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Full text of "An introduction to the Irish language : In three parts. I. An original and comprehensive grammar. II. Familiar phrases and dialogues. III. Extracts from Irish books, and manuscripts, in the original character. With copious tales of the contractions"

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4m^-^<^<^ G^x£^ ^ 

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J^^^ . ^^-- 

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(.<i>n.onlRf^re^/ IN THREE PARTS. CC^^Ti'jfL bvw )^)'3 





mm COPIOUS tables of TwscqdnrMAcrioNS. 


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liarvard OoLe^e Libij^r, 

if f^i " Bequest oT 

Jeremiah Ouxtin 

BOlMOti^AY 4. i^K 



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The condescending attention, with which 
your Excellency has been pleased to patro- 
nize the following work, I shall ever grate- 
fully remember. It is consistent with the 
universal tenor of a viceroy alty, that is dear 
to the true friends of Ireland j ^nd in which 
the humblest attempt to promote the im- 
provement of the country is regarded with 
paternal encouragement. 

Such are the views with which this pub- 
lication is presented to the world, under the 
auspices of your Excellepcy; and I ain 
happy in taking this opportunity to declare 

Your Excellency's 

most obliged, obedient, 

and humble Servant, 


March 1, 1306. 

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His Excell^Dcy^ Earl Kaxdwicke, Lar4 I>ieuH»nant of IndattA 

in i30Q, PaUon. 
fiis Grace, the Dulfa of Bedford, Lord LieHlf^naaitof Iretend is 


RtT. CfaarljBsAfkiotoi), Forkil. 

The Lord Bishop of Sodor add Mao. 

Rev. Dr. Beaufort, CoUpn. 

J. Brownrigg, Esq. £ngia|ser to th.e Directors GfoeraL 

Robert Boyd, Esq. Acton. 

Henry Brabazon, Esq. Drogheda. 

Alan B^llingl^an^, Esq. Castle-Beflingl^an]. ^ 

Gerald Bynie« Es^. Dandalk. 

Mr. Edward Byrne* Dnndalk. 

Mr. S. Bryson, Belfast. 

Major Cregan. 

Rcy. Peter Carney. 

fiev. Edward Coates, A. B. Churchpoq]* 

•fos. Coulter, Esq. Dewdalshill. 

P<^ter Conolly, Esq. Whiterath. 

Mr. Michael Clarke, Builder, Dundalk. 

Mr. Marcus Cassidy, C^rricknacross. 

I^r. John Cunningham, Drogheda. 

Mr. Cartan, Pill-lane, Dublin. 

Mr. Cooper, Shepton Mallet, Somersetshire. 

Mr. MichaelCaragher. 

Mr. James CsJely^ Newry. 


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-^ Dunn, Esq. V. P. R. I. A. 
Rev. W. S. Dickson. D. D. Kesuly. . 
John Dawson, Esq. Newry. 
Mr. J. A. Dransfield, Dundalk. 
Mr. P. Deigban, Philomath, Dublin. 
Mr. James Dickie. 
Mr. Alexander Donaldson. 

. ■ . .. F- , 

Right Hon. John Foster, Chancellor of the Exchequer/ 12 

copies. ^ 

Sir Andrew Ferguson, Bart Londonderry. 
Thomas Filgate, Esq. Cookstown. 
William Foster, Esq. Proghodl^. 
Mr* George Forsythe, Kilmacayit, 
Mr. Bart. Flanagan, Drogheda. 
Mr. John Flanagan, Ditto.. 


George Gray, Esq. Grayn^onnt. 

Patrick Gernon, Esq. Drogheda. ' 

Mr. William Gataker, Dundalk, 2 copies. 

Mr, Hugh Gamble, Dublin. 

Mr. R. H. Getty, Dundalk. ' 

Rev. Dr. Hunt, Secretary to the Duke of Bfedfbrd^ when 

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
RcT. J. Hutton, Dublin. 
John Hardy, Esq. Dromart, 
Mr. John Hagan» jun. Newry. 
Mr. Eilward HeaTy, Dundalk. 
Mr. Peter J. Hoey, Drogheda. 
Ho«. and Rev. Percy Jocelyn. 
Jfon. John Jocelyn. 
iieorge Jardine, Esq. Log. Prof. Glasgow University, 2' 


Rer. James Knox, Londonderry, 2 copies. 

Mr. James Kelly, Hainstown. ^ .. 

Mr. William Kelly, Drogheda. 

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Rev. Dr. Little, Loutfa. 

Rer. A. Levios, Doaamore. 

T. Lloyd, Esq. Ravensdale. 

William Loftie, Esq. Tanderagee. 

Library of Glasgow University, 

Library of Greek Class, Ditto. 

Mr. Michael Levins, Dregheda. 

Mr. James Lowry, Ditto. 

Mr. Richard Kelly, Dromard, Garrickmacross. 

Mr. Patrick Keogh, Castle-Bellingham. 


Rev. Mr. M'Gin, Monaghan. 

Rer. Mr. M'Donogh, Cregan. 

Dr. M'Donoel, Belfast. 

Henry Maxwell, Esq. Dundalk. 

I'uraer Macan, Esq. Greenmount, 2 copie*. 

Mr. Patrick M'Gilligan, Ncwry. 

Mr. Owen M'Kone, jun, Kilcuriey. 

Mr. Hugh M'Sherry, Dundalk. 

Mr. James M'Math, Castleblaney, 

Mr. John M'Collum, Dundalk. 

Mr. Patrick M'Kenna, Drogheda. 

Mr. John M'Gawly, Ditto. 

Mr. Thomas M'CuUen, Ditto. 

Mr, John M'Grath, Ditto. 

Mr. Patrick Morgan, SalterVtown, CasUs-BellingJiaBi. 

J. A. Neilson, M. D. Dundalk. 
Mr. Patrick Norris, Drogheda. 


J. E. Ogle, Esq. Forkil. 

O. Ogle, Esq. Newry. 

M. O'Callaghan, Esq. Cooleville. 

)Mr. Bcitiard O'Reilly, Drogheda. 


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viil SUBSCRIBER? names; 


John Page, Esq. Dundalk. 
Robert Page, Esq. Ditto. 
Joseph Pollock, Esq. Newry. 
Mr. John Philips, Castleblayney. 

&rgeoaQuin^ 71st Regiment. 

Miles Russel, Esq. Newry» 
Mr. Patrick Reath, Glack. 

Sir John Sinclair, Bart. 2 copies. 

Br. Stokes, S. F. T. C. D. 

Eev. H. S. Shields, L. L. D. Carnckmacios*, 

Thomas Stott, Esq. Droknore. 

Gilbert Starfurtb> Esq. Leed^. 2 copies. 

Mr. John Stott, Dromore. 

Mr. S. H. Sloane, Market-hiU. 


Eer. E. Thlackary, Dundalk, 2 copies. 

Bev. P. Taylor, Dublin. 

Rev. Robert Trail, Ballintoy. 

Rer. Peter Tray nor. 

Rev. G. Tinley, Dundalk. ^ 

Miss Tighe, Drogheda. 

Mr. Owen Taggart, Newry. 

Mr. Patrick Thornton, Dandalk. 

Rer. James Wilson, P. T. C. D. 
James Willis, Esq. Loughgall. 
Blr. Patrick Ward, Dundalk. 

John Young, Esq. L. Qw P. (Iniveorsity, Qhngo^, 


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iu ...... . . . •■ • . 


That the Irish is the best preserved idi^^ 
lect of tlje ancient and extensive C^tiq* 
language, is allowe<l by the* 'most Hberail^ 
and enligbtened antiquarians. To the ge- 
neral schol^r^ therefore, a knowledge of it 
is of great importance; as it wiU enable 
him to trace the origin pf names and Cns^ 
toms, which be would s'eek in vain in any 
other tongue. To the iuhabitant of Ife- 
land it is doubly interesting': In tliis tetur 
guiage are preserved the venerable annals 
of our country, with as pittch fidelity, 
as is usually found in the primitive rcr 
cords of any nation; while the poetic and 
rotnanlic competitions, with which tl|e Irish 
liianuscripts abound, afib|*d the finest spe- 

b " cimens* 

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citnens, of elegant taste aflii hixuriant 

But it is, particularly, from the ahsdute 
necessity of understanding this language, iii 
order to conveiie * with the natives of a 
great part of Ireland, that the study of it 
is indispeu^ible. If Irish J3e 00 Im^r the 
Iftnguage of the court, or the annate, yet 
the pulpit and the bar require thp use of 
it; ^^14 he. that would communicate moral 
instruction, or inypstijate the claims of 
justice, must be versed in the native tongue, 
if he expects to be generally understood, 
or ta succeed in his researches. In trayel- . 
ling, ftud the common occurrences of agrir 
culture atii rural traffic, a knowledge of 
Irish is also absolutely necessary. 

I4 has h^n i^id indeed that the use of 
this language should be abolished, and 
the English prevail universall3\ But withr 
oi|t entering into th^ merits of thid posi- 
tion, while the Iiish exists, 2iyiA must exist 
fJQr many years to come, it is sureljr rea- 
sonable and desirable, that every persoa 
should be able to hol^ converse with his 


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countrymai# ms well as to taste and ad« 
mir^ the beauties of one of the uiost €x- 
pressive, philosophically accuwite, andpo** 
lished languages that has ever existed. 

Some works have been published, to 
guide the student of Celtic antiquity, in 
his curious and interesting researches, into 
the Irish tongue. General Vallancey, ia 
particulw, has acquired well merited 
^mcy by his very ing^ioup treatise! 
on this subject. . Still, however, a gramr 
mar, by which the learner might be 
taught to crnnposcy as well as to analyze, 
appeared to be wanted. That which i$ 
now offered to the public is an attempt to 
supply this deficiency. How far the author 
has succeeded, must be left to the dfetef-, 
mination of those who are qualified to 
judge., Of this, at least, he is conscious, 
that no pains have been spared, to reiwier 
it as complete as possible; and that no- 
thing has been, knowingly, passed over, 
that seen^ed of any importance. The syn- 
tax, in particular, on which u|pst impor- 
tant subject former gramnjiarians treated 

b 2 v^y 

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tkry s^^Mp has feeeti eliftndliW! lit \^ 
coiisfderable lefft^th; dnd, it % hd^fed^ iii 
a tattohal htid satisJfkctfWjr tiiiafanen 

TRe J>hfraseB arrd v^ialogu^s, in the s^ciyttd 
pkrtj a^e tk]cii\iited for genfefral us^; ^tid 
ttie dHyneSs of gmmm^trcal |:hfecef(ts Wffl 
be rdreir^, By ^he fiiti/ple ^fid cfy^r^efctti 
^ecimens of ftative inanitei^ itriA ^pier*- 
ititi<>tt«, c6nUindd i^n the latter ^Akfd^e^ 
It Ifes be^«n fourid, by eS^pleriei^ce, that 
ttiatriy ptersbtts, Who did not Hiktit fttto the 
studj of the andient lahguage, haVe been 
enab^d-, ^y leattilhg such "ph^krses and dia- 
logues fts 'these, to 'begin aA iifttfrdourtfe 
WilJh the naftives, irMch c6nt?Ml^d prac- 
tice has bmtiglit to facility arid elegance 
of conversation. 

It was, at 'first, intended to itikke thfe 
third pkrt very copious, and a large quan* 
tity of inatter was prepared for that pur- 
pose. But the two ft'st parts iiad swelled 
the book to a'si^t so far beydnd what was 
at first intended, t!bat the thhd Vas neces- 
shi^ly i confined ^oti feSV' spccihi^Iis^. Should 
Micse be favourably rdceiVed, a conside- 

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ntEFACB. ciii 

rable iroliuae, of the same kind, will be 
publisked, in a short time. In the mean time 
the present volume contains all that is really 
necessary for g^^neral use. 

In the publication of an original work, 
some typographical errors are almost im- 
avoidable. Hi^ following is a list of the 
most considerable : the rest, it is hopedU 
will not occasion any difficulty to the 


Page 24. line 3. /or gealacd, rwrf gealac. 

— 32, — 21. Jhr na sagart, read na sagairt 
— 28. for toe rot, read the rod. 

— 33, — 3. for the note, read the nose. 

— — — 4i.Jbr an seafac, read am tseafac. 

— 68. — SO./or anndeannmePreai/andeanL 


— 73. — 15. for am I not given ? read 0tm I 

given ? 

— 97. — 18. for cold night, read dark night. 

— 112. — 35. /or leata, read Icatsa. 

— 122. — 9, 10. for not your^ read not wear 


— 135. — 25.Jbrc3.irf read air. 


— 3, — 28. yirmtig, read lm\i^. 

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■ — 


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:t * . C >*. tT Fi ^* ^ 

;r/. ;:i/i 

V^t' V • • V H 

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In Irish there are seventeen letters, viz. 
Sound, (1) Example 

A I long, as a in bar^ bdn, white 

3, short, as a in hatj tar, come thotf 

B 1 as & in boj/y bean, a woman 

C 1 before e or f, as A in Aiw^, ciall, sense 
2 ^^^f fl, « 01- «, as c in j^^.^^ ^ ^^^^^^ 

D 1 thick, before a^ o or u^^ 

this sound is not found inSddn, a poem 

EngUsh, (3) y 

2 liquid, before e or i, as </ '>deannud, forget- 
in guardian^ y foulness 

E 1 long, as ea in great ^ se, ^iir 

2 short, as e in /e;^, soillse, light 

F 1 as y in yj^w, f dilte, weleome 

G 1 bemre e or i, as ^ in getj gean, /ot7e 

2 before a, o or u, ^ g in] ^;^^ 

I 1 long, as ie infeld^ rig, a king 

2 diort, as i in j^/, niin, wiefl/ 

B L 1 single,. 

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Sound Example 

L 1 single, as / in alcj mil, honey 

2 double, this sound is not") i, . 

found in English, (4) j"'^^' ^^"^ 

3 liquid, as / in ^QOiianty tuille, a blow 
M 1 as jw in man, mo, 7wy 

N 1 single, as win wow, duine, a W(iw 

2 double, this sound is not 7 . l j 

found in English. (5) jceann, a Aeac/ 

3 liquid, ais w in new, bainft*, milk 
O 1 long, as in Twore, m6r, great 

2 long and broad, as o in /or^ p6r, seed^ 

3 short, as o in not, gob, « Ae^A 

P 1 as J5 in />ew,^ poll, a pit 

R 1 this sound is not") . \.l ^ 

I . i:, V u^ /^\ ^crlon, withered 
I m English, (6) 3 ' 

2 *as r in ^wr, barr, the top 

S 1 this sound is not7 , ^ . 

I in English, (7) r°^'^ ^-^*'' 

iS in shieldy iin, /Arf/ 

T 1 thick, before a, o, or w,^ 

this sound is not found > tart, Mir^^ 

in English, (8) ) . ' . \ , 

2 liquid, before ^ or ^V as; n.^ ' 

U 1 long, as u in truey tu, ///oi^ 

2 shorty as u in iw^, cumus, j&02i'(?r 

N. B. H; as mo Irish word begins iradically 
with this letter, it is considered only as a mavJk of 
aspiration; and when affixed to. a GOiiSQnaiat, it is 
denoted by a point placed over it; tlui9> 

B, c, d, f, g, in, p, . s, . \ denote 
bh, civ dh, fh, gh, mh, pl\ sh,. th; (9) 
The letters ate classed as V follows: 

o > broad vowels, (JO) 

u> . <. -^ . ■ ...- . . .. , J : 

jimall voivels, (10) 


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g ^capable of afipirat ion, ar'nmtables, (11) 



t ^ 

n Mncapiible of aspiration, or ihipiijtablee. ^ 

r> . , .-. ..■■',• •:. ■ V . ■ -^ -. 

- vowels! ""''-, 

Aj 0,' and utTt called^ broad* V(ywiels, becaygfe 
they Teqirire a hiatus, or wide opening of the 
mouth, in ekpressing them; e and i are called 
small, because they require a less opening of the 
mouth. # ' ^\. 

The poets, in latter ages, devised a rule, ' VhidH 
prescribes that the vowel, Which goes l^&re '4 
consonant, must be of the same class \ritH the 
vowel which follows that consonant, i. e! both 
broad, or both small. In obseiring this rule, 
therefore, attention must be paid to the vowel 
which follows the consonant; for, if it be broad, 
while that which radically gt>es hefore the con- 
sonant is small, or vice vei^sa, then the vowel 
preceding the consonant must be left out^, and 
anotlier substituted in its place, of the same class - 
\(nth that following the consonant; or an adven- 
titious vowel must be inserted, after the preceding 
one, to agree with the subsequent; as, seasam, 
not seisam, or seasim, I stand; buailim, not buai- 
lahl, J beat; laiir, hartdy and g;cal, zcrkite, com- 
pounded lairiigeal, riot laih^eal, white handed. .. 

Although it is e\adent, fiom ancient manu-: 
scripts, that this rule was unknown jn early times, 

B 2 yet 

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yet it has been so universally observed in lattet 
ages, that it is impossible to lay it aside entirely. 
In many instances, it adds to the sweetness and 
fulness of the sound; but, in others, Jt so com- 
pletely destroys the radical form of words, that 
no principle of grammar can justify a rigid ad- 
herence to it. 


J5, c, rf, j^ gy m, py Sj /, are called mutable, be- 
cause they can be aspirated, or mortified, i. e, 
change or lose their sound, by tlie addition of h. 

As the sounds of the mutable consonants, when 
aspirated, differ materially from tliose which they 
receive^ when simple; and a^ ^ peculiar dplicacy 
pf pronunciation consists in expres^ng theip \yitU 
propriety, it is necessary to pay s|;rict attentioji tQ 
the following rules, 

^h is sounded like v, at the beginning or en4 
pf a word; as mo bas, my death; lib, with you. 
But in the middle of a word, it is comippn^ 
isounded like Wy as, leabar, a book. 

Chis always sounded like x in Greek, or ck in 
Joch; as, mo cearin, my head. 

Dh and gh, before or after a small vowel, like 
y; as, nio dia, my god; mogiolla, my boy. 3nt 
before or after a broad voweJ^ they have a very 
weak guttural sound, somewhat stronger than that 
of XV ; as, mo gut, 7ny voice; gra4, love; mag, (j^ 
jieldy (12) 

Fh is entirely mute; as, an faifge, prpnoui^ce, 
an airge, the sea. 

Mh is sounded like b; as, snam, Rimming; 
amuil, like. 

Ph is sounded, as. in other languages^- Uke^ph IQ 
philosopher; as, mo f)diste, my child. 

Shy and /A, are sounded as h alone; as, mo sitil, 
my eye; mo tig, my house. But s," before /, i?, 


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or r, IS entirely mute; as, mo sldinte, my heattk; 
mo snua'd, tpy countenance ; mo ^roq, my nose, 


Z, w, r, are called immutable, because they 
aever chaage, or lose their sound, by the addition 
of h. JBut they alone can be doubled in the mid- 
41e, or at the end of words; as, barr, a top; 
ceannaigim, to buy. 

It is to be observed, that dl and /w, in the mid-» 
dXp of words, are sounded like //; as, codlad, 
sleep; colna, Jiesh^ pronounce collad, coUa; and 
ftn like pn; as, ceadpai the samcy pronoiince 


There are thirteen diphthongs; viz. 
Sound Example 

ae long, as ai in painj lac, of a day 

ai long and distinct, c4in, a fine 

short, as i in fight, malt, good 

ao long, nearly as.oo in fiool, maol, hold 

ea long, as ea in bear^ 

short, as ea in heart, 
e} long, as ei in reigns 

short, as e in Jerrys 
po long, as otsp in ^hmvl^ 

3hQrt, as in shocky 
eu long, as a in fare, 
isk long, as ea in deary 
\o long, as ie in c(fs/nery 

short, as io in fashion^ 
iu long, as e^ in y wwe, 

sljort, "as i in ^AiW, 
oi long, force on the o, 

l&hort, force on the i, 
ua Ipng, distinct, 

m^ar, a finger 
ceart, just 
d^irc, charity 
geir, tallow 
$e61, ^ ^ai/ 
<|eoch, a fl^m* 
feur, ^raj?^ 
f^iall, sense 
fion, wwe 
biolar, »;^?er cresses 
ciunas, quietness 
flinch, t«'e^ 
c6ir, right 
coir, a crime 
^ual, coal 


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6 Oii^H^G«,Al>HY. 

' Sound ' Example ^ ; 

ui long, force on tlic u, sdil, an tyt 

short, force on the i, fuil, blood 


There sire iive triphthongs, which are alwaytj 
long.; vir. 

, Sp^nd Ex^^Bipl^ 


nearly as K'e, maoin, trta^iin^ 


' fojTce on <?, feqil, j^e^^ 


fore? on both the i's,, jiaig, a physician 


fprce on the w, ciuin, gentle 


di&tiact, cruaitj, hard 


In the inflexion and combination of words, cer- 
tain consonants aJ'efrequently prefixed to; others, 
with which they rannot be sounded; and the ad- 
ventitious coiBonant is then said to eclipse the 
radical one; viz.- 6, jC, d^f, g, m, j&, ^, t^ when be-, 
ginning a wwd, and followed by a voz&el, or by / 
or r; as $hp s, followed by n, may be eclipsed 
thus: . 






m, ar mbaile, owr fozx^w 

g^ ar gceart, owr n^A^ 

% ar ndia, owr G(?<^ 

b, ar Bfearran, our land 

«, ar ngearan, our complaint 

b, ar bp^in, our punishment 
^ f .a tj an tslat, /Ae rorf 
/ J L^, ar dteine, our fire 

In pronouncing these eclipses, the first conso- 
nant only is sounded; as, ar maile, ar geart, &c. 
Except ng in which both letters are uttered, with 
a strong guttural expression. 


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} Initaicl 'of bf, the tock&ts tVfcquently wrote /i;. 
afl^ ar ffearraii^ tmr /afW; . cc^ , instead of gc;,si^^ 
ar cceart, our right; and tt, instead of dt; aa, 
artteiae, our Jirt; and these word^ are pronoikti- 
oed in the same manner,, as if written ar Meajm^i 
ar gceart, and ar dteine- 

. ACCENT,, ■ 

An accent is placed over such voxels and diph*^ 
thongs, aSf are naturally either Iq^g or short, when 
they are to be pronounced long ; as, ihac, a son, 
short; b^ ^deathy long; fios, knotvledgCy short; 
cios, rent, long. 

Monosyllables eliding in a, e, f, w, being €om- 
monly long, require no. accent over tb^tn'; as, laj 
a day, tu, thou. / 

In words of two or more sj^llables, the accent 
commonly falls on the first syllable; as, dei^ioriac, 
last, mticaini, ./o kvtinguish. / , 

obsehtations. - - ' 

In residing Irish,' every letter, e^ccept 'f and k 
before I ox r must be sounded. . But^dome of the 
aspirated consonant^ are so slightly ^expressed as to 
be almost impenceptible; the reason of wlnqh is as 

According to^ the principle of the language, no 
number of vowels, meeting in a word, forUis more 
than one syllable^ . ^ 

The poetsv however, frequently wanting to 
lengthen wordis, by- laultiplying their syllables, 
devised the metiiod of throwing in an adventitioi^s 
consonant, getterally/d or g, to divide two vowejs 
into two syttabl«3; ^toils, tiarna, a lord, whiph 
consists of only 1^ two ->syllables, is divided into tii- 
gearna, of -three ^yUahLes. .v 

Now, as this masnner of spelling wa^ unknown 
in earlier ages, ^Ae.^ piimitive pronundatiori is stili 

;//:> SO 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



80 far retained, that the adventitious letters are 
passed over, witli an almost imperceptible flexion 
of the voice. 

In like manner 'd and g, which, always in tije 
beginning of words, and frequently in the micUle, 
have a clear and strong sound, are very commonly 
used at the end, merely to give a fuller vowel 
cadence to the termination; as, neartugad, to 
strengthen, jig, a king. 


Familiar words 

Aspirated consonants. 
Mo mac, my son 
mo hksy my death 
ro Beag, very small 
an bean, the woman 
mo beul, my mouth 
mo bonp, my sole 
mo iheall, my knob 
mo riiian, my desire 
mo biad, my meat 
an mias, th^^dish 
cn^iih, a bone 
sliab, a mountain 
naoih, a saint 
neadi, heaven 
dub, black 
deilb, a form 
sg^iih, beauty 
uaim. a grave 
tarb, a bull 
daih, an ox 
cnurii, a worm 
onob, a maggot 
mo dia, my God 
nio corp, my body 
fdid, a prophet 

of one syllable, 

criad, clay 
fuact, cold 
tuaid, *north 
fliuc, wet 
drfuct, dew 
liaig, a physician 
noct, mght 
mo ceann, my head 
mo sdil, my eye 
mo cos, my foot 
mo sr6n, my nose 
ruad, reddish 
uct, the breast 
grad, love 
fiad, deer 
deoc, a rfrmi 
lact, milk 
mead, Meath 
nuad, ;id7<; 
mag^, afield 
beac, /I Aee 
fiac, a crew 
eac, a horse 
crod, a portion 
seact, ^e«?e^ , , 
oil, eight : 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


deic, ten 

Aod, Hugh 

Tadg, Teague. 

caoid, weeping 

geod, a goose 

lam *deas, the right hand 

lam cli, the left hand 

crit, shaking 

trdt, time 

meit, fat 

feit, fl sinew , 

gut, voice 

dat, color 

fiiat, hatred 

mo tir, W2y country 

luai't, d^Ae^ 

sit, fl yiz /ry 

mo seol, ;wy sail 

mo slias, mi/ thigh 

mo snuad, my countenance 

Long Diphthongs. 

Gloir, glori/ 
str6ic, a slice 
m6in, turf 
reult, flj 5/«r 
meur, ajinger 
deur, fl /eflrr 
feur, graiss 
geug, a branch 
grian, ^Ae ^wn 
siar, 0765^ 
cliar, clergy 
pian, pflfiw 
ciall, sense 
6ad, jealousy 
c^ard, a trade 

c6ad, a hundred 
smuid, sm^oke . 
gndis, n countenance 
sdil, flw eye 
drdis, lechery 
cuig, ^t;€ 
sion, weather 
cior^ ^ C(?w5 
f lor, /rwe 
f ion, wine 
siol„ *eerf 
cios, re/i^ 
miol, a louse 
saor, yree 
caol, small 
taob, a ^i^e 
taom, a Jit 
sraod, sneezing 
caor, tf ^Aecp 
taos, * dough 
blaosg, a husk 
laog, flf ca^ 
lae, of a day 
c6ir, a?<w 
f(6il, a vifi-i/ 
f(6in, self 
r^id, reflj^ 
c6im, a degree 
fuar, coW 
cluas, ear 
gruag, hair 
fual, e^ri/^tf 
uan, a lamb 
cuan, fl ioy 
cm^c,, a rick 
cuac, a cuckqo 
cuag, a dlezse; 
•fdil, a ring 
srdid, a street 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

idr, an 'yeof tree 
idl, July 
fid, worih 
siiir, a sister 
tidg, thick 


Short Diphthongs. 

Oir, east 
sdoirm, storm 
troig, a foot 
loit, a wound 
broid, « ^(^^fif 
coin, a xvood 
cloi'd, fl( hedge 
toit, smoke ' 

6isg, aw ea;€L 
teas, Ae^^ 
deas, south 
fear, a twatw 
ceann, a head, 
sean, o/rf 
geal, white 
breac, speckled 
gean, /ot?e 
fearg, ez/^^^r 
dearg, rerf 
leact, a tomb 
beann, a high top 
speal, a scythe 
peann, a pen -^ 

cearc, a hen 
cead, f.rst 
treas, Mirrf 
fuil, blood 
cuirp, of a body 
cuirm, a feast 
cuid, apart 

muir, flj ^eflj 
sioc, yr(?5/ 
smior, marrcm 
fios, knowledge 
crios, ^a girdle 
fionn, ^oir 
bior, dJ ^/>?V 
leis, a?i/A Am. 
c^s, ^1 ^oty 
ceist, a question^ 
sail, « ieam 
staid, a state 
sailm, a psalm 
cailc, cAflj/Jt 
cairt, jtwfper 
straif, white thorn 
cait, o/* flj cat 
slait, o/* a rorf 


caoin, yjine 
aois, iflg-e 
maoil, bald 
naoi, wz;2e 
aoi, an island 
ioib, courteous, 
fec^il, ^CijA 
stiiiir, fl rudder 
ciuin, gentle 
cuairt, a t;m/ 
uair, an hour 
fuaim, a sound 
uaim, a cave 
duais, a reward 
luait, ^j&eerf 
liaig, a physician 

Digitized by 




c, gy w, aand * before n. 

Gnef ^ kind 

cno, a nut 

mna, of a woman 

do mnaoi, to a woman 

tniity envy 

cnap, a kmh 

CHOC, tflt hill 

cnob, df intitgg^ 

cndib, Aemp 

cnaoi, /; em^trnpiion 

cnea'd, a wound 

gniorii, an act 
gt^y business 
gnfun, a notth 


mi,'^ amMtk 
lar, middle 

gorrii, ^/mc 
an tsiiil, Md eye 
a Ham, her hnnd 
druiin, the back 
na gees, o/* f/re feet 
a cosg, fo restrain 
gul, weeping 
truag, jj^eVjr 
fuirm, /br^^ 
toil, a^V// 
ddil, expectntioti 
sgian, e« Arwi/fe 

l^eoir, A^er 
leaBiB, ^/^ 

d6irc, n/iw^ 

s<iist, aJlaU 

cuing, a yoke 

st6i]^ ii $tor€ 

slinn, ez ^/a/^ 

builg, bellows 

gtrttl, «JfWar/ 

Idb, a link 

scuab, df ^roow* 

fiad, venison '' 

luc, etimoM^e 

Itts, flf;i Aer^ 

doiin, br&pon 

spr6, d^ portion 

aon, owe 

tirm, rfry 

bo^ a cow 

pldr, ^oar 
bfuil tu? are ytti 
raib me, fwasi , 
ainm, <i ndmit 
beid me, 7tt?f/]f id 
lorjg, a trdce 
glas, gre<?n 
cranH, a tret 
fdg, /eat?e 

sin, fA<j?f 

siad, they 

ruinn^ ^^ division 

chum, to vi^«^ 

a ngdr, we^r 

abfad^ far 


faoi, 2«>?rf(?/* 

suas, up 

sios, rfotj'n 

suid, sit 

2 ' - K^lg, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


16if, read 
a dul, to go 


linn^ with m 
lib, with you 

R.iniliar words of two syllables- . 

Aspirated con&pnante.. 

Seat-air, God ,, , 
^t'divy jfather 

^ maig-dean, . a mai^ 
Tbeat-a, /j/e, , ,^ 
flait-eas, heavefi, <.. 
diab-al, devU^, ,^ 
tal^am, eartH ' , j : 
aid-er, air .^ ' . 
geal-ac, moon 
sneac-ta, snow.,, 
toin-ead, thaw . \ 
toim-ead, thunder , 
\2iit't,^ days ., ,. 
oidc-e, ;2i^Af ^ 
an-iug, fo ^ . 
m^r-ac, morfow^, 
noirr-'tior, ajttrmorrono 
seacd-main, a xveek - 
bliad-ain, a year 
r^it-e, quarter of year 
meod-on, middle 
sat-aini, Saturday 
doih-nac,- Sunday 

t gion-bair, January , 
nod-log, Ckristmas^ 
sam-rad, summer 
fog-mair, harvest 
geim-read, winter 
buac-aill, a boy 
naoid-ean, a child 
fat-ac, a giant 

ab-ac, a dwarf 
fear-dact, manhood . , 
bat-ais, crown of the heixji 
ag-aid, ike face 
fab-rad, eyelids 
rad-arc, .^fg/2^ ; 

am-arc, look , 

sgorn-ae, tfyrofit^ . ; 
broU-ac, bfya:^t 
corr-m^ar, forefnge^^ 
dub-ain, kidney j , , 
uac-tar, instep 
reailr-ar, f^tt ' 
in-cinxi, br^m 
sgarii-og, lungs 
dub-liat> spie^u 
fait-ne, a wart 
fiab-ras, a fever : - 
cri't-eac, ague . 
tact-ad, strangling' 
cnt-^Cy furious 
lob-rad, leprosy 
claim-e, itch 
marb-ac^ deadly 
srot-iFa, sneezing 
bruct-ac, belching 
codl-ad^ sleeping 
com-rad, conversation 
^isd-eac\ hearing 
ciall-aig, sensible 
beod-act, briskness 
meob-air, memory 
' '^ ~" recollection 



Cca,*^^ /^W 4^^^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC" 



doK-r6n, ^orrqw 
^oib-peas, pleasure . 
aih-ras, doubt . 
truaig-e, pity, , 
cloi'dTeam, a^ofd 
brag-ad, a nock .: 
de6r-ad, ^ strarfger - 
cuir-ead, afea^ 
gream-Qg, cru^t 
laib-in, leav^u 
blat-ac, buttervtiUf 
gab-aj, a fork 
bid-}9| a screuu) 
cat^aif, ^ city^ 
ball-aid, fMf^^ 
marg-ad, a manket 
breat ain, ajudge^ 
long-f^rt, qgurrmn 
cab-lac, ^ a jf?e^?. 
com-fad, ^ (¥>^^ i- : 
torr-am, a laal^e. , ^ 
- muUrac, a:hiU — (^/^ 
fisrac, a wilderness . » 
fas-coil^ ayfiung gr^e 
eit>rig, a furrow 
clodtfds, (j^ qUfick Jhfidge \ 
dtini6inr'fear, uf^eadQti^ 
bot-an, a Tint 
tuat-ac, clm^ish 
toir-eam, a ploughmen 
bod-ac, a cUwfi 
laig-e, a spade 
rab-an, a spff4^ 
arb-ar, corn,^ 
cruit-neact, whedt^ 
tuib-e, strata 
droig-ean, a thorn 
eac-rancL a bramble 



aoil-ioc, 9ung 
gabra, \a smith 
conn-lac, stubble 
geam-arv a blade jof cortt 
fei't-leog, \aJiusk 
foir-rgneam, a building 
tair-rseac, a threshold 
adtipad, timber ,• 
taobran, a rafter , 
gain-earn, .tf^nif 
teagJac, a family 
cat-aoir, a, chair 
soig-teac, a vessel 
ciiab-an, a basket 
teall-ac, a hearth 
conn-ad, a faggot 
bros-na, fremood '. 
criat?ar, sietfe 
leab-ar, a book .< 
marb-an, a margin 
ab-lann, a xvqfer 
sgrib-in, zoriting 
fog-ar, a vowel 
leig-ean, a lesion 
fiad-ain, a>iW ^ . 
brom-ac, a colt . 
searr-ac, a foal 
l^om-an, a lion , 
gad-ar, a hound 
gab-air, a^oat 
beit-ir, q hear 

Bi-sig, leap-year 
tois-eac, beginni)ig 
bris-ead, breaking 
fair-singy wide 

/lil;e sh Ei^glish, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




<2 jir 


Qtr^neis^ fumviur€ 

. trifl-sean, mlmnp 
seaiHrrog, isfe&ir 
seaivda^ oMient 

-^seas-am, standing 
sinn-e, m^rsd'oes 
siB-se, yourjnilv^ 
sim-Ieoid, ackimneg 
clor-uis, of a door 

Short Diphthongs. 

Spior-iidy tf spirit 

nad-uir, nature 
s^aing-eal, an€ingd 

it-rionn, kell 

tt\xi'% jftte 

uisg-e, watep ' 

soill-se, light 

aim-sir, time 

tuil-e, a flood 

maid-in, morning 

earr-ac, spring 
+ duin-e, a mmi'^/^^'^^*^ 
^ caill-eac, un old U'oman 

cail-in, a girl 

muiii-ealjL a neek 

uill-ean, an elbmi> 

ios^-ad, a ham 

croic-eann, skin 

cuisJe, a tein 

bain-ne, milk 

giorr-a, shorter 

buill-e, a blom 

brion^-lad, a dre^m 

ais-ling, a vision^ 

iom-car> BMrriagt 
tuig-se, understanding 
dear-mwd, forgetfntnes$ 
beat-a, life 
b(it*ais, a boot 
suip-ear^ supper 
buil-in, a loaf 
air-gi<H4^ sitv^ 
geat-a, agat^: 
cuinn-e, &corni&r 
bail-e, a tdt^n 
eag-lais, a church 
sean-moir, ttscfmon 
tiom-na, a testament 
sgriop-tuir, scripture 
easp-^g, a bishop 
seag-ul, rt/e 
coirc-e, oats ' 
muill-«5eoir, h miiltr 
muill-ion, a mill 
se(fm-ra, a chamber 
leab-a, abed 
fuinn-eog, ai^indem 
muinn-tir, people 
coinn-eal, a candle 
coinn-Ieoir, a candlestick 
sitn-teoid, ai 
grios-ai, ambers, 
Ids-air, burning 
duill-eog, ak^ 
geaiT^an, a hwse 
cuil-ean, a fshelp^^ 
mad-uid, a dog 
coin-in, a rabbit 
mionn-an, a kid 

Long Pi^hthongs. 

Cr6at-Hr, acrarture 

7 V7 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



luid^e, lying 

p&isd-*e^ a child 
ujig-e, youth 

siiil^, eyes 

fiac^ail, a tooth 
piob-an, a pipe 
gual^a, a ihotUder 
p6ir-e, pQre$ 
^laod-an, a cough 
gluas-acd, gesture 
griiam^acd, ugliness 
r^as-un, reason 
c6ad-fa, sense 
crionn-a, wise 
ndir-e, shame 

r single. 

Criosd-^ Christ 
breit-earii, a judge 
brios-og- a witch 

crhi-riii61, a wood house 
crfon-lacd, touchwood 
greid*eal, a griddle 
grinn-iol, bottom of the 

gr6in-e, of the sun 
griost-a, moved 

dy ly n and t^ liquid. 

D6is-ceart, south point 
a-n6, yesterday 

slias-ad, a thigh 
tinn-eas, uekne$s 
diud-^n, giddiness 
nisc-oidy a Iml 
slaint-e, health 
int-inn, understanding 
brist-ig, breeches 
fiU-ead, a fillet ' 
brais-l^d, a bracelet 
•bruit-e, boiled 
tinn-teaiv a hearth 
cais-lean, a castle 
fuint-e, kneaded 
lit-ir, a letter 
maist-in, a mastiff 
neaih^on, a diamond 
neart-mar, strong 
ndih-ni, nothing 
nig-im, to wash 
tiar-na, a lord 
tim-cioU, about 

d and t thick; / and n 

Daoin-e, men 
cead-aoin, Wedntsday 
mdrt-a, rnarch 
trosg-ad, fasting 
ord-og, a thumb 
dom-bl^^, gall 
grand-a, ugly 
tdn-a, lean 
ball-a, a wall 
dan-act, boldness 
toc-as, itch 
^ad-ac, a robe 
8ud-(%, a cake 


oTgitized^ Google 



ccall-port^ a^ee - ^ - 
sag-art, prieMi . 
tob-ar, a fountain 
laid-ir, stmng 
punn-an, a sheaf 

taiing-e,. a nail- 
dor-as, a door 
fal-arb, empty 
lan-a, a lane 
lam-raiiny a handstaff 
lat-ac, mire 

ax mbrat-^air, our brother 

ar mbol-an, '4mr bulldck 
ar gcai t-reim, our triumph 
ar ndan-act, our boldness 
•ar Bfear-ann, our ground 
ar ngaird-in, our garden 
ar ngeib-ioll, oUr chains 
'dx n^mA'tj our prayer 
ar bpios-a, our piece - 
don tsim-leoid, to the 

don ts\\j[3iS'2Ld,tothe^k&cet 
SLY dtiarn-a, our lord 
ar gcoinn-eal, our candle 
ar bpob-al, our people 
ar dtein-e, our jire 
arndiad-act, our godliness 

Familiar words of three syllables. 

Aspirates nearly quiescent 

Crut-ug-ad, proof 
neart-ug-ad. to strengthen 
slan-aig-teoir, savior 
cru't-aig-teoir, creator 
parr-at-as, paradise 
tig-ear-na, a lord 
beann-aig-te, blessed 
-^ siorr-tufg-eact, eternity 
cod-lat-ac, drowsiness 
c^ill-id-e, sensible 
muin-ig-in, confidence 
marc-uig-eact, riding 
stoc-aid-e, stockings 
uar-fair-e, a watch 
og-ast-oir, an host 
riag-luig-eoir, a ruler 
ad-lac-ad, burying 
tr6ad-uig-e, a shepherd 

sub-ailc-e, virtue 
meas-arg^acd, temperance 
mall-uig-'te, cursed 
gad-uig-e, a thief 
ceard-uig-e, a tradesman 
foirg-nit-eoir, a builder 
tuis-mig-teoir, a parent 
corh-ar-sain, a neighbour 
ceann-aig-im, / buy 
foill-sig-te, published 
dall-ruig-te, bli7id 
an-trat-ac, untimely 
sas-uig-te, satisfed 
coig-lig-im, I accompany 

Strong aspiiates. 

Dorc-a-das, darkness 
st^ic-cac-a, entrails 

t nOjl. , U^vcC^X^^vW^ CL^^^^ X\i^ACX , Cc^^yAA^. 






Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ion-at-w, bmek 
an-bfamn-^y Jainiiftg 

am-ui4-ej^ctj /<}%, 

oil-eam-ifi% food . ' 
miontgeartna^^ ntm^d\ 

ga)>-alt-us, isrykr^ 
brap'ad-oir, am^kftr 
mac-aif-e, a field 
ciad'CO'^ai^ centipede 
leat-dg-b^, seie fi^k 
fm-eam-uin,a viwe 
buiS-eac-as, gratitudt 
d<in-iharb-a<l, /«w^ 

striop-ac-as, fornication 
loic-ead-oir, a cTiandlen 
sean-ihat-air, a gMnd 

mother , .^ 

lan-am*uin, a couple, 
riaoi-dean-an, a child 
• nua-posd-a, new marriedl^ 
bain-cliam-uin, a rftofh^ 

bain-trcab-ac, a wid^ 
priom-a*db-ar, the fir^ 

cause '^yr 

a-bfoc-air, along fmt^; 
a-c6il-e, togethput .^ 
a-coid-ce, Jbr evep 
boirb-briat-rac, fierce 

bar-am-uily opiniofk 

beact-uig^ poUtc 

C^dtet|tBr^i)>\A^0'^' ' 
craad-cr^jd^ad, -A«p4:h 
h€tn'ffd : ;rh 

cruad-al-^jc, crUel -Vi 
ddn-ay'A-k, bold, _: ; - ,. ?i 
druii-^a^iruit /^d^i^iftf 
dic^idf-acy, t^i%OT^ / m 
dut-racft-aicv' cigrefuls t 

neam-najr-ea6, shamdess 
mhrK^irl^ €ivi^ ■>. ;-• - 



Dam-an^a^ damnedi : 
caiii-cos-ac, A^wrfj^ lagged 
jsUdr^r^ei ^. ^rcfiiej 
speac -lair-id, spectacles 
,fia*.5^il|-f^.. ai^S^'^;,; I 

^isV(lic8Liac,i,« kit^ttCJi 
jais-cfriMgrad,* a irensla- 

^df^-cu^-a;; <rjZe<ij, 
jcUrd^I-fiivfl; ite^A?; 


ttll-95kb-d#a,^ i(f?/i - <J?i>< 
^asajran-by^jaKl^ A hip^prey 

«s^aiii»-i^gra|^ [forf^^ 
\43^T^^m^ti richness 
cdii-sat-ad, a/^i?^rtf!i^' qeanfih<i4B-H% A^^lifroii^ 


irt^, JSi^.fr;4^tkie^/^.x^ ^iStM.^^*'^ cros-ant-a, ^:^^i^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



cros-ant*a, peecisk ^ 
dio^-alt-ac, vindictive 
d4B-4ct-ac, bold 
doi-'d6antra9 di^cult 
flr-in-iaG, true 
fon-dcl-ac, jeering 
leir^ibeasd-a, considerate 
xnuin-m-eac, confident 
tua't^all-ac, rtt*^ 
leas^'t-air, a stepfather 
leas^ing-ean, astepdaugh- 
'. -rtr- 

cuid-eacd-a, a companion 
bean-osd-a^ a lanlady 
Feid-lim-e, Felix 

]?aft-al-an, Bartholemetv mot-M^'-zA, f^^l^VS 

Maoi4eac-luinii, Lough- 

tin ^Jl^ticLciAJ — ^ 

bar-unt-act, a barony 


CeilUmaii-4ain, fVtekfdw 
CcBA'^^hCy Carlow 
Loc-gann-ann, Wexford 
Bail-eat-cliat, Dttbliri * 
Pwt-Mlrg-e, tVat<irf6rd 
maig-is^t-ir, a master 
nmig-ist-feas, d mistress 
iom-air-e, a ridge 
caib-id-il, a chapter ' 
soc-raid-e, a burial 
ceap-air-e, a buttercake 
sai^-itt-e6iry a soldier 
bunn-air-e, a footman 
car-aig-in, a can 
ur-slug-am, to vomit 

seaib*ug-ad, possession 
gniom-ar-a, actions 
toil-eaih-dil, toilful 

Familiar words of four syllables. 

Tlafit-carr-tig-ad, art earthquake 
4d-uat-maiF-eact, al^omination 
ain-meas-ar-<Ia, intemperate ' 

^ird-int-innreac, high minded 
at-arr-ug-ad, rfjjj^ereswce 
at-siiig-ug-kd, second proof 
bliad-an-am*iiil, \ycflr/y 
bi^hn-ud-as-ac, authentic 
cait-rfim-iug-ad, to\triunipk 
coiih-cig-ml-iin, to force 
c5^iii-nteTt-uig-*te, cb7j/?rmerf 
c<5iii-eTuiiin*ii^-ad, congregation 
ixHh-g6ird-tii^-rad, t^ congratulate 
d^uiB-^-aii^aid, depths' 
^f-eaot-aiii-uil, effectual 
id-ir*teang-t6r, an interpreter ' 
scar-bfog^rit-uid, ^^ert?tf«^ -^ 

>*; - iaid->€ad-oir-'eaet, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



feid-cad-oir-eact, prophecy 
in-me6d-on-ac, internal 
iom-ad-uig-iiQ, to multiply - 
iom-airg-w-eacd, decency 
coiiii-neart-ug-a<J, confirmation^ 
mi-riag-alt-^a, unruly 
H)6ir-iiiean-am*na€, magnammous 
neam-baog-al-ac, secure 
iieaifa-tab«*act-ac, Unprofitable (14) 

j> 8 irTYMOLOe^Y. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The Irish taaguagQ has mAy one artiele, eoi'res- 
ponding to the definite article in English; viz. 

Mas. and Fem. 
Noni* na, the ' 

Gen. na, of the 
Dat. dona, to the 
Ace. na, the ^ 


^leis na, mth the 

Abl y ^ "^^ from the 
' J air na, on the 
V.annsna, in the{ 15) 

Mas. Fem. ^ 
Nom. an, an, the 

an, na, of the 
don,' don, to the 
an, an, the 



['leis-an, with the 
on the 
in the 




Names of men and males, arc masculine ; as, 
Aod, Hugh ; laoc, an hero ; eac, an horse. 

Diminutives , in an, can, in, en ^ derivatives in 
aide, aid, aire, eoir, ac, or ; and abstract substan- 
tives ill as, and eas, are commonly masculine; as, 
€nocan, an hillock; tineas, sickness; sionnac, a Jot. 

Names of women and females, are feminine ; as, 
Maire, Mary ; siur, sister. 

Names of countries and rivers; diminutiveii in 
eg, and eog; and abstract substantives, except 
liio^e iji. ^, and eas, are feminine ; as, Eirin, /re- 
Ignd; gile, whiteness; duileog, a little leaf. (16)'. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



, CAPC. 

The noro^ative wd s^cusative %xft ^MTfty* 
111 fonBii ; f^4 oply dUtinguished hy thek coft^ 
p^ctipa wit^ $on;ie other words in t)^ sen^nce, < 

The dative and abls^tive are always alike ii^ tcirm ; 
and only dis^ii^gu^sl^^ ^y ^he aiticle, 9f ^ep|(^ 
tiQ^s pfefi^Cied 4;a tli^em : ^n the plural, tl^ ^w^^ 
end in iB. 

T^i,e iicflj^iiV^e ^n^ vocative femini^^ a^ 9Zw^y» 
alike. ^ 

The genitive ^n<^ vocative masculMie, v* alw^iy^r 
alike. (17) 


- Nouns of ^he first declension ha,ve, ^b? ge^^tiyc 
and vocative singular, and the nominative plural 

The inflexion, of the genitive is fonaped, by 
adding a $mall vowel tp the broad one,^ in the ter- 
mination of t^ notiiiniitive ; or, by changing the 
broad vowel or diphthong of the nominative intu 
a small one ; as. 







ball, a spot 
baill, 0^' c^spot 
do ball, to a spot 
ball, a spol 
a baiU, ospnt , 
le bail> wkh.aaf^t 

Nomi. baill, spots ' 
Geiif bajl, of spots 
Dat. do ballaib, to spots 
Ace. baill, spot^ 
Voc. a baUa^ tfkjTjitfto 
Abk leb^laitt^tri/A^^^ 

In thk manner dteline 

bonn, a sole 
Conn, a man's natnt 
%;in, a tune 

.dall, a blind mafi 
corp, a body 
torp, a sod 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Core, apropername 
cat^ a cat 
sac^ a sack 
stoc, a trutnpet 
broc, a badger 
boc, flf Ae ^oa^ 
cnoc, a hill 
call, Atz^e/ 
poll, a pit 
cbmn, a goblet 
dornn, a^st 
crann, a tree 
rann^ a divman 
gob, a bill 
sop, a wisp 
skd, « robbery 
ore, a young pig 
tore, fl wild boar 
port^ /I fw«e 
gort, a garden 

Nom. fear, « man 
Gen. fir, o/* ii man 
Dat d* fear, f o a man 
'Ace. fear, /z man 
Voc. a 'fir, o^w^rn 
AbL le fear, with a man 



flj sword 
folt, Aifl?/r o/! M^ head 
beul, /I mouth ^ 
sg^ul, a\sfory, pi. sg^il, 
and sgcula, and sgeul- 

reur, grass 

me'iir, a finger^ pi. m^ir 

and m^ara 
^an, abirdy pi. ^in and 

16an distress ' 

uan, a /tfm^ 
cuan, a harbour y pi. euain 

and cuantaig 
luan, the moon 
siian, 6/eep 
gual, pit'COdl 
Tual, t/me 

Nom. fir, men 
Gen. fear, of men 
Dat. d' fearaiB, to men 
Ace. fir, wen 
Voc. a feara, p men 
AbL lefearaib, with men 

mac, a^cm 
ceann, a head 
peann, apen^ pL pinnand 

In tbis manner decline 
lear, the sea 

breacj a trout 
nead| a nest 



ized by Google 



Ntihi. Asal, an ass • - 
Gen. asail, of a4 a* ' 
d' asal, to an ass 
asal, an ass 
k asail, o ass 
le asalj with art ass 



Note. aSiil, usses ■ '<^ 
Oen. a^l, of asses 
Dat 4! asaVb, ^o asses 
Acc- asail, ^^^^ 
Vofr. a asala, o to^e* 
Abl ieasalaibym/A^^tf^ 

la this mahner decline 

qasan, a path 
lasan, anger 
cuaran, a shoe 
fuaran, a fountain 
iiilean, an inland 
cuilean, a whelp 
4onas, happiness 
donas, misfortune 

Jf om. broniap, a colt 
Gen. bromaig, of a colt 
40 tironiac, to a 

bromac, a colt 
a bromaig, colt 
le bromac, with a 



s61as, (^pn^ort 
diomus, p)nde 
SeamuS, James 
doras, a door 
sgadan, a herring 
biadan, a salmon 
foras, knowledge 

Nom. bromaige, coUs • 
Ge^ bromac, of colts 
Dat. do bromacaib, to 

Acc. bromaige, colts 
Voc. a bromaca, colts 
AW. le bromacaib, with 


In this manner dcdine 

j^ullac, a bpar 
sionnac, aJo.v 
searrac, ajoal 
gliomac, a lobHer 

fea'dmanac, a steward 
idligteamnac, a lawyer 
biotarimac, a thief 
coileac, gen. coilig, ^cocA 

The sedond dcQlension. Fi^mimnes. 

The genitive singular has a small increase. 

The dative a small inflexion. 

trh^. vocative is like the nominative. 

T^e nominative plural has a broad increase. 

*"''"■ Singular 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Nom. geaUfcc, iftflk7iqio : 
Gen. V gealaif e,:f^;^ m^(^ 

Ace*; gealae; if 9)10^11 . 
AbL le gealaig, wi/A a 

Nom. gealacad^ f}»7m# 
G&^i g«2Aac% ^ 9»<^i:^ 
Dftt. , do g^l^caib^ fm 

Ace. gealaead^ moons^/ 
Vop. dgealaca<])0 972i^daif 
AbL le gealacaib^ with 

In this" i&anner decline 

biorac, # h^ffer^ getf. 

colpac;^ 4 ke^er ^ 
girseac^ a wench^ gien. 

bairseac, a brawler^ gen. 

stripac, a whore 
^ cailleac^ .^^ Adig'y^ gei>. cstilr 
meirdrejtfc, 4a» harlot^ geite. 

Siti^iilir • . . 

Gerr. trtoHoftfe, o/^re)W- 

Dat. dotriobltnd, totrou^ 

Ac^. tfiofefoid!, trou^k 
"^ot- at'triobl6id,o^0tt- 

AbL le triobloid, with 


Nom. .trioHoideaSa, mu^, 

KJefn. triobloid, if'troU- 

Dat. db tribbloidiB, /t> 

^Acc. triobfoideaU^ frtM/^ 

Voc. a triobloidead, o 

AbL le triobloidiB; a?i/i 


In tliis' malnner decline 

Trionoid, Trinity 
casbloid, absolution 
consboid, a di^tait 

neascoid, a boil 
bocoid', a specie 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Noin. sgolog^ a farmer 
Gen. sgojoige, of afar- 

Dat. do sgeloig^ to U 

Ace* sgolog, a farmer 
Voc. a sgolog, farmer 
^bl. te sgoloig, xvith a 


' : . ■' Plural. 
Nom. sgologaid, farmers 
Gen. sgolog, (>ffamrerjf 
Dat. do sgolbgaib, * to 

farmers » 
Ace. sgologad, farmers 
Voc. a sgologad, ofar^ 

Abl. le sgologaiK, ivUk 


In this manner decline 

sgeiteog, a hawthorn 




a fairy 

a lark 

a windk straw 
casog, iz jacket 
lasog, & blaze 
^6asog, a beard 
dreasog, a briar 
ispineog, a gooseberry 
tnineog, a delicate girl 
ciarog, a chafer^ or clock 
cianog, apiece of money 
miojtog, a midge 
lalltQg, a bat 
Haidog, a long hiife 
bolog,; a bulioc}c 
piteog, . an effeminate 


a hadddck 

a cake 
sponog, a spoon 
donog, an ui^happy s^i- 

spideog, a red-breast 
feitrlebg, aJiHsIf 
cuileog, ajiy i 

cr^ineog, a hedgehog 
feannbg, a crow 
tonnog, a duck 
bonnog, a thick cake of 

feocog, a periwinkle 
fraocOg, a bilberry /tc 
feamdg, an alder tree 
oinsedg, an ash tree 


N6m. cos, afoot 
Gen. coise^ of a foot 
do coisj to 4 foot 
cos, afoot ■ 
a coSy foot 



Nom. cOsa(p feet - 
; Gen. cos, of feet 
Dat. do cosaiB, to feet 
Ace. co^, feet 
Voc. a cosa, o feet 
le cois, with afQot\ AbL le cpsaib, xvith feet 


Digitized by VjjOOQIC 



In this maimer decline, 

cnaih, a bone 
lam, a hand 
croc, a cross 
<:loc, a stone 
cuac, a cuckoo 
cruac, a rick 
cuas, a den, or cave 
cluas, an ear 
gruag, hair 

Nom. griaii, a sun 
Gen. gr^ine, of a sun 
Dat. tlo gr6in, to a sun 
Ace. grian, a sun 
Voc. a grian, o sun 
Abl. le gr^in, with a sun 

cruag, hardship . 
buad, victory 
tuad, an ax 
muc, a pig 
pluc, a cheek 
slat, a rod 

long, a ship, gen. luingp 
drong, a company, gen. 

Nom. griana, sum . 
Gen. grian^ of suns 

dogrianaib, tosuns^ 


griana, suns 
a griana, o suns 

le grianail>, 


In this manner decline, 

giall, a hostage | sgkn, a knife^ gen. agbe 

f eall, treachery, gen. feille g6ag, a branchy gen. g^ige 
br^ag, a //e, gen. br^ige searc, love, gen. seirce 
crioc, an end, gen. crice cearc, a hen^ gen. circe 
cloc, a papy gen. cica --~ - —-- -' l:^^^^ 
ciall, reason 

pian, a painy pL pianta 

TAe ^/rire/ Declension. Alascuttnes and Feminines. 

Nouns of the third declension have a broad in- 
crease in the genitive singular. 

And a small increase in ig, or broad in ea'd, and 
aca, in the nominative plural. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Nom. figeadoir, a weaver 

Gen. figeadoia, of a wea- 

Dat. d'Yigcadoir, to a 

Ace, figeadoir, a weaver 

Voc. a figeadoir, o wea- 

AbL le figeadoir, with a 

. . weaver 

Nom, figeadoirig, wea- 
'*0ers ■ '•■ ' 

Gen. figeadoir, of wea- 

Dat. d' f igeadoiriB, ^ te 
weavers ' ' 

Ace. figeatioirig, wea^- 

vers •' 
Voc. a fr^eadoirig, o 

Abl. k figeadoiriB, with 
, weavers 

In this manner decline, 

emtaig'teoir, a creator 
slanaigteojr, a savior 
fuasgaltoir, a redeemer 
cunifdoir, a fabricator 
cronnadoir, a carpenter 
tonnadoir, a ianner 
bearradoir, u batcher 
carradoir^ a cannan 
saigitteoir, an archer 

Singular ^ 
Nom. atair, a father 
Gtn, atara, of a father 
Dat. d' atair, to a fat her 
Ace. atair, a father 
ypc* a atair, o father 
Abl le atair^ with^ a fa- 
ther , , 

mealltoir, a deceiver 
fealltoir, a traitor 
spealadbir, a mower 
loingseoir, 4 sailor ) 
muilleoir, ^ miller . / 
clai'deadoir, a dit/cJier 
neul^cjoir, annistrologer 
poiteojir, a tippler r. 
sladtoir, a robber /a , 

Nom, aitre, or ai'treaca, 

Gen- aitreac, of fathers 
Dat d* ail:reacaiBs. ' fa 

fathers V 
Acq. mtre, or .aitneaca, 

fathers . ; , 
Voc. a aitre, oraai'trea- 

k^4 Q fathers : 
AbL' le.aittea.caib,,.tt?i>A 
, fathers , i 

£ 2 


Digitiz'ed by Google 


bratair, a brother 


In this manner decKne * 

I Hiatair, a pother. 

Gen. CQ^a. " of: a part \ 

Dalb. do; i^uid, fa a patt 

Ace. cuid, apart * 

AbL le ouid, mth apart 

Nom. coda, oy codana, 

Gen. coda, of parts 
E)at. do codaiB, or do co- 

danaib, i<y pjaH& 
Ace. coda, or codana^ 

Voc. a coda, or a codana. 

A*bl.' le cbdaib, or le coda- 

naib, wit% part^ 

' th '^iiis riVaiin^r decline. 

srut, aitrmm •' 

sraiitj^'^ lai/^r 
t^%\adr^i^ pi tdinte 
cain, a^nCy^ p], tonaca 
clt, a^hower^ pl^teatana; 
^flait, a chief 

lios, ' gen. leasa, a Tdl% 
pi. liosaria . ' ' 

muir, a sea :! 

toW/ the will 
feoil, /?e:,yA 
bit, Itfe, gen. bedta 
fios, knowledge, gen. feas^ 
ceilgi fifec^iV, gen. cealga 

The fourth declension. 


vi\ Nifam-thkt end i^ioVels; polysyllables having 
rlonginvthi^feist syllable; ^nd diminutives iri'm, 
<aie. ini^arkble in - th& ^ feingul^r ; the cases of the 
plural arc formed like those of other noiins; as, 

baite,^^: ^otvu^ p\. hsiihe ' 
ttgala^^tix iba?/,^ pl.%altuia| 
rig, /z A:i%, pJ. jigte ; 
tig, a house 
saoi, a gentleman 

daoi, a clown 
draoi, a druid 
croiA,aheart, pl,croidea'd 
laoi, a poem' 
caoi, a way 


Digitized by VjOOQI^ 



flaine, glass 
le, a poet . 
m^idtj a stick 
gadulg, a thkf, pi 

ijeantiaig, a merchant 
grea^aig, . a shoemaker 
^ailin, a little girl^ pi, 


fitki^ ^ tittle man 
paistin, a child 
spailpm, a rascal 
crijisgm, a jug 
biiailthi, a beetle 
•braisgin, an apron 
'f6irin, a gift 
Wilir^, a little moutJ^ 


Nom. bean, a woman 
Oeii. ' trtna, ' 'of a ivcfmdn ' 
•pat. '^^iBo'ifriiaoi; toatvo^ 

man. . 
Vice. 'hp^n;'ii^ziwman -■ ^ 
y be; a feekn, o iijmnan ' ' 
461. le bean, with azto- 

7[nan ,' . 

SiugrtiT' ; 

^om, bo, a cow : . ' 
Gen. bo, or b«m, ofacaw\ 
Dat. do tiuin, '/^ ^.e«^w?) 1 
Ace. ho, a cow , ; 

Voc. aba, co^^ ^ 

Abl. le buin, «jt;i7A a coz^i 

Nom. cu, a greyhound 
Gen. cun, of ciiin, of a 

Pat • do Guin, CO, or icon,' 

Ace. cu, a greyhound 
^llL Te cuin, cu, or con, 

with a greyhound 

^Pluriil ^ 
Nonit mpa, women 
Oen. ban, qfivomeU 
Pat. 'do ifaMib, /o. a)a- 

'/Ice, 'mtia, women ' ^ 
V6c. a thila, ivomen, 
Abl. le mnaiB, zipif^ aKa^ 


Gen. h6/ of edws 

Dat do boaib, :^o xnwi 

Ace. bat, toac?^ 

Voc. abat,r aciwspj 

Abl., lebuaib,ra?i/A roast 







•cuin, cona, conca 

do coilaib 
euin^ cona, eonSa 
a C!p«a,c acdi^a 
le conaib 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ajfany ijpuns of the second and th\xd declensions 
are contracted ip the genitive case ; as, 

Bui'dean, a iropp^ Gen. bufdne, for bufdine ' 
briatar, a xvord^ Gen. breitre, for biiataire 
maklin, morning, Gen. maidiie, for maiding 
bliadain, a year, Gen. bliadna, for bliadana' 
iolar, an eagle. Gen. ioka^ for iolara (I9) 


First.. I Nouns beginning xvith vqtivels. 

If the noun be masculine, t is prefixed to it/in 
the nominativie siiigular; if feminine, , h is prefixed 
to the genitive. 

In the plural of bpth genders, A is prefixed to 
the no^ninatiye ?ind dative ^ and w to the geni- 
tive. /. / : (20)/ 


■ • 




an tatair, the fa 


na haitre, or na 






na naitreac 


don atair • 


dona haitreacaiB 


an tatair 


na haitre, pr na 


leis an atair 



leiisna haitreacaiB 

In this manner decline. 

an tore, the yoUng pig 

aa tuan, the lamb 

an toganac, the young man 

an teasbog, the bishop 
an taingeal, the angel 
an tasal, the ass 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Nom. an oig, the virgin 
Gen. na hoige 
Dat. don oig 
Ace. an oig 
Abl. les sm oig 


Nom. na hoga 
Gen. na nog 
Dat. dona liogaib 
Ace. na hoga 
Abl. leis na hogaili 

an uiseog, 

an eala^ the swcm 

In this manner decline, 

the thrush \ ?in ilid, the doe 

an aman/ the river 

Second. Nouns beginning with mutable consonanft; 
except d, t, s. 

Masculines are aspirated in the genitive and da- 
tive singular;^ and feminines in the nominative and 

In the genitive plural, all initial mutables arc 
eclipsed, except w, and s. 



Nom. an fear, the man ' Nom 

Gen. an fir Gen. 

Dat. don fear Dat. 

Ace. an fear Ace. 

Abl. leis an fear Abl. 

na fir 
na l?fear 
dona fearaiti 
na fir 
leis na fearaiB 

an craun, tre tree 
an poll, the pit 
4n bplg, the belly 

In this manner decline, ' 

an molt, the xoether 
andorn, thejist 
^n mac, the son 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



« Singular* 

Gen* namna 
Dat/ dk)U ij^naoi 
Ace. an bea'n 
AbL lebauifmaoi 


Nom, namna 
Gen. na mbar^ 
Dat. dona mnaiS 
Ace/ na mna, 
Abl leis na mnaili 

an pian, the ^am 
an co§^ tkejofit 
an casog, /he coat 

In this manner decliqe> ^ 

an breug, tJte^ lie^ 
an geug^ the^ brani^ 
, I an feall, the treachery 

Third. Noum hegmmng with s, followed % a 
vozveli or by 1, n, or r. 

Masculines prefix t to the genitive and dative 
angular; feminines to the noiniaattve and dative*. 


^ Singular 

Nom. ansagart,//2c^n>^/ 
'6en. antsagairt 
Dat. dou tsa^art 
Ace. an sagart 
AbL leis an tsagart 

Plural . .^ 
Nora, na sagairt 
Gen. na sagart 
Dat. dona sagartai5 
Ace. n^, sagart 
Abl. leis na sagartaiB 

In this manner decline. 

an sliab, the mountam 
an sac, the sack 

an sionnac, the fox 
an searrac, the foal 


Singular. , ' 
Nom. an tslat, toe rot 
Gen. iia slaite 
Dat. don tslait 
Ace. ah tslat 
,Abl. leis an tslait 






ifa slait 
na slat 
dona slataiB 
na slait 
leis na slataib 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



In this manner decline, 

an tsttil, the ^e 
an tsrdn, the note 
an tsigeog, the fairy 

an tseactm^in, the week 

an tseilg, the hunt 

an seafac, the heifer (21) 

— 'OSI«»^'<U— 



The nomin?itive j^nd accusative are always alike ; 
as EFe also the dative aii4 ablative. 

First Declension. 

Most adjectives ending in con^onant^ having 
broad vowels iji the termination, have a small in- 
flexion in tl^e genitive masculine; a small inci^a?^ 
in the genitive teminipe ; a^ a broa4 incjrease in 
the nominative plural. 

ard, high. 


Mas. Fem. 
Nom. & Ace* ard, ard 
Gen. ^ird, airde 
bat. & Abl ard, aird 
Voc. ^ird, tird 


.Mas. Fem. 
Nom. & Ace. arda 
Gen. ard 
Dat. & Abl arda 
Voc. arda 

In this manner decline, 

dab, black 
gorm, blue 
bog, soft 

bdn, white 
m6r, great 
I4n, full 

Caol, '^\ 

Digitized'by VjOOQIC 




Mas. Fern. 

>?om. Ac, caol, caol 

Gen, caoU, caoile 

Dat. Abl. caol, caoil 

Voc. caoil, caol 

/Caol, narroiv. 


^ Mas. Fern. 
Nom. Ac. caola 
Gen. caol 

Dat. Abl. caola 
Voc. caola 

Maol, hald 
daor,. dtar 
saor, cheap 
claon, leaning 
fuar, cbld 
niia'd, new 
lua't, quick 

In this manner decline 

mad, red 

trean, strong' 

gear, ^Atzr/? 

fior, gen. mas. fir, Jem. 

ffre, ^n/e 
erf on, gen. masc.^ crfn, 

/eTW. crine,. withered. 


N. Ac. fallan, 
Gen. tallain, 
D. Ab. fallan, 
Voc. fallain, 

fallan, sound. 






Maj$. Fem. 

N. Ac. fallana 
Gen. falkin 
D. Ab. fallana 
\^oc. fallana 

In this manner decline 

cotrom, even 
agriiur, lucky 
atlarh, quick 
anbfann, feeble 
bacac, lame 
docrac, difficult 
sowiac, easy 
eadmur^ jealous 

Second Declension. 

Adjectives ending in consonants, having a small 
vowel in the termination, increase • small in the 
i:ci.itive feminine and nominative plural. (22) 
" arsaig, 

neartriiur, powerful 
ceanann, speckled 
dileas, gen. masc. dilis^ 

Jem. dilise, proper 
cartanac, Jriendly 
martanac, peipetual 
briotac, stam?nering 

Digfiized by Google 


arsaig, ancient. 


Mas. Feiii. 
N. Ac. V. arsaig, arsaig 
Gen. arsaig, arsaige 

Dat. Abl. arsaig, arsaig 

Mas. Fein. 
N. Ac. V. arsjiige 
Gen. arsaig 

Dat. Abl. arsaig 

In this manner decline 

tapuid, smart 
leanbui'd^ childish 
tais, tender 

cruaid, hard 
min, mild 
saim, pleasant 

Some adjectives of this declension are contracted 
in the genitive singular; as, 

aoibinn, delightful, gen. aoibne, for aoiBine 
aluinn, beautiful^ gen. aille or aillne, for aluinne. 

Third declension. 

Adjectives ending in amuil, have a broad in- 
crease in the genitive singular and nom. plural. 


Mas. Fern 
N. Ac. V. geanaihuil 
Gen. geanarhla 

geanaihuil, lovely. 


Mas. Fein. 

N. Ac. V. geanarhla 
Gen. geanaihuil 

Dat. Abl geanaihuil | Dat. Abl. geanciiiuiil 
In this manner decline, 

eagsamuil, "various I beanarhuil, xcomanhj 

fcaraihuil, mdnly \h2,xm'a\\x\\ stately 

Some monosyllabic adjectives, having a broad 
vewel/m the termination, increase broad in the 
genitive feminine, aild nominative plural. 

F 2 corr, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



corr, uneven. 


Mas. Fem. 

N. Ace. y. corr, corr 

Gen. corr, corra 

Dat. Abi. corr, coir 


Mas. Fern: 
N. Ace. V. corra 
Gen. corr 

Dat, Abl. corr 

In this manner decline, 
cas, curled 
fras, fluent 
ceart, ju^t 

prab, quick 
grod, sudden 
breag, fliie 

FouHh declension. 

Adjectives ending in vowels are alike in all 
cases, genders, and numbers. 

aoBda, a^erf. ^ 

Singular - 
JNIas. Fem. 
N. Ac. V. aosda 
Gen. aosda 

Dat. Abl. aosda 

Mas. Fem. 
N. Ac. V. aosda 
Gen. aosda 

Dat. Abl. aosda 


Adjectives beginniilg with mutable consonants 
(except d ox t following a noun ending in w,) are 
aspirated in the nominative ahd accusative, sing, 
feminine; genitive, masculine; dative, vocitive 
and ablative, both genders; and. in the vocative^ 
plural. (S3) \ 

an fear geal, the fair m^h 
Singular Plural 

Nom. an fear geal Norn, ha fir geala 

Gen. an fir gil Gen. na bfear geal 

pat. don fear geal Dat. dona fearaiB geala 

Ace. an fear geal Ate. na fir geala 

Voc. a fir gil ; ' Voc. a feara geala * 

AbL leis an fear ^eal Abl. leisna fearaiB geala 

an Bean 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ati bean geal, the fair woman. 


Norn, an bean geal 
Gen. na iiilia j|il6 
Dat. don mnaoi |ll 
Ace. an bean geal 
Voc. a bean geal 
Abl. leis aii ilinadi j^U 

Nom\ na mna geala 
tjtn. n^ ItlbAh geal 
Dat» dona mnaib geala 
Ace. na mna geala 
Voc. a mna geala 
j Abl. leis fia mnaib geala 

In. this manner decline, 


an la fuar, the cold day an ihaidin fuar, the cold 

an crann mor, thi gireat 



an cloc 

mor, the 


Other adjectives undergo no change in their 
initials, when eonJlected with nouns. 


The coni|5ara:tiv'e . degree is formed by putting 
mios, mere^ before the genitive feminitic of tlie 
positive; as, gesj, i^te; nios gile, wAiVtT. (24) 

The superlative is formed by i>uttihg ro, very^ 
before the nomiiaative; or, as, most, before the 
genitive feilainiee of the positive; as, ix) geal, ttery 
white; as gile, whitest. (25) 

mait, gotjiH 
olc, bad 
raor, grcdt 
beag, little 

fada, long 

gar, near 

urus, easily 


liiQfe rearr, 
nibs measa, 
nios inA^ 
nios lugQ, 
( nios faide, ? 
^mo$ sia, \ 
nios gdire, 

nios vl%\ 

ro thait, as foarr 
ro olc, as measa 
ro ihor, as mo 
roiie^, as luga 

ro Tadd!^ as sia 

ro gar, as ncasa 
C ro usa, ro urns, 
■ \ as usa, (26) 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Value Cardinal, one, &c 

;. Ordinal, First, &c. 

1 aon 


a do 


3 tri 


4 ceatair, or ceitre 


5 cuig 


6 sh 


7 seact 


8 Oct 


9 naoi 


10 deic 


I i aondfeag 

aonad d^g 

12 do dfeag 

dara d^ag 

13 tri d^ag 

tritead d6ag, or treas 


14 ceitre d6ag 

ceatramad dfeag 

15 cuig dfeag 

cuigead d^g 

16 se dfeag 

seisead dfeag 

17 seact d^ag 

seactmad dlag 

18 octd^g 

octmad dfeag 

19. naoi d^ag 

naorhad d^ag 

20 fitce 


21 aon is fitce 

aonmad fitcead 

22 do is fitce 

dara fitcead 

30 deic ar f icead , 

deicihead ar fitcead 

31 aond^gis fitce 

aonad dfeag ar f itcqad 

40 dafitcead 

da Fitcead 

50 deic is da f itcead 

deicmead ar da fitcead 

60 tri fitcead 

tri fitcead 

70 deic is tri fitcead 

deicmead ar tri fitcead 

80 ceitre fitcead 

ceitre fitcead 

90 deic is ceitre fitcead 

deicihead ar ceitre 


IpO c^ad 


200 da cfead 

da Ic6ad 

300 tri cfead 

tri c6gd 


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da ibile 

da mile 


deic mile 

deic mile 



milliun, (27) 





There are four personal pronouns; viz. me, /; 
tu, thou; se, or e, he; si^ or i, she. 

In declining these pronouns, the nominative and 
accusative are commonly alike; the vocative want- 
ing, except in the second person; and the ablative 
is formed by prefixing various prepositions, ex- 
hibited under the title oi compound pronouns. 

First person. 

Nom. Ac. me, /, me 





mo, rmne, my 
dam, to me 

N. Ac. sinn, inn, we^ us 
Gen. ar, ours^ our 
Dat. duinn, to us 

Second person. 

tu, thou 
do, thine^ thy 
duit, to thee 

Ac. V. tliu, thee^ o thee 

Third person, masculine. 

N. V. sib, ibh, ye, you 
Gen. bur, yours, your 
Dat. dib, to you 
Ace. ib, you, (28) 

Nom. se, 6, he, it 
Gen. a, of him, of it 
Dat do, to him, to it 
Ace. 6, him, it ' 

Nom. siad, iad, they 
Gen. a, of them 
Dat. doib, to them 
Ace. iad, them 

. Third 

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, Nom. si, i, she 
Gen. a, 0/ k&r. 
Dat. di, to her 

Third person, feminine. 

Nom, siad, iad, they ' 
Gen. a, qf them ' 
Dat. doib, to them 

Ace. i, her |Acc. iad, them 


The genitives of ^he perspnal pronouns are 
called possess! ves ; viz. mo, my; do, thy; ar, our; 
liar, your; B,^ his, ker^ its, their. 

When mo, do, ar, a, are preceded by the pre- 
positions le, witn; ua, from; Ab^ to; ann, in; 
t4iey are abbreviated in the following m^ner: 

le /do 

lem, with my . dpni, #0 w^ 

led, with thy dod, /o M^^ 

ler, xvith our . .flar, to our 
lena, w;z7A Af^y, :&c. da, to his^ &c. 

ua aim 

om, ^>ow2 wjy am, in my . ^ 

od, /row thy ad, i« Mj/ 

o'ar, from our inar, m, owr 

ona, from his, &c. iiina, in his, &c. (29) 


A, a^Ao, a;A/cA, an te, an ti, who, which, that,, 
ce be, zvhoever. CSO) 


Creud? gojde? what? masc. ci%?^ce? f^. ci? 
\Awxdi[,^^\2j^ wkofwhdt? which f ca? what? (91) 


So, ^A«>, thfife, 3in, /Aa^, fAo^c, ud, yonder. (32) 


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From ag, at or with. 


1 again, in my possession 

2 agad, in thy, &c. 
^ Cmas. aige, in his, &c. 

(, fem, aice, in her, &c. 

From as, out of. 

1 asam, out of me 
g asad, out of thee 
^ fmas, as, out of him 
\ fern, aisde, out of her 


1 aguinn, in oy^r possession 

2 aguib, in youi\ &C. 
3aca, in their, &c. 


1 asuinn; out of us 

2 asuiK, Out of you 

3 asda, out of them 

From cuige, unto. 


1 cugam, to me 

2 cugad, to thee 

^ S mas. cuige, to him 
\ femr cuice, to her 


1 cuguinn, to us 

2 cuguili^ to yoiv 

3 twc^ to th€7n 

Prom idir, between. 

eadrom, between me 

C idff e, beixveen him 
\ idir i, between her . 


1 eadruinn, between us 

2 eadruife; between you 
S eatorra, between ihem 

From faoi, or fa, under. 


1 fam, or f-um, uyider me 

2 fud, u)ider tiiee 

c, f mas. fuide^ under him 
\ fern, fuici, under her 


1 fuinn, under as 

2 fuib, under you 

3 fii^a, under them 


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From le, along withy or together with. 


1 linn, toith us 

2 lib, with you ' 

3 leo, with them, 

liom, with me 
leat, with thee 
Xmas. leis, with him 
t fem. leite, with her 

From air, upon. 

orm, upon me 
ort, upon thee 
f mas. air, upon him 
\ fem. uirre, upon her 

From de, from, off. 



1 oruinn, upon us 

2 oruili, upon you 

3 orra, upon them, (34) 


1 dinn, from us 

2 dib, from you 

3 diob, from them 

diom, from me 
diot, from thee 
C mas. de, from him 
X fem. di, front her 

From roime, 
roiiiam, before me 
roifaad, before thee, 
f ma. roime, before him 
\ fe. roimpe, before her 

From tar, fieyond, or over. 



1 rorhuinn, before us 

2 roihuib, before you 

3 rompa, before them 

thorum, torm, over me 
torad, tort, over thee 
C tairis, over him 
X tairste, over her 

From ua, from. 
uaim, from me 
uait, from thee 
Cmas. uati, from him 
X fenu iiftite^ from her 


1 torainn, over us 

2 toruib, over you 

3 torra, over them 


1 \x2imny from us 

2 uaib, from you 

3 uadfo, from them 


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From um, about^ or uporiy as cloathsy &c. 


1 umam, about me 

2 umad, about thee 
f mas. uime, about him 
t fem. uimpe, abojuther 



1 umuinn, about us 

2 umuib, about you 

3 umpud, about them 


personal, possessive, and compound pronouns, 
take an additional syllable, when used with a par-r 
ticular emphasis; or placed in qontra distinction 
to each other. (35) 

In personal and compound pronouns, if the last 
vowel be broad, sa is added to the first, second 
and third person feminine of the singular; and to 
the second person plural; but ^e is added, if the 
last vowel be small. 

In like manner san or seari is added to the third 
person masculine, singular, and to the third person 

Ne is added to the first person plural: as. 

Dam, to mCj darasa, to my self ; duit, to thee, 
duitse,.^o thyself; sinn, 'we^ sinue, ourselves; e, 
he^ esean, himself; me /, mise, myself: i, she^ 
ise, herself; liom, with me^ liomsa, with myself; 
linn, with us, liune, with ourselves. 

In this manner decline all the personal and com- 
pound pronouns, except in the genitive case; for, 

Possessive pronouns require the increase to be 
made in the nouns* that are joine/l with them; as, 
lam, a handy mo larhsa, 7;?j/ own hand; or if that 
noun be followed by an adjective, the increase is 
made in that adjective; as, mo larii gealsa, my 
zphite hand, 

o 2 In 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


In. this manner decline, 

Mo ccann duB, my black head 

a Icabar, hi^ hook, 

ar nat^ir, our father. 

a gcosa duBa, their black feet. 

bi|r sqile arda, your lofty eye$, (35) 


Verbs are of three kinds, Active, Ea&sive, and 
Neuter or Reflected. 

There are seven variations of the Verb, as to 
.signification; viz. the Imperative, and Infinitive 
]\{oods, Participles, Indicative, Potential^ Opta- 
tive and Subjunctive Moods. 

There are four variations of the Verb, as to 
time; viz. the Present, Preter, Consuetudinal, and 
Futqre Tenses. (37) 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary, Biy be. 

Singular Plural 

\ ^ ( "^ Si^^^^a<^^d> biodh Sinn, let u^ he 

2 Bi, he thou . J * k ^ Bigidhe, or biodh sibh, hei/e 

3 Biodhse, let him hey (^^ Bidis, or biodh siad, let them he 

The negative be not^ &c. i^ formed by prefixing 
na to each person; as, na bidis, or na biod siad, 
let them not. 


Affirmative Negative 

ii)obhc;:h^ or a bheith, to he, gan a bheiih, liot to he. (38J 


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Present Preter Future 

Ag bheilh, , . "> r i^ ... hcvoing ") f le bheilh, or C ahout t9 



^ Singular 

1 Ataim, atame, I mn 

2 Ataoir, ata tu, thou art 

3 Ata, ata se, he is 

Present Tense. Affirmative. 

■^ C 1 Atamoid, ata sinn, ive arc 
S -? 2 Ataoi/ata sibh, ye ar^ 
J (.3 Ataid, tikei/ are 


1 Taim, ta jne, / a7n 

2 Tais, ta tu, thou art 

3 Ta, ta se, he is 



■^ r 1 Tamoid, ta sinn, loe are 

W2 Ta, ta aibh, j<<; arc^ 

> (.3 Ta, tasiad, they are. (40} 

Present. Negative. 


1 Ni bhfuilim, niel n^, I a?fi- 

2 Ni bhfuiiir, niel tu, thou art \ 

9 Ni bhfuil se, niel se, he wi 


I Ni bhfuil sinn, ni bhfuilmid, 
. or niel mid, ive are not 
^2 Ni bhfuilti, nibkfuil sibh, 
niel sibh, ye are not ' 
3 Ni bhfuil siad, niel siad, 
they aj-e not 

Present. Interrogative. 


1 Bhfallnie? an If 

2 Bhfuil tu? bhfuiiir? 


3 Bhfuil se? is he? 



Prater Tense, 


( Do bhios, do tjhi me 1 

\ Do bhadhas, do bha hks J 

/ was, or i h<mi heen 

, f Do bhidWs, do bhi tu \ 

\ do bhadhais, do Ijha tu f 

khou wnst, or ka$t bei^n 
Do bbi se, do bba se, le 
w(ps, or has ban 


1 BhfuHmid? bhfuil sinn? are 

2 Bhfuil sibh ^ are ye T 

3 Bhfuil si^idl are they ^ {4i> 


^ f Dobhioiu^r, do bhi sinn, 
we zvere^ or hav€ been 
2 Do- bhi sibb, do bha sibh, 
y^ vfcre^ in: haz^ bmi 
f Do bbi siad, i 

( do bhudar, do bha siad, y 
they ueir, or hait heen 


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Prefer. Negative. 


1 Ni rabhas, ni raibh me, /' 
wa8 not 

2 Ni raibh tu, thou wast not 

3 Ni raibh se, he was not 



1 Ni rabhamar, ni raibh sinn, 
we were not 

2 Ni raibh sibh, ^e were not 

3 Ni raibh siad^ tha/ were not. 

Preter. Interrogative. 

Singular Plural 

I been? s ^^ Raibh sibh? were ye? &c. 

2 Raihh tu ? xvast thou ? &c. i ^ 3 Raibh siad ? were they ? &c. 

3 Raibh se? was he? &c. J v. 

Consuetudinal Tense. Affirmative. 


1 Bidhmid, biann sinn^ we are 

2 Biann sibh, ye are usually 

3 Biann siad, they, &c. (44) 


1 Bim, / ajn usually 

2 Biann tu, thou art usually 
5 Biann se, he is usually 


The negative / am not usually, &c* is formed 
by prefixing ni to each person; as, ni bhim, ni 
bhiann. tu, &c. 

' The interrogative are you usually ? &c. is formed 
by prefixing m to each person; as, mbiann tuf 
mbiann se? &c. (45) 

Future Tense. Affirmative. 


1 Beidhmid, beidh sinn, we 
shall be 

2 Beidh, beidh sibh, ye, Sec. 

3 Beidh, beidh siad, tli€y sliall 
be. (46) 



1 Beid, beidh nae, I shall be 

2 Beir, beidh tu, 

3 Beidh, beidh se. 

ne, I shall be ^ f 
a, thou shalt bef\ 
se, he shall ^^ /"\' 


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Future. Negative. 

1 Ni bhiam, / shall or will not ^ 

3 Ni bhiann se» 

I shall or will not ^ / 

u, thou s^lt, &c. ^ J 
;e, he shall, &c. ^ v. 


1 Ni bheidhmid, ni bhiann 
sinn, we shall or m?27/ nof be 

2 Ni bhian sibh, ye shall, &c. 

3 Ni bhian siad, tbey shall, &,c. 

Future, Interrogative. 


1 Mbeidh me ? shall I be? 

2 Mbeidh tu ? shalt, &c. 

3 Mbeidh se? shall, &,c. 



1 Mb^idhmid? mbeidh sinn^ 
shall wet &c. 

2 Mbeidh sibh? sliallyefUc. 

3 Mbeidh siad ? shall tfuy ? &c. 

Consuetudihal of the Future. 

Singular . 
3 Mur bias, or a bias, as it shall be, or the person 
that is or shall be. (47) 

Present and Future Ttnses. Affirmative. 


1 Ma taim, if I he 

2 Ma ta tu, if thou be 

3 Ma ta se, if he be 



1 Ma tamoid; ma ta sinn, if 
we be 

2 Ma ta silih, if ye be 

3 Ma taid, ma ta said, if/% Atf 

Present^ &c. Negative. 

Singular Plural 

1 Muna bhfuilim, murbhfuil'N ri Muna bhfuilmid, muna 
me, ff I he not I \ bhfuil sinn, if we be not 

2 Muna bhfuil tu, if thou, &c. W 2 Muna bhfuil sibh, if ye, &c. 

3 Muna bhfuil se, if he be noti J 3 Muna bhfuil siad, if they be 

J V. not. (48) 

^ Preter Tense. Affirmative. 

Singular , 

1 Ma bios, ma bi me, if I were^ (49) — As the 
Preter of the Indicative Mood. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




Da mbionn, da mbiainn, if 
I tvtre, or had been 
Da mbiadhfa, if thou, &c. 
Da mbiadh, if he had been 


\ Da mbiodbmaftis, da mbiadh 

stnn, if we were, or had been 

2 Da mbiadh sibh, ifyc, ko. 

3 Da mbidisy da mbiadb siad, 
if they were, &c. 

Prefer and ConsuetudinaL 


1 Muna be go raibh me, if /- 

had not been 
it Muna be go raibh tu, if[ 

thou had not been , 

3 Muna be go raibh se, ifhe\ 

had not beeti 


Muua be go r^Ubh siai 
we had not been 
Muna be go raibh sibh> if 
ye had not been 
Muna be go raibh siad, if 
ihcy had not been 

Futile Tense. Affirmative. 


1 Ma bhiann, if I shall be 

2 Ma bhionn tu, if thou shah 

3 Ma bhionn se, if he shall 



. Plural 

Ma bhlomaoid, ma bhionn 
sinn. If we shall be 
Ma bhionn sibh, if ye, &c. 
Ma bhionn siad, if they, &c. 


Singular / • 
Muna mbeidh me, if I shall 
w>t be 

Muna mbeidh tu, if thou, &c, 
Muna mbeidh se, if he, &c. I 




Muna mbeidh sinn, if we 
shall not be 

Muna mbeidh sibh, if ye, &c. 
Muna mbeidh siad, if thty 
shall not be, (50) 


1 ' r?o raibh me, may 1 he 

2 Oo raibh tu^ may est thou be 

3 fig raibh se^ may lie be 



1 Nar raibh me, may I not he 

2 Narraibhtu,7/M(j^e5fMow 

3 Nar faibh se, may 



1 Goraibhmid, go raibh sinn, 
rtiay We be^ 

2 Go raibh sibh, may ye he 

3 Go raibh iJiad, jnay they he 


I not be^ i 1 Nar ra 

thou, he. f \ sinn, m 

he not'bei\2 Nar rai 

J f.3 N-arrail 

1 Nar raibh mid, »ai* raibh 
, may we not be 
raibh sibh, may ye not be 
N-ar raibh siad, may they not be 

I wish 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1(TYM01X)OY. 49 


I wish t ^et^Cf &t. h ^xpfessierf, Au^h mhaith 
Horn go raibh mCy or hfearr Horn go r^Ubh nie. (51) 


The potential is fomitd by the auxiliary imper- 

Present Preter Future 

as, oris, it is ba, it was inicl, it shall or will be 

or by tigim, / comej used impersonally;* or by 
caitfid, must. To some one of these is joined 
such a wotd a», teidif, pifs$ible; c6ir, right; eigin, 
necessitif^ &c. followed tiy the pronoun which 
should have been nominative to the verb, and by 
. the verb itself in the infinitive mood ; as, 

Is eigin dan d beit^ I must be; k feidir liom 
a Beit, / may be; ba c6ir daifa a Beit, / should 
have been; ni 'tig liom a Beit, I cannot be; caitfid 
me a Beit, / must be. (52) 


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30 BTt»iOt(Xj;Y. 


Conjugation of iuail, strike. (53) 



Singular Plural > 

• • . ^ r^ ?uailipiid,. /«?,!« «ft7itc 

2 Buai), strike tJioii v ? ^ Buailighe, strike yc 

3 Buailidn se, let him strike ^ ^ 3 Buailidis, buailidA siad, Id 

' ' -^ V ^^* strike 

The imperative negative strike not, thou. Sec: h 
formed by ()reftkirig na to eich person; as, w^ 
buail^ S6c.- i ' '■ -' ; ■ ■• ''' ; .- ^ .: /:' • 

INFINITiyi: MQOp. ' 

Affirmative. Negative 

Do, or a bhualadh> to strike; Gan a bhualadh^ not to stiike 


Present Preter Future 

abualadh,..n^f.^;>\-^^^^^^ ^-| ^''^£'^'^:, 


Present Tense. Affirmative. 

Singular Plural 

1 Buailim> / strike "i T^ Buailimid, we strike 

2 Buailir, buailidh lu, ihou9\2 Buailidh sibh,j^ strike 
strikest i J ^ Buailidk siad, they strike 

3 Buailidh sc, he strikes ./v. 


Digitized, by VjOOQ IC 

Tiie present negative I do not strike, ^c. is 
fo^Tned^ by prefixing ni to each persoi); as, ni 
bhuailimy Sec. . 

The 'present interrogative do I strike ? &c. is 
formed by ^prefixing a or an to each person; as, 
a mbuailimP &c. 

Present, with the relative a, who; anti, who; 
noc, awfricA/. go der what? ca huair? when? ;go 
dh ttmtr \^^f haxing hy [who, whiohj expressed or 
'undefStbbH. * — 

Singular *^ Plural 

J Go de Buafleas me?^ ' 
what do I strike? 

2 is taa buaileas, it is 
thou that strike^t V^ 

3 ciabuailean se? whom 
does he strike ? 

1 as slnn a buailcas, we 
do strike 

2 ^ de buaileas sib? 
xvhat do ye strike? 

3 ca huair a buaileas 
siad? zc^en do they 
strike? {5^) 

Preter. Affirmative. 

Singular ■ Plural .' ( , 

1 Do bhuaileas> bhuail me, />. /^l Bobhuai(eamar^bliuail8i|;ip, 
nntck^ § \ ^^ struck 

2 Do bhuaifis, biipail tu, thou fj2 Do bhuaileabhar, bhuail 
itruckest i J sibh^ ye sttnick 

S Do bhuail^' bhuail »e, heXJs Do bhuaileadkr, bhutiil siad, 
struck ' . 1 ^ ^^ struck, (55) 

The preter negative is fonnfed by prefixing ^i/W*, niar buaileas, X did not strike. 

The pi^j?. jpierfogative is fonnecl by prefixing 
nar to each person; as, nar buail me? did I strike? 
(56) , , • , 

Consuet^udinaL Affirmative. 

Singular Plural 

] 'RvkdWixa, I usually strike ^C^ Buailean8inn,i:?^i/«/^/y,&c. 
2 . BuaJleaii:tii, f^i>|£ usually^ &C. v - J ^. Bu^ilean %j^\\»y€ muailyikc. 
3 Buailean $k, he usua^^^^ .> C. ?\ Bipileai^ »iaJ, they^ &c, 

\ ,<..H H a ^ The 

Digftized by Google 

52 fcTTMOIiOaY. 

The consuetudinai fcegativc and interrogative 
are foroied as in the pnesent; ni ttuajleao tu, thou 
dost not , usually strike; di mbuailean se? dQe$ he 
usually strike? 

Future. Affirmatm, 

Singular Woral 

fi Bv^ilt'e Ui^ tiiou wilt strike J / 2 BuaiMe siWb pe u4ff Ilri4r, 
3 Buailfe sc, he will strike y t^ Buailfe liad, 4h^^xp^j>lMxi/fe 


SinKuiar Plum^ 

1 Buailid, buaile me,/ shall-^/^l Buailimid, buaile tiiin^ ue, 
or WJi// smke ^ JK shall strike 

2 Buatlir, buiile tu> ^Aou shaltfJ 2 BuaiHjdii' siJbh^jK! Ai// strike 
strike ^^3 Bii^illdk sia4,#A<y«^^rti« 

3 Buailidh, buaile s«, /«; 5Aa//\ # (57) 

Tlie future negative aud interrogative are form^- ♦ 
ed as the affirmative; as, ni Buailid, I shall not 
strike; a mbuailir? wilt thou strike. 

The future, with the relatives a] antiy or noch; 
or the inteiragatives go de? ca huairf go de murf 
Sec. (5«) i . 


Singular Pfbril 

1 Code Buailfcas me?'^ rias sinjti a buailfea^, a?^ 

zvhat shall J strike ? 1 1 shall strike 
.3 is tu a Buailfe^s, iVi^Msgo de Buailfeas «B? 

thou shall strike M what shall yc strike? 
3 an te a Buailfeas, /AellScia Buailfeas siad? 

person that shall^ kc. J ^ whom shall they sirlkef 


Presetit Tense and Future. Affirmative. 

Siiigular . ; i 

1 Ma Buailim, if I &tri^el &e, — as tlic pesent \n* 
dicative, having ina, if, prefixed^ • • • 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Present and Future. Negative. 

1 Si una Ikiaitim, if I do not strike.-^^^% the pre- 
smt indicative, having muna, if not ^ prefixed, 

**" Prefer. .J^rmative. ., 

Singular r ^ 

\laS^me, }£f ^ '^^^ ^'^"^^--a* the prcter 
indicative, having nsia, if prefixed, 

Preter. Negative. 

Singular ^ 
1 Muna Buaileas, 7 •> r 2 ^ \. / n ^ 

Muna buail me, ^ ^ *^ *^' tiruck.^^ tHc 
preter negative indicative, having imo£i) if not, 
instead pf fiiar. ^ 

Consuetudinai^ Affirmative. 

Sii^lar Plural 

I Ban^uailian^ had I$intck^ /^iBambuaitfeamois^damboCHU 

S Da mhuailfeadh »e, Aad Ac Vy struck 
*^^^ (j 3 Da mbuaiiadis, da mbuail^ 

1 f licib^ vsiad, had that struck 
J\ (59) 

Conmetudmal. Negative. 

J Muna be gur Buail me, had I not struck — as 
the preter indicative, having muna be gur, un- 
less that, prefixed. 


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54 ETniOLOGS^ 

Present and Future. Affirmative. 

Singular Plural 

,1 60 mbuaileam, go mbuail-'N ^\ Go mbuailimid, go mbuail^ 
idh me, way /. strike . # i idh sinn, may we strike 

2 Oombuailidhtu,9/<aye5/Mottf )2 (Jo mbuailidh sibh, may ye 
strike / j strike 

3 Go mbuailidh sc, may ^\/3 Go mbuailidis, go mbuailidh 
strike J v siadj may they strike 

The present and future negative, aie the san»e 
as affirmative, except that nar is used instead of 
go; aS, nar Buaileam, or nar buaili'd me thay I 
not strike. 

Preter and ConsuetudinaL Affirmative. 

1 Bfearr liom go^ mbuailfinn, / •pi^h I had struck. 
— as the subjunctive, except that bfearr liom 
go is used instead of i/a. 

The preter negative is formed in the same 
maimer, except that nar or nachai\ not, is used 
Instead oi go; as, bfearr liom nar Buailfinn, Iwish 
I had not struck. 


Is feidir liom a Buala'd, lean strike him or it; 
beigin dam a buala'd, / must have struck him or 
it; ni tig liom a Buala'd, I cannot strike him or 
it, &c. (60) 


. Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Buailtear, be struck, 

imperative; moqix 

Singular Plural. 

1 Baailtear m^, biodh me^ i^l Buailtear inn, biodhmaoicl 

buailte, kt me he struck i i baaitte, let us be struct 
^ Buailtear, biodh tu buailte, v < *^ Buailtear ibh, biodh sibk 

be tlum struck y\ hvi^WU, be ye struck 

5 Buailtear^, bicKlhaei;\uaiUe,l /^ Buftiltear 1^^^ biodh siad 

let him be struck J V. byailte, Ut them he struck 

The imperative npgative is formed by prefixingr 
na: as^ na buailtear me, let me not be struck. 

infinitive; mood. 
A Beit buailte, ta be strwk^ 


Pnter, BuaiH^, ^fwpfri" iar mbeith buaihe, having been siruek. 
Future^ le bhualadh, le na bhualadh, or ar/tibhei^h buailte, 
4ibout to he struck, (61) 


Present Tense. Affirmative. 

Singular Plural 

1 Buailtear me, / am struck ^ C^ Buailtear inn, we are struck 

2 Buailtear thu, thou qrt struck J \ 2 Buailtear ibh, ye are struck 
% Buailtear e, Jie is struck S t.^ Buailtear iad, they are struck 

Present Negative^ Ni buailtear me, &c. / am 
not struck^ &c. 

Present Interrogative^ A mbuailtear mc? &c. 
am I struck? &c. 



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50 ETYMOLOfi^Ytf 

Preter Teme. Afirmative: 

Singnlar Plural 

1 Dobuai]eadhine,/t#a54#rt^ik^ ^1 D6 baa^leadh sinn, we were 
S Do buaileadh thu, thou wast i i Hruck 

Mtrudk f I2 Do buaileadh sibh, jr^ were 

I Do buaileadh ^i^fPO^'^TttCit/^^ strttck 

' 3 Do buaileadh iad, tkei/ were 
^ struck 

Preter Negative, Niar buailea'd me, &c. / was 
not strt4ck, &c. 

Preter Ifiterrdgathe, JnTef buailead ine? &c. 
W0st struck f &c, 

Futurt Tehse. AjUrfhAtioe. 

Singular Plural 

1 B<iftafearmfe, IdtdlltawlH^/'l Bdiilffe^t irtrt, w^ u^f/! fce 
hestfkdk i\ ^ntck 

2 Bqailfear thq, thou wilt befl2 Buailfear ibh, ye will be 
struck y^ stmck 

S BvaLi\ftBik,hewillhestruck\is Buailfear iad> tliey will he 
(62J J\. struek 

Future N^gative^ Ni buailfear me, / will not 
le struckj &c. 

Future Jnterrogafivp^ A mbwUfear ifie ? skuU 
f h^ Struck? &e, 

Present T^m^, Affirmative, 

Singular Plural 

\ Ma bhuailtcar me, if I he^ ^\ Ma bhuailtear inn, if we 

be struck 

Ma bhuailtear ibh, if ye be 

Ma bhuailtear i9d> if they 
' r struck 

\ Ma bhuailtcar me, if I be^ ^\ Ma 

struck ft k J 

9 Ma bhuailtear tu, if thoufj2 Ma 

be struck / j stn 

$ Mi bhuAiltrtf e, tf ^ ^\ f 3 Ma 

struck . ^ V. ^ J 

Present Negative, Muiia mbuaijltear ine, 1/ / 
le not struct^, 



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Pret^r Tense. Affirmative. 

Singular Plural 

J Dambuailfidh me, if I had-. ^,\ Da mbaailfidh iim, if wc 

been struck i i had been slruik 

2 Da mbuailfidh thu, if thoufl^ Da mbuailfidh ibh, if ye had 

hadst been struck f \ been struck 

S Da mbuwlfidh «e, i/he kadi f $ Da inbuaiHidh iad, if they 

been struck J v had been struck, (63) 

Preter Negatirce, Mana be go raiK me buailte, 
if I had not been struck. 

Future Tense. Affii^mative. 

Singular , Plural 

1 Ma bhuailfear me, if /"\ / 1 Ma bhaaiHear inn, if xse 
shall be struck i \ sh(dl be struck 

2 Ma bhuailfear thu, (fMowf y2'Ma bhuailfear ibh, if ye 
shah be struck /" j shall bt stt^ck 

3 Ma bhuailfear e, if he will\ #3 Ma bhuailfear iad, if they 
be struck , J ^ shall be stmck 

Fiitu7^e Negative^ Muna mbuailfear me, if I 
shall not be struck. 

Present and Future Tenses. Affirmative. 

Singular " Plural 

1 Go mbuailtear me, may Z-x >- 1 Go nrbuaiitear sinn, may we 
be struck i i be struck 

2 Go mbuailtear thu, fnayestfj 2 Go mbuailtear sihh, may ye 
thou be stnick . ^\ be struck 

3 Go mbuailtear e^ may he beX I ^ Go mbuailtear iad, may they 
struck J \^ be a ruck 

Present and Future Negative^ Nar Buailtear, 
me, 7naif I not be struck. 

Preter Tense. Affirmative, 

Singular \ 

1 Bfearr liom da mbuailfi'd me, &c% / wish I had 
becfz struck. 

I Preter 

-Digitized by VjOOQIC 

\38 i:tymology. 

Preter. Negative. 

1 Bfearr liom nach mbuailfi'd me, / wish I had 

not been struck. 

Every part of the passive voice may likewise be 
formed, by joining the preter participle passive, to 
the auxiliary bi; as, ta me buailte, I am struck; 
/ bhi me buailte, Ixvasstrucky &c. 

To express continuance, the present participle 
having ag ox ga with a possessive pronoun pre- 
fixed, is' joined to the verb bi : as, ta me ga mo 
Bualad, i am in striking; Bi me ga mo bualad, 
I was in striking. 

Conjugation of Codail^ sleep. 


Singular Plural 

1 -\ C^ Codlamoid, bimid nargtod- 

2 Codail^ bi do chodladh^ sleep i \ ladh, let us sleep 

thou f < ^ Codlaighe, bigidhe or bidh 

3 Codlaidh se, bi se na chod- /" j sibh bhur gcodladh, sleep yc 
ladh>7e^ him sleep \ f ^ Codlaidh siad^ biodli siad na 

J V. gcodladh, let them sleep, {95) 

Imperative Negatix'e, na codail, or^ na bi do 
iodlad, 3e:c, sleep not thou, &c. 

Affirmative. Negative. 

A chodladh, to sleep . gau a chodladh, not to sleep 


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A chodiadh, sleeping 


lar gcodbdh^ 
htivitig slept 


Ar ti chodladh 
about to sleep 


Present Tense. Affirnuitixe. 


' 1 Codlaiiioid, tjimoid nar gcod- 

iadh, v:e sleep 
I 2 Codlain sibh, ta sibh bhur 

gcodladh,5^ff sleep 
3 -Codlain siad, ta siad nagcod^ 

ladh, thty' sleep 


1 Codlaimt ,ta me tno chgd-" 
ladh, i sleep 

2 Codlain tu, ta tu do chod- 
ladh, thou sleepest 

$ Codlain se, ta se na chod- I 
ladh, ta si na codladh, he or 
she sleeps 

Present Negative, Ni codlaim, iiiel me ma cod- 
la'd, / do not sleepy I am nat asleep. 

Present Interrogative^ A gcodlaim? bfuil me 
codlad? do I sleep? am I asleep? (66) 

Preter Tense. Affirmative. 

Singular Plural 

1 Chodailme, bhimeraochod-'N /^r Chodail sinn, bhi sin n nar 
ladh, [slept, or / was asleep i V gcodladh', w, 8cc, 

2 Chodail tu, bhi tu do chod-f y 2 Chmlail sibh, bhi sibh bhur 
ladh, Mott, &c. ?'j gcodladh,5re, &.C. 

3 Chodail se, bhi se na chod- \ f 3 Chodail siad, bhi siad na 
ladh, he, &c. J ^ gcodladh, they, &c. 

Preter Negative, Niar codail me, ni raibli me 
mo codlad, / did not Jeep,. &c. 

Preter Interrogative, Nar codail me? an raiU 
me mo codlad? did I sleep? &c. 

Future lense. Affirmative. 


1 Coideolam, beidh me 
chodladh, / tvill sleep 

2 Coideola tu; beidh tu 
chodladh, thou wilt sleep 

$ Coideola se, beidh se 
chodladh, he will sleep 

1 2 

Coideola sirm, beidh sinn nar 
gcodladh, ive will sleep 
Coideola sibh, , beidh sibh 
bhur gcodladh, ye will sleep 
Coideola siad, beidh siad na 
gcodladh, thf*i/ will sleep 


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Future Negative^ Ni coidcalfad, or ni coidcola 
me, or ni Biam mo codlad, / zvill tiot sleep. (6?) 

Future Interrogative^ An gcoideola? or an 
mbeid me mo codlad? shall I sleep? 


Present Tense. Jffii'matite. 

Singular Plural 

1 Ma ta me mo <;hodladh, if^ ^ 1 Ma tamoid nar gcodladl>, if 
I be asleep # \ ' ^^ ^^ asleep 

2 Ma ta tu do chodladh, (f f / 2 Ma ta sibh bhur gcodladh, 
thou be asleep ^ "S if ye be asleep 


3 Ma ta se na chodladh, if he \f ^ Ma ta siad ua gcodladh, if 
be asleep J v. they be asleep 

Present Negativey Muna bfuil me mo codlad, 
if I be not asleep. 

Preter Tense. Affirmative. * 

Singular . 
1 Da mbiainn mo codlad, kc if I had been asleep^ 

Preter Negative, Muna be go raiB me mo Cod- 
lad, if I had not been asleep. 

Future Tense. Affirmative. 

Singular PIqral 

1 Ma bhiam mo chodladh, if^ rX Ma bhioim sinn nar gcod- 
/ shall be asleep i \ ladh, {five shall be asleep 

2 Ma bhionn tu do chodladh, \J2 Ma bhionn sibh bhur gcod- 
ifthon shall be asleep Cj ladh, if ye shall be asleep 


3 Ma bhionn se na chodladh^ | (^ Ma bhionn siad na gco(Uadh> 
if he^shall be asleep ^ ^ if they shall be asleep 

Future Negativey Muna nibeid me mo codladj 
if I shall not be asleep. 


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Present and Future Tenses. Affirmative. 

Singular Plural 

1 Go raibh me mo chodladh,-^ /^\ Goraibh sinii nar gcodladh, 
may I sleep M \ inay we ^sleep 

2 Go raibh tu do chodladh,f 7 2 Go raibh sibb bhur gcod- 
mayest thou sleep /" j ladh, may ye sleep 

3 Go raibh se na chodladh, V / 3 Go jraibh siad na gcodladh, 
may he Sleep J V may they sleep 

Present and Future Negative. Nar raib me 
mo co'dla'd, may I not sleep. 

Preter Affirmative. Bfeanr liom go raib jne 
hio codlad, / wish I had been asleep. 

Preter Negative. Bfearr liom nac raib nie uio 
codlad, / wish I had not been asleep. (6S) 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 






Every regular Verb has six principal parts, in 
the active voice, from which all the moods, and 
tenses are formed: viz. (69) 

1. The imperative; as, buail, strike; crom, 

2. The infinitive, usually formed by adding ad, 
to the imperative, if the last vowel is broad; ead, 
if small; as, do Buailead, or do Bualad, to strike; 
do cromad, to bend. (70) 

3. The present, formed by adding im, or am, 
to the imperative; as, buailim, I strike; cromam, 
I bend. 

4. The preter, formed by adding as, is, or eas, 
to the imperative; as, do buaileas, / struck; do 
crqmas, / bent, 

5. The future, formed by adding ad, ead, or 
id; fad, feiid, or fid, to the imperative ; as, buail- 
fead, I win strike; cromfad, I will bend. (71) 

6 The consuetudinal, subjunctive, formed by 
adding fann, fuinn, or finn, to the imperative; as, 
da mbuailfiinn, had I struck; da gcromfuinn, had 
I bent. (72) 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Regular verbs are therefore conjugated through 
the primary tenses active, in this manner; 

Buail, do Bualad, buailimj do Buaileas, buail- 
fead, da mbuailfinn, strike. 

Bris, do brisead, brisim, do briseas, brisfead^ 
da mbrisfinn, break. 

Cas, do casad, casam, do casas, casfad, da 
gcasfuinn, tzvist. 

Ceap, do ceapad, ceapam, do ceapas, ceapfad, 
da gceapfuinn, shape, or fit. 

Agall, d' agallaH, agallam, d' agallas, agallfad, 
da nagallfutnn, accost. 

Baist, do baistead, baistim, do baisteas, baist* 
fead, da mbaistfinn, baptize. 

Arduig, dVardugad, arduigim, d' arduigeas, air- 
deocfad, da nairdeocfuinn, raise. 

Crumnig, do cruinniugad, cruinnigim, do cruin- 
nigeas, cruinneocfad, do gcruinncocfuinn, gather^ 

In this manner conjugate, 
adair, d' adrad, adore fag,— Tagad, leave 

airim,— airiihead, reckon 
bog,— bogad, rock 
bat,— ba tad, drown 
blais,— blaisead, taste 
brug,— brugad, bruise 
biog,— biagad, stir up 
. buaidir, -buaidread, trou- 
coraig,— corugad, stir 
c^as,— c^asad, torment 
cior,— ciora^, co7nb 
claon,— claonad, lament 
druid,— druidead, shut 
ditn,— dunad, make fast 
duisg,— duisgead, awaken 
ding,— dingead, drive 
dog,— dpg^, burn 
^ult,— diultad, refuse 

fill,— fillead, return 
fosgal,— fosglad, open 
freagar. -freagrad, answer 
gearr,— gearrad, cut 
fuirig,— fuireac, 
glac,— glacad, take 
gl^n,-*-glinad, clean 
gleas,— gleasad, ' 
goraig,— gorad, zcanji 
greamuig, — greamugad, 

iarr, - iarraig, search or ask 
ias,— lasad, burn 
lom,-k)mad, make thin 

or bare 
Hon,— lionad, Jill 
leag,— leagad, lay down 
leag,— leagad, read 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



marb,— mrfeo^, kill 
V^^r'ji^^^&9id, mix 
mill,— millead, spoil 
i»,q1, --roola*^, . jJiWif^e 
ihinigj-rhiniuga'd, explain 
Bo,ct,.-^octa*4 strip 
6ng,— onga'd, anoint 
oydaig,'^ordAigea"d, ord^ 
osgaoil,— osgaoilead, ope^ 
|)leaiig,--pleasgad, hurst 
pog,— pogad, kiss 
Bos,-'po8a*(5, marry 
pronir,— pionnad, bestow , 
pliic,— plucad, smother 
preab,— preahad, kick 
re^^rb^^-reubaU, te^r 
r€i4r^vd'de^49 settle 
rol,— rolad, roll 
rusg,— rusgad, semrge 
sgab,— sgabad, seatter 
sat,— satad, ^tab 
saor,—saorad, deliver 
sgj^^il, rsamalad, compare 

J5eaa!g,-4eargfl4 mthcr 

seki,--^ieideii'd, Uqw 
^meid,— sineideail, ieckam 
mur-^es^^ihy stand 
slug,^$lttgad, mmiimo 
3giob,— sgipfead, lop 
sil,— silea'd, ^hed 
«in,r-$iiae^, stretch 
^ini^-agini>ead, gmh 
siob,— iiobad, dr^t 
slaodar,— slaodarad, drag 
smuaiu,— sjnuaineati, con- 
sgaiit,— sgairtead, caU 
sgailt,— sgaikead, -5jd/zV 
sguab,— sgiiabad, sweep 
^g*&--sgagad, digest 
sgriob, - sgriobad, scratch 
sgi4ol>,— sgriobad, write 
sgaQil,-^gaoilead, loose 
sparr^T-'Sparrad, nail 
Bgeitj-sgeitead, > 
sgat,-^tad, 3 

> scatter. 

Many vtxh^ have tlie infinitive and imperative 
alike ; and in some the imperative can only be dis- 
tinguished from the infinitive,;. hy having: a small 
vowel in the termination. In all other parts they 
are conjugated regularly; as, (7,3) v_ 

)3ioi, do diol, diolam, do dio|igL3, diolfacl, da 
ndiolfuinn, self br pay. 

Cuhy do cur, cuirim, <^o. cuirep, cuirifead, da 
gcuii-finn,' ^enrf or pw?. . - . :, 

The following is a ti^t df the n^ost usiiaL 

bruit, A6hnv\t, h&il • 'iairis,^airi8, -^c// • 
aihiiire,^-^irija)V, look ucrinn,— crinn, g-^aw 
cosg,— coiig^ quell \%\\x\'i^m\ suck 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



eapj,"eag, die 
eirig,7-eiiig, arise 
ealo,— ealo, dope 
iomdar,— iomcar, earr^ 
foglam,- foglam, learn 
glaoid,— glaod, call 
goin,— gon, wound 
guid,— guid, 6' teal 
gtiid,— guide, pray 
iompo,— iompo, turn 
guil,-gul, cry 
ioc,— ioc, p<ii/ 
jt,-f-ite, eat ^ 
luid,— luide, //e? 
nig,— nige, wash 
nieas,— riieas, esteem 
olj— ol, drink 

rainti,— rainn, divide 
rinc,— rinc, dance 
rad,— rad, deliver 
reic,— reic, sell 
riar,— riar, satisfy 
slad,— slad, rob 
sgar," sgar, separate 
stad,— stad, stqp 
said,— suide, sit 
sniom,— siiioih, spi?i 
sug,— suga. suck 
siubal,— siubal, walk 
tiomain,— tidman, djivc 
toirmesg, — toirmeasg, 

tocuis,— tocus, scratch 
sgrios,-rSgrios, destroy 

These form the infinitive in /, viz. 

admuig, d' admail, con- 
bac,^-bacail, hinder • 

cas,— casihail, 1. 
_ • . I / turn 
or casaa,^ 

carnn,— carnail, /r€^ 

cuinnig,--cuinmeal, keep 

congaib,— congbail, hold 

creid,-- creidriieal, believe 

fag,— fagbail, leave 
fuaid,— fuaideal, sew 
gab,— gabail, take 
lasg,— lasgail, xvhip 
tog,-togbail, lift 
treig, — treigiheal, forsake 
tuig, — tuigbeal, under- 
stand < 

The follouring have the infinitive in t; viz. 

bagar, do bagairt, 
threaten ; 

bain,— baint, meddle 

can,— caint, or canarh- 
uint, sing, or tell 

cosan,— cosaint, defend j 

ceil,— ceilt, conceal 
dibir,— dibirt, banish 
cigil,— cig-ilt, tickle 
inill,— inillt, eat grass 
iniir,— imirt, play a game 
labair,— labairt, speak 

casgar,— casgajrt, cut up ' nieil,-^riaeilt, grind 
cogail,— coigilt, spare ] niiisgal, — inSsgailt, a- 
cuimil,— cuiniilt, rub 1 waken ^ 

K jft ionoll, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ionollj-ionlat, wash 'teilg,-teilgin, orteilginf, 

seacan,— seacaint, ^Aw/j j tast 

leig,— leigin, or leigint, rit,— ritint, nm 

permit lean, — leanmuint, foUozi^ 

sgal>— sgarmuin/ or sgar- tan,— fanmuint, stay 

ihiiint, separate 

feuc,— feucaint, behold 
feic,— feicsint, see 

The following cannot be reduced to ^ny general 
rule; viz. 

ail, d'aileaihuin, nourish 
blig,— bliagan, milk 
geall, — geallaihuin, pro- 

inuis,— innse, tell 
eist— eisteact, hear , 

imtig,— imteact, go 
gair,— gairm, call 
seas,— seasam, statid * 
sinn,— sinim, play music 
gluas, — gluasacd, move. 



/ ( 

Every regular verb has five principal parts, m 
the passive voice, viz. 

1. The participle, formed by adding ta^ or te 
to the imperative, active; as, buail, strike, buailte, 
struck; cas, twist, casta, twisted. 

2. The imperative, and the present, formed by , 
adding tar, or tear to the imperative; as, buail- 
tear, be struck, or / am struck; castar, / am 
twisted. . 

3. The pieter, formed by adding ad or cad 
to the imperative active; as, do buailead, / was 
a truck; do casad, I zvas tzvisted. ^ 

4. The future, formed by adding ar or ear, far 
ox fear to the imperative active; as, buailfear, / 
fS hall be 'struck; casfar, I will be twisted. 

5. The preter subjunctive^ formed by adding 
faoidh^ or Jidh to the imperative active; as, da 
mbuaillld, if I had heai struck; da gcasfaoi'd^ if 
I had been lumted. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Regular verbs are therefore conjugated thorough 
the primary tenses passive, in this mariner. 

Imperative, active, Baistj baiste, baistear, do 
baistea'd, baistfear, da.mbaistiid, baptized. 

BlaiSy blaiste, blaistear, do blaisead, blaisfear, 
da mblaisfid, tasted. 

Brughy bruigte, brugtar, do brugad, brugfar, da 
i^brugfaoid, bruised. 

Cronij crpm'taoid*, xrromtar, do cromad, crom- 
far, da gcromfaoid, bent. ( ) 

Dioly diolta, dioltar, do diolad, diolfar, da 
ndiolfaoid, sold. 

Nighj nigte, nigtar, do nigead, nigfear, da nigh- 
faoid, zva^hed. 

Tiomain^ tiomanta*, tiomantar, do tiomanad^ 
tiomanfar, da dtiojnanfaoid, drive?i. ( ) 

Ceily ceilte, ceiltear, do ceilea*d, ceiltear, da 
gceilfaoid, concealed. 

Cany canta, can tar, do canad, canfar, da gcan- 
faoid, sung or said. 

Treigy treigte or treigtid, treigtear*, do treig^ 
ead, trcigfear, da dtreigfaoid, /br^aAr^w. ( ) 

Creidy creidte, creidtear, do creidead, creidfear, 
da gcreidfid, believed. 

Tuigy tuigte or tuigtid, tuigtear, do tuigead, 
tuigfear, da dtuigfid, understood^ (75) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



There are in Irish eight verbs, besides Jthe aux- 
iliary bi, which are called irregular; as they bor- 
row various parts from other verbs, partly obsolete. 

The following table exhibits the primary word 
of each mood and tense, from which the other 
persons, &c. are formed, as in the regular verbs. 


1. Dean, do. (77) 


Dean, do. 


Do, or a 'deanam, to do. 


Ag deanam, doing. . 


Pres. Aff. Nim, I do, 

Neg. Niel me deanam, I do not. 

Int. A ndeanam ? or a ndeann me ? do I? 

Pret. Aff. Rinneas, rinne me, I did. 

Neg. Ni dearnas, I did not. 

Int. A ndearna me? did I? 

Fut Aff. Dheanad, I will do. 

Neg. Ni deanad, / will not do. 

'- Int. A ndeanad ? shall I do ? 


Pres. & Fut. Ma nim, 

Aff. Ma deanam, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Pret AiF. Da ndcanuinn, if I hadtlone. 

1 Neg. Muna be go ndeanuinn, if I had^ &c, 


Pres. & Put. AiF. Go ndeanam. I wish I may do. 
Neg. Nar "deanam, may I not do. 

Pi^et. Bfearr liom go ndeannuinn, / wish I had 



Dean tar, be made^ ov be done. 


Do, or a bei't deanta, to be done, or made^ 


Deanta, done^ or made. 


Pres. AfF. Deantar.ine, / am made. 

Neg. Niel me ar mo deanam, / amy &c. 

Int. Bhfuil me ga mo deanarii? am, I? 

Pret. AfF. Do rinnead, I was made. 

Neg. Niar dearnad, I was not made. 

Int. Nar dearnad ? was I made ? 

Put. AfF. deanta^ I mil be made. 

— — Neg. Ni dean tar, I will not be made. 

Int. A ndeacftaiv? shall I Remade? 


Pres,&FtttAfl^ Ma ndeantar, *) .v* rL j 
Mamtear, i^f J be made. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Pres. Neg. Muna ndeantar, > .j» »r ^. _ , . 
^ Munanitear, ' ^if ^ ^e not mdde. 

Pret Aff. Da ndeantaoid, > •/• r ^ ^ _ ^ 

Neg* Muna be go ndeantaoid, lif I ti^ere 

Muna be go ndeanfaoid^ 3 not made. 


pres. & Put. Aff- Go ndeantar, may I be made. ^ 
^ — ^— Neg. Nar deantar, may I not be made. 

jPret. Bfearr liom go ndeantar, / wish I hady Sec. 

2. 'Abair, Sat/. (78) 



Abair, say. 


Do, or a rad„ /o say. 


Ag rad, saying. 


Pres. Aff. Deirim, I say. 

^ \ Neg. Ni abraim, / do not say. 

•^ — — Int. An abraim? do I sayf 

Pret Aff. Dubras, ^ ^^ 

DuBairt me, > 

Neg. Niar dubras, I did not say, 

— ^Int. Nar dubras? Ijj r o 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 


1?ut. Aff. Dearaid, 7 r •#/ 

Dearame, r»'^'^*«-y- 
Neg. Ni habraim, 7 7. n ^ * 

. Int An dearaid ? 7 r 77 r « 



Pres. & Fut. Ma deirim, 7 ... |. 

Aff. Ma habraim, >^ ^ ^''•5^- 

Neer. Muna deirim, 1 r 7 j 

. Muna nabr^im, K ^ ^'' "''^ ^^i'- 

Pret AiF. Da ndearuinn, ? ./» r -j 
Danabminn, J/^ ^^^^- 

Neg. Muna be go ndearuinn, lif I had not 

Muna be go nabruinn, y said. 


Pres, & Fut Aff Go ndeirim, 7 ^ 

Neg. Na habraim, may I not say. 

Pret Bfearr liom go ndearuinn, ) ^ . , ^ 

Bfearr liom go nabruinn, ^^a^^A JwMjy^oy. 

3. Tabair, give, or bring. (79) 




TaBair, give. 


Do, or a Brei't, to brings 
Do, or a tabairt, /o ^rir^. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Ag hreit, bringtngy &c. 


Pret. AfF/ Beirim, I bring, or give. 

Neg. Ni beirim, / do not bring. 

Int. An beirim? do I bring ? 

PretAff. tugas, \j;^^^^ 
tug me, 3^^^^^; 

Neg. Niar tugas, &c. / did not give. 

— '^— nint. a d tugas? &c. did I give? 

Fut. Aff. Bearfaid, 1 r n • 

— — Neg. Ni bearaid, 1 r -u ^ • 

Int. A dtiobraid? 7 7 ,, r • ^ 


Pres. & Fut. Ma beirim, 7 -^ t -^ 

Aff. Matugam,F ^5^^^^- 
--r — Neg. Muna beirim, 7 -r r ^ ^ • 


Pret. Aff. Da mbearuinn, 7 r r 

Padtuguinn, JJ^^^«'^- 
Neg. Muna be go mbearuinn, "1 

Muna be go dtuguinn, >if^ &c. 

Muna be go dtiobruinn, j 


Pres, & Fut. Go mbearam, 7 r • 

Aff. Godtugam, j^^^^^^- 
Neg. Nar bearam, 7 r ^ • ^ 


Digitized by VjO^OQ IC 


Pret. Bfearr lionvgo labearuinn, ^ ' ^ 

Bfearr Horn go dtuguinn, > I wish, &c, 
Bfearr liom;'go 4tipbrumn, j 

i .' ' ' 


] Bmtar, «<> tugar, be gken. 


. Do, or a Beit beifta, to be given, or brought. ^ 


Beaiija, given, or brought. (80) 


Pres. AfF. Bezri^r me, I am given, &d. 

Neg. Niel^ie gainobreit, ] j am riot given. 

Niel me ga mo tabairt, 3 ^ 

Int. Bhfuil me ga mab>eit? l^mlnotgiven? 

Bhfuil me ga mo tabairt r > ^ 

Pret. Aff. Do tuga'd, I xvas given. 

Neg. Niar tiig^, / was not given. 

Int. Nar tuga'd, was I given? 

Put, Aff. Beartar, l^^gj^i j,^ gi^en. 
tugar, S 

Neg. Ni beartar, 1 j ^j^^^ ^^^ ^^ -^^^^ 

Ni tugar, jt 

Int. An mbeartar?V^^;^j^ .^^^^ 

Adtugarr. > 


Pres. & Put. Aff. Ma tugar, 1.. j ^^ .^^^^ 
Ma beartar, i^ ^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

74 B*YMfrtd«t. 

Pres. & Fut. Negl MUna dtti«ir, > ; 

Mutia dtkSl-ar, > if I be not^ &c. 
Mun& Beartiaf, j' * ^ 

Pret AfF. Da dtugfaoi'd, > , _ 

Da dtiobarfaoidj >g^ Ixotre given. 
Da nibearfaoid, 3 

Neg. Muna be ^o dtugfaoid, ^ .^ ^ 

Mufia b^ go dtioliarfaoi<i!, J^ ^.^^^ 
Muna be go mbearfaoid, ) ^^^' ^^• 
- ■ . . . I/: / : 

Pres. & Fut. AiF. Go dtugar, 7_ ^, 

Neg. Nar. tugar, > t \ o 

. NarlSeartkt/i^'^'?^^^ 

Pret Bfearr liom go dtiigfeioid, i '^ 

Bfearr liom go dtiobarfaoid, >/ w«VA, &c. 

Bfearr liom go mbearfabid, 3^ 

4. Tarr, Come. {^\)^ ^ 


Tarr, come. 


Do, or a teacht, to corne^ 


Ag teacht, coming. 


pres. Aff. Tigim, I come. 

-'— Neg. Ni tigim, / do not come. 
Int. Adtigim? do I come? 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Pret AfF. '^n^^. .7^,^^,; :' 

Neg. l^iar taingeas, &c. / did not, &c. 

^ Imt. A dtaiijgeas? tec. did I come? 

Fut. Aff. Tiocfad, ■) , „ .,. ^^„,, 

Neg. Ni tigim, / a;/// not cme, 

Int. A dtiocfad? l^Ur.ii r ^^^^^ 

A u- c^ ^- \shaU 4 come? 


Pres. & Fut. Aff. Ma tigim, if J (;oni§. 
— —Neg. MuQa dtigTiD, if l do not come. 

Pret. Aff. Da dtiocfuinn, if I had come. 

Neg. Muna be go dtiocftiinn, lif I had not 

Muna be go dtainic, 3 ^^^* (&?) 


Pres. & fHiL Aff: Go dtiocfam, may I come. 
Neg. Nar tigim, may I not come. 

Prtt. Bfearr Horn go dtiocfuinn, I'ubi^h I had^ &c. 

5. Te, go. (83) 


Te, go. 


Do, or a *dul, to go. 


Ag dul, going. 


Pres. Aff. Teadam, / go.. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•^6 EtyttOLOGt. 

Pres. Neg. Ni'teaiiam, Idomt go. 
Int. Bhftiilmeagdul? rfo/go? 

PretAfF. Ctoia"^, . ■}j^^„f^ ■ '- 
Chuiaia me, > 

Int. A dteacas ?</ȣ?'! iro? 

Fut Aff. Racad, Ij ^^ig,; 

Raca me, J ^ 
Neg. Ni teadam, I mil not go. 

Int. An rafcad? L^^/; 7^,? . 

An itca mer^ ^ 


Pres. & Fut. Ma teadain, r^ j a;o 

Neg. Muna dteadam, ]i^ j ^^ ^^f g^^ ^ 

Muna racam, ,3 

Pret Af£ Da r^Lcfuiim, if I had gone. 

•: Neg. Muna be go ndeacas, \if ij^^^not gone. 

Muna be go ractuinn, y ^ 


Pres. & Fut. Go dteadam, y j 
AfF. Go racam, y ^ ^ 

Neg. Nar teadain, may I not go. 

Pret, Bfearr liom go titleacuinn, y^Iwish I had 
Bfearr lioig go racfuinn, 3 ' gpnc. 

6. Fagh, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


y ^ 

is. Fagh,/«rf. (84) 


^ ' infinitive:. 
I)''fagail, tojind^ 


Ag fagail, finding. 


Pres. Aff. Fagaim, ' I find. 

Neg. Ni fagaiil), J </o not find. 
Int. Bhfuil me fagail? do I find? 

Neg. Ni f uaras, &c. / did notfinL 

Int. Abfuaras? kc. did I find? 


Pres. & Put. Ma "fagam, ^ 

Aff. Mafui^im, >iflfind. 

Ma ge^bam,3 

Neg. Muna IJfuigim, if I find nat^ 

Pret. Aff. Da Bfuiginn^ if I }i<id found. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC" 


Neg. iVf una be go Bfuiginn? 7 . /. r 7 jo 
Munabego bfaguinn, yfll'od,^^. 


Pres. & Fut Aff. Go Bfagam, 7 ' ^ - , 
Neg. Nar Tagam, may I not find, 

Pret Bfearr Horn go bfeguinn, 7 ^ • /. r j. ^ a. ' 
lifearr liom go Bfufguinn, Y ^^'^ ^ '^^' ^' 



Fagair, be found. 


Vfti. Aff. .Fagar me, / amfourt4. 

"^ Neg. Niel,i3ri?Jefag^]f, Imnnhtfduhd. 

— Int. Bhfui] me le fagaH? am I found? 

Pret. Aff. Ifuaras, I was found. 

Nepi Ni Kfuitras, /«ir;<r^ not found. ^ 

^^lut. A iSfuaras? Waf^ t fmind? 

Fut. Aff. Gbeabar, I ^shall he found. 

Neg. Ni Bfuigear, 1 shall not ^e found. 

-Int. Antf^jg^ir? shall I b^ found? 


Pres. & Fut. Ma -fagar, ) •/. ^ , ^ ' ^" 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Pres. Neg** Mwttk'bfuigdar, if ^t be not found^ 

Pret. AfF. Da bfuigifid, if 1 were found. 

Neg. Muna bs go Bfoi^fiti, if I were not, &c, 

Pres. & Fat; Aff, G6 Bfaga^, m«y I he found. 
Neg. Nar fagar, may^ 1 7wt be found. . ,^ 

Pret. Mafi^ libiii go Bfuigfitl, /«^/>A I were founds 
. 7>. I^ifc, ,^arc, : w ajth^rc, See. ($6): t;;! 


Feuc; ^^tt,' no aniWc,^^^e. 


b'amharc, to see. 

Ag dearcaint, no feacaint, "^ 

Ag araharc, no faicsin, ^^^^^^.S 


Pres. AfF. Cim, Isee.;^ 

Neg. Ni faicim, I do not see. 

Int. A bfaicim? do I see? - *- 

Pret. Aff. Chonnairc me, I saza. ,. * - 
Neg. Ni fecis, ' > r ^-^ ^, . 

Int. ABfacas? 7^-^ r ^^ ' ' 

^""'•^^'f^^f'^l shall sec. . '■"--- 
■ cite me^ 3 ,.....,,. .i ,l -. 

-•-• ' Fut. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


• Fut Neg. Ni cifeadj &c. / shMni^ sec. 
Int. Anbfaicim? shall I see? 


Pres. & Fut. Ma cim, > . /. j 

AtF. Mafaicifti,r^^^- 
Neg. Munacim, &c. if I do not set. 

■* ■ 
Pret AfF. Da bfaicfiiinn, ijil had seeii. 
^^ — Neg. Muna be go bfaicfuiaij, if I had not ^ &c. 


Pres. & Fut. Aff. Go^bfaicim, m^ry I see. 
^ Neg. Nar faicim, ma^ I not see. 

Pret Bfearr liom go Itfaicfuinn, itcish I had seat. 



Feuctar, m citear, be seen^ 

INFIltlTIVE. (87) 

Prcs. Aff. Faicear,"! ^ 

ciar, * ^I am seen. 

citear, j 

Neg. Nicl me le faicsin, / am not seen. 

Int. An bfaicear^^^ A am I seen? 

bfuil me le faicsin ? 3 

Pret. Aff. Do fac^s, I was seen. 

Neg. Nifacas, I was not seen, 

- — Int. An bfacas? was I seen? 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Fut Aif. Faicear, I shall be seen. 

Neg. Ni Taicear, I shall not be seen. 

Int. A bfaicear? shall I be seen? 


Pres. & Fut. Ma citear, , . , , ^ 

AfF. Ma faicear J^^*^ 

• Neg. Muna citear, Sic. if I be not seen. 

Pret, AiF. Da bfelcfid, if I were seen. 

— r- Neg. Muna be go bfaicfiil, if I were not seen. 


Pres. & Fut AfF. Go bfaicfiar, may I be seen. 

Neg. Nar faicfiar, may I not be seen.. 

Pret. Bfearrliom go bfaicfid, Izvish Imay^ &c. 

8. Cluin, Hear. (88) 


Cluin, hear. 


Do, or a cloistin, to hear. 


Ag cloistin, hearing. 


Pres, AfF. Cluinlm, I hear. 

Neg. Ni cUiinim, / do not hear. 

Int. A gcluinim? do I hearf 

^ M ^ Pr«t 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Neg. Ni cualas, 1 t j-j ^ t 

xr • 1 >I did not hear, 

Ni cuala me, y 

Int. Agcualas? yijjf,ear? 

A gcuala ine?3 

Fut. AfF. Cluinfead, 7 r -n l 

r^i ' r^ iltvtll hear. 

Cluinte me, S 

Neg. Ni cluinfead, &c. / will not hear. 

Int. A gduinfead? &c. shall I hear. 


Pres* & Fut. AfF. Ma cluinim, if I hear. 

— — Neg'. Muna gcluinim, if I do not hear. 

Pret. AfF. Da gcluinfinn, if I had heard. 

Neg. Muna be go gcluinfinn, iflhad^ &c. 


Pres. & Fut. AfF. Go gcluinim, may I hear. 
— Neg. Nar cluinim, may I not hear. 

Pret, Bfearr liom go gcluinfinn, I wish I may hear. 


Cluintear, be heard. 


Do, or a Beit cluinte, to be heard. 


Cluinte, heard. 


Pres. AfF. Cluintear, I am heard. 

Neg. Ni cluintear, I am not heard. 

Int. A gcluintear? dm I heafdf 

• ' .. Pret. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Pret Affy Chualas, livasheard. 


Neg. Neg. Niar cualas? I was not heard. 
Int. Nar cualas? was I heard? 

Fut. Aff. Cluinfear, I shall be heard. 

Neg, Ni cluinfear, I shall not be heard. 

Int. A gcluinfear? shall I be heard? 


Pres. & Fut Ma cluinear, \if t Up 
AiF. "Ma duintear, S 

Neg. Muna gcluinear, &c. if I be npt^ &a 

Pret. Atf- Da gcluinfid, if I be hen^^. " 

Neg. Muna be go gcluinfi'd, if I be not, &c. 


Pres. fe^Firt. Go gcluinear, 7 r l t, j 
Aff. Go Icluintea;, l^^ I ^^ heard. 
' — ^ — Neg. Nar cluinear, 7 r ^ i r j ^ 

Pret. Bfearr liom go gcluinfid, Iwishlhad, &c. 


Adverbs are used to denote, 

Time; as, 

Anois, now 
*arls, again 
ariara, riaih, ever 
acoidce, ever 
fos, yet 
roiihe, before 

S^^'*V ] until. 
go nuige, S 

feasda, henceforth 
sior, perpetually 
annaro, seldom 


Suas, upwards 
aios, downwards 
abos, on this side 
tall, on the other side ^ 
M 2 ^ abfad 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



abfad, afar 

angar, close to 

amac, amuig, ow/, a;iVA- 

asteac, astig, tUy within 


Mar, mur, as 

cionas? how? 

ni, nac, not 

sea'd, it is so - 

ro, *oerj/ 

amlaigy in like manner 

iomoro, moreover 

Adt'crbial expressions are formed, by prefixing go 
to adjectives; as (89) 


Bcact, nice 
borb, harsh 
ccart, right 
cealgac, deceitful 
d61asac, mour?iful 
mnit, good 

Adverbial expressions. 

go beact, nicely 
go borb, harshly 
go ceart, rightly 
go cealgac, deceitfully 
go d61asac, mournfully 
go mai't, well 

Adverbs, formed thus from adjectives, are com- 
pared a3 the adjectives themselves; as, 

From mait, good: Pos. go mait, well; Comp. 
nios fearr, better; Sup. ro mait; very good, as 
fearr, best. 

From laidir, strong: Pos. ga laidir, strongly; 
Comp. nios laidre^ more strongly; Sup. ro laidir, 
very strongly, as laidre, most strongly. 

There are many adverbial expressions, formed 
by the combination of two or more words; as, (^QO) 

From ag, at. 

.So, this (place,) ag so, here 
sin, that (place,) ag sin, there 
Slid, yon (place,) ag sud, yonder 
citmas, quietness, ag ciunas, quietly 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



From ann^ in. 

tall, farther side^ an all, gver 
fad, longy an fad, whilst 
so, this (place,) an so, here 
noct, nighty anoct, at^ or fw ;?f^&/ 

From air, upon. 

cul, 6/zcAr, ar gcul, backwards 
leit, ^irfe, air lei't, by turns 
uaire, Aowr^, ar uaire, > _ ,* 

ar uairib. ]^omtimes 

bit, ^ci/2^, air bit, at all 

dgin, necessity y air eigin, hardly 

From an, Me, aon, o«^. 

tarn, 3 an tarn, y 

uair, Aoz^r, aon uair, once 

cead ait, ^r^^ j>/ace, &c* an cead ait, Jirjst^ &a 

,From car what? 

uair, hour^ ca huair? when? 
ait, p//zc^ cait? where? 
c mur, iV «^ flf^, ca de ^^^^^^Uq^ ^ 
go demur? 3 

From gan, without. 

fios, knowledge^ gan f ios, secretly 
eifeact, effect^ gan eifeact, ineffectually 

From mar,^ o^, 

^o, thiSy mJir so^ jo, /7J this 
sin, f Aa^^ mar sin, thus, as that 
ceadna, same, mar an gceadna, likewise 

Ttom- OS, above. 

ceann^ heady os ceann, above 



^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ard, highy os ard, loudly^ publicly 
isiol, loiVy OS isiol, softly, privately 

From ti, to. 
go dti, until \ go dti so, hitherto 


The following particles are used only in compo- 

am, ^ deoin, willing, aim'4eoin, unwilling 

an, I trat, time, antrat, untimely 

do, I - miMnte, ttuight, domuinte, hard $o be 

I ^ taught 

^h L ^ " creidte, believed, dicreidte, incredible 
p^ r g. - slan, healthful, easlan, sick 

p - cai ideas, friendship, eascaird^s, en- 
mi, - - - ciall, sense, miciall, folly 
neam, J claon, partial, neamclaon, impartial 

!!!v / I ' ^^^^^^' ^^^^ uirlsioU, very humble 

an, f §• - m6r, great, anm^r, xtcpff great 
iom,3 n^ '\kn,^Jull, ioml^n, very full 

ais, ')cS. - sealba, possession, aisealBa, restitution 
at, 3 I* - gabail, taking, atgaBail, retaking 

cdrh, equal, trom, weight, corfitrom, equal weight 
in, jit, deanta, done, indeanta, fit to be done 
so, apt, faicsin, seeing, sofaicsin, ft, or easy to be 

The following partides.are used with verbs. 

Db, Isigns of the. d(>Buaileaci, > .. 

a, 3 infinitive, a buailead, j ^^ ^^^ ^'^^ 

^o? ^> ^^ S'^» /i^w^ o/ the-present participle, ag, 

a, or ga, bualad, beating 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


do, sign of the preter.^ do buaileas, I sfruek 

iar, sign of the prete?^ participle, iar mbuala'd, kav- 

ing struck 
le, 1 signs of the future part iclpky le bualad, cr 
ar ti, y ar ti bualad, about to strike 

To these may be added, ma, if; muna, mur, if 
not; da, if; go, that, &c. but these are more pro- 
perly classed with conjunctions. (92) 


Tlie fcdlowing is a list of the most usual, and. 
simple prepositions. (93) 

Ag, at 
air, upon 
ann, in 
as, out of 
cum, to 
cuige, to 
dar, b^ 
^^y of 
deis, fl/3fer 
do, to 

fa, wj&ow, fo, about 
faoi, or fuid, under^ be- 

fead, throughout 
fud, among 
gan, without 
go, gus, fo 

iar, ^/er 

idir, between 

ionnsuid, ww^a 

le, leis, Tit^i/A 

mar, like to, as 

o, ua, from 

OS, ^^we 

re, ris, to 

reir, according to 

roiriie, ^^ore 

seaca, fey, m comparison 


tar, ") 
u. .'. >over 
tains, 3 

timcioU, about 

tre, trid, through 

um, uime, ^feox^^ (94) 

Many relations are predicated, by the union of 
nouns with the foregoing prepositions; as, 

From. as:, at. 

'. ybeginni 



ad tus, 7 . /> ^ 
ad tosac, S'^'f'"''* 



Digrtized by 


^CT W 


cois, foot 
cuinne, (95) 
ceann^ he^ 

measgacJ, mixturt 
taoB, side 


agaid, face 


fia'dnuis, presence 

aircis, (96) 
lam, A/zi2^ 
deiread, end 

focair, (97) 

cuinne, (98) 
coihair, {99) 
ceann, head 

o^nn, head 
mmwj back 
§on, advantage 

taob, side 

€is, fl^/(5^ 

agcid, behind 
agcois, alongside^ near t0 
agcuinne, to^for 
agceann, joined to, en^ 

gaged in 
ameasg, amomg^ amongst 
ad taob, concerning 

From ann, in^ 

anagaid, against 
indiaig, after 
abfiadnuise, before^ in 

anaircis, to go to meet 
alaim, in possession of 
indeiread, qfteVj behind^ 

in the latter end 
atifocair, convenient ta 

From OS, above. 

OS cuinne^ opposite, be- 

OS coihair, in sight, in 

OS ceann, above 

From air, upon. 

air ceann, at the end 

airmuin, upon 

air son, for sake of 

From do, to. 

do taoB, concerning 

do dit, If or want of 

d'easBuid,]; (100) 

From tar, tifter. 

tar eis, fater 



ized by Google 




The folio Wmg is a list of the most usual cpn 


Araon, both 

oir, Jbr 

fbs, ^et, also 

mar, as 

o, smccy because 

sul, before that 

uime^in^ wherefore 

OS barr, moreover 

go, gur, gurab, that 


mar so, as this, .^^^^ 
mar sin, as tkat^ y , * 
mar an gceaclna, aUo 
ain)aig sin, likewise 
ar an abar sin, therefore 
a ceann go, Xby reason y 
do B.rig gur, > or, be- 
ar son gur, 3 cause that 
ionnas gur, so that (101) 


acd, but 

no, <?r, ;^or, ^iie, o/A^r- 

na, . f Atf« 

ni, neither (102) 


t3io'd,- although ^ 
ge, though 
gidead, although 
nmiiZylif not, ^xcept^ 
mur, 3 unless 
nac, wo, . a that 

da, i^^> 

mata, i/* ^o ie 
ma sead, if so 

° ^ I although it is 
air eag^l go, Iforjear, 
d' ^i^gal go, j/e^f, (103) 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




In Irish, as in all other languages, there are 
various exclamations, many of them inarticulate, . 
used to express sudden emotions of the mind^ 
The following are a few of the most usual. 

a, o 

as truag \ wo ! 
faraor! alas! 
uc! oh! 

mairg! wo to! 
monuar! alas! 
ceinmear ! o happy ! 
eist! hush! (^104) 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

STNtAX. 91 



1. The article agrees with its substantive, in 
gender, number, and case; as, an fear, the man; 
na mna, of the zcoman. 

2. For the influence of the article, in aspirating, 
eclipsing, &c. the noun with whicli it is declined, 
seepages, 30, 31, 32. 

3. When two nouns come together, signifying 
the same person or thing, that one only is eclipsed 
or aspirated which is immediately joined with the 
article; as, tig an Bratair Briain, the house of bro^ 
tker Brian. 

4. When the article follows a particle ending in 
a vowel, it loses a; as, o, froniy an, the; on, 

from the; do an, to the; don. 

5. When the article precedes a word beginning 
with a consonant, the n is scarcely heard in speak- 
ing; and in poetry it is sometimes altogether omit- 
ted ; as, an tinne, commonly pronounced a tinne, 
the fire. (105). 

6. When the atticle precedes f, or feminine« 
beginning with vowels, the n is often separated 
from «, and prefixed to the following noun; as^ 
m\ fir, written and pronounced a nfir, of the man; 
an uair, written and pronounced a nuair, the hour. 
<I06) • . 

7. When the article follows ann, in^ for better 
sound, s is inserted between it and ann; as, ann sa 
nuair, in the houY. 

* This is frequently written san ; as, san dtir, 
in the country. Or, omitting n^ it is written sa; 
as, sa dtig, in the house. 

N 2 8.' Although 

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112 STVTAX. 

8. Althojugh the primary use of the article be to 
' 3peak definitively, as the in English, yet the use 

of it does not exactly correspond to that of tbc 
English afticle: for, 

First, Wheil a person's state or office is ex- 
pressed; or when this^ that, t/on, occur in En^- , 
iish, although the be not used, yet an is used in 
Irish; as, is niait an fear corran *tu, you are a 
good reaper; lainic an fearsa go Heirinn, this man 
dmre to Ireiand. 

The same may be observed after go de; as, go 
de a nuair? what o'clock is it? 

Sect^ndly, W^en tJte precedes a noun wbidi 
governs another in the genitive, the article, in 
Irish^ is used with tbc genitive only; as, ridirc an 
locrann, the knight of the latnp; mac aa duine, 
the son of man. (107) 

But pro}>er nan)es admit no article; as, rig Ei- 
rinn, the king of Ireland. 

9. Ti>e Iri^h language has no article correspond- 
ing to the English tf oian; but when the office, 
or state of being is expressed, a p)3sses$ive pronoun 
is used„ having ann expressed or understood be- 
foi-e it; as, bi me (ann) mo saigideoir, I xvasa sol- 
dier; i. e. / "Was in my soldier state. (108) 

10. Present participles, which are also nouns 
expressing a state of being, are used in the same 
manner; as, ta sc (aim) na seasarii, he is standing; 
i. e. he is in his standing state. 

* Tlie preposition is almost entirely lost, except 
with a, his, hers, its, th^ir; or, ar, our, with 
which n only is used ; as, ta se na duine mait, he 
is a good man; beid sinne nar daoine glice, tvc 
shall be wise men; ta tu do teasam, you are standing. 

Th6 use of the article exemplified promiscuously. 

Si an tsuil solus an cuirp. The eye is the light of 

^ the body. 

TaBah" pog don tslait. Giv< a kiss to the rod. 


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Thug na hoganaig cuir- 
ea'd do na hamdrib. 

Tiiug na haindre cuiread 
do na hoganaib. 

Ceol na naingeal. 

Ceileabar na n^an. 

Gair na naindear. 

V)ik\l na ndeag-ban. 

Luas na gcon. 

Briatair nabfaid, 
Fuaini na dtonn. 
Grad ban og na tire. 

Mac Tit an tsleibe. 

Uimir cunla an aeir. 

An macsa an 'fir sin. 
An mian sin na- mban 

og ud* 
Si an ingeanse an Tir ud. 

An eablacsa an rig ud na 

Ta sisi na cailin ihait. 
Ta seisean na buacaill 

Tamoidne nar ndaoinib 

Ta sibse bur ndaoinib 

Ta siadsan na ndaoinib 

Thainic me on tig. 
jCa bfuil fear an tig? 

Ta se sa ngairdin. 
Tosac a nfogihair. 

The youths invited the 

The damseis invited the 

The music of the angels. 
The warbling of the birds 
The cry of the damsels. 
The hop^ of the ladies. 
The speed of the grey^ 

The ward of the prophets. 
The sound of the waves. 
The love of the young 

women of the country. 
The son of the man of 

the mountain. 
The number of the fowls 

of the air. 
This, son of that man. 
That desircof those young 

^Tis this daughter of that 

This fleet if yon king of 

the isles. 
She is a good girl. 
He is a good boy. 

We are poor men. 

Ye are rich men. 

They tfre great men. 

I came from the housr. 
JFhcre is the man of the 

house ? - 

He is in the garden. ' 
The begifining of harvest 
.Dei read 

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DeireacI an geimrid. 
An teac agus an fearriin. 
A gcluin tu fuaim a 

Ta me mo codla'd. 
An bfuil Ui do sufde? 
Bhi sisi na seiibiseac. 
Ta se na seanduine. 
Bei'd sinne nar seasam. 
, Bin tu do seasam. 
IJlii nie mo saigideoir. 
Ihi^inic mac an dunie 

ag ite agus ag ol. 
C Imaid se astcac go tig 

Do tuit se on trea3 lota. 

Lomfuid a nfeasog. 

Do dmid . a nuair linn, 
agus ata mac an duine 
aga tabairt a lamaiB 
na bpeaccic. 

Slige a uf ir air a dtalam. 

Maille le cuidead na 

Eiseirige na gcorp. 

The end of the winter. 

The house and land. 

Do you hear the soz^nd 
of' their voices? 

I am asleep. 

Are you sitting ? 

She was a servant. 

He is an old man. 

IVe shall stand. 

You were standing. 

I was a soldier. 

The son of man came eat- 
ing and drinking. 

He went into the house 
of God. 

He Jell from the third 

It shall consume the 
beard. • 

The hmir is at hand and 
the son of man is deli- 
vered into the hands 
of sinners. 

The way of a man on the 

IVith the assistance of 

The resui^rection of the 



1. Substantives signifying the same thing agree 
in case; as, epistil Plxoil easbail, the epistle of 
Paul the apostle. 

* the 

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* The latter substantive may be piit in the no- 
minative case, though the former is in an ol)lique 
one; but the article is then inserted; and some 
word, spch as eadon, or is e sin, is understood ; 
as, mac Joseip an saor, the son of Joseph the car- 
penter. (109) 

2. An adjective agrees with the substantive be- 
fore it, in gerider, number, and case; as, an fir 
gil, of the fair man; na mna gile, of the fair 
woman; dona fearaib geala, to the fair men. 

3. For the aspiration of adjectives joined with 
nouns, see pages 36,. 37. 

4* When two or n)ore substantives stre joined 
to an adjective, the adjectix^e is commonly refer- 
red to them separately; as, is geanamuil an fear 
agus an Bean, the man and woman are lovely^ 

5. Adjectives of one syllable may be prefixed 
to their substantives^ without undergoing any in- 
flexion; fdrming, in this manner, compound 
terms; as, dearg lasair, red fame; for lasair 

* In this case, if the noun begins with a mu- 
table consonant, that consonant is aspirated; a.% 
oigfear, a young man. 

6^ When the axljective is asserted of, or con- 
cerning the nouuj^ntis placed before the noun, 
and undergoes no.4nflexion; as, is glic an duine 
sin, that man is wise. (110) 

7. Substantives signifying the same pei^on or 
thing, require theit- adjectives between them ; as, 
an curaid croda Conlaoc, the taliant hero Conloch. 

8. Many synonymous adjectives ai^ elegantly 
joined to the same substantive; as, a ndaigniB 
dorca dflnta, in darky close^ fastnesses. 

9. When the adjective is connected, in mean- 
ing and force, with the verb, it assumes an ad- 
verbial form, and undergoes no inflexion; as* rinne 
se an talam tirim, he made the earth dry. ( 11 J ) 


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9S syj^TAx. 



JO. When two substantives come together, sig- 
nifying different things, the latter is put in the 
, genitive; as, mac na mna, the woman's son {WX) 

11. The latter substantive is sometimes joined 
with the former, as an adjective, making one 
compound expression, but still inflected in the 
genitive; as, fear corrain, a reaper.^ 

12. The active infinitive and participles govern 
the genitive, as nouns; asj bi me dul a larraid 
n^na, / was going to seek 'a rvife; iar leaga'd an 
tsoisgeil, after reading the gospel, 

* The object of the infinitive may come before 
it, in the accusative; as, is mait an obair Dia do 
rholad, it is good to praise God; Jor^ is mait an 
obair mola'd l)e. 

13. ^Vhen one substantive governs another in 
the genitive plural, without the article being join* 
ed with the genitive, the latter substantive may 
be aspirated; as, fuil gabair, the Blood of goats. 
(113) • . ' 


14. Adjectives signifying profit, proximity, fit- 
ness, and their opposites, require the dative; as> 

. is mait Unit, it is good for you. 

15. Adjectives signifying dimension, require air 
before the measure; as, tri troige air doidmeaed, 
three feet deep, 

16. Adjectives and nouns^ signifying a part of 
any thing, require de an, or de na, of the^ (com- 
monly written don, and dona,) with the ablative; 
^s, gac rann don leabar, each part of the hook; 
fear do na daoiniB, one of the inen; an fear is sini>e 
do na bra,itiib, the elder of the brothers; an fear 
is airde don triur, the highest of the three. 

* But 

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♦ But adjectives signifying fullness, and the like, 
may have a genitive ; as, beata litn triobloide, a life 
full of trouble; but^ l^i^don triobloid, Jkll of me 
trouble. ' 

17. Adjectives signifying likeness, or an emotion 
of the mind, require le with the ablative; as, is 
cosmuil an duine le fear tuarastail, man it like an 
hireling; bi siad go mait leat, they were good to 
you ; cuaille com fada le craim, a pole as long as a 
tree; bi cartanac liom, be friendly to me. (114) 

18. The comparative 'degree requires jia or no^ 
thdn^ before the following noun ; as, is fearr Peadar 
na Pol, Peter is better than Paul. (1 15) 

The construction of Nouns Substantive and Adje^ r 
tive promiscuously exemplified. 

Is fiiar an la ^, 
Ta an ihaidin fuar, 
Is dorca an oldce 1, 
fihfuil a cloc sin trom? ' 
Is trom a cloc i, 
Dean deoc teit dam, 

A ndearna tu an deoc 

Ta cofe fritir agam, 
Ta mo cos fiitir, 
An pillid armac ainmneac 

eolac ; 
Deudgeal, dealbtac, me- 

anmnac, treorac, 

Is aluinn a ca'tair Lon-"i 
diin, or, > 

Is catair aluinn Londiinj 

Hata dub, cujaig glas, 
stocaig bana, agus 
broga dearga, 

Ta me s^t;a le mo cru|, 

It is a cold day. 
The morrting is cold. 
It is a cold night. 
Is that stone heavy f 
It is a heavy stone. 
Make a warfn drink for 

Did you make the drink 

I have a sore foot. 
My foot is sore. 
The hero valiant, re^ 

nowned, and learned; 
White tooth'd, graceful^ 

magnanimous, and ac" 


London is a fine city. 

A black hat, a green suit, 
white stockings, and 
red shoes. 
I am satisfied with my 


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98 ilNTAX. 

Ni fiu c dod inginse^ He is not worthy your 

Is mor ata se tugta don He is greatly given if 

Nil si air son a dadaih 

iTa mt dul a ceannac 

3a mion Horn bulog a 
,^ ceannacy 
MCredim andiaatairuile-') 

Creidim andia en ,ta-f 

' tair uilecumactac, ) 

Do riHne Dia an talam 

Do rinne se an talam tinn. 
Is aige Brian ata an lam 


She is not Jit to do any 

I am going to buy a bul'* 

Ixvonldxvish to buy a buU 


I believe in GodtheFathcf 

God made thddry land. 

He made the land dry. 
It is Brian thai has the 
hard hand. 

,Ta an laim crpaid le neart The hand is hard by the 

oibre, force of zvorL 

Is olc a 'faras br6g cu- III Jitteth a strait shoe t(t 

maing air cois 'fritir, 
^i br6g cumaiug an cos 

Bu ihitid duit deoc d'ol, 

agus biad d'ite, 
Nl mtan liom a bei't ag o] 

dige, no 'git bid anois, 
^ so tig matara, 

a sore foot. 
The strait shoe makes the 

foot sore. 
It xvere time for you ip 

drink and eat. 
I do not desire to drink 

or eat now. 
This is my fathei^'s house. 

Agamarcalrihacnaoisna JLooking on the pastilles 

Do ceannaig me comn 

Jleir . baramla na huile 

daoine cuiniollac, ^ 
Is deise 1 ua T^a^mar na 


of the women. 
I bought a silver cupi 

According to the opinion 
all men of probity. 

Jt is more beautiful than 
Tara qf the kings. 


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Ni taca tusa tcac na 

Cbuaid se cos lomnoct, 

go haonac na Cairge, 
Is glic na daoine ia'd. "^ 
Is daoine glioca iaci, f 
Ta siad ina ndaoinibf" 

glioca, 3 

Is mianleite mil a cruin- 

Is mian leite Beit cruin- 

niugad me^Ia, 
,Ta ar n^iolla, is ar gcailin 

fir ditciollac, 
Ta matair, agus mo iha- 

Is ro deas a suile, a b^l 
' s*a muineal, 
Biann se na £oxiinaig 

; idteac liior Tarsaing, 
Is glan a bean tige i, 
Ba ihait a Bean Aar- 

Bhi si ina mnaoi ifaar 

gaid ihait, 
Bbadar ag ol dige, a^ ite 

bid, agus ag posad ban, 

go tti an la a ndeacaid 

Naoi san arc, 
Gan g^ir gadar no stoc, 

Gan coimead cuan no 
• cala gnat, 
Seandircrlonag tarraing 

Ta se dul a ceannac brata, 
Cbuaid an cailin amac a 
" Bleag^n na mbo, 



Vou havS nof sten the 
home of Tara. * 

He went barefooted tv the 
fair of Carrick: • ,^ 

They are prudent peqpfe. 


She desires to gather 

She desires to be gathering 

^ honey. 
Our boy and girl are very 

My father and mother 

are sick. 
Her eyes^ mouthy and 

neck are very pretty. 
He dii^elts in a great eX" 

tensive hoitse. 
She is a clean housekeeper^ 

She was a good market 

They were eatings drinks 
ingy and marjying^ 
until the day that 
Noah entered the ark, 

JVithout the sound of 
hounds or horn. 

Nor guarding coasts nor 
harbours as usual. 

A withered oldman drawT 
ing stones. 

He is going to buy malt. 

The girl went out. to milk 
the cows. 

a m 

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JBhi an eailm agtarruid na 

bat a hlesLpm, 
Ta an cailin ag iarripil 

na mboy 
Ta an giolla beag agiar- 

raid na cloice ni6ire, 

rai'd an cloc mdr i!td a 

Taid ciocrac air gloir is 

Ta fiiad santac air bla 

agus maoin saogalta, 
Ta sin go mai't air ni 

Ta seisean air son ni air 

, bit, . 

Brat urlar s& slat^ air Tad, 

agus trislata air leatad, 
Teac mor tri fitcead t^roige 
. air airde, agus a bu- 

nait seact dtroige air 

Xeabar da ordlac air tiu- 

Ta an aman da Titcead 

troige air dpimneact, 
Is j[|oninaire na caoirig na 

na mic tire, . 
Tionina, u\ Dhonaill aird 

easpoic Thuaim, no an 

tard easboc, 
Dul cimm bainse Cho* 

naill an fir nua{>osda, 

no an fear nuappsda, 
%s doilig obair cosnniil 

leis faiceal, 
Is cosihuil e le caislean 

^a craob ruaide, 

The girl was seeking tm 

milk the caws. 
The girl is seeking the 

The little boy is seekmg 

the greflt stone. 
The little boy is trying 

to lift that great stone. 

They are greedy of glory 

and riches. 
They are covetous of fame 

and worldly wealth. 
That is good for some* 

He is ft for any thing. 

A carpet six yards long^ 
and three yards broad. 

A large house sixty feet 
highy and itsfounda^ 
. tion seven feet deep. 

A book two inches thick. 

The river is forty feet 

The sheep are more nume-^ 

rous than the wolves. 
The will of ODonnel, 

archbishop of Tuain. 

Going to the wedding of 

Connal the new mar^ 

ried man. 
It i^ hard to see such m 

It is like the castle of the 

red branch, 


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Ba ihait liom Tagail, 
An doilig leat siubal nlos 

Niar cait se moran bide, 

Niar cait se raoran <Jon 

Bhi an comn I^n don 

Bhi ann conin l^n 

Is fusa 'duinne a deanaih, 
Bhi taob di com dub ie 

Is fada liom a dTan tu, 
A bfaca tu roirfie a leitid 

sin d'obair, 
Is doilig do e, 
Ise an fear is m6 airgiott 

is liigSL cartantas. 

Is fearr duit a f iacaint 

arisy ^ 
Ki 61am nios pao de anois, 

Is giorra deoc na sgeul^ 

Is truime or na ml^a, 

ii^'truimide an loc a lai^ 

Ni mait liom a beit ai^ so 

nios fdde, 
Is measa dadi an fear is 

foigse daift an gaol^ 

No an te is faide amac 
uabn a gcliabnas^ 

I would wish to get it. 
Would you not walk any 

He did not take much 

He did not take much (^ 

the meat. 
The cup ^as full of the 

The cup was full of ale. 

It is easier for us to do it. 
Her Side was as black as 

I think you staid long. 
t)id you see such a work 

jtt is hard for him. 
The man who has most 

money ias least friend^ 

It is better for you to try 

it again. 
Iwilldrink no more of it 

A drink is shorter than a 

Gold is mora heavy than 

The lake is not the^ heavier 

for the duck. 
I do not wish to be here 

any longer. 
He is worse to me who is 

nearest to me in kin^ 

dredy ^ 
Than he who is farthest 

out from mein affinity. 


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1. Ua, or o, sighifying A descendanf^ and mac, a 
son^ are prefixed to the sirnames of men ; as, Pat- 
truic O'Neill, Patrick (XNeUl; Seanius Mhac Seain, 
James Johnson. ' ^^- 

2. But ni and pic are prefixed to the sirnames of 
women ; ni, if the masculine b^ o ; and iiic, if it 
be mac; as, M^ible Ni Neill, Mable O'Neiti; Caitrin 
Nic Seain, Catharine Johnson. (116) 

3. When a person's simdme is asked, the answer 
is given of th6 tribe, stock, or branch from which 
he has his name; as, car aloinnead duit? of what 
simame are you? do^ or dc clann O'JSTeill, ojT /Ac 

The constroctioa of proper names promiscuousljr 

Of what sirname is yow 

neighbour ? 
Of the Fitzpatridts h'n*^ 
• self of ikt! Kellys Hzs 
wife^ of the M^Jrtans 
his mot her J and of the 
M^Eoins his mother^ 

Car sloinnead do £o- 

Do cloinn iliic Giolla 
PhJdruic e ffein, do 
siol Gceallaig abeaiji, 
do cknn Artan a iha- 
"tair, agus do cloinn 
mic Eoin a UaincKa- 

Ca hainm ata ort? 

Uilliam i&ac Neill, 

Ba oirfideac oirdeirc 
Toirdealbac o Gear- 

E^ >indear aluinn Eilin 
liic a Bhaird, 

1^ fear feariaihuil Brian 
mac a Bhaird, 

IVhai i^ your nafnef 
IVilliam Neilson. 
Totlach Carolan teas dn 

eminent musician. 

Elleh ff^m^ "(vas a fair 

BHdn IVardwds a braxit 



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SYNTAX. 103 

Concubar o Hara, is Conffor CfHara^ 0n4 

EiblinniArabaiadsin EvilinaO'Hara were 

cloinn DhomnaiU ui childrm of Dfmkl 

i^ra* QHara. 


1. Adjectives signifying number preqede their 
substantives; as, aon duine, one man; gac uile la^ 
' cocry day. 

4. But if the number be expressed in two or more 
words, then the substantive toUows the fifi^t adiec* 
t|ye ; as, tri fear d^ag is ceitre fitcead, mnpti/'tnree 
men; an seisad caibidii fitcead, the tmnty-suth 

3. Every number, in which da two^ is expressed, 
requires the substantive in die ^latiyp singular; as, 
da cloic, two stones. 

4. Every number, in which s^ac)t, oct, na^oi, dcic, 
or dfeag' is expressed, requires the substautiye in the 
nominative^ plural eclipsed ; as, seact gclqca, fcpen 

5. In speaking of the succession of kings, and 
the like, the cardinal numeral is rather used than 
the ordinal; as, Seoirse an tri, George fhp third; 
rather than Seoirse an treas. 

6. There are several peculiar forms of expressing 
the numbers of different species, which may be col- 
lected from the following examples^ 

The construction of Numerals promiscuously exem- 

Do be an cead duirie aa The first man ^as tlie 

cead peaqac, first sinner. 

Liti an se dfeag, a riogOs Lewis the sLrteenth, who 

.. san Flirainc, , reigns in France. 

Leis nar Bail don uile To whom there was no 

bean amain, act Muire woman agreeable^ but 

matair, Mary the mother. 


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Ta da cloic ihine ann 90^ 

Ta tri doca-r*<:eitreck>ca 
— cuig cloca^-Hsfe cloca 
— seact gcloca- — oct 
gcloca — ^Haoi'd gcloca 
— - deic gcloca — ^^aon 
cloc dfeag-— da cloic 
afeag, &c. 

Ta an da eac is, fearr ar 
bit ag teact anois on 

Ta na tri heic ar ti rit 
aniu air iiirsa an 

Ta sea6t neic go fior 
ihait ag teact go Faite 
. na maga, . 

Ca lion^ no ca m^ad 
daoine do suid ag an 

Seact gcloigned^^ idir 
fear agus be^n, 

Ca lii^d cinn eallaig ag 

Ta naol ecinn d^g air 

Tri gaile capall bealaig, 

Triur hd bainne, 

Cuingir capall seisrige, . 


Da seafaig Big, 

Tri coirig d^ag, 

Seact nuan, agus aon sean 

Ca ni^ad daoine cloinne 

ag hatair ? 

TTiere are two stones of 
meal here. 

There are three, four^ 
Jive, six, seven, eight, 
nine, ten, eleven, 
twelve stones, S^c. 

The two best horses are 

now coming from the 

The three horses are about 

to run this dag on the 

course of Rat hfr Hand. 
Seven exceller^t horses are 

coming to the Maze 

Hofw many persons sat at 


Seventeen sculls, (i. e. 
persons) between men 
and women. 

How many heads of cat- 
tle has your fat her f 

He has thirty- nine. 

Three (stomachs of) road 

Three milk cows. 
A yoke of plough horsu^ 
Two young oxen. 
Two young heifers. 
Thirteen sheep. 
Seven lambs, and one ol4 

How many children has 

your father f 

- T^ 

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SYNTAX. 105 

Ta mor seisiur cloinne He has seven children. 


"Ca Jhha,d clann mac? How many sons? 

Ta ceatrar clann mac, He has four sons, and 

agds triur cailin, tk?'ee daughters. 

Gac iiile la sa mbliadain, Every day in the year. 

Da seacain se gac uite He shunned every bad 

ciroc duine, ^nan. 


P£BSONAL. (117) 

1. Personal pronouils agree in number, gender, 
and person, with the nouns to which they refer; 
as, is mor na daoine iad, they are great men. 

2. If a sentence be in piace of the ahtecedent, 
the pronoun is in the third person singular, mas* 
culine; as, an grian afaiceal is aoibin h, to see the 
sun is pleasant. 

3. If two or more persons or things be spoken of 
in a sentence, the pronoun will agree with the lirst 
person rathei' than the second, and with the§^cond 
person rather than the third ; as, cuaid tusa agua 
misi go Baileat cliat, agus bi sinn ann o b^altine go 
dti an lugnosa, you and I went to JDublin, and we 
were there from May until August. ■ . 

4- The pronouns se, si, ^nn, sib, siad,- are com- 
monly used in tlie nominative; and ^, i, inn, ib, 
iad, in the accusative; as, do buail sinn iad, w^ 
struck them;/dq buail siad inn, they struck us. 

* E, i, inn, ib, iad, are used in the nominative 
after aft, ba, as^ ca, ii^c, gurab, creud; as, nac 
iad sii> na daoijie? are riot these the men? as^ so, 
or 'se 80 i^ la,, this is, the day. (118) 

p , 5. The 

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100 \ SYNTAX* 

5. Hie datives of the personal prpn^ims may be 
aspirated or not, as shaU sound most smootlily. 
But after w, (,0x4% they are never asipiritdd ; %s, i^ 
fearr duit, or duit, ft is better for you; ia miann . 
dam, I d^ire. 

The constrqctitxn of the personal pronouns pro* 
misquously exemplified, 

TaBair dam an leine glan. Give tne the clean shirt. 

Thug si acmusan geur do, She gave him a sharp re-' 


Do spreag se go geur e, - She rebuked him sharply. 

Is mait an duine e, is ffe is fi good many she is 

breag an Bean i, ajine woman. 

J^ trom an ^loc i, is fuar It is a heavy stone^ it is 

an ihaidin i, a toM morning. 

Chuaid se t\x\\\ a dupaig Jic went to his country 

tuail5e, ' house. 

Is ga^up drocuinte h, ^ 

Ta se na gasurt d^od-> ^e is ^ naughty io^^ 

uinte, J 

Tamefogl^im fholeigioh, / ati(^ learning iny lesson^ 

SgrioBan seisean a cleact, He writes his ^vercise. 

Ni siad moran torann, Th^y makem^h noise. 

Kadaid mo dearBratair My brother and Twill ga 

agiis misi *um an aoiir. id tkt fair. 

fuair se^ faoi na cosaiB, Ht found it uttder hist 

Moran saotar ah* Beagap Mm:h labour and little 

bid, mtat. • ' 

Is mora ciaoWeati se an Gteatt^ it ^iQts the 

corp, , body. 

Is beaga^uireaU^ofm / would tkini little of 
> siuBalaif coisgo J^iittr^ • waliin^ to Litnerkk. 

neac, . 

B&s na gcarad ^e Buftiilir The dtath of my friends 
»a iiiearaid fne^, is xokiti irouilfs an4 

^tr^e$ TH^. 

• 'Se 

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SYNTAX, 107 

'Sc a cluinitn gac la ag / hear each day every, 
cac da airis, giir ^in- person saying, that 

nigeac cas do cut tais, , your soft h^ir i^ in 


A Beit am aonar indialg To be alone after all, is 
i^ic^ ^ a dTag me a tphat has kjt m€ this 
i>wt faoi Br^n, (llS) mght if^sorn&w. 

Godeft^log^? What 0'^ clock is it f 

Ta s^ aa da, &^. I* is two, Sfc. 

Tk ^ leat uair 'm dtaig // i^ A4^ after twOs 
an dp, 

Is aoiBin an aimsir i, // is delightful weather. 

BW»e§jwwnftairmaidtji, It was gloomy in the 

. morning. 

ItsuU tu m^ m fair^f fVercy^u ev^r m sea ? 


1. The po8$e$»ive pronouns mo, do, a, ar, and 
tiur, are always placed before their nouns; as, mo 
ceann, my head; do cos, thy foot. 

£• Mo, do, and a, his, aspirate theif substantives j 
as, mo gort, my corn; do sron, thy nose; a ^eann^ 
his head; *but a ceann, her head, 

3. Mo before f, or a vowel, loses o; as, manam, 
my soul; vn'itoW, my flesh.. Do betbre a vowel, is 
changed into h; betbre t^ ihto d, or t; as, hanam, 
thy soul; dfeoil, or tfeoil, thy flesh. A, Aer, pre- 
£xes h to the following vowel; as, a haliam, her 

4. Ar, bur, and a, their, eclipse the following 
consonant, excepts; and prefix n to the following 
vowel; as, arnatair, our father; andia, their God; 
bnr nuaman, yattr terror. 

5. For the manner in which thi? possessive pro^ 
nouns are combined with le, ua, do, arid ann; see 
page 40. Tq which add fam, fad, fan, and far^ 
Compounded of fa, about, and mo, do, a,' and ar: 
i,a which manner they are used before vowels, and 

PS ' sometimes* 

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108 SYNTAX. 

sometimes before aspirated consonants; as, lem atr^ 
with my care; led toil, with your will. 

The construction of the possessive pronouns pro* 
mrscuously exemplified. 

A Bfaca to mo garclasa ? Did you see my garden f 

Tarliomgobfeicfetumo Come with me until you 

luUgort, see my garden. 

Dean air mo sonsa e, Do it for my ^ake. 

Ca bfuil do leaBair? Where is your book? 

^Go de dim tig air a cuid fVhat has become of his 

peannad? pen? 

Bhfuil duil agad a dul fa Have you a mind to go to 

nandfein? them? 

Ta mVtair is mo mat^ir My father and mother 

tinn, are sick. 

Do bris an capuU a srian The horse broke his bri^ 

sa agastar, dle^ and his halter. 

Bheara se arls siB go dii- He shall bring you again 

tuig Bur naitreac, to the land ^ your fa- 


Ar natair a ta air neam. Our father who art in 


i)o rlnne 51 a tig, She builded her house. 

Bhfuil sib a tract fam Are yoU talking of my 

atairse? father? 

Thugmesgeuladomatair I gave tidings to my fa- 

' ther. 

Go Bfuair me litir om in* That I got a letter from 

gean, my daughter. 


1 . The relative agrees with its antecedent; as, an 
ih a tig, the person who comes. 

2. When a is used to denote the owner or pos- 
iicssor of any thing, it takw r,-^ as^ an ftar ar leis tu, 
ibeman to whom you belong. 


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Which, compounded with d6, makes dar;. as, aa 
fear dar c^ile tu, the person whose wife you arc^ 

With do and ba, it make* daiab, or darb; ak, 
bean darb ainm Maire, a woman whose name wa$ 

, With le, it makes ler; as, ce be ler m\9L% who- 
ever has a 4esire. 

With le and ba, it makes lerb; a?, ce be leib ail!, 
whoever had a wish. 

3. As the relative always cotnes before the verb, 
and has no inflexion, it must be determined by the 
verb itself, or the noun following, whether the 
relative denotes the §2:ent or the object; as, an fear 
a Buailim, f he man whom I strike; aiTfoar a Buai- 
leas me, the man who strikes me. , 

4. The relative, is often omitted, when J t is either 
preceded or followed by a vowel, or an aspirated 
consonant; as, an gioUa tug a gearran leis, the boy 
that brought, the hprsewith A/m; an fear 61a? an 
ccad deOc, th^man who takes theirs f drink; bud 
sipnnac bi aan, it was a fox that was there^ 

The construction of relative pronouns promis- 
^uiously exemplified. 

An fear ler buala'd me. 

An fear a Buaileas se. 
An fear a buaileas 6, 
Si sin an aindear a labair 

An h so an hata iixz cean- 

Ta eolus agam air an fear 

a raib tu caint leis, 

Carad dilios, ann a gcui- 

riom muinigin, 
Ta fios agam ca air a 

bfuil tu smuainead, ^ 

The man by whom I was 
struck . ^ 

The 7nan whom he strikes. 

The fnan who strikes him. 

That is the damsel wka 
spoke to yon. 

Is this the nert^^hat that 
you bought? 

I know the man with 
whom you were talk- 

A dear friend, in whom^ 
I place confidence. 

I know of what you art 


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Ismeanardoiitearieis^, Happy is the man tchd 

possesses it 
Is mairg don te ler ihian fVrttchedis the man ^ho 

fe, desires it. 

la mairg don te dfef ci- IVretched is the , man 
neaibuin a tagail> whose fate it is to get 

An toglac aiaiH tstrt^ The man that went past. 


' 1. The interrogative pronouns cia, ce, ci, and 
ciad agree with their objects or respondents, in 
gender, and number; as, cia, or ce an fear? who 
is the man? duiqe uasal, a gentleman; ci ft in? 
who is she? baintigeama; a lady; ciad? who are 
they ? daoine mora, great men. 

£. The neuter verb is never expressed with the 
interrogative pronoun ; as, cia misi? who am J? 

3. The interrogatives always precede the verb or 
preposit4on by which th^y are governed ; as, cia o 
ISfuair tu g? Jrom whom did you get it? 

The Construction of the interrogative pronouns 
promiscuously exemplified. 

Go de an munmur sin fVhat muttering do you 

ort r make ? 

Creud is ciall do sin? IFhat is the meaning of 

Why are you timorous? 
Who is that man who 

spoke with you? 
Who is that woman going 

past ? 
frhat brings fear upon 

What are you seeking ? 
Lord, who sKall dwell in 
thy taiernacle? 

Cia fa bfuil tu faiteac? 
Cia he, or cia an fear sin 

a labair leat? 
Cia hi, or ci an Bean sin 

a dul tart? • 
Crcud a beir eagla ort ? 

Go dc ta tu ag iarraig? 
A tigcama, cia coimneo- 
cus ahn do taber^aciHl ? 

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sf NjAx:. 


Ci aca is md^ mTailainse 

np d'fallainse? 
Cia hiad, or ciad feia a 

ta teacht a steach 
Ca leis ^ raib tu aoiug? 

Cia1>uail tu? . 

JVkick is latgeTy my man* 

tie or your mantle ? 
fFho arc. th^y coming in ? 

JVith whom ivere you to 

Whom did you strike? 


1, The dcfnonstrative pronouns immediately 
follow the nouns or adjectives with which they are 
connected; as, an Bean sin, /^/ woman; an duine 
so, this man; na daoine uasal ud, those gentlemen. 

* Except J when tlie neuter yerh is understood'; 
for it is never expressed with demonstratives; as, 
so an fear, this is the man. 

2, When so is joined to a noun, whose last vowel 
is broad, it is commonly changed into sk; but, if 
the last vowel is small, into se; as, an fearsa, /Ai* 
^n ; an f;kilse, this ring^ 

3, The pix)noun8 creud, gode, cia, &c. arc com- 
monly used, without interrogation, as demonstra« 
tives; as, ta Tio$ agam go de a dearfa, J know what 
you- will say. 

The construction of the dejmonstrative pronouns 
promiscuously exempHfied.. 

iabair leis an duine uas^l Speak to that gentleman. 

|<i,iid a dadaih n^ huti- 

laig ud eile, 
A dtaitnean so leat? 
Go de $aoileas tu de $iu? 

Cuifinig so, agus taBair 

daih sin, 
J^easan tu go d^ fleirig 


Those other apples are 

worth nothing. 
Does this please you? 
JVhat do you think of 

Keep this, endjgive tpe 

that. \ 

Do you imagine ti^kat 

happened to (hem? 

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Taisbean a leaB^ir sin Shew pte thai booh 

Taid na tigtbcad so f ior 

Ba subailceac na riogim 

iad ^ud, 
A btaca ta an aindir ud 

Se so an fear a cas oralnn 

a \\dhy 


TIteu houses are 

Yon ladies were 

cheerful. ^ 
Did you see yon other 

This is the man wlio met 

us yesterday. 

An 6 so a bealac go Ard- Is this the way to Ar- 

maca? • magh? 

Njl fios agam ciaca beal- / know not which of the 

ac is fearr, roads is best. 

An bfiiil iios agad cia he Do you know who that 

an duine uasal sinT- gentleman is? 


1. Tlie compound pronouns a^am, liom, orm, 
and uaim are commonly used, with the verbs bi, 
tarr, and as, or is, instead of the regular verbs; in 
the following manner. 

2. Agam originally signifies with me; but is also 
used, with the verb, of beings to supply the place of 
the verb to hm^e; as, a bfana tu agam a noct? will 
you stay with me to night? ta caraid agam a mbaile 
at cliat, I have a friend at Dublin (ISO),. 

S. Liom oiigiiially signifies with, by, for^ or to 
me, &c. From hence it is used. 
First, to express belonging to ; 
Secondly, to denote desire; 
Thirdly, thought dr opinion; and 
Fourthly, power; as, (121) 

Da dtiucf^a. horn Jinois, 

Go dels mian le^^t a ragad 

Jfyou would come with 

me now. 
What is ity$ur desire to 
• say with for to) me? 

• Fan 

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SYKTAX« 113 

Fto Idi^ ma tig lil>^ ^FiwV ibe^A (or for) him^ 

ifjfim can^ 

Ao leo f^a an carhftd? I^tk^ carriage their ownf 

Mas toU leat laBairt leis /jT iV is your will to Mptflk 

aria, to him again* 

Dar lidm go bfeadfa dul I think you might go 

Jeo amarac, . with them to-morrow. 

la fada ko fams^ go 7%^thinkitlongtostay 

Luan, ^i7/ M(md$y, 

Ni tig liom a dul lib, / cannot go with you. 

4. Onn originally signifies upon me. Hence 
it is used to denote the passive ancctions of both 
liody a»d nwftd; ja,s, . 

Cuir do Ifcine ort, Put on your shirt. 

Ta tart orm, agus fuact I am hungry^ and they 

orrta, are cold. 

Ta pian cinn uirre, She has a head-ach. 

Nil baogal air, The?:e is no danger of him. . 

5. Chugam, unto me, is used to denote the ob- 
ject to which any thing tends; and has always a 
verb of motion, expressed or understood, before itj 

J^gid ciig^mf^ sibse uilf^ Come unto me all ye tk^t 

. ^ b^MiiUi faQian iialac, are laden. 

An tseactmuiuse (ata Theweek( that is coming) 

^9i t^^it) .^ugMi^b, to us: \. ^. next w^. 

Xajiair ^ajn daA-^tabaif Qive bread to me — bring 

aran cugam, bread to me* 

Tabair sgi^i^n d^pi— cuir Give me a knife — send 

fgia^ «ugs«n^ ma knife. • 

Q. Uaim originally signifies from me. Hence 
it is used, 

firsj:, to imply want, in opposition to agam; 
Secondly, to denote a desire of having; as, 

' , Q Fan^ 

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il4 SYNTAX. 

Fan luum— taBair uait e, Stay from me^giv€ it 

from you. 
l^a an tairgiot sin uatm I want that money now. 

Go de ta uaibse^ a BuaA What do ye want, boysf 


The use of the otlfer compound pronouns wiU 
l^ seen in the following table. 

The construction of the compound pronouns pro- 
^ miscuously exemplified. ^ 

Is fritir an cos sin agad, That is a sore foot yoti 

3a mor a leatrom ort e. It was a great oppression 

to you. 
Thug an uile duifie mil- Every man gave blame 

leoin air, to him. 

ts tuirseac liom aimsir Bad weather is tiresome 

duioeonta, to me.. 

Bionn aimsir duineonta Bad weather is hefivy on 

trom orm, me. 

Ni comortas isi leisean^ She is not to be compared 

to him. 
Ni biann fearg air, There mil be no an^er on 

him; i^ e. he will not 
be angry. 
Car leis an bosga beag? JVhos^ is the little box? 
Ca huair a 6uirea8 tu fVhen will you send it t9 

chuige h? him? 

TaBair cugamsa h? Bring it to me. 

Nil fio^agam ca harnm / do not know his nanu. 

ata air. 
Go dc dubairt se umad- 'fVhat did he say about 

sa? youf 

Niar diisde Jiom % I do not think it worse. 


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Ni €6Ir muinigin a cur a 
gceactai: aca, 

Cia aca dona riognaib is 

mo crod ? 
Feadano, mas aill liom, 
Bain na butaisig so'diom, 
A mbaine me an casog 

Sul ar cu]?naT ar nualac 

SaoUim gur bain siad go 

leor diobta, . 
Go de so tauait? 
Fuair me tri pigin dhhg 

Ta eagla orm go bfuil 

aicid eigin ag teact 

Go de ta uirrisi? 
Nil fonn ortusan a belt 

bfad ann so, 
Ni ceilinnse an dadam 

ort, . 
Ba mait liom, a beit 

caint leat, 
Seal beag, da m' aill leat 

eisteact liom, 
Cuirfear gioUa is capuU 

Car.lcis a gearran beag? 

Ma tig Icjat, fan go 
mbimid uile leat, 

Ni tig liom fanmuint 
agad a noct, 

BTeidir naq mbiad se 

No confidence should be 

placed in either of 

Which of the ladies has 

most portion ? 
I cany if I chuse. 
Take these boots off me. 
Shall I take the coat off 

Before we put our bur^ 

den off us. •* 

I think they took enough 

from them. 
What is this you want? 
I got thirteen pence from 

I am afraid that thjsre is 

some illness coining on 

What ails her? 
They are not desirous tQ 

be long here. 
1 would not conceal any^ 

thing from you. 
I would wish to speak 

with you. 
A little while, if you 

please to hear me. 
A boy and horse will be 

sent with you. 
To whom belongs the lit* 

tie horse ? 
If you can, wait till we 

be all with you. 

1 cannot stay with you 

Perhaps he would not 
have it. 

2 Cuir 

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lift SYlftAX. 

Cutr do ladi term, 

Ta eada£ glan fiid is 

€huai'd fa^H an gehfirig 

Cuir cugam an taran, 
Cia sgfiob an iitir ciuice, 

Tii^inic se cuguinn ai^ir, 

Na dean ibimdtd fiiinn, 
Sui'd sios tamat, cuir 
cataoir fdd, 

Is mail liom gur iiubairt 

Nit mian maciiai^ anois 

Nil Tios agamsa go de 

ta aige, acd bfeidir 

go bfuil T\6s aicese, 
Go de is mian leal a raga 

lioinsa ? 
Nil siad a bral; a dadsuii 

Fuaramar darta gad la 

Ta luac a bainne uaim, 

Cia bi an so toihuinn? 
Cuire me an clocas^ 

Biod siad a caint umad^ 
Seasaift eadrom is ^, 

Do bainead fuil asam fa 

Put your hand mer me. 

There are dean cldaths 
mer you and under you^ 

The cmd of winter is gone 
over us (K e. past.) 

Send unto me the itead. 

Who wrote the letter un- 
to her? 

He came unto us last 

Do not mock us. 

Sit dotvH a tohiley put a 
chair under you (i. e. 
take a chair). 

tarn glad you said that. 

/ hwe no desire now of 

1 do not know ^hst he 

hasy but perhaps she 

JVhat do you wish to say 

to fne? 
They are not looking for 

any thing from us. 
JVe got a quart each day 

from them. 
/ want the price of the 

Who was here before us ? 
Iwill put this cloak about 

Let them talk about you. 
Stand bettoeeH me and 

Blood was taken fr^m me 



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Nii moran eadruinn, 

Chuai'd si roiiiie san 

Raca se cugaib amarac, 

Cuirige uaib % 

Nar cuiread sgeula cucaB 

Go de sin a bain tu di? 

Na bain a sgian diom^ 

Ha im'ttgean siad ro- 
ihuinn, bearanioid 

Cuir ka]i>a glas lu&cra 

^il go leor fuinti, 

Nac bfuil di!lil agad a 
teact cuguinne? 

Nac mbeid tu aguinne a 

Do leig se osna trom 

Bhi conrad eatorra, 

SYNTAX. 117 

TTiere is not much be- 

tzceen us. 
She went before him in 

the zif^y. 
He mil go to you to^ 

Send it from you. 
fVas word sent to them f 
IVhat is it that you took 

from her? 
Do not take the knife 

from me. 
If they depart before us^ 

we shall overtake them. 

Put a bed of green rushes 

under the. 
There is noi enough un* 

der us. 
Have you not a mind to 

come to us? 
JVill you not be with us 

^e gave a heavy groan. 

There was an agreement 
between them. 


1. For the manner in which the increase is made, 
in pronouns, nouns, and adjectives^ see page 43. 

2. In the same manner, tne increase may be made 
iti verbs, if the pronoun be not expressed ; as, dei- 
rimse an firinne, is ni creidirse me, I sdy the truths 
and you do noi believe, me; bfuil tu ar ti mo bua- 
ladsa? are you about to strike mef 

3. The 

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3. ITic use of the increase may be alwajT^ ascer- 
tainedy by considering the emphatical pronoun in 
the sentence; as, is laidre mo capallsa no do ca^ 
pallsa, my horse is stronger than yours. 

4. Hence, when a question is asked, the person 
nal pronoun, in the answer, always receives tne in* 
crease; as, cia rinne so? misi, no tusa, who did 
this, I, or you.. (122.) 

The use of the increase promiscuously exemplified* 

Da racfasa liom aniu, 

racfuinnse leatsa ama- 

Is deise ar dtime no bur 


Is iomda la bi d'atairse 
is m'atairse air an iul^ 

Ca bfuil bur dtiarna 

An h so do hata {irsa? 
Ta an maor ar ti bur 

gceangailse a gcarcair. 
Do cuadarsan uile a 

Se so a cota m6rsan. 
Is cosmuil an teadac sin 

le d'eadacsa, 
An raib sise air a tir? 
Chuaid sise agus mise 

cum na foraise, 
Nil se agam, arsa mise, 
Act a dubairt seisean go 

bfaca se agam air mai- 

din fe, 
An abraimse breug? 

If you would go with me 
to-day y IwouldgowitA 
you to-morrow. 

Our country is hand- 
somer than your couf^ 
try. . 

Many a day were your 
father and my father 

IVhere is your young 
lord? ' 

Is this your new hat? 

The officer is about to 
bind you in prison. 

They all went into coun- 

Tfiis is his great cdat. 

That cloth is like yours. 

Was she in the country? 
She ofid I went to the 

I have it not, said I. 
But he said that he saw 

it with me in the 

Do I tell a lie? 


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4IYNTAX. 119 

jMrb si *daifisa gur She told me that she 

sgriob si cuige, wrote to him. 

€a huair a cuireas tu fFhen will yon send word 

sgeula cucasan ? to them f 

Nar cuir siadsan sgeula Did they send word, t4 

cugadsa? you? 

Dean sin ar a sonsa. Do that for her sake. 

Dheanuinn ni ar bit air I would do any thing for 

a sQnsan, his s^ike. 

Is tad mo tigse no a My house is larger than 

tigseam his. 

Is leisean ata me caint^ It is to him I am talk'- 

agus ni leatsa^ ing, and not to you. 

Tliug sise ddsan aris ^ She gave it to him again. 

Do geall tu daihsa hj You promised it to me. 

A dtiobarfa cuid de sin Would you give part of 

daihsa? that to me? 

Beidmid rompasan a ma- fFe shall be before them 

rac, to-morrow. 

Niar tug tii aon ubal You did not give one ap*' 

duinnc. pie to us. . 



1. A verb agrees with its nominative, in num- 
ber smd person; as, do sgriob se, he wrote; tau- 
gadar na daoiiie, the men came. 

2. Turo or more nouns singular, joined together^ 
'wili have a verb singular; as, tainic misi agus tusa, 
land you came; ta m'atair is mo ihatair tinn, my 

fother and mother are sick. . 

3. The 

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120 SYNTAX. 

3. The lurniinative usually foUowci the verb; aa^ 
XsLiuic an fear, the mtm came: 30inetimes with a 
branch of the sentence interveoiag; as, tainic, mir 
an mball, fear an tige asteac, the nkm of the house^ 
im}ne(Uately^ came in. ' 

4. The relative aod interrogative pronouns al- 
ways come^ before the wrbs with which they a«ee; 
as, an te 9^ tig ^o minic, th€ man who C9me$ iyteni 
cia feadas seasaiii? who can stand? (ISLS.) 

5. When the personal termination of ^ the verb 
is used, the pronoun is omitted; as, ]:in&eai9ary 
or rinne siun an ni so, we 4id this thing. (1^24) 

* The pronoun is generally used with the second, 
•nd tfawd persons, except in answering a question; 
as, ^rioban tu go ceart, you rprite mell: an sgrio** 
bam eo ceait? do Iwrke wdlf sgriobair, you d0» 

* The pronoan it never «sed with the first and 
second persons singular of the subjunctive consue- 
iudinai; as, Asl dtigfea lionosa, had you come with 
me; da mbuaiifian a« fear, had I struck the man. 

6. The infinitive has its agent in the accusativei 
expressed or understood, before it; as, is mail 
diose me a fuireadd, it is good for you that I 

7. The active participle has its agent expressed ' 
in the dative, when tlie ^me person is agent to tha^ 
following verb; as iar na faicsin an tig, lainic so 
asteac, he^ having seen the house^ came in; ar 
nil)eit duiun ar noaoiae oga, bi sinn a gcuideact 
acfeile, when we were youn^^ we kept company to* 
get her; ag gduinsin sin Son tsetnduinej gab se 
%airis air an taob eile, the ^Id mWj, htarmg thi^ 
passed by on the other ^ide. ( I^.) 

$, The present pa/ticipie, with the verb bi, is 
always used when the cpotuiuaBce of a thing is 
expressed ; as, ta me ag leagad wa leati^, / jam 
reading my book* ( 1 27- ) 

9. The 

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SYNTAX, 121 

9. The consuetudiiial ten^ is used when a habil:, 
or custom, is expressed ; a», ca mbionn tu gac la, 
where are you every day? (128.) 

10, The future participle passive often follows' 
nouns, or adjectives, to denote tlie object that is 
to be affected ; as, greanrhar le faicsin, pleasant to- 
be seen; ta arbar Ic bualad, there is corn to be 
threshed; ta na bat le na bleagan, the cows are to. 
he milked. (IS9.) 


11. Verbs transitive require their objects, in the 
accusative, after their agents; as, do Kuail me fear, 
/ struck a man. , 

, * The relative, and interrogative pronouns come 
before the verbs that govern them ; as, an te a 
Buail me, the man whom I struck; go de glacas tu? 
what will you take ? 

12. Verbs signifying advatitage or disadvantage 
require also the object of the benefit, or injury, in. 
the dative ;. as, d*urhlalg se doib, he obeyed thefn; 
do hinsia'd daifii, it was told to me; do tug me lea^ 
Bafdliit, I gave a book to you. . 

13. Verbs of comparing, and taking away, re* 

3uire the ablativfe of the object of comparison, or 
eprivation ; as, do slad si mo ceadfaid uaim, shc^ 
stole my heart from me; saiiiluigim tu le crann gan 
torad, I bompare you to a tree without fruit; do 
bainea'd uata 6, it was taken from them. 

14. The infinitive, and participles active, req^Ile' 
the genitive; as, ta me dul do ceannac. brat^, Z 
a)n going to buy 'malt ; bi se ag iarraid a rfma, he 
was looking fpr his wife; iar mbualad an dorais, 
having struck the door] ar ti de^inaiii urnailte, 

^ about to make »r^3?ven-^eeGoverni»ent of Nouns, 

rule'19, •fx,6. *'^-' , •,. . *4«5. . 

..*. If the object be a masculine noun, it is aspi- 

. ' * R rated ; 

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rated; as, ta me ag gtt^rra'il £ralnn, lam mttfng 
a tree. (130.) . 

15. One verb governs another in the infinitive; 
as, cuaid se do *:&glam a leigein^ he went to le^rn 
his lesson. (131) 

The concord and government of verbs promis- 
cuou3ly exemplified, 

TaBair mo leine daih, Give me my skirt. 

Gad' cuige nac gcatan Why do you not . ■ ■ r 

tu do stocaige duba? your black stockings? 

l^i an cos fritir ^n brig The strait shoe makes the 

cuihaing, foot sore. 

J^a6 bfaca tu ns^ ^? Did you never see iff 

Nfi taob tu feia le dapi* Do mt trust yourself 

nibleaiha, with imprudent people. 

CpAnai^ean ?esean a He dwells in a large 

inbruigin ifa6ir, house. 

. $hfui| tu ar tl mp Hua* Are you about to sttike 

' lad? mef 

Taliair aire do^ji dcjtg- Mtendio (he fady. 


Ta bean n, tige ag tiaga Tie housewife i$ ^arm^ 

dige, ing ^ drmh. 

Bhi bean a ti^e ar ti 2%$homewifewas:0fyfUf 

deoc a tiagaa,; to varv^ a drink. 

Ta fear a tige ag dull a 7^ ma» of the hpus^ is 

^odlad, going to sleep. 

/T^sesgripbadaileacda, He is writing his ejfp^ 


Tameagafoglaimanoifi, J am learning tt fWiK 

Qp go gcainj^a me» 

Thsiibein me'4oanUt^ 

a sgripb tu ^ugam, 
A^inbearfea mise leat|? 

Ca rail In ani? 

Though you jhouU diif 

pfaise me. 
J Sihe^ed him the letter 

that you wrote to me* 
t¥ouldyou bring me wilA 

IVhere were, yqj^ ^ester^ 



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Nar ai'tris si duit cai^ead 

aBfiiair si?. 
Go de ata stad ar ti dea^ 

An te na£ dean staidir 

ni biann se foglumtai 
An fear a til leis aniug. 

Car cuir tu mo bata? 

Fiafraig sin do duine 

eigin eile, 
Feadam a dul ait air bit, 
Ni raib ac aoh ubal apui'd 

ann, a tug me disi^ 

Bain do cloct diot, 
Na cuir araig orra, 
Beid me smuainead 

Racfuinn leat arls^ 

Go de cuireas tu ^uinne? 

Da mhiadfasa liom ni 

kigfe an teagal do mo 

Bhi seisean ga bualadsa, 
Bhfuil sib ar ti ar mbua- 

Dean airis air a beacan 

A diiilas gac blat bias 

air a coili, 
Btod sinn crionnac co- 

sihuil leis, 
Agus cuiriinide air an 

uair nac* dtig air ais, 
Tliaisbein se h f^in beo, 

Did she tell ^oUh&wmu6h 

she got? 
What are thiy about t§ 

He tttat does not study 

will not be learned. 
The man that was with 

him to-day. 
TFhere did you put my 

Ask that of some olhef 

I can go anyplace^ 
There was but one ripe 

apple, which I gitve /a 

Take your cloak offyo^. 
Do not heed them. 
I shall be thinking ^ 

I would go with you 

tVhat will you put under 

If you had been with me, 

J]ear would let him 

strike me. 
He was beating her. 
Ate you about to beat 

Take example by the bee, 

That sucks each blossom 

of the tree; 
Let us, like it,^be tim^y 
• xmse. 
And mind the hour^ tbt^ 

quickly flies. 
He shewed himself alive. 
2. At 

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At ngabail an cupam 
cuige, air mbreit bui- 
deacais do, a dcibairt 

Ag gairm a Ueisciol^al 
'» 'do, \\\g tee.neait agus 

cuihacta doiB, 
larr deoc air mnaoi an 

larr air ]\fhaire deoc a 

tabairt duit, 
Ta slad ga mbuajad, 

Ta sibse ga bur nibualad, 
Guidimse air Dhia, 
Guidim tu a Thigearna, 
Labair le m' atair, 
Xabair Bearla, ma tig 

Taobam le Dia mo corp 

is m'anam, 
Beid me iar do bualad, 

Ta me iar teact o iAl- 
baiu, ^ 

Ta a matair agus a deirb.- 
^ siur anagaid na gno- 

taide sin, ' 
Iar leigead an tsoisgeil 
• do. 
Fear da ngoirtear (ainm) 

Oltar linn do slain te fein, 

Puisg'tear leo ah ilid 

Having taken the jcap, 
and given thanks^ hk 

Calling his disciples t§ 

hiniy he gave them 

strength and power. 
Ask a drink from the 

woman of the home. 
Ask Mary to give a 
•' drink to you. 
Tlieif are a beating^ or, 

they are beating them. 
You are a beating. . 
I pray to God. 
I pray thee, O Lotd. 
Speak to my father. 
Speak English, if you 

I commit to God my body 

and my soul. 
I will be after beating 

yon; \. e. I will have 

beaten you. 
I am after coming from 

Scotland; i. e. ififlve 
Just come. 
Her mother and sister 

are against that busi^ 

He having read the gos^^ 

A man who is ^called 

Your health is drunk by . 

Theunhorneddoe is raised 



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i 1 




1. Reflected verbs are used to express a state of 
being, or an atftion terminating with tlie doer of 
it; as, codlaim, I deep; seasam, I stand 

2. Whenever duration is expressed, or under- 
stood, the. circumlocution, with the verb hi, is 
used ; as, Bi me mo codlad ar fe^d an oidce, / was 
asleep all night: ta se na seasam, he is standing. 
(132.) ' 

Reflected Verbs promiscuously exemplified. 
Ta sinne ' nar gcodlacj TVe are sleeping under 

the shade of the tr^s^ 
Is she sitting. 
Noj but he is sitting. 

TVhere did you sleep last 

night ? 
Do not sleep any more. 

faoi sga't na gcrann, 
An , bfuil sise na suide, 
Ni Iiead, act ta seisean 
. na suide. 
Car codaU tu a reir? 

Na codail iiios hk), 

Beid siadsan na seasam, They will be standing. 

Do tost misi mar duine / was silent as a dumk 

balb, man. 

Bhi me mo comnaig a / was living in Dublin. 

niBaile at cliat, 

Na seasath ann sin, „ Do not stand there, 
Bhi me mo dusgad abfad ^ Iwas awflke long before 

, roimei^lo. day. 

3hi seisean na dusgad He was awake before me; 

Tomam ; agus do duisg and he awakened me. 

se me, 

Bi do tost. Be silent. ^ _ 

Do cQdail me a nDim- J slept in Dundalk. 
' dealgan, 

Bhi me mo Codlad areir, I was sleeping last night. 


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li& SYlJtAt^ 


I. Thfe auxHiaries W, is, or as, sod tig, with 
their inflexions, are clegawly used U^ supply the 
place of all verbs detiotilig possession, want, power, 
necessity, or any (0ection dfthe body, or mind. 

S. Bi is used with agam, orm, and uaiih ; is, or 
as, with daiii, and liom; tig, with lioih ouly; Is, 

Ta sgian agam, / hwoe a knife. 

Ni dfuil sgian agam, I hoot not a knife^ 

Ta sgian xidxm^ I want a knife. 

Ki ti^ Horn a deanatik, I cannot d^ it. 

Is eigm daifa sgriobad, / nmst write. 

Ta grad agam air Dhia, / love God. 

Ta fuact orm, / am cold. 

Ib fiom sin f6s, That is Mine t^. 

S^ Is, or as, simply denotes the object in kselfi 
l>ut ta always denotes it as connected with 9091* 

. Hence, is affirms simply of its object, although 
that object be expressed by two or more words j 
as, is me^Domnall, I am Donald; is fuar an oidce 
], it is a cold night. But ta has a twofold obje^t^ 
and shews the subject and predicate distinctly tvotla 
each other; ta Doi&nall ag an doras, Donald w at 
the door;- ta an oidce tuar, the night is cold^ 

Hence also, the interrogative, of as, is an, used 
in enquiring after any inherent quality of the sub- 
ject; as, an tu Dodinall? are you Donald f is m^ 
/ am. 

But the interrogative, of bi, is bfuil, used m en- 
quiring after any occasional quality, or circum- 
stance; as, bfuil Domnall ag an doras? is Donald 
^t the door? ata, he is, 

4. Whei^ 

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4 Wh^ IMj^ (|3ur i^ ba, and bu'd, coqiq in contact 
with VQW^ls^ they ar^ cont^a^^ted in|o s, b^ or m; 

Jkl^s (jna is) tu ftar an Ify<iti are the man of the 

tig^, ^ hou»s€. 

Bean darb (dar ba) aiqin A wqman zvkose name 

E)?lin, 7jt;as Evelina. 

pa fnaiU (ma aill) l^t If it m^e agreeable to 

^isteact liom, you to listen to me. 

9fevr (b^ Tearr) 'daoi^ l(^ 'tuyere better for nie ti^ 

^^ Ba> and bu^ aspirate the following mutable 
caasQn^nts; as, bufd ihait Horn, Iwof^dvfish. 

6, Xhc awxiUary Ij^, with the preposition ann, is 
used to /express exist^ce; as, ta subailce ann^ 
there is ^ virtue; bi ^x^mt ann, there was a ma$h 

fbe ^QBstruction of the auxiliary verba promis- 
^UQU^y exemplified, 

4« tu Seamus? is me^ Arejou Jmwf Jam. 

iihfuil tu tinn? ^taiw^ Are you sick? lam. 

Ta an oidc^ dorca, The night i* 4ark. 

Is dorc^ an oldie i, It f> a 4ark night. 

$Tearr hom ^ b^t. pwirb, i ka4 rc^ther be dead. 

?^''?t^L • \ She is a little wench. 
Ta SI na gusig b^ > 

Ta ea£ mait ag m' ati^ir, My father has ^ good 


An l«^ts^ i^n peaiin* so? Is this pe^ yom^f it is 

is liomsa e, mine. 

Go de ti^ di ort? fVhat if i| mwHng t^i 

An & so do busga snapi* Is this y^HP tmff^baxf 

sin? is ead. it is. 

Nil aiiinis agam ann, I haoo no doubt. 

A ndearnt. 

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A ndearna duine air bit 

fiarh amrus fa Dhia a 

belt ann? 
Nil cuid agam de, 
Ta fuact orm anois, agus 

bi tart mor ornf ag 

teact asteac "dam, 
Bbeara me an tairgiod 

duit a marac ma tig 

B'fearr liom go dtiocfa 

leat a tabairt aniug, 
An leat fein an cior 

cnaim r 
Is liom ; agus is liom an 

sgatan f6s. 
Da mbiad airgiod agam, 
Ta ublaige uadfa, 
Bhfuil tu tinn ? ni Bfui- 

An tu an maor? ni me. 

'Sionn^n sin le racl ^us 
gur bionnan iad araon, 

Ba doilig -darfi h. 
Bhfuil tu fuar? taim. 
Dob h an fear a bairde 

san mbui'din, 
Dob i an bean a bailnc 

Da ma leat h, ni Biad 

m'ainmse ann, 
An leat'sa an sgian so? 
Ni Kom anois S, \- 
Mas leis h tabair do h. 
Bhfuil nailr utrre? 
An raib mo leabars^ 

Did ever any man doubt 

of the existence of a 
. God? 

I have no part of it. 
I am cold now, and I was 

very thirsty when J 

came in. 
I will give the money to^ 

you to-morrow i/* / 

I would rather you could 

have given it to-day. 
Is the ivory comb your 

own ? 
It is mine; and the look- 

ing- glass is mine aiio^ 
If I had money. 
They want apples. 
Jreyot4 sick? lam not/ 

Are you the officer? I 

am hot. 
That is the same as to 

say, that they weN 

both alike. 
It were difficult for me/- 
J re you cold? I am. 
He was the tallest tnan 

in the cornpany. 
She rem tke most beau* 

tiful woman. 
If it were yours, my namM^ 

would not be in it. • 
Is this knife yours? 
It is not mine now. * ' 
If it is his, give it to him^ 
is she ashamed? 
Had you my book? ' 


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4ji <iKSk9> fotdlgeact orra? Did thejf think long f 

Is sine ar matairne na Our mother is older fk^m 

. Bur ma'tairse, yours. 

Ta burtnbatea jsan ^coill, Your cowsnrtin thi^Qod. 


\h fThe foUowmg adverbs a^nrate the wotib ^t 
follow tfiem thus; . 

' Ni, niar, not^ and nar? iiacar? notf aspirate 

and prefix h to vowels ; 
JSiQj and ja, tOy aspfnaste mfinitives; . i 

Do, sign of the prefer y aspirates active verbs j 
Ro, very^ aspirates adjectives; and, 
Ail the adverbial particles aspirate the woitbs ^^ttii 

.wfeich^they are- compounded; as, (136) 

,Niar tamic aon duine . No man cami with ffim. 


Is c6ir duinn umaig do, fVe ought to pray evewjf 

or a deanam gac la, day. 

^Do BuaU me an fear cile, I struck the other man. 

Ta an maid in ro Tuar, The morning is very coisL 

Ta se na duine ncimglic, He is a foolish man. 

,Nijhamluig ta, It is net so. , 

2. Nac, noty and 'ca? wh^r&f eclipse actiye 
verbs; and 
Jar, sign of the prefer participle^ eclipses it; ib^ 

(1^37) ; 

Naic dtig leice^iuBal, She cannot walk. 

. lar mbualad an dorais, Having struck the door. 
. Camh^onnten^commiig ? JVhert does he dwell ? * 

3,, Adverbs, $\gmfyiag proximity, require the da- 
tive; as, ta se angar darii, he is near m^. (138.) 
* s 4-- Tlie 

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GoQQle , 

13b JYirtAx. 

'4. The fallowing adverlbs require- the abktivij^ 
tiz, (139?) , < ; ^ 

Atios, on this s}de. , Asteac, within. 

ABfad, afar. Go leor, enough, 

Amac, out. ^ and the like; as, ' 
Anall, tall, beyond. 

Fan a bos aguinne, * ' Stcit/ on this side with us. 
Ta se abfad ona tig, He is far from his house. 

•Ch^iJl si anmc as an tir, She went out ofthe^ coun- 
D'i i me go leor don biad, / eflt enough of the ^neat. 

The construction of adverbs promiscuously e^^m* 


Nar eirig tu go uiiOc ? Did you arise early f 

TamuU bqag na diaigsin, A little while after that^ 

Seal beag roiriie, A little while before. 

Niar codail me moran I dicl not sleep much last 

arfeir, night. 

Bhi me^ uiir no do, ar ti 1 waSy once or twict^ 

cur orm, about to put on tng 


Ta .dMl agam a dul, as I intend to go from homt^ 

baile aniarac, to-marrow. 

Ca huair a tiucfas si air JVhen will she come back 

a hais? , again? 


Ca Tada o p6sad i? How long is it since she 

was married? 
Do posad anuraig i. She was married loit 

lEirig go <;lisde, Rise quickly. 

Na dfean amuil, feasda, Do not delay ^ henceforth. 
Is annam a teigimse sios I seldom go do^n tothtm% 

Is mlnic a fqait; me Z was often invited. 



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Thig se air uairiU, 
l>€irim nacar ioc sp en-^ 

Nar imtig an fear, a bi 

aniiso arfeir? 
Nior diol «e an dadam, 
Carb as do ? 
Candeacaid se? 
Ca huair a dimtig se ? 
Nac dtuigean tu me? 

Gud a$ nac neistcan tu 

Ni cuiread se suim ann, 

CAit a bfiiil se anois? 
Car fag tu ^? 

Suicl anaice liom, 
Na tar imo c6ir, 
Ka tar angar.dam, 
Na tar abfogus dam, ^ 
Suid go dluit le mo taob, 
B'fada Horn amuig tu, 

im, > 
dam, 3 

Is fada dfan tu tall, 
Cahuairatainic tu auMl? 
Is cian o cuaid tu anonn, 

Is gearr go raca me siar 

Cia be sin a dtaob siar 

Cia he sin a dtaob tall 

BTearr liom beit 'tall, na 

N^ bi dul siar 's aniar, 

ffe comes sometimes. 
I say that he did not pay 

a farthing. 
Did the man depart^ wh<f 

' was fiere last night ? 
He did not pay any. 
From zvitence is he ? 
JVhere went he ? 
JVhen did he go? 
Don*i you understand 

JVhy do you not hearken 

He would maJce m dc* 

count of it. 
JVhere is he now ? 
JVhere did you leivc 

Sit near me. 

Do not came near me. 

Sit close by my side. ^ 
I thought long whm you 

were abroad^ 
You staid long behind. 
JVhe^ did you come over? 
It isiong since you went 

It is a short time^ till I 

will go over again. 
JFho is that behind you? 

JJ^ho is tlmt beyond you ? 

I would rather be beyond, 
than on this side. 

Do not go back and for 

6 2 Ta 

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Ta ^e'dtiriiiimi 'saiiialV 
Na bi dui slos- i& siia&j 
Sgeul a ^uala me dan xy 

Oii fear crioHna, a tainic 

a gc6ki,v 

He is gving ta ih^'fra. 
J^imt go upafid dMf^. 
A story that IheaPd'hng 

From a n>ise fnan^ that 

cameJ'roPi afar. 
Gur glas Aa mijillaig ttfad That hills are greMjhr 

Ta an taiian sin ro ihait^ 
©to buailead ^ le Suine 

A*i mar sin ata? 
Nir diol se na fiaca? 
I)& ririB ata me, 
Cred fa nac mbuailinii^ ? 

from us. 
That bread k ^er^ go^dl 
He im^ sptruck^b^'OiMtHei^ 

Is it sof 

Did he pay the dkbt^f 
I am in earnest. 

Why should I not strike 

Nfel^teigaiionii niosmd, Do not goober at^mdfe^ 
Tosaig go prab. Begin instantly. - 

Niar cuir se moran araig He neve^goKmnmeh he^ 


uim nam, 

iiai mbionn na 
huile daoine oga in- 
ge^ air macnaois, 

Ta. tu ro faka, 

Gud as aii Kaiit^ tu leis? 

Yhx cnir se ftes air a 

cofra ? 
Is liomsa an teac mor 

sin taltj 
Go de mur ta tu? 
't-hainic se asteac air art 

Ta s^ abfogus don oidce, 
Ba liom %. sul ar diol 

me ^, 
lar gcloistin nasgeula do, 
Druid tu fein astig ann 

do tig, 

to her. 
Almost aUym^ pec^^ 
are fond ofptaf. 

You are i>ety lazy*. 
Why did you meddle with 

it? " 
Did he send for his chest f 

That great house beyond 

is mine. 
How are you ? 
He came in immedkitely^ 

It is near the night. 
It was minCy before Isold 

When he heard the story. 
Shut thyself in thy hous&. 


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S'y<N-'PA*»* ISS 


U Tlie following; pTOpositions aspiiate the tiouu» 
that tlicy govern ; viz. (140) 

Mr^ upon; Gfaii^ mtAotit^ 

De^. efi lonasui'd;. tmtoi 

Do, to, Ma«;. Uki^tj^ 

Faoi, fuid, under, Tre, trid, through;. 

Fead,, throughout, X Um, uim^, about ;,z% 

Fud, amongi 

Ta se aif droc sl^iut^ ITe i^ i;? Aflrf health. ' - 

Is mait iad' do daoiiiib They are good to aiiicr 

eile, people. 

Ce be tiodlkradfuaramar Whatever talent we re^ 

6 Dhia, ceivedfrom God. 

S. Anfl, in, and iar, afte7\ eclipse then' nouns ; 
as, (141.) 

Bhi me a liDiin, iar / was tn- Doum,, afi(a^ 
' dt^act daifi o hAlbain, coming from ScotlaiuL 

* te; withy i^.fromy and go, to, prefix h to vowels; 
as, rinne me sin le heagal, / Md that through fear ; 
cuaid se go hEirin, he went to Ireland, (142.) / 

3. Chum> tOi, Iar, after, 

Deis, after, lonnsuid, tinto, 

Fead/ throughout, Heir, accordi^tg to, 

Fud; aiiwng, •Ximcioll, about, 

aaid aUi the e^pfcssions^ formed by the union of 

nouns* with prepositions, govern th« genitive; as, 

Indiaig eirige na gealaig, After the moons rising, 
JBhi me tinn air fead na / was sick during the 
hoidce, night. 


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184 SYNTAX. 

Chuai'd si agcionn She went to her fvorte, 

a hoibre, 
Reir tola De, According to the will of 

Ma tig a mac na cuinnc, If his son comes for fiim^ 

4. Do, tOy governs the dative ; and idir, between^ 
the accusative; as, tabair an leabair do na mnalb, 
give the book to the women. 

5. All tlie other prepositions govern the ablative f 

Ag, aty Le, leis, with, 

Air, upon, / Mar, like to, as, 

Ann, iw, O, ua, yrom, 

As, out ofy Os, ebove^ 

Chuige, tOy Re, ris, /o, 

Dar, ^, , Roime, before, 

De, of\ Seaca, bj/j in compa- 
Fa, upon, &c. rison with, 

Faoi, fuid, under, Thar, tairis, over, 

Gan, without, Tre, trid, through, 

Go^ gus, to. Urn, uime, about; as, 

D'eirig me uair^roime la, 1 rose an hour before day. 

Ni Taran se air ni air bit. It does not jit any thing. 

J^il moran d^oine s^ista There are not mnny peo- 

le na gcineamnaib, pie satisfied with their 

jor tunes. 

Ta siad air buile fa na They are enraged at his 

rat, prosperity. 

6. Sometimes the govcrr^ment of the preposition 
is not observed, when gac, each, uile, all, or some 
such adjective comes before the substantive; as, 
cuaid fear le gac bean aca, a man went with every 
woman. (144.) 


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Tbe construction of prepositions promiscuously 
exemplified. » 

Sui'd inaice an tsoluis, 
Seasam os cuinne an do- 

Na tar am aiharc, 
Na bi a mbaile m6r, no 

a gcaisleah, gan bean 

air do leitsgeul, 
Rinne me so le heagal, 
Ceitre troigc air doim- 

Chuaid se fan mbaile, 

Chuaid se cum an baile, 
Chuaid si agcuinne mine, 
A ndeiread na hoidce, 

Raca sise fapi Dhorfinac, 
field si pdsda faoi ceann 

Hoiihe liiide na hoidce, 
Mar mnaoi a biad faoi 

lean dub, 
Ta si neamacfuinea cJiir 

breug a innse, 
Bhi sr6n cam air Gholl, 
Mar infearaib fear ag si- 

nim teud, 
. Ta sin do rfeir na firinne, 

Is cQsmuil le firinne ^, . 
SgridSam air uairib le 

solas coindle. 
Is cosiiiuil le bojsgasnaoir 

sin h, 
Bionn si na gcomnaig sa 

Jeag mdr ud, 

Sit near the light. 
Stand opposite the doon 

Do not come into my sights 
Be not in a city or castle 

without a wotnan to 

befriend yovt. 
I did this for feUr. 
Three feet in depth. 

He went throughout of 

about the town. 
He went to the town. 
She went for meal.' 
In the latter part of the 

Shewillgo before Sunday. 
She will be married be- 

fore a year. 
Befoi% night fall. 
As a woman who would 

be under melancholy. 
She is incapable of telling 

a lie. 
Gaul had a crooked nose. 
Like the Jingers of men 

playing harps. 
That w conformable to 

the truth. 
It is like the truths 
I write sometimes by can^^ 

die light. 
It is like a snuff-box^ 

She dwells, in 
great house. , 



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Se sin an bealac go Baile- 

An Bfuil a f ios agad ca 
air a l>fail«gcan agan>? 

Is iomda fear saidb)^ gan 

Is h6^g<a solas ^n tsao- 

.Is Te .na natair fe, 

Ta beoir a dtig i&^uilise, 

Ni raibeamar e caint fed 

NI i€m^toil a,|)6s si ^ 

Ta mac sa^ arm aige^ 
Abair .focal no /do .don 

Ameasg mac n^ ^gairt, 

.po peacamairne. anagaid 

Do deana^esidt ttxltajoib 

Tharnic Bejcgo.hAlhainn, 

That L^ the waif to Duv 

Do you know whom I 

Inhere is many a rich man 

without tranquillity. 
He has iitik pleasure in 

the world. 
It is their father's. 
There is.oMr An your 

We were .not speaking 

about your father^ 
It. was mot 'withmym^l 

that she married him. 
He has a sonin the army. 
Repeat a word oTitrnff 

ike song. 
Among the sons of the 

priests^ * ' 

Ire haxe sinmd ^gaiwt 

He shall mahe.peaeeieim- 

cerni^^g his ,sin. 
He came to Scotland, 


1 . Qriaie conjunctions, agus, lanHj :no, jor, 'na^ t^Ki??, 
and the likc,\have»ihe same moods, and cases, after 
them that go \ before tliem; ^,^amuil mar ata, agus 
bi^^us bias ;<go b^atac, aSiitwaSy. aniUsyjomliskall 
be for ever; *tosac an lae agus na ihoibre, iihe be- 
ginning of the day mtd ofikcwork. (145.) , 

2. Mar, as, o, since, sul, before that, )ma, if, 
mwx, if not, na, than, gur, timt, >and ttheir'jwm- 
pounds, aspirate; ^, 


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ftacufi lett imt *t^ se il^t^ui g^i^wUA kim,'^ 

linn, V he come zeitM iwi * 

Fagaknb^^ ocoauafec 'JktfnediBj Una I kMe 

, '' ^ •^- •- ^ " '"■*^ - • •' 

3. Go, tkat^ da, i^ muna, if not, nw^ ikaf, 
Mid t\mt campouo^ eelipsei ^od pfeftx' n lb 
vowels} as, (14£) ' ^ . ' 

Deirim go dtainic . se I say that he cafnp iater. 

1/c nac bfuilid hk) briat^ O that my words were 
r^ anoU sgrioH'ta, ^ «par wPtttm. : !. I 
Muna Mllea'd de uaioa^ If tie had mi tutned 

from nk. 

The construction of conjunctions promiscuously 
. exemplified. 

Ma cuala tu-me, If you heard me. 

Ge gur buail'me 6, Although tfiat I struck 

Ge go mbuailfinn h^ Although I had struck 

Muna dtiucfad aonduine Unless some one would 

na cuinne, come for him. 

Cluinim go bposfar bean / hear that one of the 
aca, women will be mar- 

Da dtiucfad linn fiii- If we could stay. 

Cogad Eoin moir agus The war of Eoin the 
Chuinn ciad ca'taig, greats and Conn of an 

hundred battles. 
Ni bfuaras bias bid no There was not a taste of 
dige, meat or drink found. 

Ar an aBar sin fuigfid an Therefore 'shall a man ^ 
fear a atair, agus a leave his father and 
"ihatair, his mother. 

T Is 

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*^Js ,wA iittl.rnft: isv fokHr 7%<y urc »iorr tham din 
aipetii*^* /; > . be numbered. 

Ma ata nae l>fml>]no Itig Alth&ugk my hmuc be 
mar am i^ Dia, giidead not so with 6W, ^ « 
do riiine se ceangal ke haih made a awe-- 

liDipta^t , /v , , nanimth me. 

Leor ^m tqagmff'tac/ d(x ^ Moretnw /^ ^Aem f> Mji 
searbfogantuid, servant warned.' 

D'eagal go bfuigead sib^ Lest ye die. 

^.— .♦As^^. ■ •'••^ v^ ' •; y • -^ ' ' 

Oir is tu is c6ir a faghail, For 'you hone a right t6 

vr • •/..•', ^ ;; • V \ .\ ' ' get it. .- 

lonnas gut dean se a & thnt he denied his 

litttigiktir, \ master. 

Biod go bfuil tu said- Altfiough you be rich. 


Ge ta tu laidir, Notwithstanding you are 



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SYNTAX. 199 


1. The interjection a, 0^ requires the vocative; 
and aspirates the noun next to it; as, aXhiama 
De, O Lord God. (147.) 

2. Mairg, wo tOy and the like, require the da- 
tive; as, mairg duitse a duine Hona, wq to you^ 
wretched man. (148.) 

The construction of iiiterjections promiscuoufijy 

As truag nac |>fuilim . iFo is me that I am not J 

Faraor! tamoid uile faoi Alas! we are all subject 

c4in don eug, to death. 

Mairg damsa ! a bi mo ff^o to me / who was si- 

tost, ^ lent. 

Monuar, is truag do AlaSy hard is your fote / 
. cineaihuin! 

Tar an so, a Sheamais, Come hithery James, 

£ist, eist, mo leanab ! Hushy hush, my child! 

Mo lean gur im'tig mo Alas that my friends are 

-cairde ugiim! gone from me! 

Uc! ucj ca trualge tu- Alas! alas! whatasor- 

ras. rowful journey. 



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/: • • 

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1 . It it hnpostible to 'find Engiisb words, irhith c:iihitHr 
all the sounds of the Irish language. The words contaitied' 
in tbis taMe, «re such is mm^ neatly resenbie tbem ; the 
eiea»9f>les, t^wever, wiHte«atbfiaotorf' to^mch as read for 
their prit^ate UDprovement, «imI will be found rety impor- 
tttyt) m «sticting ciie instructions of the ^ teacher. 

'2. Ttie pnepotttion in, ^n, ttas eivcientty fire6xed to 
md»f weridk; but> far sound's sake> the nwM omitted ; as; 
cath, a battle f igcath, in battle. In latter agei, in 9fder 
totoomply with a mio of ce«iparatively modem in^^ntion^ 
(which » noted in «reatitig of the 90wels,):tbe i w«» changed 
into a; a», agtcatti; 6till, bowever, die eame rapidity of 
puMMMciaiMfi, wMdi Dhe i reoeiTed, was applied toa{ 
sod, in manir fiittanoes, the i or la was eattrciT' oniitted, 
both in writing and spedkif>g ; as, ta me in >mo cbedladti, 
properly contracted into, imo lobodiadb; but oommotily 
wtitMli and 0pok«n mo diodladb, I amushep, orrn^ 
sleeping state. 

$: The thick sound ^^, and t, resembles the hardest 
soumdof tb, in the finghsh word ihink; bot^ in fornmg 
chis thick leund, the tongue mitst be strongly pressed 
agatfist the foist of %he upper Ibretec^, instep of being 
protraded between the teexh^ by which means the aspim- 
lionis^M>ivipletdy stofiped, and these ooBKynants receive 
nothing of that semivocal sound which ^is given to il^ in 

4. arid 5. The sounds of I, and n double, arete^ formed 
by the same position of the tongue; ri». by pfitcing it is0 
as torpress upon t^ upper lereteeth and gum, while the 
p ain t <>f it is peroeptiUe between the teesb. The otijy 
diflenenoe, in forming theni) is, tbot the aspiratidn to 1 is 
guttural, and to n, i^isal. 

6. Tins sound 4s fbfined l|y digbtly teuching the sound 
cf -ae English, before, as well as after r; as if the wor4 
Jrec was wfiden and pfwottocndy fffret^ 

7- Thif 

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143 KdTES. 

7. This toand of t is much more bard and forcible tban 
Ibat of sinrle s in English : it is formed by presenting the 
point of the tongue to the aperture ol the teeth, and 
expressing a very strong aspiration. 

i. See note 3. 

9. In ancient it'ritings, the letter b was prefixed to 
vowels, nauch inore frequently tban in modern ones; thus €, 
he^ ij she J were anciently written be, and hi. But it was 
very seldom attached to consonants, the pronunciation of 
which was left to the reader^s own judgment. The oon- 
traction, formed by ftzing- a point over a consonant, is a 
modera invention. 

' 10. The broad vowels are frenfoeody commuted for eaoku 
pibar, when, they are not emphafeical ; and, in like manner-^r 
the mall voewela may be commuted for each other; as, 
oiriseall, hwnhhii may lie written uirisioU. This change 
can be made only wben the vowel or diphthong is short ; 
tbas bus, ieath^ is always written with a; out has, ikepghm 
^.ike handf may be also written bos. 
,11. Band p, o and g, d and t, were frequently com4 
m^ed, in ancient writinas; thus agus, or ocus, andf^ 
Ubbairt, or laphairt, speaks cuairt, or cuMrd, a vmi; ^ 
aiidy since it became usual to aspirate consonants, bb and 
pm, db and f^, have often been cemmuted in the aamfe 
manner; as, adhaigh, or agbaidb, thefme. 

ISL Db and gb miay be written indifierently, intermi* 
BiHNeosyor where they are not radical ; as, biaab,or \mg)^ 
meats fiadhnuise, or fiagbnuise, witness. 

la. Grammarians have commonly laid it down as a rule, 
tbftt- f may be eclipsed by d, m, or t, as well aa by bb; 
but this is not corrept. Th^ examoles given jof tbrae 
eclipses are only cpmractions for mo, do, (or to, instead of 
d(»); tbiui, dofheotl, ortofheoil^ iky^sA^ iaooilimooly 
wrttten dfheoiil, or tf beoi] ; and mo thear, "m^kuskana, 
i» written mf bear. 

14. It will appear, from these tables, tbat tbei^reatje^ 
part of ^ words in iVisb eonsist of one or two syllabjes; 
aU radical words do so; but tbey are very easily cook 
pounded ictfo word« of threes ot four syllables. In studying 
these tables, therefore, the learner alio^td be accustom^ 
to. resolve the polysyJlab)es Jolo their constituent parts, 
and observe the separate force of each part. 

Al^KMigfa the directions^lriady given are most agreeable 
to the true pronunciation of the Irish ItogUage, yet a con* 
siderable diversity pma^^ in the nvinndr of speaking it^ it| 


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Mterent plaaaik It would he imfmsiibh to mafy alt the 
<bviatii»is ffom r^> that ha^e evmipted the exftemm 
of iihe varioiit'p(Mmee»} but the ibUowihg may lerfe at^ 
a fefr/ms|tance^ of them, i ' i ■ 

'In general the accem fails; on the first syllableB^iatiii tfaft 
f»'ttici(ile k observed in the north af Ireland; a^j^^rai^; 
dread; rasur, a razor: but, in the soitth and vestv-tbef 
. lay aran^ rasiHr, &€*/ ' ; * 

Again, when n follows c, g, m, or t, it h pronounced , 
in the north, like r; as, cpamh, a bone ^ cramh^.cno, a 
nut 9 cro ; gntbmh, an actigUj griomh; tputh, env^^ truth ; 
but in the south and wesi the true pVonunciation is re-> 
taln^fC anditbesi recehFes its 01^ sound. ' ... 1 
. By &c fln, vlien aspiri^ed, was originally sounded ari;^) 
aa^.oio oibatbair, fay mother ^ pronounced *mo vatfawr; 
Thut aneient pconancsation is still retained in the ncfrtb «^ 
Ireland, as in Scotland, and the Isle o£ Man. It is lahtf 
inetaapied in the south, in the beginning* of word!^; and the . 
Iniddie, if joined by a small vowel ^ thus, saidbbbir^ mAj 
they pronounce, saivir. But if the next Towel be broad^ 
as in the wonis fogbmbar, harvest; and faoUiar, mt «i%»; 
which should. be pronouneed £ovar, and fadvar, (bmig 
words of two di^hact syllaUei^) diose of thw south eotMy 
ittfifuress ^ eooionalft ; and, contracting the twor tyllaUea 
into one, they isay, fdar, and faer. 
. Throughout Connaught, Ldnster, and some conntittf of 
Ubtc^, the sound of w is substituted for that of t^ ip v»^ 
]Mesent bb, andimh. Thus, mo bh^s, my deaths and mo 
ariiac, mp son^ (properly sounded, mo v^s, and mo vac,) 
are pronounced, mo was, an4 mo wac Thus tws, in ^im 
Apostle's creed, the wol*ds, gabhadh on Spierad Naomh, 
mmtwed from the Holy C^host^ are pr<^uneod in the 
west of Ireland) gow tm Spiorad-Naomh; without eonsi* 
dering that the .word gabhadh, in ancient manoscripls, is 
often written capudh, being clearly of ttie sawo ofigiii 
With the Latin eafio. 

Ch, at the omI of weirds, or syllables, is ver<f weakly tm* 
Mresaed by the natives of Ulster : ach raoetTes no. more 
ibpee^ than if it we«e written ah^ and di, faeliire r, is 
qmte silent ki all the country aiof^ the aea const, froiv. 
Uerry to Waterford ; thus, bbi <iiHne bocht, there was^n:* 
poor many is there proooiineed, bht dnine hot, ' < 

■ Th it 'also oaattted in pronoundng naany ilvorda* such as 
atb^. /a/ier, owitfHitr, moihe^^ &ol^:i».most of the coen* 
ties ot Ulster, and thn.eaat of Leimter, where tbes9 words^ 
ai«.pronouiicedas if ivritten ajMr, maain 


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' Silch/isiifpMaeno^AlKjMtoiriDobUccd^ 

nmmif foTiwhicb k a careful attcMaaoe.tfl tfaoee «iil6% 
which are framed corhformably torfChe ortliagtaiikf^ and 
illini6bdl,K|ioii the aotfiatfkf o^Um ancieota) lii ^tiaoa time 
|keJai\g«age arai tukiviMBd and refidadioffiaiial^ beya«4 
tbafl^odnmanannttr of akprta^NMi. . * 

15. The article is, simply^ as iolldwa) 

•Singular. ' .\ ,' Plural. . . 

Nom. Art. ' u 

G^n. Masc^ ait; fern. na. ' / ' ! 

It ia inflected, in the diifavent caaea, by prefixing ih tot 
the Native; as, do an, eonttaoted, don,, and. dona: and 
tean^^sonM prepoekion that ^vcrni liheaUatite; aa^leit) 
IMT) &c» foar of which ace cshibttad with the artide^ hj 
Irajr of .example*. 

16. These rdba oraliprdMsfiddtll the infotmaiiciD rnspacu 
jigi genders, that can be- <^ use to a learner. Suak wocd^ 
aadonoftcoMe ander tlMm, OMist be karocd by practiee; 
Nor is it jof any consequence, to a person wbo does net 
ifieak Iciih aafaia native tonffoe, to be told, tlfMk ihCfiroi' 
nemi e, ke^ wMl agree mio tbe nMLacobne aoly ; i, jfo;^ 
wiftH the fainiBtiie} or that the gendet may be aac^rtaismd 
by trying tbe concord of a nomi with the. 'artide. . 

1% :|a will appear^ qpdn iaspeetti^ tbe deden^iona, that 
nam in geattfal undergo not more than two inflexioAsi 
besides, tbe nomioattjre; and that they mij^ be deobaed 
wHh tbreecnesi ria. the nominatite, genitu^and dativiaw 
S)tt expnrtenoe has juffioiently proved, that learners mom 
eaadv oomprtbend the construction of a langaage^ wbei^ 
worda^ wbieh are .used in dinectly oppoaite attoationa,. aro 
dbooteinated difFerentty, even tbough there beiiettifierence 
in tb^r foam; than when the- same title «ia given' to the 
ajgent, and the object in discourse. Hencaitbe usaai ,divi«> 
aton into six cases has been adopted, as beii^ beat suited 
far tbe purposes of grammatical' construction. 

I». The nonm of the Iriab iaoguaf^ soem naturaUy tw 
divide theaMclves into tbe four decieaaions hereexhabtlod^^ 
afidthe'eaauipiea, cbmed under each, compaehend a ooft^ 
auierabie nuoiber of nouns; an expertness in declintn|p 
which, will cenderail othei^easy and fkonliar. 

The preposition fe, wHkf wbich is exbibitodas tbe sign 
of tbe ablative, baa been chosen merely £er convenieneef 
but any other preposition govenung the abladve woiilM' 
answer equally well, and migbt be substituted in stt pk^oc; 


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If it bie«tiU i'egretted, that W specific rules can -be gwei^; 
to ascertain in every instance to whfet dectension a i^'ord; 
belcings, ftotn 'an in8|)ection^of the nominative alone— -it is 
to-be coBsWered,, tW thtfe diifieulty is not fHsculiar to ^he 
Irkife ; and a moderate degree of attention wiM overcome U 
in ihts as weH as in otber langu.ages. 

'IS. The list of heteroclites migiht be rendered more oo- 
picAiSy by attending !to<tihe vai(io»is inSexions of nouns, iu 
the difl'erent fwrts of /Ipelland . Bat :sis tUis^ would be '4es* 
cendir^ to the sanction^incial b^rl^isBis, it^p^pe^rad 
more adviseable to state those only which are ui^iforip^y irT 
regrular. Perhaps, even toth^e, additions i3^igbt*he made^ 
M*hich ^bave escaped the notice of the compiler. 

flO. Having flearned to decline iioun&alane, rthe $ludent 
will easily inflect; t^heia with the article, wbich should b^ 
fccjipft a business entir^y sepurate from the former. Almost ^ 
every noun may be inflected wiith tbe article,; and it woMi4 
be no unprofikble cKercile if the cixaiinples under the 
fopegoing deciensions were revised, in union with th6 

2tl . Akhoogb the oombhuition of w^>rjds, "such as artiolea^ 
nouns, and «»djectivels inBected together, belongs mofe 
pvdperly to syntax, ^et it was tbt>iight adi^i^eable to exhi- 
bit them here; and the student, in learning the nse^fthe 
. article, (see p,;9i,) should always refer to tbeise exam pies. 

(22. ?Rarticiplc8 ending in ^kj vwhich come under this 
I'ule, tsbe the additional, iti the nominattive plural; as^ 
beannai^h, beatmaigb^he, Messed. 

;^3. Adjectives are frequently eclipsed, after notms, tin 
tte !ablatiire singular, aiKJ genitive plurail; as, on -gooisf 
Jrsoin thttfwt; na la bhfuarj, of the cold dm^s. 

24. The genitiwe of many adjectives requires an increase; 
irt order ftO'fbrm the comparative; as dkidb, .gen. d^luidhe, 
comp. diuiche. 

De, oftiy is dften added tb comparatives; as, giovrkide, 
the shorter vf it; budh deirge dbe siiji. 

25. In order to make the expression complete, as re^ 
quires air bithy after the adjective; as, as gile air hiith%./A<? 
whitest of all ; but «trr ii/A is often omitted. 

'Ho, verj/y can hardly be said to denote a supevlativ^ :de^ 

gree of comparison; as it simply signifies a high degree <rf 

the equality that is expressed; but it is moit conveniently 

*«la8sed with superlatives, in grammar; /and, wbenthisdii^ 

tinction is observed, it can occasion no error* 

26. Some other adjectives iseem to form tln^ degrees of 
comparison irregularly.; as, isioli^ A^tv, nios isle> tomen^ &Q. 

u but. 

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146 NOTES. 

but, as these are i>nly contractions for the full words, they 
mav be better learned by practice. 

Fogus, near^ cotnpar. foigse^ may be added to tbra list. 

27. These are the names of the nunierals, ^ now ex- 
pressed. .In former times the higher decades were ex- 
pressed by single words; as, triocbad, thirty^ ceathrachad, 
forijfy nochad, ninety^ &c. ; and the ordinals were formed 
accordingly; but these words are no longer generally in- 
telligible, and it would -only perplex the learner to exhibit 
obsolete words, which may be easily learned in reading 
ancient writings. 

. '28. In the north of Ireland, mur iscommonlv said, in- 
stead of bhur,3^wr; but it is never used in correct writing. 

29. The use of these abbreviations is to avoid that hiatus, 
which is occasioned by a concurrence of vowels ; and it is 
a principle upon which the euphony of this, and every other 
polished language is founded. 

30. The simple and original relative is a, wAo, whichy 
for which do, or noch, is often iised in writing. An te, 
properly means the male person (xvha understood); and 
an ti, the female pei'son. Ce be, is a contraction for cia, 
cc, or ci, who, foadh, weve^ and e, he, she, or it. But in 
all these expressions the relative a, who or whkhy is either 
expressed or understood. 

31. Creud is mofe u^d in writings of some age, than in 
lamiliar conversation. Go de, as it is commonly written, 
and pronounced, may be only an abbreviation for guid 
(Latin quid J, c, what is it? And it has been ingeniously 
observed, by Mr. Stewart, that the pronoun should be dis- 
tinguished here by tlie termination ; viz. that, in speaking 
of males, wc should say, guiit ^ — of females, guid i; but 
this distinction is not observed in ancient writings. 

. 32. JSiid, yonder^ is frequerttly used instead of ild, after 
pronouns of the third person ; as, 'se si!id an fear ceadna, 
yonder is the same man: or when put absolutely, the noun 
being understood ; as, le sild, mthygn ; a bhfaic tu sildi 
do you see yon f' 

33. Liom, leat, &c. 'These compoimd pronoun* are 
read, in books and writings of some aotiqiiity, (as they are 

"still retained in the Scottish Galic,) riom, riot, ris, rinn, 
tibb, riu. 

34. It may be sufticient to mention liere, once for all, 
that there is some variety in the orthography of these pro- 
nouns, even among the most correct writers. Thus, th« 
third persQQs singular feminine, aice, aisde, chuice, &c. 
iwight be more correctly terminated in ii aS, aici, aisdi, 


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NOTfeS. 147 

diuici, &c. being formed by the cpmbiiiatidn of the pre* 
positions with i, she. But as this orthography never was 
generally practised, it \vas not thought adviseable to de* 
viate from the written standards of the language. 

Thus lioiU is frequently writtea learn; uirre, uirtl^i; 
orra, orrtha; uadhfa, uabhtha, and the like; but, Jn all 
these instances, the original and radical sounds are pre- 
served; the only licence being in the use of the- adven- 
titious letters. 

35, There is a peculiar delicacy and beauty in the use of 
the increase in Irish, which it is hardly possible to express 
i*n anv other language. The utmost accuracy is observed, 
even by the most illiterate native, in thus distinguishing 
the leading, or most prominent subject in the sentence. 
Sometimes, in order to mark a peculiar emphasis, the 
word fein, self^ is used instead of the terminatioas usually 
added; as, nnne me fein e, I myself did it, 

36. This subject is so very important, that the learner, 
who desires io become a proficient in the Irish language, 
should not fe&i satisfied with the few examples liere exhi- 
bited; but retrace the declensions, combining nouns, ad- 
jectives, and pronouns, in every variety, and marking 
accurately tb^ distinction of meaning produced by the 
<eiiiphatical increase. 

S7. Some respectable Jrish grammariiuis represent the 
inflexions of verbs as much more sioipie than they are here 
exhibited ; but it is much to be questioned whether, through 
too great eagerness for simplifying, they do not occasion 
p^Qre obscurit^v, than the most tedious examples would 
produce. Tlie inquif^itive student will wish to see the va- 
rious modes of thought and action fully expressed? and he 
can consent hifl^self wi^h committing to memory those that 
are rad/cflZ/y different; and which are distinguished by 
feeing inflected through all the persons. 

it is prpper to observe, that all the inflexions of the 
frprbs, (particularly the .terminations of the second and 
tl|if4 pef^Oji^ plural,) are not equally used, in common 
^yriting and conversation, throughout every part of Ireland. 
But, as it would be impossible to specify all the local idioms^ 
it appeared sutKcient, to omit only such words as are ob- 
solete, and to insert such as are understood in general, 
adopting the best Jrish authors as the criterion of pro- 
priety. ^ ' \ 

Some writers on Irish j^rammar deny the existence of an 

ifafinitivc, and say that the place of it is supplied by a ver- 

,fc*l ooiinj'but this is ^onlyquibblitig about names;- the 

u S^ infinitive. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

148 iroTBsf. 

hiflnitire, anct participte, iriiply tl»^ fqrce of iiouns, in 
Irish, as HI all dtber languages. 

9^. 'These, and- the like, may more properly be consi- 
dered as participial .phrases, composed oi> the infiniti^w, 
and a preposition, thatt as sirnpie pi^rticiples^ 

40. This second formof the preseiui tense is the origi- 
nal, and correct one ; the first is nothing more than the* 
sifmple verb, XvHhf a prefixed; but they are both very 
commonly used, both in writing and speaking. 

4ti fe^ k)l interrogations, un f is either expressed or un- 
derstood ; sometimes it is pronounced a, on account of the 
fotlowing consonant; sometimes it is entirel*^' omitted, as 
m the present iostance; and sometimes, before A, it is 
changed imo m; as^ a mbuailir? mh thou strike?^ 

42:. This form of the preter tense diflfers from the pre- 
ceding, in kbe omission 6f the sign d^. The sign o^ the 
preter was anciently written ro, or ad, as well as ^>; b»t 
in iwddcrn speaking, and writing, it is very often ©muted, 
and the ^ense is ascertained by the form of the verb. 

4S. Instead of raibh siad^ in the third person plura), 
rabhadar \vas commonly in use some time since; but it is 
hardly understood at present. 

44. Tbe«e pefsons are indiffjprently written biann, or 
bionn. (See note 10.) This consuet-ijdinaf tense, (whi«h 
some trriters make a separate mood), is very much used, 
fn all verbs, tx» denote an usual 0V hatbituai state of actting 
or being. 

45. The interrogative an? is here changed into m, for 
Sound's sake, the a being usually omitted. (See note 41.) 

46. The second person plimil is someiimes written 
beithi, instead of beidh, ^e ahaU be. 

47. In siKh expressions as these, the relative a, a?A(7, is 
always expressed or understood. 

48. Muna is most correctly the sign .of this tense.; and 
mur, which is also used 3 rs nothing more thdn a^ rapid and 
vulgar manner of expression. 

4^. This abo may bp written bhias; 01!, an it i$ some- 
times pronounced, bhciidhajy. 

, 50; Mur i« frequently used, instead of mtto^^ in'this 
tense, as in the present; negative, Subjunctive. 

51. These expressions are l^iterally translfated^ it wer^ 
g9Q.d with me .th»t I were ; and,' r/ kvere beitet\witk w« 
that I TVere, Many such phrases are used ; as, budh mhkm 
Mora, / desire^ is triiagh Vtom n^ch raibh me, I arn sorry 
lam 7Wt. ' , 

52. The mHentij^l can hafdly be c^tkd a simple mood, 

Digitizeci by VjOOQIC 

in, Iri^b, ^s it is ahia}^ formed by tjlie combinatipn of tw/^ 
or more \vor(|s. These forn|s of expression, however, arc 
extremely cp^iouiu), aodi nefress^ry to he; well understpodt 
And, ^s ihey are equivalent to tl\e comf^ound moods and . 
tenses of tho English, aj)d otfter language^ it seetns proper 
to arrange t)iep» under the ti()& of a separate moodi. 

53. Many tegular rerbs migiit be exhttJiited aa examples, 
sM dtf6bring in some mifiufee partkakMis ; but a cemarkable 
proof of tbafe which is chosen beiag qne of the most proper 
is, that it is the same which has been adopted by Mr. 
iSteWart, in ki& Gali€ grammar, publi^li^ long sinco this 
was written. 

54. la these expressions, (as in those noted 4r7,^tbe 
vebtive a, who, which y is alw'^iys expressed qx uadei>^ 

55. The sign do is frequently omkted in this tease; 
and' the personal termioations are seldom used ia vulg^ 
conversation, ta the £cse, diale^t^^ tbey ace entirely 

In old manuscripts, the termioation seam, or siom, is 
somatinies written in the ir^ person plural; as,' do bboail- 
seam, for, do bhuaileamar, xee stnick* 

56. Tq , these may be added the preter interrogative, 
negative, nachair bbuail me, did I not striJce? iiast is 
sometimes written for na^har, by mistake. 

57. The second person plural is sometimes wxitten btiail- 
fid^e; awtthe third person, buailfid. The f, in th«. first 
io^m of th^ future, is introduced iit order to glv« mope 
strength to the expression ; and the termination rs wrijtten 
indifferently ead, or id, when the penult ends in a small 
vowet; as, briftfipad, or, biisfid, I shaH, or^ wil{ break. 

But if the penult be broad, ad only irs used ; as, ^asfad, 
T shall ^ ovy will txmst. There are many Viccbs, however ^^ 
which do not admit f in the future. 

5%. The same observation, with respect to the relative, 
which is ra^de, notes 47, and 54, is to be continued here. 

59. When the penult ends in a broad vo^jel, thje termi- 
nation of this tense is regujarly faina; as, da g4)asfaiun« 

But more usually a broad vowel is inserted, before inn, 
' to correspond with that in the penult; as, da gaasfaino, or 
^cmhuviny had I twisted. 

'j'ho f is fre^jwent'ly omitted ia this tense, except in the 
second person singwJar: an4 the sacoiid person pUic»l is 
' frequently used, without the pronoun. The orthidgca^y 
of the se-veiifal persoos is various^ \n dtflferent maf^ueteripts, 
but still the radical sounds are retained^ as, 
: - Da 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

150 NOTES^. 

^^\ i sent' 1 ^''» y had ye sent. 

Da gcuirthea, ^ ' (. Da gcuirfithe, J 

Da gcuireadh se, had he sent; Da gcuiriclis, had tkcysehfm 

60. It will be an useful exercise for the learner, here, to 
fornr-a number of potential phrases, by combining 4ioKn^ 
Jeat, &c. damh, duit, &c. with such words as those exbi^ 
bited in these examples. 

6t. The simple, paVticiple is bnailte. The terroinatioti 
is somewhat various, in different verbs: see page 66, For- 
ma^n of the passii-e voice. Thus, when the last vowel 
of the penult is broad, the termination is ta; as, cast», 
twisted; or an i is inserted in the penult; as, brugh bruighte, 
bruised. When the termination of the imperative is a soft 
guttural, the t is often aspirated, for sound^s sake; asi, 
giorruigh, shorten^ giorruighte, or rather giorruighthe, 

62* This termination is often lengthened by poetic in- 
vention, db being inserted before the last syllable; as, 
buailfidhear, for buailfcar. 

63. The preter negative may be formed thus; muna be 
gur bualadh me ; or^ muna mbuailfidh me, 

64. These verbs nearly correspond, in their nature, to 
those commonly denominated neuter. But they are not so 
|)umerous, as none of them are used to denote any strong 
exertion, even when the action does not fall upon another 
object. ^ 

65. The observation made on the letter a, with respect 
to the preposition ann, is fully exemplitied here, and 
throtighoutlhese verbs. See also page 92, rule 10*, 

' 66. This interrogative can hardly be used* in the first 
person, but it is exhibited here, for the sake of uniformity^ 

6t. A%\t has been more than once observed in other 
notes, there is some variety in this tense; as spoken in dif- 
ferent places; %&us, 
Ni choidealam, nt chotdealfad, or ni choideala me, I mill 

not sleep, 
J\ gcoidealfad? a gcoidealam ? &e. shaU I sleep? He. 

6S. As the potential mood is formed, w these verbs, by 
aid of the same words that are already exhibited in bi, and 
bwail, it is unnecessary to repeat it here. It may be ahnost 
superfluous to observe, that reflected verbs, implying tio 
action done to another, ^e incapable of being inflected in 
the passive voice. 

69. Having 

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NOTES. 151 

69. Having stadied the full examples of conjugations, 
the learner will here see the original simplicity, and re- 
markable regularity, of the Irish verbs. That the impera- 
tive is the root, from which all the pther parts are formed, 
will be evident, on the slightest inspection. The same 
observation occurred to Mr. Stewart (Galic Grammar, 
page 82) ; but it is somewhat singular, that, in giving the 
examplies of the conjugations, he does not place the impe- 
rative first in order. 

' 'lO. The form, do bhuaileadh, corresponds more exactly 
Vitb the general rule; although do.bhualadh is more cotn- 
mon. The same may perhaps be observed of some other 
verbs, but the difference is so inconsiderable, that it does 
not seem worthy of being noted as an irregularity. 

7i, 72. Whea these references were made, for notes, it 
was intended to insert the observations, which have already 
l^een made, at notes 51 s and 59. ^ 

13, In the fpllowing tables, as many of these verbs as 
occurred to ih^ author's observation are inserted. He does 
not pretend to say, thai the lists are complete; but they 
contain, at least, the greater part of such words; and the 
learnec will easily attain the knowledge of any others, in 
the course of reading, and speaking. 

74. Some of the foregoing verbs may be otherwise 
formed, in the infinitive; as, 

Cosain, — do chosaint, — do chosnamh, defend. 
Creid, — chreidmheal, — chreideadh, believe. 
Musgal,— -mhusgailt, — »mhusgladh, awaken. 
Treig, — threigmheal, — threigint, forsake. 
Tuig, — thuigmheal, — thuigsin, understand. 
Samhal, — shamhladh, — shamhailt, compare. 
Note, that t is often added to o, where it might be well 
omitted; as. 

Lean, tlo leanmhuint, for, do Icanmhuin, follow. 

75. This, with the three foregoing blank references, is 
intended to point out words, in which there is some devia- 
tion from the general rules. But these irregularities are 
more owing to local idioms, than to any radical variety of 
expression ; and they are noted here, that the learner may 
not hesitate in generally inflecting all verbs, according to 
the common rules. 

If the imperative tioman, drivey were used, there would 
bQ no irregularity in this verb, in which the ** a" is the 
leading and radical vowel. 

76. It has been justly observed, by General Vallancey, 
that " frooj the description given of the irregular verbs, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

I5B KtfT(EB. < 

kf MKJurtin, 5»nd Mottoyk^ llbftyri»e^»ufl^acnt!lotteterafiy 
-ocie from attdnM)^^ to iiesrn this lang!dalg^ ; Hheroas, tbey 
«m^iieithet tne^k nomcroubv 4or'Aitn-e driiSkutt, diakitiH)^ 
4)if ebe LatfDt, Frisncb, ia»d English iangtiiges." 

^^. Nim, / rfo^ in old rhanuacrriptt), is 'tvVitrten griina; 
4Uid TinnfcaS', J thd^ tis iv^itbert roighrreas. M'Cortift fe- 
«ULri2&, icbat ^ shoixld always Wreiafned ki i!his Tfcr^, tp 
•dUtmgiii^h itfrdm nv^ fiai; bat this ismotbh^ervedim the 
Irish bible, or many correct modern w.(Moks. 

The prefer iwtcwrogative cf all the irr^gtrlir verba, ^x- 
-ctpt^tAfikj ^dry, tb tombd by a or an,, tnitead of «ir. ' 

78. The ^ivperajtitfi labarr is compoonded of. ad^ arid 
'teir;'a^4di>otfoeipv^ter'ihfbbair^,'of do, lind beirt. Thtis, m 
ancient maniliecript^^ weir6ad,aiiih«ril is beiH an &ie,, As4he 
poethn^s*; ad beart^an file, the poet said. Herice dubbras, 
^nd dubhatrt, vn\l not ladnrrit-ei' do as the sign'of tbeipreter, 
because this particle is coili^^ondi^ hi tt|e ^verb ibieif« 

Deirtm^, dearaid,ffto. are ab6^ntraeli6ns of do,and beir. 

Thb piirtici^las'radh^ vadb», and tbe passive r^ie, ^aid^ 
-ftW^ ftott) ati vAvsotete verb; raite&r, it is saidy or -calktl; to 
he found in old (manuscripcs. * 

79, 80. Tabhair is compbunded of to, an obsolete ip&t- 
tide, or sign of the dative, and beir; aftid properly xneaas 
»gw&. fieir is dften Used alone, in the imperative, ft5 sig- 
nify give J bring y carry y lay hold on, oveNake, or 'kr^irtg 

forth young. 

The prfetort^n^ oftabhkir is togas, tog me, I glave^ or 
brought. Tlie prettir of %eir >si*ogas, rt^-floo, / tddk^ laid 
hold on, overtook, or^brot^hifdrth. 


Tkbhaii' deoch dhamh. Give a drink to me. 

Tabbair leat e, ) t> • ^ -^ ^ . jl 

Beirlektd, . i Bring n xmth yAt. 

Betrairso, Lay kM on this » 

Bbeara^ie dhuit e, Jwiilgive it toymu 

Bearatfioid orra. We shall <rjertake them, 

fieara me cloicflieaitjh iiom, Jwillbringaswortlwithme. 

Beara si clann, • She it^ ill hear a child. 

Thng si dhamh e, She gave it io me. 

Thug se leis^, JJe brmtght it with him. 

Bug se leis e. He took it with him. 

Rug si orra, She i^er took them. 

Rug si nmc. She bore a sm, 

?51. The 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

'frt. ffte.eoMseiHiwmtMwisithas-foiwed-; ■ ' 

2. Tjirr^ coine thm f. 


1. Tigeatnbisi /^/ tw c^tf. 
, 2. Tigidhe, crnneye. 
1 '3. T^4is, or tfgifeSdh siad, 
\ let them comei ' * 

The participle tetcht, «i0 Abo ftmnU wr^ttjj^ ,|}|iQht^ 
4tigbe9cht, and jttttgheacht; . , ■> -u i 

'82^ Tihe ob9oI|Qta yerb jrigiat; pecker* m^Oy 0'0Xffive 
: 4tfy or €mne to^ is MiaieiiiQ«^,iised .in tlvs (Mreftor* ijt ^sQcms 
tto be compounded yof iiQi.aQd;ti9MB^ ro^an^ tlviu^. .^ 
. 83. It Js ^dbabte l^at ;e i»ijtt^ ra4)c^ ]e^^).un idiis 
vieob, «s in ^he.G^efik *%fy aod .Uitin .09> >/ go^ bc^iic^ te^ 
^, basnng tfHreixqd. ^ c ^ i .. 

. ;In Ancient iOianutei&tiits, do dh^^ is. founds Ansteitd of 
^o.choaidb, lAitiie ^eteir; As^iracb^idMh^iich.oq OMgh^ 
a /rocj9 went over tkefMn.. .*..': 

Tiie paiticiple . passive is iMedf coo^pounded.tvith v^f or 

♦«on, ^, ,or proper to he Axnei as, ion^ulta, //, or py/iper 

to go, wi0 ie g/9rie,. . . 

'64. J'agh signifies s\90,^et^>, imd tOnay 4p)e ^o uranslated 

tbf oughoiit. In the Nortb of Ireland it is prppousKJsd .as 

if written fogh. • . 

85 I participle,^ arp not in 
use. as wQll ^s Fuara^^ in the 
prete ? wasjfound. 

T! d, anci "geabhar, ;a^e bor* 

rowe receive, [ 

86 ake a mew ^ any thing. 
Deal ook at; with which may 
be c tny^rk. Cim, I\&ee^ or 

Fe _ tive, interrogative, and 

conditional particles; as, a^ ^^^ ^^ ^'^9 ^^ "not ioojk on 
that; mafheic.tu, if you see. And, io the itfiperatlviey 
.first. person plural, faicioui, or feicioip> ^/ u^see. 

87. The pas^ve ' ii;i£iutiise, and partjciplei |ire not in 

.^ Faicear, or sas it is jsometlmcs. written ieicthear, (is often 
jiisediinp6rsoaaily,.vlritb a.dativeof tber,persqn, (as in other 

( iMguages,) .to ^press, thinks or imagine; as, na( haBair 
jfe bbifaie^r dhuii^j do. nt^i say whiti yow ifiink; ma ohitear 
dhuit, tf you imagine* To which may be addfxl the 
.Aficient preti^r, choncas; as, doroboncas.iiaiiibsii^ mar an 

' X ^ 88. Eist, 

Digitizec^ by-VjOOQlC 

154 voTUi. 

^S. Eist^ lisfm^ \i mdre CMnMAf used, ia-^imtem^ 
tive, than cltUHj hear. In ali^ient writings, c\mMS was the 
imperative of ^is verb } biii it is now used |o signify am 

Cloiaua is used, as well as cluintiD, in the pt'eseot, in- 
dicative; and do cbios, (stiff used in Monster,) was the 
original pretef, instead of do chualas; as, dacblos giidl 
a Rlaw, i voiee itm heard m Ihima, 

id. This ^n "be done only with adjectives signifynig 
f}uality . A9 to numerals, they are expressed adverbially 
byptefijHng mio, annsa, or, more commoniy^ 'aao, m tkCf 
(see page^l , rule T*,) to the ordinal adjecthr^^ u^d addiiig 
ait, plaee; as^ 'san treas ait, ihirdfyj i. e. tn the thim 
pliee. To eipms mc^, taricCi &e. la, ^^pm^ abaui^ is 
used with the caidioal adjective; as, fa dbo^ la tri,- &c« 

M. Adi«fbial eipressioas of ibis hind aite very nume- 
rous; but those here exhibited wilt alfeyd a speeiawn of 
the maoifer in which they are fiksied. 

91* The^e words are eonasnonly called inseparable pre^ 
posiiumsi but, as they predicate no relation^ they afe 
NDore properly denominated adverbial particles* 

To '«b€«e here inserted, aoase authors bare added the 
loll««vk^; viz. 

Droch, badj drochmhuinte, ill taught. 

Priomb , Jirst^ priomhadbbhar , Jirst cause. 

Fell, very bad^ teilgniomb, avery had action. 

Rion^), before f riomhraidte, be/ore said. 

Ro, veri/y romhaitb, vcrj/ good. 

SioT, continual sioruisge, constant rain. 

Tiotiina, a will j tiomchuairt, a friendly visit. 

^^x^Xhf rust kit}/ y tuathchleas, riii/Zc i*M»wi/ig'. 

But the five first of these iwe adjeeti^s ; the three next, 
^parable adverbs; and the two last, nouns.. 

The following fNuticle was inadvertently omitted; viz. 
Siir, very great; as^ s&rdhomhain, very deep. 

92. Mur is only an abusive pronunciation, and ortbogsm^ 
phy, for nuoa, akboogh it is very oomiD^n. See note 48* 

95. It appeared simpler to give^iiie follewiog alphabe- 
tical list of preposkioqs, than to class them according to 
their influence, as usaaUy done, which iufringes..ali the; 
busihess of syntax. ^^ 

94* Some other words have been enumerated as pnftpo* 
sition^; sUohaS| amacb,<>itf, tball, beyond j suas^ iip, imd 


■ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

v^TEi. 155 

the Jibei bf»t ^se and erideKtlf adverbc, feifiyring the 
preposition cle» or, as k is commonly written^ Jo, after 
tbem ; at, taobh amach don tbigh, Hht mter iidt of tkg 

Doj and gOy both signify to; but tbe dtffiMrenoe between 
them (as wdl remarked by Mr. Stewart) it, that do implies 
motion towardSy and go, motion temwmting Mi an obfect; 
as, chuaidh se do thigb an righ, he went tOj or towards the 
kwffs itOttse; tiiaioic se go thigb an rtgh, heeameunto 
the kmg*s house. 

De is not msfd mis a simpie preposiMn ; but it is clearly 
distinguished from do, io^io compounds; as, diom, ^rsm 
fne\ de, or dhe, from him. 

95, 96j 97^ 9S, 99. These wonk are never used sepa- 
rately; as nouns, j^ they appear to have a dear and dis* 
tinct signification, which Biay be aseeruined from tbe 
correapondmg phrnBea. 

100. It is more probable that de, ofy it the simple pre* 
positiott, in such piirases as do dhith ; lifehoagh it is always 
written do. 

lot. Some other coejuactive phrases ong^ be added to 
theae^ but, as thqr ave formed by the combination of the 
eimple coi^unctifons with other words, it did not teem 
necessary to insert tb^n. 

The common coipmiction afi^tis, and, or, as it is often 
pronounced is, was inadvertently omitted, in this table. 

102. With these perhaps may be classed mar, neither. 

103. For the use of muna, and mur, see note 92. Many 
words are used with ma, and go, to form a variety of con- 
junctive phrases, the meaning of which is always ascer- 
tained by the leading word. 

104« No language abounds more in passionate inteijec- 
tions, than tbe Irish : but it would be vain and useless to 
attempt an enumeration of them. 

lOS. I'his is certainly a common, but it is not a'eorrect 
fnode of speaking aud writing. Tbe Scottish Gaiic changes 
D intom, before liJbials; as, for an bis, the death j they 
say, am b^ This licence, for sound^s sake, is siore aUow- 
aUe than that^ised in the Irish. 

IM. This mode, of separating the a and n, has been 
adi^pted, in order to accommodate tbe written to the 
spofcen langu^^e; but it should not be practised, as it is 
comnoolv done, having the appearance, to Am tnex- 
perienced reader^ of deviating froou tbe gMwcal tules of 

x2 107. If. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC . 

107/ If 0Ot)e M cohsicMffld M rafy ftti abbrtvin^on^ fbf^ 
guid e? rmat fis/it? the phrase will run tbu», in Ei|>tiriy^ 
a^Aill IS CitJ the kmurf 

108. This is equivalent to the expression, ba saighidec»r 
me, 1 was soi^Utr. 

yO&. This 'w not properly an exception to- the general' 
ru)e; for tfael^t^r substanttve really forms the su^eetof 
a siiparate propositioit^ as, ntitc Joseiph, eadhon, ^^^ is^dr 
sin an samr, Uie son of Joseph j^ namely^ or, ika^ is- the 

1 10. It may be obieryed,: in ^efienrl, thSat the form df 
the adtjective depends upon the nooh, onW when it immt'^ 
diately follows the noun, in any degree of coint>arison. 

UK The reason of this n weU ex prised by Mr. Ste»^ 
art, in the fdlowing words (see his Grammar, page I4r3)i' 
*^ The gramoMitical dminotion^ obs^rvoible in the flowing: 
exa.mples, is agreeable to the strictest philesotyhiGal' 9Tf»> 
priety. " Rinn mis'' an siiian gheut','* / fmtde the skttrp 
kn^e; here the adjieetive agfreeii with the noun, for it buk 
difies the noun, distinguishing that knife from othc^. 
*' Rili«f mis' M sci^ g«w," J made the knife simfi haie 
the ac^tire does not dgfee with the noun, for it modi#er 
not the noun but the verb. It docis not characterize t|ie 
object on which the action is performed;^ but itxombinef 
Tvtth the verb in specifying the m^nire of the operad6n 
perfbftaed; The e»presst6n is» c^vajent to " gheuraich 
mi anscian," / sharpened the A/ij^a." 

11 2. Sometimes, w,hen possession is strongly exp^e^sed, 
the^ phrase is clian^d, by insei^ing.go, wHki as, fear mr 
bhfaiiaing ndeirg, instead of, fear na failaitige deirge, Sw 
man ofy or, mth the red cloak. 

113. A« this b only cL hueiice, for better socinld^ssaba, it 
' is freqtiently-not done* 

114. Le, mthy bxfy or akv^ x^ith, hy Very properjy,; 
the oniy «gB of the abl^ve used ut ider this ruld ; for it 
implies, not merely a tendency towards, according'^' the 
principle of o^r hmgoagees,, but a* jv^Jtta^ pbsttion,* and. 

1 1^. Instead of na, thany iona was'freqiieiitly usedv sonfci 
yf^s since, lb AodhMhac AingH, Sgatbatf nr hditblrige, 
printed- at Brussels, in tbe li5M^.centui^,.it idalwa3^'iof)aij|i 
before 9, singular, and ionaidy or inatd, be^brea plunal; 
but why it should be feroed ^9 agf^ withrthe numiier,) is 
dtfiicalt |o coiifMtorlo* • 

116. Ni> anc( pic^ qiay b^ abbreviations for- ii^gifawnf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

(»^*m it it pibMuflieed m Sralbarfy sod die NorA 4t' 
Ireland, nmoy a iiugh^. 

1^1 7. l€ ^ettii mosii conienieiit la traa4 of the se^eval 
ktmb 0^ ^ofeiidufid Mpsi^tly, tbaujgli^ it may bccasiott * 
soiie rep(!titi6ii ; as^ the use of riiem is iBote clearly afae^HK 
thus,' l^n by tfctemptiiig to jrednee tiieiii to §eiieral ruAesi 

118. Thi^ ancwa^^ in tie use cf tbese pfonoun*^ wasr 
probably introduced , for better sound's saKey afi4.after«» 
wtxAi committiMt to writr%w in the ScRXtish Galky. iiii, 
ibli^ &c. af^ itiuelif more frequendy ok^^ as nomiaai* 

i 19. 'tlM tfii^ be varioQsly. eirpredsed in hisli^ tbitt| 
1% e ah ni a dfag me a noobt feci bbrdn, a bbeitb vset Aonar 
ii^iaigb eft^ich, the thing that l^ me this night in sorrew; 
is t^ be atme after ail. . * 

120, 12 K A distinctfOTi is cAvenred in the use of Hbesle 
ceiiiijpdmid prohouns. Liom is used to denote rkentalt^^ 
fectwn only; but agam, and orm, relate both fo mind, and. 

102. Ai tbefte i^ notbin^y in the Irish langm^^ in wUeb 
loitfft^s Ate apt to find mfove diiieulty, than m the ns^ of 
tbe ednphatical increase, the cloiftslt atternttofi to tbe9& rtties 
in mctm^v. There if a reiifafrkftbto an^ogy between the 
€lRph*lk:dt Gfiitk pBvfietef ^, a<ided to pronoms^ and the 
increase, in th^' Irish language^ 

}^$. Thi^ fi i^grtf^able to the prittoiple (rf the liKdst 
pMisd^ lat^gu^e^y inf wbtoh tbese pronouns alone nertr' 
can follow tbe verbs with whieh ib#y agree. 

1 24. The tts« of the ptt^r^oott) t^tainations is very iifcon- 
sidevable^ iff thmb \miis bf Irdfi^ that are adjacent to' 
Sfc^^atnd:. Itt tbe lanfer country tliey are now little tUfdd. 
Bi*t m an^JeW Utiting® they are tontinoally used. And," 
in the south and west of Ireland, they are so frequent^ iti 
tte i^AfOfiths df the coththtm pebf^e, that it occasions %.edn- 
siderable difficulty to an illiterate native of the north in 
im(lier«tki^in>g thenfv. 

126. Tbe pfonouA is net^r ttsed in the finst and tecond^ 
persons of the consuetudinal, afker da; as, da inbiMiiUlett) 
AMIstrytkf da mbuailfendb., hadst thorn ^tmck.' 

126. This correilpoiidis ^fjcaetly to the absolnte case^ i^ 
othdV language*} bm it is tta^b mereftoqoently used, in 
Msb. F6t wh^efver tbe wd¥d tt^A^ can be uied wtibe 
notfri, or pf^w6un,' in Engli^Jy, it maybe t^irned in this 
manner, in Irish ; as, when thd^ M mdt^ heard thst^ ag 
gotoimin ^fn A&a tsu^duiH^ 

127. This form of expression i^i tiwh lAore comowrii 


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ID Mih thaft m tny nodern laagivm^; aiid: cw r eg pemb 
ffmnarKjytbiy with tbe id'tom of the Greek Umguage. 

J^. Tnere is a considerable latitude in tbe use of this 
eipopwsion. When aay thiag is to be expressed positivdy, 
or definiuveiy, tbe consiietiHlinal form is ha^-dly ever used. 

129* Ibis corresponds exactly with the second sopidei 
in Latin; as, greaMshar le faicsin, duke visu, pleasant to 
SAT, or la A^ seen. 

130. It is not easy to account for this dtsiiuction between 
nMtcoiines uid feniniiies; and, although generally used, . 
it appears almost entirely arbitrary. 

J 31. Chummy i^r the purpose^ is commonly used before 
the infinitive; as', chuaidh se chum contaa a thabhairt, he 
went to give mn account. In rapid speakmg, the sign do, 
€Mr a, is omitted before the infinitive; as, ni tbarla dhamb 
a leithid sin f baicsin ariamh, / never happened to see the. 
like. And this elliptical form has been adopted in writing 

132. Even nouns, and adjectives, are sometimes used io 
thesaaM) oMmner as reflected verbs; as, u me mo sbuan^ 
J am {im) mtf deep; bhi me aso thoircbinn suain, I woo 
(in) my drow^ deep, or rest. 

133. There were some auxiliary verbs in use, anciently, 
iNrbich it is useless to enumefate here, as they are not met 
with, in any recent manuscript, or pubhcation* 

134. This distinction must be considered as purely logi- 
cal;^ it is a Very nice one, yet the native and illiterate 
Irish never err in the us^ of it. 

135. May there not be an ellipt^s of some noun,, after 
ann i Or is ann here equivalent to the Greek «», being? 

136. This is upon the same principle, that monosyllabic 
adjectives, prefixed to ih^r nounf, aspirate them* See 
page 95, rule S*. 

137* Passive verba are not susceptibks of any influence 
irom particles. 

138. This dative, however, is not governed by the ad- 
verb, but by the preposition do, /o, which follows it; asj 
angar don teine, war the fire. 

139. This ablative is governed by de, of^ ag, at, as, out 
rfj or tbe like, by which tbe adverb is followed. 

140. There is some variety, in the diflerent provinces of 
Ireland, with respect to tbe prepositions that aspirate, &c« 
accoMing to the <ear of the 4>e^er ; but it is imi)ossible t9 
specify these local varieties. 

141. The influence of iar, in tbia place, i^the s^me as 
npao verba. See note 197. 

142. Re^ 

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I4f • Re, withy was Gommonly writt^iy tone tune siaoe; 
and stili is, ia the Scottish Galic; having the same iaflneoee 
with le/ ' ^ 

14S. it is e^ent, that the genitive here is govenied bf 
the noiitiy which forms the principal part of these expras* 

144. This is a licence taken, for sound^s sake^ deviatiag 
from strict orthography, but commonly received, in speak- 
ing, and writing. 

1 45. ^^ When two or mote nouns, couf^ed hy a conjuae- 
tion, are governed by a preposition, it is usual to repeat 
the preposition before each nodn; as, air fad agi» air 
kithead, m length and in breadih.^^ Stewart, 165. 

146. The influence of some other conjunctions varies^ 
according to the idiom of the place, but the only authentic 
and original ones are here expressed. 

147* It is not uncommon to say, a tbiarna Dia, or a 
thiarna, a Dhe ; but the first of these expressions is ua^ 
grammatical, and the latter is only a distinct vocative. 

148. The adjective, being joined to the noim, is aspi« 
rated iti this case ; and the pronoun may be aspiraled or 
not, according to the ear of the speaker. 


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'■• •••v-v . 

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k>Ui'd sios le mo taob, 
Leag — dean deifir. 
Tar asteac sa tseamra, 
Gab amac as a tig, 
Lean iad go dlu't, 
Abair leite teact asteac, 
Eirig suas — seasaih tart, 
Fan an sin— vbi do tost, 
Cuir ort — luaig ort, 
Labair amac — ^dean arls h 
Tabair aire — fan tamull, 
Teigeain cum na fairge, 
Eaicim do lam, 
Gab anall anaice liom, 
Beir air an leabar sin, 
Glac go ceart 6, 
Crom do ceann, 
Suid go socair, 
Ar'taig do gut, 
Breatnaid na mion{>uinc, 
Islig do gloir — ardaig 

anois ^, 
Cuir tort do leabar, 
Druid an doras, 
Fos^aoil an fuinneog, 
mtig amac uaim, 

Sit down by my siit^ 
Read — make haste. 
Come into the room. 
Go out of the house. 
Follow them closely. 
Tell her to oom^ in. 
Rise up — stand by. 
Stay there — be silent. 
Put on you — haste you. 
J^beak out — do it again. 
Take care — stay a while. 
Let us go to the sea. 
Let me see your hand. 
Come over tnar me. 
Lay hold on that book. 
Handle it rightly. 
Stoop your head. 
Sit quietly. 
Vary your voice. 
Observe the small points. 
Lower your voice — raise 

it now. 
Lay by your book^ 
Shut the door. 
Open the window. 
(^0 out from me* 
Y 2 Cior 

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Cior do ceann — nig do 

Leig dam — bi do com- 

Buail mo lam, ^ 
Fag an bealac, 
Innse sgeul dam, 
Teadam 'na baile, 
lar ar a dul, 
TaBair dam do lam, 
Tabair po^ don lei 
Bail o I)hia ort. 
Las an coinneal, 
Cuirisirl ^oWeil'* * 
Sgiiab ;bi tiiitilean, ; 
Ciiir '^iiai S&. ^r^lS; ' \ ' 
Sdd'atthfeaiJ;' ^ " 
Cuir in bolre ih* i dmH; 


Fpuc orffi— 'aindrd otiimti 

'— dfearb uiirttft, 
DVairciFa do hati^-ttrat- 
SiubTaigion^ ^o'ga^^a, 
Siubiaigniicl tiios Cl^te, 
Siublaigjd g6 tajiiVid, 
Siublaidi3, h6 ^ittlMai^ 

siads*^ go cllste,, 
Deanam '^taiddr air ^. 

M^obraigili'id dif at leF- 

jBreatnkigi6m go grinii 

Tugamoid, no tuga^ 
^ aire do^ 
Tugaid siisi aire da lea- 

bair, ' 

Comb your head— wash 

your hands. 
Let me alone — be quiet, 

iStrike my Mnd. 
Leave the way. 
Tell me a story. 
Let us go home. 
Ask him to go. 
Give me your hand. 
mU He book. 
Successfrom God on you. 
Light the candle., 
Pdit}iuttifktaiidki -'^ 
Blow tHeJirt. 
Put the ktttie Wi thk 
' firt. 

Whit tt iMfe. 
BtMdW^t^0k at ifrie^ 
, loakiit^tk^. 
Ldok fhV, yirtit )W*-4 
setcrth for your hift:_ 
Lt€ us Tbttlk StJiartly.' - 
Let us watkmo)re^ltdd(fff^ 
JVatk ye iriskfy. 
Let them ^ctdk Quickly. 

Let us study dur lesson: 

Let us pcntdir trctr onr 

Let us olrserte it sharply. 

Let us give hted to it. 

Let her give heed to h^ 


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TAikitU^ ^AAfiBf, 


Beir, no tafestif leMt fc, 
Te agcuihfite lifege, 
Fad liom— fen Sgaft), 

Cuir g!a^ air ati dwa^, 

Bahi an glis dbxi dertw, 


Te suas an cnuic, 

Bain an cloci aioA, 

b \ : , 

Cuir sgian cU^am^ 
Tibair aiiatt 6ugartl, 
Fan a Bos agui Afi^, 
Eisd an ill a deirkn leat, 
Feuc air do leaiiair, 
Fag nio bat^, 
Tugtar, no beir'tear 

cugam h, 
AbaHr iih ^o ceart, 
Dean tar an obkH* 
Leig tprt me, 

Zet them giM^ hied 4» ^ 

Bring it ttitfi jfW* 
Go far tjiattti 
Stay for fke-^idy t^tk 

Lock tht 4&&n 
Unlock the door. 
Come along mth ww* 
Go up the hill. 
Take the &lMk from 4^ 

me. , 
Send me a knifi. 
Mring nke bread. 
Stfyy on this side with us. 
Hear what! ^y to ym^ 
L^ok at your bmk. 
Pind my hkt. 
Let it be brought $0 me.. 

Say that cornectlyi. 
Let the i&ofk be dme. 
Let me pass. 


Go demur ta t«? 
Ca bakrin ata oit? 
Cia h6 sin ag teact? 
Gode thiir goirean tu so? 
Blifnil tu go nralt? 
Ca mbiami tu do tioA'- 

Car leis an tig sin ? 
Labrann tu Gaoideilg? 
Tuigeann tu Bearla ? 

6a 'fada racas tu? 

Horv do you do ? 
What is your name ? 
JVho is that coming f 
What do you call this? 
Are you zcell f 
Where do you^ live ? 

Whose house is that ? ^ 
Do you speak Irish ? 
Do you understand 


Hoiwfar will you go ? 


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Caaftadttiiiic tu? 

Bbfuil fuactprt? 
Cia hi an cailiu sin? 
Go de sin agad } 
Bhfuil sgian agad ? 
Cia bias leat? 
Go de bias leat? 

Code a clog fe? 
Go de an uair? 
A gcluin tu me? 
Bhfuil ocras, no tart ort? 

Nar eirig sisi? 

Go d'as a nguilean tu? 

Go de mur ta sib uile 

ann so? 
Nar *di6l se an capall? 
Go d'as nar glac se h? 
Car leis a batta? 
Go de ftin? 
Go de ta uait? 
Go de iarras tu air so? 
Go de an xneud a glacas 

Ca meud a bearas tu ? 
Go de is eigin dam a 

tabairt duit? 
Car leis an hataso? 
A bfaca tu an geairfiaU, 
Cia ^n bealac a deacai'd 

A i*aib na gadair a bfogus 

Nar rit si go luat? 
Ca dt^d an botaisa? 

From whence did you 

Are you cold? 
Who is that girl? 
JVhere are you going? 
What is that you have f 
Have you a knife ? 
Who will be with you? 
What will you have with 

you ? 
What o'clock is it? 
, IVhat is the hour ? 
Do you hear me? 
Are you hungry^ or 

thirsty ? 
Did she get up ? 
Why do you cry ? 
How are you all here ? 

Did he sell the horse? 
Why did he not take it f 
Whose is the staff? 
What is it? 
What do you want ? 
What do you ask for this? 
How much will you take? 

How many willym give ? 
What must I give you? 

Whose hat is this ? 
Did you see the hare? 
lyhich way did she go ? 

Were the hounds near 

Did she run quickly ? 
Where does this way lead ? 

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Ci aca an beaiai ateid 

go Baile-at cliat? 
Ca ikda o so fe ? 
Bhfuil an botar min ? 
Ca huair a till siad? 
A ndjeaca sise amac? 
Nar geall ta a dad^ii di? 

A dtioBra tu do ^? 

Ca meud a Bearas tu di? 

A mbeara ti;i fji eigii^ 

Ca rail? ti| a »d^? 

Cia an tat>air a bfufl tu 

ann 90? 
C^r fag tu m' fallainn? 

A Bfuair tu d' fallain? 
An i so if 
Cionnas ta sib uile? 
JSfjac dtug me go leor dili ? 

Nar Bain se s^linn diB? 

•^o de sin drt? 
"Bhfuit i^ian agad a dul? 
Nar im'tig si naiB ? 

A mBuailfead me? 
A ndearna tu mar sin? 
A ndeana me do leaba? 
Bhfuil se deanta go ceart ? 
Go de deir tu ? 
Nar duBairt seisean sin ? 
JBbibil nuaideact air bit 

JVhieh of these is the way 

to Dublin? 
How far iskjrom hence? 
Is the road fine? *■ 
JVhen^ did they return? 
Did she go out? 
Did you ^omis^ her any 

thing? * 
Will you ghe it to him ? 
How many will you give 

Will you bring something 

to them? 
Where were you yestt^^ 

Why are you here? 

Where left you my man- 

Did you get your mantle? 
Is this it? 
How are ye all? 
Did I not give you 

enough ? 
Did he take a shilling 

from you? 
fP^hat is that ails you ^ 
Do you intend to go? 
Do you desire to go ? > 
Did she depart from 

Would you strike me? 
Did you do so? 
Shall I make your bed? 
Is it made rightly? 
What do you say? 
Did he say that ? ^ 
Do you bring any news? 


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:^ rjr4i««,U» ?8P#i«s. 

An ra^ fw? Jc^t'. -JAirf/ /^^ wiPh im? . 

A bfaic tu aa.griAliy^ Do you see the sunl 

A bfaicear me aa^? A"^ Tseen heref 

A gcuala ti> aii nuai- Did y 014 hear the nfws? 

A ndearna tu mo teilie? Did you make my shirt f 
Nat g^r itu ii^ . :^ )J^9^n etf* i^?^ , j 

A dtug tu leat ^? Did you bring ji with 

Nar cuir tu grerm Ann? Did you put a stitch in 

A ndeaca si a QU^ a Did she go over y^ffr- 

A dtainic si a nd***?. Did she come iehday ? 


A l&feca tu w €f anftaj^i ? Did you m^ fhfi fj^- ^ ' <'. 

; i^fta/jr? .^, * i - 

AKfuaifitiVaaiitir? DidypMgf^ih^:k¥^ 

Nar fiafraid tu wiw ? Did you enguire about itf 

A gcuala to am «mfri- Did ym m^ fhejimsf 



Niarbaail me^u, 1 4id not strike ffW, \ 

Ni bnaUe me tu, I ^nHmt strike yWn, 

Nil moran agam, . / have not muck,. , . , 

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Ni tig liom labairt go 

Ni tuigim tu, 
Nil fios agam, agus is 

cuma lioxn, 
Ni racam leat, 
Na habair sin, 
Niafereidim tu, 
Nac bfiiil se sa Baile? 
Nac bfaca tu fe? 
Nac ndeama siad an ni 

a dorduig me ^oib? 
Ni hi^rram iomaduig, 
Ni tig liom ni is luga a^ 

Nil tu com aosda liomsa? 
Na labair aon focal, - 
Ni cluinim tu, 
Ni tig liom fuireac, 
Na ieag com ga;sda as 

Na bi gul, 
Ni mise hj 
Na te amac go foill^ 
Ni heigin 'dam a dul, 
%Nac bfuil ocras ort? 
Nil, nil gaile agam, 

IJil fuact no tart orm, 

Ni bfuil ian oidce ^dorca, 
Ni faic tu an gealac? 
Nior eirig si go sead, 
Ni dearna-me fe, 
Mima be go ndearnad 

me ai&luig, 
Jsfi habtaln.sin, 
Ni heigin duit a rad, 
Ni tug s^go leo^ 

/ cannot speak zvelL^ 

I do not understand you. 
I do not know, and I do 

not care. 
I will not go with ycm. 
Do not sat/ tha^. 
I do not believe you. 
Is he not at home? 
Di^you not, see him? / 
J^id they not do what I 
/ ordered them? 
/I do not ask too much. 
I cannot take less. 

You are not so old as I. 
Do not spealf a word. 
1 do not hear you. 
I camiot wait 4 
Do not read so fast. 

Do not cry. 

I am not he. 

Do not go out yet. 

I must not go. 

Are you not hungry? 

Noy I have not an appe-' 

I am neither cold nor 

The night is not dark. 
Do you tiot see the moon ? 
She has not yet arisen. 
I did not do it. -.. 
If I had not done so. 

I do not *sc^ that. 
You shall not say so. 
He did not give enough. 
z Niar 

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Niar codall m^ tairis uaLr 

no 'do, 
Ni itearda Mb t^Ui'd &da, 

Niar iarr siad ©ruiB a 

Ni tairiic Conn ar ara^ . 
Niar iluBiairt tea lettid 
^ ariam, 
Nac ndearim tu aao ca- 

Nacar ^ui? tu greim ann ? 

Nac 4^ tu tedt i^? 

Nac ay fan ti WU . . 
Nac dtainic si aiiallf 
Nac gcuala tu %n nuai- 

Nac ar geall se a tcact? 

Nac ndeaca tti nonn'a 

Nac ar duikurt me leat a. 

Nac tifuair sil> sgeula 


/ did nU skip wcr m 

koiir or two. 
You did not make a hvg 

They did not ask yeu to 

Conn did not come kack. 
He never said any muK 

Did not you make ny 

Did jNMii .not put a stitch. 

in it? 
Did y^u not bring it 

with you f 
Did she not st^ beyond f 
Did she not come over? 
Did you not hear the 

Did he not promise to 

come ? 
Did you not go peer yes- 
Did I not ieii ytm to 

Did you get no tidings 

from kim ? 


A mbeid diKlaih eile lib? 

CaTada raca» tu? * 
Ta teas tnor sati gr^n^ 
Ta se an naoi< 


Will you hmve At^ thing 

else with vou ? 
How far miiLyou gof. 
The. smi is very hst 
It is nine o*cIq€A^ 

Ta se leat uair 2(!R&aig an It is half past twoL 
do, r 

Bhfoil se feartaihn? Is it raining? 


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FJkMlLlAn PI]BAffB$. 


lla heir greim cnx^H 

air, ^ 

TaBair fa ddara* bri|^ an 

sgeii, > 

Ta an grian aim airde, 
Go d' as a ritean tu? 
Abair leis mtig, 
Ta an grian ria lui'de, 
feiceam do croli, 
Beanhait De leat, 
Mana^ a sti^ tul 

Ba4iait lioin afagaii, 

Qo d€[ fuair sc air ? 
P'iarr se an iomadai^, 
Abair Ids go rail^ mis^ 

Na dean deannud^ 
iCuir ort do l^rogad^ 
Bhi se a dtaisge agam^ 
]s c\x]Xi% ]iom ciacjEi fin^ 

Phfuil cu ar ti mo ibarr 


Na te amai gO labaire 

me leat, 
An \eo fifeim an carbadf 

Beidniid lib go dti IJur 

ndoras f jfein, 
Ma geil$mid m^rca^geact 

sa gcarliacl, 
Nil fioj agamsa go de 

Bei'd mc aguilj dia dom- 
' naii, 
T^ f ion agam duit, 

jDa fwt Hkt a hmrd ioii 

of it? 
Attend to tkt imfiort ^ 

TJ^ $un U up. 
Why do you riin f 
Teil him to rise. 
The sun is set. 
Give me your band. 
God' ^blessing with you^ 
My soul within yoju! my 

darling! ^ 

I woiiid wish W meet 

fFhatdid be get for him ^ 
He asked loo ThitcK 
%dl hm that I was bfire* 

Do not forget. 

Put on your shoes. 

/ bad it laid up. 

I do not fare xphcther or 

j^re you fibout to kill 

Do no) go out until I 

$peqk with you. 
Is the carriage their 

own f 
JVe zvill kp tt7iVA you to 

your own door. 
Jfwe get rijiing in the 
. carriage. 
/ do not tcnozv what lie 

J will be wifh you on 

I have wine for you. 

z % 


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f^uair me tri pigin d^g 

ar gac ceann aca. 
Is jonihuin leis an uile 
^ duirie beit seanmur, 
Do cuiread diin nuirbad 

ina leit, 
Ge gur b'iongiiad teat ^, 

Do indeoln slri uilc, 
Nabigearan orrta, 
l^ig doib, 
Jl^aca mo deiiBsiur fe. na 

djein/,agus cuirfid mise 

litir leite, 
Bbfuil leinteai go leor 

agad ? 
Dbpanubn no 

sin air a sonsa, 
Ta nio snatadsa agadsa; 
Ta siad nagcaiidibmaite 

da c^ile, 
Is i do.sgiansa i, agus ni 

a sgiansan, 
Ta fios do'intin agamsa, 
Cuirfead cuid de anonn 
V iugad, 
Bhi aim&ir fliuc an ur- 

larg agiiinn, 
Ta iios again ca ttibionn 

se na comnaig, 
An te nac bfuil meas aige 

air fo^laini, nil fios 

aige air a luac no a 

-Bionn siad ag eud le na 

Ta ga6 aon aca go mait 
le cac, 

/ got thirteen pence for 

each of them. 
Every man is fond of 

being prosperous. 
H^ was accused of mur^ 

Although you wonder at 

In spite of all that. 
Do not complain of them. 
Let them atone. 
My sister will go to her^ 

and I shall send a tet^ 

ter with her^ 
Have you enough (f 

I would do more than 

that for her sftke. 
You have my needle. 
They are good fr\ends to 

e^ach other. 
It is your knife^ and not. 

his knife. 
I Mm)w your mind. 
I shall send some of it 

atier to yoU. 
We had wet weather last 

year. ■ 

/ know where he lives^ 

The person who does not 
love learnings ddes not 
know his good or bene- 
p. " 

They are jealous of each 

Each of them is on good 
terms with the other. 


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Kiar leag me aon dona 

leabrai'd a tag tu ar ia- 

sd4Ct daihy 
TaiDoidne fa gnotai^, 
Ni vndv nacar marBad fe, 
Go mairead tu, 
C^ad mile failte djuit, 
Na naireasaca tu dam?^ , 
Is truag liom jfe, 
Is eigiu a curaniac, 
Ta na flaitea? ps ar 

Do la agus d'oidce, 
Is cunia litom tu, no ^ 

Nil neart agam air, 
Bhfeall a teanga aii*, 
Ni he sii^ a ceist, 

An feadam an dadani 

deanaih duit? 
Taim ro buideac duit, 

Caiteann siad a maoiu 

go b6:r, 
Bhfuil ^ihras agad atln 
* mo briatraiB? ' ' 
Dindeoin do gearran, 
D'icnnsiijd ^e an naihaid, 
Nimor nacar duBairt me, . 
Thig buaidreid air miiitx 

huaidrid, V 
Ta me dol ateagriiail air 

matair, " ' 

Teac ata suidte agcois 

beakig, - 
Chontiaic me tusa f56s, 
Caite me trid an eloig- 

can tu, 

/ did not read one of the 
books that you lerit 

IVe are about business. 

He was almost killed. 

I wish you much joy. 

You ate very welcorne. 

ffill you npt tell met 

J dfn sorry for if. 

He must be put out. 

The heaven^ are over us. 

By day und by r^ght. 
t do not regard you^ or 

it. ■ ' ' ;■ ; 

I cannot help iL 

His tongue failed him. 

That i§ not the matter i/? 

Can I do any thing for 

I dm xrery mMch obliged 

to you. 
They live up to their in-- 
^ come. 
Do yon doubt what I 

In spite of your crying. 
He fell upon the enemy. 
I had almost said so. 
One trouble comes upo^ 

I am going to meet my 

A house that stands 

alongside the road. 
I $aw you also. 
I will shoot you through 

the head. 


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Nil coill air bit im bfuil 
»lo$ga<cl fhltx do ^f ion* 
lac ann. 

Ta sgeula joDgaiUtic a^ 

There is no ZQtH>d that 
has not^ sticks enough 
in it to burn itself. 

I havfi wonderful news 




Gati a leit, a iailin, ' 
Go dp ^fl 3-eort uigpa^ $o 

ITigeaca cearc. 
Bhfuil siad w? 

jad iiile air au 

Ca liieud ta sa cliab ? 


beag,* • 

Ta tri "diiisin. 

Ca mend ceajca ata 

Ta da cearc dfeag agpinn. 
JCil^ ac uigeaca 

min ionntuib. 
>Jil movan min uigead 3a 

Go de gcaBas tu orra? 

Culgpigin air a duisin. 
Isdaoire sin na tri huiB- 

eaf:a air pbigin. 
An glaca tu sgilip air Or 

Bfujl ann? 
Dar ndoi^ nac nglacam, 
'Go d*as? nac leor duit 

teastun air a duisin ? 

Come hitherj girl. 
What h'md ^f €ggi <tr^ 

those you lioce? 
Hen eggs. 
Are they fresh? 
They were all. laid this 

ffozv many are in the 

There arc three do^en. 
Bora many hens km>e 

you f 
}ve hafc iwelvp hem* 
They are but littlfi, small 
There are npt t^fi^y smalf 

eggs in the basket. 
What will you take for 

t/uifn ? 
Fivepenc^ a dozen f 
That is dearer than three 

^g^ a p^nny. 
Will you take a shiltv^g 

for li'hat is in it? 
Surely I xvill not. 
Why? is not a groat a 

a dozen enough for 



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Ta tri liuigeaCa tonnog 

ann, os cionn an uhiiir. 

Go de is luga glacas tu ? 

Ceitre ptgin dhsLg. 
So dutt tri pigin d^ag. 

Contuis amac iad^ 

There are three duck eggs 
in it J aver ihe number, 

What ii the leiist that 
you will take ? 

Faurieeh pence* 

Here are tkii^een pence 
for you. 

Count them out. 


Au tifuil eadac cao! gorm 

agad r 
Cuir cornn de a latair,. 

led toil. 
Go de taaira tslat deso^ 
Naoi sgilinne deag. 
Is garti liom ^ air an 

airgiott sini 
Feiciom comn i$ mine 

na 30, ma ta se agad. 

Nar mait leat leatad ni6r 

a Taiceal? 
Bud mait liom. 
Sin eadac eaffl go leor 

Ca meud is kiac de? 
Ni tig liom sin|i diol air 

ni is luga na seact 

sgillinne is fitce air 

a tslat^ 
Is m^r an luac sin. 
Go deiihin is fiu an t^ir- 

giott^, aduine riiaitr 

r^ir mar dioltar e;u:rad 


Have you fine blue cloth f 

I have. 

Lay a piece of it before 

me^ if you please. 
What is this per yard? ^ 
Nineteen shillings, 
I think it coarse, at that 

Let me see a piece finer 

than this, y you hoot 

Would you wish to see 

broad cloth ? 
, / would wish it. 
There is cloth fine enough 

for you. 
What is the: price of it f 
I cannot 4ell t/iat for 

less than tweniy^seven 

fillings per yard, 

That is a great price. 

Indeed it is worth the 
money; Sir, accordiffg 
as goods arc sold nop. 


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Cheannaig mise eadac do 

bYearr na fe, air cor6in 

'III is luga naabfuil tu 

ag iarruig. 
Bfeidir sin, act is fada 

o soin hf mo doig. 
,Togar dam gur ro tana 

an teadac L 
Tana, dcirtu? breatnuig 

ar}s air. 
Motaig mar so ann do 

lam b. 
Motaigim h go Muil se, 

mln go leor. 
Nil sin tana, reir a caoile. 

Is teanndtuite an snaitc 
ata ann, na an eadac 
bud raime na h. 

Nac nglacfa da ginid air 

Dar mo Breitir, a diiinc 
moduil, ni liom fein 
air an airgiott sin h. 

Abair, go de is luga §la- 
cas tu? 

Go dearBta d'airis me. 
duit ar dtiks. 

Nl biann an dara focal 

Ma tig leat a diol air 
cfiig is ponta, beid se 
agam, agus muna dtig 
leat, ni Biann. 

Ni tig liom a diol aif sin 
go deiriiin; oir sc sin 
an tairgiott a fcosain 

^ se darii. 

/ bought better cloth 
than itf for a crown 
less than you ask* 

That may *e, but it is 

long since^ I suppose. 
I think it is tery thin 

Thin^ do you sayf try 

it again. 
Feel it thus in your 

I feel that it is smooth 

That is not thin^ consi- 

dering itsjineness. 
It is firmer and closer in 

the thread, thanthick-- 

er cloth. 
Would not you take two 

guineas for two yards 

of it? 
Upon my word. Sir, it is 

not my awn for that 

Say, what is the least 

you will take f 
Truly I told you at the 

first. . 
I have ndt a second word. 

If you can sell it for 
twenty five shillings ^ 
I shall have it, and 
if you cannot, I shall 

I cannot sell ip for that 

indeed; for that is the 

money that it cost me. 


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ait eigin eile. 

labraim leat. 

Abair leit, m. % ttt 
iiua$ an dadw* 

Bi d^aife^t* » a\uiie ua»al, 
g^^ ce^naig aiia^ a^ 
teadac «q^ air akgbtt 
rei'd, comsaoris.^feidir 
lipin ^ ieaauat; agite 
ni Bfuigiro nl i$ «ftoire 
^ Q» Ciiig }» pQQta. 

Is doilig damsaacicasiiac 
m\% mar ito: 

Ni^ me ag ianrdg ac pir 
gi^ HI aja i^lfimo, do 

Ni habf^m }^<is md; 
,. ^4 toiliais amac ^; 

agus £iigmni a lu»c ^od 

'dteagtoil fciQ. 
Sin ugad anoi^^ adBar 

casoigct^ d'eadac sarr 

caql S)^9ana6. 
Sleidir go ]i&il Bei^ 

Ta <^il ic|o xmaii saoiit 

Facipm giote do $g^ 

So duit €0rmi do leatfd 

ihoir sgailojde is £barn 

Agus so sioda dutt ro 
/ aluinn, 
Biieirim mo d^irhin duit 

go mbeid cai team mai t 


try in some otk,^r place. 
St0. Sir, mtU I ^eak 
to you. • .. 

^Sf^y if you ^haHwji 

Be assured Sir, that I 
Imght t^ Qhth,f0> 
rmi^mpiiw, &$ cheap , 
as Tcould buy iij mid 
IiX>tMmigM ^fii 
less thgn tzi^Hfjfz^ve 

I can hardly buy it from 
you theu* ! 

/ asi miff one penny per 
4hil^ng, ofprpfit. 
♦ v 

JshaUmy sq tmre; but 
mefisure it aut; md I 
kme the price ^ y^ur 
(mik gQ4tispiU. 

Noxv you have tksfwh- 
ingpf0 eoai ^f^uperr 
fm English jcl^tk. , 

Ferhflps yon wsnt # 

Jhane sam nm)p4tterm. 

I^t rnfi ux 4 piece of 

^JitXfi isa piece of the 

besjk icarkt broad- 

t^fatJi.^ ^ 

And here is some elegant 

black iUh\ " 

I assure you it uill wear 

very well. . ^ 



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Gf abid me Beist do gac 

Go de an meud is cigin 

dam a 'fagail? 
Tri ceitreaib don scar- 

loid, agus slat go leit 
« don sioda. 
G6de an seoirt cnaipead 

iuireas tu air an ca- 

Ta cnaipead orda fa do, 

beag is mor. 
Tabair daib mioncnaip- 

ead orda. 
Beid siad agad. 
Togbfzid an tailliur an 

Unin, agus na pocaid. 
Cia he do tailliursa? 
Seamus O'Concuir. 
Is aitne dam h; is ro 

iliait an fear ceipd h 
Sin hy ag an taob tall d^on 

An gktbca me air? 
Dheapa tu gar damr 
Gab a leit, a Sheumuis 

ui Cboncuir. 
Go mbeannaid Dia dib 

a daoine uaisle. 
Glac mo tomas air culatd 

Go de mur is ail] leatiad 

a belt cieanta? 
Do reir an mod ijB^nuada. 

Ta docas agam go sais- 

eaca me iku 
Ca huaira bias siad prioi- 


I shall tal^ a 'waUitmat 

of each. 
How much n^st I hwot ? 

Three quarters of the 

scarlet J and one yard 

and half (^ the silk. 
What kind of buttons 

will you put on the 

I have double gilt, of 

various sizes. 
Let me have small gilt 

You shall have them. 
The tatflor will choose 

the hnjingj andpockets. 
JVho is your taylor ? 
James (f Connor. 
I kncfiv him; he is a very 

good workman. 
There he is^ at the other 

side of the street. 
Shall I call him^ 
You will oblige me. 
James CfConnpr, come 

Your servant, gentlemen. 

Take my measure for a 

suit of cloaths. 
How will you have them 

made, Sir? 
According to the 7iewest 
^ fashion, 
f hope I shall please you. 

JVheu will you have them 



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Teaeta tsatai^n so eug* 
ainn, air an ceann is 

Beid sin luat go leor. 

Feidir muini^Q a cur 
ann m* focal. 

Bhfuil dadadx eile uait? 

Nil an dadam eik anois. 
Beid saihas liom socair a 

ceanam duit« 
Slan leat, a saoi. 
Slan Icat air maidin. ^ 

On Saturdajf nestf 


That will be soon emugft. 
Sir^ you m^4ependupQ9^ 

my word. 
Do you want any thing 

Not at present. 
I will be happy to mve 


Farewellf Sir. , 
Sir, I wish you a good 


Go de an semt artisur so 

Coirce malt sH: ma ta 

se dit ort. 
Foisgepla me amac h. 
Feuc tusa sin. 
Nac glan, geal an coirce 

Ta se air feabaa slol. 
Is fi^arr h go niAr na 

grainne is toirteadila. 
Go de mur dioks tu ^? 
Ceitre sgilUne is ponta 

air a bairille. 
Gheaba me coirce mait 

air nios luga na sin« 
Bhearainn f^in coirce 

mait duit, air da sgi- 

linn nios saoire. 
Feuc w sac sin eile. 
Bhfuil so uile air aon nds ? 

fFhai kind of corn is this 
*. you have? 
Qood seed oats : if you 

want it. 
I shall open it out. 
Let me see it. 
Looi at that. 
Is not that clean white 

It is the kest seed. 
It is much better than 

larger grain. 
Haw do you sell it ? 
Twenty Jour shitUngsper 

I will get good oatt fir 

less than that. 
I can give you good pats 

^y^^if fa'^ ^o skil*: 

lings cheaper. 
Look tit that other sadc^ 
Is this all aUftef * 

S A 2 Is 

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ci tu a mbeul an t^kic 

sin. • 

Ta sin os cionA ItactftlEin 

Bheara me fitie sgiHittne 
anbairiMe^ alf iflJfeil 

Bheara tu an taon i^ (itce 

air, agus-tri is^fitfee^it" 
^ 4oiree*tl ^ 

D' furs^l me go Ifeoi- air 

Gheaba me uirid air, is 

diarr me ort 
Ghes^ misie tkios daoif^ 

na sin h. 
Hfl gtebaif air ntos lu]ga, 

HI bionn se ct) timit; 
Nil arbatr min« is £^*i> 

san tirse. 
Ca meud ta ^ad tie? 

Ta Oct mbairille dfeag, 

ann sna naot sak: sin; 

^fgus ^ Biiriiie, sua 

tri saiceiie. 
- I^a diult m'furailv agus 

cetno^ca me uile uait 

Ciiirfe tu leis tri j)i^inn 

an bairilie^ air an ooirte 

Sfe^KQ trirftgiUi^eisponta. 

Ck, meud airgitt tig s6 
uile ciiige? . 

iti ti^i muth €f that 

T'H^efiitf'im skUtingi. 
That is ab&dt the rAlaflcef 

I will give 30 shillings 

M^e ^f that'^tHd. 

You wHi,gkf€twmt\f'%ne 

for if, and meMf- 

thr^eyy^ thesm di^. 

i offered enough J or that.- 

; / shall get as much for 

it J as la^kedfromj/ou. 
Isfmll^ itdieaperthim 

Ifjfouget it for less, i^ 

will not be so goad. 
There is not better me&l 

corn^ in this country i 
How much have you of 

There are eighteen bar- 

rets, in those ninesachs; 

ttnd siv barrels^ in the 

other three sacks. 
jD$ not refuse my ^ffe^j 

Mnd I wUl buy it all 

from you. 
fou shaU add three fence 

per barrel^ for 4he 

white oats. 
That is twenty-three sel- 
How much mowy does it 

all come to ? 



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Is furas sin a contas. 
Ceitre ponta isfitce, agus 

ofee^fegiUfcft'dfeag, go 

Cuir fiUetfe AWa m*«!a. 

|ikt>, agii3 Ibskigim 

air a xh^aSAciin. 
Sl^ ^ teat ertiittt^act 

no oi*a cAatthac, ta 

siad araMi iLgatA ^ 

Go de an ^^ort crlrft- 

Ta yeiixi ag^s i^r afgam. 
Bfeidir go mbeid shi liahn 
' A^V a*i tslfittCtihUin-so 

Sail 4m t^artinSl %iid tii^it 

llWn Iti no ttWtt saic 
' Siogail a oeinnafe. 
Creidim nac Bftnl an 

dadaih-'de san rhargaid. 
Go de t^ tu iarraid air 

fett ihin^? 
Seact sgillin dSag;" aglis 

ttaoipi'gin^, airac^ad. 

SaoiKm gd tifliU^^ tais; 
niar cruadad an tarbar 
go niajt. 

Dearbuigim duit gut tri- 
mnad go mart h. 

MeUeftd go TO Aln h. 

Fcidk hias gairbe a fag- 
ail, act ni btBj|atn tu 
* hk>s ftarr, 

Bheara me s^ sgtUin d&ag 
air e6ad duit. 

Ni^tig Horn a glaca'd. 

That is easHy reckoned. 

Exactly twenty four 
pounds eighteen ^hit- 

Put a sack of it in th^ 
scales, 'andttit usiegin 
to weigh it. . 

If you wish to buy toheai 
or barley y I have both 
very good. 

fVhat kind of wheat have 

t Mve both old and new. 
Perhaps I may want 

some next"weck. 

At present I intend t6 
buy a few sacks of rye. 

I believe there is none in 

What do you ask for this 

Sevc7iteen shillings, and 

7tine pence, per hundred 

I think it is damp; th6 

corn has not been well 

I assure you it is tery 

dry. ♦ 
It is ground toofne. 
You may get coatser, 

but you will not fnd 

better meal.; 
I zvill give you slvteen 

shillings per hundred 

I cannot take it. 


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acd go bfuil siad ro 


An i-aca tu cum an aon- IVilljfougo to the fair? 

JVith all mjf heart. 
Make haste then, or we 

shall he late. 
We shall be time a^ongh. 
Now I am ready. 
Let us set out. 
Do you intend to buy, 

or to sell? 
I have some ones to sell, 

and I "wish to buy some 

And I propose to buy a 

saddle horse. 
There are vtry good 

horses in this country. 
Yes — but they. are very 

JVhat a number of people 

are going to the fair! 
You do not see the half 

of them. 
There will be a great 

shew of cattle. 
Where are your cows? 

Yonder^ at the lower end 

of the street. 
I see them; they appear 

to be in good order. ^ 
There are none fatter in . 

the country. 
How much, do you expect 

for them ? 
At least twelve guineas 

per head. 


Ta mise ro )5ui'deac. 
Maisead dean deifir, no 

beidmid mall. 
Beidmid am go leon 
Anoisy ta me reid. 
fihfuil diiil agad cean* 

nac no dioL 
Ta ciil bo le diol agam, 

agus bu mait liom c^il 

caorac a ceannac. 
Ta d{ul agam eac astair 

a ceannac. 
Ta f acraig f ior mait sa 

' tirse, 

Nac m6r lion daoine ta 

dul cum an aonaig ! 
Ni 'faie tu a leit. 

Beid neart eallai^ le tais- 

bein ead. 
Ca bfiiil do cuidse cal- 

Ag sud, ag an ceann 

ioctarac don tsraid. 
Chim iad ; ta faiceal orr- 

*ta belt a gctut mait. 
Nil nios raime san tir. 

Go de meud a bias tu 

brat orrta? 
Da ginidd^ag air ^ ceann 

go ihiirig. 

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2S , 

Is mcr an luac sin. 
Is miait is fiu sin iad uHe. 
Sin duine air cosmuil a 
Beit diol eic. 

Labrani leis. 

Go de bias tu ag iarraig 

air acapall sin? 
Ta se saor air 'da f i'tcid 

Go de an aois ataaige? 
Beid se an seact go <Ur 

reac, teact na bealtine 

so cuguinn. 
Togair damsa go BfuiJ os 

a ceann; cuaid se 

tains coiharta b^il. 
Dearbuigim duitscgurab 

h sud a aois, oir do 

beataig m? f^n k 
A ndean se sodar mail? 
Ni se siubal, sodar, is 

cosanairde, coriiait le 

aoin eac istir. 

Gabamsa orm fe Beit 
iomlan fallan, agus 
saor a droic beas, 

Cuinnig — go mbuailcam 
do laim. 

Sin cilig gini'd d^ag is 
fi tee duit air. 

O citear godtaitnean mo 
capall leat, geaba tu 
£^ air Oct nginig dfeag 
is fitce. 

Ni glacani ni is luga. 

Ma beirim an uirid sin 
(luit, is eigin duit 
bonnaig mait a pron- 
pad o^ni. 

That is a great price. 
They are xcell worth it. 
Here is a person who - 

seems to be selling a 

horse. * 
Let us sp&tk to him. ' 
How much do you ask • 

for that hofse. 
lie is cheap of forty , 

Hozv old is he ? 
He xvill le exactly seven, ^ 

at nest May. 

I take him to he more^; - 
he is past mark of 
mouth. * y 

I assure you that is his • 
flge^ for I reared him 

Does he trot well? 

He can either walky trot, . 
or gallop, as xcell as 
any horse in the coun- 

I warrant him perfectly • 
sounds and free from 

Hold—^let me strike your • ^ 

There are thirty five ^ 

' , guineas for hifn, 

Js you seem to like my , 
horse^ you shall have 
him for thirty eight 

I xvill take no less. 

If I give you so much, - 
you must return me a 
good luckpenny.' 


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* f eidir sin ^ fagl^il ag 

mo deigmein Gain. 
^ Agus ileana iwe miilai|f^ 
$in ag«ul Oct QgiDi'd 

dfeag is fitce. 
Pronfnamsa air ais orts) 

leit f img mar honn 

A mbeara me an capulj 

cum do tig ftin? 
Ni tugair, beid mo g'iolla 

thin aim so air ballj, 

giacfaid seisean uait h. 
Scad, a diiinc uasal, do 

ceannaig mise capall q 

d' fa^ tu me. 
Agus do did mise mo 

cuid bo, 
A bfuair tu uirid orrta is 

bi siiil agad fagail? 
Ni bfuair me sin ama^ 

Fuair me da ginig d6ag 

air gac ceaun dona 

buaiU bliuct. 
Air na bat seisgv ru 

bfuair me acd deic 

Bfuii sitid air son a mar- 
"Ma cuir'tcar a bforais 

riiait iad, beid siad l^n 

saill faoi miosa. 
Saoilim gur diol tu go ro 

niait iad. 
Ta mc sasta. 
Sin muvc'i n\aite. 

Fiafraigim go 

de luac 

Vou m0 have tksf to 
/ mj/ w» go0^ wiU. 
J ak£fil dfi so. , 

IVellj tk(^^ arc thirty 

eight guineas. 
Of which I return ^&ii 

half a guinm m a 

Shall 1 take tlie horse tf 

your own home? 
^0, my gri^m wiM b$ 

h^0 prfsentlyy 0h4 

rficeive him from y^^- 
Well, Siry J hqvis bmght 

a horse sincfi ye^^leff 

And I hat)eimli tmf ems. 

Did you get as^ much as 
you ejfpectedfor thim f 
Not quite as mUeh, 

For the milch ams I 
got txvehe guineas per 

For $he ^ dry ones dniy 

Are they ft for kiUmgf 

If put into good pasture, 

they will be fat in less 

than a nmith. 
J think you have sold 

them very xcelL 
J am content. 
There are some goodpig^. 
Let us ask the price of 



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Go de ta tti iarr^g air an 

muc breac sin? 
Tri fK)nta, agus cuig 

sgilline d^ag, 
Agus ca meud air crainu 

siolaig SQ ? 
Ta dM agam a diol, mar 
. aon le na hail banban 

ta sa cliab sin. 

Ma ta siad uait^ geaba 
tu faoi na luac iad. 

Nil siad a dit orm san 

am ceadna. 
Kil agam anoig acd c^il 

caorac a ceannac. 
So sgafta do caorcuib 

A gceanaca sgafta caorac 

Go de an seort caoirig 

iad so agad ? 
Ni bfuil nios fearr air 

Go de deir. tu? Nac 

bfuil siad adbail beag? 
Ta siad ro ramar. 
Ca liieud cinn sa tread 

sin agad? 
Ata an deic isfitce. 
Go de au meud a biadfa 

ag iarraig air a tiom- 

Bheara tu ciiig ponta is 

da f itcead orrta. 
Ki tugam, na mdran 

tains a leit 

What do you ask for that 

black and white hog ? 
Three pounds fifteen shil- 

And hoxv much for this 

breeding sow ? 
I intend to sell her^ with 

her litter of' young 

pigs that are in this ^ 

If you want them^ you 

shall have them worth 

I do 7iqt want them at 

I have now only to buy 

some sheep. 
Here is a Jlock of *cefy 

good sheep. 
IVillyou buy a flock of 

sheep from me ? 
What sort of sheep are 

these you have got ? 
There are none better. 

What do you say f Are 
they not very small? 

They are very fat. 

How many have you in 
that flock? 

There are thirty. 

How much would you 
ask for the wholeflock? 

You will give forty five 
pounds Jor them. 

I will not J nor much over 
the half 

SB A- 

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Ateit! go de ah (\onas 

a tluihe, \h costhuil hac 

Bifaic tii iad. 
Chim iiiait go leot iad. 
&iB dnall, agus beir air 

a diulac sa. 
Wotaid iheiid feola aguis 

lohiart ata air an molt 

Anois go de saoileas tu 

aesiri? . 
SidiiTui ftafc t)1c an molt 

^; act ca mtu'd cinn 

doh ts^oirt srn agad ^ 
Ta do d^ag anh sin air 

aoti cWt. 
Cabfuilsia'd? i^i Yiaicim 

Dearc air do cMa; sin 

c^aiin aca ; sih birt aiV 

do laiih cK ; agus cilig* 

mear eile tall ud, 

Me4sith giir se^h rarcin 

a gioUa adarcac sa. 
MeaUta ta tii, is lAbit h. 

JJeir grelm adairc air. 
Beir fein greim clii^s 

agus urbail air, agus 

fiac ^. 
Ma ta feim airgiott ort, 

iar rii is cosfiiuil ie luac 

do caoirig. 
G^ de IS fiu caint? buail 

immo laiiii. 
Cuingig atna'C do Bas; 

sin cii»g "pohta deag 

air *f itcead duit. 


Vie half I wlwt iktplagni 
marly it seefM ym do 

, fwt Beis ihem. 

I see them t&ell enough. 

C6me Aitker, Smd kfy 
hold on thisfeliaw. 

Feel what flesh &ndjfk6de 
are ^pon that xi>eflkr. 

Now what do you think 
^ftkaf one? 

I think he is not S' tad 
wether; but how many 
have you of thai kindf 

Tfiere bre twelve tkef^ in 
ihe fame cast. 

Where are they ? I do 
rtdt see thefH. 

Jjook behind you; there 

• is^ on€ bf them; there 
is a couple cCtyour left 
hand; and fl*oe ri^orc 
beyond there: / 

I sttppose thi^ horned 
fellow is an old roih. 

Vim dre mistaken, he Is 
a wether. 

Catcfp him by the horti 

Lay holdi>n himyoiirself 
by the ears aiid tail^ 
and ts^ainme him. 

Jf yhw want money, a^h 
sorhethtng like the va- 
lue of your sheep. 

What avails talking? 
strike viy hand. 

Hold imt your hand; 
there are HniHy-Jive 
pounds to you. 


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f^G^iT 'do laim ; ^ berrkl 
tu ck fitcead ponta 
daih, lio bei'd tu gan 

Ni lieirid a >caoidc6^ go 
deimin ; uiur $iu faigixn 
;^l^n agad, is go raib 
fat do cuid ort. 

Fan, go naitweasa me 
* duitgo de iJ€0nasif\e 

Abair leat 

Sin duine uasal ag teact 
^ marcaigeaict anuas^ a 

. bptar^ agus faganioid 
fa na breit€fualn^is h. 

Ta mise sasta. 

Se do beata/ atair Plia- 

Gur beaita duit « Sh^in ; 
/go dc an cor so ort? 

i^taim ag iarraid cunrad 
a deanam, le duine 
uasal, fa prasgaia cao- 
rac, ataagamanu so; 
is ni tig iintt a. teact 
cura crice. ^ 

.Agus go de an mend a 
dfurail se duit ? 

Niar furail se acd c^ig 
ponta deag air fit- 
cead, ail' rra dqc 


Zct rm 4ee^your han^ 
you shall give rmfyrty 
pounds or want tbm. 

I never will^ indeed; so 
fcCr^ you. well, and I 

r whh you lufk of your 

Stay, till I tell you what 
Iwili-dq mtkym. ' 

Say away. 

There is a g^tleman 
coming filing, down 
the road, md let us 
leave it (o his Jtfdg- 

I am satisfied, 

God save you^ father « 
Patrick. / 

JToit likewise John; 'u^hat 
are you doing ? 

Striving to make a ban- 
gain, with a gentle- 
man, about a parcel 
of sheep that I have 
here; and we cannot 

r come to an end.. 

And how much di(f he 
offer you ? 

He offered only thirty 
Jive pounds, Jqr those 
thirty sheep. 

gcaoivige fitc;p^ sin. 
. Agu3 nar beagle^t.^ih? ,4nd did you think that 

little? , 
Ra,rq,^ieag lion) .^ go Jt thought it too little 
. 4^^Pt : indeed. 


2 B 2 


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Go (f as ? go tic an mcud 
a bias tu ag iarraig 
orrta? •' 

Diar meciaf itcead ponta, 

go beact, on ta. 

- Pearbfuigim duit nac 

bfuigfea an uirid sin, 

air aonac san contaig. 

MaSead, atair Phadruic, 
mas h do toil, labair 
tusa focail eigin ead- 

Tuigin^, a saoi, go raib 
mo corharsac agus tusa 
a gcumain ta cikii cao- 

Do bamurne, a deag 
duine, acd tii dtiucfa 
liom conrad a deanam 
Icis; fritim f ior cruaid 

Ca meud ata eidfib? 

Ata iomadaid eidrinn; 
ata ci!lig ponta. 

• Tiucfa fusa anuas, a 
Shein, fa da Titcead 
sgillii^e, go haitrid. 

^ Deantar do toilse, atair 
Bheire mise ponta eilc 

, do, air dfocal sa. 
Anois nil acd da (>onta 
eadrib; agus i^ i an 
comairle l^irimse orn- 
ib, rannaigid an barr- 
ai'deact an da leit 

WKyf kcfw ffiuchdoyou 
ask for them? 

I asked forty pounds^ 
exactly^ for them, 

I assure you that you 

' would not get so mucky 
at any Jair in this 

Well, father Patrick, if 
you pleasej say same- 
thing between us. 

I understand, Sir^ that 
my neighbour and you 
were bargaining about 
some sheep. 

TVe were, good Sir, but 
I could not make a 
bargain with him; I 
find him very hard. 

Haw much is between 

There is too much be^ 

tween us; there' are 

foe pounds. 
Jghn, you must come 

down about forty shii^ 

lings, at least. 
Your will be doney father 

I shall give him another 

pouna,onyour account. 
liJow there are but two 

pounds between you; 

and I advise JM ' to di- 
vide the diffei^tnce in 

two equal parts. 


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T» misie sasta. Cfo <lc 

dek tusa? 
Ta raise sasda fds. ^ 
Ta reid so duit an tair- 

gbtt. V 
Cio raib rat do margain 

Anois ti do gnotaid retd, 

£iUk)m na Baife. 

Mo'taigiomsa me fein 
tuirseac, is . ba mait 
deoc leanna d\. 

Ta leann f ior mait, ag 
comarta an tairb duib. 

Agiolla, tabair cuguinn 

curraigin don leanu is 

fearr a bfuil agad. 
Gheaba sib gan m^iU e, 

a daoine uaisle. 
Is siiim an deoc i sin, 

san aimsir teit se. 
Deanam anois, btom dul 

na baile. 
Go de ta lenioc? 
Deic bpignid, daoine 

uaisle. > 
So duit ht 
Go de mur ihtan leat na 

caoiiige a drabairt na 

baile ? 
Fttigfe me ann Foraois 

coihgarac a noet iad ; 

agus bearaid mo buac- 

aiiUge fein na baile 

iad a.marac. 
An feidir feur mait fa- 

j(ail s^ gcpwarsnactsa? 


I am satisfied. JVhattay 

you ? ^ 

I am satisfied likewise. 
Here is the money Peady 

for you. 
I wish you much luck 

of your bargain. 
Now your business is 

done, let us return 

I/eel fatiguedy arid would 

wish totak€(k4raught 

There is sotfi^ very good 

at thesign of the Bkick 

fFaiter, bring nsa bottle 

of your best ale. 

You 4iudl haeoe it imme- 
diately^ Gentlemen. 

That is a pleasant draught 
in this hot weather. 

ComCj let us return home. 

Ten pence, Gentlemen^ 

Here it is for ytm. 

How do you intend to have 
your sheep brotight 

I will leave them in a 
convenient pasture to- 
night; and tO'morrori\ 
my men will bring 
them home. 

Can good grass be got 

it^ this neighbouf^hooii ? 


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FiPT. liiftit, a6d rb 'daor. 
Anaircis na lugno^ beid 

fi nios ^4otre, 
^u l^t, a dmm uasail 
Si^n de leatsa, a iitiine 


JTerj^ood, hut vertfdodi^. 
7 awards Lammas it will 

be chMper^ 
Sir^ good day to you. 

Cahaitaraiti tq^ 
Thainic me anois ■ on 

nutrgaii. . 
Gf)M pttnnaig tu? . 
Spoil caoir feola^ sli^ad 

isairiiff oil, 18 ceaifulli 

An Kfuil fcoil daoraftois? 
JDiokar tt^iiieoil air.occ 

bpij^ug an |>OQta, 

mairtfeoil air s^ p»gin 

]sleit{>igin) agd^uaia- 

leoil air seact agiliine 

an ceatraii. 
Go de an luac ata air an 

muic feoil? . 
Nil a dadarh de 

Sud tear 


Go Ac na h^anlaite so 

Oiorcoga oga ta ionota. 
Go de ibeud iarras tu 

peic bpignkl an ceann. 
^ia ^lacan tu iad uile, 

beara me air oct bpigin 

d^gan disiad. 
Nac Bfuil gfetd no turc- 

aigeana agad ? 

an* an 

ag lomcaift 


JVherc have jfifw been ? 
I have just come from 
, tkemarh^. 
.What did you buy ? 
A leg of nmttMy a jir- 

Idia of beef, and, a 

fuat'ter iff lamk : 
Is meat dear now ? 
Mutton sells for eighir 

pence per pound, beef 

for siiT-pehce half pen- 

. . ny, and lamb for seven 

shillings per quarter. 

What is the price of 

pork ? 
There is none in the 

There is a penion carry,' 

in g fowls; <all him to 

What fmvts are those 

that you havef 
They are young chickens. 
JIow much do you ask 

for them ?' 
Tei^ pence a-piece. 
Ifjfou take them aU^ I 

mil give them for 

eighteen pence a cotipk. 
Ham . you w geest^ or 

turkies ? 


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raihar s^tvil^bdiic agfttn, 

: CiiifgtafittiB aige. " 
Do Bi locana agam ^s, 
aid "do tog aft sion- 
nac iad uilii mr i»iuBal 

£a mor an truaig diti; 
Nft Uieart air M^ aitok 3 

Saoilinnse sfe pigin d^ag 
^ ^ dis gd leor. air fta 

giorcoga sift* 
Nia beataig me riarii air 

sin ia<l. . 
T^l tugai^ nios mo orrta, 
Tarr annso Ids an iasg 

So briG maite, iif u^ an 

.Nae tSfull bradaiti agad ? 
Ni la^b aon ceanft sna 

libntuib lenioflaad lad- 

: tib. 

Acdgobfuilliatoga, odo- 
ga codoga foirlionta; 

Agus ffeadar oisri^nid, is 
crubaini'd, is partain 
fa^ail saor go leor. 

Nil aon don tseort sin 

Go de liieud glacas tutCir 
san meise Breac sitt? 

Tri sgilline go beact. 

Bheara me an do agus 
sfe pigin duit. ,. 

Ts ll-atsa iad a saoi. 

1 tmve wine Jne fat 
g^^io at himte^ and a 
, nimkb^ur t^fmine has 
a fiock (^ turkm. 

I had some ducks dtso^ 
but the fo.t has car- 
ried them all away. 

That was a great pity. 
There is nQ help for it 

I think sivteen pehce 

a couple enough for 

the chickens. 

1 never reared them for 
it. ' 

2 tvill give no more. 
Come hither with these 


Here are good trouti, 

fresh out afthe water. 

Hwcc you no salmon ? 

There has not been one in 

' ihe '' nets^ for several 

day^ '^^ 

But flat fish,' haddock 

and cod are abundant 

Oysters^ cr^ibs and lob-- 

siefs atso may be had 

c^h^apvnc^igh. ^j 

Iwant7ione of' that kind. 

What.^n^ill you take for 
that dish of trouts ? 

Exactly three shillings. 

I zvilt give you Yzco ihU- 
lings and six penct. 

They are yours^ Hir. 


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Cuir fios air bainne agua 

air im gus an lactainn. 
Tafiair carta uactair leat, 

agu8 tri oarta leash- 

nacta, agus da ponta 

Nac mbia'd gru't is mdag 

Ni Biann, is fcarr liom 

sean cait Shasanac. . 
An brail aon dadaiii d'i tn 

sailte ag ninaoi an 

Gheannaig si crucau de 

la an margaid so cuaid 

Go de d'ioc si air? 
Aon fxigin d^g is leit 
, f>igin, air aq ponta. 
Feuc an bfuii aran go 

leor astig. 
Ta go leor, idre geal is 

ruady mion is m6r. 

Ta aimread £&sj^n loin 

mait d' ioliomad ean« 

laite f iadain* 
Ba ihait liom ceatraih 

d' Teoilf iadaig. 
Gheaba mise sin duit, 

ag an Torais Tia'daig. 

Smd to. tkc dsity fot 

milk and iutter. 
Bring m fWr* qfcrwm, 

three fuaru of rmv 

milky €ndi two pounds 

of butter. ; 

tViUyau hme no cwds 

and whttf ? 
iVb, I prefer old English 

Han tie kouse^keeper got 

any salt butter ? 

She bought a crock of it 
last market day. 

What did she pay for it? 
Eleven pence kal/penny 

per pound. 
See that there be bread 

enough Iftid in. 
There is enough^ both 

zi'hite and household, 

large and small. 
The larder is well stored 

also with variety of 

I should wish to have a 

haunch of venison. 
I will procure one for 

you at the deer park. 

' VI. Of Health, S^c. 

Godc inur ta tu, oga- How do you do, Sir? 


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Taim s\hn fallain, go 
raib mait agad, aduine 

Cioiinas ta d' atair ? 

Nil se go mait 

Go de ta air? 

Fert/ zvell^ Z thank t/ou, 

How is your father? 
He is not well. 
JVhat ails him ? 

Ghlac se pian cinn, agus He has got a pain in his 

^ head J and a sickness at 
his stomach. 

tinneas beilgaile. 

Ca'fada breoite ^? 

A dtimcioU deic la o 
soin, fuair se fliucla, 
afe fillead o Choi'caig. 

Homo long has he been 

About ten days ago he 
got wet J in returning 
from Cork. 
Ann sin rinne se gearan He then complained of 

fan teas, agus crit- 
O soin a kit lieigin do a 
, leaba cuingBeal. 

Nar cat s^ lus sgaoilte 

no aiside? 
Nior glac, acd gur bain- 

ead fiiil as, agus iho- 

taig se 6 ftin nios 

nieasa na dlaig. ' 
Ta eagla orm go Bfuil 

fiabras air. 
Ilaca me da 'feucain air 

Scad, a saoi, ci an doig 

so ort? 
Taira go ro tin, a doc- 

Mo'laigiom do cuisle. 
Taiciom do teanga. 
A Bfagantu socraideact? 

being ^ hot ^ and yt:t 

Since that time he has 

been confined to hi^ 

Has he taken physic or 

vomit? ^ ^ . 
No, he was bled^ and 

found himself xcorse 

after it. 

I fear he has got a 

I will call and sec him 

JVell, Si7\ how do 

Very ill ijidced, doctor. 


Let me feel your pulst. 
Let 7ne see your tongue. 
Huw do you Test ? ' ' ^ 
Ni fagam codia sai;ii air I get no refreshing sleep. 
bit. ; 

8 C . ' At5fu:i 

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.^ A Bfull giilfe air bit 

agad? No mbidnn tu 


Biann tart nior orm, acd 

nl tig lioiil a dadaih 


Ta suii again rtac fadjt 

go iiibiad bise^c ort. 
Aig pia ata tios sin. 
Nil fios agani go dc 
t an cor ata onn. 
Ka bi go dubac. 

Chonnaitc iinse d^atair, 
agus ni togai 'darh go 
bf liil se a gcoiitabairt 

, go sea'd. 

Is ergin a ceann a l>ear-» 
rad, agus ceiriri ni6r, 
leatan do cuileoguib 
a cur ain 

Cataid se flon go huf. 

Cuinnigttfar an seaitira 

fionnfuar, agus aede- 

afta go mait. 
Na cuirtear miosuaiifi- 

neas air. 
Nar r.osaid tu morah 

luct galair, aniu ? 
Is omoa sin. Do glaoc 

me. air niaidin, dteu- 

cain tiirt paisle saix 

ngalar breac. 
Sa teac a bfoigse doib, 

do bi an bruitineac, 

agus an triug. 
/cd- ni laib ami aon aca 

ro anacrac. 


Have you sitfp appetite? 
Or are you thirsty f 

I have a great thitst^ 
but can eat nothing. 

t hdpe you wilt soon be 

God knows. I cannot 
^ fell what is the matter 

with me. 
t>o not mahi yttttsetf 

t hdie seen your father^ 

and do not thtnk him 

in immediate danger. 

You iHust get his head 
sha'Vedj and have a 
large blister applied fa 

Let h':m take wineprttty 

Keep the roifm cool iind 
well aired. 

Let him not be iisturbti. 

tiave you visited mMy 

patients to-day f 
SeveriiL In the mtfrfi^ 

ing I called to see two 

children in the smtdU 

In the next house were 

both the fneaste^ and 

hooping Cough. 
But none were danger^ 

ously ill. 

, Bill 

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Bhi o^^Bajc f^oi cnapi 
cuim, ^ tifwaii* fualrt 
uaim mar angceadna, 

£hi sesean ro lag, acd 
gp «p.eoir ji^^t 

3p iugainn bean, ag^s 
leaijub na huct. 

Go de so air do leaijaB, 
^ JS^n jQacanta ? 

Oc ! a "deag gra'd, is air 

^t^m ti^rralngtc .ai<^- 

A )ifeicjtear gpgpiiir<^ai^n 

se piasta trid ? 
A inbipnn se cjinu le na 

fiaclaiU ipa codla'd? 

no piocad ^ sr6in? 
^i se gac cuid diobta 

go minic. 
TaBair asteac ^; sgribe 

mje ni eigjii dp air bill. 
Nac jse^ij^pia;* ^n said- 

breas, ^3^^*^^^ Aait ^a- 

Qidead is tearc s- c.uireas 

auim ami, mar cdir 

.ipiipnpAirc jnise dukie 

dojcia aniu, a caill ra; 

d^rc a '4a iuil, ti:je na 

baodais fein. 
Cionas $in ? 
I'aansgeul ro/fada. Inn- 

seaca pie di^it [^y\h h. 
Nil agaixi anp^s aqd' cu- 

,air.t air duihe, ^r bri- 

sead acos go deigio^ 


A young mc^n, in a con^ 
mmptmiy received a 
visit also. 

He was very weak^ but 
in good spirits. 

Here conges a xvoman with 

g. child ill her arms. 
What is the matter with 

ygur childy good wox 

man ? 
Q Sir, it has terrible 


J)oes it seem to pas^ iiny 

Dots it grind its teeth 

when aslfcp f or picfk 

its nose? 
It does bo{h v^ry often. 

Bring it \n; twill pre-' 
scribjefpr It presently. 

What a blessing it is to 
enjoy good health ^ 

4ndyetfezv esteem it as 
theym'ght todo^ 

I saw a poor 'wretch to^ 
day, who had lost the 
sight of both his eyes 
by his pzvn foll§. 

How was that ? " 

The stbfy is too long. I 
will tell you again., 

I have now only to visit 
a man^ xvHose leg was 
lately broken. 

^ c 2 


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,Cionas ta Sfean aniu? 
Ta moran nios fearr, a 

'deaggrad, taini buideac 

Nav oibrig na hicead go 

/P'oibi igeadar, agus nil 

se gearan xxifid fa pian 

pa cojse. 
Js doig gobfuil^n cnaim 

ag greiniead, faoi an 

trat so. 
Chi tear go bfuil blseac 

ipmcu^aig air. 
I^eigtear suaimneas do, 
' agus is doig Horn go 

jiiTeidir leis a beit ria 

s ui'd suas, faoi beagai^ 


How is John to-day f 
Much better^ 5/r, I give 
you thanks. . 

Did his medicines operate 

They didy and he com^ 

plains less of the pain 

in his leg. 
The bone must k(we tini^ 

tedy before this time^ 

He appears considerably 

Let him be kept quiets 
and t hope he will be 
able to sit up in a'Jea^ 
days, ^ 

VIL Travellings the Country y 8^c. 

Ca l^fujl 1110 giolla ? 

tTaim annso a ihaigistir. 

I^lifiiil ha Keacraig-reid ? 

Ta siad go direac cur 

deirig 1q na gcuid 

coirce, agus beid siad 

reid ambeag^naim^ir. 

]3eir cum an doruis iad. 

A ndeana tu *(lb cead-^ 

' louga 'brisead, sulfa 

racfa tu as baile? 
Ni deanad-acd" brise me 
' ieadlonga san \wx* ' ' 
|s saitn a beit niarcaigr 
* eict sa maidin ciuih. 
|fi> a6;binn an aimsir ta 
'"^guinn, * - 

Where is my servant ? 

Here^I am^ master,^ 

Are the horses ready ? 

They, are just JiJiishit^ 
their oatSy and wilt Be 
ready in a few minutes. 

Bring them to the door. 

frill y oil ireakfast be- 

fore you leave home f 

jyi>, I shall breakfast in 

Nexf^ry. ' 
// is pleasant to ride fi| 
'. ajine morning. 
IFe have delightful wea^ 



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Is TO rfiait again na tire, 

Ta eagla orrp go dtiuca 

cit orrain. 
Kil acd iieul,'' a racas 

tort gan ihoill. 
Sin fear air a mbota^ 

Dcanani go nibearamoiB 
. air, agus go mbiam a 

gcruadal leiis. 
Cio mbeannaVd Dia duit, 

a dame rhait. 
Go mbe^nnaid an cead- 
na duitse. ' ' ' 

Nac breag an ihaidrn I 

Is breag i, gloir Mo 

Ca fada tainic tu air 
. A dlinjclol ciiig mile. 
Hap, a duinc, as tu rinne 

an fnoc eirig. 
Nior codail nie rp Bfad, 

go deiinih. 
Car codail tu.areir, le^lo 

cead?' • ' 
Po co<lail me sa Isr^id 

baile. ' ; \ • 
An ann sin ' a Bias tu do 

IS.i head, acd a gcontaig 

an rig. 
GabfuH duil agada Beit 

^ noct? . 
Ta'diiil agam a Beit aibn 
Ardmaga, mas feidir. 
Beid tu ann sin am go 


The country appears very 

J fear we shall get a 

It is only a cloudy that 

will soon pass. 
There is a man in the 

road before us. 
Let us overtake him, and 

enter into conversa^ 

tion with hvn. 
God save you, good mart. 

May the same bless you. 

Is not this a fine morn- 

It isy thank God. 

How Jar did you come 

this morning ? 
About five miles. 
Hay man^you have arisen 
- early. 
Indeed I did not sleep 

very long. ' 
Pray, where did you 

sleep last night? 
I slept in Dundalh^ 

Do you dwell there ? 

No^ but in the King's 

Where do you intend to 

be to-night? 
I intend to be in Armagh 
. if possible. 

You will be there soon 


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A» Atsas^athuil cleans an 

eac sin agad. 
M hrc^%y crua'dala^ a 

gearran beag lb. , 
Gal>am orm go ndean 

se sodar go inait 
Nil nios fear air bit, dji 

Go d^ an aoia ta aige? 
phi^nnaid me air son 

beiteacc^ig mbliapa, 

fa nodloig jsa cuaiq 

tort h. 
Bbfuil beul mait aiger^ 
flot ihait; agus cQssa 

Measam gur co^in se 

Acactp no Oct ponta 

Co3saui ^ BIOS foigse 

cion fitced, dar mo 

Se so mo Gealacsa, a^s 

IS efgin darii dl^HaiL 
Turas^fo^ iiutt; i 
Hat do turais ort > 
GoaoiriSidelXiaduit. } 
Ca baVta mbriseam c^ad- 

Is ionnan dam ^. 
Beir air am caiple a6, a 

buacaill, agus siutSal 

'tort Jc0 Sieal ann sin. 
Ann sin tabair f^ur doib, 

agvis cutmil ^s go 

mait iad. 
Bacamaii^t da bfeiicain 

ai; ite a mbiad^ir;balL 

Tb0t is a pretty neat 

horse tfou have. 
JJe is a brave^ hardf 

little hack. 
J warrant he tr^m welh 

There is none betfef /^ 

his size. 
What is his age ? 
/ bought Mm ^s a kors^ 

of five years ofii^ fasf 


Has he a ggod rmuth P 
Very good; and somd 

I suppose he cost m^e^-- 

teen or eighteen pouniif. 

£[e ^sf nearer twe^tgt 
upon my hovQur. 

This is my roady an^I 
must lea^e ypu* 


JVhere shall we br^h- 

It is equal to me. 
Take these horses^ boy^ 

and lead them about 

fin; some time. 
Then give thevi hpy^ ^nd 

rMb thewt well dffwv. 

We win see thmfedpre- 

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A 1fea<jmanai^> faj^am ar 
^eadtonga gan ihoill 

Befd sin aguib, a 'daoine 

An aill.Iibuibeaca? 

Gau aifaras. Agus bi 
dearbta iad beft ikn 

Gearr aran is itn. 

Lion mias tea, agus cuir 

call ifiait siucaire, is 

uactar ann« 
An racfa spaistearact, go 

bfeiceam an baile ? 
Ni tcigeam anois. Oir 

cuiread sin moilisroTad 

Anois tamoid anairde 

Is breag an tlr i so* 
Ta an barr agealtad fog- 

niar ratihar. 
Taid na ^dai'd a gctui 

mait air a^ai|. 
Ca leis an tea£ sin air an 

Leis an Tigeama , 

acd se Sar Se6n — - 

a coihnaideas anois 

Togtar gur ti^ ir h. 

Kil sa baire le seact 
mbliadna foirgnlte. 

iTaan forba farsamg foir- 
leatan, an aba! gort 
(ilandta le crannaib, 

2gus nalinteUn lionta 
Q iasgaib* 

Waiter^ let us get break- 
fast immediately. 

You shall ha:oe it^ Cren- 

Do you choose eggs ? 

Certainly. And be sure 
that thev arefresK 

Cut some bread and buU 

Fill a cup qftea^ and put 
a good deal of sugar 
and cream in it. 

f Fill you take a walk, to 
seethe town? 

Not now. It would de- 
lay us too long. 

Notw we are mounted 

This is ajine country. 
The crops promise an 

abundant harvest. 
. And the gardens appear 

very forzvard. ' 

fVhose house is that on 

the hill? 
It belongs to Lord ^ 

but is inhabited atpre- 

sent by Sir John . 

It seems to be a new 

It has not been built 

more than seven years: 
The demesne is evtensive^ 

the orchard well plants 

ed, and the fish-ponds 

x^ell stored. 


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Anois tangamargo com- 
rac na nibotar, ni fios 
dam cia aca geabam. 

Chini duine sa macaire, 
a jiiuineas diiinn h. 

Sea'd, a caraid, ci aca so 
an bealac go -^ ? 

Gab slige na laime clide.^ 

Ca Tada, no, ca meud 
mile as so H^.. 

Nil se Qs cionn a se^t. 

Do hinsea'd damsa go 
raib sc a bfbgus d'oct 

An eigin cluinn an bot- 
arsa cuingbcal dii* fad r 

Ni head, acd an uair 
tiucfa sib a^coisa cnuic 
ag an droicead Beag, 
is eigih .^uit iompo air 
do laiih cli. 

A mbeirid an botar sin 


Ki bearan air fad. Fea-^ 
dar Fiafruga ag, an 
cead tig indiaig tion- 

Tamoid bui'deac duit. 
Is cosriiuil le tir malt 

^adacta i so. 
Ta fascad mait do coil- 
' cib coillead san ngei- 

mread ann. 
Biann an iomad paitn- 

osg, trid an goirt, 

agus naoscay, annsna 

A bfuil geariTiada, no 
sionnga, lefagaiUiihso. 

Now we have come /# 
crosyroadsy I do not 
knpw which to take. 

I see a man in thejield^ 
who will tell us, 

Ifo friend, which is the 
way to ? 

Take the left-hand road. 

How far, or, how many . 
miles is it from this ? 

Not more than seven. 

I was told that it was 
nearly eight. 

Must we continue long 
on this road? 

Noj when you reach the 
foot of the hilly at a 
little bridgCyyou must 
turn to your left. 

IFill that rpad bring us 
to — — ? 

Not quite. You v;ay en- 
quvx at the first house 
after you turn. ^ 

JFe thank you. 

This appears to be a good 

sporting country. 
There is good cover for 

woodcocks iri winter. 

Partridges abound in tht . 
corn fields y and. snipes 
in the bogs. 

Are there any hares *or 

" ' foses to te found here ? 

^ - - - Bhi 

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Bin go leer do gearrfi- 

adaib ann, anallod ; 

acd is l)eag nac ar 

s^rios na cuin iad. 
Agus biom ag maiBad na 

sionnac, ait air bit a 

tig linn a bfagail 
Bionn iasgaireact breac 

air feobas, san amain 

so romainn. 
A bfuil an aman sin 

Nil Do bi at anallod, 

san ait a bfuil an droic- 

ead anois. 
An bfuil aimnead air bit 

eile le tarsnad, idir so 

agus ? 

Ta aman mor leatan a 

dtarsanfar tairis a 

mbM tu. 

Ciouos ainmnigtear an 
aman sin ? 

An Bhanna, ruitean si 
asteag go Loc neiteac. 

Sin teac Brugaig toigea- 
mail, (no toig sgoloi- 
go maiseac, no brug- 
baile, no dilnaig dehg- 
ihaiseac) indlios, agus 
toigeac comgair. 

Ta na boit-eic, sna bA- 
toigte, agus cro na 
mixc suidte air aon 
rcim, re tig na ngam- 
nad, agus cro na gca- 

Is cosmuil go bfuil cail 
cruaca arbair, agus cru- 

There were several hares 
formerly, Jbut the grey- 
hounds have nearly 
destroyed them. 

And we kill the fo.ves 
whenever we can find 

There is good fishing Jor 
trouts in the river 
that you have to pass. 

Is that river deep ? 

No. There was a ford 

formerly where the 

bridge is now. 
Havewe any other rivers 

to cross, between this 

and f 

You have a very large 

one, over which you 

will be ferried in a 

What is that river called f 

TheBann; it runs into 
Lough Neagh. 

There are c{ neat farm- 
house, yard and offices. 

The stables, cow-house, 
and hog'Sty are ranged 
uniformlywith the calf 
and sheep 'pens. 

There appear to be some 

stgcks of corn and 

2 x> aca 


ized by Google 



aca ftir tifrtt san ail- 

Jjac aluinii an Itena sin, 

a dtaobsios dan ngar- 

Ta an feor tirm apuid. 
Is doig Horn go mBiad 

fo griiar malt go tbir- 

leatan anri. 
Ta faiceal riiai't air na 

huile ni, acd Hn. 
Ni Taca me ceacta ag 

treoBad, o dTagiHar 

Nil branar sariiraid coit- 

eeann i^a tir so. 

Guittear cruitricact go 
morrfioir air lorg ila 

Biann gnuis mordacta 
air na sleiBte so, on 
dtabb tuaid. 

Biann folac sneacta air 
fead an geiniri^ orrta: 
acd, san tsamrad, biann 
airneis 6g ag ingilt 

GaBam orm go mbifonn 
cios ard, sa tir so. 

Cionas lelg'tear fearainn 
sa n^t so ? 

Suidtear ifearann, o deic 
sgilline fitcead, go 
tri nginide an acair, 
reir a cail, no a cineal. 

Acd go mbionn cead ag 
gac tionaiteac, sandu- 

ricks df hay in the 
What ajine mmdam that 
isy below the garden ! 

The hay is ripe. 

I hope there wiU be a 

gdod harvest in gene- 

Every thing appears well 

except flax. 
I have nat Seen any 

ploughs at work since 

We set out. 
Summer fallows are not 

common in this coun- 
JVheat is usually sinvn 

after potatoes. i 

These mountains toWArds 
the north have a ma- 
jestic appearance. 

They are covered with 
snow during the win^ 
ter : but^ in sutnmer, 
young cattle graze 
upon them. 

I suppose rents are high 
in this country. 

How do lands let in this 
place ? 

Lands are let from thirty 
shillings to three gui- 
neas per acrcy accord^ 
ing to their quality. 

But every tenant on this 

estate has a liberty to 


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buaia h Toire^^ ido, 
san m6inig ihd'ir. (iVo 
sa mboga^l mdr, no 
sa bpuftac m6r.) 

I^ do\g Mqoi Dae bf^il 
gual fa na faireacaib 

Nil fei'dm air gi^aj, oir 
ta pailtios m6$i^ ^pn. 

Le li|ln ar gcruacjal, is 
eagal liom gur g^B^- 
loar an bealac e^g- 

Na bio'd eagal ^rt; is 
comaxB liom an bo tar 
so go mait; oir do 
3iubal me ^, ,do bli^- 
antajb o soin. 

Ohim au baile, ^^n axa|[. 

Agus binn i^a cijle ag 
f €ui% OS cionu na 

gcrann fa gcuaii^t. 
J[s aluinu a suiij^ari^ain ta 

Ge liac pior m baile 

gnotaig^ 6. 
Bionn njargad mait lin- 

eadaig, gac luain, ann ; 

agus aon^c airijeise 

air, An cead cQ^^Joinc 

gac jQiiosa, 

-Cia an drong >§p air .an 

mbotar ? 
Is Aocraide ta ^nn ; , nac 

gclume tu t4&g ? 

cut as piam/ turf as he 
'i^ants^ in fJfe great 

I believe fhere are no 

coals in this neigh- 

They flre not panted, for 

there is abundance of 

While chatting^ I fear 

we have ta^en the 

wrpng ro^d. 

You n£edmtfear^ I re-- 
collect this road very 
welly having travelled 
it same years ago. 

I see the town in the 

The s^ire of the church 

rises above the sur^ 

rounding trees. 
It is beautifully situ- 

Yet it is not a town of 

much trqde. 
There is a good linen 

tnarket in it every 

Monday^ a^d a fair 

far cattle Qn the first 

IVednesday^ in evei^ 

What crowd is this pn 

the road? 
Jt is a funeral, do you 

not h(^r the cry f 

2 p 2 Cia 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Cia an t(^rraIh fe so ? Whose funeral is this ? 

T6rram Phadruic i Dhui- Patrick Daman's. 

Cahuair a d'eag se? 
Air maidin, a n^. 
Go de an aicid tainic 

air ? 
Caoin caitea'd na na- 

durta as a cfeile ; oir 

bi aois mbx aige. 
An tifuil an reilg abfogus 

do so? 
Ag fuigeall na scan cille, 

ta air an cnoc ud tail. 

Is oiiBinneac an taiharc 
ta air an tseanfoirg- 
nearh sin. 

Ta an iomad da lei'tid ' 
sin, san tir. 

Creidimse gurab iomda 
lorg saor oibre, agus 
foirgiliugad, ta ann 
Eirin, on tsean aimsir. 

Is ro iomda iad, agus 
crutaigean sin go raib 
aitreabuig, agus ealad- 
nad ann, o iianaib. 

Bud saiih Horn a Beit 
tract fan adbar sin, 
arb, leat; san am 
ceadna, rainiceamarati 

Fanamoidannso, fead an 
cuinfeasgair; agus air 
maidin is eigin daihsa 
siubal liom ffein. 

JVhen did he die? 
Yesterday moriiing. 
JVhat zvashiscomfdaint * 

It was a gradual decay 

of nature^ for he was 

very Md. 
Is the burying ground 

near this ? 
It is at the remains of 

the old church upon 

yon hilL 
That ruin has a vene^ 

ruble appearance. 

Thete are many such in 
in the country. 

I believe there are many 
remains of cultivation 
and buildings in Ire^ 
landy of remote anti- 

There are very many^ 
which prove this coun- 
try to fiave been inha- 
bited and civilized at 
an early period. 

I shall be happy to talk 
with yoii on this sub- 
ject agpin^ in the 
mean time we have 
reached the town. 

JVe shall stay here^ dur- 
ing the afternoon; 
in the morning I must 
travel on by mysey^\ 


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Is truag Horn go cait- 
feamois sgararh co 
luat > 

Ta suil agam d'faiceal 
ark, faoi Beagau Jae- 

A biataig, a Bfeadam 

leapaca maite fagail 

annso, a iioet? 
Gheaba sib sinn tirm, ' 

tiagta ro sai^asac. 
Biod proinn ollara, fan 

ciiig o clog> 
Cionas a cait tu an cuin 

feasgar? i 
Chait me a dtig ^araid h. 

T^a se trat dol a luige. 
, Sar codla suaimnea6 

Agiolla, Bfuil mo capall- 

sa umaigtei 
Ta sereid, aduinie uasail; 

acd go bfuil crut air 

bogad aige. 

le gaba 

moc, ^ ^. 


Ta se ro 
•fagail ag 

G'eaba tu ceard gaban, 
air an botar; agu3 
saoilim an dtligfe do 
capall a crut, go 
dtiucfa tu cuige sin. 

Ca hainn^ ata air ? 

vita Prian, gabad, 

/ am sorry ihaf we must 
part so soon. 

I hope to see you again ifi 
a J em days. 

Landlord^ can we have 

good beds here to- 
Toil shall hd^oe them well 

aired and comfortable. 
Let dinner be ready at 

jive o'clock. 
How have you spent the 
' evening. 
I was at the house of a 

friend. ^ 
It is time to go to bed. 
Jwi^h you a good night's 

flostler^ is my hofst^ 

ready ? 
He is^; Sir^ but he has 

got a loose shoe. 

It is too early to find n 
smith at xvork. 

You will fnd a smithes 
^iiop on the roady and 
I think your horse 
will not drop his shoe 
until you come t9 it. , 

JFhQt is his. name ? 

lie is called Bryan^ tJw 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

4(5 niAJjODVMS. 

The following original and genuine coivcersa- 
tion tJnh^its the nntive smplicity of rustic che- 
racter and manners^ and jHrrmhes a variety of 
idiomatical terms and phrases. 

yill. Brian GaBa. 

Ca mbian Brian gaba na comnaig? 

Ta se a bfogus do riiHe uait, Tiontog air -laiA 
cli, ag an tig ufl is foigse duit: agus tfe sios a 
botairin beag. 

Hinnsead datbsa gur ag coiiirac na mbotar a bi a 

Is ann ata an cearta ; ac bi mise ag an 6earta 
andfs, agus nil se ann.^ Df iafraig me ag tig na 
croise, oir eaoil me go mbfeidir kis a • Beit fagail a > 
ijiurna air maidin, agus ni raiB se an siu a niu; a^ 
ta fios agam go laiB se naati go Icor ar^ir ^nn, 

Agus ca Bfuil a teac^felp, atkirtu? 

Nil teac no fearainn aige jacda 'dtigaBaHi61iaBna 
|i Bias se na comnaig. llaca tu sios an Bo'tairiu 
teag ltd, mar duBairt'me leata Toime, go dtig tu 
cum an at ; dearc annsin air do \zv6i deis, agu$ 
geaba tu cas^n, le taol> clad sean aBaill, lau<irea->^ 
sog ^gus fiagaiHe. 

'Mar racas/ta siar, agcois na hiiinne, -faoidsgat 
-pa gcrann, cifetu rcHhad, sean tigin6r, fada, faoi 
ilroic dion; agus eignean glas, fi fas go barr da 

Is doTg liom go Bfuige tu Brian gab na leaba, air 

Nil fios agam go de is fearr dadisa a deanam,' 

Togar dam go bfuil do capul bacac, 

Da bfuigiuA kit a gcuinnn a gteac h; agus 
^jboacal a racfad a gcuinne an gabau, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

I>{^LOiGT/£$. 47 

VIII. Bryan the Blacksmith. 

TVhcrc does Bryan the blacksmith live? 
It is nearly a mile off. Turn to the left baud^ 
at the next house, and go down the little lam. 

I was told that his house was at the cross roads. 

His shop is there; but I was in his shop just 
noWj and he is not in it. I enquired at the cross 
house^ for I thought that he might be there getting 
his drop in the morning, and he had not been there 
to day ; but I know that he was late enough there 
last night. 

And where is his own house, say you ? 

He has neither house, nor land, but lives in the 

house of his mother-in-law. You will go down that 

little lane, as I told you before, till you come to the 

ford; look then on your right hand, and you will 

find a path along-side the hedge of an old orchard 

fulloforiars arid weeds. 

As you go over, by the river's side, under the 
shade of the trees, you will see before you a great 
long old house with bad thatch, aiid green ivy 
growing to the tops of the two gables. 

I imagine you will find Bryan in bfd this mornings 

I know not what I had best do. 
Your horse seems to be lame. 
Could 1 'find some place to put him into, and 
a boy to go for the smi/h. 


Digitized by G00gle\ 


* Gheaba tu 5tabla, aige na ccitre bcalaig* 

Acd is fearr dam ftin a dol leat ; oir is doilig an 
fear sin a dusga'd^ no a cur sL gcionn oibre air 

Ma tig tu Horn, beid nie buideac duit. 

Berd me leat gan rnoill. 

Deanam, anois^ 

An bfuil bean ag an gaba sin? 

An h Brian ? (io deiriiin ata bean, agus triur 
garlac aige, fan teallac, ag an barntreabuig boct 
sin sios. Rit se air siubal le girseac beag, nac 
xaib OS cipnn ciiig mbliadain dfeag, ingean na mna 

An bfuil si bfad na bairitrea baig ? 

Ta se naoi mbliadna o deag a fear. 

Agiis ba duine daonda, deigbeasaic esean ; m6r 
measamuil amuig, s' ambciile. . 

An raib moran fear^inn, no maoin aige ? 

Bhi fearann saor, agus saidbreas go leor aige. Is 
coimin liomsa tigeama na haitese mile ponta dfa- 
gail air iasact uad. Dar ndoig go dtug se ciiig 
c^d ponta, do crod, leis an ingin ba sine. 

An bfuil tu dearbta go dtug se an uirid sin ? 

Dearbta ? Ta me lin dearbta go bfuair a Boul- 
terac ch\g chnd uad, ma bi se na muiniu; 

Cia he an Boulterac ? .^ 

Caiptin Boulter. Nac gcuala tu umrad air an 
duine uasaj, a d'fogair comrac air a Chromsui- 
leac ? 

Ni cuimneac liom go gruala me ariaru iomrad 
air ceafitar aca. 

Is doig liom go gcuala tu fail loing da ngoirtt 
an Boulier, a caillead fa cuantaiK cuau na mara, ag 
react o port na ngall. 

Ca raib a triall? 

Trial 1 go Doire. 

Nac facia sin o soin ? 

/ think 

Digitized by VjiOOQIC 


You will find fl stable at the four roads. 

But I had better* go with you^ for it is hatd to 
awaken that JelloWf or set him to w^rk in the 

If you come with me I shall be obliged to you. 

I will be with you immediately. 

Let us go now. 

Has this smith a wife f 

Is it Bryan f Indeed he has a wife and three 
children about the hearth^ with that poor widow 
below there. He ran away with a little girl not 
more thanjifteen years otd^ the daughter of that 

Has she been long a wid(X(p ? 

It is nim years since her husband died. 

And he was a humane, moral man, much respected 
abroad and at home. 

Had he much land or substance ? 

He had cheap land and wealth enough. I remem- 
ber the landlord of this country to borrow a thou- 
sand pounds from him. I am convinced that he 
gave Jive hundred pounds as a portion with his eldest 

Ate you sure that he gave so much f 

Sure ? I am full sure that Boulter got Jive hun^* 
dredfrom him, if not more. 

JVho is BouUer ? 

Captain Boulter. Did you never hear of the 
gentleman that challenged Cromwell to fight a 

I do not recollect that\ I ever heard of either of 

I suppose you have heard of the ship called the 
Boulter, that was lost on the coast of C^nnemara, 
coming from Portugal. 

For what place was she bound? 

For Derry. 

Is not that long since ? 

2 £ Saoilim 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ffS, fllAIiQQUES. 

SaoiliDi ge Mitt ae in biuuim d^, ^ tea^ na 
feil Micade, 

la cuma^ liom hj go dc&rtita, b ceart malt 
agam air, oir do biearradagam fein ionnta. 

fihi, a deir tu? Dar *m' f l^iime nmsead ba le 
Caiptin Boulter an sguib wn* 

Is iongad Horn sin ; oir connairc mise an caiptin, 
agus togar daih gur Prestoo a lii air. 

Ta tu ceart go Icor; oir dob h Pre$toa ait caip- 
tti^ lorogftiolacl: ; acd ba le Boulter Mi satt> diOs; 
oir bi se f^n sua h India aoir, an oair a hri- 
sead i. , 

Acd go de seol an caiptin a bealacsa, ag koraid 
mna? ^ 

Ni ann so a ias se ufrr'ti, ao^ a m Baiferat-cliat, 
ait a^iaib si air agoil. fia cailin goaaaaiail i, agus 
tug Boulter taitneam di. 

Anndiaig brisead na luinge ^ se i; a nead ? 

)%t dtknoibll tri raite i)a diaig; fa lugspaa mo 
doig.; ni raiti se bf«d aooi £ifinti| deis a tea^t an 
India, anuair pi>3ad i^ 

Car aioinnead atair a jfina? 

Do clainn Charta. Seamus ni6r Mhac Cai'ta^ 
duine breag, maiseae, urntnta go deniiin. Thainic 
se ann mb cuiifuie, com luat is ^onnairc ma do 
toirt, agus do gnuis, ag tcact cum, an doruiaair 
maidin ; oir nil tu neamcosriiuil Icia. 

Bhi doig ihait air, a deir tu ? 

Is air a bi sUg mait airgiod a deanam. Ba leia 
an muileann ud, a connairc tu, a gcois a loca, ag 
teact diiit Bhi deacuib na jmraiste aige; 
agus ba glacadoir ciosa h don tigeama bi aguinil 

An raib cios air bit air fbin ? 

Bhi se faoid cail ciosa, fa talaih na croi^e, I^Ia 
ta bi cios bonntaiste ag^ teact asteac cuige. 

Bhi da cead nacra annso aig atair na baintrea- 
buig, air leat cr6in an acair; is leag« air feadfaisad 
feur uaitne. 

/ think 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I think it is thkrteen if ears di next Mkhmlnias. ^ 

I remember it indeed, and a gjood tight Z hase^ 
for I had goods myself in her. 

You hady fou set^t Upon my truth then Boulter 
was the captain of that ship, 

I think that sir^ng4i^f6r Isms tbeicc^ain^ and 
I think his name was Preston^ - . 

Vou are right enough; for Preston was the 
bailing captain^ but the ship belonged to Boulter; 
for he himself was in the East Indies when site Was 

But what • sent the captcdn this ^my^ seeking a 

It was not here that he met her, but in Dublin^ 
where she was at school. She was u handsome girly 
and Boulter fell in iwe with her. 

After the shipnjnreck he nmnriedJier^ wm it not? 

About -three ^uurters e^ttr H; about Lammas I 
think ; he xMs^ net long in Ireland, qftfin aiming 
from India, when he was married. 

Of what family tM^ His wife's father ? 

'Of the M'C^rthys. Big James M'Cartby, a 

bravCy clever, genteel man indeed. He came into 

my memory as soon as I sam your stature and your 

features: coming to the doKkr this morning ; for you 

are not unlike him. 

He was prosperous, you Bay ? 

He was in a good way of making money, ffe had 
that mUi which, you sm^ beside the lake, as you 
came. He had the tithes of the parish, and hei^ds 
receimr of rent to onr late landlord * 

Had he any rent to pay himself? 
He had to pay some rent for the lands of the 
Cross. But he had profit rent coming to Mm: 

The widow's father had two hundred acres in this 
piact, at half-<i-crown an acre, and a Im^eqf it 
' while green grass grows. 

2e2 An 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


An raib sin k adlb aige.Mac Carta ? 
Fuair 8e sin uile do cro'd, le na ihnaoi ; agus 6i 
aca godti anuraig, gur b*dgin a dtol. 

Nac raib seilb aige fern, leit muig de sin ? 

Dar luloig go raib Baile an loca uiit aige, 2^s 
ag a ainnserkb loime; acd go bfuil se faoi xnorgaig 
inois, le seact mblia'dna* 

Raib clann mac aca ? 

Ta dis mac bco. An fear is sine bi sc a bfad a 
Bpairift, ag fttuidear liaigis; d*'fag se sin, deic 
mbliadna o soin, agus cuaid se go h India; agus 
cluinim nac btiiil aon bliadain o soin, riacar iolatar 
se mile ponta. Ta ddii na mbaile leis, air a blia* 
dainse, go ndiola se na fia^a. 

Ca bftiil aa mac ^ile ? 

'S6 sin S^aofius og. Nil oganac, sa rann £orpa, 
is flatamla cmide, na an fear $in, da mbiad acfuinn 
aige. Fuair se 4it ftr-ionad, ^n arm, anuraid. 
Kii s^ fad, o bi an caipiin is e f^in ami sa 

Bhfuil doig ihait air an iaiptain anois? 

Deir siail go bfuil se Ihn saidbreas; dainde6in 
ga6 caile tainic air. 

Ca mbionn se na comnui| ? 

A mbaile-at*cliat ; hSem agus a bean, ifigean p^ 
baintreabuig se, 

Acjtig si air cuairt cum na matara? 

Thig si anoisy air uatrib; bi si bfad nac labrad si 
le na matair, cionn dtug si ait, no oigeact do 
Bhrian, no da l^n, 

A bfuatr Brian gaba moran spr^ le na liinaoi? 

Esean crod ! BTearr leo a crocad san am sin. Ni 
raib moran le fagail, le na linn, air doig air hit. 

Go dc d'imtig aira maoin? 

Fliar na dligteamnaig an quid is mo de. Is iomda 
jcaill, agus buaidread, a tainic orrta anois, le deic 
mbliadn^ib, o tainic Crom^uil a beit na tiamii 
air an dutaig so. 


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Had McCarthy that in possession ? 

Hi got it ail as a porthn with his wife, and they 
held ity until last ytar, when it was forced to be 

Had he no property of his own besides ? 

Indeed he and his forefathers had all Balinlough, 
but it has been mortgaged now seven years. 

Had they any sons ? 

They have two soni living. The eldest was a long 
time in Paris^ studying medicine; he left that ten 
^ years sincCy and went to India ; and I hean that 
thens is not a year since, in which he does not sOte a 
thousand pounds. They expect him home this y ear ^ 
to pay off the debts. 

IV here is the other son ? 

That is young James, There is^ not a youth iii 
Europe of a nobler spirit than that lad, if he had 
the means.^ He got a lieuienanfs place in the army 
last year. It is not long since the captain and he 
were here. 

Is the captain in good circumstances now ? 

They say he is very rich, notwithitanding' all 
his losses. 
. Where does he live ? 

In Dublin, he and his wife, the daughter of 
this widow. 

Does she visit her mother ? 

She comes n&w sometimes : for a long time she 
would not speak to her mother, because she gave 
place or shelter to Bryan or his wife. 

Did Bryan get much fortune with his wife ? 

He fortune! They would rather hang him then. 
There was not much to be got in his time at any 
' rate. 

What became of tjte property ? 

The lawyers got the most of it. Many a loss and 
trouble has come upon them now, these ten years, 
since Cromwell came to be landlord of this estate. 

•" . Go 

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Go de 'taini£ air an tiarna, lii amt roilte? 

Nr I'ftib clann aige ; ts bi se dosgadkc^ is dcot 5ft «n 
dutaki le Cromsuil. Choanl aait eifa go Longdibi^ 
agus cluinlm gur eag se o soin. 

Go de fat dligfe bi ag M*Carta ? 

Cromsult a cuaid cutn dli^ea'd Iris, ag kmaid 
leagsa na haitcse a brtsead, aguS a Ik^ail da ftkii - 

Go de an ceart a bi ag CrOmsail te tetsbeaimd? 

Ceart ! nmfik raib ceart, bi mesirt airgit aige. 
Agus dar ndolg ba ieor sindo Mhac Carta, da m]mA 
de coih ci-i^nna. is coir do beit: tie da mbiadan^ 
lag air an tairgtod glacad, a df aiatt Cronniuil ait 
.^tuft air* 

Kaib se ag iarraig a ceannac o Mhac Carta? 

DTur^il se da mile pbntaair; acd ni raib Mac 
Carta stbta sgarmuint leis, 

Naf beag kis aJi da ttiile? 
' Ba tieag Icis, gati arin^as; oir dp bi abfogtts 40 
ttf c6ad sa nibWadain teact »<tcac saor as. Ni 
raib ait faoi an grein, no cfs a ceann, mo doi^, a 
santalg Cromsuil nios mo, na talaA na croise beit 
unna s^ilb f^in. Nid nac iongnad bu ifa6r a ract 
leis, foidin aoibin, mar ta se, belt a lar a duitce) 
agiis gan cuid aige f^in de. 

Nil fearann sa gcoigead is torrtamlac, agus is 
taitneamuige, na talarii nacroise; ait a feftiil gac 
uile cGthgar, mom, is moin&«r, roga ailmok)^ is 
teine, is uisge. Feuesa na cfainn alainn, ta f^ fk 
tia cladacsa ; doir, is oinnse, is ailm; ilir, is gimdadi 
is caortain ; fltnmn^ coll, is saileac ; agus cttiieann 
glas go fbrrlionta^ 

Ta clocaoil, agus dinn clo^a go Icof^ fatri talaiih 
ann; agus leaca, mora, leatan, leabar, ceatamac, 
ceart-cnmpa, ariiail ieac feattain, fa bruae na haim- 
ne, so sios air fad. 


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What hecmm ef the former lemMord f 

He hetd mo childr-en ; he Ufos ejftrava^unt^ and 
sold the estate ta Ormrvwdl. Then he went to Lon- 
don, cmd I hear thai be died mnce. 

JVhat lawsuit had McCarthy ? 

Cromwell went to Icm with him^ endsavouring to 
break the lease of this place and to get it to him* 
self. \ ' 

fVhaf right had Cromwell to ^cw ? 

Right ! If he had not right he had might of 
tnoney. And surely that was enough for McCar- 
thy , if he had been as wise as he ought to be^ or 
if he had taken the money that Cromxvell offered 
him at first. 

Did he want to buy it from McCarthy ? 

He offered him two thousand pounds far it ; but 
McCarthy zoas not pnlling to part with it. 

Did he think the two thousand pounds too little ? 

He did certainly ; for he kad near three hundred 
a year of clear income from it. There was noplace 
under the sun^ nor above ity I suppose, that Crom^ 
well coveted aiore, than to have the lands of the 
Cross in his own possession. No wonder th£ith$' 
thought it a vexationy that a charming spot as it 
is, should be in the middle of his estate, without his 
httving any claim to it. 

There are na lands in the praoinee. more fertile 
cmd charming than the lands of the Cross; where 
there are all convenieneeSi bog and meadow, choice 
timber, fire and water. See the beaut ful trees, 
that are groiwing about these Jiedges; oak, ash and 
ebn; yew, fir^ and quick-beam; alder, hdis&l and 
sallow ; and green holly in abundance. 

There are linw-stone and elates enough under 
ground here; and great, broad^ smooth flags, 9faar4 
<md well formed like tomb-stones, in the bank of the 
river alm§ here below. 


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36 DIALt^UES* 

Atr son fior utsge, dar ndoig, nac Bfutl nios fearr 
ann Eirin, no adtobar ui Dhalaig, ann so slos. 

A mbionn marla le fagail, sua leantaib so? 

A^d go ieor de ann, aod i|ior togad moran ariam 

Is beag fi^im leasaig air an fearannsa. Da bfaic- 
feasa barr na macaireadsa, le linn Mhic Carta; 
air feabus coirce geal, is cruitneact glegeal; orna 
buid^ is siogal siolniar ; agus lion glas, caol/ fada 

Cia h^ ta na comnutd sa tig beag doigeamuil ud; 
a bfuil c^arda air c^la, agus macaiie deas^ r^id os a 
cuione ? 

Nil aon duine anois ann, acd sean duine a bios 
tabairt do. An fear, a bi ann, dimtigsc, leis an 
clos. Fait na neoinin angoirtear don luag ud, Dar 
m'Tirinne, a deag duine, connairc mke seomac 
c^pall a fas san ^it sin, seact mbliadaa o soin, a 
risi^ad go' beannaib bo. 

Cio de an clos a bi air? 
y^\\i fitce ponta sa bliadain ain Agus an dume 
dona dTag ^, deanam se leit aciosa gac uile Bliad* 
ain, do torad an abal guirt. 

Agus go de mur tuit se ar deiread, nac dtiucfad 
leis c)os a diol? 

Thiucfad leis a diol, mait go Ieor. Acd euir - 
Cromsuil tiopad air na tionantaig, gan clos a diol 
leis an baintreabulg, go dti no ndeanfaid reidteac 
san dlige. Bhi an fear sin, agus ci!ligcar eile, seact 
nibliadna, gan aon pigin ciosa did ; gur riteadar 
air siubal, fa dearad, agus corrd is seact c^ad pon- 
ta do cill cios orrta. 

Ba m6r an caill a tainic uirfte. 

Nac deacaid an dlige anadaig Chromsuil fa 

Chuaid seanagaid, da bliadain o soin. Acd 
diol an balntreabuig an fearann ; agus raca siad go 
Baile na loca, air an bliadain so cugainn. 

Nac dtiucfad Ico an aitse cuingbeal? 


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As for spring. mater ^ I am positive there is none 
better in Ireland than in O'Dafy's well, demon hers. 

Is there any n^ri got in these meadoxvs ? » 

There is plenty of it in tbem; but there never 
was much j^ it raised. 

These lands require little manure. If you had 
seen the crjops of these fields in McCarthy's time ; 
jthe be^t white oatSy .and fair wheats yellow barley , 
and fruitful rye, jond green fiar, growing tall and 

Who lives An that neat little ihpuse, that has the 
garden behind it, anda^ne plain ^bfore it ? 

There is no person in it now, but Mn old man ^ who 
4akes cave Mf it. The nuifnjwbo lived ifi it went off 
.with the rent. That^fetd is xaUv(ithe daisy lawn. 
Upon ,my word, .Sir, I mm qlaver growing there 
e'esaen years MgOy that reached to the cows' horns. 

What wasthe rjmt/ofit ? , . ,. ^ 

Twenty pounds a year ; and the unfortunate man 
that deft At .made .half his rent .every year of the 
fruit cf his orchard. 

»How didthefail sojnuchyjhat he could not pay 
the vent? 

He could fay. it .well enough^ but Cro^nwelltaid 

.an irijunction.anjihe .tenants to pay no rent to the 

.widkv until the law-suit ^mos decided. 2his man^ 

and fine othevsy were, seven years, wifhojut paying a 

penny of rent; untiithey ran off at last,, under at 

least, seven hundred pounds jf a^Tears. 

That jwas a ^reat loss tq, her. 

Did the laursuit go agq^t Cromwell at last? 

. Jt did^ two yeans aga : but the widow sold the 
land, and they will go to BalinJough ncj^t year. 

'Cquld they not Imld this place ? 

2p D'feudaia 

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58 1)TAL0GUES. 

lyTeudaia siad cuicl de cuingBcal, gan arfiras; 
acdniar maFt leo beit faoi cuihacta naihaid. 

An h Cronisuil aceannaig an fearann? 

Niar b' h. Acd 'sh barariiuil gac dtiine, gur do 
a ceannacad h ; agus ta mis6 dearbtk go nibfa<i ser 
aige, andiaig gac cuingslco bi eattorra. 

Agus "dibir se Brian gaba boct, atnac as a tir; '& 
gur raib se da bliadain air bord luinge, sa gcaWac 
an rtg^ agus bliadain eile, nabraigde, sa Frainc. 

Go de bi anagaid Bhrian aige ? 

Feadmanai Chromsuil, a tug mi-mod do maig- 
i^treas Ni Carta^ aon la amain nac i*aib Bhrian H 
baile; agus dubairt Brian, dambiadse ftinalatair, 
go mbuailead se an feadntanac. 

Casas Cromsuil, 's a giolla, air Bhrian, na dia^ 
sin, air an botar,* ann so tall; agus lug siad araon 
acmusan ro geur do, fa na bagairt Bhi Brian in- 
diaig bolgain 61 ; agus gradas a dom, trom, cruaid, 
mar ord urlaig, agus buaileas an feadmanac a mbuh 
na cluaise, gur leag se, na cosar cro, os coxhair a 

. lonnsaigeas an niaigistir Brian ann sin, le eac- ^ 
laisg; agus bi ga lasgad go teann, Ho go dtug 
Brian aon leim, lugbar, fair an Chroiusuil, gur tar- 
raing se annas on gearran b; agus sniomas an lasg 
asalaiih; agus a leitid da rusga'd, is da leadrad,. 
tug Brian do air an niball sin, nac bfuair se riaih a 
roime. No go gcuala* an dtomian, a dtaob tall 
^loncnuicj 's go dtainic buidean m6r, do gioUan- 
Tuib, agus luct oibre Chrorasuil fan gcomair. 

Anuair a connairc Brian an neart biodbuig da 
ionnsaig, lingeas tar diog, on mbotar amac, agus 
ftginnios mar seidcad gaoite, tfc ooilltib, is cur- 
raigib, 's gac airiireidtig ;. 's a toir na diaig, tnar 
conairt an diaig geirfiaid. Acd ce be ^it air bfuair 
se didion, no fosgad deariiiain, sgolb de sgeul a, 
bfukir siad, o sin amac. . 

Gidcad fuair maigbtreas Ni Carta faisneis ca 
raib se; agus cuir $i duine airigte fa na d^in, le tri 



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They could hold part ofit^ no doubt ; but they 
would not wish to be under the poxver of an enemy. 

JVa^ it Cromwell that bought the land? 

It was not. But every one thinks that it was 
bought for him : and I am sure that he will hate 
it, after all the quarrels that were between them. 

And he banished poor Bryan out of the country; 
so that he was two years on board the King^sjleet ; 
and another year a prisoner in France. 

What ailed him at Bryan ? 

A footman ofCrvmweirs insulted Mi^s. AVCar^ 
thy, one day that Bryan was not at home; and 
Bryan said, if he were presenti that he would strike 
the footman. 

Cromwell and his ^ervMiU met Bryan, on the road 
beyond here, afterwards; and they both ranked 
him sharply for his threat. Bryan had taken a 
tup; and he clenches hisfisjt, heavy and hard as a 
battering hammer, and strikes the waitinjg man be- 
hind the ear, till he stretched him, zvith his feet up, 
before his master. 

Then the master attacks Bryan, mth the horse- 
whip, and was cutting him up smartly, until Bryan 
gave one quick leap at Cromwell^ and pulled him i 
down off his horse; he twists the whip out of his 
hand, and such a beating and fogging, as Bryan 
gave him there, he never got before^ So that the 
noise was heard on the farther side of the hill; and 
a great number of servants and labourers of Crom- 
well came to his relief 

When Bryan smv the force of the enemy approach- 
ing him, he leaped oxer t he ditch ^ out of the road, and 
darts off, like a blast of wind, through woods and 
bogs, and every difficult place ; and the pursuers after 
him, like hounds after a hare. But wheresoever he 
got protection or shelter, not a syllable of infor- 
mation they received, from that for th^ 

Hawa)cr Mrs. McCarthy learned where he was ; 
find she sent a certain person to him, with three 

2 F 2 nginige; 

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6(f JJflAli66tJES. 

iigiriigd; agus litiiV ag krra'i{} atf dol go Ltrfin* 
neac, fa dfein a mic, agus a 6otftairle a gla^ad 
Do isi mai^istir Seafnus ita Tear bratac, san am 
sin; ^cd nior itiait Wis Brian a cur sin arm; oir 
ni rdib dii'it go mbiad CroinSiril beo. Agus coaiif 
Seatrius ftiri le Briati, a' gcois htoll, go Coffeai|, 
gur fi^g se air bofd Idtn^c fe. 

Agus, gb dfeichtn, ni dearna Brian bocd dear- 
mud d' csean, na diaig Sill. Oir So bi ag air Fairgc 
air, a nuair a gab na Francaig an lohg, corrad 
agiis e^ad pfonta a' raib ceart aige fagail, idir 
airgibd biiada, agu3 tuafdsidal Afiuaif a bi s^ 
sa bFrainc, figriob se litir fa dfeirt caiptin Boul- 
ter, agus cuai'd se go Longdiin, agus fuaif se trt 
fitcead pdrlta dd. Dotdaig Brian fitce ponta a 
"tabaii-t do fear brataig, agus fitce ponta da bain- 
cliainuin, aguS ari treas fitcfead da tiinaoi ftin. 

Anois, a duine uasail^ dairis me duit cail do 
imteacta Brian, agUs a riiuintir. Acd cluinim 
fukini tia nord; ihar siii ta Bridh, tio cUid da 
gaibinib oga, san gcearda anois. Agus muna 
bfiiil se anh, Itca mie na ciiinnie; oir ni deanam 
aon do na JbilacailliB gtidlai| duitse^ colli miit 
leis fein. 

IX. Teac oideacta tuaidte. 

Ca iheud mile uaim an baile is neksa daifa^ 

Ti d'eit itilte, niaite, go hairigte; agus nil an 
bo'tar rb^lriait inn ^iteacuib. 

Is ganh darii beit ann a noct. Nac aoh ionad 
bid'eicta, eidruini agus ^? 

Ta brug oMieacta ro gfreasta, a dttnidoU ctiig 
i&He.rotfiid, ionn a bfuigir gac coriigair go s^- 
la; agus beid tu •ag'contabairt cuideacta 'fogail 
ann, ilVal- ih 6 so an beakc go Jiaonac Bhaile 
rta slo^a. 


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guineas i and a letter desiring him to go to Lime- 
rick, to her son. Master James was an ensign 
at that time, but he did not wish to put Bryan 
into the army ; for there was no hope that Crom^ 
well would live, ^nd James himself went with 
Bryan, privately, to Cork, until he left him on 
board a ship. 

Andy indeed, poor Bryan did not forget him 
afterzvards. For he had the fortune on sea, when 
the French took the ship, to get at least one 
hundred pounds, between prize money and wages. 
JVhen ht was in France^ he wrote to Captain 
Boulter, and he went to London, and received 
sixty pounds for him. Bryan ordered twenty 
pounds to be given to the ensign, twenty to his 
mot her ^n- law, and the remaining twenty to his 
own wife. 

N&w, Sir, I have told you some of the adven- 
tures of Bryan and his people. But I hear the 
sound of the hammers; so that Bryan, or some 
of his young lads, are in the shop now. If he is 
not there himself, I will go for him; for none 
of his men will do your business so well as him^ 

IX. The Country Inn. 

How many miles am I from the nest town ? 

At least ten long miles; and the road is not very 
good in some places. 

I can hardly reach it to night. Is there noplace 
of entertainment between this and it? 

There is a very decent inn^ about five miles for- 
wc^d, where you can he well accommodated; and 
you mil be apt to find company there, as this is 
the way to the fair if Malinashe. 


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Gheaba tu proinn mait, agus leaba saim ann; 
agns aire mait dod capalL 

Is leor sinn. Ni ]*acaiB nlos faide, 

Ca Bfuil tear an tig? 

Tuini ann so, a duine uasail. 

Go de ta agad a Ogasdoirr 

llo^a gaca bide, is toga gaca djge. , Ta mairt 
feoil riiait, is caoir Teoil uir; ta feoil laoid biadta, 
uain feoil ro mait, is feoil meit mionnan. 

Go de an seoirt dige ta agad ? 

Ta leann donn, laidir, blasta, briogmur; uisge 
bea'ta is fearr c^l; biot^ilte bioraca o t}r fa tuinn ; 
agns flonta na Fraince, is phort na ngall. 

Car leis na heacraig sin, tainic air ball? 

Le dis fear on dtaoti tuait Agus ta na firse 
cum prainn annso. 

Is mait Horn cuideacta. 

Ala ta, ni leatsa a suidfeas siad, a saoi; do 
b\\ gur daoine tuata iad. 

Is cuma sin. Is cosmuil le duine fiudac iad ; 
suideam, agus iteam air aon mbord. 

fuilte (lib, a daoine u^isle, Suigeam sips air 
an mbord/ 

Ta tart agus ocras orm. Tabair ni dam le 
na ite. 

Cto de is mian leat 61? 

Tabtiir deoc dam. Deoc leanna. 

Fa tuairim do sliiinte. Go raib maft agad. 

Bigid go subac. Go ndeana se mdt mait 

iy\t me go leor. Ta me sasta. 

Feidir nac dtaitnigean se leat. 

Taitnigean se liom go mait. 

Ni tig liom nios mo 61. Choisg me mo 

Cia an ard do cuigead Ulad a mibionn sib? 

Adtaoib soir; lairh re traig diXn droma. 

Tuigim go bfiiil sib triall go hard siar. BYearr 
liom go bmnad sib anpct; agus Uioimse lib, air 
an aonac. 


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You will get a good dinner and bed, and your 
horse xcill be well treated. 

That is enough. I will go no farther. 

JVhere is the master of the house ? 

I am here. Sir. 

fFhat have yoti for me^ landlord? 

Choice of meat and drink. I have fat beef and 
fresh mutton^ fed veal, very good lamb, and fat 

What kind of drink have you? 

I have strong, and melt favoured brown beer ; 
whiskey of the best quality ; spirits from Holland; 
and wine from France and Portugal. 

Whose horses are those, that came just now? 

They belong to two men from the north, and these 
men are to dine here. 

I am fond of company. 

But they will not sit with you, Sir, for they are 
plain country men. 

No matter. They appear to be decent men; lei 
us sit, and eat at one table. 

Vote are welcome, gentlemen. Let us sit down 
to the table. - . • 

lam thirsty and hungry. Give me something 

What do you chuse to drink ? 

Give me a drink. A drink of ale. ■ . J» .' 

To your health. I thank you.. . 

Sit ye merry. Much good fhayil do yon. 

I have eaten enough. I aim satisfied. . / 

Perhaps you do not like it. 

I like it very xvelL 

I can drink no more, I have f/ueniked wy 

In what part 0/ Ulster do ydu live ? _ 

In the eastern part : n^ar the shore ofDundrum. 

I understand tiiat you are going westward. I 
wish you would .stay to night, and. I will be with 
you in the morning. You will be soon enough at 
the fair. 



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Ha fiaojlear fib, blf^rr Uhq fiiirefic. Agus ba 
A6t an sai±eas tusa bei't liati. 

Dwiwe C/iar^t Ca hainm, no sknuacjwi iJiB, a 

Mac Gabann »iii' amm 's mo ^lo^meacUa^; agus so 
jO iliiatiaxl mo ouaillig. 

i). 17. An tifinl puai'deact air Viit lid fvs biir dtir, 
a cairde? 

Mac G. Nil a dadam air siulial, a-i uaMiUside 
ga nartac o hait >go .hait 

O Rtumad. -Ohiinirose go ^bfuil aaioni^^d cal 
buiginib i\ra do milisitlib ga dtogbail, iSasdn; 'm 
go ndeantar.a leitid ami Eirlnfaoi^fairid; 

D. XT. ^B' feidir sin a beit ^ 

Mac G. Maisead, a dtuigean tu^.^^ineuaaal^ 
go de is ciall do sin uile? .no^aa eagla a namaid^ata 
orrta? , 

D. U. Ni'tuigim, isni creidimgo bfuiLeaglajxo 
baogal ortta. Gidead ni ftilair a beit coim^ac, 
agus inn f^in a cuingb^aloa3 aoara an Basiiaid. 

Acd is ag an uacttaoftetis feacratafios a gBoitce 
ffein. Agus ni beite duinn a beit ro Tjafrugac da 
adbaTaib ^irdrcfmeaca. 

Mac G. Is f lor ^, a saoi, 's iad na gno'tai|[C cois 
baile is fearr farus orruine tieit tract. air. 

D. U. Feadam ifts .beit Iract .air seanacais • na 
tire, gan diombail. 

An bfbii «i6saii .do .io^s^a .acan ^^aMBgn^d^ no 
oibreaca cian atMig.eite,vle fiaiceal in liiur dticse? 

O Ruanad. Ta fuigill sean-^caiskan, scant^iealla, 
agus sean tolr cian krsaig goiJeot ann. 

Mac G. D'ar ndoig go bfuil; agus gur awsiaig 
an. obair na rata, 's riaihwaiAneaiQa, .'s . na leaca li- 
t€at'da a faaras ionnta. 

OR. B' fei'dir gur sinne ha oloc-oir, ?s na car- 
^nain^ ^s na cromleaca, na iad sin J^in. 



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If you, iMnki ^ we TSU^M^mmh to i^lJand 


. G. IVhai are yauf msme^ or. famlk^.^'my 
friend$? .: 

My namtf and that oj my. family ^ i^Smftk, mi 
my QomjJanionX Roouof^ 

G. HaveyWi any fwv^sjrom yaur aouvftryy my 
friends f 

S, Nothing is talked of expepty that the mi^ 
iitia are a cbangiMg from om piac^. to. mtotker^ 

ft. i hear tAai thera ^e; several new regi^ 
mehta ^ mUkia nam rais^, in England^ an(^ 
that the ^ame mil ^om be done in Irelaml. 

G^ It mill probably be so. 

S. Wsli, &>, 4lQ you. und&r$tmd wlmt alLibis 
msamf Are the cmemiea dreaded? ' 

G. / neither know imr btUme that there i^ 
eiihfir Jear or danger. Vet it, is. proper to b$ 
upon the alert, and to keep ourselves out of the 
poiesr of the engmy. 

But ihc goverMmtnt ktwvytlfdir own aj^avrs. 
best. And we should not be too inquisi^ve about 
high affairs. .. - .. 

S. That i» true^ &>, diom^Uia affairs are the 
moAt proper subject Jor our conv^ttsation. 

G. IVc may speak aim of the antiquities of 
the cotminryy without qfiknce. 

Are there ma»y rtmmm .iff old buildings, or 
other rnicknt works, ta be^om in youi: country ? 

R. Titere are numexoim remaps of old castles^ 
old churches y and cmcimt timers in it^ (K) 

S.. Indeed there are; and the roths, the caves, 
and engratvjed ston^ fomd in it, are ancient 
fMrkls also. {2.)* } . 

R. Pevl^ipM the upright stones, cams, and 
cromkacs are older thau ei^n. these. (3. ) 
. .; ! ■» :./.& G . Mac G. 

\ : 

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MacG. Is doili^ ra^da ciaca is sine. 

D. I/. Ca, bfuaras na leaca litearda, a deir tu? 

Mac G, Aitreasa ^ne duit, a duine uasaiL Fa 
sbHe d' on ait, a mbton sinne nar gc(Hiinai*d« 
fuaras uaim, atr leatinalaig cnuic, le fear a bi 
a(g tocailt fa cloic, a dtimiioll deic inbliadna o 
soin. Ni rail> sniuainead, no fios aige neac beo go 
raib a leitid ann^ no go dtarla a fagail mar sin; na 
huaii&Tada, daol, gan cnadia, gan taise, no lorg 
ni air bit ann ; aid ballaig folaiha, air na bfollai do 
leaca mora. Bhi seomra beag, Ueas, cruinn cum* 
pa, indeilb iisean beac, air leat taob na huaibca sin; 
agus doras beag, cumang a dol innte, falaiii f&s, 
mar an gcuid eile. Acd c^anna fuaras aon leac, 
leabar, leatan, a mullac na haitese; agus, air an 
taob ioctarac d* on leic sin bi tri line grab'talta, do 
flan litreacaib ceart cumpa; nac ftuoas aoinneac 
triadi o leit, a bfeadfad an sgnbii^ sin a leagad, no 
a mlneadadh. 

O R. Nil aon Tocal breige gnn. Qkt connairc 
me f^in anuaini^ 's an leac, 's an sgrlbin, an uair 
a fiiaras h. 

D. U. Nil aihras air bit agam ann« Oir con-* 
natrc mise f6s tuaraisg na huaifaia sin, a deir to : 
agus mac sitmuil na litreac ceadna clp buailt^, 
jgclair uma, ann nuaH stair iondae an D^n^ 

Mac G. Thainic duine uasal foglumta ann 
sin, o Ata na bilidf, a ioifaartaig sios air cairt h. 

D. U: Nac bfuatas ^romieac, faoid cam^ laidi 
leis ait sin? 

Mac Gm Fuaras, go deiibin, fa da mile do sin, 
(a dtimcioU seait mbiiathia roiibe sin), leac aid« 
meil mor, leatan^ oomtrom, leabair, coih m)n le 
cloicin cois traga; go gcreidim nac bfuil crom- 
leac ann Eirin coih deas leis; reir mar dubairt 
an duine uasal sin, a tainic 'ga feacuin. 

Bhi f^ dcf leaca fada, cotroma, na seasaih cf ait . 
$uas air 4 gccann tort timcioU fan cromleic ih6ir. 

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8. It is i^cult to 4d^ which are ol4e^. 

G. IV here were these engraved stones founds do 
you say?' ^ 

S. Iwitl teiiffou^ Sir. Aiaut a f^ile from the 
place where we livcy u mve was found, on the bro&f 
of a hilly b^ a person who was digging round or 
stone, about ten years ago. No person thought or 
knew that suth a place zoos there^ until it happened 
to be found thus ; a hng^ narrow cave, without 
bone, or relic, or trace of any thing init^ but empty 
walls, covered with great stones. There was a 
neat, little chamber^ of a pound fornix like a £m- 
hive, on one side of the cave, and a little, narrow 
door, to enter by, empty also, as the rest. How- 
ever, there wus found one broad, smooth f^^ on the 
top of the place) fl^4 ^ the lower side of that flag 
there were three ^ lines engrwved^ of clean^ well 
formed letters; nor has any perstm been found 
4ince, who could read or esplain the inscription. 

ft. It is perfectly true. For I sazf^ the cav^, 
ikefiag^ and the inscription, wh^n it zpas disco- 

G. / hiwe no doubt of it, as I have also seen an 
account c^* that cave which you mention, and a fac^ 
mmile (^ those letters print od in cppper-plate, in 
the new history of the county Down. 

S. A learned gentleman came from Afinahilt, 
«fto took a copy of it on paper* 

G; IVas there not a cromleac founds under a * 
cam, near that place? {^^.) 

S. . There was, indeed, about two miles from it, 
(about seven years before,) an exceeding largtj 
broad^ level, smooth stom, as polished as the pebbles 
on the sea-coast : I am persuaded there is no other 
croml^ac in Ireland so ne0t as it is; as the gentler 
man asserted, who came to view it. 

There was an enclosure of long equal stones^ 
standing strait up round the great croml^ac, 

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an uair -^ ^^misn; ^faxiMI ^tilati )th'6r^ do iSiod 

J). C/1 Nar togba'd na leaca fada sin ? 
■^ Jitnc G. NU abin dioB nacar^tiijgati ^Smn oibte a 
JJi^'ga^^anam laiifa leis:^^iin 

* ' Mitc^. Do%ktea, ts miHeJsfd i^^^gus ^iar?^. 
^tJ adftiWafc, ^o *<jlV]ic, a Bfiu an ^dad^, nacar 
Vei^y air^iifb^l; kll ftos^^ctftldtta. 
/HD; t/. Is'tengh^if Hom\gtir bHseadi&i^iafih- 
*' WncGi ^ar nd<>i^ go lei^gaijj go ndaib an^t^ 
-dWiiif aig IXlh ^^adl'ttiev A^us &toiliniiAe/ a iiuiiie 
'U)4iailj nad mbfe'd '«e sona tiaihtt^le na li^id: /^ » * 

i>. U. NU^itii^ 'ga^ad vgo.»»fuil;^e*mmi0na ; tic, 
•t^g*r ^tfi gut liaii^ do dm)ibifr Amisfc, 'fiag- 
laiibtoa,»^gan ^ioh lid meas ^E' tifeit,^ air ^Mai|[ioll oib- . 
^eac aVsaifte na^ke; ^ • . \ . 

^' "Mac^G. -MaS^ad, ^^a 'dbiiie''Ua$aH,\d>YiafiaiB$&; 
ein ni^diotsa, ck matbilleat kitris^^^^^c^ 

D. f7. Go <le b'aill leat f iafraid, a maigis- 

' '^^at^G. *M6a«iri ta»a,* <io>Moilean \t«,^^ 

se ceart no dlistionac na «ean sciteoga a ngdsmd, 
^nb'a^dtOcailt as'talAtti.^ ^ .* * 

•^'■'' B.'IT.- Ni fiostl^to^^di#geaa,v no rcasctvair bit, 
•jhiagaid a hge^rmd, ' >fto «gri«s, ^ to do ^id >feAra«ii \ 

f^in, ma ta siad ^tin do bealae/no ^^drnvag^ 
^orrta. / ' 

Mac G. Is f Jor h, b, ^l^oi, aid iS'ininic^avciia- . 
^'nYar gur^tuar trtbaiste bairtt le hionad feA'taig, no 

didion na ndaoine beaga ftd. , 

1).'"6V*A tiiai^stir Mbic giban, ^na creidagus 
rnac geill do Miidtib *dioniaoin, geasragaoa; no 

sgeultaibfibuill, caiUieasWaca don tseort sin. Nac 

dttig Dia an talam, agivs ^c crann, agus lai&*a 
^asas, ium^feadnia dondwiwe?- Agus go d^cirige 

«aoiltid go mbiad craumir bit cntsta, no tabtris- . 

teac, mima-gairfead'tDia'toirmeasg air? 

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tJdiim iit vms fotmd; muder.a grmt earn vf.miall 

G. ff^ere tkcnedong.^anes, lifted? 

S. TJmy^te6reM c&rried^Kmy ti^mbuUMngrnemf 
jtAe place. > 

*G. Smefy'iheiM^ewm noifbro/tcM. 

S^ Itymmbp^ksnandydGStPosfed.; mtithsr rflag nor 
slam ^xms Jeflj of^anjp value, » that \was not jcarrJed 
mmg^mtke^ame manner. 

G. I am surprmediihattbeioOfoewasibtoken. 

& ili^hytevenfthe ^round tower at JDownpatrick 
was thirmm domt; amtJthinkfJSir,iihcttiit. isffwt 

G. / do not say th^t it is unbteky; but I think 
*ita4lisjgfYEbe*t9 Hterary gentlemen, to pay no respect 
<^r utitatum\tO)tke remains j^ tkeKjandeiit morks ^df 
their country. 

&.WeU,SiryIiWoutd^kAyouon€ qut^ti^k^ if 

tQiirJip/^moMldyoti)wish tAiosky^MrASmyth? : 

^ $.iJDoyouti6ihkyAorfsuppo&j\tkai,nMi9mghtier 
iiaw^itottutar root Mut 'oM'th0rm . • i \ 

iG. iliknom^miiOWj mor^tdtute^ -MgOtnst eutiing 
m^jdestrvying tii^^aui ofi^our awn JandfiOr. ify^M 
iM'mco€oasiM'Jbr:tkem. > 

• Si 'SJhatistruej'Sir^ iut \W€. have fri^entiy 
'Jkeardi^Mif an^omendfill lucky\t^ disturb the 
ikaunt.trshelter of these: lit tie \p^ople. (7.) 

G. Mri&mytb^-^onotsrjtgardtivrbeliferce these 
*4illyi isa^mtitiousi swings, orJmbuimiSdMwives^ 
Jules of this kind. ^ Did ^ot^God give thenar th^ and 
'tncmf » tree nmd plant that grows, for . the > use of 
-man? And xohy\ shotddiyou think that. any tree is 
^^!ofibi(Men or nmluciyj 4inless &od should prMbit 
iii?, . . .. : . , - 


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MdcG. Is fior i; agus ni geitlin aii cleir W 
aguinne *da Icitid. Acd 's h an fat a bfuil mbt 
tract air, go bfuil aniomad cranti sgi'teoga ^rsaigc, 
tan mo cuid fearainn f^in ; agus baihait Itoiii cuid 
aca buaint as mo bealac; agus^ d'aindeoin sin, 
admuigim go mbionn fartcios orm bacail Ico; oir 
ta f ios agam go mait gur ionad uasal ^ agus gur 
in6r a bia'd na daoiiie beaga tataig ann, a nallod.. 

Z). U. Na siteoga ta rorfiad, m6 doig* Agus a 
bfaca tu fein aon<lulne aca ariaifi ? 

Mac G. Maisead ni facas. Acd tiucfad fiom 
Bgeul beag, greanmar a innse duitse, a cnala me o 
mo sean atair^ a crutugad le firinne go raib a leitki 
ami, le na linn ftin. 

D.U. Matsead, aitris duinn ^ a riiaigfstir ilhic 
Gaban, is biom buideac diot, agus eistfeam leat g# 

M^c G. Ta cnocan beag, saii learann a mbianisa 
mo comnaig, da ngoirean siad cnocan na Feada- 
laig. Bbi duine c6ir, craifeac na comnai^. anallod 
ann, a geois amna, le taob a cnocan sin; agus'ta 
lorg a tig le faiceal gus andiu. Tad^ o Hao<i ba 
hainm don duine ;^ga& bean, no muirin aige, acd 
a ma'tair, na scan mnaoi, ag cuingbeal tige. 

Chuaid Tadg axnsc, oidce Sbaifma, deanam ur- 
naig, mar gnas lets, fa bruac na haiihne, no "geots 
a leasa. Ag dearcain suas do Bteatnad r^ltan, do 
connairc neul dorca o ndeas, ag gluasact cuige, le 
sigdead gaoi'te; agus do ciiala se torman ha neac, 
mar buidin iii6ir marc sluad, teact san gleann gac 
ndireac. D' airig Tadg go dtangada!r uile tairis an 
gita, agus tort fa' n mbinn ga hat laiiiL 

Cuiihnigeas an duine gur minic a cualaid 'ga 
rad, da dtilgfead an luait biad faoi do cois, na 
nadaig, san am sin, da mbiad neac air l^'t daonda 
leo, gur b' eigin doib sgaiihuin leis. Togbas se- 
sean i^n duirn don grinniol bi faoi na cois^ agus 
tilgeas h go tinneasnac, anainm an atair, agus an 
mic, agus an spioraid naoirn, anagaid an tsigdein; 

S. That 

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$. That is true^ and our clergy believe no such 

thing. But the reason of my speaking of it ^>, that 

I have several old thorns in my land^ and I would 

^ wish to take some of' them out of my way; never- 

theless, I confess that f am sky to^ disturb them; 

for I know very well that it is a gentle place, and 

that it was greatly haunted by the little people^ in 

former times. (8.) 

G. You mean the fairies^ I suppose. And did 
you ever see any of them ? 

^. Z never md. But I could tell you a plea- 
sant little story, ivkich J heard from 'my grand- 
father; to prove the truth of such things being in 
his time. 

G. IVell tell it to us^ Mr. Smyth, and we will 
thank you^ and hear you xvith pleasure, 

S^ There is a little hill in the farm where I live, 
which is calledkKnock'nafeadalea. (9.) There was 
an honest, pious man living there former ly, near 
the river, %y the side of the hill; and the ves- 
tige of his house may yet be seen. His name was 
Thady Hughes ; he had n^^ife nor family, but his 
mother, an old woman keeping his house, 

Thady went out^ on Halloweve night, (10.) to 
pray, as he W0s accustomed, on the bank of the 
river, or at the foot of the forth. Looking up to 

*-^serve the stars, (11.) he saw a dark cloud from 
the south, moving towards him with a zvhirlwind; 

• and he heard the sound of horses, as a great troop 
of cavalry^ coming straight along the valley. (12.; 
Thady observed that they all came over the ford, 
dnd quickly round uhout the mount. 

Ht femtmberei that he had often heard it said, 
ify^ east the dmt that is under your foot against 
it, at that instant, if they have any human being 
mth than, that they are obliged to release him» 
He lifts a handful of the grawl that was uMer 
his foot, and throws it stout4y, in the mime of the 
father. Son, dnd Holy Ghost, against the whirls 


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72 jri4iaoaiJS<i. 

faon, lag,, air laf>, U trom qsqcu 

Cii«ies Taidg le ain i a«c|,v ag gat^iul u)€ifii#ficV 
isu- g^ioktki a ipparan^ aau-^CM* dk»QQ'<^ ctHiitf ti^ 
nacoman;. gpr lai>^r leitQ^ '$^gMl^ tog. s« suai^ }j, 
^M3 tug a* ateac fe d^a a rbatara i. TugpdM 
baintie cii le n' 61^ aguss oUoiM^uin eile; \ ba boag 
a cealaig si. 

^ ](^iar cuiF mA inoran ceiat uirr^ anoiitcie $in; 
inar aitniodar gur as na bruigmiB a taiwc si ; agu^ 
mar nac kuI> fonn catnip utrrte, mfj^ i liafif, t.ojr- 
S6dc* La ai^ oa marac^^d' fiafraigeadar sgeul at 
hmiiteacta di, agjft^ d' airis $i3e siu doili^^ aj«' aet rilik 
a cuingbeal air. 

M%ii^ ni R«ttr< ba hainm dan ih^apt; a gcon- 
clae na Gaillibe rug^d^ 's a beUead i^ Da bi aoisi 
bliadain p6sta, gur rug si clann, le fear og d'a 
nfok ti SdaA Seoig^ac, laiip' ki cn<»€^Maga. Ba 
aa^]<ac fuair $f an taj^r cloinQ^ , si^^i gi|F et^g s^ 
If Mb, and^abreit; 's go dtu^ Fiw I^ur's^abujt^ 
<Ura0 i'^in aii; SHibal, go bruigeaja copc^Mst^ Do 
fagad kuirt dgin eile m hioaad, a Bcki'lb* j:&Ba 
. muirby a fair6a*4 's a jj^acad, gaiv ^i^uiMufa^ A 
riuct na nina sa. 

* Do bi M^m agfCfioc ^ft^a tri m^ .ag altram 
leiinb^ ga cealgajd le meagair, a le i?eplt(iit> biime; 
'9 daifid^oin: siii uttc, bi sise dutke g^u a^Kas. Fa' 
drifead, gur airis di bunad na ^ruigim;.gp >ai]^a% 
fear £^in anoia pdsda k mnapieile; agus gan m beit 
dcaeam hrim no leanduti nios taick; go raib Fionn- 
bar, agu6 a teagkc uile, ag trialk air ciiairt go Ulad. 
Gluaislear leo, fa sgairt na \gcotIeac» o cngc 
mln Maga amac^ Fkmpbbr \-A ^'4ean croda. Is 
ionida siog brag, rat, agus beami,*#. ^defir«ajt gftw 
citlidann^ o fairc an ke^. go liiiffti^s^ h^i<i^t^y 9m' 
eacmige.ailky eitiplaige. . \\ -vi-. ., 

^fiaciKxrOreioe, i» cniQc W ^IU(&) * . r 

n Btnn fitiilliikincv 9gu» C^^e CoruiifiWi 

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wind; and^ bekoli fortlmUhdmnfiUls a^itiomany 
weak, faint and feebly on the eartliy with a kewy 
grooji. / 1 : i 

Thady started^ but^ taking courage^ having heard 
tkextry in a human voice, he, went to her; speJee 
to h€7% lifted her up, and brought her in to 
his mother. They ^ gave milk to her to drink, and 
other food; but she ate little. 

They did n^t ask her many questiom that night; 
es they kneufihat^he camef^^m the fairy -castles f^^ 
(13.) and she d'^ not wish to speak, being sick and. 
sorroxvfuL Next day, they asked an account of her 
adventures, and she related thent^ JiKst enjoining 
secrecy* . , 

Her name was Mary R^urke^-r^prn and bred in 
the county Gidsvay. She was ^neyear married^ -^nd 
kcUl a child, to a young nian called John Joyce, near 
Knock Magha. She had a difficult labour, the 
child died, after it was bom; and Fin*oar and his 
host carried' herself ceway to the fairy eastle of 
Knock Alagha. They left some other bulk in her 
place, in the form of a dead woman, which »w* 
waked and buried, without okservation, in place of 
the woman herself (14.) 

Mary was in Knock Mag ha three quarters of a 
year, nursing a child, (15.) entertained with 
mirthiund sweet songs; and nothwithstanding, she 
was certainly in affliction. At length the hast 
of the castle told her that her husband w/ts now 
fionarried to another wo}nan : and that she should 
indulge no. longer in sorrow and melatwholy; that 
Finvcii% and all his family^ were about to pay a 
visit to the provide, of Ulster. 

They set put, at cock-crowing, from smooth 
Knock Magha foi^th, both Finv^r and his valiant 
host. And many a fairy castle, rath, and mount 
they shortly visited, from dawn of day till fall of 
night, on beautiful, winged coursers. 

' Around Knock Greifi, and Knock na Rae, 
Bin Builvin, andKeis Corain^ 


ized by Google 

74 X>lJlL<mtJli^9i 

. Qc Um £ft&l4ifine» agiis Loc dt Eitfo^ 

O sin soit tu^il; go sliab GiitUhti. 
, Do iuartaigeadar sleibte mora Mu^oraa, 

|*a aird Sliab Ddnairt, agus Bieftl at aft admi^» 

Stes go D6n-dmidnc, Diw-^JroiRa, agas Di^* 

Na raon dire^ go cftoean na Featklai]^. 

T>eh Maire tuite«tn ua^fa, nm $tuanatf leo; 
diT b*eigiil d6ib proinii okKe ShaAna ^iteaoEi, i 
Si<^bru|^ Sgrabai^, ag an tsk)g*flait Mac ati Ean^ 

£* iongnaH le Ta'dg, k le na Aatair^ sgenl lui 
mna; agus gab truaig iad di, agus tug cuhtaii 
agim flute di, lliirca* ^a ftin. 

BtM i^i ncVL ai? fostai, fead m ^htiri^, gur 
taititi !ii go malt leo, ag obair 's a fognaiii Bi 
^sn bean breoite matait Thaiiig, agus *ttg Mmn 
tire ihsit di, le linn k tlnnis, D^ug an tsean 
Bean, «n ekrrai ; aid tug si coiimirle d'a mnc, 
m teabaiti an hk% Maire ni Ituairc a jidsatf; 
agus do p6sad iad, indiai^ na cl^sga. 

Agcionn bliadna na diaid snn, tark few sto-' 
eai^, a bi laiib leo, a tteit trial) go Cu«n na mara, 
t ceannai earraid; agus ^ir Maire codiar'ta leii^ 
agcois isioll, fa dein a cead fir; eaiioa, fkinne 
{^6^a tDg se di, agus ainm a tSeoigi| isgrioBta 
iiirri. Nior bfada na diaig gur eag an dara bean, o 
Shean Seotgeac, agus ni dearna ae faillijg h "feea^ 
air cuairt, ium Maire ni Ruairc. 

Trat tainic se a$tea6 go tig Thaidg ui Aoitf, fimr 
se Maire na suide, feoi leanb mait mic, tri ra^e, 
air a eig. Ba luat 's ba hiai|€ara£ d'aitniogadar, 
agus d'addiuigeadar ar aon a iH\ei aguift d'uaetai{| 
Maire, gan agat, gur b'e sin ffein a ccatffear; iB 
trat cuala si gur teastai^ an bean eik> d' aofttaif ^i 
dul Icis an tSeoiicai. 

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T& hin Machian, Md L^ch Da em, 
Ft9m tkmce north'Msi tQ Sleive GuUtH* 
Th&f traversed, the lofty hilh iff MmrMd 
Round high Sleive Denard, md Balachunhry^ 
D(m» to Dundrin, Dundrum, and DuMrdaktyf 

Right forward to JKnock naFeadalea. (16L) 

After they lost Mary, thqf mcer halted; for 
^^ssoere tomip that HaUofweve in the fairy castJ/t 
qfScrMha, mth the fairy chiefs Maoamantan. (17.) 

TImdy jand kis inatker Habere astonished at the 
wmoiis stoty; ihey pitied her^ and invited her 
with a hearty welcome to rexfy^n with themdvest^ 

She spent the winter with them, as (i< hired 
mhpant, a»d pleased tkeni much by her indHStry 
and service. The mother of Tha^ was a sieh^ 
(M woman, whom Mary attendetd car^uUy during 
her illness. In spring the ^td imman died; buf^ 
OS her death-bed, she advised her son tomarry Mary 
R&mrke: a<xordingly they were married^ (fter 
Easter^ ' * 

In a year afterwards, a stocking merchant who 
lived near them, happened to go to Conmnmra; to 
purchase goods, and Mary s^nt a token by himprit 
watdy to ierjirs^ husband; viz. the wedding ring 
mfhich he had given hcr^ with Joyce's name engravtd 
im it. It wsts not long oftfifKvards tintU John 
Joyce's s^x>nd wi/e died,, and be did not delay to 
pay a visit to Mary Rourke. 

IVhen be eatne into Ttmdy Hughes's hous^ kc 
found her sitting, withajine boy, three quarters oid^ 
at her breast. Soon and gladly did they know and 
recognize each other, and Mary acknowledged im* 
medmtely that this was her first husband; ami 
hamng heard that his other wife rvas dead, she con-^ 
sensed to go with Joyce. 

2 h2 Aft 

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76 DiAirdGu^; 1 

Act bi Tad^ boct go duttttc fan ftiiiar ; ' agu$ 
dub^^irt g<y niteferr doib ooitorrle an tsagairt Ta- 
gail; aglis'^^aicl *triur a latair>^n atair Briain ui 
Bhiitin, gur ihtiis a sgeul o ti^s go deireail. Ba 
dtaitie c^ttg an tatair Brian, nac dtiobm breit 
subui'd ; agus dubairt Icis a tSeoig:eac uac bfuigea'd 
bean Tiiai'dlg, niuna gorntucaid sc a ceart, ftloi 
lamaib na sagart hard siar, annsna parai»tib a- 
raib siad a raon na gcrtifenaig, ^ B" eigin don 
tSeoigeac dulairais,gocoiidae nagaiHibe, agc&mi^ 
Ktreac ; agus do cuir an tatair Brian litkr lei^ 
fa dein a sagart paraiste. 

'S^' freagfra ciir an sagart sin cuige, .." go/hu^ se 
fern air^toiTaihlVf haire ni ftaatrc^ ceadmim an'f irse; 
agus gur (>6s se aris ^, le mnaoi; cile, a d'feug 
o soinj agus ci be air bit- tean a bi ann sin, 
^ dearlfed ^urb' isi t^in bean an tSeoigeac sini 
gan a creklmeat.'* . .^ . . . . , > 

; An uair a ftimr ait ■ tatair Brian an iitir .«©, tog 
se cotMirle air M'hairc i *^in a socrad mar bi si: • 
• Dairfide6iu ^n- 6uaid an Seoigeac fa d^in. an 
tsagairt a f>os^ h fein is Maire^ san ^t a rugmSi 's 
a beatugad i. Bhi sin deic n^ile fitcead on ait a 
mbiad «iad na gcomnaig, Dairb se don tsagart 
sin, gur imfeig Maire ni Ruairc air siubal uad, fa 
da Hiadain o soin ; go raib sc 'g a tornigeact, go 
bfuat amac i p6sda ag fear eUe^^.a gcondae an 
D^in ; agus nac leigfead sagart* na4J»ra!ste sin d9 
a fagaiV, niuna bittigead se cratuga) faoi na ]am«- 
^«an, gur Ich i, Niar airis se an dadam fa bk% 
MJiaire; agus ni raib fios agan tsagairt si» uime, 
oir d'eug muintir Ml)airc, sul far p6&ad i^ agus 
ni raib tnoran umrad uirrte^ san ait sin. 

Chuir an sagart litir leis, fa diin Easbuic 
-PliAin, " gur pds sesean cailin, da ngoirti Mairc 
m Ruairc, a taitiic o daoinib cneasda, anna paraiste - 
ffein, le buacaill macadta, da ngoirti Sian Seoi- 
geac, a bi na conxnaig laixh te cnoc Maga ; agus go 
pabaii* se leis gur imtig si uad^ 's gp bfuil si na 

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DIALOaUtiS. 77 

'p0Opihlidpykow&c^r, xms in grtat fraublt about 
the busiuess; and $kid that it was best to take^tke 
priest's advice : accordingly all three went to father 
Br^^mt Byrne,' arid told ^hn the whole story. Jffe- 
ther-Btynn i^^ a sensible man, who tcould not give 
a r^h judgment y therefore he told Joyce that he 
should not git Thady's wife,' unttss he proved his 
right to her, mider the hand of the priest in the 
tk^st] in the parish where they had lived together. 
Joyce was fhu's obliged to teturn to the county 
Grahtayfor this 'letter, and Father Br^an wrote 
by' 'him to his parish priest, 
*• The answer which the priest returhed was, ^'that 
ht'rvas himself at 4he fafieral of^iary R&urke, the • 
first wife of this man ; that he married him agkin 
to another woman, xvho xcas since dead ; a72d what- 
soever woman shci was, who said thM shi Was 
Jdjfce'^s ivife, oUjght^iiot to bebs^lmed/^- < ' ■ -» ' 

fVhen Father Bryan received this letter, he'^ad^ 
vUed Mary to reriMtinds she mm: '* 

Notwithstanding this, :\ Joyce went to the priest 
who married hifn to Mary, in the' place where she 
teas born and^red. This xvas thirty miles from -the 
place where they lit ed. 'He told this priest that 
Mary "Rourke had left hint about two years before ^ 
that he ftad sought fa^* heruntil he found her mar^ 
ried to another man, in the county Down; and 
that 4fie priest (>f that parish would not allow Mm 
to get he f*^ unless he got a testiinony^under his 
hand,' that she ^as his wife. He said not a word 
of Marfs death, nor did that priest know any thing 
of it; for Mary^s friends were dead before she was 
married, and she was not much mentioned in that 

This priest sent a letter by him to the Bishop of 
Down, '^ that he had marrkda girl called Mary 
Rifurke, of honest kindred, ih his avn parish, to a 
decent young man, called Johtt^Joyte^ who lived 
near Knock Magha ; that he W(is it formed she had 
\ "* coiiinaig 

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78 0IALOGUB*. 

ccffhaai| '«wr mvaoi ag fear eik^ Isak le D^nfmd^ 

Cwir^ fiaiJKiuifte kits, qu ts^g^it, a cqumairc ga 
bp^sail iad, agu» a erutHgftid ^acbn/ct na tnna; 
i^fus 4q i9ioti;a9^ afi fear »ii9y gurb* i an liean 
oeadua sia a bi anois ag Tailg o hAoH. 

Cuir au (eaaboc Aw on'H uiie ^ l^cl a la^ 
tfiir^ Ag ail caibidil, i^n^r tu^aii loi jc{ki$ cap 
Quaiste. Bbi an tliar ^ite B^p^id aa t^'tair Aiaa^ 
ciofi gur pds se Taijg le mfiaoi ^ f k eile; a^^ v^ 
leigead se di dul leis, a ndiaig ^rBa'd Tagait gurb' 
i a ^ai» i. Agii$ ^boift $iad gur cdk b^iiig a 
oiir airi^^ is air Tbadg, muoa g«mr6d l^aw ^ 

'^ A ^oineuaieky'' ATsaaa tolatf Briao^ '^pa^^a^ 
aid me, go gtli^ioe 9X6 deireaid lui sg^il. Cvifl^ 
ati Seoigeac ciim a mioum*" 

Do ihionnaig an Seoigeac gur ^6^ k fa iio^— go 
Vfuair ae an cead bean aig baile Oboirt-^^-^o raib si 
bNadain aige, laim ie inoc Maga^-^r in^ig m imU) 
a^ 6IQ — nac raib fios aige cia leis — bi se f^m f^^ 
iMiMe— m '£aca ae agim'teact i — ni raUii si f^UJUin^ an* 
diaig doiiHie .breit-— fuat ;ie an dara bean ^an iit 
tia-rrsaojl ae gur. eug an eea4 bean— saoU 911 .^^•^ 
gart ^-^'eug an dara bean. 

/*' Anois, a daotne ^aisle,'' arsg an tatair J^ivan/ 
V^salitjr afkiar mife, faoi laiib tagairt paraiste an 
tSeoigigy a dearbuf^as gur. eug. a cead bei(n-^go 
l^faca se f^n n^rb.i — 's go raib se ag a torrjoh — 
gur f;6s scan Seo^eac, nadiaig sm, le ^caUin eile 
tan ik; — » gur eug sise f 6s. o g^a, Feucaid anpis, 
go rinne me mo ditcioll an Tirinne 'fagail amac." 

]> leirig imreasan idif an ^eir utine ; dubairt cujd 
aca '' gurb' i bean tSeoigig i, gan cunta^rt^ o 
fiiaras a dearbad o sagairt Gboirt^ agu^naiom^an 
Tir^ a bi latw^ ag an p6sad" 


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diaioooka; 99 

kft kim^,4n^^a$ wm living m mfe t^ anoHier 
nmh k^ai DawH^rick; 4indthat »hc 9ught t^ be 
sent ho9He mth him."* 

A witness zeas sent mth him^ ijf the priest^ mho 
Sim ihtm marpM^ to pr^e ibe identity of the wo- 
mtm; and he H^ne thiU she was the same xvoman 
who now lived with Tiiadtf Hughes. 

The ii$h0p ordered thm aU to appear before him 
at the chapter J that the case might be iwoestigatedy 
All the clergy blamed Father Bryan^ because M 
married Thady ,fo the wife of another man; and 
would not aUofw her to go with him^ afUr hming re- 
ceived evidence thai Ac wm tds wife. And it was their 
opumn that both he andThady should be e^vcomnu^ 
nicatedj unlets Mary were sent OKHHiy. 

. '^ GreMlemen;' said Father Mryan, '' do not 
oondenm me until yow hear the e^ ^ the busi- 
ness* Let Joyce be sworuJ" 

Joyce swore that he was married twice — that he 
got his first wife at Balygart — that rsfte lived with 
him one year^ beside Kr^ock Magha—tliat she then 
l^t him, he knew not with wham — he was at honie 
himself— did not ^e her depar t *■ 't he was nat 
healthy after childbirth— he got his second wife 
in ihat place— thought that kisjirst wife was dead 
^^his second wife died. ' ^ 

" N0W9 Gentlemen,"' said Father Bryan, *' here 
is a letter wfMk I received^ under the hand of 
Joyce's parish priest, who asserts that his first wife 
died, that he himself sax» her dead — wt^ at thefu^ 
neral — that he married J^e aftcrwarda to another 
girl in the place, and that she also was since dead. 
You see now that I endeavoured to discover the 

A contest arose between t/ie ckrgy en this; same 
said, '^ that she was Joyce's w\fe mndaubtedfy^ since 
the assertum of it was obtained from the priest of 
Gort, and the oath of the 7nan wl^ taas present at 
the marriage,'' 


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Dubaitt dream cile, ^* nac wuB siri deftrbta ge 
sewd; oir an fear tug an imoMia, go bfaea se 'g 
a posad i, go raib se tiarsuileac, lag-ri^darca€;*agu^• 
go mbfeidir leis a belt m^aUta."\ ^ • 

** Masead," arsa fear »ca^ ^^ teige ^ise go Gon- 
tiacta, fa ddn sagairt Glioirt, gobfiosikd'S^s^an 
V mas J an bean ceadna^ a fy^ sfe.'' 

'* Ni head," arsa duine eile, ** aed teige si fa 
delii an tsagairt eile ag cnoc Maga, go bfio$a se- 
s^D, mas i aB bean ceadnasa a d'eug fabi na 
cArani." - 

Togad gaire na cutdeacta anagaid an fir sin; 
ionnas go dtainic an cins a bei't na adbar* grinn 
na measg. Fa dciread, anuair do connairc Tadg o^ 
Haod, nac raib siad air ti reidtig deatiarii, no deir- 
ead CUT leis, d* iarr se cead labatrt leis an E?isb6c. 
*■ A tiama easbuic,** ar sescati, " a gcreideann 
tusa gur tugad an beansa air siubal, Ms na sigeo* 
guib?" ' 

" Ni creidimse a leitid, go deimin," ar« teas-: 
boc. ;. - . 

" O ! Maiscad' beannact De go raib agad, fen 
sgeul sin; oir bcid Maire ni Ruairc agamsago 
sead.'' V 

'* Cionnas sin,'' arsan teasboc, "ma cru'tafgtear 
gur p6sad i leis an t Seoigeac romadsa r" 

** Cuma sin," arsa Tadg; ^*» dar ndoi§ na gcuir- 
fea^ df iacuib uirrte, a Beit na limaoi aige, d^ k 

Do ifaaodaid an cliar uile a gcionn gaire, indiaig 
coihraid Thaidg; agus dubairt cac ** gur mai't a du- 
bairt se h ; agus gur b' aige bi an cuid do bYearr 
san conspoid." 

Ba deacair don easboc a ngiorc, sa meagair a/ 
cosg, no breit A tabairt; acd go dtug se coihairic 
do Thadg, 's do Mbaire " a doi, leis an dis eite^ 
go Connacta, latair an da iagairt, no go tifuigidts 
4raac fios na f irinne," • * 


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Others saidj ** that was not yet certiain^for the 
man who swore that he saw her married^ was squint* 
eyed and dim-sightedy and that he might be mis- 

" JVellj' said some, ** let her go to Connaught to 
the priest of ^G or t^ that he may know if she is the 
same woman whom he married.'' 

^^ Not sOf" said the others^ *^ but kt her go to 
the other priest^ at Knock Magha^ that he may 
know if she is t^he same woman who died under his 

The laugh of the assembly was excited against the 
latter^ so that the business produced considerable 
mirth among them. At length, when Thady Hughes 
saw that they were not about to decide or terminate 
the affair^ he asked leave to speak to the bishop. 

" My Lord Bishop" said he, *' do you believe 
that this woman was carried away by the fairies ?" 

" Indeed^ I believe no such thing," said the 

*^ Oh ! God bless you for saying So, for I shall 
keep Mary Rourke still." 

^*. How can that be" said the bishop, ** if it be 
, proved that she was married to .Joyce before you ?' 

" No matter for that," said Thady, " surely she 
is. under ho obligation to be his wife after her 

The clergy all burst into laughter, after Thady' s 
speech, and said unanimously, *' that he spoke well, 
and that he had the best part of the cause." 

fVith difficulty the bishop restrained their mirtk 
and laughter ; he then advised Thady and Mary to 
go, with the other two men, to Connaught, before 
the two priests, that the truth might be a^cer- 

2 I ^^Atriat;-' 

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82 DTAtOdtTEf. 

" A teiat ;'' arsa Tadg, " nU tniate a ngdll air 
^ /dolleisr a tSeoig^ac; aed, mas i do toilse, 
tet^e se^aa na baile, agus r^cfukinse ih'm agus 
Maire^ agcionn seactmain eile, fa dein sagairt 
i^nrx; Magia ; agus ma crirtaigean an Seoigeac 
aim sin, gur b' i so a beaia, dar ndoig nac s^- 
nan an duine uasal din an litir a cuir faoi na 
laiA, gur dig w/' 

» '* Toctj a duine gan ceill a dul>airt an teasboc 
iax'tigid uaim, ni heistiom lib nios faide*" 

La air na marac, cuir Maire a hearrad imirce 
uHe air a muin ; air ti dol go Connacta ; agus 
*s ^ an reilheac a rinne na coiharsnaig ealtonra, 
vaia doirse beit araon fosgailte, a Seoigeac seasani 
•amuig, seact gcoisceim o dorus na siAide, Tadg 
beit na seasam : sa ngarda, seact geois^im on do- 
rus ciuil, agus isi a rogan a leanmuint, 's a beit 
aige o sin amac. 

Bhi an leanab na codlad sa gcliaban; bi Maire 
go direa6 triall, go ndeacaid si fa dHn a leinib, 
cum sl^n fagbail aige, agus go dtug si pog do, 
agus sil si dieor. D' imtig si uad anil sin, go 
raib si a dtaob amuig don tairseac, go gcuala 
si sgre^ud an leinib na deig ; fiUeas Maire air ais, 
agus cVfkn si gan mairg, gan baaidread o sin 
amac, aige Tadg o Haod, 'go bis. 

i), IL Is taitneamac, greanmar an sgcul sin, 
a d' iairis tu duinn^ a maigistir Mhic Gabanj acd 
a cuala tu gur creid an cl^r niionna an fir 
sin, go bfaca se an bean ceadna sin 'g a posad ? 

Mac G. Niar creid an tatair Brian 6, go hairid; 
oir, ag cur at-ceist air an oglac, d'aidmead se, 
" nac bfaca se ariam i, roime an oidce p6sad i; 
acd go raib se dearbta gurb' i bi arin, oir d'aid- 
mead si do f^in, a reir^ ^rab i an bean ceadna i." 

~ DTiafraig an tatair Brian, " a gcuala se riam, 
go raib an Seoigeac suigrig le mnaoi air bit eilc, 
fail iit sin?" Dubairt, ** go gcuaiaid go raib se 
suigrig le cailin fa cill Tartain — nac bfaca se- 

'' My 

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" My I^ordy said Thadjfy " / do mt x^ish to go 
with Joyce; Hut if it please yoUy let him go home^ 
and I will go with Mary^ after a week^ to the priest 
of Knock Magha; and if Joyce then proves, that she 
is his wife^ I hoj^ that gentlieman^ wilt not de^iy 
his awn letter, that she is dead.'' . 

■' ' ' ' '*.>.. 

\^ Silence J you foolish many' said the iiishop; 
^* go from me, 1 will hear youjio longer.'*] 

Next day Mary took her travelling dppdtel on 
her back, in order to go to Connaught ; and their 
neighbours made this arrangement between them, 
that both the doors of the house should be ^et open, 
that Joyce should stand without, seven steps from 
the street door, andThadyin the garden, seven steps 
from the back-door, that she should take her choice 
and abide by it thencefoi^ard. 

The child was sleeping in the cradle; and as 
Mary was about to depart, she xvent to the child 
to take leave of it, and shed a tear. She xvent then^ 
until she was without the door, when she heard the 
child cry after her : presently she returned, and 
remained, without murmuring or uneasiness, with 
Thady Hughes till her death. 

G. Mr. Smyth that is a pleasant and enter- 
taining story that you have told us. But did you 
hear whether the clergy believed the oath oj^ the 
man, that he saw the same woman married?' 

S. / am convinced that Father Bryan did not 
believe it ; for, in cross-e^ramining the young man, 
he cojifessed, ** that he never saw her before the 
flight on which she was married; but he was cer- 
tain it was she, as she acknoxvltdged to him, the pre- 
ceding evening, that she was the same xvoman.'' 

Father Bryan asked, *' if he. had ever heard that 

Joyce had courted any other woman about that 

place ?" He replied, '' that, he had heard that Joyce 

courted a girl at Kilt ar tan — had never seen her 

2 I 2 scan 

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sean ariaih i, acd go raib se deiibin nacar i>6s se 
isi ; — gur initig si as an ^it sin, agus go raiB 
siad 'g a rail go mbfeidir go raiB si torrac, oir 
nior Till air ais ariarii."' 

Dubairt an tatair Brian, " gurb* i an cailin sin, 
o qill Tartain, a tainic cum Ta'dg o Haod ; agus 
gur cum si an sgeul sin, a folac a naire," 

Acd do 3aoil Tadg, a gcoifanuig, agus go Icor 
cile, gurb' i bi p6sda iig an Seoigcac, agus go 
raib si aim isna bruiginib. 


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PlikLOGUES. 85 

himself^ but was certain he was not married to her 
— that she had left that place, and it was said 
that she was probably pregnant, for she never re- 
turned again.'' 

Father Bryan asserted, " that this was the girl 
from Kilt art an, who came to Thady Hughes; and 
that she had invented that story to hide her shame'' 

Haweoer, Thady and many others always thought 
that she had been married to Joyce, and that she was 
in the foiry castles. (18.) 


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(I.) Such buildings are common in every part of Ire- 
land. The ancient towers are probably of much greater 
antiquity than the castles. They are of a circdar form^ 
of small diameter, and very considerable height. It is 
etwyectored that they may bave served for Vateb towers. 
From the circumstance of churches being usually built 
wear them, some persons conceive that they bare been 
iKed in place of belfries, since the introduction of Chris.* 
ttanity into Ireland. 

(2.) Tlie raths are large circular motes, upon the tops 
of hills; some raised to a very great height. They are in 
jcencral so situated that a correspondence, by signals, could 
be expeditiously circulated from one to another, through- 
out the country. They are commonly called Danish 
forts, from an idea that they were stations occupied by the 
Danes, during their plundering possession of Ireland, 
about the eighth century. But they are probably of much 
greater antiquity, even prior to the common use of stone 
buildings, although they might have been used by the 
Danes, as above mentioned. 

It is impossible to ascertain the aera in which the caves 
were constructed ; but from the" circumstance of many of 
them being formed, by stones regularly projecting over 
each other, instead of arches, it is evident they must be of 
the remotest antiquity. Nor is it less certain that the use 
of letters was known, when the caves were constructed ; 
85 mimerous inscriptions, such as that hereafter mentioi.^ 
ed, are fouttd in them, but in characters that cannot 
now be understood. 

(3 ) These upright stones are placed upon hills, in some 
places alone, in others there are circles of them, inclosin^^ 
a small plain. They probably served as places for worship 
in the times of paganism; as also for juridical assemblies, 
in which the Brehons presided. 

INie cams are immense heaps of small stones, evidently 
collected as monuments, and generally on or near tbe 
spot where some considerable person died or is interred. 
Even at the present day it is looked upon by the vulgar, 
as an act of pious remembrance, to collect such a cam, 
where any peri»on has been killed by accident. 

The cromleacs are huge single stones, some of thirty 
tons weight, placed in a sloping position, u|:on the points 


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Notts* 87 

ofHhree upright stones. It is almost tttconceivable by 
what power such huge masses were lifted from the surface 
to an elevation in some .cases of nearly four feet. They 
appear to have been used as altar^ by the Druids; and^ 
from cams being collected around, and sver some of them, 
it is probable mat som^ di^ingiiished pers9nage& faa^'e 
been interred beneath them. 

' (4.) This is near Annadorn, in the cotinty Down. It 
was not known that there was any cromleac under this 
cam, until it was accidentally discovered by a man who 
was feeding cows beside it. The cromleac is broad and 
long, but not so thick as some others: it appears re- 
markably well adapted for the purpose of an altar. It 
IS entirely surrounded by a number of upright stones, 
which were also covered by the earn. 

(5.) This was one of the towers mentioned, note(l.) 
It stood beside the ancient abbey at that place^ but has 
lately been removed, and the abbey at the saa»e time 

(6.) The superstitious veneration for old, solitary thorns, 
which is very general among the vulgar, proceeds from an 
idea that they are the haunts of fairies, who are' provoked 
at their being destroyed, and will either maim the person 
who cuts the thorns, kill his cattle, or, in some other way^ 
injure his substance. 

(7.) The fairies are generally represented as pigmies, 
and are said to be seen dancing like a number of children* 

(8.) Places supposed to be frequented by the fairies are 
called gentle, as are likewise sevei*al herbs, which are said 
to be under their influence: and, in collecting which, a 
number of superstitious rites are observed. Although the 
belief in the existence of these playful sprites is still far 
from being erased from the minds of the vulgar ; yet the 
want of modern instances of their appearance obliges the 
accounts of them to be placed in times past, when they 
cannot be so easily contradicted. 

(9.) Knock-na-feadalea literally means the Whistling 
Hill ; and the place got tins name from reports that the 
music of the fairies had been pften heard to proceed 
from it. 

(10.) This night, the last of October, is observed, 
with many superstitious ceremonies, both in Ireland and 
Scotland. It is supposed to be one on which aerial 
sprites are peculiarly active. 

(11.) This day being observed as a fast, and nothing 
eaten from breakfast till night; it is customary to look 


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to the stSLTSy in order to see that they appear, and ntgbt 
is actually conae, before sitting down to eat. 

(12.) This is the manner in tfbicb the approach oC 
the fairies is usually described. 

(13.) The fairj^ castles were supposed to be moveable 
at pleasure, invisible to human ^yes, and generally built 
in ancient forths or ratbs. 

( 14.) It was a general supei^itiou that a new-born child, 
before baptism— or even the mother herself, might be thus 
carried away. 

(15.) It was vulgarly thought that the fairies take such 
ivomen as Mary was, to nurse those children whom they 
have carried away. 

'(16.) These were all celebrated haunts of the fabled 

(17.) Thi» chief was one of the ma,ny, whom ^ the fertile 
invention of poets has assigned to the fairies ; and whom 
the simple credulity of the ignorant has received. Finvar 
was another of these kings, whose enchanted castle was at 
Knock Magha, as that of Macaneantan was at Sgraba. 

(180 This story affords a specimen of the popular su« 
perstitions of Ireland. Such fictions prevail, more or less, 
in all countries, according to the degree of informatioo 
which the common people possess. And it is much to be 
regretted that they should be very prevalent in the country 
parts of Ireland, owing, in a great nueasure, to the want 
of more valuable knowledge. There is reason to hope, 
however, that the decay of such superstitions is not far 
distant, and that the*diffusion of' learning will remove 
every vestige of them. In the mean time, these play* 
ful inv^itions of fancy will serve to amuse the 
reader ; nor will thejr appear more extravagant than the 
poetic fictions of ancient times. ^ 


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TO TftB 






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The Iri^jh characters are the following; yiz. 


21 xt 
C c 

e e- 

5 s 
i. t 

// ft 


C c 
^ b 

The alphabet was variously arranged by 
ancient authors, usually beginning with 6, 1, 
and -m; but the above has been universally 
adopted by the modems. 










Buir, deit 


Eafla ' 


Fearann > 


Gort, geit 

8 ha 





liluin • 

















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The following abbreviatio^s are pommonly us^ 
in printed boo^s: wiz^ 

bh, ,cb, ,db, fb, gb, mh^ p^, sb, tb, tt, 
h p i> j: 5 • ifi p f t zc 

^ i. X <o X i{ ^ \ . 
agus, ar, air^ ao, ea, pbt, ui, nn, 

Many otber contractions have been, introduced,' 
in difierent books ^ but those that are inserted 
biete are the most usual, and the rest may be 
found in the pl^^tes of jeoatractipns^ At the end 
of the book. 

The follpwipg sentences will furnish an exer- 
cise, in reading tlie Iri>h character. 

2 K 2 Secttl}i<tjrr, 

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^Stir ^ 

t<iet9^a,i), T ftfo$dt ^dtjd, •\ fjoc^djtt. 

3. //d Cftejse-dX) c|tocdj|te t flrti)^- cuj 
cediigdjt fd-o JjidSdpj jdt), dju itdfi -OQ 

4^ "JtinjiiOM T)0 ge«t5d Ctt ^<t6«in» <i5«f 

5. C>T|i "00 "6oj5 d trojd fie -oo -vile- 6fio)t)e-, 
•J ^d fcj cdo?) jifr T30 c>i5fe- /ff jtt, 

6. ?li) T)o fljjcjB vie- dt)ifirg ^oti, 7 no 
"De-dud ffr -00 ttjgce- T>5|ted6. 

7- ATd 6) 5tjc di) "00 ifrip i$)n: b)oi?^ 
ect5td :Qi^ 0|ic, T ffrd^djn, dti cote. 

8. 6)df6 ^ti tid ft^jtrcfr -qot) jtHlji), "J tfd 

9. Ottoffwg dn Cjgedfiftd le -cci tfidojti, t 1& 


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PROVERBS, Clv3j). 3. 

1. My son, forget not my law; but let tWne 
bmrt keep my {^ommw/Anm^- 

S. For length of daya, asd loDg U&i and fi^nm 
shall they add to thee. 


3. Let not mercy and tru.^ ff»7aak^ tlifie: hwd 
them about thy neck, write them upon the tabic 

4. So shalt thou find favour and good under- 
ft^ndipg lA t}^ wght of 6od and vo^m. 

5. Trust in the Lord with aU thine hfiMXt, wd 
lean not unto thine own understanding. 

6. In all tity iwys acki»Qwk^gc hi«i; ^d hp 

shall direct thy patns. 


7. Be not wise in thine awn «ye3; for th« 
^ord, and depart from evil. 

8. It sJiaU be iicaltb to tby mvd, fmd nMirrow 
to thy bones. 

9. Honour the Lord with thy suWtancf, and 
with the first fruits of all thine increase- 

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- 15 EXTRACTS. . 

10. |tt*W*^ tfon^vrjedn X)0 f^obol U- 
le- fjo-n nutfD. 

11. 21 tfijc, tid CdjtcvT^tiis fnld6cu5<i"6 <tff 
C)5e<t|tti<t; T tid i>) CYfjice- t)d ^e-dncugdt). 

12. Ojji dti ce 5fidT)'Vi5)af dn C^jedfttid, 
ftHd^-vrgp fe- ^, dwvrt fittd^cwsjof dcdj^i 

dtl tMdC JOUd WlJjJ d "Drjl. 

13. )f fotid dtice- "oo 5e)b edstid^ dg«f 
dtl "o-vrtie -bo gc^ c-vT^. 

14. Ojft j{ 'f.eaufi d ce-dumTje-ddt: nd eedih 
-vrged^c dj^tgit), d5tt{ d fo^dtt nd 6|i gtdti. 

15. )f iti6tttud)5 50 ttidfi J fittjT) fitt clocd 
u<j^f le ; 1 tid b'vrle tie-jce- ^ <io)bji) ledc, n) 
cajititH^df ft)d jdTi. 


16. ^Icdjtt -fdt) Idete di) d "oedfl^jtfi, *| 
di) d iccjnt cl^ f d)X)b|ijof T otio)|i. 

17. jf fl)5ce f6tdK d :fl)5ce-, n K -not- 
cdjti d cdf dii 'Vile. 

18. ){ CfidT^edcd ) -ooti "on-vTus 5t<tcdf 
5|te)tM Tbj, T jif fotid gdc doti xjd b'if:o-{!co)5-r 
joti ). 

19. 2>o fvTSix* dn Qsedfitid dn cdldtti le 
tirtjl^dcd^jlec-vrsfe-oo -Ddjiisiijx) fe nit Y^td- 

■ 20. Le lid eoluf i)}t5f cedn dmdc nd l)d g- 
e)ii, T fjljTi tid tieul dtl -Oftucc dtiudf * 

*^ 10. So 

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10. So shall thy barns be filled with plenty, arid 
thy presses shscH burst dut witii new wine* t 
„ - . * •• '"'^ . -'•'. . ■ ■ ■' < ■ * 

1 11 My son, despise not the chastening ef the 
Lord; neither be weary of his correction. 

12. For Whom the Lord loveth l^e cotrectetlv 
even as a father the son in whom he ddighteth. 

i3. Happy is tlie man that findeth >vicdom ; and 
the man that getteth understanding. 

* f4. For the merchandize pf it ist better than thd 
merchandize of silver, and the gain thereof thatar 
fine gold, 

164 She is more precious tba^ rubies; and all the 
things' thoii canst desire,, are not to* be compared 
unto her. 

16. Length of days il in her right hand; and 
in her left hand r'^ches and honour* 

'*. ' ' . . .' ' "*' 

17. Herwtiysare ways of pleasantness, and ail 
her paths ^rc peace. 

"f *"*,' " .•' 

18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold, 
upon her; and happy is every one that retaineth 
her. / 

. 1^. ' 'The''LdrdJby wisdom hath founded the 
earth; by ulid^r^ndihg hath lie Established the 

20. By his knowledge the depths are broken ^ 
.4ip, and the clouds drop dowii the dew. 

^ 21. Ql 

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fvt)8; coi)'wtH gtjocuf jonfl^ti <i5iif "ojf- 

22. t11<tc fjn b^jtJ f f (fo Hit whe^mtii "oot 

23. ?li) fjti fjiiBolYTo cu iti) T)o f tjge a» 
24;. ?liiu^)^ t-vro-flof cu f<of» tij 6j<t e-ttg- 

25. //^ 6f ot) e<t5l<t ojic fte btt<itfi<iii obari, 
no ftf •odttfef *f» ¥jlc tftftwtjji «^c<^<i< f e. / 

26. 0)|t (jut) e- <iM C)5e<t|tti<t "00 B<t|ttciit<t, 
T cu)tffT3eo6up ^"^ -00 co-f dejc 5<tBc<t. . 

27. ^Tit cofiildjth tfisjfc Off ffOfiiijffS t)<t|i 

1 «ttftfi <t)t5i/, ^ t)o ee-tt^it iwe- -ftujt <tiM^)i4ci 


21. Jliy 

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SI. My son, let not them depart from tbin^ 
eyes;, keep sound wisdom and discretion. 

22, So shall they be life unto thy squl, and 
grace to thy neck. 

2S. Then shalt thou walk in thy way safely, and 
thy foot shall not stumble. 

24. When thou liest down, thou shalt hot be 
afraid; yea, thou shalt lie down, and thy sle^ 
shall be sweet. 

25. Be not afraid of sudden fear, neither of the 
desolation of t}ie wlfktd, when it cometh. 

26. For the ^.ord sh^ll be thy confidi^nce, and 
shall keep thy foot frgo) beJDg taken, 

27. Withhold not good from them to whom it 
is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do 

28. Say not unto thy neighbour, go, and come 
again, and to-niQrrQW t vvriU give thee, when thou 
mst H by thee, 

29. Devise not evil against thy neighbour, see* 
ing he dwelletb securely by thee, 

30. Strive not wikh a man without cause, if he 
))4ve done thee no harm. 

91 THE 

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10 J?l|?«^eT9» 


The following beautifiil specimens of ancient 
p^^tpy Bfe seliecta4 kom a xnanivici^pt entitled : 

TAe Adventures ofDeardra^ and the Death of the 
Sons of Usna. 

' IfifttOFians pbce these events about the irst 
century of tJ^ Odmstian ^sx^ Concoviai: was at 
that time monarch of Ulte, (now Ulster, or the 
northern parts of lieland)- At tjip birth of Dt;ar- 
dra it was predicted tl)4t she should, be the ca^u^c of 
great calamities; but the king, unterrified by the 
prediction, took her from the care of her father, 
MacddiJ, the chibf historian of ^lla, and had her 
care&illy reaiied under persotis of' his. owHiappointT 
inent; intending when she should have attained 
to mature years, to take her as his consort. 

Unfortunately for, hist plans, however, the beau- 
tiful Deardra fell in love with Naesa, ope of the sons 
of Usna; atHl, with the assistance of his brothers, 
Ainli and Ardan, eloped with him to Alban (Scot** 
land), in the western parts and isles of which, 
Naesa hj^d consi^l^rable propfirty. Ji^ft thpy lived 
happily, until a me$${j0ger arriVf^l ft'om Cojxcovar, 
invichig them to return; under the appearaiice of 
friendship, but really with a view to their destruc- 
tion. Deardra dissuaded tiie youthful. heroes fix)m 
flying to their own ruin; but* their geneious. heart* 
suspected no treachery, and they complied with 
the invitation, v . 

' With 

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With great wkictance Deardra left the shoYes of 
Alban; and, during the voylage, sung the follow- 
ing plaintive stanzas ; in which the pteasureis that 
were gone, 4s she too well fbrebedW, never to 
return, and the delightful scenes that witnessed 
the bliss of mujkualloTe^ are called to rwoU<Qtiop« 

• 'r^ 

^la. ^(aitft'VTti 

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)ofittiufi T>iiifi Of * ccjotiti, 
^Ofittititi )ii)<fDfiO)5)oti "oe* 
)f jontffuti "oiifi f 'wfctie. 

Cojtt CUtltl, t1<ti1 CCOjlt CUtftf, 
fit $<t)rl)T3 tjOtM no B)OT) ttMtl, 

5te-<itifi Uojje, on gle-rfnti tdojje, 
:ao co-ol<t)titi f<^ti wbojfijtt «i5ti; 

f <t bj iMo c-vro <i ti5te-<mii t^tojge-. 
?lH"o 4 ctie-<ttfi, stet it5<tf <t)ti ; 

)« IDO StlJtMJf CO*Ol<tT) COjftfKtC, 

Of <iti jfibjf tnotigdc medff 411. 

5le<ttiii e-jcce-, on 5I41111 e^t6e, 
2liiti -DO co5<if itio t^<iX> zo]B ; 

6u<il4T) 5t^e-)tte 5le<ttiti fi-jcce. 

Sle-dtiii <t|i6<iO)ii, 5te-4iifi rtjictiojti, 
6ci be <tti 5le<fHti xi^e-at ^nom t<io)n, 

TV^ii /V'rtOjfe 4ti5t€-<ititi rtn^aoj-rt. 


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£;iTRA€TS. 13 

Dear to tile that eastern sliote. Dear w Alban, 

lapd of delists. Never would I have forsaken 
it/ had I not cqfi^ with Naesa« 

Dear is DUiifay and Dunfin, and the' lofty hill 
that towenr a^bore them^ Dear is Inia-drayo^ and 
Dunsaivni. \ : 

Coilcuan, Oh CoUcuan! Where Ainli, and where 
Ardan came. Happily my days passed with 
Naesa^ in the western parts of A) bail. 

Glenke, Oh Glenlee ! Amidst thy shady thickets 
I slept, or feasted with my love in Glenlee. 

Glenmcssan, Oh Glenmessanl Rich were thy 
herbs, and bright thy greens. Lulled by the fal- 
ling stream we reposed, on Inverts banks in Gl^n- 

Gleneich, Oh Gleneich I There my dwelling first 
was fixed. The woods smile when the rising 
sitn casu his rays on Gletieich. 

Glenarchon, Oh Glenarchon ! Fair U the vale 
below Dromcbon, Sportive as childhood were niy 
hours withNaesa, in. the blooming vales ofGIen- 
a|«bp|i. : ) 



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Itlo bpa TOO ^ai aicwi ^e-<tfi twn rmai j ' 

;^o6<t tjcjocf-vrtin <tjfoe- oti ojji, 
Itluti* •ocjocYi'vrtiti |ie iMjonrfirti. 



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Crlendani^ Qh Glendarua !: Thy mbabitaats to 
me were dcai;, TJie )>irds sung sweetly ou the 
bending boughs, that shaded over iGrlendario. 

Dear to irie is that spreading shore/ Dear 
tiiose aJandy margined sti^eams. - Never would I 
liibTe forsaken^ • yoa, had ] not come with my 
love, . ' 


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16 tXTRACT«. 

She ceased to sing. The vtB^ approached 
the shore, and the fugitives returned once more 
to Erin. 

Still the heart of Deardia foreboded treachery. 
She- advised her friends to go to X>und^gan, 
the residence of the renowned Cuchullin, and place 
tl)emselves under his proti»:tion. Their ill-founded 
confidence, however, in the honour of Conco- 
vgtr prevailed upon them to proceed tl^ Emana, 
his royal seat. Various were the warnings which 
De^rdra gave them of their approachipg des- 
tiny: sometitTies in affectionate converse, and 
frequently in plaintive songs. Nothing, haw- 
ever, could avert the impending blow, and the 
sons of Usna arrived, with their fair companion, 
at Emana; whilst Concovar sat at the feast with 
iiis chieftains. 

They were received with much appearance of 
Jtindness; and, upder pretence or distinction, 
placed in the castle of the ^td Branch, with 
guards to w^it upon them. At length the ga- 
thering storm burst over their heads; a body of 
foreign troops was sent to rescue Deardra xrom 
the sons of Usna, and then to burn the castle 
which contained them. The native troops of 
Ulla, thougli bound to obey the authority o€ 
Concovar, would not in^hrue their Jiapda i« the 
blood of the heroes. 

After ineffectual attempts on the part of the 
assailants, and prodigies of valour performed by 
the sous of Usna, they at length effected their 
escape, with Deaydra, But being still pursued, 
at length they fell, overpowered by tlie nundber 
of their enemies. 

The distress of Deardra may be conceived, 
Alone, distracted with grief, she calls to mind 
every circumstance that endeared her Naesa to 
her; and with a self-torinienting ingenuity, H 


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which grief is foiftije^ ; r^fl^cts; vtwn tit^pse tran- 
sient iutero^ioiis, . whiqL ir^ght , nave occasioned 
uneasiness in, th6 time that wiai past, aiid now 
served to a^j^vate her woe. 

The voice of nature breathes in the following 
lines, in whilch ^he^ieflectB upon hec. jealousy of 
Naesa's^.tofc. . , > • ),-; - ^///:. •; 


J . 

- ■■ ♦ . 

r- j . : ^. 

;■) . 

: " '* 


1 ' '■' * 

« i » 

:, ,V ' 

-»J ' 


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jf cUtiti Uj{fie-<t6 "Odii c6)n «jW«, 

50 cttig /^<fojf e 1P05 5<tit f jof . 

:So 6itirt dtijc) ejljc bdoc, 
e-dt) <itt<t, T tdos rte- <t co^f ; 

L)Oii<if WO 6e-<ttiti i^n -oon cmv, 
•fit cumm IjotM beo -Hd etig. 
Le^anayo m\{) <tiif<t6 <t)f 'j'tfttiti, 

50 in?e«t6<tT) <i)ii fttwg ii<i nittriS- 
Cu5 nn Be<tti fjn "6611 cjie-ojn, 


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Farewd f(»^&l«r,'Wr'^^*iistt^'^ «Sbfti{ your 

oft I sat upon t;hBL A»i,r,:^^hciifi^*fe;sD68, and 
viewed tliej^aoe,;^p|ow., ..jvfiv 


The chiefs of Alban^met at the banquet The 
valiant sons of Usna were there: and Naesa gave 
a secret kiss to tliis fair daughter of the chief- 
tain of Dundron. 

He sent her a hii^d from the hill, and a young 
fawn running beside it. Returning from the 
hosts of Inverness, he visited her by the way. 

My heart was filled with jealousy, when I 
heard the news. I took my boat and rushed 
upon the sea, regardless whether I should live 
or die, 

AinU and Ardan, those faithful, valiant youths 
swam after me, and brought me back again to 

Then Haesa pledged his word to me, and 
swore three times ujpn his warlike arms, he 
never more would give me cause of pain, 
until he should descend into the grave. 

The lady of Dundron likewise swore with ,a 
solemn vow, that as long as Naesa lived on 
earth, she never would accept the love of any 

2M.3 116 

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jjVdj. ' ■ .M f ; J' 'r • : './ 'i'- ' '/. '■ . i 

^. I :■ : »» HJ *• 


' • . ' I 


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Ah . did : ai^C-- hear .^ thm OTghki tiiai Nacst wa« 
laid in his grayj^y::|pn^fe^ wofll^hp.-^^^ Umenta- 
tion, but seven times greatei; >y^pld he /mine. 

Having indulged in these j>ainful, pleasing re- 
flections of her lover's waTjdferJng,' ' and 'his ^wcc- 
tionate return; and* lost in^^sfympathetjc' feeling 
for a rivaTs ipr*mvj the jtesaouiSjr ;tliat 11 had 
excited, ^he CMicliqies witit 'thc:^altawJB^ jlmefal 

V ::r\*:- 


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. . •. . ' ' ' ■ ' , ' ' ' ■ 

CfiJ^t* ttujjc ti<t6<t|i mn)t fit uffu\Mi 
21 ccvicjotM jf Of Cfiu<t)X) e : 

2154 rMi7)<t c|t)Oc<t -^0 ttfiix)Bt 

Cftjdt* "Otttctt "00 h) ixys U<tc<t, 

C|i) ntjc 0)|f6e<t|ic<t Ujf iie<t6, 
)f ru)fif e<tc <t ijejc net tie-<tf buj|). 

?l f g^ tMajljge* t)e<tttcf iid)5 -oontict, 
21 ^^ -f^titiecistt 5t<tii g^<t"oc|totM<t, 

21 fecotiw tM<t|i ctutfi'itttf, 
21 f e- nstujtie-, ngtifctt, 'n^tfa.ia., 
21 f\^<icit fljwie, f te<trtiitct, 
21 fe- ft<tc<t f joMtitt «fe-d|ix)<t. / 


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Long, long j^^ tdaj? tMt, vUj Hie Jons of 
Usna are gon^. Xbigir^wwrsQ wji^.tw^et; but 
now the heroe3|r<;aus^ yggf tear^,tp flpw^ They 
were as lions on the hifts o^,|lwaM. /. 

To the iiimels ol" Breatan they Wert dear. As 
hawks upon th(^ meuntaiiifi, tiiey darted on the 
foe. Tte 'bra>t iubi^tted (O them, and the 
nobles did them hmofu 

Never did thity yield in battle. Ab wo is 
me that they are gone. Sons of the d^ghter 
of Caifi, you were a host in the ware of Cuahia- 

Beneath thi caM ofAifi tliey v^ett mtred. The 
countries^toufni paid tiibnte ta theoL Bursting 
as a flood m b*t»le wew tbf yoHtte of SJgatha* 

Uatha watched over their youth* Tlie heroes 
were valiant In fight. Renovyned sons of Usna^ 
I weep, for jrou nave left me to mourn- 

Dark Wrown were their eye-brows; their bright 
eyes sparkled underneath, and their cheeks were 
as the embew of flimie. j 

Their legs as the down of the swan; light 
and active ^mre ikdr l\mbs ; soft 44d g^^ their 
bands, and /^leir ^rms Avers Ikir aod manly^ 

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^ ElLTSJlCrs. 

; ., J ^^ 

'if v.. . 

5o iMitjjtiTjKii <t tix)j<i^ //<wKe^» 

2ltiniuii nj d)<t ptimviti' • ■' 

jif <if te-Ofi tjow i^<t"o itio de-dcd, 
&u<iyb. wo te<tnti<iii tittjnif j . 

.21 f jji tf x:oct<if <tti ^e^dfican, 

Cu)ti ti<t cji) ct<tpitie cfiu<ipe- 
Of d ccjotiti f <iti u<t)5, <t 5)oll<i. 


6)<tt) -^dfctt gctn luce fe-<tl5<t, 

Z^)<tfi Txilca cotKtjl ce<ififi<tj5. 

Cttj bjattrf-Mtt T)C|tj cco^ti fjti, 
3o hu<t)n Of 114 <if tMO cno)"D&, 
)f <i5utii "00 6jox) <t "octtjf 5e, 
21 Ijf e^cfjn If f:<i c<io) e. 


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King of Wfc I ieft thy ^ksm ftr fl^it My 
days are few alter lifam Ifk ftcMtai hMMM arc 

Thimk x^iim^ I mlil mr^m mki^ Ainli 
and Arda% I doiir* aji^'J^ ¥^)0B^ ytW 

Life has no charms nov for me, My days 
are alrisady too many; Delight of my soul, a 
shower of tears shall fall upon y^ur ^^y% 

Ye m^ thai dig dteir graven prepaup it wide 
and deep* I mtiU rest on the bosom of vay lov«. 
My sig^ and groans will go with mtf to thf 

Often were the shidds and sjmrs their b^ 
Lay their strong swords by tbwr heads in wm 

Their dogs, their haifks^ — who Will atten4 
them now ? The hunters are no 9iore on &eir 
hills ; the valiant youths of C^nmal Caimi. 

My heart groans to see the coUus of their 
hounds; often did I feed tbem^ but now I we^ 
when they draw near. 

2 n ^f 

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■I EaQcauMcn.. 

' ' 2)0 <hltfjfD two fKlTSxtfc' uitjt^A * 

//*) tf»<i)ri)otiti mo lit^c CiiO]iivXr. 

■ *Ji ,/ ,* 

If ; i 


'f ' " ■■ ^ 

,»; * .. .1 . - ,j ^ 


.K -. .. 



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Hiough many times we traversed t}ie solitary 
waste, I knew no solitude, until the day that 
your grave was prepared. 

My sight begins to fail, when I see thy gravie, 
my Naesi. My life will soon depart, and the 
voice of my mourners be heard no more. 

As she concluded her lamentations, she sprung 
int6 the grave, and, on the hfeast of Naesa, 
expired, * 

Thus ends one of the finest wrought tales, 
founded on original history, that is to be 
met with in any language. Should these 
short extracts excite attention, or awaken curi- 
osity, the whole will soon be published; and a 
succession of similar pieces, from ancient Irish 
manuscripts, will be prepared, with translations, 
to come forward from the unmerited oblivion, iiji 
which they are i^ow f^t mouldering to decay. 

2 N ? 

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I * 

( ■ 1 ■ 

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MAJWSCftlPT COlhn&erK^. AND OOOiikL 

Besides the abbitviatiqus ej^hibitbd in pdgeS^ 
ifiaAy cdntfactiotts ar« used in the Irish manu- 
sctlpti. Various: kblte of thefli have been com- 
^ed^ and d1!teni|>t^ n^e to reduce them t6 ge* 
BerkI principles ; but in a basitess so veiy arbi- 
trary and fanciful as that of abbreyiatinj^ it 
may be wM^ coucmedi that no qrBtemattc ar- 
rangeiii€n|^ ho|e^^ i^^jjsiitous^ ci^ w completely 
satisfactoiy. . ^ 

The foJiowW table^ origi«alIy puUisbcd by 
the leartied 'ueneral Vairanccy, contain by far 
the best and most useful list of contractions libAt 
has yet appm;ed. 

It is necesHtetry to, ol^serve. hov?tver, tluit cer- 
tain contractions made according to general ^rule^ 
have not bcdlh Ittiserted iu the tables, vk. 

When d vxwel is placed over a consonant, it car- 
ries the force of it, aiatf it^ cm^ pg)yer, either befbrc 
Of afl«i die li; as» 

it e ) ^ 

t c c c c 

Cfiit trf e zfij Cfio C|ii^. 
Or,, cdft efrft z^ zQfk cufi* 

If ben thp small ? is set over a consojMmt^ it has 

iht force of «-<i|<; if « be douWed, the t» must be 
, 4onhk4 skoi as^' 

t ^ 


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At the end of the table are inserted various 

characters, termed ce-<ttlfl '^xi eyoS-^ the head of 

the ridgt, or, eOfi f^ ^<tf dtl, the reapev^^ path. 

The use of these is as follows. When a sentence 

ends in or near the middle of one line, the next 

begiiis the next line; and when this 

impleted,, .th^ vacant space. of the h'ne 

illed.up, distinguishing the foriper period 

f these, rii^rl^s. This, is tiie mannet in 

the ^ancle^t manii^qripts are ,\vri^^ 

Oj^ ){ on *oofiiif t)t)$ce<i^ cjotifcajfic \\'\ 
Read, •/ . j t U ' .. r ■• :• \ :■'■'' 

•;<(jfc6f. . ■•; ';/'■• • /',.'• / .. : ;' '; , 

^ Ojft i{ on vofin^ pt^^t^iXfi cjonfCitj^c ; 

«5 qoiifcdjnc ttijjrttiuitjii. ; , • ,;t r 

/Fe Tww^/ begin Jirst with the month ofj€fntki)y. 
For every work ought to commence with t^ en- 
trance^ as the year begins wlfh the month of Ja- 
nuary. ' . ' -* . 

The Ogham is last in the tabl^. 1^\\\% 'Wjis an 
occult manner of writing, much used in monu- 
mental inscriptions, hilt alto cftipidyed '?n > rdi-«* 
gious writings. Of the innumerable, kinds. , of 
Oghams that have been used,; that which is inr 
serted here is the* most usiial It will appeal 
upon inspection, that the letters are formed by 
the position of a certain number of strokes drawn 
alx)ve, across, or below one horizontal line; thus, 
one stroke below the line rjcpresents A, three ^ 
above it, /, one obliquely across, m, &c. 


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Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC