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Br 



I 



HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



NNALS AND ANTIQUITIES 




OF 



THE COUNTIES 



AND 



*^' 



COUNTY FAMILIES OF WALES 



5^^ 



CONTAINING 

A RECORD OF ALL RANKS OP THE GENTRY, THEIR LINEAGE, AU.IANCES, APPOINTMENTS, 

ARMORIAL ENSIGNS, AND RESIDENCES, WITH MANY 

ACCOMPANIED BY BRIEF NOTICES OP THE HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, PHYSICAL FEATURES, 

CHIEF ESTATES, GEOLOGY, AND INDUSTRY OF EACH COUNTY ; 
ROLLS OF HIGH SHERIFFS FROM THE BEGINNING; MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT; 

MAGISTRATES OP BOROUGHS, 
ETC, ETC 



ALL COMPILED BY DIRECT VtSlTATIOH OF THE COUNTIES, AND FROM RELIABLE AND 

ORIGINAL SOURCES. 



Qftttf^ itsoictoiis SUmtntioni on SSooH fnnB 9^otogci|i!^ 



By THOM ASJJICHOLAS/ M.A., Ph.D, F.G.S., &c 



^. # 



VOL. II. 



"' LONDON : 



LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND CO., 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1873. 




5r ILsS.hUO^ 



■■/ 






1 1 ' ■" 9 7 



I 



[entered at stationers' hall.] 



LOVSOW: 
ruirrBO sr ;. akd «. iiobk. 

BArTHOLOMBW CIjOSC. 



? 

'»1 ^ 



/ 



ANNALS, &c., OF WALES. 



GLAMORGANSHIRE 

(Morganwg). 

The English name " Glamorgan " is a corruption of the original Gwlad-Morgan — the country 
or territory of Morgan, a ruler of this region in the ninth century. Before the time of 
Morgan, who is usually sumamed in Cymric history Morgan Mwynfawr^ or the courteous, 
the extensive tract over which he ruled, extending much beyond the boundaries of the 
present county, was known under the name Esyilwg — ^ the country of Essyllt,'* and the 
people were called Essyllwyr^ from which were coined the Latin Silures and Siluria. This 
tract included Monmouttishire, and parts of Brecknockshire and Carmarthenshire, as well as 
the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, extending along the shore ^ from the Severn to the 
Towy.** In the succeeding section, on ^the history of Glamorganshire, the territory of the 
Lords of Morganwg, its extent and changing limits, and relation to surrounding princedoms, 
will be further noticed. 



Section L— PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

This county, bounded on the south and west by the Bristol Channel, on the east by 
Monmouthshire, and on north by Brecknockshire and Carmarthenshire, has an extreme 
length from east to west of 53 miles, and an extreme breadth from the shore to the interior 
of 37 miles. Its superficial measurement is estimated at about 792 square miles. It is the 
third in size of the counties of Wales, being exceeded by Carmarthenshire and Montgomery- 
shire ; but taking into account its subterranean and surface productions, it far exceeds in 
actual value any other county in Wales, and perhaps any other region of equal size in Great 
Britain. The population of this county under the last five censuses has shown an increase 
far surpassing that of any other county in the United Kingdom, and offers to the moralist» 
the political economist, and politician, a problem of the greatest interest 



Total population of Glamorganshire in 180 1 




• • « 


71,523; 


Da 183 1 






126,300; 


Do. 1 84 1 




• ■ • 


I7i,i8&; 


Do. 1 85 1 




• •• 


231,849; 


Da 186 f 

• 




• • • 


3>7,75»; 


Do. 187 1 




• • • 


396,010; 



46o GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

showing that in the course of the present century the inhabitants have increased considerably 
more than fivefold — a rate far in advance of any other in England or Wales ; for with all the 
marvels of the growth of London, the population of Middlesex has only trebled itself since 
iSoiy and that of Lancashire has only advanced slightly more than fourfold. The most 
rapid progress in Glamorganshire has been made during the last decade, when an addition 
of nearly 8o,goo souls, or a fifth of the whole, took place. This enormous amassing ot 
people, brought by the unequalled development of the coal and iron industries from all parts 
of the United Kingdom, and even from other lands, and occurring in a country inhabited 
by a quiet and comparatively unenterprising race, gives rise to curious and interesting social 
questions deserving and loudly calling for discriminative and philosophic attention ; and we 
shall have the advantage in future pages of presenting observations on the subject from the 
pen of one of the most careful and intelligent observers — himself a resident in the county. 

The great surface outlines of Glamorganshire are marked by the mountainous elevations 
of the interior and northern parts, locally denominated ^ the hills,'* where the great iron and 
coal works are mainly located, the undulating and comparatively level southern and south- 
eastern side, termed with a latitude of meaning '* the Vale of Glamoigan,** and the vallejrs 
of the Taff on the east ; of the Neath or Nddd to the north-west, cutting the county into two 
unequal parts j and the smaller valleys of the Tawe running parallel to the N6dd ; the 
Rhymni running a course of thirty miles, and forming the eastern boundary between the 
county and Monmouthshire; the Elwy, entering the sea along with the Taff^ear Cardiff; 
the Ogmore, which joins the sea below Bridgend ; the Avon, ending at Aberavon ; the 
Loughor, which ends in the Barry estuary ; the Cynon and the two Rhonddas, tributaries of 
the Taff; the Dulas, a tributary of the NMd; the Garw, Llynfi, and Ewenny, tributaries of 
the Ogmore. None of the streams are more than twenty to five-and-twenty miles long, and 
several are not twelve. The watersheds from which they start stand for the most part 
beyond the limits of Glamorganshire. The Tawe, N6dd, Dulas, Cynon, Taff, and Rhymni, 
all rise in the high lands of Breconshire'; but the Ogmore, Avon, Daw (ending at Aberddaw), 
Elwy, and the two Rhonddas, have their origin within the county, with an average course of 
about a dozen miles. 

The coast-line of Glamorganshire, not less than eighty miles in length, through two- 
thirds of that distance presents to the waves a rampart of limestone cliffs, in many parts 
rising almost perpendicularly from the beach to terrific heights, with broken and cavernous 
expression, which strikes the beholder with awe. From Penarth Point, near Cardiff, to Nash 
Point, and again from the Mumbles to the Worm's Head, a coast is witnessed which in 
stormy weather can scarcely be surpassed for the magnificence of its aspect Woe to the 
craft that is driven on this shore ! It has but few places of effectual shelter, and was in the 
olden time famous for its tales of shipwreck and the atrocious doings of its wreckers. The 
two small islands of Barry and Lundy lie close to the south-eastern shore, and the Flat 
Holmes lie out a few miles in mid-channel firom Lavemock Point, where the Bristol 
Channel, separating this county from Somerset, is only some dozen miles in breadth. 

Glamorganshire, looked at superficially, has three points of surpassing interest. Cardiff 
and the valley of the Taff are in modem commercial activity as remarkable as they were in 
earlier times for political, ecclesiastical, and warlike doings. The eye in the second place 
naturally turns to those centres of population, wealth, and combined maritime and inland 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION :— CARDIFF. 461 

activity fringing the Bay of Swansea. But the '' hills "* are the part of Glamorganshire 
which exercises the strongest fascination over the mind. Only a few years ago, the most 
silent and deserted, most destitute of attraction, most forbidding in aspect, and unknown to 
the common world of any part of the Principality, they have almost suddenly become the 
cynosure of all lands, the focus of teeming multitudes, the very workshop of Vulcan and all 
his kin ; where the nature of man is almost changed into that of a dweller undezground and 
fire-eater, and the bowels of the earth are torn out to be made into rails and fuel for half 
the civilized world. All the creations of classic poets respecting Acheron and Coc3rtus, the 
foiges of Vulcan, and the deep abodes of Pluto are here infinitely surpassed in human 
reality, and a picture is laid before us of desolation and chaos, scientific and mechanical 
achievement, squalor, filth, moral degradation, heroic Christian contest with evil, and all- 
devouring rage for gain, such as the light of the sun has seldom made visible. 

Cardiff, in its day of comparative obscurity, may be said to have been in a sense the 
cradle of Glamoigan. Here in its ancient castle, as we shall have occasion in our historical 
sketch further to notice, centred the chief life, social, political, and military, of these parts. 
And here still, under exceedingly different aspects, is located much of the modem life of 
the county. It is no part of our design to trace the history of the rise of Cardiff as a 
town or port, or to describe its magnificent docks and shipping, and the influence of the 
great house of Bute on the fortunes of the place ; but it is necessary in casting a glance 
over the influences and conditions which mould the county, and the place held by its great 
fiunilies as an integral part of those influences, to mark here in passing the beneficent power 
hitherto exerted by the family of Bute upon this town and port (see Bute of Cardiff Castle). 
Through the liberality and large-mindedness of the late Marquis, this port has been supplied 
with docks, which for capacity, convenience, and engineering skill are unsurpassed. Fabulous 
sums have been expended upon their construction, and, judging firom the returns, not a 
fiurthing has been wasted. The ships of all nations coming for coal and iron have been 
attracted by the accommodation here offered, and the steel of the Taff Vale Railway is 
bright from the constant passage of trains bringing down the treasures of *' the hills ** to 
meet their demands. The merchants of Cardiff are now numerous and wealthy. The 
population of the town in 1801 was only 1,870 ; in 187 1 it was 39,675, while the '* district 
of boroughs*' around contained a population of 60,323, of which the enormous proportion 
of 34,682 was a dear increase since 1861 (Census^ 1871). 

Cardiff Castle^ to which we shall recur in our section on the onHquUies of this county, 
was the nucleus around which the ancient little town of Caer-dyf gathered as a duster of 
dependent feudal tenements. The modem castle, of which we give an engraving, built 
contiguously to the ancient baronial stronghold, is situated close to, or more properly 
speaking, in the midst of the now rapidly growing town. 

This part of Cardiff Castle was built by the late Marquis of Bute, on part of the site 
of the early fortress, but in a style much more modem and suited to modem modes of life. 
It contains spadous and richly decorated suites of apartments sumptuously fumished, and the 
walls are hung with a great variety of costly paintings by old and more modem masters of 
different countries. Since the accession of the present marquis, great additions, not yet com* 
pleted, have been made to the castle, but these are on too extensive a scale to be induded in 
our illustration. The new works are an evidence that the proprietor is partial to this historic 



CLAMOKGANSHHUl. 



■pot, and meant well for the town of Cardiff. A young nobleman whose tastes lead him to 
the itudy of an, commerce, and social quesdoni, rather than to the dissipations of the 



CitaoiFr Castli : tkk Riuidbncb or tub Most Noble tub Makquis or Bute 
\fnm apkat: fy BtJ/ard). 

metropolis and the ventures of the tor^ will find from his castle of Cardiff no lack of 
openings for the exercise of beneficence and the elevation of his kind, and will doubtless 



Cabdiff Castlb : THE Ancient Kup (/nnn afki*. fy Btdfard). 

feel more at home surrounded by a teeming population deriving subsistence lately firom the 
ioduitriea of hit prosperous estates than in the comparative loneliness of his northern seats. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION:— CARDIFF AND NEIGHBOURHOOD. 463 

The ancient castle of Cardiff is now chiefly represented by the remains of its keep. This 
is a spacious octagonal tower of some seventy-five feet in diameter, standing on a m^und of 
considerable elevation, and affording to the spectator who mounts its summit a most ex- 
tensive view of town, port, and channel, vale» woodland, and distant hills. This was the 
place where Robert of Normandy, a son of the Conqueror, was confined for twenty-eight 
years by his brother, Henry I., until death gave him release — ^his chief crime being the fact 
that as elder brother he had a prior claim to Henry to the throne of England. 

Cardiff is not a town which can be easily conceived of as the centre of a district 
abounding in genteel families ; nor have the commercial activity and enterprise of the place,^ 
with all the successful energy they display, had time as yet to result in the founding of many 
great estates. The country around, however, if we take a circuit of a few miles, contains a 
large proportion of ancient houses and venerable manors, whose proprietors are the direct 
descendants of the early nobiles and /lotusti of Marganwg^ and whose fortunes have been 
improved by the noble strides of commerce only as their acres, under its stimulating influence, 
have grown in value. The rich lands of " the Vale of Glamorgan " {dyffryn Morga$twg) — 
a phrase broadly applied to the lowlands of this county, even where no '^ vale," strictly 
speaking, has existence — favoured extensive setdements, and 3rielded wealth long ages before 
the subterranean treasures of the hill country and the new energies of railways had been 
developed. 

Perhaps no part of Wales or of England abounds more in families and spots of distinction 
than does the district between the river Rhumney below Caerphilly, and Aberavon. Near 
the Rhumney is the ancient mansion and demesne of Cefn Mabley (see Ketneys-iynte of 
Cefn'MabUy\ for situation and historic interest a place standing foremost in these parts ; 
nearer Cardiff is IJanrhumney Hall; near Castell Codi, in the fertile Vale of TaiT, is Green 
Afeadoio (see Ltwis of Green Meadotv) ; Velindra^ the seat of T. W. Booker, Esq. ; and nigh at 
hand the more recent mansion and park of The Heath ( Wyndham Lewis ^ Esq.). Near Penarth, 
to the south-west of Cardiff^ is Cogan^ the ancient seat of the Herberts de Cogan, ancestors 
of the present Marquis of Bute, and still belonging to his lordship's estate, now occupied by 
J. Stewart Corbett, Esq.; in the venerable neighbourhood oi Dinas Powis is Cwrtyralay the 
beautiful seat of CoL G. G. Rous ; and within a mile or two of each other, and of the place 
last mentioned, are Wenvoe Castle^ until lately the seat of R. F. L. Jenner, Esq. ; Dyjffryn 
(see Brtice Pryce of Dyffryn) ; Coedrigian^ the residence in former times of the Trahemes, 
but now of G. W. Thomas, Esq. ; Cottrell^ the residence of Lady Tyl^r, widow of Admiral 
Sir Charles Tyler (see Tyler of Cottrell); Bomnlston House (Richard Basset, Esq.), which, 
with the village of which it forms a part, bears a name which carries us back to the settlement 
of the Norman adventurers in these parts. The little stream of Cenfon, rising near Bonvilston, 
leading us down towards its junction with the Daw, near Aberddaw, brings us by Uancarvan^ 
celebrated as the birthplace of Caradoc, writer of the Brut y Tywysogion which goes 
by his name, and soon afterwards into view of the great castle of Fonmon — a structure only 
second in extent and interest in this county to St Donates Castle, not far distant, but much 
modernized in appearance by repairs and alterations (st^ Jones of Fonmon Castle). 

Near the shore is situated Porthkerry^ the residence of Mr. Romilly ; and four miles 
directly north, ZJanirithyd Park and village, where there is an ancient but dilapidated seat, 
once belonging to Sir Thomas Digby Aubrey, Bart., and said to have been first built in the 



4<4 CLAMORGAMSHIRE. 

time of Heniy VL ; the dmrchTud wu long ftinous for a. magnificent yew tree, aud to 
measure aeaxlj twenty leet in giith, which wu tome yean ago injured by a. hunicane (tee 

Fucther north, in the direction of the andent town of Uantrisant, perched on a hill, we 
deaciy the tuireti of another of the great manaions of the Vale of Glamorgan, HtiuU CattU, 
recently the residence of Rowland Fothergill, Esq., lately deceased, and now of his sister. 
Hits FotheigilL 



Hkkiol Castlb {jTvm a fJutografk). 

This noble building is not to be raolced among the ancient castles of Glamorganshire, but 
is of comparatively recent date. It was built by Lord Chancellor Talbot, elevated to that 
office and created Baron Hens<^ 1733, descended from the Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury, and 
son of William Talbot, Lord Bishop of Durham. Before the Talbots the old &mily of 
Jenkins had been proprieton of Hensol (see Jeddns 1^ Hmsot in " Old and Extina 
Families"), one of whom was David Jenkins, Esq., described in old documents as " Coun- 
sellor at I.AW, and one of the judges of the Western Circuit of Wales in the reign of King 
Charles I.," who had as wife Cecil daughter of Sir Thomas Aubrey, KL, of Llantiithyd. Lord 
Talbot married a granddaughter of the last David Jenkins of Hensol, and so inherited the 
estate. The mansion was improved by the second Lord Talbot, son of the chancellor, who 
added two wings and towers about 1735, and it is believed that from him the estate was 
eventually purchased by Dr. Benjamin Halt, Chancellor of Llandaff, ancestiM- of the late Sir 
Benjamin Hall, created Lord Llanover (see Utawver, Saron, of IJangver\ whose family was 
succeeded at Hensol by the Crawshays, who were themselves followed by the present 
possessors. The view of the mansion here given, is from a photograph, but the artist has 
changed it into a moonlight scene. 

Near Hensol Castle is Miskin Manor (see WiUiamt of Afiskin), a recently erected 
mansion, but standing on an estate of much antiquity. Early in the thirteenth centoiy, 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 46$ 

Frees, of Miskin, (according to a MS. edited by the late Sir Thomas Phillipps, of Middlehill,) 
fifth in descent from Einion ap CoUwyn, '* Lord of Miskin/' who married Nest, daughter of 
Jestyn ap Gwrgant, Lord of Glamorgan, temp, William the Conqueror, was owner of this 
manor. Near Llantrisant is Llanday^ the residence of Major Vaughan H. Lee ; Uanharan 
Bouse (late J. B. Jenkins, Esq.) ; on the high road to Bridgend is TregroeSy the property of 
J. B. D. Thomas, Esq. ; and towards Cowbridge, Ash Hall (late Captain Owen). 

The fair and fertile country around Cowbridge abounds in genteel and ancient residences. 
The name of Beaupre {peau^ fair, prk^ meadow) carries us back at once to Norman name- 
givers; and the remains of the old castle of Beaupre, to which, and the legends concerning 
it, reference must further be made in our antiquarian section, still remain, grey and solitary, 
to testify of the age of this estate ; but the present &mily residence of the Bassets, though 
still situated in a '* fair meadow,** is on a different spot (see Bcuset of Beaupre). St, Hilary^ 
with a church restored with great taste, and, it is said, with certain pre-Reformation pro- 
clivities, is a village of mansions as much as of cottages and farmsteads. Here is the 
residence of Mrs. Traheme, formerly of Coedriglan, and also that of George Montgomery 
Traheme, Esq. (see Traheme of St, Hilary). Llanblethian^ or St Quintin Castle, and LUm* 
dot^ Castle (Rev. T. Stacey), are beautifully situated, commanding extensive prospects of a 
picturesque, well-wooded, and cultured country. The little church of Llandough has recently 
been restored according to the reviving mediaeval taste, and though small, is furnished with 
several appliances not usual in Protestant churches. PenlUne Castle^ boldly situated, is 
another of the residences of these parts which combine the past and the present in their 
history (see Homfray of Penlline Castle). Near at hand is PenlUne Court (see Salmon of 
PenlUne Court)^ and Colwinstone^ the residence of H. de Burgh Thomas, Esq. Near the sea 
is the village and church of Llantwit-major {Llanilltydfawr\ one of the most venerable 
spots in Wales, the seat for many ages of an important college, founded, or restored, in the 
sixth century, by the learned lUtyd (Iltutus). To this place we must recur in treating of the 
antiquities of Glamorganshire. The mansion of Ham (see NichoU of Ham) is in this vicinity ; 
and within a short distance is Dimlands Castle^ one of the residences of J. W. Nicholl-Came, 
Esq., D.C.L. (see NiehoiUCame of St. Donafs CastU). 

On the diff, keeping guard of the Channel and of a small creek washed by the tide, 
stands the hoary and romantic pile, St, Donafs Castle^ one of the great centres of power and 
activity in the county of Glamorgan during several centuries. This venerable place belongs 
as much to antiquity as to modem times, and as such will be further noticed in our section 
on Anti^ities; but as its present enterprising lord has devoted some years and a large 
expenditure in its repair and restoration, and converted it into a modem residence, without, 
however, marring its ancient features, we cannot choose but refer to it briefly here as 
we pass. 

The site on which St Donat's Casde stands, though bold, is not lofty ; it slopes gently 
towards the creek, and is just high enough to overlook a little church belonging at once to 
the castle and to its parish, situated in a narrow and pretty dell leading down to the tide. 
The restorer of the castle has not been unmindful of the church ; for this, dedicated to 
Dunawd (the origin of St Donafs), with a beautiful cross standing in the churchyard, has 
been carefully and tastefully restored — the monuments of the Stradling family, the ancient 
possessors, and others, the windows and decorations, having had pious care bestowed upon 



466 CLAHORGANSHIRE. 

them. The opposite side or the dell is crossed bj a. mined w;itdi-toweT (fignred in the 
engraving), some fiftf feet hig^ which in the olden time was used both to sttrver the Channel 
for anjr approaching enemj, and the neighbounng sIuhv fw the frequent wrecks which fell 
iipcn it. The walls of the andent deer-poik, ivy and lichen covered, and of vast extent, 
■till smvive, struggling with decay, and assist to tell of the scale of magnificence whidi once 
distingnished St. Donat's. 



• St. DoHA.-fs Castui i ihk Seat or J. W. Nicholl-Cakhb, Esq., O.CL.' 

We have already referred to the grandeur of the predpitoua coast which extends between 
Bany Island westward to St Donaf s, and much more mi^l be said of its terribleness 
to the mariner, as well as its sublimity to the tourist spectator, and scientific interest to the 
geolt^t and naturalist (See further G^lt^ ef Glamor^ofuiire.) At St Donat's the 
elevation of the coast becomes more moderate, d^enerating as it tarns noith-westward 
beyond Nash Point, by Dunraven, and towards Forth-Cawl into frequent 'reaches of dreary 
sand-hillocks alternating with a rocky shore, but everyiriiete enclosing an inland regitm of 
rich pasture diversified with dingles, glades, and woodland, and abounding with old pariah 
churches and homesteads, monastic ruins and crosses, that would enrich the portfolios rfthe 
artist and the pages of the annalist Right on the coast like St. Donat's, is perched 
Dwtravert Caitie, with its park and appurtenances^ to which further reference shall be made 
elsewhere (see Dunraven, Lord, of Dunraven). In the near neighbouihood is ClewiatistoH 
Hall (Mr. Fianklen) ; and nearer Bridgend the venerable and most interesting nnns of 
Ewemty Aib^, founded a.d. i i^o, and the contiguous residence of the same name of 
Kcton Turbervill, Esq. (see TurbervUl of Ewmny). These stand on flat ground on the ma^in 
of the Wtnwy stream. Merthyr Afawr, the residence of J. C. NichoU, Esq., a place of long 
and high standing, lies on the Ogmore ; and at a short distance down the stream, which runs 
here through a fair woodland couDtry, is Ogmore Cattle— man correctly called by Lcland 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 467 

Ogor Castle, — the ruin of an ancient place of strength, anterior in origin to the Fitzhamon 
conquest of Glamorgan, but probably commemorating in its existing remains the fortress 
built by William de Londres. In the time of Leland this castle was nearly whole. 

To the west of the Ogmore (or Ogwr) river lie Tythegstone Court (see Ktughi of 
7ytM^tt0ne\ a house whose interior and exterior alike afford signs of considerable age ; 
Nottage Court (see Knight of Nottage Court) ; Tymaen (Mr. Bayley), a place whose features 
suggest a history and some ecclesiastical relations in the past ; nearer Bridgend, Laleston 
House; and Court Caltman^ the residence of W. Llewelyn, Esq. ; further to the north, not far 
from the romantic Coity Castle, CoytreMn^ the residence of Alexander Brogden, Esq., M.P. ; 
and Tondu House^ the residence of James Brogden, Esq. Near at hand are the great iron- 
works of Tondu. From the elevated down of Newton, towards the sea, a magnificent view 
is obtained of the Vale of Glamorgan, the Bristol Channel, the English coast opposite, 
Swansea Bay, and the rugged clif& of Gower— a view which for extent, variety, and 
grandeur is seldom surpassed. North-west, beyond Pyle, we come to the great manor of 
Margam Park^ the superb seat of C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., M.P., and Margam Abbey^ to 
which attention will be called in another section. 

We have now visited most of the mansions of the leading families of the Vale of 
Glamorgan, and the historic lands lying between Cardiff and Margam, and between the line 
of the South Wales Railway and the sea, with some others. It will be convenient in the next 
place to cast a glance at the chief spots of domestic and scenic interest in the Vale of Taff 
and the *'hill country," before our survey is extended further to West Glamorganshire. 
From Cardiff to Bridgend we have encountered no valley or stream of any size, no bold 
elevations of the surface, no rugged rocks or cataracts ; but in spite of this drawback to the 
searcher after the picturesque, we have everywhere witnessed beautiful, and even in many 
places enchanting scenery. The pastures are rich and the air balmy. The villages of this 
region, too, are themselves a study, displaying as they do an air of cleanliness, comfort, and 
competence, associated with many delightful antique features in gabled roof^ arched doorway, 
and projecting chimney-place, quite delightful to witness. In good roads, fiivoured by the 
abounding limestone, the district is pre-eminent. The fiirmhouses seem to indicate a strong 
and prosperous tenantry ; and probably much of the restless and idle population is drained 
away into the congenial mining and manufacturing '* black country," already plethoric of 
such materials—to the advantage of the peace, if not also the rates of the parishes. On the 
whole, few agricultural districts of Wales, and not many of England, can compare advan- 
tageously with this southern side of Glamorganshire. 

Returning to the Vale of Taff, whose physical beauty and historic associations are now 
in danger of being driven out of memory by the whiri of its railways and mining machinery, 
we at once come upon a spot which has a special fiudnation to the annalist and anti- 
quarian, and withal to the moralist and Christian. Uandaffi^^ church on the TafI) for a 
thousand years before railways or the coal bed of Glamorganshire had been dreamed of 
was a place of celebrity throughout Britain and the whole of Christendom. Here, however, 
it is not meet to divert our course to trace its history or describe its antiquides^sketches of 
these shall elsewhere be introduced, — but simply to mark its place, illustrate its cathedral, 
and mention the chief houses of its neighbourhood. Lkuuiaff Cathedraij recently restored 



46S GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

with a tute, talent, and profiuion of outlay nrely equalled in such worki, ma a Tew yean 
ago a mere temple in niini — a convincing proof of the strange indifference ot the Established 
Church in Wales to its own interest and the wdfare of the population. The tuihop and the 
chapter had their ample incomes, the gentry of the land and the great mining and manu. 
facturing proprietors lived in wealth and luxury, while the chief church of the diocese lay 
roofless and in desolation. At last shame and a sense of duty prevailed, and in 1839 a 



LUNDATF CatHBDKAL— WlSTBaH FkOHT {Jram A/rbAtpn^ if StJfit^ 

commencement was made in the restoration of the cathedral. As shown below, the work 
went on and prospered, so that in 1869 a festival of commemorati<»i was held, when the 
sacred building, which had grown up from the dust of ages under the superintendence of 
Mr. Prichard and Mr. J. P. Seddon, architects, appealed as deUneated in our engravings, 
faithfully drawn from first-class photographs. 

The first imptilse to the movement was given in 1839 by Canon Douglas, and " the east 
window of the lady chapel, due to his bounty" — we quote from the speech of the Very 
Rev. Dean Williams at the Commemoration Festival, .July 13, 1869, — " was the commence- 
ment of that work which had moved steadily on since that time from the eastern to the 
western end. Bruce Enight, then chancellor of the diocese and of the church, gathered 



rUVSICAL DESCRIPTION: LLAXDAFF CATHEDRAL. 469 

subscriptions and completed the restoration of the lady chapel ; and when a meeting was 
assembled in 1843 to present him with a testimonial on his appointment to the deanecf, 
wriiich after the lapse of centuries he was the first to fill, the Rev. George Thomas, who had 
subscribed handsomely towards the restoration of the b<ly chapel, suggested the further 
prosecution of the work of resl oration, and promised his own liberal aid. Bishop Copleston 
gave his hearty assent to the proposal, and contributed largely to the fund. Bruce Knight, 



Llandaff CATREnKAL— Southern Sidk, wrrir the CttAnmtiUOVSK (Jivm a fioiosra/i iy S^/tay^,. 

however, though one of his last acts was to make a vigorous effort to raise funds to carry 
this suggestion out, was not permitted to see the undertaking actually begun, but in 1845 
he bequeathed its execution to his (Dean Williams') immediate predecessor. Dean Cony- 
beare, who to his many and varied acquirements added a thorough knowledge of architecture, 
and under his auspices it was carried on until 1857, at a cost, from the commencement, of 
about ;£'9,ooo." 

" The Bishop of O.tford then came amongst them when they met to celebrate the restora- 
tion of that portion of the cathedral which, though disfigured by the hand of man [by 
unskilful and unsightly repairs], had not been left, like the western end, roofless and ruined, 
for time and storm to work their will," On that occasion Mr. Williams (not yet a dean). 



470 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

under the impress of the bishop's eloquent address, made a proposal that further progress 
should be made in the noble woric, and was astonished to find the readiness with which 
promises of support were made. ^3,000 in various sums was promised on the spot Soon 
Conybeare died, and Dean Williams was installed in his place. He earned on the improve- 
ment with vigour. The outlay in the aggregate amounted to ^jOyOoo— a sum the smallness 
of which, when compared with the amount and exquisite beauty of the woriL done, must 
strike with surprise every one at ail conversant with the cost of restoring large ecclesiastical 
buildings. The dean in reference to this question was bold in the same address to say, 
that ''amid the many restorations of the present day, theirs stood unexampled and un- 
rivalled in skill ; for in no other cathedral was one-half the structure an utter roofless ruin ; 
in no other were choir and organ gone, a few broken pipes of an instrument, given by the 
Lady Kemeys, of Cefn Mabley, being all that remained of the latter in 17 17, as they gathered 
from the record of Browne Willis ; while, in place of the former, the musical portion of the 
service was long left to the voices of the school children, under the leading of the bass viol 
of their master. In no other cathedral had the residence of canons ceased or the daily 
service been suppressed. In no other cathedral had the library of the chapter been 
dispersed, and some of it burnt, as theirs had been in the dvil war, when, as Browne 
Willis said, the cavaliers of the country, and the wives of several sequestered clergymen, 
were invited in bitter mockery to the castle of Cardiff by the rebels, on a cold winter's 
day, to warm themselves by the fire which was then made with a heap of Conmion Prayer 
Books as well as a portion of their collection.** 

Touching wisely on the question of the possible disestablishment of the Church of 
England, and the doubts of some as to the effect of that event on the welfare of the Church, 
the Dean said ** he, for one, should not despair of her position. He dared not for an 
instant doubt that the same large-hearted liberality which had at such a cost restored their 
own cathedral ^ould maintain it still ; but even if he were mistaken in that thought, he would 
not grudge one farthing of the cost Let Macaula/s fabulous New Zealander, when, at some 
distant day, standing on the broken bridge which once spanned the broad waters of the 
Thames, he had sketched the ruins of St Paul's, within whose— 

* Holy precincts lie 
Ashes which make it holier, dost which is 
E'en in itself an immortality,' 

travel on, and from the narrow arch which crossed their Uttle stream [the Taff] view their 
lowlier structure (if it was to be so) again a mouldering ruin, he might still find sermons in 
stones. They might teU him that there had been men in the smaUest as in the largest dty 
in the land, who had learned to honour God widi their bravest and widi their best And 
might he not imbibe a little of that spirit too, and returning to his own distant home, seek to 
raise there a temple in its beauty and proportions meet for the service of God, catching fi-om 
them, as they had caught from their forefathers, a taste and grace in religious art which was 
once weU-nigh lost amongst them?" , ,^ 

The long desolation of Uandaff Cathedral brought sad havoc, as a matter of necessity, 
upon the necrological monuments of the place, some of which were of great antiquity. Many 
totally disappeared ; many others were defaced and broken ; and m the rearrangement of the 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION : LLANDAFF CATHEDRAL. 47« 

mural tablets and tombs some were misplaced. Even comparatively recent tombs have been 
removed from their proper locality. Thus the magnificent marble sarcophagus erected over 
the gzave of Benjamin Hall, Esq., of Hensol Castle (see Hensol CastU\ and of Abercam, 
Mon.y a man of distinguished character and public service, father of the late Right Hon. 
Lord Llanover, which bore the following inscription :<— '' In a vault near this place are disposed 
the remains of Benjamin Hall, Esq., of Hensol Casde, M.P. for this county, who died 3 ist July, 
1^179 ^ed 39. To record the high sense they entertained of his industry, talent, and 
integrity, and as a tribute due to the man whose life was sacrificed to the zealous discharge of 
his public duties, this monument was erected by a considerable body of the nobility, clergy, 
gentry, and freeholders of the county of Glamorgan,** — has been unfortunately removed to 
another part of the nave, and no longer indicates the spot where the remains were laid. 

It will be observed that this cathedral has no transepts, and that the only break in the 
straight lateral line of its exterior is caused by the projection of the western towers, and on 
the southern side by the beautiful octagonal chapterhouse. The delicate ornamental work 
of the upper part of the towers, with their exquisitely modelled turrets and spire, are the 
admiration of all beholders ; and the contrast which the cathedral in its present aspect supplies 
to what it was after certain alterations and barbarous decorations in 175 1 is complete. 
Mr. Barber describes the result of those earlier misjudged alterations and '^ improvements " as 
follows : — *' On the chancel falling to decay a great sum was expended in raising the present 
church upon the old stock ; but surely such an absence of taste and conmion sense was never 
before instanced. Beneath the solemn towers has been engrafted an Italian fiutastic summer- 
house elevation, with a Venetian window, Ionic pilasters, and flower-pot jars upon the parapet 
The same sort of window is coupled with the elegant line of the ornamented Gothic in other 
parts of the structure, and within, a huge building, upon the model of a heathen temple, 
surrounds the altar, which with two thrones darken and fill up nearly half the church." It 
was well, at all events, that ruin should lay its hands upon such intrusive malformations 
as these. 

In the fertile undulating district around IJandafi are many residences of the gentry 
besides those of the bishop and dean, and other dignified clergy inmiediately associated with 
the cathedral. It may be noted in passing that the restorations at Llandaff included a series 
of important buildings subordinate to the cathedral, all in a substantial and tasteful style,— 
such as the deanery and canons' residences. In the close neighbourhood is Rookwood^ the 
residence of CoL F. £. Hill, Fairwater (£. W. David, Esq.), and the new mansion of J. H. 
Insole, Esq. About a mile to the north-west is RcuHr^ the residence, in ancient times, of the 
Mathew family, ranking in the sixteenth century with the Kemeys of Cefn-Mabley, Herberts 
of Cogan, Bassets of Beaupre, and Games of Ewenny. Near Ely is Highnuad (Frederick 
Vachell, Esq.). 

Passing Greaimead<nv and Vdindra (more correctly Felindre), already noticed, and making 
our way up the romantic Vale of Taflf by CasteU Coch towards the town of Pontypridd, w.here the 
united volume of the two Rhondda streams joins the Ta£f, we enter a district where natural 
beauty in valley and wooded heights, green glades and laughing streamlets, is waging hottest war 
with the grimy and victorious giants of coal and iron, their miles of rubbish-heaps, dingy and 
polluted atmosphere. On the right, turning up to have a glance at the wonderfid ruin of 



47S GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Catrphilfy Castle, we paas the mansion of Dyffryn Ffrwd (Evoh Williams, Esy.), and lOon 
behold in the distance, amid bleak hills, and in a sframpy hollow, the village of Caeiphilly, 
and its hoary frowning castle, once the centre of mighty transactions for the weal or woe 
- of Morgani^ (see Caerfhilly Casil^. Near this place was Van, the andent seat of the 
I<ewises ; Energlyn and Uanbradaeh, also the homes in succession of several persons of 
position. The surface of this country is generally uninviting, but from the elevated parts 
wide and enchanting prospects are brought to view, both across the undulating plains of 
Monmouthshire, whose border skirts Caerphilly, and to the south-east and south-west over 
the fiur lands of Glamorgan. The plateau of Eglwysilan is one of the best positions fiom 
which to survey the general aspect of the surrounding region ; it brings under the eye in the 



PoNTVPKiDD BaiDGt : W. Edwasdi, ButiDsa, 1755. 

varied picture the quiet and sombre but magnificent ruin of the great caade below, the 
numerous stacks of collieries and iron-works, the lines of railways with their creeping trains, 
and the &r-extending and diversified landscape, with the clusters of groves and the green 
and tufted parks which mark the positions of the better class of mansions. From these elevated 
lands the eye sweeps the Bristol Channel, the Somerset coast, the hinds of Gwent towards 
Newport, Usk, and Pontypool, the distant line of the Black Mountains of Carmarthenshire, 
and the dim outline of the Brecknockshire Beacons ; and, nearer at hand, the broken but 
sweet little valleys of the Rbondda Fach and Rhondda Fawr, rich in the better sort of steam 
coal, and latterly sadly distinguished for disastrous coal-pit explosions. 

Pontypridd was long known only for its ornamental environment of enchanting land- 
scape, and the one>arth bridge, of 140 feet span, built by W. Edwards, and considered 
at the time the largest span in Europe. It crosses the Taff at a place which, before the 
little >'ill^e grew into a town, must have set it off as a striking and impressive object ; but 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION : ABERDARE AND MERTHYR. 473 

the effect is now damaged by another bridge of low elevation, for heavy traffic, running 
close beside it 

The Valley of Aberdare, further up, has become a trough, full of human beings, as its 
bottom, deep underground, is full of superior steam coal. When Maikin visited these 
parts there was but a small straggling village here. The deep underground wealth as yet 
lay quietly undiscovered, and but a few scratches on the surface gave Aberdare and Hirwaun 
a scanty supply of coal. Now the bowels of the earth are torn out and thrown on the 
surface ; the sides of the mountains are rent, and made to pour out hills of swarthy 
rubbish ; trains that seem of interminable length are ever conveying towards the sea the 
coal and iron extracted from these cavernous depths for the behoof of all lands ; Cyclopean 
^ works " are everywhere smoking, burning, hammering, melting, smelting, and moulding. 
At certain hours, the '' pits,** all but bottomless, belch out their m3rriads of grimy, blackened 
human forms, each with a Davy lamp in hand, who hasten to their humble homes to wash, 
feed, and rest In great counting-houses, rows of clerks record and cast up results and 
profits ; and somewhere or other estates are bought and ^* families " are founded. A new 
world of industry, a great population, have started up within thirty years. In this neigh- 
bourhood are Dyffiyn^ the residence of the Right Hon. H. A. Bruce (see Bruce of Dyffryn); 
Abemant House^ the residence of Richard Fothergill, Esq., M.P. ; Aberaman House (late 
Crawshay Baily, Esq.) ; Maesyffynan (David Davis, Esq.) ; Llwydcoed (Rees H. Rhys, Esq.) ; 
Penderyn^ in Breconshire (Rev. C« Maybery) ; and several others of good standing. 

But the true centre of the ** black country " of Glamorganshire, where all its features 
assume their most developed and impressive forms, is Merthyr Tydfil, Here, too, amid 
wild and barren hills, cold, dismal, forbidding, the genius of fire, smoke, and mechanical 
vi<^ence has, if possible, a more congenial home. Nature here seems to have sacrificed all 
her external ornaments to lay up wealth for the ages to come in her deep subterranean 
coffers. The surface soil is lean and clayey, pinching the life out of plant and. animal, and 
making one wonder what kind of inhabitants these regions nurtured before the days of 
mining and manufacturing came round. Now the hand of art brightens many spots on 
the surface with wealth borrowed from underground, and marvellous progress is made in 
the accumulation of property and inhabitants. 

The population of Merthyr in 1801, fifty years after the mining and manu&cturing of 
iron was begun to be developed by Mr. Bacon, was only 7,705 ; in 187 1 it had risen to the 
enormous multitude of 96,891. The great fo^unes made necessarily leave some of their 
traces on sunny slopes and sheltered dingles ; and the industrial classes have within their 
reach unwonted advantages. 

The great iron-works of Cyferthfa, Dowlais, Penydarren, " Plymouth," &c., give em* 
plojrment to tens of thousands of men, women, and children, whose annual earnings amount 
to fi&bulous sums ; and were it not for the curse of intemperance and its associated vices, 
this region, with all its drawbacks, might be the home of a human community marked 
by all the elements of prosperity and happiness—a physical Sodom associated with a moral 
and social paradise. And worthy efforts are made to counteract the evil by the good. 
Places of worship are built by the score. Leading families take active part in the social 
amelioration. Schools of a superior kind are actively encouraged by the great proprietors, 
as at Dowlais and Merthyr, by direct personal effort, and not merely by cold money con- 



474 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

tribudona. The battle to dnw ont and refine the good found to httmaoi^, and to over- 
come the stubborn obstnicdona of evil, is almost as earnest as the battle waged with the 
rocks and mountains to extort &om their bowels the orci of iron and lead and the jet of 
coal. But it is only aJmoit as earnest. 

Near Merthyr Tydfil is Cxfarthfa CastU, the seat of Robert T. Crawshay, Esq., a 
Btnicture whose apadousness and solidity well symbolize the magnitude and strength irf the 
ctMnmercial opeiadons conducted by its proprietors, and the general character of this iron 
district 



Cyfakthfa Castls [^fr»» afkatt. tjr R. T. CramJtay, £if.). 

The castle stands in sloping and extensive grounds, well kept, whose greensward and 
clumps of trees contisst agreeably and strikingly with the scenes of grimy and Tartarean 
industry immediately surrounding them. At the other end of Merthyr is Pa^darren Ifouse, 
a mansion usually inhabited by some proprietor or agent of works ; and a liide fiirther ts 
Dowlais Jlouse, formerly the residence of Sir John Guest, Bart, now of G. T. Clark, Esq. 
(see Clark of Dowlais). Near Merthyr also is Gmaetod-y- Garth, the residence ot Richard 
E. Davies, Esq. The chief residence in Merthyr in the olden time was the Court Souse 
{^Thomat of Court ffguse). At the Rectory is the Rev. John Griffith, M.A. 

The descent from the breezy and chilly heights of HirmauH (the long moorland] to 
the Vale of Neath (properly Nidd) transports you at once into a region of repose and 
beauty. From the upper end of the Glamorganshire part of this valley— a valley scarcely 
surpassed by any in Wales for the lovely and picturesque in scenery— by ascending some of 
the higher knolls near the Cilhepste cataract, prospects of vast extent and grandeur are 
obtainable. The greater part of the Vale of Neath, with its numerous sinuosides, projec- 
tions, lateral gullies and dingles, and abrupt eminences, Swansea Bay and shipping in the 
roadstead, the Mumbles, the Bristol Channel, and the coast of Somerset, all come to 
view. The wildest and grandest parts of the Vale of Neath, however, are further north, 
and within the boundaries of Brecknockshire. In that coun^ are the falls of the Hefjte- 



PHYSICAL DESCRimON OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 475 

. and the river-tunnel of Porth-yr-Ogof, while the exquisite sccnciy of Font-nedd-fethan (the 

bri<^ of the lesser NMd) is just on the border of the two counties. 
■ A few miles down the Vale of Neath is situated the venerable Aberper^ttm, which has 

been the abode for many generations of the Willlamses, a family second to none for its in> 
' telligent patriotism and friendly succour of Welsh literature (see Williams, Aberpergwm). 



Abekpuowm: the Rksiobnce or Moigak Stitakt Williams, Esq. {frem a fMegrapA). 

In the broadest part of the valley, suirounded by fertile meads and wooded slopes, 11 
the pretty mansion of Sheola, lately the possession of Nash Edward Vaughan, Esq., 
Tccendy deceased, now the property, by inheritance^ of his nephew, CoL Vaughan H. Lee. 
Nearer Neath is Ynytgerwn, the residence of J. T. Dillwyn Llewelyn, Esq. On the height 
above the smoky town of Neath is The Knoll (J. Coke Fowler, Esq.), with extensive paric 
and plantations, and commanding views of great expanse and beauty, but somewhat marred 
by intervening smoke and dioginess. EagUsbmh is known as having been the long-con- 
tinued abode of the Evanses. Between Bnton-Ferry and Aberavon is Baglan Hall 
(Griffith Llewelyn, Esq.], A short distance north-west of Neath is situated the beautiful new 
mansion of Dyffryn. the residence of Howel Gwyn, Esq. {see Gwyn of Dyffryn) ; further 
up towards the hills we come to Cilybtbyll (Herbert Lloyd, Esq.) ; and in the near vicinity 
on the river Tawe stands Poniardatue (William Giibertson, Esq.). &iiemllwymiiith, 
the seat of Charles Henry Smith, Esq., lies near the high road from Neath to Swansea ; 
and Ynystawe, formeriy occupied by Mr. Martin, now by Mr. Hughes, is situated in the 
Vale of the Tawe, a small distance from Moiristown. We now enter an atmosphere and 
witness scenes such as scarcely another place in Britain could equal. This is the copper- 
smelting district, /ar excellence, for the whole world. The air you breathe is chaiged with 
die fiimes of copper. From the monster chimney-stacks which rise on every hand the 
bluish smoke of the copper-furnace escapes, and briskly curls away on iu mission of 
destrucrion. On the slopes around Swansea not a blade of grass or any green thing can 



476 CLAAIORCANSKIRE. 

grow, while fortunately animal life, in man and brute, seems thriving, and at the distance of 
a mile or two you are greeted by the greenest fields and richest woo«lland. 

The wealth and great commercial enterprise of Swansea, its ancient standing as a place 
of importance, and' notably the exquisite country which lies on its confines io the direction of 
Mumbles Head, have gathered into its near neighbourhood numerous femilies of good 
position. With the exception of Maateg Hotue {Pascoe St L. Grenfell, Esq.) the mansions 
of the Swansea gentry lie westward of the town, and for the most part on the slopes over- 
looking the beautiful Swansea Bay. Sin^eton, the seat of W, Graham Vivian, Esq, ; Park 
IVem, the seat of H. Husscy Vivian, Esq., M.P. ; Hendrtfoilm, the seat of L. LI. Dillwyn, 
Esq., M.P.; Sieity Park (Sir John Araiine Morris, Bart); IJynont (Charles Bath, Esq.); 
Paut-y-Gwydir (J. Crow Richardson, Esq.) ; Glanra/on (James Richardson, Esi],) ; Pcnkvt 



PaMTY-CWYDIR : THE RtSlOBHCB OP J. CKOW RicHABDMN, EsQ. 

(James Walters, Esq.) ; Brynymor (Robert Eaton, Esq.), now occupied by Edward Bath, 
Esq.; Braokiatiits {E. M. Ricliards, Esq., M.P.); Cat Baiiey {Co\. G. Grant Francis, F.S.A.); 
Glanmor (Iltyd Thomas, Esq.) ; Sketty Hall, the old seat of the Dillwyns (occupied by T, 
Reea, Esq.)i many of them surrounded by extensive ornamental grounds, are all on the 
western side of Swansea. Further west, near the favourite neighbourhood of the Mumbles, 
"the cottages and villas of resident and occasionally resident genteel households are too 
numerous to mention. Among these arc Llwyndena (F. H. S. W. Fisher, Esq.) ; Danycoed 
(Alfred Sterry, F^q.); and the beautiful marine villa of Langlaitd (Henry Crawshay, Esq.). 
Many of these oiansions, though making but few pretensions to architectural splendour, 
are surrounded by every token of taste, refinement, and affluence. A careful observer cannot 
&il Dodcing, however, the contrast between this district, devoted to groves, lawns, and 
parterres, domestic repose and elegance, and the grimy chaos and desolation on the other 
side of the town, where nature's efforts at vegeutioa end in.uuer failure, and where Sodom 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF GLiUIORGANSHIRE. 477 

ftnt! Gomorrah, both before and after the destruction, seem to have been heaped together in 
stifling confusion. 

Of Swansea as a port and seat of manu&cture it is not our function to speak ; but allusion 
shouUl be made to some of the chief institutions which aim at the amelioration and enlighten- 
ment of the population, and in the management and support of which the leading families of 
the neighbourhood take an active part. A good supply of day schoois for different grades of 
youth, an efficient grammar school, a mechanics' institute, a music hall for cbsses an<l 
concerts, and occasional competition in singing, are maintained ; and charitable institutions 
such as infirmaries, dispensaries, and asylums, on a luge scale are not forgotten. Swansea is 
in advance of any town in the Principality, and of most towns of the size in England, in the 
possession of a long-established and noble institution called The Royal Institution of Sout/i 



Cas Bailbv: thk REsmiNCK of Col. G. Gkant Francis, F.S.A. 

Walei, whose library, museum, courses of lectures, &c., confer upon the inhabitants an 
unceasing and most substantial benefiL The gentlemen of Swansea and neighbourhood take 
an active interest in the prosperity and efficiency of this excellent establishment, but to none 
is it more indebted than to one of its vice-presidents, CuL G. Grant Francis, F.S.A-, whose 
indefatigable labours for years have so lately contributed Co the increase of the library and 
the enrichment of its various collections of antiquities. 

West of Swansea is the district of Gower — the ancient Gwyr, — forming a promontoiy 
twenty miles long by six or seven in width, cut off by a line drawn across from about the 



47S GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Mumbles Head to the Buny estuary. Four-fifths of its margin, measuring a total of some 
fifty mileSy is washed by the tide. The cliff scenery of Gower from the Mumbles Head to 
the Worms Head and Rhossili Bay is truly magnificent, in parts unsurpassed by any even 
in Cornwall or Pembrokeshire. The interior, through the absence of streams and valleys, 
is often dreary and uninteresting, though far from unproductive. Much of the land is un- 
enclosed ; on the north-east the soil is poor and cold, but overlies beds of coal of some 
value. To the lover of the picturesque, however, the deeply indented coast on the south and 
west compensates largely for this by its beetling bluffs, retiring creeks, and sheltered 
crescent-sanded bays, with their sunny woodland slopes. From the elevated ridge of Cefn 
y Br3m, which runs diagonally across the peninsula nearly due east and west, and rises to a 
height of nearly 600 feet, the prospect is grand and inspiring, bringing under the eye in 
distinct and varied forms — 

"The n^ligence of nature, Mride and wild,** 

the coast of Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire as far as St Govan*s Head, the Bristol 
Channel, the western side of the Vale of Glamorgan, the Vale of Neath, and the interior 
of the country as far as the Black Mountains and the Brecknockshire Beacons. You stand 
here, also, near Arthur's Stone, and are reminded that in pre-historic times this was no 
common and forgotten waste, — but of this feature of Gower we shall have to speak in 
another section. The charming little bays of Langland, Caswell, and Oxwich, with their 
accompanying cliff scenery, famed bone caverns, and warm shelly sands, are the admira- 
tion of all beholders ; and a delightful and salutary consciousness comes over you, as you 
wander among the shadows of cliffs and caves, separated firom the din of the world, in 
full conmiunion with Nature in some of her noblest aspects, and haply, unless the heart be 
really dead, in conununion with Him who gave her, and you a part of her, being and life, 
that the world you have for the moment left is small and paltry, and that you have a link of 
connection with higher things. A song of praise arises in the soul, and seems to harmonize 
with the sound of the waves and the breeze ; the breath of the sea and of the thymy rocks 
brings incense, and for altar-light you have the sun of heaven, — a somewhat loftier style of 
worship, one would think, than we often are pained to witness. 

In this district of Gower, so wild and separate, are several mansions of note. The first 
we come to on our way from the pretty village of Sketty is Kilvrough House, the seat of 
Thomas Penrice, Esq. (see Penrice of Kilvrough)^ a place of much antiquity. Further on is 
Penria CcutUj the seat of C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., M.P. This is a modem mansion built in 
close proximity to the great ruin of Penrice Casde^-one of the grandest pieces of desolation 
found in South Wales (see Penria Castle). The scenery around is choice in the extreme, 
and the air of quiet and repose which sits as the genius of the place is delightful. Its 
owner is not unaccustomed to the forum, the senate, and the noisy rush of the crowded 
street ; and he probably realizes with as much delight as the casual stranger firesh from the 
storm of the metropolis the exquisite sweetness of this spot 

Near the village of Reynoldstone, a mile or two further west, is Stouihall^ the residence 
of E. R. Wood, Esq., reposing under the shelter of Cefn y Bryn, and commanding pleasing 
and extensive views. 

Of the Flemish inhabitants of this district we shall have occasion again to speak. 



THE GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 479 



Section IL— THE GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

With the exception of Cardiganshire and Monmouthshire there is no county in Wales 
so much monopolized by one form of rock as Glamorganshire ; but the rock which pre- 
dominates in this county is one which is entirely absent in the first, and only partially de- 
veloped in the second county named. This is the carboniferous or coal-bearing rock. 
Fully seven-eighths of Glamorganshire is composed of this most valuable formation ; and 
the vast increase of population on its surface within the last fifty years is but a comment 
upon its wide prevalence and commercial importance. If a straight line is drawn from 
Llanmadoc on the Burry estuary to the village of the Mumbles, passing just to the north of 
the ridge of Cefn y Bryn, it will cut ofif the coal-bearing beds from the limestone and red 
sandstone underlying them. The whole country to the north of this line is coal-bearing as 
fiu* north as liandebie and the foot of the Fan Mountains in Carmarthenshire. We may 
then follow the coast-line from the Mumbles by Neath and Briton Ferry, or penetrate in 
imagination under the bay of Swansea in a straight line, coming out at Kenfig, and shall 
everywhere witness the presence of the same general coal-bearing strata. 

In proceeding further east, if we mean to keep in view of the coal measures, we must cut 
off the fine country of the Vale of GlamoiTnan, as being nothing worth as fiur as coal is 
concerned, by drawing a line, not idx from direct, from the village or ancient town of Kenfig, 
passing Bridgend, diverging slightly northward to reach the lower grounds south of but close 
below Llantrisant, and on to Castell Coch, after reaching which we must curve to the left, 
making gradually for the north-east, until at Machen, or near it, we reach the borders of 
Monmouthshire, into which, in the direction of Pontypool, the great coal-field continues. At 
Machen we find ourselves on the river Rh3rmney, which divides our county from Monmouth- 
shire, and, as is usual through some odd freak of custom to say, ^ divides Wales from 
England." We therefore follow this stream northward as&r as the extent of Glamorganshire 
reaches, viz., to Rhymney Bridge^a distance of about twenty miles, and wherever we go the 
rocks are of the same carboniferous texture. Our search then leads us along the county 
boundary by Morlais Castle, and we turn nearly westward by Cyfarthfa, and continue due west 
until we meet our former point of northern measurement at the foot of the Carmarthenshire 
Fan. The whole of the great region included by the line thus roughly described, amounting 
to not less than 600 square miles, belongs to the carboniferous group. Under a large 
proportion of this vast area coal of some quality or other is now lying — except, indeed, 
where it has abready been extracted by the hand of man, — ^in places no doubt at depths which 
make its profitable working with our present mining appliances unremunerative, and in places 
in such slender seams and with such admixture of shale and rubbish as to deter all working 
beyond exploring experiments. 

The coal measures of Glamorganshire attain in places to an enormous thickness. De 
la Beche says {^G€oL Obs.^ p. 584) that while the coal-field of the Bristol district reaches a 
thickness of 5,000 feet, with a subjacent accumulation of silt, sand, and gravel, making a 
total 1,200 feet, the mass of the various beds in the neighbourhood of Swansea may be 
estimated at about xx,ooo feet ; so that if accumulated by subsidence, horizontal beds piled 



4&> GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

on each other, it would have to be inferred that in this part of the earth's sur&ce, and at that 
geological time, there had been a somewhat tranquil descent of mineral deposits, sometimes 
capable of supporting the growth of plants requiring contact with the atmosphere, but most 
commonly beneath water, for a depth by which the first formed deposits became lowered 
more than two miles from their original position. ** It may be inferred," De la Beche 
further adds, that this thickness " is not that of the general mass, as the component beds 
might have been accumulated against each other, as happens in single sandstone and 
conglomerate beds, and no doubt has more often to be taken into account than it has 
been in the calculations of thickness." 

The great iron ore district of Glamorganshire lies principally about Merthyr, Dowlais, and 
Aberdare, where the ironstone is found in seams alternating with the coal. The coal of this 
part is also of the harder or less bituminous kind, best fitted for the furnace, while the lime- 
stone of the locality serves an important purpose in iron-smelting. De la Beche has the 
remark that '' Merthyr Tydfil presents an excellent example of the economic value of geological 
conditions, the proximity of the carboniferous limestone, the coal, and ironstone to each 
other in that part of the country producing a cheap combination of flux, fuel, and ore 
scarcely to be surpassed." As we move southward in the county we find the coal becoming 
more bituminous. The Valle}'S of Aberdare and Rhondda, and contiguous parts, are said to 
yield the quality of coal most valued for ocean steamers, and at present in most demand by 
the Government, by reason of its power to produce heat, and its very moderate amount of 
smoke. 

Next below the coal bed is the carboniferous limestone, which everywhere accompanies it, 
and shows itself on its outer limits along the whole line we have above described firom Gower 
to Bridgend, Castell Coch, and Machen, and fit>m Rhymney Bridge to Cyfarthfa and the 
foot of the Carmarthenshire Fan. It is but a fair inference, therefore, that at the greatest 
depths, and from end to end of the coal-field, this sheet of limestone, in some places of great 
thickness, continues without inteirupdon — except where its continuity may have been 
disturbed by faults. 

Under the limestone basin, which thus holds in its capacious embrace the vast coal 
deposit of this county, we find the Old Red Sandstone formation. This also gives proofs of 
its continuous presence beneath the fathomless depth of the basin, by appearing here and 
there wherever it has opportunity, as the supporter of the limestone. Of the time it took to 
deposit this formation let its thickness speak. It constitutes nearly the whole of Brecknock- 
shire and Monmouthshire ; shows in the Black Mountains of Herefordshire, the Beacons of 
Brecknockshire, and the Fan of Carmarthenshire, — a mass of the enormous thickness of nearly 
3,000 feet, and is calculated to amount in all to not less than 8,000 to 10,000 feet — 
surpassing any known development of this rock in any other part of the world {Murchison). 
It then crops up north, south, east, and west of the coal basin, but gives us no further 
opportunity of measuring its depth such as it gives in the eminences above named. To the 
exact south of the basin it makes but an intermittent appearance, lying here, as is evident, 
conformably beneath the iias. It is seen near Bridgend, and on the shore near Kenfig, and 
in Gower, following the direct line from Kenfig, forms the back-bone of the promontory in 
the elevation of Cefn y Bryn. Its next appearance, still faithful to its direction, and its 
companionship of the carboniferous lime stone, is near Tenby ; and the last we see of it in 



GEOLOGY OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 481 

Britain is in the little isle of Skokaoi, beyond the mouth of Milford Haven. We have only 
to follow the prolongation of the line to Ireland to renew its acquaintance. 

The lias strata are the highest and newest in the Glamorganshire series. With the 
exception of a slight development of the new red near Ely, and again near Llangrallo and 
Llangan, towards Bridgend, the whole of the undulating country between Cardiff and the 
estuary of the Ogmore consists of the lias series. These strata, as is plainly seen in the 
faces of the great cliffs from Penarth Point to St. Donat's Castle, and notably by entering the 
great caves of Tresilian, &c, lie almost undisturbed in horizontal courses, as they were 
deposited at the bottom of some early sea. The generally level face of the country, broken 
only by the abrading action of tiny streams, and slight convulsions, tells of the same long- 
continued repose of this district The smooth flaggy beach has the same tale to relate. In 
many respects this group of rocks is invested with great interest Unless we are mistaken, 
it is the newest geological formation found in all Wales, and clings to the more venerable 
rocks of this country more like a waif cast adrift from the Gloucestershire side of the Severn, 
than a congenial part of " ancient ** Wales. In truth, the contiguity of the lias and the Old 
Red Sandstone in this part is very remarkable, and unavoidably suggests grave inquiries as to 
the quarter whither the once intervening and massive carboniferous, Permian, and Trias 
groups have betaken themselves. 

Then the question arises. Is there no coal under the lias ? Are we to be content with the 
incomparable excellences of Aberddaw lime tor mortar and cement? Are there no hopes 
of seeing the clear and balmy atmosphere of tlie Vale of Glamorgan charged with the 
quantity of smoke, sulphur, and various odours which now almost belong as a matter of right 
to the greater part of Glamorganshire, and against which no protests on the part of the fair 
valleys of Taff and N^dd, of Rhondda and Dare, prevail ? We see no reason to stifle such 
hopes.. Coal there most certainly may be under the Vale of Glamorgan from Cardiff to 
St Donaf s, and thence to Bridgend, unless the powers of evil have stolen it About the 
question how ^ beneath the green grass it lies, let those who are apt in divining of minerals 
from the dew on the leaflets decide. It may be very deep, but down there in all 
probability it lies, and possibly there it will continue until the time, predicted by Mr. Jevons, 
when our ^ present coal-fields " shall have been exhausted, and machinery has been invented 
which shall as far transcend our present contrivances for burrowing towards the antipodes as 
these transcend the inventions of our great-grandfiaithers. It is of course ]mvX possible that the 
vast v^;etable accumulations which resulted in the coal treasures of Glamorganshire were so 
localized by conditions of the surface as not to extend farther south than their present limits, 
and that the lias which stretch between them and the Channel, and which lie almost 
undisturbed in the beds where they were first laid, at no time covered anything better than 
mere carboniferous strata, without actual coal beds. This is possible, but is by no means 
certain. 

The entire South Wales coal-field — lying in a longitudinal trough or basin, the western 
end of which reaches the sea in Pembrokeshire, and the eastern projects eastwards beyond 
Pontypool in Monmouthshire — ^is estimated to measure superficially above 1,000 square 
miles, of which nearly 600 lie in Glamorganshire. The depth of the basin is, of course, 
continually varying in its transverse section, being greatest in the centre, and reaching its 
minimum* where the seams crop out to the surface. The outcroppings of the seams had 



482 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

many ages ago been worked with varying success, diecks often intervening through the 
occurrence oi faults^ which at times carried the seam vertically downwards many yards from 
the line of its natural bed, to the no small perple3dty of the miner. It was geology which 
first explained the nature of these faults as the results of dislocations and convulsions in the 
earth's crust But a grander discovery, made from the data supplied by this science^ was 
that of the continuous stratification of the basin, or, in other words, the passage of the seams 
in curvilinear form from one side of the great basin where they were found to dip downwaids^ 
to the other side, beyond valleys, hills, and towns, where they. were seen to crop upwards* 
The deduction was as definitive and safe as it was grand — ^always provided no disturbance 
of the strata had occurred, — that, given the angle of dip and outcrop, and the distance 
between the ends of the arc, at such and such depths at all intervening points coal would 
be found. 

Upon the same data it is calculated that the Glamorganshire coal-basin reaches in places 
a depth of 3,400 yards, of which firom 3,000 to 3,000 yards are below the level of the sea. 
This is twice the depth of any coal workings in England ; so that the amount of viigin 
seams hitherto untouched in Glamorganshire is enormous. The greatest vertical measurement 
is believed to be in the Swansea and Neath district. The great cavity which holds this vast 
treasure of coal is far from uniform in its curvature, for disturbing forces in past geological 
time have here and there sadly broken and twisted it Almost in a straight line firom Gower 
to Risca, in Monmouthshire, some monster power has upheaved its bottom into the form 
of an internal ridge or back-bone, dividing the field virtually into two, one northern, one 
southern ; and there are divers other separations, of more or less import, which tend to baffle 
the miner, and turn his speculations into a game of chance. Near Swansea an enormous 
** fault,'' which suddenly takes down the bed 240 feet from its natural line, occurs* To 
compensate for such unfiiendly operations of ancient subterranean forces, another dass 
of operations have worked in fiivour of die coal-winner. Perhaps, indeed, the same 
insurrection of the powers of fire and water, and their resultant gases, which tossed and 
crushed the hills and their foundations, had a hand in scooping out or in heaving asunder 
the valleys of Taff, Neath, and Tawe, and many other depressions which traverse the 
Glamorganshire coal-field, and are so serviceable, both as adits to the coal and as high roads 

for its conveyance to the sea. 



Section III.— HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

u^^Roman Period, 

Little or nothing in the shape of direct reliable statement remains to us of the pre-Roman 
history of this county. Of its persons and events we know nothing with certainty. But if 
ground one degree less definite is taken we can speak with absolute confidence. The 
district had its persons and events, had a community and a government, was peopled by a 
hardy and notable race, and was under the leadership of puissant princes, when the Roman 
first set foot upon the land. So much is certain, independently of the testimony of native 
chroniclers, from the direct attestations of the Roman historians alone, and fair inferences 
from them. The territory included, since the time of Henry VIII., under the name 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES— ROMAN PERIOD. 483 

"Glamorganshire" was part of the country to whose inhabitants the Romans gave the name 
SUures (PtoL, StXvpec), imitating loosely, as is most likely, the native name EssyUwyr^ 
the people of Essyllwg — a region of indeterminate boundaries, but believed to have 
included along with the county of Glamorgan, the counties of Monmouth and Hereford, 
and parts at least of Brecon, Radnor, Salop, and Gloucester. We possess no native 
topographical description of Britain in pre- Roman times ; but there is reason to believe 
that the term " Essyllwg,** with other forms of identical meaning, such as Essyllyr, Bro 
Essyllt, &c, had descended from very early times, and had even grown antiquated before 
the more recent Gweni and Gwentwg came into use. The earlier term may well be taken 
as originating in fable ; for it is in Geoffrey of Monmouth that we read how Locrinus, 
eldest son of Brutus, after his father's decease divided the island of Britain between himself 
and his two brothers, Camber and Albanactus^ and afler overthrowing Humyr (Humber), 
King of the Huns, found in one of his ships the three damsels of celestial beauty, one of 
whom was none other than Essyllt {al. Estrildis), '*a daughter of the King of Germany,'* 
who eventually became his queen, and whose name, by some historical legerdemain^ 
became associated with the country about the Wye and the Usk; while her daughter ^<^^ 
{oL Sabre) gave her name to the river Hafren (Severn), in which both daughter and mother 
were drowned. These are pretty legends, not more true than those about the founding of Rome 
by iEneas, or by the sons of Rhea Silvia, suckled by the she-wolf; but despite the legend, 
Rome was founded by some one, and in like manner the land of Essyllwg got its name from 
some person or cux:umstance; and until a better account is given, or the old is demonstrably 
proved to be destitute of a core of truth, the name may as well be traced to Essyllt, daughter 
of the German king, as to any other thing or person. 

The ingenious and indefatigable lolo Morgamvg^ who could find ancient manuscripts in 
old coffers and behind wainscotings, would have had no difficulty in bringing to light the 
history of ancient Glamorgan if he had been so minded ; but in justice to his memory it 
must be said that his moderation here was commendable. He abstained from increasing 
confusion already too great, and delusive ffickerings amid darkness hopelessly impenetrable. 
What he did discover in reference to his native county, ^ in a book that was once in the 
possession of the Rev. Mr. Gamage," has reference to a later period, and to this we shall 
have occasion again to refer. As to the position of lolo Morganwg generally, we can say 
in passing that a critic of philological and historical competency to deal with it has yet to 
appear. 

That the Romans found the Silurian country important for their purposes as conquerors, 
I. /., rich in men to fill the legions, and in means for filling the coffers of the procurator, is 
beyond a doubt They fixed upon Caerleon as the site of one of their chief cities in Britain 
— Isca SUurum^ the reputed seat of Caractacus when leader of the intrepid Silures, and 
afterwards of Arthur and the Round Table. The great struggle of the Silurian power with 
Rome may more appropriately be noticed under Monmouthshire, although it undoubtedly 
Inrought to bear the whole of the resources of Glamorgan and surrounding counties, possibly 
to the utmost limits of South Wales. We have no right to say that the conquest which the 
Romans made in this region meant more than the establishment of Roman supremacy and 

* 

the exaction of tribute. As their conquest of the Silures was about a century later than 
their conquest of Kent, their stay in Wales was comparatively short, and, it is well known. 



484 GLAMORGANSIilRE. 

their rule comparatively mild ; but the great military roads they formed across the country 
still remain as proofs of a definitely planned and settled conquest, and may be taken as 
memorials of a supremacy at least extending over 300 years. During this long period the 
toga and the helmet, the short broadsword and polished shield, were familiar objects at 
Caerau near Cardiff {Tibia amms), Boverton (Bovium), Nedd {Nidum)^ and Loughor 
(Leucarum), principal stations on the great military causeway, the Via /fdia, which, proceeded 
from Caerleon to Carmarthen, and further west. Here military trains, cohorts, and legions 
frequently marched, and heavy waggons conveying the collected dmarii to the colonial 
treasury at Isca Silurum slowly crept along. The line of this highway was not far from the 
coast, running from Caerau nearly in the track of the road which passes by Llancanran and 
St. Althan*s to Lantwit Major (near which was their station Bavittm)^ and thence to Bridgend. 
As the Romans usually betrayed a partiality for straight roads, it would seem that in making 
this considerable dtiour they deemed it of importance to keep near the sea — ^probably for 
purposes of observation and convenience of transport Of the actual details of events ir 
this particular region of Glamorganshire during this period we know nothing. Through an 
occasional inscription, dug out of the earth, we learn more of its deaths than of its lives. 
The antiquarian with patient labour writes an intermittent history from personal ornaments, 
fragments of altars, bronze blades, and coins ; but when all the facts are brought together, 
the record merely tells that the Romans had here their legions, villas, altars, and fiscal 
bureaus for the space of three centuries more or less, and that about a.d. 400 they left the 
land to the care of its ancient possessors. They prepared to quit Britain altogether and 
finally as rulers about the year 412. 



3. — Saxon Period. 

We cannot speak of a Saxon period in Glamorganshire any more than in other parts ot 
Wales, except in a qualified sense. Strictly speaking, there was a British period, a Roman 
period, a Norman period, and an English period, each marked by definite rule and l^;al 
government But the Saxon authority in Wales was not at any time that of formal govern- 
ment to the exclusion of native laws and native rulers, but simply the occasional assertion 
from the time of Egbert and Athelstan of feudal suzerainty. The native princes everywhere 
ruled, albeit by degrees with a glory which paled before the rising splendour of the En^h 
kings ; and their function dwindled into those of regidi instead of independent princes. 

Of the arrangements made for government in Bro Essyllt after the departure of the 
Romans it is impossible to speak except in very general terms. The Romans had never 
denied to the Cymric princes the recognition of their high descent and proper rank. They 
never suppressed the speech or interfered with the customs of the natives. In the few towns 
they established, they brought into action their municipal laws, and compelled the native 
princes to pay tribute ; and there, or nearly there, the Roman domination ceased to operate. 
On the disappearance of the Roman general and procurator, therefore, in Wales as 
over Britain, but in Wales with greater ease, the rule of the native princes was straightway 
resumed. 



HISTORY OF GLAMORGANSHIRE— SAXON PERIOD. 4*5 

For several centuries before history opens her page these parts must have been governed 

either immediately by local chieftains, or as portions of supreme princedoms. It seems 

probable that before Morgan the Courteous (ninth cent) gave his name to the region, the 

ancient Giewysig^^oi more circumscribed application than '^ Essyllwg" and " Bro Css][llt,''— 

unless indeed it be a form of the same word — was the name by which it was known. I8 the 

early records "Glewysig" is often used to the exclusion of "Gwlad-Morgan" and " Moiganwg." 

Gaiyddan^ the bard, who wrote as is supposed in the seventh century, speaks of these parts 

' under this designation :^ 

•• Na chrynned Dyfed na Glywysig." 
Let not Dyfed or Glywystg tremble. 

Asser is about the first author who throws any clear and steady light upon the post- 
Roman affairs of the region. When invited from Wales to the court of EJng Aliired, he tells 
us {De Reb. GesL Adfr.^ ann. 884) that his countrymen in '< Britannia " (Wales) sanctioned 
hb going to live for a time in Saxonia (England), because they thought he might be instru- 
mental in procuring the protection of Alfred for the church of St David's against its 
despoiler, Hemeid, ruler of Dyfed; and he observes that ahready Al£red had authority over 
'* the countries on the right-hand side of Britain " (his way of expressing the southern parts 
of Wales — DeheubartK)y having been invited to exercise it for the protection of the inhabit- 
ants against ''the violence of the six sons of Rhodri," late king of all Wales; and that 
^ Houil, son of Ris, king of Gleguising,'^ as well as ** Brocmail and Femail, sons of Mourice, 
kings of Gwenty compelled by the force and tyranny of Earl Ethered [of Mercia]^ had of 
their own accord sought King Alfired, that they might enjoy his government and protection." 
The same thing is said of Helised, son of Tewdyr, ruler of Brechonia (Brecknock). Now 
this is from a writer, to say the least of him, quite as reliable as Tacitus or Strabo. There 
was, then, in the time of King Alfred, a kmg of Gleguising (Glywysig) of the name of ^ Houtl, 
son of Ris," whom we can call, in more modem form, Howel ap Rhys; and this lordship or 
kingdom of Glywysig, along with its neighbour Gweni^ formed the southern part of the 
country of the ancient Silures. 

We are informed by the Saocon Chronicle that those naughty marauders, the '' Danish 
men," otherwise called ^ Nordmanni " and '* black pagans," a.d. 894, paid a devastating 
visit to the borders of the Severn ; and we learn from Caradoc's Brtit y Tywysogion that j^ 
this identical year the ^ Normanyeit " wasted, along with Brecheiniawc and Gwent, Motgamof. 
This same incursion is also attested, under the varying date of 895, by the reliable .^ivra/rr 
Cambrue, We may be sure that the ''black pagans" left no bone in Bro Morganwg 
unpicked. Who was now ruler of the district we are not told, and must suppose that the 
name ^ Morganwc," not yet bom, is applied by the chroniclers just as, ex, gr,^ we use 
*' Wales," when we say that Wales was conquered by the Romans, although Wales as a name 
had no existence in Roman times. 

The story oi Morgan Mwyirfawr (the Courteous) b the next ray of light thrown on the 
annals of Glamorgan. He was the son of Athrwys, whom some ^perilously identify with 
Arthur, and so great was his renown and high his character as protector of his country, 
bleeding from the wounds inflicted by Nordmanni and Mercian adventurers, that the territory 
he ruled chose to call itself after his xam^^Gwlad-Viorgzxi and Morgan-tit^, indifferently, — 
both signifying the country or land of Moigan. He is often called Morgan Mawr^ the 

aR 



X 



486 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

great, as well as Morgan Mwyn-fawr — the greatly gentle or courteous, and it is just possible 
that the latter epithet in its original uncompounded form was Mwyn Mawr — ** the great, 
the gentle." In the ^ History '* of Glamorgan, '* out of the book that was in the possession 
of the Rev. Mr. Gamage " of St Athan's, and which passed through the hands of lolo, it is 
said that he resided at Adur and Breigan, and that he and his race, both before and after, 
were endued with the grace of supreme good fortune up to the time of Owain ap Morgan 
H6n. Their good fortune consisted in this— that they were chaste in youth, full of vigour, 
having children in their old age, and lived to see their children's children and their children. 
In illustration of this blessed lot we are told that Morgan's first son was bom when his 
father was sixty-seven years old, and that this son, called Morgan Hen — '^ the aged,** was 
eighty-seven years of age when his son Owain was bom. It was on the next day after the 
birth of Owain that Morgan the Courteous died, " and he was buried in the grave of Teilo ; 
but it is not known now where that grave is." Morgan the Aged and his son Owain ^ had 
contention with Howel the Good, son of Cadell, King of South Wales ["South Wales" in 
those times did not include Morgan wg, Gwent, and Brycheiniog], for possession of Ystrad 
Yw, Ewias, and Eiging, or the Vale of Crickhowel and surrounding district, with the 
adjoining parts of Herefordshire." The peculiar relation at this time of the princes of Wales, 
including Morganwg, to the English kings, is significantly brought out in connection with 
this quarrel, for the *' History" relates that Morgan and Owain went with their complaint 
against Howel the Good "to Edgar, King of Enghmd;" that Edgar interposed and 
made peace, giving the land of Brychan (Brecknock) and the land of Gwyr Isa (lower Gower) 
to Howel, and Ystrad Yw, Ewias, and Erging to Morgan ; " and when the peace was setded, 
it was written on a roebuck's skin, and up<m the altar of Teilo it was laid, and by the aid ot 
God and Teilo a great blessing was vouchsafed to such as would maintain peace between 
the King of Morganwg and the King of South Wales, while a great curse was denounced 
against such as would disturb the peace and right now established between them." 

But in this very transaction the tributary condition of the prince of Glamorgan is also made 
evident ** Teilo and Dewi," which mean the presiding ecclesiastical authority of Llandaff 
and St. David's, " arranged that the King of Morganwg should pay tribute to the KLing of 
London, and that the King of North Wales should not receive the tribute [which as superior 
r^lus he had been accustomed to receive] because the supreme lord of Britain [Unben 
Prydain] is the King of London ; for when personal supremacy was established in Britain, 
it was ordained that all kings and princes in the island should pay tribute to the King of 
London, in order that he might have power to wage war against all enemies." This is a 
remarkable passage. While tinctured with the modes of thought and expression belonging 
to the Cymric tongue, its historic substance is trae to £eicts otherwise known. As usual, 
dates are neglected, and so are names, in the allusion to a concerted supremacy; but the 
principle was doubtless introduced as early as the reigns of Egbert and Athelstan, and 
several instances of the exercise of the ** King of London's " suzerainty in Wales have 
already been mentioned (see p. 228). Perhaps the reference above made to a specific 
arrangement that all kings and princes in the island should pay tribute to the King of 
London, has in view a state of things brought about by Athelstan. (See p. 229.) 

With Morgan Hto and his son and successor Owain, we arrive in the annals of 
Glamorganshire at the end of the tenth century. Caradoc's Brtd puts the death of Morgan 



HISTORY 07 GLAMORGANSHIRE-SAXON PERIOD. 487 

• 

at the year of '' the age of Christ " 974. The Liber IJandavensis, generally worthy of credit, 
would make it appear that his rule continued longer ; for at the apparent termination of that 
rule it records the election as kings of Glamoigan, in a.d. 983, of Owain, Idwallawn, Cadell, 
and Cynfyn, sons of Morgan H^n, and of Rhodri and Gruffydd, sons of Elised ; a record, 
by the way, of much interest from what it implies as to the meaning of brenin and brenhiniaeth 
(king and kingdom) at that time among the Cymry, when in a temtory so circumscribed so 
many ^ kings " and '^ kingdoms'' could co-exist. 

Owain, above named, was succeeded in his sovereignty of Morganwg, or such part as he 
inherited, by his son, Ithd Ddu^^^* the black," so called '* from the intense blackness of his 
hair, eyes, and beard." His reign was disturbed by incursions of the Saxons, who sacked 
Uandaff and scattered its cleigy, whose territory was afterwards restored by Ithel The 
birds of ill omen hovered now in frequent flocks over Morganwg, presaging coming trouble 
and carnage, when the hungry Norman eagles would settle upon their prey. Already, in the 
words of Longfellow, — 

" On helm and harness rings the Saxon hammer, 
Through Cymric forest roars the Norseman's song ; " 

the power of England has fallen before the Dane, and Dane and Saxon combine to harass 
the enfeebled land of the Cymry; but soon the Norman strikes both to the dust, and 
undertakes on his own account the absorption of all that is fair and profitable in the eastern 
borders of Wales, from Chester to Glamorgan Vale. Ithel Ddu passes away from Mor- 
ganwg, and is followed by his son Gwrgant^ whose chief title to fiune rests on his being 
fiither of the notorious lestyn, and on his '* gift of an extensive moorland plain in the ' hills ' 
called Hirwauny brenin (the king's long moor) to all who desired to keep cattle and sheep^ 
and sow com.** This plain firom that time forth was called Hirwaun Wrgan^ and is the 
table-land between Merthyr and the Vale of Neath known to this day as Hirwaun. 

As to the place of residence or castle of these princes of Glamoigan, the old historians 
and chroniclers say little. In our day history is expected to furnish itself with the verifying 
apparatus of places, dates, coherence and succession of events ; but the monkish chroniclers 
were above recording such trifling details. They knew them all themselves at the time, and 
not being over-gifted with imagination, perhaps assumed that others through all time would 
know them equally welL But as most of the chronicles were probably written as a means 
of whiling away idle time, or for the information of the limited society of the monastery or 
fiunily, and with no definite historical purpose or thought c^ future ages, panting in curiosity 
and alert in criticism, the looseness, contradictions, strange lacunae, and narrowness of range 
by which they are characterized are intelligible and laigely excusable. The Coychurch MS. 
tells us (see Williams' Manmauthshire) that Moigan Mwynfiiwr — said there to be the son of 
King Arthur, — on retiring from Caerleon and making his home in Glamorgan, resided some- 
times at Cardiff, sometimes at Radir^ at other times at Margam, That Cardiff had a British 
fortress, and was a seat of power, and therefore in all probability the residence of the ruler 
of the surrounding country before the Roman settlement, is all but certain, and that the 
Normans found it a place of similar dignity is equally credible. Dunraven has also the 
credit of having been a British princely residence under the name Dindiyfim. 



488 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



3. — Norman Period, 

We now arrive at a new and very distinct era in the annals of Glamorganshire, — an era 
pregnant in great events, and sending down a legacy of consequences which reach our own 
time, and will reach times long to come. Hitherto, since the Roman age, the Cymric princes 
had all the land and its inhabitants to themselves (despite occasional subjection to the 
'* King of London **), fought at their own risk their battles, and arranged as best they could 
their mutual differences. They met the Mercian on the border, combined to chase the 
Dane from their creeks, and battled with varying success with Scandinavian Magnuses and 
Anglo-Saxon Egberts and Athelstans ; and when no enemy appeared at the mouth of Taff 
or Tawe, Dovey or Dee, or crossed Oifa's vallum, then the board was cleared for a native 
game of war, for which pretext was never wanted, between north and south, Gwynedd and 
Powys, or sections of either. Who would be foe or who ally was quite a chance; one thing 
only was certain, the weird dance must be danced, and the horrid caldron must be kept 
boiling. 

But now a power which has already laid the race of Ofia, Athelstan, and Alfred in the 
dust, after having occasionally swung its dragon tail to smite the Welsh^-not without loss 
of some of its own blood and scales, lays one of its great fangs with settled purpose upon 
Morganwg and other districts of Eastern Wales. At this time {circa a.d. 1091) lestyn, son 
of the already mentioned Gwrgant, of Hirwaun y brenin memory, was the madcap ruler of 
Morganwg. This is the common opinion, and notwithstanding some recent attempts 
at disproof, this is the account we are disposed upon the whole to accept It is borne out 
by the largest consensus of unwavering testimony, and is most in harmony with native 
tradition checked and toned down by historic fisicts. 

It is of little import whether this native ruler, lestyn ap Gwrgant, was a man of 
great or ignoble qualities, of princely or inferior rank. That he did exist, was a man of 
authority in Glamorgan at this time, and was succeeded by sons who bravely led an 
unavailing assault against the Normans, it is useless to question. That he is not mentioned 
by this or that chronicler, that there are inconsistencies in such records as we possess about 
the date of his life, is of litUe importance. Chroniclers, as already said, were often in those 
days careless in registering dates ; often ignorefd the most important persons and transactions ; 
even at times ignored the transactions of half the island. The Angio-Saxon Chromde, ex.gr.^ 
says little about Wales. The Annales CambruB scarcely notice England. A Welsh BrtU^ 
and even Asser^ hesitates not to speak of Welsh affiurs as those of '^ Britain." Although the 
An^O'Saxon Chronicle repeatedly mentions Grufiydd (*' Griffin "), King of the Welsh (for 
which reason, perhaps, even Mr. E. A. Freeman believes that there was such a man as 
GrufiTydd), it never mentions Jihys ap TeuMhur^ one of the most prominent princes of Wales, 
and a bitter enemy of the Normans, although it professes to register the events of his time. 
And what if the same chronicle makes no mention of Robert Fitzhamon? did there exist, 
therefore, no Robert Fitzhamon ? The historical reality of Iest3m ap Gwrgant, and his 
prominence in public affairs, are nearly as well evidenced as those oi Rhys ap Tewdwr, 
Fitzhamon, or Newmarch. He is named in the twelfth century by so credible and well- 
informed a man as Giialdus Cambrensis {Itin.^ 2) in the same undoubting way as De Braose 



HISTORY OF GLAMORGANSHIRE- lESTYN AP GWRGANT. 489 

or Newmarch is- named, and the subsequent power and influence of his sons in the wars 
which wasted Brecknock are plainly implied* He was a man of so great consideration that 
his contempoxaries» Bleddyn ap Cjmfyn, Gruf^dd ap Cynan, and Rhys ap Tewdwr (after- 
wards hb opponent and victim), all princes of Wales, in determining who should thenceforth 
be considered ** founders of royal tribes" in Wales, ranked him along with themselves and 
Elystan Glodrydd, ruler of the country between the Wye and the Severn, as entitled to that 
dignity. We in these days may think that a prominence was thus accorded to lestyn which 
he lltde deserved ; but we are bound to allow that these princes were the best judges of 
what should be done, and must yield to the evidence involved in their decision — ^unless 
indeed we covet the distinction which some have won by coolly setting aside the authority of 
Vaughan of Hengwrt, and boldly denying that such a census was ever made. Instances are 
not wanting of incredulity being carried to such a point of credulity. lestyn's reality and 
position are also witnessed to by numerous genealogical records of much antiquity, results of 
the labours of authorized genealogists, whereby many old families have traced their descent 
from the sept of lestyn. Of course a stupid or ignorant prejudice may deny the value of 
these records ; but such denial is not history. 

We need not trouble purselves with the minor criticism some writers indulge in respect* 
ing the want of accordance in the different chroniclers as to the dates of Iest3m ap 
Gwrganf s chief operations. It is quite enough to know, on the authority of respectable 
chronicles, that he engaged in war with Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales, and was 
joined in this enterprise by the sons of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, late Prince of North Wales. 
This was about aj>. 1088, or perhaps a year or two later, — a most active stage, and nearly 
the last, in lestyn's life. And that this chronology of his life b substantially accurate, despite 
the entry in the BooJt of Aberpergwm which makes lestyn marry the daughter of Bleddyn 
ap Cynfyn as early as a.d. 994, is made plain by the reference made by Giraldus Cambrensis 
just a century later (a.d. 1x88) to the sons of lestyn. He says that the sons of Iest3m had 
been engaged in '* a great war m which nearly all the province " of Brecheinioc ^ was 
destroyed." Now this *' great war" had evidently occurred after lestyn's time, because it 
was under the leadership,' not of him, but of his sons, Caradoc, Madoc, Hywel, and Rhys, 
or some of them ; and Giraldus alludes to it as a war which had already in 1x88, when he 
txarersed' the locality, long passed away and become a matter of history. This kind of 
indirect evidence is always valuable, and coming in this instance from a man so observant 
and so well versed in the a&irs of South Wales, is more to be depended upon than entries 
in chronicles. The war aUuded to was doubtless the great struggle of the natives of 
Brecheinioc against the Norman, Bernard Newmarch, who, according to the Anmt/es 
CdmMa, came to Brecheinioc in 109 1 (see p. 66), a date which, whether stricdy accurate 
or one or two years too early, most likely synchronizes with the conquest of Glamorgan by 
Fitzhamon. lestyn ap Gwrgant is held to have fled the country on his defeat by Fitzhamon 
near Cardiff, and is variously reported to have died, havmg first wandered to Glastonbury 
and then to Bath, at Keynsham, or, as said by the Book of Aberpergwm^ *' in the monastery 
of Llangenys in Gwent," and the leadership of the patriots by his sons, at the time implied 
by Giraldus's allusion, is therefore in itself probable and consistent. 

Then, however, comes the question. What hand had I€styn ap Gwrgant in bringing 
Fitzhamon and his Norman companions to Glamorgan ? The usual and long-established 



490 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

account represents the Norman inTasion of thu pan as the enterprise of a nomber of knigfatljr 
adventurers who first entered as amdliaries to lestyn in his imrqnal contest with Rhys ap 
Tewdwr, but afterwards^ having assisted him through diat difficnltjr, tomed upon him and 
took possession o^ his coontiy on their own account. The story holds a cnrioos analogy to 
that of the conquest of Kent by Hengbt and Horsa ; and lestyn ap Gwigant forms a parallel 
with Vortigem, the traitor in the general history of Britain* The bad odour attaching to 
Iest3m's character is owing to hb inviting the Norman knights to the co untiy, and his breach 
of contract with Einion ap Cadivor ap CoUwyn (see pp. 65 and 233), his successful agent at 
the court of Rufus, in refiising him his daugfatei^s promised hand, and thus instigating Einion 
to retaliate by persuading Fitzhamon to huri him and his race firom the seat of power. 
This is the version, without precise date, of the BookqfAberfergwm — a document of common 
origin with Brut y Tywysagian^ but marked by a painful confusion of chronology; the Brut 
of leuan Brechfa^ under a.d. 1090 ; and the ^ lolo MSS." But neither the Amnaies Cambrm 
nor Caradoc's Brut y Tywysogion give this or any other story of the conquest of Glamoigan, 
although both narrate the overthrow of Rhys ap Tewdwr by " the French (Normans) of 
Brecheinioc." 

Now, however unreasonable or uncritical appears, after investigation, the theory that 
lestyn ap Gwigant was not a man of prominent and unhappy nottmety in Glamoigan about 
the time of its conquest, and however clear it is that he had a hand in fiivouring the first 
operations of the Normans in these parts, it is still to be admitted that they^nw of the story 
renders it liable to some suspicion, and makes proof of its substantive truth, from what data 
are available, necessary. Students of antiquity, though proverbially devotees of the old, 
are now and then covetous of the applause won by discoverers. Mr. Floyd has recendy 
made an ingenious attempt {Joum, Archaal, Institute^ zxviii., 293) to prove ^ that the war in 
which South Wales (including Moiganwg) was conquered" was not the work of Robert 
Fitzhamon and his twelve more or less companion knights, but ^ was a national war," in 
which ^ William Rufiis personally took part" 

This new account is more liable to question than the old. It is sustained only by slender 
intimation and conjectural reasoning, while the other is banded down by clear, definite, and 
not improbable record. At the same time a careful examination of all the data within 
reach inclines us to believe that neither account need be entirely rejected, but that by the 
omission of the questionable points of each they are capable of being so blended as to form 
a consistent history. We are far from thinking that William Rufus in x>erBon superintended 
the conquest of Glamorgan, or that he ever conquered South Wales ; at the same time the 
work was not done by adventurer knights without the cognizance and authority of the king. 
The known practice of feudal warfare, and the method notoriously adopted by the Norman 
kings on the marches of Wales of having conquests effected for them and not by them — as 
shown by Sir John Dodridge, hereafter dted, — are consistently adumbrated in the older 
account : the fact that the king claimed the land, and that no vassal could appropriate a foot 
square without authority of his liege, necessitates the belief that Rufus's authority and 
sanction sounded in every deed of Fitzhamon, De Londres, and St Quentin, and made the 
conquest of Glamorgan in tliis sense a conquest by Rufus the king and not by these knights ; 
but tills is a view not contradictory of the account of the Bruts. In dealing with this subject 
the following points are to be borne in mind :— 



NORMAN CONQUEST OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 491 

« 

1. The subjugation of Glamorgan was not a separate and solitary undertaking, but was 
one of a series of operations conducted by the Normans against Wales. William the Bastard 
himself, according to Brut y lywysoghn^ was already, as &r back as a.d. zo8o, entitled, in 
some inexact sense, to the designation Breniny Saeson or Brytanyeit — ** King of the Saxons 
and Britons," — a title which he had probably obtained more by policy and the inspiration of 
fear than by force, for we know that there had been no proper conquest. Before even this 
date, between a.d. 1070 and 1080, he had sought popularity and power in Wales by making 
a pilgrimage to the shrine of St David, partly influenced, perhaps, by the belief which grew 
into a proverb, that two pilgrimages to St David's were equal in merit to one to Rome, — 

" Roma semel quanlunif bis dat Menevia tantum,'* — 

but not without the shrewd intention of making the '' Britons " think him a very religious 
king; perhaps also, as the year last mentioned was within seven of the last of his life, he 
might begin to feel that he had nearly had enough of blood and tyranny, and that the shadow 
of the great coming mystery made him sober. 

Brut y Tyufysogion informs us that " the French (Normans) devastated Ceredigion, 
Dyfed, and St David's, and that Bangor was spoiled by the Gentiles (Danes);'* and the 
Anglo-Saxon ChrmicUy under date 1081, states, '^ This year the king led an army into Wales, 
and there he set free many hundred persons ; " but the part of Wales is not specified ; probabiUty 
is very strong in &vour of the North ; but even allowing it to be South, it might be only 
Moxganwg or the borders. In a eulogium on the Conqueror the same chronicle says, 
** The land of the Britons was under his sway, and he built casdes therein." These were 
certainly not in the South. Thus in less than twenty years after the battle of Hastings 
William's devouring appetite was itching for Wales, while as yet the whole of England had 
scarcely been swallowed, much less digested ; but the evidence is overwhelming that his 
gains only amounted to a bare recognidon of feudal superiority and occasional payment of 
tribute, while the native princes continued to rule. 

2. On the other hand, it is -to be borne in mind very specially that the Conqueror and 
his successors pursued a somewhat exceptional policy with respect to the subjugation of 
Wales. It is clear that they looked upon it not merely as a different coimtry and nationality, 
but as a hard and sharp substance to deal with. Having much on hand at home, in 
Normandy, and in Scotland, they sought some byway and auxiliary means of dealing with the 
proud and fiery Welsh, and conceived the happy idea of calling into play that arm of the 
feudal system which had the appearance of acting occasionally independently of the royal 
head. Authority was given to vassal lords to push their fortunes on the borders of Wales. 
The king's anny was not at their bidding. Their men-at-arms, their own retainers, and all 
who coveted plunder and new settlements might join them; they might enter Wales 
wherever the sword made an opening for them, overturn the native and rightful authority, 
build their castles on the steeps or on the plains, and assume the power to rule, bound only 
to the acknowledgment of the king of England as supreme lord. It was precisely repeating 
on a smaller scale the Conqueror's own descent upon England. By an assurance of infinite 
audacity, William of Normandy took leave to consider the land of Britain as his own, to give 
it to whom he would, if only by longer sword and stronger arm he could take it. His 
speech to his army on the field of Hastings, '' Remember to fight well and put all to death. 



492 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

for if we conquer we shall be all rich ; what I gain, you will gain ; if I conquer, you will 
conquer ; if I take their land, you shall have it,'* was reflected in the letters of marque issued 
for plunder Ind murder in Wales. Then it was that the first Norman earls were setded at 
Chester, Shrewsbury,. Hereford, and Montgomery, m almost distinct sovereignty ; but in all 
these cases, except the last named, the country had been already preliminarily conquered by 
the imperial army. The Lords Marchers in South Wales, in Glamorgan, Brecknock, 
Cydweli, Pembroke, Cardigan, &c, were not settled in the same manner ; they were sent 
more like filibusters, against all law except '^ the law of the strongest," authorized to murder 
and pillage, and subject to indignity and servitude the rightful and unoffending possessors 
of the land. It was a feature of the times, a natural and almost necessary operation of the 
feudal order of things. 

"While, therefore, in the subjugation of Morganwg Rufus's will may well be allowed to be 
the paramount moral and political force, it by no means follows that the work was not done 
by Fitzhamon, as a military leader, for the profit of himself and his companions, and in 
conjunction at first with Iest3m ap Gwrgant, and that thus the representations of the early 
Cymric records are substantially correct 

But is not this, view rendered untenable by clear statements of direct conquest of 
Glamorgan by William Rufus in person ? Nothing of the sort The idea of such a conquest 
is a mere inference, fix>m data peculiarly scanty and inadequate. The An^Saxan Chronicle^ 
although it follows with some minuteness the movements of Rufus in these years, makes no 
allusion to his visiting South Wales or Morganwg, or even preparing an army or expedition 
to invade them. In 109 z he goes to Normandy " bent upon his brother Robert's ruin,'* and 
then returns to invade Malcolm, king of Scotland. In 1093 he goes ** northward to Cariisle 
with a large army," and here repairs the city and builds a castle. In 1093 '* King William 
was very sick at Gloucester, insomuch that he was universally reported to be dead." And 
yet, without a syllable of evidence, in this year he is held to have conquered South Wales ! 
He was long recovering from this illness, for he is still at Gloucester in 1094, where he 
*' holds his court." Here he receives " messages out of Normandy firom his^brother Robert ; " 
and ''at Candlemas proceeds to Hastings and embarks for Normandy." Not a hint through 
all these years has the Angia-Saxan Chronicle about any invasion or thought of South Wales — 
an omission quite incredible in a chronicle which so assiduously follows Rufiis's movements, 
if he had actually himself been engaged in systematic aggression and conquest in this 
important part of the country. 

In fact, the king's hands were more than full with the troubles occasioned by Malcolm of 
Scotland ('' Moel Cwlwm, brenin y Picteit ar Albanyeit," — Brut y Tywyscg,) and Robert of 
Normandy, and his own state of health was such that the extra care of an expedition into 
Wales was by no means likely to be undertaken by him. On the other hand, and Ux these 
same reasons, the probability is strong that his sanction would be given to any adventurous 
knights who might wish to do the work. Thus the vraisemblance of the native account here 
is highly interesting. 

As we have said, no facts are recorded in any chronicles of value to sustain the contrary 
theory. That William was sick at Gloucester in 1093 or 1093 is no proof that he was 
directing warlike operations at Cardiff or Brecknock. That he was torn by anxiety by the 
X>roceedings of his brother in Normandy, and was obliged as soon as his strength allowed to 



NORMAN CONQUEST OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 493 

hurry across the Channel, lends no probability to the notion that he was busy in personally 
conducting a general conquest of South Wales. That in 1092 according to the Annales 
Catnbria^ or in Z094 according to the Angi<hSaxon Chronicle^ the Welsh rose in arms against 
the Normans, and demolished all their castles in Demetia and Ceredigion except Pembroke 
and Rhyd-Cors (probably near Carmarthen) — a fact confirmed, without date, by Brut y 
jywysogioH^ is only indirect proof that the Normans had here and there established positions 
and temporarily imposed their yoke on districts, but is no proof whatever that such yoke 
was not imposed by the Lords Marchers. in the name of the king, but without his formal 
co-operation, and without aid of his treasury or his troops. It is true, as Giraldus tells us 
(^/>r., iL, 1), that William did at some time or other penetrate, as his father had done before 
him, as far as St David's,' when he uttered his threat of crossing over on a bridge of boats to 
conquer Ireland; but how many years after the conquest of Glamorgan that visit to 
St David's took place, or whether it was a hostile visit, we are not told, and therefore the 
fact as quoted in proof of conquest is utterly beside the mark. So of the order he gave 
Fitz-Baldwin to erect the castle of Rhyd-Cors; such an order does not imply the presence 
of the king at the place. No evidence is producible that ^^^lliam Rufus conducted an 
aimed force from Gloucester to St. David's, or superintended in person the subjugation of 
any part of South Wales. On his return fix>m the journey to Normandy above noticed, he 
is known to have conducted, in 1095, ^^ expedition into Wales (see An^Saxon ChromcU)^ 
but it was into North Wales (see p. 321). In 1097 he again entered Wales '*with a great 
army," vowing, as Florence of Worcester informs us, *' the destruction of every male in the 
country ;" he remained there, if the AnglO'Saxon Ckramcle is correct, *' from midsummer till 
near August, to his great loss in men^and horses and many other thmgs," and *' seeing that he 
could not effect his purpose, returned into England ['^vacuus ad sua reddit" — Annal,Cambr^^ 
and forthwith caused castles to be built on the Marches." But this expedition also was into 
North Wales. He found it easier to build castles and plant garrisons on points he had 
reached than conquer the people. But even if he had done more than conduct a great 
army, and fail of effecting his purpose in the North, that were no proof of conquest in 
Glamorgan; and we may be sure that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle^ which is so careful in 
noting Rufus's doings in this country, evm when they issued in failure^ would not have passed 
in silence a victorious campaign in South Wales, had it ever occurred. In fine, we have yet 
to wait for the smallest modicum of evidence that Rufus was in any other sense than through 
the agency of the Lords Marchers the conqueror of any part of South Wales. 

That Robert Fitzhamon not only helped lestyn ap Gwrgant against Rh]rs ap Tewdwr, 
but subsequendy drove lestyn himself from his lordship, taking possession of it in Rufus's 
name and by his authority, is the only conclusion we can come to, and this conclusion 
harmonizes as far as desirable the two apparendy conflicting views we have noticed. The 
conquest was William's in effect, Fitzhamon*s and his companions^ in reality. A conquest 
so effected would be in harmony with feudal custom, and congruous with the whole sub- 
sequent settiements of the Marchers at Cydweli, Pembroke, Cemmaes (Pemb.), Cardigan, 
Aber3rstwyth, and the contemporary settlement of Newmaich at Brecknock. 

Upon this subject the opinion of the learned Sir John Dodridge is worth citing : — '^ As 
touching the government of the Marches of Wales, it appeareth by divers ancient monuments 
that the Conqueror, after he had conquered the English, placed divers of his Norman 



494 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

nobility upon the confines and borders towards Wales, and erected the earldom of Chester, 
being upon the borders of North Wales, to palatine, and gave powers unto the said persons 
thus placed to make such conquest upon the Welsh as they by their strength could accom- 
plish, holding it a very good policy thereby not only to encourage them to be more willing 
to serve him, but also to provide for them at other men's cost; and hereupon further 
ordained that the land so conquered should be holden of the Crown of England in capiU. 
In such manner did Robert Fitzhamon acquire unto himself and such others as assisted him 
the whole lordship of Glamorgan, using in some semblance the Roman policy to enlarge 
territories by stepping in between two compedtors, and by helping the one [meaning, of 
course, lestyn, as against Rhys ap Tewdwr] he subdued the other, and after turning the 
sword against him whom he had assisted, made himself absolute owner of all. Likewise 
Bernard Newmarch conquered the lordship of Brecknock, containing three cantreds, and 
established his conquest by a marriage with Nest, daughter of Trahaem ap Llywelyn, in 
the Welsh blood." {^Gov, of Walts and the Marches^ p. 37.) 

Nothing worthy of the name of a '* conquest** of South Wales had taken place 
when Giraldus wrote his Topographia Cambria (probably about aj>. 1x90), for he shows the 
greatest desire to instruct the Normans how to accomplish a work which he seemed to 
consider so desirable, and gives elaborate directions how the people should be governed if 
once conquered (see cap. 8 and 9). ^ The prince who would wish to subdue this nation," 
he says, '* and govern it in peace, must proceed thus : he must make up his mind to give 
undeviating attention to this purpose for at least one year ; for a people who, with a collected 
force, will neither attack in the field nor wait to be besieged in castles, is not to be overcome 
at the first onset, but to be worn out by prudent delay and patience.** Then, further 
implying that the work was yet to be done, he proceeds, ** This portion of the kingdom, 
protected by arms and courage, might be of great use to the prince, not only in these or the 
adjacent parts, but, if necessity required, in more remote regions ; and although the public 
treasury might receive a smaller annual revenue firom these provinces, yet the deficiency 
would be fully compensated by the peace of the kingdom and the honour of its sovereign, 
especially as the heavy and dangerous expenses of one military expedition into Wales 
usually amount to the whole income arising from the revenue of the province.** 



Tlu Settlements of the Twdve Knights. 

m 

It is allowed on all hands that Fitzhamon took up his abode and built his castle at 
Cardiff, the ancient seat of the native princes of Morganwg, with the strongholds of Tre* 
fufered and Cynfiig, and the lands thereto appertaining, in addition. {Brut y T^wysog.) The 
remainder of the fair and fertile ^ Vale,"^ 

" Morgonia tellus, 
Pulchni situ, frugamque ferax, amoena locontm " [Peniarthui)^ 

was partitioned among his companion knights, who probably in many instances had to 
take possession at the point of the sword, while in others, where the rightful owners had 



HISTORY OF GLAMORGANSHIRE— THE TWELVE LORDSHIPS. 495 

fallen in war, and were represented only by widows and orphans, the task was easy. The 
names of these new possessors, with the manors they claimed, have come down to our time 
— ^ a few instances made ever-enduring by the impress of local names. In the Bruis they 
are given as follows : — 

Name. Possession, 

Robert Fitzhamoa Caeidyf, Trdufered, Cenffig, with their sar« 

rotmding lands. 

William de Londres [so called because bom in London] . Ogmor [W., Aber^gwr, He afterwirds re- 
moved to Cydweli, where he built a castle]. 

Richard de Gruivyl [otherwise Gninvil, Grenfyld, Granville] NMd, Costell-Nedd (Neath). 

Paganus de TurberviU Coyty [Coed-ty, near Bridgend]. 

Robert de Sti Quintin Uanblethian [or^. Qm'/i/iV/]. 

Richard de Syward Talafui, or Taly Fan, and the royal burgh of 

Pont-faen [Cowbridge]. 

Gilbert de Humfrevill Penmark— jP^Miarri: 

Reginald de Sully SvSly^AbersiiL 

Roger de Berkrolles, or '* Berdos" East Orchard—St Athan's. 

Peter leSoore ^^eniovt^Uanbedrar Fro, 

John le Fleming St. Gtoe^^-Uanyfilwyn. 

Oliver de St John Yoamiask^AberiemaMt, 

William de Esterling [corrupted StradUng\ . • . ' . St \>Qio»£%^IJamoerydd, 

It is very remarkable how soon the blood of these foreign settlers vanished from Glamor* 
ganshire. Fitzhamon himself, dying after twelve years of possession, left no son« and his 
daughter, Mabel, carried his wealth to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I. 
by Nest, daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr. In the sixteenth century the Stradlings were 
the only family descended in the male Une from the Norman chieftains, and even these have 
long ago passed away. (See Stradling of St. Donafs.) By female descent the name Tl^r- 
berviil still continues in the county — ^a solitary relic of a long and distinguished line (see 
Oniy Castle^ and Ewermy Abbey). 

The lands of Glamorgan being thus partitioned between his companions in arms, Fitz- 
hamon is said to have displayed some generosity — a thing quite unusual with his iace-~ 
towards a few of the foiled and deprived native chieftains* and, as was natural, towards the 
native leaders who had rendered him material assistance. Chief of the latter class, Einion 
ap Cadivor ap Collwyn, useftil to him at the Norman court, as well as in the field, had 
assigned him, along with Miskin, the hill stronghold of Seng^mydd (St Cenydd)^ which in 
after times grew into celebrity and vast proportions (see Caerphilly Castle). Others have 
said that the lordship alone was given to Einion, and that Fitzhamon kept the castle to him- 
self. Of the former class were the sons of lestyn ap Gwrgant, four in number, who had 
each a portion of territory ; Caradoc receiving Aberafan, and " the whole country between 
the rivers NMd and Afan, in the lordship of Rial ; " Madoc receiving the lordship 01 
'' Rhuthyn ; " Hywel, Llantrithyd ; and Rhys, the lordship of Soflen, between the nvers 
NMd and Tawe. Another chieftain, supposed to be of the native race, Rotpert ap 
Seisyllt, received " the lordship of Maes Essyllt," the locality of which cannot be with cer* 
tainty determined. These are the dispositions made to the Welsh leaders, according to 
Bruty Tyufysogion (Aberpergwm copy), the correctness of which is not impeached by its 
comparison with the extenta recently discovered at the Public Record Office, which are of 
so late a date as the reign of Henry III. 
. The government set up by Robert Fitzhamon was all but absolutely centred in himself 



496 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

He held his monthly court at Cardiff Castle, where he heard plaints and gave decisions in 
matters civil and criminal, and received appeals against decisions of the subordinate barons, 
who, each in his own lordship, likewise exercised jurisdiction. As he held from the king, so 
they held from him, and owed him fealty and service. The tenure of Fitzhamon, Newmarch, 
and the other chief lords of the Marches of Wales, differed in several points from that of the 
English barons, for the latter held by charters granted in writing by the sovereign, wherein 
the boundaries of their lands and the laws according to which they were to rule were 
explicitly laid down ; whereas the lords of the Marches, having fought and won on their 
own account, held in a sense by right of conquest, without charters, and with a greater 
measure of independence. The reason of this exceptional advantage on the part of the 
chief Lord Marchers is said to have been that until their lands were gained by adventure it 
was impossible for the king to issue a definite charter, and when the conquest had been 
made the successful knight preferred not to apply for a charter which would only limit his 
own liberty of rule and further conquest. 

It is, however, not to be understood that this freedom was enjoyed by the less prominent 
barons in Wales, and especially in the later conquests. In the inspeximus of a ^ Deed 
from King Edward to Roger Mortjrmer of Gene'r-glyn,'* &c., authorizing " the exchange 
between Llewelyn, son of the said Roger, and Jeffrey Clement, for Coetmor** (see further, 
p. 169), we have a sample of instruments of the kind occasionally met with. But they are 
rare, and it is said that none have been discovered relating to the chief early Marchers before 
the conquest of Wales by Edward. 

Of the peculiar privileges of jurisdiction enjoyed by these local reguli Sir John Dodridge, 
referring pointedly to Fitzhamon, Newmarch, and Hugh de Lacy, says, *'And because 
they and their posterity might the better keep the said lands so acquired ... the said 
lordships and lands so conquered were ordained BaronUs Marchers^ and had a kind of 
palatine jurisdiction erected in every of them, and power to administer justice unto 
their tenants [tenentes — men holding land in fief] in every of their territories, having therein 
courts with divers privileges. . . So that the writs of ordinary justice out of the king^s 
courts were for the most part not current amongst them.** (dfv. of Wales and Marches^ 
p. 38.) These privileges, termed y/^m regalia^ reflections of the absolutist and summary rule 
of the Norman in England, empowered the lord to make as well as administer law in bis 
own territory. Some of the harsher features of this rule we have already detailed when 
referring to Newmarch's government of Brecknock (see p. 72). 

But strong as was the Norman baron's arm, the spirit of the Welsh in many instances 
refused to bend to new-made or foreign laws, even when their land had been taken from 
them, and they were allowed to hold and cultivate only on condition of doing homage to 
the pillager. Wounded and prostrate, they yet turned on their overthrower a look of 
defiance which made him tremble and grant their demands. They claimed government 
according to their own laws and customs. In cases this was fully, in others partially granted, 
in some refused ; and we find to this day in use those mysterious designations of neighbour- 
ing districts, as IVallicana or Anglicana^ Welsh or English^ Welsherit or EngUsherU^ which 
had their origin in these practices. We find in Glamorganshire Coity Anglicana and Coity 
Wallicana, Avan Anglicana and Avan Wallicana; and in Breconshire, Haia Wallicana, 
^ the Welsh Hay," and Haia Anglicana ; English Talgarth and Welsh Talgarth, &c. . A 






HISTORY— TIMES SUCCEEDING THE CONQUEST. 497 

district which refused to be governed by any but the ancient laws of the country were 
called Welsh and *' VVelsherie,** and vice versa. Fitzhamon himself was besieged in his own 
castle of Cardiff on this very question, and compelled to give way. Even Turbervill, of 
Coity, one of his own knights, but who had identified himself with the Cymry by marrying 
the heiress of Coity (see Coity Castle\ had joined and led the insurrection. The account, 
as given in BrtU y Tywysogion (Book of Aberpergwm), a.d. 1091, says, '* The men of 
Morganwg and Gwaen-Uwg arose en masse ["yn un llu"], overthrew the casdes of the French, 
killing nearly all the defenders, and Paen Twrbil, lord of the castle of Coety, was leader of 
the people of the country. He would not hold his lands except in right of his wife, the 
heiress of Meurig ap Gruffydd ap lestyn ; he led his hoses to Caer-Dydd, and began to 
destroy the castle. When Robert ap Amon [Fitzhamon] beheld this and asked the reason, 
Paen Twrbil made known that the Cymry would only consent to be governed according to 
the ancient privileges and customs of their country and the laws of Howel Dda, and would 
have their land free [1. <., free from socage, or military service] ; and on account of the 
greatness of the multitude, Robert deemed it well to follow the course that would satisfy the 
Cymry. The country then had rest ; Paen Twrbil held his lands and privileges by right 
of his wife ; the people of the country held their lands free, and properly enjoyed their 
privileges and customs, as they had always done before the time of the French. When this 
state of things was fully settled in Morganwg, many of the Welsh nation came from South 
Wales and North Wales to Morganwg, to enjoy a quieter life than was found in the other 
countries." 

Times succeeding the Conquest. 

Fitzhamon was a favourite at the Norman court, and through his brief government ot 
some dozen years in Glamorgan was both a considerate and successful ruler. He was raised 
to the dignity of Earl of Gloucester ; after the death of Rufus became a strong partisan of 
Henry I. against his brother Robert of Normandy ; and upon his capture Robert was com- 
mitted as prisoner to his keeping at Cardiff Castle, where he remained for many years. Fitz- 
hamon having no son, the lordship of Glamorgan went with his daughter Mabel, who was 
espoused by Henry's illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester. Though a Welshman on his 
mother's side, being the son of Nest, of more prominent than attractive fame, the daughter of 
the fidlen Rhys ap Tewdwr, Robert attempted to rivet more closely rather than loosen the 
feudal chains which Fitzhamon had rather easily placed on the limbs of Morganwg ; but he 
found that the people retained some notion of liberty while owning fealty and moderate 
service to Norman lords, and the result was a mighty rising of the country, the investment 
and storming of Cardiff Castle, and finally the release of Robert upon his making solemn 
oath to respect the laws and immunities of the natives. 

For a long time Glamorgan remained a part of the possessions of the earldom of 
Gloucester. . It was often subject to violent coromodons, the spirit of the people remaining 
strongly national and independent, persistent and often successful in claiming the restitution 
of ancient privileges. Still, from the iron grasp of the feudal system they were not able to 
free themselves. That form of society prevailed for at least two centuries, and substantially 
continued till the radical change introduced by the eighth Henry. 



498 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

To the 46th of Heniy III., or a.d. 1262, belong a series of interesting documents recently 
disinterred at the Public Record Office (Wallia, Bag I., No. 15), and proofs of which 
through the kindness of Mr. Burtt, have been placed in our hands. These consist of 
ExtmtiB^ or *' retumSy** ten in number, from the district of Morganwg and Gwent, their 
object being, as usual, to ascertain under royal command C' per preceptum domini regis**) the 
value of the Earl of Gloucester's feudal rights in these parts, in order to find a basis upon 
which to calculate the king's claim to revenue from the same. Those in Glamorgan relate 
to Cardiff (" Kairdiff "), Llantrisant (« Lantrissen "), Llangonyd (" Languniht "), Neath 
(**Neht'*)» and Uanilltyd and Llyswomey C^Laniltwit and Liswrini"). The Norman 
spelling of names of places and persons shows a commendable attempt at imitating the 
native articulation. The returns show what dues were receivable by the lord from burgage 
rents, from free tenants and cotters, from market tolls, fairs, courts of law, demesne lands, 
and mills, as well as obligations oi labour in harvest-time, and in repairing implements of 
husbandry, &c, for the lord. A board or jury of inquisitors — the modem name would be 
'* Commissioners of Taxfes " — ^was ordained in each lordship to conduct the investigation and 
render report on oath (*' per sacramentum **). These in Cardifi^ judging firom their names — 
Robert Upedyke, Stephen Bagedrip, Richard Lude, and nine others, — ^were all of foreign 
blood, taken probably fix>m castle officials and dependants, for at that time Cardiff consisted 
of little else \ but in other places they were as exclusively Webh, as will be seen in the 
example of ** Lantrissen.** This shows that a kind of rough impartiality as regarded the 
nationality of the ** commissioners ** was observed. At ** Neht ** they are quite mixed ; and 
at *' Languniht ** all Welsh. The importance of the m^-toU (molendinum) is veiy obvious, 
for at Cardiff, while the return for the town is only ^20 4s. 8d., the mill-tolls jrield the 
respectable sum of ^^46. The advowson of the parish is not foigotten. It is clear that 
there had been recent fighting, and the superiority of peace over war is implied when the 
Llantrisant mill, which now produces of available dues only twenty shiilingSf ** tempore 
pads " yielded twenty marks. Another mill, whose customary value was also twenty marks, 
is regretfully mentioned as wholly burnt down and destroyed (** combustum est et destructum 
omnino ^ ; while not fewer than a hundred houses in Llantrisant alone had been ruined by 
war. This inquisition had probably been made after one of the frequent incursions of the 
Welsh into the lordship. We give first the Llantrisant return : — 

'^EXTXNTA DB LAirnusssN. 

" Extenta de Lantrissen per precqptnm domini Regb fiicta per sacnunentnm Howell Vochan, Ivor ab 
Cacherot, Lewelin ab Menric, Yonrerfat ab Adam, Yvwan ab Yssac^ Yorrezlit ab Wi^neo, Yorrerfat Vochan, 
Lewelin ab Howell, Griffid Gdch ab Lewelin, Philip ab Lewelin, Yvwan ab Wiann, et Grifild Gdch ab 
HowelL Qui jurati dicunt quod,— 

Redditns bu^ est xiij* iiij* 

Et de redditibos liberomm et lusticorum x'^oo 

Et de auxilio ad lardarium xvo 

Et pro molendino de Brosseley iij uij 

Et dominicum debile oontinet y carucatas terre valet tempore pads 1 o 

Et vij acre more que potest falcari viij viij 

Et de piscaria U o 

Et de j Molendino xx o 

Et de Forestaiiis x o 

Et de servido msdcoram in antumpno • • xiij iiij 



I 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES— FEUDAL CHARGES. 499 

Et de pumagio iiijo 

£t de reddita plumbi xo 

Et de Trewern et Lanveir ad auxUiam ad laidarinm vj o 

Et de reddittt et servido liberorum et rttsdoonun captoram de tenementia de Sancti Fagano bdij ix ob 

Et de erbagio ibidem xo 

Et de terra locata ibidem xix o 

Et de redditu Adaaf ab Yvor pro j espemario .... T ... . ij o 

Et de pladtis et peiquisitis curiarum x^ o o 

Snmma xxxtj* x* t*^ 

" Et est ibi advocacio ecclesie de Lantriswn que Talet xx marcas et pertinet ad Comitem. Et advocado 
ecdesie de Pentiredi que valet iiij marcas. Et memorandum quod predictum molendinum tempore pads solet 
valere xx marcas. Et aUud molendinum quod ibidem similiter solet valere xx marcas combustam est ec 
dcstructum omnino. Et C. mansiones sunt ibidem destiucte et degwerra. Et memorandum quod filii Moigan 
Cadewalthan habent Glynrotheni." 

Then follow the signatures of the jury, '' Howel Vochany** &Cy as above ; with certain 
names omitted, not being within call, perhaps, at the time. 

When a hundred dwellings laj in ruins in liantrisant alone, we may judge of the 
devastating character of the ** gwerra '* carried on between the recalcitrating Welsh and their 
Norman lords ; and also that the population of the parts was not very sparse. The sons of 
Morgan Cadwallon, here mentioned as in possession of Glynrothen, were doubtless men of 
some note ; but whether holding their lands in fee to the lord of Morganwg, or in defiance 
of him, the word ** habent " is scarcely sufficient to show. 

Welsh proper names in this foreign dress give us a clue to the Welsh pronunciation of 
the thirteenth century. *' Vochan " not only detects Fychan (junior, little) on its way to the 
modem Vaughan, but plainly tells that the Cymric y was sounded in those dajrs in 
Morganwg in the broad way still preserved in North Wales. The b in the patronymic ab 
also shows that this contrast to the ap of the North is not of recent birth. ^ Yowan " is 
levan beginning to assume the form Owen ; and ^ Yorverht " intimates the existence even 
then of the terminal aspirate now represented by th^ but then attempted to be represented by 
ht. The same is observable in " Neht ** below. 

" EXTKNTA DB NSHT [NMd]. 

" Extdita de Neht per preoeptum domini Regis fiicta per sacramentum Henrid Vodiaii, Madoc ab Reet» 
Lewelin ab Hailon, Cradouc ab Wasmdr, Cradonc ab Wigan, Madaner ab Yorverht, Maoridi Molendinazii, 
Gilberti Cadievrendi, Rees ab Itheneriit, Johannis le Wogare, Petri de Comdunc^ Ade Huse. Qui 
diamt quod,— 

De redditu bnigensium et Cotariomm cxij* d* 

Et de redditu libere tenendum forinaecorum xvjo 

Et de redditu Walensinm . • xxxij x ob 

Et de Molendino xi o 

Et dominicum parvum et debile valet xiij x 

Et de xiij acris prati Xi TJ 

Et de prisis oervisie to 

Et de tholoneo xij 

Et de gurgite et piscaria vj viij 

Et de finibus et perquisitis curiarum xx o 

Summa xij* xiij* xj'ob 

Et est advocado ecdesie ibidem de Neht peitinens ad Comitem que valet x maicaa. Et molendinum 
tempore pacts solet valere ix marcas [ » j^7 6s. 8d., but now, alas 1 only forty shillings]. Et 
vij^ et X mansionrf [150 dwellings] ibidem sunt comlnme et destiucte per gnenram." 

Then follow the names of the jury of returns, ** Henricus Vochan,** && 



M 



500 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Thus we seCy without quoting further from these valuable documents now being prepared 
for publication in the forthcoming Journal of the Archaological InsHtuie^ that the inhabitants 
of Glamoigan in the thirteenth century were generally placed under the conditions of feudal 
service. Those who held lands, held under the then lord of the district, the Earl of 
Gloucester, and a laxge proportion of the inhabitants were probably of the free villdn dass ; 
but it is improbable that any were reduced to the low condition of the tfuowa of the Anglo- 
Saxons. The Norman demand was not for absolute property in the person, and his 
degradation into a chattel, but that in return for his freedom, his holding of land, his keeping 
a mill, or enjoying an ecclesiastical benefice, he should pay so much tribute or service to his 
gracious superior. Adaaf ab Yvor at Llantrisant, if he must indulge in the luxury of sport 
with a sparrow-hawk^ might go to the lord's woods and take game, but he must pay for the 
pleasure '* two shillings " to dominus Rex. His reverence, the cure of Llantrisant, in those 
sunny days for priests, might go about, as Piers Plowman has it, — 



<• 



or as Chaucer says, — 



A pricker on a palfrey from manor to manor. 

An heap of hounds [behind him] an he a lord were ; 



" When he rode men might his bridle heare 
Gingling in a whistling wind, as clear 
And eke as loud as doth the chapelle belle ; " 



but he must remember that he held an ''advocacio" which belonged to his lord the earl 
(" pertinet ad comitem ''). The miU at Llantrisant, which in time of peace paid twenty marks, 
now that the war, making eaters fewer and the fields less productive, had reduced its 
custom, was allowed to go on the easier terms of " twenty shillings ; " but, no tax, no grinding. 
If the cottarii wished to fatten their hogs on acorns in the lord's forest, and thus provide 
bacon for winter (as the Welsh cottiers still are fond of doing), they must obtain this 
** aiudlium ad lardarium " at the cost of ^ fifteen shiUings." Fishing was allowed in the 
streams, ponds, a&d in " gurgites** (weirs X) ; and the well-to-do Cymro, like the idlers of the 
foreign race, might while away his leisure in the ^gentle art," the only penalty being 'Me 
gurgite et piscaria," six shillings and eightpence, — the prototype, perhaps, of the modem 
attorney's fee for writing a letter. *^ Though a solidus of that time was of far greater value 
than the shilling of to-day, the imposts on the whole were moderate for an age of conquest, 
amounting perhaps to a considerably smaller per-centage than the cost of '' cheap govern- 
ment ** under constitutional management in the England of to-day, where we have an income 
tax for those who have incomes, and a series of taxes, " direct and indirect," still more heavy 
for those who have no ^ incomes,** but still must try to eat, be clothed, and housed. 

The extenta give a picture in few but expressive and faithful touches of the state ot 
things in Glamorgan about the end of Henry III.*s reign. To the west of Glamoigan, in 
Dyfed, or what in those days went by the name South Wales (Debeubarth, **the part to the 
right," as you looked, in the orthodox fashion of the time, to the east), things were very 
different, and not quite so bad in point of systematic subjection to a foreign yoke, albeit 
quite as bad or even worse in point of real popular suffering, by reason of the contentions 
of the various chieftains. Glamorgan, at least, had the advantage of being in some measure 
settied. We have no adequate proof that west of Glamorgan and Brecknock the principle 
of feudal tenure and service had been established ; but the Nonnan power had nevertheless 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. $01 

made considerable progress since, a century earlier, Giialdus encouraged the work of 
conquest (see p. 494). The I^rds Marchers had not only planted castles as temporary 
posts when making raids or hasty progresses, as facilities for retreating, but had built 
powerful and permanent fortresses, and taken possession of large districts— as at Cydweli, 
Pembroke, Cardigan, and even ancient and royal Dinefawr, Prince Edward, soon to 
become Edward I. and conqueror of Wales, was already bom ; and the coming end was 
foreshadowed in ever-deepening lines in the deprivation of the Welsh princes in succession 
of power to rule in their own name <u primes^ and their reduction to the status of *^ lords " 
only. (See under ^ Carmarthenshire,'* p. 239.) But they had not been forbidden the form 
of rule. They had their armies, and through cunning policy were allowed to maintain their 
contentions. But their movements were at any time liable to be checked, and themselves 
to be called to account by '* the King of London," and one of their chief functions was to 
collect '' tribute " for that king. 

Several earls in succession had been instrumental in bringing Glamorgan into the 
condition indicated above. The Earl Robert last mentioned, son of Henry I., was followed 
by his son William, who is said by Giraldus (//»»., 6) to have possessed by hereditary right, 
besides " the castle of Caerdyf, all the province of Gwladvorgan.** In his time, the arch- 
deacon adds, ''an extraordinary circumstance occurred at Caerdyfl The earl '*had a 
dispute with one of his dependants, Ivor Bach — a man of short stature but of great 
courage," who was ^ owner of a tract of mountainous and woody country, of the whole or 
part of which the earl endeavoured to deprive him. At that time the castle of Caerd]rf was 
surrounded with high walls, guarded by 120 men-at-arms, a numerous body of archers, and 
a strong watch. The city also contained a large number of stipendiary soldiers ; yet in 
defiance of all these precautions, Ivor, in the dead of night, secredy scaled the walls, and 
seizing the count and countess, with their only son, carried them off into the woods, nor 
did he release them until he had recovered everything that had been unjustly taken, and 
received a compensation of additional property.'' The story throws light on the relations 
of conqueror and conquered at the time. 

Through Earl William's daughter, Amida, the lordship of Glamorgan passed to the line 
of De Clare. Four of her sons followed in succession, of whom the last, Gilbert, fell at 
Bannockbum a.ix 1314, when the lordship descended to his three sisters. About this time, 
A.D. X3i5» the natives revolted ; frequent changes had weakened the proprietors; and the 
revolt was not suppressed until some feudal exactions which gave offence were removed. 
The eldest of De Clare's sisters married the rapacious Sir Hugh Despencer, who in her 
right claimed the lordship of Glamorgan. Edward IL made the Despencers his favourites, 
and advanced their views in every possible way; but the county became the scene of 
violence and confusion ; the barons confederated ag^nst the Court, ravaged Despencer's 
manors, and at last, a.d. 132 i, drove him into banishment On the return of the 
Despencers, the younger not only obtained the restoration of his Glamorgan estates, but 
their augmentation by new grants. In the subsequent revolt of the barons, headed by 
Edward's queen and Earl Mortimer, A.a 1327, the king, clinging to the family which was 
dragging him to ruin, rather than consult the interest of his kmgdom, when Bristol was 
captured and the elder Despencer, its governor, brutally executed, embarked in company 

- 2 L 



509 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

with the young Despencer for Ireland, but being driven back to his fate by contrary winds, 
landed on the coast of Glamorgan, and took refuge in Neath Abbey. When discovered in 
this retreat, he was removed to Monmouth, and then to Kenilworth, soon after to be 
deposed ; while Despencer was taken to Hereford, and there hanged and quartered. 

Henry Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, son of Isabella Despencer, left the lordship of 
Glamorgan to his sister and heiress. Ann Beauchamp. Ann Neville, her daughter by the 
king-making Earl of Warwick and Salisbury, was espoused first to Edward, Prmce of Wales, 
killed at Tewkesbury, and secondly married to Richard III., who fell on Bosworth Field, 
A.D. 1485. At this time and since the revolt to join Owen Glyndwr, the condition of the 
people was wretched. The lordship was now bestowed by the Tudor Henry VII. upon his 
uncle, Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke and Duke of Bedford, on whose demise in 1495 ^^ 
reverted to the Crown. The lordship during this interval had rest and prospered. 
Henry VIII. in his twenty-seventh year abolished the jura regalia of the Lords Marchers, 
and constituted Glamorgan a county. Thus ends the separate history of this important 
district The Crown, however, continued after the Act of Union and the obliteration of the 
Marches to exercise extensive rights of property in the county, for it was by Edward VL 
that numerous manors, including that of Newton Nottage, were given to Sir William Herbert* 
afterwards Eari of Pembroke (see Rev. H. H. Knight's Neuron Nottage), 

In the British Museum {HarL Coii.y Nos. 368 and 6103 Plut) are some particulars of 
interest bearing on the history of Glamorgan, written, judging fix>m internal evidence, in the 
time of Mary or Elizabeth. They relate to the geography, conquest, lordships, Middle 
Age government, and later history of the district, agreeing in many points with the informa- 
tion embodied in the preceding pages, and furnishing a few new fects. The power of the 
** lorde of this lordshippe, ever since the wynnynge of the same," is said to embrace ** the 
triall of all accions as well reall as personalle, and plees of the Crowne, and auctoritie to 
pardone all offences, Treason onlie excepted.** The eleven lordships subordinate to 
Cardiff are said like that lordship itself to possess **jura r^aUa used in all thinges saving 
that yf anye 6dsse judgmente given in anye of the Cowrtes ** of the said inferior lordship, 
^ it shoulde be reverssed by a writte of falsse judgmente in the Countie Cowrte of Glamorgan 
and Moigannok as superior Cowrte. . • . Also all matters of amsderue happeninge in 
debate in any of the saide members should be hearde and determined in the Chancerie of 
Glamorgan and Morgannok before the Chancellor thereof.** These terms ''chancerie** and 
''chancellor'* would seem to refer to an arrangement which came into existence under 
Edward III. (See Chancery of Carmarthen^ pp. 245-6.) 

We then are told, " The bodie of the said lordshippe of Glamorgan and Morgannok was 
before the alteracion of the lawes in Walles a countie of itsealfe, wherein the lorde had two 
Castells and three Market Townes, viz., the Casteil and towne of Kenfyge, in the weste parte 
thereof, and Coubridge towne in the middeste, and the towne and Casteil of Cardiff in the 
este part, in the which Casteil of Cardiff the Lorde did moste inhabit, and therein he had 
his Chancerie and an escheker, and a faire Cowrte-house wherein the Countie Cowrte was 
monthlie kept on the Mondaie for all the suters of the shere fee, that is to witte, of the 
bodie of the saide lordshippe itsealfe withoute the saide members.** 

Further.: — ^" In the saide shere, or bodie of the saide Lordshippe, were i3 Castells, and 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES— LORDSHIP OF GOWER. 503 

36 Knygfate fees aad an halfe that helde of the Lordshippe of Gamorgan and Morgannok, 
by knyghte service, beside a great nombre of freeholdars. ... In eyghte of the saide 
membres were 10 Castelle and 4 borough townes.** 

The date of the document b approximately implied where it says that of the eleven 
lordships, ** Mr. Robarte Gamege, Esquier, occupieth one a/ f/iis date, descended unto hjrm 
from the Turbervilles, his auncestors, that is to witte, the Lordshippe of Coetye. [See under 
** Old and Exdnct Families^" Gatttage^ Caity Casile.'] And the heire of John Bassett enjoieth 
an other, that is to witte, the Lordshippe of Talavan by purchasse from Kinge Edwarde 
the VI.** 

^ And the other 9 membres with 12 of the aforesaide knyghte fees, and all the Castells, 
mkett Townes and borough townes, with the demains of the same, and all the landes els 
that were in the saide Lordshippe and p'cell of the saide Lordshippe and membres, the erle 
of Pembroke hathe pim:hassed, so that there remaynethe nate [now to the] seignorie Lord- 
shippe of Glamorgan and Moigannok 2 m^ hands [Queen's Majesty's hands] but the moitye 
onlie of the mannor of Dynnaspoys [Dinas Powys], &&** 
• Thus crown lands in Glamorgan were disposed of to the Herberts (Earl of Pembroke) 
and the Bassets in the reign of Edward VI., and there still remained of such lands, when 
this document was written, a moiety of the manor of Dinas Powys. It is noticeable that 
here the lordship is invariably designated **of Glamorgan and Morgannok/' two names 
commonly understood as synonymous, but evidently at that time not precisely so used. 
'* Moigannok" comprised the hilly parts and some of the eastern district between the Rhymney 
and Usk, which on the division into counties by Henry VIII. went with Monmouth. 



The Lordship of Gower, 

m 

Gower, the ancient Gwyr, which for many ages has been ranked a part of Glamorgan, 
in earlier times belonged to Dyfed. In the division of Wales into cantrefi and comots, 
temp. Llewelyn ap Gruf^dd, Gwyr formed one of the three comots of Cantref Eginawg, in 
Ystrad Tywi (Carmarthenshire), the others being Cydweli and Camwyllion. But before this 
time, and subsequendy to the settlement of the other Norman lords in Moiganwg proper, 
the peninsula had been taken by Henry de Newburgh (Beaumont), who had obtained a 
grant of it from the English king, and conquered it by force of arms. In the Triads^ also, we 
find it laid down that Pmdaran Dyfed comprised ** the men of Dyfed, Gwyr, and Cere« 
digion ; ** but Gwyr, in this relation, must have had wider boundaries than the peninsula of 
Gower. The river Tawe was the western limit of Moiganwg up to the sixteenth century. 

In a MS. collection oi charters^ and other ancient documents made by and now in the 
possessi<Mi of Col. G. G. Francis, F.S.A., at Cae Bailey, Swansea, we find several documents 
bearing upon the lordship of Gower. King John, in a charter afterwards confirmed by the 
first, second, and third Edwards, gave the whole territory of Gower with all rights thereto 
belongmg C' totam ternun Guher, cum omnibus pertinentibus suis in Wallia "} to William de 
Braose (Breos) and his heirs for ever on terms of one knight's service. In 1305, William de 
Breos confirmed to the burgesses of Swansea all the liberties granted by his predecessors. 

In the jsth of Elizabeth, as shown in these MSS., a commission was issued in 



504 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

reference to the lordship of Gower, in which it was declared *' that the said lordshippe is 
a Lordshipp Marcher, and hath had jurisdiction royal \jvra r€galui\ in all poynts, trial for life, 
member, and lands taken awaie by statute onlye excepted ; and the lord thereof is to have 
wrecke de mare^ treasure-trove, deodands, felons' goods, felons' lands, in£uige-thieve [A.- 
Sax., in-fangm'tluof'-iny to take ; thief ^ the right to try a thief taken within a lord's fee], out- 
fange-thieve [the same right to take and try a thief from without], waife, straife, socke, 
sacke and toll, through custom of strangers' goods and graunting of cocketts for the same, 
with killage and anchorage in all his ports and creeks within the said Lordshipp." 

King James L, in his fifth year (a.d. 1608), by letters patent, granted to Edward, Eari 
of Worcester, '^ within his borough, casde, and manor of Swansey, Oystermoutb, and 
Loughor, and also within all that his lordship and lands of Gower and Kilvey, and within 
his manor of Kebhall, and Trivdra, Lannon, Pennard, and West Gower, in the co. of 
Glamorgan, these liberties following, viz. {jtUer aiia)^ diat he, the said earl, his heirs and 
assigns, &c., may have the wrecks of the sea, wharfage, and tolls, within the casdes, manors, 
and lordship, lands and boroughs aforesaid, &a, and that the said earl . • • may have and 
hold within the said castles, &c., all courts baron, courts leet, and have view of Frankpledge, 
and all other things which belong to Frankpledge, and all fairs, markets, tolls, &c." 

At intervals between these changes the lordship was held by several others. A later 
De Braose (Breos) sold a part of it to different purchasers, and afterwards Ruthlessly 
transferred the whole to the younger Despencer. It fell, after the disgrace and extinction 
of the Despencers, to the lot of Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and afterwards to the 
Somersets, Dukes of Beaufort, who are still lords paramount of the district, a good part of 
which, however, is possessed by C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., M.P., of Penrice and Maigam ; 
T. Penrice, Esq., of Kilvrough, and others. 

In the year 958, according to the AttnaUs Cambria^ Owain, of South Wales, son of 
Howel Dda, devastated Gower (Goher), then perhaps under the princes of Moiganwg ; in 
970, Einion, son of Owain, paid it a similar visit, and repeated it the year following 
("iterum vastavit Goher"). The Annaks also tell us that (about a.ix 991) Owain, son 
(grandson ?) of Einion, with a force under command of the English Edelisus, assisted by 
the South Britons (" dextialium Britonum "), ravaged the territory of Maredydd (who we 
believe was his brother), namely, " Demetia and Ceredigion, Guhir and CydwelL" Who 
the South Britons were, after deducting all these invaded districts, it is hard to conceive, 
unless they were simply the men of Ystrad Towy. The same chronicle has it that 
A.D. 1095, or thereabouts, — for the year is not specified with sufficient distinctness, the 
French (Normans) ravaged Gohir^ Cydweli, and Ystrad Towy; and so complete was 
the destruction, that Dyfed, Ceredigion, and Ystrad Towy are said to have continued 
desert places. 

Of course the great Rhys ap Gruflfydd, of Dinefawr, " the Lord Rhys," the most for- 
midable foe of the Norman in the South, was not a likely man to leave Gower untouched ; 
accordingly, we find in the Annales under the year 1189 this record: — "Rhys, son ot 
Gruffydd, carried on a war in South Wales, gave Rh6s and Pembroke to the flames, 
plundered Gauhir^ destroyed the castle of Camwillion, and took other castles in Dyfed." 
Nor was Gower forgotten by Llewelyn the Great (the Normans' plague in North Wales) when. 



THE FLEMISH SETTLERS IN GOWER. 505 

in 1 3 16, he made his victorious progress through the South. Swansea Castle was then the 
chief fortress in the district The Annales record the prince's visit thus : — " Llewelyn, prince 
of North Wales, moved a great army into Gowes, and on the first attack took the castle of 
Swansea ; thence, along with his confederate generals, Maelgwyn, Rhys the Less, the sons 
of Grufiydd, and others, he went to Rhds." Gower had also the honour of a visit from 
Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, the last and greatest prince of Wales, in 1257 {Anna/. Camb.). 
" With a mighty army [" grandi exercitu "] he came to Cydweli, Camwillion, and Gohir^ 
burnt the English portion of these territories, and Abertawy ; but all the Welsh of the 
same regions he made his subjects, and before Easter returned with rejoicing to his own 
country." 



The Flemish Settlers in Gower, 

The distinction noted above as made by Llewelyn between the Anglica and Wallenses of 
these parts, giving the property of the former to the flames, and taking the latter under his 
own government, reminds us of the two nationalities which now inhabited Gower, often 
indicated in old records by such terms as '* Gower Anglicana,** *' Gower Wallicana," and for 
the most part separated geographically by the ridge of Crfn Bryn — the English occupying 
the parts towards the sea. The AngUci — with whom he dealt so summarily — were in all 
probability a mixture of Normans and Flemings. A Norman element had been introduced, 
partly, as a matter of course, under the Lord Marcher Henzy de Newburgh when he con- 
quered the peninsula, and amplified under the De Breoses. ■ The Flemish element, about 
the introduction of which there is some degree of obscurity, is generally held to have been 
settled in the reign of Henry L contemporaneously with the settlement of their countT3rmen 
in Pembrokeshire, but definite statement respecting a settlement in Gower is much wanted, 
and the facts respecting Pembrokeshire are too often made to apply to Gower. William of 
Mahnesbury makes no mention of the latter settlement, nor does Giraldus Cambrensis (see 
Flemings^ '* Pembrokeshire **). 

We are inclined to believe that the ^ English" colony in Gower was an amalgam of 
these two Continental elements, with others of the English race proper, who along with 
the Normans had come firom England. The mere £su:t of their being all aliens would give 
them a basis of union and a sense of sympathy, while the English tongue, which the 
Normans were acquiring for convenience of intercourse with their English companions in 
anns, would be adopted as their general speech ; and it may well be conceived that under 
the circumstances that speech would assume the hybrid character which that of the 
Gowerians has always exhibited. The old British race, made inferior but not dislodged, 
would view all the foreign interlopers with indiscriminate jealousy and hatred, and from 
*' French" would soon learn, by reason of their language, to call them " English." The two 
peoples for many ages kept distinct and shy of each other, in the earlier stage of 
their acquaintance maintained a hostile feeling, and came to occasional sanguinary conflict 
In the Annales Cambria^ under date a.ix 1258, the year after Prince Llewel3m's visit just 
mentioned, an attack was made upon the " Anglici," when '* two hundred, less six men, and 
six women were massacred." 



5o6 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

We are often told that the langiM^ now spoken by the peasantry of Gower, like 
that of the ** Englishry ** of Pembrokeshire, is marked by strong peculiarities, and it is 
somewhat strange that no effort has as yet been made to collect and explain them. The 
impression is prevalent among the '* Welshery,** that in point of religious culture the 
English-speaking Gowerians are sadly deficient ; but it is on all hands admitted that they 
are industrious, cleanly, and orderly, and not behind in intellectual faculty. The mental 
soil is good if only tilled. 



Nrie on the Name " Gower^ 

m 

We have seen no rational attempt at settling the etymology of this name. That the 
word is of British origin, and has usually and from early times appeared in the fonn Gwyr^ 
is about all that is said of it We believe it to have been first used as a term descriptive of 
the country as a narrow and long tract, and that the ancient British pronunciation made it 
to be two syllables, Go-hir — ^far, outstretching, long, veiy long,— at last softened into Gwyr. 
This etymology is confirmed, and was indeed suggested by the old Latin representative of 
the word as seen, amongst others, in the quotations given above firom the Annales Cambria 
— one of our earliest and most reliable chronicles, — " Goher,** " Gohir,'* " Goer,* — ^forms 
which could only arise as imitations of an original vocable of two elements. 



Section IV.— ANTIQUITIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

As the preceding sections of physical description and history have ended with Gower, 
our notices of the antiquarian remains of the county may as well commence there. It is a 
region as much marked by the hoary and venerable, the primitive and unchanged, as any 
in much-disturbed Glamorganshire. In the costume of the inhabitants there may still be 
here and there observed a Waif floating down firom the olden time ; a persistent long-lived 
Flemish chimney marks some of the rural dwellings; and a large proportion of the parish 
churches claim paternity fi'om Flemish or Norman masons. But the antiquarian fiune of 
Gower rests mainly upon its pre-historic remains, and its numerous military fortresses. 

The most impressive monument of a remote antiquity in Gower^we might almost say 
in all Britain (always excepting that at Henblas, Anglesey, see p. 15)— is that mysterious 
solitary structure at the end of Cefn Bryn ridge, known as Arthur's Stone. Before a 
stone was laid of any of the ivy-covered ruined castles now looked upon as memorials of 
a hoar antiquity, when the first Norman rode up to Cefn y Bryn to view the goodliness of the 
land, this strange structure looked as hoary and sphinx-like in its mystery as it does to-day, 
and equally defied the knowledge and conjectures of men to explain its origin or its reason. 
Perched on the breezy height in sight of the swelling sea, as indeed most of its amfrhts 
are foimd, there it has stood — ^it is useless to conjecture how many ages,-*the memorial of a 
people rude as masons, but bold and aspiring as thinkers, and of noble ideas associated 
with the dead and with the interminable fiiture. *< Arthur's Stone" by its very form confutes 



ANTIQUITIES OP GLAMORGANSHIRE-ARTHUR'S STONE. JOT 

the theory that it was ever intended to be an " altar " for the immolation of human victims ; 
and confinns the conclusions which recent careful researches into the cromlechs of Brittany 
and Wales have authorized, that they were burial-places of the great and venerated. 



Aethdb's Stoni, in Gowek. 

No evidence has as yet been discovered, even by die minute investigations (rf Mr. Lukis 
in the Channel Islands and Brittany, which fixes widi certainty the age or people which 
gave origin to the cromletA tomb ; but it is more probable than not that it is an expression of 
the Celtic ideal Nor is there any evidence that the people who built these tombs all over 
Britain and the Continent were not the Cymry. Nor can any one say that they were not 
the Cymiy in times not long anterior to the Christian era. 

"Arthur's Stone," as it now exists, is an unshapely mass of the conglomerate of the Old 
Red of the locality, about fourteen feet long, seven feet in depth, and six feet six inches in its 
greatest breadth, standing over some seven or e^[ht uprights, four of which Ckoly actually 
bear the load. Its weight is calculated at about twenty-five tons. The great stone is now, 
however, much reduced &om its original dimensions ; for on the ground on its western side 
lies a ponderous fragment, three feet thick and thirty feet in ciicumferoice, which has fallen 
off from the smooth perpendicular side visible in the engraving. The whole mass before the 
fracture must have weighed from thirty to thiity-five tons. 

Magnificent as is this venerable tomb in dimensions and conception, it only forms the 
small remains of a fiir mightier work. Not only was the whole at one time, in all pro- 
bability, buried under an artificial mound, either of stones or of earth, but there are still 
dear indications that Arthur's Stone was only the central or principal of an accumuladon of 
monuments once existing on the same ridge. Several tumuii are still remaining. A great 
camt, seventy yards in circumference, stands to the west, and another to the north-west. 
The whole range of Cefn Biyn seems to have been the site of a pre-historic cemetery, on a 



5oS GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

smaller scale corresponding with the monumental congregation seven miles long at Camac^ 
in Bnttanf. 

The bane cava of Gower belong to a class of antiquities which ezdte much attention 
among pre-historic inquirers in our day, principally from their bearing upon the question of 
the antiquity of man. Ludicrous blunders, made by men hasty of fiune, have alternated 
with some interesting scientific findings. Not a bone of mastodon or Elephas prim^enius is 
found, but by a strong effort of a strong imagination, or a fortunate move of the spade, a 
human bone is found near it The rhinoceros and cave bear, if we believe some explorers, 
had man as their contemporary in Britain, for flint flakes and arrow-heads have been found 
in the same beds of gravel with their bones. Then man began life as a cannibal, for we 
often find his own bones split— of course not by hyena or lion, but by man ; and by man 
to get at the marrow. But in spite of the credulities and hasty generalizations of some so- 
called men of " science," die exploration of caves has not been without substantial and 
reliable result Those of Paviland, Bacon Hole, and others in Gower, have been found to 
abound in bones of a primitive age, which throw great light upon the climate and £uma of 
this country idien the animals lived. Among the chief explorers have been Dr. Buckland, 
Mr. Moggridge, F.G.S., J. Gwyn Jef&eys, Esq., F.R.S., CoL G. G. Frands, F.S.A., and 
L. W. Dillwyn, Esq., M.P. ; and the result of their investigations is in great part found in the 
palaeontological collection in the Royal Institution Museum of Swansea. CoL Francis has 
- also recently exhibited a part of his own private collection before some of the London 
societies. The caves are in the face of the limestone cliffs, near Rhosilly Bay, above high- 
water mark, and accessible only at low water. Mr. Moggridge, after stating that the cave 
(Bacon Hole) was originally formed by the action of the sea on the loose detritus of a &ult 
in the limestone cliff, and that a subsequent elevation of the land brought the caves out of 
reach of the waves, makes these observations : — 

'* From this period the bodies of animals inhabiting the adjacent country have from time 
to time been left in the cave. Some of the lowest mammoths possibly drifted in by water, 
the higher remains, for the most part, carried in by camivora ; but the unbroken state of 
the bones, and the absence of any quantity of cave earth, strongly infer that the cave has 
seldom been used as the constant retreat of the latter for the purpose of consuming their 
prey. It is more probable that the open and exposed state of Bacon Hole, well-mouthed 
at its entrance, and consequendy freely admitting light, would not be inhabited by 
camivora ; whereas it was from the same reason more approachable to the larger animals, 
whose remains were preserved in the lower parts of the cave. Of these the mammoths have 
been the first deposited. The three jaws of the rhinoceros were found below the second 
stalagmite, and the remains of bear, bos, and deer throughout the whole deposit After 
the formation of the second stalagmite, it would appear that a large portion of the over- 
hanging limestone rock had fallen in. 

^ The period at which the upper bed of stalagmite ceased to form was, at any rate, 
before the extinction of red deer and roebuck in this part of the country, as their remains 
are found in the black mud above the upper stalagmite. The remains of wolves are so 
scarce at Bacon Hole, that finding some below and some above does not finally conclude 
that the upper stalagmite was not formed even before their extinction in South Wales. 
The mass of rock above the cave is not of great thickness ; and although water still continues 



ANTIQUITIES— BONE CAVES ; PENRICE CASTLE. 509 

to percolate freely, the limestone has long since exhausted its power of yielding carbonate 
of lime, and the formation of stalagmite had consequently ceased prior to the deposit of the 
bones found in the black mud. 

*' All the known Gower bone caves are about the same height above the sea, and were 
therefore, in all probability, raised and made accessible to the mammalia inhabiting the 
adjacent dry land at the same period of time ; but on observing the fossils, saved from the 
neighbouring caves of Spritsail and Paviland, I have noticed that in the former the teeth of 
hyenas and horses are in conjunction most abundant, in the latter the teeth of wolves and 
deer ; whilst in Bacon Hole I am not aware of one single specimen of horse having been 
found beneath the upper stalagmite. . . • But the cave of Bacon Hole has evidently 
been so seldom used as a constant retreat by camivora, in comparison with other caves, 
that the absence of horse by no means proves that that race did not inhabit the adjacent 
lands during the period of these deposits. No remains of man are found below the upper 
stalagmite. In the mud above it were pieces of ancient British pottery. 

^ In conclusion, I may remark, that from the thickness, and consequendy unbroken 
state of the upper stalagmite at Bacon Hole, a far more perfect separation of the ancient 
from the recent bones has been maintained than in any other of the Gower caves ; and had 
any remains of man been found beneath the lower stalagmite, they would have afforded 
clear proof of the co-existence of the human race with the mammoth in this country. 

** On the contrary, the absence of any human remains beneath even the upper stalagmite, 
in a cave so large and accessible as Bacon Hole must have been, b a strong proof that the 
existence of man in this country was subsequent to the formation and covering up of this 
cave deposit" The era of that deposit is quite a matter of conjecture, but cannot be 
extremely remote. 

The succession of layers of deposit in Bacon Hole cave was as follows : — ^The explorers 
first arrived at a bed of alluvial earth, containing recent shells, such as are now on the 
neighbouring beach, bones of the ox, red deer, roebuck, fox. Then came a layer of 
stalagmite. Next they encountered a bed of hard brecda, in which were bones of the bear, 
ox, and deer. The next layer was stalagmite, and below it more breccia with cave earth, in 
which were bones of nuunmoth, rhinoceros, hyena, wolf, bear, ox, and deer ; but the lowest 
of all were those of the mammoth. 

The most extensive military ruin in Gower is Penrice CasUe^ occupying a moderate 
elevation fiunng Oxwich Bay. It is the property of C. R. M Talbot, £sq., M.P., whose 
modem mansion, a plain structure of the same name, stands close by, under shelter of the 
grand old ivy-covered walls. 

From some unknown reason thb great fortress has received little notice from topographers, 
or even writers of guide-books. One of the latter (Black's), evidently in complete ignorance 
of the place, simply refers to it as an ** ancient fortress, of which there are some slight 
remains'* ! The ruin has been inspected and, for the first time, photographed for this work, 
but fipom the nature of the ground no phoU^iraph can be taken which would give an adequate 
idea of the vastness and grandeur of the ruin. 

Of the origin of Penrice Castle we have no certain history ; but it is generally held to 
have been first established as a post of strength by the British inhabitants, and firom the 



5IO GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

position must be supposed to have beeo intended to guard the little bay of Oxwich, where 
sea marauders were lilcely to land. The name Ox-wich is doubtless a memorial of the 
Danes, who in the age of Alfred in England, and of Rhodri the Great and Howel Dda in 
Wales, were an incessant plague upon our coasts. They have left fragments of their language 
in many creeks of South Wales, from Goodwki at Fishguard, GeUisanat, Wathmu'.^ Mussel- 
wiak, in Pembrokeshire, to this OxwieM. But on the Norman descent upon Cower the post 
was talceo and fortified by those settlers. The great Eari <rf Warwick, whose daughter Ann 



PaitalCE Castls, Gowkk (from afJMa. fy GiUhitr). 

became tlie consort of Richard III., is credited by some as the builder ot the actual structnre 
now in ruins. The possessors were at that time called " Lords of Oxwich," — the name 
Pmrict not having yet become associated with the manor. 

Pen-Rhys, the ancient Welsh name, was possibly the designation of the rock or eminence 
upon which the castle is planted, and adopted by the PenrAys family, who lived here before 
the Maosels of Maigam, through marriage with the heiress, entered into possession. We 
lead in the pedigrees that " Sir Hugh Mansel, Kl, son of Richard Mansel by Lucy, daughter 
of Philip Scurlage, Lord of Scurlage Castle (the ruins of which are still traceable near LIan> 
ddewi in Gower), temp. Richard IL, married Isabel, daughter of Sir John Penrea, Lord ot 
Oxwich and other large possessions in Glamorgansliire," and that " this Sir Hugh was the 
greatgrandfather of Anthony Mansel, Esq., who was slain in the wars between the houses 
of York and Lancaster." (See Jenkin's MS., 4to.) The property continued in the Manseb 
till 1750, when, by de&ult of heirs male, it passed to the second son of Mary, youngest 
daughter of Sir Thomas, by her husband, J. Ivoiy Talbot, Esq., of Lacock Abbey, Wilt- 
shire, of whom the present proprietor is descendant. (See Talbot of Margam.) The time 
when the castle of Penrhys ceased to be inhabited and was dismantled is not, however, 
known to the writer, nor is there any means at hand of tracing the connection between the 
old Penrhys family and the earlier Norman proprietors. 



ANTIQUITIES— OXWICH AND PENNARD CASTLES. 511 

Standing on my &vourable point near Oxwicb village, the view of Penrice Caatle and its 
richly wooded park, occupjring the mid-scene between you and the heathy heights of Cefn 
Biyn, is extremely fine. The luxuriant and extensive woodland, bi^ken sufficiently to affoid 
the eye here and there the variety of verdant meads, and the gravelled walks and teimces 
of the modem mansion, receives a picturesque and perfect finish in the grey and broken 
ramparts of the great castle, which mount up defiant of time and elements in the midst. It 
must be confessed, however, that the venerable pile is much neglected ; no care is taken to 
Reserve it from dilapidation, and if it were not for the friendly ivy^^ver partial to the old 
and neglected — its disappearance would hasten apace. 

OxwkA Guile, close by, can only by a latitude of expression be termed a military ruin. 
Topognphers and tourists' books have again been as widely at fault respecting this as 
respecting Penrice. Malkin says that "a fine Gothic window is nearly all that remains of 
Oxwich Casde." So far fi^m this being the case, the ruin is one of considerable dimen- 
sions, the principal part being a lofty tower, six stories high, something in the form of a 
keep, but pierced with arched windows irregularly placed, and so numerous as to suit a 
rendential and comparatively recent rather than a warlike fortress of the Middle Ages. The 
place was in &ct built by Sir Rice Mansel, Sheriff of Gtamo^aoahire (accwding to 
Jenkin's HS.) in r54i, and purchaser of Ma^am Abbey on the suppression, temp, 
Heniy VIII. (see Margam Abbey). Perhaps it was built as a summer-house or manne 
residence, and still made strong to meet the uncertainties of the times. 



PiNHAKD CASTLS. 



Ptimard Castle and Church occupy the side of a wild hiU, at once commanding the set 
and a little creek or pill leading up into the Gower country between Penmaen and Kilvtough. 
This stronghold guards the eastern side of Oxwich Bay as Oxwich Castle guards the 
westen, and has the appearance of having been a great castellated residence built in wariike 



5i> GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

times, suid perhaps of the British, or possibly Nonnan age, rather than a regular Nonnan 
fortress of the iDore formidable class. It was a strong place, but devoid of architectural 
splendour. Its history is unknown — a dn:umstance which, coupled with the bold and 
romantic spot it occupies, has occasioned the creation of a variety of tales and legends 
which in the popular imagination clothe it with peculiar interest The simple swain believes 
that the castle had a supernatural origin, that its monster bulk was planted there in one 
night, and that it has ever continued the abode of dves and fairies. 

Oystermeuih Cattle, well known to all visitors to the Mumbles, is an extensive and 
beautiful ruin, better preserved than many of the great ancient monuments of these parts. 
It is the property of the Duke of Beaufort, who has sanctioned the expenditure (tf some 
money on its clearing and protection, under the pious care of CoL Francis. The founding 
of this fortress is ascribed by some to Henry Beaumont, Earl of Warwick, who subdued 
Gower, and by others to Richard de Granville, one of Fitzhamon's knights, and founder of 
Neath Abbey. (See Neath Abbey.) The plan of the castle is polygonal, without bastions or 
projecting towers, except at the great south-west entrance. The chapel at the north-east 
end, which has often been described as the "keep," is of fine architecture, the features of 
which have been fUitber brou^t to light by the recent clearance of accumulated d^is; the 
great hall, and many of the chief apartments, are rect^isable, and several Gothic windows, 
with mullions and some elegant tracery remainmg, long walled up and entirely concealed by 
plaster and tangled ivy, have been recovered to view. 



Swansea Castu. 



Sieaiuea Cattle a said to have been erected about a.d. i i >o by that conqueror of Gower- 
land. Henry Beaumont, otherwise called Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, the same who obtains 
credit for fbunding Oystermoutfa Castle. Grufiydd ap Rhys had destroyed a castle here 



ANTIQUITIES -LOUGHOR CASTLE; NEATH ABBEY. 513 

some years previously (a d. X113). The greater part of Beaumont's original structure has 
disappeared, either through absolute destruction, or through alteration and conversion at 
different times for other purposes, such as public offices, gaols, market-houses, storehouses, 
&c When Swansea was a smaller town a part of the casde served as town halL One of 
the large apartments, perhaps the fortress chapel, served for a long dme as a Roman Catholic 
chapeL Tlie remains of the castle still surviving, although comparatively small, include some 
beautiful features of the original But it is subject to doubt whether the interesting tower or 
keep, the best part of the ruins, shown in our engraving, is not an addition made by Bishop 
Gower of St. David's in the fourteenth century. Leland, in his ColUctanea^ favours this 
opinion ; and the idea is further rendered probable by the fact that the beautiful line of arches 
near the top, enclosing an open parapet running round the building, are exact copies of those 
found in the remains of the Bishop's Palace, St. David's, and Lamphey Palace, near 
Pembroke, both known to have been built by Bishop Gower. 

Swansea had also ^ religious houses,** one of which, the Hospital of St. David, has left 
some faint traces of its existence. 

Laugher Castle^ like the village of which it forms a part and was once the chief 
constituent, is a desolate-looking object The position of this place on the fenry of the 
Loughor river (JLlwchwr) naturally gave it importance from the earliest times ; the Romans 
added to this importance by establishing here one of their stations on the Via Julia^ giving 
it the name Leucarum, in imitation of the early British Llwckwr — a purely Celtic tenn. The 
post-Roman Britons naturally took advantage of works left by the Romans ; and thus the 
Norman lord who first took this district — probably the same Henry de Beaumont already 
mentioned in connection with other castles in Gower^-fixed upon the site for a Norman 
castie. The river Llwchwr washes its base ; the mound on which it stands indicates a place 
of strength and considerable extent ; but for many ages the ponderous ivy-covered fragment 
which remains has only been a habitation for the sparrow and the owl ; the country around, 
cold and unattractive, is yet full of industry in coal and iron, and the whisde of the railway, 
with its firequent and rapid trains, tells the casde keep, its dungeons, mounds, and ditches, that 
their day, and the habits and modes of their day, are for ever past and gone. 

Scuriage Castle^ in Gower, the fortified home of the family of that name (see Scurlage of 
Scurlage CastU)^ was probably nothing more than a mansion with strong walls and parq)ets, 
and a surrounding ditch, suited to times when every owner of a tract of country had to defend 
his own by force. Some traces of the place, not &r from Llanddewi, still continue. 

Neath Abbey ^ on the marsh near Neath, is a great ruin which cannot be witnessed without 
a mixed sense of sadness and admiration. It tells of days when great wealth, gotten by 
rapine, was freely given to the holiest of purposes, (as then understood), when a priesthood 
only less potent than the spirit of martial adventure and devouring cupidity of conquest 
forced the mailed warrior, with his hands red with blood, and grasping the treasure of the 
murdered, to kneel meekly at the altar and attempt atonement for his deeds by building a 
church or endowing a priory. Thus it was that Richard de Granvil, otherwise Granville, one 
of Fitzhamon's knights, and it is said his brother, to quiet his conscience after a painful 
dream, resolved to build on the lands he had taken from the Welsh a magnificent abbey (see 
Uanover pedigree). Bishop Tanner says that Richard and his wife Constance (but about 



CLAREORCANSHIRE. 



her name there is a. doubt) gave their chapel in the caatle of Neath, the tithes belonging to 
il, a large tract of waste lands and other possessions, in the time of Heniy I., to the abbot 
and convent of Savigny, near Lyons, that they might build an abbey here in Wales. 



Neath Abbiy. 

The date a.d. t i 39 ia assigned for the completion of Neath Abbey. The Brut tells us that 
the architect employed was one Lalys, " a man veryakilfiil in the art of building," whom De 
Granvil had brought with him on his return from the Holy Land. He also is said to hare 
built Margam Abbey. The monks here stationed were first of the Franciscan, but weie soon 
changed into those of the Cistercian order, and came at first from Savigny. Leland, having 
Tinted the place about 1540, calls it " an abbey of white monks," and ** the &irest abbey in 
all Wales." Edward H. sought here a sanctuary, but was taken and afterwards deposed. 

Lewis Morgamog, the bard, in an encomium on Lleision, the Abbot of Neath area 1535, 
uses the most glowing epithets in describing the structure as it then stood : — 

" Like the tky of the Vole of Ebron is the corering of this inoiiaiteTy : wei^ty it the lead that it>o6 thii 
abode— the dark bine canopy of the dwellings of the so^ly. Every colour i* seen in the crystal windowa ; 
every &ur and high-wronghl fann beams forth through them lilte the rays of the sun-poital* of radiant 
guardians! . • . Hereareseenthegmceralrobesofprelatesiheiemaj be found goldandjewels, thetriboCeof 
the wealthy. Here abo is the gold-adomed chair, the nave, the eilded tabenude work, the pimucle*, Htmhy 
of the Three Fountaiiu. Distinctly may be seen on the glnn imperial arms ; a ceiling resplendent with kingly 
bearings, *xA on thesorrounding bonier the shield* of princes, the arms of Neath, ofji hundred a|[ei ; there is the 
white freestone, and the arms of the best men under the crown of Harry ; and the church walls of gref marble. 
The nut and lofty roof is like the sparkling heavens on high ; abore ore seen archangels' forms ; the floor 
beneath is for the people of the earth, all the tribe of Babel— for them it is wrought of vari^ated stone. The 
bcUa, the benedictioni, and the peaceful soni^s of praise, proclaim the frequent thanksgivings of the white 



ANTIQUITIES— NEATH ABBEV. SiJ 

The cbaiters, with details of the liberties and privileges of the abbey, are collected and 
glulfully edited by CoL G. G. Francis, F.S.A., in his valuable work on Neath and its 
abbey, privately printed, 1S45. The conventual buildings as well as the church must have 
received large additions since the first erection, but much of the history of such change* has 
been lost through want of record. Their style is of the Tudor period. 



NUTH ABBBY— THK CRTPT. 

After the dissolution of the monasteries this abbey, with its lands (yearly value, according 
to Dugdale, £t.sa 7s. 74), was given to Sir Richard Williams, an ancestor of Cromwell, 
and subsequently came into the bands of the Hoby family (see ffbiy of Neath Ahbef). 
When Henry, first Duke of Beaufort, made his lordly pngrest through Wales, A.D. 1684 
{recently printed, but privately), he halted at Neath Abbey, and has left some interesting 
notes on the condition of the building at the time. " This at present is iamous for one of 
the fairest roomes in Wales. In the old painted glass and in the stone worke are seen the 
coats in the margin [figured on the margin of the book]. The first is of Gwrgan ap Ithell, 
King of Glamorgan, lineally descended from Meyric ap Tewdry, King of GUraorgan, that 
erected the cathedrall church of Llandaff, and appointed the same a seat for the bishop 
thereol^ and gave liveing for maintenance. The next coat impaled is of Yngharad, .daughter 
of Ednoweo, Lord of Ardudwy." How'* Yngharad " (Angharad) came into these parts is 
n(rt known. 

At the time when the Duke of Beaufort was at Neath Abbey, the Hoby femily, who had 
been in possession only two or three generations in the male line, may still have been in 
residence there in the female branches or their descendants ; but the last male repre- 
sentative here was Philip Hoby, Esq., who died 1678, and was buried in the Herbert Chapel 
of St Mai/s Church, Swansea. 

I&ai& Castk had its origin at the same period with the abbey. Its builder was the 
same Richard de Gianvil, or Granville, who had "come over with the Conqueror," 
accompanied Fitzhamon into Wales, and after the conquest of Glamorgan bad assigned him 



$ti GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

a lofdship at NMd, whCTcapon he built hit casde. Whf he diose ntch a flat srtttadon — 
the castle u in the midit of the tomt of Neath — instead of one of the beautifiil slopes or 
pKtoresqae eminences flanking the delightAil nBtf it is imponible to siy. Hti native 



Nkath Castlk— Poktcdlus Gats akd Towns. 

Normandy was more unduladng than hilly, and he may have had associations with home in 
his mind when fixing the sites of castle and monasteiy. A &itish stronghold belonging to 
lestyn ap Gwigant is said to have been on the spot ; a Roman structure may have existed 
anterior to that, and the gaiius led may have forbidden its own removaL It must, howevo-, 
be remembered that the Normau soldier had little reverence for "use and wont," but 
implicit faith in ust by itselC The position near the centre and mouth of the vale would 
guard the splendid demesne, which stretched inland, against marauders from the sea, and 
Irom south and west. No beauty of situation, not even strength of position, could rival a 
cooBideration of this kind in the calculation of advantages. Here Richard built his castle 
early in the twelfth century, and here his successors in the lordship for some, generations 
dwelt, but he himself is said to have returned to his Continental possessions, which were 
largely augmented at the decease of his relative, Robert Fitihamon, Lord of Glamorgan. 

Granville appears to have been a man of large ideas and large performances. His 
abbey and priory of Neath were conceived and completed magnificently ; and although the 
history of his castle is not one of splendour, or its remains indicative of large original 
proportions, his household and its appointments seem to have been on a distinguished' 
scale, for the bard Lewu Gfyit Cothi {temp. Henry VIL), in an ode to " Rhisiart Twrbil 
(TurberviUe) o Landudwg," celebrates the graodeur of his hero's state by decUiing {Workt, 



(Fram fUe Beaufirt Pntsrrst. 16S4.) 



Makaau Abbey, as it was in 16S4. 



Man 3 EM, IMPAU14C SoMEtSET. 



Tomb op Sia Rice Massku, Kt., -.k-Masgam (./. 1589), a\i> Dame Cecil iiis Wipe. 



ANTIQUITIES— MARGAH ABBEY. Jt7 

" C»or wen jr buwn . . . 
Y *j gser unvaint ■ Uyt Greinvil " 
(To Grenville'i palace ii the baron'* &ir rortresi equal). 

Margam Abbey, the next antiquarian monument of importance as we move eastward, has 
a fame noted as that of Nddd, albeit the sight of its desolation is not so impressive. It has 
the advantage of perishii^ amid scenes of unsurpassed quiet, the songs of birds, and the 
shelter of mighty forest trees ; while the ruins of Neath Abbey and Castle are made to 
lie in deeper gloom by the grime and smoke, the stifling breath of fiimaccs, the din and 
turmoil on all sides surrounding them. The abbey of Maigam stands in the extensive park 
of the demesne of Margam, the seat of C R. Mansel Talbot, Esq., M.P., and formerly ot 
his ancestors, the Mansels of Margam, Penrice, &c. ; and was unquestionably the nucleus 
around which this great historic manor and its fame and influence grew. The date of its 
foundation, if we take Dugdale as our guide, was a.d. 1147. Its founder was Robert, 



Hakcam Abbiy— ths Cuaptulhousb. 

Eail <^ Gloucester, natmol son of Heniy I^ who married the daughter of Fitzhamon, 
the Noiman Lord of Glamorgan, and succeeded him in the lordship. Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, who visited the place in 11 88, says, "We pursued our journey by the little celt 
of Ewennith [the abbey of Eweony n<A having been teen, perhaps] to the noble Cister* 
dan monastery of Morgan. This monastery, under the direction of Conan, a learned 
and prudent abbot, was at this time more celebrated for its charitable deeds than any other 
of that order in Wales. On this account it is an undoubted fact that, as a reword for that 
abundant chari^ which the monastery had always in times of need exercised towards 
strangers and poor persons in a season of approaching &mine, their com and provisions were- 
perceptibly, by divine assistance, increased, like the widow's cruse of oil by the means of 



fit GI.AMORGANSHIRE. 

the prophet Elijah." Then come a series of stnnge prodigies, the reladon of which, in 
Ginldos's estimadon, eohanced the glory of this celelvated abbey and its monks. 

After the diasolutioa of the monasteries by Heniy VIII., the abbey of Margam, with 
its wide domain, whose revenues were valued at ;f i8i 78. 4d, was sold to Sir Rice Mansel, 
of Oxwich Castle, who fitted up part of the building, with extensive additions, ss a bmily 
residence of no mean splendour, and this for several generations continued to be the chief 
abode of the Mansels. In the Beaufort Ihxgress the following account is given of this 
magnificent abbey residence, as it stood in 1684 : — 

** Margam or Margan was anciently an abbey, one of whose abbots, John Delaware, 
became the thirty-ninth Bishop of Landaff, and died June 30, 1156, The aims in the 
ma^n [of the Book] of Gwrgan ap Ithell, King of Glamorgan, viz.. Mart, three 
chevronels, Luna, are often repeated in the old stone worke of Mai^ham." 

" Margham is a very noble seat, first purchased by Sir Rice Mansell, Knight, who, with 
his lady, ly buried in Little St Bartholomew's, neer Sraithfield, London. It appears, from 
some noble mines about it, to have been formed out of an ancient religious house ; the 
modem additions areveiy stately, of which the subtes are of freestone, ... the roof 
being ceQed, and adorned with coinishes and &etwort of goodly artifice." 

" The ancient gate-house, before the court of the house, remaines unaltered, because of 
an old piophesie among the bards thus concerning it and this Samily, namely, ' That as 
soon as this porch or gatC'house shall be pulled down this family shall decline and go to 
decay; i^ quart." 

** Its sdtnation is among eacellent springs, furnishing all y, offices thereof with excellent 
water, att the foot of prodigious hi^ billes of woods, shelter for the deeie, about a mile 



Harcam Ahky—thx CavPT. 

distant from an arm of the sea, parting this shore and the county of Cornwall in England, 
below which, and washed abnost round with the salt water, is a marsh, whereto the deer, 
the tide being low, resort much by swimming, and thrive to such an extraordinary weight 
and &tness as I never saw or heard the like." 

The Duke of Beaufort, as the Lord President <rf Wales, was welcomed on this stately 



{Fnm tlu Bamfort Pivgrai, 16S4.) 



Tomb of Sir Edward Mansei^ Kt., of Marga», (./ 1585), akii Jask Somerset his AVu 



Arms of Sik Rick Man'skf^ hf Makcam, with 14 Qt'Ai 



TnMB OF Sir I.f.wib Maxsw. Bart., of Maroam. aw KuMiimi ins Wiiv. 



ANTIQUITIES— MARGAM ABBEY. 519 

occasion at Maigam, as indeed everywhere, with the greatest ^Moyalty*' and respect He 

was ** conducted to the summer banqueting-house, built after the Italian, where regular 

simitrie, excellent sculpture, delicate graving, and an infinity of good Dutch and other 

painting, make a lustre not to be imagined. Its pavements are of marbles, black, red, mixt, 

and white, chiefly the product of his own quarries in lands in the county. Here nothing was 

spared that the noble place could afford of diversion ; hence his Grace was enterteined with 

the pastime of seeing a brace of bucks run down by three footmen, which were afterwards 

led into Margham anti-court alive, and there judged fit for the table, before y* huntsman 

gave the &tall stroke with his semiter.** The house was thrown open to all, ** where as 

many as came, eat and drank as their appetites led them." The customs of the seventeenth 

century gave full licence, and we may well imagine the consequence ! 

It is strange how little notice the Duke, or his secretary and reporter, T. Dineley, took 

of the abbey buildings which still in great part survived. One of the objects of the Progress^ 

judging firom the result, was to collect monumental inscriptions^ and several of these, with 

neat cuts of the massive altar*tombs of the Mansels, with effigies in full armour, are given. 

They are described as being ''in a small neat chapell on y* south side of the chancelL'* 

An ^ honorary monument in white marble, carrying a representation of Sir Rice Mansell, 

Knight, dame Cecill, his lady, at length l3ring on cusheons ** (died a.d. 1589, but buried in 

London) ; others '' to Sir Edward Mansell and the Right Hon. dame Jane, his lady, youngest 

daughter of Henry Somerset, Lord Herbert, seconde Earle of Worcester of that name ; Sir 

Lewys Afansell, Kt and Bart," and ^ dilectissima ejus conjuz Elizabetha,** &C, are given. 

There they lay, and there perhaps they still lie, effigies and all, a peaceftd and distinguished 

line— once the lords of many acres, the holders of great entertainments, warriors and 

statesmen : — 

" The knights are diist» 
And their good swonU are ms^ 

souls are with the saint% we tmst" 



The Progress is not unmindful of heraldry. '' The patemall coat of the Mansells is — Argent^ 
a duvron between three maunches or^ sleeves sable. This word maunche is French, and hath 
its derivation from the Latin word mamcoy signifying the sleeve of a garment** 

The male line of the Mansels of Margam became extinct in 1750 ; some years after this, 
about 1780, the house was pulled down, and its contents removed to Penrice Castle. The 
abbey chapterhouse was still nearly perfect in 1774, when Mr. Wyndham visited the place ; 
but the ruins were left uncared for, and went into rapid decay. 

The modem mansion of Margam is a superb structure. (See further Talbot of Afargam.) 
But what of the earlier tombs of Margam Abbey ? of the long succession of abbots and 
of holy monks, whose crosiers and crosses, with their names, once marked many a stone of 
the place, and had been viewed with reverecce by the eyes of many generations? In the 
duke's progress no mention is made of them ! They had given place to a new generation of 
tombs, more splendid and more interesting, which themselves have now become ** relics of 
antiquity." Still, in some obscure comers of chapel or crypt some of them must have lain. 
The lords of Avan, large contributors to the abbey, and buried there, must have had some 
durable memorials. A ftagment of an effigy, in chain mail, supposed to be one of them, 
still exists, but without name or other sign; and two elegantly sculptured stones, one 



520 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

bearing a foliated pastoral staff of the twelfth century with imperfect inscriptions. The 

inscription on one of these is legible : — 

** CoDstans et certns, jacet hie Ryewallis opertiis» 
Abbas Roberto^ cnjus Deus esto miseitus." 

Camden notices a stone with a crosier, a memorial of ** Abbot Henry," as in his time covering 
a drain. The duke commemorates in his progress only the family who entertained him 
The old abbey belonged to a corrupter phase of religion. The reformed church now set up 
— though at the date of the progress, the days of the Rye House Plot, and Charles IL's 
sorry exit from the stage of life, in a tottering state — must at least on the surface be 
respected; and prudence might counsel silence about abbots and monks, even though 
belonging only to the dead past. 

Kenfy town and CastUy both alike mere fragments left on the strand, not far from Margam, 
supply to that splendid demesne the most striking contrast The early records say that 
Kenfig was a princely British residence, retained by Fitzhamon as part of his own acqui- 
sitions in Glamorgan. The town, once large, and still recognised in the formalities of 
county business as a contributory borough, was partly destroyed in the sixteenth century by 
a fearful storm and inundation of the sea, which left the place and adjacent lands covered by 
a wilderness of sand. 

The Ogham stone of Kenfig, on the road-side between Kenfig and Margam, was, if we 
remember rightly, the first monument with true '^ Ogham ^ characters discovered in Wales. 
Since that time six others have been made out (See on other Ogham stones, p. 155.) The 
stone itself was long known, and mentioned by Camden as bearing the inscription 
PUNPEIUS CARANTORIUS, probably in memory of some man, Briton or Roman, of 
Roman or post-Roman times; but the marginal indentations it bears had not been thought 
worthy of attention until made out by Mr. Westwood as characters of the Ogham alphabet. 
This monument is an undressed monolith, standing about 4 ft 6 in. above ground. The 
Ogham does not correspond with the Roman inscription, and Camden is not quite correct 
in his rendering of the latter. (See ArchaoL Cambr,^ i^ 182.) 

Coity Castle^ near Bridgend, marks a spot of historic note more than coeval with the 
Norman subjugation of GlamorgaiL The name, Coed-ty^ ^ wood-house," intimates that at 
the time it received that designation it was surrounded by woodland, as indeed frt>m the 
nature of the country it is easy to believe; but of the time of its first settlement by a British 
lord, or the extent of the demesne, we have no certain information. At the time of the 
Norman invasion the hereditary lord of Coity was Morgan ap Meurig, of the line of 
lestyn ap Gwrgant {pace Mr.. £. A« Freeman, who stoutiy disbelieves pedigrees unless they 
happen to be of Saxon or Norman birth) ; and in the old account by Sir Edward Mansel, 
quoted in all histories of Coity, and upon whose fidelity no doubt has been cast, Morgan's 
daughter and heir is said to have been married to Paganus Turbervill, one of Robert 
Fitzhamon's knights, who thenceforward became lord of the place. The romantic story is 
as follows :— 

^ After eleven of the knights had been endowed with lands for their services. Pain 
Turbervill asked Sir Robert where was his share ; to which Sir Robert answered, ^ Here are 
men, and here are arms ; go, get it where you can.* So Pain Turbervill with the men went 



ANTIQUITIES— COITY CASTLE. 511 

to C(N^) and sect to Morgan, the Welsh lord, to ask if he would yield up the castle ; where- 
upon Morgan brought out his daughter Sara [otherwise called " Sar " and " Assar "] by the 
hand, and passing through the army with his sword in his right hand, came to Pain 
Tuibervill, and told him if he would marry his daughter, and so come like an honest man 
into his castle, that he would yield it to him quickly ; ' and if not,' said he, 'let not the 
blood of any of our men be lost, but let this sword and arm of mine, and those of yours, 
decide who shall call this castle his own.' Upon this. Fain Turbervill drew his sword and 



CoiTY Castle. 

took it by the blade in his left hand, and gave it to Morgan, and with his right hand 
' vmbraced the daughter; and after settling every matter to the liking of both sides, he went 
with her to church and married her, and so came to the lordship by true right of possession, 
and being so counselled by Morgan, kept in his castle two thousand of the best of his Welsh 
soldiers." 



53a GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

The account further states that Turbervill, having thus without aid of Fitzhamon's men 
and by lawful and peaceful process become owner of Coity, was unwilling to acknowledge 
his obligation '* to pay the ftodJe that was due to the chief lord every year to Sir Robert, but . 
chose to pay it to Caradoc ap Iest3m, as the person he owned as chief lord of Glamorgan,"-* 
thus siding visibly with the native race. ^ This caused hot disputes, but Pain, with the help 
of his wife's brother, got the better [see p. 497], till in some years after that it was settled 
that all the lords should hold of the seigniory, which was made up of the whole number of 
lords in junction together.'* 

In the '^ lolo MSS." it is recorded that Pain Turbervill was succeeded at Coity by eleven 
generations of his descendants, ending in the male line with Sir Richard Turbervill, who, 
leaving no legitimate son, settled his property upon his nephew. Sir Laurence Berkrolles, 
son of his sister Catherine and her husband. Sir Roger Berkrolles, Lord of St Athan's. Sir 
Laurence married Matilda, daughter of Sir Thomas Despencer, then of Caerphili Castle. 
These records give her a character and end not out of keeping with those of her kindred, 
for she is said to have '^ poisoned her husband, so that he died," whereupon ''she was 
buried alive, agreeably to the sentence pronounced upon her by the country and the lord. 
Sir Richard Begam, Lord of GUmoigan." 

The demesne of Coity now passed to a member of another of the great houses of 
Glamoigan, also of Norman descent. Sir William Gamage, ''son of Gilbert, the son of Sir 
William Gamage by Assar [Sarah], the fourth daughter of Sir Pain Turbervill, the third " of 
that name. Then comes this curious piece of infoimation from the same MS.: ''And now, 
as the possessions had thrice descended by distaff^ that is, by the right of a daughter, the 
royal lordship of Coetty became alienated, and went as an escheat of Sir Richard Begam, as 
the law required. But although property may, prerogative cannot descend beyond three 
times successively by distaff, hence the king is now lord of the Court of Coetty, and is 
supreme governor of the county halls of justice ; but the Gamages axe the lords of the land, 
and to them appertain the possessions and manorial supremacy of the estates." The line of 
G€Mu^e of Coity terminated in an heiress, Barbara, daughter of John Gamage of Coity 
Castle, who, circa 1584, became wife of Sir Robert Sydney (brother of Sir Philip Sydney), of 
Penshurst, afterwards Earl of Leicester. . (See further Gamage of Coity .Castle.) 

The other side of Bridgend from Coity is Ogmore Castle^ another of those spots in 
Glamorgan made memorable by the Norman settlement It stands at the junction or a^ 
of the Wenny stream with the Ogwr, and was called by the Welsh CasUU Aberogwr. Bf 
some freak of pronunciation, since the days of Leland, the " Ogwr," as he properly calls it, 
has come to be called Ogmore. There must have been here a British settlement and 
estate, if not a stronghold, for the Brut informs us that Fitzhamon gave to William de 
Londres (William de Lwndwn) " the lordship of Aber-cgwr, and the lands thereto belonging." 
William is credited with having strengthened the place, and built the " keep^" still standing, 
and said to be in the early Norman style. But his stay here was not long, for, as noticed 
elsewhere, he pushed his way onward to Carmarthenshire (although some accounts say that 
this was done by his son, Maurice de Londres), where he built Cydweli Castle, possibly 
ambitious of escaping the position of a retainer to the conqueror of Moiganwg, and becoming 
owner of an independent lordship held directly from the king. But he also held lands in 



ANTIQUITIES— OGMORE CASTLE ; EWENNY ABBEY. 523 

England^ as did most of the inferior lords of Glamorgan, — Humfrevilley Fleming, St 
Quentin, and Sully; like them he considered the other side of the Severn Channel as his 
hom^ and there he, like them, was buried. 

At Newton Nifik^ nigh to the harbour of Porthcawl, we find a neighbourhood possessing 
a good deal of antiquarian interest, which has had the advantage of careful illustration from 
an antiquary on the spot, the Rev. H. H. Knight, B.D. (see Account 0/ Newton Nottage^ 
reprinted from '^ Arch. Cambn," 1853). The chief antiquities consist of British circles, barrows, 
and Celtic and Roman remains, a Medusa face, coins, &c., which prove either that the 
VtaJuUa passed that way (an improbable thing judging from the position), or perhaps that 
'*some officer from the cohorts quartered in the Roman camp about Pyle was tempted by 
the sheltered aspect and pleasant sea view to fix his residence here; or some British chief, 
unmolested while he paid taxes to the Roman authorities, resided in this part of the 
extensive tract called Jlr y Brcnhin^ as Mr. Knight conjectures. Some of these 
antiquities were found near Danygraig House. Mr. Knight*s brochure throws a good 
deal of light also upon the old manor lands, estates, and families of this primitive district, 
and is a model of what ought to be attempted in every part of the country. 

At Mareross are the remains of a cromlech^ unless recently destroyed. The **' spirit of 
improvement,** now abroad, is so fatal to pre-historic monuments that nothing respecting 
them is certain except that they are in daily peril of destruction, and therefore there may 
no longer be a cromlech at Mareross, called the Old Church. The ruins of either a castle 
or a monastic building, also pointed out hdre, may be safely considered to be the latter, 
both firom the name Mareross (Mary-cross), and the monastic bam near at hand. (See 
further Van of Mareross^ and Mareross of Mareross^ 



Ewenny Abbey falk behind none of the ecclesiastical and monastic ruins of Glamorgan 
either in the bold and impressive character of its architecture, its age, or the perfect preser- 
vation of many of its parts. Though the monastery is a ruin, the nave of the priory 
church is still used for worship — ^the aisles and north transept having disappeared. The 
style is pure Norman, the plan of the church a Greek cross ; the stone of which it is built 
— ^perhaps the lias of the locality — ^has stood so well that the angularities are still sharp, and 
the joints close and regular. The whole of the buildings, church, convent, offices, gardens, 
&c, were surrounded by lofty walls and powerful tower defences, indicating that the inmates 
lived in times of danger, and in a country unsettled if not unfiiendly. The chief entrance is 
by a magnificent gateway, defended by towers and portcullis, still remaining in tolerably good 
preservation ; and these, with the terrace walls, partly existing, are picturesquely mantled with 
ivy. Under the tower of the south gate there was a deep dungeon, only six feet in diameter, 
the entrance covered by a strong iron grating, through which prisoners were let down. 
The great central tower is exceedingly massive — too much so to be graceful, but is a picture 
of strength and durability, sustained by buttresses of such dimensions as almost to defy 
time. On the whole, this great monument, in the early Norman style, is one of the most 
interesting architectural studies in the country. 

This priory was founded for the Benedictines soon after the conquest of Glamorgan, by 
William de Londres, Lord of Ogmore (Ogwr), and made by Maurice de Londres, in 1x41, 



524 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

a ceQ to St Peter's Abbey at Gloucester. It contains some interesting monuments, among 
which is one to the memory of Maurice de Londres, having an ornamental cross in relief 
extending from one end to the other, with the foUowmg inscription deeply engraved round 
the border : — 

" let gist Morioe de Londres le fondenr, 
Dieu Ini rend son labeur." 

The living of Ewenny is a donation in the patronage of Thomas Picton Turbervill, Esq., 
whose mansion, built about the banning of the present century, on the site of the old 
priory, stands within the fortifications of the monastic edifice. (See further, Turbervill of 
Ewenny Abbey.) 

It would be a mistake to suppose that these religious foundations at Ewenny, Margam, 
and Neath, were any proofs of extraordinary piety on the part of their Norman donors. 
These lords only yielded to the demands put upon them by the times. The Welsh 
princes of the same age were doing the same work north and south. Madoc, Lord of 
Dinas Brin, was building Voile Cruas Abbey; the Lord Rhys, of Dine&wr, was building 
those of Ystrad Ffiur and TalUy^ and BJi3rs ap Tewdwr probably had long ago set up the 
great abbey of WhitlancL 

Dunraven Castle^ a modem structure, the seat of the Earl of Dunraven, stands on the 
site of an ancient British castle of great fame and antiquity on a lofty promontory near the 
sea, where a little stream joins the tide. Its early name is said to have been Dindryfan^ 
and tradition has clothed it with the dignity of chief palace of the kings of Wales from times 
so remote as those of Brin ap Llyr and his more renowned son, the brave Caiactacus. It is 
enough to say that of this we have no evidence beyond tradition ; but as Caractacus is 
allowed by all, even critics of Mr. Freeman's school — ^who reject the British accounts in 
order apparently to have more room to swallow ^ English," — to have existed, he must have 
resided somewhere, and, during his leadership of the Silures, Dindryjan may well be 
supposed to have been one of his castles ; and who will say that Caerleon or Caerwent was 
not another? 

Dunraven, on the parting of Morganwg between Fitzhamon's knights, fell, along with 
Ogmore, to the share of William de Londres ; and either he or his son Maurice gave it and 
the lands or lordship thereto belonging to Sir Arnold Butler. This fiunily continued at 
Dunraven for ten generations (see Butler ofDunraven)j till it terminated in an heiress, Eva, 
who married Sir Richard Vaughan, of the Vaughans of Bredwardine, Tre'rtwr, &c ; and the 
manor remained in his descendants till the time of his great-grandson. Sir George Vaughan, 
son of Sir Walter, grandson of Sir Richard, who, losing his three sons by an untimely death 
by drowning, ** sold the lordship and estate of Dunraven in 1642 to Humphrey Wyndham, 
Esq." (See Vaughan of Dunraveriy Wyndham of Dunraveny zxid Dunraven of Dunraven.) 



Si. Donats Castle^ already partly described (see engravings p. 466), derives its name 

from the little parish church in its grounds dedicated to iS/. Dunawd^ an early Welsh 

Christian, — ^perhaps that staunch abbot of Bangor Iscoed, who withstood the assumption 



ANTIQUITIES : ST. DONATS CASTLE -LANTWIT MAJOR, S^S 

of the monk Augustine. (See Williams' Ecdes. Aniiq, cfthe Cymry^ 141.) Fitzhamon gave 
William le Esteriing, one of his knights, ^the lordship of Uanwetydd'* {Brtdy lywyscg.), 
the Welsh name of St Donat's, who founded here a family which in course of tune became 
known under the altered form Stradling^ and continued in possession of the estate for a 
period of more than six hundred years. William le Esteriing built here a castle^ but whether 
in substitution for another belonging to a Welsh chieftain or on a virgin site it is hard to 
say ; but that there was a lordship of Llanddunwyd or Llanwerydd before the Fitzhamon 
conquest, and that the land was taken from its rightful owner and given to Le Esteriing, 
is clearly taught us in the Stradling pedigree (Jenkins' 4to. MS., p. 223), for it is there 
stated that in the fourth generation ** Sir Robert Stradling married Hawisia, daughter of Sir 
Hugh Brin, Kt, whose mother was the lawful Welsh heiress, on failure of male issue, to the 
castle and manor of St. Donat's (in Welsh, Llanddunwyd)," and that ''by this marriage the 
Stradlings acquired a rightful tide by just heirship to the estate," and ever since '' successively 
continued to enrol their names as Welshmen " and '' warm patrons of Welsh literature.'* 
The last of the Stradlings of St Donat's was Sir Thomas, who died s. /. 1738, at the age of 
twenty-eight, when the extensive estates were divided, St Donafs foiling, by virtue of a deed 
made by Sir Thomas, to the share of Sir John de la Fountain Tyrwhit, Sheriff of Glamorgan- 
shire 1750. (See further Strad/ing 0/ Si. Donafs, in "Old and Extinct Families.") The 
estate afterwards passed to the Drake £unily, and is now, by purchase, the property of 
Dr. J. NichoU-Came. What portion, if any, of Le Esterling's first castle remains in the 
present venerable structure it is difficult to determine, but it is quite certain that the bulk 
of St Donat's Castle as it now stands is of a comparatively recent age. 

The casde of St Donat's is unquestionably one of the most perfect of the ancient baronial 
halk of Wales, and highly interesting as having never been left uninhabited through the 
changes of several centuries since it was founded. Several parts of the venerable pile dearly 
belong to an earlier structure, but the great bulk of the building is said to be of the age of 
Henry VIII. In the MS. above quoted it is said, pp. 223 — 226, that Sir John Stradling, created 
a baronet by James I., ** made the new park and planted it with trees ; he planted also many 
trees in the old park, and rebuilt in a great measure the old tower which was blown down 
by a tremendous storm in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when many of the old trees in the 
paric were thrown down ** ; that Sir Edward Stradling, Ump. Henry VI., who in 141 3 inherited 
the estates of Berkrolles, returning from Jerusalem, where he was made Knight of the 
Sepulchre, ^ brought with him from Italy a man skilful in carving, who made the ornamental 
columns to be seen in St Donat's Castle." We have no account at hand of the erection of 
the main part of the present structure. Since its purchase by Dr. NichoU-Came it has been 
subject to careful and extensive restoration, its antique features scrupulously spared as far 
as possible, and the new work done, under the guidance of the learned proprietor, in keeping 
with the character of the whole. 

The church of Laniwit Major and its precincts, indeed the whole site of the village and 
surrounding spaces, offers to the antiquarian a field of research of the greatest interest The 
earlier name was Caer Wrgan. The later and present Welsh name, UaniUtyd-fawr^ of 
which **Lantwit -major" is pardy a corruption and partly a translation, commemorates 
St lUtyd (Iltutus), the celebrated monk-professor of the fifth century, who here either 
originated or resuscitated a school which with growing strength and reputation continue^ to 



$26 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

flourish for 700 years. It was, of course, a monastic seminary, and both depended upon and 
fed what in process of time became an imposing monastery. The institution became the 
resort of youths noble, ignoble, and rojral, and ecclesiastics high and low from all parts of 
Britain and the Continent ; the college sent forth learned men as teachers and bishops to 
many distant parts, among them St David, Paulinus, Bishop of Leon, Samson, Archbishop 
of D61, in Brittany, 8cc The Norman conquest of Glamorgan gave a blow to the establish- 
ment of Llanilltyd-&wr. Robert Fitzhamon transferred the property it had accumulated to 
Tewkesbuxy Abbey ; but the college and monastery still retained a portion of their income 
till the time of Henry VIII., whose Act for dissolving the monasteries included this place, 
and bestowed its revenues upon the new chapter of Gloucester Cathedral The ancient 
tithe-ham^ in ruins, still survives ; the monastery, halls, and other buildings, which have 
wholly disappeared, ^ stood on a place called Hill-head, on the north side of the tythe-bam." 
The ruins of the schools are in a garden on the north side of the churchyard. Strewn far 
and near, in garden walls, field fences, jambs of cottage doorways and windows, and in the 
furrows of the paddocks around, are fragments of hewn and carved stone — relics of what 
at one time was a town of no inconsiderable dimensions, suggestive of wholesome reflections 
on the change which ages make in human things, and calling up unavailing r^[rets at the 
little we really know of the men and the doings which once distinguished so remaricable a 
spot And yet the past seems to rise with something like disfinctness, constructed by 
the imagination from the few authentic facts we know, — 

" Visioiis of the days departed, shadowy phantoms fill the brain ; 
They who live in history only, seem to walk the earth again." 

Lantwit-major, by long and holy tenure consecrated to education and religion, is on the 
estate of Dr. Nicholl-Came'of St Donaf s Castle, and that gentleman a few years ago gave 
proof of the estimation in which he held this feature of the place, as well as his concern for 
the advancement of education in modem Wales. When the editor of this work inaugurated 
the movement for university education for Wales, and visited Glamorganshire to advance 
the scheme, Dr. Nicholl-Came offered as a firee gift six acres of land on this spot, including 
the very site of the ancient buildings, for the erection of a university college for South Wales. 
It was then proposed to erect a corresponding coUq^e for the North near Menai Bridge, 
where a site of seven acres had also been tendered j;ratis. The decision^ however, to 
establish one central college, and the purchase of the noble Castle House premises at 
Aberystwyth, prevented the final acceptance of the Lantwit-major site, — ^in many respects, and 
especially in the history of Webh culture, the most interesting in all Wales. The projected 
institution at our date of writing is still unopened ; but a large sum of money remains funded, 
and a building of ample capacity and unrivalled architectural excellence has been purchaeed 
since 1867 ; while a college such as that proposed, firee fit>m sectarian narrowness, and 
superior in the quality of its teaching, now that elementary and middle-class education is so 
happily progressing, is more than ever demanded in the Principality. 

The church of Lantwit-major is itself a huge and complex monument of antiquity. It 
seems a thing almost entirely of the past The date accorded to its first foundation is 
A.D. 408 ; but the building now standing consists of several parts of unequal age. The 



ANTIQUITIES— LANTWIT MAJOR ; LLANTRISANT CASTLE ; ST. QUINTIN, 527 

lady chapel and the old church to which it is attached are very ancient, the former 
measuring forty feet long, decorated with statues of saints, &a ; the latter sixty-four feet long, 
displaying great rudeness in the arches, and an imperfect clerestory, but with a reredos of 
some beauty. Then continues what has been usually considered a more modem structure of 
three aisles, of the age, it is said, of Henry I., and erected by Henry Neville, Lord of 
Glamorgan. This extends to a length of ninety-eight feet, by fifty-three feet in width, and 
supports a tower ** containing six bells of exquisite tone." 

The church and churchyard abound in antiquities. The chief object of interest in the 
latter is the Cross of St. lUutus^ erected in the sixth century by Archbishop Samson of D61, 
in Brittany, and a pupil of the Llanilltyd College. Its height is now about six feet above 
the sur&ce; its breadth at the base about two feet six inches, diminishing upwards to one 
foot ten inches. The carving on its face is well done ; and a border divided into sections 
runs along the side, with an inscription yielding the words CRUX ILTUTI . . . SAMSON 
POSUIT HANC CRUCEM PRO ANIMA EJUS. The head of the cross has been broken 
off— of course, as all the guide-books say, by the " Puritana^" — for as Cromwell destroyed all 
castles, so the ^ Puritans " alone did all the mischief to ecclesiastical monuments I 

Another cross shaft, of almost equal interest, and of more curious history, standi against 
the church wall A tradition floated among the old people that a huge stone monument had 
fallen into a new grave and been left there. In 1 7 89, lolo J/^ami^-» whose vocation seemed to 
be to bring out the hidden things of darkness, whether of stone or parchment — ^felt a desire 
to search for the missing object He lived at Flimstone, a few miles away ; and being a 
mason by trade, had. perhaps a cunning art with stones. At all events, remembering the 
tradition, he b^;an digging, and, strange to say, soon came upon the ancient cross, and placed 
it in its supposed original position against the church wall, where it now stands* It is a 
ponderous stone, slightly pyramidal in form, six feet nine inches high, one foot three inches 
across the centre, seventeen inches at the top, and eighteen inches thick. An inscription on 
the side, judged to be of the same era as that of the Crux lUtUi^ partly ill^ble, shows that 
it is a monument to a king or kings of Glamorgan. 

A third cross, discovered in 1730, of similar date with that of the first mentioned, seems 
to be a monument set up by Howel, Prince of South Wales, on his penance and absolution 
for the murder of his brother, Prince Rhys. 



UanirisaMi Castle^ whose remains occupy the craggy heights on which this historic little 
town is planted, was a place of great strength under the lords of Glamoigan. From its towers 
its master could view a wide extent of fertile country lying at his mercy. On the division of 
the lands by Fitzhamon, Llantrisant, centre of the hundred of Miskin, fell to the share of 
Einion s^ CoUwyn, along with Senghenydd (Caerphilly). In a.d. 1247 it had come under 
the power of the line of lestyn ap Gwigant, in the person of Howel ap Meredydd, who was 
expelled therefirom by Gilbert de Clare, then the supreme lord of Glamorgan ; but the 
Norman was foiled in his attempt to possess Miskin and Llantrisant by Cadwgan Fawr. 
From hence, after leaving Neath Abbey and Caerphilly Castle, Despencer, the fiaivourite of 
Edward XL, was taken to Hereford for execution. Edward le Despencer confirmed the 
charter of Llantrisant, temp. Edward IIL Thomas le Despencer did the same. Leland sa3rs. 



sag GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

" Uantrissant Castelle, longing to the king, as principal house of Miskin, lyith half a mile 
from the est ripe of Lay (Ely). . . . Thecastelle stondethonthe toppe of ahille,and b 
in mine. It hath been a fair castelle and had two wardes, and the inner diked, having 
among other toures one great and high caulled * Gigvian ' [W., dgfran^ a raven], and at this 
castelle is the prison of Miskin and Glyn Rodney. There were 2 fidre parkes by South 
Llantrissent, now onpalid, and without deere.** 

Near Cowbridge, which has no castle or other important object of antiquity to boast of 
except a tumulus and part of a cromlech, is Uanbidhian Castie^ otherwise called Si. Qtdniuis 
Castle^ whose entrance gateway, ivy-covered, would indicate a place at one time of great 
extent and strength. This castle had its origin in the Norman conquest of Glamoigan, when 
the lordship of Llanblethian fell to the share of Sir Robert St. Quintin, one of Fitzhamon's 
companions. *'To Robert de Sancwintin," says the Brut^ *^was given the lordship of 
Llanfleiddian-fawr and the royal burg of Pantfaat^^ (Cowbridge). The castle, which was 
probably first built as a Norman stronghold by De St Quintin, on a site which b said to have 
been previously occupied by a British place of defence and centre of a lordship, stands on 
high ground on the western bank of the little river Daw. 

The St Quintin &mily are said to have continued to enjoy the castle and lordship until 
the time of Henry III. The property afterwards came into the hands of the Herberts 
of Swansea, and thence to the Marquess of Bute. (See De St. Quintin of LkmblddtUatC) 

In the same immediate neighbourhood, commanding views of exquisite richness and 
beauty, is the castle of Zlandaughy with its contiguous little parish church, already pardy 
noticed. Llandough or Llandocha lordship came to Sir William Herbert from his great- 
grandmother, daughter and heir of Sir Matthew Cradock, Kt., who had here one of his. 
principal residences. The castle of Llandough was not a military stronghold, but a 
castellated mansion. It is now inhabited by the Rev. T. Stacey., 

Peniline Castie (now the seat of John Homfiny, Esq.) has been a place of note from the 
twelfth century, when it became the property of a Norman settler named Sir Robert Ncnris, 
tfia^omeSf or sheriff of the lordship under Robert of Gloucester, successor and son-in-law of 
Fitzhamon. The Norris fomily continued at Peniline for several generations; were in 
possession at the time of Spencer's survey; and ceased in the male descent with Sir John 
Norris, Kt 

Beaupre Castle^ also near Cowbridge, is a complete and picturesque ruin standbg in afield 
between St Hilary and St Mary Church. Tradition relates that prior to the Norman 
subjugation of Glamorgan, a British fortress existed on the spot, and the early Welsh name 
of the place is said to have been Maes Essyllt^ which some have considered as the proper 
original of Beau-pri (Fair-meadow). Maes certainly means a field, but how essyiU can be the 
original of the French /n^ or the English ^ meadow *' we know not D. Jenkin's MS. has it 
(p* 457) that this Maes-Essyllt was the ancient and ^* favourite abode of the Sissyilt fiunily, 
from whom are descended the noble family of Cecil, Marquises of Exeter and Salisbury," and 
that '* Llewel3m ap Sissyilt [Prince of North Wales], who inherited the principality of South 
Wales in right of his wife [d. circa 1020], frequently held his court at this place.'* In this 
princely line the lordship is reported to have continued until it was purchased {temp. 
Henry IL) by Sir Philip Bassett, Lord Chief Justice of England, a near descendant of John 
Bassett, chancellor or vice-comes to Robert Fiuhamon. We believe the lands of Beaupre have 



ANTIQUITIES— BEAUPRE CASTLE ; LLANCARFAN. 529 

ever since continued in the family of Bassett, although the place of residence has been 
removed to a little dbtance, and the original seat allowed to ML to ruin. (See Basset 
of Beaupre,") 

The entiance-porch of this ruin is at once an extremely beautiful specimen and a 
peculiar medley of architecture containing Italian features, held by some to be the earliest of 
that order introduced into England. The age, as shown by a date over the entrance, is 15S6, 
and the work was done by a native of the neighbourhood, Richard Twrch by name, who 
acted in the double capacity of architect and working builder. The story is that this man 
and his brother William were stonecutters {temp. Edward VI.), and worked the Sutton 
freestone quarries ; that, a disagreement arising between them, Richard left the country, and 
for many years worked at his trade in London, and afterwards in Italy, where he attained 
^ great proficiency in the science of architecture and the arts of masonry and sculpture." At 
last, returning to his native neighbourhood, he re-entered upon his former business at Sutton 
quarries, and executed work in a manner so superior as soon to command admiration and 
large employment He was engaged by the Bassetts to build at Beaupre Castle first the chapel 
in the year 1586, and afterwards the porch in 1600. This porch is in the three Greek orders, 
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, wrought with an elegance and delicacy not often to be seen 
in structures of much later date and by the most celebrated architects. It is remarkable, 
however, that the doorway arches in the porch and chapel are in pointed Gothic, while all 
besides is in the composite Grecian. See a paper on this subject by lolo Morganwg, Cambr. 
Journey ^ 138. 

Fmmon Castle^ Penmark Castle^ and Wenooe Castle^ all of Norman origin, and noticed 
elsewhere, lie in the south-eastern part of the county, not hx from the sea. (See Janes of 
Fonmon Ccutle^ TTunnas of Wenvoe^ zxL^Jeimer of Wenvoe.) 

Uancaffariy in this same district, is a place of antiquarian and historic interest, chiefly as 
the site of an early monastery, and as the birthplace of the celebrated chronicler, Caradoc 
of Llancarfan. Caradoc lived in the twelfth century, but of the details of his life little is 
known. His memorial is in his work, Brut y Tywysogum^ — ^** Chronicle of the Princes of 
Wales,** several copies of which in MS. have come down to our time, varying con- 
siderably in dialect, and in the copiousness of their narrative, but substantially agreeing in 
their ySie^, as copies of the same original work, modified by different transcribing editors of 
different ages and provinces, might be expected to da For the Brut^ in four different 
recensions, see Myvyrian ArchaoL of Wales^ vol iL 

The monastery of Llancarfan, called also Llanfeithin, is said to have been founded by 
Germanos. Dubricius (JDyfrig) has the credit of having been its first head, or abbot, before his 
appointment to the see of Llandaff. Thb college sent forth six missionaries to convert 
'* the Scots of Ireland.*' The monastery of Llancarfan is believed to have been destroyed 
about 1400, by the Normans, since which time we find no mention of its affairs. 

The celebrated cromkeh of St Nicholas, known by the name of Llech y Fikut^ is the 
largest in superficial measurement in Britain, being in length twenty-four feet, in greatest 
breadth seventeen feet, by about two and a half feet in thickness. The cubic measurement 
of this magnificent flag is three hundred and twenty-four feet A crack runs across at about 
six fiset firom the narrower end. The supporting stones, five, in number, prop it up at a 



530 GLAMORGAN'SHtRE. 

height of some six feet, and enclose, on three sides, an apartment not less thui sixteen feet 
bj fifteen. One of the sopporters fonns a wall sixteen feet in length. Truly a stupendous 
tomb I A compaoion eromlech at DyfiTyn, at a short distance from the fonner, measures 
fourteen feet by thirteen feet in the widest part, supported by three stones above seven feet 
high. These, and Arthur's S^me, in Gower, already described, are the chief pn-hittorU 
remains in Glamoigansbire. 

In passing from LatUwit-maj'or and Llaneatfan, by St. Fagaift, to Llandaff, it is im- 
possible not to feel that we are treading at every foot on ground possessing peculiar interest 
in the history of the Christian Church in Britain. These were all early settlements of the 
£uth. Dyfrig, Catwg, lUtyd, and Dewi, and considerably earlier, Fagan, are foremost names 
in the ecclesiastical antiquities of Wales^ and aU of them were intimately connected with 
the Vale of Glamorgan. 



Ancixnt Caosi at Llamdaff. 

The cathedral chmd) of Uaiidaff, whose more recent history has already been noticed, 
is said to have been invested with the dignity of a chid* church, vriiose head pastor was 
an overseer of neighbouring paston, in other words a iHshop, as early as the fifth century. 
Dyfrig (Dubricius), aheady named as first abbot of the monastery of Llancarfan, was its first 
bishop, and next to him was TeUo. By the liberality of Meurig, King of Glamorgan, all the 
lands between the rivers Taff and Elwy were conferred upon this church. The early 
structure, on the same spot as the present cathedral (see engravings, pp. 468-9), was 
repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt during the incursions of the Saxons, Danes, and Normans, 
and the contentions of the British princes among themselves. The cathedral, out of the 
dibpidations of which the beautiful pile now standing forth in its renovated glory has arisen, 
was a work of the time of Heniy L, and the year given for its foundation is a.i>. ttso. 



ANTIQUITIES— LLANDAFF CATHEDRAL. 531 

UztNun being then the bishop. ■ The conquest of Glamorgan by the. Noimans, and the 
barbarities therein practised, had reduced the former sanctuary to ruins, and the work was 
now to be done from the foundations. It took about sixty years to complete the nave, and 
eighty more to complete the choir, or ** eastern chapeL** 

It was during the progress of this work (a.d. i z88) that Giraldus Cambrensis, in company 
with Archbishop Baldwin of Canterbury, on their tour through Wales preaching the Crusades^ 
visited Llandaft He says little about the cathedral, and makes no allusion to its building; but 
from what he incidentally mentions we are given to understand that the church had then a ** high 
altar,** — an essential part, of course, in a church of the twelfth century, but a part which here 
might be only substitutionary and temporary. ** On the following morning/' he says (Ifin.^ 7), 
^ the business of the cross being publicly proclaimed at Llandaf, f/U Engiish standing on one side^ 
and the Welsh on the other [showing a sharp line of race distinction !], many persons of each 
nation took the cross ; and we remained there that night with A^^Uiam [de Salso Marisco], 
bishop of that place, a discreet and honourable man. The word IJandaf signifies the church 
situated upon the river Taf^ and is now called the church of St Tdlectu \TeUo is spelt by 
Giraldus to suit the Norman-French pronunciation], formeriy bishop of that see. The arch- 
bishop having celebrated mass early in the morning before the high altar of the cathedral, 
we immediately pursued our journey by the little cell of Ewenith [we must suppose that 
Giraldus, pursuing a too northerly route, had not seen Maurice de LfOndres' great monastery 
of Ewenny, which by this date was building, if not comp]ete,«-see p. 523] to the noble 
Cistercian monastery of Margan." 

The cathedral which was in process of building in the twelfth century had become a 
crumbling pile by the eighteenth. Browne Willis, writing of it in 17 15, says, ^ The glorious 
structure has fiJlen into a most deplorable state of decay within these few years." The 
southern tower at last fell The authorities now collected a sum of money, and set to work 
to '^de&ce " what remained, and to add to it incongruous deformities by way of supposed 
restoration and improvement It was now that those objectionable features were introduced, 
abready referred to at p. 471. The nave, however, ^ was left roofless, and St Mary's Chapel 
deserted.** Thus it continued until the modem restoration, which has ended in so much 
majesty and beauty. (See pp. 467 — ^471.) 

** The western fiatgade of our cathedral,** sa3rs Dean Conybeare, in a paper in the Arehaoi. 
CambrmsiSy '' is a very beautiful and characteristic specimen of the transition between the 
later Norman and early pointed styles contemporaneously with the age of our Richard Coeur 
de LioOi It appears to rest on the clearest evidence that the principal features of diis new 
style^its pointed arches with its multifoil or cuspidated mouldings — were borrowed from 
Saracenic architecture, and first introduced by the influence of the Crusades; and we 
therefore naturally associate the style so derived with the name of a monarch so identified 
with these military adventures." 

** Our western fagade presents a specimen of this style, exquisitely beautifiil, and nearly 
unrivalled for the elegance and simplicity of its composition and execution, and, fi:om the 
great predominance of its pointed over its Norman features, seems to be a late example of the 
transition style. It is composed of three stories, besides the extreme angle forming the upper 
termination of the pedunent Of these three stories, the lowest exhibits the .great western 
doorway, which is Norman just so fiur as its rounded arch can entitle it to that denomination ; 



532 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

but this is supported by triple clustered colnmns whh slmder shafts, sunnotmted by capitals 
with long thin necks, oveiiiung by protiuding foliage, intenningled with birds, apes, and 
hnnuui figures, all marked chaiaacrs of the coafinned pointed style." 

"TTie second story of the western ia^ade presents three narrow and lofty lancet vrindows, 
which, with their two intermediate piers, are faced by an arcade of five lancet arches, 
alternately broader and more nairow, the former corresponding with the windows, the latter 
with the dividing piers. The third, or sub-pedimentaiy story, exhibits a central window with 
an arch very nearly, if not exactly round. This is flanked on either side by an arcade 
gradually lowering, which is formed by a series of three arches. ... All the shafb and 
capitals of this arcade are still of the early pointed style." 



Caxrll Coch, on trs Tatf. 

Following the Taff a few mile* to the interior, we come in view of Ctu^ Cock (the Red 
Castle ; so called by reason of the ciriour of its stones, taken probably from the durable red 
dolomite of the Radir beds). This picturesque rain stands boldly on a cn^g} declivity 
&ctng the Ta£^ high enough to command a view of die Channel beyond Cardiff, and of the 
mountain gorges and passes inland, — a most important post to watch and guard against 
incursions from the Vale of Glamorgan into the hilly parts, and the contrary. The age of the 
structure is not known, but the spot is believed to be the site of the castle of Ivor Sack, the 
chieftain of short stature but puissant spirit mentioned by Giraldus (see p. 501), who broke 
into Cardiff Castle, carried off William, Earl of Gloucester, his wife and son into the 
woods, and declined their release until his demands were fitlly satisfied. The present castle 
is thought to be a Norman woric of later date than Ivor's time ; but of its builder and its 
subsequent history next to nothing is known. Ivor Bach, at the very time of the above 



ANnQOrriES— CAERPHILLY CASTLE. 533 

exploit, vu holding ^is lands in fee from the Lord of Glamorgan, whom be imprisoned, and 
it was inevitable that sooner or later a post so imporunt as Castell Cocb should become a 
mere outpost of Cardiff Castle, and in conaection with Caerphilly, LlaDtrisant, and Coity 
Castles, serve in checking the Welsh and cutting oS their retreat when ravaging the Vale of 
Glamorgan. 

Caerphiily Castie is the grandest and most wonderful ruin in Wales or England. We 
have already given a large engraving showing the vastness of its extent from one of its sides 
{sKv/rontispUee), and here supply two others, the one giving its general position among the 
bleaJc hills of Senghenydd, the other a view oi its main entrance and leaning tower. A 
strange obscurity rests upon the name of this fortress. The earlier British name, Senghenydd 
(a corruption of St Ccnydd, who is said in the Brut to have founded a monastery on the 
spot), is both familiar and intelligible, but the modem Caerphilly, or, more correctly, if the 
components are Welsh, Caerpkili, is a perfect puzzle. How it arose, and what its reason, no 
man can tell. Conjecture, therefore, has been rife ; and the most iar-fetched and strained 
derivations have been proposed. It were beneath the dignity of scholars not to search for a 



CAaarKiLLV Castlb— Gbneral View. 

key among the archives of Greek or Latb, and we have been accordingly offered Cara-JUia, 
on the assumption that some one's " beloved daughter " had held some relation to the place. 
The wise in the legendary lore of Britain would fetch the word irom Beli Afawr, and supply 
C4«r-.ff«iSr— forgetting that the name to be e]q>lained is in reality of compaiatively modem 
manulacture. Edward Lhwyd makes it to be Caer-vyli, " the king's stronghold or dty," from 
vo/, a king. But did the Welsh contain such a word for " king " in the thirteenth century ? 
And was Caerphilly the city of a king at any time, except in one or two instances as a place 
of tempoiaiy lodgment P Others have an idea that the name may be from PUUf. We 



534 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

know of no " Philip " who called this castle his own. Philip ap Meredyddt of Cilsant, cmce 
held the castle for a time, and entertained there 500 horsemen, and it has been ingeniously 
suggested that the name might have arisen from [hat circumstance. But Philip ap Meredjrdd, 
it is to be remembered, lived in the fifteenth century, for his son, Sir Thomas Philips, 
received the honour of knighthood, according to the late Sir Thomas Phillipps, of Middlebill 
— a branch of the Cilsant stock — in 151 1, and we have groimd for believing and showing 
hereafter that this castle went by the name Caerphilly long before his age. 

On the partition of Moi^inwg by Fitzharaon, cirta A.D. 1091—1094, this lordship, under 
the British name SaingAenydH, fell to the share of Einion ap Cadifor ap Collwyn {3rul y 
Tywysog.). A.D. 1217, Llewelyn the Great, during one of his victorious marches through the 
south, gave the castle, called by the same chronicle Seinlunyd, to his son-in-law, Reginald 
de Breos, after Rhys Fychan had attacked it, and the garrison, out of fear, had set fire to 
both castle and town. In iisi John de Breos repaired the castle al Sang Hatyd. In 1170, 
for the first time, we meet in the Brut a fonn of the new name CatrfhUly. " In that year 
Llewelyn ap GrufTydd took the castle of Caer-Filu." At this time the castle and lordship of 
Caerphilly were held by Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan. ' The 
reason of the change of name in the Srui, from Settghenyd to Caa-'Fthi, is the one thing to 
be found out. The time when these entries were actually made in the Brut of Caradoc is 



CAUKPiru-tv Castib-Mafn Entrance and [.faniik: Towm. 

not of much importance \ for whenever made they must be presumed to give the castle its 
proper name for the time being — "Senghenyd" when it ^ma called Set^^henyd, and "Caer- 
filu'" when it came to be called Caerfilu. Neither in person, phu;e, nor event can we discover 
a plausible reason for the new and ever since persistent designation. 

The Ant of the De Clares who possessed this lordship was Gilbert above named, sur< 



ANTIQUITIE.S— CAERPHILLY CASTLE. 535 

named '^ the red ; ** but how he obtained it is not quite clear. Some say it was by purchase. 
Like most of the Lords of Glamoiigan he held immense estates in England, and was a man 
of foremost influence and activity under Henry III. and Edward I., and married Joan of 
Acre, daughter of the latter. The repulse he met when attempting to arrest the lordship of 
Miskin and castle of Llantrisant from the line of lestyn has already been mentioned. How 
much of the casde, now in ruins, existed in his time it is impossible to say. Dying in 12959 
he left his vast possessions, including Caerphilly Castle, to Gilbert, his son by Joan, a boy 
only five years of age. He grew up a strong partisan of Edward XL, and in defence of his 
failing cause fell in the batde of Bannockbum, a.d. 13 14, in the twenty-third year of his age, 
leaving no issue, when his manor and castle devolved upon his three sisters, the eldest of 
whom, Eleanor, married Hugh le Despencer the younger, who in her right became, as Lord 
of Glamorgan, seised of Caerphilly Castle. 

Hugh Despencer was at once the most splendid and most unfortunate of the lords of 
Caerphilly. He so far enlarged, strengthened, and decorated the fortress that the fallen and 
crumbling masses which now open such a field of desolation to the beholder may be said to 
be the ruins of Despencer*s castle. He, Uke De Clare, was devoted to the feeble Edward. 
In 1326 the king fled to Bristol, pursued by the queen and barons of the kingdom, but 
encouraged to persist by the two Despencers, &ther and son. The elder Despencer was 
executed at Bristol ; and the younger, with the king, fled. There is confusion in the accounts 
of subsequent events and their sequence— the embarking for Ireland, or Lundy Island ; the 
refuge at Neath Abbey ; the defence of Caerphilly Castle ; the escape thence, and the 
subsequent capture of Despencer and the king near or at Llantrisant ; and the execution of 
the former at Hereford, &c. : but it is certain that in r 3 26 the younger Hugh Despencer, 
after his father's exeaition, and after the concealment at Neath Abbey, had the king with 
him at Caerphilly Castle, and that they were here hotly besieged by the queen's forces, under 
command of Roger Mortimer, who, besides serving her Majesty, claimed the castle as bis 
inheritance by a right preceding that of Despencer, vis., the will of Joan of Acre, his mother 
by her second husband, Ralph de Mortimer. 

The investing army on this occasion is said by some to have numbered 10,000 men, but 
the same number is assigned as the investing army under the Glamorgan insurgent, Llewelyn 
Bren^ who is said to have reduced the castle in 1315 ; and it is just possible that the two 
sieges are confounded Although Despencer and his master seem to have thrown themselves 
into the castle precipitately, they must have contemplated such a step long before, and 
Despencer had counted the cost of defending his stronghold against a formidable attack. 
Improving upon the work of De Clare, he had built a castle second to none in the kingdom ; 
he felt that he and the king, with a few partisans, had toconfi-ont the popular cause supported 
by the queen and the barons of England, and that the estimation in which he and his family 
were held presaged no good if he failed in the conflict He had therefore entrenched himself 
strongly, gathered the largest force available, stocked his fields and his bams, and laid in 
provisions on an immense scale. 

The castle being of vast extent, there has been no end of exaggeration respecting the 
number of live animals and other provisions laid up within the walls preparatory to the siege. 
We hear of ^'-2,000 fat oxen, 12,000 cows, 25,000 calves, 30,000 fat sheep, 600 draught- 
horses, and a suflicient number of carts for them, 2,000 fat hogs ; of salt provisions 200 



536 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

beevesy 600 muttons, 1,000 hogs ; 200 tuns of French wine, 40 tuns of cider and wine the 
produce of Despencer's own estates, with wheat enough to make bread for 2,000 men for 
four yearsy and salt filling the great round tower (now 'the leaning tower Ot being laid up 
within the castle. But the extravagance of this account is patent. The truth probably is 
that Despencer had provided food to this extent on his estates, partly within and partly 
without his castle ; but that he had driven within his walls, even if the walls were sufficiendy 
capacious to admit, such a multitude of live cattle, hogs, horses, and sheep, which would 
require for their daily sustenance such an amount of provision, is totally incredible on any 
other supposition than that of his suicidal folly. We believe the story has arisen from the 
confounding of preparations for this siege with other and later accounts we have of the great 
wealth of the Despencers in cattle as well as in money. Another Despencer, Thomas (the 
last of his race), Lord of Glamorgan, and, by restoration, of Caerphilly, on petitioning 
Parliament for the reversal of the sentence of banishment pronounced against his forefather, 
Hugh Despencer, delivered an inventory of the said Hugh's territories and property at the 
dme of his impeachment From this we find (see CoUin^ Peirage) that this Hugh Despencer 
was lord ot not less than fifty-nine lordships in various counties in England and Wales, was 
possessed of 28,000 sheep, 1,000 oxen and steers, 1,200 kine with their calves, forty mares 
with their colts of two years, 160 drawing horses, 2,000 hogs, 3,000 bullocks, 40 tuns of wine, 
600 bacons, fourscore carcasses of Martinmas beef, 600 muttons in his larder, ten tuns of 
dder ; armour, plate, jewels, and ready money better than ^10,000, thirty*six sacks of wooU 
and a library of books.*' 

All this bustle at Caerphilly, we may remember, took place after the conquest of Wales 
by Edward I. But that conquest had nothing or littie to do with Glamorgan — this Lordship 
Marcher, since the time of Rufiis, being a fee under the English king. And this Edward IL, 
who was now being hunted about by his own queen and subjects, and hiding his head at 
Caerphilly, was a son of that conqueror of Wales, as well as father of an equally puissant 
soldier, Edward the Black Prince. Queen Isabella's forces succeeded in reducing this great 
fortress, whose defence was, at least in part, conducted for Despencer by John de Felton. 
It took a great deal of arrow-throwing, stone-throwing with the ballista^ and battering with 
ponderous rams^ before a breach was effected. This was made, it is said, near the *^ leaning 
tower,** which was thrown out of its perpendicular, if report be true, by an explosion, but fiur 
more likely by undermining, either at that time or subsequently. As the castle was long 
inhabited after this attack, such a leaning tower would scarcely have been allowed to continue 
to mar the structure and record the disaster, so that the fi:acture is more likely to be the 
result of later attacks, either by Owen Glyndwr (a.d. 1400) or during the Civil War. 

For four generations the Despencer family*^^uffered degradation, until another Hugh, 
mentioned above, succeeded, temp. Edward HI., in recovering a vast amount of hb fore- 
fathers' landed estates, but had scarcely completed this success when death overcame him. 
He left a widow, but no issue. He was followed by his brother Edward, by his brother's 
son Edward (who went with the Black Prince to France, fought at Poictiers, and is styled 
by Froissart ^z. great baron and good knight," died at Cardiff 1365), and by the same 
Edward's son, Thomas, who died on the scaffold at Bristol for treason a.d. 1400, when 
all his estates were confiscated. His daughter and heiress, Isabel, married as her second 
husband Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. (See The Despencers^ 



ANTIQUITIES— CAERPHILLY CASTLE. 537 

The Beauchamps and the Nevilles, Earls of Wamrick» next Lords of Glamoigan by 
marriage alliance, were men of great note and splendour, and passed away in rapid 
succession, their line ending in heiresses who married princes and kings. During their 
brief day of stately magnificence we hear little of Caerphilly Castle, or whether it always 
continued in the same succession, but have much reason to believe that soon after the 
extinction of the Despencer glory it was allowed to fall into neglect. It was at last used as 
a prison, and finally dismantled after tlie Civil War. Leland, circa 1540, describes " Cairfilly 
Castelle " as *' sette among marisches, where be ruinous walles of wonderfull thicknesse, and 
a toure kept up for prisoners." It is the property of the Marquis of Bute. After lying 
long in silent desolation, visited only by the curious tourist and antiquarian, its repose was 
broken in July, 187 1, by a great gathering of archaeologists, for whose reception the great 
hall of the casde had been fitted up with considerable magnificence. The noble owner, who 
presided, invited his guests to a sumptuous luncheon in the ancient banqueting-Iiall of the 
Despencers, roofed in for the occasion, and the entertainment was continued by a discourse 
on the castle from G. T. Clark, Esq., of Dowlais, and by inspection of the plan and chief 
features of the fortress, and the wilderness of ruins lying about Will there ever be another 
great event at Caerphilly Castle ? 

The extent of this fortress when in its glory it is now hard to ascertain ; but it is believed ' 
that the walled casde, with its projecting earthworks and redoubts, covered not less than 
thirty acres of ground. Lewis has described the castle as follows : — " The buildings in tiie 
several courts, together with a spacious area, were enclosed within a lofly outer wall of great 
thickness, defended by square towers at intervals, between which a communication was kept 
up by an embattled corridor. In the outer court were the barrack for the garrison, and fix>ro 
it was an entrance through a magnificent gateway flanked by two massive hexagonal towers, 
leading by a drawbridge over the moat into an inner ward, fi'om which was an eastern 
entrance into the extensive court that contained the state apartments, by a massive gateway, 
strongly defended with portcullises, of which the grooves are still remaining : the western 
entrance to this court was also over a drawbridge, through a splendid arched gateway, 
defended by two circular bastions of vast dimensions. The court in which were the superb 
ranges of state apartments is seventy yards in length and forty in width, enclosed on the 
north side by a lofty wall strengthened with buttresses, and in the intervals pierced with 
loopholes for the discharge of missiles, and on the other sides by the buildings and the 
towers which guarded the entrances. 1\it great hall^ on the south side of the quadrangle, is 
in a state of tolerable preservation, and retains several vestiges of its ancient grandeur. Tliis 
noble apartment was seventy feet in length, thirty feet wide, and seventeen feet high, and 
was lighted by four lofty windows of beautiful design, on which the ogee-headed arches, 
richly ornamented with fruit and foliage, are finely wrought in the Decorated style. Between 
the two central windows are the remains of a lai^e fireplace, of which the mantel is highly 
embellished in beautiful and elegant detail: on the walls are dusters of triple circular 
pilasters, resting upon ornamented corbels at the height of twelve feet from the floor, and 
rising to the height of four feet, for the support of the roof, which appears to have been 
vaulted. The suite comprises various other apartments of different dimensions, and of 
corresponding elegance, in a greater or less degree of preservation. Near the south-east 
angle of the central building is the armory, a circular tower of no great elevation ; and 



53^ GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

almost adjoining is the Meaning tower.' This tower, already referred to above, and 
pictured in the engraving, is eleven feet out of the perpendicular, and is seventy feet in 
height. Near the armory is a spacious corridor, above one hundred feet in length, in the 
wall of the inner enclosure, communicating with the several apartments, and with the guards 
who were stationed in the embattled towers which protected the walls." The position of 
the stables, and yards for horse exercise, &c., is ascertainable; showing provision for men-at- 
arms and garrison forces, storing places for material, Sec, on a scale unequalled, it is 
believed, in any feudal castle in the kingdom. 

As might be expected, Caerphilly Castle at one time occupied a large space in the 
popular imagination; tales respecting the exploits of its besiegers and defenders were 
numerous ; even to this day it is doubtful whether the apparitions of the mailed and fierce 
De Clares and Despencers are not occasionally seen flitting among its broken and gloomy 
ramparts. The wholesale spoliation and cruelty practised by the latter family towards the 
inhabitants burnt deep into the native mind. Whenever a man's lands were cleared of cattle, 
or his house of goods, it was known that Despencer had been at work. Hence arose the 
popular saying (which to this day plays on the lips of the peasantry), when anything was 
hopelessly lost, '*It's gone to Caerphilly;'* and when an excited temper bade its object depart 
to the worst and hottest of places, the volition went forth in the energetic words, ** Go to 
Caerphilly ! " This sa3ring is old, for we find it in the works of the bard Dafydd ap Gwilym^ 
circa A.D. 1380, the period cf the later Despencers, — 

> A gte y gwr gan ei gi, a'i gorff d i Gaerffili 1 

" Let his soul pass mto his dog, and his body go to Caerphilly ! *' 

When Caerphilly Castle was in its prime, and Castell Coch and Uantrisant co-operating 
with it to protect the lordship of Glamorgan, and its heart the castle of Caerdyf against the 
free children of the mountains, there existed in the Valley of Rhondda Fftch, not far off, an 
important monkish establishment, of which, at present, not a single trace is discoverable — 
the Moruutery of Penrhys. Dugdale says nothing of it ; Bishop Tanner does not name it ; 
but here and there in the Welsh records, in the songs of the bards, and allusive expressions 
of annalists, it often occurs. The '' Holy Well,'* near its site, still pours forth its pellucid 
waters, — full of virtue, it used to be believed, to cure the ailments of pilgrims. According to 
Mr. Llewelin, who personally inspected the place {Cambrian foumai^ 1863), ''the spring, 
which is entered by stone steps, is arched over, and at the back, above the spring, there 
stands a^iche, in which it is evident that there stood originally an image of the Viigin, to 
whom the monastery was dedicated" He adds, ^ When I visited Pen Rhys about twenty 
years ago, some portions of the monastery existed, though incorporated with modern 
erections, and difficult to identify. The present farmhouse of Pen Rhys has been erected 
on the site of the ancient monastery. . . . The bam, which stands in a field near the 
house, called to this day * Y F3mwant,' or the churchyard, was formed, to a considerable 
extent, out of portions of the ancient monastic buildings ; one of the windows, and parts of 
the old walls of which were, at that period, very clearly discernible." 

Since that time, however, a new spirit has entered the Rhondda Valley, which cannot 
afford room for other rubbish than its own. Deep pits, tall chimneys, whistling engines, 
long-drawn-out villages, with teeming multitudes of men, women, and children, white by 



ANTIQUITIES— CARDIFF CASTLE. 539 

nature but black from coal, are now the visible objects ; and it is hard to believe that this vale 
was once the gem of Glamorgan for its lovely scenery, and the calm and silent home of 
drowsy, bead-counting monks — who, however, for the times, were- not without their use. 

The monastery of Pen Rhys is supposed to have been founded by Robert, Earl of 
Gloucester, the successor of Fitzhamon as Lord of Glamorgan, and grandson, on his mother's 
side, of Rhys ap Tewdwr ; and tradition says that it was built as a memorial of that celebrated 
prince, who is held by many to have fallen in this neighbourhood, and not, as is more probable, 
near Brecon (see p. 67). In the ^^ lolo MSS." it is said that on the spot where Prince Rhys 
was beheaded, *^ at a place called Pen Rhys, was afterwards erected the great monastery of 
that name in the parish of Ystrad-dyfodwg ; " and over his grave '* was raised a large tumulus 
near the monastery, which is called Bryn y Beddau, /. ^., the hill (or tumulus) of graves." 
The same allusion to the monastery is found in Rees Meyrick's Morgania Archaogrt^hU^ 
1578. In the lolo MSS. it is recorded, *' After the insurrection of Owain Glyndwr had 
come to an end, the monastery of Pen Rhys was suppressed, and its possessions sold by 
Henry V., about the year of Christ 1 415, for the favour it had shown to Owain and his party.** 
This partisanship had been discovered in the fact that a meeting of bards, held at the 
monastery, had been presided over by Owain Glyndwr during his raid into Glamorgan 
(a.d. 1402). That this meeting had taken place is a fact borne out by other evidence, for in 
Dr. John David Rhys's learned grammar, CambrthBrit Cymrcuceve Ling, Inst,,, 1592, we find 
an ode to Wyrif Fair Wenn Ben Rhys (Mary, the Fair Virgin of Pen Rhys), which was 
delivered at the congress by the bard Gwylim Ttw, 

Morlais Castle^ near Merthyr Tydfil, is a ruin of whose history very little b really known. 
Planted on an eminence above the lesser Taff, it was evidendy intended to guard the narrow 
valley against the enemy. But whether the enemy first provided against was Briton or 
Norman it is hard to say. On two sides it is made proof against assault by the deep escarp- 
ment of the valley, and on the remaining sides by a deep excavation in the rocks. In form 
it is an irregular pentagon. Part of the ruins are Gothic, which would suggest a Norman, or 
at least not pre-Norman origin. 

Cardiff Castle^ which comes last in our way to describe, was the cynosure of all the 
other strongholds of Norman Glamorganshire, as, through the development of new circum- 
stances and industries, it has come to be a centre of mighty influence of a different kind in 
our own day. At the mouth of the river Dyf^ now called Taff (from the same Celtic root 
with Tif, Teivi, Dovey, Tafwys, Tliames)^ the British princes of Morganwg had long planted 
their chief residence. Its site appears to have been the very mound on which the ancient 
keep of Cardiff Castle now stands (see p. 462). Morgan, and Gwrgant, and lestyn, the son 
of Gwrgant, had here their castle ; and Robert Fitzhamon, when he crushed the last-named 
ruler, appropriated the residence as well as the territory to his own use. The casde lies 
conveniently in the mid-distance between the champaign country stretching westward as far 
as Margam, and eastward as far as and beyond the Usk. It has never been doubted that on 
this spot the Norman pitched his tent, and that on this spot his successors continued their 
state and riot for four hundred years; 

The Britons, even after the Roman occupation, had not developed that type of civilization 
which creates large towns, a circumstance which scarcely of itself ^eaks to their disadvantage \ 



540 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

for it is hard to see any great superiority in the *' civilization " of such modem creations as 
the Seven Diak, or the crowded districts of the " Black Country." At Cacr-dyf, when lestyn 
ruled, and when the Normans conquered Glamorgan, there was no *' town." The ^ Caer " 
first, the castle aftenvards, was the only paramount interest existing, all the other atoms of 
mill, church, monastery, smithy, armory, gathered around it to draw for themselves succour 
and life. After several generations of Norman settlement, the dues payable to the Lord of 
Glamorgan from the town (" burgus **) of Cardiff were not half the amount payable by the 
"mill." This is shown by the Extenta de JCairi/Iif rtiumtdj temp. Henry III., or about 
A^. 1262, already partly quoted (see p. 498, &c.). Of course the lord of the land at the 
castdlum paid himself no taxes ; he felt it hard enough to have the trouble to receive, and to 
receive so little. He was responsible in life and service to his " sovereign lord, the King *' 
(souzerain, souverain ; Lat., superus\ and for the land he was to no other power responsible — 
a sute of things to which the whole " land question " in England must by and by refer itself 
in order to encompass itself with light The dues from " Kairdiif " in 1262 were as follows, 
as testified on oath by Robertus Upedyke, Stephanus Bagedrip, Richardus Lude, and nine 
other jurors : — 

Redditus burgi est [town return] xx'^iiij'* vitj^ 

Et Molendma valent [mills, do.] xivi o o 

Et de prisa cervisie [prUage on beer — C'wrw\ .... xiiij o o 

£t de piscaria [fishing] viii o o 

Et de theloneo mercati [market toll] iiij o o 

Other miscellaneous but trifling charges follow, making a total of fourteen times twenty, 
and sixteen pounds sixteen pence, or ^^96 is. 4d^ which only slightly more than doubles the 
mill dues alone. Where the '' mills " were situated, or how many existed, it is of course 
impossible to say. There were more than one, and probably they were all on the 
river side. 

The earlier castle of Caer-dyf was doubtless strengthened and enlarged, if not entirely 
rebuilt, by Robert Fitzhamon, for it is not conceivable that the requirements of a Norman 
feudal fortress could be met by the simple Llysy or fortified palace, and Caer of a British 
chief. Fitzhamon also surrounded the town with walls. He died 1102, and was buried at 
Tewkesbury. The castle whose remains still partially continue in the '* ancient keep," is 
believed to have been chiefiy if not wholly built by his successor and son-in-law, Robert of 
Gloucester, natural son of Henry L He died 1x47, and was succeeded as Earl of Gloucester 
and Lord of Glamorgan by his son William. The surprise and capture of the castle by 
Ivor Bach, the Lord of Castell Coch, related by Giraldus, who visited Caerdyf in iz88, took 
place in his time (see p. 501). The castle was then " surrounded with high walls, guarded by 
one hundred and twenty men-at-arms, a numerous body of archers, and a strong watch, and 
the city contained many stipendiary soldiers." (//i//., 6.) The name of the town at this 
early time was '* Caer-d^," of which the modern English Qzxdiff is a better representative 
than the modem Welsh QdJtxdydd. So was the Norm.-Latin YJdAi'diifoi the Extenta above 
quoted. In fact QzAi-dydd is nothing better than a lapsus pennA which crept into the Brut; 
and its derivation from Aulus Did\M% the Roman general, is a pedantic makeshift The 
name is taken from the river on which the " Caer '* stood 

For several generations, as the De Clares, Despencers, Beauchamps, and Nevilles 



ANTIQUITIES-CARDIFF CASTLE. S41 

succeeded each other u I^rds of Glamorgan— takinfc, however, a. fai more promiDent part 
in English than in Welsh affairs, and ruling with a sway more cruel than fadle over 
Glamorgan, — we hear little of the castle of Cardiff as such. The estates which, aAer many 
changes, confiscations, rcstoratiocs, and sales, remained to the lords of this castle, came at last 
by purchase from Edward VI. to the Herberts, and by marriage, in 1766, of John Stuart, 
Earl, and aflerwards Marquess of Bute, with the heiress of the Herberts, to the line of Bute. 
(See BuJe, Marquas of.") 

The present residential castle of Cardiff was built by the first Marquess of Bute on part 
of the site of the ancient fortress. Of the latter scarcely anything remains except the "keep" 
illustrated on p. 46a, and the Curthest Tower, sometimes called the " Black Tower," standing 
on the left, close to the chief entrance from the town, and celebrated chiefly for having teen 
the place of confinement, for the space of twenty-six or twenty-eight years, of Robert 
Curthose, Duke of Normandy, detained here by his brother, Henry I. 



The Cvkthosk Towir, Cakdiff Castlz. 
Robert had doubtless given both Rufiu and Henry a good deal of trouble both in 
Normandy and England, but no small part of their anxiety concerning him arose &om the 
fiu:t that as eldest son of the Conqueror he, by right of succession, was entitled to the throne 
of England. He fell into Henry's hands while drawing the sword to do battle for that 
throne. That his confinement, however, in Cardiff Casde until death, a.d. i 134, released 
him, was of the severe and cruel character generally represented, and that he had been 
deprived of bis eyesight by command of Henry, arc things by no means worthy of implicit 
credit The story of the blinding by means of " a hot brass basin being held so near his 
&ce that the humours of the eyes thereby dried up," though related by Matthew Paris and in 
Catadoc's Brut, implies a brutality not quite in keeping with the indulgence generally 
granted him. William of Malmesbuty, usually accurate, tells us that his imprisonment was 
made as easy as possible, and that be was supplied with an elegant table, buffoons to divert 
htm, &C. True, indulgences of this kind might be granted to a bimd man ; but there is a 
strange dlence about this blinding where it might be expected to be mentioned. After 



54a GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Robert had been confined about thirteen years, Lewis of France, suzerain of Normandy, 
brought a complaint before the Pope, a.d. 1119, respecting Henry's imprisonment and hard 
treatment of Robert, stating that he ** treated him contrary to all right and reason,** and ** in 
a most scandalous manner made him prisoner and detained him in a long captivity ;" but of 
putting out his eyes nothing is said. (See Ord. VliaiiSy xii., 21.) 

In the same year Henry, in a conference with Calixtus, defends himself thus :-»'^ I laid 
siege to Tinchebrai [in Normandy], the real cavern of demons, where William, Count de 
Mortain, brought my brother against me with a great army, and I fought against it on the 
Starved Field in the name of the Lord and for the defence of my countiy ; there by the aid 
of God, who knew the purity of my intentions, I conquered my enemies, making prisoners of 
both the count my brother, and his cousin, with many traitors, and I have detained them in 
close custody to the present day for fear of their causing some disturbance to me and my 
kingdom. As for my brother, I have not caused him to be bound in fetters like a captive 
enemy, but treating him like a noble pilgrim worn with long sufferings, I have placed him in 
a royal castle, and supplied his table and wardrobe with all kinds of luxuries and delicacies in 
great abundance.'* {Ibid,^ 24.) Could he thus ignore the cruel act of blinding if it had been 
done ? It is true that Robert, after this, continued nearly fourteen years a prisoner, and 
might in that space of time be subjected to worse treatment; and Henry's affectation of 
leniency, like his affectation of piety, may reasonably be taken with distrust ; but Robert's 
age at this time — for he was nearly eighty years old when he died in 11 34 — would both have 
made him a quiet prisoner, and inclined his brother to refrain from wreaking upon him 
unnecessary barbarities. But that Robert of Normandy was a prisoner in the Curthose 
Tower until he died is as well substantiated as any other historical fact. 

In A.D. 1402, '^the irregular and wild Glyndwr" came with fire and sword to Glamorgan- 
shire, burnt the bishop's palace, and the archdeacon's residence at Llandaff, then attacked 
and burnt Cardiff, with its castle and '* religious houses,'* and proceeded to deal the same 
measure to the castle of Humfreville at Penmark^ which he finally cast to the ground. He 
abo in this incursion devastated the castles of Penlline, Landough, Flemingston, Dunraven, 
Talyvan, Llanblethian, Malefant, &c. 

In the Civil War, Cardiff, like many other towns in Wales, Jealously espoused the cause 
of Charles I., and Cromwell was brought upon the scene. The casde was '^ bombarded from 
an entrenchment about a quarter of a mile to the west of the town, and a cannonade was 
kept up for three days ; the castle offered a stubborn resistance, but was afterwards taken 
through the treachery of a deserter, who in the night conducted a party of the besiegers 
through a subterranean passage under the Taafe into the castle.** (Cardiff Guide^ 1829.) 
Of course, Cromwell profited from the deed and took the castle ; but, stto more^ immediately 
commanded the traitor to be hanged. In 1642 the Marquis of Hertford surprised the 
castle, " having crossed over from Minehead with a few royalists ; but it was shortly after- 
wards retaken by the Cromwellians " {ibid.). In 1647, Colonel Prichard, the governor, 
refused to surrender the casde to Major-General Heniy Stradling, the commander of the 
Royalists. 

In the Duke of Beaufort's Progress (1684) we find the following notes on the castle : — 
'* The castle of Cardiff hath in it the coat armors of the twelve knights belonging to Robert 



ANTIQUITIES OF CARDIFF, ETC. 543 

Fiu Hamon, who gained the dominion of the shire of Glamoigan from Jusdn ap Gwigan in 
the reign of William Rufus, where he kept his court monthly, and used therein jura regaUa^ 
having his twelve knights to attend him, . . . thej having their severall lodgings and 
apartments given them, and their heires for ever within die casde." 

^ C€Lstle Hall. The chimney-piece is formed of the shields and coat armour of the said 
Robert Fitz Hamon and of his twelve knights about it" 

•* The Black Tower thereof is famous for the imprisonment of Robert of Gloucester [? J who 
remained there for the space of twenty-eight years, and had his eyes put out" 

Seal of the Corporation of Cardiff. ''I have scratched off the Common Seal of Cardiff, 
which was affixed to a Deed of Surrender of the Ancient Charter of this town to his Majesty, 
and which this community most humbly desired his Grace, the Duke of Beaufort, to deliver 
up accordingly. The form of which seal, as it appears to me (and I have exhibited [in 
engraving on margin] from a bare impression in soft wax received from the hands of Mr. 
Thomas Jeyne since the Progress), is, as to the circumscription, — s. commune de icerdif. 
As arms, I guess it to be— The field . . . [not filled] two lyoncels rampand combatant, 
. . . . ; upon a rock in base . . . ; a chief, . . . with an Inescocheon of the 
ensigns armorial of . . . ." 

Caerdiff Church is fair. ** Adjoining to die north wall of the east end of the north aisle is 
seen the chiefest monument (almost gone to decay by the injury of time, and by neglect) of 
two brothers, Herbert John Herbert^ who was principall secretary to Queen Elizabeth and 
King James, having had the honour of being employed in severall foreign embassies, viz., to 
Denmark, Poland, Holland, and France, &c. &> William Herbert of Swansey, Knight, at 
whose quondam house there his Grace was enterteined in his Progress." 

The Friaries of Cardiff. — In olden Cardiff there were " severall religious houses," whicfa 
met with severe treatment finom ^' the rude hands of that Welshman,** as Shakspeare has it, 
Owen Glyndwr. Bishop Tanner {Not. Mon.) describes them as ''[i] a goodly priory, 
founded by Robert, first Earl of Gloucester ; [2] a priory of black monks, or Benedictines ; 
[3] a house of black firiars in Crockerton Street ; [4] a house of grey friars^ dedicated to 
Saint Francis^ under the custody or wardship of Bristol; and also [s] a house of white 
friars." None of these orders experienced any frtvoiu* firom our hero except the Franciscans 
in ^Crockerton Street" They, being firm adherents to the late King Richard, Owain's 
friend, were carefiilly protected, and Crockerton Street (now ^ Crockherbtown ") was not 
burnt Leland says that Owain Glyndwr ** spared the Friars Minors, on account of the love 
he bare them," but he ^ afterwards took the castle and destroyed it, carrying away a large 
quantity of treasure which he found therein ; and when the Friars Minors besought him to 
return them their books and chalices which they had lodged in the casde, he replied, 
* Wherefore did you place your goods in the casde? If you had kept them in your convent, 
they would have been safe * " {Collect.^ i., 389). There still remains on the side of Crockherb- 
town towards the castle ground a pordon of this old priory of the Franciscans, carefully 
protected by the firiendly ivy; and this is probably the only visible memorial existing of all 
these ** religious houses." 

The Roman camp on ^ Bryn y G3mnen,** near Neath, is remarkable more for the memorial 



544 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

contained in the name than for the remains surviving — Bryn y Gytmen meaning ^ the hill of 
contention." But as the camp was probably used during disturbances long subsequent to the 
Roman age, it is quite possible that the designation is comparatively recent 

The stone called Maen Uyihyrog^ on the hill near Margam» contained, as mentioned in 
Camden^ a rather doubtful inscription, but conjectured to read, Boovocus hic jacit fiuus 
Catotis, Irni pronessos, etermalive doman (i, ^., **^ etemali in domo "). 

The age of the stone in the parish of Cadoxton, near Neath, considered by Edward 
Lhwyd as remarkable, is not known. Its name oi Maen dau iygadyrYch is from two cavities 
in its surface once serving as mortices to hold upright pillars, one of which, not long removed, 
was found at a gate by the road-side. It bore the inscription, Marci (or Memorial) Caritimi,, 
FiLii Berici (prBeridt). See GougKs Camden. 

The cross on M3mydd Gelli-Onnen, Llangyfelach, described by Edward Lhwyd in Camden^ 
is probably early. It was a flat stone, three inches thick, two feet broad at bottom, and 
about five feet high, with rounded top, " formed round like a wheel," and adorned with ** a 
kind of flourish or knotted work," with a man's foce and hands on each side further down, 
and at the bottom *' two feet as rude and ilUproportioned as the hands and face." 

We must probably consider as pre-historic or ^ Druidic " the circle^ mentioned also by 
Lhwyd in Camden on ^ Cam LUchart ' hilL It is described as ** above seventeen or eighteen 
yards in diameter, the highest stone then standing not above one yard high." In the centre 
of the area was a Kistvaen about five feet long by four wide, the top stone fallen. 

Modem Cardiff — ^with which this work has litde concern, except as it regards some of 
its chief families — may be summed under three heads,— the castle, the port, and an energetic 
municipal government. The increase of the town has been remarkably rapid (see p. 461}; 
but it has too many of the features of a place marred morally by a seafaring and foreign 
intrusion and a rank licentiousness. In the suddenness of its rise it has been subject to a 
disproportionate growth, but the law of a healthy community is asserting itself; intelligence 
and Christian culture are nourishing the youthful blood of a vigorous and orderly dty, by 
and by to appear as distinguished for its moral tone as for its trade, wealth, and populousness. 



Section V.—INDUSTRY, CONDITION OF SOCIETY, AND CRIME IN 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Glamorganshire, beyond all other counties in the United Kingdom, I..ancashire itself not 
excepted, is distinguished for the fewness and at the same time stupendousness of its staple 
industries. They are three or four only in number, and all relate to minerals and metals. 
The copper mart for all the world is at Swansea ; Mertliyr, Dowlais, and surrounding places 
dig, melt, and work iron for all lands ; as for coal^ it has been already shown that nearly 6oc 
square miles of the county belong to the coal measures, and these are being drawn upon as 
fast as home and foreign requirements and the capabilities of miners permit It is not the 
province of such a work as the present to enter into the statistics or the methods of metal- 



INDUSTRY— COPPER-SMELTING. 54$ 

lurgy and mining, otherwise in Glamorganshire a tempting field would be found open ; 
general references have been made to the development of the vast iron and coal trade of the 
county (see section Physical Description)^ and it only remains here to touch upon the copper^ 
smelting^ which, being nearly peculiar to this county, possesses a more distinctive character. 
That m3rstery of trade — ^its tendency to group and concentrate4ts various branches — ^which 
has made Manchester the centre of cotton, and Sheffield the workshop of cutlery, has made 
Swansea the home of copper-smelting. The local supply of coal had something to do with 
the matter in all these cases, but it was not the only reason in any of them, for the coal of 
Glamorganshire might have told for cotton-mills as well as for copper-working, and the coal 
of Lancashire might have made Liverpool the emporium and furnace for copper. If people 
knew as much two centuries ago as is known ar present, Milford Haven had been made the 
port for cotton, and the country from Pembroke to Glamorgan would have by this time 
become the land of chimney-stacks and spindles. 

Copper-smelting. 

Ccpper^smelting in Swansea and Neath had its origin in the nearness of the ports to the 
mines of Cornwall, and to the coal supply of their own locality. The trade, although largely 
developed within the present century, is by no means of recent beginning. In fiict, it is 
entitled to be considered of some antiquity. Col. Grant-Frands, F.S.A., has industriously 
searched out the *' rise and growth " of the trade, and has embodied the account in an 
interesting work (privately printed 1867) called The Smelting of Copper in the Swansea 
District^ from whose reliable pages we gather our information. The real cradle of the tnule 
was Neath. Copper ore was worked at Treworth, ^near Perin Sandes,*' in Cornwall, in 
1583 by a company whose head-quarters were at Fenchurch Street, London, and who in that 
year erected a ** meltinge-house at Neath in Wales." To Neath was sent in 1584, from 
^ Keswicke,'* one of the company's *' copper makers with an under melter and y Doach 
[Dutch] carpenter for a time to serve and ready him in these causes." The skilled workmen 
first employed seem to have been Dutch or German, the overlooker at the first melting-place 
at Neath being named Ulricke Frosse, having first been ** a lovinge servaunt and ov'seer of 
y* minerall woorkes at Trewoorth." 

In July, 1585, after things had long gone on very slowly, with much anxiety and many pious 
committals of the enterprise to the care of Almighty God, Ulricke Frosse reports lome- 
progress. ^ We have founde out a waye to melte 24 c. of owre everye daye with one fiimas, 
the Lord be thanked, and if we have owre anoughe from yo'r side [Cornwall] we maye with 
God*s hdpe melte w'th tow [two] fumases in 40 weekes 560 tons of owre." October 4th 
following '* came John Bwaple, one of Wales, with his bark for a frayght of copper owre, and 
[we] did delyver hem the si of October 15 ton and 8 hundred of copp' owre for Wales. 
The 15 October came one Thomas Roberts from Wales from the company, with a fraigfat of 
tymber and necessaryes for the workes." Still in 1586 not much progress had been made in 
the ^^meltinge," for Frosse writes to his superiors in London, ''We looke dayly for the 
copper refiner from Keswicke, and have in readines as much copper roste and blake copper 
as will make a 20 tonne of good fine copper. We have done nothing all this winter for lake 
of ewre. We are able to melte w'th two fumises in the space of 40 weekes the quantitie of 
560 tonne of ewre if wee might have it, and if the ewre.be clean and well sorted the mor 



546 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

copper it will yield. ... If lake of ewre hath not been [poor Frosse's English is not 
yet perfect] wee might have hath by this time about 40 tonne of copper, which must be for 
seene hereafter, o*r els it wilbe long befor they parteners will com to their owne againe." 

Thus slowly we feel our way at first, dealing out expenses rather cautiously, and bearing 
with honest Dutch Ubicke's. remonstrances about *' lake of ewre," &c. One of our chief men, 
Mr. Camsewe, knows the value of '* fiynde Ulryke," and believes Cornish miners as good as 
Dutch any day. ^ Mr. Weston's p'vydence in bryngynge hys Dutche myners hether to aplye 
such busynys in this countrye ys more to be comended than his ignorance of o'r country- 
men*s actyvytyes in such matters, who owte of all p'adventure to be skylfull in mynynge, as 
harde and dylygent laborers and as good chepe workmen in that kynde of travell as are to be 
founde in Europe ; whereof to make yow good p'ffe lett the same Mr. Weston's Germans have 
some myn assignyd only to them, and lett yo*r Ulryke take suche as be is now acquayntyd 
w'th of our countrymen, . . . and let it be consyderyd w'che of them for on hole somer*s 
space shall put yow to moste charges, and gayne yow moste, and soo of them that doo lesse 
yow shall make yo'r estymacyon by p'flfe." Our Ulricke Frosse has already made a discovery 
in melting, and he is afraid " of no ewre soever,** but he will '* overcom it" Bad, hard " ewre 
firom St Youste [Just] has come to hand," and '^ put us to harteshifte for melting it, but a 
metchen wee have found out by change " has helped us, and " I thank God," says our 
Ulricke, " wee are able to master it well innough. God send us anough of it, for the metchen 
we have for it doth not only healp to melt it easye, but also to melt it speedelye and with 
small fewle, and bringes out all that is in it • . . God send the mynes to prospere and 
to mak good greement amongst the parteners in setting the work forward, whereby they may 
have p*fitt, and the comon wealt may be maintained to God's honner." Our ^ lovinge servaunt 
Ulricke " has also found, or has learnt, that a variety of ores mixed together will melt nsore 
easily than one by itself. ^ Send such owre as you have — S€nde of ail sorts; the better it will 
melte, and w'th more profit" This practice is still found the best 

Our Company, *^ The Mines Royal Society," had obtained its charter from Queen Elisabeth 
in 158 X,, and consisted of several noblemen and others, such as the Lord Treasurer, the Eari 
of Pembroke, the Earl of Leicester, the Lord Montjoy, Alderman Ducket, Customer Smyth, 
Alderman Gamage, George Needham, && ; and extended Iheir operations from Cornwall to 
Cumberland and Wales. The first patent had been granted as early as 1564 to ''Thomas 
Thurland, Master of the Savoy, and Daniell Hogstetter, a Germain, and too their heyrs and 
assignees," — an instrument of some length, fully set forth by Col. Frands, with others that 
followed in its train. The first works opened at Neath (1684) are believed to have been 
built on the spot now occupied by the ** Mines Royal Works," near the Neath Abbey 
railway station. Here it was that our ^ lovinge firynde Uhicke Frosse " first lit up his fiimace, 
and fought with scanty funds and ^harte owres" [hard ores]. 

Next followed the operations 'of the ^ Mine Adventurers " and " The Governor and 
Company of Copper Miners in England," the former headed by Sir Humphrey Mackworth, 
and now extinct, the latter still surviving. Both began their work in the last decade of the 
seventeenth century.* Sir Humphrey Mackworth's works were set up at Melincrethyn, a mile 
from Neath. 

The copper-smelting trade began near Swansea several years later. CoL Francis's 
subsequent researches have made out that in a case of law, in 1734, the town clerk of 



INDUSTRY— COPPER-SMELTING, ETC. 547 

Swansea set forth that in the year 1717 works were first erected upon ttie nver of Swansea for 
smelting copper and lead ores, and that the works were situated above the tovm and about 
two miles beyond the corporation boundary. In 1730 another work was erected upon 
Swansea river within the limits of the corporation. The works erected in 17 17 were 
promoted by Dr. Lane, and their site was near Glandwr, now corrupted into ^ Landore," a 
word belonging to no language. This gentleman, therefore, was the pioneer of copper- 
smelting at Swansea ; and the stability and growth of the trade in that neighbourhood is said 
to be greatly due to the intelligent and firm management of Gabriel Powell, agent of the then 
Duke of Beaufort, owner of the land. 

Thus commenced the great copper-works in the neighbourhood of Swansea, a neighbour- 
hood which, for miles round, they and their adjuncts have since swallowed up. The 
Aberavan or Taibach Works followed in 1727 ; Forest Works — Lockwood, Morris, and Co., 
1827, by removal from Uangyfelach ; Penclawdd, by John Vivian, in 1800 ; Loughor — Morris 
and Rees, 1809; the great Havod Works — R. H. & J. H. Vivian, 18 10; Morfa Works — 
Williams, Foster, and Co., 1834 ; Llansamlet Works, 1866. The amount of copper ore 
brought into Swansea, smelted and wrought into various forms and for various purposes, and 
then shipped off to different parts of the world, even at the present time, despite the fluctua- 
tions in the trade, must be enormous. 

The bad reputation which '* copper smoke " has earned from its effect upon vegetation is 
well known, although its effects on animal life, judging from the constant aggr^;ation of that 
life in Swansea and its district, would seem to be highly favourable. Dr. Percy, in his 
Metalhtrgy^ confirms the general opinion that ^ the sulphurous and choking exhalations of the 
copper-works are an unmistakable nuisance," and it is hard to believe that they can be 
conducive to health in man, or tree, or grass. They have had some hand in transforming the 
district of Havod, ^ the summer dwelling/* which a poet of 1737 apostrophized thus : — 

** Delightful Hayod, most serene abode I 
Thou sweet retreat, fit mansioii for a god ! 
Dame Nature lavish of her pfts we see, 
And paradise again restored in thee ! " 

into a region at least several degrees removed from a paradise, a region by which Sketty and 
the Ihrest do not, as then, ^' own themselves outdone," and to which *^ Swansea viigins " do 

not — 

** Every morn repair 
To range the fields and breathe the purer air.'* 

But chemical science, although it cannot grow trees and flowers amid the fires, smoke, 
dust, and rust of the modem Havod, has shovm how the deleterious exhalation of the copper- 
roasting fiimace may be made beneficial to vegetation. Gerstenhofer, the German chemist* 
recently discovered a method for condensing this sulphurous smoke into an add used in making 
phosphate manures. The marketable value of the article thus producible from the smoke 
which was escaping a few years ago from the Swansea copper-works has been estimated at 
;^2oo,ooo yearly ! The Messrs. Vivian immediately availed themselves of the invention 
and applied it to their works, and probably other proprietors have since followed their 
example. Mr. Hussey Vivian, in a speech he delivered on the subject in 1866, said he 
<* believed that that district was destined to become the fertilizer of a very large portion of 



54^ GLAMORG ANS HIRE. 

England** From the appliances which they had then by way of experiment set up, he 
thought that " they would produce manure enough for something like 40,000 acres of turnip 
every year." Superphosphates have now become an important article for the agriculturist, 
and we would fain hope that no more ** beautiful white smoke is seen rolling away over 
Kilvey HilL" 

Tl^e Nationality of Crime in Glamorgan. 

So peculiar is the composition of the population %f this county that its social and moral 
phenomena may be expected to have some features of their own. Drawn together from all 
parts of the kingdom by the prospect of employment and high wages^ and in many cases by 
the hope of shelter and prey, the crowded denizens of Merthyr, Aberdare, and Pontypridd, 
as well as of Swansea, Neath, and Cardiff, are not to be looked upon as belonging to the 
Webh nation except in a qualified sense, and that nation cannot be properly credited with 
their good or bad qualities as citizens. It is established beyond question that Wales is 
distinguished for its comparative freedom from crime ; it is equally clear that thci populous 
county of Glamorgan has more than the Welsh average of misdemeanants, and much more 
than the average of heinous crimes. These Oacts suggest unavoidably the questions, Is the 
prevalence of breaches of the law in Glamoiganshire traceable to the mixed character of the 
inhabitants ? and, What, among cases of conviction, is the proportion of Welsh persons to 
persons of other nationalities ? 

We are supplied with the following valuable observations on the general subject from the 
pen of J. C. Fowler, Esq., stipendiary magistrate for the Merthyr district, who beyond most 
others is qualified to speak upon it with authority : — 

** To a student of social characteristics nothing can be more interesting than the tracing 
of crime to its birthplaces. An investigation of this kind throws much valuable light upon 
the moral condition and social virtues and vices of any distinct populations, and on the 
incidents and circumstances which may be supposed to affect their conduct The immediate 
object of the following remarks is to discover and disclose how &r the population of the 
Principality yield to the temptation to crime, and what are the influences and circumstances 
which may be supposed to restrain them from )delding more than they do. 

^ The Principality comprises twelve counties, of which the entire population is about 
1,250,000. Of this number more than 400,000 souls are found in the single county of 
Glamoigan ; that is, one-third of the entire population of Wales. This county contains 
within its boundaries three very large parliamentary boroughs (of which two are great 
seaports), and also very extensive works of various kinds. All these commercial enterprises 
are carried on by the aid of large masses of Irish and English labourers and artificers. If 
any one will take the trouble to follow the accounts in the newspapers of the circuits of the 
judges of assize in Wales, he will perceive that their charges to the grand juries are almost 
always couched in complimentary terms in every county except Glamorgan. For example, 
on the i8th of July, 187 1, the judge of assize at Carmarthen is reported to have 'con- 
gratulated the Grand Jury on the fact that the calendar contained so few cases for trial' 
The number of prisoners was five. But the same judge is reported to have said in bis 
charge to the Grand Jury of Glamorganshire on the 2xst of the same month that *he could 



NATIONALITY OF CRIME IN GLAMORGANSHIRE. 549 

not congratulate them on the appearance of the calendar,' which contained the formidable 
number of thirty-six prisoners, and disclosed many serious offences. The calendars of 
prisoners for trial at the Quarter Sessions for this county are also exceptionally long, — far 
longer than the great majority of English counties produce. It therefore becomes important 
and interesting to discover how far these unpleasant phenomena are attributable to native 
vice, and how much is due to the immigrant population. For this purpose we take a return 
which has been supplied by the governors of the county prisons of the birthplaces of all the 
prisoners who have been in their custody for the last five years. The total number of 
prisoners in the county gaol at Cardiff during the last five years was 8,226. Of this number 
no less than 2,133 ^^^^ English, 129 Scotch, 555 foreigners, and 2,228 Irish, leaving a 
balance of only 3,181 Welsh prisoners out of the total of 8.226. 

" Again, the total number of prisoners who have been in the custody of the governor of 
the county gaol at Swansea during the last ^n years was 7,857. Of these, 1,570 were 
English, 82 Scotch, 1,461 Irish, 191 foreigners, 14 natives of colonies, and 74 unknown, 
leaving a balance of 4,471 Welsh prisoners out of the total 7,857. Again, if the calendar of 
one Quarter Sessions is taken at random as a sample, it will be found that in October, 1869, 
ninety prisoners were committed for trial. It appears that only about fifty of this number 
were natives of Wales, and still fewer natives of the county of Glamorgan. And at the 
sessions of June, 1870, out of 74 prisoners for trial 37 were not natives of Wales. These 
local indications are entirely corroborated by the general return of the birthplace of persons 
committed for trial in England and Wales. If the comnutments for the year 1865 are 
examined, it appears that out of 98,656 commitments only 3,435 related to natives of Wales, 
while 18,569 were Irish cases. These &cts and figures seem to establish the conclusion that 
though a dark shade of criminality has fallen upon the county of Glamorgan from the 
statistical returns supplied to the Legislature, it would be a grievous error to attribute it to 
the vicious tendencies of the native population. The fact is that whenever masses of persons 
are transferred from their native counties and parishes to distant localities, many powerfiil 
and riBStiaining influences are withdrawn from them. Ireland is remarkably firee from onUnary 
crime, but when the Irish are transplanted to England and Wales, they figure very darkly in 
the criminal statistics. The Welsh at home have the benefit of many restraining influences. 
The population is in general sparse, and consequently that natural police exists which consists 
in everybody knowing everybody and their pursuits. Then the Welsh people have a strong 
sense of the importance of religion, and almost every family is connected with one denomi- 
nation of Christians or another. The result of these and other corrective circumstances is 
the happy and creditable fact that probably very few families resident in the rural districts of 
Wales, not excepting Glamorga<i, would feel any apprehension in retiring to rest without 
taking any precautions whatever against nocturnal violence or intrusion." 

The question thus temperately and judiciously presented is worthy of the consideration of 
the county authorities, and administrators of justice. Our judges of assize, coming as 
pomparative strangers, are struck with the contrast between the calendar of Glamorganshire 
and Monmouthshire and those of other counties of Wales (for Monmouthshire is in reality in 
Wales), and too readily ascribe the difference to density of population. The cause is a much 
more complex one — the admixture of foreign nationalities, and not alwa3r8 the best materials 
of those nationalities. These parts are also sadly blighted by ** the curse of intemperance," 

2 o 



550 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

the prolific breeder of crime. That ingenious contrivance of modem legislation whereby 
revenue is made by multiplying temptations to intemperance, and spent in providing police 
and prisons to curb and punish the resulting disorder and crimCy displays its working in 
Glamorganshire with most deplorable effect 



Section VI.— OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

The two classes of families belonging to this section — those that are totally extifui^ and 
those that are oldy but in some cases in the collateral and female descents not quite extinct — 
are unusually numerous in Glamorganshire. And it is noteworthy that in the former class is 
included a lai^e proportion of foreign households introduced by the conquest of Glamorgan 
by the Normans. Glamorgan, in a far more msurked degree than Brecknockshire, became a 
Normanized region, as the latter county was more Normanized than any of the remaining 
counties of Wales. The disappearance of the Norman families has been total and most 
remarkable. No favour of fortune has been able to prolong their race. To some extent, no 
doubt, this is attributable to the fact that notwithstanding their possession of large estates in 
this country, their homes were properly the other side the Severn; there they had their 
widest domains, their family sepulchres, their alliances, and in most cases there their 
descendants continued longest to flourish. This applies to the De Breoses, Despencers, 
De Londres, De Clares, Humfrevilles, Bronvilles, Flemings, &c. But even there, for long 
ages, the effigies that repose upon their tombs, and the names inscribed in the annals of old 
England, are the only memorials left of the pride and renown of many of theoL It is not 
retribution, but the stem operation of natural law, before whose measured march all things 
human are made subject to incessant change, which has borne them away to oblivion. In Wales, 
of course, they were interlopers and unconscionable plunderers, but were not a whit worse 
than others of their time who had equal opportunities. Might was the patent to right in 
those da}'s of violence, not only as taught by the gigantic trespass made by T^^Uiam the 
Bastard on the liberties and rights of Englishmen, but by the semi-barbarous sentiments of 
the age in all European lands. 

By reason of the dominance of the Normans in this county, and the entire change they 
effected, we shall give them precedence in the memorials here introduced. On the ground 
of antiquity of origin most of them are not entitled to much consideration as compared with 
the households they overthrew ; for they were, in the literal sense of the term, adventurers, 
obtained property and founded families by one stroke of pillage. Drawn from the '^ firee 
companies " which traversed France, selling their lance and battle-axe to the highest bidder, 
hosts of William's knights had left no homes in that land, and had come in his train merely 
from a hope of bettering their fortune. And they are entitled to be called ^ Normans" only 
by a sort of courtesy — assuming that there is something honourable in the name beyond the 
halo which our cowardly nature ever paints around the head of success. We have no proof 
that of the twelve knights who became lords in Glamorgan, and the dozens of others less 
distinguished who under their shadow settled on the lands of the Welsh, there were half a 
dozen men of Norman blood. William himself, as we have already shown, was but in small 



EXTINCT NORMAN FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 551 

^ part of Scandinavian origin. Not a seventh part of his subjects in the duchy of Nonnandy 
were anything else but Celts — ^the old race, somewhat mixed, of ancient GauL But in 
drawing tc^ether his great army of invasion he had gone out to all the neighbouring 
provinces of France, and notably into Brittany — that country of a purely Celtic race, next 
relations to the Cymry of Wales ; and who will now say that most of the ** Normans '* who 
became Lords of Morgan wg under Fitzhamon were not of near consanguinity with the people 
whose lands they appropriated ? This is doubtless novel doctrine, but it necessarily follows 
from a candid scrutiny of historical facts. 



I — Extinct Families of "Norman" Descknt. 

Robert Fitzhamon, 

It has already been noted that Fitzhamon himself founded no family. Of four daughters 
he had, two embraced a religious life, and he was succeeded in his vast estates by his 
daughter Mabelia, or '^ Mabel,** wife of his successor, Robert of Gloucester. Fitzhamon's name 
therefore disappeared with himself. But although a conque]x>r — and often after the Norman 
fashion disposed to rule with a strong hand, — and in spite of the fact that his rule extended 
only over a period of some dozen years, and left little space therefore to soften down the 
asperities of conquest, Fitzhamon left behind him a character not entirely hateful to the 
Welsh. He had qualities which tended, had the age been of a milder temper, to cause 
the burden of oppression to lie lightly upon his vassal& Of his antecedents we know little, 
except that he was nearly related to William the Conqueror, succeeded his father, Hamon 
Dentatus, as Lord of Astremeville in Normandy, came to England as a knight in the 
service of the Conqueror, had assigned him the possessions of Brictric the Saxon, Lord -of 
Gloucester, of which he was seised when commissioned by Rufus to push on his fortunes 
among the South Welsh. Holding Gloucester and Glamorgan, he had also the care 
of his lands in Normandy, and while employed in a warlike expedition in that duchy was 
wounded with a spear at the siege of Falaise, of which wound he died a.d. i 102. He was 
brought to be buried at the abbey of Tewkesbury, which, as Lord of Gloucester, he had 
founded. He is said to have borne — ^^ Sa,^ a lion rcunpant guardant or^ incensed gu."* 



Robert of Gloucester. 

The second lord paramount of Glamorgan was Robert, natural son of Henry L by 
Nest, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales. Robert, by his wife Mabel, 
dau. of Fitzhamon, had four sons, — ^William, his successor as Lord of Glamorgan ; Roger, 
Bishop of Worcester, who died at Tours in France, a.d. 1179 ; Hamon, who died at the 
siege of Toulouse, a.d. 1159; and Philip. Robert of Gloucester was the founder of 
Margam Abbey and Keynsham Abbey. To him was committed by Henry L the custody 
of Robert, Duke of Normandy, whose long imprisonment in the Curthose Tower of Cardiff 



552 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Castle we have noticed. William was that Lord of Glamorgan (as weU as of Gloucester) 
who was captured by Ivor Bach, Welsh Lord of Castell Coch, in his castle of Cardiff, and, 
with his wife and son, carried away to the hills, and there detained until he had restored to 
Ivor ^'everything unjustly taken from him," and given ''compensation of additional 
property *' (Giraldus, Itin.y 6). He m. Hawise, dau. of the Earl of Leicester (the lady 
thus unceremoniously dealt with by Ivor), and dying a.d. 1173, was buried at Kejmsham 
Abbey, which his father had founded. Leaving no son his line ceased with himself, and 
he was ultimately succeeded by his younger daughter, Amicia, whose husband, Richard de 
Clare, Earl of Hertford, became, in his wife*s right, Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan. 



The De Clares, 

The De Clares, next to Fitzhamon and Robert of Gloucester, were the greatest of the 
Lords of Glamorgan. The first of their line in that lordship was the Richard just mentioned, 
who married Amicia, dau. of William, Lord of Glamorgan, son of Robert of Gloucester, 
and through her became Lord of Gloucester and Glamorgan. His son, Gilbert de Clare, 
his successor, active among the barons who brought King John to grant Magna Charta, m, 
Isabel, dau. of William Marshall (Mareschal), Earl of Pembroke, and had with other issue 
an eldest son, Richard, who, upon his death in Brittany a.d. 1229, inherited his lordships 
as a minor, under the guardianship of the famous Hugh de Burgh, Earl of Kent. Hugh de 
BuTgh had a dau., Margaret, whom young Richard de Clare had a liking for and married, 
much, it is said, to the displeasure of the king — ^the king in those days being considered 
entitled to advise, and at rimes even more than advise his barons in the matter of marriage, — 
but from whom he afterwards was divorced. His second wife was Maude, dau. of John de 
Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, by whom he had issue. His eldest son,^ 

Gilbert de Clare, sumamed by the Welsh, Gilbert GScA^ ^ the red," m. Alice de March, 
dau. of Guy, Count of Angouldme. She was niece of the French king, who bestowed upon 
her a porrion of 5,000 marks. He was the first Lord of Glamorgan who obtained pos- 
session of Caerphilly Castle (p. 534). Gilbert de Clare, like his father and grandfather, 
was zealous for the cause of the barons as against King Henry III. On the death of the 
king, A.D. 1272, he was one of the barons who met at the New Temple, London, to pro- 
claim King i^dward I. ; and on Edward's return from the Holy Land, where he was pur- 
suing his knightly duties at the time of his accession, was the first to welcome and entertain 
hint at his castle of Tonbridge. Having divorced his first wife, he «i., after the lapse of 
some years, Joan of Acre, dau. of King Edward I., who, in her turn, m., as her second 
husband, Ralph de Mortimer (see Caerphilly Caslle). Gilbert de Clare d. at Monmouth 
Castle A.D. 1295, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey. He left by his second wife, Joan, 
a son and successor, — 

Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, and Lord of Glamorgan, who at the time of his 
accession was only five years of age. He grew up to manhood, and was guardian of the 
kingdom during Edward IL's absence in the Scottish wars. He fell in the battle of Ban- 
nockbum, a.d. 13149 in his twenty-third year, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey with 



EXTINCT NORMAN FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 553 

his ancestors. Dying unmarried a.d. 13 13, and leaving no issue, he left his great possessions 
to his three sisters, co-heiresses, and the earidom of Gloucester as well as the line of the 
De Clares became extinct. The anns of the De Clares were — (7r, three chevrons gu. 



The Despencers, 

Hugh le Despencer, temp. Edward II., had a son Hugh, who m. Eleanor, eldest sister 
of the last Gilbert de Clare above named, and in her right became Lord of Glamorgan. 
Too ambitious of extending his territory, and favoured by the king, he came into conflict 
with De Breos, Lord of Gower, and other barons, among whom were De Bohun, Mortimer, 
Audley, Mowbray, Berkley, Seys, and Talbot, who took up arms, ravaged his lands in 
Morganwg, formed so large a confederacy among the barons of England and the Marches 
as to overpower the king, Despencer*s protector, and obtain a sentence of deprivation and 
banishment against the obnoxious Despencer family. The Earl of Leicester, however, who 
was at their head, was defeated in the field, and the Despencers' prospects once more 
brightened. The young Hugh Despencer is said now to have procured from the king, in 
addition to his former lordship of Glamorgan (see Dugdaie)^ the manors and castles of 
Swansea, Oystermouth, Pennard, and Loughor, in Gower, which he exchanged with 
Eleanor, wife of John de Burgh, for the manors and castles of Usk, Tre-grug, Caerleon, &c, 
in Monmouthshire. The ruins of his magnificence are still seen at Caerphilly (see Caer-- 
philly Castle). Adversity, however, in time overcame both king and favourite, and (his 
father having already perished) Despencer lost his life on the scaffold, having been im- 
peached before Parliament at Hereford a.d. 1326. His sentence was, ^to be drawn upon 
a hurdle, with trumps and trumpets, throughout all the city of Hereford, and then to be 
hanged and quartered." 

He left two sons, Hugh and Edward. The former became Lord of Glamorgan, having 
been received into &vour by the new sovereign, Edward IIL, who bestowed upon him an 
extensive share of the possessions of his late father, which upon his impeachment had 
escheated to the Crown. In the 17th Edward III. he is styled Lord of Glamorgan, and on his 
death, six years subsequently, he was seised of the several manors and castles which had 
belonged to his father in Glamorganshire. He had m. Elizabeth, dau. of William Montacute, 
Earl of Salisbury, who afterwards married Guy de Breos, taking with her as her dower 
among other of their late husband's possessions in Glamorganshire, ** the castle, town, and 
manor of Neath, the hamlets of Cilybebyll and Britton, the whole territory of Nedd, on 
both sides the river, the castle, lordship, and town of Kenfig, the castle and manor of 
Llanblethian, and the castle, town, and manor of Talyvan." This Hugh Despencer dying 
without issue a.d. 1349, his other possessions passed to his brother Edward, who in turn was 
followed by his son, — 

Edward Despencer, Lord of Glamoigan, whose wife was Elizabeth, daiL and heiress of 
Baron Burgherst This was the Despencer who accompanied the Black Prince to France 
and fought at Poictiers (see p. 536). He di^ at Cardiff (Caerphilly Castle being probably 
no longer one of the family residences) ad. 1375, and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey, 
leaving his son Thomas as his successor in the lordship of Glamorgan. 



554 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Thomas Despencer m. Constance, dau. of Edmund de Langley, Duke of York, fifth son 
of Eang Edward III. He it was who petitioned Parliament for a reversal of the sentence of 
banishment still recorded against his great-grandfather, though now, as regarded his family, 
practically a dead letter. In this he succeeded, as well as in obtaining the favour of 
Richard II., and for a time with great zeal and devotion espoused the king's cause against 
the House of Lancaster. But in this case neither liege lord nor feoffee was a person long to 
be depended upon. Despencer basely deserted a base master, and assisted in his deposition; 
but the next king, Henry IV., showed little appreciation of his services : as soon as he had 
seated himself on the throne, Despencer was deprived of all his estates, apprehended at 
Bristol in his attempt to fly the kingdom, condemned by the House of Commons, and 
executed in the market-place of Bristol a.d. 1400. He left a son, Richard, who d, s>p. 141 4, 
and one surviving dau., Isabel. His estates in Glamorganshire, which had escheated to the 
Crown on his impeachment, were restored to his widow, and descended to the dau. and her 
heirs. (See Beauchamps below.) Thus ended the proud, grasping, and unfortunate family 
of Despencer, who had been oppressors of the weak, and flatterers and traitors towards the 
strong. Their arms were — Quarterly^ arg, andgu,^ in t/ie second and third quarters a fret or; 
over all a hend sa. 



The Beauchamps. 

Richard Beauchamp, Baron Abergavenny, afterwards cr. Earl {conus) of Worcester by his 
mairiage with Isabel Despencer above named, succeeded to the lordship of Glamorgan, and 
held his coiurt at Cardiff Castle. On his death (a.d. 143 i) his widow m.y by special dispensation 
from the Pope, his relative, Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, one of the most distin- 
guished knights of the age. He visited the Holy Land, and signalized his strength and prowess 
in many tournaments and feats of arms. Upon his death, which took place at Rouen in 
Normandy, a.d. 1439, ^^^ earldom and lordship vested in his son Henry. This young earl in 
his nineteenth year tendered his services for the defence of the duchy of Aquitaine, was 
created, a.d. 1444, Premier Earl of England, advanced to the dignity of Duke of Warwick, 
with next precedency, along with the Duke of Buckingham, to the Duke of Norfolk. His 
territorial influence under grants and charters from the king was largely increased in the 
Channel Islands, the Isle of Wight, Somersetshire, and Wales. He obtained the Forest of 
Dean, with its castles and manors, for a rental of ^100 a year. He is said to have been 
married, when only ten years of age, to Cicely, dau. of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, 
by whom he left an only dau., Anne, bom at Cardiff Castle, upon whose death in 1449 the 
lordship of Glamorgan, and her other estates and honours, devolved upon her aunt, Anne, 
sister of the late Duke of Warwick. She was at this time married to Richard Neville, Earl of 
Salisbury, who was shortly after cr. Earl of Warwick. Here ended the name of Beauchamps, 
Lords of Glamorgan. The Beauchamps bore — Gu,^ a /esse between three cross crcsslets^ or. 



OLD AND EXTINCT NORMAN FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 555 

lite Nanlles. 

Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury of that day, bom about 1420, became the husband of 
Anne, sister and heiress of Henry Beauchamp, Lord of Glamorgan, and in her right became 
Earl of Warwick and Lord of Glamorgan. He is well known in English history as ^' the 
kingmaker," and his influence in public affairs, like that of the Beauchamps and Despencers, 
was much greater through his English than through his Welsh territories. The lordship of 
Glamorgan had by this time fallen into some obscurity, and the great castle of Caerphilly 
was scarcely used as one of the lord*s castles. His vast power in the state was owing to an 
unusual combination of circumstances and personal qualities. His two uncles, William and 
Edward, were at the same time, through marriage, Barons Fauconberg and Abergavenny, 
and another uncle, George Neville, also through marriage, was Baron Latimer. Still more 
important was his relation to Richard, Duke of York, who had married Cecily, dau. of 
Warwick's grandfather, the Earl of Westmoreland, and who, as representative of Lionel, 
Earl of Clarence, third son of Edward III., was the lineal heir to the throne now occupied 
by the House of Lancaster, descended from Edward IV.'s son, John of Gaunt In this way 
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, and King Edward IV., son of Richard, Duke of York, 
were first cousins. He was slain 1471, and his estates were forfeited. 

It has been said that at this time the Nevilles were the most extensively and infiuentially 
connected family that has ever existed among the nobility of England. All these advantages, 
however, would have proved of little value to an inferior or indiscreet man. Richard 
Neville was neither. Of good intellectual capacity and ready eloquence, he was courteous 
and affable in behaviour, brave, prompt, and enduring as a solJier, and boundless as well as 
magnificent in hospitality. Stow says of him (Chronuie\ "When he came to London he 
held such an house that six oxen were eaten of a breakfast, and every tavern was full of his 
meat ; for who [ever] had any acquaintance in that house, should have as much sodden and 
roast as he might carry upon a long dagger." Wherever he resided he kept open house ; 
the number of people welcomed to his tables at his various mansions was so great that they 
have been computed, perhaps with some exaggeration, at not less than thirty thousand. 

The whole history of the struggle between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians is the 
history of this remarkable man. From the first armed rising against Henry VL, a.d. 14559 
to the settlement upon the throne of Edward IV., after the defeat of the Lancastrians at the 
battle of Bamet, his genius and energy were felt. 

The Earl of Warwick leaving no son, in him the line of the Nevilles became extinct, and 
virtually also that of Lords of Glamorgan. His eldest dau., Isabel Neville {d. 1477), m, 
George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV., and lefl by him (who was 
put to death in 1478) a son, Edward, styled Earl of Warwick, beheaded on Tower Hill in 
1499 ; and a dau., Margaret, cr. Countess of Salisbury, also executed on Tower Hill, at the 
age of seventy, in 1541. The Earl of Warwick's second dau., Anne Neville, m. first Edward, 
Prince of Wales, son of Henry VL, who was murdered in 147 1, by whom she had no issue ; 
and secondly, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, afterwards King Richard III., who kept the 
lordships of Glamorgan and Abergavenny in his own hands during his lifetime, after which 
they fell to Henry VII., his uncle. Thus ended the house of Neville. 

Tlie arms of the Nevilles were — Gu,^ a saltier arg. 



556 GLAMOKGANSHIKE. 

The lordship of Glamorgan (with that of Abergavenny), now held by the first Tudor 
king, was conferred by him upon his uncle, Jasper, Earl of Pembroke (younger son of Owen 
Tudor, of Fenmynydd M6n\ upon whose death it again reverted to the Crown, and was held 
by Henry VIII. and his son, Edward VI. This young king sold the lordship to William 
Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, from whom it has descended to the present noble owner. 
(See further under Bute^ Marquis of,) 

Here cease those great baronial families, the Lords of Glamorgan proper ; and we have 
next to notice another powerful but less magnificent family who held a lordship in (Jower, 
not under obligation of service to the Lord Paramount of Glamorgan, but directly under the 
king. 

Tht De Breos Family, 

After the Lords of Glamorgan above enumerated, the most important family of Norman 
descent which bore rule in this county was that of De Breos^ whose lordship in Gower was a 
Lordship Marcher. Their principal territories in Wales, however, were the lordships of 
Brecknock and Abergavenny. Philip de Breos, whose father, William de Breos, came to 
England with the Conqueror, in right of his wife, dau. of Fitz- Walter, Earl of Hereford, be- 
came seised of the lordships of Brecknock, Abergavenny, and C^ower, and held besides the 
barony of Brembre in Sussex, with some fifty-six other lordships in that and other counties 
(Doomsday), He d. in the reign of Henry IL This great house continued through eight 
successions — the last of the Gower line being William de Breos, who in the 22nd of 
Edward I., a.d. 1294, was one of the lords summoned to z, parliament on the affairs of the 
nation, and in the 29th year of the same king received a like summons in the rank of barons. 
Edward also granted him Jura regalia in Ck>wer of equal extent and dignity with those 
enjoyed by Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Glamorgan. Being, however, as Walsingham has 
it, a person of "* large patrimony but great unthrift," he deemed it convenient to dispose by 
sale his territory of Gower to the Earl of Hereford, who was deprived of it by force by 
Hugh Despencer the younger. King Edward XL's favourite. This led to the insurrection 
of the barons under the leadership of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. William de Breos, 
Lord of Gower, d. a.d. r32 2, leaving no male issue. See further De Breos^ p. 69, &a, and 
Nicolas, Synop. of Peerage^ i., 82. . 

Two of the De Breoses, Reginald {d, 122 r) and his son William (d, 1229), came into 
intimate relationship with Llewelyn ap lorwerth. Prince of North Wales. The former 
married Gwladys, the prince's daughter; the latter became his prisoner at Aber palace, and 
abusing the indulgence shown him, exposed himself to the righteous vengeance which cut 
short his life on the gallows (p. 69). We have already shown that Caerphilly Castle came 
first to the De Breos family by grant of it to this Reginald by his father-in-law Llewelyn, 

The De Breos arms were ^Az,^ semee of cross crosslets gu,, a lion rampant or^ armed and 
languedgii. The De Breoses, Lords of Brecknock, are also said (see Jones's Flist. of Breck.) 
to have borne Barry of six vair of ermine and gu. 

The above were Barones Majores^ holding from the sovereign : the following were Barones 
Minores^ holding firom, and under obligation of service' to the great Barons, and not, like 
them, entitled to be summoned to the king's council. 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 557 

m 

Dt GranvilU, 

The line of Granville is traced to Rollo, the first Scandinavian conqueror of Normandy, 
and from Rollo Richard Granvyl, Granvyld, or Granville, who came over with his relative, 
William the Conqueror, was sixth in descent He was brother of Robert Fitzhamon, whom 
he assisted in the conquest of Glamorgan, and received for his services the lordship of 
Neath (see Neath Abbey and Castie), Though Richard himself is said to have returned to 
Normandy, and afterwards to have taken the cross and died on a journey to Palestine, he 
left a son and successor to his estates in Wales. The line, however, did not continue long in 
Wales, but much longer in Cornwall (see GrenfeU^ Maestig House\ where Richard's grandson, 
also named Richard, m, a dau. of James Trewynt, of Trewynt, or Treint. (See Pedigree 
of Lady Uanaver.) The Granvilles bore — Gu.^ three clarions or. 



De Londres. 

William de Londres (or Londinensis), supposed to have been bom in London, a soldier 
under Fitzhamon in compassing the conquest of Glamorgan, and thereafter Lord of Ogmore, 
or Aberogwr, had a son, Maurice de Londres, who divides with his father the honour of 
founding Ewenny Abbey (see Ewenny Abbey), Maurice, otherwise called Me3aick, left a 
son, William de Londres, who succeeded him as Lord of Ogmore. Both father and son are 
highly extolled also for their grants of land to Neath Abbey and monastery, and for their 
personal valour and general excellence. The line soon lost its prominence in Glamorgan- 
shire, its chief possessions and place of burial being in England, where also its political 
influence mainly lay. 

The De Londres arms were — Gu,^ three trefoils slipped in bendarg.^ in chief a lion passant or. 



De TurbervilU of Coity. 

The Turbervilles at one time were a numerous family with several branches in Gla- 
morganshire, as at Ty th^ston, Penlline, and Llanilltyd, or Lantwit \ but were in all cases 
sprung from the Turbervilles of Coity Castle, the first of whose line, as ah*eady shown (see 
Coity Castle), was Sir Pain de Turberville. Tiiis " Norman " was probably, as his name 
would indicate, derived from the Celts of Brittany or Normandy, a probability made all the 
stronger by his choosing to wife the dau. of Morgan ap Meurig, the Welsh lord of Coity. He 
was the first of the foreign race to set this example, and was not readily imitated. He is 
said to have been followed at Coity Castle in regular succession by ten or eleven of his 
descendants, eight of whom were from father to son direct,— Gilbert, Pain, Pain, Gilbert, 
Richard, Pain, Gilbert, which last Gilbert was succeeded by his brother Richard, with whom 
issue male failed, and who devised the Coity lordship to his nephew. Sir Laurence Berkrolles 
who d. A.D. 141 2. (See Berkrolles of St. Athan's^ and Gamage of Coity Castle,) 

The arms of De Turberville are said to have been — Cheeky^ or andgv., a chief ermine. 



( 



558 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

m 

De BerkroUes of St Athan's. 

This 'family was settled at East Orchard, St Athan's, for nearly 300 years, the first 
founder of the house being Sir Roger BerkroUes, who received the lordship as a reward for 
his knightly service under Robert Fitzhamon. The last of the line male. Sir Laurence 
BerkroUes, whose fortune, as seen under TurbervilU of Coity Castle^ was increasing when his 
name was about to pass into obUvion, by his wife, a dau. of the Despencers, had no 
issue (see p. 522), and his inheritance passed to Sir Edward Stradling, who was maternaUy 
descended from the BerkroUes. The BerkroUes arms were — Az,^ a chevron betufem three 
crescents or. 



De Humfre7nlle of Peumark. 

Gilbert de Humfreville was founder of this house. Having assisted Fitzhamon in the 
subjugation of Morganwg, he was presented with the lands of Penmark, or Penroarch Howell, 
and his heirs male enjoyed the same untU the reign of Edward III., when the Une ceased, 
and the lordship of Penmark descended to Sir John St John, of Fonmon Castle. Sir Henry 
de Humfreville, Kt., was living near the end of the reign of Edward II. [circa 1327), as 
shown by his signature to a deed to which are also attached the names of Sir Philip 
Fleming, Sir WiUiam BerkroUes, &c The HumfreviUe arms were — Arg.^ afesse between six 
cinguefjils gu. 



St, John of Fonmon CoLStU. 

One of the " twelve knights," Sir Oliver St John (to whom, however, Burke gives the 
nzxn^ Johti), received as his share of the lands of Glamorgan the lordship of Fonmon. This 
was about a.d. 1094-5, and his descendants are said to have continued to possess, if not 
always to reside at Fonmon Castle, for 400 years or more, when Sir Oliver St John of that 
place, an adventurous soldier in Ireland under Elizabeth, was raised to the peerage of 
England a.o. 1559, under the title of Baron St. John of Bletsoe, Viscount Grandison, 
and Baron Tregoze, being descended through a remote maternal ancestor from the 
Beaucliamps, Lords of Bletsoe, in Northamptonshire (comp. D. Jenkin's MS., p. 221). 
His son, also called Oliver, 3rd Baron, was advanced in 1624 to the dignity of Earl of 
* Bolingbroke, a title which became extinct, and was renewed in the same family in favour of 
Henry St. John, die celebrated politician and writer of the time of Queen Anne and 
George I., cr. Baron Tregoze and Viscount Bolingbroke a.d. 17 12. Oliver St John, first 
Earl Bolingbroke, sold the Fonmon estate about the middle of the seventeenth century to 
Col. Philip Jones, M.P., one of Cromwell's privy council, ancestor of the present proprietor 
{s^tfonesy Fontnon Castle), The title. Baron St John of Bletsoe, still survives. 

Fonmon in the Norman-French took the form Faumont^ but does not seem to have been 
a name imposed by the Normans, who are more likely to have corrupted in this as in many 



k 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GL\MORGAN. 559 

Other cases an earlier native designation. Close by runs a stream called Cen-fon^ and both 
names are related. 

The St Johns bore — Arg.^ on a c/iUfgu.^ two mtdUts pierced or. 



Le EsUrling {Stradling) of Si, Donafs CastU, 

We have no better account of the first entrance of this family upon Welsh territory than 
that given in Caradoc's Bruty to the effect that when Robert Fitzhamon took upon himself 
the rule and chieftainship of the whole district of Glamorgan, " to WiUiam Desterlin was 
allotted the lordship of Llanwerydd'^ — the earlier designation of St Donat's. Of a family 
which in after time; occupied a place almost vying in importance with that of the major 
barons, we have little information until this William de Esterling, or le Esterling — a name 
which gradually resolved itself in the popular articulation, and even in written record, into 
the form Stradling — took his share of the lands which Fitzhamon did homage for to Rufus, 
A.O. 1093 or 1094. It has been said by Collins that William le Esterling derived originally 
from the "eastern people called Easterlings^ who dwelt near the Baltic Sex ;" but whether 
this is anything better than a conjecture suggested by the form of the name we cannot say. 

The sixth in descent after Sir William was Sir Peter Stradling, Knt, who m, Joan, sole 
heir of Thomas Hawey, of Cwmhawey, in Somerset, now called Comb-hay. He was 
succeeded by his son, Sir Edward, who m, Eleanor, dau. of Sir Gilbert Strongbow. To 
him and his wife and children, William de Sando Donate^ Abbot of Neath (probably a 
relative), in consideration of certain concessions, gave, in 1341, "a general participation of 
the spiritual good things of his abbey, and foimded an obit after their death, annually 
for ever" (see Clark's Castle of St. Donats^ 1871). In the deed executed on the occasion 
Sir Edward is denominated '* Dominus de Sancto Donato Anglicanus** — a description which 
seems to imply either a preceding or a contemporary Wallicanus Lord of St. Donat*s. 

The next Sir Edward, Knight of the Sepulchre, son of the last, was sent to Pariiament by 
the CO. of Somerset in the 17th Edward IIL, or 1344, and was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1367. 
Through his wife, Gwenllian, dau. and eventually h. of Sir Roger Berkrolles, he became 
possessor of East Orchard and Merth}!: Mawr. 

The Stradlings had a vein of piety and a taste for pilgrim adventure. The last-mentioned 
Sir Edward, and his son Sir William, both visited Jerusalem, and obtained the dignity — much 
coveted in those days — of Knight of the Sepulchre. Sir William's son and successor, Sir 
Edward Stradling, also made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and found a grave at Jerusalem 
about A.D. 1478. He m. Jane, dau. of Henry Beaufort, son of John of Gaunt, and in 
addition to a number of illegitimate children, he had by his wife a son and successor, Sir 
Harry Stradling^ whose story acquired a tinge of romance from his capture, while crossing 
the Severn estuary, by the Breton pirate, Colin Dolphin. His captor demanding a ransom 
price of 2,200 marks, or about ;;^i,40o, Sir Harry to meet the exaction had to sell his manor 
of Sutton in Glamorganshire, and those of Bassal^ Rogerston, and Tregwilym, in Monmouth- 
shire, besides two manors in the co. of Oxford^a transaction which throws some light on 
the value of land and money, as well as on the state of society in those days. Sir Harry, 



56o GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

like his fore&thers, paid a visit to Jerusalem, and died on his way home in the island of 
Cjrprus, being at the time only about thirty years of age. A letter he wrote from Rome to 
his wife (Elizabeth, dau. of Sir William ap Thomas Herbert, Lord of Raglan) is worth 
quoting, in illustration of the customs and sentiments of the times, as well as of the English 
used by Sir Harry Stradling. 

" Ryght heiteley belowyd wyfe, I grete wele a thowsande tymea^ lettynge yowe wete [know] that at the 
makyog of this letf I was in gode hele, eblessyd be God, and that is grete wond', for there was nev* meft that 
had so pelowse [perilous] a wey as we hadde, save only eworschep be God we were not let [hindered] in no 
place, nor tangled : the pilgremys that were goyng to Gales [Calais] were iij tymes cast alonde w* storme ; and 
assone as I come, eblessyde be God, we were over w^ iiij owres, and taried there till the fiirst Sonday o' 
Clene Lent, tmd a Sonday aff mas we toke our jome, and wente owte of the towne vij schore p'sones, and went 
so till we come to the londe of Luke [Lucca], and there euery mafi dyd wex wery of othur. NotwStonding I 
met at Londofi iij of my sonne Mile is neyperes [neighbours] aprest [ready] and ij othur. Also, Joh*n \Vach*n 
[ Vychan] and Joh'n Lewis Gont* yo' cosyii, and iiij w* them ; and so we were xij p'sons. and n" nev* dep'tyd 
[separated] till we come to Rome, . . . and a gode Fryday in the momyng we come to Rome ; the nyght 
tafore we lay in a forest und' a tre, evell at ese by cause we wolde overtake the . . . and see the vemicle 
[a relic of St. Veronica]. And so we saw hit Friday, Sat'day a Sonday -to fore masse— the pope he assoyled 
[absolved] vs of plena remyssio, & afte' he hadde songe his masse he come ageyft and assoyled them as fre as 
that day theye were borS, and for to say that there was pepull, there was w^oute nom', and for se othur plac** 
of Remission w^out eny mo nom'. And also as tochyng yo' absoluciofi I hadde grete labo^ and cost to gete 
hit vnd' ledde, and therefore lett eny maA or woma& bewar howe he makythe a vow, hit is akowven't must be 
kept Also I hope to God to remove towarde Wenys [Venice] by litell est* day, and I have gete my licens 
of the Pope and iiij Engiische mefi more w* me ; and yef I kan go in savete, I will go. yef no I will be at home 
by Mydsomr, and yef I go h' will be alhalowyn tyde or I come home. And also Richard Rethe [Rees] b in 
gode hele blessyd be God, save he was a litell crasid in his legge a fortenygt w* a senewe spronge, and nowe he 
is hole. Notw'stondyng Tom Gethyn offeryd to go in his place, but he will not by no mene. Also I pray 
yowe to se my dayes kept at Barry, for y* dayes must nede be kept or ellse I must be schamyd. Also I 
requere yowe to thynke ou* my last will, as my trust is in yowe abowe all pepull. Also astochyng the 
westment at Londofi there is apofi hit iij 11 [pounds] whereof I payed a nobull in emyst ; Joh*n de Bole kail 
tell, he was at the bargeA makyng & William Jenkyfl. Also. the Kyng of Hungery hathe hadde a grete distress 
aponne Turk* to the nomer of xl thowsande and his sonne takyfl and is w' Cristen mefi, and therefore I trus^ 
to God ow* wey will be the bett". Also as for yo** absolucion Tom Gethyn bryngethe hit home, by cause y* 
porer y* a man g03rthe the bet?* hit is, but hit costithe grete gode [a large sum], and nere hit were [were it not ] 
for yo' sowle his helthe hit schulde nev* be boght for me ; I hadde neuer so grete travayle fomo thyng. Also 
that ye be gode maystres to Res De [Rhjrs Du — *'the black ''] ; he was gode to me cc myle in my feleschepe, 
and boed [remained] behynde at the last and meght not go. And when I come to Rome I met w* Thom Gethyfi 
and there he went not fro me, but went all the staciones w* me bett' then he y^ hadde be here vij yere to fore, 
for he knewe evy place as well w^oute y* towne as w'yn, and bode here iiij dayes apofi his cost to have you' 
bull [of absolution]. Right hertely belowyd wyfe, almyhty IHU have yowe in his kepynge ; and loke that ye 
be agode chere and prey for me, as I trust to God to pray for yowe ; for I trust to God at this ow* I am clene 
to God and to the worlde, as dene as y* day I was borne. 

*' Wret3m at Rome the last day of Marche. Yo' husbonde, Harre Straolyng. 

(Addressed) "To my Right hertely belowyd wyfe, Elyzabethe Stradlyng.*' 

The above letter was printed in the ArcAceologia^ from the autograph . still in possession 
of Col. G. G. Francis, F.S.A. It shows how completely the magnates of that day were 
subject to the power of the priesthood, and to ceremonial conceptions of religion. Of 
Sir Harry's morals we have little account beyond what is favourably implied in the tenor of 
this letter; but some of his immediate predecessors, equally zealous with himself as pilgrims 
to Rome, were not always ** as clean to God and to the world as the day they were bom." Sir 
Harry left a son, named Thomas, who m, Janet, dau. of Thomas Mathew, Esq., of Radir 
(who m, as her second husband Sir Rhys ap Thomas, of Dinefawr), and dying young, left 
two sons, Edward and Harry. The former succeeded, and m, Elizabeth, dau. of Sir Thomas 
Arundel, Knt, of Laneyron, in Cornwall, and had by her four sons and two daus. (besides 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 561 

a number of illegitimate children)^ the heir being Thomas, who succeeded on the death of 
his £fither in 1535 ; was Sheriff of Glamorgan 1547-8 ; knighted by Edward VI. 1549 ; 
Commissioner for the Marches of Wales ; M.P. for East Grinstead ; Commissioner for the 
Suppression of Heretics, under Elizabeth, 1558. He m, Catherine, dau. of Sir Thomas 
Gamage, of Coity. The building of the Stradling Chapel in St. Donat's Church is ascribed 
to him. 

It was this same Sir Thomas Stradling {State Papers^ Eliz., Vol. XVII.) who was com- 
mitted to the Tower by command of Elizabeth, for the pretended " invention " 9r discovery 
of the form of a crass^ " rather longer than a man*s foot," in the interior substance of a 
tree on his. estate blown down in a storm. Sir Edward, believing in the miracle, gets the 
cross ^ copyed ;" our Lords of the Council, and her dread Majesty, hear of the scandal, 
and Sir Thomas, as a lesson in Protestantism, is '' sent to the Tower" ! From this durance, 
he, the proud Lord of St. Donat's, as a beseeching *^ orator " sends his humble petition to 
the Queen's most excellent Majesty, and explains that, ''wher as abowte Est' 1559 certein 
trees were cast down by the wynde in a park of your orator's in Wales amongest the whych 
ther was one tree cloven in the myddes from the top downe hard to the grownde . . . 
in the very sape or hert whereof was a picture of a crosse of xiiij. inches longe, apparent, 
and pleyn to be seen, ... of which crosse your orator made a patron [pattern] con- 
teyning the length, brede, and facion thereof, and biyngeng the same w^ hym to London 
caused iiij pictures thereof to be painted. . . . Yo'r orator is very sorye that he had not 
fyrst fownde meanes to have made yo*r Grace prevy therof ; ... for yf he had knowen 
or thought that yo'r Highnes or yo'r counsell wolde have ben offendyd there w^ or taken it 
in yll parte, he wolde not for any thing have done it And for as moche as that he dyd 
therein was not don upon any sediciouse purpose or yll entent, but only of ignorance, for the 
which he have all redy susteyned above v. weykes imp'sonme't, yo'r orator most humbly 
besecheth yo'r mostte excellent ma* of yo'r accostomed clemencie to here w^ hys ignorance 
therin,** &c. Cecil, the minister, who thought it salutary '' to punish massmongers, for the 
rebating of their humours/' sees from these words that his method is succeeding. But 
there is yet much questioning and careful inquiry. A commission is appointed to examine 
the ** tree," and the part of the tree is cut out and sent up to London ! In the end. 
Sir Thomas Stradling is allowed, on his giving a bond to forfeit 1,000 marks, should he fail 
to appear if called upon before the Privy Council, to return to his home (see Clark's 
St. Donafs Castle, p. 22). His son and heir was — 

Sir Edward Stradling, the ablest and most eminent of his house, a man of refined tastes, 
a patron of Welsh literature, and an author. Anthony a' Wood {^Athena Oocon,) says of him 
that having been educated in the University of Oxford, he travelled '* in various countries, 
spent some time at Rome, returned an accomplished gentleman, and retiring to his inherit- 
ance, which was large, built a firm structure on that foundation of literature he had laid at 
Oxford and elsewhere, . . . was at the charge of such herculean works for the public 
good that no man in his time went beyond him for his singular knowledge in the British 
language and antiquities, for his eminent encouragement of learning and learned men, and 
for his great expense and indefatigable industry in collecting together several ancient manu- 
scripts of learning and antiquity, all which, with other books, were reduced into a well-ordered 
library at St Donat's, to the great credit and renown of the family. He writ a Welsh 



562 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Grammar mostly in Latin. He wrote also the conquest of the lordship of Glamorgan by 
Morganwg, with other pieces, and having m. Agnes, dau. to Sir Edward Gage, of Firle, in 
Sussex, paid his last debt to nature 15 th May, 1609." He was sheriff three times, and was 
builder of the sea wall at St. Donates. A collection of letters addressed to him was published 
by the late antiquary, the Rev. J. M. Traheme. Dying s,p, in 1609 in his eightieth year, 
he was succeeded by his kinsman, — 

Sir John Stradling, ist Bart, son of Francis, son of Henry, grandson of the Sir Harry who 
was captured by the pirates, and wrote the interesting letter to his ** right hertely belowyd 
wyfe " which we have given. Sir John was also a man of some literary tastes. He graduated 
at Oxford 1583, "being then accounted a miracle for his forwardness in learning and 
pregnancy of parts" (Wood). He travelled abroad, was cr. a baronet 161 1, and settled at 
St. Donat's. He published a volume of Latin epigrams, Baiti Pacifici^ 1623 ; and ^^ Divine 
Poems *' in seven several classes, '* written to King Charles I." He m. Elizabeth, dau. of 
Edward, son of Sir Edward Gage of Firle (and niece of Agnes, the last Sir Edward's wife), 
and had a numerous family. His death took place 1637, when his eldest son, — 

Sir Edward Stradling, Kt., and 2nd Bart of St Donat's, succeeded to the estates. He 
was a colonel in the army of Charles I., for whom he and his brothers fought with entire 
devotion. At Edgehill he was taken prisoner. His wife was Mary, dau. of Sir Thomas 
Mansel of Margam. Sir Edward d. 1644, and was buried at Oxford in the chapel of Jesus 
College. His eldest son, — 

Sir Edward Stradling, 3rd Bart., was a staunch and active soldier in the army of Charles I. 
He brought a troop of horse of his own to aid the king at Newbury, and after the disaster of 
that day retired to Oxford (as his father had done after the battle of Edgehill), and there 
died of consumption, it is said before his &ther. He had m. Catherine, dau. of Sir Hugh 
Perry, and wife afterwards of Bussey Mansel of Breton Ferry. Their eldest son, — 

Sir Edward Stradling, 4th Bart, M.P. for Cardiff 169B, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Anthony 
Hungerford, Esq., and had several sons, of whom the eldest, Edward, inherited the title and 
estates as 6th Bart; was Sheriff of Glamorgan 1710, M.P. for Cardiff 1714 — 1722; m. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Sir Edward Mansel of Maigam, by whom he had issue several children, 
who all died young. The property and tide descended to his brother, — 

Sir Thomas Stradling, 6th Earl, who d, unmarried 1738, in his twenty-eighth year, when 
the tide and Ime of Stradling became exdnct His estates passed to Bussy, Lord Mansel, for 
the term of his life, and thereafter became the subject of prolonged lidgadon, which ended 
in ample benefit to the lawyers, and a setdement by authority of Parliament by which they 
were divided into four portions: (i) St Donates and Sully, which fell to the share of Sir 
John Tyrwhit, Bart., " by virtue of a deed entered into between Sir Thomas and Sir John 
during their travels in foreign countries " (Jenkin's MS.). (2) Merth]rr Mawr and Monknash 
were allotted to Hugh Bowen of Kitde Hill, grandson, on the mother's side, of Sir Edward 
Stradling. This portion was divided between him and his eldest son, George. (3) Penlline^ 
Llamphey, and Cwmhawey in Somerset fell to I^uisa Barbara Mansel, dau. and h. of Bussy 
Mansel of Briton Ferry, '' by virtue of a deed made by Sir Thomas Stradling' to his first 
cousin, the said Bussy Mansel, afterwards Lord Mansel." She tn. George Venables Vernon, 
cr. Lord Vernon. (4) St. Athan's esute was sold to pay the lawyers. 

The arms of the Stradlings were — Paly of eight arg, and az,, on a bend gu. three 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 563 

cinquefnls or. The ancient crest — A pdkan rising or; the modem crest — A stag courant^ 
collared arg., attired and ungitled or. 

The present owner, by purchase, of St Donaf s Castle, claims to be the nearest repre- 
sentative living of thb eminent fiimily. (See Ntc/wU-Came of St. Donates Castle.) 



Le Fleming of St. George and Flemingston. 

The first of this family in Glamorgan was Sir John le Fleming, on whom Fitzhamon is 
said to have bestowed the manors of St George, Wenvoe, Flemingston, Llanmaes, &c His 
wife was Amicia, dau. of Baldwin Magnus, Lord of Whitney. He had a younger son, 
called by the Welsh Fleming melyn^ " the yellow," to whom he gave the manors of Fleming- 
ston and Constantine Walles, ^ which continued in his descendants until, on failure of issue 
male, William Fleming sold the estate to Lewis Thomas, Esq., of Bettws." 

Sir John Fleming's eldest son. Sir William Fleming, succeeded him in the lordships of 
St George, Wenvoe, and Llanmaes. In the reign of Edward IL, under the younger Hugh 
Despencer, a Sir William Fleming was in possession of these lands. He was executed at 
Cardiff, because, as some say, he had, as sheriff of the lordship of Glamoi^gan, unjusdy con- 
demned Llewelyn Bren^ of Senghenydd, to death. He was buried in the cemetery of Grey 
Friars, " outside the north gate of the town of Cardiff.'* 

After the time of this Sir William, the inheritance, in the absence of issue male, descended 
to his dau., who m. Edmund Mali&nt, of Pembrokeshire, whose descendants enjoyed it till 
the time of Henry VIL, when Edmond Malifant, who had m. a dau. of Sir Matthew 
Cradock, d. without issue, and the estate fell to John Butler, Esq., of Dunraven, who had m. 
Elizabeth, dau. of William Fleming, and after the death, s. /., of their descendant, John 
Butler, Esq., both estates fell to Walter Vaughan, Esq., who had m. Joan, dau. and h. of the 
said John Butler (see Vaughan of Dunraven). 

The Fleming escutcheon bore — Az.^ three crescents inter sa^en crosses or. 



Fleming of Monkton. 

This branch of the &mily sprung from Thomas Fleming (second son of Richard Fleming, 
of Flemingston), and Catherine his wife, dau. of James Turberville, of Tythegston. James 
Fleming, Esq., of Monkton, their son, m. Ann, dau. of Howel Came, jun., of Nash, whose 
son, Rees Fleming, Esq., of Monkton, m. Mary, dau. of Richard Lougher, of Tythegston, 
and had a son, also called Rees Fleming, of Monkton, whose wife was Mary, dau. of Rees 
Williams of Sully> The family continued at Monkton for several generations further. 



Iteming of Fadline and Swansea. 
This family sprung from Richard, a younger son of Sir William Fleming, of St. George, 



564 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

who was himself the heir of the first Le Fleming of the Conquest. A son or grandson of 
Richard, Thomas Fleming is the first we have found as '^ of Penlline." He m. Angharad, 
dau. of Jenkin ap Richard ap Jenkin ap Richard Fawr ; and his son, John Flemings of 
Penlline, m, Mayzod, dau. of Walter ap William ap Hopkin ap David ap David Ddu, said 
in one MS. to be " a conjuror." His son, — 

William Fleming, is called, not of Penlline, but of Swansea. By his wife. Sage, dau. 
and co-h. of Hugh David ap Meredith, of Nicholaston Hall, he had a son and successor, 
Henry, " of Wimlod, Recorder," &c.,. who m, Alice, dau. and co-h. of Jenkin Dawkin, of 
Gellihir. Their son, William, m, a dau. and h. of Nicholas Evans, of Llangenech, and was 
succeeded by his son, Evan Fleming, whose wife was a dau. of the celebrated Thomas 
Evans of Peterwell, Card, (living 1661), and had issue; but we have no means of 
further tracing the succession. In the list of Portreeves and Mayors of Swansea the name 
of William Fleminge occurs for 1601, Henry Fleminge for 1613, and the same for 1624. 
These were in all likelihood the above-named William and Henry. 



De St Quintin of Llanblethian {Llanbleiddian), 

Sir Robert de St. Quintin, who became possessed of the lordship of Llanblethian under 
Fitzhamon, is said to have been grandson of the knight Sir Herbert de St. Quintin, who 
came in the train of William to the conquest of England, and whose name occurs in the 
Roll of BaitU Abbey. He was of the province of Picardy, after the chief town of which, 
St Quintin, he was called. Sir Robert erected the castle at Llanblethian (Bleiddian) which 
in after times went by his name. His gr. grandson, — 

Sir Herbert St. Quintin, was summoned as a baron to a parlement held by Edward I. 
A.D. 1294, *' but never afterwards; and for the reason that that writ cannot be considered 
as a regular summons to parliament, and consequently that there never was such a barony, 
although the Earls of Pembroke, whose ancestors married the heir general of this Herbert 
de Sl Quintin, styled themselves barons of St. Quintin" (Nicolas, Synop, of Peerage). With 
this Herbert, who left no son, the name of St. Quintin ceased, and his estates fell to his 
two daus., one of whom, Elizabeth, d, s. p.; the other, Laura, by her third husband. 
Sir Robert Grey, of Rotherfield, had an only dau. and heiress, Elizabeth, whose son William 
(by Lord Fiuhugh) m, Maigery, dau. of William, I/>rd Willoughby d'Eresby, and left a 
son, Henry, whose wife was Alice Neville, dau. of Richard, Earl of Salisbury, by whom he 
left with other issue Elizabeth, who m. Sir William Parr, Knt, and had (besides an elder 
son, Lord Parr) Sir Thomas Parr, who left a son William, Marquis of Northampton, 
Katherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII., and Anne Parr, who m. William Herbert, Earl 
of Pembroke. Anne, being co-h. with her brother, brought to the Earl of Pembroke the 
lordship of Llanblethian, which from that time has formed part of the estates of the Lords 
of Glamorgan. 

The St. Quintin arms were — Or, three chevrons gu, on a chief arg., a f esse wavy. 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 5^5 

De Syward of Talyfan, 

Sir Richard Syward» who on the partition of Glamorgan between the knights received as 
his share the lordship of Talyfan, is not known to have been a '' Norman/* but bore a name 
which betrays rather a Saxon origin — Se-weard (sea- watchman). It may well be believed 
that Fitzhamon had many English in his train, for we know that he had even many Welsh, 
led by such chieftains as Einion ap Cadivor ap CoUwyn. 

The lordship of Talyfan lay contiguous to that of Miskin, and De Syward is said in some 
of the earlier books to have been given, along with Talyfan, " the ancient burgh of Pontfaen 
(Cowbridge). Tlie word Tal-y-fan is almost tautological, conveying strongly the meaning of 
an elevated place or land, which was perhaps the character of the region. Tal is an ancient 
Welsh vocable signifying " head/* and ban expresses prominence, height, so that Tal-y-fan 
would mean the top of the high place or land. 

It is believed that the issue male of Richard de Syward continued in possession of this 
lordship until the time of Edward III., when the heir then in possession, according to Sir 
Edward Stradling*s account, sold it to Despencer, the then Lord of Glamorgan, and went to 
reside upon property which the family had in Somerset 

The arms ascribed to the Sywards were— -<4r^., a cross flory^fitchie^ sa. 



Le Sore of Peters ton and St, Fe^ofis, 

This family was founded by Sir Peter le Sore, after whom the lordship of Peterston, given 
him by Fitzhamon, was named. His descendants in the male line are said to have 
continued to enjoy it until the time of Henry IV., when the line ceased, and the inheritance 
fell to several relatives. The lordship of St Fagan*s went to the Veales, and remained in 
that family ^ until Alice Veale, the heiress, married David Mathew, who had four daughters, 
between whom the lordships of St. Fagan's and Llyswomey were divided ** (Jenkin's MS.). 

Alexander le Sore and Henry le Sore *' were witnesses to old deeds to the effect that 
Peter le Veal was Lord of St. Fagan's. This was at a time when no dates were used " (^.). 
Sir Mayo, Morys, or Matthew Sore, was contemporary with Ifor Hael and Dafydd ap Gwilym 
(fourteenth century). It is said that Sir Mayo came into collision with Owen Glyndwr when 
that chieftain overran Glamorgan (a.d. 1402), and that Owen ^'cut off his head;*' and 
tradition has reported that a skull long preserved in Peterston Church was the skull of Sir 
Mayo le Sore. The property was now divided between co-heiresses. 

The arms ascribed to the Le Sores were — Quarterly : or and gu.^ in the first canton^ a 
lion passant as. 



De Sully of Sully, 

Sir Reginald de Sully received the lordship of Sully as his share of the lands of Glamorgan 
when conquered by Robert Fitzhamon. The Sullys, however, were not of long continuance, " 

2 p 



566 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

the male line having become extinct in the time of Edward I., when the heiress of the estate 
became wife of Sir Thomas de Avan, Lord of Avan, a descendant of lestyn ap Gwrgant. 
His grandson, Sir Thomas de Avan, left an only daughter, Jane, who m. Sir William Blant, 
who exchanged the lordships of Avan and Sully with Gilbert de Clare for lands in Eng^nd. 
From' him the Blunts of Shropshire were descended. 

In the "Neath Register," according to D. Jenkin's MS. (p« 217), the names occur of Sir 
Walter de Sully, Kt, Rumund de Sully, and Meyrick de Sully; but no intimation is 
conveyed whether this register had belonged to Neath Abbey ^ or of the place where it was 
deposited. 

The Sullys are said to have borne — Ermine^ three chevrotis gii. 

Such is the account available of the Barones Mimres who are held to have shared under 
Robert Fitzhamon the lands of Glamorgan. Some of them continued long and flourished, 
identifying themselves by degrees more fully with the people whom they had overthrown, 
intermarrying with them, learning their language, adopting their customs, and forming at last 
an undistinguishable part of their body. The Turbennlies began this wise and far-seeing 
policy. .The Stradlings continued it longest, and won thereby such commanding influence 
that their fame and power in the county even eclipsed those of some of the lords in chief of 
Glamorgan. The day of others was short, their power' small. In most cases their line ceased 
and their estates were dissipated. In others they felt themselves as strangers among a people 
whose sense of wrong recoiled from them, and sought home and rest on the other side the 
Severn. But in our day not a trace of any of them remains ! The name of Turbervill still 
survives at Ewenny, representing not a direct but a circuitous maternal descent ; and 
similarly the blood of the Stradlings is still represented at St Donat's. The race of the 
vanquished, according to an indefeasible law, has in the long run proved victorious, and the 
intrusive race has virtually vanished from the soil 

There remain to be mentioned other &milies, not strictly numbered among the minor 
lords of Glamorgan, but of greater power, and equally of the so-called '* Norman ** type. 
Among these the Gamages of Coity Castle hold distinguished prominence. 



Gamage of Coity Castle, 

In the section on " Antiquities," under Coity Castle^ some account has akeady been given 
of this important family and their entrance upon that estate. The Gamages, before their 
settlement by marriage at Coity, were seated at Rogiad, or Roggiatt, in Monmouthshire. 
They were of Norman descent, but of later introduction into Wales than the age of Fitzha> 
mon's conquest of Glamorgan. Godfrey de Gamaches, of the ville or castle of Gamaches, in 
Viscin, near Rouen, Normandy, received from Henry II., a.d. 1159, a grant of lands in 
Hottesdon, co. Salop, and from Richard I. land in Mamshall in the same county. He 
inherited also two knights' fees in the county of Hereford under the Lacys. He d. before 
1 176. His eldest son, Matthew, settled in Normandy, and his second son, William de 
Gamage, inherited the English estates of Mansel Gamage, county Hereford, Gamage Hall in 
Dimock, and other lands in the county of Gloucester. He was keeper of Ludlow Castle, 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 567 

and d. before a.d. 1240. From William descended Sir Pain de Gamage, Lord of Rogiad, 
Mon., and Sir Robert Gamage of the same place, whose eldest son was — 

William Gamage, of Rogiad, who, as already shown, tn. Sara, or Assar, dau. and co.-h. of 
Pain de Turberviile of that place, whose ancestor had m., in the time of Fitzhamon, the dau. 
and h. of Morgan ap Meurig, of the line of lestyn ap Gwrgant William Gamage was Sheriff 
of Gloucestershire a.d. 1325. 

Gilbert Gamage, son of William, was succeeded by his son. Sir William Gamage, who on 
the death of his kinsman, Sir Laurence Berkerolles of St. Athan's, succeeded to the lordship 
of Coity (see Coity Castie), He m, Mary, dau. of Sir Thomas Rodburgh, and had issue — 

Thomas Gamage, of Coity and Rogiad, who m. Matilda, dau. of Sir John Dennis ; and a 
dau., Margaret, who m. Sir Richard de la Bere, of Weobly and Molton, in Gower, who 
received for services on the field of Cressy a crest, "five oistrich feathers issuing from a 
ducal coronet." Thomas Gamage was succeeded by his son — 

John Gamage, of Coity, who m. Margaret, dau. and co-h. of Morgan Llewellyn ap Evan 
ap Llewellyn, of Radir, and had a son and heir named Morgan, who by his wife Elinor, dau. 
of Sir Roger Vaughan, of Tretower {Tr^rtwr), Brec, half-brother to William, Earl of 
Pembroke, had, besides his son and successor Thomas, six daus., — Elizabeth^ who m. first 
John Stradling, and afterwards John Price of Glyn N^dd ; Margaret, m, first Jenkin Thomas 
of Llanfihangel, and secondly James Turber\'ille of Llantwit Major ^ Jane, m. Sir William 
Bawdrip of Penmark ; Ann, m. Robert Raglan of Llantwit ; Catherine, m, first Reginald 
Powell of Perth-hir, co. Monmouth ; secondly William Stanton of Homingham, Wilts, by 
whom she had a son William and three daus. ; Gwenllian, m, Thomas ap Meurig. 

Sir Thomas Gamage, son of Morgan, m., first, Margaret, dau. of Sir John St John of 
Fonmon Castle, Glam., and Bletsoe Park, by a dau. of Morgan Jenkin Pliilip of Pencoed 
Casde, Mon., paternally descended from Gruffydd ap Bleddyn, Lord of Cilsant ; secondly, 
Joyce, dau. of Sir Richard Croft By Margaret St John, Sir Thomas had issue Robert; 
John ; Edward ; Catherine, /». Sir Thomas StradUng of St Donat's Castle ; Mary, m. 
Matthew Herbert of Swansea and Cogan Pill ; Margaret, m. William Howard, Lord Howard 
of Effingham, and had issue Charles, Earl of Nottingham, commander against the Spanish 
Armada, Sir William Howard, of Lingfield, and others (Dugd, ix, 278). She d. 19th May, 
1581. Lord Wm. Howard d, nth January, 1572-3. Elizabeth m. Richard Wogan, Esq., 
oi Wiston and Boulston, co. Pembroke; secondly, Jenkin Gwyn. Sir Thomas's eldest 
son, — 

Robert Gamage, m. Joan, dau. of Philip Champemon, of Darlington, and had issue 
(besides his eldest son, John) Thomas, m. Joan, dau. of William ap Thomas Vaughan ; 
Margaret, m. Miles Mathew of Llandaff, — secondly, Thomas Lewis of Van, living 1583, — 
thirdly, Captain Herbert of Cardiff; Elinor, m, William Lewis of St. Pierre, co. Monmouth, 
1583 ; Elizabeth (Ann or Catherine), m. Watkin Lougher of Tythegston, Sheriff for 
Glamorgan in 1635 (see Sheriffs); Joyce, m. John Gwyn, Llandilo, co. Carmarthen; 

and Joan. 

John Gamage m. Gwenllian, dau. and h. of Sir Thomas ap Jenkin Powell of Glyn-Ogwr, 
and had issue BarbarOy sole heiress, b. 1562, //t., in or before 1584, Sir Robert Sydney, 
second son of Sir Henry Sydney of Penshurst, Kent, and next brother to the accomplished 
Sir Philip Sydney ; he was nephew to the Earls of I^icester and Warwick, and was the first 



568 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Earl of Leicester of the Sydney line {cr. z6i8). Barbara Gamage, the last of this line 
(Countess of Leicester), was grandmother of the celebrated Algernon Sydney, son of Sir 
Robert Sydney of Coity, second Earl of Leicester (sua. 1626), who was beheaded in the reign 
of Charles IL The title in the Sydney line became extinct on the death of Jocelyne, seventh 
earl, a.d. 1743. (See further Cotty Castle.) 

The Gamage arms, as given by Sir Robert Atkyns, are — Ars^., five fusils in bendgu.^ on a 
chief az, three escallops or. 



Gamage of Abergarw. 

Edward Gamage, son of John Gamage, parson of St Bride's Minor, was parson of 
Llanharry, and the fourth in lineal descent from Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity Castle, being 
grandson of Thomas, the second son of Robert and Joan Champemon, his wife. He m. 
Mary, dau. of John Jenkin Turberville of Abergarw, and had issue John ; Mary, m. Morgan 
ap Llewellyn of Derllwyn. 

John Gamage m. Martha, dau. of Thomas Lougher of Comelau, and had John, a vicar, 
M. in CO. Derby ; Edward, m. Mary, dau. of Benjamin Watkins, Court Colman ; Thomas, m. 
Ruth, dau. of Thomas Mathew, Cefn Gorwydd, in Gower ; Ann, m. John James, St Bride's ; 
Sarah, married — 

John Thomas^ parson of Coity ; whence descend the Tliomases of Caldicot, co. Monmouth. 
John Thomas, and Sarah Gamage, his wife, had issue John and Edward. 

John Thomas was incumbent of South Petherton and Ilminster, co. Somerset. He m. 
the widow of — Prouse, Esq., barrister-at-law, but left no issue. 

Edward Thomas was Rector of St Bride's Minor, co. Glamorgan, and Vicar of Caldlcot, 
CO. Monmouth ; had issue by his wife, Ann Lloyd, Theresa ; Edward, Vicar of Uangwm ; 
James, of Mount St Alban's; Samuel, brought up to the law; John, d. young in London ; 
Ann, and William. 



The Gamage Family in America, 

A branch of the Gamage family settled in Northamptonshire traced their descent lineally 
from Sir Thomas Gamage ot Coity. From this branch descended the Rev. Smith Percy 
Gamage, LL.D., and his brother, Henry Gamage. The former was, during the American 
war, a chaplain in the U.S. army. 

• 

Some of the family had also migrated to the New World at an early period in company 
with their kinsman. Lord Effingham, when he was Governor of Virginia ; others joined the 
famous Duke of Marlborough, and under him held high positions both in the army and navy. 
Joseph or John Gamage received a gitmt of land from the Crown at Brixworth, Northampton- 
shire, for distinguished service in the army : his descendants are still living in New 
England, some of whom held high positions in the army and navy during the War of 
Independence, and were in the great battle of Bunker's Hill. Samuel Gamage was lieu- 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMIUES OF GLAMORGAN. 569 

tenant on board the Dunn frigate. He was a man of enduring courage, of acknowledged 
worth and virtue, unflinching in his adherence to the cause of civil and religious liberty. His 
brother, Dr. William Gamage, bom at Cambridge, New England, 1748, was an eminent 
physician in his native town, and secured both fame and fortune. 

Capt John Gamage, "a self-made, noble-minded man, trusting in Providence, constructed 
his own fortune, and engaged heartily and courageously in the great struggle for American 
independence." He was taken prisoner in the revolution on board the Yankee Hero by 
H.M.S. Mii/ord, and imprisoned for twelve months on board H.M.S. Raioion, Capt. Banks 
commander. "He died in 1824, laden with years and honours. It is only recently that his 
two aged sons and a daughter, all verging on ninety, followed their eminent parent to the 
land of rest—* the land o* the leal.' " 

Several members of the Gamage family graduated at Harvard College. The house in 
which the family lived at Cambridge is still called " Gamage House." 



Butler of Dunraven. 

That this family, which resided for some ten generations at Dunraven, Le.y from the 
jeleventh to the fourteenth century, was of Norman origin is probable both from the name 
(Botteler) and from their relation to De Londres, the preceding lord of the place. The 
lordship was a part of the lands acquired by William de Londres on the conquest of 
Glamorgan by Fitzhamon and his companion knights. The Caradoc Brut informs us that 
" William de Londres, Lord of Ogmore {0^vr)y won the lordships of Cydweli and Carn- 
wyllion from the Welsh, and gave the castle and manor of Dunraven to his sen*ant. Sir 
Arnold Butler." A lord's "servant" in those days was a knight, and the origin of Butler may 
have been quite as good, though his fortune was not quite so prosperous, as that o 
De Londres. The Butlers married well, and extended in their alliances as far as Pembroke- 
shire. * " .... 

Sir Arnold Butler was succeeded (temp, Henry I.) by his son Pierce, and he by his son, — 

Sir John Butler, Kt, of Dunraven, who m, Isabel, dau. and co-h. of Sir Robert de 
Cantelupe, " Lord of Cantleston, in Glamorgan." He had a son, John, not styled a knight, 
who m. a daii. of Sir David de la Bere, Kt., and left a son, — 

John Buder, Esq., of Dunraven, who m. Isabel, dau. of Sir William Fleming (see Fleming 
of St George)^ and had issue John Buder, his heir, who m, Gwenllian, dau. of Tomkin 
(Thomas) Turberville, Esq. His son, — 

John Butler,. Esq., of Dunraven, m, a dau. of Sir John Wogan, Kt, of Wiston, Pembroke- 
shire, and had two sons, Thomas and John. The latter {circa 1550) m, Elizabeth, dau. and 
h. of Philip Percival, Esq., of Coedgandas (now Coedcenlas), Pemb., where he afterwards 
resided ; and the former and elder son and h. (see BtUler of Coedganlas)^ — 

Thomas Butler, Esq.,* of Dunraven, m, a dau. of David Mathew, Esq., of Radir. His 
son and su^cessor^ John Butler, Esq., of Dunraven, m, Jane, dau. of John Bassett, Esq., 
of Beaupre, and had a son, Arnold Butler^ who m. Sibylla, dau. of Sir John Mon. 
nington, Kt, and had issue, but all d. vit pal. (see Note\ and a dau., — 



570 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Joan^ or as some say, Ann Butler, heiress of Dunraven, who m. Sir Richard Vaughan, Kt, 
of Bredwardine, and had issue. (See Vaughan of Dunraven.) The senior line of Butler of 
Dunraven was now extinct, but the junior branch continued some short time longer in 
Pembrokeshire. 

Arms of Butler of Dunraven, — Az,y three aifs or^ with three cavers over them. 

Note, — In the valuable MS. volume of pedigrees in the possession of Joseph Joseph, Esq., 
F.S.A., drawn up by "J. H." about a.d. 1720 (as determined by internal evidence, p. 11 «f 
pass.\ the following man. occurs respecting the last Arnold Butler's household: — ''The 
sons and daughter of this Arnold Butler of Dunraven, with other young men, went in a boat 
to the Skut Sker, near Ogmoore, for pleasure, but being careless in fastening the boat it ran 
adrift, so that they were all drowned ; and after the death of the said Arnold, the estate of 
Butler of Dunraven, &:c. (and Fleming's lordship of St George, which fell to John Butler), 
descended all to Walter Vaughan of Bradwardine, Esq., as next heir to his uncle, A. B. ; all 
which happened about the time of Queen Mary." 

'' As for the Buttlers of Southerdown, and others of the same family in St. Bride's and 
elsewhere, they say they came of the younger sons of the above said Jenkin Butler, but their 
pedigree as well as some others have been neglected." 



Carne of Nash ; Carne of Ewenny, . 
For the genealogy of the Games see Nuholl-Carne of St, Donafs. 



Mansel of Margam, 

The family of Mansel is not extinct. The Mansels of Garmarthenshire will be found 
under that county. For the Mansels of Margam and Penrite see Margam Abbey^ Penrice 
CastUy 9JiA Mansei'Ta/bot of Marram. 



The Herberts. 

For this important and numerous family, see, among the Lords of Glamorgan, Herbert^ 
Earl of Pembroke; Bute, Marquis of The Herberts are also found in PoTvis Castle^ 
Montgomery^ Rhagian^ Coiebrook, Crickhawd^ Havod Ychtryd^ Cogan, Swansea, &c. 



The Bassdis. 



This family, although of early introduction into Glamorgan, is not extinct Its origin and 
history will be found under Beaupre Castle and Basset of Bedupre. 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF. GLAMORGAN. 571 

- ". . . • * 

Other families of Norman origin in the county of Glamorgan, almost all long ago extinct, 

were the following (compare Meyrick, Morganix Archaogr.; Golden Grove MS. ; Glamorgan 
Pedigrees, from MS. of Sir Isaac Heard, Kt., ed. by Sir Thos. Phillipps, Bart, 1845 ; 
D. Jenkin's MS. ; Lewys Dwnn's Herald, Visit, of Wales, &c.) :— 

De Cantelupe of Cantleston, — ^This was a Norman family which came early, probably under 
the reign of Rufus, into Glamoi^gan, and had lands and a residence at a place afterwards 
called after their name, Cantlestofi, and in W. Treganilo. They had a succession of four or 
fi^^ generations — William de Cantelupe, the first ; Richard ; Elias'j his brother William, 
and Robert, named under " Butler of Dunraven." 

Scurlage of Scurlage Castle, Gower. — Sir Herbert Scurlage is the first we hear of at this 
place. His settlement was earlier than the name of his manor, said to have been called 
after himself. The Welsh name of the stronghold, adopted as is likely after his time, was 
Trecastell, and it was inherited by the Gibbon family. Sir Herbert Scurlage, believed to 
have been of Norman origin, obtained this manor from Sir Richard de Clare about a.d. 1250, 
the object of his being stationed here being to " curb the natives." According to the 
custom of the age, and the more effectually to overawe the Welsh, he built a castle, small 
portions of which still remain, near Llanddewi, in Gowerland ; and for a brief period pursued 
no doubt the usual methods of " curbing the natives." We hear nothing of his descendants. 
The place comes next before us as the habitation of a Welsh family, descendants of Einion 
ap CoUwyn (see Gibbon of Trecastell), Nothing more is known of the Scurlages. 

Button of Dyffryn ( IVorlton). — About the name Button^ by which this Norman family 
continued to be called for some twelve or fourteen generations, there is some obscurity. 
The more proper appellation was Le Grant This was the name by which the first settler 
was known. From Gwion le Grant, Duke of Seville, who m, Mabel, dau. of Richard de 
Clare, it is said, was descended in the fifUi generation Thomas le Grant, the first who 
assumed or submitted to the surname Button, Some say it was a nickname, with playful 
reference to the smallness of his stature. He m. Grisly, or Grissyl, the Welsh heiress of 
Dyffryn, probably late in the thirteenth century. His son was Howel Button, who m. Gwen- 
llian, dau. of Tomkin Turberville, of Tythegston, her mother being Lucy, dau. and co-h. of 
Sir John Norris, Knt., of Penlline Castle. His descendants intermarried with the families 
of Gethin of Llandaff, Thomas of Llanfihangel, Kemeys of Newport, Richard of Wallas, 
Lewis of Van, Aubrey of Llantrithyd, &c. We find the Buttons of Dyffryn filling the 
office of Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1556, 1564, 1588, 1641, 1666, 1709, 1727. Not long 
after this date, when Martin Button, Esq., had been sheriff, the male line .became extinct, 
and the family of Pryce entered Dyffryn by the marriage of Thomas Pryce with the heiress 
of that place. 

The arms of the Buttons were — Az,, three bats or. 

■ 

Voss of Boverton (the Roman Bovium). — This family must have settled at Boverton in 
tlie latter part of the fourteenth century. The earlier form of the name we meet is Vaulx, 



572 GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

but it gradually softened into Vaus and Voss. Richard Vaulx had a son William, whose 
wife was Elizabeth, a dau. of Thomas Fleming of Monkton. He had a son, — 

Griffith Vaus, Esq., who m. Joan, dau. and co-h. of Gruffydd Goch, of the line of 
Gwaethfoed, the well-known Lord of Cardigan, and had issue a dau. Elizabeth, who became 
maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth, and married Roger Sais, Esq. (see Sais^ or Seys^ of 
JBoverton). The Voss name does not again* occur at Boverton, but it continued in the 
neighbourhood for several generations, probably in the descendants of a younger son of 
Richard Vaulx, the first above named. In the church of Llantwit Major, "on the north side 
of the belfry," there is or was a monument to Matthew Voss (b. 1405, d. 1534, " after having 
lived to the very advanced age of 129 years"), who is supposed to have been a younger son 
of the said Richard Vaulx, and ancestor of those bearing the name of Voss after the failure 
of male issue at Boverton. Another monument, of freestone, fixed in the wall of the same 
church, once " defaced and turned inside," contained inscriptions to the memory of the Voss 
family. 

There were Vosses residing at" Llantwit and neighbourhood, at Nicholaston, &c., in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. John, a son of John Voss of Nicholaston, went to 
reside at Swansea, and was ancestor to the Vosses, bankers of Swansea. This family it is 
believed is not quite extinct, but has recently left Swansea. 

The Voss arms were — Or^ three lions rampant arg.^ upon a bend sa. Crest — Two wings 
adorscd or^ upon a ducal coronet, 

Raglan of Camllwyd. — This ancient family, traceable through fifteen generations in 
Glamorgan, is in strictness to be considered of Norman descent, as were all the Herberts, 
from whose stock it issued. In the only pedigree available of the Raglans, found in the 
•valuable MS. from the collection of Sir Isaac Heard, Clarencieux, printed by the late Sir 
Thomas Phillipps, Bart., no dates are given, and the ag^ of the family must be determined 
by internal evidence. Thus Robert Raglan, the third of the line, marries Elinor, dau. of 
Sir Roger Vaughan, of Tre'rtwr, Brec.,-who fell at Agincourt a.d. 1415. 

Robert, youngest son of Evan Thomas ap Gwilym Herbert, was the first progenitor 
of the Raglans of Camllwyd. His son John was sumamed " Raglan " because " his father 
had been brought up with his uncle. Sir William Thomas Herbert, at Raglan." Now Sir 
William was a contemporary with Sir Roger Vaughan, and like him was knighted on 
the field of Agincourt by Henry V. John " Raglan " m. a dau. and h. of Robert 
Mathew, of Camllwyd, and settled at that place, where his descendants lived for many gene- 
rations. The last was Thomas Ragljm, who left only daughters, and the name became 
extinct. 

The arms of this family would probably be those of Herbert^ quartering Mathew, 

m 

De Cardiff of Cardiff. — Sir Richard de Cardiff received of William, Earl of Gloucester, 
third Lord of Glamorgan, " thirty libratce of land " to hold by the fourth part of a knight's fee 
at Newton Nottage. (Meyrick, Morganice Arch.) He held the office oi Dapifer^ or steward 
to the earl. His dau. and h. m. Sir Thomas de San ford, whose heirs for two generations, 
and probably not longer, enjoyed the property. Their name is still commemorated in 



- OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 575 

** Sanford's Well,*' near Newton Nottage Church. The arms of De Cardiff according to the 
Golden Grove MS, were — "^ Az,^ three piUs in point or r 

De RayU of Wrinston. — Sir Simon de Rayle was lord of the mesne manor of Wrinston, 
and Michaelston. Part of the walls of his house remained till comparatively recent times, at 
a place called Court y Rayle (now Courtyrala). John de Rayle was Lord of Wrinston in the 
Despencers' time. 

Marcross of Marcross. — Sir Philip Marcross, lord of the mesne manor of Marcross, left 
no son. His dau. and h. m. William de Pincema, son of Simon de Halweia (Halwey), who 
succeeded to the inheritance. Sir Richard de Pincema, Kt., probably his son, obtained the 
fee of Gelligam on terms of a knight's service, for which he did homage to Le Sore, Lord of 
St. Fagan*s (see Le Sore), After his death, Samson de Halweia, the heir, '* being annoyed 
and oppressed by his neighbours at Ruthyn, and brought to extreme poverty, exchanged his 
inheritance with the House of Neath for Littleham in Devonshire. This exchange was 
successively ratified by Sir John le Sore and his son, Robert le Sore, by deeds recorded in 
the Registrum de Nith, 

Norris of PenlUne, — Sir Robert Norris, vice-comes or sheriff under Robert of Gloucester, 
second Lord of Glamorgan, appears to have been the first of this line that settled in Gla- 
morgan. He received the mesne manor of Penlline (upon which he built his castle) from 
William, third Lord of Glamorgan. This and other similar facts show that the lands had not 
been all appropriated at the first conquest In the time of Despencer's survey the lordship 
of Penlline was held by Sir John Norris, Kt, whose estates fell to his four daughters, co- 
heiresses, three of whom m, respectively into the families of Walsh of Llandough (Llandocha), 
Morgan of Pencoed (of the Morgans of Tredegar), and Turberville of Coity. 

Jeol of Gileston. — In the time of Despencer's survey Thomas Jeol, or Jule, held from the 
heir of. Hugh Despencer ("de haerede Hugonis le Despencer man. de Jeoliston, cum 
advocatione ecclesiae ejusdem") the manor of Jeoliston (Gileston), with the ad vows on of its 
church, for one knight's service. It was rated of the value per annum of ^^4 12s. 2d. John 
Thomas's heir at the time is also said to have been of the age of thirteen. This was in 
A D. 1350. 

BonvUle of Bonvilston.^SiTnon Bonville was, at an early stage of the Norman dominion 
in Glamorgan, mesne lord of a piece of land which was subsequently called after his name, 
and which the Welsh, disregarding his surname, called Tre Simon. His stronghold, according 
to Jenkin's MS., " was built in a wood south of Bolston (now called Court yr Abad), and 
was surrounded by a great moat ; parts of the walls were carried away to build other houses, 
and part converted into lime for manuring the land." We know little of the after history of 
this family ; but it is said that a descendant of one of their branches settled in Carmanhen- 
shire, through whom Mr. Bonville, now living near Carmarthen, claims his lineage. 

£ennef of Laleston. — This ancient Glamorganshire family has only very recently dis- 



574 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



appeared. Their first and long-continued seat was in Gower. By marriage of John Bennet 
(living 1699) into the family of Jones of Laleston, near Bndgend, they settled at that place, 
and there remained through six generations, till the death s. p, a feWyears ago of John Wick 
Bennet, Esq., of Laleston. They several times supplied sheriffs for the county of Glamoigan 
(see S/uriffs^ &c). Their first founder in Gower is said to have been Sir Gervase Benet de 
Penclawdd, contemporary witli the Conqueror, and a knight in his service. The Bennet 
arms were — Arg.^ three goat^ heads erased sa,, barbed or^ langucdgu. 



,Note, — Our careful genealogist, "J. H.,*' has this note: — "As for the Bennets of 
Penrees, in Gower, they were ever reputed to come from Loughor, for it is certain that there 
were Bennets in Bnngwyn and Travele, and other places in Loughor, for many generations 
till the time of Charles the Second : yet it may be that they came from Kilfigin " [near Usk]. 



. Dawkin of Kilvrough. — Another Gower house of long continuance, but now extinct, is 
that of Dawkin of Kilvrough, tracing descent from Sir William de Langton, Kt., lord of the 
manors of Langrove and Henllisk, in Gower, temp, Edward II., whose ancestor is said to 
have '^ entered England soon after the Conqueror.*' Rowland Dawkin, in lineal descent 
from Dawkin Langton, son of the said Sir William, in the year 1585 built the house 
at Kilvrough, His grandson, Rowland Dawkin, was a zealous supporter in these 
parts of Cromwell's government, a colonel in his army, and in 1654 — 1658 M.P. for 
Carmarthen. He was also "Governor of Carmarthen in the time of Cromwell ;" he d, 
1691, and "was buried at Pennard Church, in the north side of the chancel*' (J. H.'s 
MS., circa 1721)). The last male possessor of Kilvrough and builder of the mansion now 
standing was William Dawkin,. Esq., fourth in descent from the said Rowland, and Sheriff of 
Glamorgan 1773. He' left by his wife Mayzod a dau. and h., Mary, who m, a French 
gentleman assuming the title of Marquis de Choiseul, by whom she had no issue, and from 
whom she separated. She sold in 1820 the mansion and demesne of Kilvrough to the late 
Thomas Penrice, Esq. (see Penrice of Kilvrough House). The Dawkin arms were — Gu,^ a 
chevron arg. between three lions rampant or. 



Malefant of St. George's^ dr'C, — ^The Malefants, or Malifants, were a Pembrokeshire family 
of Norman origin, but some of their members married and settled in Glamorgan ; and we 
find in the lolo MSS., p. 493, one of the castles destroyed or ravaged by Owen Glyndwr in 
this county named " Malefant's " Castle. Where this castle was situated it is not easy to say. 
William Malifant, of Pembrokeshire, at an early period is said to have m. " Elizabeth, dau. 
and h. of John de Londres, by whom he had . Landawke " (or Llandough) ; and later, 
Edmond Malifant, of the same line, marries the dau. and h. of Sir William Fleming, Kt, 
and is called "of St. Geoi^e's." As Llandough is expressly mentioned in the castles 
destroyed by Owen on this incursion into Glamorgan, it is almost certain that the Malifant 
castle he is said to have destroyed was the residence of this Malifant of St George, who had 
not long before obtained it by this marriage with the dau. of Fleming, owner of the lordship. 
(See Fleming of St. George and JVe/ivoe.) Richard Maliphant, Esq., of Cydweli, traces to this 
family. The Malifant arms were — Gu., a fret arg. 






1 ^(.\TT[lEw Cradock, Kt., and his Wife Katherine, Swansea Ciivri 
{Saiu/oii Piv-i.-ss.) 






Arms of Crai 



F Sir Hugh Johs^-s, Kt. 



Swansea Corp. Seal, 

Ttmf. King John. 



MONUMKNTAI. ItKAf! 




F Common Skai 
16S4. 



V Sir Hocei Johnvs, Kt., and Dahe Maude h(s Wirr, SwAV!ie\ 
Church. (Btaafart Pra^rta.) 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF Gi-aMORGAN. 575 



2.— Families of British Descent. 

'Whtn we speak of a family which has descended through many generations being of a 
particular race or nationality, the ^statement must be taken as subject to qualification. 
Above, families have been described as Norman^ although in some cases the very origin was 
doubtful, and in almost all, through the intermarriages of many successions, the prevailing 
blood had become that of the native race. And now that we speak of families of British 
descent, it is not to be foi|;otten that in many cases the Celtic blood, at first somewhat pure, 
had through frequent union with English and Anglo-Norman become considerably mixed. 
Thus the Mathews of Llandaff intermarry with the Gamage and Stradling houses; the 
Cradocks with the Mansels and Walshes, &c. But the well-known physiological law of the 
prevalence of the stronger or less intermittent race would secure in the British families a 
nearer adherence to the original type than would occur with the Anglo-Norman houses, 
excepting those originally of the Celtic race. 

But in both cases a fact of interest is suggested respecting the ethnological character of 
the Glamorgan population, especially the better class families, viz., that they are of mixed 
derivation in an unusual degree. This fact, obvious from the simple records of alliances, is 
testified by the frequent occurrence of that Scandinavian light complexion which gave Rufus 
the name of " red," and which prevails in the Scottish highlands and islands settled upon by 
the Danes. That this colour is not more abundant in Glamorgan is owing to the neutralizing 
power of the Silurian and Celtic swarthiness, which, if foreign intrusion through modern 
immigration did not favour its rival, would in course of time regain the hold it had in the 
age of Tacitus ( Vit Agricy xi.), and j*aise anew in some minds the conjecture that the 
people of Gwent and Glamorgan were of Iberian origin, relations of the Spanish race. 



Cradock of Swansea and Cardiff. 

Sir Matthew Cradock, Kt, of Swansea, the first and last of his line bearing that surname, 
was a man of great mark in Glamorgan under the first two Tudor kings. As shown on his 
beautiful tomb, still surviving in Swansea Church, he held the ofiices of Deputy to the Earl 
of Worcester in Glamorgan, Chancellor of the same, and Steward of Gower and Kilvey. He 
was lineally descended in the eighth degree from Einion ap Collwyn (who was of the sept of 
Caradoc Freichfras), ia whose descendants the name Caradoc frequently recurred, but was 
adopted as a surname for the first time in this family (surnames being as yet but partially 
used by the Welsh) by this Matthew^ son of Richard ap Gwilim ap Evan, from Caradoc 
Freichfi^s. He tn.^ first, Alice, daughter of Philip Mansel, of Oxwich Castle ; secondly. 
Lady Katherine Gordon, widow of the notorioas Perkin Warheck. Lady Katherine, by whom 
he had no issue, survived him, and twice afterwards married, her last husband being 
Christopher Asshton, Esq., of Fyfield, Berks; and although she is said on the Swansea monu- 
ment to lie in that tomb— as Sir Matthew, who built the tomb in his lifetime, had probably 
fondly cxpected,-^she is known to have died and to have been buried at Fyfield (1537). 



576 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



By his first wife, Alice Mansel, Sir Matthew Cradock had an only dau., Margaret, who 
/». Richard Herbert, Esq., of Ewias, father of Sir William Herbert, created Earl of Pembroke 
155 1 (see Herberts^ Ear/s of Pembroke; Bute, Marquis of; Herbert of Uanarth, &c), and 
of Sir George Herbert of Swansea, ancestor of the Herberts of Cogan, White Friars, Cardiff, 
Swansea, Cilybebyll, &c. ; and of the Llewelyns of Ynysygerwn ; Trahemes of Castellan, 
&c. (Sec further, Traherne of St. Hilary^ 

Sir Matthew Cradock resided at the '* Place House," Swansea, the ruins of which, in 
course of removal, are pictured in the Rev. J. M. Traheme's Historical Notices of Sir 
Matthew, from which we have taken these particulars ; but, as there intimated, '* it is 
impossible to say how much of the building " then pulled down '* was the work of Sir 
Matthew." He d. a.d. 1531. By his will, recently discovered in the Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury, he refers to his house as "my new place at Swainsey," leaves the farm of 
Comers Well (which lies to the south of Cogan Pill House), and twenty-six kine and one 
bull to William Herbert, second son of his grandson. Sir George Herbert ; and to his 
daughter Margaret estates in reversion during her life, with the injunction "upon" his 
" blessing " not in anything to break this his " last will \ " provides for his widow, the Lady 
Katherine, whom he appoints his sole executrix ; charges his lands with " the sum of xx 
nobles per ann." for the maintaining and repairing of " the chapel of St. Anne, in Swansea 
Church " (afterwards called " Cradock's Chapel," and now " Herbert's Chapel," which he says* 
was built " time out of mind " by his ancestor, John Horton, where his tomb was erected 
during his lifetime), " and to find a priest to sing there for evermore for my soul, my wife's 
soul, my ancestors' souls, and [good, generous man !] for all Christian souls." The lands 
• still produce " nobles," but the priest and his singing have long ago gone their way — without 
loss, we trust, to Sir Matthew Cradock or any of the other " Christian souls." 

The Cradock arms were— ^ar., semke of cross crosslets^ three boari heads couped arg. 



Cradock of Cheriton, 

The Cradocks of Cheriton were a junior line, proceeding, it is said, from JRobert ap Evan, 
deriving from Einion ap CoUwyn, while Sir Mathew Cradock of Swansea was descended 
from Gwilim ap Evan, an elder brother. These Cradocks settled at Cheriton about .the 
time of Henry VII., by mar. of David Cradock with the heiress of Philip Delabere of that 
place, and maintained their surname in the male line for several generations. They inter- 
married with Mansells, Flemings, Popkins, and Bassetts. Philip Cradock, the fifth possessor 
of Cheriton, sold that place "about 1657 to Thomas Philip of Swansey'' (J. H.'s MS.). 
His great-gr. son, Philip Cradock, is described as of Tir-Coch, and living in 1699, having m. 
Susan, dau. of Harry Mansel, Esq., by whom he had ^ son, Morgan, " a priest" The 
writer of the MS. just cited has this note respecting the arms of the Cradocks : — •• Memdm. 
That the above-named Evan ap Caradock killed a monstrous wild boar in Clyne Forrest, in 
the parish of Oystermouth, upon which occasion the arms were altered." 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. ' 'S77 

Laugher of Tythegston. 

m 

This family, which will be hereafter noticed in the lineage of Knight of Newton Nottage^ 
was of Cymric origin, and had representatives in the male line till a.d. 1701, when the last 
Richard Lougher, Esq., of Tythegston, died, and his estate passed to his daughters. In 
Knight's Account of Newton Nottage it is said, " There seems to be no reason to doubt that 
one of the descendants of Leyson of Avan (the great-gr. son of Morgan, the son of Caradoc 
ap lestyn) residing at Loughor [in Gower] took his name from that ancient town, and trans- 
mitted it to his posterity. By a receipt of Lady Lucy fiassett, called *' Lucy Verch Griffith 
Nicholas/ dated Oct. zo, 1472 (12th Edward IV.), it appears that Richard Lougher fanned 
from her a moiety of Weobley Castle in Gower. Three years later his name is mentioned 
in a singular kind of marriage compact ; Richard Lougher covenants with John ap Griffith , 
Howell to give his daughter Ann to David son of John ap Griffith ; if Ann did not live to 
fulfil the contract, that then David should marry some other daughter of Richard Lougher, 
and interchangeably, in case of David*s premature death, a son of Lougher should marry a 
daughter of John ap Griffith, with proviso that the marriage portion of fifty marks [^^33 6s. 8d.] 
then covenanted to be paid under special conditions should be still payable between the 
parties under any of these contemplated contingencies." 

Watkin Lougher was succeeded in z6o8 by his eldest son, Richard, who spent much of 
his life and fortune in legal contests with Sir Thomas Mansel of Margam, Moris Mathew of 
Glyn Ogwr, and Sir Edward Stradling of St Donates. His son and successor, Watkin 
Lougher, was Sheriff of Glamorgan 1635, '* when Charles I. was making his fatal experiment 
of ruling without a parliament." The maritime counties of Wales were required to provide 
;^2,204, second assessment of ^^ ship-money T To the instrument issued for this purpose 
were attaohed the well-known names of Humphrey Chetham (founder of the Chetham 
Library, Manchester); William Glyn (of Elemion,) High Sheriff of Carnarvon; John Scour- 
field, Sheriff of Pembrokeshire ; &c. Watkin Lougher, sheriff, had much trouble, of course, 
in raising his portion of this oppressive tax, and his deputy at Cardiff, Arthur Lloyd by . 
name, had also trouble, annoyance, and loss, and bitterly chafes against his hard lot, the 
commands of our sovereign and dread lord the king notwithstanding. '* My labour," he says, 
'^ and the labour of my cousin Roberts, in wearing out our bodies and clothes, hindslrance 
and loss of time at home, and the spoiling of my gelding for ever, which stood me in ^^8 ; 
God send you and me well to do in tfiis troublesome office, and to go out of it in safety 1 " 
It is a strange thing at present to hear that Carmarthen, Cardiff, and Liverpool were rated at 
the same amount for this royal " ship-money " business, viz., £,1^, The county of Glamorgan 
was to contribute ;£'2oo. 

Richard Lougher, Watkin's son, the last of that name at Tythegston, succeeded in 1651, 
was Sheriff of Glamorgan 1655 and 1696 ; m. Cecil, dau. of Judge Jenkins, sumamed ^ Heart 
of Oak," and " Pillar of the Law," of Hensol Castle. He left no son, but three daughters, 
the eldest being Cecil, who m. Edward Turberville, of Sutton, and left a dau., Cecil, who m, 
Robert, son of Sir John Knight, Kl, of Redleape, Mayor of Bristol 1670, M.P. for Bristol, 
&c., from whom the family of Knight of Tythegston is descended (see Knight of Tythegston; 
Knight of Newton Nottage), 



57? 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Matheiv of Llandaffy Radir^ &*c. 

This very ancient and long-continuing family derived from Gwilym, son of Gwaethfoed, 
Lord of Cardigan, by Morfydd, dau. of Ynyr, King of Gwent, through Gruffydd Gethin, 
ranked as tenth from Gwaethfoed, and Ivan ap Grufifyd Gettiin, who m. Cecil, dau. and 
heiress of Watkin Llewelyn of Llandaff, of the lineage of lestyn ap Gwrgant. He settled at 
Llandaff. His son, Matthew Ivan Grufifydd, and his grandson, David Mathew, introduced 
the surname, which never ceased for twelve generations. They intermarried with the 
Flemings of Flemingston, Morgans of Tredegar, Gamages of Coity, Stradlings of St Donates, 
&c, and branched off at early periods into the vigorous families of Mathew of Castell 
Menych (Monk's Castle) and Mathew of Radir, Mathew of Aberaman, and Mathew of 
Sweldon and Llancaiach, all of whom are now extinct. The House of Llandaff supplied 
sheriffs for Glamorgan in the years 1546, 1769, and member of Parliament in the person of 
Thomas Mathew, father and son, in 1744, 1756. This same Thomas Mathew, sen., 
of I^landaff, was Rear-Admiral and Admiral of the White ; and Thomas the son was a major 
in the army. In his election he polled 954 votes against 212 given for his "opponent," 
Charles Van, Esq. By his wife, Anne, dau. of Robert Knight, Esq., of Sutturm, he had, 
besides several other children, a son, also named Thomas Mathew, Esq., of Llandaff, the 
sheriff of 1769, who d. 177 1, J./. 

The Mathews of Llandaff bore the arms of Gwaethfoed — Or^ a lion rampant regardatit 
sa,y crowned gu. 



« 

Mathew of Radir, 

The same in descent with the foregoing, and branching off from Llandaff with Thomas^ 
third son of David, who has been described as first settling the surname of Mathew, 
Thomas m, Cate, dau. and co-h. of Morgan Llewelyn ap Ivan. Their eldest son was 
William, who became Sir William Mathew, Kt, of Radir. He was succeeded by his son 
Sir George Mathew, Kt This family supplied several sheriffs for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
ex. gr,^ William Matthew, 1567; do., 1579; Henry Mathew, 1589; Thomas Mathew, 1613. 

Edmund Mathew, Esq., of Radir, a younger brother, succeeded his two elder brothers, 
who d, s, /., as possessor of the estates, and was himself succeeded by his eldest son, 
George Mathew, who m. a dau. of Sir John Pomes, Kt, who was the widow of the Earl of 
Ormond, and had a son, Theobald Mathew, Esq., who is called in " J. H.'s " MS. " Lord of 
Bishopstown and Llandaffe," not of Radir. He m. three times, and had George, two 
other sons, and daus., but we discover no traces of their further history. Theobald Mathew 
d. A.D. 1700. No little confusion exists in the MSS. respecting the marriages and suc- 
cessions of these laten Mathews of Radir; but about the high position and influence of the 
family in this co. there cannot be a doubt 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 579 



Mat hew of Castell Mmych {Monk's Cast/t). 

Robert Mathew, second son of Ivan ap Gruffydd Gethin (see Matliew of Llandaff\ was 
the first x>f this branch family of the Mathews. He m, Gwladys, dau. of Llewelyn Powel 
Fychan, of Brecon, and had two sons, William, his successor at Castell Menych, and 

• 

Moigan, from whom descended the Mathews of Roos, Aberaman, and Brynwhith. William's 
wife was Margaret, dau. of John Gamage, Esq., Lord of Coity, and his son Robert, of 
Castell Menych, m, Alice, dau. of John Thomas, Esq.*, of Pantygored, of the lineage of 
Madoc ap lestyn ap Gwrgant. Eight more generations from father to son succeed at 
Castell Menych. They intermarry with the Raglans of Carnllwyd, Lewises of Vann, 
Morgans of Bedwellty, and Jenkins of Hensol ; the last-mentioned marriage, being followed 
by no issue male, terminated the name at Castell Menych, circa a.d. 1700. Cecil, the heiress, 
;«. Charles Talbot, cr. Baron Talbot of Hensol and Lord Chancellor 1733. He d. 1737 
(see Talbot of Hensol Castle), The Castell Menych estate henceforth vested in the Talbots. 

Thomas Mathew of Castell Menych was Sheriff of Glamorgan 161 3, and his son of 
the same name was sheriflf 1668. 

For the arms of Mathew of Castell Menych see McUhew of Uandaff, The Talbot arms 
were — Gu.^ a lion rampant within a border engrailed or^ a crescent for difference — the arms 
still borne by the Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury, Talbots of Margam, &c. 



Sir Hugh Johnys of Swansea. 

This remarkable man may be said in a sense to form his own family : the space his life 
occupied, and the disguise under which his descendants (not bearing his name, since he left 
no son) passed down the stream of time, which is ever engulfing families and their memorials, 
necessarily centre all our attention upon himself. And yet Hugh ap John, aL Jones and 
Jonys, was of a good and noble stock, for he was descended from no less renowned fore- 
fathers than the Vychans (Vaughans) of Trirtwr^ Brec, and maternally from Sir David Gam, 
Sir Roger Vaughan of Tre'rtwr (Tretower), who was knighted and died on the field of 
Agincourt, Oct. 23, a.d. 141 5, was his' gr. grandfather, and Sir Roger's wife, his gr. grand- 
mother, was Gwladys, dau. of the testy but brave Sir David Gam, who also was knighted 
and died on that fatal day. 

Sir Roger Vaughan, Kt., left a son, Watkin, and he a natural son, fohn Watkin Vaughan, 
or, as the Welsh of those times would say, John ap Watkin ap Roger Vychan, who was 
father of Hugh, afterwards Sir Hugh Johnys. The origin of this surname is plain, — Hugh 
w^sf ohf^s, or fohn-his (xr., son), euphonically cxprtsstd fones^ or fonys. Sir Hugh's wife was 
Mawde, dau. of Rees Cradock, Esq., uncle of Sir Mathew Cradock (see Cradock of Swansea). 
As we have said, he left no son to survive him, but two daus., Gwenllian and Jeannette, co- 
heiresses : the former m. David Rees ap levan of Ynyspenllwch ; the latter, John David 
Morgan of Cadley and Cefngorwedd. The interesting monograph on Sir Hugh Johnys, by 
Col. Grant-Francis, F.S.A., from which these particulars are obtained, contains no further 



S8o 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



account of his descendants, nor is the year of his birth or death precisely knomi. We find 
it stated,"however, in the Beaufort Progress^ p. 170, referring to a later time, that "of this 
family of Jones was Hugh Jones, Lord Bishop of Llandaff, consecrated 1566, being the 
first Welshman that was bishop of his church in almost three hundred years before." For 
this link of relationship we find no further authority. 

Of the tenor of his active life as a soldier we can judge from the ample epitaph on the 
monumental brcLss still in the chancel of St. Mary's, Swansea. He was, it is clear, " a knight 
clad in mail, sniffing from afar the smell of adventure," whose language meetly was, — 

" Therefore, friends, 
As far as to the Sepulchre of Christ, 
Whose soldier now — under whose blessed Cross 
We are impressed and engaged to fight. *' 

The antique spelling has been corrected into modem, but no word omitted or added : — 

'' ^ras for tfie eoul of Sir 3^ui][!) Jfof|ns0. I^ntgfit, anti Same i^autie,][){0 \a\it, lo^itc]^ Str l^ugfi 
load matie a kntglit at tlje J^olg Sepulcj^re of our ILorli Jfesu Cj^ridt in ti)e cttj of Jausaltm, 
tl)r l^ti) Dag of Slugudt, tfye gear of our iLorli (Soli l^^l. 9nli tfye tfatli Sir Jlfugfi {^ali coiu 
tmueli va. t^e inars tfjrre a long time before, bj^ tf|e epace of fibe gears, H^zi \% to sap, against tfje 
STurbs anb Saracens, in tl)e parts of SCrog, <5reece, anb STurfteg, unber dofyn, t{)at time iEmperor 
of Constantinople, anb after tfiat biatf Snigbt iHavs^al of ifiance, unber jlofin, Buke of 
Somerset, bg ti)e space of fibe gears, anb in Ufte biise, after tbat, bias 3Stntgbt iSSarsfial of 
Snglanb unber tf|e goob i(of|n, Suite of ^orColft, b)i)tcfy Jfo^in gabe unto {|tm tj^e manor of ■ 
Eanbtmore, to fiim, anb to \\^ f^eics for ebecmore, upon bij^ose souls, Jfesu, fiabe mercg." 

Sir Hugh Johnys, though a hardy soldier, was not proof against the soft blandishments of 
the sex. When as yet a bachelor, but after his knighthood and foreign service, he ** fell in 
love " with Elizabeth, the beautiful dau. of Sir Richard Woodville, and afterwards as widow 
of Sir Thomas Gray, married to King Edward IV. Miss Strickland in her "Lives" refers 
to this affair thus : — ** While yet in attendance on Queen Margaret, she [Elizabeth Woodville] 
captured the heart of a brave knight. Sir Hugh Johns, a great favourite of Richard, Duke of 
York. He had nothing in the world wherewithal to endow the fair Woodville but a sword 
whose temper had been proved in many a battle in France ; he was, however, a timid wooer, 
and very impolitically deputed others to make to the beautiful maid of honour the declara- 
tion of love which he wanted courage to speak himself." 

From this trouble of the affections, although aided by the direct and strong recommen- 
dations of the Duke of York and the great Earl of Warwick, the *' king-maker," Sir Hugh did 
not emerge with success. He was looked coldly upon by the young beauty, and took to 
the wise course of marrying Maude Cradock, who probably made him a better wife than a 
maid of honour would have made. 

Sir Hugh Johnys was not so destitute of means to endow a wife as Miss Strickland 
suggests. His patrimony may have been small, but he had received from the Duke of 
Norfolk, as sUted on his monument, the lordship of Landimor, whose castle he is said to 
have repaired and beautified ; and Col. Francis, who visited the spot and has investigated 
the changes of ownership of this manor, although the subject is surrounded with some 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GIAMORGAN. 5«i 

difficulty, does not see reason to doubt the statement on the brass. There are other 
properties mentioned as belonging to Sir Hugh Johnys ; but it is quite likely that his means, 
when measured against the demands which a lady from court would make upon them, were 
too inadequate. 

About the arms of Sir Hugh Johnys t|^ere seems to hang a good deal of obscurity. In 
the Beaufort Pr(^ress{i6^^) it is said that when the Duke of Beaufort, or rather Mr. Dineley, 
his recorder, inspected the church of St. Mary, the arms had disappeared, '' having been 
stolen away " like the scroll issuing out of Sir Hugh's mouth, but they were ^' also discernible 
among some broken glass" — whether in a window is not stated, — "and said by others of the 
town to be the arms of Sir Hugh Jones and his lady." They are then figured on the margin 
of the Progress thus : — Arg,, a /esse gu, between three cocks oftlie second^ armed^ crested^ and 
jelloped of tJie same--** by the name of Jones." It is added, " These armes were very worthily 
borne by this bold Briian^ Sir Hugh Johyns (now Jones), Lord of Landimore, The second 
"brass escocheon {sic) robbed from the tomb," and which was understood to bear arms of the 
lady, is blazoned thus : — Quarterly: ist and 4/>4, sa.y a chevron arg, between three boys* heads 
couped at the shoulders^ around the neck a snake entwined^ proper; 2nd and yd^ sa.^ a clievron 
arg. between three spear-Iuads of the same, guttis de sang. 

This entire shield would appear to be suitable rather for Sir Hugh Johnys himself; for 
he, being descended from the Vaughans of Tre'rtwr, might adopt the boys* heads of the first 
and fourth quarters, the arms of that family (the illegitimacy of the father would not in those 
days prevent this), as descended from Moreiddig Warwyn {circa 1 200), grandson of Bleddyn 
ap Maenarch. Moreiddig is fabled to have been born with a snake around his neck — the 
" reason " why he adopted these arms instead of those of his ancestor Bleddyn. The spear- 
heads of the second and third quarters were the proper arms of Bleddyn. But about the 
" three cocks " said by Mr. Dineley to have been " worthily borne by this bold Britan, Sir 
Hugh,*' there is room for much doubt As he found them not on the tombstone, but " among 
some broken glass," and received only some verbal accounts in support of his conjecture, we 
cannot positively say that Sir Hugh John3r8, Kt., bore these arms in addition to those 
belonging to his lineage. At the same time Sir Hugh, being a knight with a penchant for 
fighting, may have adopted as his appropriate symbol a bird so famous both for his con- 
tentiousness and courage, especially as the tincture was guies. 



Seys of Boverton. 

" This family, which continued at Boverton for four generations, claimed derivation from 
Bleddyn ap Maenarch, Lord of Brecknock in the eleventh century, and quartered his arms. 
Boverton was the property of the Voss family, which ended here in an heiress, Elizabeth 
VosSy Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth, who m. Roger Seys, Esq. (son of levan Saisy 
Esq., of Cowbridge), Attorney-General of all Wales. Roger Seys died 1599, and wa« buried 
at liantwit Major. His son, Richard Seys, of Boverton "and Swansea," had to wife 
Margaret, dau. of Leyshon Evans, Esq., of the Gnoll, by a dau. of Matthew Herbert, Esq., 
of Swansea, and had a large family. The eldest son, Evan, of Boverton, a serjeant-at-law, 
besides a son Richard, had a dau. Margaret, who d, single in London, 1696, leaving her 



582 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



cousin, William Seys of Swansea, sole executor,— and Elizabeth, who also d. single, leaving 
her nephew Peter, Lord King, sole executor. 

Richard Seys, Esq., of Boverton, m. and had a family; but his two sons, Evan and 
William, d. s.p., the latter in 1710. The eldest dau., Anne, m. Peter King, afterwards Lord 
Chancellor of England, nephew of John Locke, and father, by Anne Seys, of four succeeding 
Lords King, from whom are descended the present Earls of Lovelace, who stiU quarter the 
arms (three spear-heads) of Bleddyn ap Maenarch. The male line at Boverton was now 
extinct, and the Seyses henceforth existed at Swansea, Caerleon, Reeding, &c.— aU extinct. 

The arms of Seys of Boverton irtxQ— Quarterly : 1st and 4/>i, az.^ Spiaies^ on a chief or ^ a 
dcmi'lion rampant gti.; 2nd and ^rd, sa., a chevron arg. between three spear-heads of the same^ 
with their points imbrued. Crest— -<4 demi-iion rampant.gu. Uotto^Crescit subpondere virtus. 



Van of Marcross. 



This ancient British family went, by Norman-French rendering, by the name De Anne, 
or perhaps more properly De Avan, They were traditionally said to have settled at first 
in Cornwall, and to have come over to Marcross, near St. Donates, in the reign of 
Edward III. Here they remained for at least ten generations. But junior branches con- 
tinued longer elsewhere. We have seen under Mathew of Llandaff, that Charles Van, Esq., 
contested the co. of Glamorgan in 1756 against Major Thomas Mathew of Llandaff. The 
residence of Charles Van is not mentioned ; but it may be conjectured with great probability 
to have been Llanwern, Monmouthshire. No Van is found among the sheriffs of Glamorgan, 
except in 1618, when Edward Van, Esq., of Marcross, held the office. 

John de Anne, who m, the heiress of Marcross, held this lordship of the heirs of Hugh 
Despencer at one knight*s service, valued per annum at 37s. 6d., and his son, John, at the 
time of the survey was forty years of age — " et Johes de Anne est fils et haeres ejus 40, 
annorum aetat." This John, we presume, was father of Paganus de Anne, or Payn Van, 
who was lord of the manor of Marcross 7th Henry VI., 1429, and sold the lordship of 
Llandough and St. Mary Church, 22nd Henry VI., 1444, to Sir William Thomas, Kt, of 
Raglan, his son William, and their heirs for ever. " Testibus hiis, Ludovicus Matthew, 
David Matthew, William Bawtrip, William Jeule, et Johannes Fleming [all well-known 
names], Armigeri, die lunae post fest. assumpt. beatae Mariae virginis," &c 

Payn Van m. Anne, dau. of Gruffydd ap Ivan (Bevan) ap Leyson, Esq., Lord of Baglan, 
and had a son William, after whom came in succession John, Edmond, William, George, 
Edward, the last. Sheriff of Glamorgan 161 8, m, Grace, dau. of Francis Stradling, Esq., and 
sister of Sir George Stradling, of St. Donat*s Castle. Edward Van had one son and one dau. 
The latter, named Elizabeth, »»., first, William Matthew, jun., of Aberaman. Secondly, Sir 
Richard Bassett of Beaupre, Kt John Van, Esq., of Marcross, "was the last of the line we 
have account of at that place. He w., 1678, Mary, dau. of William Thomas of Llanfihangel, 
and had issue ; but of the issue no record is at hand. (See Van of Llanwern.) 

The arms of the Vans of Marcross were — Sa.^ a clievron between three butterflies (some say 
bees) displayed arg. 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 583 



Thomas of Llanfihatigd and Brigan, 

The old mansion of Llanfihangel Manor, near Uantwit Major, with its picturesque 
gables and finely mullioned windows, now a comfortable farmhouse, presents to the passer 
by an object of unfailing interest. Here the family of Thomas resided Under Lougher of 
Tythigston it has been shown that that family took its name from Loughor, the place of its 
abode. The father was priest of Loughor (Castell-Uwchwr), Richard by name, son oV 
Gronw, sixth son of Ivan ap Leyson, Lord of Baglan, near Aberavon ; and one of his brothers 
was named Thomas ap Gronw, who received the surname 2></i/^" the black," by reason of 
the colour of his hair. They were of the lineage of lestyn ap Gwrgant The maternal 
ancestors of this family were, however, of mixed blood, beginning with the Bassons, who 
became Lords of Brigan by grant of Gilbert de Clare, a.d. 1257. Stephen Basson, or 
Bauson, the first lord, was the man sent by Henry III. with a great force to encounter 
Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, a.d. 1257, but was repulsed with great loss near Llandeilofawr 
{AftnaL Cambr,^ sub ann, 1257). The line of Basson ceased with his son; his granddau., 
Beatrice, m, the Welshman, Aaron ap Howel Fychan ap Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Maenarch. 
This British line continued at Brigan for twelve generations (assuming the name Thomas on 
mar. of the heiress with Thomas, fifth son of Ivan ap Leyson, and brother of Gromv^ ancestor 
of the Llanfihangel line), till Anthony Thomas, Esq., who m\ Elinor, dau. of William 
Bassett, clerk, of Bonvilleston and Newton Nottage, d. s. /.about the end of the eighteenth 
century. 

Thomas Dda^ named above, m. the heiress of Llanfihangel, as his father's brother had 
m, the heiress of Brigan. His descendants intermarried with the Vans of Marcross, Flemings 
of Flimstone, Games of Ewenny, Mathews of Llandaff, &c. Edward Thomas of Llanfihangel 
was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1633, and created a baronet 1640. He m, Susan, dau. of Sir 
Thomas Morgan of Rhiwpera, Knt., and had a son, — 

Sir Robert Thomas, Bart, of Llanfihangel and Bettws, whose wife was Mary, dau. of 
David Jenkins, sen., Esq., of Hensol. He had no 3on; his only dau., Susannah, who m. 
Robert Savours, Esq , of Breach, Llanblethian, had no issue, and d. in the lifetime of her 
father. Sir Robert sold his estate of Llanfihangel about 1650 to Humphrey Edwin, Esq. 

The arms of Thomas of Llanfihangel are not known to us, but as the lineage was that of 
lestyn ap Gwrgant, it may be presumed the arms would follow, with quarterings for 
alliances. 



Gibbon of TrecastU {Gower), 

Tracing to Einion ap CoUwyn, the opponent of lestyn ap Gwrgant, Gibbon ap Llewelyn, 
eighth in descent, had a son Richard ap Gibbon of Trecastell— a place previously known 
under a foreign name (see Scuriage of Scurlage Castle). How Richard Gibbon became pos« 
sessed of the favour of the De Breoses so as to obtain. this property we have no means at 
hand of knowing. A Welshman himself, he also m. a Welsh wife, Catherine, dau. of Howel 
ap Ivan, of the line of Bleddyn ap Maenarch. 



584 . GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

■ 

Seventh in descent from Richard, Thomas Gibbon, Esq.-, of Trecastle, son of Geoi^e, 
was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1679 ; and his son, Grant Gibbon, Esq., of Trecastle (//. 1771), 
served the same office in 1735. The grandson of Grant, William Gibbon, son of William 
{d, 1764) by Alice, dau. of Rees Powell, Esq., of Llanharan, was also of Trecastle, and //r., 
1784, his second cousin, dau. of Samuel Price, Esq., of Park. 

The arms of Gibbon of Trecastle were those of Einion ap Collwyn — Sa,, a chevron arg. 
between three fleurs-de-lis of the same. 

There were also Gibbons of Cefntreban^ or Pentrebean^ SL Fagan*s, one of whom, " Dr. 
Gibbon, built the great house at St Fagan's;"! but they were not, as far as is known, of the 
same stock with the Gibbons of Trecastle in Gower. 



Popkin of Ynys- Tawe and Forest. 

There were Popkins of Ynys-Tawe and Forest, both of the same lineage, the former the 
senior line, and both now extinct. They claimed descent from Rhodri Ma^vr, King of 
Wales, tliroagh his eldest son, Prince Anarawd {succ. a.d. 877). Gruffydd Gethin, the first 
named in the pedigrees as of Ynys-Tawe, ninth in descent, had a son Hopkin ap Gruffydd, 
and he a son David ap Hopkin of Ynys-Tawe, who m, Eva, dau. of Jenkin ap Leyson of 
Avan, of the race of lestyn ap Gwrgant. Hopkin ap David ap Hopkin followed, and had a 
son David ap Hopkin, whose son, Hopkin David of Ynys-Tawe, had an elder son, — 

David Popkin^ who finally fixed the patronymic as a surname. He m. Jennet, dau. of 
Robert William, Esq., of Court Rhyd-hir, and, with other children, had a son and successor, 
John [jr., son of] David Popkin, of Ynys-Tawe, who, adhering to the favourite family name, 
called his eldest son Hopkin [sc.y son of] John David Popkin, who was also of Ynys-Tawe. 
By his wife Luce, dau. of Harry Rees ap Gruffydd, he left an elder son, his successor, David 
Popkin, who m. Jane, dau. of Thomas Morgan Cadwgan, Esq., and was succeeded by his 
son, Hopkin David Popkin, living 1678, whose wife was a dau. of John David Rosser of 
Trewyddfa. The account of this elder branch here ceases in our MSS. 

The Forest junior line begins with Hopkin, second son of the above Hopkin David of 
Ynys-Tawe, and continues at Forest, near Neath, for ten generations. This line seems to 
have held a higher position in the county than the senior. Thomas Popkin of Forest was 
Sheriff of Glamorgan in 17 18, and his grandson Thomas held the same office in 1755. 
They intermarried with the families of Dawkins of Ynystawlog, Evans of Peterwell, Card. ; 
and the last-mentioned Thomas m. Justina Maria, dau. of Sir John Stepney of Llanell}-. 
The last male representative was Bennet Popkin, Esq., of Forest, " who went to reside at 
Kittlehill in pursuance of a limitation in the will of his aunt, Mrs. Bennet." He m. Mazy, 
dau. and co-h. of David White, Esq., of Miskin, and d, s.p. (See Bath of Ffynone^ 

The arms of the Popkins were — Or^ a stag passant gu,^ attired and hoofed sa. ; a bordure 
engrailed gu. 



Price of Penil^rgaer and Nydfywch. 
Of the sept of Bleddyn .ap Maenarch, Lord of Brecknock when the Normans under 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 585 

Newmarch attacked that country, a.d. 1091 or thereabouts, was David Evan Fwya (the 
•• greater," or perhaps " senior "), whose father was Gwilym Ddu. A junior gr. grandson of 
his, William ap David, founded the family of Nydfytvch; and a senior gr. grandson, brother 
of the former, named Evan ap David, was of Fenllc'rgaer. 

To Evan ap David succeeded at Penlle'rgaer his son Griffith, his grandson Rees, and gr. 
gra:idson John ap Rees^ with whom originated the surname Price. He lived in the time of 
Elizabeth ; m, Elizabeth, dau. of Roger Seys, Esq., of Boverton, Attorney-General for South 
Wales, by Elizabeth Voss, heiress of Boverton (see Seys of Boverton^ and Voss of do.). His 
son Griffith Price succeeded at Penlle'rgaer, and was followed by four generations of his 
descendants (Thomas Price was Sheriff of Glamorganshire 1739), under the last of whom, 
Griffith Price, Esq., barrister-at-law, issue male failed. He m. Jane, dau. and h. of Henry 
Matthew of Nydfywch (thus reuniting the two families, the latter having adopted the surname 
Mait/iew from Matthew ap John ap William of that place), and had a dau. Mary, who d. s.p. 
He m, a second time, but had no issue. By his will he devised the Penlle'rgaer estate to his 
cousin John Llewelyn, Esq., of Ynysygerwn, near Neath (Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1790), in 
whose family it still continues. (See Llewelyn of Penllirgaer and Ynysygerwn,) 



Evans of GnolL 

This important family, which ended in the marriage of the heiress with Sir Humphrey 
Mackworth, a lawyer and a celebrated mine proprietor (began his ndining operations at 
Neath, 1695), resided at Gnoll, near Neath, for six or seven generations. They derived 
from lestyn ap Gwrgant, through Morgan Fychan Leyson, the second son of Evan ap 
Leyson, who w. a dau. of Jenkyn ap Rhys ap Llewelyn, of Glyn N^dd. 

- In the fourth generation, Evan ap David ap Evan is said to be "of Neath or Gnoll." 
His son, David Evans^ who began the surname, was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1562 ; David 
Evins, his grandson, held the same office in 1632. This last David m. Elinor, djiu. of Sir 
Walter Rice, of Newton — the absurd name attempted for a time to be given to the venerable 
Dinefawr (Carm.). He had an eldest son, Edward Evans, Esq., of Gnoll, who iw. Frances, 
dau. of Sir William Button, Knt, and had issue, besides Mary, who m. Walter Evans, 'Esq., 
of Llwyn-eryr, the driginal pf ** Eaglesbush," a son (see Evans of EagUsbush)^ — 

Herbert, afterwards Sir Herbert Evans, Knt, Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1661, who m. 
Anne, dau. and co-h. of William Morgan, Esq., of Pencryg. He had issue five daughters, 
who all d. s. p. except one, who, eventually sole heiress, m, Humphrey Mackworth, 
knighted 1682. 

The arms of Evans of The Gnoll were lesfyn ap Gwrganfs-^Gu., three chevrons arg. 

The Mackworths were originally from Mackworth, in Derbyshire; there was a Humphrey 
Mackworth of Betton, in Salop; but Sir Humphrey Mackworth came to Wales from Bentley, 
parish of Tardely, Worcestershire. He was created a knight only, but the family, an 
ancient one, had had a baronetcy in it, cr. in 1619, in the person of Thomas Mackworth, 
of Normanton ; and this title was revived in 1776 in the person of Sir Humphrey of the 



585 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Gnoirs grandson, Sir Herbert Mackworth, Bart, M.P. for Cardiff 1768, 1774, 1780, and 
1784, d, 1792. 

Sir Robert Mackworth, his son, in. 1792, but d, 1794, s, /., when the title devolved upon 
his brother, Sir Digby ; but the estate had been devised to his widow, who m. Capel 
Hanbury Leigh, Esq., of Pontypool Park, Lord Lieutenant of Mon. Gnoll Castle was 
afterwards sold to the late Henry John Grant, and since his death has been again sold. 
Sir Digby Mackworth was of Glen-Usk, in Mon., where his descendants still are seated. 

Cradock of Long Ash, — This family are only supposed to be of kindred origin with the 
Cradocks of Cheriton. "J. H." could not "find their line exactly;" but they "were at 
Long Ash very long, for I saw a deed/' he says, " dated in the time of King Edward IV., 
that John Cradock of Long Ash, yeoman, purchased a close called the Hams, part of the 
tenement of Harry ap Owen." This family continued for eight or nine generations from Philip 
Cradock, who lived at Long Ash temp. Henry VIII., but whether all the time at the same 
place we have no means of knowing. They seem to have disappeared with Elizabeth 
Cradock, who m, " Owen Evan, clerk." A note by " J. H." says, " And it is further to be 
remembered that the said William Cradock, sen., upon the account of disinheriting his 
daughter, Katherine, was very much troubled in conscience, as he said ; then he settled 
other lands on her and her heirs, which they still enjoy \circa 1720], viz., the two new 
parks, Northways, Blindwell, and other lands in Bishopston, and the Field : the deeds 
and writings touching the same I have seen." 

T/wmas of Llanbradach. — Thomas Be van of Llanbradach (^. circa 1500), son of Evan 
Llewelyn David (see MS. of Sir Isaac Heard, Clarencieux, ed. by Sir T. Phillipps, Bart, and 
D. Jenkin's MS.), brother of Gwilym David of Rhiwperra, Esq., m, Ann, dau. of Lewis 
Richard Gwyn, Esq., "of Upper Senghenydd, that is, Morlais Castle," His son, Rhys 
Thomas, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Richard Came, Esq., of Nash. His gr. grandson, Thomas 
Thomas, «. Dorothy, dau. of Sir John Carew, Knt., Sheriff of Pembr. 1622. 

William Thomas, Esq., of Llanbradach, his son. Sheriff of Glamoiigan 1675, had as 
wife a dau. of Thomas Morgan of Machen (the Tredegar house). His son Thomas was 
Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1705, and his gr. grandson James in 1728, on whose death with- 
out issue the estate of Llanbradach fell to his kinsman (father's brother), William Thomas, 
Esq., of Tredommen. William's line terminated through the failure of issue in his gr. 
grandson, Thomas Thomas, Esq. The present Mrs. Thomas of Llwyn Madoc in Brecon- 
shire is of this family. 



Jeftkins of HensoL — This family is principally known through one of its members, "Judge 
Jenkins of Hensol," and the noble house into which it finally merged. Of the line of Einion 
Sais and Bleddyn ap Maenarch, Lord of "Brecon^ fenJ^in ap Richard m. Jennet, dau. of Evan 
ap William Sir Howel ap William ap Hopkin ap Evan ap Le3rson, grandson of Morgan, Lord 
of Avan (after whom it is supposed Morga/r or Margam Abbey was called). Jenkin's son 
was David Jenkins^ barrister-at-law, ultimately judge of the Western Circuit of Wales 
under Charles I., — a man of great force of character and some eccentricity, named " Heart 
of Oak " and " Pillar of the Law." Being a staunch royalist, he took an active part against 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF GLAMORGAN. 



587 



the Parliament during the civil war ; was made prisoner at Hereford 1645 ; sent to the Tower ; 
refused to kneel at the bar of the House of Commons, and was fined for his contempt ^;,ooo, 
was impeached for high treason, and when an Act was passed for his trial, he met it with the 
declaration that he would ''die with the Bible under one arm and Magna Charta under 
another ! ** — ^a virtuous declaration, but one somewhat inconsistent for an adherent of the 
Stuarts. Being, however, liberated in 1656, on the restoration of Charles II., he returned to 
his estate in Glamorganshire, where he ended his days, and was buried at Cowbridge. He 
tn, Cecil, dau. of Sir Thomas Aubrey, Kt, of Llantrithyd, by whom, besides other children, 
he had a son David Jenkins, Esq., of Hensol, Sheriff of Glamorgan 1685, who m, Mary, 
dau. and co-h. of Edward Pritchard, Esq., of Llancayach, and left a son Richard, who d. s. p.^ 
and a dau. Cecil, whose husband was Charles Mathew, Esq., of Castell Menych (Monk's 
Castle). She had one dau , Cecil, who, as heiress of Hensol, brought that property, as well 
as Castell Menych, to her husband, Charles Talbot, 17 17, Solicitor-General to the Prince of 
Wales 1733, Lord High Chancellor of England by the title Baron Hensol of Hensol, co. of 
Glamorgan. (See further Hetisol Castle.) 

T/iomas of Danygraig, — Members of this family married with Mansels of Briton-Feny, 
Middletons of Middleton Hall, Carm. ; but they were of short continuation at Danygraig, 
having become extinct early in the i8th century. They traced their lineage, according to 
"J. H.'s" MS., from Einion ap CoUwyn through Oweti Philips Portreeve of Swansea, 1600, eldest 
son of Philip John ap Rhys of Glyn-Nedd. In the fourth generation from Owen, Walter Thomas 
m. Catherine, dau. of Hopkin David Edward of Danygraig^ and had issue William, his 
successor, who m, Catherine, dau. of Arthur Mansel, Esq., of Briton-Feny. William had 
several daus. and two sons, Walter and William, both of whom d, s,p., but the younger, the_ 
survivor, '^ gave all his estate, except the customary lands in the parish of Oystermouth, to 
his uncle, Bussy Mansel, Esq., of Briton-Ferry, his mother's brother/' It seems that William 
Thomas, sen., son-in-law of Arthur Mansel, was, like many of the Mansels, of strong royalist 
-sentiments, and " suffered much for his loyalty to King Charles I. He was obliged to sell 
part of his estate at Llandilo-Talybont, which consisted of fee-farms, in order to prevent its 
being sequestered in those troublesome times, and retired to Carmarthen, where he lived 
some years, and then returned to Swansea. He lies buried in the south aisle of the church 
there, and has a handsome large monument [now gone] erected to his memory. — ^J. H.'' 

The arms borne by Thomas of Danygraig, according to "J. H.'s" MS., were — *SVj., a 
cJuvron between three fleurs de lis arg. If so, the arms of CoUwyn ap Tangno, of North Wales, 
must have been adopted by mistake for Einion ap CoUwyn^ the real ancestor. 

Thomas of Wenvoe Castle, — ^A family of Welsh origin, and known by the name Thomas, 
lived on their inheritance at Wenvoe in the latter part of the fifteenth century, when the 
heiress of Thomas ap Thomas m. levan Harpway of Tre Simon, descended from an old 
family in Herefordshire, who thereupon assumed the surname Thomas and dwelt at Wenvoe. 
His son Thomas m. first a Basset, secondly a Came ; and his grandson John Thomas of 
Wenvoe m, Anne, dau. of Rees Meyrick of Cottrel (the author of Morgania Archaographid). 
A later descendant, Edmund Thomas of Wenvoe Castle, was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1626 ; 
his grandson Edmund filled the same ofHce in 1665 ; and his gr. grandson, created a baronet 



] 



588 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



in 1694, was sheriff in 1700. His tide, on his death s, /. in 1703, devolved upon his brother, 
Sir Edmund Thomas, who m. Mary, dau. of the Right Hon. John Howe of Stowell, co. of 
Gloucester. His son, Sir Edmund Thomas, Bart, of Wenvoe Castle, M.P. for Wilts 1759, 
was succeeded in 1767 by his eldest son Edmund, who d, unm. 1789, having prenously sold 
the Wenvoe Castle estate to Peter Birt, Esq., while the title descended to his brother, Sir 
John Thomas, who resided in England, whose representative at the present time is Sir Geoi^e 
Vignoles Thomas, ninth baronet (b, 1856), of the Plas, Chingford, Essex, who bears the 
ancient arms of Thomas of Wenvoe— .Sz., a chetfron and canton cnnine, 

Meyrick of CottreL — The name of this family, long extinct, has become familiar to our 
age through Rees Meyrick^ author of a valuable historical work entitled MorganitB ArcJuBO* 
grafhia. It was written a.d. 157S, and first printed a few years ago by the late Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, Bart. Rees Meyrick, or, as he seems to have written it, Mireke^ was of Cottrel, 
near Cardiff, where his ancestor, Meurig ap Hywel, ninth in descent from Cynfyn Fychan, 
of the line of Einion ap Colhvyn, was the first to settle. We know little of the successors of 
Rees Meyrick of Cottrel, except that one of them, Morgan Meyrick, probably son of Rees, 
was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1609. We have seen above that John Thomas, Esq., of 
Wenvoe, m, Anne, a dau. of Rees Me)nick of Cottrel. 

The arms of Meyrick of Cottrel were those of Einion ap Collwyn — Sa,^ a chevron org, 
between three fleurs- delis of the same, 

m 

Prichard of Collene^ or ColUnau. — This family sprung from that of Gibbon of Trecastle 
in Gower, of the sept of Einion ap Collw)m. (See Gibbon of Trecastie,) Evan ap Richard^ 
second son of Richard Gibbon, was the first of- this branch line. He m. Gwenllian, heiress 
of William Thomas of Collene, and settled at that place about the year 1500. For several 
generations the names of the representatives continued to vary from Evan ap Richard 
(Prichard) and Richard ap Evan (Bevan) until about the ninth, when with Evan Prichard^ 
Esq., of Collene, this surname obtained dominance, and continued for three or four gene- 
rations. From this family issued the Prichards of Tylcha, descendants of Thomas Prichard, 
fourth son of Richard Bevan (ap Evan), the sixth of Collene; and maternally the Bevans of 
Trevarryg in Llantrisant. Trecastle was before called Scurlage CastU. 

All these used the arms of Einion ap Collwyn. (See Meyrick of CottreL) 

Powell of Uanharan and Maesteg'—Yiovci Einion ap Collwyn through the old family of 
Powells of Llangynwyd, or Llwydiarth, and Coytreh^n (Thomas Powell of Coytrehfin was 
Sheriff for Glamorgan 1673), was descended Rees Powell oi Maesteg, son of John Gwyn ap 
Howell, a younger son of Llwydiarth. His third successor at Maesteg, Gervase Powell, Esq., 
m, *' Catherine Oliver, heiress of St. John the Baptist Chapel, parish of Llantrisant, commonly 
called * Capel levan Eedyddiwr.' " His son was Rees Powell, Esq., of Llanharan, who was 
fatlier of Rees Powell^ Esq., of Llanharan, — "one of the most worthy gentlemen ever 
brought up in Glamorgan in learning, piety, and charity to the poor." He d, unmarried 
1738, aged about twentyfive. His brother William, heir of Llanharan, d, also unnu in 1770, 
whereupon his brother, the Rev. Gervase Powell, LL.B., rector of Llanfigan and Mcrthyr 
Tydfil^ succeeded. He m, Elizabeth, dau. of Charles Vaughan, Esq., of Scethrog, Brec, 



« - «. . 



' CHIEF MEN— THE CROMWELL FAMILY. 5^9 

and had issue three daus., co-heiresses, who all married and divided the estate. Llanharan 
mansion and demesne were afterwards purchased by Richard Hoare Jenkins, Esq. 

The arms of Powell of Llanharan were those of Einion ap CoUwyn, — Sa.^ a c/icvron arg, 
between three fleurs-de lis of the same. 

Note, — Chief Men of the Cromwellian Period, 

The cause of the Parliament and nation, as against the despotic tendencies of Charles I., 
found in Glamorgan a number of heroic supporters. For the most part men in the prime of 
life, in some instances only. entering upon the stage of mature manhood, earnest, consci- 
entious, energetic, their service to the popular interest was immense, although their number 
was but small. Chief among these men were Bussy Mansel, of Briton Ferry ; Rowland 
Dawkin, of Kilvrough ; John Price, of Gellihir, in Gower ; and Col. Philip Jones, of Swansea. 
Except John jPrice, they all rose to high command in the army; became members of 
Cromwell's parliament; and the last-named, Philip Jones, a man of remarkable ability 
and high integrity, became comptroller of the Lord Protector's household, and was elevated 
in 1658 to the House of Lords. Having purchased the estate of Fonmon Castle, after the 
Restoration he was permitted to retire to his home, where he spent the remainder of his 
days in comparative ease and quiet. (See. further, Jottes of Fonmon Castle,) Arms : A 
chevron arg, between three spear- heads oft/iesame embrued. 



The Cromwell Family. 

The county of Glamorgan nurtured the Welsh forefathers of Oliver CromwelL That 
man, whose thought was action, whose measures so materially influenced the fortunes of 
this country, and who on more than one occasion betrayed a leaning in favour of .Wales, 
was well aware, when battering the castle of Cardiff, that he was then in the near vicinity of 
the cradle whence his family had sprung. Noble, in his laborious Memoirs of the Protectoral 
House of Cromwell^ has carefully investigated the Welsh descent of the Protector, tracing the 
paternal lineage from son to father in direct line to Morgan Williams of Whitchurch [Eglwys 
Neivydd)^ near Llandaff, descended from the lords of the ancient Comot of Cibwr (Kibbor), 
of the line of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys. Maternally, he was of the family of 
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, whose surname was assumed. An ancestor of Morgan 
Williams, William Morgan ap John of Whitchurch, was of the privy council of Henry VII. 

A.D. 1495. Morgan Williams of Whitchurch m, , dau. of Walter Cromwell of Putney, 

Middlesex, and sister of Lord Thomas Cromwell, '* blacksmith or ironmaster's son, the 
Malleus Monachorum^ or, as old Fuller renders it, * Mauler of Monasteries.' " — {Carlyle,) He 
had issue a son, Richard, who adopted his mother's maiden surname, now become celebrated 
in the person of his uncle, the great minister of Henry VIII. and friend of Cardinal Wolsey. 
Richard (gr. gr. grandfather of Oliver, Protector) became Sir Richard Cromwell, Kt, " a right- 
hand man of the Mauler of Monasteries," was made one of the Privy Chamber of 
Henry VIII., 1527, and was given the lordship oi Neath^ with the suppression of the abbey 
of which place he had probably something to do. In two MS. letters in the British Museum, 
addressed ft 536) to Lord Cromwell, he expressly signs himself ''your most bounden 



590 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



nephew," — which establishes the truth of the pedigree {Cotton MSS.j Cleop. E. iv., 204). 
Carlyle has shown that this Sir Richard ''has signed himself in various law deeds and 
notarial papers, still extant, ' Richard Cromwell, alias Williams ; ' also that his sons and 
grandsons continued to sign ' Cromwell, alias Williams,' and even that our Oliver himself in 
his youth, has been known to sign so." {Letters^ d-r., of Cromwelly L, 24.) Sir Richard's son. 
Sir Henry Cromwell, Kt., of Hinchinbrook, Hunts, m, Joan, dau. and h. of Sir Philip Warren, 
and had three sons : — i. Sir Oliver Cromwell, Kt. of the Bath at the coronation of James L, 
1603, who m. Lady Anne, widow of Sir Horatio Palavicini ; 2, Robert ; 3, Henry. The 
second son, Robert, 'living at Huntingdon, w., about 1591, Elizabeth Steward, the young 
widow of William Lynne, Esq., of Bassingbourne, Cambr., and dau. of William Steward, Esq., 
of Ely, said by the genealogists to have "indubitably descended from the royal Stuart 
family of Scotland." He had ten children, of whom Oliver was the fifth. Of the ten, seven 
survived to manhood, but the only son who so survived was Oliver. The spot where Oliver 
was bom is still familiar to all who know Huntingdon, but the house has been twice rebuilt, 
and has lost every trace whatever of the home of Oliver's youth. Robert Oliver was a 
considerable owner of land around Huntingdon, and his eldest brother. Sir Henry Cromwell, 
lived in the great house of Hinchinbrook close by. The little brook Hinchin ran through 
Robert's lands and courtyard of his house, where it is believed a brewer had once carried on 
his business — a circumstance which was easily converted by his detractors into proof that 
Cromweirs father was himself a ^^brewer^^ I As Carlyle remarks, "the splenetic credulity 
and incredulity, the calumnious opacity, the exaggerative ill-nature, and general flunkeyism 
and stupidity of mankind, are ever to be largely allowed for in such circumstances." Robert 
Cromwell sat once in Parliament in his younger days (1593); is found on various public 
Commissions for draining the fens ; served as magistrate at Quarter Sessions, &c., and was 
generally a man of energy and mark. 

Oliver Cromwell^ his fifth child, student of the law, afterwards a gentleman farmer at St 
Ives, ofiicer in the army, and finally Lord Protector of England, was bom 25th April, 1599 ; 
///., Aug., 1620, in London, Elizabeth Bourchier, dau. of Sir James Bourchier, Knt., of 
London, and Felstead, Essex, He was then in his twenty-first year, and had taken up his 
residence with his mother at St. Ives, Hunts. His dwelling was Slepe Hall House : the great 
bam where he treasured his com, and by and by drilled his soldiers, still stands; but nearly 
all other memorials of him at St Ives have vanished. Troublous times arose, and Oliver 
was not a man to loiter when he thought duty called. He was therefore soon in the 
active public world — in Parliament, in the field, in the thick of battle. His life hence- 
forth is known to all men. He became the foremost man, as well as the " best abused " 
man in all England. 



ANCIENT MANORS OF GLAMORGAN. 591 

Section VII.— THE MANORS OF GLAMORGAN IN THE SEVENTEENTH 

CENTURY. 

The following succinct description of the ancient manorial demesnes of Glamorgan as 
they stood about 200 years ago is so full of topographical and personal fact and allusion, 
that its insertion here cannot fail to be of interest to the historical and antiquarian reader. 
It is extracted from the valuable MS. of Glamorganshire Pedigrees ^ once in the possession of 
Sir Isaac Heard, Kt, Clarencieux King-at-Arms, printed by the late Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
Bart., 1845. The original MS. of which this was a copy certified by Sir Isaac Heard had 
evidently been written at diflferent times, and by different persons, but completed about 177 1, 
its latest and concluding date. Internal evidence clearly suggests that the more recent 
portion of it was the work of a member of the family of Truman, of Pant-y-Llwydd, whose 
pedigree is fully given, with the date 1770 several times repeated. Other parts are about 
a century earlier, doubtless brought together from the productions of different hands by 
the last compiler. Thus, in the pedigree of Mansel of Briton Ferry, Bussy Mansel is 
described as ^^ noiv of Brytonfery, 1678;" Sir Edward Mansel, Knt. and Bart., as "now of 
Muddlescum, 1678;" "William Herbert, now of Kilybebyll, 1678;" and "Rowland 
Harys, now of Bryn Coch, 1678." 

The age of tliat portion of the MS. here extracted cannot be determined with like pre- 
cision ; but from fair inference it appears to be generally contemporaneous with the dates 
last mentioned. Thus, manors are given as then " belonging to Sir John Aubrey, Knt., of 
Llantrithyd \ " and we know that Sir John flourished both before and after the end of the 
seventeenth century. " Richard Lychwr " is one of three described as persons who " do 
present a minister to the church of Newton Nottage." The last Richard Lougher d, in 
1 701. Then we have "Manors belonging to Sir Edward Mansel, Knt., Bart." Sir Edward 
was sheriff of this co. in 1688; M.P. 1660, 1680, and 1685, &c.; and entertained at 
Margam the Duke of Beaufort, on his lordly progress through Wales in 1684. Of Avan 
Wallia it is said that it had " two courts and three parishes," and " Mr. Bushi Mansel is 
patron of these three churches.'' Mr. Bussy Mansel was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1678. 
These allusions are conclusive of the age of this important document, while its own 
contents make it manifest that the writer was competent from local knowledge and. skill in 
grouping relevant information for the task of writing on the subject It requires similar 
local knowledge to determine how far these manors continue in our time to belong to 
lineal representatives, where existing, of the former possessors. The greater part of the 
manors of the "Earl of Pembroke" are still vested in the Marquis of Bute. 



The Manors of the "Earl of Penbrock in the County of Glamorgan. 

The said earl hath the Castle of CaidifTe (which stands in the manor of Roath) ; the manor of Llys-Talybout ; 
the manor of Leek [Llech] with that of Cayre [^. Caerau ?] ; St. George's— which are free, copyhold, and 
demesne lands. Michelston-super-Ely is of like tenure. The lord is patron of the church there, and of the 
chorchof St. Geoige's. 

SU Nicholas is divided between the said earl, Martin Button, Esq., and the heir of Cottrel, and the 
patronage of that church belongs to them by turns. Walterston, within the parish of Llancarvan ; Llanvaes, 



593 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



that was sometime two parts, one belon jiri^ to the Duke of Bedford, then Lord of Glamorgan, and the other 
part belonging to Malefant, that married the heiress of Fleming, bat the £ari of Penbrock hath it entire, and 
is patron Of the church there. 

BarertoH and Uatttvjit- Major was kept by Sir Robert Fitzhamon in his own hand, which he kept in 
husbandry for provision of com towards his house at CardiflTe. It is a spacious lordship, in circuit about four 
miles, having about 900 acres of land in demesne, free, and customary lands, and every tenant upon his death 
or alienation of his customary lands payeth the best beast, and for want of a beast 5s. in the name of a heriott 
\luriot^z, fine due in copyhold estates to the lord of the manor, on death of holder]. The Dean of Gloucester 
hath the tithe com there. Basset hath the advowson there. There are four wells of wholesome water in this 
manor, and none of them drteth in summer. They call them Odnants, Odnais, Sigin Well, and Six Wells. 
They mn in one stream into Severn, at Colehugh. Six Wells springeth in the south, and runneth northward 
into Severn ; Sigin Well runneth towards the south, thither, and yet there is neither mountain nor hill to urge 
the two springs thus contrary. 

Laniwit /^awU^h is in the west part of Lantwit parish, and was purchased by William, the eldest brother 
of Philip, Earl of Penbrock, of Sir Thomas Baglan, Knt. JJanbUiUiian is a large manor ; it came by marrying 
Quintin's heiress to Seward, Lord of Talyvan, and when the male issue of the Sewards failed, an heiress of the 
last of them married William Par, after Marquis of Northampton ; and now the Earl of Penbrock is lord of it. 
Eghuys BrewiSf or a great part of it, belongeth to Evan Saies, Esq. It is a fine little lordship. 

Ruthyn containeth Lajiharan, and part of Lanhilid, and part of Saint Mary's Hill. This lordship was 
given by Fitz Hamon to [Madoc] tbe second son of Justyn, and is large and spacious ; the forest of Garth 
Maylwg is in it, but the wood thereof \f^& sold to the Iron Men [the miners of Merth3rr]. 

Newton Nottage contains 1,200 acres of land, and is divided between the Earl of Penbrock and Richard 
Lychwr [Lougher], Esq., and the heir of Sir William Herbert, Knt. It was given by William, Earl of Gloster 
(then Lord of Glamorgan), unto one Sir Richard Cardiffe, who had one only daughter, that married one Sir 
Thomas Sanford, Knt., and had issue Sir Richard Sanford, Knt, Lord of Newton ; but how the Sanfords 
-went from the same I could not find as yet There are three wells in this lordship, which flow and ebb twice 
in twenty-four hours, and at every time contrary to the sea, whereupon Sir John Stradling, Knt., Baronet, 
moralized. 

The borough of Kynfijge \Kenfig'\ Sir Robert Fitz Hamon kept in his own hands, and builded a castle 
there, and used the same as one of his dwelling-houses. Howbeit, in a short time both the town and castle 
-were drowned by the sand of the sea, and there remaineth but out cottages, bearing the name of the borough 
of Kynfigge, which hath the whole liberties yet remaining, as the said town formerly had ; saving that the 
weekly markets and annual faires are lost. The King*s Majesty is patron of the church there. Kynfigg river 
springeth in Ceven Cribwr, and mnneth to Pile, and so under Kynfygge Castle to the sea of Sevem. 

The borough of Avan, together with the lordship of Avan PVa/Za, was given by Fitz Hamon to Cradock 
ap Justyn, which, after many ages, fell to a daughter that married one of the Blunts, that exchanged the same 
with the Lord of Glamorgan for lands in England. '* 

NeatA 'Burgus, with the castle, was given in the division by Sir Robert Fitz Hamon to Sir Richard 
Greenfield, Knt. [see De Granville], whose heir founded an abbey and gave the lands there towards the main- 
tenance thereof, and went to an estate that they had in Devonshire, near Bedeford, to dwell. The lord is 
patron of the church there, and the valuation is 5. {Sic MS.) There is in the lordship of Neath four Courts 
Baron, viz. : Neath Manerium, Neath Citra, Neath Ultra, and Kil-y-Bebyll. Avan Walia hath two courts 
and three parishes, viz. : Avan Burgus, Baglan, and Michelston-super-Avan (otherwise called Ynys A-van). 
Mr. Bushi Mansel is patron of those three churches. 

The borough of Ctnvbridge was kept by Robert Fitz Hamon in his own hands, and the bailiffs thereof do 
still yield their yearly accompts at the Earl of Penbrock's audits, for the profits and perquisitts of their court 
there. Mr. Basset is patron of the church. The fishing of TafT, Rumney, Ely, Ogmor, Avan, and Neath^ do 
belong to the Earl of Penbrock. The Wardsilver, paid by the several Gentlemen of Ward that held their 
manors in knight service of the said earl, as under the Castle of Cardiffe, amounts to ;f 7 9s. ob. 

Saint Henydd Subtus [I^wer Senghenydd], wherein the Red Castle is, once the chief house of Ivor Pettite, 
Lord of Saint Henydd. Also Carfiili Castle and Gurles [Morlais] Castle, in Upper Saint Henydd, belongs to 
the said earl, and the patronage of Celligar and Merthyr Churches. 

The castle and borough of Lantrissent^ with the lordships of Clun, Pentyrch, and Trewem, was given to 
Einion ap CoUwyn ; but Sir Rol)ert Fitz Hamon kept Glynrondde in his own hands. There are in the lord- 
ships of Mi-ikin and Glynrondde seven parish churches, viz. : Lantrisscnt, Lantwit Vairdre, Ystradtvodwg, 
Lanwnno, Aberd&r, Pentyrch, and Radyr. The Dean of Gloster and his lessees hath the tithe sheaf ther«. 
Basset is patron of the vicarage of Lantrissent. 

The lordship of Glynrondde butteth upon the south part of Brecknockshire, and hath in it a good and 
large common of pasture given by Justyn's father to the tenants, and still called, after his name, Hir Wayn 
IVrgan. Both Ronddes spring in that lordship. 

Tir laril was kept by Fitz Hamon in his o-wn hands, and hath two parish churches, -viz. : Langynwyd 
and Bettws ; and hath in it two tenures, freehold and lease, or patent lands. AVoU.—Th^l William land Philip, 



ANCIENT MANORS OF GLAMORGAN. 593 

Earls of Penbrock, were the greatest lords that had lands in Glamorgan either before or after Justyn's time. 
[See Pembroke^ Earls of; BuU^ Marquess o/.] 

77i£ Manors Mongt'n^ to Uu Right Hon, IT. 'Marqtiis of Worcester. 

The castle and borough of Swansey^ the castles of Ostermouth and Caslychwr ; Kilvai, Sub-boscos, and 
Saper-boscos ; Penarth, Hamon, Kittle, and Trewyddva ; Penmanor, part thereof; Ilston ; Michelston-le-Pit, 
Wrinston, West Orchard, and Lancarvan, four small lordships. West Orchard hath no court but at Michaelmas. 
The lord is patron of the church of MicheUton-le-Pit. 

Manors hdon^ng to Sir Edward Rfaiuel, JCnt,, Baronet. 

Mar^m, Havod y Porth, Laleston, Pile, Horgro, Aber KynBgg, Langewyd, holden in chief of the king, 
Porth Inon, Nicholaston, Scurla (or Horton), and Penrees. * These four lordships in Gower contain three 
parishes, and the lord is patron of th^ three churches of Pile and Kynfigg, being both but one vicarage. 

■ 

Manors of the Earl of Lester [Zeieester]. 

The several lordships of Coyty Anglia, Coyty Walia, Newcastell, Court Colman, Lan Hary, and Xewland, 
wherein are demesne lands, customary, free, and copyhold. The lord is patron of Co3rty Church, Coe-Church, 
Saint Bride's Minor, and Lanhary. Jo. Gamadge, E^., bought Court Colman of Thomas Lyson, Doctor of 
Ph3rsick. 

Manors that do or did belong to St, John, Earl of Bullingbrock \Bolingbroke\, 

The castle of Penmark, with the lordship, came to the Saint Johns by marrying an heiress to one of the 
Humphrevills ; it hath free and copyhold lands. The castle and lordship of Fon/nun butteth upon the river 
Thawe : it hath copy and free lands ; both manors are in the parish of Penmark, and the Dean had once the 
tythe sheaf and the presentation of a vicar to the church. 

The manor of Laneadle butteth upon the eastern part of the river Thawe, within the parish of Lancarvan. 
It hath free and copyhold lands. It Ls (or was) holden in soccage under the Earl of Penbrock, as they of his 
manor at Saint Nicholas. Cum Kidi joineth with the manor of Penmark, and is >»dthin the said parish, and 
hath free and copyhold lands. It hath been part of Humphrevill's lands. [See De Humfreville.'\ 

For the manor of Barry I find no record to whom it was given in the division. Camden saith that it had 
that name from one Barrictts, a holy man, bom and bred there. It hath in it the like tenures and two parish 
churches,, viz. : Barry and Port Kery ; the lord is patron of both. • 

Manors pnce belonging to Cam [ofEwenny]. 

fVenny, sometime a priory, purchased (after the suppression) by Sir Edward Cam, KnL It is holden in 
Capite. The lord is patron of the church of Wenny. Saint Mary, by Cowbridge, and Landoch are two 
manors holden under the Castle of CarditTe by knight service. Cohoyiuton manor stands upon the river Alem. 
It was sometime the Stradling's land. It owes knight service to Ogmor Castle : also part of Saint Bride's 
Major the like tenure. 

o 

Manors belonging once to Sir John Stradlingt Xt^% Baronet, 

Saint Dimafs was given in the division to Sir William le Esterling, Knt. : the lord is patron of the chnrch 
there. Monke Ash (or Nash Major) was the Greenfields' [Grenvilles'], and given by them to the Abbey of 
Neaib, and after the suppression purchased from Sir Richard Cro[m]well, Knt., by Sir Thomas Stradling, of 
Saint Donat's, KnL 

Lanphe came to the Stradlings by the marriage of Sir Edward Stradling, Knt, with the heiress of Berk- 
rolles. Lanphe is holden by knight service under the Dutchie of Lancaster, and Merthyr Mawr by knight 
service under Lanbleithan. He had also a fourth part of Penlline, under Cardiffe Castle. 

Merthyr Mawr was once the land of the Sewards, and came to Berkrolls by marrying an heiress of 
Seward ; and from Barkrolls to Stradling, by the above-said marriage. Thomas [?], Lord Bishop of LandafTe, 
is patron of the church there. ZJanmaes, in Saint Pagan's, situate on both sides of Ely, being antient lands 
l>elonging to the Stradlings. 

Sully, given in the division to Sir Reynold Sully, KnL, whose great-granddaughter being an heiress, 
married Sir Lyson de Avan, and conveyed the said lordship to that name [see De Sullyl. Again, a daughter 
and heiress to Sir Thomas de Avan, Lord of Sully, married one Blunt, an English Knt., who exchanged her 
lands in Wales with the then Lord of Glamorgan for lands in England. It fell by escheat to the Crown, and 
was purchased from Queen Mary by Sir Thomas Stradling, KnL, (holden) de Rege. 



594 



GLAMORG ANSHIRE. 



Enst Orchard was given in the division to Sir Roger Barkrolls, Knt., where stood his chief dwelling* 
house [see De Berkroiies], It is situate upon the river Thawe, and came to the Stradlii^ by the aforesaid 
marriage. It is holden under Cardiffe Castle. 

Castleton and West Orchard are both in the parish of Saint Athan, and holden by knight service under the 
castle of drdilTe. The lord is patron of the church there. GiUston is holden by Mr. Giles from Sir John 
Stradling, Knt., by lease for i,ooo years at £2. per annum. Knight service under Castleton. The lessee is 
patron of the church there during the time. 

Manors that belonged to Sir William Herbert, Kni,y and after his deaths sans issue, divided between Sir William 
Dorington, Knt,, Mr, Herbert ofCogan Pill, and William Herbert o/Swansey, Esq, 

Roath Tewkesbury (so called after the Lord of Glamorgan had given it to the abbey of Tewkesbuiyy, after 
the suppression of the abbeys was purchased by Sir Geoige Herbert, Knt., the grandfather of Sir William 
Herbert, Knt. ; and therein Sir William builded the fair house, called the Fryers, by Cardiffe : bokien 
de Rege. 

Landoch came to Sir William Herbert from his great-grandmother, daughter and heiress to Sir Matthew 
Cradock, Knt, which, after the death of Richard Herbert, Esq., married Sir William Bawdrip, Knt. In this 
lordship was the chief dwelling-house of Sir Matthew Cradock, Knt. [see Llandough Castle\, The lord is 
patron of the church there. It is holden under the castle of Cardiffe. He had also part of St Andrews and 
Denys Powis of the King. 

Cantlostovm, once the Cantelupes Land, and it came first to Sir William Horton, Knt., by marrying the 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Cantlo, Esq., and from his granddaughter, Jonet, daughter and heiress to 
his son, Jenkin Horton, to Sir Matthew Cradock, her son and heir by Richard Cradock, Esq., to whom she 
married ; and from the heiress of Sir Matthew Cradock, to her son and heir, Sir Geoige Herbert, Knt It 
is within the parish of Merthyr Mawr, and is holden under the castle of Lanbleithian. Comely was some- 
time the Lovells' Lands, after, the Cradocks*, and now the Herberts', holden in Soccage under Kynfigg Castle. 

A third part of Newton Nottage ht^ongeA to Sir William Herbert. The three lords, viz., the Earl of 
Penbrock, the heir of Sir William Herbert, and Richard Lychwr [Lougher], Esq., do present a nunister to 
the church by turns. Also at Swansey Sir William had a fair dwelling-house and much land thereunto 
belonging, and the tithe sheafe of Cadoxton by Neath. He had also a part of Penmaen, and a third port of 
Langenith, in Lower Gower. 

Manors bdonging to Sir yohn Awbrey, of Lantrithyd, Knt. 

The lordship of Talyvan, which was sometime the Sewards', purchased by John Thomas Basset, Esq., 
of King Edward the Sixth, where are free, customary, lease, and copyhold lands. Welsh Saint Donat's is 
the parish church. A great part of Saint Mary Hill, and the manor of Lan Madock, in Lower Gower, belong 
to the Knt. 

Lands of Edward Van, of Marcross, Esq, 

Edward Van, £lsq., had a moiety of Marcross, and a fair house at Lantwit, and much good land there- 
unto belonging, '(held) under the Castle of Cardiffe. 

Manors belonging to Sir Edward Lettns, sen., Knt., of Van, 

Van, where [are] his chief dwelling-house and goodly demesne thereunto belonging. The manor of St 
Pagan's, wherein is a fair house, builded by Dr. Gibbon, with much demesne lands and rent belonging there- 
unto. The manor of Adensfield, Penmark, and Splot, part of the lordship of. Peterston super Ely. The 
manor of Cam-Uwyd, The manor of Roath Kensam [Keynsham] being part of Roath, given by the Lord of 
Glamorgan to the abbey of Kensam, and after the suppression purchased by Edward Lewis, Esq., &ther to 
Thomas Lewis. 

The manor of Comion, situate in Ogmor Lands in the duchy of Lancaster, and is holden in knight service 
under the castle of Ogmor. Sir Edward Lewis, Knt, had also the manor-house oi Radyr, and the park and 
demesne lands thereunto belonging. 

Sir Francis Popham, Knt, had the manor of Cadoxton, wherein are three tenures, viz., demesne, free, 
and copyhold lands. There are two churches in it, whereof the lord is patron. 



Manors of Sir Richard Basset of Bewper, 

Sir Richard Basset, Knt., had the manor of St, Hilary, wherein standeth Bewper, his chief dwelling- 
house, and very goodly and faire demesnes thereunto belonging. He had also one moiety of Marcross, and 
goodly demesne lands there. He had also Viswere, wherein standeth a faire house, and goodly demesne lands 
thereunto belonging. 



THE ANCIENT DIVISIONS OF GLAMORGAN. 595 



T7u Ancient Divisions of Glamorgan. 

m 

% The boundaries and divisions of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire before the Norman 
conquest are not clearly ascertainable. But there seems to be no reason for doubting that 
from the end of the Roman period (fifth century), when the Severn washed the western side 
of Britannia JPrima, and the consolidation of the Saxon states under Egbert (ninth century), 
when the Wye rather than the Severn was the jvestem boundary of the Anglo-Saxon dominion, 
the country between the Severn and the Wye had belonged more to Wales than to England, 
and had a population almost entirely British. Here Elystan Glodrudd is said to have 
ruled a territory known by the various names, Fferyllwg, Ferleg, Ferlex. From the Wye 
westward, however, the country was always considered as belonging purely and simply to the 
Welsh, as it has continued to this day part of Wales. Monmouth and Glamorgan —the 
former popularly considered, and in some enactments named as in England — were before 
the Norman age and formation of the Lordship Marcher of Glamorgan generally associated 
together -under the title of Gwent and Morganwg, and doubtless (along with surrounding 
districts) inhabited by a clan or division of the Britons which recognised a bond of common 
origin or interest — the SiiureSj although the land was partirioned under two or more rulers. 

This region maintained, also, a kind of separateness from South Wales. It was not a 
portion at any time (except when force prevailed) of the wider country known as the " south 
part " of Wales, or De/uubarih; it was not included in either of the three provinces or 
kingdoms into which Rhodri the Great (ninth century), King of Wales, divided his dominions 
between his sons. Howel Uda, King of South Wales, was considered an interloper when 
attempting to obtain rule in Glamorgan, and was checked by Edgar, the English king. 

But not even tlie conquest of this region by the Normans, and their long and powerful 
rule over it, in the slightest degree obliterated the public sense that the country of Morgan 
and the Gwenta of the Silures still belonged to and formed an essential part of Wales. The 
ancient British division into canirefs and comots^ made perhaps in the time of Howel Dda, 
or possibly first originated and fully systematized by Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffydd (thirteenth 
century)— they were certainly formally defined and established by that prince— extended to 
Glamorgan and Gwent as well as to any other part of Wales, and remain more or less in 
force to this day; — ex,gr,^ Cardiff is in the hundred of Cibwr (now spelt "Kibbor'*), and 
Llantrisant in that of Miskin, the chief difference being that the ancient comots are now 
termed hundreds^ and the ancient canirefs fallen into abeyance. And it is to be noticed that 
the old British topography placed Gwent and Morganwg (Monmouth and Glamorgan) under 
one system of six canirefs^ including twenty-four comots^ a division from the influence of which 
it is not yet altogether practicable to relieve the popular mind. A part of the co. of 
Monmouth especially— that lying between the Usk and the Taff, forming the cantref of 
Gwaunllwg, or Gwentllwg — is often popularly considered as in Glamorgan, and it requires 
an effort of the memory respecting the actual county boundary to dispel the illusion. The 
old British division of Glamorgan proper (which excluded Gower [Gwyr], classing it with Car- 
marthen as a part of Deheubarth, but included a part of Monmouthshire) was into six 
cantrefs and twenty-four comots, as before stated. 



596 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Cantrefs, 



Comats. 



/Rhwng NMd ac Afan [" between Nedd and Avan"]. 
I Tir yr Hwndrwd [" the hundred land "]. 
GroNedd,orGoHynydd. [This cantref, which formed I Tir larll ["the Earl's land." Its centre was Coity. 
the extreme utesUrtt part of Glamorgan, had its / It included the site of Bridgend, and part of 

western limit on the river Neath (A/tJd), though \ Bettws]. 

some say it extended to the Tawe.] Glyn Ogwr [''the Vale of Ogwr." now Ogmore. 

To the interior from Coity to the hills — parishes 
\ of Llangeinor and Llandyfodwg]. . 



Penychen, also called Pen y Nen. 



/ 



\ 



/ Talyfan [see manor of Tafy/an, in " Manors of Gla- 
morgan "]. 

Miskin [included Llantrisant, &c.\ 

Rhuthyn [the territory given by Fitzhamon to Madoc, 
son of lestyn. Its etymology implies a rtd soil — 
W., rhtutti, red. Included Llanharan, &c.]. 

Glyn Rhoddni [" Vale of Rhondda," parish of Ystrad- 
yfodwg, &c.]. 



Cantref Breiniawl [** the Royal Hundred/' so termed 
because it included the lord's castle of Cardiff, 
and primarily the scat of British rule]. 



Cibwr [now " Kibbor." Cardiff, Roath, Whitchureh, 
Llanishen, Llysfaen, Llanedem. The district 
between Lower Rhymncy and Taff], 

Senghenydd [Caerphilly, Castell Coch, &c.]. 

Uwch Cayach ["Upper Cayach "— Merthyr Tydfil, 
Aberdare, Llanwonno, &c.]. 

Is Cayach [" Lower Cayach "—Gelligaer, lianfabon, 
Eglwys-ilan]. 



Gwaunllwg [otherwise "Gwentllwg." This cantref 
is now included in MonmouUishire, It comprises 
the marshy and level parts between Cardiff and 
Newport, and generally the lower lands between 
the lower Rhymney and Usk]. 



{ Yr Haidd. 

Y Dref Berfedd, or Canol [" the central p»ut "]. 
Edelygion Eithaf [some divide this into two comots]. 

Y Mynydd [" the Mountain "]. 



Other cantrefs, named " Gwent Uwch Coed " and " Is Coed," containing eight or nine 
comots, were situated in the remaining part of Monmouthshire, and, together with the above, 
constituted " Gwent and Morganwg." (See in Myvyr, Arch, of Wales^ vol. ii. : " Parthau 
Cymru^^) 

It is notable that these cantrefs by no means include the whole of modem Glamorgan. 
Apparently all the undulating district usually called " the Vale of Glamorgan," by the 
Welsh Bro Morgarm^gy is omitted ; and the parts embraced appear to correspond with 
the region called '' Morgannok,'* as distinguished from V' Glamorgan " (see p. 503), — ^in 
other words, the northern and hilly parts of the county. Whether this indicates that the 
Welsh princes in settling the geographical divisions of Wales in the thirteenth century refrained 
from intermeddling with the Vale of Glamorgan as being in too exclusive a sense the domain 
of the Norman lords and their mesne fief-holders, is worth inquiring into. The fact itself is 
remarkable, but seems to have strangely escaped the notice of antiquarians. Almost all the 
Barones minora we have noticed, as well.as the Lord Paramount of Glamorgan himself, had ■ 
their manors in the parts not included in the cantrefs of the Welsh partition, while these cantrefs 
correspond with some considerable exactitude with the lands said by tradition and the BnUs 
to have been granted by Fitzhamon to the sons of lestyn, to Einion ap Collwyn, to Robert 
ap Seissyllt, and other Welshmen. These included Senghenydd, Miskin, Avan, Aberavan, 



SHERIFFS AND UNDER-SHERIFFS OF GLAMORGAN. 597 

the district between NMd and Tawe, Maes Essyllt, &c. ; in fact, the hilly as distinguished 
from the champaign country. In the latter some thirty parishes, forming the modem 
" hundreds " of Dinas Powys, Cowbridge, and Ogmore, are not perceptibly included in the 
cotnots enumerated in the survey of Prince Llewelyn. Did that prince confine his survey to 
lands held by Welshmen only ? Is this another indication of that proud and contemptuous 
temper which, when England was lost, would see in the word '' Britain " nothing but Wales, 
and.in the word "Britons" nothing but the Cymry — thus endeavouring, by ignoring, to 
annihilate misfortune ? This were indeed after a new mode — 

" To take ams against a sea of troubles, 
And by opposing end ihem ; " 

but if excusable in any, such hallucination might be .excusable in Prince Llewelyn, the man 
who, beyond most heroic men, not even excepting Alfred, had battled long and bravely with 
"outrageous fortune,*' not generally, although finally, without the success his genius and 
marvellous self-devotion merited. 



Section VIII.— SHERIFFS AND UNDER-SHERIFFS OF GLAMORGAN, 

A.D. 1541 — 1872. 

Sheriffs, in the modem sense of the term, were first appointed for Glamorgan by 37 th 
Henry VIII. (a.d. 1536), which constituted that Lordship Marcher, with Gower, a County, and 
formally united this part as well as Monmouthshire and all the remainder of Wales with 
England. Up to this time the office of sheriff had vested in the lord of the lordship, who, 
by the nature of his tenure, governed in the absence of the king's writ, administering justice 
in his own court, and even enacting laws, under certain limitations, on his own responsi- 
bility ; although upon this point it is necessary to keep in mind the important fact that the 
Norman conquest of Glamorgan, like the Norman conquest of England, allowed the laws 
and customs of the conquered in great part to remain in force. Such new enactments and 
modes of administration as were necessary for the planting of the feudal system among 
the people the Normans did their best to harmonize with the native laws, but, where perfect 
accord was impossible, supplied the lack on the rough and ready principle of, sic volo^ &c. 

The first Sheriff nS.med for Glamorgan is Sir George Herbert, Knt., of Swansea, a-D. 1541 . 
The following tabular arrangement is deemed to be as far as possible correct, and is taken, 
with slight alteration, from that published by Rev. H. H. Knight (1850), which up to the 
year 1792 was from the MS. of Evan Simmons, of Nottage, thence to 1850 from a MS. of 
Howel Gwyn, Esq. It has been completed from further additions by the last-named 
gendeman, and collated with a copy of a MS. by Thomas Morgan, of Cardiff. 

It will be observed that the under-sheriffs in the early times were men of about the same 
standing as the sheriffs, and very often members of their family. 



2 R 



598 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



HIGH SHERIFFS. 



UNDER-SHERIFFS. 



A.D. 



HENRY VIII. 



1 Sir George Herbert, of Swansea . 

2 Sir Rice Mansel, Knt., of Margam 

3 Sir Edward Came, KnL, of Ewenny 

4 William Bassett, Esq., of Beaupre 

5 Sir George Mathew, of Radir 

6 John Thomas Bassett, Esq., of Llantrithyd 



Jenkin Franklin, Gent 1541 

William Bassett, Gent., of Beaupre . . 1542 

James Button, of Worlton . . ' . . 1543 

John Turbervill, of Llanblethian . . . 1544 

Thomas Lewis 1545 

William Meyrick • . . . . 1546 



EDWARD VI. 



7 Miles Mathew, Esq., of LlandaflT . 

8 Sir Thomas Stradling, Knt., of St. Donat's 

9 Edward Lewis, Esq., of Vann 

10 Christopher Turbervill, Esq., of Penlline 

11 James Thomas, Esq., of LlanHhangel . 

12 William Herbert, Esq., of Cogan Pill . 



13 Sir George Herbert, Knt., of Swansea . 



William Jones, Gent. . 
Robert Stradling, his brother 
John Smith, of Cardiff 
Thomas Powell, of Llangynwyd 
James Thomas, his son 
Henry Lewis, of Cardiff 



MARY. 

David John Vaughan 



IS47 
1548 

1549 
1550 

1551 
1552 



ISS3 



PHILIP AND MARY. ^ 



14 Sir Rice Mansel, Knt., of Margam 

15 Sir EdMrard Came, Knt., of Ewenny 

16 Edward Lewis, Esq., of Vann 

17 James Button, Esq., of Worlton . 

18 William Bassett, Esq., of Beaupre 



Thomas Powell, of Llangynwyd . . 1554 

Miles Button, Esq 1555 

Thomas Griffith 1556 

Miles Button, Esq 1557 

Jenkin Williams, of Cowbridge • . . 1558 



ELIZABETH. 



19 Sir Richard Walwyn, KnL, of Llantrithyd 

20 Edward Lewis, Esq., of Vann 

21 John Came and Thomas Lewis, Esqs., of Vann 

22 Thomas Came, Esq., of Ewenny . 

23 David Evans, Esq , of Neath 

24 Sir William Herbert, Knt., of Swansea 

25 Miles Button, Esq., of Worlton . 

26 William Jenkins, Esq., of Tythegston 

27 William Herbert, Esq., of Cogan Pill 

28 William Mathew, Esq., of Radir . 

29 Christopher Turbervill, Esq., of Penlline 

30 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Vann 

31 Miles Button, Esq , of Worlton . 

32 Thomas Came, Esq., of Ewenny . 

33 Richard Gwynn, Esq., of Llansannor 

34 Sir Edward Stradling, Knt., of St Donat's 

35 Edward Kemeys, Esq., of Kcven-mably 

36 Sir Edward Mansel, Knt., of Margam . 

37 Nicholas Herbert, Esq., of Cardiff 

38 Sir William Herbert, Knt., of Swansea 

39 John Thomas, Esq., of Llanfihangel 

40 William Mathew, Esq., of Radir 

41 Thomas Came, Esq., of Ewenny . 

42 Sir William Herbert, Knt., of Swansea 

43 Sir Edward Stradling, Knt, of St. Donat's 

44 George Hnrbert, Esq., of Nash 

45 Edward Kemeys, Esq., of Keven-mably 

46 Nicholas Herbert, Esq., of Cardiff 

47 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Vazm 

48 John Came, Esq., of Ewenny 



John Unett 

John Smith .... 

Thomas Griffith . 
John Kemeys, Kefh-mably . 
Richard Thomas .... 
William Herbert, Cardiff . 
Robert Button .... 
Edward Holland 

John Smith 

Walter WUliams 

Henry Matthew .... 

Roger Seys, Gent. 

David Robert, of Cardiff 

John Smith 

Jenkin Williams 

Leyson Lewis . . 

Walter WiUiams, of Gelligaer 
Thomas Powell .... 
Reynold David . . ' . 

William Herbert, of Cardiff 
Lewis Griffith .... 
Henry Mathew, his brother . 
William David .... 
Lewis Griffith . . . . 
Lambrook Stradling, of Cardiff . 
Rees Lewis .... 

John Andrew .... 
John Gamage .... 
Gabriel Lewis^ Esq., of Llanishen 
George Kemeys, LJanblethian 



1559 
1560 

1561 
1562 

1563 
1564 

iS6s 

1566 

1567 

1568 

1569 

1570 

1571 

1572 

1573 

1574 

1575 
1576 

1577 
1578 

1579 
1580 

1581 

1582 

1583 
1584 
1585 
1586 
1587 
1588 



SHERIFFS AND UNDER-SHERIFFS OF GLAMORGAN. 



599 



49 Miles Button, Esq., Worlton 

50 Henry Mathew, Esq., of Radir 

51 Anthony Mansel, Esq.. of Llantrithyd . 

52 Sir William Herbert, Knt., of Swansea 

53 Edmund Mathew, Esq., of Radir. 

54 Sir Thomas Mansel, Knt, of Margam . 

55 Edward Kemeys, Esq., of Keven-mably 

56 Sir Edward Stradlinf^ Knt., of St. Donates 

57 Richard Bassett, Esq., of Beaupre 

58 John Gwyn, Esq. (died) ; Rowland Morgan, Esq. 

59 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Ruperra [Rhiw-peri] 

60 Edward Prichard, Esq., of Llancayach 

61 John Came, Elsq., of Ewenny 

62 Edward Lewis, Esq., of Vann 



Edward Button, his son 
Morgan Gibbon, of St Fagan*s 
Thomas Pranch . 
Lewis Griffith, of Cilybebill 
Marmaduke Mathew . 
Anthony Powell . 
William St John 
John Stradling, Gent . 
Thomas Bassett, his son 
William PoweU . 
Thomas Lewis Reynold 
William Williams 
Hopkin Evans, Gent . 
Gabriel Lewis, Esq. . 



JAMES L 



63 Thomas Aubrey, Esq., of Llantrithyd . 

64 Sir Thomas Mansel, Bart, of Margam 

65 Edward Kemeys, Esq., of Keven-mably 

66 Sir William Herbert, Knt, of Swansea 

67 Sir Rowland Morgan, Knt., of Uandaff 

68 John Stradling, Esq., of St Donat's . 

69 Richard Bassett, Esq., of Beaupre 

70 Morgan Meyrick, Esq., of Cottrel - 

71 George Lewis, Esq., of Llystalybont . 

72 Lewis Thomas ap William, Esq., of Bettws 

73 Sir Edward Lewis, Knt, of Varm 

74 Thomas Mathew, Esq., of Castlemenych 

75 Gabriel Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen 

76 Christopher Tnrbervill, Esq., of Penlline 

77 David Kemeys, Esq., of Keven-mably . 

78 William Mathew, Esq., of Aberaman . 

79 Edward Van, Esq., of Marcross . 

80 Sir John Stradlmg, Knt and Bart., St. Donat's 

81 John Came, Esq., of Ewermy 

82 William Bassett, Esq., of Beaupre . ^ 

83 Sir Thomas Mansel, Knt and Bart., of Margam 

84 Lewis Thomas ap William, Esq., of Bettws 



Thomas Bassett, Gent. 

Anthony PoweU, Gent 

Morgan Cradock, Gent 

Hopkin David Edward 

Philip WUliams .... 

William Stradling 

Thomas Bassett, his son 

W. Meyrick, his brother 

David Lloyd, of Cardiff 

Philip William Eglwysilan . 

William Robert, of St. Andrew's 

Miles Mathew, his brothier . 

Evan Thomas ap Evan 

Rees Knapp .... 

Henry Penry, Gent. . 

Robert Mathew, his brother 

Owen Price, Gent 

George Williams 

William Roberts 

Jenkin Cradock, Gent, of Llancarvan 

John Rowe, of Gower . 

John Powell .... 



CHARLES L 



85 Anthony Gwynn, Esq., of Lansannor . 

86 William Bawdrip, Esq., of Splott 

87 Edmund Thomas, Esq., of Wenvoe 

88 Henry Mansel, Esq., of Gower . 

89 Sir Thomas Lewis, Knt, of Peimiark . 

90 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen 

91 Sir Anthony Maasel, Knt, of Briton-ferry . 

92 David Evans, Esq., of Neath 

93 Edward Thomas, Esq., of Llanfihangel 

94 John Aubrey, Esq., of Llantrithyd 

95 Watktn Lougher, Esq., of Tythegston . 

96 Sir Lewis Mansel, Knt and Bart, of Margam 

97 Edward Prichard, Esq., of Llanca3rach 

98 Nicholas Kemeys, Esq., of Keven-mably 

99 John Came, Esq., of Ewenny 
100 Robert Button, Esq., of Duf&yn . 
loi William Bassett, Esq., of Miskin. 

102 Richard Bassett, Esq., of Fishwear 

103 Sir Charles Kemeys, of Keven-mably, and . 
William Thomas, Esq. , of Swansea, for 2 years 



Rees Howard, of Llantrithyd 
Owen Price, succ. by William Price 
James Thomas, his brother . 
Watkin Lougher, of Nottage- 
Jenkin Cradock, Llancarvan 
. Lewis Thomas Richard 
Lewis Thomas, Gent. . 
George Williams . 
Morgan Griffith . 
Henry Penry, ditto 
Lewis Thomas Griffith 
Jenkin Cradock^ of Llancarvan 
Thomas Powell . 
Morgan Howard. 
Morgan Griffith . 
Henry Penry, of Llantrithyd 
Richard Bevan . 
Robert William, of St Hikry 

Morgan Howard 



A.D. 

1589 
1590 
1591 
1592 

IS93 
1594 
1595 
1596 

1597 
1598 

1599 
1600 

1601 

1602 



1603 
1604, 
1605 
1606 
1607 
1608 
1609 
1610 
1611 
1612 
1613 
1614 
1615 
1616 
1617 
i6i3 
1619 
1620 
1621 
1622 
1623 
1624 



1625 
1626 
1627 
1628 
1629 
1630 
163 1 
1632 

"633 
»634 

1635 
1636 

1637 
1638 

1639 
1640 

1641 

1642 

J643 
1644 



6oo 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



104 EdAvard Came, Esq., of Ewenny, and \ 

Bussey Mansel, Esq., of Briton*ferry, pricked [ Richard ap Evan 

by Parliament / 

105 Richard Jones, Esq., of Michaelston . . Evan Prichard, of Diwedid . 

106 John Price, Esq., of Gellihir . . . . William Morgan, of Neath . 

107 Walter Thomas, Esq., of Swansea . . . William Williams 



A.U. 

164S 

1646 

1647 
164S 



COMMONWEALTH AND PROTECTORATE. 



108 John Herbert, Esq., of Roath 

109 George Bowen, Esq., of Kittle Hill 

1 10 Rees Powell, Esq., of Coytreh^n 

111 Edward Stradling, Esq., of Roath 

112 William Bassett, Esq., of Miskin. 



John Griffith 1649 

John Bowen, his son . 1650 

Robert Thomas 1651 

Lewis WiUiam . * 1652 

Richard ap Evan 1653 



OLIVER CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 



113 Humphrey Wyndham, Esq., of Dunraven 

114 Richard Lougher, Esq., of Tythegston 
X15 William Herbert, Esq., of Swansea 
X16 Stephen Edwards, Esq., of Stembridge 
117 Richard Davies, Esq., of Penmaen » 



Humphrey Wyndham, his son 
Watkin Jones, Gent., of Monkton 
Thomas David, Gent. . 
George Thomas .... 
Leyson Davies, his brother . 



RICHARD CROMWELL, PROTECTOR. 
118 Richard Davies, Esq., the same .... John Morgan 



CHARLES IL 



119 Herbert Evans, Esq., of Eaglesbush 

120 Gabriel Levris, Esq., of Llanishen 

121 Edmund Gamage, Esq., of Newcastle 

122 John Gronow de Bed was, Esq. 

123 Edmund Thomas, Esq., of Wenvoe 

124 Martin Button, Esq., -of DyfTryn . 

125 Edward Mathew, Esq., of Aberaman 

126 Thomas Mathew, Esq., of Castle-menych 

127 Thomas Button, Esq., of Cottrel 

128 Philip Hoby, Esq., of Neath Abbey 

129 Edmund Thomas, Esq., of Orchard 

130 Philip Jones, Esq., of Fonmon Castle 

131 Thomas Powell, Esq., of CoytrehSn 

132 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Penmark 

133 William Thomas, Esq., of Llanbradach 

134 Richard Seys, £^q., of Rhyddings 

135 Miles Mathew, Esq., of Llancayach 

136 Bussey Mansel, Esq., of Briton-ferry 

137 Thomas Gibbon, Esq., of Trecastle 

138 George Bowen, Esq., of Kittle Hill 

139 Thomas Morgan, Esq., of Llanrumney 

140 Oliver Jones, Esq., of Fonmon . 

141 Reynold Deere, Esq., of Wenvoe 

142 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen 

143 David Jenkins, Esq., of Hensol . 



144 Sir John Aubrey, Bart., of Llantrithyd 

145 William Aubrey, Esq., of Pencoed 
146. Sir Edward Mansel, Bart., of Margam 
147 Sir Edward Mansel, the same 



David Evans, of Neath Abbey 

William Morgan,, of Rubin6 

John Powell 

William Moigan . 

Edmund Perkins. 

Moor Perkins 

John Richard, of Henllan 

Miles Mathew, of Cardiff 

David Thomas, of Llyswomey . 

John Llewelin, of Ynis-y-Gerwn . 

John Powell . . . . 

David Evans . . 

Edward WilHams, of St. Mary Church 

Moor Perkins 

John Thomas, of Llancarvao- 

Rowland Harris . 

Edward Williams, of St. Mary Church 

Jervis Powell .... 

Charles Evans, of Llanwit Fairdre 

John PoA-ell .... 

William Morgan, of Coedygoras . 

John Watkins, of Gower Land . 

Thomas Morgan, of Coedygoras . 

William Morgan, of Coedygoras . 

Jervis Powell .... 



1654 
1655 
1656 
1657 
1658 



1659 



1660 
1661 
1662 
1663 

1664 
J665 
1666 

1667 
1668 
1669 
1670 
167 1 
1672 

1673 
1674 

1675 

1676 

1677 

1678 

1679 

1680 

1681 

1682 

X683 

1684 



JAMES IL 



Evan Edwards 1685 

Charles Evans . . . . * . . 1686 
Edward Williams, of St. Mary Church . , 1687 
The same 1688 



WILLIAM HI. AND MARY. 



148 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Penmark 



Robert Powell, of Llyswomey 



. 1689 



SHERIFFS AND UNDER-SHERIFFS OF GLAMORGAN. 



6oi 



149 Thomas Came, Esq., of Nash 

150 JohnPrice, Esq., ofGellihir 

151 William Seys, Esq., of Rhyddings 

152 William Mathew, Esq., of Abcraman 
153' Richard Herbert, Esq., of Cilybebyll 

154 John Bennett, Esq., of Kittle HQl. 

155 Richard Longher, of Tythegston . 

156 Richard Moigan, Esq., of St. George's 

157 George Howells, Esq., of Bovill . 

158 John Whitwick, Esq. (died in office) 

159 ^ir John Thomas, Bart., of Wenvoe 

160 Thomas Mansel, Esq., of Penrhys Castle 



161 Daniel Morris, Esq., of Glyncastle 

162 William Bassett, Esq., of Cowbridge . 

163 Robert Jones^ Esq., of Fonmon . 

164 Thomas Thomas, Esq., of Llanbradach 

165 William Stanley, Esq., of Neath .\bbey 

166 Roger Powell, Esq., of Energlyn 

167 Richard Came, Esq., of Ewenny 

168 Thomas Button, Esq., of Cottrel 

169 Sir Edward Stradling, Bart., of St Donates 

170 Sir John Aubrey, Bart., of Llantrithyd 
zyi John Came, Edq., of Clementston 

172 Sir Charles Kemeys, Bart, of Keven-mably 



David Thomas, of Lyswomey 
John Wilkins, of the same . 
John Deere, Esq., of Llantwit 
Charles Evans, of Llantwit Fair Ire 
Griffith Evans, of Gelligron. 
Evans Evans .... 
Edward Thomas, of PwUywrach . ■ 
Jervis Powell, of Llantrisant 
Richard Bassett, of St. Andrew's 
Robert Powell, of Llyswomey . 
Charles Evans, of Llantwit Fairdre 
Evan Evans . . • . 



ANNE. 



Jervis Powell .... 
William Llewelyn, of Monkton . 
Thomas Wilkins, of Llanblethian 
Roger Wilkins, of Cowbridge 
Thomas Hawkins 
Michael Richards, of Cardiff 
Edward Jenkins, of Landoagh 
Wat. Morgan (clerk to Edward Jenkins) 
Robert Powell, of Wilton . 
Edward Jenkins, of Landough . 
Thomas Wilkins, of Llanblethian 
Evans Evans (clerk to T. Wilkins) 



GEORGE L 



173 Hoby Compton, Esq., of Neath Abbey 

174 Gabriel Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen 

175 John Jones, Esq., of Dyffiryn 

176 Edward Thomas, Esq., of Ogmore 

177 Thomas Popkin, Esq., of Forest . 

178 Michael Williams, Esq., of Bridgend . 

179 William Dawkin, Esq., of Kilvrough . 

180 WUliam Rkhaids, Esq., of Cardiff 

181 William Morgan, Esq., of Coedygoras 

182 Edward Evans, Esq., of Eaglesbush 

183 James Williams, Esq., of Cardiff 

184 Abraham Barbour, Esq., of St. George's 

185 Morgan Morgans, Esq., of Lanmmney 



186 Martin Button, Esq., of Dyffryn . 

187 James Thomas, Esq., of Llanbradach 

188 Robert Jones, Esq., of Fonmon . 

189 John Llewellin, Esq., of Ynis-y-gerwn 

190 John Came, Esq., of Nash . 

191 Reynold Deere, Esq., of Penlline 

192 Herbert Mackwortb, Esq., of GnoU 

193 William Bassett, Esq., of Miskin . 

194 Grant Gibbon, of Trecastle 

195 Hopkln Rees, Esq., of St. Mary Hill 

196 Robert Knight, Esq., of Tythegston 

197 Edmund Lloyd, Esq., of Cardiff 

198 Thomas Price, Esq., of Penlle'rgaer 

199 Richard TurberviU, Esq., of Ewenny 

200 Rowland Dawkins, Esq., of Kilvrough 

201 Robert Morris, Esq., of Ynysarwad 
2Q2 Matthew Deere, Esq., of Ash Hall 



Thomas Cory, of Margam . 

Gabriel Powell, of Swansea 

John Jones (his son) 

Thomas Cory, of Margam . 

W. Frampton (clerk to Gabriel Powell) 

Anthony Maddocks 

William Phillips, of Swansea 

Michael Richards, of ditto . 

Henry Morgan (his brother) 

Thomas Cradock, of Margam 

Henry Llewellyn, of ditto . 

Edward Herbert, of Cardiff 

Canon Wilkins, of Lanblethian 



GEORGE II. 



Edward Powell, of Brynhill 
Henry Llewellyn, of Cardiff 
Richard Powell, of Landough 
Gabriel Powell, of Swansea 
Richard Leyson, of Prisk . 
Edward Thomas (his nephew) 
William Powell, of Swansea 
Thomas Leyson, of Prisk 
Richard Leyson, of Prisk . 
David Lewis, of Penkym, for Richard 
Richard Powell, of Landough 
William Powell, of Llanharan . 
Hugh Powell, of Swansea . 
Richard Powell, of Neath . 
Richard Dawkins, of Hendrewen 
John Jeffreys, of Swansea . 
Anthony Maddocks, of Cefnidla . 



Leyso 



A.D. 

1690 
1691 
1692 
1693 
1694 
1695 
1696 

1697 
169S 

1699 

1700 

1 701 



1702 
1703 
1704 
1705 
1700 
1707 
1708 
1709 
1710 
1711 
1712 

»7I3 



17x4 

1715 
1716 

1717 

1718 

1719 

1720 

1721 

1722 

1723 
1724 

1725 

1726 



1727 
1728 
1729 

1730 

«73i 
1732 

1 733 
1734 
1735 
1736 

1737 
1738 
1739 
1740 
1 741 

1742 
1743 



602 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



203 Henry Lucas, Esq., of Stouchali, in Gower 

204 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen 

205 Whitelock Nicholl, Esq., of Ham 

206 Thomas Powell, Esq., of Tondii . 

207 John Mathews, Esq., of Brynwith 
20S Joseph Price, Esq., of Gellihir 

209 Richard Jenkins, Esq., of Marias 

210 William Evans, Esq., of Eaglesbush . 
311 Rowland Bevan, Esq., of Oxwich 

212 Thomas Rous, Esq. (Under Sheriff acted) 

213 Edward Walters, Esq., of Pittcott 

214 Thomas Popkin, Esq., of Forest 

215 William Bruce, Esq., of Llanlle'.hian . 

216 Thomas Lewis, Esq., of NewLouse 

217 Edward Mathews, Esq., of Aberaman . 

218 Thomas Pryce, Esq., of Dyffryn Golych 

219 Sir John de la Fountain Tyrwhit, Bart., of St. Donat's 



Edward Hancom, Gent. 
Richard Powell, of Neath . 
Edward Lewis, of Penlline . 
Edward Savours, of Coedycynllan 
John Thomas, of Cowbridge ^ 
John Moiigan, of Swansea . 
Anthony Maddocks, of Cefnidfa . 
Hugh Powell, of Swansea . 
Edwaxd Hancorn . • 
Thomas Edmonds, of Cowbridge 
Nathaniel Taynton, of Cowbridge 
Edward Hancom 
John Thomas, of Cowbridge 
Richard Thomas . 
John Thomas, of Cowbridge 
Mansel Williams, of Neath . 
(Office done by his deputy. William Rees, of 
St. Mary Hill, his steward) 



GEORGE ni. 



220 Samuel Price, Esq., of Coity . . . . 

221 Philip Williams, Esq., of Dyffryn 

222 Robert Morris, Esq., of Swansea 

223 Abraham Williams,* Esq., of Cathays . . ^ , 

224 Calvert Richard Jones, Esq., of Swansea 

225 William Curre, Esq., of Clementston . 

226 Edward Powell, Esq., of Tondii . . . . 

227 Thomas Bennet, Esq., of Laleston 

228 Thomas Mathews, Esq., of Llandaff* . 

229 Richard Gordon, Esq., of Burry's Green, Gower . 

230 William Thomas, E^q., of Llanblethian 

231 Edward Thomas, Esq., of Tregroes 
252 William Dawkin, Esq., of Kilvrough 

233 John Edmondes, Esq., of Cowbridge 

234 Daniel Jones, Esq., of Glanbr&n . 

235 William Hurst, Esq., of Gahalva 

236 David Thomas, Esq , of PwUywrach 

237 John Lucas, Esq., of 'Stouthall 

238 Bartholomew Greenwood, Esq., of Cardiff*) 

(excused, being bailiff* of Cardiff) ; Christopher \ 



Bassett, Esq., of Llanelay 

239 Peter Birt, Esq., of Wenvoe Castle 

240 Charles Bowen, Esq., of Merthyr-mawr 

241 Thomas Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Margam 

242 William Kemcys, Esq., of Ynysarwad 
343 John Richard, Esq., of EInerglyn 

244 Stephen White. Esq., of Miskin . 

245 Thomas Drake Tyrwhit, Esq., of St Donat's 

246 John Price, Esq., of Llandaff* Crurt 

247 Richard Jenkins, Esq., of Pantynawel . 

248 John Llewelin, Esq., of Welsh St. Donat*s 

249 William Lewis, Esq , of Pentyrch 

250 John Richards, Esq., Comer House, Cardiff 

251 John Llewelyn, Esq., of Ynis-y-gerwn 

252 John Lucas, Esq., of Stouthall 

253 Henry Knight, Esq., of Tythegston 

254 Wyndham Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen . 

255 Herbert Hurst, Esq., of Gabalva 

256 Robert Rous, Esq., of Cwrtyrala . 

357 Samuel Richardson, Esq., Hensol Castle 

358 John Goodrich, Esq., of Eneiglyn 






William Prothero (for William Rees) 
Mansel Williams, of Neath 
Elias Jenkins .... 
Thomas Williams, of Cowbridge 
William Jenkins, of Neath . 
Edward Lewis, of Penlline . 
William Jenkins, of Neath . 
Iltid Thomas, of Swansea 
Thomas Williams, of Cowbridge 
Elias Jenkins, of Swansea . 
Thomas Williams, Cowbridge 
WiUiam Rees, Esq., St Mary Hill 
Iltid Thomas, of Swansea . 
Thomas Thomas, of Cardiff 
Iltid Thomas, of Swansea . 
Thomas Thomas, of Cardiff 
William Rees, Esq., of St Mary Hill 
Iltid Thomas, of Swansea . 

William Rees, Esq., of St. Mary Hill 



. Thomas Thomas, of Cardiff 
Thomas Thomas .... 

. Hopkin Llewelyn, of Margam . 

. William Rees, Esq., of St. Mary Hill 
Thomas Thomas, of Cardiff 

. WiUiam Rees, Esq., of Court Colman 
Castle Watkin Morgan, of Llandough . 
John Wood, of Cardiff 
Thomas Williams, of Cowbridge 

. John Wood, of Cardiff 
Hopkin Llewellyn, Gent . 

. John Wood, Cardiff . 

. Mr. Hopkin Llewelyn . 

. Rees Davies, Swansea 

. John Thomas, Cowbridge . 

. John Wood, of Cardiff 

Ditto 

. Ditto 

. J. Williams, Cardiff . 

. John Wood •. . . . • 



A.D. 

1744 

1745 
1746 

1747 

1748 

1749 

1750 

I75I 

1752 

1753 

1754 

»755 
1756 

1757 
1758 

1759 
1760 



1 761 
1762 

1763 
1764 

1765 

1766 

1767 

1768 

1769 

1770 

1771 

1772 

1773 
1774 

1775 
1776 

1777 
1778 

1779 

1780 
1781 
1782 

1783 
1784 
1785 
1786 

1787 
1788 

1789 
1790 

1791 
1792 
1793 
«794 
1795 
1796 

1797 
1798 
1799 



SHERIFFS AND UNDER-SHERIFFS OF GLAMORGAN. 



603 



259 Robert Jenner» Esq., Wenvoe Castle 

260 Robert Jones, Esq., Fonmon Castle 

261 Richard Mansel Phillips, Esq., Sketty 

262 John Morris, Esq., of Clasemont . 

263 Richard T. Picton, Esq., of Ewenny 

264 Thomas Morkham, Esq., of Nash 

265 Anthony Bacon, Esq., of Cyfarthfa 

266 George Wynch. Esq , of Clementston 

267 John N. Miers, Esq., Cadoxton Lodge 

268 Jeremiah Homfray, Esq., of LlandalT 
'269 Thorn' s Lock wood, Esq., Danygraig 

270 Sir Robert Lynch Blosse, Barr., Gabalfa 

271 Morgan Popkin Traheme, Esq., Coytreh^n 

272 William Jones, Esq., Comtcwn Lodge 

273 The Hon. William Booth Grey . 

274 William Tait, Esq., Cardiflf. 

275 Richard John Hill, Esq., Plymouth Lodge 

276 Thomas Bates Rous, Esq., of Cwrtyrala 

277 Lewis Weston Dillwyn, Esq., Penile rgaer 

278 Josiah John Guest, Esq., Dowlais 



279 Richard Blakemore, Esq., Velindre 

2S0 William Forman, Esq., Penydarran 

281 Sir John Morri^ Bart., Sketty Park . 

282 John Edwards, Esq., Rheola 

283 John Bassett, Esq., Bonvilston House . 

284 John Bennet, Esq., Laleston 

285 Thomas Edward Thomas, Esq., Swansea 

286 John Henry Vivian, Esq., Marino 

287 Robert F. Jenner, Esq., Wenvoe Castle 

288 William Cxawshay, Esq., Cy&rthia Castle 



John Wood 
William Vaughan 
John Jeffreys, Swansea 
William Vaughan 
William Vaughan 
Edward Powell, Llantwit 
John Wood, Cardiff . 
Edward Powell . 
G. Llewelyn 
Wyndham Lewis 
John Jeffreys, Swansea 
Thomas Bassett . 
W. Vaughan 
Thomas Bassett . 
John Wood 
E. P. Richards . 
John Powell Brecon . 
E. P. Richards . 
Lewis Thomas, Swansea 
John Jones . • . 



GEORGE IV. 



A.D. 

1800 

180I 

1802 

1803 

1804 

18OS 

1806 

1S07 

1808 

1809 

i8to 

1811 

1812 

1813 

1814 

1815 

1816 

1817 

1818 

1819 



E. P. Richards . 
William Meyrick. 
John James. 
William Meyrick. 
Thomas Basset 
John Jackson Price 
John Jackson Price 
John Jackson Price 
E. P. Richards . 
William Meyrick. 



1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 



WILLIAM IV. 



289 William Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm . 

290 Richard H. Jenkins, Esq., Lanharan House 

291 Frederick Fredricks, Esq., D3rffryn 

292 Richard T. Turbervill, Esq., Eweimy 

293 Henry J. Grant, Esq., The GnoU 

294 John Dillwyn Llewelyn, Esq., Penlle'rgaer 

295 Thomas Penrice, Esq., Kilvrough House 



David Powell . 
Alexander Cuthbertson 
Alexander Cnthbertson 
William Lewis 
David Powell 
Thomas Thomas . 
John Jenkins 



1830 
183 1 
1832 

1833 

1834 

183s 
1836 



VICTORIA. 



296 Howel Gwyn, Esq., Alltwen .... 

297 Howel Gwyn, Esq. — R. O. Jones, Esq., Fonmon 

Castle 

298 Charles H. Smith, Gwemllwynwith 

299 Michael Williams, Esq., Morfii 

300 Joseph Martin, Esq., Ynystawe . 

301 Henry Lucas, Esq., Uplands 

302 John Homfray. Esq., Llandaff Court 

303 John Bruce Pcyoe, Esq., Dyffryn . 

304 Robert Savours, Esq., Trecastle . 

305 Richard Franklin, Esq., Clementson 

306 Nash V. Edwards Vaughan, Esq., Rheola 

307 Thomas W. Booker, Esq., Velindre 

308 Richard Boteler, Esq., Landough Castle 

309 Rowland Fothergiil, Esq., Hensol Castle 



John Gwyn Jeffreys 
John G. Jeffreys . 



Charles Basil Mansfield 
C B. Mansfield . 
C B. Mansfield . 
J. G. Jeffreys 
J G.Jeffreys 
William Davies . 
William Le^vis . 
William Lewis 
Alexander Cuthbertson 
Thomas Evains 
Thojoas Evaris 
E. G. Smith 



1837 
1838 

1839 
1840 
184I 
1842 

1843 
1844 

1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 

1849 
1850 



6o4 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



A.D. 

310 Genase Turbervill, Esq., Ewenny 185 1 

311 Griffith Llewellyn, Esq., of Baglan Hall 1852 

312 RichardHiUMiers,Esq., ofYnyspenllwch ^1853 

313 WilliamLlewelyn, Esq., of Court Colman 1854 

314 WyndhamW. Lewis, Esq., of The Heath 1855 

315 John Samuel, Esq., Cowbridge 1856 

316 Evan Williams, Esq., of Dyffryn Ffrwd 1857 

317 Henry Lewis, Esq., Green Meadow 1858 

318 Charles Williams, Esq., Roath 1859 

319 George Grey Rous, Esq., Court-y-Rala i860 

320 Edward Robert Wood, Esq., Stouthall 1861 

321 Sir Ivor B. Guest, Bart., Dowlais 1862 

322 John P. Traheme, Esq., CoytrehSn ' 1863 

323 Robert F. L.Jenner, Esq., Wenvoe Castle 1864 

324 Thomas William Booker, Esq., Velindre 1865 

325 William Graham Vivian, Esq., Singleton 1866 

326 Thomas Penrice, Esq., Kilvrough House ^ . . , ' 1867 

327 George Thomas Clark, Esq., Dowlais House 1868 

328 Edward Romilly, Esq., Porthkerry ' . . 1869 

329 E. W. J. Thomas, Esq., Coedriglan .' . 1870 

330 Vaughan H. Lee, Esq., Rheola 1871 

331 Charles Henry Williams, Esq., Roath Court 1872 



Section IX.— PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF GLAMORGAN. 



The powers of the Lords Marchers, who alone were entitled to appear as barons in the 
king's council, were abolished by the eighth Henry, by the Act of the twenty-seventh year of 
his reign (a.d. 1536-7), whereby he formally and finally iinited Wales to England; and for 
that year a knight of the shire was doubtless summoned to represent the interests and 
wishes of the population in Parliament. 

Before the conquest of Wales, and its nominal union with England under Edward I., 
no parliamentary representation, properly speaking, existed among the Welsh, but a kind of 
autocracy of the princes, tempered by the voice of popular assembly, prevailed. After 
Edward's conquest an occasional summons for delegates from Wales to the suzerain's 
council was issued. Edward II., a.d. 1322, sent forth a writ directing that twenty-four 
persons from South Wales, and an equal number from North Wales, " with full and 
sufficient power on behalf of the whole community of their parts," should attend a parlia- 
mentum which he was about to hold at York. Of the result of such summons among a 
nation by no means forward at that time to comply with any *' direction " from the English 
king, we have no record. Glamorgan, however, for legislative purposes, did not yet form 
part of either England or Wales — although territorially and ethnically of course belonging 
to the latter, — but lay under that exceptional species of government known as the regal 
authority {Jura R^alia) of the Lords Marchers — an authority, it is true, not wholly tanta- 
mount to a free imperium in imperioy but still sufficiently independent to exclude all voice of 
the people in their own representation. Henry put an abrupt end to this feudal rule, made 
the Glamorgan and Gower Lordships Marcher a County, and gave the inhabitants of tlie 
county and of the royal burgh of Cardifif the privilege of choosing and sending each a 
delegate to the national Parliament; 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF GLAMORGAN. 



605 



Upon what principle of suffrage the selection of a representative was then made is not 
quite plain ; but it is probable that the franchise settled under Edward III., which extended 
in counties to small holders, and in boroughs to house tenants, had remained unaltered in 
England, and was now applied to Wales. 

The names of Ha^ first Members sent from Glamorgan and Cardiff (1537), like many 
others of the same date, have been lost The representative for the next parliament was 
George Herbert, Esq., of Swansea, for the co., and John Bassett, Esq., of the Inner Temple 
(Intcrioris T€mpli)^{ox the boroughs. In 1654 and 1656, under Cromwell and the Common* 
wealth, the county returned two members; and in the year preceding (1683), when 
specific constituencies in Wales were not represented, but the whole Principality, including 
Monmouthshire, was represented by 7 members^ one of these was a prominent Glamorgan 
gentleman, Bussy Mansel, Esq., of Briton Ferry. In 1658-9 (Cromwell) Swansea^ which had 
never before been granted the parliamentary franchise, returned a member, William Foxwist, 
Esq. With this exception the borough delegation from this county was confined to Cardiff, 
not on account of its population, for in that respect its inferiority was obvious, but on account 
of its ancient status as a princely and lordly seat It is for men of local and anti- 
quarian knowledge, such as Col. Francis, to find out why Swansea, although at the head of 
the later Lordship Marcher of Gower, did not claim, or failed to secure, the privilege of 
parliamentary representation until Cromwell gave it the boon, as well as to find whence 
came and whither went William Foxwist, Esq. — of whom, however, more hereafter (p. 610). 
By the Reform Bill of 1832, Swansea (with Neath, Aberavon, and Kenfig), with aU its 
importance as a port and centre of mining and manufacturing wealth and population, for 
the first time obtained the permanent privilege of returning a member to the Commons 
Merthyr Tydfil, which now, with Aberdare,&c., contains a population nearly equal to Cardiff 
and Swansea together, despite their recent increase, was at the same time made a Parlia- 
mentary. District of boroughs. 



I. — Members of Parliament for the County of Glamorgan^ from a.d. 1542 — 1872. 



A D. 

HENRY VIII. 

George Herbert, Esq., of Swansea. 
[Second son of Richard Herbert of 
Ewias; was knighted; d, 1570; 
bro. of William Herbert, 1st Earl of 
Pembroke; cr. 1 551, (from whom 
descend th,e Earls of Pembroke and 
Carnarvon) ; and father of Matthew 
Herbert, Esq., of Swansea, and 
William Herbert, Esq., of Cogan, 
who built the house at Cogan Fill] . 1542 

EDWARD yi. 

George Mathew, Esq. [of Radir; was 
knighted ; third of the line of Radir, 
and son of Sir William Matthew, 
Knt. ; Sheriff for Glam., 1544] . 1547 

MARY. 

Sir George Mathew, Knt., of Radir [the . 

same] 1553 

Anthony Mansel, Esq. [iccond son of Sir 



A.D. 

Rice Mansel, Kt of Oxwich, the first 
of Margam Abbey ; brother of Sir 
Eld ward Mansel, of Margam] . . 1553 
[Sir] Edward Mansel [Knt., of Maigam, 
above named. On his tomb it is said 
that he had fifteen sons and four daus. 
by his wife Jane, dau. of Henry 
Somerset, Earl of Worcester. ' See 
Margam Abbey] , , .1554 

PHILIP AND MARY. 

Sir Edward Came, Knt. [of Ewenny ; 

- 5^-^ Sheriff 1554] 1554 

SirOEdward Came, Knt., the same . 1555 

William Herbert de Cogan, Esq. [Sheriff 
IS5'» ^556 ; son of Sir Geoige Her- 
bert of Swansea; built Cogan Hou.se, 
near Cardiff ; m. Alice, dau. of Sir 
Thomas (or John) Raglan, Knt., 
widow of William Mathew, of Castle 
.Menych. From his eldest bro. Mat- 
thewdescendcdthe Herbertsof Cogan, 



6o6 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



1586 
1588 

1592 



1597 



four generations, Herberts of White a.d. 
Friars, Cardiff, and of bvransea] . 1557 

ELIZABETH. 

William Morgan, Esq. [of Llantamam ?] . 1558-9 
Willi m Bassett, Esq. [of Beaupre; Sheriff 

in 1558] ^563 

William Bassett, Esq., the same . . 1 57 1 

William Herbert, sen., Esq. [of Cogan ; 
his nephew, "William Herbert,/wif.," 
became Sir William, Knt.] . . 1572 

Robert Sydney, Esq. [afterwards (1586) 
Sir Robert Sydney ; 2nd son of Sir 
Henry Sydney, KG., of Penshurst ; 
m,, about 1584. Barbara Gamage, 
heiress of Coity ; was made Governor 
of Flushing, &c. ; cr. Baron Sydney 
and Viscount Lisle, and in 1618 Earl 
of Leicester. See further Gamage of 
Coity Castle\ 1585 

Thomas Came, Esq. [of Ewenny ; Sheriff 
in 1571 and 1580 ; m, a dau. of Sir 
John Wyndham, of Orchard Wynd- 
ham, Somerset ; father of Sir John 
Came, Knt., of Ewenny] 

Thomas Came, Esq., the same 

Sir Robert Sydney, Knt. [see under 
A.D. 1585] 

Sir Thomas Mansel, Knt. [afterwards 
Bart., of Maiigam ; Sheriff 1593 and 
1603. iiet Maftsel ((f Margam\ 

Sir John Herbert, Knt. [of Neath Abbey; 
2nd son of Matthew Herbert, Esq., 
of Swansea ; Sheriff in 1605 ; d. 161 7, 
at. 67] ..... . 1601 

JAMES I. 

Philip Herbert, Esq., in his place, raised ' 

to the peerage. 
Sir lliomas Mansel, Knt. . . . 1603 
[Philip Herbert was 2nd son of Henry, 2nd 
FArl of Pembroke ; cr. Baron Herbert 
of Shurland. Kent, and Earl of Mont- 
gomery, 1605; Slice, as 4th Earl of 
Pembroke on death of his b. William 
1630,^/. i6so,^\co\zs.Syno^.Peerage,'\ 
Sir Thomas Mansel, Knt [of Mai^gam 
(see A.D. 1597); cr. a bart., 161 1, on 
the first institution of the order by 

James I ] 1614 

William Price, Esq. . • . . 1620 
Sir Robert Mansel, Knt. [Vice- Admiral ; 
loth son of Sir Edward Mansel of 
Margam, by Lady Jane Somerset, 
dau. of Henry, 2nd Earl of Wor. ester. 
See Margam Abbey. He was knighted 
by the Earl of Essex for his valour in 
tsdwing the city of Cadiz, 1596 ; made 
Vice- Admiral by James I. ; m. Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Sir Nicholas Bacon, 
Knt., Keeper of the Great Seal, and 
sister of the celebrated I^rd Chan- 
c elJor Bacon] 1623 



CHARLES L 



Sir Robert Mansel Knt. (the same) 

Sir John Stradling, Knt. and Bart, [of St 

Donat's] 

Sir Robert Mansel, Knt. (as before) 

Sir Edward Stradling, Knt and Bart, [of 

St Donat's]. ist session 
Philip Lord Herbert [Earl of Mont- 
gomery ; son and successor in 1650 
of Philip Herbert, 4th Eari of Pem- 
broke. See 1603] 2nd session . 



A.D. 

1625 

1626 
1628 

1640 



1640 



THE COMMONWEALTH AND CROMWELL. 

The "Little" or "Barebones" ParUa- 
ment is called. Six members are 
summoned for all Wales, without 
special constituencies :— Bussy Mausel, 
Hugh Courtenay, James Philips, 
Richard Pryse, John Williams, John 
Bowen and Philip Jones for Mon. 1653 

[Bussy Mansel is well known as of Briton 
Ferry, Glam. ; James Philips was of 
Cardigan ; Richard Pryse, of Goger- 
ddan ; and if Hugh Courtenay was 
the otherwise known hot " royalist 
officer," he must have been sum- 
moned as a compromise.] 

OLIVER CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

CoL Philip Jones [of Swansea, afterwards^ 
of Fonmon Ca&tle ; founder of the 
family of Jones of Fonmon ; an officer 
of distinguished merit ; Governor of 
Swansea and Cardiff under Cromwell ; 
became oneof His Highness's Council ; 
Comptroller of the Household ; was 
elevated to the House of Lords. See 
Jones of Fonmofi Castle^ and Col. 
Francis's Life of Col. Philip Jones, in 
his Charters ofStuansea] . 
William Thomas, Esq , of Wenvoe . . y 
Col. Philip Jones, of Fonmon (the same) 
Edmund I'homas, Esq., of Wenvoe [son 
of William, one of the members for 

1654]- 



H654 



1656 






RICHARD CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

Evan Seys, Esq. [of Boverton, Serjeant- 
at-law. See Seys of Boverton. This 
parliament, after a few short and in- 
. terrupted sittings, dissolved itself, 
and by its own authority called 
another parliament to meet on April 
25, 1660] 1658-9 

CHARLES IL— "THE RESTORATION." 

t 

Sir Edward Mansel, Bart., of Maigam 
[Sheriffin 16S8 ; son of Sir Lewis Man- 
sel, Bart ; m. Martha, dau. and co-h. 
of Edward Came, Esq., of Ewenny ; 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF GLAMORGAN. 



607 



A.D. 

was succ. by his son. Sir Thomas, 
afterwards I<ord Mansel] . . . 1660 
Sir Edward Mansel (the same) 1 66 1 
Bussy ManseL Esq. [of Briton- Ferry ; the 
friend of Cromwell, and zealous pro- 
moter of his cause in the co. of Gla- 
morgan] 1678 

Bussy Mansel, Esq. (the same) . . 1680 
Sir Edward Mansel, Bart [same as for 

1660^ &c] 1680-1 

JAMES II. 

Sir Edward Mansel, Bart., of Margam 

(the same) .... 1685 '^ 

Bussy Mansel, Esq., of Briton Ferry . 1688 

WILLIAM AND MARY— THE REVOLUTION. 

Bussy Mansel, Esq., of Briton Ferry . 1689 
Bussy Mansel, Esq. (the same) . 1695 

Bussy Mansel, Esq. (the same) . 1598 

Sir Thomas Mansel, Bart, [of Margam ; 
Sheriff in 1701 ; was made Comp- 
troller of the Household under Queen 
Anne, a member of the Privy Council, 
Vice- Admiral of South Wales, Gov- 
ernor of Milford Haven ; cr. Baron 
Mansel of Margam 1 712; d. 1723. 
See Margam Addey], . . . 1700 
Sir Thomas Mansel, Bart., of Margam 

(the same) 1701 

ANNE. 

Sir Thomas Mansel, Bart., of Margam 

(the same) 1702 

Sir Thomas Mansel, Bart., of Maxgam 

(the same) 1705 

Sir Thomas Mansel, Bart, (the same) . 1707 

- Sir Thomas Mansel. Bart, (the same) . 1708 

Robert Jones, Esq. [of Fonmon Castle, 
son of the late Col. Philip Jones of 

Fonmon 1710 

Robert Jones, Esq. (the same) . • 1713 

Robert Jones, Esq. (the same) 1 7 14 

GEORGE I. (House of Hanover). 

Robert Jones, Esq., of Fonmon Castle 

(the same) ...... 1714 

Robert Jones, Esq. (the same) . . 1 71 5 

Sir Charles Kemeys, Bart, vice Jones, 

deceased 1715 

Sir Charles Kemeys, Bart., of Keven- 

Mably 1722 

GEORGE II. 

Sir Charles Keme]rs, Bart, (the same) . 1727 
Hon. William Talbot [son of Charles, 

Baron Talbot of Hensol] . . 1754 

[Bussy Mantel, Esq., of Maigam, contested, 
the poll continuing for ten days. 
1 50 1 voted — for Mansel, 823 ; for 
Talbot, 678 ; but 347 were struck off 
from Mansel, and only 21 from 



Talbot The sheriff, William Basset 
of Miskin, accused of great partiality]. 
I Bussy Mansel, Esq. [of Margam, alter- 
u'ardsLord Mansel, elected v/r^ Talbot, 
succ. to the peerage on death of his 
father. Lord Chancellor Talbot, Baron 

Hensol] 

I'Ussy ManseL Esq., of Margam (the same) 
Thomas Mathew, Admiral [of LlandafT; 
son of Brig.-Geru Edward Mathew 
of LlandafT ; father of Major Thomas 
Mathew of Llandaff, by Henr.etta 
Burgess, an Antigua lady. He was 
chosen vice Bussy Mansel, who succ. 
to the peerage on death of his brother 
Christopher, 3rd Lord Mansel of 
Margam, 1750, x. p, m., when the 
title became extinct. The four suc- 
cession > from the first lord, Thomas, 
of Margam, in 1 7 1 1 , to death of Bussy, 
fourth Lord Mansel, only lasted 
thirty-nine years. The revival of this 
title in the person of the present 
C. R. Mansel Talbot, M.P., has 
recently been declined] 
Charles Edwin, Esq. [of Llanfihangel? 
The election took place at Bridgend. 
The name Edwin came to Glamorgan, 
it is believed, with Humphrey Edwin, 
Esq., who in or about 1650 purchased 
Llanfihangel from Sir Robert Thomas, 
2nd Bart., the last of his line. See 
Thomas of Llan/ihanget\ . 
Charles Edwin. Esq. (the same) 
Dec. 2giA, Major Thomas Matthew [of 
Llandaflf], vice Edwin, deceased. [A 
contest took place between Matthew 
and Charles Van^see Fan of Mar- 
cross^'- who was probably of Llan- 
wem, Mon. Votes for Matthew, 
954; for Van, 212. The election 
was held at CardiffJ .... 

GEORGE IIL 



A.D. 



1737 
1 741 



1744 



1747 
1754 



1756 



Sir Edmund Thomas, Bart, [of Wenvoe 

Castle] 1 761 

Sir Edmund Thomas, Bart [re-elected 
nth May, upon his appointment as 
Commissioner of Woods and Forests] 1 76 3 

Richard Turbervill, Esq. [of Eweimy, 
Dec, 1767, vice Thomas, deceased. 
Election at Bridgend] . . 1767 

Hon. Geoi^e Venables Vernon [of Briton 
Ferry ; son and h. of George Ven- 
ables, 1st Lord Vernon, Baron of 
Kinderton, co. Chester; m. Louisa 
Barbara (by whom he had no surviving 
issue), dau. and h. of Bussy, last Lord 
Mansel of Margam, who had Briton 
Ferry by will of Thomas Mansel of 
that place, who d, s, /. ; succ as 2nd 



6o8 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



A D. 



Lord Vernon 1780. This tide is not 
extinct] 1768 

Hon. George Venables Vernon (the same) 
["Mr. Thomas Price of Dyffryn 
ofTered himself in case Lord Vernon 
was dead"] 1774 

Charles Edwin, Esq. [was a Wyndham 
of Dunraven, assumed his mother's 
surname, an Edwin of Llanfihangel, 
see A.D. 1747 ; vice Vernon who x. to 
the peerage on death of his fiither, 
Lord Vernon] 1780 

Thomas Wyndham, Esq [of Dunraven 
Castle ; elected at Bridgend, Sept., 
1789, cf^^ Charles Edwin, resigned. 
Mr. Traheme {List of Knights of the 
Shire) say^ **rice his father, Charles 
Wyndham, who took the Chiltem 
Hundreds"] 1789 

Thomas W3mdham, Esq., of Dunraven 
(the same). [The Wyndhams came to 
Dunraven in 1642, when Thomas 
Wyndham bought the estate from Sir 
George Vaughan, Knt. See Vaughan 
of Dunraven. Thomas Wyndham, 
Esq., was the last of his line, leaving 
anonlydau., who m^ 1810, Wyndham 
Quin Lord Adare, afterwards 2nd 
Earl of Dunraven} . . . 1790 — 1812 

Benjamin Hall, Esq., vice Wyndham de- 
ceased [of Hensol Castle. See ZJan- 
over,, Baron, of Uanover ; also Hensol 
Castle] . . . . . 1814 

Sir Christopher Cole, K.C. B.' ; Feb. vice . 
Hall deceased. [Son of Humphrey 
Cole, Esq., of Childown, Surrey; 
was a Post-Capt. R.N., Col- of Royal 
Marines ; m, Mary, dau. of Henry, 
2nd Earl of Ilchester, and widow of 
T. M. Talbot, Esq., of Margam ; re- 
sided at Penrice Castle ; d. s,p. 1836] .1818 
John Eldwards, Elsq. [Rheola and Llanelay 



A.D. 

— no further account is found of this 
brief interruption in the representation] 18 1 8 

GEORGE IV. 

Sir Christopher Cole, K.C.B. [same as for 
1818 : a contest occurred between 
Cole, Edwards, and Grey ; the first 
polling 791 votes, the second 656, the 
third 1 5 1— total votes 1, 598. Pdllng 
lasted twelve days] .... 1820 

Sir Christopher Cole, K.C.B. (the same) 1826 

WILLIAM IV. , 

C R. Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Maigam, 
[present senior Member; has continu- 
ously represented the 00. up to the 
present time. See Talbot of Afargam\ 1830 
Do. [General Election under Reform 
Act, when he was chosen as a second 
member for the co.] 

Lewis Weston Diilwyn, Esq., F.R.S., of 

Penlle'igaer 1832 

C. R. Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Maigam . \ 

Lewis Weston Diilwyn, Esq., of PenlleV- [ 1835 
gaer . * ) 

VICTORIA. 



1851 



C. R. Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Maigam . \ 
Richard Wyndham Quin Viscount Adare > 1837 

[afterwards 3rd Earl of Dunraven] J 
C. R. Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Maigam .^ 
Sir George Tyler, K.H. [of Cottrd, vice^ 

Viscount Adare resigned ; eldest son 

of Admiral Sir Charles Tyler, G.CB. 

became Rear- Admiral 1 852 ; continued 

Mr. Talbot's colleague till 1857] 
C. R. Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Maigam 

and Penrice Castle . . ' \ % 

Henry Hussey Vivian, Esq., of Parkwem, ' " 

Swansea 

The sitting Members, 1872. 



on 



2. — Members of Parliament for Cardiff and Contributory Boroughs, a.d. 1542 — ^a.d. 1872. 



HENRY VIII. 
John Bassett, Esq., of the Inner Temple. 1542 

EDWARD VL 

John Cokk, Esq. [the name otherwise un- 
known] '547 

MARY. 

» 

David Edwards [-(9/vaf«/ WY/w gives David 

Evans] "553 

David £var.s, Gent., 2nd ParL . . 1553 
Edward Herbert, Esq. [place unknown ; 
probably s6n of Richard, son of Howel 
Thomas lierbcrt of Berth -hir, and 



grandson of Thomas William Jenkin 

of Raglan] 1554 

PHILIP AND MARY. 

William Colchester [place unknown] , 1554 
Willis gives no return . . . • 1555 
Lysanno ap Ryse, Esq. [This was doubt- 
less Leyson Price of Briton Ferry, son 
of Rhys ap Evan, of the line of lestyn, 
through Evan ap Leyson, Lord of 
Baglan. He m, Maud, dau. of David 
£vans, Esq., of Gnoll, SherifTin 1562] 1557 



ELIZABETH. 
Willis gives no return 



1558-9 



A 

J 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF GLAMORGAN. 



609 



Henry Lewis, Esq. [of Cardiff; Under- 
sheriff 1552] 

Henry Morgan, Esq. [no place given^ 
probably Glannimney] 

David Roberta, Gent. [Under-Sheriff 1571] 

Nicholas Herbert, Esq. [of Cogan; Sheriff 
1578 and 1587 ; 3rd son of Matthev 
Herbert, Esq., of Swansea] . 

George Lewis» Esq. [of* Llys-Talybont ; 

.2nd son of Thomas Lewis, Esq., of 

Van ; Sheriff 1569 ; m. Catherine, 

dau. of Miles Mathew, Esq., of 

Castle Menych]. .... 

David Roberts, Gent [probably same as 
for 1572] . . . . 

Nicholas Hawkins [place unknown] 

William I.ewis, Gent, [place unknoA^^i] . 

JAMES I. 

Matthew Davies, Gent [place. unknown]. 

William Thomas, Gent [place unknown] 

William Herbert, Esq. [There were three 
of this name living at this time at 
or near Cardiff, William of Cogan 
Pill, son of Nicholas Herbert (see 
1585); WiUiam of White Friars, 
Cardiff ;' and William, jun., who was 
slain at the battle of Edge Hill, 1642. 
But this last could scarcely be the 
member for Cardiff] .... 

'William Price, Esq. [the Under-Sheriff 
for 1626 was of this name] 

CHARLES I. 

William Price, Esq. (the same) 

William Price, Esq. (the same) 

Lewis Morgan, Esq. [place not given, 
probably Glannimney ; grandson of 
member for 1563 ; his mother was 
dau. of Nicholas Herbert, of Cogan] 

William Herbert, Esq. [probably ofV 
Cogan. See next ParL],.ist session I 

WiUiam Herbert, Esq. [probably of I 
Cogan ; father of William Herbert of \ 
Swansea, Cogan, and White Friars ; [ 
was slain at the battle of Edge Hill, I 
1642], 2nd Session . . . / 

Algernon Sidney, vice Herbert 

[This Algernon Sidney, or Sydney, 
was son of Robert Sydney, Earl of 
Leicester, and was doubtless brought 
to Cardiff through the Coity connection 
(see CoUy CastU), As Col. Sydney he 
became celebrated under Cromwell, 
was a strong republican, but against 
Cromwell's " usurpation." This Pari., 
known as the *' Long Parliament," 
continued to sit at intervals, until, in 
1648, Col. Pride's "Purge" put a 
stop to its "further debate.*' Sydney 
had continued all this time a member. 



AD. 

1563 

157X 
1572 

1585 



1586 

1592 

1597 
1601 



1603 
16x4 



1620 
1623 



1625 
1626 



1628 



1640 



1642 



A.D. 

In 1645 Cromwell tliought highly of 

him as an officer in the Parliament 
army. " I am confident,'* he says to 
Fairfax, "he will serve you faith- 
fully ; " but in 1653, in dismissing 
the " Long'* or " Rump " Pari., or, 
as he called the act, "putting an end 
to their prating," Cromwell, pointing 
to the Speaker, said to Harrison, 
"Fetch him down!" and seeing 
Algernon Sydney sitting next to the 
Speaker, he exclaimed, " Put him 
out ! " then poipting to the mace, 
said, "Take away that bauble." 
Sydney, however, continued a staunch 
Commonwealth and anti-royalty man ; 
opposed the Restoration ; sur\'ived 
CromwelF; concerted with Shaftes- 
bury, Hampden, and Russell in 1681 ; 
was arrested as concerned in the 
" Rye House Plot," was tried by the 
miscreant Jeffreys, Charles H.'s in- 
strument, condemned, and executed on 
Tower Hill 1683.] 

THE COMMONWEALTH AND CROMWELL. 

The * * Little " Pariiament. No return for 

the borougiis. See under County . 1653 

OLIVER CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

John Price, Esq. [prob. " John Price, Esq ," 
of Gellihir, in Gower, an active man 
in the Protector's cause] . . 1654 

John Price, Esq. (the same) . . . 1656 

RICHARD CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

John Price, Esq. [the same. This parlia- 
ment was interrupted sitting Oct 13, 
reassembled Dec 26, and continued 
sitting till March x6, when it passed 
a vote not only dissolving itself, but 
the parliament of Nov. 3, 1640, and 
summoning a new parliament for 
April 25th, 1660] .... 



1658-9 



CHARLES II. 

, Bussy Mansel, Esq., of Briton Ferry 
Sir Robert Thomas, Bart., of Llanfihangel 
Bttssy Mansel, Esq. [for County in 1680] 



1660-1 

1678-80 

1681 



JAMES II. 

Francis Gwyn, Esq , of Llansannor . 168$ 

Thomas Mansel, Esq., of Margam [after- 
wards a Bart.] .... 1688-9 

Sir Edward Stradling, Bart., of St. 

Donat's 1695—1700 

Thomas Mansel, Esq. [of Briton Ferry] . 1701 



ANNE. 
Thomas Mansel, Esq. (the same) 



1702-5 



6io 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Sir John Aubrey, Bart, [of Llantrithydl . 
Sir Edward Stradling, Bart., of St. 
Donat's 



A.D. 

1707-8 

« 

1710-14 



GEORGE I. (House of Hanover). 

Sir Edward Stradling, Bart, (the same) . 1 7 14 
Sir Edward Stradling, 4th Bart of St. 
Donates ; m. Elizabeth, dau. of An- 
thony Hungerford .... 1722 

GEORGE 11. 

Sir Edward Stradling, Bart, (the same) .\ 

Hon. Bussy Mansel [of Mai^gam, after 

wards Lord Mansel of Maigam, M.P. }• 1727 
for the CO. 1737, I74ijt vke Stradling, 
diceosed ...... 

Hon. Herbert Windsor [afterwards Baron 

Mountjoy, &c., peerage of Ireland] 1734 

Herbert Mackworth, Esq. [vice Windsor, 
who succ. to the peerage as Baron 
Mountjoy] 1739 

Herbert Mackworth, Esq. [the same ; son 
of Sir Humphrey Mackworth, Knt., 
of GnoU] 1 741 

Thomas Edmonds, Esq. [no place speci- 
fied — probably of Cowbridge— the 
same with the Under-SherifF of 1753. 
Of this family possibly is the Rev. 
Thomas Edmondes, M.A., at present 
Vicar of Uanblethian-cum-Cow- 
bridge] 1747 

Herbert Mackworth, Esq. [the same as 

for 1741 and 1761] .... 1754 

GEORGE III. 

Herbert Mackworth, Esq., of Gnoll . 1761 

Herbert Mackworth, Esq. [of Gnoll ; son 
of the member last given ; was member 
al.«oin 1774, 1780, and 1784; cr. a 
baronet 1776; d. 1792] . 1768—84 

Hon. John Stuart [Lord Mount-Stuart, 
eldest son of John, 4th Earl of Bute, 
and 1st Marquess of Bute ; m. Eliza- 
beth, dau. and sole h. of Patrick 
Crichton, Earl of Dumfries] 1790 

Lord Evelyn James Stuart, vict Stuart 



deceased [3rd son of rst Marquess of 
Bute ; ^. in 1 773 ; Col. in the army ; 
d, 1842] 

Lord William Stuart [Capt. R.N. ; brother 
of the member for 1794— 1796] 

Lord Eveljm James Stuart [tnce Stuart 
deceased; same as member for 1 794 — 6] 

Lord P. James H. C. Stuart [brother of 
Evelyn James, last member; contested 
with Frederick Wood ; for Stuart, 
45 ; Wood, 17] ... . 

GEORGE IV. 



A.D. 



1794-6 
I8OI— 18 

1814 



1818 



I 



Wyndham Lewis, Esq. tnce Lord James 
Stuart, retired [of Green Moulow, 
was opposed by E. Ludlow, but after 
six days' contest was returned by a 
considerable majority; was afterwards 
member successively for Aldburgh 
and Maidstone ; he d, 1838, and 
Jiis widow, Mary Anne, dau. of John 
Evans, Esq., of Brampford Speke, 
Devon, m., 1S39, Benjamin Disraeli, 
Esq., M.P. (now Right Hon.), col- 
league with Mr. Lewis, in 1837, in the 
representation of Maidstone] . 1820 

Lord P. James H. Crichton-Stuart [same 

asmember for 18x8] 1826—32 

JohnNicholl, Esq. [gained election against 
I^rd James H. C. Stuart ; -votes for 
Nicholl, 342 ; for Stuart, 191] . 

John Nicholl, Esq. [on appointment to be 
Judge Advocate-General] 

Rt Hon. John Nicholl .... 

Walter Coffin, Esq., of Llandaff [son of 
late Walter Coffin, Esq., of Bridgend ; 
had a contest with Rt. Hon. John 
Nicholl, D.C.L.; obtained a majority 
of 26] 1852 

Col. James Frederick Dudley Crichton- 
Stuart [eldest son of the late Lord 
Patrick James Herl)ert Stuart, brother 
of the late John, 2nd Marquess of 
Bute ; is cousin of the present mar- 
quess] 1857 

Is the present sitting" member, 1872. 



1832 

1841 
1847 



' 3. — Members of Parliament for Swansea and Contributory Boroughs down to 1872. 

Swansea, noti^ithstanding its great population and importance as the largest corporate 
town and port in the county, had not the privilege of sending a representative to Parliament 
till 1832, when the Reform Bill conceded to it this justice. 

Once, indeed, before^-during that brief period of exceptional administration inaugurated 
by the Commonwealth and by Cromwell — Swansea had sent a delegate to Parliament That 
delegate was William Foxwist^ a member of a Cheshire family residing at Carnarvon (Dwnn, 
Herald. Visit. 11, 286), and a Judge of Great Sessions in Wales. We find some few other 
facts of his history previous to the year of his membership for '' Swansea.** His name 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF GLAMORGAN. 



6ii 



iff"given in Browne Willis {Not Pari,) as serving for Carnarvon Town in 1640, the first 
year of the " Long Parliament " of Charles I., " in the Toom " of " William Thomas, 
Esq./' of Aber, who had either been "deceased or displaced" between 1640 and 1653, 
the latter being the date of Cromwell's " Little *' Parliament. He also served for the 
CO, of Anglesey^ as colleague of George Twistleton, another Cromwellite, in the " Bare- 
bones" Parliament of 1654. In 1658-9 he appears at Swansea. That he was a political 
Republican, and an Independent in ecclesiastical polity — two things which by no 
means go together as a rule — is likely enough, and that he was a staunch friend of the 
Cromwellian cause is morally certain, for he was a commissioner for Camar\'on in 1657 to 
raise money for the Protectorate, and in a place of honour in the grand funeral procession 
of Cromwell, along with Waiter Cradock^ and Serjeant Seys (of Boverton), Edmund^ Lord 
Thomas (of Llanfihangel), and Philips Lord /ones (of Fonmon). See Francis's Charters 
of Swansea. His arms were : Arg,^ on a chevron sa. a mullet pierced of the field hetw. 3 
crosskts fitchkes sa, 

RICHARD CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 



A.D. 



William FoxTtrist, Esq, [of what place not stated 1658-9] 



A.D. 

WILLIAM IV. 

John Henry Vivian, Esq. [First enfran- 
chisement of the borough under the 
Reform Act. Registered voters, I, 307. 
Mr. Vivian chosen without a contest] 1832 

John Henry Vivian, Elsq. [registered voters, 

1,322] 183s 

VICTORIA. 
John Henry Vivian, Esq. [registered voters, 

1,349] . . . . 1837 

John Henry Vivian, Esq. [reg. voters, 

1,447] 1841 



John Henry Vivian, Esq. [reg. voters, i , 563] 1 847 
John Henry Vivian, Esq. [reg. voters, 1,694] '^54 
Lewis Llewelyn Dillwyn, Esq. . . 1855 
[v/V/Mr. Vivian, deceased, Mr. Dillwyn 
has continued without interruption to 
• represent Swansea to the present time. 
Thus the constituency has escaped a 
contest, and has only had two mem- 
bers since its creation as a parlia- 
mentary borough by the Reform Act 
of 1832] 

TTu sUUng metnber^ 1872. 



^—Members of Parliament for Merthr Tydfil District. 

The District of Merthyr, the great centre of iron and coal operations, having rapidly 
grown in wealth and population, was conceded by the Reform Bill of 1832 the parliamentary 
franchise. In 183 1 the population of Merthyr was 22,083. In 1861 the population of the 
Parliamentary District, including Aberdare, was 83,875. In 187 1 it had risen so high as 
96,891. 



A.D. 

Josiah John Guest, Esq., of Dowlais 

[registered votes, 502] . . 1832 

Josiah John Guest, Esq. [reg. votes, 564] 1835 

Josiah John Guest, Esq. [reg. votes, 582. 
Contest between Guest and J. B. 
Bruce. Voted for Guest, 309 ; for 
Bruce, 135] 1837 

Sir Josiah John Guest, [cr. Baronet 1838. 

On the register this ^ear, 760] . . 184.1 



Sir Josiah John Guest, Bart [reg. voters, 
822] 

Henry Austin Brace,! Esq. \viee Guest, 
dee.y now (1872) the Right Hon. H. 
A. Bruce, Secretary of State for the 
Home Department. See Bruce of 
Dyffryn\ 



A.D. 



1847 



1852 



Merthyr Tydfil having by census of 1861 a population of 83,875, is empowered to send 
to Parliament henceforth two representatives. The representation was contested in 1868 with 



\ 



6l2 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



the following result: — Richard Fothergill, Esq. (local ironmaster), 7,439 votes: Henry 
Richard, Esq., of London (Secretary of Peace Society), 11,683 votes; M, Hon. H. A, 
Brvce^ 5,776 votes. Mr. Bruce was eventually elected for Renfrewshire. 

A.D. 

Richard Fothergill, Esq., of Abemant House ) g^g 

Henry Richard, Esq., of London \ 

The sitting Members, 1872. 



Section X.— THE LORD LIEUTENANTS OF GLAMORGAN, 

AD. 1660— A.D. 1872. 

The office of Lord Lieutenant — the sovereign's representative in counties in matters 
pertaining to their military arrangements— was brought into full maturity at the Restoration 
In the time of Elizabeth, a class of magistrates, invested in crises of danger with extra- 
ordinary powers, did the work of calling forth and arra3ring the military forces of their 
county. In still earlier times ^' Commissions of Array '' were issued to muster and arm the 
different districts. ' The right of the Crown to issue such commissions was denied by the 
Parliament, and constituted one of the great questions in debate between the Commons 
and Charles I. But with his assumption of power at the Restoration, Charles II. was allowed 
to exercise this right to the full (14 Car. II., cap. 3). The duties of Lord Lieutenants and 
their Deputy Lieutenants have been defined in the various Militia Acts, but the functions of 
their office have been in a great degree curtailed by the Army Regulations of 1872. 



lAtrd LietUenant, 

Carbery, Richard Vaughan, 2nd Earl of, of Golden Grove, Carm. 

Carbery, Richard Vaughan, Earl of, (the same) reappointed 

Carbery, Richard Vaughan, Earl of,( the same) do. * 

Worcester, Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess and 7th Earl of, 

Beaufort, Henry Somerset (the same), cr. Duke of, 1682. He was styled 

President of Wales " (<^- 1699) .... 
Macclesfield, Charles Gerard, 1st Earl oi{d, 1694) . 
Pembroke and Montgomery, Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of, 
Bolton, Charles JPaulet, 3rd Duke of, {d. 1754) 
Plymouth, Other Lewis Windsor, 4th Earl of, (d, 1 771) 
Mount-Stuart, John, Lord, afterwards ist Marquess of Bute 

Bute, John Stuart, 4th Earl of 

Bute, John Crichton Stuart, 2nd Marquess of, and Gustos Rotul., (d. 1848) 
Talbot, Christopher Rice Mansel, Esq., M.P., (and Gustos Rotul.) . 

Present Lord Lieutenant, 1872. 



(^. 1733) 



t< 



Lord 



Date of Appointmefit, 

A.D. 

i8th Sept, 1660. 
22nd Dec., 1660. 

X9thjuly, 1662. 

20th July, 1673. 

• 
'28th March, 1685. 
22nd March, 1689. 

iith May, 1694. 
22nd March, 1728. 

6th Nov., 1754. 
22nd March, 1772. 

19th Dec. 1794. 

2nd June, 1815. 

5th May, 1848. 



Section XI.— BISHOPS OF LLANDAFF FROM THE CONQUEST TO 1872. 

\The See had already existed about 600 years,"] 



Appointment, 

A.D. 

1059 Herewald (a Saxon) ; d, 1103 ; consec. 1059 ; 

[The sec vacant four years.] 
1 108 Urban^ Archdeacon of LlandaiT; consecnte<^ 
loth August, 1108 ; ^ X133. 
[The see vacant \ix years.] 
1 1 39 Uhtred; consecrated 11 39; d. 1148. 



Appointment, 

A.D. 

1x48 Galfrid, followed Uhlred 1148 ; d, 1153. 

1153 Nicholas- ap Gwrgant; (a Welshman); d. 

1 183. 
1 1 85 William de Salso Marisco^ d. eirea 1 191. 

was bishop when Giraldus Cambr. visited 

Llandaff'(fee p. 531). 



BISHOPS OF LLANDAFF. 



613 



Appointment 

A.O. 

1 196 Henry, Prior of Abergavenny ; d. 12 18. 
1 2 19 William, Prior of Goclcliffe ; d, 1240. 
[See was now vacant about four yean.] 
1244 William de Burgh, Chaplain to the King 

(Henry IIL) ; consecrated 1244 ; d, 1253. 
1253 John de la Warr ; elected 26th July, 1253 ; 

d, 1256. 
1256 William de Radnor ; el. 30th July ; d, 1265. 
1266 William de Breos, Prebendary of Llandaff ; 
'elected March, 1266; d, 19th March, 1287. 

[It is believed that no bishop was appointed between 
1387 and ZS96, but Le Neve on the Authority of 
Prynne states that Philip de Staunton suoc. in 
September.— zaSy, Nicolas, Peerage^ 

1296 John de Monmouth ; nominated March, 1295 ; 

consecrated February, 1296 ; d, 1323. 
1323 John de Eglesdiffe; translated from Connor, 

Ireland, September, 1323; d, 2nd January, 

1346. To succeed him, John Coventre was 

elected by the clergy, but rejected by the Pope. 
1347 Jo^ Paschall ; appointed 3rd June; d, nth 

October, 136 1. . 
1 36 1 Roger Cradock; translated from Waterfoid, 

Ireland, 15th December, 136 1 ; d. 1382. 
X383 Thomas Rushooke, Confessor to the King 

(Richard II.); translated to the see of 

Chichester in 1386. 
1386 William de Bottlesham, titular Bishop of 

Bethlehem ; translated to Rochester in 1389. 
1389 Edmund de Brumfeld ; appointed 17th Dec. ; 

d, 1391. 
1393 Tideman de Winchcomb, Abbot of Beanly; 

appointed 5th July, 1393 ; tnmslated to 

Worcester in 1395. 

1395 Andrew Barret ; appointed 25th August, 1395 ; 

d, 1396. 

1396 John Burghill, alias Bruchilla, Confessor to 

King Richard II. ; appointed 15th Jime ; 

translated to Lichfield and Coventry 1398. . 
1398 Thomas Peverel; translated from Ossory, in 

Ireland, 1398, and to Worcester in 1407. 
1408 John la Zoudie ; appointed Ttli June. 
1425 John Wells ; app. 9th July, 1425 ; d, 144a 
144 1 Nicholas Ashby, Prior of Westminster; d. 

1458. 
1458 John Hunden, Prior of King's Langley, Herts ; 

resigned some time before his death. 
1476 John Smith ; appointed July, 1476 ; d. 1478. 
1478 John Marshal ; appointed i8th September. 
1496 John Ingleby, Prior of Shene ; dn 150a 
1500 Miles Salley, or Sawley ; d. 1516. 
1 5 16 George Athequa, de Attici, or Attien, a 

Spaniard ; was chaplain to Queen Katherine 

of Arragon. 
*537 Robert Holgate, Prior of Watton ; translated 

to York loth January, 1545. 



Appointmatt, 

A.D. 

545 Anthony Kitchin, or Dnnstan ; d, Oct., 1566. 
567 Hugh Jones, *' first Welshman appointed 

bishop of his church in almost 300 years." 

(Seep. 580.) 
575 William Blethyn, Prebendary of York; d, 

1590. 
591 Gervase Babington, Prebendary of Hereford ; 

translated to Exeter in 1595. 
595 William Morgan \Uu Translator of the Bible 

into Welsh ; a native of Penmachno, Cam.] ; 

translated to St. Asaph 1 601. 
601 Francis Godwin, Canon of Wells; translated 

to Hereford 161 7. 
6x7 Geoige Carieton, translated to Chichester 1 6 19. 
619 Theophilus Field; tnmshited to St. Davids 

1627. 
627 William Murray; translated from Kilfenora, 

Ireland. 
639 Morgan Owen; elected March, 1639; d, 1645. 

[TTu see is vacant about \(iyears,'\ 
660 Hugh Lloyd, Archdeacon of St. David's ; d, 

1667. 
667 Francis Davies, Archdeacon of Llandaff; 

elected 29th July, 1667; d, 15th March, 1674. 
675 William Lloyd, Prebendary of St. Paul's; 

elected 6th April; translated to Peter- 
borough 1679. t 
679 William Beaw; consecr. 22nd June; d, 1707. 
707 John Tyler, Dean of Hereford ; d, 1724. 
724 Robert Clavering, Canon of Christ Church, 

Oxford ; elected 1724; translated to Peter- 
borough 1728. 
728 John Harris, Prebendary of Canterbury; d, 

1738- 
738 Matthias Mawson ; transl. to Chichester 1740. 

740 John Gilbert, Dean of Exeter; translated to 

Salisbury 1748. 
748 Edward Cresset, Dean of Hereford ; d. 2755. 
755 Richard Newcome, Canon of Windsor ; trans- 
lated to St. Asaph in 1761. 
761 John Ewer, Canon of Windsor ; translated to 

Bangor 1769. 
769 Hon. Shute Barrington, Canon of SL Paul's ; 

translated to Salisbury 1782. 
782 Richard Watson (the eminent theologian), 

Archdeacon of Ely ; elected 1782 ; d, 18 16. 
816 Herbert Marsh (the eminent Biblical scholar) ; 

translated to Peterborough 1819 ; d, 1839. 
819 William Van Mildert ; translated to Durham 

1826. 

826 Charles Richard Sumner ; translated to Win- 

chester 1827. 

827 Edward Copleston ; appointed 1827 ; d, 1849. 
849 Alfred Ollivant ; appointed 1849. Present 

bishop. 



I 



2 s 



6i4 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Section XII.— THE MAGISTRACY OF THE COUNTY AND BOROUGHS 

OF GLAMORGAN, 1872. 



X.— County Magistrates. 



Bassett, Richard, £sq.» Bonvilston. 

Batchelor, Sydney James, Esq., Penarth. 

Bath, Charles, Esq., Ffynone. 

Bath, Henry James, Esq., Swansea. 

Benson, Henry Roxby, Esq., Tyrllandwr. 

Benson, Starling, Esq., Fairy Hill. 

Bcrrington, Arthur V. D., Esq., Cefhgola. 

Berrington, Jenkin Davies, Esq., of Pantygoitre. 

Biddulph, John, Esq., Swansea. 

Blosse, Ven. Archdeacon Henry Lynch, Bridgend. 

Booker, Thomas William, Esq., Velindre. 

Brogden, James, Esq., Tondu. 

Brace, Alan Cameron, Esq., London. 

Brace. "Rt. Hon. Henry Austin, M.P., Duffryn. 

Brace, Lewis Knight, Esq., St. Nicholas. 

Brace, Rev. William, St Nicholas. 

Budd, James Palmer, Esq., Ystalyfera. 

Bute, John Patrick, Marquess of, Cardiff Castle. 

Calland, John Forbes, Esq., GnoU. 

Cameron, Nathaniel Pryce, Esq., Swansea. 

Came, J. W. NichoU-, F.sq., D.C.L., St. Donat's. 

Cartwright, William Sheward, Esq., Newport. 

Clark, Geoige Thomas^ Esq., Dowlais. 

Corbett, John Stuart, Esq., Cogan. 

Crawshay, Robert Thompson, Esq., Cyfarthfa. 

David, Charles Williams, Esq., Cardiff. 

David, Evan Williams, Esq., Fairwater. 

Davies, Evan Jones, Esq., Merthyr. 

Davies, Joseph, Esq., Bed was. 

Davies, Rees Edward, Esq., Mardy. 

Davis, David, Esq., Cwm. 

Davis, David, Esq., Maesyffynon. 

Dillwyn, Heniy de la Beche, Esq. , London. 

Dillwyn, Lewis Llewelyn, Esq., M.P., Hendrefoilan. 

Eaton, Robert, Esq., Bryn-y-mor. 
Edmond, William, Esq., Blaen-y-maes. 
Edmondes, Rev. Thomas, Cowbridge. 
Edwaides, Rev. Frederick Francis E., Gileston. 
Elliott, George, Esq., Aberaman. 
Evans, Henry Jones, Esq., Cardiff. 
Evans, Herbert Edward, Esq., Eaglesbush. 
Evans, Thomas John, Esq., Merthyr. 

Falconer, Thomas, Esq., Co. Court Judge, Usk. 
Fisher, Samuel Sharpe Horman, Esq., Llwynderw. 
Fothergill, George, Esq., Treforest. 
Fothcrgill, Richard, Esq., M.P., Aberdare. 
Fowler, J. C, Esq. {Stipendiary for Aferthyt% Gnoll. 
Francis, George Grant, Esq., Cae Bailey. 
Franklin, Richard, Esq., Clementston. 



Gibbon, John Samuel, Esq., Newton. 

Gilbertson, W^illiam, Esq., Pontardawe. 

Gough, Richard Douglas, Esq., Ynyscedwyn. 

Gould, Hubert Churchill, Esq., Ash Hall. 

Grenfell, Pascoe St. Legcr, Esq., Maesteg House. 

Griffith, Rev. David Hanmer, Cadoxton. 

Griffith, Rev. John, Merthjrr. 

Griffiths, Rev. Walter, Dylais. 

Guest, Arthur Edward, Esq., Tynygraig. 

Gwyn, Howel, Esq., Duffiryn. 

G Wynne, Frederick Finines, Esq., New House. 

Hall, Richard, Esq., Baglan. 
Herbert, John Maurice, Esq., Co. Court yudge, 
Homfray, John, Esq., Penlline Casde. 
Homfray, John Richard, Esq., Penlline Castle. 
HutchinSy Edward John, Esq., Dowlais.* 

Insole, James Harvey, Esq., Llanda£ 

James, David W., Esq., Porth. 
James, John Williams, Esq., Swansea. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., Gellygron. 
Jenkin, John Trevillian, Esq., Swansea. 
Jenkins, George Henry, Esq., Penlline. 
Jenkins, John Blandy, Esq., Llanharry. 
Jenner, Hugh, Esq., Wenvoe. 
Jenner, Robert F. Lascelles, Esq., Wenvoe. 
Johnes, John, Esq., Co, Court Judge, Dolaucothi. 
Jones, Robert OUver, Esq. {Stipendiary)^ Fonmon 
Castle. 

Knight, Rev. Charles Rumsey, Tythegston Court. 

Lee, Rev. Henry Thomas, Dinaspowis. 

Lee, Vaughan Hanning, Esq., L^nelay. 

Lewis, Henry, Esq., Green Meadow. 

Lewis, James, Esq., Tydraw. 

Llewellyn, Edward TurberviUe, Esq., Hendrescythan. 

Llewellyn, Griffith, Esq., Baglan. 

Llewellyn, William, Esq., Court Colman. 

Llewelyn, John Dillwyn, Esq., Penlle'igaer. 

Llewelyn, John Talbot Dillwyn, Esq., Ynysygerwn. 

Lloyd, Herbert, Esq., KillybebylL 

Martin, William, Esq., Ynystawe. 
Mayberry, Rev. Charles, Penderyn. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq., Swansea. 
Morgan, Evan, Esq., St. Helen's. 
Morgan, Hon. Frederick Courtenay, Rupenra. 
Morgan, Hon. Godfrey Charles, Tredegar. 
Morris, George Byng, Esq., Danygraig. 
Morris, Sir John Armine, Bart., Sketty Park. 
Morris, Robert Armine, Esq., Oystermouth. 
Morse, Thomas Robert, Esq., Glanogwr. 



THE MAGISTRACY OF GLAMORGAN. 



6iS 



Nicholl, George Whitlock, Esq., Ham. 
Nicholl, John Cole, Esq., Menhyr-mawr. 

Page, Charles Harrison, Esq., LlandafT. 
Penrice, Thomas, Esq., Kilvrough. 
PhiUips, Griffith, Esq., Whitchurch. 
Prichard, William, Esq., Crofta. 
Pryce, John Bruce, Esq., Duffryn. 

Randall, John, Esq., Neath. 

Randall, John Henry, Esq., Bridgend. 

Rhys, Rees Hopkin, Esq., Aberdare. 

Richaixis, Evan Matthew, Esq., M.P., Brooklands. 

Richards, Richard, Esq., Bdlevue. 

Richardson, James Coxon, Esq., Glan3rrafon. 

Richardson, John Crow, Esq., Pantygwydir. 

Rickards, Rev. Hely Hutchinson Keating, Landough. 

Rickards, Robert Hillier, Esq., Clifton. 

Roberts, Richard Thomas, Esq., Aberdare. 

Romilly, Edward, Esq., Porthkeny. 

Romilly, Frederick, Esq., Porthkerry. 

Rous,- George Grey, Esq., Coart3rTalla. 

Rowland, John Henry, Esq., Fioodvale. 

Salmon, Thomas Deere, Esq., London. 

Salmon, William, Esq., Penlline Court. 

Smith, Charles Henry, Esq., Gwemllwynwith. 

Stacey, Francis Edmond, Esq., Landough. 

Strick, George Burden, Esq., West Cross. 

Strove, William Price, Esq., Bridgend. 

Stuart, James F. Dudley Crichton, Esq., M. P., Cardiff. 



Talbot, Christopher Rice Manscl, Esq., M.P., Lard 

Ueutenant^ Margam Park. 
Talbot, Theodore Mansel, Esq., Margam Park. 
Thomas, Charles Evan, Esq., London. 
Thomas, George Williams G., Esq., Coedriglan. 
Thomas^ Hubert de Burgh, Esq., Llanblethian. 
Thomas, Iltid, Esq., Glanmor. 
Thomas, John B. D., Esq., Tr^roes. 
Traheme, Anthony Powell, Esq., Broadlands. 
Traheme, George Montgomery, Esq., St. Hilary. 
Traheme, John Popkin, Esq., Coytrehen. 
Tredegar, Rt. Hon. the Lord, Tredegar Park. 
Turbervill, Thomas Picton, Esq., Ewexwy Abbey. 
Tyler, Rev. Roper Trevor, Llantrithyd. 
Tynte, Charles Kemeys Kemeys, Esq., Cefh-Mably. 

Vachell, Frederick Charles, Esq., Highmead. 
Vivian, Arthur Pendarvis, Esq., M.P., Craigavon. 
Vivian, Henry Hussey, Esq., M.P., Parkwem. 
Vivian, William Graham, Esq., Singleton. 

Walter, James, Esq., Ffynone, Swansea. 
Williams, Charles Henry, Esq., Roath. 
Williams, David Evan, Esq., Hirwain. 
Williams, Rev. David Watkin, Fairfield. 
Williams, Evan, Esq., Duffryn Ffrwd. 
Williams, Evan Thomas, Esq., Duffiyn. 
Williams, George Croft, Esq., Llanrumney. 
Williams, Gwilym, Esq. {Stipendiary), Miskin Manor. 
Williams, Morgan Stuart, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
Wilson, Charles Thomas, Esq., Brynnewydd. 
Wood, Edward Robert, Esq., Stouthall. 



CierA of the Peace, Thomas Dalton, Esq. 



3. — Borough Magistrates. 
Justices of the Peace for the Borough of Cardiff^ 1872. 



Charles Williams David, Esq., Mayor. 

Robert Oliver Jones, Esq., SHpetuLiary Magistrate. 

William Thomas Edwards, Esq., M.D. 

William Done Bushell, Esq. 

Thomas Edward Heath, Esq. 

James Harvey Insole, Esq. 

George Bird, Esq. 

James Pride, Esq. 



William Alexander, Esq. 
Griffith Phillips, Esq. 
William Bradley Watkins, Esq. 
Edward Stock Hill, Esq. 
George Johnson, Capt. R.N.» Esq. 
Henry James Paine, Esq., M.D. 
Samuel Nash, Esq. 
Alexander Bassett, Esq. 



Justices of the Peace for the Borough of Swansea^ 1872. 



The Mayor and Ex-mayor for the time being. 
Starling Benson, Esq.,' of Swansea 
George Grant Francis, Esq., of Cae Bailey 
James Walters, Esq., of Fyoone . 
Evan Mathew Richards, Esq., of Swansea 
John Williams James, Esq., of Swansea 
Michael Martin Williams, Esq., of Swansea 
John Biddulph, Esq., of Dderwen&wr . 
Trevor Addams WUliams, Esq., of Clyncollen 
Silvanus Padley, the younger, Esq., of Swansea 



A.D. 

1836 

185 
185 
185 
185 

185 
185 
1859 
1859 



A.D. 

John Crow Richardson, F«sq., of Uplands . 1859 

John Oakshot, Esq., of Swansea . 1859 

William Henry Michael, Esq., of Swansea . i860 

Jeremiah Clarke Richardson, Esq., of Swansea 1868 

William Henry Forester, Esq., of Swansea . 1868 

Sydney Hall, Esq., of Swansea . . 1868 

George Browne Brock, Esq., of Swansea . 1868 

Thomas Phillips, Esq., of Swansea . . x868 

John Trevillian Jenkin, Esq., of Swansea • j868 

Mr. George Bowen, Attomey-at-Law, Clerk x866 



6i6 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

Section XIIL-PORTREEVES AND MAYORS OF SWANSEA, 

A.D. 1600— A.D. 1872. 



Owen Phillippe • 

William Fleminge 

William John Harry 

Jenkin Franklin . 

William John Harry, Deputy 

John Thomas Bevan 

John David Edwards 

William Watkins 

John Daniel 

John David Edwards, Deputy 

George Herbert, Esq. 

John Robartes . 

William John Harry 

John David . 

John David 

Henry Fleminge 

John Daniel 

Walter Tliomas 

William John Harry 

John David 

Owen Price 

Mathew Franklin 

John Daniel 

Harry Vaughan 

John William John 

Owen Price 

Henry Fleminge 

Walter Thomas 

Rice David . 

Patrick Jones 

Mathew Franklin 

John Bennett 

John Williams 

Rice David 

Francis Affter 

David Jones 

Patrick Jones 

Mathew Franklin 

John Williams 

Patrick Jones 

Mathew Franklin 

Lewis Jones 

John Williams 

Patrick Jones 

Mathew Franklin 

Lewis Jones 

John Williams 

Patrick Jones 

John Daniel 

John Bowen 

William Bayly 

Mathew Franklin 

Lewis Jones 

Mathew Davies 



A.D. 

600 
601 
602 

6^3 

604 
605 
606 

607 



608 

609 
610 
611 

6l3 

613 
614 
615 
616 
617 
618 
6r9 
620 
62 J 
622 
623 
624 
625 
626 
627 
628 
629 
630 
631 
632 

633 

634 

635 
636 

637 
638 

639 
640 
641 
642 

643 
644 

645 
646 

647 
648 

649 

650 

651 



Portreeves. 



Thomas Williams 
John Daniel . 
William Bayly . 
Lewis Jones, Mayor 
John Daniel, Mayor 
William Bayly, Mayor 
Thomas Williams, Mayor 
William Jones 
Leyson Seys 

Ditto 
Isaac Afiler 

Ditto 
William Vaughan 
William Bayly 
Lewis Jones 
Isaac Afiter 
Robert Jones 
Gamaliel Hughes 
William Thomas 
David Bevan 
Lewis Jones 
Isaac Afiter 
William Herbert, Esq. 
Robert Jones 
Gamaliel Hughes 
William Thomas 
Thomas Phillips 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Gamaliel Hughes 
Owen Rogera 

Ditto 
Jenkin Jones 
WUliam Seys 
Edward Mansell, Esq. 

Ditto 
John Franklin 
William Seys, Esq. 
Geoige Rice 
Owen Rogers 
John Reece 
David Jones 
Jenkin Jones 
Lewis Thomas 
Walter Hughes 
Gabriel Powell 
Christopher Rogers 
Griffith Phillips . 



A.D. 

1652 David Thomas, Gent. 



1653 

1654 
1655 

1656 

1657 
1658 
1659 
1660 
1661 
1662 
X663 
1664 
1665 
1666 
1667 
1668 
1669 
1670 
1671 
1672 

1673 
1674 

1675 

1676 



Griffith Phillips, Gent. 
John Rice . . . 
Joseph Ayres, Gent. . 
Jenkin Jones, Gent. 
Gabriel Powell, Gent. 
Walter Hughes» Gent. 

Ditto 
Abraham Ayres, Gent. 
Anthony Cupitt, Gent. 
Richard Pany, Gent. . 
Griffith Phillips, Gent. 
John Mansell, Gent. . 
Walter Hughes, jun., Gent 
Walter Hughes, Gent. 
Robert Rogers, Gent. . 
Davki Thomas, Gent. . 
William PhiUips, GenL 
Gabriel Powell, Gent. 
Walter Hughes, Gent. 
Robert Hughes, Gent. 
Abraham Ayres, died . 
Walter Vaughan, Gent. 
Walter Vaughan, Gent. 
John Mansell, Gent. .. 
William Watkins, Gent. 



1677 

1678 I John Powell, Esq. 

1679 ' Walter Hughes, Gent 

1680 Walter Vaughan, Gent. 

1681 John France, G«it. 

1682 John Morgan, Gent. . 

1683 Walter Vaughan, Gent. 

1684 Hugh Powell, Gen., . 

1685 Gabriel Powell, Gent. . 

1686 John Mansell, Gent. . 
X687 John Collins, Gent. . 

1689 John Powell, Gent. 

1690 John France^ Gent. 
169X Richard Powell, Gent. 

1692 John Powell, Gent. 

1693 J^hn Whitney, Gent. . 

1694 Edward Phillips, Gent. 

1695 J^^'^ Morgan, Grent. 

1696 Hugh Powell, Gent. . 

1697 Walter Vaughan, Gent. 

1698 John Collins, Gent. 

1699 John Jenkins, Gent. . 

1700 Hopkin Walter, Gent. 

1701 Christopher Rogers, Gent. 

1702 John France, Gent. 

1703 James Thoma% Gent. . 

1704 Walter Vaughan, Gent. 

1705 John Collins, Gent. 

1706 John Jenkins, Gent. 

1707 Hopkin Walter, Gent 



( 



A.I). 
1708 
1709 
1710 
I7II 
I7I2 

■713 

"7«4 

1715 
1716 

17x7 
1718 

1719 

1720 

X721 

1722 

1723 

X724 

1725 

1726 

1727 

1728 

1729 

1730 
>73' 
1732 

1733 
1734 
1735 
1736 

1737 
1738 

1739 
X740 

.^741 
1742 

»743 

1744 

1745 
1746 

1747 
1748 

1749 

X7SO 

«75i 
X752 

1753 

■754 

1755 

1756 

■757 

1758 

1759 
1760 

1761 



PORTREEVES AND* MAYORS OF SWANSEA. 



617. 



Phillip Rogers, Gent. . 
Christopher Rogers, Gent. 
John Gwyther, Gent. . 
James Thomas, Gent. . 
James Thomas, Gent. . 
David Vaughan, Gent. 
Robert Ball, Gent. 
William Davies, Gent, 
lliomas Maddocks, Gent. 
Williams Powell, Gent. 
William Jeffreys, Gent. 
Iltid Thomas, Gent. . 
Phillip Rogers, Gent. . 
James Thomas^ Gent. . 
William Davies, Gent. 
Thomas Maddocks, Gent. 
Gabriel Jeffreys, Gent. 
Gabriel Powdl, jun., Gent. 
William Jeffreys, Gent. 
Thomas Powdl, clerk . 
Iltid Thomas, Gent. . 
William Powell, Gent. 
Philip Rogers, Gent. . 
Prichard Rowland, Esq. 

Ditto 
Thomas Maddocks, Gent. 



A.D. 


f 


A.D. 


1 


A.D- 


. 1 76 1 1 Thomas Maddocks, Gent 


. 1785I John Morris, Esq. 


. 1811 


. ) Gabriel Jeffreys, Gent. 


1 786 1 Charles Collins, Esq. . 


. I8l2 


. ( 1762 


Ditto . . . , 


1787 1 William Jeffreys, Esq. . 


. 1813 


.) 


John Roberts, Gent. . 


1788 John Jeffreys, Esq. 


. 1814 


. X763 


Griffith Jenkin, Gent. . 


1789 John Grove, Esq. 


1815 


. 1764 


William Grove, Gent. . 


1790 Rob. Nelson Thomas, Esq 


. 1816 


. 1765 


Thomas Morgan, Esq. . 


1791 


Thomas Edw. Thomas, Esq. 


. 1817 


. 1766 


William Jeffreys, Gent 


1792 


William Grove, Esq. . 


, 18x8 


. 1767 


Rowland Pritchard, Esq. 


1793 


Griffith Jenkin, Esq. . 


. 1819 


. 1768 


William Jones, Esq. . 


1794 


John Jones, Esq. . 


. 1820 


. 1769 


Gabriel Powell, Gent. . 


1795 


John Charles Collins, M D. 


. 1821 


. 1770 


Gabriel Jeffreys, Gent. 


1796 


William Grove, Esq. . 


1822 


. 1771 


Thomas Powell, clerk . 


1797 


Calvert Rich. Jones, Esq. , 


. 1823 


. 177* 


Thomas Maddocks, Esq. 


1798 


Richard Jeffreys, Esq. . 


. 1824 


. 1773 


Griffith Jenkin, Esq. y 


1799 


Lewis Thomas, Esq. . 


, 1825 


. 1774 


William Grove, Esq. . 


1800 , Gabriel Powell, Esq. . 


, 1826 


. «775 


Thomas Morgan, Esq. 


1 801 Sir John Morris, Bart. . 


, 1827 


. 1776 


Charles Collins, Esq. . 


1802 John Grove, Esq. 


. 1828 


. 1777 


John Jeffreys, Esq. 


1803 


Thomas Thomas, Esq. 


1829 


. 1778 


William Jeffreys, Esq. . 


1804 


Charles Collins, Esq. . 


. 1830 


. 1779 


Rowland Pritdiard, Esq. 


1805 


Thomas Grove, Esq. . 


. 183 1 


. 1780 


William Jones, Esq. . 


1806 


Thomas Edw. Thomas, Esq. 


1832 


. 1781 


Gabriel Jeffreys, Esq. . 


1807 


Silvanus Padley, Esq. . 


. 1833 


. 1782 


Griffith Jenkin, Esq. . 


1808 


Calvert Rich. Jones, Esq. 


. 1834 


. 1783 


Sir John Morris, Bart 


1809 


Ditto, re-elected till Nov 


. 183s 


. X784 


William Grove, Esq. • 


. 1810 







(Mayors hereafter take the place of Portreeves^ 



Nathaniel Cameron, Esq. . 


1835 


Michael J. Michael, Esq. 


. 1848 


J. Trevillian Jenkin, Esq. 


. 1861 


Ditto . . . . 


. 1836 


Christopher James, Esq. 


. 1849 


Evan M. Richards, Esq. 


1862 


Richard Mansel P., Esq. 


. 1837 


Owen Gething W., Esq. 


. 1850 


Charles Bath, Esq. 


. 1863 


John Grove, Esq. 


1838 


Thomas Edward T., Esq. 


. 1851 


J. Clarke Richardson, Esq. . 


. 1864 


Lewis Weston Dillwyn, Esq. 


1839 


John J. Strick, Esq. . 


1852 


George B. Strick, Esq. 


. Z865 


Mathew Moggndge, Esq. . 


. 1840 


George Grant Francis, Esq 


. 1853 


Thomas Phillips, Esq. . 


. 1866 


Richard Aubrey, Esq. 


. Z841 


J. Trevillian Jenkin, Esq. 


. 1854 


Geoige B. Brock, Esq. 


. 1867 


Geo. Gwynne Bird, Esq. 


1842 


Evan M. Richards, Esq. 


. 1855 


Charles T. Wilson, Esq. 


. x868 


Starling Benson, Esq. . 


. 1843 


John Oakshot, Esq. . 


. 1856 


John Jones Jenkins, Esq. 


. 1869 


John Richardson, Esq. 


. 1844 


William H. Michael, Esq. 


. 1857 


Washington Brown, Esq. 


. 1870 


Charles H. Smith, Esq. 


. 1845 


J. Trevillian Jenkin, Esq. 


. 1858 


John Glasbrook, Esq. . 


1871-72 


Timothy B. Essery, Esq. . 


, 1846 


Thomas Ed. Thoma.s, Esq. 


. 1859 




, 


L. Llewelyn Dillwyn, Esq. . 


1847 


ohn Crow Richardson, Esq. 


. i860 


1 





6i8 GLAMOKGANSHIRE. 

Note on Cnnrm/e/Ti Charter, 1655. 

Under the Tears l6S5-S in Ihe above list it is noticeable that the title "Portreeve" was changed 
into " Major." This was id vinue of the chiLrter granted by Cromwell in 165s, which in iu preamble says : — 
"Whereasourtownot Swaniey, inourco, of Clami>r{[aii, wilhia our dominionof Wales, isan ancient port town, 
and popalous, siloate on the sea-coast towards France, convenienl for shipping and resisting foreign invasions, 
and time out of mind hath been a town corporate,' &c, &c. It then ordains that "the town shall be for ever 
hereaAer adjudged a free town and borough, and that " the people therein dwelling, and hitherto called and 
known by the name of Porirerfe, Aldermen, and Burgesses, &c, shall Irom henceforth and for ever be, 
continue, and remain one Body Politique and corporate in deed and in lume, by the name of Ma)i«r, 
Aldermen, and Burgesses of the 'town of Swaniey.'" The Protector then nominates "our well-beloved imw 
Jena, now Portreeve, to be the first and present Mayor ; " " our right trusty and well-beloved Councillor, 
Philip yana, to be first and present High Strvxtrd; oar well-belored Rsoiland DaaiMtu, Lewis Jonei, John 
Bowcn, Henry Fleming, John Bennett, John Daniel, William Bayley, Mathew David, Thomai Williams, 
William Vaughan, William Jones, and Robert Jones, to be the first and present twelve Aldcrmat;" "oar 
beloved Jokn Price, Esq., Evan Evan Lewis, John Matthew, David Griffiths, Jenkin Phillip, Thomas Phillip, 
David Bayley, John Williams, John Daniel, John Simond, John Richard, and Thomas DoUin, to be first and 
present twelve Capital Burgetitt ;" and "our well-beloved Jehn GMt, Etqaire, to be first and present 



Cflnunon JinI of ^fontf m, Ttmp. Bing flntin* 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



BUTE, John Patrick Griohtoii-Stnaii;, 3rd 
Marquess of, Cardiff GasUe. 

Cr. Marquess of Bute and Earl of Windsor 
(Gt Brit.) 1796; Earl of Dumfries (Scot) 
1633; Lord Crichton (Scot.) 1488; Vis- 
count Kingarth and Earl of Bute (Scot.) 
1703; Lord Mount-Stuart (Scot.) 1761; 
Baron Cardiflf of Cardiff Castle (Gt Brit.) 
1776; a baronet 1627. Knight of the 
Holy Sepulchre, and Grd. Cross of the 
Roman Order of St. Gregory ; hereditary 
keeper of Rothesay Castle^ which belongs 
to the Crown ; hereditary Sheriff of Bute- 
shire ; only son of John, 2nd Marquess 
(d, March 18, 1848), and his second wife, 
Sophia Frederica Christina, dau. of ist 
Marquess of Hastings ; b, at Mountstuart, 
Jsle of Bute, r2th Sept, 1847; ed. at 
Harrow and Ch. Ch., Oxon. ; s. on the 
demise of the 2nd Marquess, i8th March, 
1848; »f., April i6, 1872, to the Hon. 
Gwendaline Mary Ajme (b. 1854), eldest 
dau. of Edward George Fitzalan, ist Baron 
Howard of Glossop, Derbyshire, by 
Augusta, only dau. and h. of the Hon. 
George Henry Talbot, and niece of the. 
1 7 th Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Lord Howard, cr. Baron Howard of Glossop 
1869, is 2nd son of Henry Charles, 13th Duke of 
Norfolk, Premier Duke and Hereditary Earl 
Marshal of England, by Lady Charlotte Sophia 
Leveson-Gower, eldest dau. of George, ist Duke of 
Sutherland. The Howards are held to be of Saxon 
rather than of Norman origin ; but first came into 
prominent notice temp. Edward I., when William 
Howard (see Dugdale) was Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, and held large possessions in the 
CO. of Norfolk. 

Heir presumptive: Lieut. -Col. Crichton- Stuart, 
M.P. for Cardiff, his ist cousin. 

Residences : Cardiff Castle, Glamorgan ; 
Mountstuart, N.B. ; Dumfries House, N.B. 

Town Address : Carlton Club. 

Arms : Quarterly, quartered : 1st and 4th 
grand quarters ; 1st and 4th, or, a fesse, cheeky 
aig. and az., within a double treasure flory 
counter-flory gu. — Stuart ; 2nd and 3rd, 
aig., a lion rampant az. — Crichton : 2nd 
grand quarter, the arms of IVittdsor: 3rd grand 
quarter, per pale az. and gu., three lions rampant 
arg. — Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. 

Crests: ist, a demi-lion tumpant gu., over it 
the motto, Nobilis est ira Uonis^Stuart ; 2nd, a 



dragon vert, flames issuing from the mouth — 
Crichton; 3rd, .a wyvem vert, holding in the 
mouth a sinister hand couped at the wrist — 
Herbert, 

Supporters : Dexter^ a horse arg. bridled go. ; 
sinister^ a stag ppr. attired or. 

Motto : Avito viret honore. 

LINEAGE. 

This noble familv, in the male line, derives its 
descent from John. SheriiT of Bute 1400, nat son of 
Robert II. of Scotland. Its entrance into Wales 
is of recent date, through marriage into the line of 
Herberts, Lords of Glamorgan. For a history of 
the Lords and lordship of Glamorgan, see, ant*^ 
Robert FitsMamon, Earl of Gloucester; The De 
Clares; The Despencers ; The Beauchamps ; The 
Nevilles^ &c For the Herberts^ see Earl of 
Pembroke and Powis, Herbert of Uanarth^ &c. 

Lady Charlotte Herbert, dau. and heiress of 
Philip, 7th Earl of Pembroke, married Thomas, 
Viscount Windsor (IreL), brother to the 1st Earl 
of Plymouth. Charlotte, dau. and heiress of the 
2nd and last Visct. Windsor, and as such heiress 
of Cardiff Castle and estates, married, Nov. 12, 
1766, John, 4th Earl of Bute, afterwards 1st 
Marquess of Bute. 

William Herbert, son of Sir Richard Herbert, 
Kl, of Ewyas, by Margaret, dau. and heiress of 
Sir Matthew Cradock, Kt., of Swansea (see 
Cradoch of Szoansca), m, Aime, dau. of lliomas, 
Lord Parr, sister of Catherine Parr, Henry VIII.'s 
last wife, and was created by that king, 155 1, 
•Baron Herbert of Cardiff, and Earl of Pembroke, 
He obtained from the same king, and from Edward 
VI., the lordship of Glamorgan. Sixth in descent 
after William was Philip, 7th Earl, above named. 

The issue of the marriage of his granddau. 
Charlotte with John, ist Earl of Bute, was — 

1. John, the heir, b, 1767, but d, 1794, during 
the lifetime of his father ; m., 1792, Elizabeth, 
dau. and h. of Patrick Crichton, Earl of Dumfries, 
and left by her — 

(i) John, who became 2nd Marquess of Bute. 

(2) Patrick James Herbert, whose son. Col. 
James Frederick Dudley Crichton, is present 
Al. P. for Cardiff, and heir presumptive to the titl«. 

2. Herbert Windsor, b, 1770, d. 1825. 

3. Evelyn James, b, 1773, M.P. for CardifT in 
several parlts. {fL 1S42), usually called *'Lord 
James Stuart." 

4. Charles, served in the navy ; lost at sea 1796. 

5. Henry, b. 1777, m Gertrude Amelia, dau. 
and h. of George Viliiers, Earl Grandison, and had 
issue ; d. 1809. 

6. William, b. 1778, Capt. R.N. ; i»., and had 
issue a dau., who d. unm, 

7. George, b, 1780 ; entered the navy, became 
Rear- Admiral and C.B. ; m., and had issue. 

8. Maria Alicia Charles, m. to Charles Pinfokl 
Esq. ; d, 1841. 

9. Charlotte, ot. to Sir W. J. Homan, Bart. 



620 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



By a second marriage 1800 (with Frances, dau. 
of Thomas Coutts, Esq., Lord Bute had additional 
issue: — 

1. Dudley Coutts. who m. Christ. Alexandrine 
Kgypta, dau. of Prince Lucien Bonaparte, of 
Canino. 

2. Frances, m. to Dudley, Viscount Sandon. 
John, 2nd Marquess of Bute, KT., F.R.S., 

&&,/., 1803, to the Earldom of Dumfries, and in 
1 814, on the death of his grandfiuher, to the 
Marauisate of Bute ; w. 1st, x8i8. Lady Maria 
- North, dau. of George, 3rd Eari of Guilford (she 
d, 1 841, s,p.); 2nd, April loth, 1845, Lady 
Sophia Christina Hastings, as above, and had 
issue an only child, — 

ToHN Patrick Crichton-Stuart, the present 
^larqucss, as above. 

Note. — For a sketch of the history of Cardiff CastU^ 

see pp. 461, 539, &c. ; and for Caerphilly Castle^ see 

P* 533t et passim. It is believed that the ancient 

••keep" of Cardiff Castle is a remain of the first 

erection by Fitzhamon. Great part of the present 

residential castle was built by Beauchamp, Earl of 

Warwick, temp, Henry VL (sec The Beauchamps) ; 

but it has been added to at different periods, and 

larircly remodelled and renovated by the late Marquis 

of Bute. It has recently received and is in process of 

receiving extensive additions from the present noble 

owner — notably a campanile of great height and 

beauty, and its precincts are made more roomy and 

convenient. 

The great docks of Cardiff, called the "Bute 
Docks." were commenced by the enterprise of the 
late Marquess, carried on by his trustees, and are still 
in course of augmentation under direction of the 
present Marquess, to whom they entirely belong. 

BASSET, Kiohard, Esq., of BoiiTilstoii Souse, 
dlamorgaiL 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
Major I St Glam. R. V. ; son of the late 
T. M. Basset, Esq. {d. 1840), of Bonvilston 
House; h. i8ao; w., 1843, Ann Maria, 
dau. of John Homfray, Esq., of Penlline 
Castle, CO. of Glam., and has issue. 

Heir: John Richard, b. 1839. 
Residence: Bonvilston House, near Cowbridge. 
Arms :^ Aig., a chevron between three bugle- 
horns stringed sa. 

LINEAGE. 

This family is a branch of the Basset house of 
Beaupr6, originating in Thomas Bassett, youngest 
son of Jenkin, and brother of William Basset 
(Sheriff for Glamorgan a.d. 1557) above named. 
Thomas Bassett m. the heiress of Llantrithyd, and 
the lamily for two or three generations resided there. 
The present Richard Basset, Esq., of Bonvilston 
House, js 1 1 th in descent from Thtmas Bassett above 
named. , 

BASSET, WiUiam West James, Esq., of Beau- 
pre, Glamorganshire. 

A Major in the army; was Capt. 74th 
Highlanders ; son of the late Col. William 



Bruce, K.H., of the 79th Highlanders, by 
Isabella, 3rd dau. of CoL Thomas Basset, 
by Elizabeth, dau. of Alexander Cruik- 
shanks, Esq., of Aberdeen ; d, 1830 ; jw., 
1862, Eliza, dau. of Richard Weekes, Esq.. 
Barrister-at-law, and has issue; succ to the 
Beaupr^ estate, entailed upon him, on the 
death, 1865, of his aunt, Mrs. Basset, 
widow of CapL Richard Basset, of Beaupr^, 
his mother's brother, and thereupon assumed 
the surname Bassft instead of Bruce. 

Ifeir: William Richard, b. 1863. 

/Residence: Beaupr6, near Cowbridge. 

Arms : The Basset arms are — Aig., a chevron 
between three bugle-horns stringed sa. 

Crest : A stag's head cabossed. 

Motto: GweU angau na chywilydd, ••Better 
death than shame.*'. 

LINEAGE. 

The Bassets have been in Glamorganshire in all 
probability since the time of the conquest of the 
lordship by the Normans, when Sir John Ba^t 
was vice-comes to Fitzhamon, and received, as is 
believed, the mesne lordship of Maes-Essyllt^ or 
St. Hilary, which then or soon after received the 
N. -French name of Beau-fri^ "fiiir meadow." 
The name Basset is found m the various rolls of 
Battle Abbey as that of one of the Conqueror's 
knights at the battle of Hastings ; and although 
the Beaupr6 Basset cannot be distinctly traced 
to this man, he was at no great distance from him, 
and from the post of honour he 611ed under Fitz- 
hamon may reasonably be conjectured to be of 
his family. (See Beaupri Castle.) 

The first Bassets of Beaupr6 of whom we have his- 
toric certainty (probably son and grandson of the 
vice-comes just mentioned) were Ruph and his son, 
Richard de Basset, temp. Henry II., both successively 
Lords Justiciariesof England. Of the formerof these, 
Orderieus Vitalis rather severely remarks that he 
was one of those "persons of low origin" whom 
for their obsequious services the king raised to 
the rank of nobles, taking them so to speak from 
the diist, exalting them above earls and distinguished 
lurds of castles," &c. {Ub. XL, cap. ii.). At the 
same time, if his father or near reladve was vice- 
comes under Fitzhamon, this account is scarcelv 
faithful. ^ 

William Basset, Esq., of Beaupr6, about ninth 
in lineal descent from Sir Ralph, was Sheriff of 
Glamorgan a.d. 1557 (see Sheriffs). His grand- 
son Ri<^rd filled the same office 1590 and 1608; 
and Richard's grandson William in 162 1. Wil- 
liam*s eldest son,^ 

Sir Richard Basset, Kt., of Beaupr6, Sheriff of 
Glam. 1641, OT., 1st, Mary, dau. of Edmund 
Thomas of Wenvoe, by whom he had a son, Wil- 
liam, who m. and d. s. p. ; 2ndly, Elizabeth, dau. 
of Edward Van, Esq., of Marcross, and had a 
son, — 

Sir Richard Basset, Knt., of Beaupr^, who, by 
his wife Priscilla, dau. of Philip Jones, Esq., of 
Foimion (see Jones of Fonmon)^ had with other 
issue two sons, Philip and Richard^ and three daus., 
who were all married. The line of Basset of Beau- 
pr6 is continued through the grandson of Richard 
Thomas Basset, Esq., an officer in the army, who 
w., 1790, Mary, dau. of Alexander Cruikshanks, 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF" GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



621 



Esq., of Aberdeen, and had, with other issue, a 
son, Richard Basset, Esq., late of Beaupre, and a 
dau., Isabdla^ nu to Major William Bruce, K.H., 
whose son William, on inheriting after the demise 
of his uncle Richard, who d. 1842, and of his 
aunt, Richard's widow, who d, 1856, assumed the 
name Basset, and is the present — 

William West JameS Basset, of Beaupr6, 
as above. 



BATEy Charles, Esq., I^one House, ftlamor- 
gansliire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; Capt 4th 
Glam. Rifle Volunteers ; Mayor of Swan- 
sea 1864 ; Knight of the Sardinian Order 
of SS. Maurice and Lazarus ; member of 
Swansea School Board, &c. ; younger son 
of the late Henry Bath, Esq., of Swansea ; 
(see also Bath of AUtyferin^ co. Carm.,) 
^. at Swansea, January 15, 1832; ed. at 
private schools, Swansea and Falmouth; 
w., August 12, 1856, Emily Elizabeth, 
youngest daughter and co-heiress of John 
Lucas Fopkin, Esq. 

The Popkins were an ancient Glamorganshire 
family of Ynystawe and Forest, on which patri- 
monies thej continued for many generations (see 
Fopkin of Ynystatve^ &c. ). In junior branches they 
were also of Danygraig and Llysnewydd, but 
all gradually became extinct. (See ** J. H.'s " 
MS., pp. 4«>— 43; and I>. Jenkin's MS., apud Col. 
Francis, pp. 149—152.) John Popkin, about the 
end of the i8th cent., m. Sophia Laugham^ gr. 
granddau. of Arthur Laugham, £Isq., who was 
descended paternally from the Laugnams of St. 
Bride's, Pembr., and m. Elizabeth, dau. of David 
Owen, Esq., of Henllys, Pembr. {^^ Laugham of 
St, Brides, and Owen of Henifys). Arthur Laug- 
ham bore on his shield the arms of Laugham (gu. , 
3 wolves* heads erased or, in a bordure), impaling 
those of Owen of Henllys (a boar arg. chained to 
a holly tree proper). See ancient/a6;^«' of Laug- 
hams, &a, in the possession of Charles Bath, Esq. 
John, son of John Popkin and Sophia Laugham, 
m. Barbara Ann Lucas ; and his son, John Lucas 
Laugham, by his wife, Livia Wozenciaft, had 
three daus., Mary Ann {m. Rev. Lewis Morgan), 
Sophia (x». J. C. Richardson, Esq.), and Emily 
Elizabeth, as above. 



Residence: Ffynone House, Swansea. 

Arms : Gu., a chevron paly of six arg. and or, 
between three plates, on a chief or three wolves* 
heads erased sa. 

Crest: A wolfs head erased, gorged with a 
collar vair, holding in the mouth a rose slipped 
proper. 

Motto: Habere et dbpertire. 



BBAUPOET, Duke of, Heniy Charles Rtzroy 
Somerset 

(See Beaufort, Duke of Troy House, co. of 
Monmouth.) 



BEYAV, Bobert Cooper Lee, Esq., of Posbnry, 
Berks, aad Trent Park, IMell 

Justice of the Peace for Middlesex; a 
banker, city of Lotidon ; eldest son of the 
late David Be van, Esq., ofFosbury,Wilts,and 
Belmont, Herts, who d, 1846 (set Lineage); 
b. Feb. 8, 1809, at Walthamstow, Essex ; 
. ed. at Harrow and Trinity Coll., Oxon. ; 
fn,y xst, Feb. 28, 1836, Lady Agneta Eliza- 
beth Yorke, only dau. of Admiral Sir Joseph 
Sydney York, K.C.B., and sister of Charles 
Philip, 4th Earl of Hardwicke; she had 
precedence as an earl's daughter granted 
her by royal warrant, dated loth Feb., 
1836 {b, 9th Dec, 181 1 ; d. July 8, 1851); 
and was buried at Trent Park, Enfield; 
2ndly, Emma Frances Shuttleworth, eldest 
daughter of the late Bishop of Chichester; 
s, 1846; has issue 7 sons and 6 daughters 
by both wives. 

Heir: Sydney Bevan, b, 6th Oct., 1838, in 
York Terrace, Regent's Park ; baptized 21st 
April following, at Trent Church, Enfield. . 

Residences : Fosbury, Hungerford, Berkshire ; 
Trent Park, Enfield, Mid. 

Town House : 25, Princes Gate, Kensington, 
S.W. 

Arms : Quarterly : 1st and 4th, ermine, a bull 
passant gu. between three annulets of the same, 
two in chief, one in base — Bevan ; 2nd and 3rd, 
az., three bars engrailed or, over all a bend 
lozengy aig. and gu. — Lee. 

Crest: A vryvem or, sem6e of annulets, holding 
in its claws two annulets gu. 

Mottoes: Non sine industrii ; Deus praesidium. 

LINEAGE. 

This ancient fiunily derives its descent- from 
lestyn ap Gwrgant, the last Prince of Glamorgan, 
son of Gwrgant ap Ithel, Prince of Glamorgan, 
who lived in Cardiff Castle circa A.D. 1030, and 
Gwladus. daughter of Ednowen Bendew, Lord of 
Tegeingl (part of the present Flintshire), founder 
of one of the fifteen tribes of North Wales, iith 
centuiy. (See Ednowain Bendew, p. 438.^ 

PATERNAL DESCENT. 

lestyn ap Gwrgant, Prince of Glamoigan, m, 
Denis, dau. of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince ofPowys ; 
2ndly, Angharad, dau. of Elystan Glodrudd, Prince 
of Ferlex, by whom he had — 

Caradog ap lestyn. Lord of Avan, who m» 
Gwladus, dau. of Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr, 
Prince of South Wales. His son, — 

Morgan ap Caradog, Lord of Avan, m, Gwen- 
Uian, dau. of J/or Bach, Lord of Caerphili (see 
Ivor Bach), and had issue Morgan Gam ap Morgan 
ap Caradog, Lord of Avan, whose son, — 

Morgan Fychan ap Morgan, Lord of Blaenbag- 
Ian (near Aberavon, Glam.), m, Elen, dau. of Howeil 
Fydian, Lord of Cilfai, and had a son, — 

Rhys ap Morgan Fychan, of Blaenbaglan, who 
M. the dau. of Griffith ap Ivor, and had issue — 

Leyson ap Rhys of Blaenbaglan. Hem. Gwladus 



622 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



tlau. of Howell ap G riffith Fychan ap Griffith- Gwyr, 
Lord of Gower. The issue of this marriage was 
the well-known — 

Evan ap Leyson of Biaenbaglan, who tn. Jennet« 
dau. of Gwilym ap Howel Fychan ap Howel Melyn. 
Hopkin ap Evan ap Leyson of Biaenbaglan, m, 
Gwlados, dau. of Jenkin ap Rhys Fychan. Their 
son, William ap Hopkin ot Biaenbaglan, m. Lucy, 
dau. of Hopkin Lewellyn Lloyd of Llangynwyd. 
Their son, — 

Hopkin ap William of Biaenbaglan, m. Gwyrfil. 
dau. of Jenkin Rhys ap Jenkin of Glyn-n^d (Yale 
of Neath), and left a son, — 

David ap Hopkin of Biaenbaglan, aAer of Cwrt- 
y-Bettws, who «w. Elen, dau. of Henry Fychan. 
Their son, — 

Jenkin ap David of Cwrt-y-Bettws, or Bettws 

Court, in the hamlet of PenisaV-coed ("lower 

woodland"), in the parish of Cadoxton, near 

Neath, m. Mary, dau. of Jenkin ap Rhys, and 

left a son, — 

Thomas ap Jenkin, who by his wife, Gwladus, 
dau. of Lleyson ap Rhys, had a son, — 

Hopkin ap Thomas, who m, Angharad, dau. of 
.Thomas ap Llewelyn. Their son, — 

David ap Hopkin, m. Maiy, dau. of Evan ap 
Llewelyn. Their son, Hopkin ap Davydd, m, 
Siwan, dau. of Rhys Gethin ; and their son, — 

Thomas ap Hopkin, m, Sarah, dau. of Meredydd 
-Ddu ("the black"). Their son, WUliam ap 
Thomas, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Davydd Llwyd, 
whose son, Owen ap William of Cwrt-y-Bettws, m. 
Gwenllian, dau. of Rhys ap Evan. Their 2nd 
son, Evan ap Owen, m. Jennet Morgan, and left 
a son, — 

Jenkin ap Evan^ otherwise Jenkin Sevan, 

Jenkin Bevan^ of Rhosilly, in Gower, co. of 
Glamorgan (who first settled this surname Sevan)., 
m. Elizabeth, dau. of Rev. Peter ^^, afterwards 
Rector of Rhosilly. His 3rd son, — 

William Bevan, of the town of Swansea, co. of 
Glamorgan, became a Quaker {d. 5th Dec., 1702, 
set. 75 ; buried in the Friends' Burial-ground, 
Swansea. Will is dated 7th Jan., 1700 ; codicil, 
6th June, 1 701. Proved '24th Feb. following at 
Canmarthen). His wife was named Priscilla, and 
she was buried with her husband. His son, — 

Silvanus Sevan, Es^., of the town of Swansea, 
was 4th but 2nd surviving son ; b, .9th Aug., 1661 ; 
proved his father's will as above in 1701 {d. 4th 
J>ec, 1725 ; buried at Swansea ;) m, Z4th Feb., 
1685, Jane, dau. of William Phillips of Swansea ; 
d, 14th Nov., 1727. His 4th son, — 

Timothy Bevan, Esq., of Hackney, co. Middle- 
sex (d. 2nd July, 1704; d, 12th June, 1786), w., 
8th Sept., 1735. at the *<Bull and Idouth," Elizabeth, 
dau. of David Barclay, Esq., of London ; a, 30th 
Augast, 1745, set 32, at Hackney. His son,— 

Silvanus Sevan, Esq., of Fosbury House, co. 
Wilts, 3rd but eldest surviving son and heir (b. 
3rd Oct., 1743 \d 25th Jan., 1830, «t. 87 ; buried 
at St. NichoUus, Brighton), by his second wife, 
Louisa Kendall {b. 1749; jm., 23rd Sept., 1773, 
at St. Gileses; d. 1838; buried at St. Nicholas, 
Brighton), had, with other issue, — 

David Sevan, Esq., of Fosbury House, co. 
Wilts, of Trent Park, Enfield, Middlesex, and of 
Belmont, Herts, his eldest son and heir ; b, 
6th Nov., 1774 [d, at Belmont, 24th Dec, 1846, 
set 72 ; buried at Trent Church). He m., 30th 
April, 1798, at St Mar)rlebone, Favell Bourke, 
only dau. -and ^only child that left issue of 
Robert Cooper Lee, Esq., sometime of the idand 
of Jamaica, and afterwards of Bedford Square, St. 



Pancxas, co. of Middlesex. She d. 25th August. 
1 841, aet. 60, and was buried in Trent Church, 
Enfield. His eldest son and heir is — 

Robert Cooper Lee Bevan, Esq., of Fos- 
bury House, CO. Wilts, and of Trent Park, Enfield, 
CO. Middlesex, as above. 



There is also another branch of the Beva^ 
family through the common ancestors, Silvanus 
Bevan of Swansea, and Jane, dau. of William 
Phillips, of the same place. 

Paul Sevan, of the town of Swansea, 5th and 
youngest son of the above Silvanus Bevan {b, 19th 
Dec, 1705 ; d. 9th Jan., 1767, set 61); m., 9th 
^^y* I754» Elizabeth, eldest dau. of Richard and 
Esther Phillips of Swansea (d, 15th May, 1771, et 
47). He left a son, — 

Silvanus Sevan, co. Glamorgan (3. 13th Sept, 
1758; d, 15th July, 1783 ; buried at Swansea), 
who m,, 17th >fov., 1780. Mary, dau. of Edward 
and Anna Fox, of Wadebridge, co. Cornwall {d. 
1787 ; buried in Cornwall). By her he left a 
second and only survivingson, — 

Paul Bevan, Esq., of Tottenham. Middlesex {b. 
30th Aug., 1783 ; d, 1 2th June, 1868), who m., 
1st, 24th Oct, 1804, Rebeoa, diau. of Jasper and 
Anne Capper, of London, who d, 9th Nov., 181 7 ; 
2ndly, May, 183 1, Judith NichoUs Dillwyn, who d. 
27th June, 1868. He left issue surviving by the 
1st wife, — 

1. William Bevan, Esq., of the Old Jewry, 
city of London, and St Stephen's Square, Bays- 
water, solicitor, now living. 

2. Samuel Bevan, Esq., of Rosewood, Pang- 
bourne, Berks, now living. 

3. Mary, only dau., m, to Alfred Waterhoose, 
Esq., of Whiteknights Park, Reading, Berks. 

BIDDTTIiFE, Jobn, Esq., of Swansea, Slamorgaii. 

• 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
. 2nd son of the late John Biddulph, Esq., 
of Ledbury, and brother of the late Robert 
Biddulph, Esq., of Ledbury, M.P. for the 
city of Hereford; b, 1804; m. the only 
dau. of the late William Chambers, Esq., 
of Llanelly; was formerly of Dderwen, 
near Swansea. 

Note,— TYit Biddulphs of Ledbury have been resident 
upon their estate there from the time of Anthony 
Biddulph, who was Sheriff for the co. of Hereford 
in 1694. They were descended from the Biddulphs 
of Elmhurst, circa 155a (See further, MyddeUon 
Biddulph 0/ Chirk Castle,) 

BLOSSE. Yen. Ardid. Henry Lynoh, ITeiroastle 
Honsei Slamorganahire. 

Archdeacon of Llandaff ; M.A. ; Preb. of 
Caerau in Llandaff Cathedral 1859 ; Vicar 
of Newcastle, Dio. of Llandaff, 1839; Surro- 
gate and Rural Dean ; J. P. for the co. of 
Glamorgan ; is patron of the livings of 
Bishton, Kilgwrrvvg, Llanvihangel Tor y 
Mynydd, St Lythan's ; son of the late Sir 
Robert Lynch Blosse.Bart, of Casde Carra, 
CO. Mayo, and brother of the present Sir 



THE COUNTY. FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



623 



Robert of the same place; b, 18 14, at 
Gabalva, aear Cardiflf; ed. at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin; gr. A.B. 1835, M.A. i860; 
w., in 1843, to Charlotte Fanny, daughter 
of Rev. Robert Knight, Tythegston Court, 
Glam. ; has issue 4 sons, 5 daughters. 

I/eir: Robert Charles Lynch Blosse, b, 1848. 
Residences: Newcastle Hoase, Bridgend; the. 
Canonry, Llandaff. 
MoOo : Nee temere nee timide. 

BOOEM, Thomas William, Esq., of Yelindre, 
Ctlamorganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
son of the late Thomas William Booker 
Blackmore, Esq., M.P. for Herefordshire, 
who assumed the surname Booker in place 
of his own of Blackmore ; b, at Velindre. 
1830; m.y i86i, Caroline Emily, daughter 
of the late Robert Lindsay, Esq., of Glan- 
afon ; has issue six daughters. 

Residence: Velindre, Cardiflf, Glamorganshire. 

Arms: Per pale, or and vert, an eagle displayed 
within a bordure charged with four roundels and 
four fleurs-de-lis idl counterchanged. 

Crest: On a wreath of the colours, a demi- 
eagle displayed or, in the beak a fleur-de-lis vert. 

Motto ; Ad coelum tendit. 

N(fte,^Vdindre is a local name whose etymology 
is clear and significant, but whose form has been 
'slightly marred by a provincial more than by an 
English pronunciation. The name, signifying the 
"mill-house," or ••mill-residence" (W., »m/i«— hill, 
/r/— abode),|should of course terminate with an^, but it 
is usually spelled Velindr^ 

BBO&DEK, Alexander, Esq., of Coytrehen, &la- 
morgaiishiie. 

M.P. for Wednesbury (elected 1868) ; a 
magistrate for the county of Lancaster; 
eldest son of the late John Brogden, Esq., 
of Sale, near Manchester, by Sarah Hannah, 
daughter of Alexander McWilliams, Esq. ; 
b. at Sale, 1825 ; ed. at King's College, 
London ; m., 1848, Anne, (laughter of the 
late James Gkurstang, Esq., of Manchester, 
and has issue one son and one daughter. 

Udr: James Garstang Bremen, b, 1850. 

Residences : Coytrehftn House, Bridgend ; 
Lightbume House, Ulverston ; Holm Island, 
Grange, Lancashire. 

Ttmm Address.: 6, Belgrave Mansions, S.W. ; 
Reform Club, S.W. 

Arms : Quarterly : ist and 4th, gu., fretty arg., 
a chief or — Brogden ; 2nd and 3rd, az., three 
lozenges or pierced, a chief aig. within a bordure 
engrailed — Garstang. 

Crest: From a ducal crown a hand and arm 
holding a rose proper. 

Afoito : Constans et fidelis. 



Note. — Coytrehin {Coed-tre-hinX "the ancient 
wood-house,'' like TondtL, belonged in the X7th and 
i8th centuries to the influential family of the Powells. 
The modem spelling is marred especially by a 
terminal Cy which disg^uises the etymological signifi- 
cancy of the word. The W. hin^ with the vowel 
lengthened, and sounded like a in mane, gives the 
meaning of "old" or "ancient." As a matter of 
lingubtic accuracy it is of use that local names should 
be preserved as £ur as possible in their integrity. 

BBO&DM, James, Esq., of Tondu, eiamorgaa- 
shlre. 

Justice of the Peace for the County of 
Glamorgan; F.G.S. ; fourth son of the 
late John Brogden, Esq., of Sale, near 
Manchester, by Sarah Hannah, dau. of 
Alexander McWilliams ; b, at Manchester, 
1832 ; ed, at King's College, London ; /»., 
1859, Helen Milne, daughter of the late 
Captain Milne, of Aden ; and has issue. 

Ifeir: Duncan Dunbar, b. 1861. 

Residence :^QTid^lioQsty Bridgend, Glamorgan. 

Town Address: 4, Queen's Square, Westminster. 

Arms: Per pale: dVx/lfrjgu., fretty aig., a chief 
or — Brogden j sinister^ quarterly,— ist and 4th, 
per bend arg. and gu., 3 roses counterchanged ; 
2nd and 3rd, gu., a lion rampant or, on a chief 
or embattled, two Cornish choughs ppr. 

Crest: Out of a ducal crown, a dexter hand 
and arm holding a rose-bud ppr. 

Motto : Constans et fidelis. 

Note. — Tondu was well known in the 17th and 1 8th 
centuries as the residence of the Powell family of the 
lineage of Powell of Uwydiarth and Coetre-hin^ from 
whom also came the Powellsof En/rpiyn. The Powells 
of Tondii supplied several sheriffs for the co. of Gla- 
morgan. They were of the sept of Einion ap CoUwyn. 
(See also PoweU of Maesteg and JJcLnharan.) 



BBTIGE, Bight Eon. Henry Anstin, of SyfflTn, 
Qlamorganshire. 

Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn 1843; ^^^ 
appointed Police Magistrate at Merthyr Tyd- 
fil; J. P. and D. I^ for the CO. of Glailiorgan ; 
M.P. for Merthyr 1852 — 1868 ; became 
Under Secretary for the Home Department 
1862; Vice-President of the Committee of 
Council 1864; Charity Commissioner, and 
Member of the Privy Council, 1864; M.P. 
for Renfirewshire 1868 — 1872!; Secretary 
for the Home Department 1869 ; second 
son of John Bruce Fryce^ Esq., of DyfFryn, 
St Nicholas, co. of Glamoi^an (son of 
John Knight, Esq., of Llanblethian), who, 
instead of his own surname, assumed that 
of Bruce^ his mother's maiden surname (as 
did also his brother, James Lewis Knight, 
afterwards Lord Justice Sir J. L. Knight 
Bruce, d 1867) ; and subsequently, on in- 
heriting under the will of Thomas Pryce, 



624 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Esq., of Dyffryn-Goluwch, that of Pryce; 
but was not herein followed by his 
sons, who have retained the surname 
Bruce; b, 1815; //i., ist, 1846, Annabella, 
dau. of Richard Beadon, Esq., of Clifton 
(she//. 1852) ; 2ndly, 1854, Norah, dau. 
of the late Lieut.-Gen. Sir William Napier, 
ELC.B., and has issue. 

Heir: Henry Campbell Brace, b, 185 1. 

Residence: Dyfiryn, near Aberdare. 

Tcwn House: I, Queen's Gate, W. 

Arms: ist, gu. 3 chevrons arg. a crescent for 
difference — Pryce ; 2nd, or,- a saltire gu. on a 
chief of the last a martlet or— Bruce. 

LINEAGE. 
For lineage, see hereafter, Bruce Pryce of Dyffryn, 

GABNE, John WMtlook Nioholl-, Esq., of 
Bimloiids and St. Bonat's Castle, Gla- 
morganshire. 

D.C.L., M.A.; J. P. and D. L. for the 
CO. of Glamorgan ; Barristen-at-law (called 
to the Bar by the Society of the Inner Tem- 
ple, 1840), was on the Oxford and South 
Wales Circuits ; Chairman of P. Sessions ; 
late Commissioner in Bankruptcy ; Patron 
of St. Donat's Vicarage, co. Glamorgan ; 
author of an " Essay on the Improvement 
of Time," and " The Art of Poetry; " son of 
the late Rev. Robert Nicholl and Elizabeth 
Came, his wife, dau. and h. of Captain 
Charles Loder Came, R.N., of Nash 
Manor; b, at Dimlands (Glamoiganshire), 
17 th April, 18 16; ed, at Jesus College, 
Oxford; grad. B.A. 1837, M.A. 1839, 
D.C.L. 1843; became F.S.A. 1848; m,^ 
xoth April, 1844, Mary Jane, only dau. of 
Peter Whitfield Brancker, Esq., of Field 
House, Wavertree, Liverpool ; s, to Llan- 
twit estates 1849, Park Newydd, Llan- 
wonno, in 1854, St. Donat's estate 1861, 
Nash 1869 ; has issue 3 sons and 4 daus. 
living (i son and 2 daus. dead). Eldest 
son was Edward Stradling Nicholl, b. 8th 
Sept, 1849; </. ist July, 1862. 

Heir: John Deverenx Vann Loder, b, 1854. 

Residences : Dimlands, Cowbridge; St Donates 
Castle, Bridgend. 

Arms: Sa., 3 pkeons arg., for Nicholl ; 
gu., pelican in her piety or, for Carne. 

Crest: On a tower, a Cornish chough, wings 
expanded pnr. — Nicholl ; out of ducal coronet a 
pelican displayed with 2 h^uls — Came, 

Mottoes: £n toute loyale. Heb Dduw heb 
ddim ; Duw a digon. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from Ynyr, King 
of Gwent (9U1 cent), whose grandson Dyfrig^ or 
Devereux, who lived at the time of the Conquest, 
first assumed the name of Came^^ from a place 



called Pen Came, in Monmouthshire, where he 
was nurtured. It intermarried in early times with 
the families of Herbert, Mansel, Stradling, Berk- 
roUes, Loder, St. Maur, Gamage, De Lacy, Giles, 
Fleming, Whitlock, Poyntz, &c.; and among its 
distinguished members in past time may be named 
Sir Edward Came, of Ewenny (filth in the Ewenny 
line, which began with Sir Edward, second son of 
Howel Came, of Nash), Commissioner for the 
Suppression of the Monasteries, temp. Henry VIIL, 
ana purchased Ewenny Abbey at its dissolution ; 
Sir Edward Came, of Nash, Teller of the Ex- 
chequer and Receiver-General for S. Wales ; Sir 
Au^stine Nicholl, Chief Justice ; Sir Bulstrode 
Whitlock, Judge of Common Pleas under the 
Commonw«dth ; &c. 

Sir Edward Came, Kt, of Nash, just named 
(fifteenth in descent in ' the Nash senior line), m, 
Anne, fourth dau. of Sir Edward Mansel of 
Margam, and left a son and successor, William 
Came, Esq., who by his wife Jane, dau. and h. 
of William Thomas, Esq., of Llanfihangel (see 
Tltomas of Uanjihanger), left with other issue a 
son, — 

Thomas Came, Esq., of Nash, who m. Jane, 
dau. of Sir Eldwanl Stradling, Bart, of St. Donat's. 
He was Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1690 (see Sheriffs, 
where it will be seen that Cames of Ewenny were 
sherifis in 1543, 1555, '562, 1572, 1581, 1588, 
1601, 1620, &C.). His grandson, — 

Edward Came, Esq., of Nash, m. Grace, dau. 
of Edward Mathew, Esq., of Aberaman, Sheriff of 
Glam. 1693 (see McUhew of Uandaff Radir, Aber- 
amanf &c,), and had a large family. His eldest 
son and heir was — 

John Came, Esq., of Nash, Sheriff of Glam. 
173Z ; m,, July 8, 1 728, Elizabeth, dan. and co-h. 
of Charles Loder, Esq., of Hinton. 

John Came Clerk, his eldest son (his second son, 
Rev. Edward Came, B.D., Rector of St Athan's, 
d. unm.; but his third son, Capt. Charles Loder 
Came, R.N,, m,, and had issue EliMobetk^ of whom 
again), m. Eleanor his first cousin (dau. of Richard 
Came, Esq., fifth son of Edward Came, of Nash, 
and Grace ms wife above named), and had issue a 
dau. and only surviving child, Eleanor. He d. at 
Nash, 1798, cet.66. 

Eleanor Came, of Nash, ^.Nov. 18, 1769; m., 
Aug. 29th, 1798, Thomas Maikham, Esq., of 
Cheltenham, and d, s. p. 1842, when the estates 
fell to Elisabeth Came above named, who m, as 
her second husband — 

The Rev. Robert Nicholl of Dimlands, son of 
Whitlock Nicholl, Esq., of the Ham, ca Glamor- 
gan (of the fiunily of Nicholl of Llantwit Major, 
descended firom theTurbervilles— see Turberville of 
Coity), who inherited in right of his wife, axul 
assumed her surname of Came in addition to his 
own. He had, besides four daus. — Emma Anne, 
Aima Maria, Ellen Louisa, and Frances Susan, — 
two sons, — 

1. Robert Charles Nicholl-Carne, Esq., 
of Nash, J. P. and D. L. of co. Glamorgan ; called 
to the Bar; m., 1838, Sarah Jane, dau. and co-h. 
of Rev. N. Poyntz, M.A., of Alvescot House, 
Oxfordshire (she d, x./. 1861). Mr. Nicholl-Came 
d, s. p. 1869. 

2. John Whitlock Nicholl-Carne, Esq., 
now of Dimlands, St. Donat's Castle, Nash, &c., 
as above. 

Note. — For a notice oi St. Donafs Castle, see under- 
that title ante. Dimlands was altered and improved 
1850-1. The restoration of St. Donat's Castle, com- 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



625 



menced in 1861, is not yet quite completed. On the 
estate is Gwrgaiii's-fown^ once the seat of lestyn ap 
Gwrgant, and several Roman and Danish encamp- 
ments. There was a monastery of Black Benedictines 
at Nash. 

GLAAE, &eorge Thomas, Esq., of Dowlais Souse, 
Glamorganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
High SherifTof Glamorgan in 1868 ; Chair- 
man of Merthyr Board of Guardians; 
Hon. Col. of 2nd Adm. Bat. of Glamorgan 
Rifle Volunteers ; author of various papers, 
chiefly in antiq&arian journals, History. of 
Castle of St. Donat's, &c. ; son of the 
Rev. Geo. Clark, A.M., of Trin. Coll., 
Camb., by Clara, dau. of Thomas Dicey, 
Esq.; b. at Chelsea, 1809; ed. at the 
Charterhouse; m.y in 1850, Ann Price, 
2nd dau. of the late Henry Lewis, Esq., of 
Park, CO. Glamorgan, and sister to Henry 
Lewis, Esq., of Greenmeadow, co. Glamor- 
gan ; has issue i son and i dau. 

Residences: Dowlais House, Merthyr Tydfil; 
Talygam, CardifT. 

Arms : Gu., a fleur-de-lis or, in chief a canton 
ermine. 

Crest: A lion rampant or. 

Mottoes: " Non major alio non minor ; " over 
crest, "Try and tryst." 

LINEAGE. 

This family is of Staffordshire origin, descended 
from Joseph Clark, who was of Burton in 1500. 
Among its members have been various authors of 
more or less distinction, chiefly divines bearing the 
name of Samuel, of whom were the martyrologist ; 
the editor of an early and learned Harmony of the 
Gospels ; and Dr. S. Clark, of St. Alban*s, author 
of the well-known " Promises of Scripture." For 
the Lewis lineage see Lewis of Greenmeadow^ 
Lewis of Van, &c. . 

COEBSTT, John Stnart, Esq., Gogan Pill, 
Olamorganahire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; son of the 
late Ven. Archdeacon Stuart Corbett, of 
York; d. 18 16, at Wortley, near Sheffield ; 
m,y 1844, Miss Elizabedi Evan, of the 
Gothic, Radnorshire ; has issue tluree sons 
and one daughter. 

. I/eir: John Stuart. 
Residence : Cogan Pill, near Cardiff. 

J\/ote. — Cogan /Wis an ancient mansion (recently 
restored and altered) which was built and for sevend 
generations inhabited by the Herberts. We have 
accoont that William Herbert, Esq., was Sheriff of co. 
Glam. 1551— 1556, son of Sir George Herbert, Kt., 
of Swansea, who was of Cogan Pill, and built the house 
there. This early structure appears to have been on 
an extensive scale, of superior construction, and in the 



Gothic style. During recent alterations a fine Gothic 
arch, long tilled up and plastered over, was brought 
to view, and has been carefully preserved. The 
mansion of Cogan Pill has descended, with the other 
estates of the Herberts in Glamorganshire, to the 
Marquess of Bute. 

GEA¥SEAT, Eohert Thompson, Esq., of G7- 
farth& Castle, Glamorganshire. 

Son of the late William Crawshay, Esq., 
of Caversham Park, Berks, and Cyfarthfa 
Castle, Sheriff of Glamorganshire 1828-9, 
well known as the great ironmaster in South 
Wales; b. at Cyfarthfa, 181 7; /«., 1846, 
dau. of N. N. Yeates, Esq., and has issue 
three sons and two daughters. 

Residences: Cyfarthfa Castle, Glam. ; Cathe- 
dine, Brec. 
Arms : A plough and dog, upon cannon balls. 
Motto: Perseverance. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from the Craw- 
shays of Normanton, Yorkshire. See further 
Cyfarthfa Castle, 

M7IES, Eees Edward, Esq., of Owaelod-y- 
&arth, Slamorgsoishlre. 

A Barrister-at-law ; called at the Inner 
Temple 1864; J. P. for the co. of Glamor- 
gan; son of William Davies, Esq., of The 
Mardy, co. Glamorgan, by Mary, dau. and 
co-heir of Rees Davies, Esq., of Mirlanga ; 
b. at Gwaelod-y-Garth, Oct 25, 1841 ; ed. 
at Christ Church, Oxford ; grtid, B. A. and 
B.C.L. ; ist class in Law and Modem 
History ; m.y April 8, 1869, Florence, only 
dau. of the Rev. Robert Gandall, M.A., 
Laudian Professor of Arabic in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, by Louisa, eldest dau. 
of Thomas Pearse, Esq.,.of Wamborough, 
Hants, and granddau. of the late^ Lord 
Charles Kerr; s, on the death of his elder 
brother, 1859 ; had issue a dau., Gwendo- 
line, d, June 12, 1870. 

Heir presumptive: His brother, Augustus 
Richard, Lieut 22nd Foot. 

Residence: Gwaelod-y-Garth, Merthyr Tydfil, 
Glamorganshire. 

Tffom Addresses: 4, King's Bench Walk, Inner 
Temple ; and New University Club, St. James's. 

LINEAGE AND HISTORY. 

The family continues in possession of the old 
estate upon which their ancestors resided for gene- 
rations. Of the two old houses, however, belong- 
ing to it, Mirlanga was abandoned in a ruinous 
state about 1780 ; and The Mardv, built at a very 
early date, had not of late years bem occupied by 
the family except at interval^ and in 1069 the 



626 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



remaining fragment was taken down. The 
estate, by gifts and devises, wich their attendant 
litigation, has at different times been greatly 
curtailed. One of these devises was as early as 
155S the subject of a suit in chancery. No 
addition to this property has been made since 1727, 
when some neighbouring farms were purchased by 
Thomas Lewis ap Richard, of llie Mardy. It was 
with his eldest son and heir, David ap Thomas, that 
the old Welsh intermittent system of name-giving 
ended, and the present surname of Davies (ap 
David) originated. From father to son the Mir- 
langa property descended in the male line until 
the death of Rees Davies in 181 6. He by his wife 
Jane, dau. and subsequently heiress of Samuel 
Rees, Esq., left two daughters co-heirs. The 
elder, Margaret, m., 1st, D. W. Me3rrick, Esq , 
of The Gaer ; and 2nd, E. L. Richards, Esq., 
for many years Chairman of Quarter Sessions tor 
Flintshire. By her death s. p. in 1S45 ^'^^ moiety 
of the estate passed to her sister Mary, owner 
and co-heiress of the other moiety. She in 1S36 
m, William Davies, Esq. (see above), younger son 
of William Davies, Esq., of Pentremawr, and by 
him, who d, in 1848, and whom she survived but 
a fortnight, left issue surviving — 

1. William Rees D. Davies, d, unm, 1859. 

2. Rees Edward (as above). 

3. Arthur Rowland, of Christ Church, Oxford, 
d, unm. 1868. 

4. Augustus Richard, Lieut 22nd Foot. 

MYIS, SaTid, Esq., Maes-y-Tfynon, Glamor- 
ganshire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; .son of the 
late David Davis, Esq., of* Blaen-gwawr, 
Aberdare; (a younger brother is Lewis 
Davis, Esq., of Preswylfa, Cardiff, and 
Brynderwen, Pontypridd ;) b. Sept 13, 
182 1 ; jw., Nov. 3, 1846, to Caroline Jones, 
dau. of John Jones, Esq., Dowlais; has 
issue I son and 3 daus. 

Residence: Maes-y-ffynon, Aberdare. 

DULWrir, Lewis Uewelyn, Esq., of Hendre- 
f oilan, Glamorganshire, 

M.P.for the Borough of Swanseasince 1 855 ; 
F.G.S. ; J. P. and D. L. for co. of Glamor- 
gan ; Major Commandant 3rd Glamorgan 
Volunteer Rifles ; Director of the Great 
Western Railway Co. ; Chairman of the 
Directors of the Glamorganshire Banking 
Co. ; son of the late Lewis Weston Dill- 
wyn, Esq., J. P. and D. L. for the co. of 
Glam., Sheriff for the same x8i8, and 
M.P. 1835.7, by Mary, dau. of the late John 
Llewelyn, Esq., of Penlle'rgaer ; b. May 
19, 1814, at Swansea ; ed, at Bath ; m., 
1838, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of 
Sir H. de la Beche, C.B., the eminent 
geologist; has issue one son and three 
. daughters. 

/far; His son, Henry de la Beche Dillwyn, 
b. 1843. 



Residtnee : Hendrefoilan, near Swansea. 
Toum Address : 10. Princes Terrace, S. W. 
Arms: Gu., on a chevron arg., three trefoils 
slipped of the first. 

Crest: A stag's head couped proper. 
Motto : Craignes home. 

LINEAGE. 

This £unily derives its descent from Sir John 
Dilwyn, of l)ilwyn, co. Hereford. The family 
afterwards 'settled at Langorse, Breoonshire, and 
in 1699 William Dilwyn, the great-^^reat-grand- 
£!ither of the present representative, emigrated from 
Breconshire to Philadelphia ; his grandson, 
William Dillwyn, returned to Engluid, and 
settled at Higham Lodge, near Walthamstow. 

DTJNMYEN, Windham Thomas, 4th Earl of, 
Dunrayen Castle, ftlamorganshire. 

Baron Adare {cr. 1800) ; Viscoimt Mount- 
Earl {cr. 1816) ; Viscount Adare and Earl 
of Dunraven {cr, 1822), — ^all in the peera|;e 
Ireland ; Baron Kenry, of Kenry, in the 
Peerage of Great Britain (^. 1866} ; a 
Baronet {cr. 1781). 

Was a Lieut, in the ist Life Guards, and 
Aide-de-camp to Lord Kimberley, Lord 
Lieut of Ireland 1866; Lieut in 4th 
Oxford R. v.; son of the late Edwin 
Richard Windham Wyndham Quin, 3rd 
Earl of Dunraven {d, 1872), M.P. for 
the CO. of Glamorgan 1837—51, by his 
wife, Augusta, dau. of Thomas Goold, 
Esq., a Master in the Irish Chancery 
(she cL 1866); b, 1841 ; ed. at. Chr. Ch., 
Oxon. ; M., 1869, Florence, dau. of Lord 
Charles Lennox Kerr, son of 6th Marquess 
of Lothian, by Emma Charlotte, sister- of 
Sir John Hanmer, Bart., of Bettisfield, 
M.P. ; J. to the title, Dunraven estates, 
&c., on the demise of his father, 1872. 

Residences : Dunraven Castle, near Bridgend ; 
Adare Manor, near limerick. 

Tffwn House : 5, Buckingham Gate. 

Arms : Quarterly, quartered : gr. quarters, 1st 
and 4th, vert, apegasus passant ermine, a chief or 
— Quin; 2nd and 3rd, gu., a hand couped at 
the wrist, holding a. dagger ppr., in chief two 
crescents arg.— CVQuiN of Munster ; 2nd and 
3rd, az., a chevron between 3 lions' heads erased 
or— Wyndham. 

Crests .- I. A wolfs head, couped arg.— Oi«j» ; 
2. A lion's head erased within a fetterlock or — 
Wyndham, 

Supporters: Two ravens ppr., collared and 
lined or. 

LINEAGE. 

This family in the male descent is of Irish 
lineage. Its connection with Glamorgan originated 
in the purchase of Dunraven from Sir George 
Vaughan (see Vaughan of Dunraven)^ 1642, by 
Humphrey Wyndham, Esq. (Sheriff of Glamoigan 
1654), and the marriage of that gentleman with a 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



6^7 



Welsh lacly of an ancient Cymric family, viz., Jane 
Carne. of Ewenny (sec Came of St. Donai^s^ &c.), 
in 1656. His son, John Wyndham (</. 1697), was 
s, by his son Francis, who leA an only dau , — 

Joan Wyndham, heiress of his estate, who m. 
Francis Wyndham, Esq., of Clean**ell ; he m. 
secondly Catherine, dau. and h. of Sir Humphry 
Edwin, Kt, of LUnfihangel, near Cowbridge (see 
Thomas of Uanfihangel), His son from the second 
marriage, Charles Wyndham, assumed his mother's 
maiden name of Edwin (see Pari, Annals for co., 
ann. I78<>— 89^ and was s, by his son, — 

Thomas Wyndham, Esq., of Dunraven, M.P. 
for many years for the co. of Glam. (see Farl. 
Annals, 1 789— 18 12). He left an only dau.. 
and h., — 

Caroline Wyndham, who m., Dec., 1810^ 
Windham Henr}* (Wyndham) Quin, Lord Adare, 
2nd Earl of Dunraven {d. 1850). He assumed 
thereupon the surname Wyndham prefixed to that 
of Quin, and quartered the Wyndham amns. His 
son and succ, — 

Edwin Richard Wyndham, Viscount Adare, b. 
18 1 2, became 3Td Earl Dunraven, and left, with 
other issue, — 

Wyndham Thomas, 4th Earl, as above. 



ru 



i:i[r): 



_ Samuel Shaipe Sormaii-, Esq., of 
LLwyn Derw, &laiiiorgaiislilre. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan; second 
son of the late Roger Staples Horman- 
Fisher, Esq., of Bentworth Hall, Hants, 
and James Street, Buckingham Gate, 
London, by Elizabeth, his wife, dau. and 
h. of John Horroan, Esq., of Finchley; 
b, 1823 ; m, Jane, second dau. of Robert 
Eaton, Esq., of Bryn-y-Mor,co. Glamorgan, 
and by her has issue i dau., — 
. Margaret Jane. 

Residence : Llwyn Derw, near Swaxuea. 

Arms : Quarterly, ist aiid 4th, on a chevron, 
engrailed with plain cotises, between 3 demi- 
lions guardant gu., each supporting between the 
paws a dexter gauntlet ppr., three bezants ; 2nd 
and 3rd, bendy of eight, or- and az., per bend 
sinister, counterchanged, on a chief gu., a lion 
passant or : impaling in right of his wife, quar- 
terly, 1st and 4th arg., in chief 3 escallop shells, 
a fesse az. ; 2nd and 3rd, arg., a lion rampant. 

Crest: 1st, issuant from a crown pallisado, or, 
a demi-lion guardant supporting a gauntlet, as in 
the aims ; 2nd, in front of a cross crosslet, gu.. 
two Roman fasces, with the battle-axe in 
saltire, ppr. 

Mottoes : Sustento justitiam — HormaN ; Vir- 
tutem extendere &ctis~FiSHER. 

LINEAGE. 

This family traces to an ancestor bearing the 
name Piscator, holding lands at the time of the 
Domesday survey in a district since included in the 
county of Bedford. A branch settled at Alderways, 
in Staffordshire ; and from them were descended 
Sir John Fisher, a Justice of the Common Pleas 
temp. Henry VIII., Sir Robert Fisher, Bart, of 
Packington, Warwickshire, and Sir Thomas Fisher, 
Bart, of Sl Giles's, Middlesex, both of which titles 
became extinct. 



The branch from which Mr. Fisher of Lli^-yn 
* Den»' traces in direct line settled in the north of 
England. Joseph Fisher, son of Joseph Fisher of 
Codcermouth, Cumberland, had a son« — 

Robert Fisher, Esq., of Mitcham, Surrey, called 
to the Bar at the Inner Temple, and s. his elder 
brother, Josiah, 1806. By a first wife he had three 
sons, one of whom, Robert, became of Chetwvnd, 
Salop; and by a second wife, Mary, dau. and h.of 
Baron Butz, a noble of Germany, he had three 
other sons, one of whom was — 

Roger SUples Fisher, Esq., of Bentworth Hall, 
Hants, who m., 181 9, Elizabeth, dau. and h. of 
John Horman, Esq., of Finchley, and by her had 
several sons, the second being — 

Samuel Shaepe Horman-Fisher, as above. 

70THE£&IIiL, £ioliard, Esq., of Abemant 
House, Olamorgansliire. 

M.P. for Merthyr Tydfil (1868) ; J. P. and 
D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; is a large 
ironmaster at Aberdare, Penydarran, &c. ; 
eldest son of the late Rowland Fothergill, 
Esq.; b. 1822 ; /v., xst, 1847, Miss Elizabeth 
Lewis; 2ndly, 1850, Mary» dau. of W. 
Roden, Esq. A brother of Mr. Fothergill 
was the late Rowland Fotheigill, Esq., of 
Hensol Castle, J. P. and D. Ln, Sheriff for 
the CO. of Gk^oigan 1850 (see Hensol 
CastU)y who d. 1871 ; and a sister is Miss 
Fotheigill, now residing at the same place. 

Residence: Abemant House, Aberdare. 
T<mm Address: i, Hyde Park Gardens. 

POWLEE, John Coke, Esq., of enoll, ftlamor- 
ganshJio. 

Deputy Chairman of the Glamoiganshire 
Quarter Sessions ; ' Stipendiary Magistrate 
for the Merthyr district ; called to the Bar 
at the Inner Temple ; Author of " Church 
Pews, their Origin and Legal Incidents," 
"Collieries and Colliers," "Essay on 
Milford Haven," &a; son of William 
Tancred Fowler, Esq. ; b. at Derby, 181 5; 
ed. at Rugby and Pembroke College, 
Oxford ; grctd. B A. 1837 ; «., ist, 1844, 
AugustSL, dau. of John Bacon, Esq.; 2ndly, 
1850, Anna, dau. of Evan Thomas, Esq., 
of Sully and Uwyn Madoc; has issue 
three sons and four daus. 

Heir: John Bacon Fowler. 

Residences : West Gnoll, near Neath ; and St. 
David's Cottage, Merthyr Tydfil. 

Arms: Azure, a chevron arg. charged with 
three crosses formtfe, sa., between three lions 
passant guardant or.; quartering three crescents 
and cross fleury. 

Crest : A cubit arm and hand, with a falconer's 
lure. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from the Fowlers 
I *of St. Thomas's, in the county of Stafford, and 



628 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



through the gnmdmother of the * above-named 
J. Coke Fowier from the Cokes of Tnisley, the 
Wardes of Gyndale, in Yorkshire, the Fowlers 
of Hamage Grange, in the parish^of Cound, Salop, 
and the Fowlers of Abbey C\vm-hir, Radnorshire. 

lEAKGIS, George Grant, Esq., of Cae Bailey, 
ftlamorgaiishire. 

F.S.A. of London and Scotland, and 
member of many learned societies at home 
and abroad ; Col. Commanding ist Gla- 
morgan Artillery Volunteers ; J. P. for the 
CO. of Glamorgan 1865, and for the 
borough of Swansea 1855 i Vice-President 
of the Royal Institution of South Wales ; 
- Mayor of Swansea 1853-54; Author of 
The History of Neath and its Abbey y gvo., 
1845; ^i^t, of the Swansea Grammar 
School^ 8vo., 1849; ^^f' of Copper-Smelt- 
ing in Giamarganshirey 8vo., 1867 ; Char- 
ters granted to Swansea, with illustrations 
and notes, folio, 1867 ; Memoir of Sir Hugh 
/ohnySyKt.y 8vo., 1645 1 Lordship of Gower, 
1870 ; and monographs on Welsh History 
and Topography; eld. son of Mr. John 
Francis; b. at Swansea, January, Z814; 
ed. at the High School, Swansea ; m., 
1840, Sarah, eldest dau. of John Richard- 
son, Esq., J. P., Mayor of Swansea, 1844 
(see Richardson of Fantygwydir) ; has 
issue three sons, John Richardson, George 
Grant, and Attwell. 

Heir: Tohn Richardson, m, to Lucy Margaret, 
younger dau. of John Edvards, Esq., of Bramp- 
ton Bryan, Hereford (formerly High Sheriff of 
CO. of Radnor), and has issue Walter and 
Reginald. 

Jiesidenee : Cae Bailey, Swansea. 

rtntm Address: Pall Mall Club, Waterloo 
Place. 

Arms: As given by Papworth's ordinary of 
arms : Gu., on a bend or, 3 lions' heads erased 
ppr., between two bezants, for Francis (quarter- 
ing therewith Attwdl, Grant, and Stuart), 

Crests: A lion statant ppr. for Francis; a 
burning mountain for Grant, 

Mottoes: Spes mea in Deo; Stand sure. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from the Francises 
of Castle Cary, co. of Somerset, and the Grants, of 
that ilk on the banks of Spey, Invemess-shire. 

iVi«^.--Thc 1st Glam. ArtilL Volunteers— raised 
through CoL Francis's exertions in 1859— presented 
him with a sword of honour, '* as a mark of its esteem 
and regard." He has brought together at the Royal 
Institution of South Wales, of which he is founder, 
large collections of local fossils, antiquities, coins, and 
seals (once forming his own private collection at Cae 
Bailey, and which he presented to thetovm), and one 
of the best collections of Works on Wales extant, 
of which he compiled and printed a catalogue. The 
Town Council entrusted him with the restoration and 



methodizing of their muniments, a work performed so 
satisfactorily as to call forth a warm eulogium from 
Lord Chief Justice Campbell in the Court of Queen's 
Bench. He was active in restoring to public use the 
ancient Grammar School of Bishop Gore (of which he 
was many years chairman, and is still one of the 
trustees) ; in promoting railway and dock accommoda- 
tion for his native town ; and in erectiiig the fort at 
the Mumbles for the protection of the shipping. The 
preservation and restoration of Oystermouth Castle, 
one of the many ancient ruins pertaining to the noble 
House of Beaufort, Lords of Gower and Kilvey, are 
owing to his exertions, for which he was presented 
with a piece of plate. In the year 1851 he was 
selected to represent the Swansea District as Local 
Commissioner at the Great Exhibition, and he filled 
a like office in connection with the National Crimean 
Fund. 

For many years Colonel Grant-Francis has been 
Hon. Sec. for South Wales to the Society of Anti- 
quaries of London. He took part in the formation of 
the Cambrian Archaeological Society, and has fre- 
quently contributed to its journal, the Arcfutolcpa 
Catnbremis. Mr. L. W. Dillwyn's "Contributions 
towards a History of Swansea," 1840^ show that he 
was a coadjutor in that interesting piece of topo- 
graphy. The British Association appointed him 
Semtary to its department of Ethnology, when it 
held iu meeting at Swansea in 1 851. The benefit of 
his local and antiquarian knowledge has been most 
readily extended to the present work. 

MANZLEN, Eicliard, Esq., of dementsbm, 
61amorgaiL3liire. 

Is J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamor- 
gan; was Sheriff for same co. 1846. 

(^Further particulars not received,) 

eBENIEIiL, Fasooe St leger, Esq., of Xaesteg 
House, Qlamorgansnire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
son of the late Fascoe Grenfell, £sq. 
{d, 1837), of Taplow House, Bucks, M.P. 
for Great Marlow, by the Hon. Geoigiana 
St. Leger, dau. of St Leger Aldworth, first 
Viscount Doneraile in the peerage of Ire- 
'land (she d, 1818) ; m, Catherine, dau. of 
James Du Pr^, Esq., and has issue several 
sons and daus. 

Heir: Pascoe Du Pr£ Grenfell. 
Residence: Maesteg House, near Swansea. 
Arms: Gu., three organ-rests [or clarions] or. 
Crest : A dragon on a chapeau. 

LINEAGE. 

The Grenfells were originally of Cornwall, their 
seat being at. Penzance in that co. Descent has 
been claimed on their behalf from the Norman 
stock of De Granville or Granvvl, whose represent- 
ative, Richaid de Granville, obtained under Fitz- 
hamon the lordship of Neath, where he founded 
the abbey of Neath, co. of Glamorgan. Some of 
his descendants settled in Devon and Cornwall 
(see De Granville, and the Peii, <if Lady Uanover), 



THE COUNTV' FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



629 



eRnilTH, The Key. John, of Merthyr Tydfil, 
Qlamorganshire. 

Rector of Merthyr Tydfil; Rural Dean 
and Surrogate ; formerly Vicar of Aber- 
dare; J. P. for the co. of Glamorgan; 
patron, as Rector of Merthyr, of Peny- 
darran District Church ; author of various 
pamphlets and sermons on the Churchy and 
Ediicatianin Wales; son of the late Thomas 
Griffith, Esq. ; b, at Aberystwyth ; ed. at 
the Grammar School, Swansea, and Queen's 
CblL, Cambridge; grad, B.A. 1841, M.A. 
1844; m,^ I St, 1847, Sarah Frances King, 
daughter of William King, Esq., West India 
merchant, London ; 2ndly, 1863, Louisa 
Stuart, daughter of Alexander Stuart, Esq., 
Isle of Bute; s. to Braichycelyn estate, 
near Aberdovey, in 1850; has issue 2 sons, 
3 daughters. 

Heir : John Griffith. 

Residences: Rectory, Merthyr Tydfil; and 
Braichycelyn, near Aberdovey. 

&EIFFITH8, The Bey. Jolm, of Neath, Glamor- 
ganshire. 

Was Pres. of the Council of the National 
Eisteddfod from the year i860; elected 
F.G.H.S. in 1868; Head Master of 
Cardigan Grammar School 1839; P.C. 
Nantyglo 1844 ; Rector of Llansannor 
1846 ; Vicar of St. Mary Hill, Glam., 1847 ; 
Rector of Neath and Llantwit 1855; 
Surrogate of Llandaff 1855 ; Author of 
Sermons and Addresses on various occa- 
sions; eldest son of Thomas Griffiths, Esq., 
Dolygwartheg, Cardiganshire ; b, at Park- 
-noyadd, Aberayron, May ii, 1820; ed, at 
Tyglyn and Cardigan Grammar School ; 
grad. at I^mpeter College 1837, "Harford 
Scholar," ist class; m., Dec. 18, 1844, 
Mary, dau. of Caleb Lewis, Esq., of 
Cardigan ; x. 1869. 

Heir : His brother Arthur, Rector of Llanelly, 
BrecpDshire. 

Residences : The Rectory, Neath ; Dolygwar- 
thqg, near Aberayron. . 

Taztm Address: Thomas's Hotel, Charles Street, 
Ha3rmarket. 

Arms : Gu., a lion rampant or, in a true lover's 
knot arg., between four fleurs-de lis, their -stalks 
bending to the centre of the escutcheon (quarter- 
ing the Llangohnan arms). 

Cres/ : A horse's head couped ppr. 

Afpf/a : "A gadw'o Duw, cadwedig yw." 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from Rhys 
Griffith ab Einion. Its long and ancient home was 
Pen} l:cngIog, in the county of Pembroke. That I 



estate was sold at the death of Robert Griffith, who 
was M. to Elizabeth, eldest dau. of George Lloyd, 
Esq., of Cwmgloyn, his cousin -german, A.D. 173S. 
He died without issue, leaving his esute between 
his three sisters, co-heiresses. One of these, Janets 
married her cousin, Arthur Griffiths, Esq., of 
IJangolman and Clynderwen. Eldest son, Thoma, 
Griffith ; next in descent, John Griffith, eldest son, 
who m, Mary, dau. of Jacob Picton, Esq., of 
Pencnwc. The next in descent was Thomas 
Griffiths (eldest son), father of the present represen- 
tative of the family, John Griffiths, Doly- 
gwartheg, CO. of Canligan, and Rector of Neath, 
as above. 

Among distinguished members of this family in 
past timemay be named ''//^ntv/ Gtrwr^ " sosumamed 
for defeating the French king's champion, when he 
got for his arms— ^n«/^'J, a lion rampant ^r, in ft 
"true loVer's knot," argent^ between four "fleurs- 
de-lis," their stalks tending to the centre of the 
escutcheon ; Rees ap Rhydderch^ who accompanied - 
James de Audeley, then Lord of Cemaes, as his 
Esc^uirr, to France, in the time of Edward the 
Third. He was grandson of Howel Gawr. For 
his gallant services he got an augmentation to his 
arms, viz., iiis own, counter-flowered of France. 

&¥TN, Howd, Esq., of Dyttryn, Glamorgan- 
shire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan; 
J. P. for the CO. of Brecon ; High Sheriff 
for the CO. of Glam. 1837-8 ; was M.P. for 
Brecon 1866 — 69, and previously M.P. for 
Penrhyn and Falmouth 1847 — 57 ; eldest 
son of the late William Gwyn, Esq., of 
Abercrave, co. Glam. (who d, 1830, by 
his wife, Mary Anne R^oberts, of Barn- 
staple, Devon ; ed, at the Univ. of Oxford ; 
«f., 1831, Ellen, only dau. of John Moore, 
Esq., of Plymouth. 

Residence : Dyffryn, near Neath. 
. Arms : Sa., a fesse, or, in chief a sword, point 
upwards, in base, a sword, point downwards, 
both in pale, arg. pommelled and hilted or. 
[These are also the arms of the co. of Brecon ] 

Crest: A dagger, arg., erect, in hand prop., 
passed through a boar's head couped, or. . 

Afo/ic : Vim vi repellere licet 

LINEAGE. 

This family is derived from a common ancestor 
with that of Gwynne, formerly of Glanbr&n, Carm., 
and Gwynne- Holford of Buckland^ Brec, which 
comp. It is traced in the p::<iigrees to Biychan 
Brycheiniog, through Trahaearn ap Einion,^ Lord 
of Cwmmwd, near Talgarth, who lived in the 
1 2th cent. From him was descended in direct line 
through Rhys ap Philip ap David of Llwynho- 
wel, — 

Rhydderch ap Rhys, who lived early in the 15th 
cent, and m, Gwenllian, or, zsDwnn says, Owen, 
dau. and h. of Howel ap GryfTydd of Trecastle, 
They had three sons, Thomas Gwyn ap Rhydderch, 
David Coch Gwyn» of Glanbrdn, and Howel Gwyn, 
of Ystrad-Wallter. The second became founder 
of the Glanbrlin branch ; the fir^t that of the branch 
how represented by Hovrcl Gw\-n, Esq., of 

2 T 



630 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Dyffryn, of whom we here treat The name j 
Gwyft also is said first to have appeared in the 
family with these sons, who being of light com- 
plexion were called Gwyn, which means ** white,' 
or "light in colour," to indicate the peculiarity, 
and in the case of David, who was red-haired, the 
epithet eccA^ "red/* was added— David Coch- 
Gwyn. 

Thomas Gwyn, of Trecastell, m, Elen, dau. of 
Roger Vychan, of Talgarth, — (we now follow a 
MS. in possession of Howel Gwyn, Esq., at 
DyfTryn, with a few additions from a copy of a 
MS. in St. Mark's Coll., Chelsea), and had issue 
Howel Gwyn of Trecastell, whase wife was 
a dau. of Gwiliam Llewelyn. Their son was — 

Thomas ap Howel, of Trecastell, who m, 
Maigaret, dau. and h. of Edward Games, Esq., 
of Newton, Brec. (or, a lion passant gu. ). 

Howel Gwyn, Esq., their son, m. Mary, dau. 
and co-h. of James Boyle, Esq.. of the Hay, who 
was a descendant of Sir John Boyle, Kt, of the 
order of St Michael, of Glyntawe, and m. a dau. 
of Sir Peers Trevanion, of Cornwall, Kt. (He 
bore — arg., on a fesse az., inter 2 chevronels gu., 3 
escallops). Their son, — 

Edv^ud Gwyn, Esq., of Glyntawe, m, a dau. and 
h; of John Llewelyn. (He bore— Quarterly, I st 
and 4tn sa., a fesse or, between 2 daggers, "their 
points in chief and base," or, the hilts and 
pommels of the second ; 2nd and 3rd, or, " three 
vcspertillios or bats " displayed, az., armed, eyed, 
and crused gu. We have here, in i and 4, the 
elements of the modem Gwyn arms.) They left 
a son. — 

John Gwyn, Esq., of Glyntawe ("now living" 
— St. Mark s Coll. MS.), who m. Anne, dau. and 
b. of Capt. Thomas Price (or Prees), of Defynog. 
St Mark's MS. adds, " Ar^., bulls' head cabossed, 
sable, armed or;" meaning, probably, Prees's 
arms. John Gwyn was succeeds by his son, — 

James Gwyn, A.M.; who m, Elizabeth, dau. of 
William Brewster, Esq., of Burton Court, Here- 
ford, and had a son named William, Attorney at 
Law, of Neath, whose wife was Eliza, only dau. 
of Hugh Edward, of Blaensawdde, whose son, John 
Gwyn, was also Attorney at Law at Neath, and m. 
Priscilla, dau. of Matthew Roach, Esq., of Barn- 
staple, Devon, Merchant, leaving two sons, 
Matthew and William, and a dau., Elizabeth. 
The second son, — 

William Gwjn, of Abercrave, »»., 1799, Mary 
Anne, dau. of Edward Roberts, Esq., of Barn- 
staple, and had, with other issue, Howel Gwyn, 
as above. 

Note. — The Llanelwedd branch of the Gwyns 
terminated in Sir Rowland Gwynne, Kt , of that 
place. One dau. married into the Penpont family 
(see Williams Fenponl), another into that of Castell- 
Madog. (See Price, Casile-Madoc.) 



HILL> Edward Stock, Esq., of Bookwood, Uan- 
daff, Qlamorgansniie. 

Lieut-Colonel ist Ad. Brigade, Glam. Art. 
Volunteers ; J. P. for co. Glamorgan, and 
bor. of Cardiff; son of Charles Hill, Esq., 
late of Druid's Stoke, co. of Gloucester; 
b. at Bristol, 14th January, 1834; ed, at 
Bishop's College, Clifton ; m., 26th April, 
1866, Fanny Ellen, daughter of the late 



Lieut.-General Tickell, C.B., Royal En- 
gineers ; has issue 2 daughters and 2 sons. 

Residence: Rookwood, Llandaflf. 

Town Address : Junior Carlton Club. 

Arms : Arg., two chevronels gu. between two 
. water-bougets sa. in chief and a muUet of th j 
second in base, a crescent for difference 

Cresl: Adoveppr., collared sa., one foot rest- 
ing on a mullet arg., and holding in the mouth 
an olive branch verL 

Mo^lff : Perseverantta omnia vincit 

Nole. — The mansion of Rookwood was erected in 
1866. 

HOXFJELAT, John, Esq., of Fenllme Castle, 
Qlamorganahira 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
Sheriff for same co. 1843 (see Sheriffs); 
son of the late Sir Jer. Homfray, Kti (//. 
1833), of Llandaff (Sheriff of co. Glam. 
1809), by Mary {d, 1830). dau. and h. of 
John Richards, Esq , of Cardiff, and has, 
with other issue, — 

John Richards Homfray, Esq.,of PwUy- 
wrach, co. of Glam. ; J. P. and D. L. for 
the same co. ; m., 1824, Mary Elizabeth, 
eldest surviving dau. of Sir Glynne Earle 
Welby, Bart., of Denton Hall, Lincoln- 
shire, and has issue. 

Mr. Homfray j. to the estates on the 
demise of his father, 1833. 

Heir : John Richards. 

Resiience: Penlline Castle, near Cowbridge. 

LINEAGE. 

The Homfray family is of considerable antiqaity, 
having been long seated in Yorkshire before branch- 
ing on into Wales and the east of Elngland. Their 
origin is said to be Norman. Their adyent into 
Glamoiganshire was through the marriage of 
Francis Homfray, Esq., of Wollaston Hall, Wor- 
cestershire, with Miss Hannah Popkin, of Coytre- 
h6n, near Bridgend, and that of his son JeremiaJi 
(afterwards "Sir Jeremiah" above named) with 
Mary Richards of Llandaff*. For a notice of 
Penlline Castle see p. 528 ante. 



JEFEEET8, John Swyn, Esq., of Selligroii, 
Qlamorganshiro. 

J. P. for the cos. of Glamorgan and Brecon ; 
F.K.S. ; F.G.S. ; F.L.S. ; was ed. for the 
law and called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn ; 
Recorder of Swansea; son of the late John 
Jeffreys, Esq., of Swansea.; b, 1809; w., 
1840, Anne, dau. of the late Richard 
Janion Nevill, Esq., of Llanelly, co. of 
Carm., and sister of Charles W. Nevill, 
Esq., of Westfa, co. of Carm., and has 
issue. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



631 



Heir: Howel Gwyn. 

Residaua: Gellicpron, near Swansea; 25, 
Devonshire Place, W. 

LINEAGE. 

This branch of the family of Jeffreys of Brecon- 
shire has been established in Swansea and neigh- 
bourhood for several generations, and has taken 
a prominent part in load affairs. The name often 
occurs among the Portreeves of Swansea. They 
originated w^th John Jeffreys of Abercynrig, Brcc, 
Sheriff of his co. 1 631, and were afterwards seated 
at the Priory, Brecon, of which place was Jeffrey 
Jeffreys, Esq., Sheriff o his co. in 1 74 1. (See 
Sheriffs of Breconshire, ) 

JENEIN, Jolin Trevillian, Esq., of Swansea, 
Qlamorgansliire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; was Mayor 
of the borough of Swansea 1854, 1858, 
1861 ; son of David Jenkin, of Swansea, 
gentleman; b, at Swansea on the 12th 
October, 1809 ; ed, at Swansea; m., on the. 
23rd October, 1838, to Annetta, daughter 
of David Sanders, Esq., and Alderman of 
Swansea. 

Residence: The Mirador, Swansea. 
Crest : A lion rampant. 
Moito : Sic modo. 

LINEAGE. 

This family descends on the mother's side from 
the Holditches of Devonshire. 



JENHNS, Qeorge Henry, Esq., of Walterston 
Souse, mamorganjshire. 

M.D., M R.C.S., and L A.C., formerly in 
practice ; J.' P. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
5th son of the late Richard Jenkins, Esq., 
Newport, Monmouthshire ; k at Newport, 
December nth, 1817; grad. M.D., Univ. 
Aberdeen, 1854; m,, 1847, Mary Ann, 
eldest dau. of the late John Thomas, Esq., 
Surgeon R.N., and co-heiress of the late 
John Jenkins Thomas, Esq., Caercady 
House, Lieut. 5 th Dragoon Guards, and 
has issue ; succ. his uncle, William Jenkins, 
Esq., of Walterston, 1851 : has issue a 
son and heir, William Richard. 

Heir: William Richard Jenkins. 

Residence: Walterston House, Glamorgan (built 
by Walter de Mapes, Chaplain to Henry I. in 
the twelfth century). 

Arms : Arg., three gamecocks gu. 

Crest : A gamecock, as in arms. 

JIfctto : Fe d4i am danx 

XINEAGE. 

This family is descended from Richard Jenkins, 
Esq., of Pantynawe], ca Glamorgan, who m» Ann, 
dau. of John Came, ,£sq., and granddau. of Sir 



John Came, Knt. The Jenkinses of Pantynawel, 
members of which family in the sixteenth century 
and subsequently held the otifice of High Sheriff of 
Glamorgan, were descended from Trim ap Maen- 
arch, who m. Ellen, dau. to lestim ap Gwrgant, 
the last Prince of Glamorgan, and were ot the 
same stock with the Vaughans of Bredwardine, 
Hergest, Tretower, and Clyro. 



JEHKINS, Eey. John David, B.D., Aherdare, . 
GlanLorganshire. 

Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford ; Canon 
of Pieter Maritzburg ; Vicar of Aberdare ; 
formerly C. of St. Paul's, Oxford ; author 
of " The Age of the Martyrs f " son of 
William David Jenkins, Esq., of Castellau 
Fach, Llantrisant, co. of Glamorgan ; b. at 
Merthyr Tydfil ; fd at Sir Edward Strad- 
ling's Grammar School, Cowbridge, and 
Jesus Coll., Oxon. ; grad, BA. 1850, 
M.A. 1852, BD., 1859; s, to Casteliau 
Fach 1837, 

Residence: The Vicarage, Aberdare. 
Arms : Gules, three chevrons argent. 

LINEAGE. 

This family traces its descent from lestyn ap 
Gwrgant, and bears his arms. 

JONES, Robert Oliyer, Esq., of Fonmoii Gafifle, 
Glamorganshire. 

Stipendiary Magistrate for the borough of 
Cardiff; J. P. and D. L. for co. Glamorgan ; 
Sheriff for same co. 183 d, in succession of 
Howel Gwyn, Esq. ; elder son of the late 
Major-Gen. Oliver Thomas Jones, who 
commanded in the Peninsular war ; ^. 181 1 ; 
m,, first, 1843, Alicia (//. 1851), dau. of 
Evan Thomas, Esq. (see JTiomas o/Llwyn- 
madoc)\ secondly, 1853, Sarah Elizabeth, 
dau. of John Bruce Pryce, Esq., of Dyffryn ; 
has by first wife issue surviving 'one son 
and one dau., Edith Alicia. Mr. Jones has 
also a brother, Captain Oliver John Joi^es, 
R.N., b. 1813. 

Heir: Oliver Henry. 

Residence: Fonmon Castle, near CardiiT. 

Arms: Quarterly: 1st, sa., a chevron arg. 
between three spear-heads ppr., the points em- 
brued — Bleddyn ap MacnarcA; 2nd, a wvvem's 
head erased vert., in the mouth a dexter hand gu. — 
ICing Pelinor ; 3rd, gu. a chevron exmva^— Philip 
GivySf Lord of Wiston ; 4th. arg., a stag couchant 
gu. attired and unguled or. in its mouth a branch 
vert — Matilda of Gowfr (an heiress). 

Crest: A dexter cubit arm in armour grasping 
a spear, all ppr. 

These were the arms of Col. Philip Jones (see 
lineage), granted him by George Oiven, Yoi'k 
Herald. 



632 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



LINEAGE. 

The founder of this family was CoL. Philip 
Jones, a distinguished officer in Oliver Cromweirs 
army, and zealous promoter of the republican cause 
against the Stuarts. By the large wealth he accu- 
mulated through the liberality of the Protector, he. 
purchased the Fonmon estate, and laid a solid basis 
for a permanent and influential family. The details 
of his life have been brought to light more fully by 
a recent memoir drawn up from authentic sources 
by Col. Grant- Francis. F.S.A., in his Charters of 
Swansea^ from which it appears that Col. Philip 
Jones was not merely a political partisan and suc- 
cessful soldier, but a man of the highest character 
for probity and piety. 

Col. Philip Jones was b, at Swansea, 1618, the 
son of David Johnes, who was son of Philip John's, 
grandson oiyohn ap Rhys, of the line of^Bleddyn 
ap Maenarch, Lord of Brecknock. Pie m. Jane, 
dau. of William Price, £sq.,of Gellihir, in Gower; 
joined the Parliament forces ; was made Governor 
of Swansea, 1645, the year in which Bussey Mansel 
of Briton Ferry was made Commander-in-Chief of 
the forces of Glamorgan under General Fairfax ; 
obtuned from Cromwell in 1849 Forest Issa on the 
Tawe at a rental of £y> ; was the second on the 
list of " Commissioners for the Better Propagation 
of the Gospel in Wales ;" was sent several times to 
Parliament ; in 1653, though not one of* the "six" 
summoned from Wales, was in the " Little Parlia- 
ment;" in 1854 represented Monmouthshire; in 
1665 had a double return for Breconshire and Gla- 
moiiganshire, but chose the latter. He was then 
raised to Cromwell's House of Peers, and made 
Comptroller of the Household. At the Restoration 
he settled down quietly, was allowed to remain on 
his estate of Fonmon, and was confirmed as Custos 
Rot, of his CO. Attempts were made to prove him 
guilty of peculation, but these signally failed. He 
served as tiieh Sheriff under Charles II. (1671, see 
Sheriffs). He d, 1674 at Fonmon, and was bu ied 
at the adjoining church of Penmark. By his wife, 
Jane Price, he left a son and heir (called after 
the Protector) 

Oliver Jones, Esq., of Fonmon Castle, Sheriff 
for Glam. 1681, whose son, — 

Robert Jones, Esq. , of Fonmon Castle, was M. P. 

^ for CO. of Glamorgan 1 713— 1 71 5, when he d. By 

his wife Mary, dau. of Humphrey Edwin, Esq , of 

Llanfihangel (see Thomas of IJanJUiangel)y he left 

a son, — 

Robert Jones, Esq., of Fonmon Castle; Sheriff 
of Glam. 1 729 ; m. Mary Forrest, of Minehead 
Somerset, and with other issue lef^ by her a son, — 

Robert Tones, Esq., of Fonmon Castle. By his 
second wife, Joanna, dau. of Edmund Uoyd, Esq , 
of Cardiff, he had, with other issue — 

1. Robert Jones, Esq., of Fonmon Castle, h. 
J773» f^' ^834. unm.y and was succeeded by his 
nephew (as below). 

2. Oliver lliomas Jones, b. 1776, entered the 
army, and became Lieut. -Gen. under Sir John 
Moore in the Peninsular war (</. 18 15). By his 
second wife, Maria Antonia Swinburne, he left, 
with one dau., Rosa Antonia, two sons. — 

Robert Oliver, now of Fonmon Castle (as 
above), and — 

Oliver John^ Capt. R.N. 

ENI&HT, Bey., Charles Eumse;, of Tjrtliegstoii 
Court, Chlamorganflbire. 

Clerk ; Vicar of Merthyr Mawr, Glam. , 1 8 7 1 ; 



formerly Vicar of St Bride's Major, 1843 
to 1 863 ; Incumbent of Donative of Ewcnny 
1863 to 1871 ; Rural Dean; Proaor in 
Convocation for the clergy of the diocese 
of Llandaff ; J. P. for the co. of Gla- 
morgan; eldest son of the late Rev. 
Robert Knight, of Tythegston Court, 
Rector of Newton Nottage (see Knight of 
Newton Court); b. at Lechlade, Glou- 
cestershire, 1817 ; «/. at Wadham Coll., 
Oxford; grad. B.A. 1839, MA. 1841 ; 
m., zst, 1843, Mary, dau. of Thomas 
Bassett, Esq., of Bonvilston House, Gla- 
morganshire (she tL in 1848) ; 2ndly, 1854, 
Mary Ann Elizabeth, dau. of the late Rev. 
Thomas Stacey, MA., Precentor of Llan- 
daff Cathedral ; and has issue 3 sons and 
3 daughters; succ. 1854. 

Heir : Robert Longher, b. 1858. 

Residence : Tythegston Court, near Bridgend. 

Town Address : Oxford and Cambridge Club, 
Pall Mall. 

Amis : Aig., 3 pallets gn., within a bordure en- 
grailed sa. ; on a canton of the second a spur with 
rowel downwards, or. 

Crest : On a ducal coronet an eagle displayed 
proper. 

Motto: Gloria calcar habet. 

LINEAGE. 

This family traces its lineage from Francis Knight 
(of the sept of lestyn ap Gwrgant, last Prince of 
Glamorgan), Alderman and afterwards Mayor of 
the city of Bristol, to whom a grant was made 
from Queen Elizabeth in 1562 of an estate at 
Congresbury, in the county of Somerset; his 
descendant, George Knight was also Mayor* of 
Bristol in 1639. Another descendant,' Sir John 
Knight, Kt., also mayor in 1663 and 1670^ was 
Member of Parliament for the city of Bristol, and 
gave great offence to the court party after the Revo- 
lution by his speech against naturalizing foreigners, 
or ** Froglanders,'* as hecaUed them (see Magaulay^s 
History of England), He was knighted on the 
occasion of a royal visit to Bristol ; and laid the 
foundation of the Hotwells. His son, Robert 
Knight, Esq., m., 1708, Cecil 7urberviU oi SxUXxm, 
granddaughter and heiress of Richard Lougher, 
£sq. (see Lougher of Tythegston). His son, — 

Robert Knight, Esq., of Tythegston, succ. in 
1732 ; High Sheriff of Glamoigan in 1737 ; m, 
Lydia, daughter of John Rogers, D.D., Dean of 
Wells ; — her mother was the eldest sister of Henry 
Hare, last Lord Coleraine of that family, whose 
will, on his dying without legitimate issue in 1749, 
became the subject of litigation for fourteen years 
between the representatives of his natural daughter. 
Rose Duplessis, and the co-heiresses at law, Mrs. 
Knight, and Ann« wife of William Bassett of 
Miskin. At length, by a compromise, the real 
estates passed to the former, and the personalties 
to the latter. 

Henry Knight, Esq., sole heir of Robert m. 
Catherine, daughter ot John Lynch, D.D., Dean 
of Canterbury, and granddaughter of Archbishop 
Wake, by whom he had two sons, — 

Henry Knight, Esq., who was High Sheriff in 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



633 



1794, Colonel of the Glamorgan Militia, and Vice- 
Lieutenant of the county in x8o8 ; and Robert^ 
Rector of Tewkesbury. Henry died without issue 
in 1825, and was succeeded at Tythegiton Court 
by his eldest nephew, — 

Rev. Robert Kn^ht, M.A., Rector of Newton 
Nottage. He m, fmma, dau. of Thomas Eagle, 
Esq., of Pilston, Mon., and had, with other 
issue, — 

Rev. Charles Rumsey Knight, the present 
representative of the iiimily, as above. 

NoU, — TythegstOH Courts which was altered from an 
old Gothic mansion to its present form in 1769, had 
been the seat of a long line of Loufrh^rs and Turber- 
vilU in continuous succession. The estate having 
descended nearly 300 years in the same blood, no 
title appears to have been ever made of it. It pro- 
bably vested originally in the Turbervills by conquest. 
No record is to be round among the family ixipers 
more ancient than a copy of the will of Richard Tur- 
berville, bearing date 27th April, 1 501. He was 
succeeded by his son John, upon whose death in 1533 
a long strife — mentioned by Leland — arose in refer- 
ence to his numerous estates between his daughter 
Gwenllian, m, to Watkin Lougher, and Christopher, 
son of his brother J enkin, which ended in 1546 in an ar- 
bitration by which certain other manors were awarded 
to Christopher Turbervill, and to Gwenllian and her 
son Richaid (the father Watkin being dead) the 
manor of Tythegston and its appurtenances. Thus 
the Loughers, who had for many generations been 
settled at Sker and Baglan, and the borough of 
Loughor, and were in direct descent from lestyn ap 
Gwrgant, Lord of Glamorgan, became settled at Tytheg- 
ston. — There is a cnfmUck near the mansion, the lower 
part covered by a mound of stones and earth, the 
large upper slab being alone visible. 



EHIQET, E67. Edwaid Doddridge, of Nottage 
Court, QlamorgaiLsMre. 

Rector of Newton Nottage, and Lord of 
the " Pembroke Manor ; ** Rural Dean ; 
formerly P. C. of Tredegar (1838— 1846); 
Rector of Llandough( r 8 1 6 — 1 85 8); is patron 
of Newton Nottage 2 turns but of 3 ; 
son of the late Rev. Robert Knight, M.A., 
formerly Vicar of Tewkesbury, Gloucester- 
shire ; b. at Tewkesbury, Dec, 1806 ; ed, 
at Exeter Coll., Oxford; grad, B.A. 1829; 
^•» 1837, Mary, dau. of Thomas Place, 
Esq., of Ffrood Vale, Neath ; and has 
issue five daughters; succ. his brother. 
Rev. H. H. Knight, B.D., 1857. 

Residence : Nottage Court, Bridgend. 

Arms : Arg., three pallets gu. within a bordure 
engrailed sa. ; on a canton of the second, a spur 
with rowel downwards or. 

Crest : On a ducal coronet an eagle displayed 
ppr. 

LINEAGE. 

This family traces its descent from lestyn ap 
Gwrgant on lather's side, and the celebrated divine 
Dr. Doddridge on the mother's side. For lineage, 
see further Knight of Tythegsttnty and Lotij^her of 
Tythe^ston^ 



Xoie. — S^ottaqe Cnurt^^ venerable mansion in the 
Elizabethan style — has been in the family ever since 
its erection, excepting an interval of forty years. It 
u-as restored by the Rev. H. H. Knight (the present 
I>roprietor s brother) in 1841-6. 



LEE, Yanghan Eanmng, Esq., of Eheola, 61a- 
morgaiiBhire. 

Was a Major in the army ; J. P. for the co. 
of Glamorgan ; son of John Lee, Esq , of 
Dillington Park, Somerset, by Jessie, dau. 
and co-h. with her brother, the late Nash 
V. Edwards Vaughan, Esq., of Rheola 
(//. 187 1 ), of John Edwards, Esq., of Llane- 
lay, Llantrisant, Clam., who, on inheriting 
by the will of William Vaughan, Esq., as- 
sumed the surname Vaughan in addition to 
his own; b, 1836; s. to the Rheola 
property 187 1. 

Residences : Rheola, near Neath ; Llanelay. 
Llantrisant. 

Arms : The arms of Vaughan, — Sa., a chevron 
arg. between three boys* heads couped ppr., a 
snake vert enwrapping the neck (quartering the 
arms of Lee), 

LEWIS, Heniy, Esq., of GxeemiKadow, Ola- 
morgansliire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
High Sheriff of the same 1858 ; eldest son 
of the late Henry Lewis, Esq., of Park, 
Glamorganshire (d, 1838), by his wife 
Mary, dau. of George Emerson, Esq. (she 
d, 1841);^. 1815; s, 1838; m.y first, Ann 
Morgan, dau. of Walter Morgan, Esq., 
Merthyr, and had issue by her, who d, 

1857 — 

1. Mary Price. 

2. Blanche Eliza. 

3. Henry. 

Secondly, Sophia Antoinette Ximenes 
Gwynne, dau. of Colonel Gwynne, Glan- 
brane Park, Carmarthenshire, by whom he 
had issue — 

1. Thomas Wyndham. 

2. Roderick Gwynne. 

3. Catherine Fanny. 

4. Gwendoline. 

5. Wyndham Gwynne. 

Heir: Henry Lewis, ^. 1847. 

Residence : Green Meadow, near Cardiff. 

Arms: Quarterly: 1st, sa., a lion rampant 
arg. — Lkwis ; 2nd, sa , a chevron between three 
spear-heads az. embnied — Price; 3rd, sa., a 
chevron between three fleurs-de-lis or; 4th, or, 
on a canton gu. 2 lions passant guardant — Lewis. 

Crests : A lion sejant arg.— -leans ; a Iamb or, 
bearing a pennon of St George. — Price. 

Mottoes: "Patriae fidus;**^ "Ofner na ofno 
angau.** 



634 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



LINEAGE. 



The ancient family of Lewis, of Van, Llanishen, 
Newhouse, and Green Meadow, trace direct and 
authentic descent from Cwatthfoed^ Lord of Cardi- 
gan and Cibwyr (tench century), who (according to 
the lolo MSSX though acknowledging himself a 
regulus under Edgar the English king, when sum- 
moned to meet that king at Chester and row the 
royal barge, curtly refus^ any answer, and when 
pressed for some word of reply, uttered the memor- 
able savin? which his numerous descendants in 
several of their lines have adopted as their tnotto^ — 
^^ Fear him who fears not death" — the independence 
and courage of which answer struck the king with 
wonder, and led to personal acquaintance and 
friendship. Ivor Bach, Lord of daslell Coch, to 
whom frequent reference has been made in the pre- 
ceding sketch of Glamorgan Annals, was fourth in 
descent. from Gwaethfoed ; and Madoc ap Howel 
Velyn, Lord of SL Pagan's (as successor of his 
mother, Sarah, dau. of Sir Mayo le Soer, the Nor- 
man lord of that district), was sixth from Ivor Bach. 

Edward Lewis, Esq., of Van, Sheriff of Glamor- 
gan 1549. 1556, and 1560 (see Sheriffs), the first of 
the family to adopt the surname Lewis,' m, Anne, 
dau. of Sir William Morgan, Kt., of Pencoed, and 
was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas Leiuis, 
Elsq., sheriff for the years 1570 and 1587, who by 
his first wife, Margaret, dau. of Robert Gamage, 
Esq., of Coity CasUe (his second wife being Cathe- 
rine, dau. of Sir George Mathew, Kt., of Radir — 
see Matfiew of Radir), left a son and heir, — 

Sir Edward Lewis, Kt, of Van, Sheriff of Gla- 
moi^n 1602 and 1613 ; knighted 1603; bought, 
1616, the mansion of 'St. Fagan's of William 
Herbert, Esq., and was Lord of Penmark, Cam- 
Uwyd in Llancarvan, &c.; m, Blanche, dau. of 
Thomas Morgan, Esq., of Machen (see Morgan, 
and Lord Tredegar), and had four sons, Edward, 
William, Nicholas, Thomas, The first Sir Edward 
Lewis, Kt., of Van, m, Anne, dau. of Robert, Earl 
of .Dorset, and widow of Lord Beauchamp, and 
founded the family of Lewis of Burstal, of Ediiigton, 
Wilts, and of Van, Glam. The fourth son, — 

Sir Thomas Lewis, of Penmark, knighted 1628 ; 
Sheriff of Glam. 1629 (</. 1669), m. a dau. of 
Edmund Thomas, Esq., of Wenvoe (see Thomas 
of Wenvoe), and left— oesides his eldest son, Tho- 
mas, who m. but d, s.p., and other issue — a second 
son. — 

Gabriel Lewis, Esq., who became of Uanishen, 
deputy-sheriff under his father. Sir Thomas Lewis, 
1587, and Sheriff of Glamorgan 161 5 ; m. Elizabeth, 
dau. of Wi.liam Came, £q., of Nash, and was 
succeeded by his son, — 

Thottuu Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen, Sheriff of 
Glamorgan 1630. who by his wife Eleanor, dau. of 
Thomas Johns, Elsq., of Abergavenny, had a son, — 

Gabriel Lewis, Esq., his successor at Llanishen, 
Sheriflf of Glam. 1663. He ///. Grace, dau. of 
Humphrey fVyndham, Esq., of Dunraven Castle, 
Glam., and had a son and heir, — 

Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen, Sheriff of 
Glam. 1673 and 1683; m., first, Elizabeth Van, 
by whom he had issue Thomas, Sheriflf of Glam. 
1745, who had a son Wyndham and two daus., who 
all d, s, p, 

[Note, — ^There was a Gabriel Lewis of Llanishen, 
who was Sheriff of Glamorgan 171 5 (see Sheriffs), who 
could not be the same with Gabriel Lewis, Sheriff for 
1663, and yet we find in the pedigrees no other 
account of htm.] 



Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Llanishen, m., secondly 
Elizabeth, dan. of Henry Morgan, Esq., of Pen 
llwyn, Mon., and had a second son, — 

Thomas Lewis, Esq., of Newhouse, Sheriff of 
Glamorgan 1757; m. Elizabeth, dau. of Morgan 
Thomas, Esq.; and besides a second son, kVi/iiam, 
of Green Meadow, or Pentyrch, Sheriff of Glam. 
1790, who d. X. p., left an eldest son and heir, — 

Rev. Wyndham Lewis, M.A., of Newhouse, 
who m. Mary, dau. of Samuel Price, Esq., of Park 
and Coity, co. of Glam., and left issue, besides 
Henry, second son, — 

Thoma.% eldest son, who m., and left one son, 
John, d, s. /., and two daus. 

Wyndham, third son, of Green Meadow, M.P. 
for Cardiff 1820 (see Pari. Annals); m,, 18 15, 
Mary Anne, dau. of John Evans, Esq., of Bramford 
Speke Devon ; d, s. p. 1838 ; she afterwards m. 
Benjamin Disraeli. Esq., M.P. (now '• Right Hon."), 
and has recently been cr. "Viscountess Beacons- 
field." 

Henry Lewis, Esq. (second son), of Park and 
Green Meadow, m. Maiy, dau. of George Emerton, 
Esq., and had issue, — 

Henry Lewis, Esq., now of Green Meadow (as 
above). 

Wyndham W. Lewis, Esq., of The Heath, near 
Cardiff, J. P. and D. L. for co. of Glam. ; iw., 
first, Aimie. dau. of George Overton, Esq. ; 
secondly, Elizabeth, dau. of the late William Wil- 
liams, Esq., of Aberpergwm. 

Mary Jane, m, to Henry A. Vaughan. Esq. 

Anne Price, i». to George Thomas Clark, Esq. 
(see Clarh of Dowlais House), 

Catherine Price, m, to George Collins Jackson, 
Esq., an officer in the army. 



LLANMFP, The Bight Ee7. Alfred OlliYant, 
D.D., Bishop o£ 

Son of the late William OlHvant, Esq., of 
Manchester; b. 1798; ^d at St. Paul's 
School and Trin. Coll., Camb. ; 6th 
Wrangler, B.A., and Senior Chancellor's 
Medallist, 1821; M.A. 1824, B.D. and 
D.D. 1836 ; w., 1828, Alicia, daii. of Lieut- 
Gen. William Spencer, and has issue ; was 
Vice-Prin. of St. David's Coll., Lampeter, 
1827 — 1843; R^fr Prof, of Divinity, Camb., 
1 843 — 1 849; consecrated Bishop of Llandaff 
(reputed the ninety-second in succession — 
. see Bishops of Llandaff) in room of Cople- 
ston deceased, 1849. The see of Llandaff 
has jurisdiction over the cos. of Monmouth 
and Glamorgan, excepting the deanery of 
Cower in the latter, which is under the see 
of St. David's. The Bishop of Llandaff is 
patron of sixty-five livings, of the deanery 
of Llandaflf, the Archdeaconries of Llandaff 
and Monmouth, the Chancellorship and 
Precentorship of the Cathedral, and the 
Prebends. Intome of see, ;^4i2oo. 

Dr. Ollivant is author of various Sermons, 
Lectures^ and Charges^ and some Pampklds 
on eccle.<;iastical and ecclesiasticopolitical 
subjects. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Riudeitce: Bishop's Court, LlandaOf. 

Toutn Address : Athenaeam Club. S.W. 

Ar/ns of the See: Sa, two crosiers in saltire, 
ons or, the other arg. ; oa a chief az. three mures 
with labels of the second. 

A^'At — For a notice of the cathedral of this see, and 
its recent restoration, see Llandaff Cat/tedrai, The 
episcopal see of LlandafT which now contains 215 
benefices had its origin in a place for Christian wor* 
ship built at a very early period on the bank of the 
river Tftf—most likely on the spot where the cathedral 
now stands — and called LlandA, "the church on the 
Tdf;" but the congregation here gathered, and its 
bishop, or minister obtained superintending power 
over the surrounding congregations gathered by de- 

. grees during the Roman civil domination only in the 
fifth century. Dyfrig (Dubricius) us said to have been 

* the first bishop. Meurig, King of Glamorgan, has the 
reputation of having founded the see and endowed it 
with lands between the rivers TAf and Ely. For a 
time CaerUon^ the great Roman city, was considered, 
a; well as LlandafT, as the home of the see, and 
probably through its civic importance obtained the 
pre-eminence and had the character, at least in after 
times, of primacy of the British Church. It lost this 
standing when Dewi (St. David), who had become its 
bishop, removed, or rather returned to St David's. 
(See St, David's^ Bishop of; and LlandJewi-brefi.) 

The Bishops of Llandaff^ since the conquest of 
Glamoiigan by the Normans, are given elsewhere. 

ILBWBLTN, Jolm Dillwya. Bjq., of Penlle'r- 
gaer, &lamorgananire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan : 
High Sheriff for the same 1835 ; eldest son 
of the late Lewis Weston Dillwyn, Esq., 
F.R.S., of PenlleVgaer, sometime M.P. for 
the CO. of Glam. (see ParL Annals of co. 
Giant.) ^ and Sheriff for the same z8i8; 
b. 1810; m.y 1833, Emma Thomasina, dau. 
of Thomas Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Mar- 
gam Abbey, co. of Glam., and has, with 
other issue,— 

John Talbot Dillwyn Llewelyn^ -^^^-j now 
of Ynysygerwn (which see). See also 
Dillwyn of Hendrefoilan. 

Residence : Penlle*rgaer, near SwansesL 
Arms : Gu , on a chevron arg. three trefoils 
slipped of the first 

LINEAGE. 

This family, which had its early seat in Hereford- 
shire, is of the old Cymric stock of that part, as the 
name clearly indicates. They hnd also representa- 
tives seated in Breconshire, whence they emigrated 
to the United States. A further notice is found 
under Dillwyn of Hendrefoilan. See also Price of 
Penllirgaer, under **01d and Extinct Families." 

LLEWELLYN, Grifflfh, Esq., of Baglan HaU, 
aiamorganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the county of Gla- 
morgan; was High Sheriff for the same 
1852 ; is patron of the living of Aberavon- . 



cum-Baglan, Glamorganshire; son of the 
late Griffith Llewellyn, Esq., of the same 
place, by Catherine, dau. and h. of the 
late J. Jones, Esq., of Biglan Hall ; b. 
Aug., 1806 ; ed. at Rugby School; w., Oct , 
1850, Madellna, eldest daughter of Pascoe 
St. Leger Grenfell, Esq., of Maesteg House, 
Swansea, J. P. and D. L. of co. Glamorgan; 
X. to his mother's estate 1840. 

Residence: Baglan Hall, Aberavoa. 

TiTu/n Address: Union Club, Trafalgar Square. 

Arms : 3 crosslets azure. 

Crest: Boar's head. 

Motto : Unus et idem. 

Mote. —The inheritors of this estate have been settled 
at Bai^Ian for about 200 years ; but the date of erection 
of the present mansion is not precisely known. It 
has be^n restored and altered in recent times. 

LLBWELLTir, Villiam, Esq., of Cjurt Colmaii, 
Gflamorganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan/ 
Sheriff for the same co. 1854 (see Sheriffs); 
Capt ist. Glam. R. V.; son of the late 
William Llewellyn, Esq., M.D., nephew of 
late Griffith Llewellyn, Esq., of Baglan 
Hall; b. 1820; tn,^ 1844, Eleanor Emma, 
dau. of the late Rev. Robert Knight, A.M., 
of Tythegston Court, Rector of Newton 
Nottage (see Knight of jytlugston Court\ 
by Emma, dau. of Thomas Eagles, Esq., of 
Pilston, Mon., and has issue. 

' Residence: Court Colman, near Bridgend. 

LLEVBLYU, John Talbot DiUwyn, Esq., Tnys- 
y-gerwB, Qlamorgaiishire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the county of Gla- 
morgan ; son of John Dillwyn Llewelyn, 
Esq., of Penlle'rgaer, J. P. and D. L. for 
Glamorganshire, and Sheriff for the same 
1835 (see Dillwyn Llewelyn of PeniJ^rgaer); 
b- at Penlle'rgaer, May 26, 1836; «/. at 
Eton and Christ Church, Oxford ; ^rad 
M.A. 1859; m,, May 7th, 186 1, to Caroline 
Julia Hicics Beach, eldest daughter of the 
late Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bart., M.P., 
of Williamstrip Park, Gloucestershire ; has 
issue three sons and two daughters. 

• Residence : Ynysygerwn, near Neath. 

Arms: Gu., on a chevron arg. three trefoils 
slipped of the first. 

Crest: A stag's head couped ppr. 

A/otto : Craignez honte. 

LLOTD, Herbert, Esq., of Cilybehyll, GUamor- 
ganahire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; son of the 



636 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



late Francis E. Lloyd, Esq., of Cilybebyll ) 
(who assumed the surname Lloyd on in- 
heriting at the death of his mother), son ot 
Henry Leach, Esq., of Milford and 
Cilybebyll, and his wife, Mary Brand, 
dau. of John Jones, Esq., of Brawdy, in 
the CO. of Pembroke, in whose right Cily- 
bebyll came to the Leach family; d, 1838; 
w., 1864, Frances Harriet, dau. of S. G. 
Paidon, Esq., of Tiuerara, Ireland, and 
has issue. 

Kisidince: Cilybebyll, near Neath. 

XOEQAK, Eyan, Esq., St Sden's, Qlamorgan- 
smre. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
was Capt in the R. Artillery, and served 
under Wellington in the Peninsular war; 
was Lieut. Col. of the Royal Glam. Artillery 
Militia, and is still Hon. Colonel of the 
same ; was Chairman of the first Swansea 
Dock Company; son of the late John 
Morgan, Esq. ; j. on the death of his elder 
brother John, unm,^ a General in the Indian 
Army ; a younger brother, Thomas Morgan, 
was Capt. R.N. ; m,^ first, a dau. of Admiral 
Cheshyre, by whom he had issue three 
sons (all officers in the army) and two daus.; 
secondly,. Miss Winthrop, eldest dau. of 
Admiral Winthrop. Col. Morgan's eldest 
son, Jeffrey, served in the Abyssinian war, 
was in command of the Engineers at 
the storming of King Theodore's strong- 
hold, and was spoken of in warm terms for 
his bravery in the general orders. He lies 
buried in African soil, but a monument has 
been erected to his memory in St Mary's 
Church, Swansea. 

Residence i St. Helen's, Swansea. 
Tcwn Address : Junior United Service Club. 
Arms : Sa., a chevron arg. between three 
spear-heads imbrued— Bleduyn ap Maenarch. 

LINEAGE. 

The arms borne by the Morgans indicate descent 
from Bleddyn ap Maenarch^ Lord of Brecknock 
in the twelfth century. 

MOE&AN, Hon. Gk)ctfr67 diaries, Euperra 
Castle, Glamorganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Monmouth> 
and J. P. for cos. of Glamorgan and 
Brecon ; M. P. for Breconshire since 1858; 
was Capt 17 th Lancers, served in Crimean 
war, . and received Crimean medal and 
clasps and Turkish war medal ; is Major 
of Royal Gloucestershire Yeomanry Hus- 



sars ; eldest surviving son of Charles 
Morgan, first Baron Tredegar, of Tredegar 
Park, Mon., and Ruperra Castle, Glam., 
by Rosamond, dau. of Gen. Godfrey Basil 
Mundy ; d. 1830 ; a/, at Eton ; is uwft. 

Residences : Ruperra Castle, near Cardiff; and 
Tredegar Park, near Newport, Mon. 

Town Address: Carlton Club; Army and 
Navy Club. 

Arms : See Lord Tredegar, 

LINEAGE. 

For the descent of this ancient Cymric family see 
TWaSgwr, Baron^ of Tredegar Park, 



M0REI8, ffeorge Byng, Esq., of Sketty, 61a- 
morgazisliire. 

Is J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Gla- 
morgan ; second son of the late Sir John 
Morris, Bart , of Sketty Park, and Hon. 
Lucy Juliana, dau. of John, 5th Viscount 
Torrington ; b, 25th March, 1816, at Bryn, 
Swansea; »»., 23rd October, 1852, Emily 
Matilda, sole dau. of C. H. Smith, Esq., of 
Gwernllwynwith and Derwen-Fawr, Gla- 
morganshire, and has issue 6 sons and 4 
daugliters, the eldest son being Robert, 
b. 1853. 

Residettce: Danygraig, Bridgend. 

Arms: Sa., on a saltire engrailed, ermine, a 
bezant charged with a cross couped gu. 

Crest: A lion rampant or, charged on the 
shoulder with a cross couped gu., withm a chain 
in form of an arch, or. 

Motio : Scuto fidei. 

LINEAGE. 

For the genealogy of this family see under Sir 
John Artnine Morris, Bart., of Sketty Park. 

Note. — The co. of Glamoigan has two places of 
considerable note and antiquity, called Danygraig 
(''under the rock"), and both in the vicinity of rocky 
eminences — the residence of Byng Morris being one, 
and Danygraig, situated between Neath and Swansea, 
near the Snore, the home of a branch of the Popkins 
and the Thomases, in the 17th and i8th centuries, 
being the other. At Danygraig, Bridgend, some 
interesting Roman or Romano-British antiquities 
were a few years ago discovered. ** In removing a 
bank in order to improve the grounds in the year 
1850, a coin of a Roman empress, much worn, but 
distinguishable by the head-dress, was dug up. 
Pieces of stucco with signs of a diamond pattern, &c., 
were also found. Tradition speaks of the site of an 
old house near the Ridge, under the large elm under 
which these things were discovered. It was on the 
left, or north side of the occupation road, which con- 
tinued from the main road towards 'the foot of the 
Craig, and then joined Bistil Lane, long since taken 
into the fields. The Rhwsted, or ' house-stead.' was 
the name of the old bam close at hand " (Knight's 
Newton Nottage). See also p. 523, ante. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



637 



MOEEIS, Sir Jolm Armine, Bart., of Sketty 
Park, &laiiLorgaB£Mre. 

A baronet of the United Kingdom, cr. 
1806 ; J. P. and D. L. of the co. of Gla- 
morgan ; sometime an Officer in the 60th 
Rifles ; is patron of the living of Morriston, 
near Swansea; eldest son of the late Sir 
John Morris, Bart, and the Hon. Lady 
Morris, dau. of 5th Viscount Torrington ; 
b. at Bryn House, near Swansea, July 13, 
1813; ed. at Westminster School, and 
Sandhurst College; w., December, 1847, 
Catherine Ann, dau. of Ronald Macdonald, 
Esq. ; s. to title as 3rd baronet, and to the 
estates, February, 1855 ; has issue — 

1. Robert Armine, b, 1848. 

2. John, b. 1850. 

3. George Cecil, b, 1852. 

4. Arthur Ronald, b, 1855. 

5. Herbert b, 1858. 
And four daughters. 

Heir : Robert Annine Morris. 

Residences: Sketty Park, and Havod, near 
Swansea ; Marina Villa, Mumbles. 

Town Address: Carlton Club. 

Arms .'. Sable, on a saltier engrailed ermine, a 
bezant charged with a cross couped gu. 

Crest: Within a chain in the form of an arch 
a lion rampant or, chai^ged on the shoulder with a 
cross couped as in the arms. 

AfoUo : Scuto fidei. 

LINEAGE. 

This family traces its descent maternally from 
Owain Gtaynedd, Prince of North Wales (12th 
cent.), throoeh Cadwgan Fawr, and the Parrys of 
Neuadd Trdawr, co. of Cardigan, one of whom 
was Stephen Parry, Esq.,' M.P. for Cardigan a.d. 
1 7 14— 1727 (see Members 0/ Pari, far Cardigan)^ 
and paternally from the Morrises of Bishop's Castle, 
Salop. It has intermarried with the Musgraves of 
Cumberland, and the Byngs, Viscounts Torrington. 
Sir John Morris, Kt., temp, Henry VII., was of 
this stock. 

John Morkis, Esq., of Clasemont, near Swansea ; 
b, 1745 ; cr. a baronet 1806 ; m, Henrietta, dau. 
of Sir Philip Musgrave, Bart., of Eden Hall, 
Cumberland, by whom he had, with several daus., 
a son and heir, — 

Sir John Morris, 2nd Bart, of Clasemont ; i. 
1775 ; «., 1809, Lucy Juliana, dau. of John Bjrng. 
5th Viscount Torrington, and had issue, besides 
several daus., — 

1. John Armine, the present and 3rd Baronet 
of Sketty Park (as above). 

2. George Bvng (see Byng Morris of Danygraig) . 

3. Frederick, an officer in the R.N. 

4. Charles Henry, C.B., b, 1824, a Col. in the 
Royal Artillery. 

Note, — SkettT Park, formerly belonging to Lord 
Broke, descendant of Earl Warwick, conqueror of 
the kingdom of Glamorgan, was enclosed with a wall 
by the grandfather of the present baronet Several 
of the ruined castles in Gower were built by the 
above-mentioned Earl of Warvtiek, Sketty Park 
was built about 1820— partially with the Bath and 



Portland stone, the remains of the former Mansion 
House at Clasemont. in the same county, erected in 
1770 by the grandfather of the present baronet, 
whose father was the first of the Cimily who 
removed from North to South Wales, and first 
resided at Tredegar, Mon. The etymology of 
''Sketty'' is probably is-Kdty, " lower Ketty." 

NICSOLL, ntycL Esq., of the Sam, Glamor- 
ganshire. 

J. P. for Monmouthshire and Glamorgan- 
shire ; Sheriff of Monmouthshire 1831 ; 
eldest son of the late Rev. Iltyd Nicholl, 
D.D., Rector of Treddington, Worcester- 
shire; b, at Treddington 19th July, 1785 ; 
ed, at St. Paul's School, London; tn,^ nth 
August, 1807, Eleanor, only child of George 
Bond, Esq.; of Newland, Gloucestershire, 
and Court Blethin, Monmouthshire (she 
d, 1850), and had issue three sons and 
two daughters. 

Heir: George Whitlock Nicholl, Esq., of 
Court Blethin, co. of Mon., J. P. for the co. of 
Mon. 

Residences :■ The Ham, Glamorganshire ; Court 
Blethin, Monmouthshire. 

Anns : Sable, three pheons argent. 

Crest: A battlemented tower surmounted by a 
Cornish chough proper. 

Motto : Duw a digon. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Nicholl have been seated at The 
Ham nearly 300 years, and were found even 
earlier than that period (as well as later) at Llan- 
twit Major, where resided John Nicholl, whose 
will was proved 1599, and who bore the arms still 
borne by the family, viz., Sa,y 3 pheons arg. His 
son was called Iltyd— a name which has been 
continued at frequent intervals ever since. From 
Iltyd Nicholl, of The Ham, 3ni son of Iltyd, gr. 
grandson of the above John Nicholl, has descended 
,3ie lone line of the Ham family. His mother was 
Cecil, diau. of Edmond Turbervill, Esq., of Llan- 
twit Major. He left a son, — 

Iltyd Nicholl, Esq., of The Ham, b. 1635, who 
m\ Maiy, dau. of Morgan Jones, Esq., of Framp- 
ton, and had issue — 

Iltyd Nicholl, of The Ham, Clerk, Rector of 
Llanmaes, who by his wife, Susaxmah, dau. and 
co-h. of John Whitlock, Esq., of Bingham, Somer- 
set, had, besides John, ^rd son, founder of the 
Merthyr Mawr branch (see Nicholl of Merthyr 
Mawr\y an eldest son and heir — 

Whitlock Nicholl, Esq., of The Ham ; J. P. 
and D. L. for the co. of Glam. ; Sheriff of the 
same co. 1746. He m., 1741, Anne, dau. and 
co-h. of John Lewis, Esq., of Pcnlline, ** by whom 
he had 14 children, 6 sons and 8 daus , of whom 
eight only survived their parents, and three sons 
and one dau. only had issue." (D Jenkin's MS.) 
The eldest son was — 

Rev. Iltyd Nicholl, D.D., Rector of Treddington, 
who was the progenitor of a large family. Ilis 
eldest son and h. being — 

I. Iltyd Nicholl, Esq., now of The Ham (as 
above) and hb sixth son being — 

6. Rev. Robert Nicholl M.A., late of Dimlands 
(see Nicholl' Came of Dimlands and St, Donates 
CastU), 



633 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



NICHOIL, Jolm Cole, Esq., of Merthyr Mawr, 
&laiiiorg;ansliire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; eldest son 
of the late Right Hon. John Nicholl, 
D.C.L., M.P. for Cardiff Boroughs 1832— 
1852, and Judge Advocate-General, 1841 
(see Pari. Annals^ Giant.); b. 1823 ; ed. 
at Ch. Ch., Oxford ; m., t86o, Mary De la 
Beche, dau. of L. LI. DilUvyn, Esq., M.P. 
of Hendrefoilan, co. of Glamorgan, and 
has issue. 

/Residence: Merthyr Mawr, near Bridgend. 
Town Address : Carlton Club. 
Amis : Sa., three pheons arg. 
Crest : On a tower, a Cornish chough, wings 
expanded, ppr. 

LINEAGE. 

This family is a junior branch of that of Nicholl 
of Ham, in the same co. (see Nicholl of Ham^ and 
NichoU-CarneofSt, Donates Castle). John Nicholl. 
Esq., of Llanmaes, third son of the Rev. Iltyd 
Nicholl, of Ham, Rector of Llanmaes, was grand- 
father of Sir John Nicholl, Kt, of Merthyr Mawr, 
whose son, Sir John Nicholl, Kt. (above named), 
M.P. for Cardiff; m. Jane Harriet, dau. of the 
late Thomas Manuel Talbot, Esq., of Margam 
Abbey, and had, with other issue, — 

John Cole Nicholl, now of Merthyr Mawr. 



FEABSON, John Sichaxd, Esq., of Craig yr 
Hani, QlamorgansMre. 

Late Captain Royal Artillery; J. P. for co. 
of Monmouth; son of Rev. J. Pearson, of 
Herongate, Brentwood, Essex, Rector of 
Little Warley and East Horndon, Essex, 
Rural Dean, &c. ; b, at Bognor, Sussex, 
1 6th April, 1833; ed, at Rugby; m.^ ist, 
1854, Charlotte, dau. of Col. Crommelin, 
(she//. 1856); 2nd, 1861, Cecile, dau. of 
the late George Charles Holford, Esq , of 
New Park, Wilts, and granddaughter of the 
late Josiah Holford, Esq., of Cilgwyn, Car- 
marthenshire. 

Residence: Craig yr Haul, Castleton, Cardiff. 

Toram Addras: Junior United-Service Club. 

Arms: Arg., semee of billets, on a pile az. 
three horses' heads ppr. 

Crest: A horse's head couped ppr., sem^e of 
billets and murally gorged. 

Motto : In Deo spes. 

PENEICE, Thomas, Escl., of Kilvrougli, Gla- 
morgansiiire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan; served the 
office of High Sheriff for same co. in 1867 ; 
is patron of the livings of Ilston, Pennard, 
and Langennith, in the co. of Glamorgan ; 
2nd son of the late John Penrice, Esq., of 



Great Yarmouth, in the co. of Norfolk ; 
b. 6th April, 1820, at Hopland Hall, near 
Gt. Yarmouth; ^^. at Eton; m„ loth June, 
1852, Louisa, the 2nd daughter of the Rev. 
George Ernest Howman, M A-,of Bamesley 
Rectory, Gloucestershire ; succ his uncle, 
Thomas Penrice, Esq., of Kilvrough (Sheriff 
for Glam. 1836; Capt in i6th Lancers, 
and served under Wellington), in the year 
1846 ; has issue two daughters. 

Residence: Kilvrough, near Swansea. 

Arms: Per pale indented aig. and ga., io 
canton a wolfs head couped at the neck sa. 

Crest : Two wings elevated, charged with two 
mullets of six points in pale gu. 

Motto: Tuto et celeriter (above crest) ; Justus 
et propositi tenax (under shield). 



LINEAGE. 

Mr. Penrice of Kilvrough traces from an ancient 
family of the same name which has been for many 
generations located in the county of Worcester, 
the eldest branch of which family was seated at 
Penrice Castle^ near Swansea, in the lordship of 
Gower and county of Glamorgan, a lordship which 
passed into the hands of the Mansels of Maigam 
through the marriage of Isabella Penrice with a 
member of that family. See Mansel of Margam^ 
Penrice Castle^ &c. 

- Note. — Kilvrough — one of the many places of note 
in the historic district of Gower -is well known as 
the old abode of the Dawkin family, the most cele- 
brated of whose members was Col. Rowland Dawkin, 
M.P., a distinguished officer in the Cromwellian army. 
See ante Dawkin of Kilvrough^ and Memoir^ by CoL 
Francis, F.S.A. 



PSIGHABD, Williani, Esq., of (hrofta . House, 
Qlamorganslilre. 

J. P. for CO. of Glamorgan; son of the 
late William Prichard, Shipowner of Cardiff; ' 
b. 1811 ; m. Miss Bradley of Cardiff; has 
issue three daughters, co-heiresses. 

Residence: Crofta House, near Llantrisant. 

PETCB, Jolm Bruce, Esq., of DyfEryn, eia- 
morgansliire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
eldest son of the late John Knight, Esq., 
of Llanblethian, in the same co., by Mar- 
garet, dau. of VVilliam Bruce, Esq., of that 
place, whose surname, and subsequently 
that of Pryce, he adopted (see Lineage); 
b. 23rd July, 1784; //I., 1st, 1807, Sarah 
(d. 1842), dau. of Rev. Hugh Williams 
Austin, a resident of Barbadoes; 2ndly, 
1844, Alicia Grant, dau. of William Bushly, 
Esq., of London ; had issue by first wife 
five sons and seven daus. The sons are — 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



639 



I, John WyndJiam^ barrister-at-law, ///., 
and had issue ; 2. Henry Austin, bar- 
rister-at-Iaw, now of the Privy Council 
and Secretary of the Home Depanment 
(stt Bruce 0/ Dyffryn) ; ^, Rev. William 
Bruce, M. A., Canon of Llandaff, and Rector 
of St. Nicholas ; 4. Robert, a col. in the 
army ; 5. Lewis Knight. 

Risidtnce: Dyffryn^ St. Nicholas, nearCardifT. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Bruce Pryce of Dyffryn traces 
maternally to an ancient Glamorgan stock, the 
Lewises of- Van and Llanishen, of the lineage of 
Ivor Bach of Castell Coch, living in the twelfth 
century, of whom Giraldus Cambrensis (///»., VI.) 
gives account (see Ivor Bach), Sir Thomas Lewis, 
ICnt, of Llanishen, had a son, Gabriel Lewis, Esq., 
of the same place, Sheriff of Glamoi^n 1615 
(see Leivis of Green Meadaw\ whose dau. Jane m, — 

William Bruce^ Esq., of Llanblethian, co. of 
Glam., and had issue a dau. and only surviving 
child, Margaret Bruce, who m. — 

John K nighty Esq., of Llanblethian, and had 
issue besides 3 daus. — 

1. John, now of Dyffryn as above, who, instead 
of his own surname of Knight, adopted his mother's 
maiden surname, Bruce^ and subsequently, on in- 
heriting Dyffryn under the will of Thomas Pryce, 
Esq., who made him heir in case of the death with- 
out issue of his own daughter, Mrs. Grey, {4. 1837, ) 
wife of the Hon. W. Booth Grey, that ot Pryce, 

2. William Bruce Knight, Chancellor, and after- 
wards Dean of Llandaff, d, 1845. 

3. James Lewis, Knight, afterwards Lord Justice 
Sir J. L. Knight Bruce, d, 1867. 



BIGEAEDS, EyajL Matthew, Esq., of Brook- 
lauds, Glamorganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
M. P. for Cardiganshire, elected 1868 ; 
was Mayor of Swansea 1856 and 1863 ; son 
of the late Mr. R. Richards, of Swansea ; 
b, at Swansea, January, 182 1 ; m. Maria, 
daughter of James Sloane, Esq. ; has issue 
six sons and one daughter. 

Heir : William Frederic. 
Residence: Brooklands, Swansea. 
Town Address : 2t Kensington Gate; Reform 
Club. 

KIGHABJ)SON, James Coxon, Esq., of aian'rafon, 
Gflamorgansiiire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan; F.G.S., &c., 
&c. ; fourth son of John Richardson, Esq., 
, J. P. of Swansea, and brother of J. Crow 
Richardson, Esq., of Pantygwydir, Glam., 
and Glanbrydan Park, Carm. ; b, at South 
Shields, co. of Durham, 181 7 ; a/, at Myrtle 
Hall School, Gloucestershire; m., -first, 
Hannah Mary, second dau. of Thomas 



* Barker, Esq., J. P., 5:c, of Rosclla Hall, 
Northumberland j secondly, Elizabeth, dau. 
of John Nichol, Esq., of London, the 
adopted child of the Rt Hon. Sir John 
Pirie, Bart. ; thirdly, Georgiana Skirrow, 
second dau. of John Nelson, Esq., of 
Doctors' Commons and of Seymour Street, 
Hyde Park, London ; has issue — 

By second mar , John Pirie, b. 1 848. 

By third mar., three sons and two 
daus. : — 

Nelson Moore, b. 1855. 

Ida Caroline Frances, b, 1856. 

Horace Grant, b. 1858. 

Evelyn Georgina, b, i860. 

Lionel James, b, 1862. 

Residence : Glan'rafon, near S^vansea. 

Arms : Sa., on a chief arg. three lions' heads 
erased, ermines, langued gu. 

Cresi : On a mural crown or, a lion's head 
erased of the arms. 

Afoitc : Pretio prudentia pncstat 

RICHARDSOIf, John Crow, Esq., of Pantygwy- 
dir, QlanL, and Glanbrydan Park, Carm. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan and for the 
bor. of Swansea ; was Mayor of Swansea 
1 860- 1, and for several years Captain and 
Acting Commandant of the 3rd Glamorgan 
Rifle Volunteers ; eldest son of John Rich- 
ardson, Esq., J. P., of Swansea, and of 
Whitby Lodge, Northumberland; b, at 
Leith, Jan. 30, 18 10; m,, first, 6th Nov., 
1837^ Elizabeth, eldest dau. of Mr. Thomas 
Walters, of Swansea; secondly, Aug. 23, 
1848, Eliza Fletcher, youngest dau. of the 
Rev. John Ross, of Crawford, Lanark- 
shire ; purchased the Pantyjgwydir estate 
i860 ; has issue by first marriage — 

yb/tn Cr<nv^ only son, b, 26th Feb., 1842 ; 
m, Theresa Eden Pearce Serocold, and has 
issue Alfred John and Emald Edward. 

Amy, b, 17th Sept, 1840, w., June i, 
1864, George Pearce Serocold, Esq., of 
Rodborough Lodge, Gloucestershire, whose 
father was Dean of Ely and Principal of 
Jesus Coll., Cambridge. 

Heir : John Crow Richardson. 

Residences : Pantygwydir, near Swansea ; Glan- 
brydan Park, Carmarthenshire. 
• Arms (granted 1615) : Sa., on a chief aig. three 
lions' heads, erased, ermines, langued gu. 

Cres/ : On a mural crown or, a lion's head of 
the arms. 

A/o£/c : Pretio prudentia praestat. 

LINEAGE. 

This family is of common origin with that from 
which Sir Thomas Richardson, Kt., one of the 
judges of the Excheouer, was descended, and which 
is extensively seated in the cos. of Durham and 
Northumberland. 



640 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



EOMULT. Edward, Esq., of Portli Kerry, 
Glamorgansliire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
Sheriff for same co. 1869 > younger son of 
the late Sir Samuel Romilly, Kt., by Anne, 
dau. of Francis Garbett, Esq., of Knill 
Court, CO. of Radnor, and brother of Lord 
Romilly, Master of the Rolls; b. 1804; 
ed. at Trinity Hall, Cambr. ; «., 1830, 
Sophia, dau. of Alexander Marcet, Esq., 
M.D. ; was M.P. for Ludlow 1833-4; was 
Chairman of Audit Board of Public 
Accounts. 

Residence: Forth Kerry, near Cowbridge. 

Town Address: 14, Stratton Street, W. 

Arms: Arg., in base a rock with nine projec- 
tions, from each of which issuant a lily, all ppr. ; 
on a chief az., a crescent between two mullets of 
the first. 
, Crest: On a wreath a crescent arg. 



iOUS, CoL George Grey, of Courtyrala, eia- 
morganshire. 

Entered the army and became Lieut-Col. 
of Grenadier Guards ; J. P. and D. L. for 
the CO. of Glamorgan ; Sheriff for same co. 
i860 ; eldest son of the late Thomas Bates 
Rous of Courtyrala, J. P., D. L., and 
Sheriflf (in 18 17) of the co. of Glamorgan, 
by his wife Charlotte Gwendoline, dau. of 
Sir Robert Salusbury, Bart., of Llanwem, 
Mon.; b, i8i8; is unm. 

Residence : Courtyrala, near Cardiff. 
Town Address : Guards' Club. - 
Arms : Or, an eagle displayed az., pruning the 
wing, foot and beak gu. 
Crest : A dove arg. 
Motto : Vescitur Christo. 

LINEAGE. 

The Roll of Battle Abbey contains the name 
Rous, and the name takes in some records the form 
Ri//us. This family is said to descend from this 
knight in the Conqueror's train, whose full desig- 
nation was Ranalphus le Rufus. Before the 
settlement of the family in Wales, through the pur- 
chase of Piercefield (Mon,) by Thomas Rous, Esq. 
(d. 1737), they bad been successively seated at 
Edmerstone and Halton in Devonshire. Of their 
number was the celebrated Francis Rouse, translator 
of the Psalms (still used by the Scotch Kirk), Mem- 
ber for Truro, or Devonshire, of the Little Parlia- 
ment. Provost of Eton, and Speaker of Cromwell's 
Parliament {Carlyle ; and Roll of BattU Abbey, 
P- 94). 

I'homasRous, Esq., of Piercefield, son of Thomas 
Thomas Rous just named, sold that estate to the 
Morris family. He m, Mary, dau. of Thomas 
Bates, Esq., and had, besides his eldest son 
William, who d unm,^ Thomas Bates, George, 
and Robert. 

Thomas Bates Rous, Esq., who resided in Eng- 



land, and was sometime M.P. for Worcester, d. 
s. p. in 1800, and was s. by his brother, — 

Geonje Rous, Esq., of London, Barrister-at-law, 
M.P. for Shaftesbury. &c His eldest son,— 

Thomas Bates Rous, the first of Courtyrala, 
Sheriff of CO. of Glamorgan 1817; w., i8ii, a 
dau. of Sir Robert Salusbury, Bart., and had with 
several daus. a son and heir, — 

George Grey Rous, now of Courtyrala (as 
above). 

l/ote. — Courtyrala is a manor of considerable an- 
tiquity, having its name from Sir Simon de Rayle, 
Lord of the Manor of Wrinston and Michaelston, 
Glam., whose place of residence and feudal rule was 
subsequently called Court-y-Rayle, corrupted into 
"Courtyrala." See ante, De Rayle of Wrinston. 



SAIMON, William, Esq., of Penlline Court, 
Glamorganshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
only son of the late W. Salmon, Esq., of 
Petistree House, Suffolk, by Sarah, dau. of 
Denny Cole, Esq., of Sudbury Priory, 
Suffolk; b, 1790; »!., 1816, Hester, elder 
dau. and co-h. of Reynold Thomas Deere, 
Esq., J. P. and D. L., of Penlline Court, 
and has issue — 

Thomas Deere^ b. 1820 ; eJ. at Eton and 
Exeter ColL, Oxford, where he grad. -M.A. ; 
is a barrister of Lincoln's Inn. 

Heir : Thomas Deere Salmon. 
Residence : Penlline Court, near Cowbridge. 
Crest : A dexter arm, embowed, in armour, 
holding a scimitar proper. 
Motto : Dum spiro spero. , 

UNEAGE. 

Mr. Salmon is lineally descended from ^ir 
Thomas Salmon, Kt., temp. Richard •!., and col- 
laterally from John Salmon, Lord High Chancellor 
of England, temp. Edward IL Hester, his wife, 
was of a very ancient Glamoiganshire family, which 
traced its descent from Edwin, fourth son of Howel 
Dda, or Howel the Good, King of South Wales 
and Powys 907, and of all Wales 940, — and from 
Herbert, natural son of King Henry L 



SIOTH, Charles Henir, Esq., of ftweinllwya- 
with, aiamorgansliire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan; High 
Sheriff of the same county in 1839; son 
of the late Charles Smith, Esq., of Gwem- 
llwynwith ; b. 25th Dec, 1804; m., 1831, 
Emily, dau. of Sir George Leeds, Bart., of 
Croxton Park, Camb. ; has surviving issue 
one daughter, Emily Matilda. (See jByng^ 
Morris, Danygraig) 

Residence : Gwemllwynwith, near Swansea. 
Arms : Or and az, indented sinisterwise, two 
crosses counterchanged. 

Crest : Out of coronet, a dove volant. '^ 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GI^AMORGANSHIRE. 



641 



SaUHLE, Eey. Edward Bnniard, Swansea, 
OlainorgansMre. 

Rural Dean ; Vicar of Swansea 1846 ; 
Chaplain of ist Glamorganshire Artillery 
Volunteers ; formerly in Convocation ; was 
Lieut Indian Navy and Paymaster in the 
Burmese war 1827 — 1829; Author of a 
" Series of Sermons on Special Occasions," 
" British Sovereignty in India," &c. ; b, at 
Taunton 1804; ed. at St. Bee's College; 
w., first, Eliza Anne, dau. of Capt. William 
Bruce, Indian Navy, and British resident 
of Bushire in Persia ; secondly, Caroline 
Herschel, dau. of George Harvey, F.R.S. ; 
thirdly, 26th Oct., 1852, dau. of Thomas 
Bowen, Esq., of Johnstone Hall, Pembroke- 
shire, sister of the late Bishop Bowen, of 
Sierra Leone ; has issue 3 sons and 3 daus. 
living. 

Residence : The Vicarage, Swansea. 
Crgst : Tiger's paw holding a fleur-de-lis. 
Afo/^ : Tiens ferine. 



BTEBS.T, Alfred, Esq., of Danycoed, &lamor- 
ganshire. 

Son of Richard Sterry,Esq , Oakfield Lodge, 
Croydon ; b. 1823; m., 1864, Alice Rosina, 
daughter of Henry Crawshay, Esq., of 
Langland, near Swansea, and Oaklands, 
Gloucestershire ; has issue i son, 2 daus. 

Residence : Dan y Coed, near Swansea. 
Arms : (not received). 



STUART, James Frederick Criclitoii-, M.P, 
Gardifl; ftlamorgansliire. . 

Lieut. -Col. in the army (retired) ; served 
in the Grenadier Guards 1842 — 1861 ; 
Lord Lieutenant of Buteshire; M.P. for 
united boroughs of Cardiff, Cowbridge, 
and Llantrisant since first elected in 1857 ; 
son of late Lord James Stuart, M.P., 
brother to 2nd Marquess of Bute (see Bute, 
Marquess of); b, Feb. 17, 1824; ed. at 
Eton, and Trinity Coll., Cambridge; w. 
Gertrude Frances, dau. of the Rt. Hon. 
Sir G. H. Seymour, G.C.B. ; has issue i 
son and 2 daughters. 

Town Residence : 25, Wilton Crescent. 

Anns : ist and 4th, or, a fesse cheeky arg. and 
oz. within a double tressure flory counterflory gu. 
— Stuart ; 2nd and 3rd, arg., a lion ramp. az. — 
Crichton ; over all a crescent for difference. 

Crests ; I. A demi-lion ramp, gu., and over it 
the motto "Nobilis est ira leonis " — Stuart, 2. 
A dragon vert, flames issuing from the mouth, 
ppr. — Crichton, 

Motto : Avito viret honore. 



LIZ^EAGE. 

For Linea^e^ see ButCy A/anjuesso/, Caxdiff Castle, 
of whose family Col. Stuart is a cadet. 



TALBOT, Christopher Eioe Mansel-, Esq., of 
Margam Park, Qlamorganshire. 

Lord Lieut, of Glamorganshire since 1848 ; 
M.P. for Glamorganshire since 1830; is 
patron of five livings, Reynoldston, O.xwich- 
cum-Nicholaston, Langeinor, Llandough- 
cum-St Mary Church, and Margam Vicar- 
age ; eldest son of the late Thomas Mansel 
Talbot, Esq., of Margam Park, J. P. and 
D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan, and Sheriff 
for same co. 1781, by the Lady Mary 
Lucy, dau. of Henry Thomas, 2nd Earl 
of llchester; b. at Penrice Castle, near 
Swansea, May 10, 1803 ; ed, at Harrow, 
and Oriel ColL, Oxford ; irad. B.A. in 
1824, First Class in Mathematics; succ. 
1824 ; m., 1835, to Lady Charlotte Butler, 
sister to the Earl of Glen gall (she d. 1846), 
and has issue one son, three daughters. 

• 

J/eir : Theodore Mansel, i. 1837 ; ed. at Christ 
Church, Oxford ; J. P. for co. of Glam. 

Residences : Margam Park, and Penrice Castle, 
Glamorganshire. 

Town House : 3, Cavendish Square. 

Arms : Gu., a lion rampant or, armed and Ian- 
gued az., within a bordure engrailed of the second. 

Crest: A lion or, with tail extended. 

Afotto : Prest d'accomplir. 

LINEAGE. 

This branch of the Talbot family, of common 
origin with Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury, Lord Chan- 
cellor Talbot of Hensol Castle, Talbots of Castle 
Talbot, Ireland, &c , came into Glamorgan through 
the marriage of John Ivory Talbot, Esq., of Lacock 
Abbey, with Mary, dau. and h. of Thomas Mansel, 
Lord Mansel of Margam. The Mansel family had 
for many ages held a position of prime influence in 
Glamorgan, seated successively at Oxwich C^tle, 
Penrice Castle, and Margam Abbey (which see), 
from about A. D. 1400, when Sir Hugh Mansel m. 
Isabel, dau. of Sir John Penrhys, Lord of Oxwich 
and Penrhys (Penrice), to a.d. 1750, when Bussy, 
the last Lord Mansel of Margam and Penrice, died, 
and the estate [>assed by the marriage just mentioned 
to the Mansel-Talbot line. 

From Sir Hugh Mansel, Kt., Sir Rhys (Rice) 
Manselt Kt., Lord of Oxwich, and builder of Ox- 
wich Castle, Chamberlain of Chester, Sheriff of 
Glamorgan in 1542, was filth in descent ; from Henry 
Mansel, Esq., the first who settled in Gower {temp. 
Edward I.), tenth; and from Philip Mansel, or 
Maunchel, who is said to have "come in with the 
Conqueror," about eighteenth. At the dissolution 
of the monasteries he purchased Mamm Abbey 
from the commissioners of Henry VIII., and 
partly by adaptation of the structure of the abbey, 
partly by new buildings constructed there (1552), 
formed a large and sumptuous mansion, which 
became the chief residence of the Mansel family. 



642 



GLAMOKGANSHIR£. 



Sir Eduard Mansd, Kt., his son. m. Lady Jane, 
4th dau. of Henry, 2nd Earl of Worcester, by 
whom he had 15 sons and 4 daus. He vv'as Sheriff 
of Glamorgan 1576. His second son, Francis, 
was made a baronet by James I. , and by his wife 
Catherine, daii., and h. of Henry Morgan, Esq., of 
Muddlescombe was progenitor of the Manseis of 
Iseoed and Trimsaran, Carm. From his third son, 
Philip, were descended the Manseis of Swansea, 
• Robert, fourth son, knighted by the Earl of Essex 
for his valour in taking Cadiz, 1596, made Vice- 
Admirnl by James I., m, Elizabeth, sister of the 
celebrated Lord Bacon. On the death of Sir Ed- 
ward in 1585 (see Margam Abbey)-^ 

Sir Thomas Mansel, Kl and Bart, of Margam, 
succeeded. He was Sheriff of Glamorgan 1594, 
X604, and 1623; M.P. for same co. 1597, &c. 
(see ParL Annals 0/ Glam.). By Mary, his first 
wife, dau. of Lewis Lord Mordaunt, he had four 
sons (by a 2nd wife he had daus.), the heir being— 

Sir Lewis Mansel, Bart., of Margam. Was 
Sheriff of Glam. 1636; in conjunction with Edward 
Viscount Mandeville, and William Came, Esq., of 
Nash, he obtained ifrom Charles I. the office of 
Chamberlain and Chancellor of South Wales during 
their respective lives and the survivor of them. 
By his third wife, Elizabeth, dau. of Henry, Earl 
of Manchester, Lord Privy Seal, he had two sons, 
Henry and Edward, and was succ. by the younger 
and surviving of them, — 

Sir Edward Mansel, Bart., of Margam, one of 
the most distinguished of his race. He was Sheriff 
for the CO. of Glam. 168S ; M.P. for same co. 
1660, 1680, and 1685 ; entertained at Margam 
the Duke of Beaufort on his progress as Lord 
President of Wales in 1684 (see Margam Abbey) ; 
m. Martha, dau. and co-h. of Edward Came, Esq., 
of Ewenny, and was succ. by his 2nd but eldest 
surviving son, — 

Sir Thomas Mansel, Bart., afterwards Lord 
Mansel of Margam, M.P. for co. of Glamorgan 
1700—17x0; cr. Baron Mansel of Maigam by 
Queen Anne in 17 12; Comptroller of the Household 
under Queen Anne, and Member of Privy Council 
(see further Pari, Annals). He m, Martha, dau. 
and h. of Francis Millington, Esq., and by her, 
besides four daus., had three sons, koberit CAris- 
tapheTy and Bussy, The first m., had issue one 
son, Thomas^ and dying in his father's lifetime, left 
the succession in that son. 

Thomas, 2nd Lord Mansel of Mai^gam, succ. as 
a minor at his grandfather's death, and d, unf/t,, 
set. 25. 

Christopher, 3rd Lord Mansel of Margam, dwelt 
at Newick Place, Sussex, and> was never married. 
He settled Margam estate, after the death of his 
brother Bussy, upon Thomas Mansel. eldest son 
of his sister Mary, wife of John Ivory Talbot, Esq., 
above-mentioned ; d. 1744, and was buried at 
Newick. 

Bussy, 4th and last Lord Mansel of Mai^gam, 
now succ. He was before his elevation to the 
peerage M.P. for Cuxiiff 1727. and afterwards for 
Glamorgan 1737. (See Pari. AnneUs.) He 
d. s. f. in London 1750, and was buried at St 
James s, Westminster. 

Thomas Talbot^ Clerk, in right of his mother 
now inherited Margam and Pennce Castle estates. 
He m. Jane, dau. of Thomas Beach, Esq., of 
Keevil, Wilts, and had two sons, Thomas and' 
Christopher ; the eldest, — 

Thomas Mansel Talbot, Esq., of Penrice Ca-stle 
and Maigam, m., 1794, Lady Mary Lucy Fox 
Strangways, dau. of Henry Thomas, 2nd Earl of 



Ilchester (she m. 2ndly, 1815, Sir Christopher 
Cole, K.C.B. [see Pari. Annais, p. 608]), and had 
with other issue (see Tra/urm, Mrs.t St. Hilary ; 
Ututeiyn^ PenlUr* gaer, iSr*c. ) — 

Christopher Mansel-Talbot, now of Mar- 
gam and Penrice Castle (as above). 



IE0HA8, Hul)ert de Burgh, Esq., of FwUy- 
wrach, aiamorgansmre. 

Is one of the co-heirs to the Barony of 
Burgh or Borough of Gainsborough, now 
in abeyance; J. P. for county of Gla- 
morgan ; late Captain of the i8th Gla- 
morgan Rifle Corps; is patron of Col- 
winston Vicarage ; d. at Pwlly wrach, Sept 
6th, 1842 ; ed, at Cheltenham College, and 
Trin. Coll., Oxford; J.. to estates 1853. 

Heir : His brother, Robert Curre. 

Residence: PwUywrach. 

Arms : Gu., three chevrons arg. 

Crest : A paschal lamb. 

Mottoes : Nil desperandum ; Christo duce. 

TEOXAS, John Blackwell Dawson, Esq., of 
Tregroes, Qlamorgansliire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; d. 3rd 
March, 1840, at Fulham, Middlesex; m., 
17th June, 1868, Louisa, second daughter 
of Charles Dawson, Esq., of Exmouth, 
Devon; s. to estates 1863; has issue one 
son, Edward Dawson. 

I/eir : Edward Dawson. 
Residences : Tregroes, near Bridgend ; Withy- 
combe, near Exmouth. 
Motto: Nil desperandiim. > 



THOMS, Bichard Bobert Bees, Esq., Conrt 
House, Qlaniorgansliire. 

Son of the late William Thomas, Esq ; d, 
Nov. 1 2th, 1823 ; a/, at the Swansea 
Grammar School ; m.j ist, Feb., 1857, 
Janet Jane, eldest dau. of Thomas Thomas, 
Esq., of Lechwan, Lanfabon ; 2ndly, Sep- 
tember, 1864, Anna Mary, daughter of 
Christopher Williams, Esq., of Llantwit 
Major; J. June, 1858; has issue two sons 
and one daughter. 

" Residence : Court House, Mcrthyr. 

Arms: A lion rampant, holding a laurel 
branch in the paw. 

Crest : A demi-lion as in arms. 
Motto : Floreat laurus. 

TEAHEENE, Anthony Powell, Esq., of Broad- 
lands, Olamorganshira 

Entered the army 17th Foot 29th July, 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



^3 



1853 ; Lieut. 6th June, 1854 ; Captain 4th 
December, 1857; served in the Crimean 
war from December, 1854, to end of the 
war; present at the assault of Redan i8th 
June, bombardment and surrender of 
Kinboum, medals and clasp; appointed 
adjutant of ist ad. Batt. Glamorgan Rifle 
Volunteers in August, 1863; J. P. for the 
CO. of Glamorgan; 3rd surviving son of 
Morgan Popkin Traherne, Esq., and Eliza- 
beth Margaret, his wife (nre Rickards) ; 
d. at Coytrehen, near Bridgend, 4th 
January, 1834 ;r^/. at Woolwich and Sher- 
borne; m., February 9, 1865, Lucy Lock- 
wood, dau. of the late Thomas Onslow, 
Esq. ; has issue one son, Onslow Powell. 

Heir: Onslow Powell. 

Residince : Broadlands, near Bridgend. 

Town Address: Naval and Military Club, 
Piccadilly. 

MoUo: Ofha Dduw a'r Brenhin : **Fear God 
and the King." 



TRAHEENE, Krs., of St. Hilary, Slamoi^aii- 
shire. 

Charlotte Louisa Traherne, of St Hilary 
and Coedriglan, widow of the Rev. John 
Montgomery Traherne, M.A., of Coed- 
riglan, F.R.S , F.S.A. ; Chancellor of Llan- 
daff ; J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan 
( d, s. p, i860) ; 3rd dau. of the late Thomas 
Mansel Talbot, Esq , of Margam and Pen- 
rice Castle, CO. Glam., by Lady Mary 
Lucy, dau. of Henr}- Thomas, and Earl of 
Ilch ester; is sister of C. R. Mansel Talbot, 
Esq., M.P. of Margam and Penrice Castle, 
Lord Lieut, of Glamorganshire since 1848 
(see Mansel Talbot of Margam); b, at Pen- 
rice Castle, Feb. sth, 1800 ; «., 1830, to 
Rev. John Montgomery Traherne (see for 
lineage, under George Montgomery Traherne 
of St Hilary); s. her husband i860 ; is 
patron of the livings of St. George-super- 
Ely, St Bride*s-super-Ely cum Michaelston- 
super-Ely. 

J/eir: To C(fedri/r/an, George Montgomer>' 
Traherne, Esq., nephew of Rev. John M. Tra- 
herne ; and to St. Hilary, Llewelyn Basset 
Saunderson, Esq., a cousin. 

Residence : St. Hilary, near Cowbridge. 

j4rms : Az., a chevron sable inter 3 choughs 
proper, on a canton barry of six arg. and az., a 
lion rampant gules. 

Afo/lo : Dives qui contentus. 

LINEAGE. 

For the Talbot lineage see Mansel- Tattoi of Mar- 
gam ; and for the TnSieme lineage, which traces 
directly in the female line through the Herberts of 



Swansea* progenitors of the Earls of Pembroke^ 
Powis, &C., see the next succeding article, and 
also pedijcm in Traheme's Hist, Notice of Sir Mai- 
thew Cradock^ At, 

AW.^-The family mansions at Coedriglan and St. 
Hilary are modem structures. On the estate is St, 
Georgis Castie in ruins, the manor belonging to which 
was given by Fitzhamon to Sir John Fleming (see Le 
Fleming of St, George* s and Fleniingston). An inte- 
resting specimen of the ancient Pigeon-house is found 
at Cadoxton-juxta-Darry. 



TUAFFiRNB, George Mont^fomery, Esq., of St. 
Eilaly, Glamorgansnire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan ; son of the 
late Rev. George Traherne, M.A., Univ. 
Coll., Oxford, Vicar of St. Hilary and 
Rector of St. George's, co. Glamorgan, by 
Ellin, dau. of the late John Gilbert Royds, 
Esq. ; b. at St Hilary, July 30, 1826; ed, 
at Brasenose Coll., Oxford ; grad. B.A. 
1849, M.A. 1853 ; m., in i860, Harriet 
dau. of the late Jonathan Beever, Esq., of 
Cefn Coch, in the co. of Denbigh. Mr. 
Traherne, as representing the eldest branch 
of the family, is heir to the Coedriglan 
estates. (See also Mrs, Traherne of St. 
Hilary.) 

Heir Presumptive: His brother, Llewellyn 
Edmund Traherne. Esq., late 60th Royal Rifles. 

Residence : St Hilary, near Cowbridge. 

Arms: Aig., a chevron sa. between three 
choughs proper, 2 and i ; on a canton barry of 
six, aig. and az., a lion rampant gu. 

Crest: A goat's head erased surmounting a 
wreath. 

Motto : Ofna Dduw a'r Brenhin ; ** Fear God 
and the king.'* 

LINKAGE. 

The Trahemes resided for many centuries at 
Castellau, near Llantrisant, which estate was sold 
in 1808, and at Coedriglan^ near Cardifi^ which 
still continues in their possession. They are de- 
scended through Sir George Herbert of Swansea 
from the sept of Einion ap Cotlwyn (temp, Wil- 
liam Rnfus), Lord of Senghenydd and Miskin 
after the conquest of Glamorgan by the Normans 
(see p. 495, and Einion ap Collwyn^ passim), 

William Edmund Traherne^ Esq., of Castellau, 
w., 1 6th Aug., 1630, Margaret Williams, dau. of 
William ap Jenkin ap William, of Aberpergwm, 
by Elizabeth Evans, dau. of Leyshon Evans, Esq., 
of Neath, by his wife Margaret Herbert, dau. of 
Mathew Herbert, Esq., of Swansea (see p. 585), 
of the lins of lestyn ap Grorgant, and had a son, — 

Edmund Traherne, Esq., of Castellau [d, 1697), 
whose wife was Prudence Llewelyn, dau. of John 
Llewelyn of Ynysygertvn, of the same ancient 
lineage. He left by her — 

Llewelyn Traherne, Esq., of Castellau {d, 1766, 
set. 8o)y who m, Anstance Wells, and had by her 
one son, Edmund (of whom again), and three 
daus., who all d. s, p, ; the youngest, Mary, m, 
John Llewellin, Esq., of Coedriglan, 



644 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Edmund Traheme, Esq., of CastelUu {(L 1795), 
m. twice, first to Mary, <uin. of Thomas Llewelyn, 
Esq., of Welsh SL Donat's, and had issue^ 

Llewelyn Tniheme. Esq. (^. 1766, d. 1S41), who 
by his first wife, Charlotte, dau. of John Edmondes, 
Esq., had a son, fohn Afontgomiry Traheme (see 
Mrs, Traherni of St. Hilary) ; and by his second 
wife, Barbara Maria Manning, had a son, — 

George Traheme, Clerk, M.A., Vicar of St. 
Hilary, &c. {d, 1852), who by his wife Ellin, dau. 
of the late John Gilbert Royds, Esq,, of Greenhill, 
CO. of Lancaster, had — 

George Montgomery Traherne, now of 
St. Hilary (as above). 



TEEDE&AB, Charles Korgraii Bobmson Morgan, 
Baron, Buperra Castle, Olamorgansmre. 

(See Tredegar^ Barony Tredegar Park, 
Monmouthshire.) 

ITIEBERYIIL, thomas Pioton, Esq., of 
Ewenny Abbey, Blamorganshire. 

B.-Major h. p. Royal Artillery; J. P. for 
the CO. of Glamorgan ; patron of the Dona- 
tive of Ewenny, St. Bride's Major, and 
Llandyfodwg; son of Captain Thomas 
Warlow, Bengal Engineers, eldest son of 
Thomas Warlow, Esq., of Castle Hall, co. 
of Pembr., a nephew of Gen. Sir Thomas 
Picton; b. 8th December, 1827; ed. at 
private school, and Royal Military Aca- 
demy \ m. Lucy Eliza Connop, only dau. 
of Lt.-Col. Henry Connop, Birdhurst, 
Croydon ; s. to the Ewenny estates in 
1S67, when he assumed the surname 
Turbervill. 

Heir Presumptive i His brother, John Picton 
Warlow, Esq. 

Residence : Ewenny Abbey, near Bridgend. 

T(jwn Address : Jun. United Service Club. 

Arms: Quarterly: ist and 4th, cheeky or 
and sable, a fesse erminois — Turbervill; 2nd 
and 3rd, per chevron or and gules, three escut- 
cheons, each charged with a tower counterchanged 
— Warlow. 

Crests: An eagle displayed sa., armed and 
wings tipped or, a crossbow erect in front of two 
swords in saltire ppr., pommels and hilts or. 

Afotto : " Avi numerantur avonim.** 

■ 

LINEAGE. 

The Carnes, possessors of Ewenny Abbey, by 
purchase at the dissolution, passed into the Turber- 
vills by m. of the heiress with Edward Tttrhervilly 
Esq., of Suttum, whose son, Richard Turbervill^ 
Esq., Sheriff of Glam. 1740, and M.P. for same 
CO. 1767, d» s. /., and settled his estates upon 
his 2nd wife (nie Herben, heiress of Cilybebyll) 
daring her lifetime, and afterwards upon— 

Richard Turbervill Picton, Esq. (eldest brother 
of General Sir Thomas Picton), son of his sister's 
'dan. (that sister being a dau. of Edward Turber- 
vill by the heiress of Watkin Lougher, Esq., of 



Tythepston ; and that daughter being her only 
surviving child by her second hosbond, Edward 
Powell, Esq., of Uandough), wife of Thomas 
Picton, Esq., of Poyston, co. of Pembroke. Mr. 
Picton now assumed the surname Turbervill ; High 
Sheriff of the co. of Glam. 1804 ; m. Margaret, 
dau. and co.-h. of the Rev. Gervase Powell. LL B., 
of Llanharan (see Pewell of Uanharati)^ by whom 
he had Richard, his heir, Gervase, and Elizabeth. 

Richard Turbervill, Esq., of Ewenny Abbey; 
Capt in Glam. Militia; Sheriff of the co. of 
Glam. 1833 ; J. P. and D. L. of the same co. ; d. 
s, p,, j|nd was j. by his brother, — 

Gervase P. Turbervill, Lieut. -Col. in the army ; 
J. P. and D. L., and Sheriff (1851), for the co. of 
Glamorgan ; he married twice, his 2nd wife being 
Sarah Anne, dau. of George Warry, Esq. He d. 
s. p. 1 86 1, and his estates went partly to his 
widow, and partly to his sister. Miss Elizabeth 
Turbervill of Comtown Court, near Bridgend. 

Thomas Picton Tl'rbervill, Esq. (as above), 
s. in 1S67. 

AVa — For the history of Ewenny Abbey and 
Priory see Ewenny Abb^^ and for further genea- 
logical details sec Turbervill of Tythegston ; Turbervill 
ofCoity Castle; Car ne of Ewenny ; A^icholl-Came of 
SI. I?onat*s, &C. 



TTLES, Colonel George E&nij, of Cottrell, 
Qlamorganshire. 

Lieut-Colonel in the army, and served in 
the Crimean war and in India ; eldest son 
of the late Sir George Tyler, Kt and Vice- 
Admiral, of Cottrell (J. P. and D. L. of co. 
of Glamorgan, M.P. for the same co. 
185 1-7), by Harriet Margaret, dau. of the 
Rt. Hon. John Sullivan, of Richings, Berks. 
Lady Tyler now resides at CottrelL Col. 
Tyler was d, 1824, and s. 1862 ; has brothers 
in the army ; his second surviving brother 
is Gwinnett Tyler, Esq., of Gemos, in the 
CO. of Cardigan, J. P. and D. I... for that 
co.j m.y 1852, Judith, dau. and h. of the 
late Major Parry of Gemos, and has issue. 

Residence : Cottrell, near Cardiff. 

Arms : Sa., on a fesse wavy or, between three 
tigers passant guaidant, a cross pattee of the first 
between two crescents gu. ; in centre chief a medal 
or (presented to Sir Charles Tyler for service at 
Trafalgar). 

Crest : A tiger salient guardant, navally crowned 
or, holding in dexter paw the French tricolor 
depressed and reversed. 

Note, — Cottrell, beautifully situated on rising ground 
near the high road from Cardiff to Cowbridge is locally 
celebrated as the home of Pees AfeyricJk, author of the 
Afonpania Archteographia (iS78). See Afeyrick of 
CottrelL 

TYIEE, Ee7. Roper Trevor, of IlaatrithycL 
&lamorgaiLshire. 

M.A., Rector of Llantrithyd, Glamorgan, 
and Vicar of Monachlog-ddu, Pembroke- 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



645 



shire; has been Rural Dean 34 years; 
formerly D9mestic Chaplain to King 
William IVi, when Duke of Clarence; 
J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan: second 
son of the late Admiral Sir Charles Tyler, 
1>.C.B., of Cottrell, Glamorganshire ; d. at 
Pembroke, 1801; «/. at Westminster 
School, and University College, Oxford; 
^ad. B.A. 1823, M.A. 1827; ///., August 
9, 1838, Isabel, 4th daughter of John 
Bruce Pryce, Esq., of Dyffryn, Glam. ; s. to 
the Mount Alyn estate, Denbighshire, 
1846; has issue 3 sons and 6 daughters. 

//eir: Eldest son, Trevor Bruce Tyler, of the 
Royal Horse Artillery, ^. 1841. 

kesidetice : Llantrithyd, near Cowbridge. 

Amu: Sa., on a fesse wavy orr between 3 
tigers passant guardant, a cross paltee of the first 
betw. two crescents gu., in centre chief a medal 
inscribed "Trafalgar." (See TyUr of Cottrell.) 

Crest : ^ A ti^er salient guardant navallv crowned 
or, holding in . dexter paw a French tricolor 
depressed and reversed. 

Motto : " My king and country." 

LINEAGE. 

The Tylers derive paternally from the Dacre 
and Teynham families, maternally from the 
Leaches of Corston and Aliens of Creselly, Pem- 
brokeshire. 



m 



lYITEE, Charles John EemeTS-, Esq., of Eeyes 
Habl7, &lamorgaiishir& 

J. P. and D. L. for cos. of Glamorgan, 
Monmouth, and Somerset; F.R.S. ; was 
M.P. forWest Somerset 1832— i837,andfor 
Bridgewateri847— i86s;onlysonoftheIate 
Colonel Charles Kemeys Kemeys Tynte, 
of Keven Mably, and of Halsewell, Somer- 
set, J. P. and D. L., F.A.S. ; b. 1800 ; tn , 
first, 1821, Elizabeth, dau. and co-h. with 
her sisters, Mrs. Bagot and Lady Pilking- 
ton, of the late Thomas Swinnerton, Esq., 
of Butterton Hall, co. of Stafford, and by 
her, who d, 1838, had issue surviving — 

Charles Kemeys Tynte, Esq., b. 1822. 

Secondly, 1841, Vincentia, dau. of the 
Lite W. Brabazon, Esq., of Rath House, co. 
Louth, and has had issue 6 sons and x 
dau., Vincentia Margaret Anne Kemeys. 

Heir : Charles Kemeys. 

/fesiilertees : Keven Mably, near Cardiff ; 
Halsewell House, Somerset. 

Town Address : United Service Club. 

Arms: The arms of Sir Charles Kemeys, of 
Keven Mably, figured and described in the 
Progress of the Duke of Beaufort (who visited the 
place in 1684), and "often repeated in Keven 
Mably" (we presume in the windows, on the 
mantelpieces, Ac.), were—" Vert, on a chevron 
arg. three barbed arrow-heads {fheons) sa,, im- 



paling those of his wife, dau. of Lord Wliarton, — 
Sa., a maunch org, on a bordure or, an orle of lions* 
faws erased in saltire gu" These still continue 
m the Kenuyt Tynte coat, having quarterai with 
them the Tynte of Halsewell insignia, viz., Cu., 
a lion couchant between six cross crossUis arg,; 
adding in a second grand quarter, '*az., two bars 
wavy arg., over all a bend gu.," and in a fourth 
the arms of Lupus, Earl of Chester. 



LINEAGE. 

The two families of Kemeys and Tynte were 
united by the marriage, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, of Sir John Tynte, second 
Bart, of Halsewell, Somerset, with Jane, dau. and 
h. of Sir Charles Kemeys, second mrt. of Keven 
Mably, who d. 1 702. 

Of the early period of the Kemeys family the 
accounts are somewhat confused, but it* is generally 
agreed that their origin was Norman. Ihey rose 
to prominence at the period of the conquest of 
G>i:ent and Glamorgan. 7*he origjinal form of the 
name is uncertain, although it is said to be Camois 
or Camys, identical with Camois in the Roll of 
Battle Abbey. That a bnmch settled in Pembroke- 
shire, and gave the name to the lordship of Cernmes 
in that county, is a mistake (see Barony of Cemmaes). 
They were known as " Kemeys of Began ** as early 
as the thirteenth century. David, grandson of 
yenkin Kemeys of Began, settled at I^ven Mably 
circa 1450, by marriage with the heiress Sibyl, 
dau. of Evan ap Llewelvn. His successors at 
Keven Mably intermarried with chief Welsh fami- 
lies of Gwent and Glamorgan, such as Gwyn of 
Senghenydd, Morgan of Madien (the Tredegar 
sept). His gr. gr. grandson,*— 

Edward Kemeys, Esq., of Keven Mably, was 
SheriflTof co. Glamorgan in 1575 ; and the. fourth 
possessor after him, — 

Sir Nicholas Kemeys, Sheriff of Glamorgan in 
163S, was cr. a baronet by Charles I. in 1642. His 
son was — 

Sir Charies Kemeys, second Bart above 
mentioned, whose dau. Jane, sole heiress after the 
death s,p, of her broth^. Sir Charles, third Bart., 
m. — 

Sir Tohn Tynte, BarL, of Halsewell, Somerset, 
who a. 1 7 10, and was succeeded by his son, — 

Sir Charles Kemeys Tynte, who d. s. />., and 
was succeeded by a son of his sister Jane, who had 
m. Colonel Johnstone of the Foot Guards, Comp- 
troller of the Household to George, Prince of Wales 
(George IV.). He assumed the name Kemeys 
Tynte, and M'as succeeded by his son, — 

Charles Kemeys Kemeys-Tynte, Esq., of Halse- 
well and Keven Mably, b. 1779; m. Anne, dau. 
of Rev. T. Lejrson, and had with other issue one 
son, — 

Charles John Kemeys-Tynte, now of Keven 
Mably (as above). 



TITIAN, Arthur Fendar?es, Esq., of Blanafon, 
Blamorganshire. 

. M.P. for the western division of the co. of 
Cornwall; Deputy Warden of the Stan- 
naries of Devon and Cornwall ; J. P. and 
D. L. for the co. of Glamoi^n; and 
Lt.-Col. I St Adm. Batt. Glamorgan Rifle 

2 u 



646 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



Volunteers; 3rd son of late John Henry 
Vivian, Esq., F.R.S., many years M.P. for 
Swansea, and brother of the first Baron 
Vivian ; b, in London, 4th of June, 1834 ; 
id, at Eton, the Mining Academy of 
Freiburg in Saxony, and Trin. Coll., Cam- 
bridge; fn,y 4th March, 1867, Lady 
Augusta Emily, dau. of the 3rd Earl of 
Dunraven ; has issue two sons,— 

X. Henry Windham. 

3. Gerald William. 

Hdr: Henrv Windham, b, 3ni Feb^ 1S68. 

Retidenct: Glanafon, Taibach, South Wales. 

Town Addrat: \% James Street, Buckingham 
Gate, S.W. 

Arms: Or, on a chevron azure, between three 
lions' heads erased ppr., three annulets or, &c. 
{Vide Baron Vivian, and Vivian^ Fork Wern.) 

Motto : Vive revicturus. 

LINEAGE, 

See Vivian of SingUion ; Vivian of Park Wem; 
and Baron Vivian of Glynn, 



TITIAir, Henry Hussey, Esq., of Park Wem, 
aiamorganflliire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamoigan ; 
Lieut-Col. of 4th Glamorganshire Rifle 
Volunteers; was M.P. for Truro 1852 — 
X 85 7, and has been M.P. for Glamorganshire 
from 1857 to the present time; eldest son 
of the late John Henry Vivian, Esq., M.P., 
F.R.S., of Singleton, Swansea, by Sarah, dau. 
of Arthur Jones, Esq.; b, at Singleton, Swan- 
sea, July 6, 182 1 ; ed. at Eton, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; m,^ ist, 1847, Jessie 
Dalrymple, d, Feb., 1848, dau. of Ambrose 
Goddard, Esq., of The Lawn, Swindon; 
2ndly, 1852, Caroline Elizabeth, only dau. 
of Sir Montague J. Cholmely, Bart., M.P., 
of Easton Hall, Grantham, d, 25 th Jan., 
1868; 3rdly, Nov. 3, 1870, Averil, dau. of 
Capt. Richard Beaumont, R.N. ; s, on 
death of his father in 1855 ; has issue one 
son, Ernest Ambrose, by first marriage; 
one son, John Aubrey, by second marriage ; 
a dau., Violet Averil Maigaret,^. 3rd Dec, 
1871, by third marriage; patron of the 
living of Sketty. 

Residence : Park Wem, Swansea. 

Town Address : 7, Belgrave Square. 

Arms : Or, on a chevron azure, between three 
lions' heads erased proper, as manv annulets of 
the Beld ; on a chief embattled, gules, a wreath 
of oak between two martlets. 

Crest: Issuant from, an arch between two 
towers, a demi-hussar, holding in left hand a 
pennon, in right a sabre. 

Motto : Vive revicturus (see Lord Vivian, in 
Peerage of England). 



LINEAGE. 

This fiunily is of the same descent as that of 
Baron Vivian of GWtin, ComwalL The late J. H. 
Vivian, F.R.S., of"^ Singleton, was brother of Sir 
Richard Hussey Vivian, Bait, of Gljrnn, created 
Baron of Glynn, near Truro, Cornwall, 1841, a 
Baronet 1828 ; who served with great distinc- 
tion under Wellington in the actions of Orthez, 
Waterloo, &c 

Note.'-'Parkwem is a modem elegant mansion in 
the beautiful neighbourhood of Sketty, near Swansea. 
Singieton (in the same neighbourhood), to which Mr. 
H. H. Vivian is heir, erected about iforty years ago, 
stands in an extensive park. 

TITIAir, William Graiiam, Esq., of djiLe 
Castle, Slamorganishire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
High Sheriff in 1866 ; second son of the 
late J. H. Vivian, Esq., F.R.S., of Single- 
ton, who was the first, and continued for 
twenty-three years, M.P. for Swansea; and 
nephew of the late Lord Vivian, of Glynn, 
Cornwall {d. 1855), by Sarah, dau. of 
Arthur Jones, Esq.; b. November 25, 
1827 ; ed, at Eton College. 

Residence: Clyne Castle, near Swansea. 

Town Address : 7, Belgrave Square. 

Arms: Or, on a chevron azure^ be twe en 
three lions' heads erased Ppr., three annnlets. 
( Vid. Baron Vivian,' vaA Vivian of Park fVem,) 

Motto: Vive revicturus.' 

LINEAGE. 
For lineage see Vivian of Park Wem, 

Note, — Clyne Castle is an old stone castellated house, 
recently much added to, containing a fine hall and 
extensive reception-rooms, situated on a hill-side, and 
conunanding a magnificent sea view, with Cljme 
Wood, 250 acres, immediately adjoining the house. 

WALTER, James, Esq., of Efynone, Slamorgan- 
shlre. 

J. P. of the borough of Swansea and of 
the CO. of Glamorgan; son of the late 
Thomas Walters, Esq., of Swansea; b. at 
Swansea ; was owner of iron-works and 
collieries; proprietor of the Ffynone 
estate, Swansea; is unm. 

Residence: Fenian, near Swansea. 
Arms: Or, a lion rampant sa., thrust through 
the body with two swords in saltire ppr. 
Crest: A dove with an olive branch ppr. 

Note. — ^The ancestors of this family, as may be seen 
from notices of them in Francis's Gower, had been 
long settled in that part of Gkunorgan. 

WnUAlKS, Charles Henry, Esq., of Boath 
Conrk, Slamorgansliira 

J. P. of the CO. of Glamorgan ; Capt. ist 
Glam. Light Horse Volunteers ; son of the 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF GLAMORGANSHIRE. 



647 



late Charles Crofts Williams, Esq., of Roath 
Court; b. 1837 ; ed, at Rugby School, and 
Magd. ColL, Cambridge; m,^ 1865, Mil- 
licent Frances, dau. of Robert Herring, 
Esq., of Cromer, Norfolk; has issue 2 
sons and 2 daus. 

Residence : Roath Court, Cardtflf. 

Town Address : Wyndham Club. 

Arms : Quarterly, per fesse indented : ist and 
4th. ««:., « lion i»s»iit guardant ; and ».d 3rd. 
az., a fleur-de-lis ai^. 

Crest : An embowed arm in armour grasping a 
sword. 

AfoUo : Esse quam videri. 

WniUAMS, Evan, Esq., of Dyfflryn Ffrwd, 
&lamorgaiishire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamorgan ; 
Sheriff for the same co. 1857 (see Sheriffs); 
eldest son of the late Henry Williams, 
Esq., of Dyffryn Ffrwd ; b, 1800 ; m^ 1834, 
Charlotte, dau. of William Thomas, Esq., 
of Cefnllogell, Mon., and has issue a son, 
Evan Thomas. 

Heir : Evan Thomas, ^. 1841 ; J. P. for co. 
of Glamorgan ; is m. 

Residence : Dyffryn Ffrwd, near CardifT. 

Arms : Quarterly : 1st and 4th, vert, a chevron 
between three cockatrices' heads erased or — 
WiLUAMS ; 2nd and 3rd, sa., a lion rampant aig. 
— Lewis. 

Crest : A cockatrice's head, as in arms. 

LINEAGE. 

Thomas ap Evan of Eglwysilan, who d. 1612, 
son of Evan ap Meuric {d. 1752), had a son,— 

Evan ap Thomas (3. 1581, d. 1666), who m. 
Catherine, dau. of Edward Lewis, Esq., of Llani- 
shen, and had with other children — 

Tliomas ap Evan of Eglwysilan, i. 1615; m, 
Eleanor, dau. of Morgan Jones, D.D., of Framp- 
ton, CO. of Glamorgan. He was succeeded by lus 
eldest son, — 

Thomas Thomas (or Thomas, jon of Thomas), 
b, 1636; m. Catherine, eldest dau. of Edward 
Watkin, and had a son, — 

Evan Thomas, Esq., of Dyffryn Ffrwd, in 
Eglwysilan, the first named as of DWrryn Ffrwd ; 
m. Jane, dau. of Philip ap Edward Herbert, by 
whom, with other issue, he had — 

Evan Thomas, Esq., m. Ann, dau. of William 
Gibbon, of Pen-Craig-vatha, b, 1702. They had 
no surviving male issue, and only one dau., — 

Mary Thomas, h. of Dyffryn Ffrwd {p. 1721, 
d. 1814) ; m, Morgan Williams, Esq., of Pendwy- 
lon {d, 1785) ; had issue Morgan, Thomas, and 
Henry, The survivor, — 

Henry Williams, Esq., x. to Dyffryn Ffrwd, and 
had a son, — 

Evan Williams, Esq., the present owner, as 
above. 

WILLIAMS, ewilym, Esq., of Hiskin ICanor, 
Glamorganshire. 

Stipendiary Magistrate for the Pontypridd 
District 1872 ; for several years J. P. 



for the CO. of Glamorgan; a Barrister 
called to the Bar at the Middle Temple 
x86-; eldest and only surviving son of 
the late David Williams, Esq., of Ynys- 
cynon, co. of Glamorgan; b. 183-; m. 
Emily Williams, dau. of the late William 
Williams, Esq., of Abcrpergwm, a well- 
known and ancient Welsh family, seated 
at Aberpergwm about 300 . years^ (see 
Williams of Aberpergwm)^ and has issue ; 
.r. to the estate of Miskm, &c., obtained 
by purchase, on the demise of his father, 
1856. (See Miskin^ Lordship of.) 

Residence: Miskin Manor, near Pontypridd. 
. Town Address: The Middle Temple. 

WmiAHS, Morgan Stuart, Esq., of Aberper- 
gwm, Qlmorganshire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Glamorgan; eldest 
surviving son of the late William Williams, 
Esq., of Aberpergwm (</. 1855), J. P. for 
the CO. of Glamorgan, and Sheriff for same 
CO. in 1830, by Matilda, dau. and h. of 
Thomas Smith, Esq., of Castellan, co. of 
Glamorgan ; b. 1846 ; is unm. 

Residence: Aberpergwm, near Neath. 

Arms : Quarterly : 1st and 4th, sa., three fleurs- 
de-lis aig.— EiNiON AP COLLWYN ; 2nd and 3rd, 
or, three chevrons arg.— Iestyn ap Gwrcant. 

Crest: The holy lamb and flag. 

Afotto : Y ddioddefws i oriii : *' Suffered that he 
might conquer.** 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Aberpergwm is as well known in 
Wales for its honourable and ancient s ta nding as 
for its warm and unaffected patriotism. Aberper- 
gwm, in the Vale of Neath, has been iu seat for 
seven or eight generations, /./., since Jenkin ap 
William apjenlun ap Hopkin of Blaen-Baglan, a 
descendant in direct tine (through Evan ap Leyson, 
Lord of Baglan) of Iestyn ap Gwigant, by Caradoc, 
his eldest son, settled at that place n>n> 1560. 

Jenkin. ap William, of Blaen-Baglan, m. Angha- 
rad, dau. of Llewelyn ap Gwilym of Garreg-fawr, 
and granddau. of John ap Rhys of Glyn Nedd (of 
whom see note below), and was socoeeded by his 
eldest son, — 

William ap Jenkin, of Glyn NAdd or Aberper- 
gwm, m, to his second wife, Mary, dau. of Leyson 
Price (or Ap Rhys), Esq., of Briton Ferry, being 
widow of Matthew Penry, genL, of Llanedi, and 
by her had with other issue — 

Leyson Williams, Esq., his successor at Aber- 
pergwm (living 1638), He iw., fiist, Anne, dau. 
of Thomas Bassett, Esq., of Miskin, and widow of 
John Llewelyn Williams, Esq., of Ynysygcrwn, 
who d, s. p.; secondly, Mary, dau. of William 
Bassett, Esq., of Beaupre, by whom he had a 
son,— . 

George Williams, Esq., of Abcrpergwm (l»ving 
• 1665). From him descended — 

Rees Williams, Esq., of Abcrpergwm, who had 
three sons, William, Rees, and Thomas, clerk. 



QLAM0RGAN5HIRE. 



William WilUaim, Eu., Ute of Aberpeiprai, 
whole lealou* culture or Che Cymric toneue and 
> tha history and Craditioni of his 



hil earlier manhood ii . „ 

that time attained a coniidemble knowledge of 
Continental Uncunges. After his return he m., 
tS37, Matilda, dau. and h. of Col. Thotnoj Smith, 
of Castellan, near Pontypridd, and had ionc four 
ions and two dans. The sons vere Rhys, Lleision, 
UargaH Stuail, and Geoi^ all old bmily names. 
Mr. Willianu iL in 1355, and was buried at the 
church of Aberpcrgmn. The tvo elder sons 
having J. i. p., the Uiird son, — 

MoRRAK Stuart Williaus, has siuxeeded to 
Aberpcrgwm (ai above). 

A'oft, — For a view of Abtrpergam see p. 475. 
John af Rhyt, of Glyn-nMd— the older name of the 
place, — through mar. with whose gianddiu. (see 
Liatagt above) Jenltin ap William came lo Aberper- 
gwm, was a man of marie in his day, kept a hospitable 
house, and was a friend of the " bards." We knou' 
this Irom a poem addressed to him, in the usual 
bardic style of bonodless eulogy, by the best historic 
poet Wales possesses — Laeit Clyn Cetki (fifteenth 
century). He gives the festive btnid of Aberpergwro 
the next place to that of Arthur's palace; the language 
spoken there was the ancient speech of the Britons 
("heniaich y Brytoniaid"} ; John ap Rhys was chief 
of the gentry from Gower to Mary's church and to 
North Wales; the bani wished for himself cold and 
sickness if John ap Rhys was nut the dearest of the 
sons of Japhet (" OS oes ei ho&ch owaed Siaphedd"); 
his &me equalled that of Setfa, of three quarters of the 
globe, even of the land of Israel, and of " the three 
bountiful ones," &c ; ht is not excelled in peace, ski 
(his wife, " of the seed of Watkin Llwyd," of Brecon) 
in the bottomless abundance of her mead f"rigion 
medd"}; he knew not their like; the sncconr of 
Mary (and several saints) be to Elizabeth, and that of 
the angels to Non of Glim Nedd, &c The annotator 
of the poem remarks, "The same language which was 
spoken at Aberpergwm in the middle of the fifteenth 
century is still (l8S7) not only spoken there, but 
coltivaied." 

The country between the rircrt Neath (NMd) and 
Avon, the stream which joins the sea at Aberavon, 
belonged to the lordship of Avan, which was pos- 
sessea after the Fitihamon conquest by Caradoc, 



rrNidd. 

WnUAHS, Tlie 7er7 Bar. Thomas, tlie 
Deuiei7, T.lftnriflff^ OlamorgEUishira 
Dean of Lkndaff 1857 j Archdeacon of 
Lla n d a ff 1843 — 1857; Examining Chap- 



Iain to late and present Bishop of Llandaff'; 
Author of " Letter to ihc Bishop of Llan- 
daff on the Condition and Wante of the 
Diocese," various Sermons and Chaises, 
&c. ; eldest son of the late Robert Wil- 
liams, Esq., of Abcrbran, Breconshire ; is 
Patron of the Priory Church of St. John's, 
Brecon ; b. at Monmouth, Atigust 10, 1801 ; 
(d. at Shrewsbury School, and Oriel Coll., 
Oxford ; grad. ist class Lit. Hum. B A, 
1833, M.A. iSaS; m., 1828, Elizabeth, 
dau. of Archdeacon Davies, M.A., of 
Brecon ; has issue 4 sons and 3 daus. living. 

Htir : Rev. Gamons Williams, of Abercam- 
lais, llrecon. 

JiaUiaet : The Deanery, Llandaft 

Armt ! Arg., a chevron gu. between three 
bulls' heads aa. (quartering Pairy of Llwyn- 
cynlefin, Camimi, and Daviet). 

Crest! A bull's head. 

SIMt 1 Fide et amorcv 

LINEAGE. 

This Gunily derives its descent from Sir Thomas 
Bullen, one of Bemaid Newmarch's knighla. The 
pedigree and descent of At>erbrin, without alien- 
ation, from the time of Edward III., may t>e seen 
in Jones's //ist. of Braetuhire, ii., 701. See also 
fVUiiams ef Aienamlaii. 



WOOD, Edwaid Bobert, £sq., of Stoatliall. eia- 
iikorgaii8lilr& 
J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Glamoigan ; 
Shei^ff for same co. 1861; LieuL-CoL 
of Royal Glam. Inf. Militia, and formerly 
an officer in the army ; son of the late 
John Wood, Esq., of Cardiff; m. Mary, 
dau. and h. of the late CoL J. Nicholas 
Lucas, of StouthalL 



NiiU. — John Lucas of Stouthall iw. Catherine, dau. 

of William PowelJ, Esq., of Glanareth, Llangadock, 
Carm., by his wife Catherine, dau. of John Ikiwen, 
Esq. , of Gurrey, Carm. W. Powell was murdered in 
his own house, and thereupon followed a celebrated 
trial at Hereford which resulted in the execution of 
Walter Evan and David Llewelyn, 30th March, 1770. 
William Williams, the principal, had successfully 
made his escape to France. 



3rms of Slamoripn. 



ANNALS, &c., OF WALES. 



MERIONETHSHIRE 

(Meirionydd). 

The name Merioneth — a near approach to the Cymric form, although, in its present 
application to a county^ of a date only contemporary with the Statute of Rhudillan (a.d. 
1284) — is to be ranked as one of the ancient territorial designations of Wales. Meirion^ 
lineal in descent from Cunedda, and brother of Meurig, King of South Wales, whose daughter 
married Rhodri the Great, and therefore flourishing in the early part of the ninth century, 
was Lord of Meirionydd^ and gave the district over which he ruled his name. That 
district, however, was by no means co-extensive with the present " county," but formed 
the tract on the sea-coast between the rivers Dyfi and Maw, and inland as far as Cader 
Idris, which, in the topographical division of Wales into eantrefs and camots^ about the 
time of the last Prince Llewelyn or earlier, was distinguished as the eantrefoi Meirion, To 
this and the other eantrefs reference will again be made. The terminating yddy or eth^ is 
one of common occurrence in ancient Welsh names of districts, as in Maelien^//^/, Gwin- 
ionyddy Eivion^//^, Mefen^^/// and seems to have had the meaning of a tract or extent of 
country belonging to the person whose name formed the preceding part of the word. 
Merioneth, in ancient Cymric and Latin records, takes the various forms, Meirionnith, 
Meyronnith, Meironit, Meronnyth, &c 



Sectign L— physical DESCRIPTION OF MERIONETH. 

This county, beyond question the wildest and most picturesque in Wales, may be 
described .as a series of mountains with just sufficient breaks in valleys, gullies, and 
chasms to separate them. Its nearest approach to a plain is the celebrated Vale of Edeir- 
nion, on the Dee, beyond Bala. The mountains are too abrupt and craggy to admit of an 
elevated table-land of any size. 

The county takes the general form of a triangle, nearly equilateral. The side lying on 
the Cardigan Bay, extending from Abcrdyfi (corruptly " Aberdovey") to Beddgelert, is about 
thirty-seven miles in a straight line; the other sides proceeding from these points, and after 
various deviations from a direct course meeting on the river Dee in the Vale of Llangollen, 
are between forty and fifty miles each. The entire triangle has an area of 666 square 
miles, or 385,291 acres. How much of this surface is arable land it would be perilous to 
say : a much larger proportion would be desolate moorland, or bare and craggy rock ; but 
in narrow intervals between the hills, where the cataracts leap, and the small rivers pursue 



650 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

their lively and noisy courses, there are found scenes of smiling fertility and beauty, abysmal 
steeps and tangled primitive forest, the charms of which it is impossible for any effort of 
imagination to surpass. No part of Britain more bewitchingly invites the artist, or more 
sweetly regales the intelligent tourist. 

The population of Merioneth has been less affected by the stimulus of growing trade 
than that of several other counties of the Principality. The great slate quarries of Festiniog, 
however, and the port of Portmadoc, an auxiliary to the trade they have developed, have 
drawn a large accession to the north-western comer of the county ; while the formation of 
railways along the coast connecting Cardiganshire with Carnarvonshire, and through the heart 
of the county from Llangollen to Barmouth, in obedience to the modern spirit of travel and 
the behests of this county's physical attractions, have operated in the same way at various 
other points. In 1801 the population of Merioneth was 27,506. Through the last five 
decades it stood as follows : — 

Total population of Merioneth in 1 83 1 ... 35»<5o9 

„ „ 1841 ... ... ... ... 39>33^ 

„ „ 1851 ... ... ... ... 3^9^43 

„ „ 1861 ... ... ... ... 38,965. 

„ „ 1871 .... ... ... ... 47>3^9 

These census results show only a trifling increase in the thirty years preceding i86x; 
but in the ten years following the increase is more than a fifth of the sum-total of the 
inhabitants. 

The great physical outlines of the county, traced by its mountains and valleys, rivers 
and estuaries, are well defined. Cader Idris, 3,914 feet above the sea level, is not in fact 
the loftiest elevation in the county, although it enjoys a wider fame than any other, for 
Aran Mowddwy, or Mawddwy, a less precipitous and therefore less interesting mass, some 
fifteen miles to the north-east of it, attains a height of 2,955. feet These mountains are 
the boldest heights, terminating in the south-west of the great Berwyu range running 
nearly the whole length of the county on its southerly side, and dividing it generally by various 
spurs and windings from Montgomeryshire and Denbighshire. The third great elevation 
in this range is Cader Fronwen, some seven miles south of Corwen, and measuring 2,563 
feet West of Bala, and near the centre of the county, is a group of mountains called tlie 
Arenigt of which the Arenig Fawr, 2,809 feet is the highest point The HarUch range, 
stretching nearly due north, parallel with the coast from Barmouth to Festiniog, and in 
apparent relation with the royal heights of Snowdon, is the third system of mountains in 
this rugged county, but its highest points fall considerably short of the other elevations. 
We have already said that no extensive table-lands exist ; but in the Central parts between 
the triangularly situated points of Bala, Dolgelley, and Festiniog, there is a general elevation 
of the mountain bases, which causes this part to be the great watershed of Merionethshire. 
Here the chief streams and their tributaries have their birth. Here is situated that ridge, 
scarcely perceptible to the eye even when the spectator stands upon it, which makes the 
tiny rivulet, the beginning of the Dee^ to run in one way in search of the Bala lake, and the 
equally diminutive Wnion to turn in another in search of Dolgelley and a confluence with 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MERIONETH. 651 

the Mawddach. In this high region spring the Cain and the Eden, which, with other 
streams, form the Maw^ and, along with the Wnion, which they join below Dolgelley, pursue 
their widening course to the estuary of Barmouth, environed by scenes of picturesque beauty 
which the banks of the Rhine can only approximately rival Here also, from the bosom of 
the high Arenig (2,809 feet), the Lliw and the Trywerin, both contributing to the Dee, and 
the stream of Cwm Prysor, which travels by Trawsfynydd to join the Dwyryd and Tracth 
Bach in the Cardigan Bay, take their rise. This is a region of mist, bogs, and lakes, of 
wild fowl and diminutive sheep, of humble cottages, turf fires, simple and shy manners, and 
withal nearly unmixed Celtic blood. No coach-road has yet traversed it, and no railway 
ever will invade it, — unless, indeed, some treasures of gold, copper, or slate, as yet undis- 
covered, should tempt the enterprise of the ages coming to form one. On the heights of 
Festiniog to the north, multitudes have gathered to work the cleavage rocks ; in the con- 
trary direction the fair valley of the Dee, Bala Lake, and the delightful ravine of the Wnion, 
Dolgelley, and Cader Idris, are thronged in summer by sight-devouring tourists from all 
lands ; but as yet the moors, heaths, and craigs of Craig y Dituu^ LUch Idris^ Bedd Porus^ 
and Mynydd yr Wden^ are left in their undisturbed quietude, and the Cymry here have it 
all their own way. 

The Dysynni river, which ends its course at Towyn, has its proper head in the Llytty or 
lake, '* Meingul," but receives additions to its volume from the various streamlets which issue 
from the sides of Tal-y-Uyn ('' the lake eminence ") and Cader Idris, and traverses the region of 

Cantref Meiriorty 

ruled in ancient times by the chieftain whose name is now impressed upon the whole 
county, and which included the three comots of — 

TcUybont^ Ystunumer^ Pennal, 

In the last-named comot (which has sometimes been considered as part only of Ystu- 
maner), and near the modem village of Pennal, was fought a great battle in the fifteenth 
century between the Yorkists, under William, Earl of Pembroke, and the Lancastrians, led 
by Thomas ap Gruffydd ap Nicholas (of Dinefawr, father of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap 
Thomas), who won the day. These York and Lancaster conflicts (the Wars of the Roses) 
led eventually to the placing of the Welshman, Henry VII., on the English throne, greatly 
through the aid of the said Sir Rhys ap Thomas. (See p. 240.) This whole district is wild 
and romantic. Aberdyfi is a little town growing into prominence ; and so is Towyn ; the 
situation of both being inviting to the passing visitor, through the unsurpassed salubrity of 
the climate, magnificence of the sands, and charms of the inland scenery. Near Pennal 
are the mansions of Esgair and Pantlludw (see Ruck of Pantiludw); Talgarth Hall (see 
Thruston of Talgarth Hall); Pennal Toioer (see Thruston of Pennal Tower) ; Uugwy (see 
Anwyl of Uugwy) ; Bryn-awel i^^t Pughe of Bryn-awel) ; and Ynys-ymaengufyn (see Corhei 
of Ynys-y-maengwyn). Across the Dysynni we are in the ancient comot of Talyboni^ rich in 
memories and grand in aspect Here we immediately encounter the mansion and demesne 
of Peniarthy famous in modem times as containing the most valuable collection of Welsh 
MSS. extant, and certainly one of the most interesting in its bearing upon Celtic literature 
and Cymric history in Europe — the British Museum alone excepted. 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION— PENIARTH ; TALYBONT. 653 

This ancient seat of the Wynne £unily is situated in the parish of Llanegiyn^ and on the 
north bank of the DysynnL The present house b a laz^e, square, substantial building, 
partly built in 1700, partly in 18x2. To the north is a wing of large dimensions, erected 
some time after the older part of the house. ' It contains the billiard-room, some offices, 
and bedrooms. The more ancient part of Peniarth was pulled down when the house was 
altered, in 181 2. It is said to have been of great antiquity, but had no architectural 
features to denote its age. It came into possession of* Griffith ap Aron, an ancestor of the 
present owner, by a mortgage dated in 141 6, which was never redeemed. 

Peniarth is especially remarkable for its library of printed books, and manuscripts of 
very great value. The collection of books here was a very valuable one prior to the 
bequest by the late Sir Robert Williames Vaughan, Bart, of the celebrated ** Hengwrt 
MSS." to his friend and kinsman, Mr. Wynne. Amongst the printed books we may mention 
Cranmer's Bible^ printed on vellum in 1539, and beautifully illuminated, of which three 
copies only issued from the press; a probably unique copy of the Speculum vita Christie 
printed by Caxton; a beautiful copy of the very rare Welsh Testament of 1567, edited by 
Salusbury. Amongst the MSB. is the celebrated Sanct Great; the still more celebrated 
Black Book of Carmarthen^ part of which was written about the year 11 90, and is believed 
to be in the handwriting of Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr (Cynddelw the great poet) ; and the 
Book of Taliesin^ written soon after the year 1200. 

Talybont, somewhat more than two miles from Peniarth, near the road to Towyn, gives 
its name to the extensive comoty now ^ hundred,** in which it stands, and is the manor-house of 
the ancient manor of Talybont, It was in the possession of Prince Llewelyn, and afterwards 
of the sovereigns of England till the reign of James I., when it became the property of the 
Owens of Peniarth from whom it descended to the Wynnes. (See Wynne of Peniarth.) 

Prince Llewelyn, in 1275, dates his letters to the Archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, and their suffragans in council, in London, from this place. (See hereafter History 
of Merionethshire^ In 1295 King Edward I. dates a charter from hence. 

There are no vestiges of the residence which Llewelyn owned here ; but it is probable 
that the large artificial mound, close to the bank of the Dysynni, formed part of its defences. 

On a rock in the comot of Talybont, upon the bank of the little river Llaethnant (*' the 
milk stream "), was situated, says Vaughan the antiquary, of Hengwrt, a strong castle 
called Castelly Biri^ built, he thinks, by the Earl of Chester, when GrufTydd ap Cynan, 
Prince of North Wales, was his prisoner. In the parish of Llangelynin, close by the shore, 
are the ruins, according to the same eminent antiquary, of Caer Bradwen, the stronghold 
of the chieftain Bradwen, father of Ednowain, founder of one of the fifteen noble tribes of 
North Wales. 

To the east of Talybont, in the ancient British — 

Cantrefoi Cedewain and Comot of Mawddu% 

lies Mallwyd^ a parish " delightftilly situated between the salient angles of three abrupt 
mountains," and rendered popular to the Welsh people by the residence there in the middle of 
the seventeenth century of Dr. John Davies {d, 1644), author of a Welsh and Latin Lexicon 
(Antiqua Lingua Brit, Rttdimenta^ 162 1), and assistant of Bishop Parry of St. Asaph in 
the translation of the Bible into Welsh (or rather, in the re-editing of Dr. Morgan's trans- 



654 * MERIONETHSHIRE. 

lation), the son of a ** poor weaver of Llanferres," but withal of a good fomil/y for he was 
entitled to call ^ Vaughan of Hengwrt ** his *' cousin " (Yorke*s Hoya/ Triies; and Dr. 
Davies' Letter to Sir John Wynne of Gwydir, Cambr. Reg., iL, 470). He was a man of 
extensive attainments and great worth, and ''out of his own means built three public 
bridges for his parish." Penetrating two or three miles farther into the Berwyn Hills we 
come upon Dinas Mawddwy and Llan-yn-Mawddwy, which with Mallwyd formed the comot 

• 

of Mawddwy, in the ancient division of Wales, belonging to the princedom of Pawys Wen^ 
wynwyn. This is pre-eminently, even in Merionethshire, a region of hills, the piled-up 
outskirts of a stormy sea of mountains stretching across Bwlch-y-groes as far as Bala Lake 
northwards, and as far as Cader Idris westwards, with scarcely room for the rivulets and the 
high<4roads to pass side by side between. Llan-yn-Mawddwy is noted in more modem times 
for its succession of learned rectors ; but the whole region around has recently felt a power- 
ful and beneficial impulse from the formation of the new demesne of Fids Dinas Mawddwy^ 
the property of Sir Edmund Buckley, Bart (See Buckley of Fids Dinas Mawddwy.) 

After some years ago becoming possessed of the Dinas Mawddwy estate, the proprietor 
added thereto, by purchase and exchange, laige tracts of surrounding lands, and has con- 
solidated a wide and compact estate. By the addition of Eunant and Rhiwaigo in the co. 
of Montgomery, aQd Aberhimant in Merioneth, his domain now extends from below 
Mallwyd to near the town of Bala. This magnificent chaotic district contains spots of the 
most exquisite beauty, as well as extensive tracts where Nature disports herself in 
her most abandoned and uncultured wildness. . The formation is of the Cambrian series, 
and contains lead mines and slate. The enterprising proprietor opened' up the district in 
2867 by the construction at his own expense of a public railway, seven miles long, called 
the Mawddwy line, traversing the fair valley of Dyfi, and joining the Cambrian Railway at 
Cemmaes Road station. 

The old house of the M3rttons has been replaced by the sumptuous mansion of Plas 
Dinas Mawddwy, now (1872) nearly completed. It is situated at the foot of the rugged 
** Mod y Dinas " (" the stronghold eminence "), on a small plateau, just sufficiently laige for 
the ornamental grounds and gardens of such an establishment, near the fall of the little river 
Cerest into the Dyfi (Dovey). 

The scenery around, in boldness all that mountains can make it, is enlivened by tiny 
well-wooded valleys, frequent ca.scades rushing over precipitous rocks, and tastefully laid -out 
plantations ; the lofty rocks of Cowarch are nigh, and the bold peak of Aran Fawddwy, 
about five miles off, visible from great distances, is on the estate. 

Among the few antiquities of this neighbourhood is the old oratory or religious house 
of Cae Abaity^ of which a rude arch in one of the farm buildings, and a part of a massive 
refectory table, are the only vestiges remaining. There is a well in the grounds of the Fids 
formerly held in esteem for its sanitary virtues, or '^ miraculous .cures," and the bridge over 
the Clywedog near Mallwyd, called Fontrhyd-y-CleiJbn ("the invalids' bridge"), is thought 
to bear allusion to it. The name Cwm yr Eglwys (" the church vale ") seems to intimate 
the existence at one time of a church at Ffridd Gilcwm, but no signs of it now remain. 

The hill of ^' Moel y Dinas," above the mansion, is supposed to have been the natural 
stronghold of the district, and for this purpose it was well suited, both by its form, and 
the springs of water which issue from its spacious summit 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION— PlAs DINAS MAWDDWY. 655 



3 ts 



6s6 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

Sir Edmund Buckley is Lord of the Manor of Mawddwy, a manor having peculiar 
privileges descending fixiin its first lord, William de la Pale, or WiU Cech p Fawddwy ("red 
Will of Mawddwy"), who in 1289 had a grant of the district from his brother, Owen ap 
Gniffydd, son of Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys Wenwynwyn, who preserved his territories 
by becoming a tributary to King John, and holding them in capile. The lord of the manor 
appoints the mayQT of the ancient borough of Dinas Mawddwy, who has magisterial 
authority, fallen, however, into desuetude beyond the committal of offenders to the stocksor 
iron fetters, called " Y neg lawr." This, together with the town " mace," is kept at the Plfls 
as the only insignia of the former municipal government The mayor is selected from 
amongst the burgesses, and half-yearly leet-courts are regularly held, and well attended. 

The old town of Dinas is rapidly disappearing, as its houses are taken down one after 
another to make room for the improvement and enlargement of the grounds about the PMs ; 



Plas Dinas Maw di>wv— Front View. 

while, to the advantage of its inhabitants, a new town is rising near the Mawddwy nulway 
station and the Minllyn slate and slab works, which bids fair to surpass in importance the 
ancient " city," and will be considerably nearer the parish church of Mallwyd. 

One portion of Sir Edmund's estate, that o( Dugoed ("Blackwood"), near Uidiart 
y Barwn (" the Baron's Gate "), on the road from Mallwyd to Welshpool, is well known as 
the scene of an atrocious murder, committed by a party of bandits called Gwilliaid Cochtoit 
Mawddwy ("the red vagabonds of M.-iwddwy "), the following account of which was written 
by the celebrated Robert Vaughan, Esq., of Hengwrt, who was great-grandson of the un- 
fortunate Baron Owen : — 

" Lewis Owen [of Llwyn, near Dolgellau], Esq., vicechamberlaine & Boron of y* Excheq. 



DINAS MAWDDWY; STORV OF "BARON OWEN." 657 

of North Wales, lived in great credit and authoritie, in y* tyme of King Henry 8, Edtr. 6, 
and Queen Mary, as it appeareth by their letters under sign Manuell directed to him and 
John Wynne ap Meredith of Gwedir, Esq'^ touching matters that concerned the peace 
and quiet govemmm of the country, as the apprehending of and punishing of felons and 
outlaireys (wrhich from the civille warres betweene Yorke and Lancaster abounded in ya 
countrcy, and never left robbing, burning of houses, and murthering of people, in soe much 
that being very numerous they did often drive great droves of cattell sometymes to y number 
of a hundred & more from one countrey to another at middle day, as in the tyme of warre 
with out fcare, shame, pittie or punishm', to the utter undoin of the poorer sorte); And 
they in y performance of the dutie required by some of those letters (being authorized to 
call to theyr ayde the power of the counties, and alsoe to keep sessions of goal delivery when 



Plas Disas MAwnowv— Side View. 

occasion required) raysed a great company of lalle and lustie men ; and on a Christmas 
eave tooke above 80 felons and outlawes, whome they punished according to the nature of 
theire delinquencies ; as the noble 3' Jo. Wynn of Gwedir, Knt. and Baronet [author of the 
History ef lite Gjuydir Family, d. ist of March, 1626-7], grandchild of the fonner John 
Wynn, often tould me. The letters aforesaid I have seen and read, and ore yet extant in 
the house of Gwedir. Aftenrards the said Letvis Owen, being High Shcriffe of y county 
of Merioneth, and having occasion to goe to Montgomeryshire assizes, to treat with y* Lord 
of Mouihewy, about a marriage to be had betweene Jo'' Owen, his sonnc h hcire, 
& y" daughter of y* sayd Lord of Mouthewy, was in his returne met by a damned crew of 



65S MERIONETHSHIRE. 

thieves & oodaweSy who in the thick woods of Mouthewy lay in wayt lor his coaaog, and 
had cott downe long trees to ciosse y way and hinder his |nssag!ey & beii^ come to the 
place, they let flie att him a shower of anowes, whereof one lighted in his hce^ the which 
he took ont with his hand & brake it; then they all feU opon him with theire bills and javelings 
&. killed him. His men upon the first assault fledd, &. left him onely accompanied with his 
son in law, John Llwyd of Keiswyn, Esq**' who defended him till he fell down to the groond 
as dead, where he was found having above 30 bloody wounds in his body. Thb craell 
« mnrther was committed about Alhallowtide in y^ yeare of our Lord 1555. And the 
murtherers soone after were for y* most parte taken & executed, some few fledd the land & 
never returned. And soe with.the losse of his life he purchased peace & quietnes to his 
countrey, the w^ God be praised we enjoy even to o' dayes." 

Baron Owen was murdered on the nth of October (1555), not far from a place still 
called Uidiart y Barwn (*'the Baron's Gate"). There is a tradition extant which relates 
that the mother of a young man who was executed when the first batch of the outlaws 
were apprehended, earnestly besought Baron Owen to spare his life; but her entreaties 
were refiised. ** Then,** exclaimed the enraged mother, baring her bosom, ^ these breasts 
have nourished those who will avenge my son and wash their hands in the blood of their 
kinsman's murderers 1 " 

The first Gwilliaid or their captains are said to have been at one time persons of property, 
masters of ^ eighty hearths,*' and rendered desperate by some acts of oppression. The site of 
their chief mansion is still shown in the upper part of the farm of Dugoed Mawr. These 
having become outlaws, rallied round them all the turbulent spirits of the neighbourhood. 
The whole property belonging to several branches of the fiunily was forfeited, excepting 
one £irm, Dugoed Issa, the owner of which, though a relation, was endowed with more 
prudence or honesty than his fellows. This farm was sold to the late Sir Watkin W. 
Wynn above 100 years ago. These men fixed scythes in the chimneys of Dugoed Mawr, 
to prevent the robbers from entering the house, but they were removed, as is known to 
persons living, some sixty years since. The Dugoed estate was sold by Sir Watkin 
W. Wynn to the late Mr. Buckley, senior, of Ardwick. 

The marriage alluded to in the foregoing account between John, son and heir of Baron 
Owen, and Ursula, daughter of Richard Mytton, of Plis y Dinas, Lord of Mawddwy, took 
place, and they had several children, who became by marriage allied with some of the 
principal families of the county. 

Quitting the romantic defiles of Dinas Mawddwy, — 

" Once for freemen hiding-places, 
Lurking-places for the robber band," 

the road to Bala, in one direction, mounts the lofty pass of Bwich-y-groes^ and looks straight 
on to the basin of the Dee ; in another direction it makes for Dolgelley over the pass of 
Bwlch'Oer-ddrws (" the cold doorway pass"), a name which is not inappropriate. Immediately 
around is a bleak and dismal waste, but as the eye traverses the distance and surveys the 
heights of Cader Idris, the wooded basin of the Maw, and the deep depression through 
. which the Wnion rushes down to Dolgelley, the environment of the estuary of Barmouth, 
and the range of the Harlech Mountains, the prospect becomes grand and enchanting. 



CAERYNWCH ; NANNAU ; HENGWRT. 659 

These bleak heights of ** Oer-ddrws " were often the rendezvous of patriotic bands during 
the wars of the Edwardian period, and notably one of the places of council, where chief 
men of the surrounding districts met, after the death of Owen Glyndwr, to concert 
measures for the safety and good government of the country. 

The sununits of Aran Fawddwy and Aran Benllyn to the north of this pass were occu- 
pied as stations by the Trigonometrical Survey. From the former, 2,955 feet high, the 
panorama of mountain and valley, crumbling steeps and dismal chasms, is truly magnificent. 
To the north-east is seen the largest lake in Wales — Zfyn 7^/V/, mirroring in its pellucid 
depths the mountains hanging on its margin, and the Vale of EiUirnion stretching beyond, 
conducting the ample flow of the Dee into the Vale of Llangollen. Nearly due east extends 
the devious range of the Berwyn Hills, separating the basin of the Dee from the basin of 
the Severn, the county of Merioneth from the county of Montgomery, and in ancient times 
the kingdom of Gwytiedd from that of Fouys, From a lake in the eastern side of Aran 
the Dyfi begins its course, first through a gloomy chasm or avm, and then through a 
narrow and tortuous valley, which gradually grows in breadth and beauty as it passes Dinas 
Mawddwy and Mallwyd for Machynlleth and the sea. 

On the way from Bwlch-Oer-ddrws to Dolgelley there is a gradual stony descent into a 
genial and cultivated district Caerymvch^ the ancient seat of the Vaughans and Richards 
(see EUhards of Caaynwch)^ is passed on the right, embosomed in trees on the banks of the 
Clywedog. In the beautiful country around Dolgelley are situated several of the most 
venerable mansions in North Wales. On the high ground, three miles to the north, is the 
famous Nannau^ for many ages the home of the Nanneys and the Vaughans (see Vaughan 
of Nannati)y remarkable now for the extent of its park, its elevated situation (being 700 
feet above the sea), and the fine forest trees which, notwithstanding its height, enrich it Near 
the house stood till 181 3 the celebrated hollow oak called Ceubren yr Ellyll (" the demon's 
hollow tree ") measuring in girth 27^ feet. It was and still is a tradition that Owain Glyndwr, 
having slain his cousin Howel Sel^, the owner of Nannau, who, instead of joining in the in- 
surrection, had treacherously attempted his life, cast the body into this hollow tree, where it 
remained for forty years. This tradition gave birth to the visions of goblins which long 
made the spot the dread of the peasantry, and which for many ages to come will invest it 
with a degree of superstitious interest Above Nannau is a lofty precipitous rock called 
Mad Offrwm (the hill of sacrifice), or, as some have named it. Mod Orthrwtn (the hill of 
oppression); but nothing is certainly known of its past history. The last Sir Robert 
Vaughan, Bart, of Nannau, d. 1859, leaving no issue, divided his extensive estates between 
his relations and friends. The Nannau property he left to the Hon. Thomas Pryce Lloyd 
(see Lloyd ofPatgwem) for life, with remainder to John Vaughan, Esq., now residing at 
Nannau; the Hengwrt estate was given to his wife's three sisters (Hon. Miss Lloyds), also for 
life ; and the Rhug estate he bestowed upon the Hon. C. H. W)mn, younger son of Lord 
Newborough (see Wynn of Rhug), 

In the valley nearer the town of Dolgelley is the mansion of Hengwrt^ just named, a 
place in some respects of greater celebrity even than Nannau. It was the home of the 
same house of Vaughan, and obtained distinction mainly through its eminent owner, 
Robert Vaughan, Esq., the antiquary, a contemporary with Camden^ and an extensive col- 
lector of valuable MSS., and other works on Welsh history and literature, which are now 



66o MERIONETHSHIRE. 

part of the unique library of Pmiarth^ and under the pious care of their present owner 
likely to be turned to permanent public use. Mr. Vaughan died 1667. 

In the new neighbourhood of Dolgelley are Dolserau^ the seat of Charles Edwards, Esq. ; 
Vronumiony the seat of Lewis Williams^ Esq. ; Bryn-y-gwin^ the seat of Hugh John Reveley, 
Esq.; Abergioynant^ the seat of Col. .Henry W. St Pierre Bunbury, C.B. ; and Hmgwrtucha^ 
the seat of Howel Morgan, Esq. All these are situated in the ancient comot of Talyhont^ 
which included the site of the town of Dolgelley, and extended from Llanfachrcth in the 
north-cast to Llanegryn on the Cardigan Bay in the south-west, taking in the whole Cader 
Idris region between the estuary of Mawddach and the Dyssynni river. To the north of 
Dolgelley, at the distance of two miles, and near the junction of the Maw and the Wnion, 
are the remains of Cymtner Abbey, presenting upon the whole a sadly neglected ruin, but still 
retaining a few of the finer features of window, interior arch, and pillar, which formed part 
in the thirteenth century of a magnificent pile. The abbey was Cistercian, and it is believed 
to have been erected under the auspices of Prince Gruffydd ap Cynan in the twelfth 
century. Llewelyn the Great gave it a charter in J209. Elizabeth granted it to Robert, 
Earl of Leicester. . It became afterwards the property of the Vaughans. Doltnelynllyn^ the 
seat of Charles R. Williams, Esq., lies further up the vale. 

The estuary of the Mawddach from Dolgelley to Barmouth yields scenes of physical 
beauty and grandeur which are seldom equalled. When the tide is in, the estuary is a 
splendid lake, whose margins are deeply indented by projections of the hills and by retiring 
creeks kept open by the mountain streams, and almost everywhere wooded to the water's 
edge. On the south rise the abrupt eminences' of Cader Idris; on either side in the 
nearer approaches to the water the country is craggy, deeply gullied, and sweetly dad in 
groves of fir, ash, and oak. The railway runs parallel with the high road on the southern side, 
and on the northern is about the most charming coach drive in the kingdom. The banks 
of the Rhine are tame compared with the banks of the Mawddach, and Switzerland itself, 
though doubtless abounding in scenes of different type and of more colossal grandeur, 
possesses nothing of similar scale and character to surpass this exquisite district When 
the heeding summits of Cader Idris are tipped with snow, the sublime words of Byron come 
instinctively to the beholder's mind : — 

" Above me are the Alps, 
The palaces of nature, whose vast walls 
Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps. 
And throned eternity in icy halls 
Of cold sublimity. . . . 
All that expands the spirit, yet appak, 
Gathers around the summits, as to show 
How earth may soar to heaven, yet leave vain man below." 

And at many a quiet nook and dell along this estuary Henry Vaughan's lines respecting 
the patriarch are equally obedient to the memory : — 

" I ask not why he did remove 
To happy Mamre*s holy grove, 
Leaving the cities of the pbin 
To Lot and his successful train ; 



BARMOUTH ; CORSYGEDOL ; VALE OF ARTRO. ' 66i 

For rural shades have the sweet sense 
Of piety and innocence." 

On this northern road is Caer-deon^ the charming residence of the Rev. W. £. Jelf, B.D. ; 
nearer Barmouth, Glandwr^ the residence of William Jones, Esq. ; and Coesfaen^ the 
residence of Charles Jones, Esq. 

The town oi Bar-mottth^ prettily situated, has a name which is a curious distortion of the 
native Abcr-maw (the confluence with the sea of the Maw river). From this point north- 
ward as (ar as Trcuth-bach^ and inland to the valley of the Maw and the line of Sarn Helen, 
extended the ancient — 

Cornet of Ardudtoy (now a "hundred")* in the Cantref of Dunodig^ 

forming then, along with the comot of Eivionydd beyond the estuary of Portmadoc, a 
part of Arfon^ and not of Meirionydd, The first place we meet and requiring notice here 
is the very interesting mansion and demesne of Corsygedoi (see Coulson of Corsygedol)^ the 
ancient seat of the Vaughans, and subsequently of the Mostyns, who obtained it through 
marriage (see Vaughan of Corsygedol), When much of the Mostyn estates was sold, Corsy- 
gedol was purchased by the predecessor of the present owner, who greatly improved both 
the residence and estate. This venerable mansion now contains the finest collection of 
paintings — works of the old and modem masters — known to exist in the Principality, and it 
has been the liberal practice of Mr. Coulson to allow the collection to be freely seen by 
visitors, who obtain tickets for the purpose, at certain times of the year. The mansion re- 
tains most of its features as an Elizabethan structure. A MS. history of the place preserved 
at Mostyn, and written by William Vaughan, Esq., of Corsygedol, states that the fine old gate-' 
house, leading into the quadrangle, fronting the principal entrance, was designed by the 
writer's countryman, ** Ynyr Sh6n " (Inigo Jones). The site of Corsygedol is elevated, com- 
manding a noble view of the Cardigan Bay, the promontory of llejn with the peaks of the 
Rivel (^Yr Eifl)^ and Bardsey Island It looks on the swelling tide which is charged in the 
legend with drowning Cantrefy Gwadod (" the lowland hundred ") — an evil which probably it 
never committed except in some poet's imagination, and the popular belief of recent ages. 
In the near vicinity are several remarkably fine cromlechs^ one near the house, Coeten Arthur^ 
near the church of Llanddwywe, and two in the fields above the village of Dyffryn. There 
are also menhirs (meini hirion) below Dyffryn, near the shore. This strange assemblage of 
pre-historic monuments, all within two miles distance, and doubtless only a residue of what 
once existed, argues for this locality in primitive times some very specific, and probably 
sacred character, such as belonged to the south-western part of Anglesey. The whole 
country of Ardudwy is also famous in historic associations of the most stirring kind, some 
of which must be touched upon in our historic section. (See History and Antiqtiitics of 
Merionethshire,) 

Near the beautiful and romantic Artro is Cwmbychan^ the old home of the Lloyds ; 
Taltreiddyn (Dr. Griffith) ; Penralit (J. Humphrey Jones, Esq.); Uanfair (Misses Richards) • 
and Cae-Nesiy the residence of Capt. Wayne. This is also a district thickly studded with 
memorials of a hoary antiquity, and of historic deeds. The vale or plain of Dyffryn. ytzs 
a field where often the wage of battle was tried in times both of British civil strife, and of 

2 X 



MEKI0NETH5H1KE. - 



contest with English and Norman invadera; the lavines and crags oT the Artro and its 
tributaries gave refuge and concealment to many a band of retreating patriots, and the cele- 
brated pass of Drwi Ardudwy was repeatedly a real Thennopyls. 



Haklech Castli (froiK afkalegrafk iy Bidfari). 

. " Chieflcu towen ! 
There tbej ituid, u ttutdi > ]attf mind, 

Worn, but niulooping to the buet crowd. 
All lenantlcB, tave to the cnumjing wind. 

Or holding dark conuDunioD wilh the cloud. 
There wu ■ day when (hey were yonng and proud, 

Buinen on high, and bstllei puied below ; 
But ihey who fought «re in ■ bloody throod. 

And thoie which waved are shndles duu ere now. 
And the bleak battlements shall bear no future blow." 

On the loRy cliffs overiooking the Bay of Cardigan and the estuary of Traethbach, and 
guarding this entrance from the sea into Gwynedd and the marching-ground from north to 
south, was planted the powerful fortress of Harlteh Castle, one of the most colossal in the 
kingdom. This was a position of strength during the rule of the native princes. Welsh 
records say that a tower was built here by Maelgwyn Gwynedd, who d. a.d. 547 ('■ Mortalitas 
magna fuit in Britannia in qua pausat Maelcun rex Guenedotae." — Annal, Cambria), 2h/r 
Bronwen, " the Tower of Bronwen,"— its name in still eariier times, was changed in the 
eleventh century into Caer Celiwyn, when Collwyn ap Tangno, founder of one of the noble 
tribes of North Wales {see p. 337), had here his residence. Edward I., the conqueror of 
Wales, saw the importance of the position, and nearly all the structure, whose ruins are now 
the admiration of the beholder, was built by him about tzS6, soon after the erection 
of Conway Castle, and while Carnarvon Castle was still in process of building. Though 
Llewelyn, the last Prince of Wales, had now been four years in his grave (at an obscure rural 
spot still left unmarked by Welsh " patriotism "), the country continued turbulent and defiant 



HARLECH CASTLE; MOUNTAINS OF ARDUDWY. 66j 

and these great garrison fortresses were part of the stupendous machinery of ** pacification.*' 
Once more Harlech Castle became the scene of stirring events when Owain Glyndwr in 
1404 attacked and took it Henry IV. recovered the place in 1408. Margaret of Anjou, 
the heroic queen of Henry VI., afler her defeat at Northampton, found in Harlech Castle a 
temporary refuge. When Edward IV. had succeeded in making the House of York 
triumphant, he yet found three castles in the kingdom holding out for the Lancastrian party, 
and one of these was Harlech, under command of the intrepid Welshman Dafydd ap Jevan 
ap Einion. By order of the king, William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, led a powerful army 
to Harlech, and demanded the surrender of the place ; but Sir Richard Herbert, the earl's 
brother, received from the stout defender this answer, — " I held a tower m France till all the 
old women in Wales heard of it, and now the old women of France shall hear how I defend 
this castle." Famine, however, at length succeeded, and Dafydd ap Jevan made an honour- 
able capitulation. 

During the civil wars in 1647 the redoubtable Parliamentarian General Mytton took this 
fortress from Major Hugh Pennant, who held it for the king. It was the last fortress in 
Wales that stood out for Charles L 

Further on towards Talsamau lie G/y/tn IfaH, the ancient seat of the Wynns, now the 
IDperty by marriage of the Gore family (see Ormeshy-Gore of Brogyntyny Porkington), and 
occupied by John Edward Parry, Esq., J. P. ; Maesyneuadd, formerly the seat of the Wynnes, 
and more recently of the Nanneys ; and Ca^rjfytwn^ the recently erected residence of L. N. 
Thomas, Esq. 

In following the main road from Barmouth through Dyffiyn Ardudwy we have left to the 
interior a region of mountains and vales, streams and lakes, as picturesque and beautiful in 
aspect, and as primitive and unconscious of the invading force of the life and customs 
of modem times, as any in Wales. From the higher points of the Harlech mountains is 
viewed a panorama of wonderful extent and grandeur, including the whole sweep of the Bay 
of Cardigan, the rugged region of Snowdmtia^ nearly the whole of the promontory of Lleyn, 
the interior country to the east as far as the Arenig and Berwyn ranges, and to the south 
bounded by Cader Idris. Everywhere from the crests and passes the spectator looks down 
on spots of excessive wildness intermixed with others of equal comeliness — as from the 
Foel-ddu^ above the pretty little vale of Cwmbychan; from the pass of Bwlch-TJ^^/Z/A/, 
commanding on both sides the mountain numerous ravines and green cwms and bottoms, 
mostly wooded with oak or fir, interspersed with grey projections of rock, and all conducting 
streamlets either to the Vale of Artro towards the sea, or the vale of the Eden towards the 
east In thb district are the small but pretty lakes of Llyn Morwynion^ famous for the legend 
of the men of Ardudwy who had stolen for wives the maidens of the Vale of Clwyd, and being 
overtaken and slain in this pass, had their deaths avenged by the maidens drowning them- 
selves in the lake, thenceforward called Uyn Morwynion ('* The Maidens' Lake ") ; Uyn 
Dwr-glcu; Uyn Eiddew^ and Uyn Dywarchen, From the Foel Wen^ which overshadows 
Maesygameddy an old house of some historic interest as once the residence of Colonel Jones, 
one of the Parliamentary leaders who signed the death-warrant of Charles I., the prospect is 
enchanting; but as the traveller mounts the pass of Drws Ardudwy^ looking down the 
diminutive lakes of Uyn Perfcddau^ Uyn Howely &c., and surrounded by rocky hill-sides 
polished as by the hand of man, and a wilderness of moraine dtbris — ^both plain indications 



£64 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

that Uiis district at some remote period was-subject to poweri'ul glacier actioD, — the scene 
becomes overwhelmingly grand and impiessive ; and eveiy inch withal is sacred ground in ' 
the annals and traditions of Ardudwy. Through the basin of the Eden, leading from 
Dolgell)' to Festiniog, the Roman conqueror n^e his military road, Sarn Htlm; on 
the shore side the enemy could march and deploy at pleasure ; but the crags and passes of 
Drws Arduiiwy, and the general range of the Harlech hills, were inviolable retreats of the 
Britons, whence on many an occasion they defied alike the heavily armed legions of Rome 
and the mailed men-at-arms of the Plantagenets. 

On the promontory of Fenrkyn-deiidraeth, situated, as its name indicates, between two 
sands {"the two sanda headland"), we find the remains of the ancient mansion of Pare, for 
many generations the home of the Anwyls (see Anwyl of Llu%-u<y)r2xA near at hand the 
castellated residence of Mrs. Williams of Deudnieth Castle, delightfully planted on a slope 
■ facing the estuary of Traethbach. 



Deudkaeth Cas^xb: the RuiutNCE OF Mks. Williams. 

In the same locality is Pl&s yn Fenrhyn (\V. Casson, Esq.) ; and near Fortmadoc, but 
in Carnarvonshire, Morfa Lodge {Edward Breese, Esq.). Fortmadoc, a creation of art and 
commerce, worthily perpetuates the name of the late Mr. Madock, M.F., of Tanyraiit, in 
the near vicinity, whose far-seeing enterprise brought about the construction of the great 
embankment, which has taken from the tide several thousand acres of what is now produc- 
tive land, as well as formed a safe harbour for shipping. On the way to the well-known 
Poniabtrgtaslyn, passing AberdunatU (Mrs. Jones-Parry) on the left, situated on the Cam.ir. 
vonshire side of the Glaslyn river ; and Ynys/awr (John Jones, Esq.) on the right, situated on 
the Merionethshire side, we have before us, looking north, those towering " palaces of nature," 
the Snowdonian range. Occasionally when his cloudy vestments are blown aside, the 
venerable head of Snowdon himself comes in sight, when it is plainly seen, as iar as Wales 
is concerned (putting Snowdon instead of " Mont Blanc " in the poet's verse), that— 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



666 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

" Snowdon is the monarch of mounUinfl^ 
They crowned him long ago^ 
On a throne of rocks, in a robe of clouds, 
With a diadem of snow." 

Under the shelter of the craggy and barren Arddu^ a spur of the Snowdonian system, 
which on the eastern side of the vale seems to keep watch at the portal of the hills, with his 
companion Mod Hehog on the west, and resting in a little vale as sweet and sunny as if it 
lay on the Italian side of Monte Rosa, is Dolfriog^ the residence in Wales of Dr. Arthur 
Farre, F.R.S., known to all as one of the Court Physicians. 

Anything more barren than the rocky mountains around — rugged masses, greatly dis- 
turbed, of the Llandeilo group, interspersed with igneous dykes bearing copper and other 
ores— it would be hard to see ; and a spot more pleasant and richly clad in verdure than the 
site of Dolfriog, nestling on the brink of a mountain stream, a tributary of the Glaslyn, 
and near Pont-aber-GIaslyn, it would be equally a task to discover. Our illustrations are cor- 
rectly engraved from excellent photographs, and give a perfectly faithful representation 
of the scene. 

The pass of Aberglaslyn, where the counties of Merioneth and Carnarvon meet, is a 
yawning gulf, the result of a convulsion which separated the mountain mass, leaving on 
either side almost perpendicular walls, — 

" Heights which appear as loYers who have parted.*' 

From whichever direction the traveller approaches the pass, the surprise awaiting him is 
the same. He is caught, as it were, in the jaws of the mountain monster, and the awe of 
impending destruction almost overpowers him. But it is only for a few moments ; the fair 
vale again opens, the rush and echoing of the waters die away, and he feels the agreeable 
relief of a return of his old sensations, without, however, losing the impression of mystery 
and sublimity he has just received. This pass, on a small scale, reminds one of 
that of T^te Noir, or PfefTer's Bad, and has the advantage in the comparison of not 
being too overwhelming in itf sublimity, while those are utterly immense and be- 
wildering in their grandeur. The quiet and homely beauty of the vale and village of 
Beddgelert above, and the wider and more varied view that opens towards the estuary below 
Aberglaslyn, are universally admired. To \ht geological aspects of this part of Merioneth 
more specific reference will again be made. 

In passing from the basin of the Glasl)m to FesHmog^ we can enter, in imagination or by 
painful pedestrian labour (for there is no high road), a pass between Modwyn and Moel-bach 
mountains, coming out into view of the delightful Vale of Festiniog about Tan-y-grisiau, 
and enjoy a scene of great magnificence. A combination of bleak and barren eminences 
(apparently provided to supply half the world of present and future times with slaU\ of 
grassy and sheltered valleys with yawning chasms, noisy waterfalls, and rugged wooded 
steeps, alternately enveloped in mist and lit up by blinking sunshine, gives to this picturesque 
region a character and charm all its own. The atmosphere of Festiniog is, in spite of its 
humidity, peculiarly salubrious and refreshing. Lord Lyttelton has said of the place, "With 
a woman one loves, with the friend of one's heart, and a good library of books, one may 
))ass an age here and think it a day. If one has a mind to live long and renew his youth. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



668 MERIONETHSmRE. 

let him come and settle at Fesdniog* Here are the ^ fisJls of the Cyniael,'* and the ^ pulpit of 
Hugh Llwyd.'* In this favoured neighbourhood is Tanybwlck^ the seat of William Edward 
Oakeley, Esq.; GlaTVuriUiam^ the seat of Samuel Holland, Esq., M.P.; Pku-newydd Qohn 
Whitehead Greaves, Esq.), &c 

We are still in the ancient comot of Ardudwy^ and in making our journey eastward, 
across the central wastes and moorlands, for the fairer scenes of the Bala Lake and the Dee 
Valley, have to cross Sam Hdm^ see suddenly, in the region of wild hills and heaths, the 
comeliness of Cwm Prysor^ pass under the shadows of the Arenigs, then enter the andent — 

Cantrefoi Penllyn^ and Comot of Utoch-meloch^ 

and along a fast descending and pretty valley come to Pont Llafar, on the Bala Lake {Llyn 
Tegid), In this immediate neighbourhood is Glan-y-Liyn (*' the lake maigin **), the hunting and 
fishing seat of Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., of Wynnstay, owner of a luge tract of 
the surrounding country, and of the fishery of the lake. Three or four mountain streams 
join the Dyfrdwy (''the waters of two**), the infant Dee, a little distance from its entrance . 
into the lake at the upper end, where the aspect of the land is cold and uninviting, while on 
either side the lake, which is about four miles long, the maigin is prettily wooded, and 
provided with a good coach road. To the south-east the great ramparts of the Berwyn 
range rise in gloomy and barren grandeur ; but at the lower extremity of the lake, where the 
stream of the Dee, carrying in its ample bosom the waters of all the streamlets which the 
watersheds of the Arenigs, the Arans, and the Berwyns send down into the lake, pours 
forth, to traverse the beautiful and historic vale of Edeimion, the face of nature assumes a 
new and softened appearance, and crowding beauties such as those of the Clwyd or the 
Towy greet the spectator. 

In the neighbourhood of Bala we find Fron-Dderw (John Jones, Esq.) ; Rhiwku (R. J. 
LI. Price, Esq.) ; Bodweni (W. Pr3rse Jones, Esq.) ; Cil-Talgarth (Francis Jones, Esq.) ; 
^Fronheulog (Mrs. Davies) ; Aberhimant (late H. T. Richardson, Esq.) ; and the more 
ancient and celebrated Rhiwaedog (see Lloyd of Rhiwaalog^ in " Old and Extinct Families **). 
Further down the vale is Crogen^ the beautiful new mansion of Henry Robertson, Esq., re- 
placing and standing nearly on the site of the ancient PaU (see Lloyd of Crogen^ in ** Old 
and Extinct Families ") ; and Llandrillo (Rev. John Wynne). 

We are now in the middle of Edeimion^ equally celebrated as a vale and as the ancient 
territory ruled by Owen Brogyn/yn-— of whom hereafter. Owen's descendants were numerous, 
and for many generations held manors in Edeimion at such well-known places as Crogeny 
RhUg^ Hendtvr^ Dol-y-GUsyn (Dolau-gleisiou), and Maesmawr (see Dwnn,. Herald, Visii,^ 
ii., 125). As we approach Corwen we quit the comot of Edeimion, and enter that of — 

Glyn-Dyfrdwy, in Canirefy Barwn^ 

a cantref which contained also the comot of Dinmael^ corresponding with that part of 
Merioneth here projecting northward into Denbighshire. This is the last of the ancient 
Welsh divisions now contained in Merioneth, since the cantref of Arwystli in the 
basin of the upper Severn was classed by Henry VIII. as part of Montgomeryshire. In the 
beautiful neighbourhood of Corwen, which gives the beginning of fairer scenes in the Vale of 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 669 

UangoUat, are Rh^, the celebrated seat in past times of the Salusburys and Vaughans (see 
Wynn of XAUg) ; Rhagait (see Mrs. Uoyd of Rhagatf); Rlas Issa (John IJoyd, Esq.); 
Bryntirim (Mi3. Price) ; TynUvtyn (Capt. Robert Taylor), &c. The old mansion of 
JIfaesmawr a across the boundary in Denbighshire ; and so is Flit yn YAU (see Yale of 
PlAs yn YdU), Below Corwen, in the most picturesque part of the rale of the Dee, and 
just within the Merionethshire border, is the interesting spot where stood the castle of Owain 
Gtyndwr, of which scarcely a trace now remains. All the lands around on either side of 
the river, and partly lying in the two subsequently fonned counties of Merioneth and Deii* 
high, belonged to his domain, and fonned the subject of that dispute (see p. 386) which 



Rhuc : THS Seat op thb Hon. Chablu Hkniy Wynn. - 

led to the long and disastrous insunection, which he headed with a wrathful energy fore- 
shadowed, as the poet makes him think, by signs and portents at his birth : — 



Section II.— HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF MERIONETH. 
■i.—^ffit/ery. 

The general history of this district is identical with that of the kingdom of Gwyrttdd, or 
North Wales, as separate from Potuys, and has already in the main been indicated in our 
notices of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire, to which, to avoid repetition, we must refer. 

The people which now inhabit this county represent with an unusual degree of purity 
the original inhabitants, who were of the Cymrit branch of the Celtic race. This purity 
haa been favoured by the secluded and mountainous character of the country, and its 



.- \ 



670 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

freedom from those disturbing political and industrial forces which have so powerfully affected 
Pembrokeshire and Glamoiganshire, and the gradual effects of intercourse which have con- 
siderably changed the racial complexion of the counties of Flint and Montgomery. The 
study of riues and their antiquities^ so zealously and beneficially promoted in the present age, 
has not hitherto shaken the old belief, based on the testimony of Greek and Roman 
writers as well as on the traditions and history of the Britons, that this island of Britain was 
first possessed by a people who came from Gaul, who were Celts, who crossed over at 
different times, forming successive waves of colonization, the one pushing the other before it, 
and that the Cymry (carrying in their name the name of the ancient Cimbri) are substantially 
represented by the people of Merioneth and generally of Wales at the present time. 

That the Romans had taken Merioneth under their care and placed it under tribute is 
evident from the great military road of Sam Hclai (Helen's Causeway — so called by the 
Britons perhaps after Helen, mother of Constantine the Great), which, after the conquest of 
Anglesey (see p. 9), they formed from Maridunum (Carmarthen) to Segontium (Carnarvon), 
as a means of rapid transit of troops and materiel^ and exaction of tribute ; but beyond 
these objects it is quite improbable that the Roman conquest of Merioneth contemplated 
anything. 

During the Saxon period we have no notices of this part of Wales. Nor did any known 
events of importance transpire here under the earlier Norman kings. The Lord Marcher 
conquests on the borders, however, by degrees began to influence these interior and not 
easily accessible parts, drawn now into conflict with the foreign foe under the leadership 
of the puissant Owain Gwynedd^ Prince of North Wales, and his sons. Owain put an effectual 
stop to Henry II. and the English army by the victory of Corwen in 1165. The post 
occupied by the Welsh prince on this memorable occasion is believed to have been Caer 
Drewyn^ a circular fortress of loose stones on the summit of a steep hill between Corwen 
and Rhagatt, while Henry was encamped on the opposite side of the valley. 

The Henrys, however, went on gaining power in North Wales. Henry III., in the 
exercise of a kind of feudal superiority, in 1340 '^ grants" lands in Merioneth to Howel and 
Meredydd, sons of Cynan, and grandsons of Owain Gwynedd ; but already C3aian himself 
was Lord of Eifionydd (in the same county), and we have no lack of proof that the territory 
given to the sonr of Cynan was none else than ^^'n^j'/^ itself— that great can tref between 
the Barmouth and Dyfi estuaries which ultimately gave its name to the county. The territory 
ruled by Cynan and his sons extended from the southern part of the promontory of Lleyn 
and the base of Snowdon to the Dyfi. When Gircddus Cambrensis passed this way, a.d. 
1 188, stopping '' for the night at the church of Llanfair, that is, St Mary's Church in the 
province \comot'\ of Ardudwy," the ruler of the country was Cynan, as the crusading arch- 
deacon, in his graphic description of the region, incidentally mentions. How Cynan had got 
into possession is known from other sources. The Annates Cambria^ a.d. 1148, have this 
record : — " Cynan and Howel, sons of Owain [Gwynedd], by force snatched Meironit from 
Cadwalader [brother of Owain]." 

"This territory of Conan," says Giraldus, "and particularly Merionyth [the cantref 
ahready named], is the rudest and roughest district in all Wales ; the ridges of the mountains 
are very high, terminating in sharp peaks, and so irregularly jumbled together that if the 
shepherds conversing or disputing with each other from their summits should agree to meet, 



CASTLE OF TALYBONT. 671 

they could scarcely effect their purpose in the course of the whole day. The lances of this 
country are very long ; for as South Wales excels in the use of the bow, so North Wales is 
distinguished for its skill with the lance, insomuch that an iron coat of mail will not resist 
the stroke of a lance thrown at a small distance. The next morning the youngest son of 
Conan, named Meredyth, met us at the passage of a bridge, attended by his people, where 
many persons were signed with the cross [embarking in a crusade to the Holy Land], 
amongst whom was a fine young man of his suite, and one of his intimate friends ; and 
Meredyth, observing that the cloak, on which the cross was to be sewed, appeared of too 
thin and common a texture, with tears flowing threw him down his own ** (//iVr., v.). 

This same Meredydd and his brother Hywel eventually succeeded their father in the 
lordship of Meirionydd. But even already, as appears from Giraldus, they were empowered 
to rule over a part of the territory in their own right, for as the archdeacon and the 
archbishop proceed on their journey '^over Traeth-mawr and Traeth-bychan, that is, the 
greater and the smaller arm of the sea " (as his imperfect knowledge of Welsh inclined him 
to translate), ^they come to parts where two stone castles have newly been erected, 
one called Dettdratth^ belonging to the sons of Conan^ situated in £vionyth, towards the 
northern mountains, the other named Cam Madryn^ the property of the sons of Owen, built 
on the other side of the river [Dulas], towards the sea, on the promontory of Lhyn.** 

Little more is heard of Meirionydd proper, and its immediately adjacent lands* of 
Eifionydd, &&, until the year 1221, when Llewelyn the Great (ap lorwerth), who, it would 
seem, had placed his son GrufTydd in the seat of power in that district, compelled him, owing- 
to a dispute, to relinquish his rule, and took the territory of Meirionydd (including Ardudwy) 
into his own hands, strengthening his position by building a castle there {Llwyi), 

In 1256 the last Llewelyn (son of Gruffydd just mentioned), having anew revolted against 
Henry (see p. 324, &&), and foiled the opposition raised against him by his brothers Owain 
and Dafydd, on his way to the south, ocaipied Meirionydd {Annal. Cambr.). The territory 
was then in the occupation of the son of Meredydd ap Cynan, who, according to tlie same 
authority, in 1241 had been reinstated in his patrimony by the English king. Henry at the 
same time had restored to Gruffydd, son of Gwen-wynwyn, his princedom of southern Powys. 

In the year 1275, when the struggle between Llewelyn and Edward I. was about to reach 
its hottest (see p. 325, &c.), it was from his castle at Talybont, in Meirionydd, that Llewelyn- 
addressed his letters of complaint and expostulation to the Archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, in council in London, seeking relief, and proposing new terms of peace. ''See, 
reverend father," he pleads, '^ the Lord Edward, now noble King of England, af^er the said 
peace, taketh into his hands certain barons' lands in Wales, of which they and their ancestors 
have been long possessed, and keepeth a barony which should be ours by the form of peace. 
Other barons of our country, . . . running to him, he helps and maintains; although they 
have robbed within our land, committed slaughter, • . . and do still daily commit the like ; 
and although we have of^en sent our griefs and complaints by solemn embassies to the said 
noble Lord Edward as well before he was king as since, yet unto this day he never did any 
redress therein. . • . We therefore earnestly beseech your fatherhoods to consider what 
danger would happen both to the people of England and of Wales by reason of the breach 
of the covenants of peace aforesaid, if new wars and discord follow (which may God forbid), 
mindful of the prohibition of the holy father the Pope, lately in council at Lyons, that no 



672 MERIONETHSHI RE. 

war should be moved among Christians, lest tliereby the affairs of the Holy Land should be 
neglected ; and that it may also please you to help with your council with the lord the 
King that he would use and order us according to the' peace agreed upon, &c. Dated at 
Talybontf the 6th day of Oct., ann. 1275." 

Small comfort came of beseeching their ^ reverend fatherhoods." To the epistle above 
partly quoted, and the long list of ''griefs" accompanying it, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
having come to Wales, sends answer, assuring the prince that he ^ had come for the spiritual 
and temporal health of them whom he loved well ; that he could not tarry long ; besought 
them to come to an unity with the English people and peace with our lord the king ; if 
they should contemn this advice, he would forthwith signify their stubbornness to ' the high 
Bishop and court of Rome : ' the king's power was daily increasing, and if war ensued they 
had nothing to expect but disaster ; the realm of England was under the special protection 
of Rome, which loved it better than any other kingdom ; he ' much bewailed that the Welsh- 
men were more cruel than the Saracens ; ' they had been accustomed to ' reverence God and 
ecclesiastical persons,' but now revolted from that devotion, committed slaughter and burnt 
' in the holy time,' which was 'great injury to God ;' if they had been injured — which is 
doubtful, for ' we in no wise know it,' the judges in the cause would have signified the king's 
majesty ; and, in fine, to leave no doubt — ^ unless they now come to peace they shall be 
resisted by decree and censure of the Church, as well as by war of the people.'" 

Llewelyn, smarting under a sense of injury, and disgusted by the wily and heartless 
policy of the Church dignitaries, unfurling the banner of revolt, embarks upon that 
troublous sea which never permits him any more a quiet haven. For seven years he 
struggles with the power of England, aided by defection and treachery among his own 
people; and in 1782, when he and the independence of his country fell together, 
Mdrionydd and adjacent cantrefs are constituted a " county " under the new regulations 
of the Statute of Rhuddlan. 

While Mdrionydd was the central and most prominent district in these parts, and as such 
most frequently mentioned, the cantref of PenUyn^ about the Bala Lake, now forming parts 
of Merionethshire, was also an important lordship, always or mostly under separate govern- 
ment; and the comots of JBdeimiofi and Mawddwy^ already described, b.elonged to the prince- 
dom or kingdom of Pouys. Penllyn was the patrimony of Rhirid Flaiddy temp. Henry II., 
and continued in his son Madoc, and grandson Rhirid Fycfian (corrupted *' Vaughan '*), 
from whom several of the chief old families of Merionethshire bearing that name are traced, 
such as Vaughan of Rhiig, Nannau, &c. EdeinUon^ although a part of Powys, was at times 
ruled as a separate lordship, as in the time of Owen Brogyntyn, natural son of Madoc, last 
Prince of Powys, son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. 

Among other events which connect the name of Owain Brogyntyn with the territory now 
included in Merionethshire is the battle of Crogen, which he won against the forces of 
Henry IL in 1x65. But as the dwelling-place of Owain was at Brogyntyn (Porkington), in 
Fowys^ now in Salop, and his lands in Edeimion and Dinmael were properly a part of 
Powys Fadoc^ further reference to him must be sought under Montgomery. All these lord- 
ships were held as fiefs under the English crown from the time when feudal superiority was 
first established under the Norman and Plantagenet sovereigns (see Porvys\ 



ANTIQUITIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 673 



2. — Antiquities of Merionethshire. 

Among the more important pre-historic antiquities must be mentioned the five great 
cromlechs of Ardudwy — two on the demesne of Corsygedol, two near the village of Dyffryn, 
and one at Gwem Einion, near the church of Llanbedr, in the Vale of Artro. All these are 
located, as seems to be the rule with respect to cromlechs, near the sea. Burial-places 
of the great, they were fitly erected on the margin of that symbol of immensity, whose 
moaning would also be a fitting and lasting dirge. Those mysterious monuments of the 
same class in Anglesey, Carnarvonshire, Pembrokeshire, and Glamorgan, and the still more 
wonderful erections in Brittany, like many others in different parts of the world, are 
instances to the same effect, assisting the pre-historic archaeologist towards a sound 
induction as to the real reason of the choice of such a position. Near Llanbedr and 
Harlech are also menhirs (maen-hir) of considerable size. LUxh Idris^ in the valley of the 
Cain ; MaenMwydy near Bryn-teg, in the valley north of the Eden ; a stone in the valley 
above Pont-llafar, north of the Bala Lake, are marked in the Ordnance Survey maps, and 
have been identified. 

An important class of ancient remains exists abundantly in this county, concerning whose 
character as historic or pre-historic there is always a difficulty in deciding, viz., the primitive 
British camps and ccurs. No part of Wales possesses so many of these, in a state almost 
unchanged since the ages of ancient warfare, as doth Merioneth, — ^a circumstance easily 
explained if we only call to mind the warlike character of the district, and the extremely 
hilly and broken surface, which not only supplied at every point fitting positions for defence, 
but has since precluded their invasion by the growth of agriculture and '^ improvement" 
' The banks of the Artro bear to this day a primeval aspect On many of its abrupt knolls 
and precipitous and sheltering rocks, enveloped in gnarled oak and brushwood, small drcular 
British camps, builtof loose unmortared stones, often of prodigious size, remain in their integrity; 
but it is useless to speculate as to their age — ^when they were first built or last used Their 
simple construction suggests a pre-historic origin ; but their advantageous positions would 
not be despised in the later conflicts of the country. Ardudwy still retains the descendants 
of the people who built these rude strongholds, and maintains much of the wild aspect which 
it presented to the Roman and the Norman, albeit that a new spirit, under the culture of 
religion and modem manners, has passed into its inhabitants. 

The chief and most interesting caer of the Vale of Artro is that of Craig y DdinaSj 
standing up abruptly in the middle of the little valley, and partly connected by an elonga* 
tion of one side with the lefl bank. It has all the features of an ancient British fortress, of 
formidable strength, although, owing to the narrow limits of the crown of the rock, of small 
dimensions. From the grounds of Aber- Artro the rock, with the deep and romantic glen 
beneath, forms a most conspicuous and striking object. The crest is surrounded by a 
rampart ; some of the walls are of great thickness, suggesting the existence here of a castle 
of unusual strength. In addition to the accustomed signs of a military post, it has some 
features of a very peculiar and mysterious nature, some of which perhaps had relation to 
religious rites. A tumulus, or carnedd^ which Mr. Lines, who examined the place in 1870, 
thought was still unopened {letter to Capt Wayne, of Cae-nest), stands on the summit, and 



674 . . •• MERIONETHSHIRE. . ' . 

between the caraedd and the thick walls already mentioned there stands an isolated rock, 
seven feet high/at the back of which are ** indications of structural anangements of a semi- 
circular form, as though for seats. These are overgrown by brushwood, which should be 
cleared off. The seven-feet stone may have been a stone of adoration. Altogether there 
seems to have been a singular combination of purpose in the remains of this rock. The 
great block which hangs on the edge of the precipice at the west has evidently been used 
for some mysterious proceedings. It possesses some singular geometric incisions two inches 
deep on its end next to the camedd. Is it impossible that this was a stone of sacrifice, and 
the victims allowed to glide from its surface into the abyss below?" 

Mr. Lines hazards the conjecture that this might be the place of confinement of Elfin, 
son of Gwyddno Garanhir (the somewhat legendary Lord of Ceredigion and Cantr^r 
Gu^adod)^ and that Taliesin's lines in reference to Elfin's deliverance have reference to it, — 

" It is I who am a diviner, and a leading bard. 
Who know every passage of the cave of silence, 
And shall set Elphin free, — Elphin, the son of Gwyddno, 
Is in the land of Arthro," &c. — Myvyr. ArehaoL 

• 

Whether Mr. Lines' conjectures thus communicated to Capt. Wayne are accurate or 
not, this great rock and the ancient human works which crown it are full of interest ; and 
the country around contains many caers and barrouts^ camps and entrenched positions, 
equally unknown as yet even to archaeologists and their journals, which it would be well to 
inspect and describe. A British caar stands on the estate of Mr. Humphrey Jones of 
Penrallt^ near the Artro vale. On the farm of Llwyn-Griffri, Talybont, at the back of the 
house, is an iAAfart of considerable size, and probably of comparatively modem date, which 
has been examined and measured by Dr. Griffith, but the results have not yet been published. 
The caer of another Craig y Ddinas^ overlooking the Vale of I^gethin, above Llanddwywe, is 
on a bold and imposing position ; and near it is a large caim^ where the ashes of fallen heroes 
are probably reposing. Castell y Beri^ on a hill above lianfihangel y Pennant, was more 
likely an early as well as» a later place of strength ; Caerau Crwyni^ and the neighbouring 
post called Y Gaer^ between Mynydd Mynyllod and Rhug, and Caer Drewyn in the same 
neighbourhood, north of Corwen, are other examples of British caers of early origin, but 
probably used by foe as well as friend in later times>.as advantage and exigency counselled. 

Beddau Gwyr Ardudwy ("the graves of the men of Ardudwy"), connected with the 
legend of Llyn Monvynion, already mentioned, near FesriniQg ; and tumuiiy such as Tommen 
y Mur^ near Festiniog ; Carneddi Paigwnij by Llanaber, and the huge cam near Talybont, 
Llanddwywe ; the two tumuli, each called Carneddwen^ near Pont Calettwr, below Bala; a 
cam at the north-eastern base of Mynydd Mynyllod, and Tommen y Casteiiy north of Corwen, 
are well known, and must be considered pre-historic in the sense that they are of a kind 
common in a period anterior to history, and are themselves devoid of record, although it 
is not to be doubted that the practice of erecting tumuli over the graves of great men and 
their families descended far into historic times. Many of the tumuli of Merioneth remain 
undisturbed, and promise useful revelations to skilful archaeologists. 

The earliest hUioric remains of importance, in this coun^ are the Rotnan roads which 



SARN HELEN ; CYMMER ABBEY ; GELERTS GRAVE. 675 

traverse it. These are traceable a con^derable distance through parts now the least 
frequented, and following a route which involved many engineering difficulties. The great 
trunk of Sam Heitn^ as called by the natives, but Via Maritima by the Romans, entered 
this county from the south near Llugwy and Talgarth Hall on the river Dyfi ; had a station 
at Fcnrallt; made its devious way, — 

*' Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum," 

to Dolgelley ; passing the spot where Cymmer Abbey, now itself an ancient ruin, was built 
many hundred years aftenvards, it proceeded directly north along the valley of the Maw to 
the great station near Trawsfynydd {Tommm-y-Mur^ the Heriri Mons)j where it met 
another coming from Bala, and, as is highly probable, a third coming from Meifod {Medio- 
laniwi)y by Dinas Mawddwy and Drws-y-Nant : from Tommen-y-Mur these roads divided 
themselves into two branches, one proceeding to Carnarvon {Segontiuin) by Beddgelert, the 
other by Caerhun {Conov-ium — the station on the Conwy) to Bangor. 

Of monuments of the historic period in this county, Harlech dutU^ already noticed (see 
p. 662), is the most celebrated and imposing, although in point of age not the earliest. The 
princely seat at Talybont has left nothing visible to the eyes of the searcher but the mound 
which has grown out of its ruins. Cymmer Abbey ^ near Dolgelley, comes next after Harlech 
Castle as to the importance of its remains. Egryn Abbey stood on the margin of a mountain 
stream joining the sea three miles north of Barmouth, and near the present high road ; the 
traces of it remaining are very obscure, but the district all around is redolent of antiquity — 
a land of barrows, caers, and cromlechs, of traditions and legends, sharply cut Celtic features, 
tall frames, and '^ long heads "—monuments all alike of the brave folk who in the far distant 
past possessed these regions, worshipped God and showed reverence to their dead according 
to the varying behests of the descending ages, — making one feel as he witnesses them 
that he is truly in an ancient land and among an ancient people, who are still speaking the 
language which sounded at the hearth, in the shepherd's cry from the hill-tops, and in the 
warrior*s shout in the charge of battle, two and three thousand years ago. This language is 
itself an interesting remain of antiquity, and yet, in a sense, is not old. Taking the English 
as its companion in the transactions of commerce, higher literature, and culture of the 
schools, it seems to claim a right of perpetual rule in those more sacred places — the homes 
of the common people, and the shrines of their faith. 

The Cadvan stone in Towyn Churchyard is ancient, but the inscription, excepting the 
one word Catvanianus, is illegible. The characters are an approach to the old Welsh 
alphabet, and the stone, which is not a pillar proper, is said by Nicholson to have been for 
many years removed to the woods of Bodtalog, and restored to its place by Mr. Edward 
Scott. In its original state the monument was supported by other stones. Cadvan, the 
Breton saint, who came to Wales in the sixth century, and to whom the church is dedicated, 
is commemorated by this stone. 

The legend of the Grave of GeUrt is universally known, but as it is a conceded privilege 
in our day to doubt everything except one's own existence and merits, we have been advised 



•676 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



to doubt whether there ever existed a Gelert or a Gdert's Grave. The tale, we are told» 
his its counterpart in many lands— in France, in Persia, in Ireland ; and is best treated by 
being relegated to that mysterious land, at once. the prolific fountaiaof all wisdom and of 
all superstition— «the East. But how came the spot now called Gelert's Grave to be so called 
at all ? And could not the story pass from Wales to the .East as well as from the East into 
Wales, as the whole train of the Arthurian romances is known to have done ? The hypo- 
thesis, at least, is as dependent for belief upon credulity as is the legend or stpry itself. 

Prince Llewelyn ap lorwerth — so runs the legend — had a celebrated greyhound named 
Gelert, "a lamb at home, a lion in the chase,*' given him by his father-in-law, King John of 
England. While out /or sport among the Snowdon hills, his child had been left in a 
hunting lodge he had at this place. Gelert was absent this day from .the chase, but on his 
master*s return met him at the door covered with blood. The prince, alarmed, ran into the 
nursery, and found his child's cradle overturned, and the ground flowing with blood. 
Concluding too hastily that the dog had killed the child, — 

** ' Hell-hoand! my child's by thee devouied I ' 
The frantic fiither cried ; 
And to the hilt the vengeful swoid 
He plunged in Gelert's side. 

m 

"Aroused by Gelert's dying yell. 
Some slumberer wakened nigh : 
What words the parent's joy could tell 
To .hear his infant's cxy! 

" Concealed beneath a mangled heap, 
His hurried search had missed ; 
All glowing from his rosy sleep, 
The cherub boy he kissed. 

'* Nor scath had he, nor harm nor dread. 
But the same couch beneath 
Lay a gaunt wolf all torn and dead. 
Tremendous still in death. 

*' Ah I what was then Llewelyn's pain ! ^ 

For now the truth was clear, 
His gallant hound the wolf had slain. 
To save Llewelyn's heir." 



The ancient bards, who must have had the power of long vision into the invisible, could 
see under the waves of Cardigan Bay the tops of the submerged houses of C<tniref y 
GwadodJ This legend relates that under Gwyddno Garanhir (circa a.d. 500), ruler of 
Ceredigion (Cardigan), a lowland tract belonging to his dominion extended far out into what is 
now sea, opposite to the estuary of Barmouth and the whole hundred of Ardudwy. Some, to 
increase the wonder, enlarged it into the whole of the bay, enclosed by a line drawn from 
Towyn to the south-western point of Lleyn. From overflowing many of the " cities " said to 
exist here, the sea was kept in check by dykes and gates ; but " Seithenyn the drunkard '* 
forgot the sea, and the mischief was done. Of the " three arrant drunkards of the Isle of 
Britain,** according to the Triads, *^ Seithenyn, the son of Seithyn Saidi, King of Dyfed," was 



CANTRE'R GWAELOD; GEOLOGY OF MERIONETH. 677 

one, and he, having charge of the floodgates, " in his drink let the sea over Cantref y 
Gwaelod, so that there were lost of houses and land the whole that were there, where 
formerly were found sixteen fortified cities [dinas-dref], superior to all the towns and cities 
of Cymru, excepting only Caerllion ar Wysg [Caerleon on Usk], . . . and the men 
that escaped that inundation landed in Ardudwy, the country of Arfon, and the mountains 
of Er)rri, and other places not heretofore inhabited." 

This is all the evidence of the alleged inundation we possess. That a lowland tract 
existed here is rendered probable enough by the still remaining Marsh of Harlech, which is 
of considerable extent, and of low level, stretching some four miles in length by two or three 
in the widest part, between Harlech and Traeth-bach. But that a region containing 
''sixteen fortified cities" was here submerged so late as -the fif^h or sixth century, when 
intercourse with the world was so wide, without some further record of it having been left 
is scarcely credible, while the allegation that the ridge of Sarn Badrig, visible at low water, 
is a remain of the '* dykes " is utterly absurd. An examination of this ridge proves that it is 
a natural rock, and a little study of the geological features of the adjacent country will show 
that it corresponds with the lines of the mountains, and of the Lleyn promontory. The 
"great blocks" of which it is alleged to have been built (as if the Cymry had for once 
become Cyclopean builders), only follow the analogy of the interior hills, a fact very 
strikingly illustrated in the bold rock north of Talsamau, just where the railway enters upon 
the Traeth-bach viaduct, — 

"In sooth, O bard, these stones are ancient stones ! 
Laid by an Ancient Hand." 



Section III.— THE GEOLOGY OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 

In every individual feature the structure of the rocks of this county is the same with 
that of the rocks of Carnarvonshire (see Geology of Carnarvonshire). It consists of three 
great groups, the lower Silurian Llandeilo, the Cambrian, and the stratified igneous rocks, 
with some dykes and beds of greenstone, felspathic porphyry, and lavas. ■ The whole country 
between Barmouth and Festiniog, bounded by the sea, by Traeth-bach, and the upper valley of 
the Maw, is of the Cambrian formation. The region of igneous stratified rocks embraces the 
ranges of Cader Idris, Aran Mawddwy, the Arenigs, and the heights of Festiniog. Between 
the Dyfi and the Dys)mni the Llandeilo rocks alone prevail. . Of these the hills of Dinas 
Mawddwy and Talyllyn are composed, as well as the country around Bala, the vale of 
Edeimion, the shores of the estuary of Mawddach, Penrhyn-deudraeth, &c. Caradoc rocks 
constitute the greater part of Bwlchygroes and the Berwyn hills on towards Llandrillo. At 
Pont-aber-Glaslyn the river cuts through the Llandeilo mass, into which metalliferous igneous 
dykes have protruded. Slate is worked at Festiniog, Dinas Mawddwy, Machynlleth, and 
Pennal, in the Llandeilo beds ; at Diphwys in the Harlech hills, in the Cambrian, but of a 
quality greatly inferior to that of the Bethesda and Llanberis slate of the same beds. 
From end to end the county of Merioneth is included in the lower Silurian series. Tlie 
rocks throughout have been subject to violent convulsions, and in places to volcanic action. 

2 V 



678 MERIONETHSHIRE. 



Section^V.— NOBLE TRIBE OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 

The only founder of a noble tribe ascribed to this county is Ednowain ap Bradwen^ who * 
flourished in the twelfth century. He has sometimes been styled *' Lord of Merioneth,** but 
in the MS. published in the Cambrian Register^ i. 153, which contains the best account of 
him extant, this is questioned, since the Welsh princes and their issue were always Lords of 
Merioneth ; but it is conjectured that he might have held Merioneth in fee from the princes, 
and thus have received the title of lord of it It is held as certain that he was possessed of 
all the coraot of Talybonty except Nannau, and for the most part of Estuma$ier. His castle; 
called Llys Bradwen, was situated below Dolgelley, between Cader Idris and the estuary. 
Not a stone of it remains upon another at present, although the foundations can be traced ; 
but at the time of the writing of the MS. referred to, the ruins are said to have consisted of 
" large stones, as usually laid to form the foundations of a building, and marked the form as 
well as the simplicity of the habitations of the ancient rq;uU of Wales, agreeing exactly 
with the account given of them by Whitaker in his History of Manchester^ who says that they 
were commonly placed in the hollow of a valley, and either upon the mai^n of a stream, or 
at the confluence of two, for the conveniency of water, and security from winds. And the 
followers lived immediately about the person of their chief, or in little bodies along the windings 
of the valley, to be within reach of the usual signals of the lord — the striking of the shield or 
the blowing of the horn." The ground plan of Llys Bradwen is said to have been oblong, 
but having at the front U circular apartment, which served as the hall of audience and court 
of justice. The oblong building behind contained the chieftain's own apartments. Around 
this principal building were the traces of several others of various forms and dimensions. 

His great great grandson's son, Llewelyn ap Tudur, is said to have done homage, along 
with other lords and gentlemen of Wales, to Edward I. His grandson, Aron ap Ednyfed ap 
Llewelyn, we are further infonned, ^* had two sons, more eminent than the ' rest of his 
children, Ednyfed and Gruffydd," from one of whom, " William David Lloyd, of Peniarth, 
Esq., lately deceased, was descended, whose inheritance is come to Margaret, the mother of 
Lewis Owen, Esq. of Peniarth, deceased.*' The will of David Lloyd, father of the said 
William, is dated nth July, 1570. (Note, Herald, Visit, of Wales^ ii. 238.) When Owain 
Glyndwr was hard pressed by Henry IV., Ednyfed ap Aron is said to have given him 
refuge in a cave by the sea-side, in the parish of Celynin, which cave was afterwards 
called Ogof Owain, Several of the old gentry of Merioneth traced to Ednowain ap 
Bradwen. Spme also of the families of Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire, such as the 
Lewises of Abemant-bychan (now extinct), and Leweses of Llysnewydd and Llanllyr (see 
Lewes of Ujsnewydd), claim the same descent. Maternally, W, W. E. Wynne, Esq., of 
Peniarth, is of Ednowain's lineage. 

Ednowain ap Bradwen bore : Gu, three snakes nowed^ arg. 



Note on Rhirid Flaidd. 

This distinguished man. Lord of Penllyn (a cantref containing five parishes north of the 
Bala Lake), Eifionydd, Pennant, Mehingell, and Glyn in Powys, and as some say, of eleven 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 679 

towns or trefs in the hundred of Oswestry, has occasionally been described, but erroneously, 
as founder of one of the fifteen noble tribes of North Wales (see Noble Tribes), At the same 
time his territories were larger and his influence much more extensive than those of several 
of the founders of noble tribes. He flourished at the time of Henry II., and his son, 
Richard I. Paternally his descent was from Cynedda Wledig, but maternally it is alleged 
that his lineage was Norman, his mother being a descendant of Richard, Earl of Avranches, 
by his son William, whose brother was Hugh Luptis^ Earl of Chester. Whether Rhirid was 
called Flaidd (the wolf) from a cognomen of his maternal ancestors, or from his possession 
of a hungry and savage nature, it is not easy to say. His eldest son, Madoc, had a son, 
Rhirid Fychan (the younger, or the little), who married into the family of Fychan ( Vaughan) 
of Nannau, and from him were descended the subsequent Vaughans of Nannau and Rhug. 
From his son David Pothon, who married Cicely, daughter of Sir Alexander Myddelton, 
Lord of Myddelton, in Shropshire, the Myddeltons of Chirk Castle, 5:c, were descended, 
retaining the maternal surname. 



Note on Owatn Brogyntyn, 

Owain Brogynt3ni, Lord of Edeimion, a district (as already shown) now in Merioneth, 
but then in the princedom of Powys, was a man of great note and influence, of princely 
blood though of illegitimate birth, and left a numerous posterity in that lordship. But he 
is properly classed under Montgomeryshire, on the borders of which his seat of Brogyntyn^ 
corrupted into " Porkington," was situated. (See Ormsby-Gore of Brogyntyn) 



Section V.— OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 

The ancient houses of this county, almost without exception of purely Cymric lineage, 
and by no means few in number, considering the wild and mountainous character of 
the district, have shown a vitality truly remarkable. Even to this day several of the 
chief families of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries have their representatives on the 
ground, holding the same domains, and bearing in some instances, the same names. 
The old blood has departed from Corsygedoly Rhiwaedog^ Dolgdley (Owen) ; at Nannau^ 
Ynysymaengwyn^ Hengwrt^ Maesypandy^ and Gwerdas^ it has been intermittent and evanish- 
ing ; but at Nannau the more recent name of Vaughany at least, still continues, and the 
ancient sept of Wynn of Glyn^ in more than one direction endures, represented in blood in its 
present owner (see Ormsby^Gore of Brogynfyn\ and by name as well as in blood in the 
person of the owner of Peniarth (see Wynne of Peniarth), Edeirnion and Mawddwy, 
contrasting with each other in the type of their landscape, have been subject to a like fate 
in the disappearance of a large proportion of their venerable households, as they had once 
enjoyed a like distinction in the possession of a goodly number of them. The land has got 
into fewer hands. The comparatively small but compact manor where the plain country 
gentleman lived familiarly among his neighbours, and kept hospitable board for friend, for 



6So MERIONETHSHIRE. 

stranger, and for poor, has, in many an instance, dwindled down to the common farmhouse, 
or left on its site but the greensward or the forest. It may be all for the better. The old 
division of population into gentry and poor is replaced by another, in which, even in 
Merioneth, a stout and numerous middle class of industrious 'farmers and tradesmen 
occupies a prominent position, and gives to society a breadth and vigour unknown to 
the olden times. 



Vaughan of Corsygcdd, 

The Vaughans of Corsygedol, who became so distinguished under that name in 
Merioneth, were the progeny of a younger son of Einion ap Gruffydd, of Cors>gedol, who 
was of the sept of Osbom Wyddel, represented in the eldest branch by the Wynns of Glyn, 
and now by Wynne of Peniarth (see Wynne of Feniartli). The surname Vaughan began 
with Gruffydd Fychan^ probably so called to distinguish him as son ox junior from his father 
Gruffydd ap Einion, woodwarden of the comot of Estimaner a.d. 1382 — 1385, and captain 
ot forty archers from Merioneth for King Richard II. Gruffydd ap Einion's mother was 
Tangwystl, dau. of Rhydderch ap levan Llwyd, of Gogerddan, the distinguished bard (see 
Pryse of Gogerddan). The Vaughans of Corsygedol continued at that place and under that 
name from the end of the fourteenth to the end of the eighteenth century, intermarrying, in 
this long interval, among others, with the families of Griffith of Penrhyn, Cam. ; Lloyds of 
Dolgelynin, Mont. ; Wogans of Stonehall, Pemb. ; Nanneys of Nannau ; Owens of 
Clenenney, &c. They frequently supplied sheriffs for Merioneth. (See Sheriffs,) 

Gruffydd Vaughan, of Corsygedol, was one of the defenders of Harlech Castle under the 
brave Dafydd ap levan ap Einion, his cousin (see Harlech Castle), In an account of him 
by Vaughan of Hengwrt, the antiquary, he is said to have been ** in great credit with Jasper, 
Earle of Pembrok [son of Owen Tudor, and uncle of Henry VII.], who lay in his house at 
Corsygedol, when he fled to France in the- tyme of £/i ward IV., and as some report, Harry, 
the Earle of Richmond with him, who afterwards was King of England." Lowry, his wife, 
was niece of the celebrated Owain Glyndwr, GrulSydd Vaughan, Esq., was Lord of Corsy- 
gedol \i\i^ii'Lcwys Dzvnn in 1588 visited the place, and wrought out the pedigree of the 
family. 

Upon the death, in 1 791, of Evan Lloyd Vaughan, Esq., M.P. for Merioneth, the last 
representative in the male line of this ancient family, Corsygedol and the rest of his ample 
estates passed to his niece, Margaret, wife of Sir Roger Mostyn, of Mostyn, Bart (Note 
on Dwnny ii., 220.) Corsygedol continued in the Mostyn family until it was purchased by 
the predecessor of the present o^vner (see Coulson of Corsygedol), 

The Vaughans of Corsygedol bore — Ermine^ on a saltire gu., a crescent or (with sixteen 
quarterings). 



Nanney of Nannau, 

** From Cadwgan,'the second son of the founder of the tribe, descend the Nanneys of 
Nannau." — Yorhe, The founder refened to was Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys from 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 68i 

whom the third royal tribe of Wales was descended. Howd Sdyf^ or SeU^ possessor of 
Nannau in the time of Owain Glyndwr (see Nannau\ was ninth from Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. 
His grandfather, Ynyr Fychan {junior\ son of Ynyr ap Meurig, in the 33rd of Edward I., 
presented a petition to the Prince of Wales, stating that the king had made him Rhaglor (W., 
Rhaglaw) of the comot of Talybont for his service in taking Madoc ap Llywelyn, who in the 
last war had made himself Prince of Wales. The petition was not granted, inasmuch as 
Ynjrr could show no charter or title to the office. (See Notes on Heraldic Visit of WaUs^ 
ii., 226.} When Dwnn visited Nannau in 1588 he was head of the family, and signed the 
pedigree. His grandson, the head of the family, was Hugh Nanney, Esq., whose name 
is found in the list of sheriffs of his county in 1627 and 1638, and who died 1647. 
His grandson. Col. Hugh Nanney, M.P., Col. of the Militia of his co., and Vice-Admiral of 
North Wales in the last year of William HI. {tnon, in Llanfachreth Ch.), was the last of the 
line of Nanney; he married Catherine, dau. of William Vaughan, Ksq., of Corsygedol, but 
by her left only daughters ; the third of whom, Catherine, married Robert Vaughan, Esq., 
the celebrated antiquary, of Hengwrt, by whom she had several children, the eldest of whom, 
Hugh Vaughan, eventually succeeded to the Nanney estates, but d, unm. His next brother, 
Robert Howel Vaughan, of Nanney and Hengwrt, was in 1792 made a baronet, and was 
succeeded by his son, the popular Sir Robert Vaughan, Bart., M.P., of Nannau, who repre- 
sented his county in- Parliament for the long period of forty-four years. He was also father 
of Griffith ap Howel Vaughan, Esq., of Rhug and Hengwrt, and Col. Edward William 
Vaughan, who, on inheriting the Rhug estates, assumed by licence the additional surname of 
Salesbury, and d, in 1807. (Note Herald. Visit, of Wales^ ii., 228.) Sir Robert Williams 
Vaughan, 3rd Bart, of Nannau, d. s,p, 1859, when the title became extinct, and the estates 
were divided. Nannau was left to the Hon. Thomas Pryce Lloyd (see Uoydof Pengwern) 
for life, and then to John Vaughan, Esq. (see Vaughan of Nannau); Hengwrt was given 
during life to his late wife's three sisters, with remainder likewise to John Vaughan, Esq., 
and the great collection of the Hengwrt MSS. was bequeathed to his kinsman, W. W. E. 
Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth. The Rhdg estates were given to the Hon. C, H. Wynn, second 
son of Lord Newborough (see Wynn of RhUig), 

The Nanneys of Nannau bore — Or, a lion rampant az. The coat of the Vaughans of 
Nannau was — Or and gu,^ four lions rampant counterchanged of the field; on the centre of 
the shield the Nanney escutcheon. 



Owen of Dolgelley. 

The Owens of Dolgelley, whose most celebrated member was Lewis ap Owen, Esq., 
usually called " the Baron," sheriff for the co. of Merioneth 1546, 1555 ; M. P. for the same 
CO. 1547, 1552 (see Pari. Annals)^ Chamberlain and Baron of the Exchequer of North 
Wales, whose murder by " Gwylliaid Mawddwy " has already been noticed, were 
for some generations a very prominent house. Their paternal lineage was drawn from 
Gwrgant ap Ithel, Prince of Glamorgan (i ith cent). They intermarried with the Pulestons 
of Emral, the Myttons of Mawddwy, and the Bodvels of Bodvel. Lewis Owen, grandson of 
the Baron, was sheriff of Merioneth 1 598 ; married, but d, s, p. Junior branches of the family, 



682 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

however, continued to a late period at Caerberllan and Garthyngharad, and may not even 
now be quite extinct. 

The arms of the Owens were those of lestyn ap Gwigant, Prince of Glamorgan, — Gu,^ 
three chevtvns arg^ 



Lloyd of Rhiwacdog, 

Rhiwaedog, near Bala, a spot of historic interest by reason of the great battle which 
tradition relates was fought here between the Welsh under Uywarch Hin^ the prince-bard, 
and the Saxons, when the aged bard lost Cynddelw, the last survivor of twenty-four sons, 
whose sanguinary character gave its name to the place (rhiw^ a declivity ; and gwaedog^ 
bloody). It is situated in the narrow and long valley of ^/r-nant, nearly two miles from the 
Dee, and an equal distance from the mansion of Aherhimant, Rhirid Flaidd is said by 
Yorke {Royal Tribes) to have dwelt at Rhiwaedog. 

The Lloyds of Rhiwaedog were a family of distinction, and of great antiquity. They 
traced their lineage to Owain Gwynedd, in the same branch as the Maurices of Clenenney, 
and Anwyls of Park (see Anwyl of Llugwy). They intermarried with the Pulestons, 
Vaughans of Llwydiarth, the Nanneys, Kynastons, and other chief houses. In Mr. Wynne's 
notes on Dwnn (ii., 226) we find that in the eighteenth century Rhiwaedog and its large 
possessions passed to the Dolbens; the mansion and a remnant of the estate became 
eventually by descent vested in two ladies of the name of lies, by the survivor of whom 
they were bequeathed to Mrs. Price, of Rhiwlas. The old mansion of Rhiwaedog presents 
a sad picture of dilapidation and neglect, uttering a loud complaint against the ignorance 
or indifference of the proprietor. 

There are still descendants of this ancient family at Bala ; the elder male branch was 
represented by George Price Lloyd, Esq., of Plas*yn-y-dre. The arms borne by the Lloyds 
were those of Owain Gwynedd, — Vert^ three eagles displayed in f esse or. 



Hughes of Gwerclas, 

This family, which is not yet quite extinct, traced from Gwaethfoed of Ceredigion, through 
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys, and his descendant, Owain Brogyntyn, Lord of 
Edeimion and Dinmael (see Owain Brogyntyn). Huw ap William, living a.d. 1546, and 
described by Lewys Dwnn {Heraldic Visit of Wales) as one of the barons of Edeimion, 
and Lord of all C)rmmer, removed from Cymmer, in Edeimion, so long the residence of his 
ancestors, to the adjoining mansion of Gwerclas, within the barony. He d. in 1600. His 
son Humphrey ap Huw, or Hughes, Sheriff of Merioneth in 16 18, was head of the family at 
the visitation by Le^vys Dwnn. He d. s. /., and was succeeded by his brother, Richard 
Hughes, as tenth baron of Cymmer, in Edeimion. 

This senior and a junior branch of this ancient family were not long since united by the 
marriage of John Hughes, Esq., barrister-at-law of the Inner Temple, widi his kinswoman, 
Dorothea, eldest surviving daughter of Richard Hughes Lloydr JSsq., of Plymog, Gwerclas, 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 683 

Cymmer, and Bashall, of which marriage there is issue a son, Talbot de Bashall Hughes, 
b. 1836. 

The armorial bearings of this house are those of the Princes of Powys, — Arg.^ alion 
rampant sa. 



Hughes and Nanney of Maesypafidy and Maesynatadd. 

Maesypandy, in the parish of Talyll3m, now reduced to a farmstead, was for many ages 
the seat of a family of note. Rhys Hughes, Esq., Sheriff of the co. of Merioneth in 1582, 
was representative of his house at the visitation of Lewys Dwnn in 1588, paying ten shillings 
to the Deputy Herald for his labour in making out the family pedigree. They traced their 
lineage from Einion Sais (see Games of Newton)^ who is said in the pedigrees to have been 
a descendant of Caradoc Freidifras^ and they bore the arms ascribed by the heraldic bards 
to that redoubtable knight. 

The heiress of the Hughes family married Lewis Nanney, Esq., a grandson by a younger 
son of Hugh Nanney, Esq., of Nannau. He was Sheriff of Merioneth in 1634. She was 
married, secondly, to John Lloyd, Esq., of Ceiswyn, Sheriff of Merioneth in 1652 and 1667. 
The Maesypandy estates, after being vested for several generations in his family, passed 
into that of Wynn of Maesyneuadd, Talsamau, through the marriage of William Wynn, Esq., 
to Lowry, eldest sister of John Nanney, Esq. Their only son, William Wynn, Esq., Sheriff 
for Merioneth in 1758, assumed the surname of Nanney. He d, 1795, ^^^ ^s grandson, 
John Nanney, in 1838. became owner of Maesyneuadd and Maesypandy (see Notes 
Herald, Visit, of Wales j ii., 238). He, the last of this line, d. in 1868. (See Mrs, Nanney 
of Bronwylfa,) 

The Nanneys bore on their coat — Quarterly, ist and 4th, or^ a lion rampant as, — for 
Nanney; 2nd and 3rd, ermine, on a saltiregu, a crescent or — for Wynn. 



Uynn of Glyn, 

This ancient family, whose name is no longer associated with Glyn, is nevertheless not 
extinct (See Wynn ofPeniarth and Ormsby-Gore of Brogyntyn.) 

David ap Morgan of Crogen, — This gentleman, who was seated at the ancient " Plas- 
yng-Nghrogen," when Dwnn in 1594 had the family lineage attested by him, is usually said 
to have been a descendant of Owen Brogyntyn. His grandson, David Morgan, living in 
the early part of the seventeenth century, was also seated at Crogen ; but we have no means 
of ascertaining the time when the family became extinct. They bore the arms of Owen 
Brogyntyn. 

Pyrs of Maesmawr (" Maesmore ") was another powerful branch of the Owen Brogyntyn 
sept. The time when Maesmawr {maesy a plain, a field ; and mawr^ large, wide) became 



6S4 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

their home is uncertain. It was part of the lordship of their ancestor Owen. It continued 
in their possession long after the pedigree was drawn up by Dwnn {Heraldic Visit of 
WaUs^ ii.9 122) when ''Cadwaladr Pyrs, Esq./* was chief of the house. The name of 
'' Peirs Maesmore'* appears in the subsidy rolls for the co. of Merioneth 1636. From him 
were several descents, until in 1775, or soon after, the heiress of Maesmawr married Eld ward 
Lloyd, £sq.» of Trefnant, Mont., in which family the estate thereafter continued (/^., 
note, 123). Maesmawr, once in Powys, on the creation of Denbighshire by Henry VIII. 
was placed within the boundary line of that county. 

Meyrick of UcJieLiref — Of the same descent with Meyrick of Bodorgan, Anglesey (which 
see), through Einion Sais of Bodorgan. Ucheldref, an estate of several farms, in the parish 
of Gwyddelwem, near Corwen, was at the end of the sixteenth century possessed by 
•* Edmund Meirig, Dr. of the Civill Law " (as Dwnn has it), Archdeacon of Bangor, and 
Canon of Lichfield, who married, first, a Conwy of Bodrhyddan, and secondly, a Williams 
of Cochwillan. The estate continued in the Meyrick family till about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, ''when it became, as is supposed by bequest, the property of the 
K3rffins of Maenan, in Denbighshire. From them it passed by marriage to the Kenricks of 
Nantclwyd." (75., ii., 127.) 

Vaughan of Dohndynllyn, — ^This was a branch of the ancient family of Hengwrt and 
Nannau (see Nanney and Vaughan of Nannau)^ not of early or of long settlement at this 
now venerable, place. Griffith Vaughan, Esq., the first of the house, fourth son of Robert 
Vaughan, Esq., the antiquary of Hengwrt, settled at Dolmelynllyn, having married Jane, 
dau. of John ap John ap Robert, of Glyn Maiden. He d, in 1700. His great-great-grand- 
son, Robert Vaughan, Esq., an officer in the army, sold the estate of Dolmelynllyn and 
Glyn Maiden, and d, unmarried about the end of the eighteenth century. This estate is now 
the property of Charles Reynolds Williams, Esq. (See Williams of Dolmelynllyn^ 

■ 

Vaughan of Uanuwchllyn. — This family of Vaughan, of the sept of Rhirid Flaidd^ Lord 
of Penllyn, were long settled in the parish of Llanuwchllyn, probably at Glan-llyn^ on the 
margin of the Bala Lake, a property inherited by the present Sir Watkin W. Wynn, Bart, of 
Wynnstay, through marriage of the first Sir Watkin with Anna Josephina, dau. and co- 
heiress of the last Vaughan (Edward) of Llanuwchllyn and Llwydiarth, Mont (See Vaughan 
of Llwydiarth,) The surname Vaughan originated at Llanuwchllyn with leuan Fychan (<' the 
younger," the ** little '')f son of leuan ap Gruffydd (d, 1370), whose tomb is extant in the 
church of Llanuwchllyn. (Note, Heraldic Visit of Wales ^ ii., 229.) The head of this house 
in 1588 was Robert Vaughan, Esq. His arms, according to Dwnn^ were — Vert, a chevron 
between three wolve^ heads erased arg, — the insignia of Rhirid Flaidd. 

Edwards of J^rysg.—]ohn Edwards of Prysg, near Llanuwchllyn, living in 1588, was of 
the lineage of Rhirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn, in the same line, through lewm Fychan ap 
leuan ap Gruffydd, with the Vaughans of Llanuwchllyn mentioned above. This last leuan 
(ap GruiTydd) is stated in an autograph MS. of the eminent antiquary, Robert Vaughan, of 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 685 

• 

HengwTty to have '* lived in great credit and esteeme in the days of King Edward III., who 
allowed him an annuall stipend for guarding and conducting of ye Justice of North Wales 
with a companie of archers, whilest he should socioume and stay in ye countie of Merioneth." 
(Note, Heraldic Visit, of Wales^ ii. 233.) This intimates a state of unsettledness in the 
country somewhat parallel to what we see in Ireland now, when Justice Keogh has to be 
escorted by a company of soldiers by railway. The Prysg estate, together with Caergai, is 
believed to have been sold in 1740 by the Rev. Henry Mainwaring and Mary Elizabeth, his 
wife, dau., and at length heiress of John Vaughan, Esq. (Sheriff of Merioneth in 1709) to 
Sir Watkin W. Wynn, and is in the possession of the present Sir Watkin. The arms of 
Edwards of Prysg were those of Rhirid Flaidd, — Vert^ a chevron between three wolve^ heads 
erased arg, 

Lioyd of Rhiw-gCch. — The Lloyds of Rhiw-goch, in the parish of Trawsfynydd, were for 
several generations people of good position in their county, and derived their lineage from 
Uywarch ap Bran (twelfth century) of Anglesey, founder of the second Noble Tribe of North 
Wales. Robert Lloyd, Esq., representative of the family at the end of the sixteenth century, 
and later, was M.P. for Merioneth 1586 and 1614; Sherififin 1596. 1602, 1615, and 1625, 
and was living in 1636. His eldest son, Ellis Lloyd, Esq., living temp, Charles II., was the 
last heir male of the estate, which eventually passed with his daughter, Jane, to her husband, 
Henry Wynn, Esq., a younger son of Sir John Wynn, Bart., of Gwydir. The estate was 
ultimately bequeathed by the last Sir John Wynn (son of the said Henry, and Jane Lloyd), 
to his kinsman, Watkin Williams, Esq. ; by whose representative, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, 
Bart., of Wynnstay, they are at present possessed. 

The arms of Lloyd of Rhiw-g6ch were those of Llywarch ap Brin, — Arg,^ a c/ievron^ sa. 
between three Cornish choughs (or crows) proper. 

Powys of Cymmer, — ^This was a family of good and ancient lineage, tracing from 
Brochwel Ysgythrog, Prince of Powys ; but its setdement at Cymmer, near Dolgelley, is not 
known to be earlier than the dissolution of the monasteries, temp, Henry VIII. John Powys^ 
a Serjeant-at-Arms to Henry VIII., and living also in the ist and 2nd of Philip and Mary, 
Sheriff of Merioneth in 1543, had, a.d. 1550, granted to him in perpetuity, or on lease, the 
Abbey of Cymmer, with the greater portion of its possessions. He is styled in a charter of 
Edward VI., "John Powes de hospitio suo" i.e., of the king's household. Among his 
descendants, who for several generations continued at " Vaner Cymer,'* as Dwnn has it, 
— doubtless meaning thereby the Manor of Cymmer, y^^« Powys ^ his grandson, represented 
the family in 1588, and paid the Deputy Herold "five shillings" for putting the imprimatur 
of the College of Arms on his pedigree. 

Nanney of Cefn-deuddwr. — The house of Cefn-deuddwr was in the parish of Trawsfynydd, 
and the Nanney s of that place were an offshoot of the great house oi Nannau, and bare the 
same arms with a martlet for difference of the third son. This branch of the Nanneys has 
become extinct in the present century, when the lineal representative. Rev. Richard Nanney 
{d, 1S12), devised the estate to his sister's son, David Ellis, Esq., of Gwynfryn, co. of Cam., 



686 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

who, soon dying x./., left the united estates of Gwynfryn' and Cefh-deuddwr to his sister's 
son, Owen Jones, Esq., of Brynkir,.who took after his own surname those of Ellis and 
Nanney. He d. 1870. (See further Ellis Nanney of Gwynfryn^ 

Griffith of Tanybwlch, — ^The early name of Tanybwlch (now Plas Tanybwlch) was 
Bwlch-Coed-dyffryn — the home of a much respected family, whose lineage was derived 
from CoUwyn, founder of the fifth Noble Tribe of North Wales, and whose surname, when 
surnames came into use among the Welsh, was first Evans^ then Gryffydd, Ivan Evans was 
head of the house in 1588. Margaret, the heiress of his grandson, Ivan Evans (Sheriff for 
Merioneth in 1635), by Elizabeth Wynn of Glyn, married Robert Gryffydd of Bach-y-Saint, 
CO. of Cam., who was living in 1723. (Note, Herald, Visit, of Wales, ii., 224.) Their 
descendant, Margaret, only child of Evan Gryflf^-dd, Esq , conveyed the Tanybwlch estate, 
by marriage, to William Oakeley^ Esq., of an ancient family in Shropshire, and elder brother 
of the late Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart (See further, Oakeley of Plas Tanybwlch,) 

« 

Price of Esgairweddan. — The earlier name of Esgairweddan, near Towyn, was '' Plas yn 
y Rofft ** — so it is called by Lewys Dwnn (1588). The family, eventually using the surname 
Price (ap Rhys), claimed direct descent from Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, 
through his eldest son, lerwerth, who, on account of a personal deformity, was not allowed 
to succeed his father. The time of their first residence at this place is not known. Edward 
Prys, who represented the family in 1588, had only daughters, but he had several married 
brothers who had issue. The line of Price of Esgairweddan became extinct with Robert 
Price, Esq. (d, 1702), who left two daughters, Mary the survivor, and Anne, who d in 1750. 
The estates, at the demise of the former, passed to the Edwardses of Talgarth^ and are now 
vested in Capt. Thruston of Talgarth HalL (Note on Dwrm^ iL, 240.) See further, 
Thruston of Talgarth Hall, 

Uoyd of Dol-y-gdynen, — Near Pennal is situated the old homestead of Dol-y-gelynen 
C' Holly-dale**) where dwelt for many ages a family of some note in their day, but now long 
extinct They traced their descent from Einion ap Seissyllt, Lord of Meirionydd, and thence 
to Gwyddno Garanhir (Goron Aur ?— See Dwnn\ and eventually adopted the surname Lloyd 
{Uwyd) — but from what circumstance is not now apparent I^hys Uoyd^ Esq,^ of Dol-y- 
gelynen, living in 1609, was fourth in descent from the eminent poet, Dafydd Uwyd ap 
Llywelyn^ of Mathavam, near Machynlleth {fl. 1470—1520), who is said to have greatly 
aided by his writings the cause of the Earl of Richmond (Henry VII.) in Wales, and is 
believed to have entertained the Earl at Mathavam on his way to Bosworth Field. (Note 
on Dwnriy ii., 241.) Dol-y-gelynen continued long in the possession of the Lloyds, for in 
1698 David Uoyd of that place was one of the commissioners for collecting a subsidy voted 
^ by Parliament 

Lewis and Wynn of Pengwern. — ^The mansion of Pengwem, near Festiniog, bears in its 
age and decrepitude many traces of former notability. For a long series of years it was the 
patrimony of a family of influence and wealth, deriving from the same venerable stock with 



OLD AND EXTINCT FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 687 

the Wynns of Glyn and Peniarth, Vaughans of Corsygedol, &c., viz., Osbom WyddeL (See 
Hynn of Fmiarth; Vaughan of Corsygedol^ Their lineage came through the celebrated 
Dafydd ap leuan ap Einion^ the defender of Harlech Castle during the War of the Roses, 
whereas the Corsygedol line came through Gruffydd ap Einion. The first to adopt the 
surname Lewis^ was John, son of Lewis, grandson of Dafydd ap leuan ap Einion, aforesaid. 
Morys Lewis was Sheriff of Merioneth in 1596. The line of Lewis ended in an heiress, 
Anne (dau. of Morys Lewis), who in 1 689 married Oiven Wynne^ Esq., of Llwyn, Denbigh- 
shire, a younger branch of the great house of Gwydir. Their lineal descendant Maurice 
Wynn, LL.D., of Llwyn and Pengwem, Rector of Bangor Iscoed, dying unmarried, 
bequeathed the estates to his nephew, the Rev. Lloyd Fletcher, a younger son of his sister 
Ellinor, by Phillips Lloyd Fletcher, Esq., of Gwemhayled, co. of Flint), who assumed the 
surname of Wynne. The Pengwem estate is now lineally inherited by Phillips Lloyd 
Fletcher, Esq. (See Fletcher of Nerquis Hall^ Flintshire.) 

The arms of the Lewis family were, — Ermine^ on a salt ire gu.^ a crescent or^ — the arms of 
the Wynnes. 

Uoyd of Nant-y^mynach. — Near Mallwyd was the* old place, Nant-y-mynach (whose name 
seems to embody an allusion to some monastic institution once existing in the neighbour- 
hood), the home in the olden time of the Lloyds^ a family of the sept of Ednowain ap 
Bradwen^ founder of one of the Fifteen Noble Tribes, of Llys Bradwen, near Dolgelley. The 
head of this old family in 1594 was Richard Lloyd ; but how far his descendants, beyond his 
sons John, Samuel, and Lodwig, continued the line, we are not able to ascertain. The arms 
of Richard Lloyd were, first, those of Ednowain ap Bradwen, — Gu,^ three snakes enowed^ org, ; 
secondly, those of Gruffydd ap Adda of Dolgdch, — Or^ a lion rampant regardant sa, 

Frice of Corsygamedd Llahfachreth. — The Prices of Corsygamedd, were a family of 
some importance and respectability at least as hx back as the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. The surname Price appears to have been first adopted by Griffith Frice {ap 
Fhys), Esq. (p. August 4, 1693), son of Fhys Gruffydd of Corsygamedd, by his wife Anne, 
one of the Meiricks of Berth-lwyd. Griffith, the eldest son (3. April 8, 17 18; d. 1804), m. 
Jonnet (d. 1788), only dau. and h. of David Lloyd, Esq., of Braich-y-Ceunant (as shown by 
the inscription on a tablet in Llanfachreth Church), and left an only child and h., Laura, 
who became the wife of Edward Edwards, Esq., of Cerrigllwydion, Denb. This marriage 
also ultimately issued in an heiress, Anne, who married John Edwards, Esq., 2nd son, of 
Dolserau — a family different from her own, being the Edwards of Ness Strange, Salop (see 
Edwards of Dolserau)^ by whom she had an only son, Edward Lloyd Edwards, Esq., of 
Dolserau, owner through his mother of Cerrig-llwydion, &c. His only child, Louisa Janette 
Anne, the present Mrs. Richards of Caemwch, succeeded to his estates, and is senior 
representative of the Prices of Corsygamedd, Lloyds of Braich-Ceunant, as well as Edwardses 
of Cerrig-llwydion. (See, further, Richards of Caerynwch.) One of the cadet branches of the 
Price family of Corsygamedd is now represented by J. Pryce Jones, Esq., of the Groves, Wrex- 
ham, who is matemally descended firom Richard, son of the first Griffith Price of Corysgamedd. 

The arms as shewn on the memorial tablet, are those of Llywarch ap Brin, — Arg,^ a 



688 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

chevron between three Cornish chou^hsy sa.^ with which the second Griffith Price quartered 
those of his wife, — Per fale^ a cross patond betwan four Cornish choughs^ ppr.; jo. a 
chevron org. between three boar^ heads of the second^ erased^ languedgu. 

Wynn and Vaughan of Bod-taJog. — Bod-talog, near Towyn, was long the possession of 
the Wynns, a branch of the Gwydir stock. Dwnn says : '' leuan Gwyn had Bod-talog» and 
his wife was Catherine, dau. of David ap Howel ap Owen of Llanbrynmair.'* leuan Fychan 
was a grand juror for co. Merioneth, a.d. 1453. The pedigree is brought down to 1623 
by Vincent, 136, looi, (Coll. of Arms) Sir John Wynn, of Gwydir, being then living. In the 
invaluable notes to Dwnn*s Herald, Visit, of Wales (which, though anonymous, are known to 
be from the competent hand of Mr. W, W. E. Wynne of Peniarth, and from which we have 
frequently quoted), we are informed that the late John Vaughan, Esq., oi Penmaen-Dyfi^ was 
representative of this ancient house of Bod-talog. 

Among the other numerous families of Merioneth were those of Philips of Hendrefechan 
(near Harlech, in Ardudwy), remarkable for having produced a long succession of poeis 
of note, such as "Sion Phylip," d, 1620, «*Gwilyn Phylip," Gruffydd Phylip (1658), and 
Philip John Philip (1674); Morgan of Taltreuddyn (originating in leuan ap Jenkin ap 
Meredydd ap Alo, but who called himself leuan Collier), whose arms were — C7r, three lionf 
heads erased^ gu,^ within a bordure engrailed az,, — the insignia of Alo, and the arms of 
Ednyfed Fychan, and which about the middle of the eighteenth century merged, by marriage of 
the heiress, into the family of Griffith of Llanfair, co. of Cam. ; Gwyn ofLlwyn- Griffri^ of tlie 
same line, and bearing the same arms as the last mentioned family, excepting those of 
Ednyfed ; Edwards of Llwyn-du^ (Llanaber), also of the same sept, but using other arms, 
vii., sa, a lion rampant arg.; Owen of Talybont (Llanegryn), of the line of Lewis Owen, 
" the baron,** of Dolgelley, obtained Talybont with extensive privileges attached to it, 
by purchase, from the crown, temp, James I. (one of their number, Hugh Owen, was 
founder of the Free School at Llanegryn, and father of the celebrated Dr. John Owen, the 
great Nonconformist Dean of Christ Church, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, and 
Chaplain to Oliver Cromwell) ; Jones of Maesygamedd (near Llanbedr), one of whose line 
was Col. John Jones, M.P. for Merioneth, who became brother-in-law of Oliver Cromwell, 
and was one of those who signed the death-warrant of Charles I.; Lloyd of Plas yn *Dd6l 
(Edeimion), of the sept of Marchudd ap Cynan, founder of the Eighth Noble Tribe, and 
bore his arms,— Ck., a saracens head erased ppr,, and continued at Plas yn •Dd6l tiU near 
the end of the seventeenth century, when it was sold to the Joneses, whose represenutive, 
the late Richard Parry, sold it to CoU Vaughan of Rhug, of which estate it now forms part. 

In the vale of Dyfi and the hilly Mawdd\vy there were many old families of high 
respecubility, who have left no rcpresenUtives— such as the Broughs and Myttons of Dinas 
Mawddxty^ two names located on the Lordship of Mawddwy through marriage in succession 
with heiresses, the former, through the marriage of Hugh Brough with the granddaughter 01 
WiUiam Willcock (/r/// (^fVi— "red Will"), called "de la Pole," because became from 
Pool, Mont., Lord of Mawddwy, of the line of Owain Cyfeiliog ; the latter through the 
marriage of Thomas Mytton, Esq., with a daughter of Sir John Brough, Lord of Mawddwy, 
whose mansion stood on the site of the newly erected .^las Dinas Mawddwy (see Buekley 



HIGH SHERIFFS OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 689 

of Plas Difias Mawddwy); David ap Howd of Lian-y-Mawddwy (of the same line of 
Owain Cyfeiliog), whose family intermarried with that of Nannau, &c., and continued at 
Llan-y-Mawddwy for some time ; Lloyd of Plas yn Ngltdswyn (Talyllyn), of the line of 
Gwaethfoed, Lord of Cardigan, one of whose members, John Lloyd, Esq., was Sheriff of Meri- 
oneth in 1550, 1558, and 1562. There were several others of less note and short continuance. 

Prys of Tyddyn-du, Macnhvrog, 

Edmund Prys of Tyddyn-du, Maent>vrog, merits especial notice, not merely as a man of 
good family and high standing in the Church, but as author of an early translation of the 
Psalms into Welsh, which continues in use to the present day, and the writer of other less 
important works. He was bom at Gerddi Bluog, Llandecwyn, near Maentwrog, circa 1541 ; 
of the race of Hedd Molwynog; educated at Jesus Coll., Cambridge; became Vicar of 
Maentwrog 1572; of LUnddwywe 1580; was made Archdeacon of Merioneth 1576, and 
obtained a Canonry in Sl Asaph 1602. He d, 1621, at, 80, and was buried at Maentwrog, 
but no stone shows the place of his rest He left a family, but of the history of them and 
their issue little is known. Edmund Prys being a bard, wrote " poetry " in the twenty-four 
regular metres, and many of his productions, especially his friendly tournament in verse with 
William Cyrtwal^ display a vein of pleasantry and much genuine humour. He wrote also some 
Latin poetry. We may imagine the state of ignorance into which the people had been plunged 
at this period when we say that for nearly sixty years after Edmund Prys's Psalms and Dr. 
Morgan's Bible were printed in London (1588), not a single book in the Welsh language 
was printed in Wales. The political wisdom of the time displayed itself in the systematic 
discouragement of the Welsh language, and attained the result of popular ignorance and 
depravity. The first Welsh book issued from the press in Wales yet discovered was " The 
Whole Duty of Man," printed at Wrexham in 17 18, more than 270 years after the invention 
of printing ! 

Section V.— HIGH SHERIFFS OF MERIONETHSHIRE, A.D. 1284— 1872. 

Sheriffs of counties under the Plantagenets and up to Henry VIII. were usually 
appointed for life, or during pleasure, and the persons so appointed were not always 
residents, or even natives of the Principality. Under Henry VIII. it was ordered that three 
persons should be nominated by " the President, Council, and Justices of Wales," as suitable 
for the office of sheriff, and certified by the same to the Privy Council, " to the end that the 
king maight appoint one of them in every of the said shires to be sheriff for that year, like 
as is used in England. ** The following list of Merioneth sheriffs in its earlier part up to 
A.D. 154 1 is the fruit of the research of W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth, and the 
succeeding part, up to 1847 (see ArchaoL Cambr.^ 1847, P- 120), has also passed under his 
careful scrutiny and correction. The Gwiliedydd for 1828 published a list of the Shenffs of 
Merioneth from a.d. 1538, and of Montgomery from the year 1540, but those lists were in 
many instances incorrect, both as to the name of sheriff and year of office. This is 
especially the case in the earlier dates. Recent Sheriffs have been supplied by £. Breese, 
Esq All notes in brackets are by the author. 



1690 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



A.D. 



EDWARD L 



Robert de SUmidon [he probably held the 

office till 1304] .... 12S4-94 
Robert de Ecdeshale . . . . . 1304 

EDWARD II. 

levan ap Howel [of what place it is impossible 

to determine] the name being common • 1309 
Robert de Eccleshale, again • . « 13x1-13 
Robert ap Rees ["quamdiu nobis placuerit"] 13x4-16 
John Cam, Sheriff; Thomas de Peulesdon, 

Deputy 1319-20 

Griffith ap Rees, again .... 132 1-23 
Griffith ap Rees, *\Knt^At'' (the same) . . 1327 

EDWARD III. 

Griffith ap Rees (the same) 1327 

Edmund Hakelut . . . . . 1329-30 
Griffith, [son of William de hi Pole, Lord of 

Mawddwy, or " Will Goch "] . . 1331 

Richard de Holond 1332 

Robert de Middleton, *'valletns regis," later 

in the year 1333 

Walter de Manny [appointed for life] . . 1332 
Howel ap Grono [prob. deputy to De Manny] . 1343 
John de Housum, or Hosum [also deputy under 

De Manny] 1345 

Meurig Maelan [prob. deputy to De Manny] 1347-8 
Einion ap Gr. (Griffith) [Mr. Wynne considers 

him the same person with Einion ap 

Griffith, Sheriff of Cam. 25 Edw. III.] 1352 
Rafi del Hope [sub-sheriff to Walter de 

Manny] 1353 

Griffith ap Llewelyn ap Kenric of Corsygedol 1372 
' John de Baildon [noideputy, De Manny being 

now dead] 1376 

RICHARD IL 

Richard Bailden 1387 

Vivian Colier, the younger, of Harlech. [See 
Mor^n of TaUreuddynn and Cteyn of 

Llwyn-griffri\ 1391 

John Banham 1396 

HENRY IV. 

Einion ap Ithel of Rhiwaedog died, being 
sheriff of this co. [Vaughan of Hengwrt 
says that "after" the death, not "upon" 
the death of De Manny, Einion ap Ithel 
was appointed for life] .... 1400 



HENRY, PRINCE OF WALES, postea 
HENRY V. 



A.D. 



I42I 



T*iomas Strange 



1413 



HENRY V. 
Thomas Strange (the same) • 

HENRY VL 

Robert de Orelle 1423-6 

Thomas Bumeby (appointed for life) . 143a 

John Hampton [deputy for Bumeby] . 1437-8 

Thomas Bumeby was sheriff .... 1448 
Thomas Bumeby and Thomas Parker 1452 

Thomas Bumeby I45S-7 

Vivian Palgus. [See Philips of Hendrefechan, 
The curious name " Palgus " was assumed 
by the descendants of the Colliers of 
Harlech, who themselves had assumed the 
latter name in place of the Welsh patro- 
nymic, "ab Alo." See Dwnn, Her, 
VisU.^ ii., 220] 1457 

EDWARD IV. 

Roger Kynaston, Esq., of Hordley, Salop 

[afterwards Sir Roger Kynaston, Kt] . 1461 
Thomas Croft, Esq. (appointed for life) . 1464 

Sir Roger Kynaston, Kt. (reappointed for 

life) 1473 

HENRY VIL 

Piers Stanley, Esq. [prob. of HarhcK\ • . \ 
Richard Pole [another instance of two sheri& \ 1485 

appointed for the same year] . • .1 
Piers SUnley, Esq 1515 

HENRY VIII. 

Ellis ap Maurice, Esq., of Clenenney \deputy 

to Piers Stanley] 1517 

John Scudamor, sheriff and escheator . . 1520 
Humphrey ap Howel ap Jenkin of Ynys-y- 

Maengwyn [deputy to John Scudamor] . 1521 
William Brereton, sheriff; Hugh Lewis, 

deputy 1528 

John Puleston, deputy to Brereton . . . 1530 
William Brereton and John Puleston [*'the 
longer liver of them,V or '*conjunctum et 

divisum"] 1533-5 

John Puleston, made sheriff " for life *' . . 1536 
John Puleston ; Lewis ap Owen, deputy [see 

Lewis ap Owen of Dolgelley\ . . 1537-38 
Ellis ap Maurice, Esq., of Clenenney, Cam, 
[he was owner of property in Beddgelert, 
Llanfrothen, &c, co. of Men] . . 1541 
[From this time, with the single exception 
of the year of "Restoration," 1.^., the 
coming of Charles II. to the throne, the 
office was not held for more than one year.] 
Jenkin Vaughan, Esq., of Caethle . . . 1542 
John Powys, Esq., of Vaner .... 1543 
Robert Salesbury, Esq., of Rhdg [see Solus* 

burv, »&v., ofRh^\ .... 1544 
Edward Stanley,* Esq., of Harlech [of the 



HIGH SHERIFFS OF MERIONETHSHI^^. 



691 



Stanleys of Hooton, Cheshire, son of Peers 
Stanley of Ewloe, Flint; Gov. of Harlech 
Castle. See also Ann. 1485] . . • 
Lewis Owen, Esq., of Dolgelley [Vice-chamb. 
of N. Wales, and Baron of the Exchequer 
of Cam. See Liwis Owen of Ddgdiey ; 
Vinos Mawddwy^ &c.] . • • . 

EDWARD VL 

Richard Mytton, Esq., Lord of Mawddwy 
[see UlyttoH of Dinas MavfdJwy\ 

Rice Vaughan, Esq., of Corsygedol 

Robert Salesbury, Esq., of RhAg . 

leuan ap David Lloyd, Esq., of Ceiswyn. [See 
Uoyd of Plas yn Ngluisvfyn\ . 

John ap Hugh ap Evan, Esq., of Malhafam, 
Mofit 

Ellis Price, Esq., LLB., of Plas lolyn, Denb, 

Edward Stanley, Esq., of Harlech • 

MARY. * 



A.D. 



1545 



1546 



1547 
1548 

1549 
1550 

1551 
1552 

1553 



1554 



Edward Mytton, Esq., Lord' of Mawddwy 
Lewis Owen, Esq., of Dolgelley [same as for 

1546. His murder took place this year.] 1555 
Ellis Price, Esq., LL.D., of Plas lolyn, DefA, 

Set Ellis Price of Plas lolyn.] . . 1556 

Rice Vaughan, Esq., of Corsygedol • • 1557 

leuan ap David Lloyd, Esq., of Ceiswyn • 155 1 



ELIZABETH. 

John Salesbnry, Esq., of Rhiig . 
Edward Stanley, Esq., of Harlech 
Hugh Puleston, Esq. [of the Emral stock] 
leuan ap David Lloyd, Esq., of Cebwyn 
Griffith Glynne, Esq. [of Pwllheli?] 
Ellis Price, Esq., LL.D., of Plas loljm, Denb. 
Ellis ap William Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedc^ 
John Lewis Owen, Esq., of Dolgelley [after 

Mrards of Llwyn, near that town ; son of 

'•Baron Owen"] .... 
Griffith Glynne, Esq. [of Pwllheli ; Sheriff of 

CO. Cam. 1564] .... 
Ellis Price, Esq., LL.D., of Plas lolyn . 

Piers Salesbnry, Esq 

Owen Wynne, Esq 

John Yerwerth, Esq. [supp. to be of Prysg. 

See Edwards of Prysg\ . 
John Gwynne ap Ellis, Esq. . 
John Lewis Owen, Esq., of Dolgelley (same 

as for 1566) 

Ellis Price, Esq., LL.D., of Plas lolyn 
Rowland Pughe, Esq., the elder, of Matha 

fam, Mont, . . • • . 
Evan Lloyd David ap John, Esq., of Nant 

mynach [see Lloyd of Nant'mynatk'] . 
John Wynne ap Cadwalader, Esq., of Rhiwlas 
John Salesbury, Esq., of RhAg 
Ellis Price, Esq., LL.D., of Plas lolyn . 



1559 
1560 

1561 
1562 

1563 
1564 

1565 



1566 

1567 
1568 
1569 
1570 

1571 
1572 

1573 
1574 

1575 

1576 

1577 
1578 

1579 



■^ A.D. 

John Pryse, Esq., of Gogerthan, Card, , - • 1580 

Evan Lloyd, Esq., of Yale, Den6, • . 1581 

Rees Hughes, Esq., of Maes-y-pandy • . 1582 

Richard ap Hugh ap Evan, Esq. . • . 1583 

Ellis Price, Esq., LL.D., of Plas loyln . . 1584 

Piers Salesbury, Esq • 1585 

John Wynn ap Cadwalader, Esq., of Rhiwlas. 1586 

Hugh Nanney, Esq., the elder, of Nannau . 1587 

Griffith Vaughan, Esq., of Corsygedol . . 1588 
John Wynn, Esq., of Gwydir, Cam, [owner 
of property in the hundred of Ardudwy. 

See IVynn of Gwydir] .... 1 589 

John Lewis Owen, Esq., of Llwyn . . 1590 

William Maurice, Esq., of Clenenney [after- 
wards Sir William] . . . .1591 

Griffith Wynne Esq., of Berth ddu, Cam. , 1592 

Cadwaladr ap Rh}rs, Esq. [Maesmawr?] . 1593 
John Vaughan, Esq., of Glanllyn [see Vaug/ian 

of Uanuwckllyn] ..... 1 594 

Morris Le\vis, Esq., of Festiniog . .' . 1595 
Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwgdch [see Lloyd 

ofRhrwgdch] 1596 

John Conwy, Esq. [of Bodrhyddan ?] . , 1597 

Lewis Owen, Esq., of Llwyn . • . 1598 

Matthew Herbert, Esq., of Dolguog, J/(0/k/. . 1599 

Piers Salesbury, Esq 1600 

John Wynn, Esq., of Gwydir [rr. a baronet 

161 1, d. 1626] 1601 

Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwg6ch [same as 

for 1596] . ... . . . 1602 

JAMES I. 

Griffith Vanghan, Esq., of Corsygedol . . 1603 
Thomas Vaughan, Esq., of Pant-glas, Cam. . 1604 
Thomas Needham, Esq. [SttSher, Denb, 1 6 1 7]. 1 605 

Sir William Maurice, Kt., of Clenenney . 1606 
Sir James Pryse, Kt., of Ynys-y-Maengwyn . 1607 

Ednyfed Griffith, Esq., of Gwydd-gwion . 1608 

John Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas .... 1609 

Matthew Herbert, Esq., of Dolguog, Mont, . 16 10 
William Lewis Anwyl, Esq., of Park [see 

Anwyl of Uugwy] 161 1 

Sir John Wynn, Knt., the younger, of Gwydir 1612 
John Lloyd, Esq., of Vaynol, -W/«/. . , 16 1 3 
John Vaughan, Esq., of Caeigai . . .1614 

Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwgdch . . . 161 5 
John Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedog [see Lloyd of 

Rhitoaedo^ ...... 1616 

Lewis Gwyn, Esq., of Dolau-gwyn . . 1617 
William Wynne, Esq., of Glyn . • .1618 
Humphrey Hughes. Esq., of Gwerclas . . 1619 
Sir James Pryse, Kt., of Vnys-y-Maengwyn . 1620 
John Vaughan, Esq., of Caergai • • .1621 
John Vaughan, Esq., of Caethle . . .1622 
Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Nantfreyr . ' . 1623 

William Lewis Anwyl, Esq , of Park . . 1624 

CHARLES L 

Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwgoch . . 1625 

William Vaughan, Esq., of Corsygedol . 1626 



693 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



Hogh Nanney, Esq., of Nannau • 

Peerce^ Lloyd, Esq., of DM .... 

William Oxwicke, Esq., of Coventry. [In the 
Gwilialydd list he U called ** OxwisU of 
Ccfn-yr-Oncn." Was he the same with 
William Yoxwut, the republican M.P. 
for Carnarvon, 1640, and' for Swansea 
i6s8-92? See William Faxwist, M,F,, 
under CO. Glamorgan, p. 610]. • 

Henry Pryce, Esq., of Taltreuddyn 

Rowland Pugh, Esq., of Matha£im, Afoni. 

John Owen, Esq., of Clenenney [afterwards 
knighted] .... 

Edmund Meytick, Esq., of Garthlwyd 

Lewis Nanncy, Esq., of Macs-y-pandy. [See 
Nanney of Maes-y^pandy] 

Evan Evans, Esq., of Tanybwlch. [See 
Griffilh of Tanylnvlch\ . 

Richard Vaughan, Esq., of Con-y-gedol, died\ 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedog, served re- > 
mainder of year 1 

William Wynne, Esq., of Glyn 

Hugh Nanney, Esq., of Nannau . 

Griffith Lloyd, Esq., of Maes-y-neuadd . 

Thomas Phillips, Esq., of the co. of Salop 

Lewis Anwyl, Esq., of Cemmaes, died . 

Griffith Nanney, Esq., of Dolaugwyn, served 
remainder of year . 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedog . 

Rowland Vaughan, Esq., of Caergai 

John Morgan, Esq., of Celli-Iorwerth 

William Owen, Esq. [of Brogyntyn, Constable 
of Harlech Castle. "Noe sessions kept 
this yeare ; he held out his castle for ye 
king for halfe a yeare siedge." — Old list 
of Sheriffs at Porkington, ending 1673] . 

No sheriff appointed . ' . 

Lewis Owen, Esq., of Peniarth 

Owen Salesbury, Esq., of Rhog. [He was 
" made by the Parliament. Noe sessions 
kept this yeare." — Old List^ quoted by 
Mr. Wynne] 

THE COMMONWEALTH. - 

Maurice Williams, Esq., of Nanmor. [" In the 

beginning of his time, upon the 30th of 

Jan., 1648, was our soueraigne lord ye 

king beheaded, and a new patent seal to 

all shcrifTes, and monarchy altered to the 

state government." — Ib.'\ . 

Robert Anwyl, Esq., of Park 

Maurice Wynn, Esq., of Crogen . 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Maes-y-pandy 

Lewis Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedog. 



A.D. 
1627 
1628 



1629 
1630 
163 1 

1632 
1633 

1634 

1635 
1636 

1^37 
1638 

1639 
1640 

1641 

1642 

1643 
1644 



Robert Wynn, Esq., of S3rlfiuii 
Howel Vaughan, Esq., of Glanllyn 



A.n. 

1657 
1658 



1645 
1646 

1647 



1648 



1649 
1650 
1651 
1652 

1653 



RICHARD CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

Richard Anwyl, Esq. [" The youngest son of 

William Lewis Anwyl, Esq."— (M/ Lisi\ 1659 

CHARLES IL— "THE RESTORATION/' 



1660 
1661 
1662 
1663 
1664 
1665 
1666 
1667 
1668 
1669 
1670 
167 1 

1672 
1673 
1674 



OLIVER CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR, i 

Maurice Lewis, Esq., of Pcngwem, Festiniog. 1654 
John Anwyl, Esq., of Llanfendigaid . 1655 

William Vaughan, Esq., of Caethle . . 1656 



Richard Anwyl, Esq. (the same) 

Humphrey Hughes, Esq., of Gwerdas 

William Salesbury, Esq., of Rhdg 

Roger Mostyn, Bkj., of Ddl-y-corslwyn 

John Wynne, .Esq., of Cwm-mine . 

Maurice Williams, Esq., of Nanmor 

Lewis Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedog . 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Maes-y-pandy 

Richard Wynn, Esq., cf Branas 

Robert Wynne, Esq., of Glyn 

John Vaughan, Esq. 

Maurice Wynn, Esq., of Llandanwg 

Howel Vaughan, Esq., of Vaner [Cymmer 
Abhey—^f the Nannau hoase] 

Nathaniel Jones, Esq., of Hendwr 

Owen Wjmne, Esq., of Glyn 

Hugh Tudor, Esq., of Egryn [son of William 
ap Tudyr, of the tribe of Marchudd ap 
Cynan, m. Gwen, dan. of Richard Vaughan 
of Cors-y-gedol] 

Sir John Wynn, Bait, [of Gwydir and Rhiw- 
goch. Henry Wynn m. Jane, dau. and h., 
of the latter place. See £Joyd rf RhiwgocK\, 

Griffith Vaughan, Esq., of Cors-y-gedol 

John Nanney, Esq., of Llanfendigaid . 

Robert Wynne, Esq., ol Maes-y-neuadd 

Richard Nanney, Esq., of Cefn-deuddwr ^ . 

Edmund Meyrick, Esq., of Ucheldre . 

William Vaughan, Esq., of Caergai 

Vincent Corbet, Esq , of Ynys-y-maengwjm . 

Anthony Thomas, Esq., of Hendre 

JAMES IL 

Lewis Lewis, Esq., of Penmaen 

Richard Poole, Esq., of Caenest . 

Richard Mytton, Esq., of Dinas Mawddwy. 
[See B rough and Mytton of Dinas Maiod" 
dioyl ....... 

Sir Robert Owen, Kt., of Glyn 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

Charles Hughes, Esq., of Gwerclas 
John Jones, Esq., of Uwchlaw'rcoed 
John Grosvenor, Esq. ; died, and was succ. by 
Hugh Nanney, Esq., of Nannau . 
Thomas Owen, Esq., of Llynlloedd, A font. 
Owen Wynne, Esq., of Peng>vem . 
William Anwyl, Esq., of Dolfeiuiog 
Richard Owen, Esq., of Peniarth . 
John Lloyd, Esq., of Aberllefeni . 
Howel Vaughan, Esq., of Vaner [Cymmer] 



1675 



1676 
1677 
1678 
1679 
1680 
1681 
1682 
1683 
1684 



1685 
1686 



1687 
1688 



:i 



1689 
1690 

1691 

1692 

1693 
1694 

1695 

1696 

1697 



HIGH SHERIFFS OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



693 



A.D. 

Richard Vaughan, Esq., of Con-y-gedol . 1698 

WiUiam LewU Anwyl, Esq., of Park . . 1699 

Evan Wynne, Esq., of Cwm-mine . • 1700 

John Nanney, Esq., of LUnfendigaid . . 1701 

ANNE. 

Edward Holland, Esq., of Pentre . . .1702 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Hendwr . • • 1703 

Morris Williams, Esq., of Havod-garegog • 17G4 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Rhwiwaedog . • 1705 

Sir WiUiam Williams, Bart, of Llanvorda . 1706 

Sir Griffith Williams, of Marie . . .1707 

John Wynne, Esq., of Garthmeilio . . 1708 

John Vaughan, Esq., of Caeigai . • . 1709 

Roger Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas • . .1710 

Thomas Meyrick, Esq., of Berth*lwyd . . 171 x 

Hugh Owen, Esq., of Cae'rberllan . . 17x2 

William Owen, Esq., of Glyn . . • 1713 

GEORGE L 

William Wynn, Esq., of Maes-y-neuadd . 17 14 

Lewis Owen, Esq., of Peniarth • . . 17 15 
John Evans, Esq., of Cyffty .... 1716 

Richard Weaver, Esq., of Corwen - . .1717 

Griffith Wynne, Esq., of Taltreuddyn . . 1718 

Ellis Jones, Esq., of Nant-bydyr . . . I7'9 

Hugh Hughes, Esq., of Gwerclas . . . 1720 

Richard Mytton, Esq., of Dinas Mawddwy . 172 1 

Thomas Price, Esq., of Glyn • . . 1722 

David Lloyd, Esq., of Bodnant . . .1723 

Owen Lloyd, Esq., of Hendwr • . .1724 

Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Ddlglessyn . .1725 

Athelstan Owen, Esq., of Rhiwaedog . • 1726 

GEORGE IL 

William Wynn, Esq., of Taltreuddyn . • 1727 
John Nanney, Esq., of Maes-y-pandy . . 1728 
Griffith Roberts, Esq., of Blaen-y-dd61 . .1729 
Ffoulk Lloyd, Esq., of Cilau . . . 1730 
William Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas . . 1731 
Edward Lloyd, Esq., of Gwerclas . . 1732 
Hugh Thomas, Esq., of Heodre . . *. 1733 
Robert Wynne, Esq., of Maes-y-neuadd . . 1734 
Robert Vaughan, Esq., of Hengwrt [the An- 
tiquary] 1735 

John Mytton, Esq., of Dinas Mawddwy 1736 

Robert Meyrick, Esq., of Ucheldri • . 1737 

John Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedog . . . 1738 

Richard Anwyl, Esq., of Dolfeiniog . 1739 

Thomas Price, Esq., of RhC^ . . . 1740 

Robert Wynne, Esq., of Cwm-mine . . 1741 

Robert Griffith, Esq., of Tan-y-bwlch . . 1742 

Maurice Jones, Esq., of Ddol ... . 1743 

William Lewis Anwyl, Esq., of Bod-talog . 1744 

Edward Williams, Esq., of Peniarth . . X745 

Robert Parry, Esq., of Goppa . . . 1746 

Hugh Lloyd, Esq., of Gwerclas . . . 1747 
Owen Wynne, Esq., of Pengwem, Festiniog. 1748 

Owen Holland, Esq., of Pentre-mawr . • 1749 



A.D. 
WilUam Wynoe^ Esq., of Park, and Wem, 

Cam. ..*...• 1750 
Maysmore Maurice, Esq., of Rhagatt . 1751 

Hugh Vaughan, Esq., of Heng^vrt . • 1 752 
Robert Price, Esq., of Cae-cdch . . .1753 
John Mostyn, Esq., of Clegyr . • 1754 

William Humphreys, Esq., of Maerdy . -1755 
Richard Owen, Esq., of CaethU . . . 175^ 
Peter Price, Esq., of Dol-gamedd . . . 1757 
William Wynne, Esq., of Mae^-y-neuadd . 1758 
Humphrey Edwards, Esq., of Talgarth . .' 1759 

GEORGE in. 

Robert Vaughan Humphre>'s, Esq., of Caer 

ynwch 

Lewis Owen, Esq., of Cae'rberllan 
Robert Wynne, Esq., of Cwm-mine 
John Mytton, Esq., of Dinas Mawddwy 
William Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwaedog 
John Pugh, Esq., of Garthmaelan 
Edward Vaughan Pugh, Esq., of Ty-gwyn 
Thomas Kyffin, Esq., of Bryn-yr-odyn . 
Robert Godolphe Owen, Esq., of Glyn • 
Rice James, Esq., of Dol-y-gelynen 
Evan Griffith, F.sq., of Plas Tan-y-bwlch 
Richard Parry, Esq., of Goppa 
William Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth and Park 
Lewis Edwaids, Esq., of Talgarth. [S 

Price of Esgair^weddan^ . 
Thomas Powel, Esq., of Bron-biban 
Lewis Nanney, Esq., of Llwyn 
William Williams, Esq., of Peniarth-uchaf 
John Vaughan, Esq., of Dol-melynllyn . 
Richard Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas . 
Henry Arthur Corbet, Esq., of Ynys-y 

maifngwyn • • • • . 
Thomas Roberts, Esq., of Tan-y-gaer . 
Edward Lloyd, Esq., of Maes-mawr, Corwen 
William Humphreys, Esq., of Maer-dy . 
Robert Evan, Esq., of Bodweni, Bala . 
Robert Howd Vaughan, Esq., of Hafod Owen 
John Jones, Esq., of CyflF-dy . 
Griffith Price, Esq., of Braich-y-Ceunant. [See 

Price rf Cort-y-gametWi . 
John Jones, Esq., of Rhyd-y-fen . 
Griffith Evans, Esq., of Cwm-yr-afon 
Edward Lloyd, Esq., of Pale 
John Wynne Pugh, Esq., of Garth-maelan 
Griffith Roberts, Esq., of Bodunlliw 
Edward Corbet, Esq., of Vnys-y-maengwyn 
William John Lenthall, Esq., of Uchel-dr< 
Owen Ormsby, Esq., of Glyn. [See Ormsby 

Gore ef Clyn^ k.c\ .... 
Robert Lloyd, Esq., of Cefn Coed 
Sir Edward Pryce Lloyd, Bart., of Park, ap 

pointed, but in his place — 
Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Cwmheision, appeared 

in the Catetie, 19th March 
Bell Lloyd, Esq., of Tyddyn Llan. [See 

Mostyn ef Mostyn\ 1797 

2 Z 



1760 
1 761 
1762 

1763 
1764 

1765 

1766 

1767 

1768 

1769 

1770 

I77I 
1772 

1773 

1774 

1775 
1776 

1777 
1778 

1779 
1780 

1 781 

1782 

1783 
1784 
1785 

1786 

1787 
1788 

1789 
1790 
1 791 
1792 
1793 

1794 
1795 

1796 



694 



MERIONETHSHIRE.- 



Robcrt Watkin Wynae^ Esq., of Cwm-mme . 
Sir Thomas Mostyii,.BarL, of Con-^-fiedoL 

[See Vaugham of Cari-x-gBiol] . 
'Borklcr Hatchelt, Esq., of Ty*ny-pwU . 
J. Passingham, Esq., of Hendwr • 
John Meredydd MosCyn, Esq., of Clcgyr 
John Forbes, Esq., of Cefn-bodiog 
' Sir Edwaid Price Lloyd, Bart., of Park, and 

Pengwem, Flint 

John Edwards, Esq.,/>f Pcnrhyn, and Green- 

fiekls, Machynlleth .... 

Hugh Jones, the elder, Esq., of Ilengwrt-uchaf, 

was excused, and — 
Thomas Jones, Esq., of Ynys-faig, appointed 
R. H. Kenrick, Esq., of Ucheldre. [Sec 
Meyrick of Ucluldrt\ .... 
Prycc Edwards, Esq., of Talgarth , 
William Davis, Esq., of Ty-uchaf . 
John Davies, Esq., of Aboilefeni . 
Hugh Revcley, Esq., of Bryn-y-gti'in . 
William Wynn, Esq., of Peniarth . 
Thomas Inwards, Esq., of Ty-issaf 
William GryfTydd Oakdey, Esq., of Plas Tan- 

y-bwlch 

Lewis Vaughan, Esq., of Penmaen-Dyfi 
John Davies, Esq., of Fron-henlog 
Sir John Evans, Kt., of Hendre-forfydd 
John Edwards, Esq., of Cocd-y-bedw . 
Edward Owen, Esq., of Garth-yngharad 

GEORGE IV. 

Thomas Fitzhngh, Esq., of Cwm-heision 
John Mytton, Esq., of Dinas Mawddwy 
James Dill, Esq., of Pant-glAs 
John Wynn, Esq., of Meyerth [W., Buarthf\ 
Athelstan Corbet, Esq., of Ynys-y-maengwyn 
Francis Roberts, Esq., of Gerddi-bluog . 
William Casson, Esq., of Cynfel . 
Thomas Hartley, Esq., of Llwyn . 
Thomas Casson, Esq., of Blaen-y-dddl . 
William John Bankes, Esq., of DCl-y-moch 

WILLIAM IV. 

Jones Panton, Esq., of Llwyn-Gwem 
Hugh Lloyd, Esq., of Cefn-bodiog 
William Turner, Esq., of Croesor . 
. George Jonathan Scott, Esq., of Peniarth- 

uchaf 

Charles Gray Harford, Esq., of Bryntirion 




John Hemy 
John EUerkcr 



Lewis, Esq., of Dolgnn 
Bookott, Esq., of 



A.D. 

1835 
1836 




VICTORIA. 



1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 
181 1 
1812 
1813 

18x4 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 



1820 
1821 
182a 
1823 
.1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 



1830 
183 1 
1832 

1833 
1834 



Sir Robert WniiamsVanghan, Bart., of Nannan 1837 
John Manners Kerr, Esq., of Plas Issaf. . 1838 
The Hon. Edwaid Uoyd Mostyn, of Plas-hte 1839 



1840 
1841 
1842 



1843 
1844 
1845 



George Price Uoyd, Esq., of Plas-yn-dre 
John Williams, Esq., of Bron Eryri 
The Hon. Thomas Price Lloyd, of Mochras . 
Owen Jones Ellis Nanney, Esq., of Cefia- 

ddendwr 

David White Griffith, Esq., of Sngyn . 
Richard Watkin Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas 
SirRobert Williames Vaughan, Bart., of Nannan 1846 
John Griffith Griffith, Esq. , of Talireuddyn-fawr 184 7 
Hugh Jones, Esq., of Gwemddelwa [Hengwrt- 

ucha . 

Robert Davies Jones, Esq., of Aberilefeni 
Edward Humphrey Griffith, Esq., of Gwastad- 

fryn 

Henry Ridiardson, Esq., of Aberfaimant 
George Casson, Esq., of Blaen-y-dddl . 
Thomas Arthur Bertie Mostyn, Esq., of Cilau 1853 
George Augustus Huddart, Esq., of Plas-yn- 

Penrhyn 

Charles John Tottenham, Esq., of PUs-Berwyn, 

Llangollen ...... 

John Priestley, Esq., of Hafod-garcgog . 
John Nanney, Esq., of Maesyneuadd 
Edmund Buckley,* Esq., of Plas Dinas . 
Hugh John Reveley, Esq., of Bryn-y-gwin . 
David Williams, E^., of Deudraeth CasUe 

[appointed 23nl Jan.] .... 
Charies Frederick Thruston, Esq., of Talgarth 

Hall [appointed 22nd Feb.] 
David Williams, Esq., of Deudraeth Castle • 
Samuel Holland, Esq., of Plas-yn-Penrhyn • . 
Howel Morgan, Esq., of Hengwrt-uchaf * 
Lewis Williams, Esq., of Vronwnion 
Richard Meredyth Richards, Esq. , of Caerynwch 1865 
John Corbet, Esq., of Ynys-y-macngwyn *. 1866 
William Watkin Edward Wynne, Esq., of 

Peniarth 1867 

Richard John Lloyd Price, Esq., of Rhiwkis . 1868 
Henry Robertson, Esq., of Crogen . . . 1869 
Clement Arthur Thruston, Esq., of Pennal 

Tower . . . . . . . 1870 

Charles Edwards, Esq., of Dolserau • . 1871 
Edward Foster Coulson, Esq., of Cots-y-gedol 1872 



1848 
1849 

1850 
185 1 
1852 



1854 

1855 
1856 

1857 
1858 

1859 
x86o 

i86f 
1862 
1863 
1864 



Section VIL— LORD LIEUTENANTS AND CUSTODES ROTULORUM OF 

MERIONETHSHIRE. 

The functions of the Lord Lieuhnant of a county have been noticed at p. 612. The 
Custos Rotulontm (Keeper of the Rolls) has charge of the county records, — those being the 
most important which pertain to the administration of justice. Not unfrequently the two 



LORD LIEUTENANTS AND CUSTODES ROTULORUM. 695 

offices are held by one and the same person. Up to the year 1689 the functions aiterwards 
performed by the lieutenants of counties generally belonged to the ^ Lord President " of the 
Court of the Marchers, or ** Lord President of Wales ** as otherwise termed. 

The following list has been drawn from the Docket Books at the Crown Office, West- 
minster^ and collated with a shorter list made by W. W. £. Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth 
(see ArchaoL Cambr,^ 1846): — 

Lord LieutenantSy <&*^. Date of Appointmtnt^ 

Eure^ Ralph Eure (or Evre), Baron, of Wilton, Durham, appointed the King's Lieutenant 

in the Principality of Wales 19th July, 1607. 

Compton, William Compton, Baron (cr. Earl of Northampton 1618) .... 24tb Nov., 161 7. 

Bridgwater, John Egerton, Earl of (cr. 161 7), appointed Lord President of Wales . 12th May, 1633. 

Pembroke and Montgomery, Philip Herbert, Earl of, nominated by the House of Com- 
mons Lord Lieutenant of Wilts, Mfriotuth^ and Carnarvon nth Feb., 1642. 

Strange, James Stanley, Lord, afterwards 7th Earl of Derby, part of one year only . 1642. 

[JVI^/z.^The Parliament now disputed the right of the king (Charles L) to i4>point lieutenants, and no further appointment was 
made till Charles II. assumed power in z66o.] 

Carbery, Richard Vaughan, Earl of, appointed Lord Lieutenant for cos. Anglesey, Car- 
narvon, Denbigh, Flint, Montgomery, and Merioneth [had already been appointed 
for the COS. of South Wales. Seep. 108] 32nd Sept, 166a 

Carbery, Richard Vaughan, Earl of, reappointed 19th July, 1662. 

Owen, Sir John, Kt., appointed Custos Rotulorum of Merioneth . . • • . 1663. 

Owen, William, Esq., appointed Custos Rotulorum of Merioneth l666. 

Wynn, John, Esq., Custos Rotulorum 1675. 

Beaufort, Henry Somerset, 1st Duke of, appointed Lord President of North and South 

Wales 38th March, 1685. 

Powis, William Herbert, Marquess of (cr. Viscount Montgomery and Marquess of Powb 

1687), appointed Custos Rotulorum for Merioneth '. 14th April, 1688 

Macclesfidd, Charles Gerard, Earl of. Lord Lieutenant of the cos. of North and South 

Wales. (See p. 108) 22nd March, 1689. 

Williams, Sir William, Kt and Bart, one of his Majesty's learned Counsel, Custos Rotu- 
lorum for CO. Merioneth 8th Oct., 1689. 

Wynn, Sir John, Kt and Bart., Custos Rotulorum for the co. of Merioneth • . 19th March, 1690. 

Macclesfield, Charles Gerard, Earl of, reappointed Lord Lieutenant of the cos. of Mont- 
gomery, Denbigh, Flint, Carnarvon, Merioneth^ and Anglesey, their several 
boroughs, &c. lOth March, 1695. 

Derby, William Stanley, Earl of. Lieutenant of the cos. of North Wales last named, and 

of the CO. of Lancaster. (He d. before the end of the year) 1 8th Jan., 1702. 

Cholmondeley, Hugh, Lord, Lord Lieuteiumt of North Wales in the room of the Earl 

of Derby, dee, 2nd Dec, 1703. 

Wynn, Sir John, Bart, of Rhiw-goch and Wattstay, Custos Rotulorum for the co. of 

Merioneth 1707. 

Vaughan, Edward, Esq., Custos Rotulorum for same 7th Jan., 17 10. 

Cholmondeley, Hugh, Earl of, reappointed Lord Lieutenant of North Wales • . 21st Oct, 1714. 

Owen, Lewis, Esq., of Peniarth, Custos Rotulorum for the co. of Merioneth . . . loth Dec., 1722. 

Cholmondeley, George, 2nd Earl of, succ. his brother as Lord Lieutenant of North 

Wales and Cheshire 7th April, 1725. 

Cholmondeley, George, 3rd Earl of, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of North 

Wales, in place of his father, ^«r. 14th June, 1733. 

Vaughan, William, Esq., of Cors-y-gedol, Cust. Rot and M.P., app. Lord Lieutenant 
for CO. Merioneth, with a revocation of a former commission to George, Earl of 
Cholmondeley, as respects the CO. of Merioneth . 26th April, 1762. 

Wynn, Sir Watkin Williams, Bart., of Wynnstay, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rot. for 

the CO. of Merioneth 1775. 

Williams, Watkin, Esq., of Penbedw, Denh,^ Lord Lieutenant (31st August) and 

Custos Rot. (4th Sept. ) for the CO. of Merioneth - 1789. 

Wynn, Sir Watkin Williams, 4th Bart, of Wynnstay, Lord Lieutenant (loth June) and 

Custos Rot. (28th Nov.) for the co. of Merioneth I793- 



696 MERIONETHSHIRE. ' 

Wynn, Sir Watlcin Williams, 5th Bart, of WjrnnsUy, Lord Lieutenant and Gustos Rot. 

of COS. Merioneth and Denbigh ••.... 1 .. . 29th Dec.» 1830. 
Mostyn, Hon. Edward Mostyn Lloyd (now Lord Mostyn), Lord Lieutenant of Merioneth 

(still holding the office) 35th June, 184a 



Section VIII.— PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF MERIONETHSHIRE, 

■ 

A.D. 1542 — 1872. 

Merioneth being one' of the early counties, formed by Edward I. (a.d. 1283) immediately 
upon his conquest of Wales, it probably enjoyed some kind of parliamentary representation 
before the Act of Union of Henry VIII. conceded that right to all the counties of the 
Principality without distinction. Representatives are known to have been summoned from 
Wales in the fifteenth of Edward II. In the twentieth year of the same king, twenty-four 
representatives were summoned from North Wales. And these delegates appear to have 
been of a station more nearly allied to the people than the great barons who had the right 
to attend the king's council. The Act of the fifteenth Edward II. (a.d. 132 i) ordains 
'' that for ever thereafter the matters to be established for the estate of the king, and for 
the estate of the realm and of the people, should be treated, accorded, and established in 
Parliament by the king, and with the assent of the prelates, earls, and barons, and the com- 
monalty of the realm^ according as had been before the customr This seems to be the earliest 
statute extant which plainly recognises popular representation on a basis much wider than 
that conceded by the charter of King John. 

The Commons had properly no existence in England before the reign of Edward 1. 
In Wales there was an established code of laws in each princedom ; but their administra- 
tion lay greatly in the hands of the prince, whose power was in all ages checked by 
•assemblies of the people. Nothing coming up to the idea of a parliament^ however, and 
no electoral firanchise, existed. In England, the Plantaganet Parliament, reflecting still 
earlier times, was a council of prelates more than of lay barons. In most summonses 
during the reigns of Henry IV., V., and VI., the "spiritual lords" (bishops and abbots) 
were nearly double the number of the temporal lords, in consequence of the absence of the 
latter in actual service, in war, or firom other causes ; but sometimes their numbers were 
nearly equal. 

The Act 27th Henry VIII., sect. 29, enacted that " one knight should be chosen and 
elected for every of the shires of Brecknock, Radnor, Montgomer}', and Denbigh — the 
newly constituted counties,— ^and for every other shire within the said country or dominion 
of Wales ; and for every borough being a shire town within the said county except the shire 
town of the county of Merioneth^ one burgess ; and the election to be in like n^anner, form, 
and order, as knights and burgesses be elected and chosen in other shires of this realm." 

The qualification for county and borough voters alike between Edward I. and Henry VL 
was the holding of a house. By the ist of Henry V., both members and electors were to be 
resident within the shire or borough at the date of the writ of summons. By the 8th of 
Henry VI., the county franchise was limited to those who held lands or tenements of the 
yearly value oi forty shillings at the least, within the county concerned — a qualification 
which continued to very recent times. 



PARLIAMENTARY ANNALS OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



697 



HENRY VIIL 

Edward Stanley, Esq. [see Shiriffs^ 1545] 

EDWARD VL 

Lewis Owen, Esq. [" Baron Owen," see Owen 

ofD^geUey\ 

Lewis Owen, Esq. (the same) 

MARY. 

John Salesbury, Esq. [of RhAg, SheriflT 1559] 

Lewis Owen, Esq. (same as for 1547, session 

April 22 — May 5) 

PHILIP AND MARY. 

Lewis Owen, Esq., of Dolgelley (the same) . 

[No name preserved in the records] 

Elizeus [Ellis ?] Price, Esq. [of RhiwUis ?] . 

ELIZABETH. 

Ellis Price, Esq 

Ellis Price, Esq. (the same) .... 
Hugh Owen, Esq. [of CaeVberilan, son of 

"Baron Owen"] 

John Lewis Owen Esq. [brother of last] . 
Cadwalader Price, Esq. ["Cad. ap Rhys;* of 

Rhiwlas] 

Robert Lloyd, Esq. [of Rhiwgdch] 

Robert Salesbury, Esq. [of Rhflg:] . 

Gniffydd Nanney, Esq. [son of Hugh, of 

Nannau] 

Thomas Middleton, Esq. .... 
Robert Lloyd, Esq. [of Rhiwg6di] 

JAMES L 

Edward Herbert, Esq. [of Dolguog?] . 
Robert Lloyd, Esq. [of Rhiwgdch] 
William Salesbury, Esq. .... 

Henry Wynn, Esq. [prob. of Rhiwgoch] 

CHARLES L 



A.D. 



1524 



547 



553 
554 



554 
555 
557 



558 
563 

571 
572 

585 
586 

588 

592 

597 
60X 



603 
6x4 
620 
623 



Henry Wynn, Esq. (the same) . . . 1625 
Edward Vaughan, Esq. [of Llwydiarth ?] . . 1628 
Henry Wynn, Esq. . .1st session \ 

William Price, Esq., sccc. by — > 1640 

yQhn Jona .... 2nd session ) 

THE COMMONWEALTH AND CROMWELL. 

Six members summoned for all Wales after 
Cromwell had dismissed the " Long Par- 

. 1653 



liaroent 



The "Little Parliament" .... 1653 

OLIVER CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 

John Vaughan, Esq. [of Cefnbodiog] . . 1654 
Col. John Jones [prob. of Maes-y-gamedd, one 
of the signataries of the death-warrant of 
Charles L] 1656 

RICHARD CROMWELL, LORD PROTECTOR. 
Lewis Owen, Esq. 1658-9 



A.D. . 

CHARLES IL— THE RESTORATION. 

Henry Wynne, Esq. [of the Gwydir family?] 1660 
[Writ issued to elect a Knight of the Shire in 
the place of Henry Wynne, Esq., deceased 
{Docket Book^ 1672), but who was elected 
has not been discovered] . • . 1672 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

\Prob, Hugh Nanney, Esq., of Nannau] . 16S9 

Hugh Nanney, Esq., of Nannau . • . 1700 
[Writ to elect a Knight of the Shire in room 

of Hugh Nanney, Esq. , dec^Doeket £k,^ x 701 

ANNE. 

Richard Vaughan, Esq. (?) . . .1702 

Richard Vaughan, Esq. .... 1707 

GEORGE L 

Richard Vaughan, Esq. (the same) . 17x5 

GEORGE II. 

Richard Vaughan, Esq. (the same) . . 1727 

William Vaughan, Esq. [of Cors-y-gedol] 1734 

William Vaughan, Esq. (the same) . 1747-64 

GEORGE IIL 

William Vaughan, Esq. (the same) . . 1760-8 
John Pugh Pryse, Esq. [of Gogerddan] . 1768-74 
Evan Lloyd Vaughan, Esq. [of Cors-y-gedol] . 1774 
Evan Lloyd Vaughan, Esq. [the same ; d, 1 792] ; 

the last male representativeof the Vaughans 

of Cors-y-gedol 17902 

Robert Williams Vaughan, Esq. [afterwards 

Bart., of Hengwrt] .... 1792 

Sir Robert Williams Vaughan, Bart, [of 

Hengwrt ; represented the co. till 1836] . 1796 

GEORGE IV. 
Sir Robert Williams Vaughan, Bart, (the same) 1820 

WILLIAM IV. 

Sir Robert Williams Vaughan, Bart (the same) 1830-6 
Richard Richards, Esq. [of Caerynwch, vice 
Vaughan resigned. Seat contested ; 
votedfor Richards 50X;forSirW. Williams 
Wynn 150] 1856 

VICTORIA. 

Richard Richards, Esq. [the same, and con- 
tinuously till the general election of 
1852] 1837-52 

William Watkin Edward Wynne, Esq., of 

Peniarth 1852 

The same, and continuously till 1865, when he 

resigned 1857-65 

William Robert Maurice Wynne, Esq. [of 

Peniarth ; eldest son of the last member] 1865 

David Williams, Esq., of Deudraeth Castle . 1868 

Samuel Holland, Esq., of Glanwilliam \vice 

Williams, deeJ] 1870 



698 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



Section IX.— COUNTY MAGISTRATES OF MERIONETHSHIRE, 1872. 



Mostyn, Right Hon. Lord, of Mostyn Hall, Lord 

LUutenanL 
Ansell, Charles, Esq. 
Buckley, Sir Edmund, Bart., M.P., of Plas Dinas 

Mawddwy. 
Bunbury, Henry W. St Pierre, Esq., of Abergwynant 
Casson, John, Esq. 
Casson, William, Esq. 
Corbet, Athclstane John Soden, Esq., of Ynys-y* 

Maengwyn. 
Oavies, Edward Morris, Esq. 
Davies, Frederick, Esq. 
Davis, David, Esq. 
Davis, Lewis, Esq. 
Edwards, Charles, Esq., of Dolserau. 
Ellis, John Williams (Clerk), of Glas-fryn, Cam, 
Ford, John Ranate Minshull, Esq., of Llwyn-gwem. 
Fotdkes, John, Esq., of Aberdyfi. 
Greaves, John Whitehead, Esq., of Plas-weunydd. 
Green, Thomas, Esq. 

Holland, Samuel, Esq., M.P., of Glan-william. 
Huddart, George A., Esq., of Bryn-kir. 
Jones, Charles, Esq., of Coes-feen. 
Jones, John (Clerk;, of Barmouth. 
Jones, John, Esq., of Fron-dderw. 
Jones, John, Esq., of Ynys-iawr. 
Jones, John, Esq., of Ynysgain. 
Jones, William, Esq , of Glandwr. 
Jones, William Pryse, Esq., of Bodweni. 
Kettle, Rupert, Esq., of Towyn. 
Lloyd, John, Esq. , of Plas Issaf, Corwen. 
Lloyd, Morgan, Esq., of Cefn-gellgwm. 
Mathew, Edward Windus, Esq., of Wem, Corn, 
Morgan, Howel, Esq., of Hengwrt-uchaf. 
Nanney, Hugh Ellis, Esq., of Gwynfryn. 



Oakeley, William Edward, Esq., of Plas Tanybwlch. 

Parry, John Edward, Esq., of Glyn-Hall. 

Parry, Robert Sorton, Esq., of Aberia. 

Price, Richard J. Lloyd, Esq., of Rhiwlas. 

Pryse, Robert Davies, Esq. 

Pugh, William T., Esq., of Cefn-amberth. 

Pughe, John, Esq., of Bryn*awel, Aberdyfi. 

Reveley, Hugh John, Esq., of Bryn-y-givin. 

Richards, Owen, Esq., of Bala. 

Richards, Richard Meredyth, Esq., of Caeiynwch, 

Chairman of Quarter Sessiotts. 
Richardson, Henry Thomas, Esq. 
Roberts, Hugh Beaver, Esq. 
Robertson, Henry, Esq., of Crogen. 
Taylor, Robert Maicie, Esq. 

Thruston, Charles Frederick, Esq., of Talgarth HalL 
Thruston, Clen.ent Arthur, Esq., of Pennal Tower. 
Tottenham, Charles John, Esq., of PUs Berwyn. 
Tottenham, Charles Robert Worsley, Esq. 
Vane, Right Hon. the Earl, Plas Machynlleth. 
Vaughan, John, Esq., of Nannau. 
Whalley, George Hammond, Esq., M.P., of Plas 

Madoc, Denb. 
Williams, Abram Jones, Esq., of Gellewig, Cam, 
Williams, Arthur Osmond, Esq., of Deudraeth Castle. 
Williams, David (Clerk), Trawsfynydd. ' 
Williams, Lewis, Esq., of Vron-wnion. 
Wingfield, Richard Robert, Esq. 
Wynn, John (Clerk), of Llandrillo. 
Wynn, Sir Watkin Williams, Bart., of Wynnstay, 

Denb. 
Wynn, The Hon. Charles Henry, of RhOg. 
Wynne, William Robert Maurice, Esq., of Peniarth. 
Wynne, William Watkin Edward, Esq., of Peniarth. 
Yale, William Corbet, Esq., of Plas yn Yale. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



AirWTL, Eobert Charles, Esq., of Uagwy, 
]||[erioiL6thsliire.« 

Fourth but only surviving son of the late 
Evan Anwyl, Esq., of Llugwy, by his wife, 
Jemima Morgan (see Lineage); b. 12th 
July, 1849 ; ed, at Shrewsbury School, 
and is pursuing his studies for the law in 
London; succ on the demise of his father. 
1872; has six sisters living. (See Lineage,) 

Raidttue: Llug%vy, near Machynlleth. 

Arms: i. Vert, three eagles displayed in fesse 
or— O WAIN GwYNEDD, — a fleur-de-lis or for 
difference 6th son. 

2. Sa., a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis 
arg.— COLLWYN AP Tangno. 

3. Vert, a chevron between 3 wolves' heads 
erased aig. — Rhirid Flaidd. 

4. Per pale az. and gu., 3 lions rampant arg. 
— Herbert of Cemmaes. 

5. Arg., an eagle displayed with 2 necks sa. — 
Meurig Llwvd of Llwyn y Maen. 

6. Arg., a lion passant sa. between 3 fleurs- 
. de-lis gu. — EiNiON AP Seissyllt. 

Crest : An eagle displayed or. 
MoUo: Eryr eryrod Kryri, "The eagle of 
the eagles of Snowdon." 



LINEAGE. 

The ancient family of Anwyl have resided at 
Llugwy from the time when Maurice Anwyl {circa 
1695) JK. Joan, the heiress of that place, but pre- 
viously for many ages at Park, in the parish of Llan- 
frothcn, in the same co. of Merioneth. There Zac^x 
Dwnn^ Deputy Herald, found them, in 161 1, 
when pursumg his Heraldic VisUation of Wales ; 
and there they bad then been seated for several 
generations. Their lineage is from Owain Groy- 
nedd^ the illustrious Prince of North Wales 
(1 2th cent.), son of Prince Gruffydd ap Cynan, of 
the direct line (through the eldest son, Anarawd) 
of Rkodri Afawr, King, first of N. Wales, then 
of all Wales (9th cent). The grandson of Owain 
Gwynedd. — 

Thomas (ap Rhodri ap Owain), Lord of Rhiw- 
llwyd, m. Agnes, dau. of Einion ap Seissyllt, 
Lord of Mathafam, widow of Owain Brogyntyn, 
Lord of Edeimion (see Arms^ 6). His descend- 
ants, Lords of RliiwUwyd, were successively 
Cardog, Gruffydd, Dafydd, and — 

Howel, who m. Efa, dau. of Ifan ap Howel ap 
Meredydd of Vstumce^d, of the line of Collwyn 
ap Tan<pto^ founder of the fourth noble tribe of 
N. Wales (see p. 337). The son of Howel, — 

Meredydd ot Vstumcegid, living 26th Edward 
in. (1352), m. Morfvdd, dau. of leuan ap Dafydd 
ap Trahaeni Goch of GraisCnog, in Lleyn, and left 
two sons— the younger Robert, of Ccsail-gyfarch, 



whose grandson Meredydd purchased and settled 
at Gwvdir, the ancestor of the Wynns of Gwydir 
and Wynnstay, the Lord Wiiloughby D'Eresby, 
&C. (sec p. 313, and /f>/*/i 0/ Gwydir); the 
elder, — 

leuan, or Ifan, of Vstumcegid, m, Lucy, dau. of 
Hywcl Sele, Lord of Nannau, and had a son, — 

Meredydd, of Vstumcegid, e.squire of the body 
to John of Gaunt (see ArinSt 3), who m. Ang- 
harad, dau. and h. of Einion ap Ithel of Rhi- 
waedog, Mer. His son John, frequently mentione 1 
in Sir John Wynns Hist, if the G-unnlir Family ^ 
living and signing a deed A.D. 140^ was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest son,— 

Maurice, or Morys, of Clenenney (see p. 343)f 
and Rhiwaedog, who m* Angharad, dau. of EiUs 
ap Gruffydd ap Einion. By a deed dated 1 8th 
August, 151 1, he conveys "Plas Clenenney to 
feoffees, for himself for life, with remainder to his 
son Ellis (note to Dwnn^ ii., 70). His eldest son, 
William JUwyd^ was of Rhiwaedog (which see) ; 
and his 3rd son, — 

Robert ap Morys, was of Pare (Park), Llan- 
frothen, near Penrhyn-deudraeth, Mer. By his 
wife Lowry, dau. of Lewis ap Ifan ap Dafydd, he 
left a large family, but the eldest and the only one 
of whose issue we have account vras — 

Lewis, sumamed Anwyl^ of Pare, the first of 
the long line oi Anwyis (1602^. John, 2nd son of 
Robert ap Morys, assumed the surname Roberts 
(Robert's, sc. "son^'sap Robert), and resided at 
Vaner (Cymmer Abbey), Dolgelley. Lewis 
Anwyl, Esq., of Pare, //i. twice, his first wife, by 
whom alone he had issue, being Elizabeth, dau. of 
Morys ap Ifan ap Sion of Brynkir, Cam., who 
was also of the race of O ^vain Gwynedd. He was 
s, by his only son, — 

William Lewis Anwyl, Esq., of Pare, Sheriff of 
Merioneth 161 1, 1624, who m. Elizabeth, dau. 
and co-h. of Edward Herbert, Esq., of Cemmaes, 
in Cyfeiliog, grandson of Sir Richard Herbert, Kt. 
(see Herbert of Montgomery^ &c.), whose arms are 
the arms of the Earls of Powis,— " Per pale az. 
and gu., 3 lions ramp, arg." By her he left a 
numerous offspring of 8 sons and 4 daus. Cathe- 
rine //I. William Wynne, Esq., of Glyn, Sheriff of 
Mer. 1618, 1637, d, 1658, whose present direct 
male representative is W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., 
of Peniarth. The eldest son, — 

Lewis Anwyl \d. 163S), m. Frances, dan. of Sir 
William Jones of Castellmarch, Cam. (see p. 342)* 
and had issue an only dau., who m. William 
Owen, Esq., of Clenenney ; Robert, 2nd son. 
Sheriff of Mer. 1650 (//. 1653). inherited Pare, and 
by his wife, Catherine, dau. of Sir John Owen of 
Clenenney (see p. 343), had two sons, Richard of 
Pare, who d. s. p. , and Owen of Penrhyn deudmcth, 
who had no issue male, and whose only dau., 
Catherine, w. Sir Griffith Williams, Bart., of 
Marie (see under Williams-BulkeUy, p. 364), 
whose dau. Anne, heiress of Pare, and wife of 
Sir Thomas Prendergast, sold that place in 1748 
to W. Wynne, Esq., of Wem. (Comp. up lo 



TOO 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



this point Z>zcnrff'i Herald, Visit, of WaUs^ ii., 70.) 
William Lewis Anvryl's 6th son was — 

Evan Aftwyl^ AVf., who m. Catherine, dan. of 
Morys Williams, Esq., of Hafod-garegog Thence- 
forth the lineage is derived from the College of 
Anns, and from registers], and left a son. — 

Maurice Anwyl, Esq., who m, Joan, the heiress 
of Liux7vy^ and settled at that place. (See Arms^ 
6.) He had a son, Evan Anwyl, Esq., of Lluffwy 
U. 1721), who had also a son, Maurice Anwyl of 
Llugwy, and he a son and h., Evan Anwyl, Esq., of 
Llugwy, who m. and had issue, who all d, 1. /. ; 
and a 2nd son,— 
Maurice Anwyl^ of Llugwy, Clerk, B.A. of 

Oxford, who m, Anne, dau. of Lloyd, Esq., 

of Shrewsbury, and had bsue ~i. Maurice, d. s. p, ; 
2. Robert, d, s. p, ; 3. Evan^ of whom hereafter ; 
4. Elizabeth ; 5. Catherine ; 6. Charles ; 7. 
Anne, who all d, s.p. 

Ei/an Amtryl, tsq., of Llujgwy (1/. Jan. 18, 
1872), m, Jemima, dau. of William Morgan, Esq., 
of Brynllys, co. of Montgomery, and had issue, 
besides, i, Maurice; 2, Evan; 3, William, who 
all d. J*. /., a fourth son, — 

Robert Charles Anwyl, now of Llugwy 
(as above), and five daughters, — . 

I. Anne ; 2. Jemima ; 3. Elizabeth Louisa ; 4. 
Catherine Winifred ; 5. Maria Florence. 

Note, — The mansion of Llugtay^ pleasantly situated 
on the banks of the Dovey (Dyfi), is very ancient, but 
of date unknown. The older abode of the Anwyls, 
Pare, near Penrhvn-deudmeth, although lon^ neg- 
lected, has not altogether disappeared. It is ap- 
proached by a drive of more than a mile in length. 
In front of the site of the house are four terraces, 150 
feet long by 50 wide, supported by walls 12 feet high. 
The part of the house still standing, built in 1671, is 
said to have been the ball-room. On the rable are 
curious large round chimneys. On either side of the 
front door are pieces of beautifully carved stone, 
formerly gilded, from the chimney-piece in the dining- 
hall ; and one sees here and there, sometimes even in 
the .walls of the present sheepfolds, mullions from 
the windows in freestone. At the back of the old 
mansion there are the ruins of a stone bath with seats 
round it and steps to descend. The '* gate-house" 
(lodge) is still standing, but much dilapidated. Pare 
is now the property of H. J. Reveley, Esq., of Bryny- 
gwin. 



BBEESE, Edwaxd, Esq., of Dolfriog, Herioiiefli- 
sliire. 

(See Breese of Morfa Lodge^ Carnarvon- 
shire.) 



BUCEIBT, Sir Edmnnd, Bart, of Has Dinas 
Kanvddwy, Merionethsliire. 

« 

Baronetqr cr. 1868. J. P. and D. L. for 
the CO. of Merioneth; M.P. for Newcastle- 
under-Lyme since 1865 ; Lord of the 
Manor of Hoylandswaine, Yorkshire; /;. 
1834; ;/«., i860, Sarah, eldest dau. of 
William Rees, Esq., of Tonn, Llandovery, 
•J. P. for the CO. of Brecon (see Rees of 
Tonn); assumed in 1864 by royal licence 
the name and arms of Buckley for himself 



and his issue; succ. to the estates of 
Gratton Hall, Yorkshire, and Ardwick, 
Lancashire, on the death of Edmund 
Buckley, Esq., J. P. for the co. of Lan- 
caster, and to the estate and lordship of 
Dinas Mawddwy during the lifetime of 
the latter, who in 1856 had purchased it 
from the Mytton family, in whose posses- 
sion it had been since the time of King 
John; has had issue two sons and one 
dau. :— 

1. Edmund, b, 1861. 

2. William, b, 1863. 

3. Sarah, b. 1864. 

Heir: Edmund Buckley. 

Residences: Plas Dinas Mawddwy, 
Mer. ; Grotton Hall, Yorkshire. 

Town Address : Carlton Club. 

Arms : Sa., a chevron indented aig. 
between three escutcheons of the second, 
each bearing a bull's head caboshed of 
the field ; a bordure wavy or. 

Crest: On a wreath out of a fern 
brake ppr., a bull's head sa., the whole 
debruised by a bendlet sinister or. 

Motto : Nee temere nee timide. 

LINEAGE. 

The Buckle}rs were long settled and 
possessed lands in the district of Saddle- 
worth, Yorkshire. For Lady Buckley's 
descent see under Rees of Tonn, Carmar- 
thenshire. 

Note, — The mansion of Plas Dinas Maw- 
ddwy is of quite recent erection, its precincts 
and grounds being scarcely yet (1872) com- 
pleted. The sumptuous character of this 
Plis among the mountains may be judged 
of from the three engravings on pp. 655-7, 
where an account is also given of the ancient 
lordship of Mawddwy. 



BUNBUBT, Col. Henry William St. Heire, of 
Aber-gwynant, Merionethshire. 

Colonel, retired from the army; C.B. ; 
served in India as Aide-de-camp to Sir 
Charles Napier, 1850, and in the Crimean 
War, at Inkermann and siege of Sebastopol; 
made a C.B. 1855 ; received the Crimean 
Medal and Order of the Medjidie ; is a 
Knight of the Legion of Honour ; Justice 
of the Peace for Merioneth ; son of Lieut- 
General Sir Henry Edward Bunbury, Bart, 
K.C.R, some years M.P. for Suflfolk, by 
his first wife, Louisa Emilia, daughter of 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



701 



General the Honourable Henry £. Fox, I 
and brother of the present Sir Charles 
James Fox Bunbury, Bart.» of Barton Hall, 
Suffolk ; b. at Brompton, and September, 
i8ia; «/. at home; w., 30th Nov., 1852, 
to Cecilia Caroline, daughter of General 
Sir George Napier, K.C.B. ; and has issue 
3 sons and i daughter ;*j. 1863. 

Heir : Henry C. J. Bunbuiy. 

Rtsidince : Abergwynant, near Dolgelley. 

Arms : Arg., on a bend sa. three chess rooks 
of the field. 

Crest I Two swords saltierwise through the 
mouth of a leopard's face or, the blades ppr., 
hilted and pommelled or. 

Aloito : Firmum in vit4 nihil. 

LINEAGE. 

The Bunburys, Baronets, of Barton Hall, Suffolk, 
and earlier of Cheshire, of which Col. Bunbury is 
a younger branch, are of Norman origin, their first 
founder in England being a Sf. Pitrrr, a follower 
of Lupus, Earl of Chester, a nephew of William 
the Conqueror. The Bunburys were seated at 
Stanney HalU Cheshire, till the beginning of the 
present century. Sir Thomas Bunbury, the first 
Baronet, received that dignity in 1681. Sir Charles, 
now living, is 8th Baronet. 



GOEBET, Afhelstaii John Soden, Esq., of Tnys- 
y-maengwyn, Herioaethshire. 

Son of the late John Soden, Esq., by his wife 
Henrietta, dau. of Charles Decimus Wil- 
liames, Esq., of Bei^h-ddu, Mont, and Anne 
Maurice, of Lloran, Denb. (maternally 
descended from the Corbets), who, under 
the will of Mrs. Owen, of Rhiwsaeson (of 
the ancient line of Corbet of Ynys-y-maen- 
gwyn), assumed the surname Corbet in 
order that their issue might inherit the 
Ynys-y-maengwyn estate (see Lineage); 
b, 1849; X. on the death of his mother, 
1868 ; is unm. 

Residence: Ynys-y-maengwyn, Towyn, Mer. 

LINEAGE. 

The ancient line of Wynn of Ynys-y-macng>vyn, 
according to Dwnn XHeraid, Visit, of IVates), ter- 
minated m two daus., co-heiresscs, Elizabeth and 
Catherine. The former {</. 1642) m. Sir James 
Pryse, Kl (SheriiT of Merioneth 1608), son of Sir 
John Pryse, of Gogerddan, Card., and had issue 
one dau. only, Bridget Pryse, heiress to Ynys-y- 
maengwyn, who took for her first husl)and— 

Robert Corbet^ Esq., 3rd son of .Sir Vincent 
Corbet, Kt., of Morton Corbet, Salop, and had 
issue. (She m., 2ndly, Walter Lloyd, Esq., of 
Lis nfair-clydogao. ) 

For several generations the Ynys-y-maengwyn 
estates continued in the Corbets, descendants of 
the above Bridget Pryse, until the Corbets ended 
in a sole heiress, Anne Corbet (dau. of Vincent 



Corbet), who m, Athelstan Owen, Esq., of RAiuh' 
saesotif Mont. Mrs. Owen d. 1760, «/. seventy-six, 
having created an entail, settling Ynys-y-maengwyn 
upon the descendants of her youngest dau. (her 
two sons having died 1. /.), Anne, wife of Pryse 
Afaun'ee, Esq.* of Uoran^ Denb., on condition of 
their assuming the name of Corbet, 

Under this entail the estates were eventually 
vested in the late Athelstan Corbet, Esq. (previously 
Maurice), who d, 1835, and were subsequently held 
in trust for the benelit of his niece, eldest child of 
his sister Anne by her mar. with Charles Decimus 
Williames, Esq. (See Note on Dwnn^ ii., 231.) 
That niece was Henrietta Soden (above named), 
and her issue \»'as — 

Athelstan John Soden, now of Ynys-y- 
maengwyn (as above). 



COULSOIT, Edward Poster, Esq., of Cors-y-gedol, 
HerioEethshire, and Bellaport JBLall, 
Salop. 

J. P. for the COS. of Merioneth and Salop ; 
Sheriflf for the former co. 1872 ; Lord of 
the manor of Norton in Hales, Salop; was 
formerly Captain East York Militia > son 
of George Coulson, Esq., of Cottingham 
Castle, CO. of York, by Jane, daughter of 
Hugh Ker, Esq., of Newfield, co. Ayr, 
N.B.; /«., 1853, his maternal cousin, Eliza- 
beth, widow of Thomas Colville, Esq., 
and eldest daughter of Robert Kerr, Esq., 
Captain 33rd Regiment, of Annfield. co. 
Stirling, by Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh 
Ker, Esq., of Newfield, co. Ayr; x., 1866, 
his maternal uncle. Rev. Hugh Ker, who 
by royal licence had assumed the name of 
Cokbume. 

Heir premmptvoe : Hugh Ker Colville, 
b, 1847. 

Residences : Cors-y-gedol, DyiTryn, 
Merioneth; Bellaport Hall, Market 
Drayton, Salop. 

ToTvn Address : Union Club, Trafalgar 
Square. 

Arms: Arg., an anchor in pale between 
two dolphins haurient, all ppr. 

Crest: A dolphin embowed ppr. 

LINEAGE. 

Mr. Coulson is paternally descended 
from Robert de Colston, of Colston Hall, 
CO. Lincoln, a family of consequence at 
the time of the Norman Conquest, and 
maternally from the Kers of Kersland, an 
ancient branch of the noble house of 
Femihirst. He bears the Coulston arms 
(as above), as do also the Colstons of 
Roundway Park, Wilts. 

Note. — ^There is an ancient British fortress 
a short distance from Cors-y-gedol, several 



J02 



UEKIONETHSHIRE. 



cromlechs (see Pre-hUtaric Aniiquiius, ante\ 
and, on the sea-shore, some curious ** kitchen- 
middens.** 

Ccrs»ygetbl is of considerable interest to 
the lovers of history and antiquity. It had 
long been a residence of note when, between 
1240 and 1243, the heiress of Corsy-gedol, 
being a royal ward, was bestowed by Llewel- 
lyn the Great on Osbom Fitzgerald, called 
by the Welsh heralds Osborn Wyddd, son of 
John Fitz Thomas Fitz Gerald de Windsor, 
of the line of the Earl of Desmond — a sub- 
sequent crcatioo. (See further the pedigree 
of Wynne of Peniarth.) In 1401 the owner 
of Cors-y-gcdol married Lawra, daughter 
and heiress of Tudor Vaughan, own brother 
to Owen Glynd wr, who, it is said, was frequently 
concealed at Cors-y-gedoL In 1483 Jasper 
Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, left Cors-y-gedol 
to bring from France his nephew, Henry, 
Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII. 
It is said — with what truth it is hard to deter- 
mine — that Charles II. was at Cors-y-gedol 
during his wanderings, and slept in the state 
bed still preserved there. The date 1575 is 
over the chimney in the hall of the present 
house, which is thought, however, to be of 
rather earlier date ; it was probably built in 
the time of Henry VIII. 

The gate-house is after a design by Inigo 
Jones — z. kinsman of the Vaughans. The 
modem additions to the house were made 
by the late Hugh Ker Cokburne, already 
mentioned, who also placed there the fine 
collection of paintings of the Italian, Span- 
ish, Flemish, English, and French schools, 
and the rare ancient and modem china 
collections which give to Cors-y-gedol an 
artistic interest unrivalled in Wales, 



EDWABSS, Charles, Esq., of Dolserau Hall, 
Merionethshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the counties of Merio- 
neth and Cardigan ; High Sheriff for 
Merioneth 187 1 ; was M.P. for the borough 
of New Windsor from 1865 to 1868 ; son 
of the late Edward Edwards, Esq., of 
Dolserau ; b. in London ; ed, at Chatham 
House, Ramsgate; m, Mary Elizabeth, 
only child and heiress of the late William 
Tate, Esq., of Frognel House, Hampstead, 
and Kilbruchs, Peeblesshire, N.B. ; succ. 
to Dolserau estate in 1858 ; has issue three 
sons and three daughters. 

Heir : Charles Edward ^^unro. 
RakUnca : Dolserau Hall, near Dolgelley; 
Bodulog, near Towyn. 



Taam Addros: 
Hyde Park. 
Crai: A 
AUii9: Fidelts. 



57. 



nmpaat within a twiited n^ie. 



UNEAGE. 



This'lamily derives its descent finoni the Edwards 
of Nas Strang in the ocmnty of Salop (of the line 
of Einiom Efiii, Loid of CynUaeth, in Powys. 12th 
'cenL), who intermarried into the family of ** Baron 
Owen, ** of Dolgelley (see Letms Owen ef Dot^eUeyY 
The tiiiid son of this marriage, Robert Owen, re- 
sided at Dolserau in the year 151a It is regretted 
that a fiill genealogy of this ancient family lus not 
been supplied. See some further notice under 
price of Cors-y'gamedd. 

Xofe. — ^The mansion of Dolserau was rebuilt by the 
present owner in 1S64, and the old house was pulled 
doivn in 1S65. l*he situation is sheltered and pleasant, 
in the vale of the Wnion, above Dolgelley, over which 
river a picturesque bridge leads from the high-road to 
the entrance gates. To the north are the heights of 
Nannau, and to the south those of Caerynwch. 



ELLIS, Bar. John Williams, of BnmdaiLW, 
Kerionsthshiro. 

(See further Pev. fohn Williams Ellis of 
Glasfryn^ Carnarvonshire.) 

Note. — Brondanw (not Brond^rw, see p. 
353), Llanfrothen, Mer., long possessed by 
the fkmily of Wiliiams, was inherited by the 
present owner under the will of the late 
Miss WilliamSy whose surname he then 
assumed in addition to. his own of Ellis. 
The Williamses intermarried, temp. Charles I., 
with the Madryns of Madryn, co. Cam., the 
Vaughans of Aberhin, co. Mer., now repre- 
sented by the Wynnes of Peniarth. Mr- 
Williams of Brondauw was the first to move 
for the embanking of the Traeth-mawr Estu- 
ary, PoTtmadoc (since carried out on an ex- 
tensive scale by the late Mr. Madocks), 
and failing to secure further co-operation, 
actually embanked his own lands. 

Motto: Gweithred a ddengys: "The 
deed supplies the proof." 



FASAE, Arthur, Esq., of Solfriog, Merioneth- 
shire. 

M.D. Cantab. Caius Coll.; Fell. Roy. 
Coll. Phys.; F.R.S. ; Fell Roy. Med. 
Chir. Soc. ; Fell., and formerly President 
Roy. Micros. Soc; Memb. Council King's 
Coll., Lond. ; Examiner in Midwifery Roy. 
Coll. Surg. ; Consulting Physician King's 
Coll. .Hospital; Phys.-Accoucheur to 
H.R.H. the Princess of Wales; H.R.H. 
Princess Louis of Hesse, 1863 ; H.R.H. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



703 



Princess Christian of Schleswig Holstein 
1868; H.KH. Princess Mary Adelaide, 
Duchess of Teck; late Professor of Obstetric 
Med., King's Coll., Lond., and Physician- 
Accoucheur and Phys.- Diseases of Wo- 
men and Children, King's ColL Hospital ; 
formerly Lecturer on Comp. Anat and 
Forensic Med, St. Bartholome\v*s Hospital; 
Examiner in Midwifery Roy. Coll. Phys. 
186 1.4; Councillor 1857-9; Censor 
1861-5 ; Harveian Orator 1872 ; author 
of contrib. to Trans. Roy. Soc and Royal 
Microscopical Society ; article *' Uterus," 
Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology; 
son of John Richard Farre, Esq., M.D., and 
Anne Elizabeth Crawley ; ed, at Charter- 
house, and Caius Coll., Cambridge ; grad. 
M.D. 1841 ; m. Jessie Bethune Macdonald, 
dau. of late Lt-CoL Macdonald, C.B.; of 
H.M.'s I St Reg. of Foot, Royal Scots, 
who served through Peninsula, led forlorn 
hope at St. Sebastian, was severely wounded 
at Waterloo, created Knight of St. Anne 
of Russia by Emperor of Russia. Dr. 
Farre is a D. L. for the co. of Merioneth. 

ResitUnce: Dolfrioe, near Portmadoc, North 
Wales. 

Town House: 12, Hertford Street, May Fair. 

Arms : Ga., a saltire or cotised aig. between 
four fleurs-de-lis of the second. 

Crest : A fleur-de-lis as in the arms. 

Motto: Fidelis. 

A^.— This £unily derives its descent from the 
Forres of Gillingham. Walter Farre died April 30, 
1590. (See Morant's History 0/ £ssex, vol. i.) On 
maternal side Mrs. Farre is descended -from the 
old family of Munros of Foulis. 



60SE, John Ealph Onnshy-, Esq., of aiyn 
Hall, UtenoiieUiflture. 

J. P. and D. L. for the cos. of Carnarvon 
and Salop ; was M.P. for Carnarvonshire 
from 1837 to 1 841; has been M.P. for 
North Shropshire since 1859; is patron of 
one living ; eldest son of the late William 
Ormsby-Gore, Esq., J. P. and D. L, of 
Porkington (see Lhieage); b, 18 16; w., 
1844, Sarah, youngest dau. of Sir John 
Tyssen Tyrell, Bart, of Boreham House, 
Essex, by Elizabeth Anne, dau. of Sir T. 
Pilkington, and has issue a dau., — 

Fanny Mary Catherine^ m.^ 1863, the 
Hon. Lloyd Kenyon, eldest son of Lloyd, 
3rd Lord Kenyon (who d. 1865), ^^^ has 
issue a son, Lloyd, b. 1864, now Baron 
Kenyon. 

Residences : Porkington, Salop ; Glyn Hall, 
Mciioneih. 



Town Address: Junior Carlton Club. 

Arms: Quarterly: 1st and 4th, gu., a fesse 
between three cross crosslets fitchto or — GoRB ; 
and and yd, gn., a bend betvreen six cross crosslets 
fitchees of—Ormsby. 

- Crests: I. An heraldic tiger rampant ducally 
gorged or — Core; 2. A dexter armed arm em- 
bowed ppr., holding in the hand a man's leg 
armed couned at the thigh — Ormsiy» 

Motto : In hoc signo vinces. 



LINEAGE. 

The Welsh descent of this family is from the 
Wynns. of Glyn, in the co. of Merioneth, and the 
Owens of Clenenney, in the ca of Carnarvon. 
The surname of Wynn began with Robert IVynn, 
or Wynne, ap John ap levan, of Glyn, Tal^mau 
(probably called IVyttn by reason of a light com- 
plexion), who m., circa 1544, Catherine, dau. of 
Ellis ap Maurice (the family afterwards became 
Owen), o( Clenenney. (See the further descent of 
the Wynns of Glyn in the full pedigree of Wynno 
0/ PcftiartM,) 

Margaret, eldest dau. and heiress of Owen 
Wynne, Esq., of Glyn, and Syl/aen, grandson of 
William Wynne (Sheriff of Mer. 1637), w. Sir 
Robert Owen, Kt., of Porkington, or Brogyntyn, 
Salop (the ancient seat of (hm Brogyntyn, a local 
name of great historic interest recently restored to 
its originu form of Brogyntyn by the present owner), 
and of Clenenney in Carnarvonshire. (See Morys 
and Owen of Clenenney, ) 

Maxj^aret, heiress of these united familiesi eldest 
dan. of William Owen, Esq., became wife of Owen 
Ormsby, Esq., of Willow-brook, co. Sligo, and by 
him had an only dan., — 

Mary Jane Ormsby, heiress to Porkington, 
Qenenney, Glvn, and Sylfiien, with other extensive 
possessions of her patenud and malemai ancestors. 
She m. in 18 15 — 

William (Ormsby) Gore, Es<|. (son of William 
Gore, Esq., M.P. for ca Leitnm), who assumed 
the surname Ormsby before his own of Gore. The 
eldest son of this marriage is — 

John Ralph Ormsby-Gore, now of Porking- 
ton, Glyn, Clenenney, &c. (as above). 



lOLLAin), Samuel, Esq., of &laiL-¥iIliain, 
MerionetlLslure. 

M.P. for the co. of Merioneth since 7th 
January, 1870; J. P. and D. L. for counties 
of Merioneth and Carnarvon ; was High 
Sheriflf of Merioneth in 1862 ; Chairman 
of the Board of Guardians, and Chainnan 
of two Insurance Societies for over twenty 
years ; son of the late Samuel Holland, 
merchant, of Liverpool, by Catherine, dau. 
of John Menzies, Esq., of the same town ; 
b, at Liverpool, 17 th October, 1803 ; ///., 
X7th January, 1850, Ann, daughter of late 
Josiah Robins, Esq., of Aston, Birming- 
ham. 

Residence: Glan-William, Tan-y-bwlch, 
Merioneth. 



704 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



Town Address : Reform Club. 

Arms: Az., a lion rampant arg. within 
an orle of fleurs-de-lis or, over all a 
bend gu. 

Crest: Out of a ducal crown or, a 
demi-lion ppr. holding in dexter paw a 
fleur-de-lis. 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from the 
Hollands of Denton, Lancashire. 



J0NE8, John, Esq., of Iioii-dderw, Herionetli- 
shire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Merioneth ; 
son of the late Thomas Jones, Esq., of 
Cae'rpant; b. 1807; m,y 1831, to Emma, 
daughter of John Gilliat, Esq., of Clap- 
ham, Surrey ; has issue four sons and two 
daughters. 

Residence: Fron-dderw, near Bala. 
Motto : Gwna gyfiawnder, ac nac ofna : 
" Be just, and fear not" 

Note, — Fron-dderw is beautifully situated 
on a slope above the town of Bala, command- 
ing extensive views of the fair country of the 
Vale of Dee, and of the Berwyn mountains. 
Ty-gwyn^'zii estate belonging to Mr. Jones, is 
situated in the co. of Denbigh. 



JONES, Johs, Esq., of Tnysbwr, Xerionefh- 
Bhire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Merioneth ; .son of 
Evan Jones, Esq., by Jane, only dau. of 
Rev. Richard Pugh, Rector of Llanfrothen, 
Mer. ^ b. 24th March, 1829 ; ed. at Beau- 
maris Grammar School ; /»., 1866, Lydia, 
dau. and co-h. of John Jones, Esq., of 
Oaklands, co. of Denbigh; has issue i 
son and i dau. 

Jffeir: Evan Bowen, b, 13th Feb., 
1869. 

Residence : Ynysfawr, near Portmadoc. 

Arms: Gu., three lions rampant re- 
gardant or. 

Crest : A boar's head couped ppr. 

LINEAGE. 

Thomas Jones, Esq., of Holt Hall, co. 
of Denbigh, and Pentre, co. of Flint, m, 
in 17 IX Mary Lloyd of Downing Uchaf, 
and had issue Thomas, afterwards Rector 
of Trawsfynydd, who m. Jane WiUiams of 



Brondauw, in the parish of Llanfrothen, 
CO. of Merioneth, and had John, afterwards 
of Jesus College, Oxford, RA. He m, 
Mary Ellis, and had issue — 

Evan Jones, who by his wife, Jane Pugh, 
had a son, — 

John Jones, now of Ynysfor (as above). 

NoU. — YnyS'fawr^ " the large Island," im- 
properly ** Ynysfor," is situated on a slight rise 
in the.valley of the Glaslyn, and is surrounded 
with extensive tracts of land rescued from 
the recurring tide by the great embankment 
of Traeth'tnawr^ already noticed. It was 
just high enough to escape the overflow of 
the tide, and being more spacious than some 
other " islands " in the marsh, acquired pro- 
bably on this account the distinctive name 
oiYny^fawry "the large island." The ap- 
proaches to Ynysfawr give sufficient proof 
that the land is a new creation. 



JONES, Rot. John, Barmouth, Kerionethshire. 

Rector of Llanaber 1843; Magistrate for 
the CO. of Merioneth ; M.A., Oxon ; son of 
Griffith Jones, Esq., of Bryntirion, Dol- 
gelley ; ^.at Dolgelley, 4tli September, 1 8 1 6 ; 
ed. at Beaumaris and Ruthin Schoois, and 
Jesus College, Oxford ; grad. B.A. 1839, 
M.A. 1842 ; m^ April 19, 1854, Adelaide, 
dau. of Edmund Abbey, Esq., M.D. ; ap- 
pointed to the rectory of Llanaber 1843 ; 
has issue two sons, Charles Griffith Glynne, 
and Edmund Osborne Jones. 

Residence: Glanydon, Barmouth. 

A^/^.— Llanaber Church, a beautiful ex- 
ample of Early English architecture, was re- 
stored in 1859. Barmouth Church built 
1830 ; National Schools built 1843. 

JONES, Villiam, Esq., of ftlandwr, Merioneth- 
shire. 

A Member of the Court of Lieutenancy of 
the City of London, also of the Corpora- 
tion, and Deputy of the ward of Bishops- 
gate; J. P. and D. L. for the co. of 
Merioneth; brought up to the law, and 
practised for many years as a soUcitor in 
Crosby Square, and Vestry Clerk of the 
parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, London; 
^.at Dolgelley,onthe2othSeptember,i792 ; 
ed. at Shrewsbury School ; m, Harriet, the 
youngest daughter of Thomas Cartwrigth, 
Esq., a member of the Corporation of 
London and Deputy of the Ward of Bridge; 
has issue three sons and three daughters. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



70s 



Heir: William Habe Gatty Jones. 
Residence: Glandwr, Llanaber, near 
Dolgeiley, Merionethshire. 

Town Address: Crosby Sqaare,London. 
Crest: On a rock a goat passant. 
Motto: Un a wasnaethav, ''One I 



it 



serve. 



LLOin), John, Esq., of Flas-issaf, Merioneth- 
shire. 

J. P. for Merionethshire ; son of the late 
John Lloyd, Esq.; b, in London, 15th 
December, 1797 ; m, 17th June, 1828 ; s, 
to estates 27th Nov., 1821; has issue 
3 sons and 3 daughters. 

Residmces: Plas-issaf,Corwen; Hendre 
Arddwyfaen, Denbighshire. 

Town Address: 50^ Brunswick Square, 
Brighton, Sussex. 

Arms: Vert, a chevron inter three 
wolves* heads erased argent 

Crest: A wolfs head erased. 

Motto : Y blaidd yn y blaen, ** The 
wolf in the van." 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from 
, R^nd Flaidd (see RhiHd FUUdd) of Rhi- 
waedog, Lord of Penllyn, from whom are 
descended the Lloyds of Rhiwaedog and 
Ddwyfaen^ the Myddeltons of Chirk Castle, 
Gwaenynog, &c., &c. 



LLOTD, Xorgan, Esq., of Cefa-gellgwm, Herio- 
nethanire. 

Barrister^at-law; called by the Society of 
the Middle Temple 1847 ; J. P. for the 
CO. of Merioneth ; Author of " The Law 
and Practice of the County Courts," a 
treatise on " Prohibition," &c ; contested 
the Anglesey boroughs in the General 
Election of 1868 against the Honourable 
W. O. Stanley, but was unsuccessful ; 
son of Mr. Morris Lloyd of Cefn-gellgwm, 
in the parish of Trawsfynydd; b, 14th 
July, 1822 ; ed. at Edinbuigh University ; 
m,y in August, 1848, Mary, the daughter of 
the late Honourable Admiral Elphinstone 
Fleming, and sister of the 14th Lord Elphin- 
stone, — she d. in March, 1859; has issue 
two sons and one daughter. 

Heir : Clement Elphinstone Lloyd. 
Residence : Cefn-gellgwm, Merionethshire. 
Tn&m Address: 43, Chester Square, Ijondon. 



LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from Hugh 
Llwyd of Cynval, in the parish of Maentwrog; in 
the county of Merioneth, a well-known hard, who 
lived in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. (See 
"Hugh Llwyd" and •'Morgan Uwyd" in 
WiUiams* Cdeb rated Welshmen.) 



LLOTD, Mrs., of Ehagatt, Merionethshire. 

Gertrude Jane Mary Lloyd is widow of 
John Lloyd, Esq., of Rhagatt Mr. Lloyd 
was J. P. for cos. Merioneth and Denbigh ; 
High Sheritf for Denbighshire in 1863 ; 
D. L. for Merioneth ; son of Edward Lloyd, 
Esq., of Rhagatt, and his wife, Frances, 
dau. of John Maddock, Esq., of Fron-iw, 
Denbighshire ; b. at Rhagatt, 181 2 ; ed, at 
Westminster and Chr. Ch., Oxon., where 
he graduated B.A. in 1833 ; d. s. p. 1865. 
Mrs. Lloyd is dau. of the late Philip Lake 
Godsal, Esq., of Iscoed Park, Flintshire, 
by the Hon. Grace Ann, dau. of William, 
I St Lord Wynford ; was m. to Mr. Lloyd 
in 1847. 

Heir: Edward Owen Vaughan, son 
of Edward Lloyd, Esq., and nephew of 
the late John Lloyd, Esq. 

Residence: Rhagatt, near Corwen. 

LINEAGE. 

The Lloyds of Rhagatt trace from Tudor 
Trevor^ founder of the tribe of Marches, 
and as such are entitled to bear — Per bend 
sinister ermine and ermines^ a lion rampant 
or; but the arms have not been supplied 
to us. 

Note. — Rhagatt is probably a modification 
of Rhagarth^ a place, according to Leland, 
situated on the north bank of the Dee in 
Yale, and belonging to Owain Glyndwr. It 
is a very pleasant spot a little below Corwen, 
in the Vade of the Dee. The mansion con- 
tains a number -of valuable paintings, many 
from the hand of the late Mr. Lloyd himself, 
who was an accomplished artist ; and a col- 
lection of pre-historic remains — fossil bones, 
flint and other implements, not long since 
discovered in the clefts of the Umestone rock 
on the estate, and carefully preserved and 
arranged under the superintendence of Mrs. 
Lloyd. 

MOMM, Howel, Esq., of lengwrt-uchaf, 
KerionethsMre. 

F.R.C.S.; D. L. for the cos. of Meri- 
oneth and Brecknock ; in the Commission 



7o6 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



of the Peace for the cos. of Merioneth, 
Montgomery, and Brecknock; High Sheriff 
for Merioneth 1863 ; second son of John 
Morgan, £sq.,of Dyfynog, Brecknockshire; 
b. 1820 ; m., 13th September, i860, Anne, 
second daughter and co-heiress of Hugh 
Jones, Esq., of Heng\vrt-uchaf and Plas 
• Hdn (her eldest sister, Mary, m. Major 
Owen J. EUis-Nanney, of Gwynfryn, co. 
Carnarvon ; her youngest sister m. Rev. 
Charles Owen). 

Residenu: Hengwrt-uchaf, near Dol- 
gelley. 

Town Address I Union Club. 

Arms: Quarterly : ist and 4th, sa., a 
chevron arg. between 3 spears' heads 
imbrued — Morgan. 2nd, quartered, ist 
and 4th, sa., a fesse cotised or between 
two daggers arg., hilts and pommels or ; 
that in chief pointing upwards, that in 
base downwards; 2nd and 3rd, or, 3 
bats az., membered gu. — Brychan. 
3rd, arg.,. a bull's head caboshed gu. 
between three mullets of the 2nd — 
Havard. 

Crest : A spear's head imbrued. 

Mo/to : Gwell angau na chywilydd. 

JVbte. — For Imeage see Morgan of Defynog^ 
Brecknockshire. 

OASSiLET, WiUiam Edward, Esq., of Plas 
lanybwldi, HerionetliaMre. 

J. P. and D. L. for co. of Merioneth; 
late Captain in Staffordshire Yeomanry ; 
son of William Oakeley, Esq., of Glan- 
William, Tanybwlch, Merioneth (4th son 
of Sir Charles Oakeley, ist Bart, who 
rendered distinguished service in India 
under Lord Comwallis), and Mary Maria 
Miles, dau. of Col. Sir Edward Miles, 
K.C.B. ; b. Aug. i, 1828 ; ed, at Eton and 
Corpus Christi, Oxon. ; /«., i oth April, 1 860, 
the Hon. Mary Russell, 2nd dau. of the 
Baroness de Clifford, of Clifford Castle, 
Herefordshire, by Com. John Russell, 
R.N., a cadet of the House of Bedford ; 
succ. to estates in 1867 ; has issue one 
son and one daughter. 

Heir: Edwaitl dc ClifTorti William. 

Residences: Plas Tanybwlch, Merioneth ; Cliff 
House, Alverstone, Leicester. 

Town Address : Arthur's Club. 

Arnu : The arms of OaJte/ey, impaling De 
Clifford. 

Motto: Patemi nominis patrimonium. 

LINEAGE. 

This family traces its lineage from the Oakeleys 
of Oakeley i Salop. 



Note, — ^The maasion of Plas Tatty-Bwlch, newly 
renovated and almost entirely rebuilt (1872), is de- 
lightfully situated on a slope overiooking the vale of 
Maentwrog, so much admired for its scenery. ' The 
estate contains slate quarries of a superior kind, let 
out on royalty. The ancient mansion oi Dot-y-Afoek^ 
now a iaimhoase, added by purchase, is on tlieestate. 

FBIGE, Sichard Jones Lloyd, Esq., of Sliivlas, 
Keiionethshire. 

J. P. of the CO. of Merioneth; SheriflT of 
same co. x868; son of the late Richard 
Watkin Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas ; b. 1844 ; 
m., 1869, a dau. of Capt Hopwood, a 
Lancashire gentleman, and has issue. 

Residence : Rhiwlas, near Bala. 
Town Address : Carlton Club. 
Arms : A lion rampant sltq, 

LINEAGE. 

This family is of considerable antiquity, and in 
past times produced some distinguished men ; but 
we have not been supplied with a foil genealogy 
of Mr. Price's predecessors. The possessor of 
Rhiwlas, when the first Duke of Beaurort, in 1684, 
made his lordly progress through Wales as Lord 
President, and stopped a night at Rhiwlas on his 
way from "Gwidder " (Gw^^ir) to '« Uoydyarth " 
(Llwydiarth, Mont), was CoL Wm. Price, and a 
picture of the place as it then stood is engraved in 
the Progress (privately printed 1864). 

PTI&EE, John, Esq.^ of Bryn awel, Kerionetli* 
shiro. 

F.R.C.S.E.; J. P. for the CO. of Merioneth, 
translator of Meddygon Myddfai; author of 
" Eben Fardd," and other minor produc- 
tions ; son of Da^d Roberts Pughe, Esq., 
of Bron-dirion Villa, Clynnog, Carnarvon- 
shire; b, Sept. 8, 1814 ; a/, at Pwllheli and 
Carnarvon ; grad. a Member Royal College 
of Surgeons in 183 7, and Fellow of the same 
in 1853 ; m.^ ist, Feb. 20, 1839, Catherine, 
dau. of Samuel Samuel, Esq., of Car- 
narvon ; 2ndly, Feb. 15, 1865, Maria Wil- 
cox, dau. of Edwin Wilcox, F^., of Bristol; 
s, to estates of Erwfaethlon, Tow)m, Meri- 
oneth, Coch-y-Big, Clynnog, and Cwm- 
arion, in 1862 ; has issue ^ve sons and 
five daughters. 

Heir: David Roberts Pughe, M.R.C.S., 
Machynlleth, Coroner of the Machynlleth district 
of the CO. of Montgomery. 

Residences : Bron-dirion Villa, Clynnog ; and 
Bryn-awel, Abcrdyfi. 

Crest : A demi-wyvem rampant 

Motto: Goraf araeth g%%''aith: "The best 
speech, action." 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from Marchudd 
ap Cynan, founder of one of the fifteen tribes of 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF MERIONElHSHIRf. 



707 



Gwynedd, and Camel, Falconer to William the 
Conqueror. Prominent men in the line of descent 
have been Sir Thomas Scriren, ^m/. Charles I., 
and Ednyfed Fychan, of a much earlier date. 

Rees Hughes, Clerk, Vicar of Wern, Shrews- 
bury, m» Mary Scriven, dau. of Sir Thomas Scriren, 
Kt., of Frodnley Hall, in direct descent from John 
Scriven, Lord of the Manor of Frodesley, tem^. 
Henry V., who himself traced his lineage uninter- 
ruptedly to Camel the Falconer, just named. 

Scriven Hughes, the son, of DyfTryn Gwyn, near 
Towyn, Mer., had a dau., Catherine, and she by 
her husband, John ap Rhinallt a/ Hngh^ oit Pugh, 
of £rw Faethlon, Towyn, had a dau., also named 
Catherine, who m.—- 

David Rolierts, Esq., of Aberdyfi, who by his 
said wife Catherine had a son,— 
- John Pueh^ Esq. (as he chose to \)e called), of 
Lleuar Bach, Clynnog, Cam. His son by Jane 
Prichard was — 

David Roberts Pughe, Esq., of Coch-y-big, or 
Bron-dirion (</. 1862). He ///. Elizabeth, dau. of 
William Owen, Esq., of Chwaen Wen, Anglesey, 
and had, besides a dau. who died young, two sons, 
vit,— 

John Pughe, Esq., now of Biyn-awel, && (as 
above). 

David William Pughe, Esq., M.R.C.S., of Bron- 
dirion, Clynnog, d, 22nd Nov., 1862. (See further 
CyffBeuno^ by **£ben Fardd," p. 93.) 



EETELET, En^h John, Esq., of Bryn-y-gwiii, 
Herioaethslilie. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Merioneth ; 
Sheriff for the same co. in 1859 ; son of 
the late Hugh Reveley, Esq., J. P. and 
D. L. for his co. (d, 185 1), and Jane, his 
wife, dau. of Robert H. Owen, Esq., of 
Bryn-y-gwin (she d. 1846); b. at Bryn-y- 
gwin, 15th March, 181 2; id. at Wadham 
College, Oxford ; >»., 13th July, 1850, to 
his cousin Jane, dau. of Algernon Reveley, 
Esq., of Bengal Cixil Service; j. in 1851 ; 
has issue 6 daus. 

Heir: Fanny Jane Reveley. 

Residence : Bryn-y-gwin, near Dolgelley. 

Arms : Quarterly : 1st and 4th, arg., a chevron 
engrailed gu. between three estoiles with twelve 
points az. — Reveley, — 2nd and 3rd, quarterly : 
1st and 4th, az., a chevron between three cocks 
arg. (for Alah, Prince 0/Dimetia); and and 3rd, 
gu., three snaJces ennowed arg. {Ednewen ap 
Bradioen, lufrd 0/ Merioneth\-A)^ZVi. 

Crests : An estoile as in the arms ; a cock 
croMfing arg. on a cap of maintenance. 

Motto: Optima revelatio Stella— for Rivdey ; 
Canaf tra byddaf— for Oiven^ 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from some of the 
best blood ot Northumberland, the Greys of Chil- 
lingham, the Selbys of Branxton, the Ordes, the 
Lords Bertram of Mitford, &c., &c, and by mar- 
riage is connected- with the Percys, Dukes of 
Northumberland, the first duke's mother having 
been Philadelphia Reveley. Another Philadelphia 
carried the old Reveley estates in Northumberland 
and Yorkshire into the Mitford fiunily. 



The pedigree of the Reveleys dates from the 
time of King Edward II. They were Lords of the 
Manor of Ancroft, in* Northumberland, and in 
Tames I.*s time possessed the manors of Newton 
Underwood, Newton Park, and Throp^ill, when 
the family seat was removed from the Cheviots to 
Yorkshire, and the HaU House o( Newbv-Wiske 
built. In this house Hugh, the first Duke of 
Northumberland, was bom. 

The present representative through his .grand- 
mother IS descended from the old Norman family of 
Champion de Crespigny, which took refuge in 
England at the time ol the revocation of the edict 
of Nantes. She was m. to Henry Reveley, Esq., 
who began life as gentleman usher to Queen Char- 
lotte ; afterwards became Purveyor to the King, 
and a Commissioner of Excise. The issue of that 
marriage was Hugh Reveley, Esq., late of Bryn- 
y-gwin above mentioned, another son, and two 
daus. 

Hote.'-The north side of "Tyrau-mawr," "the 
great towers," which is the west point of Cader Idris, 
nearest the sea, belongs to the Bryn*y*gwin estate, 
and has upon it a " Roman zigzag," mich within 
memory was very distinct (rom all parts of the country. 
It formed part of the road which crossed over to 
Uanfihangel y Pennant and CasteU'/'Berif or Cae*r 
Berllan. 

llie new house at Bryn^y^gmin was built by the 
late Mr. Reveley immediately after his marriage in- 
1802. and commands a fine view, containing idso a 
good library and some pictures, especially a Canalotti, 
the ** Mamage of the Doge with the Adriatic." It 
has also a large and choice collection of old masters' 
drawings and etchings, many of them from Sir Joshua 
Reynolds' and Sir Peter Lely's collections, as well as 
coins, medals, &c. These collections were chiefly 
made by the present proprietor's grandfather, who 
was the author of a book upon the sabject called 
"Notices Illustrative of the Drawings and Sketches 
of some of the most Distinguished Masters." He was 
offered a baronetcy by Mr. Pitt in the latter years of 
his life. His son,' Hugh Reveley, Esq., was called to 
the bar. and appointMl Speaker's seaetary, by Sir 
John Mitford, his cousin, and afterwards followed him 
to Ireland as Purse-bearer when Sir John became 
Lord Redesdale and Lord Chancellor of Ireland. He 
served the office of Sheriff for Merioneth in 181 1. 

In the chancel of Mitford Chnrch is a curious 
monument — mentioned by BosweU in his "Antiqui- 
ties " — to the memory of Bertram Reveley, the same 
probably who married Rosamond Wentworth, of 
Wentworth Woodhouse, the niece of the great. Lord 
Strafford. His son raised a body of horse in support 
of the king against the parliament, and wfts in the 
battle of Marston Moor. In the words of Mitford the 
historian, " Reveley held on with the defeated army 
under the Prince, and was afterwards killed at the 
decisive battle of Naseby." 



EIGEABDS, Bichard Heredyth, Esq., of Gaer- 
yuwcliy Merionethshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Merioneth ; 
High Sheriff for same CO. in 1865; J. P. 
for the CO. of Denbigh ; Chairman of 
Quarter Sessions in the co. of Mer. since 
1857 ; son of the late Richard Richards, 
£sq.y J. P., D. L., sometime M.P. for the 
CO. of Merioneth, and a Master in Chan- 



7o8 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



eery, by his wife, Harriet^ dau. and co-h. 
of Jonathan Dennett, Esq. ; d, 1821 ; 
called to the bar 1845 ; m.^ ist, 1845, 
Elizabeth Emma, dau. of William Bennett, 
Esq., of Farringdon House, Berks (she d, 
1852) ; 2ndlyy 1863, Louisa Janette Anne, 
only child and h. of the late Edward 
Lloyd Edwards, Esq., of Cerrig-Llwydion, 
Denbighshire ; and has issue. 

I/tir : Richard Edward Lloyd, 3. 1865. 

Hgsitlence: Caerynwch, near Dolgelley. 

Tmvn Address : Carlton Club. 

Arms: Quarterly : is(, ai^B^., a cross patenc^en- 
. grailed sa. between four Cornish chou(;hs ppr. ; 
and, ermine, on a saltire gu. an escallop aig. ; 
3nl, or, a lion ramp. fru. ; 4th, vert, three ea^^Ies 
displayed in fesse arg. ; and in right uf his present 
wife, heiress of Cerrig-Llwydion, an escutcheon 
of pretence — eu. and az. a chevron ermine cotised 
or, between three Saxons* heads couped gutt6 de 
sang ppr. 

Cresi : A dexter ann naked, the hand grasping 
a scimitar, all ppr. 

AfcfUo : Ffyddlawn i*r gwirionedd« 

LINEAGE. 

Tudyr VycAan was possessor of Caerynwch in 
1588, when Dwnn, Deputy Herald, visited the 
place {Heraldic Visit, of WaUs^ iL, 235). Third 
in descent from Tudyr Vychan was — 

Robert Vaughan^ Esq., of Caerynwch {d, 1693), 
who m. Margaret, dau. of Robert Vaughan, Esq., 
the "antiquary,** of Hengwrt, and widow of Wil- 
liam Prvce, B.D.-, Rector of Dolgelley, and had 
issue a dau. Grace, who m. — 

John Humphreys, Esq., son of Capt. William 
Humphreys, of Maer-dy, Gw3rddelwem. There 
were two or three generations of Humphreys at 
Caerynwch, ending in an heiress^ Catherine, who 
»i,i785,— 

Richard Richards, Esq. (son of Thomas Richards, 
Esq.), who was a talented barrister, and became 
Sir Richard Richards, chief Baron of the Court of 
Exchequer {d, 1823). By this mar. he left an 
eldest son, — 

Richard Richards, Esq., of Caerynwch, who 
became a Master in Chancery, and represented the 
CO. of Merioneth in Parliament from the death of 
^ Sir Robert W. Vaughan, Bart., of Nannau, in 
1836, to 1852. iBy his wife, Harriet Dennett, he 
left, with other issue, a son, — 

RiCHAJiD Meredyth, now of Caerynwch (as 
above). 

Note. — The mansion of Caerymock^ surrounded by 
a well-wooded and picturesque! country, is a well- 
designed modem structure. The old residence at a 
short distance, now used as a farm-building, is curious 
as a specimen of the abodes of the Welsh gentry in 
former days. " It covers a considerable extent of 
ground, but down-stairs has only one sitting-room, 
square, and about eight feet high, adjoining to which 
is a hall, apparently of the same size. Over this is 
what appears to have been a drawing-room, hand- 
.<«omeIy wainscoted with oak, but open to the " valley " 
of the roof, the rafters coming so low at the sides of 
the room as not to admit ot a person standing up- 
right The rest of the house consists of a few bed- 
rooms and the offices. The whole building is very 
irregular, and seems to have been erected without 
any plan, and probably at different times." — {NbU on 
Dwnn, iL, 236.) 



BICEASDSOir, The Sey. William, of Corwen, 
Meiionefhsliiie. 

■ 

Rector of Corwen i856; late Scholar of 
Jesus College, Oxford; Curate of Bala, 
March, 1854; Chaplain of RhOg Chapel, 
August, 1854; Incumbent of St. Mary's, 
Llwydiarth, 1859— Patron, Sir W. W. 
Wynn, Bart., M.P.; son of Rev. P. D. 
Richardson, Vicar of St. Dogwell's cum 
Little Newcastle, Pembrokeshire r 3. at 
St. Dogwell's, March, 1830 ; ed. at the Col- 
legiate School, St David's, Cowbridge 
School, Glamorganshire, and at Jesus Coll., 
Oxford ; grad, B.A. 1853. 

/Residence : The Rectory, Corwen. 

Note. — National Schools were built 1868 ; St 
Julian's Church is in course of restoration (1872). 



ROBEBTSOIT, Henry, Esq., of Flas Grogen* 
Merionethislure. 

J. P. for the CO. of Merioneth; High Sheriff 
for same co. 1869 ; was M.P. for Shrews- 
bury 1862-3 ; b. 1816 ; OT., 1846, Elizabeth, 
dau. of W. Dean, Esq., of Shrewsbury, and 
has issue. 

Residence: Plas Crogen. 

Note, — The newly erected mansion of 
Crogen stands nearly on the site of the 
ancient mansion oi Falky and is surrounded 
by many of the fine old trees and other re- 
mains of the park of that well-known estate. 
The scenery of the Vale of Edeimion in front 
is celebrated for its beauty, and the country 
is full of spots of historic interest (See 
further Crogen^ Owen Brogyntyn^ Rhirid 
FkUdd^ Edeimion^ &c.) 



ETJCE, Laurence, Esa., of Pantlludw, Kerio- 
nethshire, and Newington Kanor Eoase» 
Kent 

Mr. Ruck is descended from an old Kentish 
family, one of whom, by name Laurence 
Ruck, in the time of Henry VIII. was 
bow-bearer to the king ; b, 1820 ; ed, at 
Magdalen College, Oxford; m., 1841, 
Mary Anne, dau. of Richard Matthews, 
Esq., of Esgair Lleferin, Merionethshire ; 
and has issue 4 sons — ^Arthur, Richard, 
Ithel, Edwald ; and 2 daughters — Mary 
and Amy. 

Residence: Pantlludw, Machynlleth, Merio- 
nethshire. 

Arms: The arms of Ruck^ impaling those of 
Morris of Ei^r Lleferin, and Jonts of Esgair 
Evan. 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



709 



LINEAGE 

Mrs. Ruck, as shown in an extensive pedigree 
in possession of the familr, is descended both on 
the paternal and maternal side from a long line of 
Welsh ancestry. Her lather, Ridiard Matthews of 
Esgair Lleferin (who was of the old family of 
Matthews of Trenannau), was an officer in the 23rd 
Reg. Welsh Fusiliers. His father, Richard Mat- 
thews, m. Ann Morris heiress of Esf^air Lleferin, 
from whom Mrs. Ruck has inherited that property. 
Her mother was Mary, dau. of John Tones Esq., of 
Esgair Evan, by Mary Morgan, of the Morgans 
of Fronfraith, Cardiganshire, claiming a pedigree 
from GwMtA/otdy Prince of Ceredigion in the i ith 
cent. 

AW/.— The residence of PantUudw, erected about 
fifty years ago, is delightfully situated on an elevation 
commanding a view of the valley of the Dyfi alx>ve 
and below Machynlleth, and the spurs of Penllyman 
(Plinlimmon) to the east. In the tastefully arranged 
grounds is a remarkable yew oC enormous size, one of 
the branches of which was some years ago blown 
down, and converted into elegant pieces of furniture. 
The age of this tree is calculated at nearly a thousand 
years. The mansion of Esgair, occupied by Col. 
Stewart, is a pretty place, boldly planted in the midst 
of highly picturesque scenery. 



IE£TJSTOir, Charles Frederiok, Esq.* of Tal- 
garth Hall, Merionethshire. 

Lord of the manor of Pcnnal ; D. L. and 
J. P. for Merionethshire, and J. P. for 
Montgomeryshire ; High Sheriff for Meri- 
onethshire in i860 ; was in the 96th Light 
Infantry ; eldest son of the late Captain 
Thomas Thruston, R.N., of Pennal Tower, 
Mer., by his first wife, Frances, dau. and 
heiress of Lewis Edwards, Esq., of Talgarth 
Hall; b. at Talgarth Hall, January 4th, 
1824; etL at Rugby; m., 1848, Mary, 
daughter of the late Josiah Nisbet, Capt 
R.N., and gr. dau. of Lady Nelson (widow 
of Lord Nelson), and has issue — 

1. Mary Frances, b. 1850 ; »f., 1870, 
W. Edw. Allen, Esq., M.R.C.S., Bengal 
Medical Service. 

2. Blanche Eliza, b, 19th July, 185 1. 

3. Charles hishd^ b. 3rd Nov., 1853, 
F.R.C.S., Medical Service; m, isth Sept., 
1870. 

4. Rose Emily, 3. 17th June, 1855. 

5. John Walter, b, loth Feb., 1857. 

6. Herbert Edwards, A 29th April, 1859. 

7. Lewis Arthur,^. 4th April, 1861. 

Hfir: Charles Nislict, h. 1853. 

Residence: Talgarth Hall, near Mach}'nllcth. 

Arnts : '* In a shield of sable, three bugle-horns 
with laces and tassells goulde, garnished azure." 

Crest: "A white storke with blew legges 

- standinee on a wreathe of yellowe and black, sett 

upon a nelmet of Steele with mantles and tassells 

of argent and gules." (Extract from a deed 



written by Wm. Dethick, Garter Principal! Kinge 
of Arms, 1586.) ^ 

Mottoes : Esse qmm videri ; Thrust on. 

UNEACE. 

The Thruston family were of SufToIk origin. 
The Welsh descent of the Thrustons of Talgarth 
Hall and Pennal Tower is traced maternally through 
the Edwards of Esgair-weddan from a very ancient 
stock, as shown in the following genealogy, revised 
and completed from Du'nn's Ilcrald, Visit, of 
Wales, bv the competent hand of W. W. E. Wynne, 
Esn., of Peniarth. (See also Price of Esgair^ 
tueJt/a», afite,) 

Ithcl ap David ap Llowarch Vychan ap Llowarch 
ap levan ap David ap Uewclyn ap lortoerth. Prince 
of North Wales, ///. Gwen, dau. of Mcredydd ap 
Madoc ap Meredith, descended from Elystan 
Cloiirudd, Lord of Ferlys, a district between the 
Wye and Severn. 

David ap Ithel, living probably 32nd Henry VL, 
1454 (see Notes of Inquisitions, co. Merioneth, by 
Robert Vaughan, the antiquary of Hengwrt), w. 
Gwervil, dau. of Ithel Vychan ap Ithel Goch, of 
Ystrad Towy. 

Griffith an David, living probably in the town- 
ship of Maesllangedris, parish of Talyllyn, 1453. m, 
Eva, dau. and heiress oif Llewelyn ap levan, of the 
RojP (Escairweddan). 

David ap Griffith m. Alswn, dau, of Howel 
Gethin, ana had a son, — 

levan ap David, who m. Gwenllian, sole heiress 
of Llewelyn ap Owen ap Griffith ap Madoc ap 
levan, Caereinion. 

Rees, eldest son (party to a deed on 19th July, 
1595)* ^' Margaret, dau. of Thomas ap Rees ap 
David Lloyd, and from them were descended the 
Pryces of Escairweddan, who left their property to 
the Edwaidses of Talgarth. 

Richaxd, 2nd son of levan, m, Gwen, co*heir of 
Lewis ap Rees ap Morris ap Llewelyn, of Talgarth. 
Lewis Prichard (a'P Ricnard) of Talgarth, Gent., 
owner of Talgarth 19th Nov., 9th Charles I., m. 
Jane, 3 oangest dau. of Humphrey Pnghe, of Aber- 
ffiTdlan, Gent., livings a widow, 22nd July, i8th 
Charles I. 

Edward Lewis (/. e., son of Lewis), of Tonfane 
and Talgarth, Gent.^^. about 1598, m, Elizabeth, 
dau. of William Vaughan, son of Robert, one of 
the sons of Rees Vaughan, Esq., of Cors-y-gedol. 

Lewis Edward (/. e., ton of Edward), of Tonfane 
and Talgarth, Gent (buried at I4angelynin ist May, 
1688), luid a son, — 

Edward Lewis, Gent, of Talgarth (party to a 
deed 13th July, 1708, owner also of Tonfane), w. 
Lowry, living 13th July, 1 708. 

Lewis EiHoartis^ Gent (here 4he surname be- 
comes settled), of Tiilgarih and Tonfane (settlement 
after his marriage dated 13th July, 1 70S), m, Mary, 
dau. of John Davies, Gent., of Machynlleth (and 
through this marriage property in the townships of 
(ilyntrcfnant and Kshircth, and in the town of 
Mnchynilcth, passctl into the Kdwanls family). 

lluniphrcy Edwanls, Em]., of TaU^arth, //• 
nth June, 1772, Sheriff of .Merionethshire 1759, 
m Mary, dau. and heiress of James Turner, Esq., 
of Oklport, CO. Salop. 

Humphrey's second brother, John, of Machyn- 
lleth, married Miss Owen, heiress of considerable 
property near Llanidloes, and bv her had several 
children. Her eldest son was the late Sir John 
Edwards, Bart , M.P., whose only child is Mary 
Cornelia, now Countess Vane. 



710 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



Lewis Edvnirds, Esq., of Talgarth and Tonfane, 
died 17th Jan., 1797, aged forty-nine; Sheriff 
of 00. Mer. 1773 ; m. Ann, dan. of Siedusbury 
Pryce, D.D., Vicar of Meifod, and left one son, 
Piyce, who d, s, /., and several daus., two only 
of whom were m., and had issue — 

Mary, co-heiress, m,, i6th March, 1796, to the 
Hon. Thomas Parker, afterwards Earl of Maccles- 
field, and d, at Holton Park, co. Oxford, loth April, 
1803, in her twenty-fourth year, leaving issue. 

Frances, co-heiress, inherited Talgarth and Ton- 
fane {d. 2nd December, 1828, aged thirty-eight), 
m, Charles Thomas Thruston, Captain in the Royal 
Navy, a member of the ancient family of Thruston, 
of Hoxne, co. Suffolk, He w., 2ndly, Eliza, dau. 
of Admiral Sotheby, who d, in May, i840» leaving 
a son, Clement (see Thruston of Penned Tojtfer). 
Capt. Thruston d. in London in 1S58, and was 
buried at Pennal. Besides Parker, d, unw. 1844, 
aged about eighteen ; Blanche, d. unm. in 185 1 ; 
Emily, d. unm., he left by first mar. his eldest son, — 

Charles Frederick Thruston, Esq., now 
of Talgarth Hall (as above). 

lEAUSTOK, dement Arthnr, Esq., of Fenna 
Tower, Merioaethahire. 

J. P. for the CO. of Merioneth; High 
Sheriflf for the same co. 1870 ; Capt Mont- 
gomeryshire Yeomanry Cavalry ; contested 
Hastings in 1868 ; son of Charles Thomas 
Thruston, Captain Royal Navy, of Pennal 
Tower, late of Talgarth Hall, by his 2nd 
wife, Eliza, dau. of the late Admiral 
Sotheby ; b, at Talgarth, near Machynlleth, 
June 12, 1837 ; ed. at Rugby and University 
College, Oxford ; grad, RA, i860 ; called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn 1869, but does 
not practise; m.^ i86t, Constance Sophia, 
dau. of the late Major-General Lechmere- 
Coore Russell, C.B., of Ashford Hall, 
Salop, and has issue two sons, one dau. ; 
X. to estate 1858. 

Heir: Edmund Heathcote, b, 1863. 

Residence: Pennal Tower, near Mach- 
ynlleth, North Wales. 

Town Address : Boodle's Club. 

Arms : " In a shield of sables three 
bugle-horns with lace and tassells of 
goulde, garnished azure."* 

Crest: "A white storke with blew 
legges standinge on a wreatheofyellowe 
and black sett upon a helmet of Steele, 
with mantles and tassells of aigent and 
gules " (arms thus made out by William 
Dethick, Garter King of Arms 1586). 

Mot/o : Thrust on. 

LINEAGE. 

The family of Thruston is of considemble 
antiquity in the county of Suffolk, recently 
seated at Market Weston Hall, near Bury 
St. Edmund's, and formerly at Hoxon, co. 
Suffolk. (See further Thfusion, Taigarih 



JIalL) Mr. Thruston's great-uncle, Mr. 
Sotheby, was distinguishal as one of the 
first poets of his day, and as an eminent 
literary man. 

TATJ&HAIT, John, Esq., of Hannaa, Xexioneth- 
shire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Merioneth ; 
son of the late John Vaughan, Esq., of the 
Civil Service, and grandson of John 
Vaughan, Esq., of tlie Vaughans of Dol- 
melynllyn andNannau, Merioneth, to whose 
estate he succeeded in 1842 ; he has also 
the inheritance in reversion of the Nannau 
and HengAvrt estates under the will of the 
late Sir R. Williams Vaughan, Bart., of 
Nannau and Hengwrt, who ^. s, p. 1859, 
devising the Rhug part of the estates to 
the Hon. C. H. Wynn (see Wynn o/Rhug)^ 
Hengwrt to the Hon. Misses Lloyd for 
life, and Nannau to the Hon. T. Piyce 
Lloyd during life (see Fryce Lloyd of 
Fengutemt Flint), after which they revert 
to Mr. Vaughan ; m., 1863, Eleanor, dau. 
of the late Edward Owen, Esq., of Garthyng- 
harad (of the sept of "Baron Owen" of 
Dolgelley). 

Residenee: Naxman, near Dolgelley. 

Arms: Quarterly, or and gu., four lions ram- 
pant counterchanged — Vaughan ; on the centre 
of the shield a lion rampant az. — ^Namnby. . 

Crest: A lion rampant az. 

LINEAGE. 

In past times the Vaughans of Nannau and 
Hengwrt were distinguished faxnilies in North 
Wales. Their lineage is derived from Bleddyn of 
Cynfyn^ Prince of fowys and North Wales iitn 
century. (See Nanney and Vaughan o/NannauJ) 



WATNE, Eennan, Esq., of Gae-Nes^ 
nethjBhire. 

Late Capt. loth Regt ; son of Rev. W. 
H. Wayne, M.A., Vicar of Much Wenlock 
and patron of two livings, by his wife 
Jane, dau. of Samuel F. Milford, Esq., of 
Exeter ; b. 1838, at Parwick Hall, Derby- 
shire; m., 1862, Theresa Louisa, third 
dau. of the late Sir William Rouse Bough- 
ton, Bart., F.R.S., of Downton Hall, Shrop- 
shire, and late M.P. for Evesham. (His 
eldest brother, William Henry Wayne, 
Clerk, b. 1832, m., 1856, Eliza, dau. of the 
late Capt. Henry Foskett, 15th Light 
Dragoons, and resides occasionally at 
Aber-Artro, Merionethshire.) Has issue 
I son and 2 daus. 

Heir: Francis H. Milford. 
Residenee: Cae-Nest, near Harlech, Mer. 
Arms : The Wayne arms are — Gu., a chevron 
ermine between three dexter gauntlets or. 
Motto : Temptts et casus acddit omnibus. 



THE COUNTY FAMIUES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



7*1 



UNEAGS. . 

This familf deriyes from the Waynes of High 
Sheen, StaiTonlshire, seated at that place temp, 
Charles II. CoL Wanie, Royalist, killed at Nant- 
wich, was of this fiimily ; so was General Wayne, 
one of the Duke of Marlborough's leading officers. 

AW/.-— Cae-Nest, a property which has long been in 
the family of the Pooles, lies in the picturesque and 
interesting Vale of Artro^ a part teeming with anti- 
quarian remains and historic associations. The fort, 
supposed to be British, situated on the river Artro, 
which runs close by the house, has been already 
noticed (see section on Antiquities^ ante), as well as 
several other historic *and pre-historic monuments 
scattered about the district 



WniilAHS, Charles Eeynolds, Esq., of Dol- 
melynllyn, Merionethsliiire. 

Second son of Col. Monier Williams, Sur- 
veyor-General of Bombay; d. at Baroche, 
in the Bombay Presidency, on the 25th of 
Dec, 1815 ; m. Margaret, only daughter 
of John Romer, Esq., Member of Council 
of Bombay, and subsequently Acting Go« 
vemor of that presidency ; has issue one 
son and two daughters. 

Residence: Dolmelynllvn, near Dolgelley. 

Town Address: 4B, Gloucester Square, Hyde 
Park. 

Arms: Gn., a chevron ermine between three 
Saxons' heads oonped ppr. 

Crest: A stag's head. 

GENEALOGICAL NOTE. 

Colonel Monier Williams was a distinguished 
officer in the then East India Compan3r's service, 
and was one of those who originated the survey on 
which the present revenue settlement was made. 
His elder brother (both sons of George Williams, 
formerly Chief Justice of Newfoundland) was Colonel 
George Williams, who represented Ashton-under- 
Lyne in the first reformed Parliament, and as a 
youth of twelve yeais of age, in company with his 
uncle. Major Griffith Williams of the Royal Artil- 
lery, joined General Buigoyne's army in North 
America, andcaniedthe flag of truce to the enemy's 
caxnp on the surrender at Saratoga. From Major 
Griffith Williams was descendra Lieut -General 
Griffith Lewis, C.B., the late Colonel Commandant 
of the Royal Engineers. 

Nt^. — DolmelynUyn^ situate in the romantic vale 
of the Maw, one of the most ancient residences in the 
county, formerly belonging to the Vaughans (see 
Vdttghan 0/ Doitnelynlfyn\ has been considerably cn- 
larr;ed within the last few years. Within the grounds 
is the well-known watcrfaJl called *'Rhaiadr Du" — 
**the black cascade." 

WHHAIB, Lewis, Esq., of Vronwnion, Iteri- 
onethshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Merioneth ; 
served the office of High Sheriff for the 
same county in 1864-5; son of the late 
Ellis Williams, Esq.. of Dolgelley, merchant; 
b. at Dolgelly, in July, 1791 ; «/.at Shrews- 



bury School; m.^ 1825, Margaret, eldest 
daughter of Griffith Jones, Esq., of Bryn- 
tirion, Dolgelley; has issue 5 sons (one 
dead) and 5 daughters (one dead). 

Heir: The Rev. Ellis Osborne Wil- 
liams, M.A., Vicar of Pwllheli.. 
Residence: Vronwnion, Dolgelley. 
Anns : (Not sent). 
Motto : Gwell gwerth na gwawd. 

LINEAGE. 

This family traces its lineage from the 
Owens of Panlffylip, in the county of 
Merioneth. 

Note. — The present mansion of Vronwnion, 
modem Gothic, was built in 1824. 

WILLIAMS, Krs., of Deudraeth CasUe, Xerio- 
netlislure. 

Annie Louisa Loveday, widow of the late 
David Williams, Esq., who was in 1868 
elected M.P. for the co. of Merioneth, was 
a J. P. and D. L. for the two cos. of 
Merioneth and Carnarvon, and had served 
the office of Sheriff for both counties 
(1861-2), and d, 1869 ; is dau. of the late 
William Williams, Esq., of Peniarthucha, 
in the co. of Merioneth, Barrister-at-law ; 
was m. to the late Mr. Williams, 1841 ; 
X. at his decease, 15th Dec^ 1869; has 
issue 5 sons and 7 daus.; eld. dau. 
Angharad, m. 1872. ' 

Neir (of entailed estates) : Arthur Osmond, 
second son. 
Residence: Dendraeth Casde. 
Arms: (Not sent). 

LINEAGE. 

This family derives its descent from the Saethons 
of Saethon, m Lleyn. The last owner descended 
from the Saethons was David Williams, Esq., 
father of the late D. Williams, Esq., M.P. For 
upwards of a century after the civil wars the 
Saethons and Devereuxs held the property jointly, 
and were connected by intermarriages. Two of 
the latter served the office of Sheriff for Carnarvon- 
shire in the eighteenth century. They were de- 
scended from Trahaiam Gdch, Lord of Lleyn, and 
were an important family in the seventeenth century. 
(See further Saethons 0/ Saethon, p. 342, ante.) 

Note. — Near the site of the present house was the 
old castle of Castell Deudraeth (mentioned by Giraldus 
Cambrensis and Sir John Wynn of Gwydir), which 
was the residence of some of the sons of Owen 
Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales. The foundations 
of the old Avails were in existence early in this 
century, and within the recollection of some old people 
in the neighbourhood. The present castle (see en" 
gloving, p. 664) was rebuilt by the late Mr. Williams 
in 1850. On the property, and near Castell Deudraeth, 
is the fine old Elizabethan mansion of PIxsnewydd 
(now used as a farmhouse), and on an adjoining farm 
(Hendre), part of the same estate, is the house where 
Bishop Humphreys was bom. 



712 



MERIONETHSHIRE: 



WIM, Eon. Charles Senry, of iirSig, Merio- 
nethshire. 

Second son of the Rt Hon. Lord New- 
borough of Glynllivon Park, J. P. and D. L. 
for the CO. of Carnarvon, by Frances Mary 
(//. 1857), dau. of the Rev. Walter de 
Winton, of Hay Castle, co. of Brecon ; d. 
April 22nd, 1847, at Glynllivon Park ; «/. 
privately; succ. to the RhQg estate 1859, 
by the will of Sir Robert Williams Vaughan 
£art., of Riling and Nannau ; is unm* 

Residence: RhAg, near Corwen. 

T<nvn Address : Junior Carlton Club, 
Pall Mall. 

Crests : A boar's head, couped ppr. ; 
a dexter arm embowed armoured, hold- 
ing a fleur-de-lis or. 

Motto : Suaviter in modo, fortiter in 
re. 

LINEAGE. 

For the genealogy of the ancient family 
of which Mr. Wynn of Rhug is a mem- 
ber, see Newborottghy Lord^ of Glynllifon^ 
Cam. 



WTNNB, William Watkin Edward, Esq., of 
Peniarth, Merionethshire. 

J. P. and D. L. for the co. of Merioneth ; 
M.P. for that co. from 1852 to 1865, and 
Sheriff 1867; son of the late William 
Wynne, Esq. {stt Lineage) ; b, 23rd Dec, 
t8oi ; ed,zx, Westminster School and Ox- 
ford; w., 8th May, 1839, Mary, 2nd of 
the three daus. and co-heiresses of the 
late Robert Aglionby Slaney, Esq., of 
Walford Manor and Hatton Grange, co. 
of Salop, M.P. for Shrewsbury, and by 
her has issue — 

William Robert Maurice, b. 15th 
February, 1840; M.P. for the ca of 
Merioneth from 1865 to 1S68 \ J. P. and 
D. L. for the co. of Men 

Owen Slaney, b, 17th October, 1842, 
A.M. of Ch. Ch., Oxford. 

Ifeir : William Robert Maurice Wynne. 
Residence: Peniarth, Merionethshire. 
Town Address : Carlton and University Clubs. 
Arnts: Ermine, on a saltire gu., a crescent or. 
Crest : On .1 chapcau, a boar passant arg. 
AioUocs : V^irtus unica nobilitas ; and over the 
crest, "Tyhvyth Eignion.'" 



)i 



LINEAGE. 

The Wjmnes of Peniarth are cadets of the 
Wynnes of Glyn, who derived, with the Vaughans 
of Gors-y-gedol, Yales of Plas-yn-Yalc, and 



Rogers Wynns of Bryn-tangor, from Dominvs 
Otuo, supposed to have been of the fiunily of the 
Gherhardim of Florence, who, pnxrecding to 
Normandy, and thence in 1057 to England, 
acquired, through the favour of Edward the 
Confessor, immense possessions in the latter 
country. These devolved on his son, Walter 
Fi rz Otho, castellan of Windsor Castle, who m. 
Gwladys, dau. of Khii^'allon, brother of Bleddyn 
ap Cynfyn, King of Powys ; and his son, Gerald 
FiTZ Walter de Windsor, constable of the 
castle of Pembroke, living in 1108, m. Nesta, 
dau. of Rhys ap Tudor, Prince of South Wales, 
by whom he had issue three sons, — 

1. Maurice, his heir. 

2. William, ancestor of the families of Carew, 
Grace, Fitzmaurices, Marquesses of Lansdowne, 
and Gerard. 

3. David, Bishop of St. David's, from 14 Cal. 
Jan., 1147, to about May, 11 76. 

4. Angharad, who rti, William de Barry, father, 
by her, of the celebrated Guraldus de Barry, styled 
Caw^nrnsir. 

The eldest son,— 

Maurice Fitzgerald, patriarch of the Irish 
Geraldines, accompanied Richard Strongbow, Eari 
of.Striguil,- near Chepstow, to Ireland in 1168; 
d. in II 77, buried in the abbey of Grey Friars, 
Wexford. By Alice, his wife, dau. of Amulph, 
4th son of Roger de Montgomery, lie had 
ishue — 

I. Gerald FitzMauricc, Lord Justiciary of 

Ireland, who was summoned to parliament as 

Baron Oflaly in 1205. and d, the same year, 

progenitor of the Dukes of Leinster. 

' 2. Thomas FitzMaurics, of whom presently. 

3. Alexander. 

4. Maurice. 

. 5. Nesta, m, Hervy de Marisco, Constable of 
Ireland. 

The second son,— 

Thomas FitzMaurice, somamed tAe Grmt, 
who was a mntee by King John of an estate of 
ten knights^ fees, and d, in or before 1215, m. 
Elinor, dau. of Jordan de Marisco, a niece of 
Hervy de Marisco, Constable of Ireknd. Their 
son was — 

John FitzThomas, whose wardship was gmnted, 
17 King John, to Thomas FitzAnthony, the 
king's seneschal of Leinster. He was of fuU age 
in 1229 ; grantee of Decies and Desmond in 1259; 
and slain at Callan in 1260. This nobleman, 
who was founder of the abbey of Tralee, m, twice: 
1st, Margery, dau. and sole h. of Thomas Fitz- 
Anthony, Lord of Decies and Desmond; and 
2ndly, Honora, dau. of Phelim O'Connor, Kerry, 
bjr the latter of whom he had three sons : i. 
Gilbert, ancestor of The White Knight; 2. 
John, ancestor of The Knight op Glyn; -3. 
Maurice, ancestor of The Knight of Kerry. 
By his first wife John FitzThomas was father 
of — 

Maurice Fitzjohn, 2nd Lord of Decies and 
Desmond (slain with his father in 1260), father by 
Joan, dau. of John, Lord Cogan, of Thomas Fitz- 
Mauricc, 3rxl Lonl Decies and Desmond, who m, 
Margaret, tlau. of Walter de Burgo, son of Walter, 
I£ail of Ulster, and was father of Maurice Fitz- 
Thomas, 4th Lord of Decies and Desmond, 
created by patent, dated 27th August, 1329, Earl 
of Desmond, and Lord of the Palatine Regalities 
of the CO. of Kerry. 

John FitzThomas b presumed to have been 
also father, by his ist wile, of— 



THE COUNTY FAMILIES OF MERIONETHSHIRE. 



713 



OsBORN*, frequently denominated FilzGerald, 
but more commonly called by the Welsh heralds 
WytiJd (the Irishman), who emigrated from 
Ireland, his native country, about the middle of 
the thirteenth century, and obtained, by grant, 
marriage, or both, extensive possessions in Merio- 
nethshire, including the site of the present mansion 
of Cors-y-gedol. Osbom's first place of settle- 
ment in Wales, it is said, was Bcrllys, said to lie a 
contraction of Osber-llys, the palace of OslK>m, 
where traces of fortifications may yet be seen, and 
which is about a mile from the former place. This 
patriarch of the Geralilines of the Northern 
Cambrian Principality was assessed in the parish 
of Llanabcr, co. of Merioneth, towards a tax of a 
fifteenth in 1294. He had an eltler son, — 

Cynric ap Osborn, who, on the division of 
his father's lands, according to the custom of 
gavelkind, then prevalent in Walest, inheritc<l 
Cors-y-gcilol as a portion of his share. He was 
father of — 

Llewelyn ap Cynric, who/;/. Nest, or Nesta, 
dau. and co-h. of Griffith ap Adda, of Dolgoch, in 
the parish of Towyn, and of Ynys-y-Maengwyn, 
CO. of Merioneth, a collector of the fifteenth in 
1294, raglot (governor) of the comote of Estimaner, 
3 and 7 Edward III. ; living 17 Edward HI. ; 
derived from Madoc, son of Cadivor ap Gwaeth- 
voed. Lord of Cardigan. By this lady Llewelyn 
had an eldest son,— 

Griffith ap Llewelyn, of Cors-y-gedol, 
farmer of the office of Sheriff of Merioneth, 46 
Edward III. ; sheriff 1$ Richard 11. ; woodwarden 
of the comote of Estimaner at some period between 
7th July, 1382, and 12th October, 1385 ; d. 
probably- between 29th September, 20 Richi^ II., 
and same day, i Henry IV. Griffith ap Llewelyn 
m, Efa, dau. of Madoc ap Ellis, of Cryniarth, in 
that CO., and sister and co-h. of Llewelyn ap 
Madoc, Bishop of St. Asaph 13J7 — 1375, derived 
from Owain Brogyntyn. Lord of Edeimion, seised 
of Porkington (Brogyntyn), co. Salop, living 1161 
— 1 1 66, youngest son of Madoc ap Meredith, last 
Prince of Powys. By this lad^ he had (with a 
dau., Angharad, wife of David ap Grono, of 
Burton, Flintshire, who with two daus., Efa and 
Angharad, were living 7th October, 4 Henry VI.) 
a son and successor, — 

- EiNioN ap Griffith, Esq., of Cors-y-gedol, 
woodwarden of the comote of Estimaner at one 
time between 7th July, 1382, and 12th . Oct., 
1385 ; captain of forty archers for the king from 
the CO. of Merioneth, 10 Richard II. ; living at 
Michaelmas, 20 Richard II. Einion m, Tang- 
wystl, dau. of Rydderch ap levan Lloyd, of 
Gogerddan, co. of Cardigan, a distinguished Welsh 
bard, and had issue — 

1. lorwerth ap Einion, of Ynys-y-Maengwyn, 
CO. Merioneth, fanner of the Ville of Towyn 
(lessee of the Crown dues or revenues in that 
district) at Michaelmas, 1415. 

2. Ievan ap Einion, of whom presently. 

3. Griffith ap Einion, who, upon the division of 
his father's lands, under the law of gavelkin<l, s, 
to Cors-y-gedol. He held the office of woodward 
of the comote of Ardudwy, in Merioneth, at 
Michaelmas, 1400, and also in 2 and 3 Hknrv V. 
Griffith was prc^enitor of, 1st, the Vaughans of 
Cors-y-gedol ; 2nd, Yalesof Plas-yn-Yalc ; Rogers 
Wynn, of Bryntangor (refer to Yale of Plas-vn- 
Yale). 

I. Alali, m, ist to Howel Sele, of Nanney, now 
Nannau ; and 2nd, to Owen ap Meredith ap 
Griffith Vychan, of Neuadd-wen, in Powysland. 



2. Tibod, in., 1st, Howel ap levan ap lorwerth, 
of Cynllaeth ; 2nd, levan Vychan ap levan Gethin, 
of Abertanat ; and 3rd, Howel ap Tudur ap Grono. 

The 2nd son, — 

Ievan ap Einion, one of the Barons of Edeir- 
nion, CO. Merioneth, appears as one of the jurors 
in an inquisition held at Bala, 6th October, 1427. 
He ///. Angharail, dau. and co-h. of David ap y 
Gw}'n Llwyd, Baron of Hendwr-}n<Edeimion in 
that shire, and had issue — 

1. David ap Ievan ap Einion, "gentilman," 
who was appointed, during the ascendency of the 
house of Lancaster, Constable of the castle of 
1 1 arlech . He m, Margai ct, dau. of John Puieston, 
of Emral, in Flintshire, and left issue. 

2. Rhys, of whom presently. 

- 3. Griffith, of Hendwr, living in 1461, m. 
Isabel, dau. of levan ap Adtla, of Peng\vem, in 
Denbighshire, and from this marriage derived the 
house of Hendwr. 

4. Thomas, living in 1461, m.^ and had issue. 

5. John, living in 146 1. 

1. Margaret, /«., ist, Madoc ap Howel ; and 
2nd, John ap David Lloyd ap Howel, who held 
in farm the extent lands of the Crown in Penliyn 
in 1481. 

2. Mali, m. David ap Rhys, Stb Baron of 
Kymmer-yn-Edeimion, co. of Merioneth, of the 
royal line of Powys, one of the jurors in an inqui- 
sition held at Bala in October, 1427 ; he was deail 
25th October, 23 Henry VL, 1444, as appears by 
his inquisition, post mortem^ tsdcen 8 Henry VII. 
(1492-93), which was returned into the Ex- 
cheauer of (^marYon. 

Tne 2nd son, — 

Rhys ap Ievan, whose name occurs upon 
juries impanelled in Merionethshire, 27 and 31 
Henry vL, in the former of which years he was 
foreman, m.. Gwenhwyvar, only dau. and h. of 
Howel Vaughan, of Fronoleu, co. Carnarvon, 
lineally descended from Owen Gwynedd, Sove- 
reign Prince of North Wales, and had two sons, 
Ievan and Rhydderch. The elder, — 

Ievan ap Rhys, living 4th March, 1513, m, 
Laurea, dau. and h. of Richard Bamville, and had 
(with two dans., one the wife of Morgan ap 
Robert, the other m, to John ap Madoc vychan) 
a son and successor, — 

John ap Ievan, Gent., of Glyn, living in 
October, 1545. He 01. Gwenever, dao. and at 
length co-h. of Griffith ap Edneved, of Sylvaen, in 
Merionethshire, by whom (who was . afterwards 
wife of Thomas ap Humfrey, Cjent, of Berriew, co. 
Mon^omery, and was living 4th June, 1578) he 
had, with two daus., one son, — 

Rohert Wynne ap John, Gent, of Glyn, 
who m., about the year 1544, Katherinc, dau. of 
Ellis ap Maurice, Esq., of Clenenney, Carnarvon- 
shire, Sheriff of Merionethshire 1 541, and had 
ti\*o sons and three daus. Robert Wynne ap John 
was living 23rd April, 1592. His elder son and 
successor, — 

Maurice ap Robert Wynne, Esq., of Glyn, 
mv., 1st, alx>ut the year 15S8, Marselie, dau. of 
Cadwaladcr, one of the younger sons of Meredith 
ap Evan ap Rol>ert, E>q., of Gwydir, and had 
one son, Cadwaladcr, who </. before his father, 
J. p. ; he w., 2ndly, Agnes, dau. of Rolnrrt 
ap Richard, Gent., of Llecneiddior, in Camarvon- 
sliire, by whom (who was b, 1557, and d. 1623) he 
had two sons and three daus. Mr. Wynn was 
living 9ih February, 1609-10^ but d. i6th April, 
1611. He was succ. by his eldest surviving 



son, — 



714 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 



* William WYNrrs, Esq., of Glyn, High Sheriff 
for Merionethshire in 1618 uid 1637, who d. 
December, 165S. He m, Katherine, eldest child 
of William Lewis Anwyl, Esq., of Paric, co. 
Merioneth, by whom (who d, 23rd February, 
1638-9) he had issue, with six younger sons and 
four daus., an eldest smd a 2nd son, viz.,— 

1. Robert. 

2. Maurice, of Moel-y-Glo, Sheriff for Merio- 
nethshire in 1 67 1, who m. Jane, dau. and h. of 
Grifilth Lloyd, Esq., of Maesyneuadd, ancestor by 
her of the Wynnes, by change of name Nanneys 
OF Maesyneuadd. 

The eldest son,— 

Robert Wynne, Esq., of Glyn, High Sheriff 
of Merionethshire 1657 and in 1069, m. in 1625, 
when he was a mere child, Katherine, eldest 
dau. and h. of Robert Owen, Esq., of Ystymkei^d, 
ca Carnarvon, by whom (who d* 1675) he had 
issue — 

1. Owen Wynne, Esq., of Glyn and Ystym- 
ktf;id. Sheriff of Merionethshire 1674, of Flint- 
shire 1675, and of Carnarvonshire 1676, who m, 
Elizabeth, dau. and co-h. of Robert Mostyn, Esq., 
of Nant, in Flintshire, 5th son of Sir Roger 
Mostyn, Knt., of Mostyn, and had two dans.— 

(i) Marcaret Wynne, h. of Glyn, Ystymkegid, 
and the ouer estates of her fiunily, b. 7th June, 
1663 ; III., in 1683, Sir Robert Owen, Knt., of 
Porkington, in Shropshire, and Qenenney, Car- 
narvonshire, M.P. for the co. of Merioneth (see 
Ormsby Gore). 

(2) Catherine, b. 13th August, 1664 ;.w. to 
Peter Pennant, Esq., of Bichton, co. Flint, and d, 
in December, 170a 

2. Ellis, d. unm, 28th January, 1691, aged 52. 

3. Robert, d, s,p, 

4. William, or whom presently. 

1. Jane, b, in 1643 ; m, Ellis Brynkir, Gent^ of 
Brynkir, co. Carnarvon. 

2. Anne, m. to Rees Wynne, Esq., of Cynon, 
CO. Montgomery, who d, in 1688. 

3. Frances, a. ttnnu 29th October, 1675. 
The 4th son,— 

William Wynne, Esq., m, his cousin, Eliza- 
beth, only child and h. of Maurice Jones, of Wem, 
and Frances Wynne, his wife, by whom (who d, 
1715) he had — 

William, his heir. 

Catherine 01., ist, Owen Owens, Esq., of Cefn, 
CO. Carnarvon, who d, in 171 2; 2ndly, Griffith 
Jones ; and 3rdly, Edward Nanney. 

Frances d, unm. in March, 1700. 

Mr. Wynne, Hi^h Sheriff of Carnarvonshire 
1686, was s, at his decease, January, 1701 or 
1702, by his only son, — 

William Wynne, Esq., of Wem, b, about 
the year 1685, who m., 1706, Catherine Goodman, 
h. of Elemion, co. Carnarvon, only dau. of Gabriel 
Goodman, of Beaumaris merchant, by Elizabeth 
his wife, one of the daus. of William Glynne, 
£lsc]., of Eleimion. By her [xrhod. 1743) he had — 

William. 

Elizabeth, m., 27th October, 1732, the Rev. 
Richard Nanney, of Cefndeuddwr, in Merioneth- 
shire. 

Catherine, m,, 6th November, 1738, Francis 
Lloyd, of Monachdy, Anglesey, Sheriff for that 
CO. in 1 76 1. 

Mr. Wynne, High Sheriff for Carnarvonshire in 
1718, d. 1 721, and was succ. by his only son,— 

William Wynne, Esq., of Wem, b, 1708, 
High Sheriff for Carnarvonshire in 1735, and of 



Merionethshire m 1750^ who m., June, 1744* 
EUinor, dau. and at length heiress of the Rev. 
'Griffith Williains, of Llandegwning and Aberkin, 
in Canuurvonshire. By her (who m., 2ndly, Evan 
Evans, Esq., of Penbryn, in the same co., and <f. 
1804) he haul an only son, and successor at his 
decease, 13th April, 1766, vis.,— 

William Wynne, Esq., of Wem, b. 174S, 
who m., December, 1771, Jane, eldest dau. and 
sole h. of Edvrard Williams, Esq. (a younger son 
of John Williams, Esq., of Bodelwyddan, Flint- 
shire, one of the sons of the Right Hon. Sir 
William Williams, Bart., Speaker of the House of 
Commons in the reign of King Charles II.), of 
Peniarth, in Merionethshire, by Jane, Viscountess 
Dowager Bulkeley, his wife, and had issue — 

William, his heir. 

Richard-Owen, m. Miss Sarah Pearce, by whom 
he had an only dau., who d. young. He d. in 
1821. 

Jane, m., in 1798, John Hornby, Esq., of The 
Hook, in Hampshire. 

Elizabeth, m, Charles-James Apperley,£sq., and 
d, 1834. 

Mr. Wynne, High Sheriff for Merionethshire 
1772, and of Montgomeryshire in the following 
year, d, 20th July, 1796, and was succ by his 
eldest son,— 

William Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth, b. 19th 
September, 1774; m., 30th November, 1800, 
Elizabeth, youngest dau. and co-h. of the Rev. 
Philip Puleston, D.D., of Pickhill Hall, in 
Denbighshire, by Annabella his wife, eldest dau. 
of Richard Williams, Esq., of Penbedw, in the 
same co., youngest brother of the 1st Sir Watkin- 
Williams- Wynne, Bart. By this lady (who d, 
l6th June, 1822) Mr. Wynne had issue^ 

William- Watkin-Edwa&d, the present repre- 
sentative. 

Philip-Puleston, b, March, 1803 ; d. 15th Aug., 
18^8, unm. 

Richard-Owen, b» March, 1804 \ d, isi January, 
1832, unm. 

Thomas-Arthur, b. 1812 ; d. 1821. 

Elizabeth- Annabella, i»., 1823, William-Pierre- 
pont Gardiner, Esq., son of the Rev. Frederick 
Uardiner, of Combe Hay, co. Somerset, and d. 
1826. 

EUinor, i»., 1823, Richard Burton-Phillipson, 
Esq., 2nd son of the Rev. Richard Burton- Phillip- 
son, of Herrincswell, in Suffolk. 

Emma-Charlotte, d. 13th September, 18 19. 

Jane-Sydney (twin with Emma-Charlotte), m., 
3rd November, 1840, Joseph GiU, Esq. , of Baddon, 
CO. York. 

Harriet- Anne, m,^ in 1828, Richard-Owen 
Powell, Esq., only brother of William-Edward 
Powell, Esq., of Nanteos, co. Cardigan. 

Augusta- Frances, m., 28th April, 1840, Geoige- 
Jonatban Scott, Esq., of Betton Strange, in Shrop- 
shire, and Peniarth-ucha, Merionethshire. 

Mr. Wynne was Sheriff for Merionethshire in 
18 1 2, and d. 8th February, 1834. 

Note, — ^The man.sion of Peniarth (see engravings 
p. 652) is a large and substantial erection of brick and 
btone, the oldest part remaining having been built in 
170a On the estate is the manor-house of the 
ancient manor of Tal-y-bont, giving its name to the 
hundred of Talybont, in which it is situated. Prince 
Llewelyn ap Gmffydd (see pp. 653—671) and King 
Edward I. each dates a letter from this manor-house, 
which was the property of the Prince of North Wales. 



ANNALS, &c., OF WALES. 



MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

(MYNWY.) 

From Myruwy^ the ancient Cymric name of the "Monnow" river, and Aber-Mynwy^ the 
name of the confluence of that stream with the Wye, we have got by translation the English 
name of Man-tnouth^ the mouth, or aber, of the Monnow, as first the name of the site, then 
of the town, and next of the county. Some have conjectured that the root Man is the same 
as tnawn^ turf or " peat," while wy is known to mean water, and that the original compound 
expresses, therefore, the character of a stream beginning its course in a peaty region. 



Section L— PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

This county takes the general form of a nearly equilateral parallelogram, one side 
being on the Severn estuary, the eastern side on the Wye and Monnow, the northern on 
the Monnow and part of Breconshire, and the western on Glamorganshire. It is included 
in the ancient cantrefs of Gwent UwchrCoed^ Gwent Is-coedy and GwentMwg^ but does not 
contain the whole of those cantrefs. Its greatest length from a point in the Black 
Mountains on the north to the Goldcliff headland on the south is thirty-one miles ; its 
greatest breadth from .the point where the Wye enters the county, near Monmouth, to the 
banks of the Rhymney, near Tredegar, is twenty-eight miles. The superficial measurement 
is 496 square miles, or 368,399 acres, three-fourths of which may be considered under 
cultivation, or covered with rich woodland. The population of late years, through .the 
increase in mining and manufacture, and the frequent settlement of families of position, 
attracted by the scenery of the Wye and the Usk valleys, has exhibited a rapid advance. 

Total population of Monmouthshire in 180 1 ... ... 45>582. 

„ „ 1831 ... ... 98,200. 

„ » 1841 ... ... 134,355- 

„ „ 1851 ... ... 184,449. 

„ „ 1861 ... ... 174,633- 

„ „ 1871 ... ... i9S»39i- 

In 1861 the county contained 33,077 inhabited houses, 2,021 uninhabited, and 226 in 
course of erection; in 1871, 35,488 inhabited, x,668 uninhabited, and 201 in course ol 



7i6 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

erection. It will be obsen-ed that in the present century the population has increased more 
than rourfold. In the two decenniads between 1831 and 1851 the stimulus given to 
popubtion by the growth of the coal and iron industries was very marked, and increasingly 
progressive; between 1851 and 1861 a considerable relapse occuned, but the decenniad 
1861 — 1871 more than recovered the loss. 

Monmouthshire is invested with every natural feature which can render a district rich 
and beautiful It has mountains and rivers which, if not on the largest scale, are eclipsed 
by none in their attractiveness. One of its sides lies on an estuary which has much of the 
appearance of a great inland lake, fringed on the opposite shore with the woodlands of 
(jloucestershire and Somerset, and subject to the remarkable spring tides which rush up the 
Severn from the Bristol Channel, rising at Newport to forty feet, and at Chepstow sometimes 
to si.sty feet— the highest tidal altitude observed in Britain. The eastern side, along the 
Wye and Monnow, is bordered with landscapes unsurpassed in richness of form and 
colouring ; through the centre, from south to north, runs the rapid Usk ( if^'s^, hung on 
either side with garlands of luxuriant vegetation; and followed beyond Abergavenny, 
where the river makes a detour in coming from Brecknockshire, we are met by the bolder 
magnificence of the Sugar-loaf and Skyrrid Fawr. 



Llanoveh ; THE Seat of the Right Hon. Lady Llahovcr. 

On the Usk, near Abergavenny, is Llanover, the chief country seat of the Riglit Hon. 
Lady Llanover, and a place which, tlirough its association with her ladyship's name as a 
])aCron of the literature and supporter of the lore and traditions of her country, as well as 
with the name of the late Lord Llanover, has acquired not only a cliarm for the Welshman's 
ear, but a fame far wider than die boundaries of Wales. 
. In connection with the genealogical account of the Llanover family (see Llanover, 77u 
Ri^ht Hon. Lady, 0/ Uanoicr) will be found copious notices of the mansion and its pre- 
cincts. The interior is fitted up in the style of the most sumptuous residences; tt contains 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION— LLANOVER ; LLANRATH. 7x7 

a library of great extent and value, comprising choice works in various languages, with rare 
manuscripts; and large collections of precious works in painting and statuary. The 
hospitality of Llanover is known to all. At times the noble owner throws open her 
mansion to regale her guests with the choicest music of Wales, performed by persons dressed 
in the proper costume of the country, and using no language save the ancient speech of 
the Cymry. The late illustrious Baron Bunsen, who married the sister of Lady Llanover, was 
frequently a guest at this notable house, and was known, like most cultured Germans, to 
hold in high esteem the Cymric tongue, as a branch of the Celtic family of languages. 

Not far from Llanover, in the fertile champagne country between Abergavenny and 
Monmouth, is Llanarth^ tbe principal seat of John Arthur Edward Herbert, Esq. (see 
Herbert of Uanarth\ representative of the elder branch of the ancient Herbert family. 
Llanarth was a very ancient Elizabethan mansion, with terraced gardens, at the bottom of 
which flowed the river or rivulet of the Clawr. The old fabric was unfortunately taken 
down by the grandfather of the present possessor, and its loss, as a monument of antiquity, 
is to be regretted. The present mansion is a striking specimen of modem architecture, and 
contains a magnificent suite of apartments filled with interesting family pictures and objects 
of vertti. The cellars are the only remaining portion of the ancient building, the walls of 
which are of such remarkable strength and thickness that a castle is believed to have 
originally stood upon the spot. The church, of a very early date, was formerly in the gifl 
of the family; but was disposed of to the dean and chapter of Llandaff many years ago. 
The living of Llansantffraed still belongs to Mr. Herbert of Llanarth. 

Llanarth commands a splendid view of Pen y Vol and other mountains near Aber- 
gavenny ; and its park is distinguished by some of the oldest and finest timber in a county 
famed for its forest trees. We have already alluded to its collection of family portraits, 
amongst which may here be particularized a portrait of Mr. Morgan of Penllwyn, whose only 
daughter, Florence, married the heir of Llanarth, and brought the Penllwyn estate into 
that femily. 

Mr. Moi^n*s portrait is a whole-length figure in a buff jacket, with a sword pendent 
firom a sash across, his shoulders, and a spear in his right hand ; his head is bare, with hair 
flowing as in the costume of the time of Charles L At his side stands a beautiful boy (his 
son) in a red dress, who is handing his helmet to him ; both have large boots and gilt spurs. 
The companion picture is that of Mrs. Morgan, his wife, dressed in a black hood and gown 
with slashed sleeves ; sitting near her is a figure of the same boy, holding in one hand a 
spear, and in the oUier a pair of lady's gloves. These curious portraits were formerly on 
panels in the fine hall at Penllwyn, and were brought from thence to Llanarth by the present 
possessor. 

There are portraits of Sir Philip Jones, the gallant defender of Rhaglan Castle during the 
siege by Fairfax, and of Lady Jones, his wife. Another interesting portrait is that of Lady 
Arabella Fermor, the heroine of Pope's " Rape of the Lock." She is painted with the cross 
to which the well-known lines allude, — 

" High on her breast a radiant cross she wore, 
Which Jews might kiss, and infidels adore." 

Another portrait is that of Lady Rachel, daughter of William, second Duke of Devon- 



7i8 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

shire, and his wife Rachel, dau. of William, Lord Russell, and sister of Wriothesley, Duke of 
Bedford, who married Sir William 'Morgan of TVed^;ar. The inscription upon the ground 
of the portrait is ** Lady Rachel Cavendish, a noted beauty." 

Tre-Oivainy the ancient and historic mansion of the Herberts, now of Llanarth, was built 
by the Welshman Inigo Jones^ and was originally a large and splendid residence; but a 
considerable part has been taken down since Llanarth became the chief residence. The 
number, size, height, decorations of the apartments, the grand staircase of solid oak, and a 
fine screen, give striking evidence of the taste and magnificence of the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. The front of the house, faced with hewn stone, is distinguished by a 
beautiful porch. Over the entrance is a shield bearing the arms of the family, containing 
nine quarterings, of which the first are the three lions rampant of the Herberts. 

Pmllwyn Sarph is the old seat of a collateral branch of the Morgan family, whose last 
male heir was Henry Morgan. He died without issue in 1757, and left the estate to his 
sister Florence (or Florens), who married John Jones, Esq., of Llanarth. The place, which 
stands on a height and commands a magnificent view, is now used as a fiumhouse, the 
venerable appearance of which is much heightened by great wide-spreading sycamores, in 
appearance coeval with the building. Though very ancient, it is quite capable of restoration 
to its original beauty. The name is supposed to be Druidical, and signifies '< the chief 
jgrove of the serpent." The site was formerly surrounded with wood, but this was cut down 
before it was inherited by the present possessor. 

Llamantffraedy also the property of Mr. Herbert, is more especially mteresting as the 
ancient seat of Tomas ap Chvilym^ from whom the Earls of Pembroke, Powis, and Carnarvon 
are descended, and the Dukes of Beaufort by the female line. Toinas ap Gwilym acquired 
Llansantfi&aed in the reign of Richard II., by his marriage with Maud, daughter of Sir John 
Morley, Knt, Lord of Raglan Castle. Tomas ab Gwilym died in 1438, and was buried in 
the church of Llansantfiraed. This church contains a curious sepulchral inscription recording 
his death and that of his successors to the year 1624. Llansantffraed is still kept up, and is 
now the residence of Major Herbert, younger brother of Mr. Herbert of Llanarth. 

Of former residences of the Herbert family, Perth-htr, which vied for antiquity with 
GwemddHy was one of the residences of Gwylim ap Siencyn, Lord of GwemddtL His 
grandson, Hywel ap Tomas, Lord of Perth-hir, was ancestor of the Ime who resided at this 
mansion. His son William was the first who adopted a surname in conformity with the 
English law, and the fine patron3rmic of ap Hywel became corrupted into Pawd^ by which 
name that branch has been since known. He was killed at the battle of Banbury. 

His lineal descendant, John Powel, Esq., dying without issue male, the estate passed 
into the family of Lorimer, one of whose ancestors had married a Powel of Perth-hlr. The 
mansion was formerly surrounded by a moat, provided with two drawbridges. It is now 
considerably reduced from its former size, and is used as a farmhouse. The ancient estates 
of the Herberts were once so large that they stretched from Perth-hir to near Ross. 

Troy^ near Monmouth, now the residence of the Duke of Beaufort in this county, was 
another of the seats belonging to the family of Herbert Tomas Herbert, son of Sir Gwylim 
ap Tomas, and brother of the first Earl of Pembroke, resided at Troy and died there. The 
Earl of Pembroke's natural son was called " Sir William Herbert of Troy." Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of William, second Earl of Pembroke, of the first creation, married 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 719 

Charles Somerset, first Earl of Worcester, by which marriage Troy came into the possession 
of the Somerset family. (See TYoy Houst; and Raglan Castie.) 

Clylha House, the seat of W, R. J. F. Herbert, Esq., also in this part of the fertile vale 
of the Usk, and on one of the high roads from Abergavenny to Monmouth, is a substantial 
mansion in an extensive park having many fine trees, and entered by an elegant Gothic 
archway. Although the surface in these parts is only diversified by undulations, these are 
often sufficiently lofty to command prospects of considerable exteot; from the natural 
richness of the soil, superior husbandry, and tasteful omamenUtion, the landscape is every- 
where beautiful, while at no great disUnce the eye rests on a grand amphitheatre of hills. 

Pantygtielrt House (J. D. Berrington, Esq.) is in the same vicinity; and nearer Ponty- 
pool is Naiilyderry Home, situated on a gentle rising, surrounded by a fertile and richly 
wooded country. 



Nantydebrv House: the Seat of the Rev. Tuouas Evans (frem a f/Wlegrafi). 

Coiire House, now the residence of Col. Byrde, is nearer Abergavenny ; and within a mile 
of that town is Coldbrook Park (now occupied by Capt. Standish Jackson), once celebrated as 
the home of the Herberts, and still presenting tokens of its former greatness in an ample 
park, magnificent trees, and large decorated apartments. On the west of the town lies 
Llanfoist House, one of the residences of the late Crawshay Bailey, Esq.; Uanwenarth 
House (James Humfiey, Esq.) ; 77ie Brooks, the elegant new mansion of Charles J. Hill, 
Esq., J. P., which lies in that most delightful part of the Usk valley looking towards 
Crickhowel. T/ie Pentre (Mrs. Whceley) and PaUre Court (Rev. Mr. Wood) are prettily 
situated in the same locality. 

Abergavenny is favoured with an investiture of magnificent scenery combining every 
element of beautywhich inland landscape can produce. It stands on a sharp bend of the rapid 
Usk. North and west the country becomes highly mountainous. In different directions 
the bold but graceful forms of the Sugar-loaf (i,7(>o ft), the rugged Skinidj or "Holy 



7Ja UOKMOUTHSHIRE. 

^Toun[aIIl," and the Blorcnge (r,730 fl), present themselves. From the top or the Sugar- 
looT, a position easily attainable by the pedestrian, the eye sweeps the rich and diversified 
rolling plains of ^[onmouthshire, the vale of the Usk, interspersed with plantations, and 
the woody hills on its right bank as far as Pontypool ; and to the north traverses a sublime 
wilderness of mountains, from the heights above Llanthony Abbey to the Brecknockshire 
Beacons, ami the distant Fan of Carmarthenshire. Taking a wider range, the counties of 
Salop, Radnor, Hereford, Worcester, Gloucester, Somerset, and Wilts come into view, with 
the broad estuary of the Severn, and the meandering line of the Wye. The Wrekin in 
Shropshire, the Malvern and the Mendip Hiils, are distinctly visible. Seldom is so little 
labour as is required to mount the Skirrid and the Sugar-loaf rewarded with a. spectacle so 
sublime and enchanting. 

The most northern part of the county consists of a long narrow projection, bearing 



■Triley Court: the Residence of Mrs. Fielder (fnin a pmcU stUtA). 

slightly westwards by north, and plunging into the wildest parts of ancient Br)vAeiniog, the 
rugged spurs of the " Black Mountains," and the deep and secluded glens of Gronwy Fawr 
and Honddu, in the latter of which is Llanthony (prop. LlaH-Hoaddit) Abbey. The dehle 
of Gromvy is memorable for the murder, in 1135, of Richard de Clare (see p. 74). The 
" Vale of Ewias," eight miles long, is universally admired. On the left bank of the Honddu 
is the church of Cwmyoy ; and near the right baiik of the Monnow, the remains of Old 
Castii, once the abode of Sir John Oldcasde (Lord Cobhara). 

The neighbourhood of Abergavenny being so rich in physical beauty, and redolent with 
traditions and reminiscences— with the names of Vau^han, Herbert, Gam, and De Clare, — 
it is not to be wondered at that it abounds so much in the residences of persons of taste 
and leisure. The Vale of Crickhowel, as well as that of the Usk below Abergavenny, is 
studded with them ; the road totvards the vale of the UoiulJif, northwards, also brings to 
view several superior modern mansions, besides tlie older WAUe House, and, notably, the 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 711 

ancient and most interesting baronial hall of Uanfihansd Court, the seat of the Hon. W, 
Powell Rodney, which deserves mention as one of the most venerable of the mansions uf 
Monmouthshire, with grounds, terraces, and interior quite characteristic, an avenue of firs 
among the finest in the kingdom, and noble oak and chestnut trees. Of its first building 
there remains no account, but it is certain that the south-eastern part was erected in the 
year iS59, by RhysKIorgan, the then proprietor of the estate, who in 1576 sold the property 
to Nicholas Arnold, owner of Llanthony Abbey and its dependencies by grant from 
Henry VIII. (See further, Rodney of Uanfihan^d Court) 

' On a slope overlooking the valley, and not far from Llanfihangel Court, is Triky Caurf, 
the beautiful residence of Mrs. Fielder. 

In the quiet and fair region between Abergavenny and Monmouth, and midway between 
the valley of the Usk and the scarcely less beautiful valley of the Monnow, is Llantilh 



MAi.fAS Court: the Residence of Mrs. Prothero (/nwi n/Ao/o^n/A). 

Cmirty the residence of the Hon. J. F. Clifford- Butler (see Clifford-Butler of Llantilh 
Court); and not far from the same neighbourhood is Lianfair Grange (Mrs. Little). 

Returning to the valley of the Usk, and following the doivnward course of the stream, wc 
find in the fair domainsof Pontypool and Usk a number of seats of the county gentry, located 
amid scenes as luxuriant and delightful as any the eye wishes to dwell upon. Pontypool (a 
local name, said to be a corruption of Pont ap Hy^vel) is acquiring the reputation of a grimy 
place, but Pontypool Park, the seat of Mrs. Leigh, and John Capel Hanburj-Leigh, Esq. 
(see JIanbury.Lcig;h of Pontypool Park), surrounded by fine timber and an extensive 
demesne, is part of a very different world. PcrtlioUu House, Llnn_^ibby (Robert Bateman, 
Esq.); Blamaron House {X.<\\\:iiA Kennard, Esq.); Akrsychan (Josiah Richards, Esq.); 
.£/>iR^'^ Caj/Zf, the old home of the Williams, Baronets (CoL Thomas Wickham) ; Btech 
HUi (G. R. Greenhow-Relph, Esq.) ; Uantarnam Abbey (formerly the seat of the Bluetts), 
and several other mansions of note, are in this productive and well-cultivated locality. 



'713 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Nearer the favoured neighbourhood of Usit wc find Cefn-tUla Heiise, the scat of Lord 
Raglan; Plas-newyiid (Major McDonnell); Court BMhin (G. W. Nicholl, Esq.); 7»« 
.Cottage, Usk (the Dowager Lady Blake) ; Ty-Britk (CoL R. B. Roden); Ci/n-Ita (Edward 
Lister, Esq.) ; Scyboncen (J. Jefferies Stone, Esq.), and others. 

As the road approaches Newport, the mansion of Afalpas Court is passed, standing on a 
gentle slope, and embowered in a fine plantation. (See Prothere of Malpas Court.') 

In the immediate vicinity of Newport are seveml principal seats of the nobility and 
gentry, among which, by reason both of antiquity and standing, the leading place must be 
assigned to Tredegar Park (see Tredegar, Baron, of Tredi^ar Park). The present mansion, 
of the time of Charles IL, is built of brick, in dimensions and arrangement according to a 
ma^ificent scale. The building standing here in the time of Leiand {circa 1540) is described 
by that faithful topographer as " a very faire place of stone" The park, which contains 
noble specimens of timber, is in parts uninteresting, almost desolate in expression, but on 
the side nearest to the Vale of Ebbtoy is picturesque and luxuriant. The bouse conains some 
noble suites of apartments, with paintings and statuary of great value, especially pictures of 
past members of this ancient family. 



Caerleon, Mon. 

Maclun, near the Rhymney, the western boundary of Monmouthshire, is another mansion 
belonging to the Morgan family, usually occupied by one of its cadets. Beyond the stream, 
but in Glamorgan, is ^H/wro, another of theirold abodes. (Skk Morgan of Ruperm Castle.) 
Tlie Friars, adjoining the town of Newport, is the residence of the Hon. C. Octavius S. 
Moigan, M.P., fourth son of the late Sir Charles Morgan (see Morgan of TIte Friars). Stow 
Hill (W. S. Cartwright, Esq) ; JawaAy— prop. Maes-aleg (Rev. Chancellor Williams); 
Woodlands (A. Homfray, Esq.); Bryn-Glas (Thomas Cordes, Esq.); Holly House (W. 
Treharae Rees, Esq.) ; Z/i«//>-«/i/^rt GrangeiY.). Mitchell, Esq.) ; and Ifaw* ^ajw (I^wrence 
Heyworth, Esq.), are also in the near neighbourhood of Newport ; while Tynetnydd Qames 
G. James, Esq.), Crumlin Hall (H. M. Kennard, Esq.), and Farmwood (Thomas Gratrcx, 
Esq.), lie at various distances. 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION— CHEPSTOW ; MONMOUTH. 723 

The wide lowland tract lying between Newport and the sea, stretching east and west 
from the New Passage to the mouth of the Rhymney, and known as the Caldecot and 
•* Went-loog *• levels^ .forms part of the ancient district of GwefttUwg (see Hist, and Antig. of 
Mon,). In this district, on the banks of the Usk, before Newport (Cdsi^W-nauydd) had had 
its birth (see Newport)^ was situated the greatest Roman city in Wales, Isca Silurum^ now 
Caerleon, of whose importance little now remains but the indestructible grandeur of the 
natural scenery around, and fragments of walls, pottery, and altars. (See Caerieon under Hist, 
and Antiq. ofAfon,) 77u Priory (John Edward Lee, Esq.) ; Llanwern Hotise (late Sir Charles 
J. Salusbuiy, Bart); 77u Garth (Trevor S. Addams-Williams, Esq.); G/en-Usk (Samuel 
Homfray, Esq.) ; Spring Grove (Miss Thomas) ; Llansoar Qohn James, Esq.), and several 
other genteel residences, are situated in this eminently historic locality. 

When we approach Chepstow and the banks of the Wye, perhaps it can be said with 
truth that we come to the most beautiful side of this universally admired county. It is the 
part best known both to natives and tourists, and needs not to be here described. These are 
now quiet scenes, though in the darker ages of the Church and the State so prominent and 
stirring. (See C/upsiow Castle^ Tintern Abbeyy &c.) Piercefidd Park^ the seat of Henry 
Clay, Esq.; Itton Court (Mrs. Curre; see Curre of Itton Court); St. Pierre {C E. Lewis, 
Esq.) ; Crick (John Laurence, Esq.) ; and Sedbury Park ((^eorge Ormerod, Esq.), are found in 
this charming neighbourhood. From the height of the Wind-cliff, or of I..ancaut on the 
Gloucestershire side of the Wye, the grandeur of the prospect is unsurpassable. Mr. Coxe, 
the historian of Monmouthshire, mounted the latter eminence, and sa3rs, ^' As I stood on 
the brow of this precipice, I looked down upon the fertile peninsula of Lancaut, surrounded 
with rocks and forests, contemplated the hanging woods, rich lawns, and romantic cliffs of 
Piercefield, the casde and town of Chepstow, and traced the Wye sweeping in true line of 
beauty from the Bannagor Crags to its junction with the Severn. A boundless extent of 
country is seen in every direction from this commanding eminence, comprehending not less 
than nine counties. I traced with pleasing satisfaction, not unmixed with regret, the luxuriant 
valleys and romantic hills of this interesting county ; but I dwelt with peculiar admiration on 
the majestic rampart [the Blorenge range] which forms its boundary to the west, and extends 
in one grand and broken outline from the banks of the Severn to the Black Moimtains," — 

" Where the broken landscape, by degrees 
Ascending, roughens into rigid hills, 
O'er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds 
That skirt the blue horizon, dusky rise." — Thomson. 

The dwellers around Monmouth claim for their part not only the respect due to an 
historic county town, but pre-eminence in point of physical beauty. Many things conspire 
to justify the claim. The Wye and the Monnow here join ; the larger river flows through 
spacious and fertile meads, while these are terminated in all directions by hills clad in the 
richest luxuriance and ever-changing hues. Troy Hoiise^ the residence in this county of his 
Grace the Duke of Beaufort (see Beaufort^ Duke of Troy House)^ is about a mile from 
Monmouth, and on the little stream Trothy — whose name has been corrupted into the more 
euphonic Troy. We are indebted to his Grace the Duke of Beaufort for several of the 
heraldic and antiquarian illustrations of this work, copied' from the Progress of his ancestor. 



MONMOUTHSHIRE. 



the first Duke of Beaufort, through Wales in 1684, and only recently printed j>^TRi/'f^. To 
the mode in which the Beaufort Taniily became possessed of this valuable estate, allusion 
has already been made under the article Uanarth. The mansion, surrounded by the richest 
and sweetest scenery, is said to have been designed by Tnigo Jones, but its magnificence is 



Troy House : t 



due, not to its architectural design, but to its interior appointments. The elegance and 
spaciousness of the chiet apartments, largely embellishe'l with rare and costly paintings an<l 
statuary, and a variety of curiosities of an antiquarian kind, are greatly admired. The cradle 
of Henry V., who was bom at Monmouth, and the armour he wore on the field of Agincourt, 



The Beaifort Escutcueon {/r™ cAr Jrti«/Dr/ Procress). 
when Fluellen, referring to Cressy, reminds the king of the valour of his countrymen, — " If 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 7»S 

your Majestic is remembered of it, the Welshmen did goot service in a garden where leeks 
did grow, wearing leeks in their Monmouth caps " are here preserved. 

It may be said that the portion of the Wye bordering Monmouthshire, and a few miles 
above the town of Monmouth, is that which is most sought after by admirers of the pictu- 
resque. The portion of that river bounding Brecknockshire is confessedly fine, and its course 
through Herefordshire passes through spots of much beauty ; but its glories grow and become 
more and more impressive as it approaches the end of its journey. From Goodrich Court 
by "Symond's Yat" and the "Doward Rocks" to Monmouth, and all the way thence to 
Chepstow, its banks are crowded with alternate scenes of bold picturesqueness and soflly 
clad comeliness not often equalled in our island. 

The productiveness of this part of Monmouthshire, owing to the rich4«d sandstone soil, 
aided by the advanced agriculture introduced of late years by the leading owners and 
occupiers of the land, is very great Green crops are all but universal. The yield of 



Hekdre— Front View; the Seat of John Allan Rou^, Bsq. (,/niiH a /xielnsrafiA). 

wheat, as in Herefordshire, is heavy. The elm and the oak find here thetr congenial home, 
and grow to noble proportions. In old times this was doubtless a region for the Welsh to 
be proud of possessing, a region which nothing but sturdy defence could have prevented the 
Anglo-Saxons from snatching from their grasp ; and it had been no wonder if Henry VIII. 
had more formally united it to England than he did. As.the case stands the noble county 
of Monmouth remains in all respects (except as it regards the administration of justice, a 
mistaken popular notion, and the ill-inforined practice of map-makers), a part and parcel of 
the principality of \S'ales. We shall see further into this point in our historical and 
antiquarian section. 

In the district of Monmouth are located also Z>/'/i^j/^ic Court {skk Bosangud of Dinsattmi 
Court); Crefi-y-JBwia (Major A. Rolls) ; Silston fftmse (P. B. Hamilton, Esq.) ; 7^e HiU 



ja6 ^ MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

(Capt George G. Tyler) ; 7»« GariA (Capt James Davies) ; and TZe Hendn {John Allan 
Rolls, Esq.)> '^ mansion or much architectural taste, and of recent renovation. Of this beauti- 
ful house we present two views, — the principal Iront from a photograph, and the courtyard 
from a lithograph. 

We have briefly described the eastern and central drainage of the county by the rivers 
Wye and Usk and their tributaries ; it only remains to mention in few words the western 
drainage by the Rhymncy, Ebbwy, and Sirhowy, the first of which also forms the western 
boundary between this county and Glamorgan. It is remarkable that almost all these 
streams, pursuing courses so diverse, and flowing ultimately into the same estuary of the 
Severn, take their rise in the mountain system of Brecknockshire and its outiying spurs. 
The Monnow, the Usk, the Gronwy, the Ebbwy, the Sirhowy (the two last-named running 
together into the Usk below Newport), and the Rhymney, all set out on their beneficent 



HENnttE-THE Co\:KlSKV.o\rtdiued/n»ii a IMegnaph). 

journey to water Monmouthshire, and, as it turns out, t9 convey much of the filth and 
blackness of the Tartarean region of " the hills " into the all-absorbing sea, from the north- 
western highlands lying beyond the limits of the county of Monmouth. Rhymney has the 
task of fertilizing the least productive parts of this county, for it runs through the coldest 
tracts of the carboniferous field ; whereas the Usk and the Monnow lave almost everywhere 
fax banks of the old red sandstone-i-a fact rendered conspicuous during heavy rains by the 
colour of the stream. 

All the rivers of Monmouthshire, not altogether excepting the proud and majestic Wye, 
have in the end to drag their volume into the sea through muddy and slimy channels, quite 
unworthy of the glory of their previous career. Tlie flats of Caidecot and Went-loog, in 
' great measure the creations, doubtless, of the streams themselves (like the Deltas of the 
Nile and the Rhone), not only by an almost dead level detain the nver, but for the same 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 727 

reason detain the mud thrown into the channels by the tide. Nothing therefore but the 
scouring action of the powerful Severn tides prevents the increase of delta land along the 
coast of Monmouthshire. ' 



Section IL— GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

In almost every respect the geological formation of this county is the same with that of 
Glamorgan. The two great systems which divide between them aUnost the whole area 
of the county are the Old Red Sandstone and the Carboniferous ; the former being by far 
the more extensive, the latter equally preponderating in point of mineral \alue. The two 
are sharply separated from each other by the limestone range of hills commencing with the 
Blorenge Mountain, west of Abergavenny, and continuing thence in a wavy line generally 
bearing south, leaving Pontypool on its western skirt, then taking a direction south-west by 
Machen, and crossing the Rhymney into Glamorganshire. It forms the dividing line between 
the red sandstone lowland between Cardiff and Whitchurch and the coal district of Caerphilly. 
That part of Monmouthshire which lies between this limestone line of hills and the Rhymney, 
enclosing the valleys of the Ebbwy, Sirhowy, &c., contains the whole of the coal and iron 
works of the county. Here lie Tredegar, Sirhowy, Ebbw Vale, Victoria, Beaufort, Blaenafon, 
Blaenau, Nantyglo, Abersychan, Pontypool, Risca, and other great works, the mineral 
products of which, owing to the conformation of the valleys and the consequent concentration 
of railways, are almost entirely shipped at Newport. : . 

East of the mineral field thus marked off to the west, /. ^., east of the mouth of the 
Rhymney, Pontypool^ and Abergavenny, the whole of Mpiimouthshire, with two or 
three small and curious exceptions, is taken up by the old red sandstone group, which also 
monopolizes nearly the whole of Breconshire and Herefordshire. . In one place between 
Uskand Pontypool the power of the old red is broken by a band of the Ludlow and 
Wenlock rocks of some two miles in breadth, and not less than five miles in length, or 
from near Llangibby Castle to within a mile of Clytha House, including a good part of the 
bed of the Usk. These earlier rocks have been forced up by subterranean pressure, and 
the once superincumbent sandstone carried away to the general level of the country. A 
second instance of interference with the monopoly of the old red sandstone is found in the 
neighbourhood of Chepstow, where a tongue of the carboniferous limestone from the coal 
basin of the Forest of Dean crosses the Wye into Monmouthshire, forming in its course the 
precipitous rocks which, from the Wind-Cliff to the estuary of Severn, present such bold and 
picturesque fronts. This limestone bed passes Caldecot and Caerwent, and reaches west- 
ward as far as Magor. A fringe of mw red sandstone, corresponding with the Gloucester- 
shire rocks opposite, passes between this limestone and the Severn margia 



7a8 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 



Section III.— HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF MONMOUTHSHIRR 

The district now included in the county of Monmouth was in pre-Roman times part of 
the dominiom of the Silnres; and it is next to certain that the principal seat of that people, 
when the brave Prince Caractacus proved so formidable an opponent of the Romans, was at 
Caerwent (Venta Silurum), in this county. Whatever the importance of the Silurian metro- 
polis at that period, few signs of it now survive beyond crumbling walls, an occasional 
fragment of pottery, a carved stone, or inequalities of the ground, faintly indicating founda- 
tions of buildings, or their mouldering remains : — 

" All to the searching eyes of many an age 
Have offered but a blurred and wordless page ; " 

and these are the remains of the subsequent Roman rather than of the early British city. 
Although the central seat of the Silures may at this particular time, or generally, have been 
at Caerwent, the dominion of that distinguished British tribe extended to considerable 
distances east, west, and north, comprising nearly all Glamorgan, Brecknock, Hereford, 
Radnor, and parts of other modem counties. Its exact limits it is impossible to determine.' 
The Roman Silures is probably a Latin modification of the British Essyllwyr^ " the men of 
Essyllt ; " but the precise origin of that name is not known. Gwent was doubtless an early 
British name applied to these parts, and is imitated by the Romans in '^ Venta Silurum." 
(See further, p. 483, &c) 

It was about a hundred years after the first establishment of the Roman power in the 
south of Britain before the country of the Silures was subdued. Caractacus had been in 
command against the legions under Aulus Flautius from the beginning of that general's 
operations against the southern Trinobantes. In a.d. 50^ Flautius was succeeded by the 
great commander, Publius Ostorius Scapula, who with great energy pushed on the conquest 
of the southern and central parts of the island, penetrating as far as Yorkshire, but there 
was arrested in his progress by the news of the revolt of the Silures under Caractacus. 

Of all the tribes of Britain, the Silures proved the most fierce and formidable foes of the 
Romans, and much of their power and success unquestionably arose from the sublime genius 
of their great commander. Caractacus fw nine long and harassing years kept in check the 
best legions of Rome, numbering under Flautius 30,000 men \ fought with them between 
thirty zxid forty battles, many of which ended in favour of the patriots; and was only over- 
come in the last struggle as by a hair-breadth of advantage. Caer-Caradoc^ in Shropshire, is 
supposed to have been the scene of this disastrous conflict. Tacitus, whose portraiture of 
the British chief is that of a man of the lofliest character and most commanding ability, tells 
us (Annal,, xii., 34) that Caractacus, before the battle, harangued his soldiers in these 
memorable words: — "Tliis day must decide the fate of Britain. The era of liberty 
or eternal bondage begins from this hour 1 Remember your brave ancestors, who drove the 
great Csesar himself from these shores, and preserved their freedom, their property, and the 
persons and honour of their wives and children." The Britons were ardent for the conflict 
Ostorius was dubious of the result, so strong was the position occupied by the patriot chief, 



n 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES— CAERWENT ; CAERLEON. 729 

and so numerous and disciplined were his troops. The signal for attack, however, after 
some hesitation was given, and the day decided for the Romans. Caractacus was sent ia 
chains to Rome, where his name was already celebrated as the greatest general opposed to 
the imperial troops in Britain. '^ Curiosity was eager," says Tacitus, ** to behold the heroic 
chieftain who for such a length of time made head against a great and powerful empire." 
. Nor were they disappointed in the bearing of the man, no\v no longer a commander, but a 
prisoner in chains. His words when brought before the Emperor Claudius were royal 
words : " If to the nobility of my birth and the splendour of exalted station I had united 
the virtues of moderation [careful self-direction], Rome had beheld me, not a captive, but a 
royal visitor and a friend. The alliance of a prince descended from an illustrious line of 
ancestors, a prince whose sway extended over many regions, would not have been unworthy 
of your choice. A reverse of fortune is now the lot of Caractacus. The event to you is 
glorious— to me is humiliating. . . . The ambition of Rome aspires to universal 
conquest. I stood at bay for years ; had I done othenvise, where on your part had been the 
glory of conquest, and where on mine the honour of a brave resistance ? The bloody scene 
will soon be over, and the name of Caractacus will sink into oblivion. Preserve my life, 
and I shall be to late posterity a monument of Roman clemency." The noble prince was 
set at liberty ; but whether he ever returned to Britain is not known. 

At Caerwent the conquerors planned and built a Roman city with powerful walls and 
defences, whose outline is still traceable, and, imitating the British name Gwmt^ called it 
*^ Venta Silunim." The situation was inviting, being on a gentle rise in the midst of a plain, 
terminating at a small distance north and south in ranges of low hills. The city bounded 
by the walls appears to have been in the form of a parellelogram, about 500 yards long by 
400 wide. The Via Julia from Gloucester to South Wales ran through the site, as does 
now the turnpike road. Leland, about the year 1540, visited the place, and says, " There 
yet appeare pavements of old streates, and in digginge they finde foundations of great 
brykes." As might be supposed, many Roman remains, as coins, tesselated pavement, 
fragments of altars, stamped bricks, &a, have been discovered. To this day many parts of 
the walls stand high above ground. According to Richard of Cirencester, Caerwent was 
a British city proper, but recent investigation proves at least its occupation by the Romans. 

Some nine' miles west of Caerwent, and on the margin of the Usk, stood a still more 
important city of Roman Britain, Isca Silurum^ now Caer-lean (Caer-legionis). It went often 
by the designation " Isca [legionis] secundae Augusta," because here was stationed the second 
imperial legion which kept in check the country west of the Wye {Vagd), Richard of 
Cirencester calls it " Isca Colonic," because it was a city " possessed by a Roman colony," 
and invested with the rank of a colonia — the only one of that dignity in Britanjiia Secunda^ 
or Wales. This spot competes with Caerwent for the honour of being the seat of Caractacus, 
and doubtless outshone the glory of that city in the later Roman period. It is now a neat 
but inconsiderable hamlet, to the casual observer giving no tokens of ancient glory or 
eventful history, but to all persons of knowledge and reading a spot of surpassing interest. 
You cross a common bridge and look around on luxuriant meads and hills clad in richest 
verdure, but witness no colossal ruins, no Corinthian columns with broken entablature, no 
strong and bastioned walls defying the hands of time. And yet this is the veritable spot 
where, sixteen hundred years ago, the pomp and splendour of Rome itself were imitated. 



T30 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

It was for two or three hundred years the fiscal, military, and coromercial depfit for all the 
country to the west. It was fumished widi all those appliances of luxury and tokens of 
power and wealth in which, in the degenerate dayn of the empire, the Romans so much 
delighted. And we have only to dig beneath the surface, as the local antiquaries have done, 
to discover substantial proofs of the matter. Altars once smoking with sacrifice to the 
Soman deities have been disinterred ; fragments of columns and friezes, of tesselated • 
pavement, of baths and marble statuary ; articles of personal ornament, and of domestic use ; 
weapons of offence and implements of .handicraft, sepulchral memorials with the actual 
names of the dead, have all been discovered, as witnesses, silent but eloquent, to the people, 
the religion, the industry, the power, which Caerleon knew so many ages ago 1 The mouiid 
of a "great tower" still remains, and there are clear traces of tlie amphitheatre in a meadow 
adjoining the village. 



Caerleon— THE Roman Amphitheatre (uaw <alUd "Arlhu^t Reaad T<iUt"). 

How impressive are the words of Giraldus Cambrensis, who visited the place in the 
twelfth century, when many of the great buildings and portions of the fortifications were still 
standing !— " The city was of undoubted antiquity, and handsomely built of masonry with 
courses of bricks by the Romans. Many vestiges of its former splendour may yet be seen 
[this was nearly -joo years after the Roman sway had terminated in Britain], immense 
palaces, formerly ornamented with gilded roofs in imitation of Roman magnificence, raised 
by the Roman princes and embellished with beautiful erections ; a tower of prodigious size ; 
remarkable hot baths ; remains of temples and theatres, all enclosed within noble walls, pans 
of which remain standing. You will find on all sides, both within and without the circuit of 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES : CAERLEON ; ARTHUR. 73i 

the walls, subterranean buildings, aqueducts, underground passages, and what I think worthy 
of notice, stones contrived with wonderful art to trainsmit the heat insensibly through narrow 
tubes passing up the side walls. . . . The city is well situated on the river Usk, navi- 
gable to the sea, adorned with woods and meadows. The Roman ambassadors here received 
their audience [referring to' a post-Roman period] at the court of the great King Arthur, and 
here also the Archbishop Dubricius [Dyfrig] ceded his honours to David of Menevia." 

In the great and solid city thus pictured to us in the dim twilight midway between us 
and the Roman era, it is believed the renowned King Arthur ruled, and the time he 
flourished is placed a few generations only after the Romans deserted it This sentiment 
the Poet Laureate embodies in his song, for according to the ^ Idylls of the King," Arthur — 

" Held court at old Cacrlcon u|)on U!»k ; ** 

and there, of course, had his Round Table and his Knights, There, moreover, we are made 
to see flitting the shadowy forms of Enid, Vivien, and Guinevere, nor is the sage but baffled 
" Merlin " absent. 

How the glory of Caerleon departed, without a syllable in history to tell the tale, it is 
strange to contemplate. Certain it is that great and many events transpired here after the 
Britons had recovered their independence. Certain it is that the. country was inhabited by a 
numerous and now cultured race; and there can be no doubt that they had established 
a kind of government. But of all periods in the history of Britain, whether as bearing upon 
the fortunes of Wales or England, this is the darkest and most perplexing. Whatever we 
may think of the romance of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and the tales of bards inferior as poets 
to Geof&ey, nothing is more probable than that Caerleon continued for ages a theatre of 
stirring events, and nothing contrary to authentic record lies in the doctrine that such a 
hero-king as Arthur^ son of Uther Pendragon, flourished in the fifth century, and that Caer- 
leon was his seat The fact, which is beyond question, that a mighty and beauteous city, 
in an inhabited land, the seat of a bishop, the mart of nations, has within the period of 
history perished out of sight, without a memorial left of it, except what can be extracted 
from its dust, is far more astounding and incredible than that such a king as Arthur should 
have lived, and that he should have performed many of the exploits ascribed to him. 

The history of Monmouthshire between the age ascribed to Arthur and the conquest by 
the Normans is involved in much obscurity. We hear occasionally of the existence of 
Gwent as a separate princedom from Glamorgan^ or Gitwysig; but sometimes the dis- 
tinction is lost, and the two districts appear under one rule. We hear of ^' Ynyr, King of 
Gwent," in the ninth century, and he appears to have been an authentic person whose 
lineage descends to leading living families in Gwent and Glamorgan. During the so-called 
''Saxon Heptarchy" the kings of Saxon and Anglian blood who ruled over the kingdoms 
set up in England by the subjugation of the Britons of those parts and their incorporation 
with the conquering race, were in constant war either with each other or with the still un- 
subdued Britons of Wales, /. ^., all the inhabitants to the west of the Severn. Wales became 
divided at the death of Rhodri the Great (after a temporary union) into the three sovereign- 
ties of Gwynedd (North Wales), PowySy and Ddieubarth (South Wales), but the last never 
contained the counties of Monmouth and Glamorgan, which always, either united or 
separate, maintained a* rule of their own. Asser (9th cent) mentions two kings of Gwent, 



731 UONMOUTHSHIKE. 

Brochmael and Fernail, as seeking the protection of King Alfred. Morgan MwTnfawr, alter 
whose name Glamorgan wns called (see pp. 459, 485, &a), at times appears to hold sway over 
Gwent as well as Glamorgan, and the latter princedom seems to have exercised a kind of 
superiority over Gwent even when a separate rule existed. At this time, however, the 
English kings had come to claim a seignioiy over the Welsh princes, as we have seen in 
the case of the quarrel between Howel the Good and Morgan Hen, Prince of Glamorgan, 
respecting the possession of Ystrad Yw, Ewias, and £f^fig (now Archenfield), when King 
Edgar interfered, and forbade Howel to seize those tenitories. 

The Danes, when devastating and ultimately conquering England, were not sparing of their 
unwelcome visits to Gwent and Glamorgati. They frequently swept away the produce of the 



Newport Castle. 

Vale of Usk, coming thither only for plunder, and apparently never with a view of settlement. 
In the year 893, according to the if/rrf, " the Black Pagans " crossed the sea of Severn, and 
committed great havoc in Gwent, Glamorgan, and Brycheiniog ; but Moigan on this occa- 
sion repulsed them with great slaughter". The AnnaUs Cambria call them " Normanni," 
and give the date 895. Canute himself, in the year 1034, made a descent upon Gwent, and 
obuined a victory over Rhydderch ap Icstyn, the usurping prince of South Wales ; but no 
further result followed. 

The frequent Saxon incursions into the country west of the Wye issued in no conquest, 
the Gwentians always holding their own with various success. Under Edward the Confessor, 
Harold the Saxon, afterwards King of England, obtained considerable advantages, and 
appears to have temporarily occupied the strongholds of Chepstow, Caeiwent, Caerieon, and 
Monmouth, and is said to have erected a palace fortress at Ponh-is-coed (now "PortskewM"), 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 733 

where he gave a magnificent entertainment to the king ; but the place was soon after lased 
to the ground by the Welsh, and not a trace of it remains. 

The Nonnan conquest of Gwent and Glamorgan (drat a.d. 1092-4), one of the 
greatest events in the history of Wales, has already been in great measure detailed. (See 
G^morgaiuhire ^Nonnan Period.) With this conquest the rule of the native princes of the 
district finally disappears. We do not find that Fitzhamon partitioned much of the country 
of Gwait — a term generally applying to the country between the rivers Wye and Usk — 
between his followers, as he did.Glamorgan ; but it is clear that his conquest included the 
greater part of what is now called Monmouthshire ; and that he retained as part of his own 
lordship the whole of the level district between the TafT ami the Usk, including the site of 



Fekcobd Castle. 

the present Newport, and, presumably, the famous city of Caerleon, His successors, the 
Earls of Gloucester, were lords also of this district. On the decadence of Caerleon the 
Welsh had erected a fortress nearer the sea, which they called CaiUli-Newydd (the New 
Castle), referred to by Giraldus Cambrensis (a.d. ii83) under the name Novus-burgiis, a 
literal rendering of the Welsh ; but the loosely translated name " Newport " b of much more 
recent birth. 

At this place, already a post of strength, the Normans erected a castle — one of that 
wonderful series of tiventy or thirty fortresses in this county which rose under the wand of 
the Lords Marchers, and to this day, in their very desolation, attest the terriblcness of the 
struggle which for 300 years the Normans maintained against the people of Gwent. 

The building of the casrte whose ruins still survive at Newport— a relic of antiquity 
clinging to life amid the devouring operations of the growing trade and commerce of that 



734 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

thriving place— is attributed to Robert, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I., and 
son-in-law and successor of Htihamon, conqueror and first Lord of Glamorgan. In right 
of his wife, Maude, Robert had acquired the lordship of Monmouth as well as Glamorgan— 
a fact which shows that Fitihamon's lordship included great part of Gwent. This castle 
passed in succession, along with that of Cardiff, through the hands of the great Lords of 
Glamoigan— the De Clares, Lc Despencers, Beauchamps, Nevilles, and Herberts. 

Memorials of the same system of martial and irresponsible rule now esUblished in 
Gwent are the castles of Feiuoed, near Magor ; oiPitihow, Lian/air, and SlirsnU, in the hilly 
district of Went-wood, with which sometimes is confounded the castle of Chepstow. The 
ruin of Pencoed Castle is very picturesque : its history is almost a blank, — even the name of 
its first builder being unknown. 

On the little stream which laves the foot of ancient Caerwent and joins the sea at 



Caldecot Castle, 

" Portskewet," and at the distance of a mile from the latter, Js the extensive ruin of Caldecet 
Casile, 

The great forest of Went-wood probably spreads itself as far as the margin of Caldecot 
level, and the little inlet at " Portskewet " — a name which is in all likelihood a corruption 
of Porih-Ii-coed (" the Iscoed inlet," Iscoed being the name of the coroot containing it) — 
would need a stout fortress to guard the interior possessions of the Lords Marchers against 
the sudden inroads of the incensed and unappeasable V/elsh from the Severn sea. Hence 
in the defile at " Cahlecot " — a corruption perhaps of Cily-a>ed (" the wood or forest 
defile ") — was erected the powerful stronghold of that name. Its actual origin is not known, 
nor can its architectural features be made to pronounce decisively as to its age or nationality. 
Several styles seem to combine to give it a perplexing variety of expression, as if Welsh, 
Saxons, and Nonnans had all had a hand through successive possessions in its rearing : but. 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES i ABERGAVENNY CASTLE. 735 

the prevailing strle is Norman, and the truth is likely to be that its age is later than the 
itth century, and that strength rather than beauty or graceful symmetry was contemplated 
in iu erection. The great family of De Bohun, Earls of Hereford and Constables of 
England, for a long time were its possessors, and they, possibly, were its builders. Not un- 
frequendy, however, it fell to other roasters, as the will of the sovereign determined ; for the 
lease of the liege was the will of his suzerain. The first De Bohun, Humphrey, came to 
England with the Conqueror ; his grandson, also named Humphrey, married the daughter 
and heiress of Milo, Earl of Hereford, and thus came into possession of the lordship. 
They were created Earls of Hereford in 1 199, the second of that title being one of the 
barons who enforced Magna Charta, and the first of his line to hold the office of " High 
Constable of England." The De Bohuns became extinct in 1371. 



ABEanAVENKV Castlb (/""" " "''"""'"fi *>■ Birkd Fnttr.) 

A lordship of great power during the Norman feudal period in Monmouthshire was that 
of Abergavenny, the lord of which is usually styled in later ancient documents "De 
Bergavenny." This interesting town, surrounded by a display of landscape beauty seldom 
surpassed, was once strongly walled, and defended by a powerful castle— the whole having 
their origin in the Lord Marcher conquest. This lordship seenw entitled to priority of date 
over either Brecknock or Glamorgan, its captor having tost no time in acting upon the 
royal licence to plunder. Hameline de Baalun, or Bahdun, recorded as one of the ad- 
venturers who came to the conquest of England with William the Bastard, was, amongst 
others, commissioned to try his fortune on the Welsh borders. He subdued the district of 
Over-Went (the Welsh cantref of G^oent Uwch-Ceed), and established his head-quarters at 
Abergavenny, where, like a hawk building his nest, he planted his warlike fortress. But he 
died almost immediately (1090), and without issue, when his nephew, Brian de Wallingford, 



736 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

clutched the prey. All these robber chiefs, to compensate, as they thought, for their 
cruelty and injustice, founded priories and churches, and endowed masses to be said for 
their souls. Hameline de Baladun founded a priory at Abergavenny, and there he was 
buried. 'As peace amongst the robbers was never of long continuance, the Lords Marchers 
maintained among themselves almost incessant feuds and wars ; and so it happened that 
one man's lordship to-day became another's to«morrow. This was also partly the result of 
the arbitrary decisions of the sovereign, from whom all these unlawfully gotten lands were 
held in capite. 

The castle of Abeigavenoy was held in succession by Walter of Gloucester, Philip de 
Breos, William de Breos, the Cantelupes, the Hastings, Beauchamps. Philip and William 
de Breos, father and son, lived under the reigns of Henry II. and Richard I. The 
Cantelupes got in by marriage with Eva, the heiress of de Breos, and the first of their line, 
William, is said to have been summoned to Parliament by Henry III. as Baron 
de 'Bergavenny, though no record of the fact appears to be extant, and to have been the 
first who assumed this title. The Hastings began as inheritors of the lordship with John, 
nephew of the last Cantelupe, a.d. 1273. The Beauchamps inherited by maternal descent 
from the Hastings, William Beauchamp being the first, a.d. 139a. Then came the 
Nevilles, in the last of which the title. Baron of Abergavenny, has continued uninterrupted 
since the year 1450, when Edward Nevill, son of Ralph, ist Earl of Westmoreland, was 
summoned to Parliament as a baron by writ. He inherited the barony of Abergavenny by 
marriage with Elizabeth, heiress of Robert Beauchamp, the last baron of that line. 

The name of William de Breos, Lord of Abergavenny, stands prominently in the darkest 
page of history as a man of boundless cruelty and duplicity. We learn from Matthew Paris 
and Hollingshed that, a.d. 1176, '^William de Breause, having got a great number of 
Welshmen together into his castle,'' under pretence of friendly consultation, '' proposed this 
ordinance to be received of them with a corporall oth," that " no traveller by the waie 
amongst them should beare any bow or other unlawful weapon;" *' which oth when they 
refused to take because they would not stand to that ordinance, he condemned them all 
to death. This deceit he used towards them in revenge of the death of his uncle, Henry of 
Hereford, whom, upon Easter Even before, they had through treason murthered, and were 
now acquitted with the like againe." — Hollingshed^ iL, 95. An incident of the time of Brian 
de Wallingford, the second Lord of Abergavenny, is given at p. 74. These were times of 
violence, unscrupulous lawlessness, and mad revenge in Upper Gwent, as, indeed, through the 
whole of the Marches of Wales. 

The fortresses of Grosmoni^ Skenfrith^ White Castle^ were also defences of the Norman 
conquest of Upper Gwent — the first and second standing on the river Monnow, the third at 
half-distance between that river and Abergavenny. Grosmont Castle is an imposing and 
picturesque ruin, little known by reason of its distant situation, but in itself, and by reason of 
the fair scenes by which it is surrounded, worthy of inspection and admiration. It is 
regretted that a photograph of it could not be obtained for our pages. The position is high 
and commanding, overhanging the Monnow. The castle, which is in the Gothic style, built 
on the site of an earlier one, is thought to be of the thirteenth century. It was attacked by 
Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, but not taken ; continued prominent during the wars of the 
Marchers ; and was a favourite residence of the Earls of Lancaster. 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF MONMOUTHSHIRE. 737 

. Wliite CastU (Castell Gwyn, said to be so called from G\vyn ap Gwaethfoed) is a great 
ruin, on the crown of a moderately high ridge. It had six irregular towers— one between 
50 and 60 feet high. The entrance is guarded by two advanced massive towers, with 
portcullis and drawbridge, on the usual plan of a Norman fortress. The moat has been 
estimated at 14 feet deep by between 40 and 70 feet wide. The age of this great stronghold 
is unquestionably early — coeval with the first conquest of Upper Gwent It probably 
originated with Brian de Wallingford, or his successor, but it is surprising how little is icnown 
of its history. 

Llantony Abbey (properly Llan-Honddu Abbey), situated in the sequestered and beautiful 
mountain valley of the Honddu, north of Abergavenny, is a ruin of considerable extent 
Giraldus,who visited the place in xi88, when its glory as a religious house was at its highest, 
has bestowed upon it a long and extravagant panegyric. " The situation was truly celebrated 
for religion, and more adapted to canonical discipline than all the monasteries of the British 
isle. The monks sitting in their cloisters, enjoying the fresh air, when they happen to look 
up towards the horizon behold the tops of the mountains [the Hatterel Hills], as it were, 
touching the heavens, and herds of wild deer feeding on their summits." Unintentionally, the 
picture he draws of the internal life of a monastery, even in so favoured a spot, is not 
inviting. There had been disputing and division and malversation in past, times, and 
recently part of the monks had schismatically set up a priory at Gloucester, which seemed 
to trouble the spirit of Giraldus; but he sees their reward. ''All the priors of this 
establishment, who were its enemies, died by divine visitation. William, who first despoiled 
the place of its herds and storehouses, being deposed by the fraternity, forfeited his right of 
sepulture among the priors. Clement seemed to like this place of study and prayer; yet, 
after the example of Heli the priest, as he neither reproved nor restrained his brethren from 
plunder and other offences, he died by a paralytic stroke. And Roger, who was more an 
enemy to this place than either of his predecessors, and openly carried away everything 
which they had left behind, wholly robbing the church of its books^ &c, was also struck 
with paralysis long before his death." >^ 

''A rival daughter sprang up at Gloucester, under the protection of Milo, Earl of 
Hereford ; as if by Divine Providence [Giraldus had singular notions of Providence], and the 
merits of the saints and prayers of those holy men (of whom two lie buried before the high 
altar), it were destined that the daughter church should be founded in superfluities, whilst the 
mother continued in that laudable state of mediocrity which she had always affected and 
coveted." Then we have a passage whose rhetoric is better than its Christianity. '* Let the 
active therefore reside there, the contemplative here ; there the pursuit of terrestrial riches, 
here the love of the celestial ; there let them enjoy the concourse of men, here the presence 
of angels; there let the powerful of this world be entertained, here let the poor of Christ be 
relieved ; there, I say, let human actions and declamations be heard, but here let reading 
and prayers be heard only in whispers ; there let opulence, the parent and nurse of vice, 
increase with cares, here let the virtuous and golden mean be all-sufficient," &c., &c 

The abbey was of the Cistercian order, and was founded by William de Lacy, a Norman 
knight, in 1103, and afterwards largely endowed by Hugh de Lacy. It is considered one of 
the earliest structures in England in the Pointed style. It was suppressed at the dissolution. 
Mr. L}me, under the name of ** Father Ignatius," has of late been attempting to resuscitate 



73S MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

monastic practices at this place in connection with the Church of England, but with less 
than moderate success. 

Monmouth, the Blattum of Antoninus's Itinerary, became in Saxon times one of the 
posts of occupation of that people after theiT conquest of the parts between the Severn and 
the Wye — the ancient princedom of Ftr}-Uu'g, or Ferlcx. But there exists no evidence 
that the Welsh did not regain possession of this district, and retain it till the descent of the 
■ Normans. The conquest of Glamorgan and Gwent, under Rufus, by the venture of 
Fitzhamon and other knights, involved the district of Monmouth, and now, in all probability, 
were erected the fortifications, whose remains in part still continue, and whose outlines were 



Monmouth Bridge, over the Monhow, with an AHaENT CiT* Gate. 

almost perfect when Leland visited the town in the sixteenth century. It then had four 
gates remaining, — Monk's Gate, Eastern Gate, Wye Gate, and Monnow Gate. The Monnow 
Gate, shown in our engraving, is the most perfect one, and the only gate now existing. 
Monmouth Qastle, occupying an eminence, is now represented by a mere fraction of the 
powerful fortress once proudly cresting the hilt, and for several generadons the abode 
of royal possessors. Monmouth, as appears firom Domuday, was made part of the king's 
demesne, and " De Monmouth " was afterwards added to the royal titles. Under Henry II. 
the renowned John de Monmouth was the lord of the place, and ceded his rights to Prince 
Edward, afterwards Edward I., to whom many of the castles of Wales were given. (See 
Tomb of John of Monmouth, p. 738.) 

Monmouth continued in the Plantagenet line till it came to John of Gaunt, who 
married Blanche, daughter and heiress of Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Henry of Boling- 
broke, afterwards Henry IV., son of John of Gaunt, was next owner ; and here was bom his 
distinguished son, Henry V., the hero of Agincourt, called " Harry of Monmouth," and who 



HISTORV AND ANTIQUITIES: MONMOUTH IN 1684- 739 

was proud, if Shakspeare be true, after the victory of that field, gained mainly by the aid of 
Welshmen, to respond to the impetuous Fluellin,— 

"I am Welsh, you know, cood countryman." 

It afteTwards came by inheritance, as part of the Duchy of Lancaster, to Henry VI,, 
on whose attainder it fell to Edward IV. William Herbert, afterwards Earl of Pembroke, 
received it for a time, but on his death at Banbury it reverted once more to the king, and 
was part of the Duchy of Lancaster which fell to the share of Henry VII. In 1646 the 
castle vras garrisoned for Charles I., but was attacked and taken by the Parliament, since 
which time it has gradually fallen into decay. 

His Grace Henry, first Duke of Beaufort, ended his lonlly progras through Wales in 
1684 at Monmouth, and his own residence of Troy (sec Troy House). Some interesting 
ttotes are found in the Pri^ras, bearing upon the Monmouth of that day. Even then " the 
castle of Monmouth hod nothing to show but the ruine of its ruines." "The bells of the 
church are said to have been brought out of France by order of Henry of Monmouth in his 
conquests, and say'd to be lettere'd about thus : — ^^itf s )» islis cantpana Bum ffiatTiilia." 
Respecting the tomb of John of Monmouth it is noted, " On the right hand entering the 
great south door is seen the monument of marble, anciently gilt and painted, and small 
■ figures on the sides and ends, obscured by the injury of the usurper's soldiers, and now 



Tomb of John of Monmouth — (AuiyM Pregrat 1684). 

preserved by church pews and seats erected near it. The townsmen say it represents John 
of Monmouth. They show you also, in an old coffer near the chancell, his coate of maile 
and gauntlett, there being neither inscription nor arms on the shield discernible to give 
other light" (p. 331). 

The Duke with his cavalcade, having lodged the night before at Ruperra Castle, arrived 
at Monmouth on the 19th August (1634), " where th? regiment of foot of this county were 
then drawn into Unes, making a guard from that town even to the walls of Trt>y, another mag- 
nificent place belonging to theEarleof Worcester [son of the Duke, himself afterwards second 
Duke of Beaufort], commander of this regiment, and were not oncly all that accompanied 
his Grace through the Progress, the Deputy Lieutenants of the Militia here, but a numerous 
traine of Militia officers and gentry out of other neighbouring English counties were 
splendidly enterteined by the sayd noble Eorle. The next day, company encreasing, to wait 
upon the Duke of Beaufort [Lord President of Wales and the Marchers, we must remember. 



740 MONMOUTHSmRE. 

and representing the anthoritf of Charies IL], ample enterteinmenta were repeated bj (he 
Right Hon. Charies, Earie of Worcester, ap<m the same place, such as anticipate all eaconinro, 
&c. His Grace, accompanied with the Earie of Worcester, Sir John Talbot, — Aubeiy, 
Esq., and several of the deputy lieutenants of the adjoining counties, to(A a view of the 
Klilitia Regiment of this county of Monmouth, when the Earle of Worcester at the head of 
it on foot, as Colonell, with his leading staff, saluted bis Grace, severall of the principal 
gentry, as Sir John Talbot, Stc, placing themselves in front of the stand of pilces, doublings, 
countermarches, wheelings, variety of exercise, and good and dose firings, were made ; 
whence the Mayor and y rest of the Magistracy of Monmouth Town, in their formalities, 
invited his grace to accept of the freedom of the place, &c." 

** That done, bis grace with all the gentleman that accompanied him to Monmouth Town 
Hall, were collationed there with a cold treat, during which the Militia Horse, then led by 
Sir Charles Kemis, gave sevcrall vdlics ; and the troopers were treated as they were 
mounted with syder and ye noted Monmouth ale, drums beating, trumpets sounding, and 
bells ringing, so that each horse — 

' Motns clancore larbamnt, 
Saxa qiutit pnln, licidm Texantia frenoi 
Oia teneiu, xpoq^lqae jobos et sarrigiil anm,' &c ; 

and from thence he was reconducted by the Mayor, his brether'n of Monmouth, and county 
troop, to Troy" 



Seal of thb Town of Monmouth — 1684 {Beim/ort Pregrat.) 

So ended the memorable Progress of the rst Duke of Beaufort through Wales and the 
Marches, begun on the nth of July. He had started from Chelsea, through Chipping Norton 
and Worcester city, and thence through the counties of Salop, Montgomery, Denbigh, Flint, 
Carnarvon, Anglesey, Merioneth, Brecon, Carmarthen, Pembroke, Glamorgan, and Mon- 
mouth. He rode in a chariot of state, and was followed by a considerable retinue on horse- 
back. The progress was rapid, although, through the badness of the roads, laborious, and 
the company were royally entertained at chief mansions in the respective counties, — such as 
Powis Castle; Chirke Casde; Mostyn; Baron Hill (called then Beaumaris); Gwydir; 
Rhiwlas; Llwydiarth; The Priory, Brecon; Golden Grove; Margam; Keven-Mably; 
Ruperra Casde. The object of the progress was doubtless to inspect the military forces of 
the counties, which in every case were brought out and paraded before the Lord President 
His Grace was accompanied by a scholarly, rather pedantic gentleman, T. Dineley, Esq., 
who took notes of places and things, interspersing the whole with learned and often long 
quotations from the classical authors, and various curious and quaint remarks, and notices 
of churches, monuments, castles, &c. Clever sketches also were taken of buildings, arms. 



BEAUFORT "PROGRESS;" RAGLAN CASTLE. 741 

sealsy and monuments, but whether these were by Mr. Dinely or another hand is not stated. 
This valuable account had lain in MS. in the archives of the Dukes of Beaufort up to the 
year 1864, when his Grace the present Duke resolved to have it printed. It has, however, not 
been published, and only a very limited number of copies were struck off. The editing was 
done by Charles Baker, Esq., F.S.A., and the printing and illustrations are in the most 
artistic and tasteful style. The Duke of Beaufort has most liberally and obligingly allowed 
the transference of many of the illustrations of arms, monuments, seals, and buildings 
(which are unique, and could not otherwise be recovered), from the Progress to the present 
work. 

Henry, ist Duke of Beaufort, was a man of great talent, the son of a man of world-wide 
celebrity— that Marquess of Worcester known as the author of A Century of Liventions^ and 
the grandson of that venerable soldier who made himself memorable by his defence, at the 
age of eighty-four, of his castle of Raglan in 1646. (See Beaufort^ Duke of, of Troy House.) 
The family of Somerset has been foremost in the service of the country at home and abroad, 
and in the patronage of letters, art, and general culture for many ages. In fact, the roll of 
the nobility of England contains no more illustrious names. 

The magnificent ruin of Raglan Castle^ in an undulating and fertile part of the county 
between Monmouth and Usk, in many respects stands foremost among the ancient remains 
of Britain, as Heidelberg Castle stands among the castles of the Neckar and the Rhine. It 
is not of the extent of Caerphilly or Carnarvon, nor of the antiquity of Harlech, Rhuddlan, 
or Chepstow ; . but it is of an age sufficient to make it venerable, and so decked with 
manifold beauty of design and execution as to awaken a sense of boundless admiration, 
mixed with unavoidable regret that a human work so grand and mighty should be lying 
ingloriously in the dust. It is a satisfaction, as the spectator wanders among the ruins, to 
observe the care bestowed by the noble owner upon the preservation from further decay of 
this '^ storied " place, and the admirable intelligence, the gentle sense of sympathy with 
glory in ruin, and the skill which maintains permanence without any appearance of busy 
" restoration," everywhere so visible. The Duke of Beaufort deserves the thanks of all men, 
of antiquarians especially, for the manner in which not only the ruins of Raglan, but the 
many relics of antiquity on his estates, are kept. 

The first founding of Ragl?.n Castle is not noted in history; but the spot on which 
it stands is known to have been occupied by a fortress some centuries before the present 
castle in its main parts was built. In the thirteenth century the De Clares were owners of 
Raglan. It passed from them to the Berkeleys, who possessed it only for a brief period. Next 
after them, and in the time of Henry V., we find it in the hands of Sir William ap Thomas, son 
of Sir Thomas ap Gwilym ap Jenkin (see Herbert of Uanarth; Uanarth; Uansaniffraed 
&c.). His son. Lord William Herbert^ of Raglan, afterwards Earl of Pembroke, had the 
custody for some time at his castle of Raglan of the Earl of Richmond, aflerwards Henry VII. 
The last William Herbert of Raglan died without issue male, and his estates passed 
with his daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, to her husband, Sir Charles Somerset, created 
afterwards Earl of Worcester, who //. 1526. The property has ever since continued in this 
noble family. 

The castle is said to exhibit a variety of styles, indicating progressive erection, some 

3 c 



MONMOUTHSHtRE. 



parts being apparently as early as th« reign of Henry V., when the possessor was the above- 
named Sir William ap 11100105, some as late as Charles I., and believed to have been the 



Raci-ak Casile-the CIreat Gateway. 
work of its last occupant, the gallant Marquess of Worcester, who, after a most heroic 



jN Castle— Ri IV Ai. Apartments. 



defence, yielded it up on honourable terms to the army of the Parliament in 1646, and died 
in the same year. 



- HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES : RAGLAN' CASTLE. 743 

The plan of the caistle includes two great quadrangles, the first entered by the grand 
portcullised gateway shown in our first engraving, the second communicated with from the firsL 



In the range of buildings running between these courtyards were the great state apartments, 
the groined ceilings, carved bosses and corbels, mullioned windows, and elaborate fireplaces ol 



Kagi^n Castle, from the Moat. 

which, even now in their desolation, tell of the elegance and splendour which surrounded 
the Lords of Kagtan Castle in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The keep, or citadel 



744 MOMMOUTIISHIRE. . 

of this castle was as remarkable for its massive proportions as the more ornate interior was 
for delicacy of design and artistic execution. It stood separate from the main building on 
the south side, and was of later date than the greater portion of it ; the form was that of a 
hexagon, each of the six sides measuring 33 feet ; the walb were 10 feet thick and five stories 
high, built of solid square stones of the red sandstone strata of the country, the colour of 
which is said to have occasioned the name by which this enormous structure was known — 
Twr Mtlyn Gtomt, " the Yellow Tower of Gwent" Some, however, have conjectured that 
the meaning is Twr Afelin Gitynt, " the Windmill Tower." So powerfully constructed was 
the citadel that the artillery of the Parliamentary army, which only carried shot of twenty 
pounds, failed to do much damage except to its elegantly finished battlements ; these, being 
of less thickness and solidity, were demolished. Time has since lately supplemented the 
work of Fairfax's siege. The citadel was connected with the castle by a bridge, ponerfully 



defended by lateral walls, turrets, and battlements, and spanning a moat 30 feet broad, antl 
of great depth, which ran all round the citadel. But even such a place as this, intended as 
the last refuge in time of siege, and so mightily planned and protected, was not able to 
shelter the aged marquess, and his garrison of 800 men supported at his own cost, in 
defence of afailing cause. The army of the Parliament, commanded by the renowned Fairfax, 
whose head-quarters were at Cefn-tilla, night and day hailed its missiles upon the devoted 
fabric, all supplies were cut off, a breach was effected in the eastern curtain, drawbridge, pon- 
derous gate, and portcullis were demolished ; but at the last moment honourable terms were 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES : USK CASTLE. 745 

accepted, and the noble-hearted owner was allowed to quit his castle with colours flying and 
honour untarnished, but with a sense that he had but too faithfully served a weak and 
faithless king, now to receive as reward the confiscation of his splendid estates, and final 
ruin of his princely halls. He was taken prisoner to London, where he died in the same 
year, receiving thus a friendly riddance of all his troubles. His estates, valued at ;^2o,ooo 
per annum, were recovered by the family at the Restoration, but shorn of much of their 
beauty, and greatly reduced in value. Raglan Castle, in the fourteen years which had 
elapsed, had been dismantled ; the great park, *' planted with fine maiden oaks and large 
birch trees, richly stocked with all kinds of deer," and stretching away to great distances 
across woodland, plain, and river, had been converted into a barren wilderness. The Stuart 
d>'nasty and the popular vengeance it awakened had writ their names on the fair demesne of 
Raglan in characters many of which are not to this day obliterated. 

The £asf/d of Usk ( \Vysc)y was once of large dimensions. From the magnificence of the 
scenery around, it is no cause of wonder that Richard Duke of York delighted to reside 
here. It is said that this was the birthplace of his two sons, Edward IV. and Richard III. 
When it is remembered that Henry V. was bom at Monmouth, where his cradle is still ex- 
hibited (see Troy House\ Monmouthshire will appear to have enjoyed sufficient honour ot 
this kind. The fact is that as a land of castles it offered a safer asylum in those troublous 
times than even most parts of England. 

The Castle of Usk, after belonging to Richard. IIL and Henry VII., became the 
property of William, first Earl of Pembroke, the second branch of the Herbert &mily. 
Philip, his fourth descendant, dying in 1683 without issue male, his only daughter and 
heiress, Charlotte conveyed it (by marriage) to Thomas, Viscount Windsor. 

The estates in Gwent, possessed by this second branch, were scarcely inferior to those of 
the first Earl of Pembroke of the Herbert blood. Philip, the last proprietor of Usk Castle, 
could have passed almost the whole way through his own manors from the vicinity of 
Monmouth to Newton Down beyond Cowbridge {Fen-y-Bont) in Glamorgan, a distance of 
nearly sixty miles. The trustees of his daughter, in their annual circuit, were not un- 
frequently escorted by more than fifteen hundred of her tenants and dependents from 
Chepstow to the castle at Cardiff, where the accounts were audited and the rents received. 

Charlotte, the heiress of Usk Castle, by her husband, Thomas, Viscount Windsor and 

Lord Montjoy, had a son, Herbert, who sold Usk Castle (now possessed by the Duke of 

Beaufort), and died in 1758, leaving two daughters— Charlotte Jane, married, 1766, to John, 

Lord Mountstuart (see Marques of Biite\ and Alice-Elizabeth, first wife of Francis, 

.second Marquess of Hertford. 

On our way to glance at that age of monkish religion and architectural magnificence in 
Gwent which is commemorated by Tintern Abbey^ on the Wye, we pass the only large 
monument of the so-named Druidic religion and age now surviving in the county of 
Monmouth— the stofies^ or cromlech of Tre-lech (trt^ three; and ll^h^ a stone), which consist 
of three great stones set on end. The fine ruin of St, Briavefs CastU^ built by Milo Flu- 
waiter. Earl of Hereford, temp, Henry I., is opposite, on the Gloucestershire side of the Wye 
but in the feudal ages was pan of that system of the Marches which was not bounded by the 



746 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Wye, but extended from Gloucester to Brecknock, and from Chester to Cardial This was 
the Milo, Eaii of Hereford and Lord of Brecknock, who held the jest with earnest Gniffydd 
ap Rhys on the maigia of Uyn Savathan related at p. 56. The object of this castle was to 
check the Welsh in their incursions across the boundary into the Forest of Dean ; but it is 
scarcely probable that the walls now remaining were built to eariy as the reign of the 
first Heniy. 

The situation of the abbey of Ttntem — (^Din, a high place of strength ; teym, king) the 
name probably of an adjacent hill, — almost as much as the marvellous beauty of the archi- 
teaure, contributes to the powerful effect produced by the spectacle of this majestic ruin. 



TiNTEttN Abbey— General view, frou the Wve. 

It has been pronounced " the most beautifiil and picturesque of all our Gothic monuments." 
And the situation is one of the finest the old monks ever chose for the site of an abbey. It 
is enough to say thAt this spot is superior even to the site of Llantony. The abbey is 
planted on a meadow lying in a bend of the river, flanked at the back by an abrupt swelling 
of craggy hills clad in oak, ash, and hazel ; in front, up stream, below, and every- 
where the bold hills, the retiiing glades, the rocks, and their green investment of timber 
and brushwood, vie with each other in offering to the eye the most graceful outline, the most 
varied and harmonious detail of light and shade. The noble Wye in its windings seems to 
flow out of a hiU-side above, and into a hitl-side below. Every nook and dell, every crag 
and mountain-top, the trim cottage, the while-sailed pleasure-boat, the leaping salmon, 
and the deep-designing angler on the brink, seem all brought together on purpose to 
give this glorious ruin a framework worthy of itself and of the broad page of Gwentian 
history it aids to fill. 

Tintem Abbey has had a longer age as a ruin than it had of active service. "Man 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES = TINTERN ABBEY. 747 

purposeth," &c Its builders in planning thosemassive clustered pillars, those aspiring arches, 
buttressed to bear a "lanthom tower" of mountain weight, those slenderly mullioned, 
richly tracericd windows, as high ajpiin as the gables of many churches, the solidly 
vaulted roofs which once spanned cloister, chapterhouse, and hospitium, were in their own 
minds erecting a structure to compete with the hills in durability— and whose very dismantled 
and dishonoured shell seems now lo defy time and elements in its demolition. But that vast 
labour and .cost, thought, skill, and loving interest only issue in a pile of magnificence whose 



TisTERN Abbev, LOoRtHC UP THii Xavi To thi East Window. 



topstone is scarcely set, and its matin and vesper bell scarcely begin their regular silveiy 
notes before its knell is sounded and destruction sends down its storm of hail. It was, in 
fact, but the splendid efflorescence of a decaying boily, which England found it on the whole, 
though with much regret and pain, necessary to remove. And so the "lanthom tower" 
is gone long ago to mend the roads and fill up gaps in rustic fences ; the beautiful tracery, 
the carved work in foliated boss and moulding, faces of saints and angels, the vciy eRigies of 
mailed knights and gende dames, founders and benefactors, have been cast out as rubbish, 
and ground into dust I 

In the year 1130, some eight or nine and twenty years alter the Norman had laid his 
iron hand on the Cymry of Gwent and Glamorgan, Walter du Clare, son of Gilbert de Clare, 



748 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

whose fiunily had obtained certain teiritory in Wales, founded here a small priory for 
monks of the Cistercian order i-^ 

" A little lonely bennitage it was, 
Down in a dale, hanl bjr a foreiit'i xiHe, 
Fm rrom remrt of people.''— /Wij Qaaii. 



Tfia West Window, 



Under the thrifty hands of the monks and frequent donations of the lords, who revelled 
in wealth gotten by robbery of the now prostrate intiabitants, it grew apace into imponance. 
It had not, however, risen into note, and the building, now in rains, had not been erected when 
Giraldus Cambrensis in 1188 passed through Gwent Gilbert de Strongbow, Earl of 
Pembroke, the builder of Aberystwyth Castle, son of Richard de Clare, and owner then of 
the neighbouring castle of Striguil, largely endowed it, and his example was followed by 
the Earls of Pembroke, his successors. But it was Roger fiigod. Earl of Norfolk (son of 
Maud, sister and co-heiress of Anselme, last Earl of Pembroke of the Marshal line), who 
built Tinlem Abbey, in 1268. This was the year in which it was so iar finished that the 
monks for tne first time celebrated mass within it ; but the building had doubtless been 
proceeding tor many years, and probably continued long after. If we calculate the com- 
pletion of the abbey to be about a.d, 1300, it will be seen that the period of its survival was 
336 years, for in 1536 Henry VXII. issued the mandate for the dissolution of the monasteries. 
Tintem Abbey and its lands, valued at no more than ;£ii2 is. 4d., and having only thirteen 
monks, were granted to Henry Somerset, second Earl of Worcester, in whose fiunily they 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES: CHEPSTOW CASTLE. 749 

Still remain. The present Duke of Beaufort bestows great care upon iht preservation of these 
beautiful remains, while avoiding all unsightly and ill-placed " restoration." 

The plan of the abbey is cruciform ; and the subsidiary buildings, such as the cloisters, 
chapterhouse, refectory, hospitium, or guest-chamber (where ** open house " was kept for the 
pilgrim and the stranger in need), the kitchen, &c, were ranged on the northern side 
flanking the abbey as far as the eastern side of the transept. The length of the abbey was 
228 feet; the nave and choir were only 37 feet wide, and the extreme width at the transepts 
was 150 feet. 

The east window, shown in our second view, with its single mullion remaining, is 
64 feet high, and occupies the whole width of the choir. The great central arches sup- 
porting the tower (when the tower was there) are 70 feet high. Through these the spectator 
looks at the eastern and western wiudows in the respective engravings. The western window, 
with almost all its mullions and tracery still complete, is 42 feet high. This window, as 
shown in the engraving, is in great part covered with ivy. The tops of the walls, along 
which are convenient pathways, are covered with turf, and here and there ornamented 
with spontaneous growth of shrubs and trees. Along the pillars, arches, and windows, the 
friendly ivy is allowed to twine and hang in garlands, and the floor, once shining in encaustic 
tiles, is covered with a carpet of greensward, through which the bases of the northern 
pillars of the nave crop up. (See Engraving, p. 747). 



From Tintem Abbey to Oupstaiv Castle is but a small distance in space, but, with all 
the defects of the monastic system, the transition is like descending from a world of civili- 
zation to a world of barbarism. The monastic and the Lord Marcher systems lived con- 
temporaneously, agreed in holding man in bondage, were mutually supporting, and died by 
the same hand ; but taken and analyzed separately they are seen to have been animated by a 
different life, and lived with different aims. As Macaulay has eloquently written, ''A 
system which, however deformed by superstitions, introduced strong moral restraints into 
communities previously governed only by vigour of muscle and audacity of spirit ; a system 
which taught even the fiercest and mightiest ruler that he was, like his meanest bondsman, a 
responsible being, might have seemed to deserve a more respectful mention firom philosophers 
an J philanthropists. Had not such retreats been scattered here and there among the huts 
of a miserable peasantry and the casdes of a ferocious aristocracy, European society 
would have consisted merely of beasts of burden and beasts of prey." 

The town of Chepstow, as its name indicates, was a place of barter between the Saxons 
and Welsh (A.-Sax., ceap., price, or bargain, ceapian^ to bargain, sell ; and stoc^ euphonized 
stow, a stockaded or defended place), after the former had taken possession of the country 
between the Severn and the Wye. From the importance of the position in all times of war 
we may conclude that the Britons had here a place of strength, although it was not then a 
custom to erect castles. The Welsh name of Chepstow, Casgwent, i.e., Castell Gwent, 
probably originated after the building of the present castle. The Anglo-Saxons, as they are 
called, or, more correctly, the governments set up in South-west and Central England after 
the amalgamation of the old Britons of the parts and their Germanic conquerors into one 
people — on taking possession of the British princedom o( Fery/hag (Ferlex), which embraced 



750 MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

the lands between the Wye* and the Severn^ would as soon as possible seize and stiengthea 
this post, making it a place of trysting and negotiation with the independent Britons of the 
west It is said that parts of the castle of Chepstow contain indications of ^ Saxon " work — 
a thing, however unlikely, not quite so incredible as the statement made by some others to 
the effect that some of its walls were built by ** Julius Caesar/' who, it is well known, never 
penetrated halfway to Chepstow. 

The stupendous ruinit of Chepstow Castle are beyond question the remains of Norman 
work. It is quite improbable that the whole was built by the same owner or in the same 
age, for there are varieties of style and irregularities of plan showing the contrary No 
castle in Britain stands on a grander site. It occupies along the margin of the Wye an 
almost perpendicular limestone cliff (part of the carboniferous system of the Forest of Dean), 
through which the river has excavated a passage. It is so closely built to the edge that iu 
huge walls and the native rock appear all as one. Its building is ascribed to William Fitz- 
Osbeme, Earl of Hereford, who is stated to have been a relation of the Conqueror and one 
of his companion knights in the invasion of England (although we find not his name in the 
RoU of BattU Abbey)^ and who had lands assigned him on the borders of Wales, including the 
basin of the lower Wye. This was the Fitz*Osbeme who before the expedition started firom 
Normandy, and wheix many chieftains were opposed to William's enterprise, cried out, 
" Why dispute ye thus ? He is your lord ; he has need of you. It were better your duty to 
make your offers, and not to await his requests. If you fail him now, and he gain his end, 
by heaven, he will remember it" (Chronique de Normandii). Fitz-Osbeme prevailed, and was 
well rewarded. His life, however, was cut short by violence in Flanders, where he was 
involved in a love affair, and it is improbable that he had leisure afler settling upon his 
possessions in Wales to build to completeness such a giant fortress as Chepstow Castle- 
His younger son, Roger Fitz-Osbeme, succeeded to his vast estates in this county, his eldest 
son William to his estates in Normandy — for Fitz-Osbeme was a man of note and seneschal 
of the duchy in his own country, and not a mere hungry military adventurer like 
most of William's companions. Roger Fitz-Osberne was a man of deep designs, and 
likely for his own purposes to build a fortress sueh as Chepstow Castle. While William 
was gone to Normandy to quell an insurrection, another was brewing for him in England 
and in Wales. Roger Fitz-Osbeme had arranged and carried out without William's permission 
a marriage between his own sister Emma and the great ^x^Xxm Ralf de Gad, Earl of Norfolk. 
It led to a rupture with the Conqueror and a terrible insurrection, in which the Welsh, who 
saw in Ralf the Breton a man of their own kin, heartily joined, and in which Chepstow Castle 
was fitted to play an important part. During the marriage rejoicings the conspiracy against the 
Conqueror was formed. Several bishops and abbots, many Norman barons and Saxon 
warriors, bound themselves by oath against King William {WilL of Malmesb,), But William's 
good fortune prevailed. Ralf was obliged to fly to his own land of Brittany, and Roger 
Fitz-Osbeme was made a prisoner for life. " The race of William Fitz-Osbeme," says Ordericus 
Vitalis, ^ has been uprooted from England, so that now there is not a comer in wliich it can 
set its foot" 

The earldom of Hereford and the castle and lands of Chepstow passed to the Earls of 
Pembroke of the De Clare line, then to the Marshals and Herberts, and lastly to the 
Somersets, in which (now represented by his Grace, Henry, Duke of Beaufort) they still remain. 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES i CIIErSTOW CASTLE. 751 

The sraund'plan of the castle is loni; and narrow, stretching along Che dizzy steep of the 
rock in massive walb and towers of various heights, and enclosing four separate courts, as if 
added by degrees as necessity required. The great entrance is from the side towards the 
town. The noble gateway is defended by two circular towers of great strength, portcullis, Sic, 
Around the first court were arranged the grand hall, principal apartments, kitchen, &c. 



A TowKK IN Chepstow Castul 



On the side next the river the curtain between the first and second courts is pierced by a 
gateway. Another gateway enters the third court, in which was situated the chapel, a 
building of remarkable elegance, 90 feet long by 30 in width, with walls 40 feet h^h. The 
fourth court had its own entrance by a drawbridge and portcullis across the castle ditch, 
Hanked by two square towers. 

In the grand court first mentioned is the ieef, a structure of large dimensions and 
wonderful solidity and beauty. It contained, amongst Other parts, the tower, made celebrated 
through the confinement within it for twenty years of the republican Henry Marten, member 
of the " Rump " parliament (probably for some place in Berks.), once a friend of Cromwell, 
and one of tliose who signed the death wamini of Charles I. The parlbment made a gift of 



7S> MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Chepstow Castle to Oliver Cromwell, but on the accession of Charles II. it reverted to the 
Marquess of Worcester, aad Henry Marten became one of its involuntary occupants. 

" For thirt;r yeiR, wcladeil from mi-ikind, 
Here Minen lingered. Often hav: ihne wall* 
Echoed his foouiepi, as with even irtsd 
He paced around tiii pnioa."—SffiilA^. 



Crbfstow Castle— Maktbn's Towek, in thk Kekp. 

Marten's " tread " and temper may have become " even " after years of schooling within 
thick prison waUs, but by nature he was of a choleric and impetuous turn, and of a loose and 
ill-govcmed life. When Cromwell entered with his guards lo send the " Kump " about its 
business, this is the description (perhaps not unfaithful) we luve of this man : — " Henry 
Marten is a tight little fellow, though of somewhat loose life ; his witty words pierce yet, as 
light arrows through the thick oblivious torpor of the generations, testifying to us very clearly. 
Here was a right hard-headed, stout-heaned little man, full of sharp fire and cheerful light, 
sworn foe of cant in all its figures, an indomitable little pagan if no better. ' You call 
yourselves a Parliament, continues my Lord General in clear blaze of conflagiatioo ; 'you 
are no Parliament, some of you are drunkards, some of you are — ' and he glares at 
Harry Marten and the poor Sir Peter [Wentworih], who rose to order, lewd livers both— 
'living in open contempt of God's commandments.'" — Carlyle. After the Restoration, 
Marten was tried as a regicide at the Old Bailey, when he put in the plea that in concurring in 
the king's death and signing the warrant he only yielded obedience to the existing government. 
Verhaps his "lewd living" told in his &vourwith the court of Charles II.; at all events 
though found guilty, his life was spared. He was sent to the Tower for a time, and thence 



HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES : CHEPSTOW CASTLE. 7S3 

transferred to the keep of Chepstow Otstle for the lest of his life. The term of his imprison- 
ment here was twetit}', not thirty yeais, as stated by Southey; he was allowed to retain his 
property, to have the company of his wife, to walk abroad under guard, and to pay visits 
to the gentry of the neighbourhood. He died in 1680, at the good age of seventy- 
eight, and ivns buried in the chancel of Chepstow Church. Over him was placed on a 
epitaph, rather long, of his " own composition," and containing these lines : — 

"A true Englishman, 
Who in Berkshire was well known 
To love hii counlry's freedom, 'bo»e hU own. . . , 
E.iamplet preach to Ih' eye ; care then, mine Kip. 
Not how you end, but how you s