade which is her chief Support muft be greatly inter- 
rupted. It is however of great Confequence for her to 
keep up a good Fleet, that if any Difference, which as 
they are both trading Nations may happen from a Jarring 
of Interefts, (hould arife (he may be able to make Head 
againft the Fleets of Great Britain. On the contrary, 
whilft the Republick does not difpute the Sovereignty of 
the Seas it is not likely that Great- Britain fhould be 
fond of breaking with her ; it being for the Intereft of 
this Kingdom iq fupport the Um(ed Provinces leaft they 

ihouid 



Of (Be V N I T E D P R o V I s c E s. 343 

ihouid fall under the Dominion of fome neighbouring 
poweffol Prince. 

As the Forces of this Republick bear* no Propoc^ France. 
tionto thofe of France fhe could get nothings by a 
^Wju: with this Nation; but it greatly concerns her 
that the Aujlrtan Netherlands which ferve as a Bar- 
rier to her be not fubdued by France. On the other 
hand, if France was to attack the Republick it is 
for the Intereft of the German Princes to affift* her ; 
and Great' Britain would without doubt join with 
them. 

Although the Hollanders have nothing to fear from Spain. 
S'pain^ it is for their Intereft elfe they would lofe a very 
valuable Trade to be upon good Terms with this Na- 
tion : Nor could they except fomething could be con- 
quered and kept in the JVeJl-Indies^ which would not 
fail to give Umbrage to other Powers, reap any Ad- 
vantage from a War with it. As on the other hand no- 
thing in the Netherlands now remains to &pain^ and the 
naval Strength of Spain^ is greatly inferior to that of the 
Republick, there is no Danger of her being attacked by 
this Kingdom. 

The Portugueje owe the Dutch a Grudge for fup- Portugal. 
planting them, in the Eafl-Indies-y yet it would be 
imprudent in Portugal to break with Holland^ becaufe 
as the latter is fuperior at Sea Brazil might be there- 
by endangered. If on the contrary the Dutch were 
without Provocation to attack the Pcrtuguefe^ Great- 
Britain and other Nations concerned in preferving the 
Balance of Trade would in all Probability declare 
againft them. 

As Holland is able to cope with any one of the Nor- The Nor- 
thern Powers flie has no Concern with Regard to thern 
thefe, but that no one of them becomes Matter of thePowERs. 
Balti:k \ yet as her Trade into this Sea is very confider- 
able (he ought to cultivate a good Underilanding with 
them all 

It is for the Intereft of the Republick to be in r^^ Germ a- 
Alliance with the German Princes, that (he may have nick Body. 
their AflSftance in cafe of a Land-War ; but it moft 
of all concerns her to preferve the King of Prujfta's 
^ 4 Friend(bip; 



344 Q/'/it^ Uni*bd Peotinces. " 

Friendfliip : For as his Dominions border on ibe United-' 
Provinces he may being very powerful prove a dange- 
rous Enemy. ... 
OTHsa The Repubiick has nothing to fear from anyxither 
Powers. Power ; yet as her principal Dependence is upon Trade, 
it is for her Inteceft Cp be ifi Afutj with -caieiy 
Power. 



CHAP. 



345 



Charlb* 

MAIN. 



CHAP. VII. 
OF THE 

GERMAN EMPIRE. 

ANCIENTLY Girmany was <livided into many ^, 
Slates indcpcndcixt of each other. D$maracy was l^^^u^^fQ 
the Form of Goveroment which generally prevailed ^^^jJy *** 
amonglt them; and wherever there was a regal Go- 
vernnaent the Authority of the King was much limited. 

Some of thefe were fubdued by the Predeceilbrs of ^ 
Charlemain: fiut he it was who entirely fubdued G^r- 
many and annexed it to the Egiipire of the Franks i 
which before confided of France^ Italy and Part pf 
Spain. He committed the Care of the German Pro- 
vinces to Governors who were called Graves^ and the 
better to keep the Saxons a favage rebellious People in 
Awe he eftabli(hed fome Biihops amongft them : Hop- ^ 

ing that the preaching of the Gofpel would foften their 
Manners. 

Lewis the Pious Son and Succeilbr of Charlemain 'cftLg^^g/^f 
three Sons, LetharU^ Lewis ^ni Charles : Who divided pj^^s. 
the £mpire of the Franks betwixt thenn 

To Lewis his fecond Son he gave ail Germany and fome . y. 

Places beyond the ^Aw; Over which he reigned inde.jfj"^^]^''^ 
pendently of his two Brothers, betwixt whom the leftof ^y^ 
the Empire was divided. 

After the Death of Charles the Bald King of ^''^"^^jjarloman 
who had alfo the Imperial Dignity, Carlaman the Son and )^^^j ^^g q-^jg 
Succeflbr of Lewis King of Germany having n^^^^ .-,/ Emperor. 
himfelfMafter oi Italy took upon bimfelf the Title of 
Emperor; Notwithftandiog that Lwis Son oi Charles 

the 



346 Of the German Empire. 

the BM ftill retained the fame Title witb the Popjf's 
Confent 
Crarlss th$ CharUs the Fat younger Brother aad Succcflbr of 



Fat. 



Arnolph, 

888. 
Lbwis» IL 

«99- 



CeNRADB, 

9H. 



HCMRY, 

9«9- 



CarUman kept PofTeflion of Italy and the Ii^perial Dig- 
nity; but in die Year 887 the Princes and States of 
Germany depofed hun and elected in his Stead Arnoffb 
Son of Carloman, 

Jrnolph died in the Year 888 ; and was fucceeded bj 
bis Son Lewis rurnamed the Ififaai, 

In this Reign the Affairs of Germany went on ill. 
His Father had in his Life-time ca^ed, the HiOfx a 
barbarous Nation, to his Ai&ftance againft ZuetuAdd 
King of Bohemia and Moravia^^ who had revolted. 
By their Help ZusxtehM was indeed brought to Obe- 
dience ; but the Confequence was fatal : For thefe Sa- 
vages having once tafted the Sweets of Germany again 
invaded and ravaged it with great Cruelty. They at 
length infulted Lewis at Aujburg and forced him in 
the Year 905 to pay them an annual 7>ibutes and 
notwithftanding this was fubmitted to they continued 
to make great Havock in Germany. To thefe Mis- 
fortunes the Youth of this Prince, the Divifion amongfl: 
the German Chiefs and the Defire of e^vtty one to in- 
creafe his own Power, contributed a good deal. At the 
Death of Lewis in the Year 911 ConraeU Duke of- Fran^ 
ionia fucceeded. 

During this Reign the Dukes of Lorrain^ Suabia, 
Beruaria and Saxony^ maugre all the Endeavours of &«- 
rode to prevent it, made themfelves independent and 
their Dominions hereditary : But amongfi the reft Hen- 
ry Duke of Saxony was grown fo formidable, that 
Conradi on his Death-bed in the Year 919, advifed 
the other Princes to choofe bin Emperor. His Council 
was followed ; and thereby the Imperial Dimity pafied 
from the Defcendants of Cifarlemain to the Houfe of 
Saxony. 

Henry the Bird-eaUher^ fo called becaufe the Mef- 
fengers font to acquaint him of his EleSion found htm 
catching Birds, when the Huns entered Germany with 
a* numerous Army to demand their Tribute fent them 
in Difdain a mangy Dog; and he ihortly after su the 

Battle 



Of tbi G £ R M A I* E Ai j I R E. 345r 

BaltVe of Mtrfihurg cut' in Pieces fourfcorc Tboufand J?ii//'// «/* 
of them. In his Reign moft of the Towns on theMsRs^- 
other Side of the Rhnne were built and fortified. He more**"'^®"* 
otrer fabdtied the Saiates and Vandtih ; drove the Sarma- 
itarti and Sclavcnians from their Poflcflions in Mifma^ 
Lufatia and Brandenburg ; and having eftabfiflied reace 
in the Empire died in the Year 936. 

To him fucceeded his Son Otbo furnamed the OreaUOrtiOy 9 6. 
In the Beginning of his Reign a Rebellion was mlfcd by 
fome Princes delcended from Charkmain^ who coufd not 
bear to fee the Imperial Dignity in the Houfe of SaxoHy. 
He was fuccefsful in quelfingthis as he was alfoin his 
Wars with the Dams zr\6 Sclavtmiam *y and fo eritirely 
defeated the Huns near Augfburg' t\izt they never ^ftcr 
. dared to attempt any thing againft Germany, Itafy 
having been a long Time difturbed by the Quirreh of 
its different Princes Otho was appealed to. Putting Ci«^«{/f */• 
himfelf at the Head of his Army he eafily made him- Italy, 
felf IVf after of Italy ; and was crowned Emperor at 
Rome, The Italian States were afterwards brought 
into an Agreement, that for the future the Titles 6f 
Kir>g of Italy and Emperor of Rome fhould be enjoyed 
by the Perfon who was in Poffeffion of the German Em- 
pire ; and that no Pope (hould be ever dhofeh without 
the Confent of the Emperor. This Acquifition of 
Dominions in Italy was very mifchievous to Germany: 
For as the Popes were perpetually fiirring up Infur- 
redions it was frequently neceffary to march Armies 
out of Germany ; by which Means the Blood and Trea- 
fure of the Empire were exhaufted without any real Ad- 
vantage. 

Otho II. fucceeded his Father in the Year 974. His Otho II. 
Reign was at firft difturbed by Contefts with (bme 974. 
German Princes. Afterwards Lothario King of France 
made himfelf Mafter of Lorrain ; and was very near 
taking Otho himfelf Prifoner at Aix-la'Chapelle, TThe 
Emperor liowever in his Turn entered France with a 
powerful Army, and advanced atmoft to Paris, He 
was obliged to retire from France with great Lofs: But 
by the Treaty of Rheims Lorrain was reftored him. 
$om^ Time after Otho made a Caii^aign ki haly againft 

the 



34^ ^f *^ GERMAN Empire. 

the GrnJts and was at firfl fuccefefulj but being de- 
feated by the infamous Flight of the Reman and Bene^ 
Vintim Troops^ of which his Army was partly com- 
pofed, during the Battle he was taken Phlbner. Find- 
ing Means to obtain his Liberty he feverely punilhed 
their Treachery who deferted him ; and not long after 
died of melancholy iathe Year 983. 

Otho m. To him fucceeded Otho III. bis Son. Great Part of 
983. this Reign was fpent in appeafing fome Troubles at 
Romi\ where the Conful Crefcence^ had ufurped the 
fovc^eign Authority. Otho caufed Crefcence to be feized 
and executed upon a Gibbet ; but he was afterwards 
poifoned by fome Gloves which the ConfuFs Widow 
made him a Frefent of, and died without Iflue in the 
Year looi. 

HanaT IL Htnry Duke of Bavaria fumamed the Cripple who 
looi. was defcended from the Houfe of Saxony fucceeded. 
Egbert Landgrave of Thuring difputed the Succeffion 
with him; but it coft Egbert his Life. This Em- 
peror afier many ViiSories brought BoUJkus iCing of 
Poland to bis own Terms. He died in the Year 1024: 
And was for his great Liberality to the Church cano- 
niz^d« 

ConradeII. ^'"^y ^ying likewife without Iflue Conrade Duke 
1024. *^f Francovsa was elected : But as his EieSion gave 
Umbrage to the Houfe of Saxony it occafi ned a civii 
War in Gtrmany, This was by the Emperor's good 
Condu£l happily ended ; and he annexed the King- 
doms of Burgundy and Arlei^ which R.ddlfb the late 
King dying without Heirs had left to him, to the Em- 
pire. Eude Count of Champaign laid claim to thefe 
Kingdoms : But he was compelled by Conrade to quit 
his Pretenfions. Having afterwards carried on- War 
fuccefsfuNy agaiiift the Poles and Sclavonlans \\t died in 
the Year J 039 ; And was fucceeded by Hmry his Son 
fumamed (he Black, 

Henry TIL ^^^ Hungarians gave this Prince a good dea! of Tron- 
1039. ble: But he itrenuoufly maintained his Authority over 
them. 

Henry IV. Henry IV. fucceeded his Father in the Year 1056. 
1056. His Governours cook the Ady^ptage of this Pi'ince's 

Youth, 



Of the G E R M AN E k p i R »; 549f 

Youth, who was only fix Years of Age when his Fa- 
ther died, to enrich fhemfeivs by the Sale of Eccle^. 
fiaftical Benefices. Perceiving whett he. came of Age 
that thie Wealth of the Empire was chiefly, gof into 
the Hands of Ecclefiafiicks he rcfolved to pluridei* 
them: BtU this Step dr^w the Hatred of the whoXkO igin ef bi$ 
Clergy upoh him ; and laid the Foundation of thiMi'f^tunes. 
Misfbrtunes Which afterwards befell. him. He ihoie* 
Over \6^ the A^ediqns of his Subjefts by govern^ 
ing tyrannically and by choofing for his Couhfeltors 
Perfons of loW t)egree. The Saxons particularly wece 
fo difgufled by his building Cafiles. to. awe them, that 
they revolted and maintained along and bloody War 
againft hini. 

' He was at length fuccefsful : But Pope Gregory Vll\the?Qrt 
took the Opportunity of his beirfg at War with- thi f^^rrtljwiti 
Saxons and hated by his other SuHjefta to revenge ^'^• 
what the Church had fufFered in the ^e'gihhing of hi; 
Reign; and to throw off that Obedience to the^Enif 
peror Which the Popes and Clei-gy'had/ fb long moft 
unwillingly fubmitted to. He fifft publidied a Buft.: 
By which he deprived the Emperor ot the Right df 
Collating to Berieficjes i and fummoned him to appear ' 
and anfwer for his Crimes ;lt Rome ^ on pain of toeing 
excawimunicated.. Oa ; (he other Hani /ir«ry declare<ji 
the Pope unworthy of" the holy Chair and threaten- 
ed to depofe him.: But as Henry was foon after excom- 
municated thQr German Princes^ who allfembled in the 
Vear 1676 at Triers^ came to a Refolution of dejibfing - 
"him. ... . , . 

Upon this Henry fet out. in thd.midft of V^I'iniix He fifhmiu f 
i^lth very few Attendants for iJ^wtf; 'And beirig ai:*/^<PoPB. 
rived at Cdnufe he waited in a coarfe woolen Habit 
and; barefooted three Days to crave in the humbleft • 
Manner Abfolution from the Pope, i This be at length 
obtained: But by this mean Behaviour he loft all A,u- 
thori'ty in Italy \ and the German Princes at the Inftiga- 
tion of the Pope eleSed Rodolph Duke of Smhia Emper- 
or in the Year 1077. 

Hence arofe a civil War : In which Rad^lph was de- th depo/estJ^ 
fcaied in three Battles and was himfelf flain in the PoPfi« 

laft. 



350 9f *^ OjLVi M. A N E MP 1 R r* 

laft* After this Succe(s j^drnrf depofed Gr^rf^ and 
caufed the Archbifliop of Ravenna to.be ele^edl\)pe» 
Qtill 'the Inhabitants of Stftf^i^ peffifted in tbeif Refad* 
lion againft Hinry who had been once more excom- 
inuiuca.ted by the Pope^ and ele£led Merman Duke of 
Luximburg Emperor; and at his Ikath Ibortty after 
they eie&ed Egbirt of Saxcny» Hinry marched againft 
this laft with a powlsrful Army $ b&t being mtt by his 
Sons who had joined his £nemies> they £b deceived 
him by feigning Sorrow for their pafr Behaviour and afk- 
ing Pardon^ that he was perfuaded co fend away his 
Troops and go with a fmall Retinue to a Diet then held 
Ife is him/eif at Mtntx. In the Way he was made Prifoner ; and he 
ilepi/ed mnd was in the Year i To6 depofed. Sooti after this JEmper- 
^ts mi erahfy. or, jnho had fought fusty- two Battles, and had been in 
iilmoft ail vi£lorio~uSy died old as he was in a moft mi* 
ferable Condition. 
HsNav V4 Henry V. who was upon the Dq)ofit(on of bit Fa* 
lio6. ther advanced to the Imperial Dignity, having fettled 
Matters in Germany mardied at the Head of an Army 
to R^me^ to be crowned there and to afiert liis Right of 
prefenting to Benefices. Pope Pafchal being apprized 
6f his Defigh ftirred up a Tumult in Rome: But this 
being quelled by the Emperor he feized the Pope and 
^rced him to confent by a Treaty to all he defired. He 
had fcarce left Italy before the Pope declared this Trea- 
ty although confirmed by the moft folemn Oaths toJie 
void \ and fptrited up the Saxons and' the Ecclefiafticks 
tie gt*ves up of Germany againft Henry. To put an End to the War 
the Right of hereby occafioned, he refolved to make up Matters with 
frefinting to the Pope by giving up the Right of prefentit^ to Bene* 
Benefices. fices ; which CcfBbn vciy much kflcned the Power of 

the Emperors and augmented that of the Popes. 
Lothario, ^o Henry who died without ifiue in the Year 1125 
1 125. fucceeded LoiharU Duke of Saxony. This Emperor hap- 
pily appeafed the Troubles in Italy ; and by bring on 
good Terms with the Pope gained the Affeftions of the 
Clergy. He died in the Year 1138. 
CowaADE After him Conrade III. Duke bf Franconia was railed 

IIL 1 138. ^ ^o ^hc Throne : But Henry Duke ot, Saxony and BenHoria 
difliking his Promotion engaged in a War againft bim. 

'^his 



Of the German E m p i r e« 351 

This being end«d Conradi undertook an Expedition toP** Ex^dithn 
the Hcly Umd : Bttt he was 'forced to return after lofiog^^ ^^' Holy 
great Part of hia Troops without having done jltiy thing^^"^* 
remarkable. He died in the Year 1152. 

Frederick Duke of Suahia whom the' ItaSam caIkdjp,iEi>gitici( 
^/n^^rj^ Aicceeded him. He reduced //tfjy to Ofoedi- n^s, 
ence ^ and becaufe the Milanefe revolted again he pu*> 
nifhed them fevercly* and razed their City of Milan. 
This Emperor had a War with the Pope in which' 
he had the Advantage ; but growing wearjr thereof^ 
and his Son Oiho being taken Prifooer by the Vnutianiy 
he made Peace with the Pope. Whilft this Peace h&ci' He it tranifU 
it is reported^ hot it pafles with many for a Fable, that''* ^y tb$ 
Pope JUxaf^er IIL fet his Foot upon the Einpcror's^^*'** 
Neck. However this was» it is certain that all Autho* 
rity was in this Reign loft in Italy* He made sifter* 
wards a Defcent oh the Holy Land agsilatk Saladin Sultani 
of Egypt ^ who had feized JtrufaUm^ and defeated the 
Saracens fevcral Times : But he was drowned in paffing 
a River there on Horfeback in the Year 1 189. After his 
Death bis Son Frederick took many Towns infyria: 
YeV the Expedition was upon the whole unfortunate : 
a plague breaking out which carried off Frederick and 
great Part of his Army. 

To Frederick Barberofa fucceeded. Henry VL hiaSon.HiNRY VI; 
This Prince fubmitted to be crowned kneeling by ih^ crowned kneeU 
Pope ; who being feated in a magni^cent Chair a^ (bon'^^ ^ ^^ 
as be had crowned him kicked the Crown from his Head '** 
Skgain^ to ibow his Right of taking away as well as con- 
' ferring Empire. He died in the Year 1198, juft as he - 
had embarked an Army for the Holy Land and was 
about to.foUow it. ; ♦ 

In Conformity to the Will of this Prince Philip his Phillip, 
Brother took upon himfelf the Government of the 1198. 
Emphrey during the Minority of Frederick Henry's Soli 
then only fix Years of Age : But the Pope put feme 
German Prince^ upon choofing Oth Duke of Saxmy* 
By this EledVion the Empire was miferably divided ; 
Some joining with Phitip others with Otbo. Af* 
ter a long War it was agreed that Otho ihoUld mar* 
ry^^Phiiip*$ Daughter and fucceed to the Empire at the 
\ Death 



ZS^ (y fife. G « fe M A N E M P I ft E« 

tlt^ih of his Father-in-law. In the Year J^o^&^^p 
Was aiTaffin^tedr at Barntfrj; by Oths of fTittffffaci |^{mt 
Pdlaiine.' " . . .. * ^, '^ , 

Otho IV. Hereupon 0/^V toolc PofleiSon of We Coipirp aj^^'fps 
1268'. crowned at -R^w^; But attempting to reuqitpjtp^jlw 
Empire )vhat the Popes had robDcajt of |)e ^as eqcc^m? 
municated ; an^ the Girman Princes, i$, the..In|ti^fjpil 
pJF the Tope chore Frederick Spn^ti J^€nrj,yL i)^ 
made Tome Reflftancc ; He was h|owe;^,qr for<c^ . tg ^iye 
iSp the Empire tp Frederick in the Ypsif I2t^j ^^^was 
in the Right of his Mother Co^flanU likcwijcv.J^igg, of 

FRBDERicif • . Frederick ^ after flaying a little fc.fe^tle i^ T^^p 
II. 1212. m^G^r/7?tf/fy went to be crowned at aJ?;Wj^/J(i^ the 
Year 1228 he made a t)efcent upon Ptf/gi^/W^ and re- 
covered Jerufatem from Uit Saracens, H^ wa;s {everal 
Times excommunicated 3 becaufe he vigoroudjr opposed 



the Popes in their Attempts to nija^lce t))jerpfelyqi; aMqUite 
in, Italy m Ftaly being hereupon 'divi^ett ini,o two F^* 
flons ; they i;^f\6 fided "with the Pope w^re calieajuijf/|ij, 
th*e' tm'peror*s Party we're callqd^ C^beSn£u A^ long 
ind' cruel War enfu^d in. whjch' tbejEinpcror^pj^^^ 
Scferided his Party: But being exQoai^unlc^te^ ami gc- 
pofed by the Pop^ at, the. Council of Lyons fome .G«r^ 
. \'..Z' fwn Princes ele^cd" Henry Landgraye of Thuring^ who 
was In Derifioii" called the Pbpe*s ^mperor. * \ ^' , 
Henrt Vil. On the Death 0^ Henry in the fp|j^^f ^ Vcjr jf^^ 

Count of Holland was eledied. 

William. -,.1^^ h's Reign nothing was done worth l^plice, * He 

was killed in a Battle with the Frijcns in the i eaf iaj;d. 

CoNRADiN tJpon the Death of Frederick if. in tbe,Year^i250 

is beheaded at Cmrade his Son left Germany to go and take ri^d^oh 

Naples. of his hereditary Kingdom of A'tf/j/w ; Where h^ jfied 

in the Year 1 254. As the Authority of thc^ Emp^f (^ ia 

Italy had been entirely loft in Frederick's Time, the J^ojpe 

on the Death of Conrade^ with a View to.preir^t its 

Revival, invited Charles Duke of^jfnjpu to ttc Crown 

of Naples, This Prince fiibdued staples and cauied Ci«» 

radin the Son of Conrade to be beheaded. Witfi feiioa 

the ancient Race of Dukes of Suabta ended* 



Of the GERMAN Empire. 35j 

ThtG^muin Princes beijjgupon thft Death oi William Intiminm* 
difHcd; fomc choft Richard Duke of Cornwall Soa. 
oSJibfi^ King of, Eaglandi .othep m^de ,^^oice of i//- 
fbodf X> Ktng of CaftiU. ]^cbar,d went as far.ps the; 
Rhme\(ri^ aa {ntent to t^jce PpiTeffioo of the Imperial 
Dignity ; but was not able to accompli(h his Defign. 
^iphwfi, t^er zptttipuA to n^^e his Ek^^ton. good. 
The Confufioq and DiibrderS| which prevailed in the^ 
Empire dufing; the Inttrregnuni that fpUowedi were, 
encreafe^ by ^e Sxtin<f}ioa,<?^. three of the moft ^onQ- 
dcraUe Families* namely tb&D^kes of Suabia^ the Mar* 
gravis of A^|irm and the Lifndgrpvts of Th^ing. ^ M^ny Great Dif- 
claime(i dieir fo/TeiHqns; but the moft powarful fuc- ^r^/^i /« /A# 
ceededto them.. To put q[n End tojhe Calamities oiEmpin. 
the Tiine, in whicb as no Rigl)t wasacknowk^g^d but 
that which force gave. Plunderers and Thieves abqund- 
ed, moft of the Towns on the Rhine and fome Princes 
entered into 4 League in the ^t^t 1%^$ : And the ftrqng 
Holds of mapy^ jof tbefe Villains were ciemolifiied. * 

At length Rodolph Count Hapjburg and Landgrave Roooi^pif, - 
of ^^(^, from whom (he prefent Houfe oi Aujiria is \W 
defccndcd, was unanimoufly qhofe Emperor in the Yp^r 
1273^ 'For the &tfe of ftrengthening his Government 
he married his Daughters to three pf the moft copffder- 
dUe Princes of the Empire : i^srmfsly Lewis Count Pahf* 
tine of |he Rbim^' Albert Duke of Saxmy and Qth9 
Margrave of Brandenburg. Qttocare King of Bohemia 
after the Death of Frederick Margrave of Aujiria^ who 
was beheaded with Conradin ^t Naples^ had. made biair 
felf Mafter of Aujiria, Stlria^ Qarinthia diXii .Carmola. 
Rodolph in return depofed him j and inveftcd his Son 
Albert with all bis Dominions. He gave to his other 
Son Rodolpbihe Dutchy of Sucfbla : And thus the Family 
^f Hap/burg before inconfiderable bcCame very powej fu!. 
He declined going into Italy which had been fo fatal to 
"is Prcdeciillors, and fold niany Cities their Liberties ; 
By which means the Kingdom of Italy * being divicjed 

* Tht Kingdom of Italy although fojfffed by the 'Emperor 
'Was afwajs confidered at diftinS from the Ejnpire ; ani hence it 
^' ^hat the Per/on intended for Emptrpr if befqre cro'vfned King 
^/theK0Ui^vi$, 

Vol.. I. A » fcU 



^54 Of the G s R M A f« E k p I R «. 

fell ioto Decay : But li€ took great Car^ M^ fi^ltle *te 

Affairs of Germany % and demoiiflied feVH^I Oiftles 

where Robbers smd other ViUa^s tind be^ itffed ^ Ad- 

ter themfelves. He alfo imroduced the ufe of the Gir» 

man Language into all paMick A3e| iirtilch wtre fiefbre 

wrote in £tf//». •- - *' 

Adolph, After the Death of Rsehlfhin ^t -Ytit lt±(y1^JBtti 

1291. IlisSon endeavoured to get PeSeffion of'the- Empire) 

but by the Contrivances of the 'Elt&bt^Minfs&li^Mph 

Count Naffau his Coufin was eleded< Tb|s- BSIi^peror 

concluded an Alliance wkh the Kirtg or!Fftrf</^)yial^' by 

which the latter engaged to i^Eft hicft in i^^vdHlig^be 

Kingdom of ^r/^i, whereof the i^^^ KiH^^aii'^keR 

Pofieffioii during the Troubles in GetManf.- - yftHrT of 

jtujlria marched With an Aroiy to- the Affiftikm^e t>f 

the French. Being advanced as far as the Rhhh the 

Eleftor of Mentz^ who was difappointed in his Eiepee* 

tation of making Aiblph dependent upon hiM^^pt^gVxS*- 

iKr/i dip'/ed ed on the other EleAors to depofe hittt Md tfhoofe 

and fiain in jp his Room Athert. A Battle was afterwards in- the 

thiBaitli rf Year 1208 fought near Spire: In which ^ifl/A*'^ was 

^*'^*- killed. - ^ \-r.. 

Albbrt, Albert was never beloved becaufe his whole Cani was 

1298.. to enrich himfelf; arid he was at laft murden^ <by his 

Nephew y9hn Duke of Suahia whofe Domiriidnai lie uft* 

ju% detained. After his Death Philip King df France: 

was a Candidate for the Imperial Dignity*: But thel^ec- 

tors at the Solicitation of the Pope chofe Hinry Gotihc of 

Luxerfdmrg. 

HiNRv VIU. This Emperor marched wkh an Army into Italy to 

appeafe fome troubles and eflaUifh his Authoritjr th^. 

His Succeiii was at fkft fuch that he bad Hope^ of «e- 

Ue tj pof/(//ied^^^9^^^^^S ^*^ Dcfign : But he was potforYed'fn the 

in Italy. Year 1313 by a Monk, whom the FlorentiHet lia^ hired 

for thisPurpofe. • . . .v . 

Lewis, . The Eleftors now difagreeing fome chdfe Len^ t)*ke 

1315. of Bavarian Others Frederick Dukfeof Ayflri^%<^ Thir 

former was crowned at Alx la Chapellei the latter zMBmrn. 

Thefe two Rivals carried on a doubtfiil War for thtiSpace 

-of nine Years; at which Time Fredtrtck bekig^made 

Prifoncr Le:wii was cftabliflied as Emperor. Heafter- 

* ' wards, 



ttf: the G £ k M A N E M p i R iS; 355 

Wiyrda .^eoi^tcd 9n £|r|edi(tQn iato Italy for the Suppofi 

llpr^uf^fi .(l)f P$^ eKc^mmtioictted bim and carriedif/ ^ i^/eM 
Makers fa fair by hid Parufans in Germany^ that Z;nvfi 
w^ depoflifi at)d> CbarUt Margrave of Morma Soil of 
the Kiog of Beheniia was chofen. His Autkority wad 
however y^y fmaU ull^ the Death of X#«c//i in. the Year 
1347, It is proper to remark here, that the preceedtng 
Eomcrors .4p9irtt moft of their Tidie in travelling through 
the^^gir^jaod levying Mpnc y for their Support : Lewit 
being ^ Mk wIm^ bad his. ReTidence and Court fixed 
m hij»<mn. hiM'^ditary Doounibnsi and whi>fe Revenue wal 
tocirc]y,<fa'awn from dieace. 

After the Cfeath oif Liwh. fottie of the EU^ors de-^CHARicslV. 
tiared Chmflei'% El^ion vciid and cbofe .BdwurdKxn^ 1347. 
oi^EfigUmd^ who thanked them foe the Honour btit de* 
clined tbc:- accqpting of it» As Faderici .M^tgtvf^ of 
i£^,a, aljo. refufed the Iinpfcrial Dignity Gimthier Count 
of ScbwarUunburg was eleAed : But Charks caufed hini 
to be poifoned and afterwards eftabliihed bis Authority 
in the Empire, This Ediperor alienated many of t\it lig aUnuttes 
dilates df the Empire; and amongft the reft ceded to the S ates ^ 
£ramt the perpetual Vicarfliip of the King of ArUu^ He tbi Emfir e» 
jportover fold all th^t ren^ined to the Empire in Italy i 
And annexed the Dutchy of £i/^tf to hisowil hereditaiy 
. Kingdom of E^hmia. , 

The beft thing he did was the publiibing of the GoldiA cf%^ troloiif 
1iull\ by, which the Election of Emperord was regu-BuLL fub^ 
lated^ and thfc Foiindation of Divifions on this Account /j^^^. 
iilras %t inucii as poffible removed. Such Wa^ his Influ* 
^nce upon the Eledlotsi that hid Son Wancefiatks was 
during his JUfe chofen King of the Romans and fucceed- 
ed him in the Empire.. 

jy^ncifiaus being naturally of very diffolute Manners Wencs- 
was fo regardlefs of the Affairs of Government thatsLAvt. 
ite Ele^Qts di;p6fed biro in the, Year 1 460. This gave 
.iri^ biit.:Uttle Uneafinefs ; and he enjoyed hid own here- 
diyiy Kingdom of Bohemia many Years after. 

Upon the Dcpofition of WefUeJlam Jofeph Margrave Joseph, 
tji MordfUia was ele^edi but he died within a ^w 1400. 
Moptha. 

A a a Frederick 



J5fr Of the G E R M A N. E M p i r'x. 

Fredbrick. PridirUk Dukp of BrunfwUk the uwl Stt^ceffiM-.was, 

as he was goine to Frankfort to be crowim^v aJC^' 

. . natied by Count tValdnk at the Inftigation of thft El«£lor 

oiMintz. 

RoBfiitT. After this Robert Count Balatine of the £^rW- was 

ohofeBiand reigiicd happily in Gtrmany ; but lie failed 

in an Expcdiuoa into haly^ He died hi t^e -Year 

^410*. '.^ , 

SicisMONP, « To hi^ fucceeded Sigifmond Ring of Hungary Bro- 

1410. thiur of JVinciJlaus^ Before he came ta the biperial 

Dignity he< #a$ defeated by the ^ir/(> near l^^tifplh. 

. Tlie.Raihnefs however oi the French his 'i^uxif^rie^ 

If^/*// John was the Caufe of this Defeat. In the Ye«r i^gi^^ 

Bjn^'fi \ cauicd 'pbnJtufs to be burnt ftt the Council of- Confianci^y 

biulb, _ ^ntcary to -his Promife and the- fafe Condud he had 

granted Mm. The Followers of Hufv in Reirei^e for 

his Death cat^fed great Diforders in Germany s And 

the. Wzrs of Si^f/mand with, thiefe laftcd the grcatcft 

Part of his Reign. 

Albert IL Jltert Duke q( Auflria^ Km^ of itangary an^' Sp^f- 

1437. tma was upon the Death of Sigffmond in the Year 1437 

v . ■ ' eieded: But he died within two Years, whifft he was 

.1 ... ,... .: making Preparation for a War againft the Turks, 

From this Tiftio the Imperial Crown continued in the 

]^o\xftoi'Akftma^ 

Frederick Frederick III. Duke of Aujirta^ who fucceeded his 

III. 1439- Coufui AlieWM^ a War with ladi/Jaus Jiberth Son 

Wariutth . concerning the Succeffion to >f*>w, Hehadalfa'aWar 

HuNGARV. ^j^^ ^,,,^;j;^//,,„;,/^^ Kingof '//a'/^^7j*jf; in which he 

ihewed a deal of Conduct as well as Courage. 

Maximil- Maxmiilian fucceeded Drtder'uk his Father, in the 

tiAN, 1493. Year I4g3»| A*>d by- hisWUmagc with^ A/iTryD^gh- 

ter of Charles the Bold the laft Duke of Burgwti^ an- 

He atfftxes nexed the l^ether lands to the Deininicbs of tbejEbufe 

sheN^TH^j^rof /iujiria* The Inconftancy of -his Temper Wf^ the 

LANDS to OccafioD of his little Succ^ in his Wart w»th the 

Austria. 5^^ mi Fenetians.' That which of all hiVjAJiions 

redounded moft to his Glory vrz^ the Abolitioa^of a 

Cuftam in . Germany, of determining: all l^lpufes by 

Force. • - !• 

• Under 



©^ fi&? <3 £ r: M A' N E M P 1 R. e: ' 357 

darks Ktng of Spain {uccetdtd to the Empire irilhcCHARLBs V. 
Year tjig. In his Rcigh Gei^many fuffeffed much by a >5'9- 
civSl "War dn the Account of Religion. 

About tht Ye Jir r^iy Maftin Luther Profeffor olX^i J^eforma* 
WittHihurg had entefed into a Difpute agaiflft the Caftom '''"' ^^^^« 4r 
of felliig Indurgericcs 'by the P<5po. The Pope being ^^'^"*^** 
apperfel'td L«/j!^ was dondtfmtied ^nd the PraSice 
continued :* 'Btit he sippeiiled to a general Council and 
went oh to write againft thcErrors of the Church of 
^♦/ji^jJa^fuch was his'Succcfs that fome Princes and *** " 

HansTim&ns began td expel the Monks and felze their 
EHitw;' In the Y€»ar 1521 Vharies caofed Luther to be 
outlawed* by the Diet of^ff^drms', and cndeairotired by 
Edifts to ftop the Progrrfs of his Innovations. The Party 
howev^ of Z^/^r encrcsrtcd, and the more becaufc the *' * ^"^ 

•EmpettJt'^as at this Timfe engaged in "^ War with 
Ffince. IhiVe Vistr i^4<5 an Edia was publifhed by the 

•Dtet tVEplYe ." Agaifift Vhich fome Mcmberrof the Diet, 
proteftcd. From hence came the Name of "Proteftant. 
In the foltdWing Vtar thefc Members prcfenied to the * • 
Emperorat theDiet dfJugfiurg ihdr Confeffion of Faith ; ' *t 

and for their common Sectirky they entered into a defcn- " * 

• five Xeague at Smalkald. 

This League was renowfcd tn ih* Yfeat 1 535, and ftrcngth- League of 
cned* by the Acceffion of divers Princes and States.StiAi.KAL0, . 
As it gave the Emperor much Uheafirtcfs he endeavour- '53^« 
ed to break it by (owing Difcord amongft the Confede- 
r^eS: Btit his Attenlptd were vain. It came atlaftto 
an open Rupture, and thd Proteftants took the Field in 
the Ycar*i546 with an Army of one hundred Thoufend 
Men J which were tfrtdfef the joint Command of John 
Frederick Eledlor of Saxony and Philip Ldndgrave of 
UeJJe. This Csifhpaign Was however inglorious, becaufe . ^ ^• . . 
thcyncglefled to attack the Emperor before he had 
AflfeAStHedrfl hi^ Fortes 5 alid the Confequenefe* *as that 
moft'of '^be Afcwx''yitt;w ^rfe'obliged to implore the 
Emperor's Mercy and furnifli him with large Sutns. ^ • 

In the next Yfear Charlk dfefeatfed the'ProteffSht "Army f^^ 'pyoit-^ * 
T\tzfMulbirgi and having taken iheEl^ao^'ftif^el* Ciyti- jiants are de- 

"deto'rfei hiih to be -b^^ded > "BOt he aFtef wards changed/^tf^^i/. 
the Si^^^ceto lihpkffi)rtiikftt.The Landgrav'e;u^ho>here- 
A a 3 upon 



3j5 Of the G £ Ji M A ir E m p i r *• 

lipon entered into aNegociatidn with the Eknpirc^^ was 
contraiy to all Expefiation and the Einperot^9^ Wotfd 
feized and clapped intQ Prifpn. Frederltk b^ng foqn 
after degraded his Dominion^ were given to Afaiithe of 
Saxony. Thus yrcrt the Proteftants on the Brink of 
being ruined and having their Religion firppre^Ktr fidt 
Mavricb at iengtH Jkfauru^, who had before aAfied th^ )£<|iperDr> 
/ur^f/es the being exafperatcd at the Confinement of Philip his Fa- 
Mmfir^r mar .thtt in l^w marched fo expeditiouHy agaii^ the Empe- 
I^iwvcK. i-or, that he was very near making him Prifhfter at Inf- 
priick. The fnnci King took rtie Advantag^T of. this 
War in Germany to put himfelf at the Head of ail'Army ; 
^nd made hinifelf Mailer qf Mftz^ T^ui ^d Plfrdun 
x/t'itbout any Oppofition. By the Mediation of Ferfifinnd 
Tre^ttf tf {^ing of the Romans thp Emperor'^ Brother a Treaty 
Passav, was foon after concluded at PaffaM^ for fecuring tberPrp- 
teftants till things copld he fettled by the Dret ; af|(f fl|e 
t'tndgrave of Hijpt an<i th^ {^lector pf Saxony ^re bodi 
fet at Liberty. 
1^^^: At the Diet of Au^Jburg \t\ the Year 1555 it wa§ 

p/#/«fAuo 5- agreed thj^t no Perfon (hould be difturbed on tl^e A^^ount 
yuac. of Religion; and that thp Proteftants (boqld epjoy all 

the ecclefiaftical Benefices of which thpy were in Poflfef- 
fipn before the Treaty of Pd^w. 
ImfurreHiMs Id th/; Beginning of ^hi? Reign the Peafanti oip&I 
ff tbt BiA'- great Troubles by thdr repeated Jnfurrcjaiond in G*r- 
JiMts, many: But fhey were eptirely fupprefled in the Year 1525 

^fter a hundred Thoufand of them had been ^ times CMC 
fd pieceS;. Four Years after this ^Sofyman Emperor of 
the Turks laid Siege to Vw^na: But he was-repulf)*!} witl). 
great Lofs apd thp fQrmi4ab)e Army t^p ))ro^g}it w|^ him 
" y^as forced to retire, 
^n^haptip in I" ^^P Ypar 1 5 34 thp Apabapt|fts headed -by ydhn of 
Vf E ST'H A - l>iyden a Tiy Ipr, and by one named KnipfirdclHng^ eiidpa- 
I.IA fifprtf- yoprpd to erejS a npw Kingdom at JMunfietiril^^phq* 
fed. ' ' //>; but being difperfed they rpceivpd a l^eyard (Oi^ble 

to thejr Rafhnef^. 
f HIDiWAWP At length Charles rpfigped the Empire ti} FerJfnand 
|. ' JCipg of Jiungary and Bohmia.' .'This Prince 'innei^ 
both tbefe Kin|dorn9, ^i^h^a^eto him by'fn|irryipg 

' * ■ % ^ ' was 



Qf^jh^ pjB ^^ A^N, ^n p iRB. . 359 

9^% )(jU(;4 .1^ * Bwic with. 01(5- 3>riii wear M^hat^^ to 
^.^'^^(1?^ J^ -After reigning peaceably be 

i^ed^in jtbc Year I564, 

.T^'^e ^cign ,of il/<7;if/w7/i4«.his. Son and SucqcflbrMAxiM!- 
WQii(d alio , have been updHlurbcd, had it not been for ^i an II. 
Gruah0(h and . hisi AcgompJipcs ;, Who after murdering " 5^4- 
Jidddufi Zoflul Acchbi&op of Wurfxifurg had plundered 
this City aiid ftirred up Comin.otions in feveral Places. 
Thcfe being ..all happily Aipprefled Grumhach was out^- 
Jawed ; . and the Elet^or of^a^rffffy who flill continued 
to harbour Grumb^b was himfelf made a Prifoner. 

RAdoffh who in the Year 1576. fuccecded his Fa-RoooLPH II. 
ihcr tad Jli vers Wars with the Hungarians; And MaU 1576. 
thia$^ hts Brother gay« hin; much Uneafinefs. Having 
through Impatience to b« in PoITeilion of Power left the 
Court in Difguft^ Rcd^ipb to fatisfy him ceded Hungary 
SLudk Juftria.%o,\mk in hi3 Life Time: And he at his . 
Death iiii . the Year 1612 fucceeded to the Empire. . 

The Difturbaoces which had longfubfified in tbe£nvMATTH(A5» 
.jiii:e,came.tDwardp the End of the Reign of Matthias io 16x2. 
an opein Rupture : Which laftcd thirty Years. Thefe - 
were at firft owing to the Catholicks : Who as none 
were included in the Treaty of Pajfau but Catholicl^s 
and thofe of the Augjbur^ Con£effion wanted to exclude 
the followers of Calvin^ whofe DoiSrinc was now em- 
braced by the Count Palatine the Landgrave of Hejfc and 
tomp othi&rs, from the Benefit of this Tr/^aty. 

The l4itkeraas who adhered literally to the Confe/Soni;r%«iy/ Dif- 
of Aug/burg would not acknowledge the Reformed* hyputes come in • , 
which Name Calvin' ^ioWo^tm were called, to be Nfem*^^' ^"^ '« ^ 
bersof their Church ; and the Difputes betwixt their ^'^^'^^ 
Do£lors upon the Points in which they difFcrcd .came in 
the.End to fuch a Pitchy that fpme Protefiants, by which 
Name the ttdtberans were diflinguKhed^ had as great an 
Ave^iipn to, the Reformed as to the Papifis. Hereupon 
thpi CatbQlAck:.s rcprefented the Reformed . to the Pro- 
teftants, and particularly to the Ele^or oi Saxmyy^^ 
t^ejf ccmcnon En^oiy, By tbi^.M^ns they hoped firft 
to twin the Reforngkcd when. abandoned by. the! Prot^- 
tai^fji^^a^d rfterwar^ with n\prc JEafc.thf )^iQi<^^s^% 
'jm.\ ,, •-. ..;:^ . . :■• ^\ - -•• •';, 

A;»4 in 



j6o Of 'the O fc R *M-A N OS *J p i R 4. 

7be EvAtV' In order to prevent thU the Rtfornhed ^ntottd into^ 
oeucK Leagoe calied riie E'oangeUck Leagui for their caooKnon 

Leaou E* Security ; and many Proteftants joined with them. On 
the other Hand the Catholicks entered into a League 
Hl^bich was called the Calb^iek League % afid hkA iw 
the Head* the Eledor of Betyuaria the ancteot - Rt^ai di 
their Lle6lor Palatine, Such was the Virulence and 
Animofity which at this Tim^ preiratled in the £mpirtf| 
that Preparations for War wdrc made on ail Sides : But 
lh^ Bohemians complaining that the Empei^r had invaded 
their Privileges took up Arms firft at Prague m rticJ 
Year i6t8 ; and after throwing three Lords of tlie £m^ 

fcror's Party oiit of the CaOle Windows they made an 
rruption* into Juflria. During thefe Tran£u9ions 
Matthias died. » * 

FfeiitSiiiANfa. The B^bemioHi had in the Time of his LifeiileAed 
II. 1618. Ar^;!!^ 71^ his Coniin who fucceeded him in the Empire 
for their King: But pretehding he had broke through 
the Engagements entered into with the States of the 
Kingdom at his Coronation, they now refufed to aeknow* 
kdge him and ofiered the Crown to Frederick Eledor 
Pa/atine } who' without confidering the Gonfequences of 
fo important a Step refolved to accept it. 
^I^aor Pa- He was in this ill advifed t For he ought to have 
LATIN E ac' tveighed wcH the natural Inconftancy and Perfidioofiiefs 
tep's the of the Bohemians; that 'Betlem Gabor Prince of Tran- 

Crown 0/ fihuania was of a moft tinfteady Temper; that the 
Bohemia. 3^;^^ ^ Engtand his Father-in law would not choofe to 
embarrafs htmrelf with this Affair ; that the Duteb would 
be unwiljitig to meddle in it; and that theLeagae on 
which he fo much depended was a Body 'With many 
Heads^y without Refblutioh, without Vfgout: The 
FttHch K\r\^ amongft others afed all his Endeavours 
to break- the* League; being apprehenfive that if the 
, Reformed Were iuccefsful they would come to the 

AffiiHinceof the Huguenots in his Kingdom^ wfatxn he 
was at the ' fame Time labouring to fupprefs. At firft 
Beiietn Gabor ftinct t>f^ Tran/tivanra gained -Gnotrnd 
in Hungary y Which With the i^ifpofititm of ^eet Ju- 
jftriam to revoh thfew the- Eknperer*s Affiiira irtrto a 
bad Situation : But being ^^-inibrced hj Succotm from 

MtiximiUan 



Bf'the- G E ft' M A » E Wf" P 1 ft E. 361 

i fgwinaSi ttn Ekdor ^ Bavaria he Ihortly after obtain- ^^///r 9/ 
e4 acomplcat Viftory ncarPnifff/; and cafily fcdi/c-PRAOui. 
cd Morama^ Bohemia and ^iilf^ct to Obedience* ufm- 
^tf/ir^iff^iSciiiifing^ib ifiade an JrrUption into andj^- 
vi^Mthe lower PaUainaUy the ElcAor of Palatine found Ti/ P a l a t 1- 
-fill \m Affain at onbe ruined and btmfelf abandoned on n a t e ravage 
all Sidesi* The £mperor rewarded the Duke of Bavaria ^^• 
wit^Ahk v^etPirlatirmte I and to the Elefior of Saxony 
^Ho had alfo affifted htm be gave Lufaiia^ on Condition 
that tt tvas ihKrajrs to be held as a Fief of the Kingdom 
*cf Bohemia* 

As the Margk'ave of Ba^ Durlach^ Chrijtian Dtike The War car* 
of Bruttfwicky Count Mansfield and other Princes of the riedinto tht^ , 
Elefior Pdlatim^s Party had fiiil Annies on foot in dif- Empire. 
f erent Parts* of the Empire, the Emperor's Forces under 
' the Pretence of caufing thele Troops to quit the Field 
advanced into the Empire. Hereupon the Princes and 
States of ioileer Saxony united their Forces, in order 
• to drive thte Enemy from their Frontiers : But Cbrijttan 
IV; King x^iDtnmarky who commanded them, was \njg^^ ^r 
the Year 16^6 attacked and defeated by Tilfy the £m>-KoNiMGs« 
peror^s General near Kenings-Lutter in the Dutchy ofLuTTER, 
Brtmfwick. The Imperiahjis having afterwards con- \6z6, 
qucreSd all the lower Saxofrjf the King oi Denmark was 
' foj'ctd' to 'make Peace. Ferdinand was fo lifted up 
wiit) tbis Succefs, that he by an Edid in the Year 
i6«9 ordered cvcrjr Thing belonging fo the Churchy 
which had been feized by the Proreftants iince the 
Treaty cfPafav^to be i-eftored to the Cathdicks* 

It being now plainly perceived that the Emperor's De- Jffianee efiU 
lign was to rum the Protcftants, and afterwards to mak^ Frotefanu ai 
liimfelf abfolute in Germany^ thefe concluded an Alliance Lbi^sic*. 
for their mutual Defence at Leipfick : Into which Gufta* 
vu$ AdeifhksKxtig of Sweden afterwards entered. The 
Motives inducing him fo to do were the Danger of lofing 
Part of his own dominions in caf<^ the Emperor (hould 
' oncfe cflabiifii himfelf in his Conqu'efls in Lower Saxony ; 
the urgent Intveaties of many Princes and States of 
iSeffkahyi together with* the Defire he had of being 
revenged* upon the Emperor for fending Succours to the 
F9hi wiiHft be wosHt War with them in Prujiai, He 
- .^" was 



W4I nlfo peffuadcd to enter into tfaif AJ^iMige %^^^^ 
and Holland: Who looked with jealous fj^^^^gtifn^^ 
Aggrandffefiieiit of the Hpufe oi.^ufiria,. , ^. ...^ v^ 
GusTAWS Having toitxtA. G^manj with mAni^^i^7t|te^^ 
AooLTHvs 1 630. he drove ihe Impirwtifti from B$mer^(W^^9JafijAiR 
enters Ger- oeigbbouring Prpvimes* la tl^ /olIomng.cYear^',ai^ 
MANY, 1630. ^iUy had cruelly (ack«d Afyg4klm;g an<} fea^djbcA^^uppp 

ruiqiog iS^xfi^, he kHn«d hUForcqa.^ to. ^^busie 

Bstttlitf EleSor and defeated Tilly in the a^onoraJllc.^jlttl^e of 

JLiiiFjicK. Liipfich By this one Defeat the l^mpexor ,,^caa robbed 

ef the Fruit of thofe Conqucfts he liad i)eea.t^ X^' 

ia leaking* Gufinvm niarched afterwards to t))e tUb'mn 

where his Progrefs and Adions were almoft in/yrfadfbk.: 

But as the Eledor of &a^Wf wa;8 not fp iuco^eful^^bft 

the .£mperor'$ hereditary Dominions, the J£<nperqr had 

Time |o bring into the Field a great, ^^awjuodi^r the 

Co^nmand of fVaUfiiin* Being inic^riqed ^o-eof^^Ci/- 

Dtaih of tavii\ decamped from NaumbMrg^ and qoa^ching towards 

<tustavu« ff^4fll^an atucked him in the Year 1632 ^ear ^ui^^. 

in the Bank jp (^jg gattle, which was a very bloody one, tbe lUuftri* 

^lj^t%%^. ous Gufiavui although vi£lorious loft his Life. 

Batik •/ ^^^^^ ^'^ Death the War was continued with Tome 

NoRDtiK- Succefs und^r the Command of 0;ir/^Vr» ChaaccUor 

<BU£K| 1634. of Swiden: But being entirely defeated in. tbe'^^Year 

1.634 ^^ the Battle of Nordlinguen in $uabla^,yfh\iix he 

vnneceiT^rily engaged itit the Elector of Aur^ff/dreadii^g 

ih^ Defolation of his Country made a Separate Peace at 

Prague with the Emperor. 

SeparatePeaci This Peace which was very difagrecable to. tticJPw- 

rwiih^KX' tefiants gave the Einperor great Hope^.of beia^alb)e to 

pKXf drive the Sw$di$ o^x. of Germany : Their Affajura twj(w- 

cvcr were (o recovered by the Courage an<i^^jp9ni^u^ of 

their Generals that the War was carried ii?tojmifj]]5n»- 

peror's hereditary Dominions, Ax len^th^. Hie||an^^^ 

beitig tired of the W^^ France bemg dj^P^l)^ at 

home; Holland having fxude « tepafati;^^esk^:^witb 

Sj>ain i,ih^ Swedes being apprehenfive^ tljatthe Uif^mm 

who miade a great Part of the Ar^ .woj;J|jJq/<jm^ 

weary of ravaging thpir own Coui^tr}^ ^'' ^)^>^-^^ 

Advantages of their Ute C6nqueft$.ji3p[i^j&.^JoH(E)^^ 

iv^gle iJ^vJe ^ a Pe^ce ,wa^ cp^u^pd. wS^jfi^'^jfairtt 



^f the- O E It M AN E M p I R «; 363 

Ofnahmg^znA with France at Munfttr tXilViftphulk in 
the Year r64«. 

?y thcfc Xreaiics the 5f(Vifrx got Part of Pmtrmi^^^uatm qf 
Prernm and Wtpnar^ and five Millions of Crowns forW^^T^H^-,' 
the Payment of thpif Troopsj Fromt kept ft^^iSon of "^ ««^ 
^rj/ic, PbiHpfiurg ^n& At/ace y die Authority of thc^^^ABRUc, 
Getman JPrynfcs and the Protcftant Religion ywc very *^+^ 
much (lengthened ; and Limits were fec4o the Emp^ 
pr's Power in Qermdny. 

F^rdhmnd yirho died dapng this War in the yearFBEPiNANO 
1637 was iuccccdcd hy Ferdinand his Son ^ at whi^^U* ^^17* 
Death in the Year 1657 Leef$Id l^is Son was eleded 
Hmperor. 

After the Treaty of JVeftphaRa Germai^ enjoy^ Leopold^ 
Peace till the Year 1659, at which Time the Emperor 1657. 
and the Eledor of Brandenburg attacked the Swedes in iV ^ 
merania whilft they were at War with Denmark % but a Treaty of 
Treaty was in the Ye^ 1660 concluded at OUva n9arOj[.iVA,i66or^ 
PqntT^ck^ betwhlt the flmperor^ the Kings of Sweden^ 
Denmark ^Oj}, Poland^ and thp Elcf^or of Brandfn- 
hrg. 

In the Year 1663 a War was kindled between t]\cff^arwi/ff 
Emperor and the Turis : Jn which the latter notwith-^^^Tva^s^ 
landing they had tdkcn Neuhan/el a ftrong Town pf "^^j. 
upper\&K«g'^r7 were fcvcrai Times beat, and efpecially 
4n the Year 1664 near 5/. Gedards \n\ovttx Hungary. 
|t is probable that if the Emperor h^d puQied this Sue* 
ce(s vigoroufly the Turki would hayel;»een driven quite out 
pf Hungary \ beciufe thefe were at the farpeTime engaged 
with the Perjians and Veneiiansy and with fpme Ba/haws 
who bad rcyolted : Put being apprchenfive of an Attack 
from /Vdawif^ he was glad to clap up a Peace with them* 

Notwithftapdirjg the Alliance entered into by the Em- War tviti 
peror thc/5^ear before with the Fm^A King, by which France, 
Jjc engifge^ if the lalter attacked any Member of the ^^7*? 
Triple Alliance not to ipcddle thereii^ ; yet on the break* 
ing out of a War with Holland in the Year 1672 be 
caufed feme Troop^s to march towards the Rhine. The 
,lprcpencf for this was, that his Dignity obliged him to 
^akc Care that G/z-w^^y was no way injured by the 
^V. ^905^ n?»g*^^HF^'?5 ^^^wers^ and the King pf 
- ' ' * ' ' * * "* frujffs4 



364 ^f *^ G « R M A N' E M P > R* J. 

'Trujfta had tncn-eover complarned of the ravaging'of Ki% 
Dutchy of Clivei by feme French Troops. Iflie Xii* of 
y^/pALATi- trance immcdlatdy Tent a tiuilicrolis' Ai^my^*fAl<S^^r- 
KATt/ackid/frtahy : feut iriftead 'of forcing the Etrfpcrdt flito tf'lVdii- 
traKty, the Ravages committed b^ It iij tWe PiSfatiHiiie 
induced the States of the Empiretto dcSferc Waf ^^i^ft 
fthncej, ^nd the SwiSes ckme aftervti^irds rn^it. "J^tlie 
Treaty o/¥ii- Treaty 6f Mfwjr^i^^ in the Year j67g,'wHiai ^4l**an'Ena 
M ECU EN, to this War, France exchanged fhiHtffihrg fct^' Ff^iiur^ 
>679- In the Brtfgaw : Ahd all that had bfeeh taktn ftttft 'Stue- 
J/ii tvas rellored^ * . . t .-* r. .^ 

T'ifr* Empire ' ^hc l?;>2/>/V^ en56ytd but a ffidrt T?me';ttie'B*aBft^8 
/ujlains ^reat of Peace; for the French King foon attempted "fti^lflftafce 
l2^#j. himfelf Mafter bf fbme Places;' yvfifch as TO prttfended 

"belonged to Jfl/h^e land were confeqaehtlv cfedefl ^bftiAi 
by the treaty of Xfunjler. Not'edntent Wli hftking 
himfeff M^ft^r otttrafiurg^ the tfii Im^ferial' -Tbwns 
in jffjfacey and fome Lordlhips which h^d alvi&^ays'Tiieen 
efteemfed Fiefs of the Empire, he feisccd federal e6hfidct- 
" able Places beiongirtg to the Eleftors t^alatlne aiid Triers 
that lay convenient /or him. The Jlmperor faw [rfainTy 
enough that' G^m^wj' had in atoiit three Years fincc 
the Peace loft ihore than during the Wkr ; J'dt ''hav- 
ing a 'War \x\ Itungtiry upon his Hinds wWtfd re- 
quired all his Forces he was forced to contltiffe. a 
truftiLifb Truce "with France for twenty Years. The French, 
France. who were hereby left in Poffeffion c/f all they had' takef), 
immediately fet abolit the fortifying ' of IB^tnfipteny 
ForuLewis^ Landauy Sar-Leims^ mottt-Royat ahd wine 
other Places. 
PTar 'With the '^^^ 1*^uce for twenty Tears concluded ih itihe Year 
Tprks, 1 664 with the Tirfo being ilmoft expired, thcTi^ftafter 
1683. having a lone Tline efpoufed fecrfetly the Cdttfe>6ff 7i- 
keli and the Rtalecobtehts of Hungary dedarfei^ o^itoiy 
^for thefe j and refufed to treat with the EmperbW Am- 
bafladors at Conjftantmpli for a Prolongatlbn Tthdi€WF\ih- 
Icli Raab and CoMorra were both ceddd to them., Hbftili- 
ties being commenced in the Year itZ^\^ h^Mal 
;Army laid Siege \o Neitbaufel \ btrt ^er /tefiii^'tnaffiy 
.' Klen before the'Placi they were SMf^ed ttpoA'^flie dom- 
;ipg' uiJ of the'Trf/^l^** Atmy to Tctire. TKe^ftr*/ cut 
'" ' * many 



Cf the Gie\r ma n E. m p i r e. 365 

many^Regimentt to Koces in thotf Retreat ^ aod hft«K 

ing ptififtied tfo^ to ithcr. Gates of /%»;uv the CcioAetri 

fiaito^' tir9p fb great :in ciiis Capifa>, .diat tbe Emp^rtr, 

fled widi tfae^Emprefe anB hii.Cour^,to:A{^K lelilii* 

ing Geneml Aljiretitttr^tot defend it; ntThfr^OittPWiili 

Army^^.in iiducb^tbe.Gfon^ /T/xi^r iMt£hm ^j9^^ 

tarywm peirfoiiall/. pcefeckyiminedi^^ 

Place and carried dn:/tlic Siege with; gfeatiKigoitf^J Vision a,^ 

Bii( when it wa^ redoided^ to the iaft ££treiniljr»..3^ 

5«^/^f^ King dtMani^ :wltfa the Eleao^s dfi S^xvip afttf • . v 

Bofvimy and tbeDnloa of ItffraarMl\ft)ioiik theiTf^ad 

lb imexfieAedly and vigoroufly, thait aften;gttat Slaugkt /)/^^/ ofth 

ter tbey fled leaWii^ :tbcir fiagga^ AziidUerf ^aodiAoirTuRts* 

QranitioJF behind thenw The King.iOf^.iPaivi^opiii(ulid «>' • 

the Tmiksi hot att^tin^^thetn^at <t»D ^gcaat a, I>iiadiraa4 -^^ * 

tage hia Army was defeatedj^ and.li^wiaa jiet]|iiBfiarrit)fi 

ing his own iLtfe inr^the Adion. . Tbit.l^&r'wa» Ykvt^ 

evarfoon repaired by a VxQoxY' ^taSmeA hf\:t]fe^G<r^ BattU •/ 

mnu near Barman: Whieh was iollomki widi.the fid&tBAacAN. 

log of Gran. '.!./•,«.••.; 

. In the next Year ^ey made themfi^lves .Mailers, c^/'r^r^^iify 

Waitiun-znA' P^icigr^id, and baid> laicjiSibge* to f^^lMPSRiA- 

but thc^ were obliged on Account of the.Fatlufe of Fror lists^ 1684* 

vifion to retreat with, fome Lofs* Ja the.Cam(iaigh:of 

the Year 1685 tbeyi took Nmhdufit bai Stomi:; aiid 1685. 

Count Tskeli having b^en' arreflaed by the Titrks his Troops 

were to difcouragedv that afctfi a flighe Refiftance tbejr 

gave up Cojhauy Eperig'Wk^-iome other Places, The 

Turks Toon faw their Miftake and iet T^hlv atXlbertyt; 

the Towns however which had btf*en giveauphy his 

Troops could not be thereby recovered. . . 

Jn> the next Year \h^ Germans after: a very -bloody 1686. 
Siege took the important Town of- Bsuis, by Storm: 
And' theViAory gained in the fallowing Year near {687^ 
Mshatz fo weakened the Turks,' that ttiey could nx>t 
prevent the Submiffibn ofi the Principality! of. Tranfil" 
vahia to the Emperor. In the Year 1688 the Em- 1688. 
pcror's Forces, took- i/W-w^f^/j^iirg- and Belgrade, In 
the Year 1689 they took Sigeih. ^ In the jnext Year 1689, 
they naade themielvcs Maftexs of Cani/cha. The ill 1690. 

Sue- 



3^6 Of >T& O i:R MAIN :iRi®p.<vv ii 

8«ccrfr towerar of tiie CMftsms unia QtaMtlDHk^ 

hr Tr^mfihm^a^ mdi under Cokuiel oSirqfir' ih M^nki 

gift the Turks. tx% Oppertunky of Jl9e<ov€nl^^Ji^;Yvd^ 

add befi^iigfj;^: But ibey ^cwoLferced to/ rafe 

1691* Air Sieget In t)K Year 1691' finicas£iraiitif:AiAis 

difaUied tlM Tiv^ii neak JSildnUmn^u: Im theioesi 

i6$z« Vter OfM/^^SnrAdw .iuriondeaedvitd. t^^ .-^Svnmiifi 

169$. Qtnla did the iirae in die Year.:t69} u.Yet tUi Ycai 

waa/aoil to the Girrmmsy a Body' of fcvai>4:^:'C!igU 

VsTBiLANi'/T^ufand of) them comnnidod /by J^a^iei^fii ;^ at« 

D{/^«/. tacked by dtev7ca-i» near Zi^xtfur aod endrfil^jcot jlvf tec* 

et. The Qenerad iiinfelf a kwavc Officer (sme kiilol: 

tatili •/ In an EogageaMoit lant Year tKaxQJikfib fth^Pic&ooe 

Ollasch, of the Sultan AAaut Jh animated -^tbe Tarhi that tbey 

1696. lMght:dcrpetatfll]r and the Lofstwas gceaton hoth Sidcsi 

l^e Taris -findM^. Ala Suctels did aot Aop.the Fivh 

mfs of the Q/nfttam tefolved tQ^aflemUc: all diet! 

Itifcesy and make in.lhe Year 1697.006 gcaild.Ef? 

fert Part of tbeirTroopt bad. idready palfed the ttlfsi 

and the reft were advancing to pafs and. Join them; 

trince Ev- But Prince Eugim of Savpy attacked them fo briikiyi 

oBNE'/^Wthat above. thirty 7'houfahd were put to the<.Swofd 

#7<90f7»i697.or drowned in theTVi/^, and their Baggago^ Aftillot 

and ProviAons all fell into :tfae Hands 0? the Gtrmam. 

This Defeat in which the Sidtmn loft the cboiceft xjlf his 

Troops obliged htm to (iie for -Peace s which ivas ia the 

Year 1699 concluded by the. Mediattoo of ihe Kiag 

joi Engkmd and the Stutts General at GatloxMntzi Bf 

Treaty of tbis Treaty the Emperor was to keep Poffifioa m 

Carlo- Tranfitwoaa^ Grjmi^ Nnibau/il^ Buday Stul^wtigMwi^ 

wiTz. Stgethy CanifcbA, EJftcky PeUrwaradin^ Gmi/a^ Uritd- 

iufaradin and fome other Places. Upfm^ LugiSf Ca- 

rwifibay Litil^Camfdm^ Clmuid^ Saifia^ Bctfoa aod 

Sttxhrici wfere after the DensD&litioa of thcif FiKtir 

fications to be reflored to the Tfdris; and ;thi^. Nsr 

vigation of the three Rivers Mans,: Tti/M:>^ni'iavs 

was to be common to both Empires. It was alio agf^ 

that neither of the two Empirts fhpuld.gi\te Stacemir of 

Protefiioo to the Rebels of the other. 



€f ibe G !E R M A N E M P i ft B/ 36^7 

l^eAsUnow return 1yick» to give fame Aceouiit ofWarwith 
the VTm- which was -commenced a^mft the Emperor? range. 
by*¥wtrintbeY<»ri66&.' AsCAarir/EIeabr^n/^f/Ar »^^^ 
^ed^ in* tfa«.¥%ar 1^5^ Without Iflue; the Dtitcbers of, 
Or^Swrbis Sifler^ pnhendkig that the Renancfftioh at ; 
her 'Marriage wat onhr in Favoor of the DclcfemfaAti' 
of"£j6itr/fX £iti;/r her rKther» demanded' to be put irtta 
Po(KfliMk of the Rrihcf pality of Simmer en and that Part : 
of the "CcKMr of Spmham which i>e}ohged td her Fa-* 
niily: B^cattiethefe were bocfa Fiefi9*Feminine». She 
was't)Fevei]ted from appeaKng in this Cafe.td the . Pope; 
fty tte fallowing Incktent. Upon the Death of Maxi* 
m&an Hsntty. tUQor of Cda^n the Fnmcb Kidg. had 
caiifed Czx^inzl Farflenhurg to be chbfen: The Pope 
however was fo far from approving his Eledion/tbaV 
he dedired it vt>id and coi^rmed that of Prince '^^^ 
Clenient of Bavaria. Lewis XIV; difiatisfied with this 
Partiality of the Pope to theHoufe bf-^-^rw refuTcli 
to Abmit to his Dectfion; and refolved to fupport^by 
Force of Arms both the Cardinal's Right to the Archbiftl^- 
ricfc: of Cclegfij and the Claim of the Dutchefs of Or^ 
team upon the Palatinate. It was nevertheiefe thought 
by fdnle Politicians, that France ]tz\oM% of the Pro- 
grefe of the Emperor againll the Turks was glad/ of 
this Pretence to break with him.' However tmsw^s^ 
the Fren^ in the Year 1688 fmprized, JCs^/^^-^''**'^^* \6%Z.^ 
Spire and IV^rms j laid Siege to Philippurg ; madb 
themfeives Matters of AdenHa, Fran^endal^ Manheim^ 
Ueidelbarg and Haiibron ; and meeting with no Op- 
pofitioo over-ran Suahia and Franconia. Hereupon tni^ 
£ledors of Bavaria and Saxony united their Pi:>rces 
in order to ftop the Progrefs of the French i and 
after retaking HaHbron forced them to quit both Fran- > 

cdnta and Suabta^ In the Year 1689 they were defeated 1689. 
by the Elefior of Brandenburg nezt Nays. He after- 
wards took th^t Town, Kt^ferfwert^ Bonn zxiA. Rhiti^ 
iirg%< and obliged the /^/^»^A entirely to evactiate the 

Sloftorate of Colegn. The Eledors of Bavaria and 

■ « •> ' • .* 

• Tbc/e Fiefs anfi called to rwbicb a Weman mfty on Failure 
^ IJfue Male fucutd, ' 

Saxony 



3j68 Of the German E yij v\ »; 

9M9tm9 afifted b^.tlfe Duke of. fjnmM if^tpfic }dl 
ivbich the Fr^fui'hiii foiU&d^ ^^^^ip^^^^^^t 

ibf aftd ^ffoH^ilm wereafier Ixing (k on /& 
169^ hoL them. U. M Vear 1600 y^f^hj^ 

Tnatf rf \ The War waa cootioqcd agajiHtJ^dw^ . , 
Kr • WICK, reioarkaUei'Evc^t till % Vear *i&a7>; «l!ct> aJl f 
1697* Kcji^ wary tWrcof Jt Tre^ 

j^imr^ ooocluded ..at. Ry/wUf. ..,B|f't6i»^1fj:caty -^^fcr^ 
Igqpt fiH ihat&%f ^bepn taken in Affact^^iS^t Ikl^j^^jt; 
Lftrim ao<J jRir, lUngwa^ ani Sirkmi i^KOf^^l^'^ 



fid 0kA^Fribm^^xsi;^' Hiufe tif At^rid^i jiia^ 
^ .aiu( /Jrt &. A^r^/V to ihc pic^ftpr of/TYfgrs^ * 
iji^ dKT.EleSor ef <^»^; 'Germnj^m 311a "filt ^^^ 
fJi.yAhn^ to; the'^cacxr J^aktw] tyspnV^,^ 
tf'iMMrp0nU to^the ^ing pi^ Sweden ;;at>f the* Cpuntjc of 
A£m/iii#/(tf;:i\vitk'a]l;&A\the /^^^ b^o^^'^ 

Uig to*. the Hpiife'o^ WifU^burf,i ^A^-^t^^ engagp^ 
nooiffoyei to difinantfe Mani^royal^ Mz^al,: jj^no;-;^!*}^^ 
aod the Forts near Stretjbitrg anid Hutai^ipgeru 
Plfiurhancei . Fxam^ C^t \%U^ 

pa the Ji^a^in^^'^ Fi^ces feflored. ihottld remaip ar !<;. waa at m 
tfRiUitcn. Tiipf Qf figninViliTi?\'frcaty. As jgreat' <^i!flges^ M 
been nmie in Keltgiipn while tbefe weae jn her E^^ffvefi 
whi^ were -cootrary* to the Decree of the Veaf t^\ 
imd fciy no Means conformable to the Treaty of ff^Ji*_ 
fk^Ti^^ which had bqso always confidere^ as a f^^^z 
mental Law of the E^mpire, th^s Arvd^^^ifg^ed^fifrapy 
Prionsea and. States : Aiid the German Mmiffer jwfa^ 
O Cf u e ia tc d tbe Treaty was accufed pf having conO^e^ 
tbcieCO aaidi a View of being recompenfcd 1^ aCarr 
, Anat^s H»^ ^ovtrevtr; this wa^^, it -vt;^ die $Mitf( 
of DifiDonia i|^ the uiet's of the:£iop{re and exjidM 
tfie Pahiimte to great t>i(brdefs : - Whteh endeci t/r 3$ 
tuA&ag^he Prc^Aaiits in the Exercife of riieir Kdtgifoci 
and ki^og ihein out of fome of their Chunxlq^!^ Jl^ Ue-> 
potation was hereupon fent from Che Profijf^f^^f tineas 

" ' ' to 



Of the G £ s M A « £ M ^ t It E. 369 

to tl^EI^^r P4i4i^^ to inftft liM a^ A^«»a h^iUI 
bad t^ ccyiiaiitUfltt Hoftilitii^ ia the.BakiinaU broka 
the .Tr«^ of J^^ui the Empife was not boitfid 
to ow^e (his Article theropf ^. bMt that fimr the Tioie to. 
come wiut had been feCtU4 by tk^ T^«^ «if fVifylmli^' 
ought to be adhered to. 

The ting of /^nr^ wa» ome earoeft.ihiui the reft, ^« ^V^^^^ 
and ^e^ivicTfo makp R^poz^b 00 the Oakdid^. tA-his"* ^;:;'^'»'« ^/ 
Dox&f^\ ButU wa* it laft jigc^d ia An^Ycer'^^ P.ot«s. 
1 70s, that cvety Perfonin t^eP^tte^/^^itccI et¥««fs^^"''*' 
of Di^fftiop ftpuld haire ((i)>crgr ^ pno^Mt eitjhqr of - 

the ^^^e^g^j thattbc/'r^^vnUii^lbo^kLAotbr ^ 

.obU^ foobiem the HoUdi|]ra of the. ^^nA^f K<^thet 
pulli{ur off theU Hats withowt fcoeding 'Worn. the. ^ 
Hoft ftoulcl be fufficienti that the Cnftom o/^.nfidg '* ' ' 
the C)|fucf bei in comition which had beea Jaltlynivtro^ > . .}*; ^ \< 
duqedihould b^ difcontinued 3, ^at th<^S.eveiiueao£ t^ t j v. 
Chiir^ji ^t>^ .^^ ^e Diet Jud fettled, tbii. Matter ^ 

be divided according to the ^ablUhment in .ibe Year ^ 
i68j\ iDto (fiv^n equal Par^f^of whi<:h th^ CaiMkis, 
w^re to have two the Rtffrmd five.; .nod that.the Lu^ 
tbirans jObo^ld enjoy what belongied to them in the Year 
1694; ^ Thefeja^, wbofe Nupi^^r had vaftlyeocrealed 
(ince that Timet 9^^^ ^9^ £itisfied wkb their ^ane 
and 4efiDe4 the Rtfarmd to give .tbeei fqtne o£ itheir 
lar^ tzxil but the Aniwer of the Reformed w»s that 
they bdfi nptbing to (pare. The Claim o£ the Zhit- 
chisra. 9f drUam upon th^e Palmi^au being at kngfih nt.*; 
ferred to the Pope> he adjudged that ^ .4whole there^ 
of fl^uld go to the £le6lor Palatitu \ but ha ofdeced? 
three ^ ^i^red tbouiafid ^jm^n fQawoa to be pajad. to. 
the Clutf beta. .',.'- 

In the Year 1761 a War waa comm^onl^. hetaneKt/r^r <u;iVi^ 
the. !£4^artfr, E^gkmi uiAMMmd on one F«i^iapi France* 
FroM^i on the oth^, conoerninf^ the Suecafion <o>tiiiri7oi. 
Spi^i/h Monarchy. The Cirdea of the Uf^-Riku;^ 
Franc9fiia and SmUa being moft ei^pofed at ifril^seofdr^ 
into a defcnfijire League, and the Didce of £e«eiei«f«wouMb 
hav^ joined therein v but aa he had already^ iK^orfOM 
ledged the Duke of jlrtjcH for ICing of Spam |hef-web9tt 
not admit hinu Thefe tluee Cirdea afterwarda caflMi 
Vol. L Bb into 



rer mmd 

Maktva 
JUh nvi$b 
Franc*. 



370 Of the ^ G e R ^f A N • E M ? ! R *. 

Into the AlRaoce %p\t\^ F^nnce \ arid dJ«lr*iiibjfc 
"being foHoWed by the reft of theCitttes iir •%«'»- 
fohed to levy an Army of oftc 1im<ked ^Midt-^mnirj 
fboufand Men. The Chikes of BiHutfia and' WUfm- 
buttd dedated ttcmfcNVs nctf ftr.* Th» ItMier l»d;btdb 
before appointed by the Duke ^ Jinfnt' his Neptet 
GovttnoT of ih^SpMtfiNethiflandfi 'Ilieliitter iff€6A- 
feqtience of z Penfioti from Ffwki rirMdlf 'ftid^^'H^pi'; 
but thefe were contipeBed by the Tti}6ps^t 'fbmv^ to 
farve ill th^ Afniv of tite £(iTp3re. ^^^ ''i -<' 

Thttrtdering Dteheratiom we^ ^Mtlketf by^fe fiir- 

fef9r'sM^tift the Dakes of Sav9f kwi^Mtwhta^ iiHlcyMed 

tvith /9tfi!frr ; thefe were not However*gefttf»llJr ippr^f- 

cd of' by 'the States of ^hc Empire^ becHuft tH^ Giflleg» 

bad not been confufted concertting tbenf. :' . » - 

The Ele6br of Cer/ojf)! havfng rfei^}^ iiHO fetoc 

^CoLOGM •fotwis Fr^»r* Garrifoh* under ^ t^^e iofTmi^ 

«4/Bafaria of the Circle ofSurgnndyy the Z>ftA:i&^bi^«iiinmM& 

detl«rif$r j^y p^j,,^ THaffau-Ufingen who went toWltei^gi[<tIfo^ 

ra A NCI. ^^j^ themfdves Maftcrt of Keiferfifferf^ ^mhrikift'Mi 

Bonny' and forted the Prtnch to rttffe fN>rii £14^; Tk 

Eleftor of Bavaria notwithftanding tb^ *fcolrt*lty'fce 

had declared for dht early in the Yetfh fj^^ fttte 

' Ulmy Siterack mi Mmingeit. After this hrdMcfaed 

twelve thoufand Men towards the Rhini;^ t^ftftk Mug 

advanced as far as JVnl^t a Body of 'FVtmch'lfsi^ 

jpaffed the Rhine rx9x Hunningen andF t)ebk .A&lifcjjf. 

Prrncc\t^wrx of B^?</«r had an EngagetfKMt^^wffb fKtfe 

Ai^/i^ #/ ' near Fridlhtguen^ in which he 16ft thrbe'thbiftiid' M«R. 

pRiDLiii- Being' rcrnforced be refolved to attack> th«nl"li fecofld 

tu>N. T'tmt\ in the mean ^Thne howeVtr^^e^'^AViii^ rc- 

^7^^- paffcdlhe i?A/W complatn'mg lottdly^that"tfje^'ifetwW#»; 

had not joined them. I^t^iftifendin^ aN ^^Eltfior 

of Bavariii*s EndeatotiVs tb' j^rwttwl^ii £mditu-4t\\ 

into the Hands of the O&mntfs T^Bat the Fftn^ before 

the End of this Cafmpaign bbfiged the Duke^ of Lwmin 

to leave his Country ; oterran the OirtcbyJof^*3^»tffl»5i 

were in^ Poffeffibn of all the Country ^oHfering'^n 

the Mofetie\ and i^jadethtmRlvei RIaftfefrf -ofiPW^^ w<* 

■ troiftaii:'' * -.-.'•--. , .'.. .;..x, 3.».M ■" 



C^ A&tf. G E R M A N £ W P I tCW4 $yi 

Ittjthle ^Hogjiimflg of the Vcv J703 the Frgnch took 1703. 
ForhJSifNi S'Afi B^KVaPMni defeated a Bodjr, of Aojlrian ^"^^'/^ */* '^ 
Ti»0|)rjwid<n>Co)|f|t S^hiUd, .,4nd they h^d the better.in^*^^**^*'* 
te\£i^gflOiem :;With a Oct^ijQbineot of the Army of the 
&Ki^iat^ih{Wbif^btii\^ ?iu^ They 

9k^m4fi^:toQk Rfifiji:;ny alj^iough ;bis had b^en declared 
neOler on^itlo^ACcouot of .iu^ beiog the P,U^e appointed 
fQrj|bfc;Mi9«^ng;- of t^X^t^ ^hc CommijOaxy, of the 
^fiif^jf-ftvodbimfcif by Flight i' the othp* hkjnbcn 
of the Diet were detained ^9|4)9^iiged/.to adojit.j^e 
i?(iwir;i?«i Miftifter »t their. J)e]il)fia^3, Thj? Arv^- , 
'5QMri.MK^ ioy^^tdi^he Tir^l^t and/by^^aloff/j^ Af.«/gh 
Ati^pff^ediilf^Mfi i h^t thePeafaots ,a>qlc qp. Atfns.af^ 
ob]i^ .ih^9i.,to quit tbis^ Country as haftily.a^^the/ * 
had cntrcd it. They n^ycrtbckf*. J^^P^ ^K0/^i>? ; . aijd * 
after hftng joilied, by.foa^ French Su^cour^ «««hjc)i fame ^^ « 
fcoinV^^ri^.ij^cougb. the .£/<z^i i^^^"/^ 
l^tAWri'li^y defeated the Afmy of the Empire, com- 
ii)d[ii^.by:.Coiiii^£/i>iuK, Prince LtwU ofBad^/mni the 
Duke al'^Jd'arJiarpiigb near HQciftiU The firft of chefe 
Generals 4icd of his Wounds wttbin eiglit Hours. 71)ey 
aftewairds look Augfiurg which was laid under heavy 
Contfibtitiofis i and the Gnmaus lofi about the fame 
.^mif^ rBnifoc .and Landau. "BeM^ all this \\\ Sue- 
, ce& tbc Malecontents of Hungaxy were to the l,alt7rM<&j<> 
J^^gtee ii;fiiatsd, aiul infpixed with a rood implacableHuNCARr* 
£[a^«d a^unft the Bwfiror and the Houie of Aujlrla ; 
. Bccmife R^g^ i M their Chief had the Year before been 
ftize4.ail4jHittQ Death. 

. Ill the »)Uowing Campaign the Empire was extri- ijoi^. 
cate4 fl^m ibe great Difficulties it was in. EnglandTbt £mpirh'» 
and i^f/ila^»: moved by the earned Sollicitations oUs fuccoured ty 
the Elefior Palatine and the Duke of Marlborough ^the Maki-^ 
came I9 a Reft^tioo of fending a powerful Succour'^^^'^ 
iotp G0frmA.rjyi ^bich was fo prefled that nothing elfe^^^**'^ 
coiild fsve it. It is faid Prince Lewis pf Baden was 
the. $rft thai dcmonftrated the NeceiBfy x>f this Seep, 
ceotrary .t9 |^c cu0p«ia^y Jealoufy of Generals, who 
ba^.ijjktjier^lfife. theTpwns and Provinces of the Prin<;e 
they ferve than (hare their Con^mand with a Partner. 
1 be utmofi pare was taken to keep this DeCgn Secret | 

B b 2 «nd ^ 



37* Of the Gil r m a n E m p I R^. 

and great Preparations were ttilH^ updn tM 9t!fiBi^t if 
the Intention was to attack Pranti^bti tfcrft-SMiW^ Nij 

the Troops of Engtand and HMoffdlM i[»mwmh 
the Rhine and many of thefn ureit tt#v&rk:etf l9IUiiiA-,-bei 
fore the Enfmjr had the leafr Stifpidkm of Weft Swrch'. 
From thence thcjr threw tficrtifelfcs imoSunVfa^ ^Mtlirein« 
to the EleSor of Bav/jm after havinfg mafd^mit^lFMaf- 
xtv of Paffan wjfs come to receive a 'Reifflfbrb feg jlfeiit <^ 
French Troops fcnt through tb6 Bfadt 'Fo&ij9f 'As-fcoft 
as he was apprrzcd of the Approach oTthfe aMtW Fbtres, 
he fent a Detachment of his bcft Troops to fete' Paft 
at ScheVenberg near 'Donawert\ aiid rite'Pfactf^was a& 
Progrtfs ofthevftW fortified as the Time would permtr. Prttffce iMh 
Allies. of Badin and the Duke of ^rfrA^(?AJ*''tttafeIttff Ati 
Poft, and the A<5tton was iharp ; but the Alltil^^enig 
vid^orioiis it ^^-as abandoned by the SHwd^Mil' «!d the 
Bridge being broken down a great f^uml»e^*of tfcem were 
drowned in the Darmbt. T hey alfo abfthdoneS Dvna" 
wert\ and the AlK^ having paflfed the DdtkUhi^\ittht 
whole CounftiT to Fire and Sword cVth to the-Gatcs 
cf Mu»ih\ It was now thought the EfeSor t>f tBtftwr- 
y'}q had a Mind to U\t 'hi> Country by chahgmg SMes; 
but it was a Miftake : For having retired to jfy^lmrg 
lierefolved, whatever might happen, to waif Hifefe the 
coming of the Succours which Count T&/&rrffcad Of- 
^ " ders to bring him. The Diilte of* MariidrGti^ Made 
Propofitions to him by Count fFratrfiaw^ "aLhd' wVtgO' 
ciation was earned an till the Arrfv^i of Goutit TeiHari: 
Upon which he openlf dcclaredthat htf *o«W*ttertiftin 
1iis Attachment to France. Prince E&^^wr' bcftfg' 'how 
xome dp with a confiderarbleBody of Ttoo^^thrc ©uVc 
ot Mariboro-'gh had an Intcrvtew-wfth' hhrfV 'ail^ tBey 
joined their' +V>rces. ' - ^ . ./ » .^ 

B'yttleof ^ Soon after the Al irs t:ame v^ wMt tSeiVrfc^i^^nd 
tiocKSTET. fia^rarians r\t^x fiockfin \ where 'a' 'Bkttic fetal 1tj6'^/^tf«/ 
'but much more To to Bavdria wa^'ifought ttpdh <hc^'flifr- 
teenth of A'tguji The Army of the French zrA-BUvhrms 
was fb Weakened by the Lofs of niore tWaW^wtri^y thou- 
fand Men, thattbey immediately aba Adoftcd'mfc#df their 
Conquefts in Bavarra Mdt^ttabPa: Ahtf- th^'WdSor 
fled Into^ thr Nttkirlands Ieavlt>g^ the Gi*WftS«ent of 
i - ' - - • , his 



Of the G £ R M AN Empire^ .373 

\i\% QgxfM^ ^ tbcflcdtcfs. This Princefa ia Novem-^rejity rj^iih 
btr. condHde^ » TjnMfjr. with the King of the Ro^rians^^^f El^dire/] 
whp,j9ira9 fbW'bcfiwrc Landau : By which it \y<is., agreed ^/ Bavaria. 
ihiii Kufftein^ Paffau and all the ftrong Places in Bava^ 
m jb^uld be d^hvered up to bis ImftriaL Maj{fly i that 
tb&n«i|r Fonj^catiion^ at Munich ibould be demolifbed ; 
that the Rqg^^y qI th9 Elefiorate ibpuld be in the 
Hand&of.tbc JEmperori. that the EledUefs might con- 
tione a^ loogiu ihc pleafed at AiunUb » and that the Re- 
venue of xk^ 3ailiwick of Mu?i^b ihould be aiSigned her 
for her. Support, After the Battle.of HockjUt the Army 
of tb^ Allies w;^ divided. Qne.j^ody ot. this under Ge- 
neral Tbufigen retook Utm hoax tbe Bavanans : Whilft 
another coDima^ded by the. King of the Romans took 
Landau. Trie's Traerbach and fome other Places were 
alfo retaken before this Cao^paign was hnifhed. 

The Enaperor'a Arips were Jiot fo fucceGful on the ^he j^ffa'rs tf 
Side of Hm^ory. Inftead thereof the Troops of /^' Emperor 
the Malecon tents ravaged the Frontiers of Mora-S^ ^** ^^^^'^ 
via^ and ^IVTr^t^iliHinw and Jifiria. The Suburbs of ^^"'^^^^^y- 
Vienna werjc not fjjared by them : Nay they entered 
even into the Emperor'^ Park and fet one of his Pleafure- 
Houfes on Fire England and Ho/land employed their 
good O^es to accomoiodate Matters betwixt the Em* 
perpi: and the Male-contents -, and the Elector Palatim 
then at Vi^nxia took a gveat deal of Pains in it : But their 
Demands were fo wide of what the Emperor was willing 
to graiit that nothing could be done. 1 hey demanded 
amongil otbe;* Things. to proceed to a new Elei^ion ; to 
have all their ancient Privileges cnnfirmed and efpecially 
thofe whicJ^ had been grant^ by their King Andrew IJ. 
in his Declaration in the Vear J222; and to have ail. 
JffuUs expelled the Kingdom, Thcfe l3cmaods being 
r^ffufed . HoftilitJM were r^VPnttoenced } and the Male- 
Cv.men^ iVVjece worfted in.two Battles fought towards the 
£i^d,pf ihi^ Campaign; Bu^ t()ey fuffered moft in x\\2XBatfl^ of 
of Tni^y^i^ , . TiRNAw. 

The ^pafi^or Leppold dyingin M^y 1705 he was Joseph, 
fucc^^ed by Jfijipb hh eldeft Son : Of whofe Reign the 1705. 
Girtnans had<;qnceived gr^at Hopes. It having been agreed 
to begin the Campaign on the Ms/elle^^nfi to endeavour the 
., t B b 3 jccovery 



374 0/ /i^ G E R M A N Empire, 

recovery of limtirt'^nA that Wary tt>^^A*tAt6^MrtWf*t 

frrncb Provinces,"ttie 'T)\ike oPWarfbbro^'to^itm 

Field c^rlyj but thi^ t>di*Jri irrtlcarViea bay^lft?#ai$ 

not j6irted in Time by Prmcc iw/i of Bitffek. ''fRi not 

comitig tip fooner was byfotAe Antro^ rtii ble' iWxttif td'tRc 

Impraaicability bftht Thing; by otlf«>ft t<J'H^c Wfittfe^ 

Jcafoufy of the Du>c. However thirWBJ tfttfCitdde! 

of Ii/^/ being in Danger from the EneWiT'th* I>b*c'of 

MartbQrouoh returned thither with hts AfrfiyJ'-The^Atw^ 

foonftiade ihemfelves MaftcrJofTrfrr^j^Tndf Eittei'^rac 

however afterwards forced^ by the Impe^KI'''Kr^y';^aipia 

this A^on was fdJlo wed with the TtiA\H^'Brufi^iim 

and Hvgertau, The new'Emperor cnd€?a\/Stwca aWH¥6* 

commodatlon with the Mafe-conterits 6f fi^n^fjPf 'Ifut 

as they woutd abate nothrn'g of their 'Dem^nd^^Hft Wat 

'fiaitU tf was continued. i"hc' Itapertal' Gcnerif ^/?iffJP^r^rie& 

JvDA. a compleat ViQory dvey C*tfr<>/if cfcfe bif the* *CHim itett 

JJz/isr; and /7/r^^t////^wab very ftccefefuTjl^ii^ff.'^^^ 

another of them in Trtfw^/z^^w/a, '" ^^'" »'^, - ;'*' 

jerii'V/ /> Towards the £nd of this Year the'l^ftli« W^«itt^ 

Bavaria, ^^i exa/pferated by thepgoroM$TVcatifteiitttf <M-'J5i)^ 

rial Com>hiJJ'aries^ dug up thofc Anns whfch"A the^'T^ilp 

Of difarming iheCouiitty'had bt^en buriedj arrd is|fle^Kfd 

thcmfjtlves. As the ^/</?ri^j bcffirred* Aemfdfr^^feme 

thoufanjis of the Savariiins were flain 5 an#*<lftrttxS^Pthe 

Ringfeaders being ocecuted the Confljfidrf ihis Iiffitr< 

region m»ght havebcc^tfncd was prcvt^nfcff;*'^' '^^' • 

1 706. ' ^n the firft of May 1706 the El^florr dfCillhiH Ih9 

^i^r JgAr^ff^r/ ^civarla were put under tlieff^w of the f iW^Vr^Vy^fh^^Eirf- 

(p/CotoGK peror at ^/>»hi? with the afual Cereddfiitt ; ^tffc^Be^, 

i«»^Bavar I A crees of their Profcription/hy which they -^^tW^kW^ae- 

4"' rL P^i^e^ o^ their Eleaoral Titles, borr*49aVe ^%;f *awth. 

P"'"/^ The IhiperiaFifts opened tWs Campai^'^'^iffi^ftif'W?^ 

^'^r^' of /v^/ Ir^u', but tfijc Fr/»*^ra««iffi|)i$;SSii^'Jftftl 

again made themfelves Mi^ix^ht'B^^V^m^im^ldgi. 

noL The latter Place ^hhoo^h^ 9ftrf4tfK'fWti&d -toft 

them ^bovc two Thoufand Men i'^W|tifii^tb1PWi?T*»l 

recompehfed h/ the taking oPlafl m '(^rfflffty-ftf *tf(c 

]^mtpte^ *.which wa$ of ^reiit Service ifi^riyiDg^ .the ^m.- 

perMifift back over the Rhih*,' ;' Maj>jr ^iiMrer -wnif- 

mured thereat ; and complained that tlirvil^gilig'- of 

ihe Artillery in fp w^ak i Place Ipoked as if it was 

done 



Qf^tif Q B R M a: N 51 M P I R E. 375 

"^^^ppawftc^.i^rt^^ B^df?it Cou^ ^riefm^ 

iO^W-jQwiii Maflerof theArtiUwy were jp^reoycr 

fyfli^^ j^ijpr«^d Jhe nAiik^.. of the Ewpicc bemg^^ Wprfe 
in^gqd..aftAJf jijii^ ,pft^h, t^ey^ Mf bo.' iijd. 1?Wniccl him 

Uie;^3 crfj'l^,, . .. .,, . . . ^. ; 

i«»i^. the ffinitj Yc^ii-. ^laini^d, the Eipopirc, Befgre he*^^^'*^ 4»' '^ 
qvi\3M^4i^rrngfiyyi& conckidcd, a..Trcaty wiib the. Eni-^'*«? ^ 
per<3«^..;, ,%. wWcfe the,l*tt«:^grie.ed that all Churches ^^^^^^ '*- 
ftowM- l^J^iftor^d to the.ProtcftaA^s j tljat aU QXb^T.Grie-. 
vaDces ^n.tiie Account pf Religion which tbeie bad fuf« 
ifcred cont^ij^ry 4a the Treaty of lV0phalia Ihould be re- 
direiled ;. and that jth^ illiquid b^v^ Liberty to build fix 
jae^W Qiurqhe^*, . The £tx^N;r$>c promi&d . alfo, that when* 
«va: it ^wfi^s . propcifly . Tje^ired. V WQuld c^iiro) to the 
Houre 4:>f Uolflein Gottorp the Rigbi of Prmog^nii^re *; 
fxi^o^at.to an Agreement between, this Houfe and the 
Si0Map ei LubicL The King tABw^dm on bis P^rt en* 
<&^S^ ico OEiarchthrougb Silgfia into Piland^ which be did 
4a ib/e foilo^wing Spring, without injuring this Province*: It 
|va$}]j^Ubi$ Adafch.tbat notwitbft^ndiqg all the Intreatie9 
ixfed. ta £Qifte« him the Kipg pf Swed$n caufed (he un- 
happy PatkHlx<> bebrokenpao t|ie, Wheel and <]uartered<* 

The Affaics pf the S^aperor pa the Rhine fucceeded in 1 707. 
the next Year, very ill The French baying farced, the 
.Lines. pf the ImpfiTlaliM drp9^e the ixnall GarrifonsjiivbiQh 
.«iiere4eft in tha Towns be/qre tbeo), ^nd raiilpd largje 
Contcibntions. They after w^ds pefietcated fafaripm 
Smbia 9^ If^minbergy that it .was. feared they would 
,ihrpw.KthQQ?(^lves xs^ Bqf^h^ and %r ^Qioing. the 
{i^^Ht^gt^ l^c^r^.o^c^ moco. brifig the lunpire iostp 
.tljevWao^rPii^ wasjn before the Battle oSIifid' 

^§f. .,^ThrW»w^ Witbout Oottlit tb^ir In.t^jtjonj hut th^ 
: w^^f^rcifd |o rewn^hom^.iait^iie Rf^f of Tcni^ which 
Wj»^;*t^«^c4 by ^ Allie?, ,Tiju? ^AH^i^cigpnzf, ,^^ 

\4f Jbmdtflili^ :-.j h^-^-' ^ .',.-. .>r.,, .t .-, ;;i :.,v..- 
^->v '?i V .. . • .-; B I? 4. .,.,:... •. J: -A jvas 



37^ Of the Qn/BLUAiSi Eim:«p f^^m t. 

Ii#M<r of. Ar Jm ttae^MMgnwe t>f Biftrskt htAhetw^f^* 
potAted t« cgiQMitnd At Jtopomt A^rmy; but ia««flg 
vtrf HI S«ooefticfe4 ConMnaod iiralk gf««i t^tfaie ^ieaar 
df fhn^Vir.^ fttik- Ghamg^ of . O^ttfok'^htMrover fig^ 
iiific4 nothing } for •& th» grttiter IVr* ^ (he Eflfpmsr'i 
Troops wef ft cmpiojrei) in Hungary, fiodiii^ pMiMermble 
R A ftoTZK r. c«»ii)vi ly done ofiibs iW^^. R^^M mm kj ImB^ 
froclaimed ^fotAmm^A Priiip9 of Tffoif^ilmma^^ ^wA the TMtotie itf 
in Trans It- fltftf^ry vwis detinivd by Itni 190 bo^nfacant. TIk^ £n« 
V AN 1 A. p^ror In vain flutterod himMf vviih W Hbpe^i^f ai«!*Ac« 
^omiiKidttiofi with tbe Mdecontentsi ibr-whcu'te 
would in the begtmiing of . the nrxr Year have ^rfiem^* 
bt<<l ft Diet at Prtfi^rg RagitmU forkkt the WiriigtfibViivi 
00 p«tn of Death to be piefetit «t it* < 

1708, The Eaupepor wtt oioreover the next year /eililtt»r 

^Ktfrr*/ aW/^ft0id wtth iiioAer Affiwr. Having obferncd thaa Rape 
iht Pcfi, CUmm XK was extremely partial to frami he-feiaoeci 
C0mathh iinder « Pretence that it was a Fief '-cC* the 
Empire. On the othtr H|md the Pope infifting thai 
k belonged to the State .of the Chitrch feMved* to 
do himfelf Juftice by Force of Atms ;^ and expeAed 
the Affiftance of fiance and the-Catheliok CtfUOfts of 
SwiJJirland. Being thereof diflbppointad he^aMed Irroops 
in the Pupal Stale ; and to detoy the JEospdner ^Anife 
Hfe of the Treaflj^ of Pope SmAs^mmm^iwiaxAt is 
kept in the Qaftie of St« Atigek ^nd inever iifed-fttxavpt 
fio the moft iM^nt Neeefiltea of the Chtirhrf B«t when 
he camf toconfider that the £xpencek>fprofecotiag^ffais 
War could only ruto hin;^etf he made a^Troaitywilh 
4he Emperor. By thrd he aigreed t» diftand Ms^TToiops ; 
to acknowjed^e CAtffJ^ the J^pfeor's Brothi^ 
of Spoiu\ to beflow i^ida htn a^ J£ing''Of''6|f!ipMi-the 
ioiMlW^retof ther Kingdom of MiipiH ; tmgtM^Vtm^m^ 
;pftial Troops a h'ee f affiige to th^ Kingdom^- to far- 
p^rdilMen Thoufood GtrwMm Wtti» WintefC^uaeirfrs 
\^ the: St^te of thflf Chufdir: aod'totpay- ten/Tlaai- 
Duh ef ,fand Oco^^s. JUi thia Yeltt finreral iMniflcabb. ifimtfits 
Mantua ,bMpptntd. Tba Di|fc»of.44iNlte0Ovaa.fiUt ufUer tk» 
ff.tuni!ir the <^( jhf E«w»ft3 J M hja Ocai<t whfch hw««** «><»«*« 
Bannoftbc^^^^^ ^ "^ delivered 



MifcmChMtt Ami t\m UwBafiaife thS^miiAlnite giften 
humii'^lhg^mii wwh htit by Osiiml -^Mkr ^Tren^ 

^A^Jtliutiiib'.a^iJHMM ifiUfMma, wlio after 

W3tt OttMhited t<ftif¥fjiui/2 andi^ffDoi thence taAftcif$naf 
iirfaKm:facrSfkiufeini)mtitiid.]rexfiraediler. The King 
1^ i^sTTtf^ who had defetted. tin Imcreft of Phiiip 
m^Anfyotfei tint of Cia^es, wariimrticd JCtr the Arch* 
4uah«b jiAr«0iiiivi<be Eorpsfor^t Sifter* And^trwa« m 
the'/aaioYeflrtgseedy ^s^trthe Kmg^f^ Bglfimkrikb^i 
for the fatviie hivrnt aU^liiincs a Voiee in the Oiet of 
tile fiflipire as am EkAoff whireait h€ had bahw^j&yti 
thiai^ivifege ooly at the Eled^on of sit £mj)eror. 
> < The Ciffe r eno crf #hieh >happeBed^aiyDut fhis Time be* Biflurhana 
twfait the Senate and Bnrgefiea of Hafkhurg t\iftm tht/z/ Ham- 
wktdk^OiOf iittxribdi Confofien^ rtait a ftrong GarNfon burg» 
war. paa into it by the dire^twa of^ the Circle $ and 
Conmiflairiea ^ere appointod to determtiie the Mattem 
in DHpme; The InfurreAioti on this Oceafion was 
qnelled by funiflkfng fotne of the Ringleadenr, and by c6|i* 
demnii^ Krumboim a LmhirM Piieft vAie bad by his Ser- 
moos greatly promoted it to pe^tuai Imprifonmenc. 

TiMsfimperor letiewed his Endeavdura in the Year j«_^ 
XfOqtojsffnft the Troubles in fiungary ; bat f hefe were 
ww te igi fnutfert by Aogahsii. The iaaperiai Army was 
fiflfaiibM upM the J^i«r mdtr the Eledor of i/tfiid^sy^ 
90«kthi8 Prince^bait a mimt toattack the Fnm^h who 
imtmim the Neighboarfaood of Lauurkwrg: Btit the 
petachmeiii be fecit under Generad Aftfti to make zj^gfg^f ^ q^^ 
'Dtveffion ton dM» Side> of ^iA^r; being defeafed, ^ht furalMz^Q\. 
>^irmy: which had advimecd as far at 'Mtuktn/lermws 
witir coniinomg ftMRe Time riiere fepairatiKly and the 
.^Froopsr'iNrcnr intb Wiiiter Quarters*' 

. JnHthe^Y^ae 171^ thift Eiii(»erar prt>mifed to le^ifrfbi^ i^io. 
iiiB 'ArwjtttiniiA ffpiper ^RUht with odevevThoufttfd fhe BUaor of 
Mtsa^^wiitolifoaftnbutietfiirhti own Share a MiHim tif HANovEfi 
f£t^hx\%^t&^(is^ miStary QitA^ NotwitMlandin| thefe q*^^^ his Csm- 
fiBDiiitresr^the;x£Mt«r^ Ab«9tciir^ found the Attivf^fo^^^' 
rMM^i^xQotidmMwiai^^ tbeOoimMatid 

linder thci f leivp^ tiiat ttb DifoidcHrln lotMT iSm^msiny 

required 



378 



Lower 
Saxonv 

grtatly «- 
larmtd* 



I7II. 

HvwcAny 

reduced to 0- 
hedience^ 
Death of 

J^OS£FH. 



re^ 1lircd^ his Brefitac^ iii^ bift owii^jI^NPJIftQii^^ARoii 

fipom i*tf/^</ tbroii^ '.Pr«s^ iif^ ^t^^aniia^ imimB 
feiffd i)«. would ffttlMr pe«waf0r«^c>^<f^tf7|t>0ri'i«fti»^ 
tmo /'/'/M^y either of whi(eb iis -ihfifeLlTirapfiMwm^^ 
th«f ProHiikintttofi M<Micy nwift h»vp^g^^y-,M^»^ ihir 
Couatrar tbey fttfied through;, o H<m^>pf}]t)mifie«ghbMi^ 
ing States addrefled the Emperor to itfe his ^w4^iftm9i^ 
that a NttHflrik^ mghi hroboiified i0cdtlg^?fo»idbes 
in C^nRM^^vbichbeJonged tOvthe Fpiref«^#l^ Wiftr wili 
Si^eden, M\t ww moceofer Ukely Miat th^ iKU^oC, J^ 
/tfff^ would fendian Arai]f.4kgaioft BiifioiKS^si^SfUr the Wear 
mu(! haM« Tfxread Kfolf in the- neighhounn^' Pisfimi^^ci ; 
whkb «roii}d havie obliged fame FrinaearCorTf^c^Urdieic 
Troops in the Pay of Snghfid jmd^ HoHnrndbom'^fflaJi' 
Jsrs and l4afy for the &ecur4ty ofitbrur AWti . ComNETf • 
A Treaty of Neutrality bekig in .fj^iie «f.tl^..j>f{iiiaa 
of £»W«»conoltided»it «^ f^folyf^dito^^ffemhkMi^&mf 
to maiotaiR itV and fome JRi^i^enta of .4be>Si]»per(^t#n4 
thieE,te^ofPi?/a«/«/jbtgan:to.iaai^:{oc<S^^/ A»t jso 
Arnny wa$aii<i9hM» m^ (^mtv^BA&hi^W^^^ii^ioi^ 
had coil mmth >PaHi^ to»Jariii^?«afQe* ifi'^lhe £ii)l rtd 
nothing. , ' .-. — . — •-- ;; ,r.:- J r-v , 

, The Maiecooteatfi of Mwigmy had >beQflb^/«i90ifted-bi 
divecf i^io«$ aiM^their Affairs wer« in^ti v«^ bad^%aile s 
ibo De^th ihtmevcr of the £iiiperor if^tdch > haijpMed 
on th^ lyth of ^/TfV i7ii^Q|M!iv€dbiR»of7thoS»tit« 
fj^aion of reduciug them> eourtrly ta^beditocew >So0ii 
«Ae(>fh^. Imperial Troops . obliged a. .gis%t iNfumberaOf 
them to lay<]owa their Arofls.iie4i!'^£;^^iv. .^l.iht 
jMalecootentadid laowHi thefQllelialac<3fl||tthf^ Afl»tlMfy 
offered Ra^v^ tkf)4, fame feiipr^ wbo^'^cbilii lifttfiKl^ 
pio T^^rn^jof A9Co[iiinoid0Cion»fi«iiifl4 liMf6^«<raf«^/ 7he 
Diet fop the £lea^.ofva^«^i£«j^orn'hf^ 

s^^l^iif^ ^Mndi in P^rfon 1 . iho i»theffr!fiMtovi) hJT 
jthi^.^ M^9iftef^;- 61H thr yMiiiUtewjoC* if4iv4fitt>im4 
^t^V^^TfK^ffftre&ffi^Adiittttlili^e.sHlrhOrAM^ 4lk09 
j^ihei^.cliihe Pope d^malii^ fifORAdohtamilviiNif 

Ti;,^ At 

6 



Of the G E R M A' N ^B M^P I R if. 379 

M'length thr Efcabts off the rtth of O^IM&ff gtfveCHAttis 
their' Voices iti ftf*(W» <tf Chaflif *i% hxt Enip«t0r*sVI. 17 u. 
BrttHer: But there wts foirte DificWiy in ftitH[tig the 
€ii{^iil^ll<Hi t^^ftmbm t6kf hiM'tftfilf C}oft>tiatton; 
forrhe e^^feffi^ V'Dimk^ tothe^ of Ms Father BeopM 
im€ Bmtier }^^^ Md declared tto he would Vather 
retiOQnce tbd Itti^rial Crowiv ;th«ifi accq^t i^ tttf fueh 
Cofiditiom.' ^ . ;.' . 

'- Every thihg tehig ibttled to bh'&ifisfaAion h6 ^ait«d ^^ i^ mnvmd 

pefiatJBNgflfitf j and being tirrived zt Frankfort on thfe^®^*^* 
l^tN of^llii^tfMA^ Wif crowMied with the ufual Sblem- 
nKiet ni^il tird atd. it being (yrobaMe that franco WouM 
enAiavoitrto tiiake fome Advantage of the Interregnum 
in ^t^fmmy, PruKc Engine caufed the Troops in the 
JAfii^^otEtHn^en to take an Oath of Fidelity ; and fear- 
mAJy preArd'^h<^ PHncet of the Empire to fend their 
Qu6tw Id'the 'Army. Having afterwards pofled the 
Antfy 1h (ho Catnp of Muckfnflarm' he left ft th^re un\ 
4er tb^ Comtfiand ^ die Duke of ff^rtembkrg. Bf 
thefr wife Precavitions Frame wta prevented from carry* 
tng fome Menaces into Execution wMie the EmpiVe 
was without Head. The Circles of the Empire foon 
after renef«rtfif their Treaties mxh England and HeHani\ 
andthfTTe' fwtd Powers entcfred into frelh Engagemenis 
ifiiifiittlfy K<B afltft each other, and that they would not 
layi&wn their Ar^stitl Satisfedion was obtained fdr 
HU^he ADfit, They Nkewife obliged themfelves to em^ 
|Aoy alt their Forces for procmriiig a real Barrier tor th^ 
ma^^y Which wa# to be Alfact^ the Sundgoiv^ thfe 
BfiJ^ imt) tbeth^ee Biiioprieks ef Mrtx^ Tmt 2ivti 
fWdtM] and never to make a %arate Peace. * 

t>i K wWM^e6led Ihat the €ongre6 iprhkh was held in 1712. 
tWf0*i«l>inry%«r ktfArfiht wt!ftA4 have grveA* F^ht Congre/j ^ 
» iVr^pwbr Wthot^h fcme'TVoaWes ha* broib owUxnEcdTr 
t«f t»lowikht»rt^Pam of G^fnum^i there wad ho Kelfoh 
M4c«b»'ihdt ifbtho Weft^n-^nd Sottthern #«teonc« kt 
jN^ ihe?Ml6li;4hOfhi PartdrwdUkT foon' be* ib: Bbt the 
^pN^rswIfO #af by lio^MtUt^ fifti&ffied'ifMth^h«1I^<tMih 
iSM^j^NlSk'/iMdifW fign^tfffe 

Ji^79 Snd cbofe n^iher^nn ^it' )Hd^Flitteiii^''lo 



380 

Dmmdtf 

mtU Emfin, 



Of Ae G E R M A N« But P I R E. 
bear akoB lilt wjiolc Burdra of tbrWAr.. TlM.Oe- 

wi of <h0 'f(Mir M*^*^ AstiG|et«;..i^TiiatodBi««rf 
flkM^^ilAoim to tiie.fiitpire aoililift Houfe ^rjdh^M 
«&.diic. iMi bam^seiitd'to.thttiGMVo fa|is>thiK;'Efltsi- 
ii0s.of Wsfifkolm^x ifimgm,^ MxfwitM^Qt..mkmimtci 
and .yartkidar^ ibft the Doka ai^ul^ruk^ AkmiUt be 
]nil intib Poflcffion of hit. v^le GouotYy^iUMi ibe ior 
•VttfirevMBHMMgundyaibhg^tta^^ That 

iifmm ani all in Uai^ Mashe NMkfrkmds aiideverjr li^eie 
Me ihat belongid ta cbe SpmiJb^H^tar^iWBL.xi^ 
Tiofi ctf Gheriw'H.iihottU be; c^drd^i^lbe? fmpcror. 
UL That a full Satufaaioa ihouid bfitiBade^ tea ail-tbe 
AlKea. IV. That all .the Bamage^done to. abf Etiteds, 
Scacet, VaAaltor &ttbjc(£b of the Jimsim fhitaxU b^ tc- 
faired. ;.:. ,..' 

. Whilft the N^jociatbiit.wcie Garr^ng^ cm atUjfn»(/ 
Ibf Did*, whidi feeoed determined^ to^/cany iMi.jtlie 
War vigoiouAjr unleft €he£e Oeiiiaii4» 'WeM^ coniiiti^ 
.unthf^^Mie ten Retblotion of ^njfiiing^ MtUioki of 
iiloiiiis 10 the MUitarjiif^heft ; hot iboCc wess.neiKei ad- 
vanced* The £in{mror defiroqs of '.rcenfordng the 
▲anjr upon the Rbmt confidcrably tfxxfki. the .totes 
to fend their Contiiigeata of Troopa^enrljf^ wbiA com- 
pkat i and as Priooe Eug4M* was (brn ta the AEraivr' 
.Umdi tbcUoke of Jf^rtemiurg^ .who commanded upon 
thet JRbw^ pafled thit River near Phm^burg. At bis 
.,^^l|)J^oach the ir^ac^ redied into tbe Linear of Lauur- 
Jmrg^ vickere it was very difficult to aatack^tfaema-efid 
«tbelaiperial Atmr^sa moreover weakened.Jbyebe d^- 
.taching of fome K^imeots to ceenfocce the Auaf. in 

Jh Jtimpt t§ '^^ liw^nialiis being ad uaiKod ntzaht ftnmck Amy 

/li^Jifhe Aff made an Atceniipi fo fuipriae theJAselr^ ita timr 

FasacH in sliim^ BtttibmoReg^mem&of Infantcy taking iom^.oi 

their Lines. , tbcir Friends lor the Enemy witlimt wMn^hr tbo^^e- 

iiera^Onlefa.&ed iipoA.iheizk. TbisrUi^bttppyiMifiake 

.41^ fltiiy.alar^ttlthe/aia^Vbet theeJi^ ibeffiWmeKile- 

.iwery iatofucb Coofufiflei' that ncitbes ihAOrdera«.ef 

.ll^ £kike ner die EffettSxof C^ufalryr wece' fnffieactit 

to rally them ^ain,. iiqiievpsp the Ggrnmps repn^N 

-. (4 *^ ^^ 



Tin Wat u 

c9ntinmi if 
tb$Emper9r 
0nd Empire^ 
1712, 



Of tie G E RM A N E M PI R E. jll 

the MMHe ; atld'as the i^wA oomintifd. ill: ihcir lines 
nothing moro wasrimok iarthia disifkum. tiSome Dif*- 
ficaidet ioAtb ati this iTimecooMniiiig m A2aiteiaad/of 
tim Acld^ of tHe £»^; Wbidl^lkad;tel|»ltf1lallf db 
viderfbatwiKt OoMtib of bpthjAdigMa^ MdLmnirM)^ 
fiandiagctfae Dbka std H^timtmrg tlM.^eiiaml of ibe 
Empire was a Catbolick the Pratdbmcs bififtai that tbii 
ihottld be&nor.VMoedeDt i^ tbefuMmi - Aj ^s tit die flnne 
Time ithe Smptnir^ ^ to pr0veiia.gSl»L^Ilif|wtea.-«Mdi 
migte oa*4uatlyihg wMKMtt^iiiie ayifil eonceanibgi tinr 
Sucoedkn^ ilecIiredvtlie'AKlidatcMa ddaft £Mughlier 
of tliefiate Ewperor Jiis Heir ; bidt hovtiig aftanaaris 
ChiUiedtlibOi^ritbndid(ndt4iloailiA ; i : 

After giNi^tD ]Pn[^Mifjf ^ avlRre (he received the^Hoi-CHARLBi h 
onge of.ihei/jbigwsiie/ ml was CMNvaed oftthe z^.ofoowneJat 
May, the Emperor applied himfelf diligemlr to^ tfae^^^'^''^^'* 
carrying on of tlie War- latj^ a iail i JSnmtf ; in wthicb h is 
proteble be iwDuUi haire'ilMii'>fiiaeBfcfid if 4ie Jiad beeh 
heHer iappoierd^^tfae States of sbetEmpife.. 

Ttadb leeNT fii fu- ftoei ciiinding ftke Suppliei ^ 1713J 
'Kreopa and' Maoey they had gteea. htoi Reaibn 10 .en- TK?e Troops $x^ 
'padi^i 4faB€:eK>ft of Jhcm did not fend their mtamypeSedfrom 
Qiuitast Inibmoch that when PrioceiffH^lBW woidd in Catalonia 
the beginning of the itest Campaign have taken die^'^^^^^* 
Fidd*^ feund" nothing leedy. The. Troops expeAqd 
itom'Strndmiu wouU in fixne Meafere have.msdogodd 
thefe Qeficientfes, if they had. not heenib long detained 
by the <£«^/fjft > VeflUs wbicfa ought to have brought 
ihem^i h wa> Ai(t»that they vmbko thos retarded on Po»- 
pofete pat the £tiiperor under e Naeattty of meictngai 
Peace iWhh. Pr^m^ on herovan Teroai* Rmn» mode 
good Advantage of this Conjunfiure; for her Tmeps 
hivit)g;^»^teok ^Jitmdau psfied. the fiivar; Und- mSttt?'»€c^tj^tln 
msking<them<dee$ MaOers of R^ika^ fteed ahtirF^^KC^K.;/ 
Winasr i^ttartersm its NdjgUioafhood. .7hd Maitfial 
^i&En: aheir General bad -ftveral Imarviefra iMrii 
Primtt! A^jawy who from Time* &» Thno gaea ^an^Ae- 
coenrd: their €onferei*:es.ao Uie.Dietf t.and- he oen- 
ftaadf vepreianSad «hat she oentiouing of dMiWar * anih 
yH%duT was th^ only W<a)ic to obtaiO' aw^dvanCageaM 
Peace* .■..■,••..'. .'.5;*. ''./x --J 

The 



j8a Of the G i R M A K- B U p -tR <; 

PreUminatits AH the ESbM :4iO#ev«r of cte jOMM^nsitit^Rg 

met jit'ditf- next Spring at fbt^^ddt? \Jtv^fy^\iisol^^f^ 
Preliqiimritfi of « Tr«at)r f o^ ivliidi^ 4h«iTmjiii«»^ <>f 

Tnaiyf • The Bmpofor aomaimed *eiOieUridi ahdifc 3h«tN 
Badm. laiuriei;^ mA^efimdithttt &teh PriciOMi^f tlibtEtopilt 

ftnd MeniiNMntkiffef } W'Afit9iK;r%' vMk:^ '«hM «lick ^i^iacB 
ttlptmMi for 'finMbteg ifce graft W«ifei>fj>««iMii^ W 
imtMwer biti ib^ fc»ttot4irith«ni. - di'':#wc>li«i^^ 
refolvod mtbe I)iet iter die £vfi]»wi^AMildtituii^4rilt 
Powfcrto tueac fcrtbe' Brnpfcec JBttMiw^ ft rn dHi i wi ^^* 
«lar<dt tbtc the fbuith>itotdleof the nProR)^ dtftJBj^Mtf 
^concemtng Rdigmi ou^t^be-fo CK| i liiiiit4l )<n^thrfn<t<r 
Treaty m» not to dcto^ifCe^ Ictim clitf iriiMtf>9(h0%li^- 
2ff7. ThisOedantion wa»foppoftdoi^tto^«(ki^^ 
aod bur little' attended to by the Emp6iW| tfoftliiii not- 
withfiandiog.fikeiiiflriced Efibm of ^ ^rtii ^P n ott i i tt 
PwuBcrs the defined Explication was >aog>iiftj te d i{$ the 
Tr9uty of Ba^/gff. *• •>"" " •-. -^:^5i/b^^ni ua.v 

^^ oM/i^ /]&# Inthe Year 1715 A^kewas refetved^#«l^ ^#:Ziii- 
TuftKs, ipeiial Minifler ztO$^^aMHmpIet}^tp€m^9n^fwAtfhi 
17 15* :for War were making by the TW-^i.' A'9W$&>Aft 
^betng in the fanwe Year fent to /^Va/t^^ Prili^t#i;f^»i«#,fn 
« an Audience' he gave him declared platiib|v4faiit iitilift 
the Differences betwixt the ^Itait afttf 'lito-i(«^b- 
« JMc of Vinkf were amicably deter«tfip»ed^*hi8 ^iM^rial 
Majefty would be under a^Neoefity^f jt^iiaii^itHe/^a^- 
$mm. The Turkf^ who were-inittfft t^t0f»collqiferi9gitbe 
Jdtr^a and unwUlingt that the l^pilP^^'tbikUiht^- 
meddle, had fent this Aga toi^ji»<rot|tfiirpbl^ to^pvo- 
rcm ai Ruptures fiot the Eanpcror ffinding^Bbeyofraitt- 
esd «aif 10 amiire liim prepared fop Wa^; < dbmriOlher 
Prop^itioa$ joined with Threataiingsiwert4W|d^'^y>«be 
^^/stiVjvi to ^e bnpertal MHilfltr:- Yet^notwitHftaMifeig 
<llMfe a defenftte League- W9» iigned •lirl^:lhtq^«iiMibi 
againft the fmfi. and Tmops vv«re 'fetft ^tMii BioA- 
t^mof Utag^ry. 'i v;) fio -ri; ;. ... ^ 

Shortly 



Of the G E R M anEwpirJ; ^ 3*j 
Slloftljf.afterilrc Sirliwerc Myen by Genord Lef-TiiTvtiKs 

wa^^mH^ni Carl$miz^ Prince £ugent came nprwitfa 
tWs -^orxthe fikb ^ Jf^ i. i!»ndr yitfter a moft inltody 
Action, in which the Grand Vizier and ten l^TAinHs Battle tf 
Hfitt^ tmm, AiB^Gbrtftiaiilb took I7crPiee0!l!oFGariffon,PBrERWA• 
'the «iHiteiffy £)bcift antd ftU' tbe^ft^ggageof t^^Seriv. rapir^ 
The^viflsifiaus Arniy tMivbg^tfterWAitfir befieged ^rm^ 
fwi^^^ whicli Hibe' Capituladoa wm j^oecb tlifc jrjlh 
^ USfftfilr^\Ptiw^ Mtlgmt N^ira4<«krPwtiflniMif ef 
thift'MMie JMd'thch pUt hit Ttoopi iotocWinA^r ^mmri. 
'Vti€f*.iii^ iK»f' k9!N^i>er eoiotimie -qaltt inaAilpe;i'^^ 
0pM(^Jfiri«»tf/#«QcweMQraf^'7^^ had iiis Q«M* 

Ml^i^jho Ckpifll <of- this Province beat itp by a Fan'tjr 
•Ct^iiMKIttt. ^Mbwr^^^mAtf^ HoJ^dttr^ W^kckiOy '«nd 
fiMlnil/4Qtiier .Sktm»ilhe»"teppcMi-e' But na grett*Ad- 
?WiiM»'lMMH^girtned> This Ycftr^wat remarkable Ar 
the Bbth'hf m Arehdoki^: fitit the Joy therdbv bccafi* 
7MNt^!M vtty Abort} for beTdied -withift a few Months. 
c;< \Th#rOfMltiiMi9 -of the next Qampaign cdmmenctid 1717. 
witlvcbe Siege of BifgPsie; which Was mwlMi otrtHc Battle of 
9&\M of^hmf. Th^ 7iiM^ii attempted the Relief of ^thiiB^i-cRADE* 
ID«W;^^f|tt«€hiiig the Imperial Atmj on the 15th of 
J^^^^ blit heiiig after an Engagement of five Hoars 
agaio dMifeflUcdi ' they loft 1 3-1 Pieces of Gannon, iy Mor- 
UMn '5ai^Co|0««rs'«nd;ftine HorfcHails ; and the Tow^ 
eapitlMat^two^Diiysiaftef^ > 

AHAr this^ figul Vidory the Stiltan made Pr^po* x?!^- 
- fats: «f'-Pe«oe at 4he Court of Fimia ; and a Oongi^s^'''^'^ •/ 
vbeingi next. Year heWiat Paffirmitz a Treaty was*^^**'^*^' 
1^ IhtiMfldi^tion of England und HMand conchided^*^** 
on. the ffoliowing Terms : That thfc River Jluta from 
-itfr'jeoming'Out. ^f7r4t$^ania to-'its falling' into the 
^iQmrttM! ihould \H oA" that SMk'^the Botmdary of the 
twoif/&hpMe»t t\mTemi/ukieri Btigradezxk6 all the 
•lOHher Tpwn> and Countries, conqncrdd in 4his Whr 
ibnidd ber«9ed^ ioc the Emperori^that Prifonei^ en hcUi 
Side^ (boid# >e^ delivered op!^ that JRagatztii Berepfimi 
'" and the other Refugees 0iouldnot beftifi^dioftay in 

1 < Turkeys 



3<4 Of the G E R M.Ai* E M p i.R it* 

Turk9fi auMi that (hit Ttma^ fh^ bft twn^-^ye 
Years. Alihoiigh this Treaty «ra» ib Jifedy»n*1B»<>^ to 
tb« Tirrii, tod the Emperor't bong at Wur wkli,4i^^ 
foon offered a favoufaUe OppoitiMii|r ^ hfrahai^ Ui 
yet it was obferved by thein« 
Charles The AcGeffioa of Spain to the Trei^ gf ^fodn^i 

cbamgaSk^^- JRIimM fervod oiily to pave the Way fer Pence } for 
DIN lA/er A>ine Things remained to be Icltled befem a food Uo- 
Sicj L Y. derftandiog could be eftahiUbed haiwi|$,tb« Empfiior aod 
jS;^, It was agraed by the other oonm^king Baftif $, 
:tbai tb« Kiog of S^wl§ fliould btve the jCiogdom fd Sar- 
Jim0 and sive up t thai of Sia^HO thf £iOlWOr | but It 
was infiiled upon hf Phi&p^ that jiW^r flMrid in M(b die 
Emperor died without Iffiie vevM V» 4(^aMh : Tho- Cfk- 
paror refuled to coafimt thormo^ ^and ^tbo S^oiitftfOf the 
, Javeftiture <A Don CarMs to tho Dnifshw Jif IWiw, 
PUcifuim and 7i^o«y» ma another Thtog whkh ot.that 
Time could not be; i|greed upoo* JFhW^ Ulowi(Bt Mug 
Mcoociled to Sp;«ftn grew cool to. fihit Imaifft ^ilF. the 
EjGPperor ; but tbofe two Courts faaing ogiiio ^ol^oiM 
by the Death of the Duke of O^lnm. wi tho/qndiog 
.Jbapk^of the InCigui, a Trepqr Waa 10 Ibo YeairT725 
conduded at ^/V«wi. betwixt the Ettipiror atid Sp^tim. 
By this Treaty |be Egiparor made a Ceffioo of the 
Tnatyof whole Spanifi? Monarchy ei^cepr-the NHtfrlm40, the 
ViBNNA, ,MiUn$fi^ Naples and Sicily %o Philip^ who io^j^eturn 
1725' beftde^ the large Subfidies he engagpl to pay Ae Eaipe* 
. ror granted confiderabie Advanlagias to the (^md Qe!i9- 
pany. As this Company, et firft fet qo Foot hf kfs^ 
SngH/himn whct prefermd. their /private Intereft^tA that 
of their Country aodxafterwards eou^tteoanced by * Char- 
ter from the Emperor, was already got into a QotifilhiQg 
Coodttton, it. gave great Uneafinefe to ii^lsnd^ france 
4104 Great Britain ^ko all united in endeavouring fco fup- 
^prcfs it. i^&'/r^ depending upon the Emperor's Affift- 
ance* which he thought .nimfelf fufficiently entitled to 
by the Subftdy he hajd already paid» imdertook £oon 
after the Siege of Gibrakar : But not beir^ aUo to 
Siegi tf/'GiB-* carry this Place he laid hold of the Opportunity of the 
aALTAR. figning of the PreUmmaries of Pari$ to xaile tie iie^. 

The 



tj ihe German Empire. .38^ 

The£»peDMV who wm tinwiiiing to break with Great-^ 

Britobi^ Arefecitig tliac the Peace moft be genera^ or 

that aiik&esy^ ivoohl be involved in a War agreed at laftosTENo 

to fuipend the Charter of the Ofttnd Company, hn Company fi/^ 

entijr«Siippreffion*of thbCoitipitttiy was defired; but hispended. 

Imperial ^Majdfly woiild by no Meahs confent to deprive 

his Sub^jeSb fopever ef a Corhmerce they had found fo- 

profitabJe* 'Every thing feemed now to be fettled, and 

nothing :liut the Meeting of the Con|re6 at S(nJinfto 

be waoKd} hut Pbitip^ fearing the fix tfadofarid '$^(^ 

Trooips ;wbo< were tei te pot into Parma^ Platentia and 

Ti^^Ma^would^aoi? be fuiKcient to le^re the Sfteceifion 

of.^hefei Jlutclnes to .Don Garki^ defired that the fix 

Thouiand«Tfoof>6 might be^ Spanifi. This was con-' 

fentied to ;by»tbl: AUiei' of the Treaty of Hanover^ 

but..tho ElufMsrof . itifiHred that ittwouki be a Departure 

frqm the Tn$ty of « ^uadrtfple Miami. The AlKes 

of the:TnealyQf Hmwer^vk afterwards oblige them* 

felves ^v the; Treaty of Si^Ul\ to afiift the King of 

Spain in introducing Don CVar/^J" with fix Tboufand $pa^ 

nijh Troops imoi Italy % but the Enap^ot taking Advan^ 

tage of. tbe Delay in doing this fern Troops into Itoly ; 

by wliich.. tbofe'of Spam were for fome Time kept out 

of the DuttJhy of Parma.. 

Charbs.^)^ was in PoflciSon of the Empire, the^, p 
K\ngdQm%.Ql Hmgary, ffokefma and Napksy znd ^^^j'/sk^c^^ 
not given. ovei aU^Thoughts of the Spanijh Monarchy, ^^^^^^ 
the Ticlea of which he Aill tetained^ appointed by a per- 
petual and irrevocable Decree, that if he left no Male 
JfTue th^ Au/irian Succeffion fiiooki pafs entire to the 
Archdtttcbefies hia Daughters in the firft Place; to the 
Archdutcb^iles hi$ Neices in the feeond Places next ta 
the ArcbdutcheiloB his Sifters } and that it fiiouid for-* 
ever after go entire to.the next right Heir whether Male 
or Female. The better to efFcftuatethi* Decree, vrtiich 
was called the Pragmatic San£ii9n\ the two Archdutcfaefles 
his Neices were obliged, before their refpefiive Mar- 
riages with the Prince Rc^al of Pciand and the elec^ 
toral Prince oi .Bavaria both afterwards Eleftors, to tt* 
nounce their Pretentions to the Aujlrian Succefiion with 
all the Oaths that miftruftfut Policy could fuggeft^ This 

Vo&. I< Cc Difpofuion 



386 (y/i^ German Empire. 

Difpofition was applauded by fome Powers ^ who thought 
it of vaft Confequence to the Tranquility of Europe to 
have the Pofieflions of the Houfe of Auflr'ia remain un- 
divided) that the Power of this Houfe might be always 
a Ballance agatnft that of the Houfe of Bourbon : But it 
was apprehended by others and by fome Princes of the 
Empire, that thereby was laid the Foundation of a very 
formidable Houfe, which might in Time entirely de- 
ftroy the Liberties of the Empire and of all Europe. 
Amongft other Inconveniencies it was obferved, that 
an Heirefs of this Houfe would by marrying into another 
Family always annex the Dominions of that Family to 
the Aujlrian Dominions ; and as nothing thus annexed 
could be ever after. feparated again, the Uominions of all 
the Families, which the Auftrtem Heirefies might from 
Time to Time marry into, would in the End be fwal- 
lowed up by the Houfe of Auftrta. The Pragmatick 
San^ifon was however confirmed by the Empire, the Exsf 
peror having firft declared that he did not thereby mean 
to prejudice the Right of any third Perfon ; and Spain 
engaged to guaranty it by the Treaty of Vienna, The 
fame was afterwards done by Great Britain and Holland^ 
for the fakeof obtaining the Emperor's Confent that 5^^- 
nifl) Troops (hould be introduced inftead of Swifs into 
Italy: Yet the Emperor as long as poffible retarded the 
Introdudion of Don Carlos xnto^ItaJy ; and notwithftaod- 
ing the repeated Sollicitations of Great Britain would not 
confent thereto, until he perceived that Spain having loft 
all Patience was determined to break with him* 
JVar on Ac- Sometime before the Death of Auguftus King of Po- 
£ount of the land this Prince, who wasquite diffatisfied with the Prag-- 
Polish EUc- matick San^fion, grew cool to the Court of Vienna and 
tton. fgnj Minifters both to Paris and Munich j but the Bufi- 

nefs they went about was never made publick. The 
Court of Vienna perceived plainly enough the good 
Underftanding betwixt the three Courts, and took it for 
granted that the common Intereft of the Courts of 
' Saxony and Bavaria had united them againft the Prag- 

matick Sancton 'y which France had all along refufed 
to guaranty. The Poles on the other Hand, fofped- 
ing that the D^fign of Auguftus was to make the 

Crown 



Of the G E R M A N E M P I R E. 387 

Crown of Poland hereditary in his Family, oppofed hint , 
in all the Diets which he in the latter Part of his Reign 
affembled y and formally addrefled the Emperor and the 
Czarina to proted their Liberties. The Emperor picafed 
with this Opportunity of fhewing his Refentmcnt to 
Auguflus marched a body of Troops into Slefia ; and 
the Emprefs of Rujfta had an Army ready to march to 
the Afliftance of the Poles. The Crown of Poland be- 
coming vacant at this Junfture the young Ele£Jor of 
Saxony^ being difpofed to re-eftablifh the ancient Harmo- 
ny with the Court of Fienna^ came into the Emperor's 
Scheme as tp the Auftrlan Succeiuon and broke oft" all 
Negociation$ with France : Upon which it was reiblved 
by the Court of Vienna to fupport the Election of this 
Prince to the Polijh Throne. Stanijlaus who had been 
once in Poffeflion thereof was again eledted by one Party : 
But another Party countenanced by a Ruffian Army 
chofe the Elector of Saxony Son of their deceafed 
King. The Emperor relying upon the Afliftance of 
his Allies carried it in this Affair with a very remark- *| 

able Animofity to France: But thefe Allies did not 
think proper to join with him in the War that enfued. , 

The Dutch told hiqp plainly before the Commencement | 

thereof that they would not, apd endeavoured by their H 

good Offices to prevent it : But thefe were rendered ufe- 
Jefs by the Hopes which th*e Briti/h Miniftry gave the 
Emperor of bringing in the united' Provinces. He was 
Jn this deceived 5 for they concluded a Neutrality with 
France hr Flanders which was religioufly obferved, and 
Y^eat' Britain did not chufe to engage without the Dutch 
in a War againft both France and Spain. In the Em- 
pire the King of Pruffta would fupply only his Quota; 
^he Elector of fiat/tfr/^ <:ontinued Neuter and put him* 
felf into a Pofture of Defence to prevent his being for- 
ced into the War ; and the ElecSor of Palatine excufed 
himfelf from giving any Afliftance, becaufe as he faid " 

his Country had fuffered fufficiently by the Neighbour- ^<- 

hood of t-hc two Armies* As to the King of Sard'nia 
he engaged againft the Emperor; and contributed very 
''^uch by his perfonal Valour to the Lofs of the Milanefe. 
Almoft all in Ituly was in this War loft by the Em- 
C c 2 peror : 



38S 0/tbeGERMAiiEMttlL g; 

Prtlittinanes pcfof : But by the Preliminaries figned at Vienna in Oc' 
•/"Vienna, £iober 1735 the Mayttuan arid Milanefe were reftored ta 
1735- him, except two Cantons which were referved for the 
King of Sardinia^ 
War <ivitb the Charles was no fooner difcngaged from this War than 
T^RKS, he entered into another which coft him very dear. The 
Czarina having complained at Conjlantinople of fome 
Breaches of Treaty by the Tartars the Emperor at 
iirft offered his Mediation : But he foon declared, that 
unlefs the Turks gave SatisfaSion immediately to this 
Princefs he (hould be obHged to affift her with alt his 
ForceSr The Turks took great Pains to prevent the 
Emperor's engaging in this Quarrel ; nay they went To 
far as to tell him, that if he was obliged by Treaty to 
furniih Troops to RuJJia this might be done without 
coming to a Rupture with them. They moreover re- 
prcfented that although he was in Alliance with the 
Czarina he was no lefs (o with them : But the fame 
bad Council which had led Charles into a War on Ac- 
count of the Succeifion to Poland didy notwithftanding the 
Endeavours of the Powers well aflFei^ed to him to prevent 
it, hurry him into this againft the Turks, The Impe- 
rial Miniftry feeing that France had n#t difarmed thought 
it convenient to keep up their Forces : And as Italy had 
been ravaged by numerous Armies for three Years fuc- 
ceffively, and Bohemia and moft of the hereditary Pro- 
vinces were exhaufled by the Subfidies they had furnifli- 
ed, they imagined that a Rupture with the Turks would 
put it into their Power to fubfift their Troops in an Ene- 
my's Country., They had moreover Hopes that their 
Conquefls on the Turks would make good the Lofs of 
Naples and Sitily : Which had been ceded to Don Carlos, 
The Event did not anfwer* their Expeftation ; for their 
Troops which took the Field in very good Condition 
were by Fatigue, Sicknefs and Lofles in Skirmiflies, in 
a great meafure dcflroyed. The Generals were blamed 
and changed; yet the Turks maintained their Superiority : 
And Belgrade which they afterwards befieged being re- 
duced to the iaft Extremity the Imperiaii/is were forced 
to make a Peace, The Negociators were called to an 
Account fox concluding this Treaty, which was indeed 

very 



O/" /A? German Empire: 389 

very difadvantageous j but as the ill Succefs of the Impe- 
itialifts had made it neceflary they were obliged to fubmit 
^thereto. France was during this War faithful to her 
Engagements with ^he Emperor; and had by her good^ 
Offices a great Share in bringing about the Peace. 

The War which broke out betwixt Spain and Gr^^z-Cni^RrLES 
Brrtain put the latter upon renewing the ancient Syftem ',i^'"' '^''^ 
according to which the Houfe oiAufiria and its Allies ^'^^^'^*^^^" 
were always ready to unite againft \\\zioi BourhBn. TheT^^'/" "Z^^^fi 
Briiijh Miniftry amufed the Emperor with the Hopes of 
•conquering NapUsy and with a View to this broke the 
Neutrality that the King of the>two Sicilies had declared 
for during the War with Spain; but the Death o^ the His Deash 
Emperor which happened on the 20th of OSfober 1740 i704» 
entirely changed the Face of ACtirs. 

The Archdulchcfs his eldeft Daughter and according uis Daughter 
to the Pragmatick San^ion univerfal Heirefs of the Au-is attacked j>h 
Jirien Succeffion, who had married the Duke of LorrainallSidH, 
now become Grand Duke of Tufcany^ found herfelf im- 
mediately attacked on ail Sides. The King of PruJJia 
entered Silefia with a large Army to recover a part 
thereof, which as he faid had been unjuftly taken from 
his Anceftors ; the Eleftor of Bavaria and King of 
Spain difputed her right to the whole Avjirian Succef- 
iion, and infifled that their }ufl: Claims could not be feC 
afide by the Pragmatic Sanation \ and it wasrefolved in 
the eledloral College to fufpend the Vote of Bohemia* 
The Archdutchefs in vain endeavoured to furmouut thefe 
Difficulties ; and fuch was the Confufion in Germany that 
the Eledion of an Emperor was for fome Time deferred. 

The Inhabitants oi Germany are a brave and warlike ^^^,^^,^^^^ 
People, nor is there any Country in Europe where ifQERMAN^. 
Money be not wanting fuch numerous Armies of Horfe 
as well as Foot can be raifed. The Germans are not 
only good Troops in a Battle ; but they can alfo en- 
dure well the Fatigue and other Inconveniencies of 
War. The Cufiom of letting out Troops for Hire does 
not aoy whese 4}revails fo much as in this Nation. 
The Germans are fond of Tirade and dextrous in all han- 
dicraft Employments. They are generally of an open 
Mdefigning Difpofition; and value themfelves much 
C c 3 upofli 



390 Of the German Empire. 

upon their Faithfulnefs. They are not prone to Sedi- 
tion ; but on the contrary do moft willingly fubmit to 
the Form of Government they have been accuftpmed to. 
Situaiian and Germany is bounded on the Eaft by Poland and Hun- 
Commoditiet ofgary\ on the South by Italy \ on the Weft by France 
Germany, and Hollands and on the North by the Ocean and Bal- 
tick. This Country which is of large Extent is full of 
Towns ; and it is in the general fruitful and well (locked 
with Cattle of all Sorts. It abounds with Mines of Sil- 
ver, Copper, Tin, Lead, Iron and Quickfilver; has 
many Salt Springs \ and is well watered with fine navi* 
gable Rivers % as the Danube^ the Rhine, the Elh^ the 
7Ve/er, the Oder^ the Main^ the Mo/el/e, the Dravfy the 
JrMy the Saltz^ the Lechy the Necker and fome others. 
Its principal Commodities are Iron and all Sorts of Iron 
JnftrumentSy Lead, Quickfilver, Wine, Corn, Wool, 
divers Sort of Linnen and Woolen Cloths, Horfes and 
Sheep : So that if the Inhabitants would either apply 
themfelves to the Manufacturing of thofe Goods which 
are imported by Foreigners, or be content with their 
own Manufactures, the Exports from Germany would 
vaftly exceed the Imports ; and as it is fo well ftocked with 
Silver Mines it muft neceifarily grow rich. 
Of the Q^^- The Titles which at prefent diftinguifli the German 
MAN P;iW^/. Princes were at firft fo far from being hereditary, that 
the Perfon honoured with one of them was not fure of 
enjoying it until his Death. Duke is derived from the 
Latin Word Dux which fignifies a Condu£lor or Leader ; 
and the Germans^ to (hevv that it was at firft the Office 
of a Duke to lead their Troops to Battle, gave him the 
Name of Herixog that is a Leader of Armies. Sovereigns 
had formerly no fixed Refidence but fpent mofl of their 
7 ime in pafling from one Province to another, to hear 
the Appeals of their Subjefts from the Provincial Judges. 
In thefe Tours they were accompanied and affifted with 
the Advice of fome difcreet Perfons, who were called 
Counts from Comites Companions. As it was however 
impoifible for a Prince whofe Dominions were extenfive 
to vifit them often, and dangerous to leave large Pro- 
vinces entirely in the Power of Judges, Graves a German 
Word fignifying aged Perfons were appointed to govern 

them. 



0' 



the GermanEmpire. 39.1 

Some of thefc who governed whole Provinces 
Med Landgraves ; others who governed Frontier 
ire called Margraves ; others to whom the Charge 
rtant Places were committed were called Bur- 
% and there were fome who took their Names 
le Places they prefided over, as Rhinegrave from 
^ng upon the Rhine, Counts were alfo frequently 
. ied to Governments ; but being by their Attend- 
in the Prince prevented from difcharging their Duty 
overnors perfonally, they were allowed to fend De- , 
k who were called Vifcounts. The long Continu- 
jof Governments in the fame Families, together with 
paaftivity and declining Power of fome of Charle- 
jfs Defccndants, gave many Governors an Opportu- 
jlo {hake off the Dominion of their Matters ; fo that in 
j^efs of Time Germany was divided into a Multitude of 
rereignties. As the Emperors have never been able to 

fin this loft Power, the German Princes both eccle- 
ical and fecular, although they have as VaiTals of the 
lapire Come Dependence upon the Emperor, are by no 
leans to be confidered as Subjeds ; for they have all the 
Irerogatives of Sovereign Princes, fuch as to make Laws, 
Din Money, raife Forces, .make Peace and War ; and 
jhey have an abfolute Power over the Lives of their 
Subjefts. 

Of thefe Princes is compofed the Germanick Body tht Of the Ger- 
Head of which is called Emperor of the Romans ; for heM anick Bo- 
ftill retains this Title, although the Sovereignty of Rome^^* 
which was by Oiho L annexed to that of Germany has 
been for a long Time ceded to the Pope. The fupreme 
Power in Germany is in the Diet : Which is compofed of 
the Emperor or in his Abfence of his Commiflary, and 
of the three Colleges of the Empire. The firft of thefc 
is the ele<Soral College ; the fecond is the College of Prin- 
ces ; the third is the College of Imperial Towns. The 
Members of thefe Colleges and their Rank may beeafieft 
known by the Table of the Diet hereto annexed: In 
which A. fignifies alternately or that fome Families have 
Precedence by turns ; C. Concurrence or the Families 
which difpute for Precedence, Although the Emperor 
is by the Conftitution of Germany Sovereign only in his 
C c 4 own 



39? Of the German Empire.' 

own hereditary Dominions, it has jet been always ob-? 
ferved that Diets have been more or lefs influenced by 
him as he has been more or iefs powerful by his own 
Dominions. The Power and Priviledges of the States 
of the Empire, except fo far as thefe were fettled by thp 
Golden Bullj formerly depended entirely upon Cufiom 
and Tradition ; but by the Treaty of WeftphaUa they 
were (clearly and precifely determined. 
Di%^tfionoftbe The German Empire is divided into ten Circles ; but 
fmfire^ as that of Burgundy has never been properly a Circle, 

and was only taken into the Number by the Emperor 
jMaximillian for the fake of drawing the other Circles 
in to defend it when attacked by any foreign Power, 
their Number is in Reality no more than Nine. Every 
Circle has one or more Diredors ; whofe Province it is to 
maintain the Tranquility of that Circle in particular, an4 
to take Care that nothing be done contrary to the Inte- 
reft of the Empire in general. If any German State in- 
vades the Territories of a neighbouring State, or difturbs 
the Publick Peace, the other States of the fame Circle 
unite in making War againll this, untill it fubmits to the 
Decrees of the Imperial Chamber or Aulick Council: 
Both which Tribunals equally claim Jurifdiflion over 
the Members of the Empire. The former is fometimes 
palled the Chamber of Spire ; becaufe after it had been 
many Times removed it was at laft fixed at Spire by 
Charley V. In the late Wars between France and Get' 
many it was removed to ^Fetzlar, and has been fince 
continued there. The Julick Council was at firft infti- 
tuted to take Cognifance of thofe Affairs only which 
concerned the Subjefts of the Emperor's hereditary Do- 
ininions } but it has by Degrees meddled much in the 
AiFairs of the Empire contrary to the Inclination pf the 
Qerman Princes. 
p.fiasofthe Germany when the different States thereof are united 
pERMANicK will be always formidable to its Neighbours: But by its 
Confiituiion, Conftitutioi], which is neither Monarchical nor Repub- 
lican, it is vaffly liable to Divifions. As many of the 
Princes of the Empire were powerful as well as indepen- 
dent they were often fpirited up by the Popes againft the 
Emperors, fo that at laff having enough on th^ir Hands 



Q/* ifi&^ G E R M A N E M P 1 R E. 193 

to maintain their Authority in Germany the latter were 
forced to give up Italy, The Kingdom of Aries was 
alfo ]oft for the fame Reafon. We have no Account 
that any of the ancient Emperors attempted to make 
themfelves abfolute. The Spaniards^ or as others fay 
Nicholas Perrenot^ were the firft who put Charles V. upon 
this ambitious Projed. The £le<Slors had as much Rc;a«- 
fon to exclude Charles as Francis of France ; it being 
evident that an eledive Kingdom ought never to choofe 
a Prince whofe own hereditary Dominions are very con- 
fiderable : For fuch a Prince will either make the Intercft 
of his £le£^ive give way to that of his Hereditary Domi- 
nions, and employ the Strength of the former to make 
the latter more powerful ; or which is ftill worfe he will 
endeavour to make himfelf Mafter of the ele£live King- 
dom and annex it to his hereditary Dominions. Both 
thefe Inconveniencies Germany felt .under Charles^ who 
never regarded the Intereft of the Empire further than 
it was fubfervient to the aggrandizing of his own Fa- 
mily i and at laft under the Pretence of Religion en- 
deavoured to deflroy its Liberties. If on the Contrary 
the Electors had at that Time chofe an Emperor who 
had not any confiderable Dominions out of the Empire, 
he muft have feen, that it was for the true Intereft of 
Germany to be as little as poffible conne£led with either 
of the two powerful Nations France or Spain ; and to af- 
fift either the one or the other fo as to preferve the Bal- 
lance of Power betwixt them. By this Means one 
would have been prevented from fubduing the other, or 
from becoming confiderable enough to attempt any Thing 
againft Germany ; and it is likely the Emperor would on 
all Occafions have been Arbitrator betwixt the two 
Nations. Inftead of this Charles afifembled a Diet at 
Augfburg in the Year 1548, at a Time when the Prote- 
ftants were opprefTed and nobody dared to contradiA 
him, and ordered Mattery fo that the States of the Em- 
pire took upon themfelves the Guaranty of the Circle of 
Burgundy, After this Germany was forced to engage 
with Spain in all her Wars with France ; and to affift at 
the Expence of her Blood and Treafure in preferving 
(he Netherlands^ It muft be allowed to be of great Con- 

f<:quen^q 



Jf4 Of the German Empirb. 

fequence to the Empire that France is not Miftrels ef 
the Netherlands ; but as this is of as much Coofequence 
to other Nations, who are more able to bear the Expence 
of |;M:eventing it, there is no Neceffity that the German 
Princes fhould alone ruin themfelves on this Account. 
In purfuance of the Maxim he bad laid down of pro- 
' snottng the Intereft of Spain Charles endeavoured to fup- 
preis the Proteftant Religion in Germany : For without 
mentioning, the Impoftures of the Romjh Religion aoy 
Emperor, who meant only the Profperity of Germanjj 
would have been glad of this favourable Opportunity to 
have freed himfelf from the Tyranny of Popes; and to 
have feized for his own and the publick Service the fu- 
perfluous Revenues of the Church. If he had fet about 
thefe Things in good Earned it is likely the Reforma- 
tion would have had the fame Confequences in Germany 
as it had in Swedetiy England and Denmark. The Spa- 
nijh Maxims which were laid ailde upon the Death of < 
Charles were again very warmly purfued by Ferdinand 
II. and amongft other Mifchiefs were the Caqfe that 
many States of Germar^ did for the Prefervation of their 
Liberties enter into Treaties with Foreigners. By this 
Condufl their Liberties were indeed preferved : But it 
would have been better for the German States never to have 
had fuch Allies, who afterwards too well knew how to 
avail themfelvM of their Divifions. As there are ftill in 
Germany fome Remains of the Spamjh Maxims it is 
reasonably to be prefumed, that JealouTies and Difcords 
will continue to prevail among the Members of the G/r- 
manick Body. If the Emperor and the German Princes 
were heartily united a Remedy might be found for all 
thefe Evils \ but there are fo many Difficulties which lie 
in the Way to fuch an Union that it is hardly to be expec- 
ted. The firft Difficulty that prefents itfelf is the Differ- 
ence betwixt the Catholicks and Protefiants : Which does 
not confift only in a Diverfity of Opinions as to Articles 
of Faith but alfo in an Oppoiition of temporal Interefts. 
The Catholicks would be glad at any rate to be pof- 
ieJTed of what is at prefent in the Hands of the Proteftants; 
and for this Reafon they are fometlmes more governed 
by the Interefts and Paffions of their Clergy than the pub- 
lick 



Of the G ERM A iJ Empirb. 395 

lick Good. For this Reafon it may perhaps at fome- 
time happen, that if Germany be vtgoroufly attacked the 
Caiholicks will make but a faint Reiiftance^ aod fubmit 
willingly to a good deal themfelves for the fake of ruining 
the Proteftants. Befides thii the Proteftatits are very 
much divided amongft themfelves concerning fome Ar- 
ticles of Faith i and the Difputes on the controverted 
Points have been by the Warmth of their Preachers car- 
ried to Aith Lengths that they have all been on the Brink 
of Ruin. The Number of Members which makes up 
the Girmanick Body is another great Hindrance to their 
Union ; it being very probable that fame amongft {o 
many will on all Occafions ignorantly or wilfully differ 
from the reft : And indeed it would be next to a Miracle 
if fuch a Number (hould agree in any Thing. The 
Members of the Empire befides being numerous are un- 
equal amongft themfelves^ and fome of the OKHre power- 
ful ones, who aim more at their own Aggrandifement 
than the Good of the Whole, - would make no Scruple to 
opprefs or even to fubdue the neighbouring weaker States. 
On the other hand thefe laft finding no Security in the 
Laws attend more to their own Preservation than to the 
good of the Empire % and if they muft be opprefled 
are quite indifferent by whom it is done. I am unwil- 
ling to mention the Jealoufy which fubftfts between the 
three Colleges in the general or the Qliarrels betwixt 
the particular Members thereof; and fliould be glad if 
it was as eafy to find a pradlicable Remedy for thefe 
Diftempers in the Qgrman Conftitution as it is to fliew 
the fatal Effefls thereof* 

Although Croatia ?j\^ Hungary do, not Properly be- j^^^^^^ ^^.^^^ 
long to the Empire but to the Houfe of Aujlria^ ^^ Empire ^itlf 
very much concerns the German States to preferve i^ck^gganito 
as a Barrier agairtft the Turis. As the Grand Signior's Tvkky. 
Empire is vaftly extenfive, and his Revenue very large, 
he can confequently raife and fopport more numerous 
Armies than the Empire : Yet the latter has not* much 
to fear on that Side; becaufe the Pert muft to bring ^ 

a War into Hungary tranfport his Troops together 
with their Ammunition and Provifion at a great Expence 
from 4/^ ^^^ (hefe cannot eafily be fubfified there in 

the 



30 Of the German Empire; 

the Winter by reafon of the Coldnefs of the Country, te 
which they are not inured, and the Barrennefs of the 
neighbouring Provinces. Befides whenever the Port 
employs the chief of his Forces in Hungary lie is under 
a continual Dread of an Invafion from Perjiay or of a 
Revolt of fome Ba(haws : And it may be added that all 
other Things being equal the Germans are much better 
Soldiers than the Turks. 

Italy, The Power of Italy is not to be compared virith that 

of the Empire ; ^d being divided into many States it is 
not likely that it (hould attack any foreign Power, and 
efpecially the Emperor ; becaufe be is Matter of all the 
Pafles into Itaiy^ and it is probable that he would in 
fuch a Cafe revive his Pretenfions as Emperor upon 
this Country. 

SwissEit- The Swifs are good Neighbours to the Empire ; be- 

LAKD. caufe they have no Thought of invading it nor fuffident 

Strength if they were inclined to it* 

PoLAMD. The Power of Poland is by no means to be compared 

with that of (he Empire. The Cavalry of the Poles al- 
though very numerous is not fo good as the German ; 
and their Infantry is vaftly inferior and not good at be- 
fieging Towns : So that if the Poles had a Mind to at- 
tack the Empire they could gain no Ground therein ; 
becaufe it has fo many flrong Frontier Towns. On the 
contrary as the Frontiers of Poland are open it would be 
eafy for the Germans to carry the War into the Heart 
of this Kingdom. It is of great Confequence to the 
Empire to prevent Poland's falling into the Hands of 
any other Power; becaufe it is in the Power of 
thefe two Nations, by acting in Confort, to be of 
great Service to each other in their Wars with the 
Turks. 

UffPMARK. The Empire has nothing to fear from Denmark i for 
as the greateft Part of the King of Denmark's Troops 
are drawn out of the Empire, the recalling of thefe from 
his Service would fo leflen his Army as to prevent his 
attempting any Thing againft the Empire : Nor couid 
Denmark get any Thing by attacking the Empire i for 
it 18 not to be fuppofed that the Germans^ and more ef- 
^ecially the Inhabitants of the Circles of Upper and 



Of the German Empire. 397 

Lower-Saxon^i would fo far ncgleft their own Intereft as 
to fuflfer either Hamburgh or Lubec to fall into the Hands 
of the Danes. 

It js not in the Power of Great-Britain to hurt theGaEAT 
Empire except it be by obftruSing the Commerce ofBaiTAiN. 
Hamburgh* Inftead of doing fo, it feems to be for 
the Advantage of the Subjefts of this Nation to culti- 
vate a Trade with the Hamburghers. And befides this 
as the Empire can give vaft AiSftance to Great-Bri* 
tain in her Wars with any Power on the Continent, 
it is for her Intereft to be on good Terms with the 
Empire. 

It is not for the Intereft of the Hollanders nor have they Ho lland*] 
Power to attempt any Thing againfl the Empire ; be-< 
caufe the recalling of the German Troops in their Pay 
would almoft ruin their Armies. It moreover much con- 
cerns this Republick to be upon good Terms with the 
Empire that (he may have its Affiftance in cafe of an 
attack from her other Neighbours. 

Spain can never hurt the Empire except the Emperor gp^ju^ 
ihould unite with the Spaniards againft the States of the 
Empire. In this Cafe fomething might by the Help of 
Spanijh Gold be done : But whenever it happens other 
Powers will undoubtedly join in oppofing the Defigns of 
Spain. 

Sweden Is by no means a Match for the Empire, nors^soeif, 
is it for the Intereft of the Swedes to make any new 
Conquefts in Germany ; becaufe thcfe could not be main- 
tained without a great Expence of both Blood and Trea- 
fure. It is however of great Importance to Sweden^ 
that the Affairs of Religion and Government in Ger* 
many do continue as they were fettled by the Treaty of 
fFefiphalia. 

Frame is the moft formidable Neighbour of the Em-FAAMCH, 
pire. The latter if it was united can indeed ratfe and 
maintain more numerous Armies and recruit them longer 
than France^ and the Troops thereof are better than 
thofe of France \ but as the Troops and Finances of 
France are abfolutely at the King's Difpo(aI, and it com- 
monly happens that fome German Princes dp in Cafe of a 

War 



39^ Of ^^^ German Empire. 

War with France either remain neuter or fide with the 
French^ this Nation has greatly the Advantage of the 
Empire. Notwithfianding all this, as it is very pro- 
babJe ^that the other "Powers of Europe would join 
againft Frcinct in cafe of her invading the Empire, the 
Confcquences of iuch an Invafion might be very fatal 
to France* 



CHAP. 



59 



CHAP. VII. 
Of SWISSERLA ND. 

A S the Swifs Cantons were formerly dependent on 
j\. the German Empire, Ave fball begin our Hiftory^, j, 
oiSwtfferland with (hewing on what (^ccafion they ^'^'^ V^"'^ 
formed themfelves into a Republick. The three Can- /^^^^^^^^-^ 
tons of C7ri, Switz and Vnderwafdj called alfo the three ly ^^ /^^ £ 
Foreji Towns, did indeed always enjoy great Privileges,^/>^. 
founded as they indfted upon a Grant from the Em- 
peror Lewis the Pious j but thefe as v/ell as the reft had 
an Imperial Governor who had the fupreme Jurifdidlion 
in all criminal Cafes* There were moreover in Swijfer" 
land feme Monafteries which had their particular Privi- 
leges. During the Wars betwixt the Emperors and the 
Popes i^t Nobility oi Swtjferland, who ufually fided with 
the latter, encroached upon the Liberties of the People, 
who for the moft Part adhered to the former. The 
Animoiity hereby occafioned came at length to fuch a 
Pitch, that during the Interregnum in Germany z CW\\ Civil Wat 
War broke out and the Nobility were driven out of theSwissER- 
Country : But by the Interpofition of Rodolph I. mat- land. 
ters were accommodated and they returned home. 

In the Reign of Albert I. who firft prevailed upon theSwissER- 
Monafteries and Nobility to confent thereto, all Swijfer - hh^D/uh 
lemd except the three before mentioned Cantons {uh-to theHouf 
mitted to the Dx)minioft of the Houfe of Auftrla. Direc- Austria 
tions being, in order to force thefe Cantons to do the 
fame, given to the Auftrian Governors to treat them 
rigoroufly, Grrj^^r the Governor of Underwald had the 
Infoience to fix his Hat upon a Pole in the Market- 
place 



40 O/* S W I S S E R L A N 6. 

place at Altorf^ and to ordain that all who palled by 
ihould pay the fame Marks of Refpe<£l thereto as to hi$ 
own Perfon. 
Brti Con- •A Citizen named fVilliam Tell being obferved to 
^i^/WiL- pafs by often without doing this, he was fentenced to 
LiA Tell, beat an Apple from his only Son's Head with a fingle 
Arrow, and if he mifled it to be hanged. He begged 
carneflly to die without rifquing his Son's Life : But his 
Entreaties were all in vain \ for the inhuman Governor 
threatned if he refiifed to put them both to Death. 
Having luckily hit off the Apple without wounding his 
Son, Grijler who perceived he had another Arrow aiked 
what that was for ; and promifed that if he would tell 
the Truth his Life whatever was his Intent (bould be 
fpared. TeU aufwered boldly, that it was to have (hot him 
with if he had had the Misfortune to have killed his Son 
with the firft. Having paffed his Word not to put him 
to Death he fentenced Tell to perpetual Imprifonment : 
But as they were carrying him to Goal Tell made his 
Efcape. 
FirJnion of ^^^^ ^fter three of the principal People, namely 
thehH- Werner Stouffacber of the Canton of Switz^ Walter Furjl 
of the Canton of f/r/, and Arnold Mekhtale of the 
08. Canton of Underwa/d entered privately into an AiTociation 
for .delivering their Country from fuch tyrannical Pro- 
ceedings. As many other Perfons came info this it was 
agreed to furprize the three Governors in their Caftles, 
which contrary to ancient Cuflom they now refided in, 
on the I ft of January 1308. This Defign which was 
refolved upon the 17 th of September 1307 being hap- 
pily executed on the Day fixed, the three Cantons bound 
themfelves to ftand by each other in Defence of their 
Liberties for the Space of ten Years. From the Oath 
which was taken upon this Occafion the Confederates 
ufed to call themfelves Eidgenotten^ which in the Ger^ 
man Language fignifies Allies by Oath*, but as Switz 
was the Name of the principal Canton they have been 
commonly called by Foreigners Swijfers. In the Year 
1 315 Leopold Archduke of Auftria Son of Albert un- 
dertook to reduce them to Obedience ; and marched 
againft them with 20,000 Men. As the Aujlriam 

were 



TO> 



Cf Swiss ERLAND. 401 

were pifiog betwixt a Lake and a Mountain fome 

of the Swtfoj who were in all no more than 1300, 

rolled tbwn vaft Quantities of Stones upon them \ and B-ittU of 

being attacked by the reft in Front before they hadMo^cAR- 

recovered the Confafion this threw them into they were"^^^* '3'S' 

entirely n>uted near Morgartm. 

This gbricus Viftory encouraged the united Cantons Ua'^ue of 
to renew their League with the moft folemn Oaths ; and Bri/n, 1520. 
by an hSt figned at Brun in the Year 1320 it was made 
perpctuii. As the Defign however was only to maintain 
their own Liberties and not to didinite themfelves from 
the Girmanick Body, they on his confirming the League 
confemtd to receive Gov^nors from the Emperor 
Lewis IV. Having obtained from fucceeding Emperors 
the Libertjrof choofing Governors from amongft them- 
felves, they by Degrees got the entire Adminiftration of 
Affairs into their own Hands 5 and at length on their not^^^ un^t^J 
fending Deputies to the Diets as they had been accuftomed Cantons ^*. 
to do it was declared by the Treaty oi WeJiplTalia in i^^Jl^^^'^ from the 
Year 1648, that the united Cantms fhould forever be ex-^^''"^'^*^* 
eluded from the Germanick Body. ody. 

In the Year 1333 the Canton of Zi^r^ri;/ having rc-0/;&^r Can- 
volted from the Houfe of Avftria united itfelf to theTONs c0/«^ /»- 
three Cantons* Zurich another Canton did the fame'^/^^LEAcuB 
in the Year 1351. Not long after Claris entered into i35*' 
the Confederacy, and its Example was followed by the 
Cantons of Zug and Bern, Thefe Cantons had afterwards 
fcveral Wars with the Aujir'tans ; but the moft remarkable 
Battle, in which the Archduke was defeated and with 
niany of the principal Nobility flain, was the Battle oi Battle of 
Sempach in the Year 1396. The Dauphin of France Sluv hen ^ 
afterwards Le^is Xf. being come with a large Army 1396. ^ . 
in the Year 1444 to dtfturb the Council of Bafil^ a Body 
of 1600 SwJjfs fell upon him with fuch Fury, that vi- Battle of 
though they were after fighting with the utmoft Intrepi- Basil, 1444. 
dity to the laft Man all cut to Pieces be thought proper 
toretirtf. 

In the Year 1476 the united Cantons in Concert with War with 
Rene Duke of Lorrain, and the Bifliops of 5/r<?/3tfr^ Burgundy. 
and Bqfilv9ete engaged in a War againft Charles Duke H7^- 
of Burgundy ; the latter being ftirred up by Lewis XL 

Vol.. I. P d • who 



40* Of S W Jl S S EH vjL N\f|.' 

fome Wot »pm tinHttdy tv/Mxt^tlMiBaiofriUi^ 
peror Frtdtrick III. at the-JMe'Cimir ttdWianiiifi^^ 
Burgw^iMj mqoaragQdl the .Ac/^ Mtp ^SbTtgonMiny : 
But hoping Id g^tify the1ni|da<K«Ue Httmd ^Ibio fW 
inilj bjrkxvlng the ^tu;^ toMia Sacifiorioildittlim* 
Stance, ^he in a diert Time olappnttip afftpanpt^tRcsML 



TItm Viaeritf Ths Svsnt dU' not liover^r .biro^qut «b 4ud oma&ai; 

fmmi iy tbt hf libef defeat^ the .Duke ia tfate> fiifip^«s.<wifal 
wist. rTbefirftiraafbiight wKt^Gnm/imiti^c^kc^wdkiMrn^ 



«nd tke laftinwhicbhe was flain near iMupgri .fBf/Aek 

three Vidpries iht Swifs irha w«p^ vaftijf ^lirfifanQil'Jai 

Nmnber gained great Okfry, and i^iad^ tihelnftlm ^atfr 

.peaablcaHo?cr\£orijm. v ; " .-,.^7. if. 

9;^ 0f/^ In the Year 1481 the Cantms of ^Ihtg ahib&&«rr 

Cantons itnited diemfelvca to the odnfederaie: Cantam. ..JtijlKadd 

fMur /aftf /i^^ fcafkmfm did the fame io tkt Year. I50r^ md'tbcqr 

(j^rfidiraiy. Exam|>ie w^s foUowed 1^ Afpm^l wbkb ^waeiblict e^jr 

l«maintng C^aiOT. ' . ./ rf. >.:.•: r..^ 

iRcr w//^ /Ai In the Year 1499 the Emperor Maxlmii&an ^ffified bjr 

tm^tr. ' die Circle of Aa^Mj attack^ the &Wif\ ; hut As 4he iitter 

had generally the Advantage a Trearp iilaai condnded 

ivith this Empercnr under the Mediation of LtfmtJ)iAlf 

of AHl^n: Nor have any Attemptt'.been..wcQ^Jtek 

by the Houfe of Jujiria to bring them a^m under 

SuMedlion. MU^.c:-. 

reaty nviih ^^^ Swifs not long aftec enter^ uito %iTdeaty vttith 

R A lies. Francg ; b^ which they agreed in Confiderationof m 

annual Subfidy to keep op 1^ Body of Troopsioi' tbofiet^ 

•vice of LtmsXL of Frgn^i wbafaad cnr)erfiilo^.:the 

Kroofe tbey gave of their Valovr in ^ BflClie nt<iBd/il 

S'beSwtst/g'\^«^ foHciting it* Th^feTropps wierc 6f>gnte(bUfet9 hh 

mMlmetbtm- Son Ckarlgs Mill* in hU Expedition ^^is^^^ij^^ 

/il<vei inlrK> they nwde ftich Mavock with their brhad £wtMtcndd 

f:T- Battlei- Axes that Aclt^li^n^ whododainditk^ailiQtv 

incr Wars w<ro im Compaiifon with, this ooaaioioGBuh 

Childr«is'PIay» durft not look them in the^EaiceoHlTheiy 

alfo %iaU%ed thetnli^laes ib^theV/^iwit >Vaar afe£niA 

Xli. but the Honomr of da^,Sw^s. wa^JtalinA^dPbyt tbt 

Behaviour of fbaics. who rafter enieiing iatoishi^Se^ 

vice of lews Pake of Ai*Iak did (candxknifly' dkferj 

' wmi 



f; 



\ 

<|^-S w rs S'lTR i^ A N IX 403 

fim,::i%mAA:9i'thef prttopded thef could not figbt 
jjndliifll&etrtivfaGb^ inlthei^rim^ AnU^f and 

/IMp Tibtfy with A-^a^ bfraig expired . ia the Yetr 7-^^ ^^ ,Vo 
'^0 ih^ bnttftd into die Service of Pope Jn&is ILf hi Pope's Set* 
iraUedi^fm XIL vtho thought it unboconiing his'v/V^* 1510^ 
BiaiitylO'eaitipiy with the Demaadsof a lew Highlatod 
Paurmi;^ fat & facxaUed dieiii> wottUitot eacreafe their - 
Bebfiih c 'Bat it cdkFrma deir; for being employed 
Mfllai^lier hjr this Pbottfl^ thejr after defeating tbe 
Pfimcf^xUti vi^tLoTa nearAmtnt in the Year 1$^^ Battle a/ 
aibtigedthenal w evaenat^ Itafy. FaUrt^ afterwards into Nov^ara, 
lhir|ttrii^rtii^atfltoodtheI>^ who had isu* 

fliut himfelf up in Dijon toconfem to their own Terms,; 
vni wdidd thejr retite ftoin htfoit the Place till he had 
^dtftfU^iiled brge Sums of Monejr amongft them. As 
the 'King o£ Englimd had at the fame Time made a De- 
tdsskr^mfooi Ftaac^ it might have proved fatal Co this 
Kingdom if the ^wifs had not been made eafy at aiijr 
rtte.^'T,: . •• :* 

* In the Yta* 1515 thdj fdl upon FrancU L who xe-Battbcf 
fiified ip make good the Engagements of TrimmHlf^ itiMARicNAKp 
tb Camp nete MdrignaH ; and althcmgh thqr were for- i5>5* 
^afto'^eatLofton bodi Sides, the Aditon laftingtaro 
Bays, to retn% he thought iptoptt to pujthafe their 
Friendfliip with a round Sum of Money. 

By.xTicaty^condtided in die enfuing Year at Fri'Tnaffwfti- 
fcnrirwas among other Thinga agreed: ♦'That theteFaAacs. 
^ fluiddi be a general Amneflj; duit the Prifooers on 
^'bothT Sides fliauM be fet at Liberty without Ran- 
^ fom; !lhatl die Swifi fliould^ enjoy id) the Privileges 
•*» fitaat^dahem by the Proieccfibrs of Fnmch ; that^dtey 
^ mo^Here-inbnrfed thelMbney whicli the Siege 
^notb£^«8 and die War in Jlitafy h^ coft diem^; and 
^^tltat:i«itkr:.Power^iho]rid^ve Fafiage* throng Us 
'^rBoDNiiians Id* or affifr the Enemtea of the bther* 
^*^HThe^jSnB(fdy to-be paid for the future Was more* 
^^lokeb fixeS^ ^ahd.^n* order to prevent Difputes froni 
^ arifibgftachiftiwer ineOtioined txrtain. AlMes- againft 
**'Wfcfchciiil cafe'tyf a Ruptaee- betwi&t any of tfaefe 
^^d^^hotefaerit iwlDuld not affift*^* Aa Ftantis who 
D d 2 wanted 



^04 (ySwiSSERLANB* 

wanted fonjething further fpared for neither Pai*s noF 
A/loney another Treaty w5is co»clM4?fl in, .tl»f;,:Year 
1 521 } by which after con^rping (hfp j^ft ,)i^ ;\y^ jit 
Liberty, in cafe of ^n Attack iipop his ovfj^ Ki^^^m 
or the Dutcby of MHafit to levy any Nub^Jw. kf tij'f*^ 
6 and 160Q0 of the Swi/s wuhoot afking tbf Wgij^^ijat^ 
Confcnt. The t ay of thefe w^ fetdc<); nqd j; yraa 
farther flipulated, that if the Swi/s (hQ\iii be attapted 
the Fmch King (hould upon Demand fend homi ^b^jr 
pwn Troops^ and furniro^ihem with two. buivlred E^n- 
gine^rs aod twelve Pieces of Cani^pip ^ <^ |f -ttiejp, li^c^ 
it better 0)ould pay them \wo tbq^lan4 ^l9ri|P|i<9W$ \^, 
three Months as long as the War JaAf^p Th(^ *(^* 
/^« of Zurich refufed to eoter into this Treaty, |^eqa^lie 
Xuingl'ms- who was in great Eilfseai tifere repr^fqm^^t 
that the fuSering pf a foreign Fringe to raife Tioqa^ in 
this Manner was in eSedt filing the Bloo() pf tbcQl^YCS 
and their Children. 
Tbi'Rif»rma^ The fame Z«/;^/w, who began foon after. ^|</£^ (• 
tien begun hy preach publickly againft the Corruptions of the ttamifb 
ZvihQX-w^' Churcht having been remarkably a(3ive in fM^opj^ajfing 
his Opinion^:, it was about the Year 1523 agreed th^ Pif- 
putes upon the controverted Points Ibould be piiblickly 
held at Baden, In this the two Champions £cii^s 9, ip^- 
tholick and QecQlompadius of the reformed Reli^Ioniiid 
their utmofti but neither as it conpnxooly i^ppqn$ iq 
• Controverile» would allow himfelf to be confutf^. The 
Kpformation however gained Ground ; and A Genpfal 
Affembly being, notwiihftanding the Kt^^moqilr^ncc^. q£ 
the Emperor, the Bilhops di.Ccmfiance^ Bafily Laufiiifnfi, 
and iSi^», aqd thp Cantqns of Lucern^ UrK Sy;it2i^ l/n- 
deriuald^ Zug^ Glarisy Friiurg and ^oleure^ 9pnVj^i^jijby 
Zuingliui in the Year I5.'8 the Pofarines pf ttiQ.Cfijirck 
qf Rqwim were condemned. ..The Opinions ot, ^uivgliujf 
i^eing hereupon introduced* all ovipr S^rn^ ^R^^^^.-jW^- 
glve{) for its ^i(hops tp penoupc^ all ObefJieocis to |^ ^c^ 
of Rcme^ ^nd this Example was followed by fj}e Qagthnh 
qf Bajil and Schaffbaufen, This as it naig^l? jb«e ipippcf. 
ted made ill Blood ; but. the In^prudencf of j^)|e,^J[Q{iar. 
bitants of Underwald who prot^^led. fhe ^^evplt^r;} /jpia 
B$rn Qpnduced ipoft to (be embroijiijg pf tb« Qint^nsp , . 

Vpon 



Qf S W I 8 S £ R t A N D* 40^ 

tfpoill^the Reftrfiil Cf the Deputies of Zurich and BerH Vrfparatio'j 
\6 meet ttibfe of UnJi^watd^ whom they looked upon 2isfor a civU 
Efi*iWtei ^tothtv Cantons prevailed on the Canton oi^'^^- 
UkAr^af(H& at:knowtedge its Fault and promife not to 
fW tfte'Jfte iBgiift^. ' The People of Bern Who were thd 
Pirtiis mbie pflkfticttlarly cbncerned fecmed fatisfied there* 
^Vih f'^ycflM Zih'iquefe- armed themfclvcs and were ort 
th* FdiAt of attacfcJrig the Cantons of Lucern, Uri^ Switt^ ' 
Z«^ ^tAUndifWiild. Whether it was becaufe thefe fivd 
e^/^flifbrdfeetng the Storm which threatned them had 
befought the Emperor's Affiftance, or whatever was the 
K^fon,' the Inhabitants of tutkh did not pufli Things : 
AifdP %y an Agreement made fhortly after at CaJJelit 
wasf fettled, **• That there Ihould be Liberty of Confci- /f*reimnt $/ 
•* ^tW*c throughout Stefj^r/tf«i 5 and that the five Cj^-Cassel. 
*• t^s fhoiild retiouncc their Alliance with Ferdi^ 
" nandr and pay fomething towards defraying the Ex- 
•* pfe'nie Which the others had been at in preparing for 
** War." 

When the League of Smafkald upon fhe Succefs ofne dome/lki 
which the Proteftant Religion was faid to depend w as ^'^'-r el re- 
concluded in the Year 1531* the Inhabitants of Berne f^^^^^i ^Si^* 
and Zurich being refolved to ftew their Zeal for its Suc- 
cefs armed thtmfelves. The former Quarrel being here- 
upon renewed by the five Cantons it foon came to Blows ; 
And the Zttrlquefe were defeated with the Lofs of 400 
Men. Zuingliusy who had a Mind to let the World Death 0/ 
feehecould ufe a Sword as well as a Pen, being killedZuiNOLiVs* 
fn this Aftion at the Head of a Battalion of his Follow- 
ers, who are always fond of attributing fomething mi- 
raculous to their Head, gave out that lome Perfons at- 
terhpted to burn his Body but that the Fire would not 
lay hold of it. After this Battle Matters wctn accommo- 
dated f And it was agreed thit the Cantons (hould not 
for the Time to come moleft each other on the account 
of Religion. 

' The City of Geneva which had embraced the Pro-7^^^f au/7i& 
"teftant Kefigion being attacked in the Year 1531. by the Savoy cCft^ 
Duke of Sav^^y the Bernefe ^tid Fribuf^gcfe With whom ceming Ge- 
this City was in Alliance refolved to affift itj and theNEVA, 1534. 
/ • D d 3 French 



4<>5. Of SWISSER:L AN m 

parrel he- . The Abbots of 5/. GmUj one of ^pboos about the Endhof 
/!(;/>/ the ji&'tht fourteenth Century bought the Countjr of^o^nhtrg^ 
60/ o/Sr. l^ad been ever £nce making Encroachnaeutt upon the 
Gall tfW/^^Libertica of the Inhtbkants notwithftanding aa ea^re& 
I^hatitants £/ Condition in the Bargain to the contrary ; but thcftfe* 
Tog EN. f^^ Abbiit {Mjilbed b0 Autboifty further, dun aay of 
theai had door. A Difference hereby occafioned ajrifing 
in the Year 1701 the People cffiercd to refer it Miome 
of the Sviifi CaMiMs, Their Endeavours being-inlufiici- 
enc to re^MMcile Matters the Cantw of Rern^ as tbcie 
were many Proteftaots in that Co^nXy^ told the ^bbot 
plainly by X^etter^ that if he did not rerinftatetheST^^isif- 
kurgejiin their ancient Privileges, and allow themJa.abe 
£ree Exercife of tbe Protelldot Religion^ be- mud not 
take it ill if fiie endeavoured to fee Juiilce done pf his 
Subjects. Some Caries belonging to the Abbot being 
foon after f<eiz«4 by the Te^gea^rgeft^ whom tbe [{opes 
of AiTiftanp? from B$m had encowraged^ the Catbolicks 
|o<^k it ill^ but as the Abbot knew the Protiedant Party 
to be. mu^h the ftronger in SsmferUndj be upon a Pre- 
tence pf having, received the Invefliture of thss Covaty 
\xo^\ the Emperpr appealed to him. This Prince^lad 
of an Occ^&an u> meddle in the Affairs of tbf Jfnu/f 
Q^rtUm remoniUated againft tl^ Conduii^ of tbe^^m^.- 
But they detired him to roicolled that by the Treaty of 
IVeJlph^La^ SwiJJerUind was excluded from the Ger^ 
manuk Body ; and infified that he had nothing ta do 
\i\ this Bufuiefs. Neverchelelk, as the Abbot ^though 
be i^ad neither Se^t nor Voice la th&Oiet of the Empire 
^as A titular Prince th^sreof, an Imperii Com- 
fii^ioa was gr^pted } but as tbe Swifs Cantons w^ould 
not re^reiye it the En^ror, not paring to come-to a 
itup^ure-with tbei|i while he was engaged in a War;with 
/V^ivfi though^ proj^r 10 drop the Afiair. • ; . : 
HJHyriescom^, In^the Year 17*3,- the AUbot having put bisTfoops 
memei^t 1712. into Motion, for reduoing;6he Toginburge^^ the Negoci* 
^tioHS .% ^ Accjommodation) to forward .mbioh all 
i)^ CuiOfiifJi ^nd: ^fpeciiiU^ Frikurg wbicb. had .expended 
Jtf^:>Sop rCJf^v^ns ontj^e. Qcca&on had taken .greal 
Pains, were broke ofFi and the Inhabitants of^JBtm 
^uT^d Troops to maxchf^t&Mrds TcgiuBurg, As Reli- 

gio» 



Q^SWI8S£&LAND. 40^ 

ffon hml been for ibnc Tiiae ta?olv^ in this Quarrel 
the Gatbolick Omtrnts^ who were not Tatisfied with the 
Peclaracions of tbc others that they ooeant flothing but 
to 4^iver the People of T^genbrnrg from Opfr^feo, 
armed tf^mfelves ^ yet tli^ could not hinder the JunSioii 
qf the Xroo(i& of Btrn^ which had beta retnforced by 
foam obofeflu Men from GwMivaj with thofe of ZuruL 
A^ they had lazed. JTalf MUinfftm^ Brmsgiirtem znd 
Baden C^n&reocea were opened at i^nm-with the D»-» 
puties of Lucern and Uri: But in the mean Time the 
other Catholick Cantons had taken Ssifin iit Btm and cut 
to Pieces the Proceftant Qarrifoa there* They however - 
paid dear for thisf fof; the Proteftant Army coming «p 
with theirs near WUmn^giun fell i^n it» and WiAiOMSLBatth bf 
Ipftng above loo Men flew aooo en ^he Spot. TheWiLMSR* 
Con^remres at Arau beiag not Jong atfiter renewed »gubm. 
Su^jenfion of Arme was agreed Mpon betwixt the C^«- 
ioin % and £)nie few Perfons being banged ifi iMctm 
ifK endeavoaring to excite frefli Tfoublts every Thing 
rjemained quiet. Negpciations were new entered in-* 
to .with the Abbot; bui as be inftfled' upon bmng 
trealttd with as a Member of the Empire thdy camd 
to nothing* Hereupon the finiibing Band was put to 
a Treaty amongft the Members of th^ HthethJt Btdf^ 
Bijkbau bi the' Year 1714; and the Abbot who by tn-'^^^^ ^f 
deavouring at arbritrary Power had jttiUy loft his Domt-'^®*^"^^' 
nions retired into the ^iAwdj^. '7H% 

' Being not fatisfiedwiih tiie Treaty at that Time fiib#u# nevi Trea^ 
flying with the Cati^ms of Smfirkndi Lewis XlV.fwitb 
did 'm the Year 1715 ent^ into a new Treaty with dw^'^ANCE, 
GtoboHck Caatons and the People of Falm > the fifth Ar* '7i5* 
tide of which furprised mW JSurope* The Gonteiitsof 
^s were^ ^' That if the Hiimtick B$dy or any Member 
** thereof Choiiki be attacked by any Power his ChrijHaw 
** Majefty {houid affift the fame with fuch a Body 06 
^ ^ ■ Troops a$ the Cafe might re<|uire ; that if any Difiereiice 
^^ (hould ariie betwioct any of the^tfrt/^Jsxhis Majefty and 
^^ • bif SuCQs(&»rs Iboidd a$ the eommon Ff iend<3Hid Ally o£ 
^ iill ^,Cam6n$ and tlDstr Allies by his good Offices en* 
^i jdegvoarao recoinciie the Parties.; and if thefe fliould.be 
*^ f<^u^d iofuffckni that be (beuU ijfr ifanForce^ God 
i^ ' •* had 



'^h$i put into liif litttls, in oi4arfto:^oinp«lrfbe(i%r 

«^greft)r «> db/ueh Jailfteitt the Ttf atns 'MUtiK«fae 

<^ Gn^m ftnd cteir AUks had made iankngflb^ihtai^ 

V felvea aErigM-«tqiitte.. His 'Majefty inoMdva-rrcfik 

^*#IS^ for UmMf doid Eooceflbn Jte^guariofy.ittifiiA 

^ UHPeTrttalietirhichihotildbt'ffladebee^ 

M k«rt 0f the HthHhk JMyJ^ TSi^&Srvb^M^ Gmt^. 

lifir wIki biM'tK^Hand^n Ihia Tiattf were geciit)^'Cffi««» 

ecraed (» iee, tkat the Aiitheii^ wui ItifltKnee ^iRrimt^ 

\tt StvifirlaUd ^rntti theri^ cmki Much fdBtiier Ihatt 

Am hed ever bom hefiire. t. -» - \ 

Smi9ftbe I- The 5fM^ CbaliKr wouM'Mt meddle. in dthft.lV^iH' 

Camtons tf/ifhi^bfon Mt opon AocotfAt of tbelV^ EiofiiDKe 

/lfmfMiiiini]^(Qlg^ of them bjr joining thehr Mediafiott to^^ dnf^ 

mlijfmmaiwoi Frame had a great Share in quelling the Infurieffioa 

4U Q^nyi^, .^rtiieh happened in the Yeiir 1737 in Anmr. 

J^irr/ */• ^*® MitOitiik Buh is « Republkk eompola] jof ^» 

#A#Hblvb. ^^if^^cnCmuom nf Smfirtandi nttmlfZurkk^ Ami 

TICK Body. i^<aMrre, r/rr^ SitiiifiB, (Jmdtrwald, Zugf Gims^ oV^^' 

J^veitfjgf^ Sriiwt$^ SehtffbM^H And Apftuwl\ or AilKh- 

as the Town and Ahhjr of &. Ge^, tbe GrifmiiltSi^ 

FMi^ Gifiem^ MMaufm andjbme other ToWtmii 

and oiF dfi^ra Provinces and BaiUwicks b^^jsdi to vdtf 

GseiMi Off their AlKes. .V" - * 

KMnaiui The Vallies in Swifferkind are fniitful of Wine anct 

Frnhue §f G^m | Tict a» the mount^nout Parts yield onlfr Piaftitfe» 

SwiitiK. as ibe Ubabitants are numerous^ and as it is.im^ dif^ 

&*«^« fictilt to import Com, they feldom have enough ISsrtlieitf 

fuppoU. Henoe they look npqii it aso great<Kfisfor<» 

tiioef if tb6y have not once in a fe# Years iiigdnsid 

SickWs to carry off the Btnad^-uOtrs t- By wfatchlNiiMe' 

all their fuperfluous People end called. ;The.Manh»^ 

teinoitfoeftiif their Country has honrever Jthis Ad«iiiita|^' 

dmt AoDdb tO' them is in nsoft Pieees anid paetioufaK^w 

oe the. Side of jfitf^ very difficile. >;..jr!i *v'\\i 

GfittMs 9/ tbe TJieiSim^iareinthegenend^ftfinceiK^XBadflfig^ 

$wiss* ^0 People r and they value thenyfehree'^pattaadAering- 

iHtMiiUy 10 Mar tE^gcments, Thc^ tare ve^ goodi 

SoUiersi but as the infantry of other Natpum^ik vxah 

nn^ impfovad, arfd^lhe Beck £ word i^it^raMhish thqr* 

nuuie great Shuigh^er is nol n«w^«f«^ iQ:>Sun^pitbK^ 

s- ■ • aie 



Cf S Wl is iB » 1. ft N A ' 4U 

fi]ixftiPavtCfUnfir9ki«|.M9ni miitf PjriiiCe^ make Ufe <>f 
dmn w* &«aud8.y .^^o Troops boh»wtetl€r on a Di^r of 

ofiUtar; beuufa^ tbtjinlay Uufcnftlivi thtyifufer etlM^ 
^finG^iR Himgdriand Hardfliie^ If ttf^ I^)ieifHlelt 

dsBjr Jft dMgifeltm i^tiMa abf Powiir ii tooefitNy MkMutf 
psnd tb«p irociffti Hoiw \mmtAk$itiAy\ '^iMdi hcn^^ftait 
lb* ' Piwevb'A^ JrfM^ n.jis^; ^ Bf tbtiii Trcaiy^^icb 
Frame \t is ftipulated that theiOtiigfllta) Uti^-^klf^i 
ieCsKi^aic^ooo^of !dwin in I& Farf > md tli« Sm^i^ TVdbps 
«ret:ii0t tb lMr^pnifcdctoftbe£M 4li9tif thcMte^^^ 
fiauai^n of tkc Tseatjr tbof miqr Ins tbie t^^zSAtuk 
other» , ^ ■ • • ■ ' ' '•• • • ' ''-^ •'. . \ 'v-' 

If what k Mfumoiity faidy tl»t' ttie GmmdBnft Strength^ I 
idonewhidiiis indeed mi)cb tkelarg^ft ^n In the-SpaceSw^isf fi^. .^ 
of tbKevi>By»ieliM^ Foot aa Artnf of too,ooaMlft¥^ ibd^ l a k o. , ^ 
l^^the.fitMigth-of A^i^Ami^ 
siblei atid tke^5»^ mrg^t'vritbout Doobc. whcQ <hett 
Olprjr was at tbe . higbdl: Pkch hanre nade^ themftl v«i 
Maflfcs of thei^a»^ Curi^/raodgood^Part of Ldmt^ntfyi 
Tbe .aot: anemptiiigoC this was peebaps partfy dwing^m 
their natural I)irpofition to be conteht with Whit Sl^ 
Kave^ but if they bad attempted it their GoveriMent, "v 

ipdiicfa ia i|ioft of the Cmiam lodges die fupreme Fow6P m 
tbe I^ands' of Men of little Uaderfiandii^ atid fittall 
loDperiefii% k. oedculatedt toinrely for imicual DttfctiCtt * 
and is 1)y nc^ Meant- equfJ tc^ any great Uudertlixiif; 
The Dii&rence b^&eligian atnongft tbe Sm^ is slno^Sr 
Ofaftitile to tbe extending.^ of tMrDomimot}s;^fiM' as 
k«tb. P^rdeslare greatfy bigotced they will be alvinyi jea* 
J«ai» nfteoch otbert £o> tfa«t it. itrnot likely they Aiottld 
agnce' inaoj Thing except fixne oommon D^n|^foroe$ 
them thereto* As every Gantoa and Atly is mbUKwer 
%uhm rConflctnucin inr fome Sort an ind^^dent States . . v ., .; . .^: , 
te.is'obiirion)i|battbeCbondbof tbisRepublickin^^ .- 

^ #oa|^ '^ow and itivided ; and tdtim it may be imjiiit^ 
thaiy akhough .Che 5to/^^ir'nukneroui dnd brave^'idiey' 
hfffito fb««iiay Yean madi^^o other We iyi^tbeit^Vlilour 
tla*rtQ:4Bt*^ic.out to fiareicn Princes. * i -^ 

ri^ ♦ The 



4ta 



PO.WERI. 



GfiRMANT. 



France. 



Cf' S W^ » 8 fc K R L A N 0. 

Inureft of • ' TM S%»ifs hftte iiiQfdrifig to ftfrstr on the Side 6f Itd^^ 
SwissBR. httztak ttey arer more tbiti a Match for any one of the 
LAND, nvitbifaUan Powers. On the other Hind it b not for the In- 
Regard /• tbt |^^ ^f Sivfjitldfid to attick any Italian ^tnte | bttktxfo 
Italian ^^^ n^^ ^||,^ Arf/mi^ Slates wouM in fuch Cafe he ready 
fo jbirt agtfiirfl ber, fte inftead of gainilig woul J ^hap^ 
be inf th« Eii|d k Lofe^ thereby. 

it caA ne?er be fof their Intereft to attack Swtjfir^ 
ka$d% \mt if (Jjc whole Getmanick Bddy ftooH agree 
fd db thM, the Swift are afafe without metttionhig that 
fhejr woteht in fuch a Gafe be afl^ed by Frantey io tthkt 
i brave Defence. 

France feeilis io ht the only Power which tkit hurt 
iwijfetiandi and fome have thought that ftfe was t6 
blame in fuffering the Franche Compter which opens a 
Paiiage lAto her Dominions and enables the French King 
to levy Sotdiers on her Frontiers, to be conquered by 
the French. Howcvei* this was, ,it is as Things arri 
libw citcumftanced for the Intereft of the Swift 
lo bfc upon good Terms with France j yet they ought to 
be watcJhful thai (he does not become Miftrefs of the 
Towns which a^ a Sort of Barrier to them j namely 
Genevdy Newhurg m the Lake, Conjfance and the four 
Foreft fsivhs. Tht Swift ought alfo to take Care that they 
do not cxhauft their Strength by fending top many Men 
im& the Service of France ; and fuch as are fent ought 
jiot to be fulFered to continue long in this Service, left 
Ifeey (boiild gibw forgetful of their native Country* 
Whilft the Swift do not thwart the Defigns of France 
the latter is not likely to attack them, it being more 
for hfer Irttereft to make Ufe of them as Allies than to 
fobdue them : For hefides that the Conqueft of Swijfer- 
land wbttld-^cdft mudi Trouble the Irrhabitants could not 
Ufe- kept under without numerous Garrifons; which as 
the Revenues of the Country are inconfiderablfe mult 
Bd a conftant Expence to France. 



End of the First Volume* 




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