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U^R 'R^ 




presented by her children 

Rev. G. Gardker Monks 

Dr, John P. Monks 

Mrs. Constantin A* Pertzoff 

June;, 1944 


tfARY I 

. i (■ J 

•v. ^ 







Six hundred and forty copies of this New Edition printed 
for En^a$Mt^ and four hundred for America, 

Each copy numbered and type distributed, 








IRBftb portrait an5 JSwcnt^tont Steel an5 Ae330tfnt Ettdravitidd 




JOHN C. N 1 M M O 




ThAfi was the shiU, rich colour and clear light 
To weave in graceful forms by fancy dream'd. 
So well that many a shape and figure bright. 
Though flat, in soofb, reliev'd and rounded seem'd^ 
And hands, deluded, vainly strove to clasp 
Those airy nothings mocking still their grasp,^ 



Diego Valentin Diaz and his Wife. From the original by 
himself in the Chapel of the Hospital for the Maintenance and 
Education of Orphan Girls at Valladolid, Engraved in mezzotint 
on copper by R, B. Parkes 874 

JusEPE Martinez and his Son. From the original picture by the 
son in the possession of the late Don Valentin Carderera, En- 
graved in mezzotint on copper by R. B. Parkes .... 884 

Jacob's Dream. Executed from the picture \of Josef de Ribera in 

the Royal Gallery at Madrid, No. 982 904 

A Tile, 2 J inches square^from the Casa de Pilatos, Seville . . .916 

Francisco de Zurbaran. From the portrait by himself formerly 
in the Louvre, Gal, Esp. No. 401. Engraved on steel by H. 
Adlard 920 

Town and Castle of Lebrija. From a sketch taken from the 

road to Cabezas de San Juan 934 

Alonso Cano. From the portrait by himself formerly in the Louvre, 

Gal. Esp. No. yi. Engraved on steel by H. Adlard . . . 936 

Our Lady of Bethlehem. From a copy, now at Keir, by Don 
Josi Roldan, of the picture by Alonso Cano in the Cathedral of 
Seville. The inscription is copied from the original frame, from 
which the engraved border is mainly taken. Engraved on steel 
by H, Adlard 956 

Pedro de Moya. From a drawing by Gabriel Decker, 1850 . . 969 



Iron Cross on the Casa de Ayuntamiento^ Yepes . . . .981 

Diego Velazquez 982 

Caspar Estevan Murillo 984 

Bartolom^ Estevan Mxtrillo. From the portrait by himself 
formerly in the Louvre^ Gal. Esp, No. 183. Engraved by H. 

Adlard 984 

Church of the Hospital of Charity at Seville. Showing 
the pictures of ** San Juan de Dios^ and " Moses striking the 
Rock^ by Murillo^ and the grand altar-pieu carved by Pedro 
Roldan, From a picture by Don Josi Roldan . • • .1016 
Charity. Painted on tiles in the front of the Church of the Hospital 
of Charity at Seville^ and supposed to have been designed by 
Murillo. From a sketch by Don Josi Roldcm . • . • 1035 
Capuchin Convent, beyond the walls of Seville. From a drawing 

by Richard Ford^ Esq. 1038 

Nuestra SeSIora ds la Servilleta— Our Lady of the 
Napkin. From the engraving by Bfas Amettlerj executed from 
the picture by Murillo ; now in the Museum of Seville . . 1045 
Angel de la Guarda— Guardian Angel and Child. From 
a copy^ executed in 1809, by Don Salvador Gutierrez^ cmd now 
at Keiry of the picture by Murillo in the Cathedral of Seville* 

Engraved on steel by R. C. Bell 1048 

House of Murillo at Seville ; garden front .... 1066 
Las Gallegas— a Woman and Girl at a Window. From the 
engraving by Ballester of the picture formerly in the collection 
of the Duke of Almodovar^ at Madrid^ and now in that. of Lard 

Heytesbury^ at Heytesbury House^ Wilts 1092 

Iron Cro^S at Aranda de Duero 1122 

Iron Cross AND Vane a/ TV/Ai;? 1254 

REIGN OF PHILIP IV. 1621-1665— (coaKnu«0. 


Famtin^ flourifihes at Madrid, 

declines at Toledo 
Amateurs^- Don Lazaro Diaz 

Hifi notes on art , 
Don Kaiaol Smiguineto 
Antonio Lane bares 
Luli Fernandez 
Baitf^lom^ Boman 
Ju^i de la Corte 
Gabriel de la Corte 
Corto of Anteqaera 
Ft, Juan Rizi 


Ynso . 



Goes to Italy 

Made a Bishop 
Francisoo Rtzi 

Hi^ yonlhfnl faoilltiy of hand 



. 825-6 

. S26 
. S26 
. S27 
* 827 
. S2S 

- S29 
. $29 

- Sp 
^ 830 
. 830 
. Sji 
. 831 
^ S32 
. S32 


Works at Toledo. 

Made painter to the Eing * 

Corrupt arcbitecttmil taste 

Legend of the Santa Forma, of 
the Escorjal 

Riii designs an altftr for it 


Style .... 
Jnan Valdotmira da Leon 
Pedro de Obregon , 

His &ther . 
Diego de Obregon . 
Mareos de Obregon 
Antonio Pereda 


Wife; her airs, and her sham 
dneliaf painted by her hus- 
band . . . . p 


Character of Pereda . 

Existing works . . . . 
Francisco CoUantes 








FrandBOO Fenumdes * . 845 

Pictures 846 

Etchings S^S 

Pedro Nofies 846 

Juan de Pareja .... 847 
Secret studies .... 848 
Discovered by Philip IV. to be 

a painter 848 

Is set free 849 

Attachment to Yelazques . . 849 

Portraits 849 

Works 850 

Juan Bautista del Mazo Martines . 851 
First marriage • • • . 852 
Second marriage, death, and por- 
trait 853 

Santiago Moran .... 853 
Pedro Diaz Morante . 854 

Francisco Camilo .... 855 
Francisco Ignacio .... 856 
Juan de Licalde .... 856 
Antonio Fernandez Arias . . 856 
Francisco Aguirre .... 858 
Juan de Arellano .... 859 
Takes to flower-painting . . 860 

Success 860 

Industry 861 

Simon de Leon Leal . . 861 

Pedro de Yalpuesta . . . 862 
Juan de Montero de Bozas . . 863 
Eugenic de las Cuevas . . . 863 
Josef Leonardo .... 864 
Sebastian de Herrera Bamuevo . 865 

Antonio Puga 867 

Francisco Burgos y Mantilla . . 867 
Tomas de Agmar .... 867 
Benito Manuel de AgUero . . 868 

AlonsoMesa 868 

Juan Simon Navarro . 868 

Pablo de Yillafa&e .... 869 

Engravers — Pedro de YiUafranca 

Malagon 869 

His paintfngs .... 872 

Francisco Navarro . . 872 

Toledo : Alexandre Loarte . . 873 

Juan de Toledo • . .873 

Yalladolid: MatiasBlasco . .874 

Diego Yalentin Diaz .874 

Endows an hospital . . 874 

Epitaph by himself . .875 

Felipe Gil de Mena • .876 

Cristobal Garcia Salmeron . 877 

Andres de Yargas .... 877 

Burgos : Di^^ de Leyva . 878 

Diego de Polo el menor . . 879 

Diego de Polo el mayor . . 880 

Juan de Espinosa .... 880 

Sculptors-^. M. Theotocopuli . 880 

Pedro de la Torre . 88x 

Domingo de Rioja . . .881 

Luis de Llamosa . .881 

Luis Fernandez de la Y^;a . 881 

Axagon and Gatalonia : Francisco 

Ximenes 882 

Antonio Bisquert . . . . 883 
Juan de Galvan .... 883 
Miguel de Espinosa . . 884 

Pietro Micier 885 

Pablo Micier 885 

Urzanqui 885 

Engravers — Josef and Juan Yalles 885 
Fray Ramon Berenguer . . 886 

Francisco Gassen .... 886 
Pedro Cuquet .886 

Angelica 886 

Sculptors— Francisco de Santa Cruz 886 

Agustino Pujol . . . .887 

Yalencia : Josef de Bibera . . 887 

In Italy 889 

Poverty 889 




Industry 8S9 

Bibera's style 901 

CaUed <« Lo Spagnoletto " . .889 

His fondness for horrors . . 901 

TravelB 890 

Works of a more pleasing char- 

Goes to Naples . . . .890 

acter 903 

Marries a rich wife • » .891 

"Jacob's Dream*' . . . .903 

Introdactioa to the Tioe-regal 

His portraits, sketches, and etch- 

court 891 

ings ... . 904-S 

Appointed oonrt-painter • . 892 

Est^an March . • .905 

Faction of painters, headed by 

Strange method of study . . 906 

Bibeia 892 

Belisario Corenzio . . . .892 

Coarse subjects .... 907 

GianbattistaCaiacciolo, . . 893 

Beligious pictures . . .907 

Contest for the chapel of St. 

Eccentric and disorderly habits 908 

Jannarins . . .893 

Adventure of the fish fried in 

D'Aipino 894 

linseed-oil . . . .909 

GHoido 894 

Miguel March . . . 

. 910 

Gessi and his assistants . 894 

Fray Agustin Leonardo . 

. 911 

Domenichino 895 

Jacinto Gerdnimo de Espinosa 


Lanlranco 896 

Miguel Gerdnimo de Espinosa 


Neapolitan stoiy of the dose of 

Garcia Ferrer. 


Ribera'slife . . . .896 



Spanish account .... 897 

Vicente Guirri 


Bibera's philosopher's stone . . 898 

Pablo Pontons 


Bibera's person, portrait, wife, 

TomasdeYepes • 

. 91S 

children 899 

Andres and Urban Marzo 

. 916 

His house and scholars . . 900 

Luis Puig, goldsmith 

. 916 

His popularity in Italy and in Spain 900 




. 1621-1625— {«met»ti«0. 

Diego Vidal de Liendo . . .917 

Churches and convents . . 923 

Francisco de Zurbaxan . . . 918 

Appointed paints to the Eiog . 924 

Works: at Seville . .919 

Pictures for the Carthusians of 

Picture of St. Thomas Aquinas . 920 

Xeres 924 

Guadalupe 921 

Works at Buenretiro . . . 924 

Seville: Chartreuse . . .921 

His death 925 

St Bruno, St. Hugo, and Virgin 922 

Wife and children . . .925 




Works at SeviUe, ChA% and 

Visit to Madrid . . . .947 

Madrid 926 

Restored to his stall . .948 

At Paris and London 

. . 927 

Charities » » . . . 948 

Style and merits. 

. 928 

Hatred of Jews . . .949 

His monks . 

• 928 

He finds a Jew in his house . 949 

Women and animals 

. . 928-9 

Illness 950 

Fiancisoo Lopez Caro 

. 929 

Deathbed scenes and sayings • 951 

Francisco Caro 

. . . 939 

Death and funeral . . 951-2 

Cristobal Vela 

. 930 

Antonio Vela . 

. . 930 

Merits as a painter • . .953 

Francisco Yarela . 

. 930 

Works at Madrid and Getef e . 954 

Juan Uceda Castroverde 

• 931 

Granada 955 

AlonsoCano . 

. 931 

Malaga, Valencia^ and Seville . 956 

Retablos at SeviUe 

. - . 932 

Portraits 957 

Betablo at Lebri ja 

• .933 

Engraved works . . .958 

View of Lebrija . 

. . 934 

Sculpture 959 

Carvings . 

• • 934 

Architecture .... 960 

Seville: Chartrense 

' . . 935 

Sebastian Martinez . . .961 

Church of Monte Sion . . 935 

Juan Leandro de la Fuente . . 961 

Duel, and flight to Madrid . . 936 

Antonio del Castillo • • .962 

Church pictures at Madrid . 936 

Visit to SeviUe . . . .962 

Church of Santiago . . . 936 

His jealous admiration of Mu- 

Church of §an Gines . . . 936 

rine's works • . . .963 

Church of S*^ Maria . . .937 

Character and accomplishments 964 

Murder of his wife • • .938 

Works 964 

Cano suspected of the crime . 93S 

Joseph de Sarabia .... 966 

Flight and return • . .938 

Pablo Legote 967 

Apprehension and torture . • 939 

Alonso de Lleia Zambrano . . 967 

Occupations at Madrid and To- 

Mateo NuSiez de Sepulveda . . 968 

ledo .... 940-1 

Pedro de Moya . . .968 

Removal to Granada . . .941 

Visit to England and Vandyck . 970 

Appointed to a canoniy . . 942 

Return to Spain . • . .971 

Works at Granada for the Cathe- 

Works : *' Adoration of the Shep- 

dral, churches, and conyents 942-3 

herds" 971 

Visit to Malaga . . . .944 

Leda and Swan, disguised . . 972 

Story of the Bishop . . . 944 

Juan de Toledo . . . .973 

Return to Granada . . .945 

Miguel Manrique . . . .974 

with the auditor . . .946 

Santisimo Saozamento . . 975 

Deprived of his canonry . . 947 

Manuel de Molina . . . .977 




Pedro Antonio 

. 977 

Sebastian deLlanoeyValddB . 979 

Sebastian Ck>me8 . 


LosPolanoos .... 980 

Miguel and Oeronimo Garcia 

. 978 

Juan Caro de Tavira . . 980 

Fray Oeronimo Helgarejo • 


Francisco de Beyna ... 981 

BernaM Ximenas de Slescas 



Bartolom^ Est^yan Mnrillo . 


Legend of K^ Seft»- de la Nieve 1005 



The senator's dream . 1006 

Schools of art at Seville . 


Interview with the Pope . . 1006 

Early works of Murillo . 


Murillo's third style. . . X007 

Works for the Feria . 


Foundation of the Academy of 

ArfcistsoftheFeria . 


Seville; first meeting . . 1008 

Hoya's inflaence on Murillo 


OiQce-bearers ; their duties . 1009 

Murillo at Madrid . 


Rules 1009 

Return to Seville 


Events of the first year . . loio 

The Franoiscans 


Progress and success . .1011 

Murillo's works in the " Claustrc 

Results 1012 

chioo," of the Franciscan con- 

Pictures for the Cathedral . 1013 

vent .... 

. 994 

Hospital de la Caridad . . Z014 

San Francisco . • . , 


The philanthropist Mafiara . Z014 

San Diego. 


Building of the Hospital . .1018 

S*^ Clara .... 

. 995 

Murillo's works . • . 1019 

The rapt cook . 


Eight pictures of Charity . 1019 

San Oil . 


Prices 1019 

The two friars . 

. 996 

"Moses striking the Rock" . 1020 

Murillo's success 

. 997 

"Miracle of Loaves and Fishes" 1023 

Marriage .... 


"Charity of San Juan de 

Mode of life 

. 998 

Dios" 1024 

His second style 


"St Elizabeth of Hungary 

Hctures for the Cathedral 


tending the Sick " . . 1025 

San Leandro . 


Smaller pictures . . . 1028 

San Isidore 


" Abzaham receiving the 

Nativity of the Virgin . 


Angels" .... 1028 

San Antonio de Padua . 


"Return of the Prodigal Son" 1029 

Pictures for church of S^ 

"Healing of the Paralytic" . 1029 

Maria la Blanca . 


" Release of St. Peter " . . 1030 



Remarks on the pictures of 

Pictures on tHes 
Convent "de los Capachinos" 

at Seville 
Murillo's pictures 
Great altar-pieoe 
Capnchin pictures now in the 

Mnsemn at Seville . 
«S*^BufinaandJiista" . 
"Nativity" . 
*'S^ Leander and Bonaven- 

tnre" .... 
"St. Francis" . 
"St. Anthony" 
"St. Felix" . 
•• St Thomas of Villanneva 
" Conception " . 
"Virgin of the Napkin" . 
" Angel de la Guarda " 
Hnrillo invited to Court . 
Pictures at "Los Yenerables 

at Seville 
Portrait of D. Jnstino Neve 
Pictures at the Augustine con- 
vent .... 
Last work of Murillo 
Death .... 
Funeral .... 
Tomb .... 
Wife, children, and sister 
Gaspar Murillo . 
Francisca Murillo 
Fortxme and will and inventory 

of effects 
Murillo*s house . 
Portraits of Murillo . 
Character .... 
Fame .... 





105 1 




Favourite subject ; The Imma- 
culate Conception . . . 1074 
Orthodox mode of painting it • 1075 
Murillo's treatment of the Con- 
ception 1077 

Murillo's "Virgin and Child" . 1080 
The Virgin learning to read . 1081 
Christ and St. John as chil- 
dren 1083 

Virgin and St. Bernard . 1084 

Virgin and St. Ildefonso . . 1085 
Legend of the Chasuble . . 1086 
Bebekah at the Well . . 1087 
Pictures of low life . . . xo88 

Portraits 1089 

Landscapes .... 1093 

Drawings 1095 

Etching 1096 

Murillo compared with Velaz- 

qnea 1097 

Opinion of Talkie . 1098 

Murillo at Seville . . 1099 

Sebastian Gomez . .1101 

Works . . . . . nor 

JuandeZamora .... 1102 

Henrique de las Marinas . 1102 

Pedro de Medina Valbuena . . 1 103 

Andres de Medina . 1 103 

Ignado de Iriarte . . 1104 

Marriages. .... 1104 

Quarrel with Murillo . iios 

Works 1 106 

Cristobal Ferrado . .1107 
Francisco de Herrera^ el Mozo . 1 109 
Flight to Bome . . . 1x09 
Betum to Seville . . . 1109 
Bemoval to Madrid . . mo 
Chosen painter to the King .1112 
Works of architecture . .1113 
Character 1113 






. III4 

Bngravers— Fray Tomas de los | 

Style and merits 

. ins 

Arcos . 

. III9 

Feniando Marqnes Joya 

. 1115 

Fray Ignacio de Cardenas 

. XII9 

. 1116 

Sculptors-i-Gaspar de Ribas 

. III9 

BemaM de AyaU 

. 1116 

Frandsoo de Ribas . 

. III9 

Pedro Bamirea 

. 1117 

Gonzalo de Ribas 

. II20 

Felipe Ramires 

. 1117 

Alfonso Martines 

. II20 

Cristobal Ramires 

. 1117 

Josef deArce . 

. II2I 

Gerdnimo Ramirez 

. 1118 

Giuseppe Micael 

. II22 

Pedro de Camprobin . 

. 1118 

Juan Bautista Franconio, 


Bngrayers— Juan Mendez 

. 1118 

smith . 

. II22 

. 1119 '^ 

REION OF CHARLES 11. 1665-1700. 

Death of Philip IV. . . 

. 1 123 

Don Francisco de Artiga 

. II4I 

Queen Mariana . 

. 1124 

Don Pedro Nufies de Yillayl- | 

Fernando Yalenznela . 

. 1125 

cendo • 

. II4I 

Don Juan of Austria . 

. 1126 

Don Salvador Rozas. 

. 1142 

Charles XL . 

. 1129 

Don Bsteran de Espadafis 

i . II42 

Arohitectnral and other wor 

ks . 1132 

Don Nicolas de YiUaois 

. 1142 

Financial distresses . 

. I'tSZ 

Lady artists— Duchess of Bejar . 1142 


. . 1134 

Countess of Yillaumbrosa 

. 1X42 

Queen Maria Louisa . 

• "35 

Do&a Mariana CuevaBenarides 1142 

Qaeen Mariana . 

. 1138 

Splendour of the nobility and the 

Other patrons of art 

. . 1138 

Church . . . ■ 

. II43 

Admiral of Castile 

. 1138 

Foreign artists . 

. II44 

Marquess of Heliche . 

. . "39 

Dionisio Mantuano . 

. II4S 

Count of Monterey 

• "39 

Giuseppe Romani . 

. II46 

Amateurs— Don Francisco 


Francisco Leonardoni 

. I146 

. 1140 

Luca Giordano 

. 1 147 

Don Juan de Yaldes . 

. 1140 

YisittoRome . 

. II48 

Count of Las Torres . 

. 1140 

. I149 

Bishop MaaoareAas 

. . 1141 

Travels . 

. X149 

Fzay Cristobal del Yiso 

. 1141 

Return to Naples . 

. 1 150 

Don Fcandsoo Vera Cabe 


Marriage • 

. 1x50 


. . 1141 

Skill in forging pictures 

. 1x50 




Various works .... 1150 
Picture in hononr of the peace 

and the Viceroy de Los Telex 1151 
Visit to Florence • . .1152 
Incident with the Viceroy He- 

licheandtheJesmtsatNaples 11 52 
Afiair with the Duke of Diano z 154 
Continued success . • Z156 

Count of SantisteYsn . .1156 
Invitationtothe court of Madrid 11 56 
Jonmej and reception . .1156 
Successful imitation of Bassano 11 58 
Works for Buenretiro, and the 

Escorial; staircase . 1 158-9 
Frescoes in the church of the 

Escorial .... 1159 
Frescoes at Buenretiro . 1162 

Toledo 1162 

Madrid 1162 

Industry 1163 

Habits of life .... 1164 
Parsimony . .1164 

Success 1164 

Claudio CoeIlo*s enyy , . 1164 
Skill and celerity of hand . 1165 
Saying of Charles IL . .1166 
Death of Charles II. . .1167 
Giordano returns to Italy . Z167 

Death 1167 

Person and character . .1168 

Wealth 1168 

Popularity .... 1169 
Faults of his style • . .1 169 

Merits 1170 

His pictures in Spain • ; 1170 
Francisquito, scholar of Giordano X171 
JuanVankesel • . • . 1172 
Charles II. perpetrates a pun • 1 173 
John Closterman . . . . 1174 
Nicolas Busi, sculptor . . .1175 


Painters of Castfle . . .1176 
Juan Carre&o de Miranda . . 1176 
Civic posts .... 1177 
Obtains good emptoymeni at 

the Alcazar .... 1177 
Appointed painter to the King 1 178 
Various works . . . .1178 
Works at Toledo .1180 

Portraits 1181 

Death and character . 1183 

Anecdotes 1183 

Style 1185 

Di^^ Gonzales de la V^a . . 1 186 
Alonso del Arco .... 1187 
Antonio de Castrejon . . . 1189 
Francisco Perez Sierra . . . 1189 

Works 1190 

Flower-pieces . . . .1191 
Clandio Coello .... 1192 
Youthful industry . . . 1192 
Friendship of Carrefto . .1193 
Queen Maria Louisa's entry to 

Madrid 1194 

Visit to Zaragosa . . 1195 

Made painter to the King . 1195 
Picture of the "Adoration of 
the Santa Forma" at the 
Escorial. . . . . X196 
Other works .... 1198 

Success 1199 

Eclipsed by Giordano . . xi99 
Death . • • • . 1200 
Style and merits as a painter . 1200 
Sketches and engravings • .1201 
Juan Ximenez Donoso . . . 1202 

His works 1202 

Painting Z202 

Architecture .... 1203 

Writings 1204 

Anecdotes of him . . . 1204 




FranciBOO de Soils . .1205 

Matias de Torres .... 1207 
Solis*8 pleasantry .... 1208 
Josef de Ledesma . . 1209 

Juan Antonio Escalante . . 1209 
Joan Fernandez de Laredo . .1211 
Pedro Ruiz Gonzalez . . . 1212 
Juan Martin Cabezalero .1213 

Juan Giachineti Gonzales . . 1213 
Lorenzo de Soto .... 1214 
Baztolom^ Feres .... 1215 
Mateo de Gerezo .... 1216 

His style . « . . . 1219 
Vicente BenaTides . 1220 

Isiddro de Burgos . . . 1220 

Francisco PsJacios . . .1221 
Gabriel de la Corte . . . 1221 
Francisco Ignacio Buls de la 
Iglesia ..... I23I 

Disease of the kidneys cured by 
a miracle .... 1224 
Isidoro Arredondo . 1225 

Sebastian Mulioz .... 1226 

Works at Madrid . . 1227 

Pictures of St. Eloy» St Sebas- 
tian, and Queen Mazia Louisa 
dead .... 1227-8 

Works at the Alcazar, and 
church of Atooha . . . 1228 

Death 1229 

Juan Cano de Arevalo . . . 1229 
Manuel de Castro . . . 1232 
Theodore Ardemans . . 1232 

Juan Bautista Medina, or Sir 

John Medina of Scotland . 1234 

Death 1237 

WiU 1237 

Style 1239 

His son and grandson . . 1239 
Engravers — Gregorio Fosman . 1240 
Maioos de Orozco . . . 1241 
Sculptors — Eugenic Gutierrez 

de Torices .... 1242 
Josef de Churriguera . . 1243 
Catalonia and Aragon: Fray 

Joaquin Juncosa . . . 1244 
Dr. Joseph Juncosa . . 1246 
Bastard of Palma. . . 1247 
Fray Salvador Ilia . . 1248 
Francisco Vera Cabeza de Yaca . 1248 
Francisco de Artiga . . . 1249 
Juan de Benedo, engraver . . 1250 
Gertfnimo Secano . . . 1250 
Fray Antonio Martinez . . 1250 
Bartolom^ Vicente . . 1250 
Francisco Piano .... 1251 
Juan de Bebenga, sculptor . .1251 
Miguel Serra of Marseilles . . 1252 
His noble conduct during the 
plague 1253 



EEIGN OF PHILIP IV, I621-1665 — (coiUinued). 

fEW of the painters of Cas- 
tile, contemporary with 
Velazquez, were men of 
sufficient mark to be 
considered as rivals of 
that great artist. Of 
those upon whose story 
we are now entering, 
only one or two would 
have shone as stars of much lustre, even if he had 
not risen, like a sun on their hemisphere, to eclipse 
them. But it must be remembered that Vincencio 
Carducho, Mayno, Eugenie Cases, Pedro de las 
Cuevas, and other artists who rose to fame under 
Philip III,, lived far into the present reign, and 
rendered the age which commenced at the arrival 
of Velazquez, in 1623, the most splendid epoch in 
the history of painting at Madrid- Nearly all the 

VOL. ni, A 

CH. X. 


at Madrid, 



CH. X. 

and de- 
clines at 


His notes 
on art. 

pictorial genius of Castile was concentrated in the 
capital. The last fine pencil of ancient Toledo was 
buried with Luis Tristan; and Yalladolid, Burgos, 
and Cuen9a, although not altogether barren of 
painters, were not in a condition to contest the palm 
with the court-town, of which the forces were con- 
tinually recruited from the flower of the provinces. 

Don Lazaro Diaz del Yalle, a man of letters and 
chronicler of the kingdoms of Castile and Leon,^ 
likewise deserves notice as a lover of art, and a 
friend of artists. Cean Bermudez saw a clever pen 
and ink sketch of his, representing the King Don 
Pelayo, and a variety of heraldic drawings. But his 
most important contribution to the province of art 
was a copious collection of manuscript notes on 
the lives and works of contemporary painters and 
sculptors,* of which both Palomino, and Cean Ber- 
mudez after him, made large use. In 1658 he 
composed an eulogy, and drew up a catalogue of 
the painters who had been knights of the various 
military orders, which he appropriately dedicated to 
his friend Velazquez, the last and greatest whose 
breast had received the red cross. He was likewise 

1 I find no mention of him, either in the first or second edition of 
Nicolas Antonio. 

' A copy of these was in the possession of Don Joseph Rnenes, of the 
Academy of History, who allowed Cean Bermudez to have it transcribed 
for his own nse. 



a tolerable poet, and has left several sonnets in 
praise of his artist-friends. Don Rafael Sanguineto, 
knight of Santiago, and dean of the Begidors of 
Madrid, was also an amateur painter and a patron 
of art, who gave Alonso Cano lodging in his house, 
when that master returned from Valencia. 

Antonio Lanchares was bom at Madrid as early 
as 1586, and entered the school of Patricio Caxes, 
where he acquired a style so like that of the master's 
son, Eugenio, that their works could hardly be dis- 
tinguished from each other. He was employed to 
paint various pictures for the Jesuits' convent at 
Madrid, and for the Carthusians of Paular, who 
paid him 7,(XX) reals for some frescoes in their 
sagrario ; but most of these had perished before the 
close of the last century. In the Chapter-room at 
El Paular, two of his works, " Our Lord's Ascen- 
sion," and the " Descent of the Holy Ghost," were 
seen by Cean Bermudez, who considered them of 
sufficient merit to entitle him to rank amongst the 
best painters of Spain. One of them bore the 
signature, Antonius Lanchares, Hispanus in Car- 
tuxia Pavlaris, fecit anno 1620. In 1625 he was 
commissioned by Fray Gaspar Prieto, General of the 
Order of Mercy, to paint for the convent of that 
order at Madrid some pictures on the life of the holy 
Catalan, Pedro Nolasco, a kinsman of St. Julian 
of Cuenja, and a zealous redeemer of Christian 


Don Baf ael 






CH. X. 

Lais Fer- 

captives in the thirteenth century, and the first 
monk who assumed the white robe of Mercy. ^ He 
likewise executed a large composition for the choir, 
representing Our Lady and a chorus of angels 
coming to the aid of a company of friars, whose 
anthems failed for lack of voices; a worthy and 
graceful thought, and an adornment well suited to 
the place. These works were executed in a pleas- 
ing and natural style; and it is to be hoped that 
some of them survive in the National Museum. 
Lanchares died at Madrid in 1658, and was buried 
in the church of S. Felipe el Real. Cean Ber- 
mudez possessed one of his sketches, a bishop 
seated, drawn in a masterly manner. His name is 
unknown in the Royal Gallery. 

Luis Fernandez, who must not be confounded 
with the Sevillian artist of the same name in the 
reign of Philip H.,* was bom at Madrid in 1596, 
and became one of the best scholars of Eugenio 
Caxes. For the cloister of the Convent of Mercy, 
in the capital, he painted a variety of pictures on 
passages from the life of St. Raymond, a holy hero 
of the white robe and red cross.' He also furnished 
the paintings in fresco, distemper, and oil for the 
church of Santa Cruz, which was burnt down in 

^ Interian de Ayala, Fietor Chrittianus erudUtts, p. 230-1 ; Villegas, 
Flos Sanctorum^ p. 83. 
8 Supra, chap. vi. p. 375. ■ Ibid. p. 374. 



the last century. In execution and colouring his 
works much resembled those of his master. He 
died at Madrid in 1654. 

Bartolom^ Roman was bom at Madrid in 1596. 
He studied painting first in the school of Vincencio 
Carducho, and afterwards in that of Velazquez. Few 
Castilian painters, says Cean Bermudez, equalled 
him in power of drawing, and in richness and har- 
mony of colouring. But his success was by no 
means commensurate with his merits, and his works 
were not often to be met with. One of his most 
important pictures seems to have been a large 
composition in the sacristy of the church of the 
Incarnation, representing the marriage-feast, in the 
parable, whence a guest was ejected for appearing 
without a wedding garment.^ At Alcald de Henares 
the convent of San Diego had some pictures by 
him, amongst which was a St. Anthony that had 
been begun by Alonso Cano. 

Juan de la Corte, a painter bom at Madrid 
in 1597, finished his artistic studies in the school 
of Velazquez. For the palace of Buenretiro he 
executed pictures of the *' Judgment of Paris," and 
the "Rape of Helen," the "Buming of Troy," and 
the "Relief in 1635 of Valenza on the Po," a town 
important for its bridge. Of these compositions 

CH. X. 


Juan de la 

^ Matt. xxii. 1-14. 



CH. X. 

Gabriel de 





Fr. JoAQ 

the last was the largest and the best ; and the 
head of Don Carlos Colonna, leader of the relieving 
army, was painted by Velazquez. Corte painted 
several other works for the same palace, repre- 
senting battle pieces, architectural views, and land- 
scapes, in which his strength chiefly lay. He died 
in the same year as his master, 1660, leaving a son 
Gabriel, who painted with credit in the next reign. 
Another Corte, a native of Antequera, likewise dis- 
tinguished himself in the days of Philip IV. as a 
painter of perspectives. 

Juan Rizi was the son of Antonio Rizi, a Bolognese 
painter, who accompanied Zuccaro to Spain.^ He 
was bom at Madrid, of a Spanish mother, in 1595, 
and his father being dead before the son began 
to handle a pencil, he received his instructions in 
painting in the school of Mayno. His talents soon 
brought him distinction, and employment in the 
Convent of Mercy, for which he painted six large 
pictures of the Passion of Our Lord, and martyr- 
doms of worthies of the red cross. Being of a 
devout disposition, he passed into Catalonia, and 
took the cowl of St. Benedict in 1626, at the 
monastery of Monserrate. The year after, he went 
to study philosophy at the university of Hirache, 
and theology at Salamanca. At the college of San 

^ Supra, ohap. It. p. 257. 


Vicente, where he entered himself, the snm of 100 
ducats was required of each student, or of the 
convent to which he belonged, to defray the annual 
expense of his education. The purse of the painter- 
friar not being able to meet this demand, the abbot 
at first refused to admit him ; and finally only con- 
sented to allow him two days to find the money, 
fiizi, therefore, resumed his pencil, and within the 
stipulated time produced a " Crucifixion," which re- 
lieved him of all difficulties ; and the same resource 
enabled him to finish his course of study without 
costing the house at Monserrate a single maravedi. 

Returning to that romantic retreat, he there filled 
several conventual offices with gteat credit ; and he 
was afterwards advanced to the abbacy of Medina 
del Campo. Whilst holding that dignity, he went 
in 1653 to Yuso, to paint a series of about thirty 
pictures for the high altar of the convent of San 
Millan.^ The fame of his talents and piety rose so 
high, that all the houses of his order were eager to 
possess him as an inmate. In that of his brethren 
at Burgos he left some of his best works, the ** Bap- 
tism of Our Lord," the ''Decollation of St. John 
the Baptist," and many others. Amongst them was 
a picture of Scholastica, the sainted sister of St. 
Benedict, reading. In this holy maid he pour- 

^ Supra, obap. iL p. 81. 

CH. X 






CH. Z. 




Made a 

trayed a young girl, whose dower as a nun lie paid 
with the price of his labours.^ The Chapter like* 
wise employed him to paint St Francis of Assisi, 
St. Jnlian of Caen9a, and other saintly heroes, for 
the CathedraL 

He afterwards returned to Madrid, and passed 
some time in the convent of St Martin, for which 
he painted the pictures that adorned the chief 
cloister. In these, each head was a portrait of some 
member or servant of the house ; and he delineated 
his own features in those of a black-bearded monk, 
in the composition representing the death of St 
Benedict. At the capital he acquired the esteem 
of many persons of distinction, and he gave instruc- 
tions in his art to the Duchess of Bejar, a great 
lady eminent for her accomplishments; to whom 
he also dedicated a work on painting, which he 
wrote, but does not seem to have given to the 

Towards the close of his life he went to Italy, his 
fatherland ; and after some stay at Rome, took up 
his abode in the famous Benedictine convent of 
Monte Cassino. His virtues and his pencil delighted 
his Italian brethren, and . their feme reached even to 
the Quirinal ; for the Pope expressed a desire to see 
him, and conferred on him a bishopric in Italy. He 

* Bosarte, Vioffe, p. 333. 



did not live, however, to take possession of his new 
crozier, for, soon after his appointment, he died at 
Monte Cassino, in 1675, aged 80 years. The Queen 
of Spain's gallery contains only a single work of 
this good churchman, a composition representing 
St. Prancis receiving the stigmata, or impressions 
in his hands, feet, and side, of the five wounds 
of Our Blessed Lord.^ His style was simple and 
natural, and his colouring pleasing ; but his works 
were often deficient in finish.* 

Prancisco Bizi, younger brother of Juan, was bom 
at Madrid in 1608, and was the scholar of Yincencio 
Carducho. Seldom was a youth, says Cean Bermu- 
dez, more plentifully endowed with dispositions and 
talents for painting. No difficulty discouraged him, 
and a certain success always attended his under- 
takings. But a great natural facility of hand is 
sometimes as hurtful to the young artist, as strong 
powers of memory to the tjrro in the exact sciences, 
and as apt to weaken his grasp of thought by saving 
him the trouble of thinking. There was no object, 
figure, or attitude that Eizi could not draw, as it 
were, off-hand ; and the effect of this habit of off- 
hand drawing was that he never drew anything with 
perfect accuracy. He lived in an age and at a Court 

CH. X. 


His youth- 
ful facility 
of hand. 

^ Catdlogo [1843], ^o* 5^ [edition 1889, No. lozS]. 
' Boearte, Viage, p. 331. 



CH. Z. 



painter to 
the King. 

tnral taste. 

where the arts of improyisation were highly valued 
and applauded : he secured a considerable share of 
contemporary fame at the least possible cost; and 
he thought as little of posterity as posterity has 
thought of him. 

Nothing has been recorded of the earlier part of 
his career, which seems to have consisted of labours 
for the churches and conyents of the capital Having 
painted for the sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo a 
picture of the dedication of that venerable pile, it 
was so highly approved of by the Chapter, that in 
1653 he was rewarded by being appointed to the 
office of its painter. Three years later, on the 7th 
of June 1656, he was chosen by Philip. IV. one of 
his painters in ordinary. As such, he painted the 
scenery and decorations of the theatre of Buenretiro, 
but in a style so extravagant and fanciful, and so 
generally imitated, that Cean Bermudez chaises him 
with being an arch-corrupter of Spanish architec- 
ture. He was employed in ecclesiastical as well as 
theatrical decorations, for he designed a tasteless 
high altar for the church of San Gines, since replaced 
by something better.^ On the accession of Charles 
n. he was continued in his office; and having 
painted the fable of Pandora in a hall of Alcazar — 
known as the hall of mirrors — ^to the admiration of 

^ Lo9 ArquUectoa, torn. It. p. 77. 


the Court, he received, as a reward, the key of ch. x . 
deputy- Aposentador. 

In 1665, he and Juan de Carrefio were employed i^^iJdo** 
to paint the octagon chapel of Toledo Cathedral, 
a work which they finished in 1670, at the price 
of 6,500 ducats. Whilst it was in progress, they 
likewise undertook the painting of the Camarin, or 
vestry of Our Lady of the Sagrario, for which they 
were paid 4,500 ducats in 1667. In 1666, Kizi 
executed a portrait of Cardinal Archbishop Balthazar 
de Moscoso, for the winter Chapter-room*; and in 
1 671, on occasion of the beatification of St Ferdinand, 
a large composition, for the sacristy, representing 
that kingly soldier of the cross and the Archbishop 
Rodrigo examining the plans of the Cathedral, which 
owed its foundation to their munificence.^ He was 
afterwards again employed with other artists in 
painting the monument for the Holy Week. 

In 1684, Charles IL was moved with peculiar Legend of 

^' ^ the Santa 

devotion towards a miraculous sacramental wafer. Forma, of 

' the 

known as the Santa Forma, and revered as a relic BworiaL 
at the Escorial. Its legend informs us that in the 
religious wars in Holland it was dashed from the 
high-altar of the Cathedral of Gorcum, and trodden 
under foot by some fierce Zuinglian heretics. From 
three rents, produced by this rough treatment, in 

^ Supra, chap. it. p. 83. 



Bizi de- 
signs an 
altar for it. 

CH. X. the fragile cake, there flowed portentous drops of 
bloody whereby one, at least, of the miscreants was 
immediately converted ; and reverently gathering up 
the wounded Host, he and the Dean of Gorcum 
carried it off to a convent at Mechlin, whence, for 
better security, it was afterwards removed to Vienna 
and Prague. Sent in 1592 as a present to Philip 
II., it has ever since been shown on days of high 
festival, stained with divine gore, "to the comfort 
of Catholic believers, and to the confusion of 
their adversaries." ^ Charles II. having resolved to 
dedicate a new altar in the sacristy to this famous 
Host, Rizi was appointed to make a design, which, 
although executed under his inspection, in the 
richest marbles, proved, says Cean Bermudez, the 
single architectural blemish of the monastery. He 
also was ordered to paint a picture to serve as an 
altar-piece, and as a screen at ordinary times, for the 
Santa Forma ; but he had only made the first sketch 
when he died at the Escorial in 1685. The work 
was afterwards finished, with infinite advantage to 
the altar, by his able scholar, Claudio Coello. 
Works. Francisco Rizi, being one of the most rapid of 

painters, left behind him a countless multitude of 
works. Many of these still exist in the churches of 
Madrid; as, for example, in that of San Isidro el 

^ Ximenes, Deseripdon del Eseorial, p. 291. 


Real the pictures of St. Francis Borja, and St. Luis ch. x. 
Gonzaga, a scion of the ducal house of Mantua, 
and one of the highborn enthusiasts who forsook 
all things to follow Ignatius Loyola; and in that 
of San Andres, the two pictures of San Isidro the 
husbandman, patron of Madrid, showing how that 
saintly rustic saved his son from drowning in a 
deep well, by praying that the waters should rise 
and bear him to the brim, and how he appeared on 
the side of the Christian host at Navas de Tolosa, 
and so won that great battle for the King Don 
Alonso.^ The Royal Gallery at Madrid possesses 
but one of his works, a full-length portrait of an 
unknown knight of Calatrava.* In the National 
Museum, to which despoiled convents must have 
famished whole acres of his canvas, there are two 
of his pictures of Our Lady of the Conception, 
figures of some grace, with brilliant blue drapery, 
but with a complexion that recalls rather the rouge 
of the terrene toilette than the " celestial rosy red," 
the proper hue of angelic beings. He left a great style. 
number of sketches, displaying much talent ; but, 
like his larger works, hasty and incorrect. He re- 
garded his pencil, not as a weapon whereby he was 
to win immortaUty, but as a manual tool that was 

^ Villegas, FI08 Sanetarum^ p. 844-5. 

' Catdlogo [1843], No. 5x4 [edition 1889, No. 10x7]. 



CH. X. 

de L»OD. 

Pedro de 

His father. 

to bring him in as much money as possible. Being 
naturally gifted with readiness, as well of invention 
as of hand, he therefore got through a great amount 
of labour ; and became, in Castilian painting, a kind 
of industrious Blackmore. He was assisted in many 
of his works at Madrid and Toledo by his pupil, 
Juan Valdelmira de Leon, a native of Tafalla, in 
Navarre, and an artist of greater promise, who 
rivalled Arellano in flower-painting, and died in 
his 30th year. 

Pedro de Obregon was bom at Madrid about 
1597. Cean Bermudez conjectures that he was the 
son of an artist of the same name, who executed 
the illuminations of the choir-books for evening 
service in the Cathedral of Toledo, in 1564. He 
was certainly a disciple of Vincencio Carducho, 
whose style he imitated with considerable success. 
Besides many easel pictures executed for private 
persons, he left a good altar-piece, representing St. 
Joachim and St Anne, in the church of Santa Cruz, 
and a large picture of the Blessed Trinity in the 
Convent of Mercy, at Madrid. He likewise used 
the graver with some skill ; and amongst other 
works, engraved a drawing by Alonso Cano of St. 
Dominic, the darling saint of Old Castile. Dying 
at Madrid in 1659, he left two sons, Diego and 
Marcos, whom he had instructed in art, and who 
were engravers of some reputation. The first chiefly 


employed himself on title-pages for books, and on 
devotional prints, amongst which was a St. Cathe- 
rine, designed by Cano. Marcos de Obregon, a 
name rendered as famous in Spain as that of Tom 
Jones in England, by the novel of Espinel, became 
a priest, and lived till 1720. 

Antonio Pereda, one of the ablest painters of 
Castile in this reign, was bom in 1599, at Valla- 
dolid. By the death of his father, he was left in 
his infancy to the care of his mother, Maria Salgado, 
and an uncle, who, discovering in the child a strong 
predilection for drawing, sent him to Madrid in 
1606, when the Court removed to that capital. He 
was placed in the school of Pedro de las Cuevas, 
and soon made himself conspicuous there by his 
rapid progress in art. His assiduity and skill 
attracting the attention of Don Francisco de Tejada, 
councillor of Castile,^ that gentleman conceived a 
liking for him, and took him into his house, bring- 
ing him up like his own son, and leaving him at 
liberty to pursue his studies. The Court architect, 
Crescenzi, by-and-by happened to see a specimen 
of his drawing, and admired it so highly that he 
begged the young artist of his protector, and under- 
took his further education. His new friend being 
powerful in the palace, Pereda thenceforth applied 

* Sapra, chap. Tii. p. 483. 

CH. X. 

Diego de 




CH. X. 


himself to study in the royal galleries ; and by his 
diligence in copying the works of Venetian masters 
he acquired a rich style of colouring, which no 
Gastilian painter has ever surpassed. 

When he had attained his eighteenth year, he 
exhibited a picture of the ** Mystery of the Immacu- 
late Conception," the figure of Our Lady standing 
upon clouds, and upborne by hovering cherubs. It 
immediately arrested public attention, and was so 
highly esteemed that the critics would not, for some 
time, believe that it was the work of its author. 
Crescenzi, proud of his young retainer, sent it to 
Rome to his brother the Cardinal, and it obtained 
the approbation of that churchman, and of the 
Roman artists. The fame of Pereda continued 
to increase, and, amongst other painters, he was 
appointed by Olivares to furnish pictures for the 
decoration of Buenretiro. One of his contributions 
to the gallery of the new palace was an imagiuEury 
portrait of the Gothic King Agilo ; another was 
a large composition on the relief of Genoa by the 
Admiral Marquess of Santa Cruz, which he filled 
with authentic portraits of historical personages, 
and executed in a style worthy of the best artists 
of that able band which now had Velazquez for a 
captain. He was much caressed by noble con- 
noisseurs, especially by the Admiral of Castile, who 
employed him to paint a picture for a chamber in 



Wife ; her 

his palace, set apart for the reception of works of ch. x. 
the best Spanish masters. The subject was the 
"Spoils of Death/' which Pereda treated in a 
fanciful and effective manner. 

He was married to Doiia Markt de Bustamente, 
a woman of some rank, it appears, and still greater 
pretension ; for she would associate only with people 
of high fashion,, and insisted on having a duefia in 
constant waiting in her antechamber, like a lady of 
quality. Feteda was either not rich enough to 
maintain, or not jealous enough to desire, such an 
attendant. He therefore compromised matters by 
painting on a screen an old lady sitting at her 
needle, with spectacles on her nose, and so well and 
truly executed, that visitors were wont to salute her 
as they passed, taking her for a real duefia, too 
deaf or too discreet to notice their entrance. By 
this ingenious device, his wife's dignity and his 
own repose were secured, the skill of his pencil 
displayed, and his house provided with a piece of 
furniture capable of over-awing or of sheltering the 
amorous advances of a Candide.^ His lady-wife son. 
bore him a son, named Don Joaquin, who took after 
his mother, .and became gentleman-usher of the 
royal chamber, with appointments worth 2,ocx5 
ducats. This post was obtained for the son by the 

and her 




by her 


^ See Candide, chap, i 


I 842 


CH. X 

I Chanuster 
; ofPereda. 


Marquess of La Lapilla, as a recompense for a 
picture of St. Domingo, which the father had 
painted for the family chapel of that nobleman in 
St. Thomas's college at Madrid. 

Pereda was a man of taste and refinement: he 
possessed a large collection of prints and drawings^ 
models, and pieces of sculpture, and also a good 
library of works on the fine arts. Palomino asserts, 
that notwithstanding his love for books, he could 
neither read nor write ; and that when his visitors, 
seeing his well-furnished shelves, complimented him 
on his extensive acquaintance with the Latin and 
other tongues, he would reply that he was the most 
ignorant of men, thus concealing the truth by confess- 
ing it.^ This improbable story not being confirmed 
by the manuscript of Diaz del Valle,' who was Pereda's 
intimate friend, is rejected by Cean Bermudez. 
Pereda died at Madrid in 1669, at the age of seventy. 
His aristocratic spouse survived him, says Palomino,* 
for twenty-nine years, and died in great penury. 

In the Queen of Spain's gallery there are only 
two * pictures by Pereda. Of these the best is St. 

^ Palomino, torn, iii p. 549. ' Supra, p. 826. 

* Palomino, torn, iii p. 55a 

* [One of these, CaUUogo, 1843, No. 368, has since been attributed by 
Bon Pedro de Madrazo, in deference to the opinions of Palomino and 
Diaz del Valle, to Antonio Fernandez Arias (infra, p. 856), and is cata- 
logued under his name in the CatdUogo descriptivo 6 histdrico, 1872. It 
is curiously missing from the Catdlogo of 1889.] 



Jerome in his cavern, disturbed in his reveries by 
the sound of the last trumpet,^ painted with remark- 
able care, and finished as highly as any canvas that 
ever left the easel of Ferdinand Bol ; each separate 
hair may be distinguished in the hermit's wiry white 
beard, and the skull lying beside him is as minutely 
laboured as that on his shoulders, nrm It is signed 
with the artist's monogram, thus ™* The Na- 
tional Museum possesses a beautiful composition, 
representing the Blessed Virgin, St. John and the 
Disciples, assembled round the dead body of Our 
Lord. Here Pereda seems to have imitated the 
colouring of Vandyck ; and the graceful Magdalene 
weeping over the Saviour's feet much resembles 
the corresponding figure in that master's picture on 
the same subject in the Museum at Antwerp. The 
dark figure, dusky as a Bedouin of the desert, hold- 
ing the crown of thorns, is also a fine study. In 
the Academy of St. Ferdinand there hangs another 
excellent work of Pereda, in which some moral 
lesson is intended rather than conveyed. It repre- 
sents a handsome youth in a rich green dress, black 
hat and white feather, asleep in his chair beside 
a table. There are on the table a tiara, a crown, a 
mitre, some books and pieces of armour, a casquet 
of tortoise-shell, a gold clock, rings and brooches, and 

CH. X. 

^ Catdlogo [1843], No. 287 [edition 1889, No. 939]. 



CH. X. 


a heap of silver and gold coins which have tumbled 
out of a purse, representations, in short, of all the 
good and glory of life. Over these an angel in violet 
draperies bends, holding a scroll, with a bow having 
the arrow fitted to the string, and the words cBteme 
pungit dto volat, et occidit. The sleeping figure is 
very fine, and perfectly asleep; the angel not so 
good. The elegant accessories finely display the 
laborious skill of the artist, who painted ornaments 
of all kinds, musical instruments, and gold and 
silver plate, with all the delicacy of Mabuse him- 
self.^ The Magdalen nuns of Alcaic de Henares 
still preserve a picture of "Our Lady's Annuncia- 
tion," elegant in design, and pleasing in execution, 
on the side altar of their church, for which it was 
painted by Pereda. 

Francisco Collantes was bom in 1599, at Madrid, 
where he was one of the best scholars of Vincencio 
Carducho. He painted for the monastery of San 
Cajetano a series of Apostles; but his favourite 
subjects were landscapes, which he executed with 
far more skill and taste than was usual in Castile. 
Several of his works are now in the Queen of Spain's 

^ Can this be the pictnre painted for the Admiral of Castile, mentioned 
at p. 840 ? In the Caidlago de las Pinturcu y Eseulturcu que se eonservan 
en la Real Aeademia de San Fernando^ 8vo, Madrid, 1824, this picture 
is placed as No. 18, in Sala ix., and is described as ** El Desenga&o de la 
Vida porque representa a nn personaje dormido y rodeado de calaveras j 
de otros despojos de la muerte. Paedede ser sn roejor obra," p. 55. 



gallery. Of these, " Ezekiel in the Valley of Bones," ^ 
formerly at Bnenretiro, is the most striking. The 
''exceeding great army" of skeletons are bestirring 
and refleshing themselves, as beheld in that mys- 
terious vision ; ' the brown mountain background is 
well painted; and the figure of the Seer, in blue 
drapery, is worthy of Salvator Rosa. It is signed 
^^ Fran. Collantes^ ft. 1630." A landscape, with 
trees and a brawling brook,' in the same collection, 
deserves notice; as well as the "Burning Bush in 
Horeb," another silvan scene, full of massy foliage 
and mellow sunshine, in the long gallery of the 
Louvre.* He likewise painted bodegones with good 
effect, and his sketches in red crayons were also, 
says Cean Bermudez, spirited and esteemed. For 
a book on the chase, written by Juan Mateos,^ chief 
archer to Philip IV., he designed a print of boars 
driven into a circular pen to be shot at, which was 
engraved by Pedro Perret.® He died at Madrid, 
in 1656. 

Francisco Fernandez, bom at Madrid in 1605, 
was likewise a student of good promise in the 

CH. X. 


1 Cdtdlogo [1843], No. io8 [edition 1889, Na 705]. 

^ Ezek. zzxvii. 1-14. 

' CcUdlogo [1843], No. 298 [edition 1872-3, No. 706]. 

* Notice des Tableaux^ Ecoles dltalie, Na 952 [edition 1879, Eooles 
d'Eapagne, No. 533]. 

' Origen y dignidad de la Ccua^ 4to, Madrid, 1634. 

* Supra, chap. viiL p. 649. 



CH. X. 




school of Vincencio Carducho. He was employed, 
amongst other artists, in painting the portraits of 
the Kings of Spain, for the Alcazar; and he exe- 
cuted two excellent pictures, '' St. Joachim and St 
Anne," and the '' Burial of St. Francis de Paula," for 
the convent of Victory. Breakfasting one morning, 
in 1646, with a schoolmaster friend, one Francisco 
de Varas, the painter and the pedagogue had a 
dispute, which ended in blows, and the death of the 
former, to the regret of his fellow-artists, amongst 
whom he was popular. He etched the title*page, 
and the plates not executed by Fr®- Lopez, for his 
master's ''Dialogues on Fainting;"^ and he was 
himself the instructor of Ximenes Donoso, a painter 
of some repute in the next reign. 

Pedro Nuilez, a native of Madrid, and bom early 
in the seventeenth century, commenced his studies 
in painting under Juan de Soto,' and finished them 
at Rome, whence he returned with sufficient reputa- 
tion to be employed to paint a series of the Spanish 
sovereigns for the private theatre of the Alcazar. 
In 1625, by command of Prieto, General of the 
Order of Mercy, he painted some pictures for the 
cloister of the convent under that rule ; and he was 
recommended by the Board of Works and Woods 
as fitted to fill the post of King's painter, which. 

^ Supra, cbap. tIl pp. 4S4 and 492. 

* Ibid. p. 476. 


however, was conferred on Nardi.J He died at ch. x . 
Madrid, in 1654* 

The scholars whom Velazquez left behind him Juande 
were not numerous, nor haye any of them proved 
his rivals in the favour of posterity. Juan de Fareja, 
one of the ablest, and better known to fame as the 
slave of Velasquez, was bom at Seville in 1606, 
seven years after his master. His parents belonged 
to the class of slaves, then numerous in Andalusia,' 
the descendants of negroes imported in large num* 
bers into Spain by the Moriscos in the sixteenth 
century;' and in the African hue and features of 
their son there is evidence that they were mulattos, 
or that one or other of them was a black. It is not 
knovni whether he came' into the possession of 
Velazquez by purchase, or by inheritance ; but he 
was in his service as early as 1623, when he accom- 
panied him to Madrid. Being employed to clean 
the brushes, grind the colours, prepare the palettes, 
and do the other menial work of the studio, and 

^ Sapra, chap. viiL p. 656. 

' And throaghout Spain* for many yean afterwards. See Madame 
d'Aolnoy, Voyage, let xii ; and M. M , Voyage^ p. 178* 

' In 1560, so many had thas been introduced for domestic and agricnl- 
tural parposes, that the repreflontatives of Granada, in the Cortes held 
that year at Toledo, petitioned the king that these blacks might be sent 
out of the ooantry, alleging that they were brought up in the Mahometan 
faith, and that their numbers were dangerous to the Christian population. 
— L. de Marmol Carvajal, Hiai, de la Eebelion y Castigo de los Moriscos, 
2 vols. 4to, Madrid, 1797, L p. 135. 



CH. X. 


coTored by 
to bea 

living amongst pictures and painters, he early ac- 
quired an acquaintance with the implements of art, 
and an ambition to use them. He therefore watched 
the proceedings of his master, and privately copied 
his works, with the eagerness of a lover, and the 
secrecy of a conspirator. In the Italian journeys in 
which he accompanied Velazquez,^ he seized every 
opportunity of improvement ; and in the end he 
became an artist of no mean skill. But his nature 
was so reserved, and his candle so jealously concealed 
under its bushel, that he had returned from his 
second visit to Rome, and had reached the mature 
age of forty-five, before his master became aware 
that he could use the brushes which he washed. 

When at last he determined on laying aside the 
mask, he contrived that it should be removed by the 
hand of the King. Finishing a small picture with 
peculiar care, he deposited it in his master's studio, 
with its face turned to the wall. A picture so placed 
arouses curiosity, and is perhaps more certain to 
attract the eye of the loitering visitor than if it were 
hung up for the purpose of being seen. When 
Philip IV. visited Velazquez, he never failed to cause 
the daub or the masterpiece, that happened to oc- 
cupy such a position, to be paraded for his inspec- 
tion. He therefore fell at once into the trap, and 

1 Supra, chap. ix. pp. 706, 752. 


being pleased with the work, asked for the author, ch. x . 
Pareja, who took care to be at the royal elbow, 
immediately fell on his knees, owning his guilt, and 
praying for his Majesty's protection. The good- i"8etfree. 
natured King, turning to Velazquez, said, "You 
see that a painter like this ought not to remain a 
slave." Pareja, kissing the royal hand, rose from 
the ground a free man. His master gave him a 
formal deed of manumission, and received the colour- 
grinder as a scholar. The attached follower, how- ^^^ 
ever, remained with him till he died ; and continued J^j^^®' 
in the service of his daughter, the wife of Mazo ^^^^y- 
Martinez, until his own death in 1670. Pareja's Portraits, 
portrait, finely painted by Velazquez, is in the gallery 
of Lord Radnor.^ It represents him as an intelligent 
bright-eyed mulatto, with the thick nose and lips 
and curling black hair proper to his race, and dressed 
in a dark green doublet, with a white falling collar. 
This is perhaps the picture which gained Velazquez 
his election into the Academy of St. Luke.* Lord 
Carlisle possesses a head of a man of colour, by 
the same hand,' which seems to be the likeness 
of Pareja, and also a full-length portrait of Queen 
Mariana. The latter is attributed to the pencil of 
the freedman, but is more probably the work of his 

^ [Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1873.] 

* Supra, chap. ix. p. 76a 

' At Castle Howard, Yorkshire. 



CH. Z. 


fellow-disciple Mazo Martinez.^ She is in widow's 
attire, and seated in a chnich; nuns seen behind, 
with a child who is giving ahns, and is supposed to 
be Charles 11. A dog lies at the Queen's feet, and 
she holds in her hand a letter inscribed with the 
name of Mazo Martinez.' 

The Boyal Gallery of Spain possesses only a single 
work of Fareja, a large picture of the " Calling of 
St Matthew." ' It is well composed, and executed 
with a close and successful imitation of the colour- 
ing and handling of Velazquez. Our Lord and His 
disciples wear the flowing Jewish gabardine ; the 
collectors of customs, in doublets and flapped hats, 
are booted and spurred like Spanish cavaliers. The 
dusky face to the extreme right of the picture is a 
portrait of the painter ; and the rich Turkey carpet 
which covers the table, and the jewellery thereon dis- 
played, are finished with Dutch minuteness. In the 
Imperial Gallery of Russia there is also a specimen of 
the powers of the Sevillian serf, a portrait of a Pro- 
vincial of a religious order, in dark monastic robes, and 
holding in his hand a book.* He excelled in por- 

1 [Curtis, p. 328, says that this picture, << although attributed to Pareja, 
is probably a repetition of the portrait by Mazo, in the collection of the 
late Don Valentin Carderera, now the property of the Duke of VlUaher- 
mosa, at Madrid] 

^ Letter from Lord Ronald Leveson Gower, May 19, 1875. 

» CcUdlogo [1843], No 134 [edition 1889, No. 935]. 

^ Livret de la Galerie ImpHiaU de VErmitge, Salle xlL, No. 3, p. 402 : 
Waagen's Catalogue^ No. 427. 



traiture ; and Palomino especially notices his likeness 
of an artist named Joseph Rat^s, so forcibly painted 
as frequently to be taken for the work of Velazquez.^ 
Juan Bautista del Mazo Martinez was bom at 
Madrid, but in what year remains uncertain. He 
early entered the school of Velazquez, and devoted 
himself to copying his works, and those of Tintoret, 
Titian, and Paul Veronese, with so much assiduity 
and success, that his productions were sometimes 
mistaken for original pictures of those masters. 
Dryden asserts that he 

" who but arriyes to copy well, 
Unguided will advance, unknowing will excel ; "' 

and Mazo Martinez proves, in part at least, the 
truth of the assertion. He acquired great skill in 
portraiture, and great applause by a picture of 
Queen Mariana, which he exhibited at the gate of 
Guadalaxara, and which attracted much attention, 
because it was one of the first pictures executed at 
Madrid * of the young sovereign. A fine full-length 
portrait, of an unknown military commander, in 
the Royal Gallery of Spain,* proves how faithfully 

CH. X. 

Juan Baa- 
tiiU del 
Maao Mar- 

1 Palomino, torn. iii. p. 551. 

* Epistle to the Earl of Boscommon, 

9 Palomino, torn. liL p. 551. 

« Catdlogo [1843I No. 131. [In the CcUdlogo Deicriptivo i HtsUfrieo, 
1872, and also in the CkUdlogo of 18S9 (No. 789), this pictaie is described 
aa "portrait of D. Tiburcio de Redin y Crnzat, caballero de S. Jnan, j 
maestro de campo de la infanteria espabola en tiempo de Felipe IV.*'] 

8s 2 


CH. X. 


he followed in the footsteps of his master. But 
his best original works were hunting pieces and 
landscapes, Philip IV. employed him to execute 
views of Pamplona and Zaragoza, which long hung 
in the palace, and of which the latter is now in the 
royal picture gallery.^ The prospect of the capital 
of Aragon is taken from the banks of the Ebro, 
and the foregraund is enriched by an admirable 
group of figures painted by Velazquez. For rich- 
ness and brilliancy of effect it is equal to the best 
of Canaletti's views of Dresden,^ which it much 
resembles in style. A sea-port,* and a river-view,* 
in the same collection, likewise deserve notice. But 
he did not always paint thus ; for near them hangs 
a prospect of the Escorial*^ — of all subjects that 
in which a Castilian artist should have put forth 
his whole strength — singularly flat and poor in 

Mazo Martinez married a daughter of Velazquez, 
and held the post of deputy- Aposentador ; and in 
that quality he accompanied him in his journey to 
the Pyrenees.' At the death of the great artist, 
he succeeded to him as painter-in-ordinary, being 

* CatdHogo [1843], No. 79 [edition 1889, No. 788]. 

' In the small gallery on the texrace of Bruhl, in that city. 
' CcUdhgo [1843]. No. 231 [edition 1889, No. 792]. 
^ Ibid. No. 300 [edition 1889, No. 795]. 

• [CkUdlogo, 1889, No. 793.] « Supra, chap ix. p. 780. 


appointed to the vacant post on the 19th of ch. x. 
April 1 66 1. He frequently painted Queen Mariana 
after she had veiled her luxuriant tresses with the 
sombre weeds of widowhood ; and he likewise 
delineated the sickly countenance of her son, 
Charles II. By the daughter of Velazquez he had 
two sons, Gaspar and Balthasar, who obtained honour- 
able preferment at court. Becoming a widower, second 


he contracted a second marriage with Dofia Anna 
de la Vega; and he died on the 19th of February Death. 
1687, in the Treasury at Madrid, and was buried 
in the church of San Gines. His portrait, by the Portrait. 
dashing Esteban March, hangs in the Royal Gal- 
lery : ^ his face is that of a swarthy and somewhat 
plain Spaniard, and he holds in his hands the im- 
plements of his calling. 

Santiago Moran flourished as a painter at Madrid, ^^^ 
about 1640. Cean Bermudez mentions with praise 
three of his works, all pictures of St. Jerome, as 
displaying considerable knowledge of anatomy, and 
one of them adorned with a good landscape back- 
ground. His style somewhat resembled that of 
Albano ; and one of. these St. Jeromes was en- 
graved, and palmed on the world as a work of 
Guercino. He designed the nine Muses for 
Quevedo's nine books of poems, called the Spanish 

> Catdlogo [1843], No. 184 [edition 1SS9, No. 779]. 



CH. X. 




Parnassus, with which the edition of 1670 was 

Pedro Diaz Moraute was a writing-master who 
was bom near Toledo in 1566, and flourished at 
Madrid, in the reigns of the second, third, and 
fourth Philips. He was the most voluminous of 
the early Spanish writers on penmanship, and 
published no less than four volumes on the sub- 
ject,* each preceded by an introduction full of un- 
measured praise of his art, his scholars, and him- 
self. He was especially proud of having taught a 
Greek prelate, the Archbishop of Naxia, who was 
at Madrid, in the reign of Philip HI., on ecclesi- 

^ El Pamaao Espaflol y Mustu CaateUancLS, 4tO| Madrid, 1670. 

* Arte de Escribir, primera parte, 16 15, segunda parte, 1624, teroera 
parte, 1627, quarta psurte, 1630, Madrid long folio. His disciple Bias 
Lopez republished a selection of his specimens of writing in 1657, and 
Santiago Pobnares in 1776. Amongst the most spirited of his many 
flourished designs is a pair of fighting dogs, which occurs in his second 
volume. An idea of his portrait of Philip IV. may perhaps be gained 
by looking at the portly nymph supporting the dedication, to the Count 
of Floridablanca, of Servidori's Beflexiones, where there is a full account 
of Morante, torn, i p. 5a Is the Instruceion de Prineipes mentioned 
by Cean Bermudez, Dice. p. 66, v. vi., identical with this work or another t 
The story is there also told of his being accused, before the Holy Office, 
of witchcraft, because he could write with both hands at once. 

Mr. Salvd had a very fine copy of Morante's Arte de Escribir, four 
parts, which belonged to Ventura Montera y Montolier, who appears to 
have spent many years in making it up. He says, in his MS. note to 
Part IV., that a perfect copy is hardly to be found in Spain, the plates 
(like those of Casanova's book) having been lost at sea, going to Mexico, 
in the possession of a foreigner. He also speaks of a fifth part, of which 
I have not elsewhere heard. In Part II. there is a fine portrait, without 
engraver's name. On one of the flourished pages is an engraver's name, 
AntotUo de VUUrfafU, 


astical business, to write the Roman character in ch. x 
good fomiy in three weeks/ Quevedo honoured 
him with a sonnet' in commendation of a portrait 
of Philip IV. which he had executed with dashes 
and flourishes of the pen ; and, in another poem,' 
makes eulogistic mention of him amongst the artists 
of Spain. 
Francisco Camilo was son of an Italian settled jv»n««» 


at Madrid, whose Spanish widow married Pedro 
de las Cuevas the painter.^ This master brought 
up his stepchild as if he had been his own son, 
instructing him in painting, for which he early 
gave indication of a vigorous talent. At the age 
of eighteen he was employed to paint, for the high 
altar of the Jesuits' house at Madrid, a picture 
representing St. Francis Borja holding a Custodia 
in his hands, and spuming with his foot the world 
and a heap of military trophies and cardinals' hats,^ 
which was afterwards removed to make way for an 
altar-piece in plaster. Some years later, the Count- 
Duke of Olivares ordered him to execute, with 
other artists, a series of portraits of Kings of Spain 
for the theatre of Buenretiro ; and he also chose 

^ Parte segnnda, p. 3. 

' Al retrato del Rey n®. seV, hecho de rasgos y lazos, con ploma por 
Pedro Morante. Obrcu, torn. viL p. 9. 
' ObraSf torn, ix p. 375, and supra, chap. yii. p. 548. 
^ Snpra, chap. viL p. 506. ' Ibid. chap. ix. p. 805-808. 



CH. X. 






him to adorn the western gallery of that palace 
with fourteen frescoes from Oyid^s Metamorphoses. 
His chief business lay, however, in painting religious 
subjects for the monasteries of Madrid, Toledo, 
AlcaM, and Segoria, and the adjacent country, which 
he executed in a soft and agreeable style, and with 
considerable brilliancy of colouring. He likewise 
painted and draped some of the statuary of Manuel 
Pereyra.^ He was a favourite in the capital, where 
he died in 1671, leaving many disciples. Of these 
the best was Francisco Ignacio, none of whose 
works remains. 

Juan de Licalde, likewise a scholar of Pedro de 
las Cuevas, displayed considerable ability in his early 
works, but died young. One of his drawings, a 
crowned lion, upholding a shield of the arms of Spain 
and Portugal, neatly executed with the pen, was 
seen by Cean Bermudez in the collection of Don 
Pedro Gonzalez de Sepulveda. It bore the signature 
^'Juan de lAcalde en el amor de Dios d, 10 de 
Noviemhre de 1628," which places his death after 
that year. He made a clever portrait of Olivares 
with pen and ink. 

Antonio Fernandez Arias was also a scholar of 
Pedro de las Cuevas, and one of the most precocious 
painters on record, having executed a series of 

^ Sapra, chap. viiL p. 668. 



pictures for the high-altar of the shod Carmelites of 
Toledo, at the age of fourteen. The applause which 
he gained by this achievement only spurred his 
industry ; and when he was twenty-five years old he 
was reckoned one of the best painters in Madrid. 
Olivares employed him with Camilo, on the series of 
royal portraits for Buenretiro.^ He likewise wrought 
largely for churches and convents ; and he was paid 
800 ducats for eleven pictures of Our Lord's Pas- 
sion, executed in 1657, for the church of San Felipe 
el Real. The year following he finished a fine com- 
position, representing the body of Our Lord in the 
arms of the Blessed Virgin, for the church of the 
Carbajal nuns at Leon. He was one of those, says 
Palomino, who cultivated both of the sister arts of 
painting and poetry; for he wrote polite Castilian 
verse, which showed a knowledge of mythology and 
history; he was, moreover, a man of taste and 
pleasure, fond of conversation, and very jovial 
withal; friendly with his friends, courteous and 
generally beloved. By a virtuous wife he had 
several children, amongst whom was a daughter 
who inherited his talent for the pencil Nothing 
was wanting to him but fortune ; and this in old 
age and decrepitude declined so low, that he sub- 
sisted on the charity of his friends, and at length 

OH. X. 


1 Supra, p. 855. 



CtL X 


died miserably in m public hospital of Madrid.^ 
"^Oh force of an milncky star!"' The Queen of 
Spain's gallery possesses one of his pictures, the 
Fhaiisees tempting Onr Lord as to the lawfulness of 
paying tribute to Csesar.' The colouring is good, 
but the draperies aie somewhat stiff; the interro- 
gating Pharisee, anayed in a yellow robe, applies a 
pair of spectacles to his nose with a very pompous 
air and much comic effect. It bears the signature 
" AfU, Arias FernandeZy'fecit, 1646." 

Francisco Aguirre was a disciple of Eugenio 
Gaxes. He was residing at Madrid in 1646, when 
he was recalled to Toledo to retouch an ancient 
'' Assumption of the Yiigin/' in the winter Chapter- 
room of the Cathedral/ on which Bias del Prado 
had performed a like operation sixty years befora 
Under the direction of Felipe Lazaro de Goiti, 
master of works, he also repaired all the other 
paintings of the chamber that stood in need of 
restoration. He likewise painted a picture of the 
Cardinal-InfEuit Don Fernando,' to be placed amongst 
the portraits of the Primates of Spain.^ It is strange 
that the Ruby of Toledo^ should not have been 

> [In 16S4. CcOdloffo, 1889, p. 115.] * Palomino, torn. iiL p. 604. 
' Catdlogo [1843], No. 242 [edition 1889, Na 640]. 
^ Supra, chap. iL pp. 107-8. * Ibid. chap. viii. p. 615. 

^ Ibid. chap. ii. p. 109. 

^ So he IB called by Qnevedo, in one of his poems ; Ohras, torn, viii 
p. 164. 


installed in his place in that august line until five ch. x . 
years after his death. Aguirre has evidently copied 
an early portrait of the boy- Archbishop, perhaps 
one of those by Velazquez. The youthful features 
of the Infant, and his simple red cap and cape as a 
Cardinal, contrast strongly with the wrinkled faces 
and hoary beards of his companions, who are mitred 
and stoled in all their archiepiscopal pomp. In the 
matter of gravity of face, Philip would have made a 
better prelate than his brother, who, however, has 
the benevolence and kindliness of aspect befitting 
one, and, although a soldier and a man of pleasure, 
was ready to fulfil his priestly functions at the 
death-beds of the poorest of his flock.^ 
Juan de Arellano, bom in 16 14, at Santorcaz, Juande 

^' Arellano. 

near Toledo^ lost his father when he was only eight 
years old^ and was taken by his mother to AlcaU de 
Henares, where he studed painting for eight years, 
under a provincial professor. During his days of 
pupilage he was so poor, says Palomino, that when 
he was sent to Madrid on business, hj his master, 

' Fencu en la muerte y cUivios en lot virtudes d§ el Bey CkUhdlieo de 
las EspafUu nuestro setior Felipe IV, el Orande, en an oracum funehre 
que dezia Fray Bart, Garcia de Eecaifluela, Beligioso menor de S, Fran- 
eiseo, 4to, Madrid, 1666. The preacher informs ua that he has known the 
King get out of his coach at Barcelona to ''-ayndar a hien morir a nn 
nio^o de coche, mientras sn hermano el Infante Gardenal rezava la 
litania y le encomendava el alma." The picture is pleasing, and this 
work of charity was one of the last acts in which the royal hrothers were 
engaged together, the Infant being then on his way to Flanders. 



CH. X. 

Takes to 


having trudged thither, a distance of six leagues, 
on foot, he used to sleep at night on the broad 
steps of the church of San Felipe el Real. He 
afterwards lived at Madrid, partly as a servant and 
partly as a scholar, with Juan de Solis, an obscure 
disciple of Herrera of Segovia.^ His wife, Maria 
Vanela, dying after his removal to the capital, he 
married Maria de Corcuera, a kinswoman of his 
second master. He had attained the age of thirty- 
six years without evincing any talent, or obtaining 
any success in his profession. 

The cares of a family, however, rendering his 
exertions every year more necessary, he, in a lucky 
moment, took to copying the flower-pieces of an 
Italian, known as Mario dei Fiori, whose works are 
now somewhat rare. By this experiment he learned 
that his natural vocation was to delineate the 
blossoms of the garden, instead of the flowers of 
the Calendar ; his works became highly esteemed ; 
and the last shift of his poverty opened his way to 
wealth and fame. He wrought chiefly for private 
patrons, and the gallery of the Count of Onate was 
rich in his pictures. But the church of San Isidro 
admitted four of his flower-pieces into the chapel of 
Our Lady of Good-counsel; and he painted some 
children and birds amongst wreaths of flowers, on 

^ Supra, chap. v. p. 344. 


mirrors, and other works, for the sacristies of the ch- x. 
Jeronymite and Recolete friars. He was likewise 
skilful in the delineation of fruit, exercising his 

'' In oranges, mask-melons, apricocks, 
Lemons, pome-citrons, and such like.'' ^ 

No artist was ever more unwearied in the practice industry. 
of his profession ; he painted at night as well as 
in the day ; and for forty years he kept the largest 
picture-shop in Madrid, at his house in front of 
the church of San Felipe el Real, the scene of his 
youthful bivouacs. He was a God-fearing, shrewd 
man, says Palomino, who cites, in proof of the 
latter quality, his reply to the inquiry of one of 
his friends, as to why he had forsaken figures for 
flowers ? " Because," said he judiciously, " the labour 
is less and the gain greater." His busy life end- 
ing on the 1 2th of October 1676, he was buried 
in the church of San Felipe. The Royal Gallery 
of Madrid possesses five of his blooming garden- 

Simon de Leon Leal, son of Diego de Leon Leal simon de 

^ Loon Leal. 

and Juana Duran, was bom in 16 10, at Madrid, 
where he studied in the school of Pedro de las 
Cuevas, and improved his style by copying the 
works of Vandyck. For the Premonstratensian 

^ Ben Jonson, Fox, act iii. bc. 5 ; Works, vol. iii. p. 526. 



CH. X. 

Pedro de 

friars he painted the altar-piece of their high-altar, 
representing St. Norbert, fouiider of the order, and 
a vigorous opponent of the anti-pope, Anaclete/ 
triumphing over heresy; and another picture of 
the same saint, receiving his archiepiscopal vest- 
ments from the hands of the Blessed Mary. The 
Jesuit Cardinal Everardo, confessor of Queen 
Mariana, likewise employed him to execute, for a 
new church of his order, a series of twenty-one 
pictures of the infancy of Our Lord ; an altar-piece, 
representing a bold fiction of the Jesuit doctors, 
wherein the Eternal Father was represented as 
pointing out Ignatius Loyola to the Saviour, with 
the words, "Behold Thy companion." His Emi- 
nence being much pleased with these works, besides 
paying the artist handsomely, obtained for him the 
place of usher of the Queen. He was afterwards 
promoted to be guardadamas,^ in the household of 
Queen Maria Louisa of Orleans ; and dying in the 
enjoyment of that post in 1687, he was buried in 
the church of St Martin. 

The Licentiate Pedro de Valpuesta was bom at 
Burgo de Osma, in 16 14, and, while receiving a 
Jieam^d education at Madrid, also studied painting 
in the school of Eugenio Caxes, and succeeded in 

^ Ribadeneira, Fleurs des Vtes des Saints, torn. L p. 677. 
' Sapra, chap, ix p. 771, note. 



imitating that master's style more exactly than any 
other of his disciples. He did not relinquish the 
pencil on taking priests' orders, but continued to 
paint with credit till his death in 1668, at Madrid. 
The Franciscan convent and the church of San 
Miguel, in that capital, possessed several of his 
religious works ; the nuns of S^ Clara had a series 
of six pictures on the life of their virgin-patroness ; 
and the church of Buensuceso had a composition 
representing the Holy Family, which Cean Ber- 
mudez considered the best existing specimen of 
his skill. 

Juan de Montero de Roxas, bom in 1613, at 
Madrid, was also a scholar of Pedro de las Cuevas. 
He afterwards went to Italy, and imitated the style 
and copied the works of Caravaggio. Returning 
to the Spanish capital, he there painted the '' An- 
nunciation" on the dome of the college of St. 
Thomas, the ''Passage of the Red Sea" in the 
sacristy of the Convent of Mercy, and other works 
held in some esteem in their day. Dying in 1683, 
he was buried in the church of St. Sebastian. 

Eugenio de las Cuevas was bom at Madrid in 
161 3. The son of the painter, Pedro de las Cuevas, 
and half brother of Francisco Camilo, he studied the 
art in the school of the former. Too great applica- 
tion engendering a weakness of eyesight, he laid 
aside the pencil for a time, and made himself a 

CH. X. 

Joan de 
de BoxaB. 

Eugenio de 
las Cuevas. 



CH, X. 



proficient in music, and afterwards acquired some 
knowledge of grammar, rhetoric, and mathematics, 
at the Imperial College. As soon as his sight 
permitted, however, he returned to his original 
calling, and obtained so much reputation by his 
small portraits and other oil pictures, that he was 
appointed drawing-master to Don Juan of Austria. 
Don Bodrigo Pimentel, Marquess of Viana, When 
going as governor to Oran, took him thither as his 
secretary, and employed him for some time as an 
engineer. At his return to Madrid, his various 
accomplishments in painting, poetry, and music, 
made him highly popular in society, of which he 
remained an ornament until his death in 1667. 

Josef Leonardo, bom in 161 6, at Calatayud, in 
Aragon, the birthplace of Martial, was an able 
scholar of Pedro de las Cuevas, and one of the 
King's painters. He died at the age of forty, after 
lingering for some years in a state of insanity, pro- 
duced, says Cean Bermudez, by a poisonous potion, 
administered to him by chance or design. Two of 
his large compositions are now in the Queen of 
Spain's gallery. One^ represents the subject so 
finely treated by Velazquez,* the Surrender of Breda. 
Here, however, Spinola, with far less taste and his- 

* Catdlogo [1843], No. 248 [edition 1889, No. 767]. 
' Supra, chap. ix. p. 748. 



torical accuracy, is made to receive the keys sitting 
on horseback like a haughty and vulgar conqueror. 
The other ^ is the march of the Duke of Feria*s 
troops upon Acqui, in the Duchy of Monteferrato, 
in which that unlucky and ignorant leader,* on 
horseback, in the foreground, is painted in the act 
of giving orders to some of his captains. These 
pictures are virell coloured, but they want the life 
and movement of the noble work of Velazquez. 

Sebastiande Herrera Bamuevo, painter, sculptor, 
and architect, and bom at Madrid in 1619, was son 
of Antonio de Herrera Bamuevo, a sculptor of some 
repute, who wrought under Crescenzi, and modelled 
a waxen bust of Lope de Vega, widely known by 
casts. From this parent, Sebastian learned sculp- 
ture, and in painting and architecture he followed 
the style of Alonso Cano. He was soon appointed 
one of the draughtsmen of the Soyal Board of 
Works. As such he designed several of the 
triumphal arches in honour of the entrance of 
Queen Mariana into Madrid, especially one erected 
in the avenue of the Prado, called the arch of Mount 
Parnassus, adorned vdth statues of Castilian poets, 
and, although somewhat fantastic in design, highly 
admired by Philip IV. In consequence of this 

CH. X. 

de Herrera 

^ Catdhgo [1843], No. 210 [edition 1889, No. 768]. 
' Daulop'fl Memoirs, vol. i. p. 137. 



CH, X , j success, he aspired to the post of gentleman of the 
royal chamber ; but he was obliged to content him- 
self with that of deputy- Aposentador and master 
of works in some of the palaces. At the death of 
Philip IV., he designed the pompous catafalque, 
erected for the funeral honours of that monarch, 
in the church of the Incarnation, and described 
with verbose magniloquence in Monforte's official 
narration of the ceremonial.^ He was afterwards 
chosen as master of works to the town of Madrid ; 
under Charles IL he obtained the office of painter- 
in-ordinary to the King, and keeper of the galleries 
of the Escorial, a post continued to his son Ignacio ; 
and he died in the capital, at his lodging in the 
Treasury, in 167 1. He painted in a correct and 
agreeable style ; and amongst the best of his works 
were the large altar-piece of the Becolete Mars, re- 
presenting St Augustine in glory, and the pictures 
of Mary and Joseph in the chapel of Jesus — for 
which he also gave the architectural design — in 
the church of San Isidro el Beal. Cean Bermudez 
possessed an etching of an Apostle, etched by him 
after one of his own pictures. In architecture, his 
style shared and increased the general corruption 
which prevailed in the art. As a sculptor, his 
works had considerable merit, although none of them, 

^ Deaeripdon de las hanrcu, fol. 64 (see infra, chap. xiii.). 


as Palomino audaciously pretends, of a Christ at the 
column, were quite worthy of Michael Angelo.^ 

Antonio Puga was a scholar of Velazquez, whose 
early style he imitated with great exactness and 
success. He executed, in 1653, six pictures, seen 
by Cean Bermudez in the collection of Don Silvester 
Collar y Castro, and representing a variety of com- 
mon and domestic subjects so happily that they 
might have passed for works painted by his master 
in his youth at Seville. 

Francisco Burgos y Mantilla was the son of a 
lawyer, who devoted himself to the study of paint- 
ing first with Pedro de las Cuevas, and next with 
Velazquez. He distinguished himself by his por- 
traits about 1658, and painted many personages 
of rank at Madrid. 

Tomas de Aguiar was a gentleman of Madrid, 
who studied painting in the school of Velazquez, 
and about the year 1660 executed small portraits 
in oil with considerable skill and reputation. He 
pourtrayed the poet and historian Antonio de Solis, 
who rewarded him with a complimentary sonnet full 
of praise so extravagant that it must have overpaid 
any possible amount of flattery in the picture.^ 

^ Palomino, torn, iii p. 558. 

' Varicu Poeaicta sagradas y prof anas que dexd escritas {aunque no 
juntas ni retocadcu), Don Antonio de Solis y Ribadeneira, 4to, Madrid, 
1716, p. 35. 

CH. X. 



Tomas do 



CH. X. 

Manuel de 





Benito Manuel de Agttero, bom at Madrid in 
1626, was the disciple of Mazo Martinez/ under 
whom he learned to paint battles, and views of 
cities, in an agreeable manner. Some of his works 
of this kind adorned the palaces of Buenretiro and 
Aranjuez; and he is said to have attracted the 
notice of Philip IV., in his visits to his master's 
studio, as well by his wit and talent for talking, 
as by the powers of his penciL He died at Madrid 
in 1670, leaving in the church of the nuns of S**- 
Isabel, a picture of St. Ildefonso, which had some- 
thing of the colour of Titian, but was reckoned less 
happy than his compositions on lighter subjects. 

Alonso Mesa, likewise a scholar of Cano, was 
bom at Madrid in 1628, and died there in 1668. 
As an imitator of his master he belongs perhaps to 
the school of Andalusia. For the church of St. 
Sebastian, at Madrid, he painted a picture of St. 
Anthony, the abbot; and for the Franciscan con- 
vent, a series of scenes from the life of the patron 
saint, afterwards removed to Guadalaxara, none of 
them works of great merit. 

Juan Simon Navarro was a painter who flourished 
at Madrid about the middle of the century. He 
executed, for the Prior's cell of the convent of the 
shod Carmelites, a picture of the " Nativity of Our 

* Supra, p. 851. 



Lord; "and, in 1654, a large picture, representing 
the Blessed Virgin at her needle, and Joseph ply- 
ing his carpenters' plane, whilst their Divine child 
fashioned a miniature cross at their feet. The 
latter picture afterwards passed into the collection 
of Don Ba.mon de Posada y Soto, where it was seen 
by Cean Bermudez, who commends its colouring, 
and the execution of some accessory flowers. 

Pablo de Villafaile was so famous as a painter of 
miniatures and illuminations, at Madrid, about 1635, 
that Quevedo has devoted to his honour twenty-two 
lines of a poem already quoted,^ and assures the 
world that he excelled both Apelles and Albert 
Durer. He died young, and these laudatory verses 
are his sole memorial. 

Pedro de Villafranca Malagon, was bom at Alcolea, 
in La Mancha, and became the scholar of Vincencio 
Carducho, at Madrid. He addicted himself, how- 
ever, rather to the graver than the pencil, and 
he was one of the few Spaniards who used the 
former instrument with neatness and dexterity. 
The trumpery engravings which head the cantos 
of Manuel de Faria y Sousa's edition of "The 
Lusiad,'' printed at Madrid in 1639, and re- 
markable for the prolixity of the notes and 
the badness of the paper, are by Pedro de Villa- 

CH. X. 

Pablo de 

Pedro de 

^ ObnUf torn. ix. p. 377, and supra, chap. viL p. 548, note 2. 


CH. X. franca.^ The first of his plates that attracted public 
attention were those for Mendez de Silva's life of 
Alvarez Pereyra, Grand-Constable of Portugal, pub- 
lished in 1640; an architectural title-page, embellished 
with the arms of Mendez de Haro, and two spirited 
portraits of the Constable and his historian.^ Nine 
years later, he published a portrait of one Josef 
de Casanova, a writing-master, with his little boys 
plying their pens around him; and in 1653, his 
works had made him sufficiently famous to be 
appointed engraver-in-ordinary to Philip IV., with 
the salary of 100 ducats, the same that had been 
enjoyed by Pedro Perret* He then began a series 
of plates of the Pantheon of the Escorial, which, with 
the portrait of the King, were finished in 1657, and 
were afterwards reproduced, in 1698, as illustrations 
to the work of Father Santos/ In 1 6 1 5 he engraved, 
for the official Rules of the Order of Santiago," 

^ Lusuidcu de Luis Camoens, comeiitadaa por Manuel Faria y Sousa, 
4 toms. folio, Madrid, 1639. 

' Vida y hechoi herdicat del Qran CondeatabU de Portu{fal D. Nunc 
Alvarez Pereyra Cande de Barcelas, de Orem, de ArrayoloSf mayordomo 
mayor del Bey D, Juan /., por Rodrigo Mendef de Silva, Lnaitano, 8vo, 
Madrid, 1640. It is dedicated to D. Luis Mendez de Haro-Sotomayor- 
Guzman, Conde de Morente, &c 

* Supra, chap. !▼. p. 216, and chap. yiii. p. 649. 

* Ibid. chap. iv. p. 211, note i. 

' Regia y Eatableeimientas de la Orden y eavalleria del glorioso Ap6stol 
Santiago Patron de leu Spa'tUu, eon la historia del origen y prineipio de 
ella, por Don Francisco de Yeigara y Alaba, del Consejo de las Ordenes, 
folio, Madrid, 1655. 



a title-page, representing that glorious Apostle 
hewing down turbaned Saracens, and a pretty 
plate of the Immaculate Conception, in which the 
Virgin is surrounded by a wreath of fruits and 
flowers; in 1656 the title-page and the curious 
plates for Fray Antonio de Castillo's "Pilgrimage 
in the Holy Land;"^ in 1660, an allegorical title- 
page for the Rules of Calatrava,' and two years 
later another for those of Alc&ntanu' These works 
are also embellished with portraits of Philip IV., 
of which that in the book of Calatrava is exe- 
cuted with the greatest sharpness and effect. In 
the reign of Charles II., he engraved the plates 
for Castillo's account of the late King's journey 
to the French frontier, and the marriage of the 
Infanta,^ a title-page for a volume on the remaining 
order of Montesa;^ and many other works. He 

CH. X. 

1 El Devoto PeregrinOy Viagt de Tierra SawUt, compuesto por el F. P. 
Antonio de Castillo, Predicador Apo8t61ico, Guardian de Belen, &e., 
4to, Mftdridy 1656. BeBidea a large map of the Holy Land, there are 
plans of Jemsalem,* as it was in the days of Christ, and in the days of 
Castillo, and a great many views of sanctified spots. The author was a 
Franciscan of Granada, who was sent forth on his travels in 1626 : he 
lived in the Holy Land many years, was thrice Guardian of Bethlehem, 
and once President of the Convent of the Holy Sepulchre ; he spent 
some time in the convent at Naxareth, and visited every holy place in 
Palestine. His account of his journey to the East, chap. iL to v., pp. 
105-137, is very curions and entertaining. 

* Deffinicumnes de la Orden y eavoUleria de CdUOrava, eonforme al 
capUulo gweral eelehrado en Madrid aiio de 1652, foL, MadJid, i66a 

* Deffinicumnes de la Orden y eavaUeria de Akdniara, fol. Mad., 1662. 
^ Supra, chap. ix. p. 781, note 2. 

" MonUia iluetrada, por el Prior de S. Jorge, i6d8. 



CH. X. 



likewise executed, at diflferent times, portraits of 
the widowed Baroness Beatriz de Silveira, in the 
weeds of a nun ; of Cardinal Moscoso, from Eizi's 
picture;^ of good Bishop Juan de Palafox, the 
eminent divine and historian ; of the dramatist, 
Calderon; and of other personages of distinction. 
His engravings are spirited and firm ; but they 
want the delicate tis^ch of Astor, and the force of 
Popma.* The only pfiintings of Villafranca, of 
which any notice has Been preserved, are those 
which he executed as decorSfttions for the church of 
San Felipe el Real, during flbe festival in honour 
of the promotion of St. Thomas de Villanueva to 
the goodly fellowship of saints\in 1660, and for 
which he was paid 20,136 reals. \ The date of his 
death has not been recorded ; but fcis latest engrav- 
ing, noticed by Cean Bermudez, is ti^^t of Calderon, 
executed in 1676. . 

Francisco Navarro was an engraver, Who executed 
the title-page, and a large plate ofig^nas, for a 
descriptive account of an auto-de-f^ heldVat Madrid 
in 1632,^ and the title-page of a book galled the 
"Church Militant," published by Fray Fernando Cam- 
argo y Salgado in 1642.* In the same year lappeaxed 

^ Supra, chap. x. p. 835. " Snpra, chap. viii. ; 

•• AiUO'de-fi^ eelebrado en Madrid, el aHo tie 1632. 
* La Iglesia MUitante, cronoldgica sacra y etpUame ht8t{ 
quanta a sueedtdo en ella, 4to, Madrid, 1642. 


de todo 




Diego Lopez's Dissertation on Juvenal and Fersius,^ 
which likewise has an architectural title-page, of 
no great merit, by Navarro, with the eflSgies of 
Horace and the two later satirists placed on the 
top, and between the supporting columns of an 
arch, like saints in a retablo. 

Alexandro Loarte was a painter of Toledo, and 
a disciple of El Greco. In 1622 he executed a 
]arge composition on the subject of the Miracles of 
loaves and fishes, for the convent of the Minim 
friars in that city; the year following, a hunting- 
piece, afterwards in the collection of Don Nicolas 
de Vargas; and in 1626, a picture of hens and 
chickens, possessed by Don Bernardo Iriarte. These 
are the only specimens of his skill noticed by Gean 
Bermudez, who commends them for excellence of 
drawing and their Venetian cast of colour. 

Juan de Toledo was a disciple of Tristan, and 
held the ofiice of painter to the Chapter of Toledo, 
from 1 64 1 to 1645, the year of his death. In the 
sacristy of the Capuchins of that city, Cean Ber- 
mudez remarked an excellent small picture by this 
artist, representing the Virgin, and the Infants 
Christ and St. John. 

Matias Blasco was a painter of credit at Valla- 

^ Dedaraeion magistral sobre las S&tiraa de Juvenal y Persio, principe* 
de laspoetas satiricos, por Diego Lopez, natural de Valencia, de la Orden 
de Alcantara, 4to, Madrid, 1642. 


ca X. 




Joan de 



CH. X. 







Endows an 

dolid early in this reign; and painted, for the 
church of San Lorenzo, four pictures of miracles 
performed by a famous Virgin adored there, and a 
Martyrdom of the patron saint. The latter work 
was somewhat better preserved than the rest, and 
bore his signature, and the date 162 1, which time 
and neglect had much defaced when they were seen 
by Bosarte.^ Blasco's style was simple and natural, 
and his colouring pleasing in tone. 

Diego Valentin Diaz was a native of ValladoUd, 
where he passed his life in successful practice of the 
art of painting, and in the discharge of the functions 
of a familiar of the Holy Office. He executed many 
pictures for churches and monasteries, especially 
for San Benito, and the Jeronymite and Franciscan 
houses, of which the " Jubilee of the Porciuncula,** * 
in the latter, was one of the most esteemed. He like- 
wise coloured Hernandez's statue of the Conception, 
for the church of San Miguel at Vittoria.* Some of 
his best works still adorn the hospital for the main- 
tenance and education of orphan girls, which he 
founded and endowed out of his savings and the 
inheritance left to him by a brother, who died in 
America.* The retablo of its chapel consists of a 

1 Viaje, pp. 139-140. Cean Bermudez says that he flourished ahout 
1650: the date copied from the picture by Bosarte shows that he came 
into notice at an earlier period. 

* Supra, chap. viL p. 504. • Ibid. p. 520. 

* Justerian de Ayala, Pictor Christianus JEmditvs, p. 195. 



large canvas covered with an architectural design 
painted in imitation of carving, and containing 
pictures of St. Joachin and St. Anne, and the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin. The chapel 
likewise contains the portraits of the munificent 
artist, and his wife, Dofia Maria de la Calzada, *' he 
a grey-haired, sharp-eyed old man, she a dark-eyed 
dame."^ The worthy pair lie buried within the 
same walls, beneath a slab bearing the following 
inscription, which is attributed to the pen of the 
husband : — 


One of his most pleasing pictures, says Bosarte,^ was 
the " Holy Family " in the church of San Benito ; a 
well composed and well coloured work, bearing the 
signature, '' Didacus Diaz, Pictor, 1621," which is 
probably identical with that now in the Museum at 

OH. X. 

§;>itaph by 

^ Handbook [1843], p. 637 [edition 1855, p. 579.] 

• Viaje, p. 147. • Compendio EistMco, p. $8. 



CH. X. 

Felipe Oil 
de Mena. 

Felipe Gil de Mena was bom at Valladolid in 
1 600, and studied painting under Vanderhamen * at 
Madrid, whence he returned with sufficient skill to 
open a school of design, which obtained much credit 
in his native city- He possessed a large collection 
of drawings, prints, and models, valued at his death, 
in 1674, at 3,000 ducats. For the Franciscan con- 
vent he painted, in 1644, a number of pictures on 
the life of the patron saint, of which Cean Bermudez 
considered a large composition, representing a feast, 
as the best. ISome of these are now in the Museum 
at Valladolid, and one records how St. Francis and 
St. Dominic, after a meeting on religious affairs, for 
lack of bodily provender, refreshed themselves with 
prayer, and how ministering angels thereupon ap- 
peared, laden with a celestial banquet.' His most 
celebrated and curious work was a representation of 
a great auto-de-f6 held at Valladolid, and painted 
for the Inquisition as a memorial of one of its 
triumphs. Bosarte' thought his drawing superior 
to his colouring, but that there was little in his 
pictures to arrest the eye. His portraits of the good 
painter Diaz and his wife partake of the style of 

Cristobal Garcia Salmeron, was bom at Cuen9a, 

^ Supra, chap. viii. p. 646. * Compendio ffist&rieo, p. 64. 

» Vuy'e, p. 143. * Handbook [1843], P- ^37 [edition 1855, p. 578]. 


in 1603, 8.nd became a painter, under the instruc- ch. x. 
tions of Pedro Orrente, who resided for some time criitobai 

' Garcia 

in that city/ Imitating the style of his master, he Saimeron. 
painted forcibly and well, with a Venetian tone of 
colouring. For the Cathedral, he executed several 
pictures, placed in the chapel of St. John Baptist, 
of which the principal composition represented the 
percursor of Our Lord preaching in the wilderness. 
He also painted the martyrdom of St. Stephen and 
St. Lawrence, and other works, for the convent of 
bare-footed Carmelites. Philip IV., appreciating his 
abilities, probably from personal observation at 
Cuenja,^ employed him to paint a picture of a grand 
buU-feast given by that city in honour of the birth 
of the Infant Don Carlos, afterwards the second 
monarch of the name. This composition being sent 
to Madrid, hung, in the days of Palomino,^ in the 
gallery that connected the Alcazar and the convent 
of the Incarnation ; and the artist likewise painted 
a portrait of himself, at work upon the picture. The 
last years of his life were passed at Madrid, where 
he painted the Good Shepherd for the Carmelite 
friars, and where he died, in 1666. 

Andres de Vargas was bom at Cuenca, in 1613, Andre* de 


and, coming as a lad to Madrid, he learned painting 

* Supra, chap. viL p. 585. * Ibid. chap. ix. p. 735. 

• Palomino, torn, iil p. 533. 



CH. X, 


under Francisco Gamilo, of whom he became the 
friend and imitator. He painted many works for 
the friars, and for private persons of the capital, and 
still more for the Cathedral and churches of his 
native city, where he died, in 1647. Besides many 
oil pictures, he executed, by order of the Chapter of 
Cuenga, the frescoes in the chapel of Our Lady of 
the Sagrario. He possessed some of the qualities of 
a good painter ; but his style, says Cean Bermudez, 
was feeble, and he followed the injurious practice of 
regulating the quality of his pictures by their price. 
Diego de Leyva was bom, about 1580, at Haro, 
in the Bioja, a district of Old Castile. His youth 
is supposed to have been spent at Rome, whence he 
returned to Spain a painter, and married and settled 
at Burgos. In 1628, the Chapter of Burgos ap- 
pointed him to paint the portraits of certain digni- 
taries, amongst whom was Cardinal Zapata, for the 
chapel of St Catalina, in the Cathedral, where, 
however, they were not placed. For the chapel 
of Our Lady, he likewise painted an altar-piece, 
representing her presentation in the temple. Be- 
coming a widower, and his only daughter being 
married, he retired, at the age of 53, to the magni- 
ficent Chartreuse of Miraflores, where he took the 
final vows, in 1634, and spent the rest of his life in 
the diligent performance of his monastic duties, and 
in the production of religious pictures. Amongst 


the latter, were fifteen large compositions on the ch. x . 
life of St Bruno, into one of which, the " Appearing 
of St. Peter," he introduced his own portrait ; eleven 
martyrdoms of members and ten pictures of saints 
and generals of the order ; a Crucifixion ; and some 
pictures of the Blessed Virgin. But, like a true 
Carthusian, he shunned the cheerful haunts of love 
and affection; and his favourite subjects^ says 
Bosarte,^ were cruel martyrdoms, full of livid flesh 
and grisly wounds. In drawing and composition, 
says Cean Bermudez, he was considerably skilled ; 
but his colouring was opaque; and although good 
passages were to be found in his works, his style, 
on the whole, was somewhat feeble. He died at 
Miraflores, on the 24th of November, 1637. 

Diego de Polo was bom at Burgos, in 1620, and Diego de 
coming to Madrid, became the scholar of Lanchares.^ menor. 
He afterwards copied the works of Titian, at the 
Escorial, and acquired a fine Venetian-like manner 
of colouring. For the Alcazar, at Madrid, he painted 
two of the ancient kings of Spain — Bamiro II. and 
Ordoilo 11. ; for the Convent of Mercy, a picture of 
the Baptism of Christ ; and an Annunciation for the 
church of S**- Maria. Some of his works, executed 
for private persons, had the honour of being admired 
by Velazquez ; and, but for his early death, in 1655, 

1 Viajt, p. 334, « Sapm, p. 827. 



CH. X. 

Diego do 
Polo el 

Jaan de 






he might have attained a high rank amongst the 
painters of Castile. He is called the younger, to 
distinguish him from his uncle, another Diego de 
Polo, bom at Burgos, in 1560, who painted a St. 
Jerome for the Escorial,^ and died at Madrid, 1600. 

Juan de Espinosa was a townsman of Puente de 
la Reyna, in Navarre, who was employed, in 1653, 
to paint twenty-four pictures of the life of the 
patron saint, for the monastery of St. Millan, at 
Yuso. He executed twelve, with tolerable skill, 
but, dying before his task was accomplished, the 
rest were furnished by Fray Juan Rizi.* 

Castile produced no sculptor of any great note 
during this reign. Jorge Manuel Theotocopuli, 
son and scholar of El Greco,* practised the art, as 
well as that of architecture, with some success ; and 
was appointed, in 1625, to the post of sculptor and 
architect to the Chapter. To the Cathedral he 
added the dome and lantern of the Muzarabic 
chapel,* notwithstanding the opposition of Fray 
Alberto de la Madre de Dios, a barefooted Carmelite 
who dabbled in architecture, and asserted that his 
design could not be carried into execution. He 
died in 1631, leaving, imfinished, the octagon 
chapel, which he was carrying on according to the 

^ He might have been mentioned in chap. v. p. 323. 

• Supra, p. 831. • Ibid. chap. v. p. 328. 

* Ibid. chap. iL p. 108. 



plans of the younger Nicolas de Vergara,^ It was 
completed, after various delays, under the direction 
of Pedro de la Torre, a sculptor and architect of 
Madrid, who also furnished to the Italian Fanelli'^ 
a model for the throne of Our Lady of the Sagrario. 
Domingo de Rioja was a sculptor of Madrid, who, 
with his scholar Manuel Contreras, wrought on the 
bronze castings from the antique executed under the 
superintendence of Velazquez for the Alcazar.' For 
that palace he likewise modelled several bronze 
lions for ornamental purposes; and a Crucifix and 
a statue of St. Peter, for the convent of San Juan 
de Dios.* He died in 1656. Luis de Uamosa, a 
scholar of Gregorio Hernandez, flourished at Valla- 
dolid. Having assisted his master in several of his 
best works, he completed the altar of St. Benedict, 
which the great sculptor had left unfinished at his 
death, for the monastery of Sahagun, and to the 
perfect satisfaction of the fraternity. 

Luis Fernandez de la Vega was bom of a good 
family at Llantones, a village of Asturias, about the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. He is sup- 
posed to have studied the art of sculpture under 
Gregorio Hernandez, at Yalladolid, and his works 
had much of the grace, feeling, and correctness 

^ Supra, chap. v. p. 326. > Ibid. chap. Till. p. 666. 

* Ibid, chaps, viii. p. 667, and ix. pp. 768-9. 

* Ibid. chap. yiii. p. 669. 

CH. X. 

Pedro de la 

de Rioja. 

LttiB de 

Luis Fer- 
nandez de 
la Vega. 



CH. X. 

and Cata- 

which belonged to the works of that fine master. 
In 1629 he married DofLa Maria de Arguelles, 
apparently at Gijon, where, in 1636, he held the 
post of judge of the nobles. In that year, also, he 
received from the Captain Fernando de Vald^s a 
water-mill and a piece of land planted with fruit- 
trees, as the price of two statues^ of St. Joseph and 
St. Anthony, which he had carved for that gentle- 
man's family chapel in the church of Our Lady 
at Gijon. In 1640 he finished a medallion for the 
chapel of the Vigils in the Cathedral of Oviedo, 
which likewise was enriched with some specimens 
of his chisel, by Cean Bermudez esteemed his 
masterpieces. He died at Oviedo, in 1675, and 
was buried in the parish church of San Isidore. 
Many of his carvings adorned the shrines of Gijon. 

Arragon and Catalonia, as usual, have but a 
meagre catalogue of artists in this reign. Fran- 
cisco Ximenes was bom at Tarazona, in 1598, 
and having studied at Bome, came afterwards to 
Zaragoza, and painted some pictures for the Cathe- 
dral of the Sen. He afterwards went to Teruel, and 
painted for its Cathedral an "Adoration of the 
Kings," which Cean Bermudez suspects him to have 
copied from the print of Rubens' fine work on the 
same subject at Madrid.^ Dying at Zaragoza in 

^ Supra, chap. viiL p. 641. 


1666, from over-exertion in finishing a large picture cel x . 
within a given time, he left his substance to found 
a chapelry for sons, and a dowry-fund for orphan 
daughters, of painters. His colouring was better 
than his drawing; but his works being chiefly in 
fresco and distemper, few of them long survived 
him. His visit to Teruel deprived that city of an Antonio 

^ '' Biaqnort. 

able Valencian painter, Antonio Bisquert, a scholar 
of the Bibaltas, who having married and settled 
there in 1620, died of grief at seeing a stranger 
chosen in preference to himself to paint an altar- 
piece for the Cathedral. This soft-hearted artist had 
executed many esteemed works for the churches 
and convents, especially a picture of "St. Ursula 
and her Virgins," for the Cathedral, in 1628, and 
a "Dead Christ in the arms of the Virgin," an 
excellent copy from Sebastian del Piombo, in the 
church of Santiago.^ None of his pictures are 
known to exist elsewhere. 

Juan de Galvan, a man of family and fortune, Joande 


was bom at Lucena in Aragon, in 1598. He 
learned to paint, first at Zaragoza, and afterwards 
at Home ; and for the Cathedral of the Sen, in the 
former city, he executed, at his return from Italy, 
the " Nativity of Our Lord," " S^ Justa, and S^ 
Rufina,"* and other large pictures, which Cean 

1 Handifook [1843], PP- 873-4 [edition 1855, P- ^^PJ 
' Supra, chap. vi. p. 367. 



CH. X. 

Miguel de 

Bermudez praises for their colouring. Being a man 
of studious and solitary habits, he could not bear 
to be interrupted or even seen at work : he was, 
however, respected by his fellow-citizens of Zaragoza, 
where he drove about the streets, says Palomino, in 
his coach, with much ostentation and grandeur,* 
and died in 1658, leaving a plentiful estate. 

Jusepe Martinez^ had a son who was his equal 
in artistic ability, and who, after studying painting 
at Rome, became a Carthusian at Aula Dei, where 
he painted many fine works on the life of S. 

Miguel de Espinosa enjoyed sufficient reputation 
as a painter at Zaragoza to be invited in 1654, in 
that capacity, to Yuso, by the Benedictine fathers. 
In their monastery of San Millan de la CogoUa he 
painted Our Lord's miracles of the water turned 
into wine, and of the multiplication of the loaves 

^ Palomino, torn. iii. p. 471. 

• Supra, chap. ix. pp. 737-9. 

s [The late] Don Valentin Carderera had his bust portrait, standing 
at his easel, on which is an unfinished portrait of his father. The son is 
a long-haired, pretty lad, the sire a good-looking, middle-aged man, with 
grey hair and large reddish moustache. The palette,'.brushes, and tiento 
in the young man's hand, are admirably done, as is the whole picture. 
On the comer of the easel or table on which the painting rests there is 
written, in the character of the seventeenth century, Jusse^ Martinez, 
Fintor del Rey Espaflol, aHo 16S2, on the white ruffle of the son, su hijo 
murio Cartuxo, ano 1679. It was the intention of Don Valentin Carderera 
to present it to the Academy of San Luis at Zaragoza. I possess a copy 
which was made by Don Valentin in or before 1849, when I saw it at 
Madrid with the original, which is about life-size. 



and fishes, and other works; and the expenses of 
his journey thither and back were defrayed by the 
brotherhood. Pietro Micier was an Italian, who 
flourished as a painter at Zaragoza in this century, 
and amassed a considerable fortune, which he left 
for charitable purposes to the churches for which 
he had painted ; and Pablo Micier, a judge of the 
audience and an amateur, and one Urzanqui, were 
native artists of considerable reputation in the same 

Josef and Juan Valles were brothers, and engra- 
vers, who flourished at Zaragoza during this reign. 
The first engraved the brilliant and elaborate 
title-pages to Leonardo de Argensola's "Annals of 
Aragon " ^ and Sellan's " Excellencies of Prayer ; " * 
and the second engraved, from a design by Jusepe 
Martinez, a commonplace frontispiece to a book 
on the birth-place of San Lorenzo, by that prolific 
and versatile writer. Dr. Juan de Ustarroz.* 

In Catalonia, about the middle of the century, 

^ Primera Parte de los Anales de Aragon que prosigue los del Secret. 
Ger, Qurita detde el aHo 15 16, por el Dr. Bartholom^ Leonardo de Argen- 
Bola, Rector de Villahermosa, Chronista del Rey, &c., fol., ^^ragoQO, 

* Exceleneiae del ofido Divino y mdtivos para rezarte con mayor 
devocion, por D. ViDcencio Sellan, Canonigo de Qansgo^, foL en el 
Hospital Real y General de N**. S". de S*». Rngracia de ^aragofa, 
alio 16—. 

* Defenea de la Pairia de S, Lorenzo, por el Dr. Jaan Fran. Andres de 
Ustarroz, 4to, Zaragoza, 1638. 

CH. X. 





Joseph and 



CH. X. 






de Santa 

at the Chartreuse of the Scala Dei, Fray Samon 
Berenguer, afterwards prior, painted a series of small 
pictures for the cloister, on subjects taken from the 
history of St. Bruno and the order, for which he is 
said to have made copies at Faular from the cele- 
brated works of Carducho,^ whose style he imitated 
with tolerable success. Francisco Gassen, and Fedro 
Cuquet, painters of Barcelona, executed a series of 
pictures on the life of St. Francis de Faula, for the 
convent of Minim friars in that city ; works which 
displayed considerable genius in composition, and 
knowledge of colouring, although they had suflFered 
severely, when Cean Bermudez saw them, by " the 
havoc of repair."^ Both of these artists died at 
Barcelona: Gassen in 1658, Cuquet in 1666. At 
Taragona, a lady named Angelica, painted the 
illuminations of the Cathedral choir-books, in 
1636, with great neatness and skilL 

Francisco de Santa Cruz, a sculptor, bom at 
Barcelona in 1586, is believed to have studied his 
art in Italy. He executed some excellent works in 
his native city, of which the most esteemed were the 
noble altar of the conventual church of the Holy 
Trinity, of which the principal group represented 
the dead Saviour in the arms of the Almighty ; the 

^ Sapnip chap. vii. p. 487. 

» Sir Thomas Lawrence, in a letter to Sir D. Wilkie, ii/e of WUkie, 
vol. IL p. 492. 



stone statue of St. Francis Xavier, in a florid 
canopied niche at the comer of the Jesuits' church, 
now the church of San Belem. The comer joins on 
the Calle del Carmen. The saint holds a bunch of 
lilies in his left hand, and a crucifix in his right. It 
is pretty good. The elegant figure of the young 
Jesus stands on a globe, embracing His cross, over 
the rich portal which opens on the public walk 
called the Eambla. His carvings are also to be met 
with in other churches of the province. He died at 
Barcelona in 1658- Agustino Pujol of Villafranca, 
who is also supposed to have gone to Italy for 
instruction, was likewise an able sculptor. Cean 
Bermudez speaks with high admiration of the know- 
ledge of composition displayed in his bas-reliefs, 
and the grandeur of his draperies. At Barcelona he 
made a noble design for a high altar for the church 
of St. Mary of the Sea, but the work being entrusted 
to an intriguing rival, who carved galley-stems in 
the arsenal, he retired in disgust to Tarragona, where 
he died in an hospital, in 1643, aged 58 years. He 
executed a fine Cracifix, and other works, for the 
Carthusians of Scala Dei, and several saintly statues 
for the parish church of Martorel. 

A fairer field of art awaits us at Valencia. X6tiva, 
an ancient town of that delicious region, hung 
amongst cypresses and palms on a hill overlooking 
the vale of the Guadamar, the cradle of the Borgias, 

OH. X. 



Josef de 


CH. X. and so faithful to the house of Austria, in the war of 
the succession, that the victorious Bourbon changed 
its name to San Felipe,^ is also notable as the birth- 
place of the painter Josef de Ribera. Neapolitan 
writers have claimed him as a native of Qallipoli on 
the Gulf of Otranto ; and they assert that he was the 
son of a Spanish officer of its fortress, by a wife of 
that place, and that his practice of vmting himself 
on his pictures, " Spaniard of Xd^tiva," arose from 
mere vainglory, and a desire to show that, by blood 
at least, he belonged to the ruling nation.* Cean 
Bermudez, however, has set the question at rest, by 
discovering the register of his baptism, by which it 
appears that he was bom at XAtiva on the 1 2th of 
January 1588, and that his parents were named 
Luis Ribera and Margarita Gil. They sent him, in 
his boyhood, to be educated for a learned profession, 
at the university of Valencia, which, however, the 
bent of his inclination led him to forsake for the 
school of Francisco Bibalta. His youthful talents 
there obtained for him s6me distinction; and some 
of his works of this period, were said, although on 
doubtful authority, to hang in the library of the 
convent of the Temple. 

1 The original name was restored, by a decree of Cortes, in 1837. 
Widdrington's Spain and the Spaniards in 1843, vol. 11. p. 328. 

' Bernardo de Dominlci, Vite dei Pittori, ' Scultori, ed Arehitetti, 
Napolitani, 3 tomes 4to, Napoli, 1742-3, tom. iii. p. 1-2, where his fother 
is called Antonio Ribera, and his mother Dorotea Caterina IndellL 



By what means he found his way to Italy, history 
does not inform us. But it is certain that he was 
at Borne at a very early age, and in a very desti- 
tute condition ; subsisting on crusts, and clad in 
rags, and endeavouring to improve himself in art by 
copying the frescoes on the fa9ades of palaces, or at 
the shrines at the comers of streets. His indigence 
and his industry attracting the notice of a com- 
passionate Cardinal, who, from his coach-window, 
happened to see him at work, that dignitary pro- 
vided him with clothes, and with food and lodging 
in his own palace. Bibera, however, needed the 
spur of want to arouse him to exertion ; he found 
that to be clad in decent raiment, and to fare plenti- 
fully every day, weakened his powers of application ; 
and therefore, after a short trial of a life in clover, 
beneath the shelter of the purple, he returned to 
his poverty and to his studies in the streets. The 
benevolent Cardinal was, at first, highly incensed 
at his departure, and when he next saw him, rated 
him soundly as an ungrateful little Spaniard; but 
being informed of his motives, and observing his 
diligence, he admired his stoical resolution, and 
renewed his offers of protection, which, however, 
Bibera thankfully declined. This adventure, and 
his abilities, soon distinguished him amongst the 
crowd of young artists : he became known by the 
name which still belongs to him, Lo Spagnoletto, 

CH. X. 









CH. X. 


Goes to 

and as an imitator of Michael Angelo Caravaggio, 
the bold handling of whose works, and their power- 
ful effects of light and shade, pleased his strong but 
somewhat coarse mind. But he also copied several 
works of Rafael, and carefully studied the works 
of the Garacci in the Famese palace, with much 
benefit, as he himself confessed, to his style.^ 
Having scraped a little money together, he like- 
wise visited Farma and Modena, to examine the 
masterpieces of Correggio, with which those cities 
abounded ; ^ and some of the Spaniard's subsequent 
works, those in the chapel of S^ Maria Bianca, in 
the church of the Incurables at Naples, were con- 
sidered by the critics as admirable imitations of the 
soft Correggiesque style.* 

Finding Bome overstocked with artists, and 
having had a quarrel with Domenichino, which, 
perhaps, rendered it unpleasant for him to remain 
in the same city, he determined to remove to Naples. 
His purse, at this time, was so low that he was 
obliged to leave his cloak in pawn at his inn, in 
order to clear his score, or to obtain money for the 
journey. It was probably in the southern capital 
that he became the scholar of Caravaggio, a ruffianly 
painter of ruffians, who had fled thither to escape 

^ Dominici, torn. iL p. 3. 

• Dominicl ; and Lanzi, torn. iv. p. 107. 

' Supra, chap. ix. p. 756. 



punishment for a homicide which he had perpe- 
trated at Rome. He cannot, however, have been 
very long benefited by the instruction, or depraved 
by the example of this master, who spent the latter 
portion of his turbulent life at Malta, and escaped 
from deserved durance in that island, only to die 
of a sunstroke, in 1609. Fortune now began to 
smile upon him, and threw him in the way of a rich 
picture-dealer, who gave him some employment, and 
was so charmed with his genius that he offered him 
his beautiful and well-dowered daughter in marriage. 
The Valencian, being no less proud than poor, at 
first resented the proposal as an unseasonable 
pleasantry upon his forlorn condition; but at last 
finding that it was made in good faith, he took the 
good the gods provided, and at once stepped out of 
solitary indigence into the possession of a fair wife, 
a comfortable home, a present field of profitable 
labour, and a prospect of future opulence. 

Ease and prosperity now rather stimulated than 
relaxed his exertions. Choosing for his subject the 
Flaying of St. Bartholomew, he painted that horrible 
martyrdom, in a composition with figures of life-size, 
with a fidelity to nature so accurate and frightful, 
that when exposed to the public in the street — per- 
haps at the door of the picture-dealer — ^it immedi- 
ately attracted a crowd of shuddering gazers. The 
place of exhibition being within view of the royal 

CH. X. 

Marries a 
rich wife. 

tion to the 



CH. X. 


Faotion of 
headed by 


palace, the eccentric Viceroy Don Pedro Giron, 
Duke of Ossuna/ who chanced to be taking the 
air on his balcony, inquired the cause of the unusual 
concourse, and ordered the picture and the artist to 
be brought into his presence. Being well pleased 
with both, he bought the one for his own gallery, 
and appointed the other his court-painter, with a 
monthly salary of sixty doubloons, and the super- 
intendence of all decorations in the palace. 

The Neapolitans were equally astonished and 
chagrined at the promotion of their Spagnoletto ; 
and began to stand in awe of his well-known arro- 
gance and malice, which they had formerly derided 
or resented. Looking upon him as the possessor of 
the Viceroy's ear, they immediately began to ply 
him with gifts and adulation. He was soon at the 
head of a faction of painters, that endeavoured, by 
intrigue and violence, and for a while with signal 
success, to command a monopoly of public favour. 
Amongst these, Belisario Corenzio, by birth a Greek, 
and a scholar of the Cavaliere d'Arpino, was pre- 
eminent in audacity and address.^ His impudent 
depreciations of a Madonna, painted by Annibal 
Caracci, for a new church of the Jesuits, induced 
those tasteless fathers to transfer a large commission 

^ For some excellent stories of this whimsical humourist and lover of 
practical jokes, see Voyage en Espagne, i2mo, Cologne, 1667, pp. 3i6-32a 
> Dominici, torn. iL p. 296. 



for pictures &om that artist to himself; and his 
persecutions finally drove the great Bolognese from 
Naples, and caused him to undertake the fatal 
journey to Rome, in the dog-days, which ended in 
his death. By fawning on Ribera, and by giving 
him sumptuous dinners, he obtained the place of 
painter to the Viceroy, an honour which he might 
have honourably attained, by means of his pencil 
Gianbattista Caracciolo,^ a native Neapolitan, and a 
tolerable imitator of the style of Annibal Caracci, 
relying on his own favour with the nobility, at first 
withstood the Valencian and Greek usurpers ; but 
finding himself overborne by their superior interest, 
at length consented to join their villainies.* 

The conspiracy of these three miscreants, to get 
themselves employed to paint the great chapel of St. 
Januarius, is one of the most curious and disgraceful 
passages in the history of Italian art^' Like warring 
priests, they conceived that a pious end justified 
the use of the basest means. They hesitated not 
at fraud, violence, or murder, in order to obtain an 
occasion of preaching, by the silent eloquence of the 
pencil, the truths and the charities of the Christian 
faiths The chapel is that sumptuous portion of the 
Cathedral of Naples, known as the Treasury, rich in 

OH. X. 




ContMt for 
the ohapel 
of St. 

^ Sometimes called Battistiello or Battistelli. 

* Dominici, torn, ii p. 281. ' Lanzi, tom. ii. pp. 323-5. 



CH. X. 



Gesd and 



marble and gold, and, in the opinion of the faithful, 
yet richer in its two celebrated flasks of the con- 
gealed blood of St. Januarius. The commissioners 
to whom the selection of the artists was left seem 
to have been men of some taste, but still greater 
timidity. They first entrusted the task to the 
Cavaliere d'Arpino, then at work at the Chartreuse 
of Naples. Him Bibera and his crew immediately 
assailed with all kinds of persecution ; and at last 
drove him to take shelter with the Benedictines 
of Monte Cassino. Guido was next chosen. His 
servant was, soon after, soundly thrashed by two 
•hired bravos, and ordered to tell his master that the 
same treatment was in store for himself, if he laid 
a brush upon the walls of St. Januarius; a hint 
which drove him also from the city. The dangerous 
honour was then accepted by Gessi, an able scholar 
of Guido. He arrived at Naples with two assistants, 
named Buggieri and Menini, who were soon after- 
wards inveigled on board a galley in the bay, and 
were never more heard of. The commissioners now 
gave in : they allotted the frescoes of the chapel to 
the Greek and Neapolitan ruffians, Corenzio and 
Caracciolo, and the altar-pieces to the Spaniard, who 
actually commenced their labours. But, either be- 
cause they had discovered the guilt of these wretches, 
or because they repented of the choice from motives 
of taste, or from mere caprice, the commissioners 



again changed their minds, and with a levity worthy ch. x. 
of their former pusillanimity, ordered the faction to 
desist, and to make way for Domenichino. Fore- ^^;^' 
seeing the danger to which he would be exposed, his 
employers offered him a handsome remuneration, and 
they obtained from the Viceroy an idle menace 
against any one who should molest him. The 
triumvirate, enraged at their discomfiture, were now 
more inveterate and more active than ever. No 
sooner had the unfortunate Domenichino taken 
possession of the field, than they commenced their 
offensive operations. They harassed him with anony- 
mous letters full of dark hints and threats ; they 
slandered his character ; they talked contemptuously 
of his works ; they bribed the plasterers to mix ashes 
with the mortar on which his frescoes were to be 
painted. Ribera persuaded the Viceroy to order 
certain pictures of the poor artist, and treacherously 
carried them off before his slow and fastidious hand 
had brought them to perfection, or re-touched and 
ruined them before they met the great man's eye. 
Growing desperate, the victim, who was now some- 
what old and corpulent, retired from the contest, 
and nearly killed himself by a gallop to Rome ; but 
being, in an evil hour, persuaded to return, he 
resumed his labours and his miseries; and, soon 
afi;er, died of a broken heart, not without suspicion 
of poison, in 1 64 1. It is a satisfaction to know that 



CH. X« 


story of the 
close of 

the conspirators did not, after all, gain possession of 
the chapel, for which they had fought vnth so much 
wicked energy. The Neapolitan died in the same 
year as Domenichino; the Greek, abready an old 
man, two years later. The Valencian painted only 
a single altar-piece, a grand composition, on a sub- 
ject well suited to his gloomy genius, and represent- 
ing St. Januarius, amongst his baffled tormentors, 
issuing from the furnace unscathed, like a second 
Daniel, at Nola, in the days of Diocletian.^ Lan- 
franco executed the fine frescoes of the dome, 
and finished the chapel; and thus an artist, who, 
although a friend, does not seem to have been an 
accomplice of the faction, reaped the chief benefit 
of its crimes. 

The Neapolitans, who hated Bibera for his country 
and for his arrogance, with true Italian hatred, have 
a tradition which brings his story to a close with 
somewhat of poetical justice.* When Don Juan of 
Austria came to Naples in 1648, they say that the 
Valencian entertained him at an ostentatious musical 
party, and that he became enamoured of Maria Rosa, 
the painter^s eldest daughter, who was remarkable 
for her beauty and grace. Dancing with her at 
balls, and visiting her under pretence of admiring 

^ Villegas, Flos Sanctorum^ p. 446. The picture is described at great 
length in Dominicl, torn. iiL p. S. 
* Dominici, torn. iiL pp. 20, 21. 


her father's pictures, the Prince sighed and the ch. x . 
maiden yielded ; he carried her to Sicily ; and when 
his passion was cloyed, he placed her in a convent 
at Palermo. Stnng with shame, the father sank into 
profound melancholy : he retired to a house at Pausi- 
lippo, where he and his wife spent the time in con- 
jugal strife and recrimination on the subject of their 
disaster ; and, finally, he forsook his family and dis- 
appeared from Naples, leaving his end a mystery. 

This story is treated as a mere fable by Cean SpanUb 

" acoonnt. 

Bermudez, who, departing from his usual candour, 
is silent as to the misdeeds of his countryman. 
According to him, the life of the Valendan at Naples 
glided on in an uninterrupted flow of prosperity. 
The unknown adventurer, who had stolen into the 
city without a cloak to his back or a real in his 
pocket, occupied sumptuous apartments in the vice- 
regal palace ; he maintained a large retinue of liveried 
lackeys ; and his wife took the air in her coach, 
with a waiting gentleman to attend upon her, like 
the proudest dame that glittered in the Strada di 
Toledo. Six hours each morning he devoted to 
the labours of the pencil ; the rest of the day was 
given to the pleasures of life, to visiting or receiving 
the best company of Naples. Whatever were his 
quarrels with Italian artists, he was always on ex- 
cellent terms with the Spanish Viceroys. Each 
successor of Ossuna — Alba, the art-loving Monterey, 



ca X. 


Arcos, smnptaoos Medina de las Torres, stem Oflate 
— ^was, in tnm, his friend and mnnificent patron. 
In 1630 the Boman Academy of St. Lake enrolled 
him amongst its members. In 1644 Innocent X. 
sent the cross of the Order of Christ ^ to the per- 
petrator or instigator of crimes which merited the 
galleys. And in 1656 he died at Naples, in the 
enjoyment of riches, honours, and tame. 

Bibera seems to have been a man of considerable 
social talent, lively in conversation, and dealing in 
playful wit and amusing sarcasm. His Neapolitan 
biographer ' relates that two Spanish officers, visit- 
ing at his house one day, entered upon a serious 
discussion upon alchemy. The host, finding their 
talk somewhat tedious, gravely informed them that 
he himself happened to be in possession of the 
philosopher's stone, and that they might, if they 
pleased, see his way of using it next morning at his 
studio. The military adepts were punctual to the 
appointment, and found their friend at work, not in 
a mysterious laboratory, but at his easel, on a half- 
length picture of St Jerome. Entreating them to 
restrain their eagerness, he painted steadily on, 

1 Dominici, torn. iiL p. i8, conld not discover the order of knighthood 
to which Ribera belonged, although there remained traditionary evidence 
that he enjoyed knightly rank. I have followed Cean Bermudez in adopt- 
ing the statement of Palomino, torn. iiL p. 481. 

> Dominici, torn. iiL p. 18. 


finished his picture, sent it out by his servant, and 
received a small rouleau in return. This he broke 
open in the presence of his visitors, and throwing 
ten golden doubloons on the table, said, " Learn of 
me how gold is to be made ; I do it by painting, 
you by serving his Majesty; diligence in business 
is the true alchemy." The officers departed some- 
what crestfallen, neither relishing the jest, nor 
reaping much benefit from the enunciation of a 
precept which doubtless had ever been the rule of 
their predatory practice at Naples. 

Although the Spagnoletto was diminutive in 
stature, — whence his popular appellation, — he pos- 
sessed considerable personal advantages ; his com- 
plexion was dark, his features well-formed and 
pleasing, and his air and presence befitted the great 
name which he bore. His portrait — tolerably 
engraved by Alegre,^ in which he has depicted him- 
self with flowing' cavalier-like locks, and holding in 
his hand a sketch of a grotesque head — is widely 
known by prints. The name of his rich wife was 
Leonora Cortese, or Cortes ; she loved to display her 
charms and her finery at the gala and the revel ; and 
she bore her husband five children, two of whom 
died in infancy. Their son, Antonio, lived the easy 
life of a private gentleman, in the enjoyment of his 

^ Amongst the EspaHoles Ilustres, 

CH. X. 

His per- 






CH. X. father's gains ; their two daughters, Maria Rosa and 
Annicca, were both remarkable for their beauty, and 
the latter became the wife of Don Tommaso Manzano, 
who held an appointment in the War Office.^ Ribera 
did not remain contented all his life with his apart- 

houfle, ments in the viceregal palace ; and his last house 
was a spacious and sumptuous mansion in front of 
the church of St. Francis Xavier, and at the comer 
of the Strada di Nard6, which afterwards became the 
residence of his fortunate scholar, Luca Giordano. 

schoian. Of the disciplcs of the Valencian, none more success- 
fully imitated his style than Giovanni D6, whose 
works were frequently confounded with his; and 
Aniello Falcone, the battle-painter, and the great 
Salvator Bosa himself, likewise received instruction 
in his school 

fop^ty Few Italian artists are better known in Italy than 
Ribera. At Naples no new church with any preten- 
sions to splendour, no convent with any character 
for taste, was thought complete without some of his 
gloomy studies. The Jesuits employed him largely 
in their stately temples dedicated to Jesus and St. 
Francis Xavier; for the Carthusians he painted a 
celebrated " Descent from the Cross ; " noble votaries 
of St. Januarius adorned their palaces with his pic- 
tures of that holy and incombustible being ; ' and his 

^ Dominici, torn. iii. p. 19. 

* Supra, p. 896. 



scraggy sackcloth-girt St. Jeromes and red-eyed 
St. Peters were scattered over the whole wilderness 
of Neapolitan shrines. In Spain he was held in 
almost equal honour; and his works were more 
widely diffused than those of Velazquez himself. 
Philip IV. heing one of his most constant patrons, 
his works abounded at the Escorial and the Alcazar, 
and were also fashionable in the churches and con- 
vents of Madrid. The nuns of S*^ Isabel hung over 
their high altar one of his Virgins of the Conception, 
in which they caused Claudio Coello to re-paint the 
head because they had heard the scandal about Don 
Juan of Austria, and believed their Immaculate Lady 
to be a portrait of the peccant Maria Rosa.^ Sala- 
manca possessed a number of his pictures in the 
fine nunnery built out of the spoils of provinces by 
Monterey, for whom they were painted. Specimens 
of his pencil were likewise to be found at Vittoria 
and Granada, Cordoba, Valladolid, and Zaragoza. 

His ordinary style is familiar to all Europe. At 
St. Petersburg, as weU as at Madrid, it is pro- 
verbial how 

''Spagnoletto tainted 
His brush with aU the blood of aU the sainted." > 

No Van Huysum ever lingered over the dewy breast 
of a rose, or the downy wing of a tiger-moth, no 

* Supra, p. 896. 

' Byron, Den Juan^ canto xiii st 71. 

CH. X. 

and in 


for horrors. 


cn-_^' Vanderwerf ever dwelt on the ivory limbs of Ariadne, 
with more fondness than was displayed by Eibera in 
elaborating the wrinkles of St. Anthony the Hermit, 
or the bloodstained bosom of the martyr Sebastian, 
bristling with the shafts of Diocletian's archers. 
His strength lay in the delineation of anatomy, his 
pleasure in seizing the exact expression of the most 
hideous pain. St. Bartholomew flayed alive, now 
in the Queen of Spain's gallery,* Cato of Utica tear- 
ing out his own entrails, in the Louvre,* are master- 
pieces of horror, too frightful to be remembered 
without a shudder. Of Ixion on the wheel, in the 
Royal Gallery of Madrid," the tale is told, that being 
bought for a large price by Burgomaster Uffel of 
Amsterdam, it so wrought on the imagination of his 
good dame in her pregnancy, that she brought forth 
a babe with hands incurably clenched, like those of 
Juno's lover in the picture. The shocked parents 
immediately got rid of their Ixion ; it was carried 
back to Italy, and, in time, found its way to the 
royal collection in Spain.* It is a curious example of 
the perversity of the human mind, that subjects like 
these should have been the chosen recreations of an 
eye that opened in infancy on the palms and the fair 

1 Catdlogo [1843], No. 42 [edition 1889, No. 989]. 

^ GaL Esp., No. 241. [Louis-Philippe collection, sold 1853.] 

s Catdlogo [1843], Na 484 [edition 1889, No. 1005]. 

^ Palomino, torn. iiL p. 464. 



women of Valencia, and rested for half a lifetime 
on the splendours of the Bay of Naples. The jealous 
implacable Spaniard was indeed cursed with the evil 
eye, seeing frightful visions in the midst of sunshine 
and beautv — 

" Omnia subfascans mortis nigrore." ^ 

He did not, however, always paint in this savage 
and revolting style. At the Escorial there is a large 
picture by him of Jacob watering the flock of Laban,* 
in which the figure of the shepherd-patriarch is re- 
markable for its dignity and grace. The Cathedral 
of Valencia has an " Adoration of the Shepherds," 
a subject which he often painted, wherein the dark- 
eyed mother of God is a model of calm and stately 
beauty. But perhaps the picture which best displays 
the vigour of his pencil is that of ** Jacob's Dream,'' in 
the Queen of Spain's gallery.* The composition con- 
sists of nothing more than a wayworn monk, in his 
brown frock, lying asleep beneath a stump of a tree, 
with his head pillowed on a stone; whilst the 
phantom-ladder and a few angel shapes are dimly 
indicated afar oflf, in the clouds, merely to give a 
name to the picture. The deep slumber of weariness 

^ Lucretius, lib. iiL 1. 39. 

* In the Loavre there is a repetition of this picture, ascribed to Murillo. 
Gal. Esp., No. 146 [sold 1853]. 

* Hepeated in the Louvre. GaL Esp., No. 220 [sold 1853]. 
^ Catdlogo [1843], ^o- ii^ [edition 1S89, No. 982]. 

OH. X. 

Works of a 
more pleas- 
ing char- 




CH. X. 


was never more exactly represented : you pause 
instinctively in approaching the sleeper, and tread 
softly ; you think you see his bosom heave, and hear 
his measured respiration. 

Ribera painted portraits in a style which few artists 
have excelled. In the National Museum at Madrid 

there is a full-length picture of the Duke of Modena, 
doubtless the friend and sitter of Velazquez,^ a 
handsome olive-complexioned prince, in a suit of 
black velvet and an ample black cloak ; and a half- 
length of a military commander, in a buff coat and 
with spectacles of the most modish magnitude on 

* Supra, chap. ix. pp. 726, 755. 


his nose ; ^ both ascribed to his pencil, and executed ch. x > 
with a force and spirit which are worthy of the 
great master of Castile, and render his atrabilarious 
jealousy of other artists quite unaccountable and 
inexcusable. His sketches, executed with the pen, sketchM. 
or with red chalk, were finished with great care, 
and highly esteemed by collectors. He etched Etching*, 
twenty-six plates^ from his own pictures or designs, 
with much neatness. Of this series, Cean Bermudez 
esteemed '' Silenus with Satyrs and Bacchantes " ' as 
the best and rarest; and there is also a spirited 
portrait of Don Juan of Austria, on horseback, 
with a view of Naples in the background, signed 
''Jusepe de Rivera, f. 1648," in which the head 
was afterwards changed by another hand to that 
of the bastard's half-brother Charles II., and the 
date to 1670.^ Several of these etchings bear the 
painter's monogram, ^^&^ Ji^ 

Est^ban March was bom at the end of the i^uban 
sixteenth century at Valencia, where he passed his 
life in the practice of his profession as a painter. 
His master was Pedro Orrente,* from whom he 
learned to colour with somewhat of Venetian 

^ Supra, chap. ix. p. 751, note 2. * [See supra, chap. ix. p. 701.] 

• Le Feintre Graveur, par Adam Bartsch, 20 tomes, 8vo, Vienne, 
1803-21, torn. XX. pp. 79-87. Bartsch enumerates only eighteen of 
Ribera's etchings, besides one which he mentions as of doubtful au- 

* [Supra, chap. vii. p. 585.] 

VOL. lu. p 




CH. X. 

method of 


richness. Eccentric in character, and violent in 
temperament, he appears to have resembled the 
elder Herrera, as well in his reckless habits of life, 
as in his dashing style of painting. Battles being 
his favourite subjects, his studio was hung round 
with pikes, cutlasses, javelins, and other muniments 
of war, which he used in a very peculiar and 
boisterous manner. As the mild and saintly Joanes 
was wont to prepare himself for his daily task by 
prayer and fasting, so his riotous countryman used 
to excite his imagination to the proper creative 
pitch by beating a drum, or blowing a trumpet, 
and then assaulting the walls of his chamber with 
sword and buckler, laying about him, like another 
Don Quixote, with a blind enei^ that told severely 
on the plaster and the furniture, and drove his 
terrified scholars or assistants to seek safety in 
flight. Having thus lashed himself into a sufficient 
frenzy, he performed miracles, says Palomino,^ in 
the field of battle-painting; throwing off many 
bold and spirited pictures of Pharaoh and his host 
struggling in the angry waters, or mailed Christians 
quelling the turbaned armies of the Crescent. One 
of his pictures on the first of these subjects is in 
the Queen of Spain's gallery,' which likewise 

1 Palomino, torn, iii p. 476. 

* Catdlogo [1843]* No. 546 [edition 1889, Na 780]. 



possesses an encampment of Turks/ painted by 
him. He delighted in whatever was coarse and 
repulsive, preferring rough unkempt heads, skins 
shrivelled with age and sun, and the bloodshot eye 
of intemperance, to the damask peach-like cheek 
of young beauty, and 

** those doves' eyes, 
which can make gods fonwom." * 

A pair of old leering drunkards, with faces like that 
of Bardolph, as described by Huellen, " all bubukles, 
and whelks, and knobs, and flames o' fire," *' a man 
with a wine-cup, and a woman with a bottle, are 
amongst the most forcible and hideous heads in the 
Royal Gallery of Madrid.* 

He sometimes painted religious subjects, but not 
with the vigour and verisimilitude which he dis- 
played in those of vulgar nature. Palomino, how- 
ever, commends his " Last Supper," executed for the 
church of San Juan del Mercado. For the Fran- 
ciscan friars of Valencia, also, he painted two 
miracles of St. Francis de Paula, representing that 
holy man causing, like another Moses, water to gush 
from a rock, to quench the thirst of certain soldiers, 
and bringing a live lamb out of a kiln of quicklime. 

CH. X. 

Coarse sub- 


> Catdlogo [1843], No. 292 [edition 1889, No. 781]. 

' Coriolanus, act v. sc. 3, U. 27, 28. 

' Henry K.» act iii. sc. 6. 

« Catdlogo [1843], Nob. 316, 318 [edition 1889, Nos. 783-4]. 



CH. X. 

and du- 

In the shaggy beard and attenuated form of St 
Jerome he found a congenial subject,^ which he has 
treated with his usual strength, in a picture now 
in the Queen of Spain's collection. As a painter of 
battles, he was undoubtedly an artist of high merit ; 
and although few critics will agree with Palomino, 
that his works are ** stupendous, and worthy of 
eternal remembrance," few will withhold from them 
the more measured praise of Cean Bermudez, for 
brilliancy of tone, and for the skill with which the 
dust, smoke, and dense atmosphere of the combat 
are depicted. 

The eccentric and disorderly manners of March 
were not confined to his painting-room. Being of a 
loose and idle disposition, he would work only when 
compelled by want, or when the fit, the cacoethes 
pingendif was strong upon him. At other times he 
absented himself from his house, and kept very late 
hours, to the great annoyance of his wife. Receiv- 
ing him when he came home, on these occasions, 
with the usual conjugal asperity, the poor woman 
drew upon herself the tempest of rage which at 
other times he wreaked upon his walls. She con- 
sulted her confessor as to the best means of reclaim- 
ing him ; and the good man, owning that it was 
a hard case, suggested the obvious and only re- 

* CcUdlogo [1843], No. 544 [edition 1889, No. 782]. 



medies, gentleness and endearments, instead of com- 
plaints and reproaches. This advice she endeavoured 
to follow, but with no good result, " for," says Palo- 
mino, "the wild beast was not to be tamed by 
caresses, and many strange passages took place 
between them, which, being somewhat indecent, I 
forbear to describe." 

He ventures, however, to record one of the least 
objectionable. The painter had gone out betimes 
one day, leaving neither meat nor money in the 
house, and was absent till past midnight, when he 
returned with a few fish, which he insisted on having 
instantly dressed for supper. The wife said there 
was no oil ; and Juan Conchillos, one of the pupils, 
being ordered to fetch some, objected that all the 
shops were shut up. ** Then take linseed-oil," cried 
the impetuous March, " for, 'por Dios^ I will have 
these fish presently fried." The mess was therefore 
served with this unwonted sauce, but no sooner 
tasted than it began to act as a vigorous emetic 
upon the whole party, ** for, indeed," says Palomino 
gravely, "linseed-oil, at all times of a villanous 
flavour, when hot is the very devil." ^ Without more 
ado, the master of the feast threw fish and frying- 
pan out of the window; and Conchillos, knowing 

OH. X. 

of the fish 
fried in 

^ Palomino, torn, iii p. 476. < * Porqne el acey te de linasa gustado ea in- 
fame, y hervido ea nua peate.** He aeema to apeak from experience, and 
I, for one, am willing to take hia word for it 



CH. X. 


his humour, flung the earthen chafing-dish and 
charcoal after them. March was delighted with 
this sally, and embracing the youth, he lifted him 
from the floor, putting him in bodily fear, as he 
told Palomino in his old age, that he was about to 
follow the coals and viands into the street. As for 
the poor weary wife, she thought of her crockery, 
and remarking in a matter-of-fact way, ** What shall 
we have for supper now ? " went to bed ; whither 
her husband, pleased with the frolic of spoiling his 
meal, and breaking his dishes, seems to have 
followed her in a more complacent humour than 
was usual with him. The facetious pranks and 
chamber sword-play of this whimsical man came 
to an end in 1660, when he died, at a good old age, 
in his native city. 

His son and scholar, Miguel March, bom in 1633, 
being thus freed from a thraldom which he and his 
fellow-disciples found suflSciently irksome, went to 
study at Rome. At his return to Valencia, he fol- 
lowed his father's trade of painting battles and 
miracles, but with far less spirit and success. For 
the Capuchin friars and nuns of the city, he executed 
several passages from the life of their patron, St. 
Francis de Paula, and a " Calvary" for the church of 
San Miguel ; and also eight pictures of the Saviour's 
Passion, which perhaps still exist, for the parish 
church of Carcaxente. If a man of less genius than 


his father, he was also less of a savage ; his drawing ch, x . 
and colouring were agreeable ; ^ and he died at 
Valencia in 1670. 

Fray Agustin Leonardo, a native of the kingdom Fny 


of Valencia, is supposed to have taken the habit of Leonardo. 
the Order of Mercy at Xdtiva. In 1620, he was a 
brother of the convent of that order at Puig, near 
Valencia, where he painted for the sacristy four large 
pictures of the finding of the image of Our Lady of 
Puig, an idol of great fame ; the Siege of Valencia, 
and its surrender to King Jayme the Conqueror, 
and the battle of Puig, in which St. George fought 
in person on the side of the Christians. These 
paintings were used in 1 738, to adorn the fa9ade of 
the Valencian convent of Mercy, during the festival 
in which the city celebrated the fourth centenary of 
its deliverance from the infidel. Leonardo afterwards 
visited Seville, where he painted a picture, which 
may perhaps exist in the Museum or elsewhere, of 
Our Lord and the woman of Samaria at the well, 
signed ''Frater Augustinus Leonardo Hispanus, in- 
ventor faciehat Hispali die 4 Junii anno Dni 1624." 
Prieto, General of his order, called him to Madrid 
in 1624-5, when he painted two pictures for the 
great staircase of the convent of Mercy. His works 
possessed some merit, says Cean Bermudez, in draw- 

^ Palomino, torn. iiL p. 554. 

I 9^2 


CH. X. 




ing and composition, but were harshly coloured. He 
was thought to excel in portraituie, and executed a 
likeness of the poet Grabriel Bocingel, who praised 
it in a sonnet, declaring, that between the poet and 
the pictnre it was hard to tell — 

** Qnal el pintado ea, 6 qaal el Yivo." ^ 

The time and place of his death remain uncertain, 
but it probably happened in Valencia soon after 

Jacinto Gerdnimo de Espinosa was the son of 
Rodriguez de Espinosa' and Aldonza li^o, and was 
bom at Cocentayna, on the 20th of July, 1600. He 
became the disciple in painting of his father, and 
is supposed to have also studied both at Valencia 
under Francisco Ribalta, and in Italy. In his 
twenty-third year, he was at Valencia painting a 
picture of Our Lord, known as the " Christ of the 
Rescue," in the convent of S**- Tecla ; and he appears 
to have settled in that city, where he married N. 
de Castro, who died in 1648. In 1638, he painted 
eight large pictures for the cloister, and other works 
for the convent of the Carmelites, for which he was 
paid 800 pounds of Aragonese money. No painter 
was ever more industrious, or more popular, and 

^ For similar eulogies on pictures, by Martial, Lope de Vega, and 
Cowley, see supra, chap. yii. p. 505, and note. 
' Supra, chap. yii. p. 584. 


few more prolific or more pious. The plague ap- ch. x. 
pearing at Valencia in 1647, he placed himself and 
his family under the guardianship of San Luis 
Beltran, who not only preserved, by his intercession, 
the whole household from contc^ion, but cured the 
master of water in the brain. For these benefits, 
therefore, Espinosa vowed to his protector a series 
of pictures, which he placed, in 1655, in San Luis's 
chapel, in the convent of San Domingo. After 
executing pictures for almost every town within the 
dominions of Valencia, he died in that city in 1680, 
and was buried in the church of St. Martin. In 
many of his works he was assisted by his son Miguel Miguel 
Geronimo, who imitated his style with moderate deSepi- 
success, and does not appear to have survived him. 

The Museum of Valencia contains many of his Worki. 
picture, some of high merit, and little inferior to 
the works of the Bibaltas, to which they bear a 
strong family resemblance. One of the finest is 
" Christ appearing to St. Ignatius Loyola," in which 
the character of that stem passionless face is well 
preserved: it is of life size, and signed '' Hieron. 
Jadn^ de Espinosa^ ano 1653." Another excellent 
specimen of his skill, although in a very ruinous 
condition, is the " Communion of Mary Magdalene," 
in which that loving saint is represented kneeling in 
her wonted sackcloth and luxuriant hair, to receive 
the Eucharist from the hands of a priest clad in 



CGS. X. 


crimson robes, very like that gorgeous dalmatique 
still preserved in the Patriarch's college, for which 
it was embroidered by good Queen Margaret.^ St. 
Luis Beltran on his bier, with the priest bending 
over him to kiss his cold hand, probably one of the 
pictures of his thank-offering to the saint,^ is like- 
wise painted in a masterly style. A fourth composi- 
tion, inferior as a work of art to these, and still more 
injured by time, deserves notice as a record of one 
of the most impudent fictions with which priestcraft 
ever encumbered a religious faith. It represents a 
stiff and sturdy Dominican, confronting a mounted 
cavalier, whom he has probably been rebuking for 
his ungodly life, and who, wishing to put an end 
to the sermon, has drawn from his holster a pistol, 
whereof the trigger being pulled converts, not the 
monk into a martyr, but the barrel of the instru- 
ment into a cross, bearing the efiSgy of the crucified 

The licentiate Garcia Ferrer was an ecclesiastic 
and painter of some reputation of Valencia. He 
painted some pictures for the altar of San Vincente 
Ferrer, in the convent of St. Domingo; and Don 
Mariano Ferrer, Secretary of the Academy of San 
Carlos, possessed a "Crucifixion," by him, bearing 

^ Supia, chap. vii. p. 480. ' Sapra, p. 913. 

* The picture is No. 112 in the Mnseo. The red-haired cavalier ia 
the Marqaes de Albaida, the monk St. LniB Beltran himsell 


the date 1632, which was approved by Cean Ber- 
mndez. He is said to have practised his art at 

Gregorio Bausd was bom in the island of Majorca 
in 1590, and died at Valencia in 1656. He was the 
scholar of Francisco Bibalta, and painted the holy 
achievements of St. Luis Beltran, and other popular 
religious subjects, for the churches and convents, 
with considerable reputation. 

Vicente Guirri, a native of Valencia, became a 
friar in the Augustine convent of that city in 1608, 
and devoted his time to prayer and penitence, and 
to the execution of devotional pictures, within its 
walls, till 1640, when he died. 

Pablo Pontons, likewise a Valencian by birth, 
was the scholar and imitator of Pedro Orrente. 
The convent of Mercy was largely adorned with 
the productions of his pencil ; and he painted, with 
Jac. Qer. de Espinosa, four esteemed pictures for 
St. Mary's church, at Morella. His last known 
work, a portrait of a friar, which hung in the library 
of the convent of Mercy, bore the date 1668. 

Tomas de Yepes flourished at Valencia about 
1642, as a painter of '* bodegones," fish, and meats, 
but especially fruit and flowers, which he depicted 
with great neatness of execution and brilliancy of 
colour. He died at Valencia, in 1674, and was 
buried in the church of San Est^ban. 

CH. X. 



Pablo Pon- 

Tomas de 



ca X. 

Andres and 



LuiB Puig. 

Andres and Urban Marzo were brothers, and 
painters of some credit, at Valencia. The first 
executed two pictures of St. Anthony of Padua, one 
for the parish church of Santa Cruz, and another 
for that of Santa Catalina ; and he also designed 
the title-page for a book, published in 1663, by 
Don Juan Bautista de Valda, describing the grand 
festival held in the city the year before, in cele- 
bration of a bull of Alexander VII., proclaiming 
the favourite Valencian doctrine of the Immaculate 
Conception. Urban painted a picture of " Our 
Lord bearing His Cross," in a private collection at 
Valencia, and said to be a work of merit. 

Luis Puig, a goldsmith, deserves notice as the 
maker of a beautiful silver ark, designed to contain 
the consecrated Host on Thursdays in the Holy 
Week, which cost 5,cxx) ducats, and was presented 
in 1630, by the Canon Leonardo de Borja, to his 
Cathedral at Valencia. 


REIGK OF PHILIP IV. 1621-1625 — {mntinued), 

HILST Andalusia, fertile 
in genius J furnished a 
great chief to the school 
of Castile, the principal 
cities of the province 
still possessed some of 
the ablest painters that 
ever shed a lustre upon 
Spanish art. 

Diego Vidal de Liendo was bom at Valmaseda in 
1602, his mother being sister of the elder Diego 
Vidal, canon of Seville.^ Like his uncle, he pro- 
bably obtained a knowledge of painting while seek- 
ing preferment at Rome, and like him he returned 
to Spain a canon of Seville, and an artist of consider- 
able skiUp To distinguish him from that relative 

CH, XI. 

Vidal da 

Supra, chap, vii. p, 557, 




de Zurba- 

he is called Yidal the younger. His best works 
are in the great sacristy of his Cathedral, and repre- 
sent the Crucifixion, St. John, St Mary Magdalene, 
and other saintly subjects ; and there is, besides, a 
copy by him of Rafael's picture of the archangel 
Michael quelling the Evil One. The figures in 
these compositions were of life size. Amongst the 
various works of art which adorned the canon's 
residence Pacheco notices a miniature portrait of 
an English boy, painted on ivory, by an English 
artist, which surpassed in beauty and delicacy every- 
thing of the kind that he had ever seen.^ He died at 
Seville in 1648, and was buried in the Cathedral, in 
front of the chapel of Our Lady de la Antigua, 

Francisco de Zurbaran was bom at Fuente de 
Cantos, a small town of Estremadura, situated 
amongst the hills of the Sierra that divides that 
province from Andalusia, and was baptized there on 
the 7th of November, 1598. His first instructions 
in art were drawn, says Palomino,* from some for- 
gotten painter of that secluded district, who had, 
perhaps, been the scholar of Morales during that 
great master's sojourn at the neighbouring town 
of Frexenal,^ a lonely, straggling, desolate-looking 
village, with two churches, on the elevated com 
plains on the north of the Sierra Morena, and touch- 

^ Pacheoo, Arte de la Pintura, p. 355. 

s Palomino, torn. iiL p. 527. ' Supra, chap. ▼. p. 27a 


ing with one end the highroad from Badajoz to ch. xi. 
Seville. The elder Zurharan had intended to 
hring up his son to his own calling of husbandry, 
but, observing his abilities and inclination for paint- 
ing, he released him from the plough, and sent him 
to the school of the licentiate Juan de Boelas, at 
Seville.^ There his talents and his application being 
equally extraordinary, soon gained him considerable 
reputation. Like Velazquez, he early formed the 
resolution that everything which he placed on his 
canvas should be copied directly from nature ; and 
he would not paint even a piece of drapery without 
having it before him on the lay figure. As in the 
case of Velazquez, the effects of this patient diligence 
were soon observed in his works ; and his delinea- 
tions of men and things were faithful and forcible 
£Eic-similes of their faces and forms. In the manage- 
ment of his lights and shadows, he loved breadth and 
strong contrast ; he appears to have imitated the style 
of Caravaggio, to whom many of his works might be 
readily attributed ; and, on account of this resem- 
blance, he has been called the Caravaggio of Spain. 

In 1625, he painted for the Cathedral a series of ^?fk8; 

^ *- at SeTille. 

excellent pictures on the life of the Apostle Peter, 
a gift to the dim unworthy chapel of that saint, 
from the Marquess of Malagon. The centre-pieces 

^ Sapra, chap. viL p. 522. 



CH. XI. 

8t Thomas 

in the retablo represent the first bearer of the keys 
sitting in pontifical vestments, and his deliverance 
from prison by the angel ; and these are flanked by 
other passages of his history, snch as his want of 
fsEuth in walking the water/ and the vision of unclean 
beasts let down in the mysterious sheet.* About 
the same time he also executed the grand allegorical 
picture, known as ** St. Thomas Aquinas," as an altar- 
piece for the college of that saint, justly esteemed 
his finest work, and one of the highest achievements 
of the Spanish pencil. It now hangs over what was 
once the high altar of the friars of Mercy, in the 
Museum of Seville. The picture is divided into 
three parts, and the figures are somewhat larger 
than life. Aloft, in the opening heaven, appear the 
Blessed Trinity, the Virgin, St. Paul, and St. 
Dominic, and the angelic doctor St. Thomas Aquinas 
ascending to join their glorious company ; lower 
down, in middle air, sit the four doctors of the 
Church, grand and venerable figures, on cloudy 
thrones ; and on the ground kneel, on the right 
hand, the Archbishop Diego de Deza, founder of 
the college,' and on the left, the Emperor Charles V., 
attended by a train of ecclesiastics. The head of 
St. Thomas is said to be a portrait of Don Agustin 
Abreu Nufiez de Escobar, prebendary of Seville, 

> Matt. xiv. 3a 

* Actsx. II. 

' Supra, chap. il. p. 114. 

Pnoleit Ijv 'A']tTrnA.nir, !" ;r 




and from the close adherence to Titian's pictures 
observable in the grave countenance of the imperial 
adorer, it is reasonable to suppose that in the other 
historical personages the likeness has been preserved 
wherever it was practicable. The dark mild face, 
immediately behind Charles, is traditionally held to 
be the portrait of Zurbaran himself. In spite of its 
blemishes as a composition — which are, perhaps, 
chargeable less against the painter than against 
his Dominican patrons of the college — and in spite 
of a certain harshness of outline, this picture is 
one of the grandest of altar-pieces. The colouring 
throughout is rich and eflfective, and worthy the 
school of Boelas ; the heads are all of them admir- 
able studies ; the draperies of the doctors and 
ecclesiastics are magnificent in breadth and ampli- 
tude of fold ; the imperial mantle is painted with 
Venetian splendour ; and the street-view, reced- 
ing in the centre of the canvas, is admirable for its 
atmospheric depth and distance. 

Zurbaran was afterwards called to the great 
monastery of Guadalupe, to paint for the Jeronymite 
friars eleven pictures on the life of the holy doctor, 
their patron saint, and two altar-pieces representing 
St ndefonso and St Nicolas Bari, which he exe- 
cuted with brilliancy and success. Betuming to 
Seville, he was employed at the Chartreuse of Santa 
Maria de las Cuevas, one of the fairest mansions of 


CH. XI. 





CH. XI. 

St Bruno, 
St. Hugo, 
and Virgin. 

St. Bruno, notable as having held for a while the 
bones of Columbus, rich in Gothic and plateresque 
architecture, in sumptuous tombs, plate, and jewels, 
carvings, books, and pictures,^ and celebrated by 
Navagiero a century before, for its groves of orange 
and lemon-trees, on the banks of the Guadalquivir.* 
For these well-lodged Carthusians he painted the 
three remarkable works now in the Museum at 
Seville, representing St. Bruno conversing with Pope 
Urban II. ; St. Hugo visiting a refectory, where the 
monks were unlawfully dining upon flesh-meat ; and 
the Virgin extending her mantle over a company of 
Carthusian worthies. In the first of these pictures, 
the Pontiff, in a violet robe, and the recluse in 
white, with a black cloak, sit opposite to each other, 
with a table between them covered with books; 
their heads are full of dignity, and all the accessories 
finely coloured. In the third, the strangeness of the 
subject detracts from the pleasure afforded by the 
excellence of the painting. The second is the best 
of the three, and is curious as a scene of the old 
monastic life of Spain, whence the cowled friar has 
passed away like the mailed knight. At a table, 
spread with what seems a very frugal meal, sit seven 
Carthusians in white, some of them with their high 

^ * Ponz, torn. viii. pp. 231-239, and torn. ix. pp. 153- ' 55* 
■ And. Navagiero, Viaggio in Spctgna, &c., fol. 14. 


peaked hoods drawn over their heads; the aged ch. xi . 

Bishop Hugo in purple vestments, and attended by 

a page, stands in the foreground ; over the heads of 

the monks there hangs a picture of the Virgin, and 

an open door affords a glimpse of a distant church. 

These venerable friars seem portraits ; each differs 

in feature from the other, yet all bear the impress of 

long years of solitary and silent penance; their white 

draperies chill the eye, as their cold hopeless faces 

chill the heart; and the whole scene is brought 

before us with a vivid fidelity, which shows that 

Zurbaran studied the Carthusian in his native 

cloisters with the like close and fruitful attention 

that Velazquez bestowed on the courtier strutting 

it in the corridors of the Alcazar or the alleys of 

Aranjuez. He likewise painted for the shod and churohes 
" * and coo- 

barefooted friars of the Order of Mercy, a number of ^en*«- 

pictures on the life of San Pedro Nolasco, and other 

subjects; a variety of works for the Capuchins, 

Trinitarians, and the parish churches of San Eoman, 

San Esteban, and San Buenaventura; and for the 

church of San Pablo a Crucifixion, signed '' Fran- 

ciscus de Zurhardtiy f. 1627," and highly extolled for 

the relief and roundness of the figure, which rivalled 

the effect of carving.^ 

Before Zurbaran reached the age of thirty-five, he 

1 Ponz, torn. ix. p. 89. 



CH. XI. 

painter to 
the King. 

for the 
siaoB of 

Works at 



was appointed painter to the King. The exact time 
of his promotion, the works or the interest by which 
he obtained it, and the date of his first visit to 
Madrid, remain unknown. But the great number 
of his works in Andalusia, and their rare occurrence 
in the capital and in Castile, prove that his life was 
principally spent in his native province. In 1633 
he finished a series of pictures, of the life of Our 
Lord, and of the Evangelists, and other saints, for 
the high altar of the fine Chartreuse of Xeres de la 
Frontera, of which the vast decaying cloister may 
still be seen on the sherry-growing banks of the 
Guadalete. One of these pictures bore his signa- 
ture, in which he wrote himself painter to the 

He was called to court, says Palomino,^ in 1650, 
by Velazquez, at the desire of Philip IV., who em- 
ployed him to execute for a saloon at Buenretiro 
ten works, representing the labours of Hercules, 
now in the Queen of Spain's gallery.^ The King, 
according to his favourite custom, used to visit 
him whilst engaged on these pictures, and on one 
occasion expressed his admiration of his powers, 
by laying his hand on his shoulder, and calling 
him " painter of the King, and king of the painters." 

^ Palomino, torn, iii p. 528. 

» Catdlogo [1843], Nob. 203, 223, 233, 244, 251, 282, 293, 302, 309, 325 
[edition 1889, Nos. 11 22-31]. Cean Bermndez enumerates only fonr.i 






Diaz de Valle mentions that he conversed with 
him at Madrid, in 1662, and Palomino asserts that 
his death took place there in that year. By his 
wife, DoiLa Leonor de Jordera, whom he married 
in early life at Seville, he left several children, and 
to one of their daughters the chapter of that city 
granted, in 1657, the life-rent of a house in the 
Calle de Abades. In proof of the esteem in which 
the painter was held at Seville, Palomino relates, 
that having retired to his native town of Fuente 
de Cantos, he was followed thither by a deputation 
from the corporation of the city, entreating, not in 
vain, his return, a story which Cean Bermudez 
considers doubtful and not very probable. His 
portrait in the Louvre,^ from which the present 
engraving is taken, represents him a man of some 
personal advantages, and dressed in the extreme 
of the fashion. 

Zurbaran was one of the most diligent of painters, woriw. 
and his works have found their way into most of 
the great galleries of Europe. The Louvre alone 
possesses, or professes to possess, no less than 
ninety-two of his pictures.^ The legends of the 

^ GoL Eap., No. 401. [Sold in 1853 in the Louis-Philippe sale.] 
' In the GaL Esp., 81 ; in the Collection Standiah, 11. [Sold in 1853 in 
the Lonis-Philippe sale. Of these the " Regina Angelornm " and *' St 
Catherine" are in the anther's collection at Keir ; the "Virgin in Glory" 
is in that of the Earl of Wemyss ; one of the patron saints of Seville, 
Santa Josta or Sauta Rufina, is in the gallery of the Right Hon. Evelyn 



CH. XI. 




Carthusians and monks of the Order of Mercy were 
his staple subjects ; and as he was called upon to 
execute them in large quantities to clothe the vast 
walls of convents, they are often very coarsely and 
carelessly painted. The pictures in the Museum at 
Seville, already noticed,^ are, without doubt, his 
finest works. In that city the spacious church, also, 
of the Hospital del Sangre possesses eight small 
pictures by him, each representing a sainted woman. 
Of these S*^ Matilda, in a crimson robe, em- 
broidered with gold and pearl; S**- Dorotea, in 
lilac; and S*^ Ines, in purple, carrying a lamb in 
her arms, are the best, and they seem memorials 
of some of the reigning beauties of Seville. The 
Cathedral of Cadiz has a fine specimen of Zurbaran's 
larger works in the " Adoration of the Kings," a grand 
picture, rich in gorgeous draperies, which hangs on 
the south side of the great door, and perhaps came 
from the Chartreuse of Xeres. Besides his labours 
of Hercules, the Soyal Gallery at Madrid contains 
two well-painted passages from the life of his 
favourite, San Pedro Nolasco,^ and a delightful 
picture of the Infant Jesus,' lying asleep on a cross, 

Deuison, and tho "Standing Figure of St Francis*' in that of G. A. 
Hoskins, Esq., all of which were exhibited at the Manchester Art TreasurcR 
Exhibition, 1857, Nos. 778, 808, 793. 796, and 790.] 

^ Sapra, pp. 922, 923. 

3 Catdlogo [1843], ^os- 40, 190 [edition 1889, Nos. 1121, 1120]. 

» Ibid. No. 317 [1 133]. 


and wrapped in royal purple, a subject frequently ch. xi . 
painted by Guido and Murillo, but never with more 
delicacy and grace. Of his gloomy monastic studies, Paris. 
that in the Louvre ^ of a kneeling Franciscan hold- 
ing a skull, is one of the ablest ; the face, dimly 
seen beneath the brown hood, is turned to heaven ; 
no trace of earthly expression is left on its pale 
features, but the wild eyes seem fixed on some 
dismal vision ; and a single glance at the canvas 
imprints the figure on the memory for ever. Un- 
rivalled in such subjects of dark fanaticism, he could 
also do ample justice to the purest and most lovely 
of sacred themes. His Virgin, with the Infant London. 
Saviour and His playmate St. John, signed ** Fran, 
de Zurbarari, 1653," in the Duke of Sutherland's 
gallery at Stafford House, is one of the most de- 
licious creations of the Spanish pencil. By the 
mellow splendour of its colouring, the eye is " won 
as it wanders " over those sumptuous walls, gemmed 
with the works of far greater renown. The head 
of the Virgin unites much of the soft ideal grace 
of Guido's Madonnas, with the warm life that glows 
and mantles in the cheek of Titian's Violante ; and 
her hair is of that rich chestnut brown, Eosalind's 
colour, so beautiful and so rare both in nature and 

^ Gal Eiip., No. 351. [It was sold in 1853, and ifl now in the National 
GftUer^, No. 250.] 




Style and 

Hia monks ; 

women ; 

in art. The children recall the graceful cherubs of 
Correggio ; the goldfinch in the hand of the Baptist 
seems to live and flutter; and the dish of apples 
might have been newly gathered from the canvas 
of Van Heem, or from the orchards of the Guadal- 
vin or the Severn. 

Zurbaran undoubtedly stands in the front rank of 
Spanish painters. He painted heads with admir- 
able skill, but he had not that wonderful power 
which belonged to Velazquez, of producing an exact 
fac-simile of a group of figures at various distances ; 
none of his large compositions equal the Meniiias ^ 
in airy ease and truth of effect ; nor have his figures 
the rounded and undefined, yet truly life-like, out- 
lines which charm in the works of MuriUo. But in 
colouring he is not inferior to these great masters ; 
and his tints, although always sober and subdued, 
have sometimes much of the brilliancy and depth of 
Rembrandt's style, as is the case in his excellent 
small picture of "Judith and her Handmaid," in the 
collection of the Earl of Clarendon.* He is the 
peculiar painter of monks, as Rafael is of Madonnas, 
and Ribera of martyrdoms ; he studied the Spanish 
friar, and painted him with as high a relish as Titian 
painted the Venetian noble, and Vandyck the 
gentleman of England. His Virgins are rare, and 

Supra, chap. ix. p^ 77a 

* In London. 



in general not very pleasing; but he frequently 
painted female, saints, apparently preserving in their 
persons the portraits of beauties of the day, for the 
rouge of good society may often be detected on their 
cheeks. In the delineation of animals he was 
likewise successful; and Palomino mentions with 
approbation his pictures^ of an enraged dog, from 
which chance observers used to run away, and of 
a yearling lamb, deemed by the possessor of more 
value than a hecatomb of full-grown sheep. 

Francisco Lopez Caro was bom at Seville, in 
1598, and became a scholar of Eoelas. After 
practising the art of painting in his native city 
with indifferent success, he repaired, some time be- 
fore 1660, to Madrid, where he died in 1662. Por- 
traiture was the only branch of his art in which he 
obtained any reputation. Francisco Caro, his son 
and scholar, bom at Seville in 1627, followed 
Alonso Cano to Madrid, and, under the instruction 
of that master, became a painter of considerable 
eminence. For the chapel of San Isidro, in the 
church of San Andres in the capital, he executed 
nine or ten pictures on the life of the Blessed Vir- 
gin ; and his finest work was a large composition on 
the subject of the Jubilee of the Porciuncula,* into 
which he introduced the portraits of Don Antonio 







1 Palomino, torn. ilL p. 528. 

* Supra, chap. vii. p. 504. 







de Contreras and his wife, painted for the Franciscan 
convent at Segovia. He died at Madrid, in 1667. 

Cristobal Vela, bom at Jaen in 1598, acquired 
the first principles of painting at Cordoba, probably 
from some disciple of Cespedes, and afterwards 
finished his studies in the school of Vincencio 
Carducho, at Madrid. He fixed his residence at 
Cordoba, where he painted several works for the 
Cathedral, and the convents and hospitals, and died 
suddenly in 1658, whilst quenching his thirst at the 
well of his own house. His son, the Licentiate 
Antonio Vela, was bom at Cordoba in 1634, and 
became a priest of great virtue, and a painter of 
considerable skill and reputation. For the Augus- 
tine friars of his native city, he executed two ex- 
cellent pictures on subjects taken from the life of 
the great doctor, their patron saint, and he painted 
and gilded several retablos for other convents. He 
died in 1676, much regretted by the clergy and the 

Francisco Vaxela was bom at Seville towards the 
end of the sixteenth century, and, next to Zurbaran, 
was the ablest of the scholars of Roelas. In 161 8 
he was employed by the Carthusians of S^ Maria de 
las Cuevas to execute copies of certain pictures, by 
Fray Louis Pascual Qaudin,* to supply the place of 

^ Supra, chap. v. p. 348. 



the originals, which they were about to send to the 
Grand Chartreuse. Nothing is recorded of his life ; 
but he died, according to Palomino,^ in 1656, leav- 
ing many works in the churches and convents of 
Seville, to attest his skill and diligence, and pre- 
serve his name from oblivion. In the church of San 
Bernardo, without the walls of Seville, may be seen 
his " Last Supper," which Cean Bermudez esteemed 
one of his best productions. It is signed ^'Ffr^- 
Varda, 1622." Our Lord and His disciples are 
seated at a round table, on which the cup, goblet, 
and a metal dish are admirably painted ; and the 
colouring throughout is agreeable. Judas in yellow 
drapery, and clutching the bag with an expression 
of face in which treachery strives with terror, is the 
most effective of the figures. 

Juan Uceda Castroverde, another scholar of Eoelas, 
flourished at Seville, and painted in 1623, for the 
shod fnars of the Order of Mercy, an excellent altar- 
piece representing the Holy Family, with the Eternal 
Father looking from the clouds above, coloured in 
the Venetian style of his master. 

Alonso Cano was the last of the great artists of 
Spain who followed the practice of Berruguete, and 
obtained distinction in the three arts of painting, 
sculpture, and architecture. He was bom on the 

^ Palomino, tom. iiL p. 469. 



Uceda Cas- 




CH. XI. 

Retablos at 

19th of March, 1601, in the city of Granada, and 
was baptized in the parish church of San Ildefonso. 
His parents were Miguel Cano, a native of Abno- 
dovar del Campo, and Maria de Almansa, a native 
of Villarobledo, in the province of La Mancha, both 
of gentle blood. Miguel Cano, being a carver of 
retablos, brought his son up to Jiis own calling ; and 
the talents of the lad having attracted the notice 
of Juan de Castillo,^ that master recommended the 
removal of the family to Seville, for the sake of the 
better instruction which that city afforded. This 
advice being followed, Alonso was placed in the 
school of the painter Pacheco ; * from which he was, 
eight months afterwards, removed to that of Castillo 
himself. He is also said to have partaken of the 
rough training of the elder Herrera.' In sculpture 
he became the disciple of Martinez Montafies ; * and 
the classical dignity of his style led Cean Bermudez 
to conjecture that he must have bestowed much 
careful study on the antique marbles which then 
graced the galleries and gardens of the Duke of 
AlcaU's palace.* 

Amongst the earliest known works of Cano were 
three retablos, designed, carved, and painted by him 
for the college of San Alberto, and two for the 

^ Supra, chap. vii. p. 535. 
* Supra, chap. vii. p. 529. 

' Ibid. p. 537. Palomino, torn. liL p. 575. 
^ Ibid. p. 562. « Ibid. p. 569. 



conventual church of S*^ Paula; the pictures and 
statues of which, in the opinion of Cean Bermudez, 
surpassed the works of his instructors. Pacheco 
and Zurbaran were employed^ at the same time with 
him, in the college; but his productions were so 
esteemed, that the Provincial of the Order of Mercy 
invited him to execute a series of paintings for 
the cloister of the convent under that rule, a task 
which, however, he declined, from diffidence, says 
Palomino, of his own powers ; but, more probably, 
because he was dissatisfied with the pay proposed 
by the friars. 

In 1628, Miguel Cano was engaged to erect a 
new high altar in the parish church of Lebrija,^ a 
small town with a ruined Moorish castle, and a tall 
Moorish belfry, which tower above the olive-covered 
slopes that skirt the southern marshes of the 
Guadalquivir. The year following he presented his 
plan, estimated to cost 3,000 ducats, which was 
approved by the authorities, and the work was 
begun. But, the artist dying in 1630, the execu- 
tion of the design fell upon his son Alonso, who 
completed it in 1636, and was paid 250 ducats over 

CH. XI. 

Betablo at 

^ A view of Lebrija, Nebrwa, by Hoefnaeghel, may be found in Braun 
and Hogenberg's work. See supra, chap. tL p. 367. The sketch for the 
present woodcut was taken in 1845, ^^^ ^^^ ^"^ ^o Cabezas de San 
Juan. The town and its antiquities are well described in Jacob's Travels 
in the South of Spain, 4to, London, 181 1. Letter viii. p. 46. 




and above the stipulated price. The painting and 
gilding, and the indifferent pictures, were executed 
by Pablo Legote, at the price of 35,373 reals. This 
altar-piece still maintains its place in the huge 
Greco-Romano church of Lebrija ; it seems to have 
undergone neither alteration nor repair since the 
original artists removed their tools and scaflFolding 

View of 


from the chapel; but stands, with its wealth of 
tarnished gilding, a monument of the sumptuous 
devotion of a former age. It consists of two storeys, 
supported on four spirally-fluted columns, rich 
with cornices, elaborately carved. Four pieces of 
sculpture display the genius of Alonso Cano : a 
Crucifixion, which crowns the edifice ; a pair of 
colossal statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, in the 


second storey; and a lovely image of the Blessed 
Virgin, enshrined in a curtained niche over the slab 
of the altar. These carvings were long famous in 
Andalusia, and Palomino asserts that artists have 
been known to come from Flanders, in order to copy 
them for Flemish churches.* Although haxdly of 
sufficient importance as works of art to repay a 
journey from the Scheldt to the Guadalquivir, they 
are executed with skill and spirit ; the Crucifix and 
the Apostles are not inferior to works of Montafies ; 
and the head of the Madonna, with its deep blue 
eyes and mild melancholy grace, is one of the most 
beautiful pieces of the coloured carving of Spain. 

Amongst the convents of Seville, in which Cano 
was largely employed, was that of the Carthusians, 
whose refectory he adorned with eight pictures, 
representing Adam and Eve driven from Paradise, 
Joseph escaping from Potiphar's wife, and other 
biblical subjects ; their sacristy with a fine copy of 
a Madonna, Christ, and St. John by Eafael; and 
their church with other works. For the church of 
Monte Sion, he executed a large picture of Purgatory ; 
for the nuns of the Immaculate Conception, a stone 
statue of that mystery, which adorned the portal of 
their chapel ; and for the nuns of St. Anne, a figure, 
carved in wood, of the beloved Evangelist. 

^ Palomino, torn, iii p. 576. 

OH. XI. 




Church of 





CH. XI. 

Duel, and 
flight to 

at Madrid. 

Church of 

Church of 

His versatile genius soon obtained for him the 
first place amongst the artists of Seville^ a position 
which his somewhat arrogant temper disposed him to 
maintain at all risks against all comers. In 1637 a 
quarreli on some forgotten subject of dispute, pro- 
duced a duel between him and Sebastian de Llanos 
y Valdes, a painter of amiable character and con- 
siderable talent, in which Cano, who was an expert 
swordsman, severely wounded his adversary. Evad- 
ing the arm of the law, he escaped to Madrid, where 
he renewed his acquaintance with his fellow-scholax, 
Velazquez, and by the kindness of that generous 
friend, obtained the protection and the favour of 
Olivares. In 1639, the minister appointed him to 
superintend certain works in the royal palaces. 

He was likewise engaged in painting various 
pictures for the churches and convents; amongst 
which some of the best were an altar-piece in the 
church of Santiago, representing an angel showing 
a flask of water to St. Francis, as a symbol of the 
purity requisite to the priestly oflSce ; and pictures 
of the Patriarch Joseph, and Our Lord at Calvary, 
in the church of San Gines. The latter of these 
pictures still hangs in its original chapel, on the 
epistle side of the church; it is a work of great 
brilliancy and power, and it commemorates a scene 
in the Passion which the pencil has not very 
commonly approached. Seated on a stone, with His 

l-rcjnrd. "sv WitUninQ f^n* 




hands bound, the Saviour awaits the completion of 
the cross with holy resignation ; his figure and noble 
countenance contrast strikingly with the brawny 
ruflSan who hews the timber at His side ; and further 
off, the Virgin and her weeping company are dimly 
seen in the shadow of the descending darkness.^ 
For the church of S^ Maria he also painted a large 
picture of St. Isidro miraculously rescuing a drown- 
ing child from a well. The praises bestowed upon 
this work by the painter Mayno having excited the 
curiosity of Philip IV., that royal amateur proceeded 
to the church, to judge of the powers of Cano, under 
pretext of adoring Our Lady of the Granary, a cele- 
brated brown image carved by Nicodemus, coloured 
by St. Luke, and brought to Spain by the blessed 
St. James.* The abilities of the artist were soon 
rewarded with the place of painter to the King ; and 
he was also appointed drawing-master to the Infant 
Don Balthazar Carlos, who, like the Scottish Solomon 
under George Buchanan, found him altogether want- 
ing in the deference which usually belongs to the 
preceptor of a prince, and was wont to complain to 
the King of his asperities. In 1643, he was an un- 
successful candidate for the office of Master of the 


Church of 
Sta. Maria. 

^ This picture has been tolerably engraved in Spain, but my impres- 
sion of the plate does not bear the engraver's name. 

' Villafafie, Imagenes Milagrosas, p. 14. Lope de Vega wrote a poeti- 
cal history of the Virgen de la Almudena, Obras, torn. xv. p. 41 1. 

VOL. m, H 




Harder of 
bit wife. 

Cano sus- 
pected of 
the orime. 

Flight and 

Works to the Chapter of Toledo, which was conferred, 
on the 13th of August, on Felipe Lazaro de Goiti. 
He was employed, however, soon after to paint the 
monument for the Holy Week, in the conventual 
church of San Gil, at Madrid. 

The year 1644 ^^ marked in the history of Cano 
by a tragical event, which embittered his life, checked 
the prosperous course of his labours, and fixed upon 
his character a charge which it is now impossible 
either to substantiate or clear away. Betuming 
home on the night of the loth of June, he found, 
according to his own version of the story, his wife 
lying on her bed a bleeding corpse, pierced with 
fifteen wounds apparently inflicted by a small knife, 
and grasping a lock of hair, indicative of a desperate 
struggle. Her jewels were missing from the house ; 
and an Italian servant, whom Cano used as a model, 
having likewise disappeared, the murder and robbery 
were at once attributed to him. But, in the hands 
of the lawyers, the case assumed a new aspect. It 
was proved that Cano had been jealous of this man ; 
that he had lived upon bad terms with the deceased ; 
and that he was notoriously engaged in an intrigue 
with another woman. Alarmed for his safety, the 
suspected artist fled from Madrid, and causing it to 
be reported that he had taken the road to Portugal, 
he sought refuge first in a Franciscan convent of 
the city of Valencia, and then in the Chartreuse of 


Portacoeli, a monastery situated amongst the wood- ca xi . 
lands of the neighbouring Sierra. There he painted 
pictures of Our Lord bearing His cross, of the Cruci- 
fixion, and of a holy woman named Inez de Moncada, 
who dwelt in those solitudes ; ^ and he remained for 
some time exercising his pencil on various subjects, 
for the embellishment of the sheltering cloister, until 
he deemed it safe to venture back to the capital. 
Although received into the house of his friend, Don 
Bafael Sanguineto,* the eye of the law was still upon Apprehen- 
him, and he fell into the gripe of the alguazils; torture. 
who, according to the barbarous usage of the time, 
sought to wring from his own lips, by means of 
torture, evidence sufficient to convict him. Under 
this infliction, pleading excellence in art, a plea in 
certain cases admitted by the law, he craved exemp- 
tion for his right hand from the ligatures, a boon con- 
ceded, says Palomino, by the order of the King ; ' and 
having passed through the ordeal without uttering a 
cry, he was set at liberty with a character judicially 
spotless. From the scanty records of this transac- 
tion which remain to us, it is impossible to decide 
whether Alonso Cano were a brave man fallen on 
evil days and evil tongues, or a remorseless villain 
saved from an assassin's death by the iron strength 

^ Ponz, torn. iv. p. 157. * Supra» ohap. z. p. 827. 

* Palomino, torn, iii pi 579. 



CH. XT. 

tions at 

of his nerves. The suspicions against him must 
have been very strong, otherwise his friend Velaz- 
quez would probably have interfered in his behalf. 
On the other hand, the Regidor Sanguineto must 
have believed him innocent, otherwise he would 
not have afforded him the shelter of his roof. It is 
also fair to give Cano's character the benefit of the 
doubts, which are suggested by the contradictory 
nature of the evidence. Palomino asserts that he 
fled to Valencia to escape apprehension ; but an old 
document, cited by Pellicer y Tovar,^ makes it 
appear that he was put to the question within a few 
days after the murder. Both these authorities agree 
in making Madrid the scene of the tragedy ; whereas 
Bosarte relates that they still show at Valladolid 
the house wherein it was enacted.' 

This calamitous episode in Cano's life does not 
appear to have inflicted any very permanent injury 
on his reputation, or on his subsequent fortunes. 
The black charge brought against him cannot have 
obtained much general credit, since his patrons of 
the Church and the court continued to employ and 
caress him. He retained his place about the Prince 

^ Josef Pellicer y Tovsr, the historian, whose MSS. AnsaJs are quoted 
by Cean Beramdez» in Los Arquitectos, torn. iv. p. 37, n. 2. The paper 
which he cites is dated 14th June 1644, and mentions the murder as 
having taken place four days before. 

' Bosarte, Viage ArtisticOt p. 145. The house, says he, is "la primera 
k mano derecha entrando por la plazuela vieja 6, la calle de San Martin." 



of Asturias, and his habits of plain-spoken censure 
of the Infant's youthful scrawlings. In 1647, the 
brotherhood of Our Lady of Sorrows appointed him 
their mayor-domo, or chamberlain ; and in the same 
year he was fined in that capacity 100 ducats for 
absenting himself from a procession ; a fine which 
gave rise to a lawsuit of fifty years' duration, in 
which the painters and goldsmiths of the guild 
seemed to have maintained that the burden of the 
solemnity ought to fall upon the alguazils of the 
court. When Queen Mariana arrived in her new 
kingdom in 1648, he was architect of a great 
triumphal arch, a work of a novel and fantastic 
character, erected at the gate of Guadalajara, in 
honour of the royal bride's entry into the capital of 
the Spains. And in 1650 we find him at Toledo, 
called thither by the Chapter, for the purpose of 
inspecting and giving his opinion on the works in 
progress in the octagon chapel of the Cathedral. 

He soon afterwards determined to take priests' 
orders; and leaving Madrid, he fixed his abode in 
his native city of Granada. The stall of a minor 
canon in the Cathedral falling vacant, he suggested 
to his friends in the Chapter that it would be for 
the advantage of that body were an artist appointed, 
and permitted to exchange the choral duties of the 
preferment for the superintendence of the archi- 
tecture and decorations of the church ; and, on these 

CH. XI. 








tenns, obtained a recommendation in his own behalf 
to the Crown. Fhilip IV., always ready to befriend 
a good artist, at once conferred the benefic^npon 
Cano, with the Nnncio s dispensation from certain 
of its duties, upon condition that he received ordina- 
tion within a year. Fait of the Chapter munnured 
at the choice, and even sent deputies to Madrid 
to petition against the induction of an unlearned 
layman into their reverend society ; but the reason* 
ings of these churchmen only drew forth from their 
master a reply, already recorded,^ less flattering to 
their order than to their new colleague. 

Thus backed by royal favour, he took peaceable 
possession of his stall on the 20th of February 1652, 
and soon justified his election, and conciliated the 
canons, by the diligent exercise of his pencil and his 
chisel for the embellishment of the stately Cathedral. 
A chamber on the first floor of the great bell-tower 
was assigned to him, as his studio.' For the high 

^ Snpra, chap, viii p. 598. When Jean Baptisto Lnlli, the great mnsical 
oompoeer, who b^gan life as a seullicNi, was made seerUatre du Roi^ his 
brethren in office were as ill-pleased as our canons of Granada. His 
master, Lonis XIV., oons<4ed him for their iusoleuce by saying, "I have 
honoured them, not yon, by placing a man of genios among them." 

' It is a large and lofty room, sorrounded with Doric or Tuscan pilasters 
and shallow ardies, and above them a high carved roof. One large 
balcony, approached by a passage, looks into the church (immediately 
above Torrigiano's noble bas-relief of Charity), and over the heavy capitals 
of the supporting pillars— another over the city roofs to the rich level 
fields and groyes of the Vega. It is now inhabited by the family of the 



altar he sculptured an image of Our Lady of 
the Immaculate Conception, which was so highly 
esteemed, that a Genoese gentleman several times 
offered to purchase it at the price of 4,000 douh- 
loons, of which offer, says Palomino, evidence was 
preserved in the archives. He designed and super- 
intended the execution of two silver lamps for the 
principal chapel, and of the elaborate lectern of the 
choir, formed of fine wood3, bronze, and precious 
stones. The top of this lectern he also adorned 
with an exquisite carving of Our Lady of the Rosary, 
about eighteen inches high, which was so greatly 
prized that it was afterwards removed to the sacristy, 
and kept amongst the reliques and rich jewels of 
the churclL And for the sacristy he gave the plan 
of a new portal, and painted eleven pictures, nine 
of them representing passages from the life of the 
Blessed Virgin, and two, the heads of Adam and 

The Cathedral did not, however, monopolise the 
time and genius of its artist-canon. He gave the 
design of a magnificent altar-piece, carved for the 
nuns of the convent of the Angel, by his disciple 
Pedro de Mena, and executed several of its statues 
with his own chisel; and he also painted for the 
same sisterhood a fine picture of Our Lord parting 
with the Blessed Virgin in the Via Dolorosa. For 
the Capuchins of the convent of San Diego, without 

•OH. XI. 

for the 
Cathedral ; 






CH. XI, 

Visit to 

the Bishop. 

the city walls, he painted many works; and he 
enriched the church of the Dominican nuns of S**^ 
Catalina with a series of half-length Apostles. 

The Bishop of Malaga ^ being engaged in improv- 
ing his Cathedral-church, invited Cano to that city, 
for the purpose of designing a new tabernacle for 
the high altar, and new stalls for the choir. He 
had finished his plans very much to the prelate's 
satisfaction, when he was privately informed that 
the intendant of the works proposed to allow him 
a very trifling remuneration. "These drawings," 
said he, "are either to be given away for nothing, 
or to fetch 2,000 ducats ; " and packing them up, he 
mounted his mule, and took the road to Granada. 
The niggardly intendant learning the cause of his 
departure, became alarmed, and sending after him, 
agreed to pay him his own price for the plans. 
During his stay at Malaga, the city was visited by a 
dreadful inundation of the sea, of which Palomino 
tells a ridiculous story at the expense of the Bishop. 
The waters rising rapidly, whilst the clergy were 
assembled in the Cathedral praying for their decrease, 
the terrified prelate left his throne, and took refuge 
in the organ, telling Cano, who ventured to ask 
why, that it was better to be crushed to death in the 

1 Called by Palomino, Fray Alonso de Santo Tomas ; bnt it may have 
been Bishop Antonio Henriquez, whose portrait, by Cano, long hung in 
the church of the Dominicans at Malaga. Pons, torn. xviiL p. 192. 


mighty instrument than to undergo the slower pro- ch. xi. 
cess of drowning. " My Lord," replied the canon, 
"if we are to perish like eggs, it matters little 
whether we be poached or boiled ; " a pleasant con- 
ceit,^ which, uttered in such a conjuncture, says the 
historian, displayed great magnanimity. The flood 
happily subsided, leaving the organ unshaken, and 
the Bishop in the enjoyment of his mitre, and the 
canon of his jest. 

On his return to Granada, Cano made sketches Oranada. 
for a series of pictures on the life of St. Dominic, 
for the Dominican friars of the royal monastery of 
S*^ Cruz. Paintings from these designs were after- 
wards executed in the cloister by one Castillo, but 
they were in a very weather-beaten condition, so 
early as the beginning of the last century; the 
original sketches of Cano were in the possession of 
Palomino. The canon was employed as a painter 
and sculptor, as well by private persons as by re- 
ligious bodies. Of the former class of patrons, was 
an auditor of the Royal Chancery, who ordered the 

^ The point of the speech lies in a pun which cannot he rendered in 
English : *'Porqae si hemes de morir," said the Bishop, ''mas qniero 
que d el hnndirse esta gran maqnina, me estrelle, que verme fluctnando 
en las aguas." "Pues Seftor," replied the punning canon, "si hemes 
de morir eomo hnevos, que mas tiene estrellados, 6 hechos tortilla, que 
pasados por agua?" — Palomino, torn, iii p. 582. Eggs, when fried or 
poached, are said to he ** estreUados,*' hroken to pieces ; when hoiled in 
their shells *'pcuado8 par offuc^** a phrase most accurately expressing 
the process, which is nothing more than passing them through water. 



Cfi. XL 

of St 

with the 

canon to model for him a statue, about a yard in 
height, of St Anthony of Padua, desiring him to put 
forth all his skill. The work being finished, he went 
to see it, and after expressing his satis&ction, he 
carelessly asked the price. Cano demanded one 
hundred doubloons. Greatly astonished, and after 
a long pause, the auditor next inquired how many 
days' labour it had cost "Twenty-five," replied 
Cano. "Then it appears," said the patron, "that 
you esteem your labour at four doubloons a-dayt" 
" You are but a bad accountant," retorted the artist, 
" for I have been fifty years learning to make such 
a statue as this in twenty-five days."* "And I," 
rejoined the auditor, " have spent my youth and my 
patrimony on my university studies, and now, being 
auditor of Granada — a far nobler profession than 
yours — ^I earn each day a bare doubloon." The old 
lay leaven began to work in the canon, and he re- 
membered the words of Philip IV. " Yours a nobler 
profession than mine ! " cried he ; " know that the 
King can make auditors of the dust of the earth, 
but that God reserves to Himself the creation of 

^ At a meeting of the Law Amendnent Society, Lord Brougfaam, on 
remarldng that no principle of remuneration oonld be fair which over- 
looked the previoiiB training of the workman, told the storj of Sir Joehna 
Reynolds that, on being asked by a person for whom he had painted a 
small picture how he could charge so much for a work on which he had 
been occupied for only five days, he replied — '' Five days ! why, I have 
expended the work of thirty-five years upon it.'* 


such as AI0118O Cano!" And without waiting for 
further argument, he laid hold on St. Anthony and 
dashed him to pieces on the floor, to the dismay of 
his devotee, who immediately fled, boiling with rage. 
To put such an affront upon a man in authority, says 
the sagacious Palomino, was highly imprudent, especi- 
ally upon an auditor of Granada, who is a little god 
upon earth ; and still more when the matter might 
have been brought before the Holy Office, where 
small allowance would be made for the natural 
irritability of an artist, and for his sacristan*^like 
irreverence, engendered by daily familiarity with 
saintly effigies.^ The outraged functionary, how- 
ever, took another sort of revenge. By his influence 
in the Chapter, Cano's stall was declared vacant, 
because he had not qualified himself to hold it 
by taking orders within the given time, a neglect 
of which his brethren had already frequently 

The deprived canon was therefore obliged to 
repair to Madrid, where he appealed to the King, 
and alleged, as the cause of the delay, the pressure 
of work on which he was engaged for the Cathe- 
dral. Philip, with his usual good-nature, allowed 
his excuse, and obtained for him, from the Bishop of 

^ Palomino, torn. iii. p. 583. 

' Loa Arquitectos, torn. iv. p. 159-168, where many docaments relating 
to the transaction are printed. 

CH. XI. 

of hit 

Visit to 



CH. XI. 

to his 


Salamanca, a chaplaincy, which entitled him to full 
orders, and from the Nuncio, a dispensation from 
the duties of saying mass. But the affair coming 
to the knowledge of Queen Mariana, she insisted 
that Cano, before the royal favour was exerted in 
his behalf, should execute for her a crucifix, of life- 
size, bespoken long before, but hitherto neglected. 
The work being finished to her Majesty's satisfac- 
tion, she presented it to the convent of Monserrate, 
at Madrid ; and the artist, returning to Granada, re- 
entered upon his benefice in triumph in 1659. But 
he never forgave the Chapter for the attempt to 
depose him, nor resumed his pencil or chisel in 
the service of the Cathedral. 

The remainder of his life was chiefly devoted to 
pious exercises and to works of charity. Poverty 
and wretchedness never appealed to him in vain, 
and his gains, as soon as won, were divided amongst 
widows and orphans. His purse was, therefore, 
often empty, and on these occasions, if he met a 
beggar in the street, whose story touched him, he 
would go into the next shop, and asking for pen 
and paper, sketch a head, a figure, or an architectural 
design, and give it as his alms, with directions for 
finding a purchaser at a price which he affixed to 
it.^ His benevolence of heart being equalled by his 

1 Palomino, torn. iiL p. 5S4. 



readiness of hand, these eleemosynary drawings were 
rapidly multiplied, and a large collection of them 
came in the possession of Palomino. 

With that inconsistency which so often dims the 
glory of genius and the beauty of virtue, Cano, whose 
heart overflowed with the milk of human kindness 
towards his Christian brethren, poured forth nothing 
but gall and bitterness towards the Jew. No saint 
or soldier of the Middle Ages ever held the race 
of Israel in more holy abhorrence. In his walks 
through the narrow Moorish streets of Granada, if 
he met any poor Jew hawker, in his sanbenito, the 
garb ordained by the Inquisition for the tribe, he 
crossed over the way, or sheltered himself in the 
nearest porch, lest he should brush the misbeliever 
with the hem of his cassock, or cloak, and be defiled. 
If such an accident befell him, he would immediately 
strip oflF the unlucky garment and send home for 
another. Sometimes, in cases of doubtful contact, 
he would appeal to his servant, when the rogue, says 
Palomino, was wont to reply that it was a mere 
touch, which mattered nothing, well knowing that 
the unclean thing would be immediately thrown in 
his face. He was, however, subject to dismissal if 
he ever ventured to put on any part of the con- 
demned apparel. It happened, one day, that the 
canon, returning from his walk, found his house- 
keeper, who had but lately entered his service, 

CH. XI. 

Hatred of 

He finds a 
Jew in his 



CH. XI. 


higgling within his very house with one of the 
circumcised. He immediately raised a prodigious 
outcry, and hastened about in search of a stick or 
poker ; whereat the Hebrew gathered up his wares 
and fled, and the housekeeper escaped a beating 
only by taking refuge in a neighbour's housei, whence 
her master would not receive her back, until he had 
assured himself that she had no Jewish kin or 
connections, and until she had performed quarantine. 
He likewise purified his dwelling by repaying the 
spot which the Israelite had polluted with his feet, 
and the shoes in which he himself had followed his 
track swelled the spoil of his serving-man. 

In the summer or autumn of 1667, he was attacked 
by his last illness, in his house in the Albaicin, in 
the parish of Santiago. His finances were, at this 
time, very low ; for the records of the Chapter con- 
tain two entries, of which the first, dated on the 
nth of August, preserves a vote of 500 reals to 
'^the canon Cano, being sick and very poor, and 
without means to pay the doctor ; " and the second, 
dated the 19th of August, records a further grant 
of 200 reals, made at the suggestion of the arch- 
deacon, to buy him "poultry and sweetmeats."^ 
The curate of that parish, coming to see him, begged 
to be informed whenever he desired to confess or 

^ Lot ArguUeeiott torn. iv. p. 172, 



receive the sacrament, that he himself might attend 
him. To this friendly request, the dying man re- 
plied hy asking if he ever administered the sacra- 
ment to Jews condemned by the Inquisition ? 
Finding that the clergyman was in the habit of 
performing that duty, he said, " Then, Senor 
Licentiate, I must bid you farewell in God's name, 
for he who communicates with them shall never 
communicate with me ; '' and he obtained leave to 
be attended by the curate of the adjacent parish of 
San Andres. Like the Florentine Verrochio,^ two 
centuries and a half before, who could not die 
peaceably in the hospital at Venice without a crucifix 
carved by Donatello, Cano put aside the rudely- 
sculptured cross which was placed in his hand by 
the priest. ''My son," said the good man, some- 
what shocked by the action, " what are you doing ? 
This is the image of our Lord the Redeemer, by 
whom alone you can be saved." " So do I believe, 
father," replied the dying man ; " yet vex me not 
with this thing, but give me a simple cross, that I 
may adore it, both as it is in itself, and as I can 
figure it in my mind." His request being granted, 
** he died," says Palomino, " in a manner highly 
exemplary and edifying to those about him," * on 
the 3rd of October 1667, in the sixty-sixth year of 

^ Vasari, torn. L p. 389. 

' Palominob torn. uL p. 585. 

CH. XI. 

8oane8 and 

Death ; 



CH. XI. 




his age. On the day following, his body, attended 
by the Chapter, in all its pomp, was carried to its 
niche in the Pantheon of the canons, beneath the 
choir of the Cathedral.^ 

Cano seems to have been a man of a hot, im- 
petuous temperament, a strong will, strong prejudices, 
and kindly feelings. Hence his character wore a 
diflferent complexion at diflFerent times, and the 
story of his life is filled with strangely inconsistent 
passages. Driven from Seville by a quarrel with 
one of the gentlest of his fellow-artists, he seems to 
have lived on good terms with many more formidable 
rivals at Madrid ; his regular scholars found him 
kind and friendly, whilst towards his royal pupil 
he comported himself like another Herrera ; he was 
stigmatised as the murderer of his wife ; and he 
died, reduced to indigence by charities to the Chris- 
tian, and breathing out hatred against the Jew. 
In person he appears to have been under the middle 
size; his countenance, full of quick intelligence, 
also bears traces of his irritable disposition. His 
portrait, if, indeed, it be his, by Velazquez,* repre- 
sents him as grey-haired, but still in the full vigour 
of life; those by his own hand, which still exist, 
belong to a later period. From one of these the 

* Lo$ Arquitectos, torn. iv. p. 173. 
' Supra, chap. ix. p. 810 [and note i]. 


engraving by Basqnez ^ is probably taken ; two others ch. xi . 
are in the Louvre,* and one of them is engraved 
in the present work. The sickly emaciated features 
afford evidence that it was painted not many months 
before the artist went down to the Pantheon of 
the canons. The wasp buzzing near his ear is, 
perhaps, a contemptuous emblem of some trouble- 
some rival in art or in the Chapter, the solitary 
record of some forgotten feud. 

Alonso Cano has been called, on account rather Menu mi 


of his various skill than of the style of his works, 
the Michael Angelo of Spain.* As a painter, he 
was excelled by few of his brethren of Andalusia, 
and his name is deservedly great in Seville and in 
Granada. Although a ready draughtsman, he fre- 
quently condescended to appropriate the ideas of 
others, borrowing largely from prints, picking up a 
hint, says Palomino, even from the coarse woodcut 
at the top of a ballad, and avowing and defending 
the practice.* " Do the same thing with the same 
effect," he would say to those who censured it, " and 
I will forgive yoo." Not gifted with Zurbaran*^B 

^ In ihe Espafloles Ilu$tre9, 

* Gal. £sp., No8. 31 and 32. The present engraving is from the latter. 
No. 30 is called a portrait of CSaiio*when young, but no evidenee for the 
fact is afforded, either by the picture or the catalogue. [Sold in 1853. One 
is in the author's collection at Keir. Manchester Art Treasures Exhibi- 
tion, 1857, No. 748.] 

» Cumberland, Anecdotes, toL iL p. 72. 

* Palomino, torn. iiL p. 578. 




Works at 

CH. XI. facility in handling the palette and brush, and fre- 
quently engaged in the other branches of his three- 
fold art, he has not left many large pictures behind 
him. Some of these, however, are amongst the most 
beautiful creations of the Spanish pencil, unaided 
by study in Italy. His eye for form was exceedingly 
fine, and therefore his drawing is more correct than 
that of many of his rivals: his compositions are 
simple and pleasing, and in richness and variety of 
colour he has not often been surpassed. The Queen 
of Spain's gallery possesses eight of his works. 
Amongst these, the fulUength picture of the Blessed 
Virgin, seated with the Infant Saviour asleep on her 
knees,^ at once arrests the eye, and long haunts the 
memory. A circlet of stars surrounds the head of 
this dark-haired Madonna, apparently a portrait of 
some fair young mother of Granada, wrapped in 
happy contemplation of her new-bom babe. Her 
robe and mantle of crimson and dark blue fall in 
majestic folds around her; a slender tree, a river, 
and a range of low hills fill up the background. 
The National Museum is fortunate in possessing a 
repetition of this fine picture. 

Getafa, The hugc brfck church of Getafe, a village two 

leagues from Madrid, on the road to Toledo, contains 
no less than six large pictures treating of the life of 

1 Catdlogo [1843], No. 307 [edition 1889, No. 670]. 


Mary Magdalene, and still adorning the fine retablo ch. xi. 
of the high-altar, for which they were painted by 
Cano. In the first, the £edr penitent, arrayed in a 
robe of yellow silk and ermine, her eyes red with 
weeping, tears the jewels from her amber hair; a 
pied cat, extremely well painted, lurks beneath a 
table ; and an arch admits a view of a pleasing 
landscape. The second represents her washing 
Our Lord's feet at the banquet of the Pharisee ; the 
third, visiting His tomb ; and the fourth, kneeling 
before Him in the garden. In the fifth, she stands 
by the sea-shore in the act of addressing a multitude ; 
and in the sixth, robed in white, she is borne up to 
heaven by angels. The last of the series, a graceful 
subject, is poorly executed, and, probably, the work 
of some inexperienced scholar; the second and 
fourth excel all the rest, and are painted in Cano's 
best style. There is much vigour and variety of 
conception in the figures of the burly turbaned 
Simon and his guests ; and the delineation of Our 
Lord in the garden is remarkable for the head being 
covered with the broad hat of a palmer. A few 
pictures by the same hand likewise enrich two of 
the side-altars of this little-visited church ; most of 
them are single figures of saints; the best is an 
Ecce Homo, painted on the door of a small taber- 
nacle, and injured by the scratching of the key. 

The Cathedral of Granada, though cruelly stripped o»nada. 



CH. XI. 




by the French, still retains some good altar-pieces 
by its famous canon; Our Lord bearing the cross, 
a bishop in his robes, and Our Lady of Solitude ; 
and in the sumptuous chapel-royal, where Ferdinand 
and Isabella lie buried, a Deposition from the Cross, 
one of his best works. Malaga Cathedral boasts a 
fine specimen of his powers, in the noble, but fast- 
decaying picture of the Virgin of the Rosary, seated 
on a throne of clouds, and adored by a group of six 
saintly men and women in various religious habits. 
Cano drew and finished the hands and feet of his 
figures with peculiar delicacy, as may be seen in 
this composition, where one of the babe's feet is 
gracefully placed in the left hand of the mother; 
the heads below appear to be carefully executed 
portraits. The Museum of Valencia contains a 
"Nativity of Our Lord," and a "Christ at the 
Column," brought from Portacoeli, and is said to 
have been painted by Cano, whilst in hiding amongst 
the Carthusians.^ 

The most beautiful, and one of the latest of 
Cano's pictures, is that of Our Lady of Belem, or 
Bethlehem, painted at Malaga, for Don Andres 
Cascantes, who gave it to the Cathedral of Seville, 
of which he was a minor canon. There it still 
hangs, to the left of the door leading to the court 

* Supra, p. 938. Handbook [1843I p. 453 [third edition, 1855, p. 384]. 




of orange-trees, in a small dark chapel, where it 
can be seen only by the light of votive tapers. In 
serene celestial beauty, this Madonna is excelled by 
no image of the Blessed Mary ever devised in Spain ; 
her glorious countenance lends credit to the legends 
of elder art, and might have visited the slumbers of 
Becerra,^ or been revealed in answer to the prayers 
of Vargas," or of Joanes.' She more nearly re- 
sembles the carved Virgin at Lebrija* than any 
other of Cano's works ; and the draperies are in 
both cases the same colour, a crimson robe, with 
a dark blue mantle drawn over the head. The 
head of the divine babe is, perhaps, not sufficiently 
childlike; but there is much infiantine simplicity 
and grace in his attitude, as he sits with his tiny 
hand resting on that of his mother. These hands 
are, as usual, admirably painted; and the whole 
picture is finished with exceeding care, as if the 
painter had determined to crown his labours, and 
honour Seville, with a masterpiece. 

The portraits by Cano which remain to us are 
few but excellent. Amongst the most interesting 
are those of the dramatist Calderon, in the Louvre,* 
and of Antonio de SoUs, the keen-faced historian 

CH. XI. 


^ Supra, chap. v. p. 294. [A fine copy of this beautiful picture ia in the 
author's collection at Keir.] 
' Supra, chap. vL p. 368. ■ Ibid p. 416. * Ibid p. 935. 

* GaL Esp., No. 29. [Sold in 1853.] 





of Mexico, in the collection of Don Juan de 
GovanteSy at Seyille.^ The National Museum at 
Madrid, likewise^ has the head of a rosy-faced 
laughing monk, in a hlack and white hahit, "a 
round fat oQy man of God," probably the wag of 
some Benedictine convent, a humorous portrait, 
of which the effect is heightened by the ecstatic 
saints and ghastly martyrs that cover the surround- 
ing walls. For the collection of royal portraits at 
the Alcazar, Cano painted Ferdinand and Isabella 
the Catholic, on the same canvas,' an interesting his- 
torical picture executed perhaps from lost originals, 
which seems to have perished, whilst his effigies 
of some imaginary Gothic monarchs, before or after 
King Wamba, valueless in comparison, have been 
preserved to the Royal Museum.' 

He does not appear to have practised the art 
of engraving, but Obregon^ and others sometimes 
worked from his designs. For an edition of 
Quevedo's " Spanish Parnassus," * remarkable for the 
curious title-page by Van Noort, wherein the author, 
with his spectacled nose and cross of Santiago, 

^ Supra, chap. iz. p. 676, note. 

' Palomino, torn. iiL p. 577. 

' CcUdlogo [1843], N08. 90, 294 [edition 1889, Nos. 673, 674]. 

* Supra, chap. x. p. 839. 

* El Panuuo Etpaliol, y Musas Ctutellanas de Don iK de Quevedo 
Villegcu, &c, corregidas y emendadas por el Dr. Amuso Cultofragio, 4to, 
Madrid, 1659. Six books only appeared in thia edition, the other three 
Musee not being given to the world till 1670. Supra, chap. x. pp. 853, 854. 



figures amongst the tuneful Nine on the hill of song, 
he furnished drawings of six of the Muses. In 
these plates, however, the coarse graver of Panneels 
has preserved few of the graces of Cano's pencil. 

Skilful as was Cano with the brush, he loved the 
chisel above his other artistic implements. He was 
so fond of sculpture, that when wearied with paint- 
ing, he would call for his tools, and block out a 
piece of carving by way of refreshment to his hands. 
A disciple one day remarking that to lay down a 
pencil and take up a mallet was a strange method 
of repose, he replied, " Blockhead ; don't you per- 
ceive that to create form and relief on a flat surface 
is a greater labour than to fashion one shape into 
another." Notwithstanding his partiality for the 
art, the altar at Lebrija,^ and a few carvings in the 
Cathedral of Granada, are all that remain of his 
sculpture. That little, however, is enough to show 
that he was excelled by none of the carvers of Spain. 
In the outline and attitude of his figures, there is 
an elegance not found in the works of Juni, and not 
surpassed in the works of Montanes. In Granada 
Cathedral, his small statue of Our Lady has been 
restored to its place on the lectern of the choir ; * in 



» Supra, p. 933. 

* IbicL p. 943. Handbook [1S45], p. 386 [afterwards remoTed for safety 
to the altar of Jesus Nazareno, " a precaution not unnecessary, as the 
San Pablo by Ribera inas stolen in 1S42.*' Third edition, 1855, p. 319}. 



CH. XI. 


its chapel of the Holyrood, are a ghastly head of 
St. John Baptist, and a nohle head of St. Paul ; 
and in the sacristy, is a little Virgin of the Con- 
ception, about a foot high, the masterpiece of his 
chisel. Robed in azure and white, with 

<< looks commercing with the skies, 
Her rapt soul sitting in her eyes,'' 

her delicate hands folded across her bosom, this 
Virgin, so pure in design and expression, and so 
exquisitely finished, must charm even those who 
love not painted sculpture. Like Montanes, Cano 
coloured his carvings with great care and splendour. 
The only piece of marble statuary, noticed in Cean 
Bermudez' long catalogue of his works,^ is a figure 
of a guardian-angel,* placed over the portal of the 
convent of that name at Granada, of which the 
original sketch is in the Louvre.® 

Cano's architectural practice was chiefly confined 
to retablos, in which, says Cean Bermudez, he 
followed the taste of the times, loading them with 
scrolls and other heavy ornaments. Few of them 
have survived the demolition of the convents ; but 
the Louvre possesses some of his architectural draw- 

^ Which fills nine pages and a half of his Dictionary, 

' The angel was MigueL It occupied a niche over the portal of the 

chnrch, now empty, the nans haring very wisely removed it to the 

cloisters during some political troubles. 
* Collection Standish, Dessins, No. 334. 


ings, amongst which are two designs for altars/ con- ch. xi. 
ceived in a style of simplicity and elegance. 

Sebastian Martinez was bom in the city of Jaen, sebMtun 

^ Martinez. 

in 1602, and studied painting under one of the 
scholars of Cespedes. Most of his works were 
painted for private houses ; but one of the best, 
the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, adorned the 
Cathedral of his native place, and others were to 
be found in the nunnery of Corpus Christi at 
Cordoba. Repairing in 1660 to court, he was 
made painter to Philip IV., who frequently visited 
his studio, and surprising him one day as he sat 
at his easel, compelled him to remain seated by 
laying his royal hands on his shoulders, as Philip 
II. was wont to do to Sanchez Coello.* His draw- 
ing and colouring, says Cean Bermudez, were 
agreeable, and his landscape-backgrounds tastefully 
painted. He died at Madrid in 1667. 

Juan Leandro de la Fuente flourished at Granada juan 


between 1630 and 1640. Nothing is known re- deia^ 
specting him, except some dates gleaned by Cean 
Bermudez from his pictures in the churches and 
convents of that city. The church of San Lorenzo 
at Seville also possessed a Nativity by him, with 
figures of life-size, and the convent of San Felipe 

^ CoUection Standlah, Dessins, Nob. 317 and 541* A fac-simile of the 
arehitectuial part of the first forms the engraved title-page to this work. 
' Supra, chap. y. p. 279. 





del Gas. 


Visit to 

el Beal at Madrid a graceful allegory on Charity. 
His style seemed to have been fonned by stady 
of the Venetian masters, and he sometimes intro- 
duced into his compositions animals, which re* 
sembled those of Bassano. 

Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra was son of 
Agustin, and nephew of Juan, del Castillo.^ Bom 
at Cordoba in 1603, ^^ studied painting under his 
father, and on that master's death, in 1626, he 
further improved his hereditary talents in the school 
of Zurbaran at Seville. On his return home he 
became the fashionable painter of Cordoba; and 
his portraits were so highly esteemed, that they 
were to be met with in every house of any preten- 
sion in the city. Being a diligent copyist of nature, 
he sometimes sketched in the fields^ bringing home 
studies of farmhouses, cottages, agricultural imple- 
ments, and animals, to be interwoven in his com- 
positions. Nor was he ignorant of the art of sculpture 
and architecture ; for he frequently furnished draw- 
ings to his friend Melchor Moreno, the architect, 
and executed clay models of heads and other orna- 
ments, for the silversmiths, whose craft had long 
flourished with peculiar vigour at Cordoba.* 

The homage paid to him by his fellow-citizens 
inspired him with an overweening opinion of his 

^ Supra, chap. viL p. 535. 

' Palomino, torn, iii p. 543. 



own powers, and a desire to display them on the 
wider stage of Seville. On his arrival there in 

1666, he was received hy the artists with great 
courtesy, to which he made a somewhat ungracious 
return hy extolling his own works at the expense 
of theirs. But seeing the pictures painted by Murillo 
for the small cloister of the Franciscan convent, he 
was surprised into high admiration.^ Affecting, 
however, to doubt their authorship, he was led to 
the Cathedral to see the famous St. Anthony of 
Padua, St. Leander, and St. Isidore, by the same 
artist.* Overpowered by the splendour of these 
noble works, and by evidence which he could neither 
gainsay or resist, he was compelled to own himself 
vanquished. *' Castillo is dead ! " he exclaimed, 
"but how is it possible that Murillo, my uncle's 
servile scholar, can have arrived at so much grace 
of style, and beauty of colouring ? " Returning to 
Cordoba, he endeavoured to imitate the manner of 
his rival, and painted a St. Francis, which with- 
out equalling his models, had more of softness 
and grace than any of his former works. The 
conviction, however, of his inferiority preyed 
upon his mind; and he sickened, and died in 

1667, dying of Murillo's St. Anthony, as Fran- 
cesco Francia, tjie pride of Bologna, had died, a 

CH. XI. 

His jealous 
of MuriUo's 

^ Infra, chap. xii. p. 994. 

' Ibid. pp. 1000-1002. 







hundred and fifty years before^ of the St. Cecilia 

Castillo frequented the best society of Cordoba; 
he was a man of wit and letters, and wrote verses 
for his amusement. To the painter Juan de Albro, 
who had been his disciple, he administered a 
wholesome reproof when that artist returned from 
Madrid pluming himself upon the knowledge of 
art which he had acquired in the school of Velaz- 
quez. It being the young man's custom to sign 
all his pictures, in a very conspicuous manner, 
** Alfaro pinxity* Castillo inscribed his "Baptism 
of St. Francis," executed for the Capuchin convent, 
where his juvenile rival was likewise employed, 
'^N<m pinxit Alfaro** He himself, however, dis- 
played nearly as much arrogance, on being told 
that Alonso Cano had remarked of some of his 
works that it was a pity that a man who could 
draw so admirably did not come to Granada to 
learn to colour. " Bather let him come here," said 
the testy Cordobese, "and we will repay his kind 
intentions towards us, by teaching him how to 

Most of Castillo's works being executed in his 
native city, some of them, doubtless, lurk in the 
dust and darkness of its Museum. The Count of 

^ Yasari, torn, i p. 410. 

' Palomino, torn. iiL p. 543. 


Homachuelos, and Don Gomez de Cordoba y ch> xi . 
Figueroa, were his principal lay-patrons; and his 
pictures were thickly scattered amongst the churches 
and convents. For the mosque-Cathedral he painted 
the Virgin of the Rosary attended by saints ; the 
martyr San Pelagio receiving his sentence to be 
quartered alive ;^ a colossal San Acisclo, another 
holy martyr, great in Cordoba, as a companion-piece 
to a picture by C. Vela ; ^ and other works. Palo- 
mino bestows very high praise on his picture of the 
" Penitent Thief," in the hospital of Jesus Nazareno, 
than which, says he, no painting of a single figure 
was ever more eflFective.^ In the Royal Gallery at 
Madrid his large composition, representing the 
"Adoration of the Shepherds," * is the sole specimen 
of the powers of the Castillos. It is painted in 
a bold Ribera-like style, and full of eflfective heads 
and strong lights and shadows; and the rules of 
decorum, as expounded by Pacheco,* are obeyed 
to a tittle ; for, while a full view is given of the 
sinewy breast, and the tanned shoulders of one of 
the shepherds, the bosom of the Virgin-mother is 
veiled to the throat. Cano was not unjust in his 
estimate of Castillo's style ; his drawing is good, but 

1 Villegas, Fhs Sanctorum^ p. 658. ' Supra, p. 95a 

* Palomino, torn. iii. p. 54a 

« Catdlogo [1843], No. 187 [edition 1889, Na 696]. 

^ Supra, chap. L p. 21. 



CH. XI. 

Joseph de 

his colouring dry and disagreeable. His sketches, 
generally executed with a pen of reed,^ and some- 
times in Indian ink, were numerous and esteemed ; 
and Cean Bermudez possessed a considerable col- 
lection of them. 

Joseph de Sarabia was bom at Seville in 1608. 
Whilst he was still a boy, his father, Andres Buiz 
de Sarabia, a painter, sailed for Lima, where he 
died, leaving him to the care of some kinsfolk at 
Cordoba. Before his departure he had given him 
some instruction in art, which the lad continued to 
seek in the school of Agustin de Castillo, and after 
that master's death, in 1626, in the school of Zur- 
baran, at Seville. Returning to Cordoba with a 
collection of prints by the Flemish brothers Sadeler, 
he gained a considerable reputation by reproducing 
them in the form of pictures. He likewise availed 
himself of engravings from the works of Bubens, 
and executed for the convent of San Di^go a large 
picture of the "Raising of the Cross," which, although 
a plagiarism from the Fleming, was coloured with 
considerable taste. His best work, and that of 
which he was most proud, was painted for the 
church of Victory, and represented the " Flight into 
Egypt." The design was his own, or, at least, passed 

^ Of the sort of reed used, says Palomino, torn. iii. p. 543, by the 
urchins of Cordoba for blow-pipes through which they discharge the 
berry-stones of the nettle-tree {huesos de ku eUmetaa). 



for such : and he evinced his satisfaction by signing 
it, a practice in which he was modest enough not 
usually to indulge.^ He died at Cordoba, in 1669. 

The name of Pablo Legote has survived, like a 
fly in amber, by his association with Alonso Cano 
at Lebrija.' The subjects of his commonplace 
pictures, painted for the new retablo of the church, 
in 1629-36, are the Annunciation of the Virgin, 
the Epiphany, the Nativity of Our Lord, and the 
two Sts. John. In 1647, Cardinal Spinola, Arch- 
bishop of Seville, employed him to execute, for 
the great hall of his palace, a full-length series of 
Apostles, commended by Cean Bermudez, and there- 
fore, perhaps, better than the Lebrija pictures. A 
similar series, which hung in the church of the 
Hospital of Pity, were attributed by some to Legote, 
and by others to the elder Herrera. He afterwards 
went to Cadiz, and certain entries in accounts pre- 
served in the archives of the Indies show that he 
was there employed, in 1662, to paint banners for 
the royal fleet. 

Alonso de Uera Zambrano, a native of Cadiz, 
flourished in that city as a painter of banners to the 
royal navy, and executed, in 1639, altar-pieces for 
the oratories of four galleons, despatched that year 
to New Spain, for which he was paid 1,400 reals. 

^ Palomino, torn. iii. p. 546. 

■ Supra, p. 934. 



Alonso de 
Llera Zam- 



CH. XI. 

Nufiei de 

Pedro de 

Mateo Nufiez de Sepulveda was appointed by 
Philip IV., on the 7th of March 1 640, to the office 
of painter, gilder, and superintendent of painting 
to the royal navy, in consideration of his ability, 
and of his free contribution of 500 ducats towards 
the expenses of the wars then raging on all sides. 
By his patent, which was discovered by Cean 
Bermudez in the archives at Seville, he enjoyed 
the exclusive right of painting all the banners and 
standards, and other works of decoration, required 
in the fleet, which were to be paid for according to 
the valuation of two artists named, the one by him, 
and the other by the Crown. He entered on his 
employment at Cadiz in 1641, and in April received 
the sum of 1,350 reals for two flags on which he had 
painted the figures of Our Lady of the Conception, 
and the blessed St. James. They were executed on 
"sarga," in the style which had so long obtained 
in Andalusia,^ and displayed considerable taste and 
skill in drawing and colouring. 

Pedro de Moya was bom at Granada in 16 10, 
and became the scholar of Juan del Castillo' at 
Seville. A love of change and travel induced him 
to enlist as a foot-soldier in the army of Flanders ; 
but he did not lay aside the pencil in assuming the 

* Supra, cbap. vL pp. 363, 371. 

• Ibid. chap. vii. p. 535. , 



pike. Like his commander, the Cardinal-Infant,^ 
he cultivated art amidst the bustle of the camp and 
the garrison ; and he improved his style by copying 
the pictures which abounded in the sumptuous 
churches of the Low Countries. Perhaps he may 

CH. xr. 


have learned somewhat in the schools of Sneyders 
or Jordaens at Antwerp, or studied the chosen 
works of their great master, in the retired envoy's 
villa at Steen. 

Supra> chap. viiL p. 615. 




CH. XI. 

Visit to 
and Van- 

The works of Vandyck, however, so arrested his 
eye and fired his ambition, that he obtained his 
discharge from the ranks, and, in the summer of 
1 64 1, passed over to London to become his scholar. 
Sir Anthony and his Scottish wife, the beautiful 
Mary Ruthven, had been in Flanders on their way 
to Paris in the autumn of the preceding year;* 
perhaps, therefore, the Spaniard may have visited 
England at the Fleming's invitation. The journey, 
however, was not auspicious. The fortunes of 
Vandyck had begun to ebb; the days were over 
when he feasted the lords of the solemn court, and 
turned the heads of their ladies. Bishop Juxon, 
drawing the strings of the privy-purse, remorselessly 
curtailed his plans and his prices. The design of 
adorning the banqueting-house at Whitehall with 
pictures from the history of the Order of the Garter 
was abandoned. Nicholas Poussin had been pre- 
ferred to him at the Louvre, apd chagrin was under- 
mining his health. He received his Spanish visitor 
kindly ; but he cannot have afforded him much 
personal instruction, for he died, to the great sorrow 
of the scholar, within six months after his arrival, 
in December, 1641. Puritan England was then no 
place for a friendless Catholic painter. The court 
was at York, the royal lover of art having left the 

^ Carpenter's Memoirs of Vandyck^ p. 42. 



galleries and the gay masques of Whitehall for the 
stormy councils and disastrous fields of the rebellion. 

Moya therefore returned to Spain, and at Seville 
astonished Murillo by the improvement which travel 
had wrought upon his style. He thence proceeded 
to Granada, where he fixed his abode, and died in 
1666. Besides a few works in convents, he left 
in the Cathedral there an altar-piece represent- 
ing Our Lady with the infant Saviour, enthroned 
amongst clouds and cherubim, and adored by a 
kneeling bishop. But his pictures are so rarely to 
be met with, that it is probable he did not depend 
for bread on his pencil, but was rich enough to be 
indolent or fastidious. The Queen of Spain's gal- 
lery possesses no specimen of the early model of 
Murillo, as it is without any picture by Tristan, 
who stands in the same relation to Velazquez.^ 

In the Louvre,* there is a large "Adoration of the 
Shepherds," attributed to Moya, perhaps the picture 
which is noticed by Cean Bermudez as a Nativity, 
and as the property of the barefooted Trinitarian 
friars of Granada. The prevailing tints in this 
picture are crimson and Sevillian brown ; the fair- 
haired Virgin is pleasing, and some of the figures 
spirited ; the sun-burnt urchin resting his hand on 
a drum behind the kneeling shepherds is a forcible 

^ Supra, chap. ix. p. 6Sa 

" GaL Esp., No. 144 [sold in 1853]. 

CH. XI. 

Return to 

tion of the 




Swan, dis- 

and txuly Spanish study, and the cherubs hovering 
overhead, have something of that grace and softness 
which Murillo afterwards carried to perfection. 

In the choice collection of Mr. Ford,^ there is a 
remarkable specimen of Moya, a picture of a girl 
caressing a dusky swan, formerly in the possession 
of Don Julian Williams at Seville. From the 
attitude of the bird and damsel, there can be little 
doubt that it originally represented the fable of 
Leda, who, of course, was first painted in the con- 
dition in which the devil appeared to St. Benedict, 
a Castilian periphrasis for stark nakedness.^ But 
having the fear of Pacheco and the Holy Office 
before his eyes, the painter seems to have veiled 
her charms with a saffron-coloured robe ; and to 
have added the cat and pigeon, and the red and 
white spaniel, perhaps an English pet of his own, 
which leaps up to attract her attention, in order 
that the picture might appear the harmless portrait 
of a mere Christian maiden surrounded by her 
feathered and four-footed favourites. The head of 
Moya, painted by himself, was in 1 795 in the col- 
lection of Don Pedro O'Crouley, at Cadiz.* 

^ At Heyitre, Devon. 

' " Estar como el diablo apareci6 k San Benito." CoUins's Dictionary 
of Spanish Proverbs, i2mo, London, 1823, p. 153. 

' Musoei O'CrotUianei, or catalogue of that collector's coins and works 
of art, appended to his translation from Addison, DicUogos sobre la 
utilidad de las MecUxllas antiguaSt 4tOk Madrid, 1794-5, P* 5^ 


Juan de Toledo, another soldier-painter, was born ch. xl 
at Lorca, in 161 1, and acquired the rudiments of i"f^^* 
art from his father, Miguel de Toledo. Entering 
the army at an early age, he made several cam- 
paigns in Italy, where his gallantry raised him to 
the rank of captain of horse, and his taste led 
him to improve his knowledge of painting. At 
Rome he became acquainted with Michael Angelo 
Cerqiiozzi, commonly called "deUe Battaglie," an 
artist who entertained a love for the Spanish nation 
not very usual with his countrymen, and delighted 
in living with soldiers as well as in painting them. 
Mutually pleased with each other, they became 
associates in art, and the Italian might perhaps 
have turned dragoon, had not the Spaniard laid 
down his sword for the pencil. They lived together 
at Rome for several years, until Toledo, having 
learned all that his friend could teach, returned 
to Spain. Settling at Granada, he painted for 
several of the convents, especially that of St. 
Francis, and obtained considerable reputation by 
his small pictures on military subjects. He after- 
wards lived for a while at Murcia, where he painted 
a large and esteemed composition, representing the 
Assumption of Our Lady, for a confraternity attached 
to the Jesuits' college of San Estevan. To a 
painter-friend, one Mateo Gilarte, he furnished a 
sketch for a picture of the battle of Lepanto, to be 



CH, XT. 


painted for the convent of Santo Domingo. The 
latter part of his life was spent at Madrid, where, 
after maintaining and extending his credit as an 
artist, he died in 1665. ^^^ ^^^^ works are his 
battle-pieces, or views of marches, or encampments, 
which are full of life and movement, and in colour- 
ing somewhat resemble those of the elder March.^ 
The Queen of Spain's gallery has several of his 
marine views,* representing encounters between the 
galleys of the Christian and the Turk. He was less 
happy in his treatment of religious and mystical 
subjects ; and Palomino relates that of his immense 
picture of the Immaculate Conception with the 
Blessed Trinity above, executed for the nimnery 
of Don Juan de Alarcon at Madrid, some rival 
artists maliciously remarked, that it would be a 
fine work, were the Virgin a bold dragoon on a 

Miguel Manrique, bom of Spanish parents in 
Flanders, was likewise a captain of cavalry with 
a strong inclination for art. He is supposed, with 
slender probability, to have been the disciple of 
Rubens; and it is certain that he brought with 
him to Spain a style of colouring which betokened 
careful study of the works of that master. About 

^ Supra, chap. x. p. 905. 
' Palomino, torn. iiL p. 53a 

' Catdlogo, Nos. 297, 301. 304. 



the middle of the seventeenth century he established 
himself at Malaga, and wrought for the churches * 
and convents. For the Augustine friars he executed 
several pictures on passages from the history of the 
Blessed Virgin, and the " Marriage of St Catherine " 
for the Hospital of Charity. His best work repre- 
sented Mary Magdalene anointing Our Lord's feet, 
and was painted for the refectory of the Convent 
of Victory. 

Juan de Guzman, bom at the little town of 
Puente de Don Gonzalo, in the province of Cordoba, 
in 1611, went to Rome in his youth to study 
painting. There he became intimate with the best 
artists, and devoted himself to the study of per- 
spective and architecture. In painting he did not 
sufficiently apply himself to the works of Rafael and 
the antique marbles ; and bestowing more care on 
his colouring than his drawing, he never attained 
to an elevated style. On returning to his native 
shores in 1634, he went to live at Seville, where, 
although few laurels fell to his share in the field 
reaped by Zurbaran and Cano, he became dis- 
tinguished by the variety of his knowledge in art 
and letters. Amongst his other accomplishments, 
was great dexterity in the use of arms ; a dexterity 
which, perhaps, seduced him into taking so active 
a part in a city riot, that he was obliged to shelter 
himself from the law in the convent of shod Carme- 

CH. XI. 

Juan de 
Guzman, or 
Fray Juan 
del San- 



CH. XI. lites. There he assumed, with the robe of a lay- 
brother, the solemn name of Fray Juan del Santisimo 
Sacramento; and he also exemplified the proverb, 
that the frock does not make the friar,^ for his high 
temper and unruly spirit soon caused his removal 
to the convent of the barefooted brethren of the 
same order at Aguilar. Tamed by that sterner 
discipline, he became a peaceable and devout monk, 
and adorned the convent with a number of pic- 
tures. He likewise began a translation, with notes, 
of Pietro Accolti's treatise of Perspective, and ad- 
vanced so far in the undertaking as to engrave 
some illustrative plates; but the work remained 
buried in the library of the convent.* In 1666, he 
went to Cordoba to paint for the house of his order 
in that city; and his pictures, executed for the 
high-altar and other parts of the church, were so 
highly admired, that the Bishop, Don Francisco de 
Alarcon, employed his pencil in the decorations of 
the episcopal palace. He remained at Cordoba till 
1676, when he returned to Aguilar, where he died 
in 1680. As a painter he does not take a high 
rank ; his colouring was a pleasing imitation of the 
tints of Rubens and Vandyck, but his drawing was 

^ **No haze el habito al nionge." Hernan Nunez, Refranes o Pro- 
verbios, foL Salamanca, 1555, fol. 86. 
' Palomino, torn. iii. p. 597. 



fjaulty. Like Cano ^ and Sarabia,* he availed himself 
without scruple of figures and ideas taken from 
prints of other men's compositions. 

Manuel de Molina, bom at Jaen in 1614, having 
learned somewhat of painting there, passed over to 
Italy, and studied for some time at Rome. On his 
return to Spain, being overtaken by a storm at sea, 
he vowed to submit himself, on reaching the shore 
alive, to the rule of St. Francis; and accordingly, 
he entered the Capuchin convent at Jaen as a lay 
brother. He embellished his retreat with many 
paintings, especially those in the cloister, in which 
he attempted to eclipse, but did not equal, the style 
of his townsman, Sebastian Martinez** His por- 
traits, however, were better and more esteemed. 
He died at Jaen in 1677, in consequence, it was 
said, of severe labour in the convent garden, 
whither he was sent to dig by a surly superior, to 
whom he had applied for money to buy materials 
for painting.* 

Pedro Antonio, bom in 16 14, was a favourite 
scholar of Agustin del Castillo, and exercised his 
pencil with some credit in his native city of Cordoba, 
till his death in 1675. His lively colouring and 
courteous manners made him very popular as an 

1 Snpra, p. 953. 
• Supra, p. 961. 

' Supra, p. 966. 

* Palomino, torn. iii. p. 588. 

CH. XI. 

Manuel de 




CH. xr. 


Miguel and 



Fray Gero- 
nimo Mel- 

artist and a citizen. Amongst his works, Palomino 
notices with praise pictures of the Conception in the 
street of St. Paul, and of S**- Eosa of Lima in the 
Dominican convent of the same name, and informs 
us that he lived and died in a house in the street 
of the Feria. 

Sebastian Gomez, an indifferent painter, was a 
native of Granada and a scholar of Alonso Cano* 
Cean Bermudez notices two of his compositions, a 
Virgin and Child, and other figures in the convent of 
St. Paul at Seville, and a picture, representing S**- 
Rosa of Viterbo haranguing an audience, in the 
Franciscan convent at Ecija. Miguel and Geronimo 
Garcia were twin-brothers, and canons of the colle- 
giate church of San Salvador at Granada ; one being 
a painter, and the other a sculptor, the first; coloured 
the images which the second carved. They followed 
the style, and perhaps profited by the instructions 
of Cano. 

Fray Geronimo Melgarejo was an Augustine friar 
of Granada. He flourished about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, and left two pictures of some 
merit in the convent to which he belonged. The 
first represented four monks of the order, and sundry 
ecclesiastics, carrying in solemn procession the relics 
of the patron saint, and the second related to St. 
Stephen and St. Lorenzo. The composition, says 
Cean Bermudez, was good, and the colouring not bad. 



Bemab^ Ximenes de Illescas was bom at Lucena, 
in 1613, and early showed a predilection for draw- 
ing by making copies of prints. The career of arms 
led him to Italy, where, like Moya in Flanders, he 
improved his opportunities of study, and became a 
tolerable painter. Returning to his native place, he 
followed painting as a profession, obtained consider- 
able employment in the province, and was engaged on 
some public work at Andujar when he died in 167 1. 

Sebastian de Llanos y Vald^s is chiefly remark- 
able as being the scholar who remained longest 
beneath the rod of Herrera, and as having been 
afterwards wounded in a duel by Alonso Cano.^ 
He practised his art with credit at Seville, working 
chiefly, it appears, for private and lay patrons. In 
1660, he was an active supporter of Murillo, in 
founding the SeviUian Academy of Painting ; * and 
he made frequent donations of oil and other neces- 
saries for the use of the members. His good temper 
and amiable disposition rendering him popular 
amongst his fellow-artists, he was thrice chosen 
president of the institution, in 1663, 1666, and 1668. 
The time of his death is uncertain, but it seems 
probable that he died in, or soon after, the latter 
year.' Cean Bermudez mentions only two of his 


de lUeacas. 

(le Llanoa 
y Vald6s. 

^ Sapra, p. 936. ' Infra, chap. xii. p. 1008. 

' Had he been alive in 1670, or 1671, he would, doubtlesst have been 





JuAD Caro 
de TaTira. 

works, a Virgin of the Bosary adored by angels and 
neophytes, in the college of Santo Tomas, at Seville, 
and a Magdalene in the Becolete convent at Madrid. 
His drawing was correct, bnt his style was some- 
what heavy. 

The brothers Polancos were scholars of Zurbaran, 
and painters of repute at Seville. They imitated 
the style of their master with so much success, that 
their altar-piece in the church of St. Stephen, re- 
presenting the martyrdom of the patron saint, was 
ascribed, by Ponz, to his brilliant pencil.^ This 
work, as well as the Nativity of Our Lord, St Her- 
menegild and St. Ferdinand, by the Polancos, and 
a St. Peter and a St. Paul, by Zurbaran himself, still 
adorn the fine plateresque retablo of the high-altar.* 
Between 1646 and 1649, they were employed by 
the rector, Fray Francisco de Jesus, to paint for 
the college of the Angel de la Quarda a variety 
of works on the subject of the angelic visitations 
enjoyed by Abraham, Jacob, Tobit, St. Joseph, and 
S**- Teresa. Juan Caro de Tavira was likewise a 
disciple of Zurbaran, and a painter of so much pro- 
mise that Philip IV. gave him the Order of Santiago. 

mentioned by La Torre Farfan, in the Fiestcu de SevUlet, for an aocoiint 

of which Bee chap. xii. p. 1003, note. 
* Ponz, torn. ix. p. 79. | 

' Sevilla Pmtoresca, par D. Jos^ Amador de los Rios, 4to, Sev. 1S44, • 

p. 3«x 



He died young ; and no trace remains of the works 
to which he owed his cross. 

Francisco de Eeyna, a scholar and successful 
imitator of the elder Herrera, flourished at Seville 
in 1645. For the church of All Saints, he painted 
a picture of the souls in Purgatory ; and other 
works for the college cxf Monte Sion. He died 
young, in 1659. 




REIGN OF PHILIP IV. 1621-1665 — (conchcded). 

MURILLO was bom at 
Seville, near the close of 
the year 161 7. He was 
baptized on New Year's 
Day 1618, by the curate 
Francisco de Heredia, in 
the parish church of La 
Magdalena, destroyed in 
1810 by the French.^ The names of his parents 
were Qaspar Estevan and Maria Perez ; but he also 
assumed, according to the frequent usage of Anda- 
lusia, the surname of his maternal grandmother, 
Elvira Murillo. These facts of his history were 





^ Having long remained a rubbish-covered heap, with some of the walls 
of the church left standing, it has lately been tamed into a plaza aud 
planted with trees, with a foantain in the middle. The Dominican chui-ch 
of San Pablo now serves as parish church of La Magdalena. 



CH. XlL 

brought to light by the Count of Aguila, who, 

towards the close of last century, examined the 

: registers of several parish churches, and the archives 

of the Cathedral where a son of Murillo had held 

a canonry. By the researches of that ill-fated 
nobleman,^ Cean Bermudez was enabled to disprove 

^ He was of the family of Espinosa, and a man of taste and learning. 
His house, at Seville, in the Plazuela de los Trapes, once contained some 
good pictures, amongst which was an early specimen of Velazquez (chap, 
ix. p. 679), and a beautiful Virgin, by Murillo, known as la Virgen de la 
faja, the Vi^ge d la eeinture of the Louvre, GaL £sp., Na 156. [Sold at 
the Louis- Philippe sale, 1853, No. 72, aud \& in the collection of the late 
Due de Montpcnsier.] — Guia de Forasteros de la dudad de SetfiUoy por 




Palomino's assertion, that the great painter was bom 
in 16 1 3, at Pilas, a village five leagues from Seville, 
and restore the honour of giving him birth to the 
year and the place to which it properly belonged. 

like Velazquez,^ Murillo displayed his inclination 
for art, when yet a boy, by scrawling on his school- 
books and covering the walls of the school with 
precocious pencillings. His parents, observing the 
bent of his disposition, wisely determined to humour 
it, and therefore placed him, as soon as he had 
learned to read and write, under the care of the 
painter Juan del Castillo, who was related to their 
family.' His gentle nature, and his desire to learn, 
soon made him a favourite with his fellow-scholars, 
and with his master, who bestowed particular care 
on his instruction, and taught him all the mechanical 
parts of his calling, by causing him to grind the 


Early Uf e. 

D. J. H. D. (Herrera DaTila.), Bm. 8vo, Sev., 1832, s^nnda parte, p. 93. 
In 1S08, being Proeurcuior-mayor of the city, and remaining neuter in the 
popular outbreak which followed the great rising at Madrid on the dos de 
Mayo, he was murdered, at the Triana gate, by the mob, as a traitor to 
the Spanish cause, at the instigation of the ruffian Fr«. Guzman, alias 
Count of Tilli. Schepeler, Bistoire de la Bivolutian d'Espagne et de For- 
tvgal, 3 tomes 8vo, Li^, 1829, tom. i. p. 268. Handbook [1843], P* ^^ 
[third edition, 1855, p. 211]. 

* Supra, chap. ix. p. 672. 

' In the Dialogo sobre el arte de la PuUura, sm. Svo, Seyilla, 1819, 
p. 30, an imaginary conyersation held in the other world by Murillo and 
Mengs, attributed to the pen of Gean Bermudez, Murillo is made to talk 
of Castillo, as *'mi primer maestro y tto.'* Thus he may have been his 
uncle by the mother's side ; but the word tio is often used as a mere term 
of familiarity or endearment. 

TOL. III. f L 




Sohoolfl of 
art at 

colours, prepare the canvases, and manage the palette 
and brushes for the school. 

The great artists of Seville, whose genius has 
given to that city the rank of a metropolis in art, did 
not live in the dayr of royal or national academies, 
nor did they acquire their skill in galleries, furnished 
forth at the public expense, with copies of the finest 
statuary of Greece and Borne, and other expensive 
appliances of study. The dwelling of each master 
was a school of design, where the pupils or amateurs 
who resorted thither defrayed the cost of coal and 
candle, and other moderate expenses, out of a 
common fund. There, around the brasero in winter, 
or beneath the patio-awning in summer, they copied 
the heads or limbs sketched by the master for their 
use, or the few casts, or fragments of sculpture 
which he had inherited or collected, such as Torri- 
giano's " mano de la teta'' ^ or the anatomical models 
of Becerra.* There was always a lay-figure to be 
covered, as need required, with various draperies, 
for which the national cloak and the monkish frock 
afforded ready and excellent materials. Sometimes 
a living model was obtained, especially if the master 
were engaged upon any work of importance; or 
if this were an expense beyond the means of the 
school, the disciples would strip in turn, and lend 

^ Supra, chap. iiL p. 126. 

' Ibid. ohap. t. p. 29a 



an ami, a leg, or a shoulder, to be copied and 
studied by their fellows. The practice, followed by 
Velazquez/ of painting £ruit and vegetables, game 
and fish, pots and pans, for the sake of gaining 
experience in the use of colours, obtained in all the 
schools of Seville. The ambition of the scholars 
was fired, and their industry spurred, by the emula- 
tion which existed between school and school, those 
of Boelas and Facheco, Herrera and Castillo ; by 
the hope of winning the favour of the Chapter 
or the Chartreuse, or of nobles like the Duke of 
Alcali;' and by exhibitions of their works, at 
windows and balconies, during the procession of 
Corpus; or at other festivals, on the steps, las 
gradaSj surrounding the Cathedral, when any piece 
of distinguished merit became the magnet of the 
throng, the theme of poets, and the talk of the 

Availing himself of all the means of improvement 
within his reach, Murillo, in a few years, painted as 
well as Castillo himself. While still in the school 
of that master, he executed two pictures of Our 
Lady, attended, in the one, by St. Francis and 
another monk; in the other, by Santo Domingo, 
which displayed a close adherence to the stiff style 
of his instructor. The first of these pictures hung 


^ Supra, chap. ix. p. 58a 

* Ibid. chap. viL p. 569. 

works of 




Works for 
the Feria. 

in the convent of Regina Angelorum, the second in 
the college of St. Thomas. The removal of Castillo 
to Cadiz in 1639-40,^ deprived Murillo of his in- 
structions and his friendship, the latter of which, 
at least, may have been of considerable importance. 
For it seems that Estevan and his wife were either 
dead, or too poor to afford their son the means of 
pursuing his studies under another master. Certain 
it is, that instead of enrolling himself in the fine 
school of Zurbaran, whose merits he cannot have 
failed to appreciate, he was reduced to earn his 
daily bread by painting coarse and hasty pictures 
for the Feria.* 

Held in a broad street, branching from the 
northern end of the old Alameda, and in front 
of the church of All Saints, remarkable for its 
picturesque semi - Moorish belfry, this venerable 
market presents every Thursday an aspect which 
has changed but little since the days of Murillo. 
Indifferent meat, ill-savoured fish, fruit, vegetables, 
and coarse pottery, old clothes, old mats, and old 
iron, still cover the ground or load the stalls, as 
they did on the Thursdays two centuries ago, when 
the unknown youth stood there amongst gipsies, 
muleteers, and mendicant friars, selling for a few 
reals those productions of his early pencil for which 

^ Supra, chap. viL p. 462. 

* Ibid. chap. yi. p. 371. 


royal collectors are now ready to contend. Few ch. xii. 
painters are now to be found there, the demand for 
religious daubs having declined, both in the Feria 
of Seyille, and in the streets of Santiago at Valla- 
dolid, and the Catalans at Naples,^ once flourishing 
marts for wares of that kind. In Murillo's time, V^istaof 

the Feria. 

these street -artists mustered in great numbers. 
Like the apprentice of Portugal^ a Castilian emblem 
of presumption, who would cut out before he knew 
how to stitch,* they gradually taught themselves the 
rudiments, by boldly entering the highest walks of 
painting. Their works were sometimes executed 
in the open air, and they always kept brushes and 
colours at hand, ready to make any alteration, on 
the spot, that customers might suggest, such as 
changing a St. Onophrius, bristly as the fretful 
porcupine,' into St. Christopher the ferryman, or 
Our Lady of Carmel into St. Anthony of Padua. 
Vast quantities of this trash, as well as works of a 
better class, were bought up by the colonial mer- 
chants, and shipped off, with great store of relics 
and indulgences, to adorn and enrich the thousand 
churches and convents, the gold and silver altars 
and jewelled shrines, of transatlantic Spain. The 

^ Guevara, ComerUarios, p. 52, n. i. 

' "Aprendiz de Portugal, no sabe oozer y qoiere oortar." Collins's 
Spanish Proverbs, p. 46. 
* Yillegas, Flos Sanctorum, p. 725. 




Moya's in- 
fluence on 

artists who practised this extempore kind of paint- 
ing, and grappled with the difficulties of the palette, 
before they had learned to cbraw, are compared by 
Cean Bermudez to those intrepid students, who seek 
to acquire a foreign language by speaking it, re- 
gardless of blunders, and afterwards, if opportunity 
serves, improve their knowledge of the idiom by 
means of books. Of the success of this system, 
which has produced both able painters and excellent 
linguists, MuriUo can hardly be cited as an example; 
but he doubtless learned to apply the precepts of 
Castillo, and improved his manual skill, by the 
rough off-hand practice of the market-place. A 
picture of the Blessed Virgin, with the Infant 
Saviour on her knee, now hanging in the precious 
Murillo-room, in the Museum at Seville,^ seems to 
belong to this early period. There is much promise 
of future excellence in the graceful ease of the 
heads; but the colouring is poor and flat, and the 
whole is but cold and feeble when compared with 
the masterpieces which glow on the adjacent walls. 

Early in 1642, Pedro de Moya, returning from 
England and the school of Vandyck,' resided for 
a while and painted some pictures at Seville. 
Murillo, who may have known him in the school 
of Castillo, or at least had seen some of his early 

^ Supra, chap. i. p. 69. 

* Ibid. chap. zL p. 97a 



works, was so struck by the favourable change 
which travel had wrought upoa his style, that he 
himself resolved upon a pilgrimage to Flanders or 
Italy in search of improvement. Money, however, 
to meet the expenses of such a journey, was first 
to be obtained by his own unaided exertions^ for 
his parents were now dead, leaving little behind 
them, and his genius had not yet recommended 
him to the good ofilces of any wealthy or power- 
ful patron. His resolution and energy overcame 
this obstacle. Buying a large quantity of canvas, 
he divided it into squares of various sizes, which 
he primed and prepared with his own hands for 
the pencil, and then converted into pictures of the 
more popular saints, landscapes, and flower-pieces. 
These he sold to the American traders for expor- 
tation, and thus obtained a sum sufficient for his 
purpose. He then placed his sister under the 
protection of some uncles and aunts, and without 
communicating his plans or destination to any one, 
took the road to Madrid. 

Finding himself in the capital without friends or 
letters, he waited on his fellow-townsman Velaz- 
quez, then at the zenith of his fortune, and telling 
him his story, begged for some introductions to his 
friends at Rome. The King's painter asked him 
various questions about his family and connections, 
his master, and his motive for undertaking so 


Marillo at 



CH. xiL long a journey, and being pleased with his replies 
and demeanour, offered him lodging, which was 
thankfully accepted, in his own house, and pro- 
cured him admission to the Alcazar, Escorial, and 
the other royal galleries. There a new world of 
art opened to the young Andalusian ; he saw large 
instalments of all that he most wished to see, and 
conversed with the great masters of Italy and the 
Netherlands without crossing the Gulf of Lyons or 
the Pyrenees. During the absence of the Court 
in Aragon,^ he spent the summer of 1642 in dili- 
gently copying the works of Bibera, Vandyck, and 
his new patron. Returning from Zaragoza in the 
autumn, Velazquez was so much pleased with his 
labours, that he advised him to restrict his attention 
to the works of the three artists whom he had taken 
for his models; and, submitting the copies to the 
eye of the King, he likewise introduced the stran- 
ger to the favourable notice of the Count-Duke of 
Olivares and the other courtiers of taste. The year 
following, Murillo shared in Velazquez's grief at 
the fall of the friendly minister.* Continuing to 
pursue his studies in retirement, and with unabated 
industry, at the return of the Court from the triumph 
of Lerida,' in 1644, he surprised Velazquez with 
some works of so high a merit, that that judicious 

^ Supra, chap. ix. p. 733. ■ Ibid. p. 744. 

» Ibid. p. 745. 



critic pronounced him ripe for Rome, and offered 
him letters to facilitate his journey. But, whether 
recalled by his sister, or deeming that he had 
already reaped at Madrid all the advantages which 
Rome could offer, Murillo declined to quit his 
native soil, and in spite of the earnest remon- 
strances of his friend, returned, early in 1645, to 

When he paused, as all travellers pause, at the 
Cruz del Campo, to say a grateful Ave to the Virgin,^ 
or to look down on the domes and belfries of the 
noble city, there were few within its walls that had 
noted his absence, or even remembered the existence 
of the friendless painter who was now returning 
to become the pride of Andalusia. Soon after his 
arrival, the friars of the fine Franciscan convent, 
behind the Casa del Ayuntamiento, had determined 
to expend a sum of money collected by one of their 
begging brotherhood, upon a series of pictures for 
their small cloister.* They wanted eleven large 
pieces, but the price which they proposed to give 
for these was too paltry to tempt any artist of name 
to undertake the task. Murillo, however, being 

^ Handbook [1S43], P* ^37 [third edition, 1855, P* i^O- 
' It ocoapied the finest site in the centre of the city — all the great space, 
now the Plaza Nueva, and the CalU de Madridy and even beyond it, for 
there is said to be a piece of the Claustro chico still standing, forming the 
paiio of the house at the end of the CcUle de Madrid^ on the side farthest 
from the Plaza and the end farthest from the Cathedral (1859). 


Return to 

The Fran- 



CH. xn. 




ciicaMi con- 


San Diego. 

needy and onknown, offered to fulfil the bargain, 
and the Franciscans, although doubting his com- 
petency, were happily induced by their parsimony or 
their poverty to close with his offer. They c^)«aed 
a field to the young ene^es of his genius, and he 
repaid the fEtvonr by rendering the walls of their 
convent fiunous throughout Spain. 

Each picture of the series was inscribed with 
certain verses, having a reference, but not always 
affording a key, to the subject. The first which met 
the eye, on entering the cloister and turning to the 
right, represented St. Francis of Assisi, reclining 
on his iron pallet with a crucifix in his hand, and 
listening to the melody of a violin, played near bis 
ear by an angelic visitor. The countenance of the 
saint beaming with devout ecstasy, and the graceful 
figure of the angel, were finely conceived and no less 
carefully executed ; and in the colouring there was 
much of Bibera's strength, with a superadded soft- 
ness and delicacy of tone. Next came San Diego of 
Alcald, kneeling in the act of blessing a copper pot 
of broth, which he was about to dispense to the 
poor at the convent door. A poor woman and her 
children, and a knot of ragged beggars and urchins, 
a group which might be studied in every street, 
and in which the artist may himself have figured 
as an expectant when he wrought for the Feria, 
were painted with all the lifelike truth and accuracy 



of detail which distinguished the early studies of 
Velazquez. Of the third and fourth pictures/ Cean 
Bermudez does not name, and, perhaps, could not 
divine the subjects; but both, he says, contained 
some excellent heads and draperies, and in one a 
distant landscape was flooded with light from a 
globe of fire, in which the soul of Philip II. was 
supposed to be ascending to heayen.' The fifth, 
one of the finest of the series, represented the death 
of S^ Clara, an Italian nun, whose locks were 
shom^ and whose veil was given, by the hand of the 
blessed St. Francis himsell' Amongst a sorrow- 
ing group of sisters and friars, she lay with her 
dying eyes fixed on a vision of glory, wherein 
appeared the Saviour and Our Lady, attended by 
a train of vii^ns, bearing the radiant robe of her 
coming immortality. Yandyck himself might have 
painted the lovely head of S^ Clara; and the 
beauty of the heavenly host contrasted finely with 
the wan nuns and coarse -featured friars beneath. 
Of the remaining six, Cean Bermudez only informs 
us that one was a composition of two figures, and 
that another, in size a companion piece to the S^ 

CH. xa. 


^ One of these pietares miut have been the San Diego and five other 
fignzes now in the Mns^ at Tonlonae. 

* It was St FranciB's Chariot of Fir& See Mrs. Jameson's Legendi 
of the Monadic OrderM, 8to, London, 1850, p. 373. 

> Yill^gas, Flat Sanetonim, p. 387. 




The rapt 


The two 

Clara, represented a Franciscan, seized with a holy 
rapture, when engaged in cooking for his convent, 
and kneeling in the air, whilst a flight of minister- 
ing angels performed his culinary functions.^ The 
latter bore the signature of the artist, " J5"»«« Steph^ 
de MurillOf anno 1646, me.fJ' Another, mentioned 
with high praise by Ponz, was a composition of six 
figures, representing San Gil, patron of the green- 
wood,* standing in a religious ecstasy in the pre- 
sence of Pope Gregory II. It found its way into 
the gallery of the late Marquess Aguado, and is now 
in England.' Soult gutted the convent and carried 
oflf all Murillo's pictures, with the exception of one, 
which, being too stiff to be rolled up, was left be- 
hind, and now adorns the collection of Mr. Ford.* 
It represents a holy Franciscan, praying over the 
body of a dead grey friar, as if about to restore him 
to life; and it is painted in a strong Bibera-like 
style.^ For once we may forgive the military robber. 

^ Ponz, torn. iz. p. 97. It is known in Soult's gallery as " La cuitine 

' Villegas, Flos Sanctorum, p. 426. 

* It was in the possession of Mr. Buchanan, of Pall Mall [now in the 
collection of Philip W. S. Miles, Esq., King's Weston, Gloucestershire. 
Curtis, Velazquez and MuriUoy M. No. 309]. It has been engraved for 
the series of prints known as the Galerie Aguado, by Tavemier, who, 
like a true Frenchman, has mis-spelt eyeiy second word of the inscrip- 

^ At Heyitre, Devon [now in the collection of his son, Francis Clare 
Ford, Esq., London. Curtis, M. No. 40a] 

" [Curtis {ydazquez and Murillo, 8yo, London, 1883, M. No. 2681 p. 
225) gives a full list of these pictures and their owners.] 


for great part of the stripped convent was destroyed 
by fire in 18 10, nothing being left standing but the 
church and some of the arches and three hundred 
marble columns that supported the cloisters.^ 

The fame of these pictures getting abroad, the 
Eranciscan convent was soon thronged with artists 
and critics. A new star had arisen amongst them ; 
a painter had appeared, dropping as it were from the 
clouds, armed with a pencil that could assume at 
will the beauties of Bibera, Vandyck, and Velazquez. 
From the squalid stalls of the Feria, a poor and 
friendless youth had stepped, at once, into the fore- 
most rank of the artists of skilful and opulent Seville. 
From the moment that his works were placed in the 
Franciscan cloister, the name of Murillo began to 
rise in popular esteem, and to eclipse the time- 
honoured names of Herrera, Pacheco, and Zurbaran. 
The public was loud in his praise ; and priors and 
noble patrons overwhelmed him with commissions. 
One of the first fruits of his sudden burst of repu- 
tation was a picture of the "Flight into Egypt," 
executed for the fime Convent of Mercy, a house 
rich in the productions of the best pencils and 
chisels of Seville. 

In 1648, his worldly circumstances were sufficiently 
thriving to enable him, not only to marry, but to 

^ J. Herrera Davila, Guia de Sevilla, seg. parte, p. 47. 







Mode of 


obtain a rich and noble wife, Doiia Beatriz de 
Oabrera y Sotomayor, bom and possessing property 
at Filas,^ a village five leagues south-west from 
Seville. Of this lady's life no fact or even date has 
been recorded; nor have her features and person 
survived in any known portrait But the fortunes 
of her husband and children afford fair evidence 
that her domestic duties were faithfully and ably 

By this alliance the social position of the success* 
ful artist was improved and determined ; his means 
of hospitality were enlarged ; and his house became 
the resort of the brethren of his craft, and of the best 
society of the city. As the name of Murillo is not 
to be found in the gossiping treatise of Facheco, 
it is probable that his success may have been re- 
garded with some secret uneasiness by that busy 
veteran, jealous not only of his own fame, but of that 
of his son-in-law Velazquez. There can be no doubt, 
however, that the young painter appeared in the 
literary and artistic circle which assembled under 
the roof of Pacheco, at whose death he seems to 
have reigned in his stead as the judicious and 
courteous leader of his order. 

^ In a " Life of Murillo," in Owmber^M EdMbvrgh JoumcU, May 2, 1846^ 
p. 278, we are told that the artist first saw his wife at Pilas, where he was 
IMunting an altar-piece for the church of San Geronimo, and thai he gained 
her affections by pourtraying her as an angel in that composition (p. 279). 
I know of no Spanish, or indeed any other, authority for this stoiy. 



Soon after his marriage, Murillo changed his style 
of painting, forsaking that which the connoisseurs 
have called fixst or cold (frio) manner, for that which 
they designate his warm (calido) or second style.^ 
His outlines became softer and his figures rounder ; 
his backgrounds gained in depth of atmospheric 
effect, and his whole colouring in transparency. 
Reynolds, borrowing the ancient criticism passed by 
Euphranor on the Theseus of Faxrhasius,^ remarked 
that the nymphs of Barroccio and Bubens appear 
to have fed upon roses.* So a Spanish critic, less 
elegantly, perhaps, bnt not less justly, said of 
Murillo, that his flesh tints now seemed to be 
painted con sangre y leche^ with blood and milk. 
The earliest work in this second style, noticed by 
Gean Bermude^, hung in the Franciscan convent, 
among the masterpieces of the first manner. It 
was a picture of Our Lady of the Conception, with 
a friar seated and writing at her feet ; and it was 
painted in 1652, for the brotherhood of the True 
Gross, who placed it in the convent, and paid the 
artist 2,500 reals. 

Three years afterwards, in 1655, by order of 
Don Juan Federigui, Archdeacon of Carmona, he 



for the 

' Handbookt p. 263. 

* Plinii Nat Hut., libu zzzr. cafk. 40^ 10 vob., Lipsue, 177&-1791, vol. 
iz. p. 512. 
' Works of Sir J. Reynolds, J Yols. sm. 8yo, London, 1839, toL iL p. 235. 



CH. xa 



executed the two famous pictures of St. Leander, 
and St Isidore, now in the great sacristy of the 
Cathedral. These saintly brethren, natives of Car- 
thagena, flourished in the sixth and seventh cen- 
turies ; each in turn filled the archiepiscopal throne 
of Seville ; and they had a third brother who was 
Bishop of Ecija, and now enjoys a place in the 
calendar, as San Fulgencio. Murillo has painted 
them in their mitres and white robes, and seated 
in great chairs. In Leander the elder, he has pour- 
trayed the features of Alonso de Herrera, marker 
of the choir.^ The mild and venerable counte- 
nance, full of blended dignity, meekness, and intelli- 
gence, agrees well with the character ascribed by 
ecclesiastical history to the good archbishop, who 
gained over King Leovigild and his Arian Goths to 
the Catholic faith, by his gentleness and patience.' 
It bespeaks a life moulded on the precepts of St. 
Paul, and might pass for the true likeness of some 
holy Borromeo or Bedell. 

The learned Isidore, a busy prelate, and an un- 
wearied student, is represented as a younger man, 

' **Apuntador del coro^** the Oxford pric]c-biU, an officer whose bud- 
neas it was to register the attendance of the canons and other fanction- 
aries at times of service ; for which, says Mr. Bavies, Life of Muritto, 
p. 58, note, he receiyed in the good old times ;f 1,500 a year, jnst £yio 
more than the revenue now allowed by the state to the Archbishop of 
Toledo. Widdriogton's Spain and the Spaniards, voL ii p. 295. 

* Villegas, Flos Sanctorum^ p. 642 ; Gibbon, voL vL p. 282, ed. 1838, 
however, donbts the fact of Leovigild's conversion. 



with a noble but less benignant countenance ; he is 
yet in the vigour of life, and not troubled with any 
thought of his Transit, so finely painted by Eoelas ; ^ 
the book in his hand bears an inscription announc- 
ing one of his favourite doctrines, *' obebitb o oobi 
CONSUBSTANTIONEM DEI ; " and he has the threaten- 
ing eye of a keen controversialist, ready to slay or 
be slain for any jot or tittle of his dogmatical creed. 
The real owner of this fine and highly intellectual, 
though somewhat stem, face, was the licentiate 
Juan Lopez Talaban. As if to mark more distinctly 
the difference between the two men, it is executed 
in a harder manner than its companion. The heads, 
hands, and all the accessories of these two noble 
portraits are all finished with admirable effect ; but 
each figure is somewhat short, an error into which 
Murillo sometimes fell. 

About the same time, or soon after, he painted 
for the Chapter another large picture, the " Nativity 
of the Blessed Virgin," which hung behind the high- 
altar of the Cathedral, until in due time it became 
the prey of Soult. It was one of the most pleasing 
specimens of his second style, and the skill of the 
composition left nothing to be desired. In the 
foreground, a graceful group of women and angels 
were engaged in dressing the new-bom babe; and 


NatiTity of 
the Virgin. 


^ Sapra, chap. viL p. 524. 



CH. xn. 

San An- 
tonio de 

the baie left aim of one of the ministering maidens 
was the envy of the ladies of Seville for its round- 
ness of form and beanty of colonr, and rivalled in 
public admiration the leg of Adam in the famous 
picture by Vargas/ Beyond, St Anne was seen in 
bed« with St Joachim leaning over her; above, in 
the air, joyful cherubs hovered near the auspicious 
scene; and the distance was closed by a pleasant 

Appreciating the genius of the great artist, the 
Chapter gave him another order in the following 
year, 1656, in compliance with which he painted, 
for the price of 10,000 reals, a large picture of 
St Anthony of Padua, one of his most celebrated 
works, and still a gem of the Cathedral, hanging in 
the chapel of the baptistery. Kneeling near a table, 
the shaven grey-frocked saint is surprised by a visit 
from the infant Jesus, a charming naked babe, who 
descends in a golden flood of glory, walking the 
bright air as if it were the earth, while around him 
floats and hovers a company of cherubs, most of 
them children, forming a rich garland of gracefol 
forms and lovely faces. Gazing up in rapture at 
this dazzling vision, the saint kneels, with arms 
outstretched, to receive the approaching Saviour. 
On the table at his side there is a vase containing 

' Sapra, chap. vL p. 365. 



white lilies, painted with such Zeuxis-like skill, that 
birds, wandering amongst the aisles, have been seen 
attempting to perch on it and peck the flowers;^ 
and to the left of the picture an arch discloses the 
architectural perspective of the cloister. Palomino 
has an improbable story, that the table and other 
accessories were put in by Vald^s Leal.' In 1833 


^ A cayiller might object, that the oompliment thus unooiiflcioasly 
paid to the lilies reflected no credit on the saint Zenzis made a 
similar remark when he saw a bird peck the grapes carried by a boy in 
his picture. Plin. Nat, Hist,, lib. zxxv., chap. 36, vol. iz. p. 449. But 
birds in Spain used to be on very familiar terms with the monks, if we 
are to believe Mr. Thicknesse, who says that he saw a wild songster 
taking the bread out of the mouth of a hermit at Monserrat — Tr<tveU m 
France and Spain, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1777, vol. i p. 189. The Seville 
story appeared in print eleven years before Murillo's death, when there 
were persons, we are informed, ready to depose to having seen "nn 
paxaro trabajar por assentarse en el (ie., the bufete or table) a picar las 
flores que salen de una jarra, en forma de azucenas." — Fiestas dela S. 
Iglesia metropolitana y patriarcal de SeviUa, al nuevo culto del Sefior 
Bey S, Fernando, por de Fernando de la Torre Farfan, presbytero, fol. 
Sevilla, 1671 (with 6 preliminary leaves, pp. 343, and 20 plates, besides 
the saint's portrait, engraved after Murillo, and not found in all copies), 
p. 164. For a similar triumph achieved by Sanchez Cotan, see chap. vii. 
p. 509. The pre-eminent modem Zeuxis, however, was Mignard, whose 
portrait of the Marquise de Gouvemet was accosted by that lady's pet 
parrot with an affectionate **Baise mot, ma maitreese.** — Vie de Pierre 
Mignard, par TAbb^ de Monville, i2mo, Amsterdam, 1731, p. 57. There 
was more credit in deluding a parrot than even a Philip IV., chap. ix. 
p. 729. 

* Palomino, torn. iii. p. 625. I am informed, by my friend the author 
of the Handbook, that the table painted here and in other works of 
Murillo is the antique meea de h^rraje, so called from its iron legs, still 
to be found in the old mansions of Sevill& The top is usually a single 
massive plank of mahogany. The Marquess de las Amarillas had a very 
fine one. Don Fran®* Romero Balmaseda has one which belonged to the 
painter Juan de Vald^ The slab of mahogany— black as ebony, and 
of a single piece— is 8 feet 11 inches long by 4 feet i\ inches wide, 
Spanitih measure. The finely-carved trestles which support it are also 




for church 
of S«*. 
Maria la 

this noble work was repaired, which in Spain means 
repainted, so that many a delicate touch of Murillo's 
pencil has disappeared. Enough, however, is left 
to show the genius of the original design, and the 
splendour of the original colours.^ Over it hangs a 
smaller picture by the same hand, representing the 
Baptism of Our Lord : a work fresh and pleasing in 
tone, but somewhat defective both in composition 
and drawing. 

The same year saw the renovation of the small 
but ornate church of S*^ Maria la Blanca, once a 
Jewish synagogue, and now a chapel of ease to the 
Sagrario of the Cathedral.* The canon Don Justino 
Neve y Yevenes, a great friend and patron of Murillo, 
employed him to paint for this church four large 
pictures of a semi-circular form, two for the nave. 

mahogany, but there are long serpentine bars which spring from the 
lower rail of these trestles and meet in a block placed under the centre of 
the table, and being of iron, give the name herraje. 

^ Of this picture, M. Viardot, Mtuies cTEspcigne, ftc., p. 146, note, tells 
a marvellous tale on reverend authority. ** Une chanoine," says he, "qui 
avait bleu voulu me servlr de dcerone, me raconta qu'apr^ la retraite 
de FraD9ais, en 18 13, le Due de Wellington avait offert d'acheter ce 
tableau pour 1* Angleterre en le oouyrant d'onces d'or ; * mais * TAngleterre 
a gard^ son or, et Seville le chef-d'oBuvre de son peintre." The canvas is 
probably 15 feet square, which, aU owing each golden ounce to be worth 
£$, 6s., and to cover a square of i^ inch, brings the Duke's offer to at 
least ;f 47,520. Captain Widdrington, Spain and the Spaniards in 1843, 
voL i. p. 246, was informed that "a lord" had declared himself ready to 
give ;f 40,000 for the picture. The Handbook, p. 256, rejects the story 
with contempt It is, nevertheless, still told and believed at Seville and 
Paris, where nothing is too monstrous for deglutition. 

* Ponz, tom. ix. p. 84. 



and one for each of the lateral aisles. The two first 
were to illustrate the history of the festival of Our 
Lady of the Snow, or the dedication of the church 
of S^ Maria Maggiore, at Borne. In the days of 
Pope liberius, says the legend,^ there dwelt at 
Rome a certain senator named John, whose wife, 
a rich and noble lady, bore him no offspring. He- 
signed to the will of heaven, and being no less 
pious than opulent, the childless pair determined 
to adopt the Blessed Virgin as their heir; and for 
that purpose they daily besought her to declare 
her pleasure as to the investment of their wealth. 
Moved by their supplications, the Queen of Heaven 
at last appeared to each of them in a dream on 
the night of the 4th of August, and accepted the 
inheritance, on condition of their repairing next 
day to the Esquiline Hill, and there, on a piece of 
ground which they should find covered with snow, 
erecting a church in her honour. When day broke, 
the sleepers having compared their dreams, went 
to submit the case to the Pope, whom they found, 
however, already informed of the matter by a re- 
velation from the Virgin. Having received the 
pontifical benediction, and attended by a retinue of 
priests, and a great throng of people, they next pro- 


Legend of 
N*. Sefi* 

^ Bibadeneira, Flevr des Vies des Saints, torn. u. p. 1 14. Circa, A.D. 
36a Handbook, p. 735. 




The sena- 

with the 

ceeded to the Esquiline, found a portion of it white, 
beneath the August sun, with miraculous snow, and 
marked out thereon the site of a church, which 
when finished they endowed with all their sub- 
stance, and called by the name of their celestial 
legatee. Thither was brought, after many ages, 
the adored manger-cradle of Our Lord ; and there 
arose the meretricious temple of Rainaldi and Fuga, 
which, however, records in its proud title the piety 
of the senator and his spouse, who first dedicated 
a church to the Mother of the Saviour within the 
walls of the Eternal City. In his delineation of the 
first part of the story, Murillo has represented the 
Boman lord dreaming in his chair over a great book, 
and leaning his head on a table, with deep sleep 
written in every line of his noble countenance and 
figure. His dress of black velvet is, like that of 
Pareja's St. Matthew,^ the costume of a Spanish 
hidalgo. The lady lies asleep on the ground ; above 
them appears, seated on a cloud and surrounded by 
a glory, the Virgin, one of the loveliest of Murillo's 
Madonnas. In the next picture, the devout pair 
relate their dream to the Pope liberius, a grand old 
ecclesiastic, like one of Titian's pontiffs. Near the 
throne stands a white-robed friar, applying a pair of 
spectacles to his nose, and scrutinising the not very 

^ Supra, chap, x p. 85a 



interesting dame in a manner more usual with his 
doth than proper to his calling. Far in the distance, 
the procession is seen approaching the snow-patch 
on the Esquiline. In the Dream, the finest of the 
two pictures, is noticed the commencement of his 
third or vapoury (vaporoso) style, in which the out- 
lines are lost in the light and shade, as they are in 
the rounded forms of nature. Both were carried oS 
by the French, and placed in the Louvre,^ but they 
were happily rescued at the peace. They now hang 
in the Academy of San Fernando, at Madrid, in 
tawdry Parisian frames, absurdly decorated at the 
upper comers with plans and elevations of the 
ancient basilica and of the present church of S*^ 
Maria Maggiore. The remaining pictures, a Virgin 
of the Conception adored by churchmen, and a figure 
of Faith holding the elements of the Eucharist and 
likewise worshipped by various saintly personages, 
were not recovered from the gripe of the Oaul. To 
the church of S^ Maria la Blanca, which, at one time, 
possessed, besides these pictures, an excellent Mater 
Dolorosa, and a St John by Murillo, there now re- 
mains but a single work of his, a Last Supper, painted 
in his early style,* but at what period is not known," 


third ftyle. 

^ Notice des Tctbleaux expoHs dans le grattd solan du MusH Boycd^ 
i2mo, Paris, 1815, p. 73, where they figure as Nob. 83 and 84. 
* Handbook [1843], p. 269 [third edition, 1855, p. 198]. 
' Ortiz de Zoiiiga, Anaks de SemUa^ ap. p. 817, has a notice of &**■ 



CH. xn. 

tion of the 

tint meet- 

In 1658, Mnrillo was, in some degree, diverted 
from the labours of his studio by a scheme which 
he had conceived, of establishing a public Academy 
of Art. The design was a bold one, and encom- 
passed with difficulties, which, at Madrid, had baffled 
not only the artists in the last reign, but even 
Philip IV., whom the interests of art, beyond all 
other objects, were likely to arouse from his mag- 
nificent indolence on the throne.^ The Sevillian 
painter, however, succeeded in effecting what the 
absolute monarch had found impracticable. By his 
address and good temper he obtained the concur- 
rence of Vald^s Leal, who believed himself the 
first of painters, and of the younger Herrera, who 
had lately returned from Italy, with his natural 
Andalusian presumption greatly improved by travel. 
The conflicting jealousies of his rivals being thus 
reconciled or quieted, the academy was first opened 
for the purposes of instruction, in one of the apart- 
ments of the Exchange, on the evening of the 
1st of January 1660. On the nth of the same 
month, twenty-three of the leading artists met to 
draw up a constitution for a new society.* It was 

Maria la Blanca, and mentions Mnrillo. A book also appears to haye 
been written by La Torre Farfan. 

* Snpra, chap, viii pp. 598, 599. 

' The following are the names appended to the minnte of the meeting : 
— D. Francisco de Herrera, Bai-tolom^ Mnrillo, D. Sebastian Llanos y 
Vald^, Pedro Honorio de Palencia, Jnan de Vald^ Leal, Gomelio Schnti 



then agreed that its affairs should be managed by 
two presidents, of whom Murillo was the first, and 
Herrera the second; by two consuls, Sebastian de 
Llanos y Vald^s and Pedro Honorio de Palencia; 
a fiscal, Cornelius Schut ; a secretary, Ignacio Iriiiprte ; 
and a deputy, Juan de Vald^s Leal. The duties 
of the presidents, who were to act on alternate 
weeks, were to direct the progress of the pupils, 
resolve their doubts and settle their disputes, im- 
pose fines and preserve order in the school, and 
select those whose skill entitled them to the rank 
of academician. The consuls, fiscal, secretary, and 
deputy formed the council of the president ; the 
consul seems to have been his assistant or substi- 
tute ; and the business of the other three officers 
was to collect the subscriptions and fines, and to 
keep the accounts. The expenses of coal, candle, 
models, and other necessaries were defrayed by a 
monthly subscription of six reals, paid by each of 
the twenty members ; while scholars were liberally 
admitted for the purposes of study, on the payment 
of whatever fee they could afford. The rules were 
few and simple. Each disciple, on admission, was 

Ifni&cio de Irikrte, Madas de Arteaga, Matias de Carbajal, Antonio de 
Lejalde, Jnan de Arenas, Jnan Martinez, Pedro Ramirez, Bemab^ de 
Ayala, Carlos de Negron, Pedro de Medina, Bernardo Arias Maldonado, 
Diego Diaz, Antonio de Zarzoza, Juan Lopez Carrasco, Pedro de Cam- 
probin, Martin de Atienza, Alonso Perez de Herrera. 








Erents of 
the first 

to profess his orthodoxy in these words — "Praised 
be the most holy Sacrament^ and the pure Concep* 
tion of Our Lady " {Alahado sea el Santisimo Sacra- 
mento y la limpid, Concepcion de Nuestra Senora). 
Conversation on subjects not belonging to the busi* 
ness of the school was prohibited, and the offender 
was fined if he persevered in it after the president 
had rung his bell twice. A fine was likewise ex- 
acted for swearing, profane language, and offences 
againdt good manners. 

These particulars are derived from the original 
records of the academy, formerly in the library of Don 
Francisco de Bruna y Ahumada, at Seville, and, in 
great part, printed by Cean Bermudez.^ In the first 
list of subscribing members, dated on the nth of 
January 1660, the name of Francisco de Herrera 
stands first, and that of Bartolom^ Murillo second. 
In February the society gained one new member, 
and in March four more. Two, however, fell off in 
April; and on the ist of November sixteen only 
remained. President Herrera being amongst the 
deserters. Some little change had, meanwhile, 
taken place in the ofiSices and office-bearers; for 
in the minute of the meeting, held on the last- 
mentioned day, Vald^s appears, not as deputy bat 
as alcalde^ or chief of the art of painting, with 

^ In the Appendix to his Carta tobre la Eietula Sevillana. 


Matias de Carbajal for a coadjutor, and Falencia, 
not as consul but as alcalde of the gilders. At this 
meeting, Pedro de Medina Valbuena was appointed 
mayor-domo, or steward, to manage the money 
matters of the academy. And as the expenses were 
now to be divided amongst a smaller number of 
members, the monthly subscription payable by each 
was raised to eight reals; and it was voted that 
each pupil should pay sixteen maravedis for every 
night that he attended the schooL 

During the second year of its existence, 1661, the 
academy seems to have been directed by Murillo; 
but, some leaves of the Bruna manuscript being lost, 
it does not appear who succeeded him as a president 
in 1662. Llanos y Vald^s became president in 1663, 
with Carbajal as steward; and, in 1664, Juan de 
Yald^s, having ingratiated himself with his brethren, 
was elected for four years to the first office, and 
Cornelius Schut to the second. Some dispute, 
however, arising, Vald^s retired from the chair and 
the academy on the 3rd of October 1666, and was 
succeeded by Llanos, Martinez de Oradilla being 
made steward. Medina Valbuena was president in 
1667-8, and Llanos, for the third time, the year 
following. Juan Chamorro was chosen in 1670; 
Medina was re-elected in 1671 ; and in the two 
next years the chair was filled by Schut. The aca- 
demy was now fairly launched, and sailing before 


and sno- 



CH. xn. prosperous breezes. Its members had greatly in- 
creased in number, and several men of rank were 
enrolled amongst them. The meeting of the 5th of 
November 1673, ^^^ 1^* ^^ which a minute is found 
in the Bruna manuscript, was attended by forty- 
three academicians, and by Don Manuel de Guzman, 
Manrique de ZuiLiga, Marquess of Villamanrique, 
who had succeeded the deceased Count of Arenales 
as their " most noble protector." 

Results. Although Murillo may be considered the founder 

of the academy, it is evident that the jealousy of 
envious rivals, or the calls of his own studio, soon 
prevented him from taking any active part in the 
conduct of its affairs. But the constitution laid 
down during his rule underwent but little change. 
The president and mayor-domo were the only officers 
elected by the whole body; each president being 
free to choose his own consuls and assistants ; and 
the practice of having two presidents at the same 
time appears to have been discontinued. The 
course of instruction pursued was intended not 
for mere beginners, but for those who had already 
acquired some knowledge of art ; there being no 
drawings to copy, the studies were made entirely 
from the living model or from the lay-figure ; and 
colours were largely used by the scholars, a prac- 
tice laid aside, says Cean Bermudez, in the later 
academies. It cannot be said that this institu- 


tion exerted any great influence on Sevillian paint- 
ing, like other and even royal academies, it never 
produced any painters of first-rate merit; nor did 
it arrest the decay of taste in the next reign. But 
without it perhaps that decay might have been 
more fatal and final; it, at least, afforded an 
asylum for traditions of the great masters ; and to 
Murillo himself there must have been a virtuous 
satisfaction in the thought that he had provided 
for the young artists around him some of the ad- 
vantages of which he had himself felt the want 
twenty years before. 

In 1668, the Cathedral chapter-room being under 
repair, Murillo was employed to re-touch the alle- 
gorical designs of Cespedes,^ and to execute eight 
oval half-length pictures of saints, and a full-length 
Virgin of the Conception. The saints are pleasing, 
but not of very high merit.* Those on the right 
side are Hermenegild, Isidore, Archbishop Piu9, and 
Justa ; those on the left, Rufina, King Ferdinand, 
Leander, and Archbishop Laureano, whose head, 
being cut oflf, retained the faculty of speech.' The 
Virgin is a magnificent dark-haired Madonna, with 
the usual accompaniment of lovely cherubs bearing 

^ Sapra, chap. vL p. 388. ' Ponz, torn. ix. p. 4S. 

» Villegas, Flos Sanctorum, p. 679. Fr. Diego Tello, Vida milagroa y 
martyrio del gloriossissimo Arzohispo de SevUla, San Laureano, 4to, 
Eoma, 1722, p. 127. 

CH. XU. 

for the 




Hospital de 
la Coridad. 




palms and flowers. For the sacristy of the chapel 
de la Antigua he also painted, about this time, 
the infants Christ and St. John, and the *' Repose 
of the Virgin," works which have disappeared, 
probably by French agency. 

We now approach the most glorious period of 
Murillo's career. There existed, at Seville, a pious 
corporation of considerable antiquity, known as the 
brotherhood of the Holy Charity,^ and possessing 
the hospital of San Jorge. About the middle of 
the seventeenth century, however, this hospital 
had fallen into great poverty and decay. By the 
negligence or knavery of the guardian-guild, its 
property had dwindled to nothing, the fabric was 
a mouldering ruin, and the church a roosting-place 
for pigeons. Its forlorn condition attracted, about 
1 66 1, the attention of Don Miguel MaiLara Vicentelo 
de Leca, knight of Calatrava, whose life and fortune 
were dedicated to works of piety and devotion,* 

1 The records of the Hermamlad de la Santa Caridad reach hack only 
to 1578 ; hut it IB supposed then to have existed for more than a centuiy. 
It seems to have heen originally instituted for the purpose of giving 
Christian hurial to malefactors. Ortiz de Zufiiga» Annates de Smrille, 
p. 551. 

* There is a curious life of this good man, entitled Breve Selaeion 
de la muerte, vida y virtvdea del venerable cabaUero D. Migtul MaHara 
Vicentelo de Leea, caballero del orden de Calatrava^ hermdno mayor de 
la Santa Caridadj escrivi61a el P. Juan de Cardenas de la comp. de 
Jesus, para consuelo de los Hermanos de la Santa Caridad, Sevilla, 1679, 
4to, pp. 192 and 7 preliminary leaves, with portrait hy Lucas de Vald^ 
Bom in 1626, he married early in life a lady of the house of Carillo de 


As a member of the guild, this pious gentleman 
took upon himself the task of raising the funds 
necessary to restore the hospital to a state of pros- 
perity. At the outset, his scheme did not find 
much favour with the nobles and rich traders of 
Seville, and the first contribution which he received 

Mendoza. The circnmstanoes under wbioh he became a devotee resemble 
a passage from the life of one of our own Methodists. Some hams, sent 
to him as a present from the country, being detained at the gates of 
SeTille until ^e dues should be paid, he sallied forth in a fit of anger to 
scold the official concerned in the delay. He had gone but a few paces, 
when the Lord, says Father Cardenas, " poured a great light upon his 
mind " (p. 7). From that moment religion became the sole business of 
hiB life. Being a man of pure and blameless morals, he had no fleshly 
lust to mortify, saye a fondness for chocolate, a beverage from which he 
accordingly refrained from the day of his conversion, even when offered 
as a refreshment by his friends the Carthusians (p. 102). His humility 
and devotion, his munificence in almsgiving, and his favour with the 
saints, soon became famous in Seville. Every August it was his custom 
to lay in two stores of wheat, one for his own family, and another for the 
poor. In a certain year of scarcity, his granary being empty long before 
the time came for refilling it^ his steward found it one day replenished 
with a miraculous supply of grain (pp. 48-50). His influence and example 
induced many of the nobility of Seville to join the brotherhood of 
Charity ; he often became the channel of the bounty of others (pp. 32>3) ; 
and his reputation as an almoner stood so high, that a certain Don Ft^' 
Gomez de Castro devised to him his whole estate, to the value of 500,000 
ducats, to be applied to charitable uses (p. 53). Ma&ara was the author 
of a religious treatise, entitled Ducurso de la Verdad. In his portrait 
by Vald^ he holds this book in his hand ; his countenance is meagre 
and severe, betokening fasting and melancholy. In the original picture 
his left hand rests on a skulL There is another print of Mafiara, by 
J. Ballester, in the Begla de la muy humUde y Real Hermandad de la 
Caridad de SevUla, 4to, Madrid, 1785. At his death (9th of May 1679), 
he left his whole fortune to the hospital, except some trifling legacies to 
servants, his "ivory Christ" to his confessor, and *'the Christ painted 
ou a cross at the tester of his bed," perhaps a work of Murillo, to his 
sister (p. 178) ; and he ordered that he should be buried exactly in the 
fashion of the poor of the hospital, at the church door beneath a slab, 




CH. xiL was from a mendicant named Lois, who gave fifty 
crowns, the savings of his life, to the service of 
God and the poor. Bat his perseverance and his 
own generous example finally overcame all obstacles ; 
donations and bequests flowed in, and, before the 
close of his usefdl life, in 1679, he had completed 

with this inscription — Aqui yazen lot huemu y eenitcu del pear htmbrt 
que a ofoido en el munda. Ruegen d Dioe per el (p. 176). His funeral 
wai, notwithstanding, oelebrated with great pomp; he was buried in a 
▼aolt of the chorch, and praised in a long Latin epitaph as the best of 
men ; and a eopy of this epitaph was placed in his very coffin, difTering 
from that above ground, inasmuch as it contained honourable mention 
of his abstinence from chocolate (p. 188). 80 the temptations, not always 
successfully resisted, of a Fellow of Oriel, in respect of roast gooee and 
buttered toast, may be found narrated in his curious journal. Remains 
of Rev, R. ff, Froude, M.A., 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1838, toL l pp. I5i 
Mf 3fh 37> 49> printed by grave Oxford divines, who profess (p. vii.) that 
*' they are best consulting the wishes of the departed by publication," 
an excuse which Father Cardenas does not plead for his revelatioDS. 
Two months after interment, the body of Mafiara was found to be 
incorrupt ; and by the touch of some papers which had belonged to bim 
a knight of Santiago was cured of a headache, as by the application of 
his shirt a licentiate was made whole of a calenture (pp. 170-1). See 
also Ortiz de Zufiiga, AnncUes, pp. 776-777. 

Since the above note was first printed, a later edition of Cardenas'a 
Life of Mafiara has fallen into my hands, 8vo, SeviUa, 1732, with which 
there is bound up the Discurso de la Verdad^ dedicado d la alta imperial 
magestad de Dioa, compuesto por de Miguel Maftara Vioentelo de Leca, 
Cab. del ord. de Calatrava y hermano mayor de la Santa Charidad de 
N«' Soft'' Jesus Christo, 8vo, Seville, 1725. The licenses to print, aflSxed 
to this work, being dated so early as 167 1, it probably was first published 
before the author's death. Maliara paints the nothingness of life, and 
the vanity of human hope and strife, in a style of picturesque eloquence 
that may remind the English reader of Jeremy Taylor, or the Spanish 
artist of Vald^ (infra, chap. xiv.). His thoughts are ever fixed on the 
tomb ; he warns the monarch that the dust of Julius C«sar, **dead and 
turned to clay," is perhaps afifording nourishment to pot-herbs in a garden 
(p. 4), and the noble dame, ** sitting in sUken attire in her balcony," 
that her plumed and jewelled head must one day lie undistinguished 

Printed by Wiitmann Paris. 


Printed by Wiitmann Pari*. 




his pious work at the expense of more than half 
a million of ducats.^ On the slender foundation 
laid by the noble-hearted beggar, he reared the 
present beautiful church of San Jorge, with its 
rich altars and matchless pictures ; and the hospital, 
with its marble cloisters and spacious halls, and 
the train of priests, domestics, and sisters of mercy, 
maintained to minister to the necessities, in the 
words of the annual report of the guild, of ** their 
masters and lords the poor." ' 


amongst skulls that wore the ooimtry hood, or surmounted the shoulders 
of beggars (p. 18). The book also contains a letter addressed by Mafiara 
to the Brotherhood of Charity at Antequara (p. 38), a sonnet composed 
by him (p. 48), a short discourse, pronounced in his own hospital on 
Christmas Eve (p. 52), and Tarious pious inscriptions for its walls. This 
later edition of Mafiara's Life wants the portrait by Lucas de Vald^, en- 
graved from the original picture by Juan de Valdds, which hangs in that 
part of the hospital called the Infirmaxy of the Viigin, a noble gallery 
with a row of light columns running down its centre to support the lofty 
arched roof, and an altar at the end with a carved image of Our Lady ; 
the portrait hangs opposite the altar, at the further end from the entrance 
door. In the Sala del Cabildo (where the Hermandad meets) there hangs 
a Tery fine portrait of Maftara, by Juan de Vald^. He is seated at a 
table covered with black velvet laced with gold, and having on it a cross 
of rustic wood (wood with knots or places where the branches have been 
cut off)- A book is before him on a small reading-desk, and he appears 
to be reading aloud, giving eflfect to his discourse by gestures with his 
right hand. On the other side of the table a charity-boy, or niflo de 
eoro, with a smile in his merry eyes, and his finger on his lips as if 
enjoining silence, sits on a low stool with a book on his knees. A 
similar table, with the identical cross and reading-desk, stands below 
the picture; and immediately under the picture hangs the sword of 
Mafiara in a black case — a long, slender Toledo, with a basket hilt. In 
the portrait he looks much younger, and less lean and sad than in the 
engraved picture. 

^ Cardenas, Belaeion^ p. 43. 

* '* Nuestros amos y sefiores los pobres,'* Dublin Eevieto, vol. xviii. 
VOL. ni. K 



CH. XII. The hospital was rebuilt, in the Greco-Romano 
Bmiding. style, by the architect Bernardo Simon de Pineda.^ 
The front has little beauty ; but the cloister is grace- 
ftil, and finely proportioned. The interior of the 
church is one of the most elegant in Seville.* It 
consists of a single aisle, widening beneath the 
lofty and richly-decorated dome,' and terminated by 
the high-altar, a vast and florid fabric of twisted 
columns and massive cornices, entirely gilt,^ and 
raised on a platform of several marble steps above the 
rest of the marble pavement. For this sumptuous 
structure, Mailara provided lamps and candelabra, 

p. 480, where the following faets eonneoted with this nohle iostitiition are 
narrated. Below stairs are upwards of 100 beds, and always 100 patients; 
above liye twelve venerahUs, or aged infirm priests, in comfortable apart- 
ments ; in each ward there is an altar, where mass is regularly said ; 
and there is an outer hall opening on the street, with door unbarred all 
night, where any beggar or poor wayfarer may find bed, light» and supper. 
In 1844 the confraternity forwarded, or assisted on their journeys, 165 poor 
people ; gave ecclesiastical burial to 70, the number of deaths in the 
house having been 43; carried i6a to the hospitals, and distributed 
dothee and alms to others; and 17,398 large loaves of bread, besides 
abundance of meat, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, cakes, wine, &a, were 
consumed in the establishment. 

1 Ortix de Zufiiga, AnnaleSt p. 767. The Sevilia Fintcresca, p. 392, 
has the name Ftmda, 

* The accompanying sketch is taken from near the side-door, the usual 

> The dome is painted with eight angels in the eight compartments 
(like the divisions of a melon) into which it is divided, and in the comers 
between the four arches are the four evangelists — all in fresco, and 
attributed to Juan de Vald^ Leal. 

* The ground is black, but scarcely seen for the golden enrichments. 
The pretty cherubs, which in pairs support the columns, bracketwisc, 
and the graceful figure of Charity, and the angels above, are painted 


plate and other ornaments of fitting splendour ; and c h. xil 
he commissioned his friend,^ Murillo, to paint no less JJ^^'* 
than eleven pictures. Three of these pieces, repre- 
senting the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgiui the 
Infant Saviour, and the Infant St John, still adorn 
the lateral altars, and elsewhere would be considered 
as gems. The remaining eight, treating of scriptural ^^^}^ 
subjects proper to the place, are the finest works of chantj. 
the master. Ere the coming of the French spoiler, 
four hung on either side of the church; "Moses 
striking the Bock," the '' Betum of the Prodigal," 
"Abraham receiving the Three Angels," and the 
" Charity of San Juan de Dios," on the left or gospel 
side ; and the " Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes," 
"Our Lord healing the Paralytic at the Pool of 
Bethesda," "St. Peter released from Prison by the 
Angel," and " St. Elizabeth of Hungary tending the 
Sick," on that of the epistle. On these works Murillo Prfoe*. 
seems to have been employed during four years ; 
and in 1674 he received the following prices : for 
the Moses, 13,300 reals ; for the Loaves and Fishes, 
15,975; for San Juan de Dios and its companion- 
picture St. Elizabeth, 16,840; and for the four 
others, Abraham, the Prodigal, the Healing the 
Paralytic, and St. Peter, 32,000; making in all 
the sum of 78,115 reals, or about ;^8oo. Five were 

^ Ponz, torn. ix. p. 149. 




<* MoBes 
the Rock." 

carried off by Soult, who gave one to the imperial 
Louvre, and retained four for his own sale-rooms. 

Happily for the hospital and for Seville, the two 
colossal compositions of Moses, and the Loaves 
and Fishes, still hang beneath the cornices whence 
springs the dome of the church, ** like ripe oranges 
on the bough where they originally budded." ^ Long 
may they cover their native walls, and enrich, as 
well as adorn, the institution of MafLara ! Both are 
painted in a light sketchy manner, and with less 
than Murillo's usual brilliancy of colour. In the 
picture of the great miracle of the Jewish dispensa- 
tion, the Hebrew prophet stands beside the rock in 
Horeb, with hands pressed together and uplifted 
eyes, thanking the Almighty for the stream which 
has just gushed forth at the stroke of his mysteri- 
ous rod. His head turning slightly to the right, 
with its horn-shaped halo and full silver beard, 
is noble and expressive; and his figure, in a 
pale yellow robe and flowing violet mantle, majestic 
and commanding. Aaron, in his sacerdotal mitre 
and mystic breastplate, and robe of subdued white, 
appears behind his brother; but in the counte- 
nance of the high-priest the gratitude seems not 
unmingled with surprise. Immediately around them 
are grouped fifteen figures, men, women, and chil- 

^ Handbook [1843], p. 263 [third edition, 1855, p. 191]. 



dren, absorbed in the business of quenching their 
thirst, whence the picture has been called ^^ La Sed" 
Amongst them there is one introduced with great 
dramatic effect, a mother drinking eagerly from a 
jug, and "forgetful of her sucking child," ^ turning 
aside her head to avoid the outstretched hand of 
the clamorous infant in her arms. The water, falling 
from the rock, forms a stream, to the left of which 
there is a smaller group of nine figures, of which the 
most striking feature is the woman who, with one 
hand, holds a cup to the lips of the youngest boy, 
and with the other restrains the eagerness of his 
elder brother. Here rises the head of a camel, 
patiently awaiting his turn; there a white horse,* 
laden with jars, applies his nose to an iron pot newly 
filled from the fountain ; and sundry dogs and sheep, 
mingled with the people, lend variety to the com- 
position. The sunburnt boy on the mule, and the 
girl, somewhat older, near him, holding up her 
pitcher to be filled, are traditionally called portraits 
of the painter's children.' In the background another 


^ Isa. xlix. 15. 

> The point is doubtful, perhaps, for the foreshortened head does not 
allow one to judge of the length of the ear ; but the tul is too bushy for 
a mule's, and the quarters and legs, though lean, are more equine than 
asinine. I have frequently, when travelling, been for a moment at a loss 
to say whethier a muleteer's beast was horse or mule. 

' History of the Spanish School of Painting ^ by the author of Tramels 
through Sicily^ &c, fcap. 8vo^ London, 1843, P- ^^ ^^^ ^^^ & notice of 
this work, see Preface to first edition. 



CH. xn. company of people, with their beasts, are seen, 
in a bright light, descending a rugged path to the 
spring; and rocky hills close the distance. As a 
composition, this wonderful picture can hardly be 
surpassed. The rock, a huge isolated brown crag, 
much resembles in fonn, size, and colour that which 
is still pointed out as the rock of Moses by the 
Greek monks of the convent of St Catherine, in 
the real wilderness of Horeb. It forms the central 
object, rising to the top of the canvas and dividing 
it into two unequal portions. In front of the rock, 
the eye at once singles out the erect figure of the 
prophet standing forward from the throng ; and the 
lofty emotion of that great leader, looking with 
gratitude to heaven, is finely contrasted with the 
downward regards of the multitude, forgetful of the 
Giver in the anticipation or the enjoyment of the 
gift Each head and figure is an elaborate study ; 
each countenance has a distinctive character; and 
even of the sixteen vessels brought to the spring, no 
two are alike in form. A duplicate, or large sketch 
of this picture, stolen from some other collection, 
hangs, or once hung, in the staircase of Soult's 
receiving-house at Paris.^ Part of the grouping, and 

^ Bevtie de Paris, 1835, torn. xxi. p. 5a [CartiB (Vekuquez andMuritto^ 
M. No. 14) sayB, '* The only picture of this sabjeot in the Soult catalogue 
was by Herrera the younger, perhaps the painting formerly in the Arch- 
bishop's palace at Seyille," p. 123.] 



even some of the figures, appear to have been sug- 
gested to Munllo by the fiine work, by Boelas, on 
the same subject, now in Madrid.^ Its authenticity, 
however, is questionable, as it is not mentioned by 
Gean Bermudez, who notices a study of the woman 
giving her child drink, which once hung in the 
convent of Barefooted Carmelites at Seville. 

The '^ Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes '' is not 
equal to its twin-picture. The principal figures in the 
foregroimd are arranged in two independent groups, 
leaving a great open space between, disclosing the 
multitudes clustered on the distant uplands. Our 
Lord and His disciples on the one hand, and the 
knot of spectators on the other, form, therefore, two 
distinct pictures, which might be separated without 
much injury to their significance. The head of the 
Saviour is inferior in dignity to that of Moses ; His 
position is not sufficiently prominent. The Saviour 
is seated in the act of blessing one of the loaves, 
with His right hand raised, and looking to heaven ; 
His robe is grey violet. His mantle dark blue. To 
the right stands St. Peter, with his bald head, in a 
yellow robe, and to his left another apostle, in dark 
olive green, bending forward, holds the basket of 
bread. Further to the left is another apostle with 
grey hair, in a green robe, talking to the lad and 



^ SapnK chap. yiL p. 528L 



CH. xn. 

de DiM." 

handling the fish. Nor are any of the ap 
remarkable for elevation of character. The yonng 
woman with the child in her arms, and the old bitter- 
faced hag who looks on with incredulous wonder 
at the proceedings of the master of the miraculous 
feasty and the beggar in crimson drapery, leaning on 
his staff behind, are full of life and finely contrasted ; 
and the lad with the loaves and fishes is an admirable 
study of a Sevillian urchin. Of this picture, as well 
as of its companion, Soult has, or once had, a large 
repetition of considerable merit.^ The small original 
sketch is in the rich collection of Mr. Munro.' 

The '' Charity of San Juan de Dios '' is the only 
other piece of this noble series that remains to the 
hospital. It hangs in its original place, on the 
left wall of the church, near the great portal. The 
good Samaritan of Granada' is represented carry- 
ing a sick man on his shoulders by night, and 
sinking imder the weight, of which he is relieved 
by the opportune aid of an angel. Perceiving his 
Divine assistant, he looks back towards him with an 
expression of grateful awe. This picture is coloured 

^ Bevue de Par%$, torn, xxi p. 5. [*' In tlie Soult sale, Xo. 87, a picture 
of the ' Multiplication of the Bread ' by Herrera the younger, sold for 1,000 
francs."— Curtis, M. Na 180, p. 192, who says it was quite different from 
the picture referred to above.] 

* At No. 113 Park Street, Grosyenor Square. [Sold by Christie^ June 
I, 1878, £s^S' British Institution, 1832.] 

* Supra, chap. viii. p. 669. 



with great power. The dark form of the burden 
and the sober grey frock of the bearer are dimly 
seen in the darkness, on which the glorious coun- 
tenance of the seraph and his rich yellow drapery 
tells like a burst of sunshine. 

" St. Elizabeth/' the appropriate companion-piece, 
although lost to Seville, happily is still preserved 
to Spain. Bescued from the Louvre/ it was de- 
tained, on some frivolous pretext, at Madrid, where 
it now embellishes the Academy of San Fernando. 
Elizabeth, daughter of King Andrew and Queen 
Gertrude, of Hungary, is one of the most amiable 
personages of mediaeval hagiology. Bom early in 
the fourteenth century, her humility, piety, and 
almsdeeds were the wonder of her father's court, 
before she became the wife of Duke Ludwig of 
Thuringia. As sovereign princess her whole life 
was consecrated to religion and charity. She fasted 
rigidly, rose at midnight to pray, walked in pro- 
cessions barefoot and clad in sackcloth, and main- 
tained a daily table for nine hundred poor, and an 
hospital, where, in spite of the scorn and murmurs 
of her ladies, she performed the most revolting 
duties of sick-nurse. But her lord dying in Sicily, 
of wounds received in the Holy Land, she was 

OH. xn. 

"St. Eliza- 
beth of 

^ Notice des Tableaux [easpoeis done le grand aalon du Mtude Boy€d, 
ouveri le 25 Julliet, 1814, i2mo, Paris, 1814], p. 74, No. 85. 



CH. xn despoiled in a few years of her wealth and dignities ; 
and, compelled to seek for that charity which she 
had so munificently bestowed, it was sometimes 
her lot to endure the insults of wretches who had 
partaken of her bounties. All these slings and 
arrows of her fortune the good Duchess sufifered 
with angelic meekness. Entering, it is said, the 
third Order of St. Francis, prayer and tending the 
sick continued to be her daily employ, and com- 
munion in visions with Our Lord and the Blessed 
Virgin her only solace, till her death in her twenty- 
fourth year. The miracles wrought at her tomb at 
Marburg obtained her canonisation by Gregory IX.^ 
Murillo's composition in honour of this royal 
lady consists of nine figures assembled in one of 
the halls of her hospital. In the centre stands 
'' the king's daughter of Hungary," arrayed in the 
dark robe and white headgear of a nun, sur- 
mounted by a small coronet; and she is engaged 
in washing, at a silver basin, the scald head of a 
beggar-boy, which, being painted with revolting 
adherence to nature, has obtained for the picture 
its Spanish name, "-EZ Tinoso.'*^ Two of her ladies. 

^ Villegas, Flos Sanctorum, p. 794. Bibadeneira, Fleurs^ torn, ii p. 
521. Vies des Saints, i2mo, Paris, 1837, p. 603. 

' The very circuniBtanoe may have been snggeated by Yillegas, p. 795. 
*' Pu8o junto consigo una ves la cabeza de un enfermoi &c./' an incident 
which most readers will gladly dispense with, and which the corions 
may seek for in the original. 


bearing a silver ewer, and a tray with cups and a c h. xn . 
napkin, stand at her right hand, and from behind 
them peers a spectacled duefia;^ to her left hand 
there is a second boy, likewise a tinosOf removing, with 
great caution and a wry face, the plaster which covers 
his head, a cripple resting on his crutches, and an old 
woman seated on the step of the dais. More in the 
foreground, to the right of the group, a half-naked 
beggar, with his head bound up, leisurely removes 
the bandage from an ulcer on his leg, painted with 
a reality so curious, and so disgusting, that the eye 
is both arrested and sickened. In the distance, 
through a window or opening, is seen a group of 
poor people seated at table, and waited on by their 
gentle hostess. In this picture, although it has 
suffered somewhat from rash restoration, the manage- 
ment of the composition and the lights, the bril- 
liancy of the colouring, and the manual skill of the 
execution, are above all praise. Some objection 
may, perhaps, be made to the exhibition of so much 
that is sickening in the details. But this, while it 
is justified by the legend, also heightens the moral 
effect of the picture. The disgust felt by the spec- 
tator is evidently shared by the attendant ladies; 
yet the high-bom dame continues her self-imposed 

^ Murillo was fond of these faehioiiable ornaments of the nose ; see 
p. 1006 ; like Sanchex de Caatro, chap. iL p. 96, and Arias Femandex, 
chap. z. p. 858. See also ohap. iz. p. 751, note. 



CH. xn. 


" Abraham 

task, her pale and pensive countenance betraying no 
inward repugnance, and her dainty fingers shrinking 
from no service that can alleviate the human misery, 
and exemplify her devotion to her Master. The old 
hag, whose brown scraggy neck and lean arms en- 
hance by contrast the delicate beauty of the saint, 
alone seems to have leisure or inclination to repay 
her with a look of grateful admiration. The 
distant alcove, in which the table is spread, with 
its arches and Doric pillars, forms a graceful 
background, displaying the purity of Murillo's 
architectural taste.^ 

The four pictures, irretrievably carried off by Soult, 
long waited for purchasers in the hotel of that 
plundering picture-dealer. " Abraham receiving the 
Angels," and the "ProdigaFs Betum," being sold 
some years since to the Duke of Sutherland, now 
enrich the gallery of Stafford House. In the first, 
the Patriarch advances from the door of his tent, 
which resembles the comer of a ruinous Spanish 
venta, to greet the three strangers approaching with 
uplifted staves. His turbaned head, and his figure 
clothed in dark drapery, are grave and venerable; 

^ [Mr. John L. O'Snlliyan of New York pofisesses the original (painted) 
design or composition for this celebrated picture^ which he bought in 
Lisbon about 1848, when Minister of the United States in PortngaL An 
interesting oomparative study of this sketch and the larger picture, with 
a small outline woodcut of the former and an engraving of the latter, 
appeared in Earp€»*$ Magcudne, vol. 71, No. 426, for November 1885.] 



but the angels are deficient in dignity and grace, as 
is justly remarked by Cean Bermudez, who likewise 
objects to the want of that family likeness in their 
faces which he commends in El Mudo's picture on 
the same subject at the Escorial.^ In the "Prodigal's 
Return/' a composition of nine figures, the repentant 
youth locked in the embrace of his father, is, of 
course, the principal figure ; his pale emaciated 
countenance bespeaks the hardships of his husk- 
coveting time, and the embroidery on his tattered 
robe the splendour of his riotous living. A little 
white dog leaping up to caress him aids in telling 
the story. On one side of this group a man and 
boy lead in the fatted calf; on the other appear 
three servants bearing a light blue silk dress of 
Spanish fashion, and the gold ring; and one of 
them seems to be murmuring at the honours in 
preparation for the lost one. 

The " Healing of the Paralytic," lately purchased 
by Mr. Tomline,' consists of five principal figures, Our 
Lord, three apostles, and the subject of the miracle. 
The head of the Saviour is one of the finest delinea- 


" Return 
of the Pro- 
digal Son." 

" Healing 
of the Para 

^ Sopra» chap. ▼. p. 304. 

' It now adorns his mansion, No. i Carlton Honse Terraoe [now at 
OrweU Park, Suffolk]. A French joumali Jan. or Feb. 1847, in announc- 
ing its sale for 160,000 francs to an English collector, very fairly re- 
marked that the Martehal Duke of Dalmatia, haying acquired it at a 
Tery moderate price {ue, the trouble of stealing it), might surely have 
afforded to present it to the Lonvre. 




of St. 


tions of manly beauty ever executed by Muiillo; 
and the shoulder of the sick man, although too 
youthful and healthy, as Gean Bermudez justly 
remarks, for a paralytic of thirty-eight years' stand- 
ing, is a wonderful anatomical study. Above in 
the sky hovers, in a blaze of glory, the angel that 
** troubled the water ; " ^ and the distance is closed 
by an elegant architectural perspective with small 
figures, the porch and expectant patients of Beth- 
esda. In richness of colour this fine work is not 
inferior even to the St Elizabeth. Our Lord's robe 
is of that soft violet hue which Joanes and the 
painters of Valencia loved;' while the mantle of 
St Peter, who stands at His right, is of the deep 
Sevillian brown, known as the negro de hueso, 
because made by Murillo, as by the Andalusian 
artists of the present time, from the beef-bones of 
the daily oUa.^ The arcades in the background 
may have been suggested by the beautiful cloisters 
of the Convent of Mercy, now the Museum.^ 

The companion-picture, the "Release of St Peter," 
is the only piece of the series which remains unsold 
on the hands of the plunderer.* Seated on the floor 

1 Jobn Y. 4* * Snpia, ch«p. yL p. 421. 

* Gatherings Jrom Spain, 8to» London, 1S47, p. laa 
^ Snpra, chap, i p. 67. 

' [It was sold at the Sonlt sale in 1852, Na 64, for 151,000 francs, and 
is now in the Hermitage, St Petenhnig, Catalogw 1887, Ka 37s.] 



of the dungeon, the apostle seems newly awakened 
from slumber ; and his venerable countenance, full 
of glad amazementt is lit up by the glory which 
radiates from the graceful form of the angel, and 
pales the ineffectual glimmer of the prison lamp 

In these eight celebrated pictures, Murillo evi- 
dently determined to leave to posterity an example 
of the variety of his style, and of the full com- 
pass and vigour of his genius. Of the relative 
merits of each, it is very difficult to judge, as only 
two of them, the Moses and the St. Elizabeth, 
have been engraved.^ The most faulty is full of 
beauties that would do honour to any painter. 
Considered as an effort of mind, the Moses de- 
serves the first place, being the subject which 
presented the greatest difficulties to the artist, 
and the widest scope for his invention. Both the 


on the 
piotorM of 

^ The first was finely engraved at Madrid by Bafael Esteve, in 1839. 
Of the second there are two lithographs, executed the one at Madrid and 
the other at Paris. I take this occasion of calling the attention of the 
Duke of Sutherland and Mr. Tomline, the possessors of three of the series, 
to the fact that they have never been engraved, and that a fire at Stafford 
House or Carlton Terrace might deprive the world of some of Murillo's 
most important works. The graver, or the beautiful invention of Mr. 
Fox Talbot, which, with still greater precision than the graver, "stamps, 
renews, and multiplies at will," would not only preserve them for all time, 
but would enable many humble lovers of art to enjoy their beauties, and 
appreciate the genius of Murilla [A line engraving of **The Return of 
the Prodigal Son," by T. Yemon, was published in London in 1872, at 
the cost of Colonel Tomline. Curtis, M. Na 182, p. 193.] 


caxiL Prodigal's Betnm, however, and the St Elizabeth, 
are more perfect as works of art, being composed 
with equal skill, and finished with greater care and 
higher technical excellence. Cean Bermudez, who 
enjoyed the advantage of seeing them all together^ 
each in the light and place for which Murillo painted 
it, seems to prefer these two to all the rest. Soult, 
the robber of churches and hospitals, has not only 
deprived the critic of all opportunity of comparing 
one with the others, but has infinitely marred the 
moral significance of each of the exiled and scattered 
pictures. On the walls of the Spanish Academy, or 
of mansions in Paris or London, they have lost the 
voice with which they spoke to the heart fix)m the 
altars of their native church. No poor patient, ere 
returning to the busy haunts of men, kneels now 
before the " Healing of the Paralytic," in gratitude to 
Him who stood by the pool of Bethesda ; no pale 
sister of charity, on her way to her labours of love in 
the hospital, implores the protection, or is cheered 
by the example, of the gentle St Elizabeth. At 
Seville, these pictures of charity were powerful and 
eloquent homilies, in which the piety of Miguel 
Mafiara yet spake through the pencil of his friend. 
In the imfamiliar halls of the stranger they are now 
mere works of art, specimens of Murillo, articles 
of costly furniture, less esteemed, perhaps, and less 
appropriate than some Idalian glade imagined by 



Albano, some voluptuous Pompadour garden-scene, 
the offspring of Watteau.* 

It was not only the interior of the Hospital of 
Charity that was indebted to the pencil of Murillo. 
In the florid front of the church are inserted five 


Pictures on 

^ The operations of the Dake of Dalmatia as a pictoie-collector, and 
theix reanlts, are thus noted by a candid Frenchman, M. T. Thor^, in the 
Betme de Paris, torn, xziii. p. 21 1, for September 27, 1835. ** Pendant que 
Tempire promenait aes victoires en Europe, . . . nos armies, diiBona-le, 
exero^rent partont nn pillaji^ organist Le g^n^ral commandant dans 
I'Andalouflie s'appropria toutes lee toiles, qui Ini oonvinrent, dans lea 
^lisee et lee oonvente de Seville ; mab il eut soin de rey^tir oette con- 
iiacation d'ane apparence de Ugalit^, obligeant lee moinee h signer des 
ventee simnl^es, et Ton assure que ses titres de propri^t^ sent parfaite- 
ment en r^gle. Cette possession, dont la l^timit^ est an moins con- 
testable, n'a pas m6me tonm^ an profit de Tart en France, bien qu'elle 
semble tirer son origine de Tamonr de Tart Seville a perdu ses chefis- 
d'oeuvxes ; les religieuses compositions qui excitaient dans les ^glises la 
devotion des chr^tiens sont accroch^ maintenant au pied d'un lit bour- 
gedfl, ou anx lambris d'nne antichambre, et depuis plus de vingt ans 
qu'elles sont k Paris, Paris n*a pas eu la faveur de les examiner." The 
Marshal, says the Handbook [edition 1843], P* ^53 [third edition, 1855, 
p. 180], has or had a picture by Murillo on which, as he one day told 
the late Ck>lonel Ourwood, he set a high value, " because it had saved 
the lives of two estimable persons," — "whom," whispered an aide- 
de-camp, <*he threatened to cause to be immediately shot unless they 
gave up that very picture." The spoliations of this marauder had 
been long premeditated. Spies preceded his army, disguised as travel- 
lers, and furnished with Cean Bermudez's Dictionary, to mark out his 
prey of plate and pictures. The aged prior of the convent of Mercy 
at Seville told Mr. Ford that he recognised, amongst Soult's myrmidons, 
one of these commia-voyagewrs of rapine, to whom he himself shortly 
before had pointed out the very treasures which they were then about to 
seize. Gatherings from Spain, p. 271. If a picture, worth the carriage 
to France, be left to Seville, it is no fault of the French general. Hun- 
dreds of pictures, intended for exportation, I am informed by Mr. Ford, 
were left huddled together in the saloons of the Alcazar, when the gahacho 
army evacuated the city. To strip dark churches and convents, it may 
be said, was often to rescue fine works of art fit>m oblivion, or from decay 
by monkish neglect But to despoil Mafiara's church of its pictures was 

VOL. III. o 



CH. xn. 

large designs, wrought in blue glazed tiles or 
azrdejos^ and said to have been executed from his 
drawings.' They are fine, and glitter in the bright 
sunshine like lazulite. The centre and largest piece, 
of which the annexed woodcut * will convey some idea, 

to rob, not merely SeTille of glorious heirlooms, but the poor of the charity 
of str&ngers ivhich these pictures attracted to the hospitaL What shall 
be said of the man who conmiitted this foul robbery, not because he loved 
art, or the Louvre, but in order that he might found a picture-gallery 
which might be more properly called, in transatlantic phrase, a picture- 
store ? As Sergeant Soult, serving on the Rhine, may have filched a case 
of Johannisberg from a castle cellar, or a sUver crucifix from a village 
altar, for the purpose of selling them for a few livres to Ms captain, so 
Marshal Soult, commanding in Spain, bullied or swindled the poor monks 
of Seville out of their pictures, to dispose of them in time of peace to 
crowned heads and miiarg AngkUs. The pillaging French army had no 
provost-marshal to administer punishment to the former ; but history has 
a pillory for the second. The Aguador de SevUla (chap. ix. p. 677) is a 
trophy of which Wellington and England may justly be proud, while the 
hotel of the " Plunder-master-general of Napoleon'* (Southey's Doctor, 
voL iiL p. 38) is a disgrace to Paris. In France, finance ministers have 
frequently proved themselves " smart men " on 'Change. Soult enjoys 
the rarer distinction of having turned his Marshal's b&ton into the hammer 
of an auctioneer, and the War Office into a warehouse for stolen pictures. 

^ In Les Arts en Portugal; lettres (tddress^ d la soeUt4 artistigue de 
Berlin, par le Comte A. RcMizjrnski [Prussian envoy to the court of Lisbon], 
8vo, Paris, 1846, there is a curious notice, pp. 427-34, of the Portuguese 
azulrjos, by the Vizconde de Juromenha, who says, "Le mot portugais 
aztdejo derive du mot arabe azzalujo, provenaut k son tour du mot zcUlaja, 
qui signifie uniet lasse.'* M. Raczynski derives the word from osuA blue. 
His account applies equally well to those of Spain, which are now manu- 
factured chiefly at Seville and Valencia. Handbook [edition 1843]. pp. 
259, 450 [third edition, 1853, pp. 173, 305, 380]. The real derivation 
of the word, says Mr. Ford, is from the Arabic zuleija^ a varnished 

' Fonz, tom. ix. p. 151, notices them as being "bastante bien pin- 
tadas," but does not mention the artist's name, nor the designezs. 
The tradition, however, exists, and the style of liie drawing, I think, 
justifies it 

" From a sketch made for me, in 1845, by Don Jos^ Roldan. 



represents Charity ; those on either side are Faith 
and Hope ; and the knightly saints below, Santiago 
sabring Moors, and San Jorge spearing the dragon. 


They are amongst the best existing specimens 
of a style of architectural decoration originally 
borrowed from the Moors, and long very common 
at Seville. On towers, belfries, and gateways, 



CH. Xlf. 


DOS "at 

the effect of these tile-pictures, or bands of gay- 
colomed tiles, is bright and cheerful, and the 
material is enduring, and inaccessible to injury from 
weather. Had the saints of Vargas been painted 
upon this baked clay, instead of perishable plaster, 
they might still have frowned or smiled from their 
Moorish niches in the Giralda.^ 

Murillo was the chosen painter of the Franciscan 
order. In a Franciscan convent he first achieved 
his frtme;* and the brown-frocked Franciscan was 
ever a favourite subject of his pencil. He was 
probably yet working for Mafiara and the Hospital 
of Charity, when he undertook to fiimish with 
paintings the church of another convent of St 
Francis, known as the convent of Capuchins, with- 
out the city walls. Founded near the Carmona 
gate, on a piece of ground once occupied by the 
monastery of St. Leander, and the church of S*"- 
Rufina and S^ Justa, this religious house was begun 
so early as 1627 ;' but the building being carried on 
with more than Spanish slowness, the chapel was 
not completed till after 1670. The Capuchins, how- 
ever, had no cause to regret the delay, which gave 
them Murillo for a painter, instead of Herrera or 
Zurbaran. Silver and gold they had none, but they 

^ Supra, chap. vi. p. 366. * Supra, p. 993. 

* Ortiz de Zufiiga, Annates de Sevilla, p. 647. It was built chiefly at 
the expense of Juan Perez Yrazabal, a rich Biscayan noble. 


had a large library of ecclesiastical folios,^ and in ch. xi l 
the works of the great master of Seville they were 
richer than any brotherhood in Spain.* 

Upwards of twenty pictures were executed, in his Murfiio's 
best time, expressly for these fortunate Capuchins, 
and placed, under his own direction, in their other- 
wise unimportant little churcL The retablo of the 
high-altar was enriched with nine of these, the 
" Virgin granting to St Francis the Jubilee of the 
Porciuncula," ' the largest, says Cean Bermudez, but 
not the best of the whole, "S**- Rufina and S*^ 
Justa," "St. Leander and St. Bonaventure,'* "St. 
John Baptist in the Desert," " St. Joseph with the 
Infant Jesus," " St Anthony of Padua," " St Felix 
of Cantalicio" (these two half-length figures), a 
charming " Virgin and Cfhild " (likewise half-length), 
on the door of the tabernacle of the Host, and the 
" Holy Kerchief of 8^ Veronica." A " Crucifixion," 
painted on a wooden cross, stood on its own stand 
on the altar. Eight grand historical subjects adorned 
the lateral altars ; the " Annunciation of the Blessed 
Mary," the " Virgin with the dead Saviour in her 
Arms," "St Anthony of Padua and the Infant 
Christ," the "Virgin of the Conception," "St 

* Jacob's Travels in Spain, p. 132. 

* Mre. O'Neil, in her Dictionary of Spanish Painters, vol. L p. 257, 
says, without citing her anthority, that Mniillo "dwelt in tliifl convent 
almost three years, without quitting it" 

* Supra, chap. vii. p. 504. 



CH. xiL Francis embracing the crucified Redeemer," the 
"Nativity of Our Lord," the "Vision of St. Felix,'* 
and the " Charity of St. Thomas of Villanueva." 
Besides these there was another "Virgin of the 
Conception " of remarkable beauty, two pictures of 
the Archangel Michael, a "Guardian Angel/' and 

some smaller pictures in various situations. The 
dingy and decayed chapel, stripped of these splendid 
works, now serves as a parish church.* The bearded 
Capuchins who used to linger in the cloisters and 

^ The above woodcut is engraved from a sketch mode on the spot by Mr. 
Ford, whose pencil is as facile and sparkling as his pen. The Capuchin 
church is the building with buttresses on the left of the road. The dark 
edifice adjoining the Moorish wall of the city is the Hermitage of St Her- 
menegild, and is said to be the sanctuary in which the elder Herrera 
took refuge from the myrmidons of the Mint Supra, chap. viL p. 53a 



display their treasures to the stranger, relating the 
legends of each picture, and themselves looking like 
figures that had walked out of MuriUo's canvas, are 
gone, never to return. One poor old friar, the last 
of the brotherhood, keeps the keys of the church, 
and points out, to the unfrequent visitor, the altar 
where the masterpieces once hung, and a few 
monkish portraits that yet moulder in the sacristy. 

The immense {Jtar-piece of the Porciuncula, ex- 
changed by the foolish monks for some modem 
daubs for their cloister, some time before the disso- 
lution of the convents, after passing through the 
hands of several picture-dealers and the Infant Don 
Sebastian, is now in the National Museum at 
Madrid.^ The design is pleasing ; the Saviour and 
the Virgin appear to St. Francis, who kneels on the 
floor of his cavern, whilst a flight of lovely cherubim, 
thirty-three of whom are distinctly visible, shower 
down upon his holy head red and white roses, the 
blossoms of the briars wherewith he scourged him- 
self, thus inculcating the moral that as the roses of 
mundane delights have their thorns, so the thorns 
of pious austerity are not without their roses. But 
as each possessor of the picture, that intervened 

^ [Catdlogo 1889, No. 861.] It was already in the Infant's collection, 
in 1832. Quia de SevUla, 1832, Seganda Parte, p. 60. He gave Don J. 
Madrazo £^qo for it. For the adventures and wrongs of the picture, see 
Handbook [1843], P- 77° [edition 1855, pp. 708, 709]. 






now in the 
ICoBeom At 


" Nati- 


betwixt the friars and the In£Emt, has done his part 
in restoring and repainting it, the colouring belongs 
to the modems, and nothing remains of Murillo 
bnt the outline. 

Happily, however, not all the Capuchin pictures 
are lost to Seville. In the Museum seventeen of 
them, gathered into one chamber, form a match- 
less collection of the works of the great Sevillian 
painter. Amongst these the " S*^ Kufina and S**- 
Justa," with their usual palm-branches, pots, and 
Giralda, deserve notice as the fairest delineation 
which the city possesses of its favourite saintly 
sisters.^ " St John Baptist in the Desert," and " St 
Joseph with the Infant Christ," are noble studies, 
taken from majestic models in the prime of manly 
vigour. In the " Nativity," so highly extolled both 
by Ponz * and Cean Bermudez, the Virgin, with her 
sweet face illuminated by light streaming in the 
manner of Correggio, from the new-bom Saviour on 
her lap, is one of Murillo's loveliest Madonnas; 
aroimd are grouped St. Joseph and the shepherds, 
standing or kneeling ; and in the dim space above 
hover two exquisite cherubs. In the picture of 
St Leander and St. Bonaventure, the former holds 
in his hands the model of a church, probably that 
of his nuns, who had given place to the Capuchin 

^ Supra, chap. iiL p. 143, vL 367. 

> Tom. ix. p. 139. 



fathers.^ They are two rather commonplace priests, 
but their white draperies are grandly disposed ; and 
a lovely infant, bearing a mitre, and peeping archly 
from behind the folds of the archbishop's robe, 
gives relief and a charm to the picture. The " St. 
Francis at the foot of the Cross," seems to com- 
memorate a remarkable passage in the life of that 
seraphic father,* when the crucified Redeemer ap- 
peared to him, in his cavern on Mount Alvernus, 
and sealed his palms, his feet, and his sides with the 
stigmata of His own wounds. Fastened by one hand 
to the cross, the Saviour, leaning, places the other 
on the shoulder of the holy man, who supports Him 
in his arms, and looks up into His face with ecstacy. 
The foot of the saint rests on a globe, probably to 
signify that he contemned the world and its snares, 
and two pretty celestial choristers flutter overhead, 
holding open a music-book.' There are two fine 
pictures of St Anthony, with the infant Jesus, in 
one of which the Divine visitor stands, and in the 
other sits, on the open folio which the kneeling 
recluse appears to have been perusing. A similar 
picture represents the Blessed Virgin revealing her- 
self to St. Felix of Cantalisi, an Italian Capuchin 

^ Supra, p. 1036. ' Villegas, Flos Sanctonttn, p. 476. 

' Two smaller works on the same subject by Mnrillo, apparently 
sketehea for this picture, existed in 1794, one in the collection of Don 
Pedro O'Cronley, at Cadiz, the other in that of the Marquess of Monte- 
hermoeo, at Vittoiia. Muscn 0*Croulianei, p. 566. 

CBL xn. 




1 042 




Thomas of 

of singular holiness and austerity, in the sixteenth 
century, an event which, we are informed by the 
legend, took place only a few hours before his 
death.^ Having embraced the infant Saviour, the 
good friar, upon his knees, is replacing him in the 
maternal arms, well-pleased and ready to depart 
in peace. 

The " Charity of St. Thomas of Villanueva," is, 
however, the pearl of the collection ; * being more 
important than any of the others, as a composition, 
and more interesting in subject. Murillo himself 
esteemed it above all his works, and was wont to 
call it, says Palomino, " su lienzo," * his own picture. 
The good Archbishop of Valencia* was one of the 
saints who found especial favour with his pencil. 
A picture, formerly at Seville, and probably in the 
Augustine convent, representing him, as a boy, 
dividing his clothes amongst some poor children, 
is in the collection of Lord Ashburton.*^ Amongst 
the best works of Murillo, at the Louvre,* is the 

^ Ribadeneira, Fleurs des Viea des Saints, toxxL i. p. 614. 

' [Seville Museum, No. S4.] 

' Palomino, torn. iiL p. 624. 

* Supra, chap. vL p. 413. 

^ Sold, in 1 8 14 or 181 5, to lus lordship, then Mr. Baring, by Mr. 
Buchanan. Memoirs, vol. iL p. 264. He likewise possesses the oiiginiil 
sketch, purchased in 1832 from Don Julian WUliams, who picked it up 
for a trifle in the Feria at Seville. 

« Gal. Esp., No. 171. [Sold in 1853 for ;f 710 (Louis-Philippe collection, 
Sale No. 498) to Thomas Baring, Esq., uncle of the present owner, the 
Earl of Northbrook.] 


picture of the same worthy in sacerdotal vestments, o h. xu . 
distributing alms at a church door ; and Mr. Wells ^ 
has another excellent work, similar in subject 
although somewhat different in treatment, once in 
a Capuchin convent at Genoa.* But for his friends, 
the Capuchins of Seville, Murillo put forth all his 
powers, and produced his most elaborate and most 
successful composition on his feivourite theme. Robed 
in black, and wearing a white mitre, St. Thomas 
the Almoner stands at the door of his Cathedral, 
relieving the wants of a lame half-naked beggar 
who kneels at his feet. His pale venerable coun- 
tenance, expressive of severities inflicted upon him- 
self, and of habitual kindness and goodwill to all 
mankind, is not inferior in intellectual dignity and 
beauty to that of St. Leander, in the Cathedral; 
it is a face that at once inspires love and confidence, 
and befits the oflSce of a shepherd and bishop of 
souls. A group of expectant poor surround the 
holy prelate ; and in the foreground a lively little 
ragged urchin gleefully exhibits to his mother the 
maravedis which have fallen to his share. 

^ At Redleaf, Kent [Sold i2tli May 1848, to the Marquis of Hertford, 
^or ;f 2,992, lOB. Now in the collection of the late Sir Richard Wallace, 

* Imported in 1805 by Mr. Irvine, and bought by Mr. Wells for j^iooa 
There were five other pictures by Murillo in this convent, sent to Eng- 
land at the same time, and the six together realised ;^4i7oO' Buchanau's 
Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 171. 






•• Virgin of 
the Nap- 

The two pictures which represent the Mysteiy 
of the Immaculate Conception are of unequal 
merit. In the best of the two, the Blessed Mary 
is pourtrayed in the bloom of girlhood, with long 
fair hair and blue up-gazing eyes, and standing on 
a throne of clouds upheld by a group of sportive 
cherubs, each of them a model of infantine loveli- 
ness. The other is similar in design, with the 
addition of the Eternal Father, who is dimly seen 
in the clouds above, and the evil one, who grovels 
beneath the feet of the Vii^n, in the likeness of an 
ill-favoured dragon. 

The small picture which once adorned the taber- 
nacle of the Capuchin high-altar,^ is interesting 
on account of its legend, as well as of its extra- 
ordinary merits as a work of art. Representing 
the Virgin and infant Saviour, it is popularly known 
in Spain as la Virgen de la Servilleta^ the " Virgin 
of the Napkin," and the size of the small square 
canvas lends some credibility to the story on which 
the name is founded. Murillo, whilst employed at 
the convent, had formed a friendship, it is said, 
with a lay-brother, the cook of the fraternity, who 
attended to his wants and waited on him with 
peculiar assiduity. At the conclusion of his labours, 
this Capuchin of the kitchen begged for some trifling 

^ Supra, p. 1037. [Seville Museum, No. 52.] 



memorial of his pencil. The painter was willing to 
comply, but he had exhausted his stock of canvas. 


** Never mind," said the ready cook, "take this 
napkin,"^ offering him that which he had used at 

' This story is not told either by Palomino, Ponz, or Cean Bermudez ; 
nor is it mentioned by Camberland, who indeed seldom gives us any- 
thing which he did not find in Palomina It is not to be found in Udal 
ap Rhys, Clarke, Twiss, Swinburne, Townsend, Jacob, or Santa Cruz, 
all of whom treat of painting, in their travels. I have not seen it in print 
in any earlier book than Davics' Lift ofMurUlo, p. 35, where it is related 
in a note in the author's usual incoherent style. The Handbook, p. 265, 



ca xiL 

*' Angel de 

dinner. The good-natured artist accordingly went 
to work, and before evening he had converted the 
piece of coarse linen into a picture compared to 
which cloth of gold or the finest tissue of the East 
would be accounted as " filthy dowlas." The Virgin 
has a face in which thought is happily blended with 
maidenly innocence ; and the Divine infant, with his 
deep earnest eyes, leans forward in her arms, strug- 
gling as it were almost out of the frame,^ as if to 
welcome the saintly carpenter home from his daily 
toil. The picture is coloured with a brilliancy which 
Murillo never excelled ; it glows with a golden light 
as if the sun were always shining on the canvas. 
Of all the Capuchin pictures, this alone has been 
engraved ; and the present woodcut, intended as an 
illustration of the popular story, is taken from the 
plate, executed with considerable skill, by Bias 
Amettler, at Madrid. 

The picture of the Guardian Angel is now in 
the Cathedral of Seville. Presented by the Capu- 
chin friars to the Chapter in 18 14, it was placed, 
in 1 818, over the altar of the small chapel which 

just alludes to it ; and it is prettily told in the Dublin BevietOf toL zriiL 
p. 461, where it is said that Murillo was in the habit of visiting the con- 
vent to enjoy spiritual converse with the monks, and that the napkin 
picture was painted for the infirmary. I teU the story as it was told to 
me at SeviUe by the keeper of the Museum. 
^ Ponz, torn. ix. p. 138. 



bears its name.^ St. Isidore * considers the doctrine 
that every human soul is watched over by a celestial 
spirit established by the warning which our Lord 
addressed to His disciples, ''Take heed how ye 
offend one of these little ones, for I say unto you 
that in heaven their angels do always behold the 
face of my Father." To each man, says Dr. Alonso 
Cano, one angel at least is given as a protector, 
although, as it was revealed to S*^ Brigida, ten 
might be allowed, so far do the heavenly hosts 
outnumber the sons of Adam.' This doctrine has 
been beautifully illustrated by Murillo. llie angel, 
in a rich yellow robe and purple mantle, points 
with his right hand to heaven, and with the other 
leads a lovely child, the emblem of the soul pass- 
ing through the pilgrimage of this world.* Never 


^ J. Colon y Colon, SeviUa Artistica, sm. 8to. 1841, p. 41. 

* Isidori HispaL Episc Sententiarum libri iii. emend, et illnst. per 
Garciani Lonyaa, 4to, Taurini, 1593. List, cap. xii. p. 27. Matt xviii. 
10, &c., also Acts xiL 15. See also, on this subject^ Martin de Koa, 
FieHcu i Santos de Cordoba^ 4to, Sevilla, 161 5, pp. 3, 15. 

' Diat de Jar din , por el Dotor Alonso Cano y Urreta, 4to, Madrid, 
1619, fol. 308, a rare and cnrious treatise on morals, full of marvelloas 
stories, by a Murcian divine. Qnevedo, in his '* Vision of the Last Judg- 
ment," introduces the guardian angels, waiting to give an account of the 
manner in which they have discharged their functions. Visions^ made 
English by L'Estrange, Svo, London, 1708, p. 78. A pretty cancion, 
addressed to the "Angel de laGuarda,** will be found amongst ih^RimcLa 
Saeras of Lope de Vega, Ohraa^ tom. xiii. p. 343. 

^ Justerian de Ayula, Pictor Christianus ErudituSt p. 60. Murillo 
has, for once, exactly fulfilled the law of religious painting, for Ayala's 
description of the orthodox guardian angel, *' elegans nempe et alatus 
juvenis, manu altera puerulum prendens, altera eidem ccelum common- 




Murillo in- 
vited to 

was an allegory more sweetly told than in this 
picture, which is painted with great lightness of 
touch. The transparent texture of the child's 
garment deserves remark, for diaphanous draperies, 
although as old as the days of Polygnotus,^ and 
much affected hy the early Italian and German 
painters, are seldom to be found in pictures of Spain. 
The engraving executed for the present work is the 
first attempt that has yet been made to make one 
of the gems of the Cathedral known beyond the 
walls of Seville.* 

Palomino has a story ^ that, about the year 1670, 
a picture of the Virgin of the Conception, by 
Murillo, being exhibited on the feast of Corpus 
Christi, at Madrid, was received with transports of 
applause by the public of that " most ancient, noble, 
and crowned " * capital. King Charles II. having 
seen it, expressed a desire that the author should 

strans," might have been taken from this picture. A book called ilno 
EspirUual, por Don Juan do Palafox y Mendo^a, Obispo de Oama, 8to, 
Gante, 1656, has a title-page designed by £. Quellinns and engraved by 
J. Pitou, in which there is a guardian angel leading a child, whom three 
figures, representing the world, the flesh, and the devil, are endesTonring 
to clutch and drag down into the flames of perdition. 

1 Plin., NcU, Hist, lib. xxxv., cap. 35, vol. ix. p. 44a 

> The plate was executed by Mr. R. C. Bell, from an excellent copy <rf 
tiie picture, painted by Don Salvador Gutierrez, in 1809, and now at 
Keir, Perthshire. 

» Pal., tom. iii. p. 626. 

* The formal title of Madrid. Geronimo Quintana, Historia de Madrid, 
fol. Mad. 1629 ; engraved title-page, and passim. 



enter his service, a desire which was forthwith com- ch. xii. 
municated to Murillo by his friend Don Francisco 
Eminente. The painter, in reply, expressed his 
high sense of his Majesty's favour, but excused 
himself from accepting of the offered employment 
on the plea of old age. Eminente then com- 
missioned him to paint a picture, that he might 
present it to the King; but the artist requiring 
more time than was agreeable to the impatience of 
the courtier, the latter purchased one of his finished 
works from Don Juan Antonio del Castillo, as an 
offering to the Koyal Gallery. The price of the 
picture was 2,500 reals, the subject, St. John in the 
desert. Perhaps this may be the pleasing repre- 
sentation of the boy Baptist, now in the Royal 
Museum at Madrid.^ Palomino hints a doubt of the 
truth of the story, on the ground that the King was 
but nine years old in 1670, when he was supposed 
to have given this proof of his taste for art. But 
he declares that it was always said, in his own days, 
that Murillo had refused an invitation to Court 
on the score of old age ; a refusal which, however, 
was generally ascribed to his modesty and love of 
retirement. Perhaps the invitation may have been 
given by the Queen-mother, or by Don Juan of 
Austria, in his love of art a true son of Philip IV. 

^ Catdlogo, No. 50. 
VOL. in. 

1 050 


CH. xn. 






Or it may have come at a later period from Charles 
himself^ when the prince was old enough to appre- 
ciate the painter, and the painter, to plead old age 
to the prince. 

In 1678, MuriUo was again employed by his 
friend, the Canon Justino Neve. That churchman 
having taken a leading part in building a new 
hospital for superannuated priests, known as the 
** Hospital de los Venerables," wisely determined to 
entrust three of the pictures required for its decora- 
tion to the pencil which had so gracefully embodied 
the legend of S*^ Maria Ja Blanca in the church 
of that name.^ Two were placed in the chapel of 
the hospital; and they represented, the one, the 
Mystery of the Immaculate Conception, which, for 
beauty of colouring, Cean Bermudez preferred to 
all MuriUo's pictures on that subject at Seville, 
and the other, St.. Peter weeping, in which Eibera 
was imitated and excelled. The third adorned the 
refectory, and presented to the gaze of the Vener- 
ables, during their repasts, the Blessed Virgin 
enthroned on clouds, with her Divine Babe, who, 
from a basket borne by angels, bestowed bread on 
three aged priests. This delightful picture was, in 
1787, considered by Mr. Townsend, a critic of no 
mean skill, as the most charming of all .the workfi 

^ Sapia, p. 1004. 



of Murillo.* It was doubtless carried oflf in the 
baggage-wti^gons of Soult. In the Museum of 
Cadiz' may be seen an indifferent copy, which is 
sufficient to give some idea of the graces of the 
original, and to show that the fine wheaten loaves 
of Seville and Alcald have not undergone any 
change in shape since the days of Murillo. 

As a token of gratitude and esteem, Murillo about 
the same time painted a full-length portrait of his 
friend Neve, which long hung in the same refectory 
to remind the Venerables of their benefactor. After 
various changes of place and ownership, it is now 
the property of Lord Lansdowne, and a worthy 
ornament of the drawing-room at Bowood.' The 
clear olive face of Don Justino is delicate and 
pleasing, and bespeaks the gentleman and the 
scholar ; his eyes are dark and full of intelligence ; 
and his chin and lip are clothed with a small 
beard and slight moustachios. As old Alonso de 
Herrera, the St. Leander of the Cathedral,^ is a 

1 Journey throuffh Spain in 1786 and 1787, by the Rev. Joseph 
Towneend, 3 vola. 8vo, 1791, voL iii p. 297. 

' Supra, chap. i. p. 67. 

t Buchanan's Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 193, erroneously call Neve, Faustino 
Nivez. The picture was sold in 1804, at M. de la Hunte's sale, for 1,000 
gnineas, to Mr. Watson Taylor, at whose sale it came into the hands of 
Lord Lansdowne. Mrs. Jameson, Private Picture Galleries, p. 305. M. 
QuUliet, who seems to have seen the picture in Spain, says of it, "Dans 
le voyage que je iSs avec M. Lebrun, il me chargea d'offrir pour ce 
aeul morceau 20,000 fr. ; on me ref usa net." Dictionnaire des Peintres 
Espagnols, p. zoo, note.' * Supra, p. looa 


Portrait of 
D. Justino 




Pictures at 
the Auirus* 
tine cou- 

model of the holy and somewhat superannuated 
prelate, so is Neve a model of the decorous, bene- 
volent, and active priest in the fall vigour of life. 
He is seated on a red velvet chair, and wears a black 
cassock ; on his breast hangs a gold medal, and in 
his hand there is a small breviary, between the gilt 
leaves of which he has inserted a finger, by way 
of mark. Near him is a table on which stands a 
small timepiece. His armorial bearings are sculp- 
tured on the side of the stone portal behind him; 
and at his feet reposes a little liver-and-white 
spaniel with a scarlet collar, of that sleek rotund 
form which befits the pet of a prebendary. The 
whole picture is finished with perfect clearness 
and care; Murillo having evidently put forth all 
his skill in pourtraying his well-looking friend and 
patron. The dog is so true to canine nature, that, 
according to Palomino, living dogs have been known 
to snarl and bark as they approached it^ 

About the same time, Pedro de Medina, being 
engaged in repairing and re-gilding the high-altar of 
the conventual church of the Augustines, induced 
those friars to adorn it with pictures by his friend 
Murillo. These were chiefly taken from the life of 
the glorious doctor, their tutelar saint ; and two of 
them are now in the Museum of Seville. In one, the 

^ Palomino, torn. iiL p. 625. 



Virgin and Infant Saviour appear to the Bishop of 
Hippo, and in the other he is represented sitting 
alone writing. Another of the series ^ seems to have 
got into the Louvre. It is founded on the story, that 
the good prelate, walking on the sea-shore, came 
upon a child who was endeavouring to fill a hole 
in the sand with water which he brought in a 
shell from the sea. To the bishop's inquiry as to 
what he wanted to do, the child replied, that he 
intended to remove into that hole all the water of 
the ocean. '* It is impossible," said the divine. 
"Not more impossible," retorted the little one, 
" than for you to explain the mystery of the Holy 
Trinity, upon which you are at this moment medi- 
tating." » 

This picture is not one of Murillo's most suc- 
cessful works ; there is much dignity and good 
painting in the head of Augustine, but the figure 
is too short. Beside these passages from the life 
of the glorious doctor, the convent possessed, as 
specimens of the skill of Murillo, two alms-giving 

CH. xn. 

^ [Curtis {Velazquez and MuriUo) M. No. 260, p. 219, says the author 
is probably mistaken in supposing that this picture was painted for the 
Augustine Convent.] 

' GaL £sp., No. 169. I am sorry to have no better authority to offer 
for my legend than the notice in the catalogue, having searched Villegas 
and Ribadeneira in vain. It was probably told to the Baron Taylor at 
Seville by the monks or other parties who sold him the picture. [Sold 
at the Louis-Philippe sale, No. 246, for £6Zq. Now in the collection of 
Joseph T. Mills, Esq., Rugby, Warwickshire.] 




Lut work 
of Morillo. 

scenes, already noticed,^ from the history of his 
favourite St. Thomas of Yillanueva. 

The last work undertaken by Murillo was a large 
picture of the espousals of St^ Catherine, as an 
altar-piece for the church of the Capuchin friars at 
Cadiz.* For this, and four smaller paintings to fill 
up the retablo, the price stipulated, between the friars 
and the artist was 900 crowns. He commenced the 
" St. Catherine," and nearly finished the figures of the 
Virgin, the Infant Saviour, and the lovely mystical 
bride. Mounting a scaffolding one day to proceed 
with the higher parts of the picture, he stumbled 
so violently as to cause a rupture in the intestines ; 
an injury which his modesty, says Palomino," would 
not permit him to reveal, and of which he never 
recovered. The fatal picture, with its glory and 
hovering angels added by Meneses Osorio, and its 
principal group remaining as it was left by the 
master-hand, may still be seen over the high-altar 
in the chapel of the Capuchin convent, now an 
hospital, at Cadiz. There too, according to tradi- 
tion, the accident befell Murillo, and thence he 
returned to Seville to die.* 

' Supra, p. 1042. 

* [An etching of this pictnre, hj £. Saint Raymond, which he went 
from Paris to Cadiz expressly to make, is given at p^ 221 of V§lazquez 
and Murillo, by Cartis.] 

s Palomino, torn. iii. p. 626. 

* Palomino does not say where the misfortune happened, nor does Poni^ 



Finding himself growing worse, the great painter 
sent for his notary, Jnan Antonio Guerrero, and 
with his assistance drew up his will; but the last 
sands of life fled so rapidly that he was unable to 
reply to the lawyer's formal question as to the 
existence of any previous testament, or even to 
sign that which had just been made. At six o'clock 
on the evening of the same day, the 3rd of April 
1682, he expired, in the presence of his second son 
Gaspar Estevan Murillo, then a boy, and in the 
arms of his tried firiend Don Justino Neve, and his 
scholar Pedro Nuflez de Villavicencio, 

Over an altar in the church of S**- Cruz, Murillo's 
parish church, hung the famous picture of the 
" Descent from the Cross," by the old Flemish master, 
Pedro Campafia.^ This picture he had always held 
in high admiration, and before it he was wont to 
perform his devotions. As he lingered, day after 



torn. xriL p. 339, nor Cean Bermudez. Santa Gnu, Viage, torn. xiiL 
p. 206, however, asserts that the picture was painted at Cadiz, and the 
ffandbookf pi 211, concurs in that opinion, which is nnqnestional>ly 
sanctioned hy tradition. But I think that probability is against it. If 
Palomino's story be true, Murillo, thinking his injuries trifling, would 
moot likely have remained at Cadiz, if he were there at all, in hopes of 
recovery, till surprised by death, which, Cean Bermudez informs us, was 
very sudden. The land journey to Seville could not have been under- 
taken by a man so afflicted, and a voyage up the Guadalquivir, in those 
non-steaming days, was very tedious. Therefore, as he probably died, 
and certainly was buried, at Seville, it seems to me that the false step 
which caused his death must have been taken in his own studio in 
that city. 
^ Supra, chap. iiL p. 139. 



CH. XII. day, to gaze upon it, he would reply to the questions 
of the sacristan or others, '' I am waiting till those 
men have brought the body of Our Blessed Lord 
down the ladder," ^ Beneath this fiavourite picture, 
and in its chapel, in fulfilment of his own wish, his 
body was laid, the day after his decease. His 
funeral was celebrated with great pomp, the bier 
being borne, says Joachim Sandrart, by two mar- 
quesses and four knights,' and attended by a great 
concourse of people of all ranks, who admired and 

Tomb. esteemed the great painter. By his own desire, his 
grave was covered with a stone slab, on which was 
carved his name, a skeleton, and these two words, 


In the Vandal reign of Soult at Seville, the 
French pillaged this church and pulled it down, as 
they had before razed the church of San Juan at 
Madrid, which covered the ashes of Velazquez.* Its 
site is now occupied by a weed-covered mound of 
rubbish.* Between 1820 and 1823 the corporation 

^ Ponz, torn. ix. p. 82. 

' Joachimi Sandrart, a Stockau, Aeademia nobilusimcB Artis ptetaria, 
foL, Norimberg, 1683, p. 397. I doubt, however, whether Honthorst'a 
pupil be a trustworthy authority, for he informs us that MuriUo spent 
some years in America and also at Rome. 

* Ponz, torn. iz. p. 83. 

* Supra, chap. ix. p. 794. 

' It is now a little plaza, planted with acacias, and provided with seats. 
On a wall at one side is a tablet in honour of Murillo. 



of Seville caused a search to be made for the ch. xii. 
painter's grave. After digging through the rubbish 
a vault filled with bones was reached ; but no tomb- 
stone or other identifying mark being found, it was 
again closed, and the earth replaced.^ 

Doiia Beatriz de Cabrera, wife of Murillo, died wife. 
before her husband. No authentic account of this 
lady remains to us, nor is any portrait of her known 
to exist.^ By her the painter left two sons, Gabriel chfldren. 
Estevan, who was in the Indies when his father 
died, and Gaspar Estevan, in priest's orders, and a 
daughter, Francisca. A sister of Murillo, named siator. 
Teresa,^ was married to an hidalgo of Burgos, Don 
Joseph de Yeitia Linage, head of the house of 
Veitia, knight of Santiago, and judge of the royal 
tribunal of the colonies, a man of taste and letters, a 
lover of the arts, and author of an esteemed work on 
colonial affairs.^ Called after his marriage to Madrid, 

^ For this infonnation I am indebted to Don J. M. Escazena. 

' Supra, p. 998. Mr. Davies, Lift of JHurillo, p. IxxxviL, says he 
brought to England portraits of Murillo and his wife, and also a minia- 
ture of the latter holding a pink in her hand. He likewise mentions 
(p. 100, note) a portrait of their daughter, Francisca, "tearing off her 
yariegated dress previous to taking the yeil," painted by her father, 
and existing in England. 

* Palomino, tom. iii. p. 626, calls her Tomasa Josephs, 

^ Norte de la Contratacion de las Indiaa occidentaleSf dirigido al exc^ 
teHor D. Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzman, Conde de Pefiaranda, Ac, 
Presidente antes del Consej'o supremo de las Indias, por D. Joseph de 
Veitia Linage, Cay*' de la orden de Santiago, Sefior de la casa de Veitia, 
del consejo de sn Magestad, su Tesorero, Juez official de la Real 





to fill the post of secretaxy of the council for the 
affairs of New Spain, this gentleman so distinguished 
himself by his talent for business, that he was 
appointed chief secretary of state> on the death of 
Eguya, in 1682.^ His interest at court enabled him 
to obtain for Gaspar Murillo, during the life of the 
painter, a benefice at Carmona, and afterwards, 
before the youth was fourteen, a canonry at Seville, 
of which he took possession on the ist of October 
1685. Not having taken the oath of adherence to 
the true faith within the required time, this juvenile 
dignitary was fined one year's fruits of his stall, 
amounting to 8,000 reals, which sum was spent in 
repairing the monument of the Holy Week. Being 
a lover of the arts, he became a tolerable painter, 
imitating the style of his father; and he died at 
Seville, on the 2nd of May 1709. Nothing appears 
to be known of the life and fortunes of Gabriel, his 
brother. Palomino asserts that the father's interest 
obtained for this son a benefice worth 3,000 ducats,' 
but neglects to state whether he took orders, or 
on which side of the Atlantic his preferment was 

Audiencia de la Casa de la Contratadon de las Indias; foL, Sevilk, 
1672, Teith 17 preliminary leaves, iadadiDg engraved and printed titles, 
pp. 264, and 36 leaves of index, &c The engraved title, carious in design, 
is by M. de Orozoo. The work, being a rarity, onght to be seemed, 
whenever met with, by collectors. 

^ N. Antonio^ Bibliotheea Hispana Neva, 2 torn. foL Madrid, 1773, 
torn. L p. 822. 

* Palomino^ torn* iii p. 627 He calls him Josqfh, 



situated. The paintei^s dan^bter Franciaca 
to have been older than the Canon Gaspar. She 
relinquished her claim to inherit from her father, in 
1676, on becoming a Dominican nun in the fine 
convent of the Mother of God.^ 

Murillo, although the author of so many great 
works, says Palomino, left only one hundred reals 
in money, besides seventy crowns which were found 
in a desk.' He certainly did not die rich; and 
although he received prices which were at the time 
respectable, Marshal Soult, the well-known French 
dealer, has doubtless frequently pocketed, by the 
sale of a single stolen picture, a sum larger than the 
whole gains of the artist's laborious life.' But his 
testament and inventory of eflfects, printed below,* 



and will 
and inTen- 

^ The nunnery of Madre de Dioe was bnilt by Isabella the Catholic, 
and enlarged by Archbishop de Deza. In 1669 S^ Roaa was there 
pleased to cure sister Sebastiana de Neve y Chayes of apoplexy, a mizaole 
of which an account was printed. Ortiz de Znfiiga, Annates^ p. 756. 
This favoured nun may have been sister or cousin to Murilio's friend, 
the Canon Neve ; see p. S064, note i. 

' Palomino, torn. iii. p. 626. 

* Compare pp. 1019 and Z029, note 2. The gains of the robber, compared 
with those of the painter, have too frequently been in the ratio of pounds 
sterling to Spanish reals, or 240 to 2.35. 

* For the following important documents, I am indebted to the kindness 
of Mr. Ford. They are now printed, for the first time, from a transcript 
made by him at Seville in 1832, from copies in the possession of Don 
Joaquin Cortes, President of the Academy, which I have had the 
advantage of collating with another made by Don J. M. Eseazena, an 
eminent painter of Seville. The first b the will itself ; the second, or 
DUigenda, is the history of the making of it, and o£ the testator's death ; 
and the third, the inventory of effeets. 

^ En el nombre de Dios, amen : Sepan quantos esta carta de testa- 




inform us tliat he died possessed of several houses 
in the parish of La Magdalena, besides his wife's 
oliye-farm at Pilas, of some money, plate, and 
furniture, and of a number of pictures, some finished 
and others in progress. The will begins with a 

mento Tieren oomo yo Bartolom^ MariUo, maestro del arte de la PiIltu^^ 
yedno de esta dudad de Sevilla^ en la oolladon de S*** Cruz, estando 
enfenno del cuerpo j sano de la yolontad y en todo mi acuerdo joicio y 
entendimiento natural, cumpUda y buena memoria, tal qual Dies nuestro 
Sefior ha sido servido de darme, y creyendo como firme y verdaderamente 
creo en el divino misterio de la SantLsima Trinidad, Padre Hijo y Espirita 
Santo, tree peisonas, realmente diBtintaw y nn solo Dios verdadero^ y en 
todo lo demaa que tiene, cree y confiesa la santa madre Iglesia Catoliea 
Romana» como Christiano deseando salvarme, y quiriendo estar prevenido 
por lo que Dios nuestro Sefior faere servido de disponer y poniendo como 
pongo por mi intercesora d la siempre Virgen Maria Senora naestra, con- 
cebida sin mancha ni denda de pecado original desde el primer instante 
de sn ser, otorgo, hago y ordeno mi testamento en la forma y manera 

Primeramente ofifrezco y enoomiendo ml anima d Dios nuestro Sefior 
que la hizo cri6 y redenii6 con el precio infinite de su sangre d quien 
humildemente le suplico la perdone, y Ueve d el descanso de su gloria y 
quando su divina magestad f uere servido de llevarme de esta presente vida, 
mando que mi cuerpo sea sepultado en la dicha mi parroquia, y el dia 
de mi entierro siendo hora y sino otro siguiente, se diga por mi alma la 
misa de requiem cantada quees costumbre, y la forma y disposicion de mi 
entierro remito i, el parecer de mis albaoeas. Item, mando se digan por 
mi anima quatro cientas misas rezadas, la qnarta parte de eUas en la 
dicha mi parroquia por la que le pertenece, y ciento en el convento de 
Nuestra Sefiora de la Merced, casa grande de esta ciudad y las demas en 
los conventos y partes que pareciere d mis albaoeas, y se pague la limosna 
que es costnmbre. Item, mando d las mandas forzosas y acostumbradas 
y casa santa de Jerusalem d cada parte echo reales. Item dedaro que 
yo f ui albacea de Dofia Maria de Murillo mi prima, viuda de Don Fran- 
Cisco Terron y paran en mi poder por bienes de la suso dicha, dos 
candaleros de plata, dos cudiarras, quatro tenedores y seis hicaraa 
guamecidas de plata cuyos bienes sabe y reconosce Don Gaspar Esteban 
Murillo mi hijo, clerigo de menores ordenes, cuyos bienes quiero y es mi 
voluntad, mis albaceas los vendan y su procedido se diga de missas por el 
anima de la dicha Dofia Maria de Murillo, la mitad en el convento del 



profession of the testator s adherence to the faith of 
the Eoman Catholic Church, and it orders that his 
body shall be buried in the church of S*^ Cruz, with 
the usual chanted requiem, and that four hundred 
masses shall be said for his soul, one-fourth in that 


Sefior San Antonio de la orden del seraphico padre San Francisco de 
esta ciudad, y la otra mitad en el dicho convento de Nuestra Sefiora de 
la Merced, casa grande de esta ciudad. Item declaro qne en mi poder 
paran cinqnenta ducados de vellon, por via de deposito, los mismos que 
dej6 y leg6 la dicha Dofia Marik de MnriUo, mi prima, para qne tomase 
estado, Mannela Romero natnral de la villa de Bollullos, cuya cantidad 
para en mi poder, para efecto de qne la snso dicha tome estado, declarolo 
aai, para qne conste. Item mando & Ana Maria de Salcedo, muger de 
Geronimo Bravo, qne a8isti6 en mi casa, cinqnenta reales de vellon los qnales 
se le entregnen Inego qne yo fallesca. Item declaro qne me debe Andres 
de Campo escribano de la villa de Pilas dos mil reales de vellon procedidos 
de arrendimiento de quatro afios de nnos olivares, d precio de quinientos 
reales cada afio, a cnya cnenta, me ha dado diez arrobas de aceite & precio 
de diez y echo reales cada una, mando se cobre lo demas qne se me resta 
debiendo. Item declaro qne me deben del arrendimiento de unas casas 
qne tengo en La Magdalena la renta de seis meses d razon de echo dncados 
cada nno de renta del aflo pasado, cuya escritura pas6 ante Pedro de 
Galves escribano publico, de qne fue fiador de & quien arrend^ las dichas 
casas de que no me acuerdo de su nombre Antonio Novela de esta ciudad, 
mando se cobren. Item declaro que yo estoy haciendo nn lienzo grande 
para el convento de los Capuchinos de Cadiz y otros quatro lienzos 
pequefios y todos ellos los tengo ajustados en novecientos pesos y i cuenta 
de ellos he recibido trescientos y cinqnenta pesos, declarolo para qne 
conste. Item declaro que debo a Nicolas Olnasur (in Mr. Ford's copy 
Osnasnr) cien pesos de d echo reales de plata cada nno qne me di6 
y entregtS el afio pasado de mil seis cientos y ochenta y uno, y yo le he 
dado, y entregado dos lienzos pequefios que valen treinta pesos cada nno, 
que montan sesenta, con que rebajado esta cantidad, quedo deudor d el 
snso dicho de quarenta pesos, mando se los paguen. Item declaro que 
Diego del Campo me mand6 hacer nn lienzo de la devocion de Santa 
Catalina martir, y se concerts en treinta y dos pesos, los que el snso dicho 
me ha dado y pagado, por lo qual mis slbaceas den y entregnen al snso 
dicho el dicho lienzo acabado y perfecionado. Item declaro que nn 
texedor, de cuyo nombre no me acuerdo, que vive en la alameda, me mand6 
bacer nn lienzo de medio cuerpo de nuestra Sefiora que estd en bosquejo, 




church, one-fourth in the convent church of Mercy, 
and the rest where his executors may appoint It 
likewise mentions that the Capuchins of Cadiz had 
already paid 350 crowns on account for his last 
work, and provides for the payment of a few small 

que todayia no esta ooncertado y me ha dado a cnenta, nneTe Taraa 
de razo, mando que por defecto de no entregarle el dicho lienso se le 
pagne el monte de dichaa nneve varaa de razo. Item dedaro qne habra 
cosa de treinta y qoatro 6 treinta seis afioe que caa6 con Dofia Beatrix 
de Cabrera fiotomayor, mi mnger dif unta y la enso dicha traxo £ mi 
poder la cantidad que parecerd por la escritiira de dote que pas6 en nno 
de lo8 oiicioB pnbllcos qne entonoee estaban en la plaza de San Fran- 
oisoo y yo no truxe & el dicho matrimonio bienes ni hacienda ningona, 
declarolo aai para qne conste. Item dedaro qne Dofia Francisea MuriUo 
mi hija, monja profeaa en el convento de monjas de Madre de Dioe de 
esta ciudad, la qnal d el tiempo de su profedon, renundd en mi sn legitima, 
oomo en la escritnra de rennnda consta qne pafi6 antes el dicho Pedro de 
Oalyes siete ti ocho afioe poco mas o menos, declarolo para qne oonste. 
Item para pagar y cnmplir este mi testamento, y lo en el oontenido, dejo 
y nombro por mis albaceas testamentarios d el sefior Don Jnstino de Neve 
y Yerenes, prebendado de esta santa Iglesia y il Don Pedro de Villavi- 
cencio caballero del orden del sefior San Juan, y il el dicho Don Caspar 
Esteran MuriUo mi hi jo lb los quales y £ cada uno in solidum doy todo 
mi poder camplido y facultad bastante para redbir y cobrar todoa mis 
bienes y faadenda y venderlos y rematarlos en almoneda publiea 6 f uera 
de ella, y de sn proeedido cnmplir y executar este mi testamento, nsando 
de dicho cargo, aunque sea pasado d termino dd devecho y mucho mas, 
y pagado y cumplido este mi testamento y todo lo en el contenido, d 
remanente que quedare de todos mis bienes muebles raises ysemovientee, 
deudas, derechos y acciones y otras cosas que me toquen y perteneacan i 
d tiempo de mi falledmiento, dejo, iDstituyo y nombro por mis unices y 
universales herederos en todos ellos £ Don Gabrid Muiillo ansente en los 
reynos de las Indias y d d dicho Don Caspar Estevan Murillo. 

DiUGENCiA.— En la ciudad de Sevilla en tres dias del mes de Avril 
de mil seisdentos y ochenta y dos afioe, serian como las dnoo de la tarde 
con poca diferencia que se me llam6 para haoer el testamento de Bar- 
tolomi Murillo, Maestro pintor, yedno de esta dudad y estando lo 
hadendo hasta poner la clausula de herederos que es d que esta eecrito 
anteoedente y pregnntandole por d nombre del dicho Don Caspar Estevaa 
Murillo su hijo y didio y pronundado el dicho su nombre, eon el otio 


debts and for the delivery of certain pictures. Some 
trifling articles of plate, inherited from his cousin 
Maria de Murillo, are directed to be sold, to pay for 
masses for the benefit of that lady's soul, and a sum 
of fifty reals is left to Anna Maria de Salcedo, his 

piimero sn hi jo, reconoci se moria, por cansa de haberle preguntado en 
prden d si habia otorgado 6 no otros testamentos para que qnedasen 
revocados eomo se hace en los testamentos 7 no me respondi6 a ^Uo, con 
que ^ breve lato ezpir6, y para que oonste lo pongo por diligencia, estando 
presente d el dicho testamento Don Bartolom^ Garcia Bracho de Barreda, 
presbitero vecino de esta ciudad en la colladon de San Lorenzo y Don 
Juan Caballero, cura de la iglesia de Santa Craz, Greronimo Trevifio 
maestro pintor, Tecino de esta ciudad en la collacion de San Esteban, 
(in Mr. Ford's copy Santa Cruz) y Pedro Belloso vecino y escribano de 
Sevilla que lo'firmaron. Don Bartolom^ Garcia Bracho de Barreda,— 
Juan Caballero, — Geronimo Trevi&o, — Pedro BeUoso escribano de Sevilla, 
— Juan Antonio Guerrero escribano publico de Sevilla. 

Consiguiente i, la disposicion testamentaria precedente, por Don Gaspar 
Estevan de Murillo se present^ peticion ante el seiior Teniente de 
Asistente de esta ciudad, Don Policarpo de Miranda y Quifiones. sollci- 
tando se le reciviese informacion de testigos y se declarase dicho testa- 
mento por nuncupativo, cuya justiiicacion f ue admitida y dada por tres 
testigos, recay6 providencia de dicho sefior juec d la presencia de didio 
Don Juan Antonio Guerrero para la que declar6 por testamento las 
diligencias preoedentes, interponiendo la autoridad y decreto judicial de 
Bu ofidob cuya providencia fue dictada en quatro de Avril de mU seiscientos 
y ochenta y dos afios. 

£1 testamento que va copiado y las diligenciaa judiciales que se hallan 
£ au contiuDuacion en que recay6 providencia para declarar por testamento 
el que vd citado, obran ante el dicho escribano Don Juan Antonio Guer- 
rero en la escribania publiea no. 3, que hoy usa Don Manuel Bodriguex 
Qnesada en el aiio 183X 

Iktentabio. — En la ciudad de Sevilla en quatro dias del mes de Abril 
de mil seiscientos ochenta y dos afios, estando en las caaas de la morada 
que fueron de Bartolomtf Murillo, que son en esta ciudad en la collacion 
de Santa Cruz, ante mi Juan Antonio Guerrero escribano publico del 
nnmero de esta dicha ciudad y testigos, pareciaron el sefior Don Justino 
de Neve y Yevenes, prebendado de la santa iglesia de esta ciudad y Don 
Pedro de Villavicencio caballero del habito de sefior San Juan y Don 
Gaspar Estevan MurUlo, vecinos de esta dudad, albaceas testamentarios 






servant. His two sons are the residuaiy legatees, 
and the Canon Neve,* and Nnfiez de Villavioencio, 
the execntors. 

According to the tradition of Seville, the great 
painter lived and laboured for some years in the 
Calle de las Tiendas, a street in his native parish of 
La Magdalena. The latter part of his life was spent 
in the parish of S*^ Cruz, near the church, in a 
house, now No. 3, in the Calle de Barrabas, con- 
spicuous by its bold bay-window towards the street, 
and close to the city wall. Over the reja^ or gate of 

del dicho Bartolomtf Morillo, nombradoB por tales en el teatamento que 
el 8U80 dicho hizo ante el presente esciibano pnblioo, en este presente afio 
y dixeron que por sn fin y muerte habian qnedado diferentes bienes de 
loB qnales querian bacer inventario solemne de ellos y lo hideron de los 
bienes signientes. Primeramente nn escritorio de Salamanca con sn pie 
grande oomo escaparate. Item an bofete de doe Tanu menos qnarta de 
laigo, de caoba^ con sn herrage. Item otro bofete de caoba de Taia y 
media de largo con sn herrage. Item tres lienzoe de dos varas poco menos 
de laigo con bus moldoraa doradas, nno de arquitectnra y otros de historia 
de la sagrada escritura, y todos los tres son copias. Item nn qnadro de tres 
qnartas de largo con sn moldnra dorada, oopia de la cabeza de San Jnan 
BantistA y dos fmteros de d media vara de laigo ain (in Mr. Ford's copy con 
sns) moldnras, y por ahora se 8nspendi6 el dicho inventario para segoirloy 
prosegnirlo como y qnando les convenga y lo firmaron de sns nombres en 
este registro d los qnales yo el presente escribano publico doy fd, conoaco ; 
siendo presente por testigos Pedro BeUoso y Francisco Martin Koldan 
escribanos de SeYilla,~Don Justino de Neve,— Frey Don Pedro Nnfici 
de Villavicencio, — Caspar Estevan de Murillo,— Pedro Belloso escribano 
de Sevilla, — Juan Antonio Guerrero, escribano publico de Sevilla. 

^ He is caUed, in Mr. Ford's copy of the will, Neve y Cluxives, while 
Gean Bermudez {Ccarta^ p. 62, and elsewhere) calls him Neve y Yevenet, 
Both may have been family names, see p. 1059, note i. A letter written 
by the Canon to the Marquess de Paradas, on the death of Miguel Maliaia 
(p. 1014, note 2), and printed in Cardenas's memoini of that worthy, p. 164, 
is signed Justino de Neve only. 



iron trellis-work, leading from the vestibule into the 
court, the present owner and tenant of the mansion, 
the tasteful Don Manuel Cepero, Dean of Seville, 
has placed a marble tablet, bearing this inscription. 



MURld B. E. 


Around three sides of the court there is the usual 
Sevillian arcade, supported on white marble pillars, 
above which the walls are painted in imitation of 
red and yellow brick-work ; and in the centre, a 
small marble fountain plays from a star-shaped basin 
of glazed tiles, amongst pots of flowering shrubs. 
MuriUo's studio, now forming part of the Dean's 
picture-gallery, is on the upper floor; its windows 
command a pleasant prospect beyond the Moorish 
wall. Looking over a grove of orange trees, you see, 
to the right, the long florid fa9ade of the royal to- 
bacco factory, built after Murillo's time,^ and in front, 
a wide expanse of rich com land, broken with olive 
groves and ancient convents, and stretching away to 
the uplands around Alcald. The back of the house, 
represented in the woodcut,^ looks on a pretty garden, 

^ Began in 1725, and finished in 1757. L09 Arquitectos, torn. iv. p. 108. 
* From a sketch which I made on the spot in 1845, by the kind permis- 

sion of Dean Cepera 





planted with citrons and cjrpresses, and closed by a 
fountain built of rock-work, and a wall on which are 
four faded frescoes of fanns and musical mermaids, 
ascribed sometimes to the pencil of Murillo himself,^ 
and sometimes to that of Vargas*' 

Portraits of 

Amongst the finished pictures bequeathed by 
Murillo to his sons, there was a portrait of himself 
in his youthful days, supposed by Cean Bermudez 
to be the picture which afterwards came into the 
possession of Don Bernardo Iriarte. It is probably 
identical with that which, sold by Don Julian 
Williams to the King of the French, is now one 

^ Noticta de Sevilla, 1842, p. 52. 

* Handbook [1S45], p. 260 [3d edition, 1855, p. 188]. 



of the gems of the Louvre,^ and has been engraved, 
for die third time,* for the present work. Accord- 
ing to a whimsical fashion of the time, it affects to 
be painted on a stone slab, carelessly placed upon 
a block, along the edge of which a later hand has 
inscribed the name of the painter, and diates of his 
birth and death. Although wanting in the beauty 
of feature and the high-bred air which distinguished 
Velazquez, the countenance of Murillo is not un- 
worthy of his genius ; the lips betoken firmness, and 
above the keen intelligent eyes there rises a broad 
intellectual brow. At a later period of his life, and 
at the request of his children, he painted another 
portrait* of himself, which was very finely engraved 
at Brussels in 1682, by Richard Collin/ at the ex- 


^ Gal. Esp., N<x I S3. [Sold at the Louis-Philippe aale, 1853, and 
subsequently Id the collection of Baron Sulliere, Paris (Curtk, M. 
No. 46s, p. 295).] 

*• It has been engraved at Paris by Blanehard and Sichling. An excel- 
lent copy of this portrait, executed at Seville by Sir David Wilkie, and 
now hardly inferior in interest and valne to the original, is in the collec- 
tion of the Earl of Leven, at Melville House, Fifeshire. 

* This picture seems to be the one in the collection of Earl Spencer at 
Al thorp, exhibited in Manchester in 1S57. [Ancient Masters, No. 640.] 

* Tlds rare print, which is 14 inches high by 9I wide, is signed "Michard 
CoUin, Caleographtts Bcgis, setUpsit, BruxUliB, an, 1682." A pedestal 
beneath the figure bears this inscription : — " Bartholomeus Morillus, 
Hispalensis se ipsum dipingens, pro fiUorum votis ac precibus explendis. 
Nicolaus Omazurinus Antnerpiensis tanti viri simulacrum in amiciti» 
symbolon in aes incidi inaudavit, anno 1682." The portrait is in frame, 
and leaning against a. sort of stone niche. I have never seen but one 
proof, the fine one in the collection of [the late] Don Valentin Carderera at 
Madrid. In Murillo's testament, where mention is made of this Flemish 
friend (p. 106 1, note), it will be observed that the name is written Osnasur, 





pense of a certain Nicolas Omazurino, a gentleman 
who enjoyed the artist's friendship, and who, with 
his wife, Isabel Malcampo, had been pourtrayed by 
him in 1672. From this plate the head of Murillo, 
engraved in 1683 in Sandrart's book,^ was taken; 
and that head so closely resembles a bust-portrait 
formerly in the Aguado collection, that the latter 
portrait was probably either the original from which 
Collin worked, or a copy of it. It represents Murillo 
as a somewhat careworn man, of middle age, with 
a falling collar, edged with lace, round his neck; 
and it has been engraved.' There is still another 
portrait of the painter, three-quarters length, which 
appears to be a repetition, on a larger canvas, of 
that in the Louvre : in his left hand he holds a 
drawing of a seated naked figure, and his right a 
crayon-holder; and it is known in Spain by the 
indifferent engraving of Alegre and Carmona,* which 
perhaps is all that remains of the picture. At 
Florence, the gallery of Cardinal Leopold de Medicis, 
although it boasts two portraits of Velazquez,* wants 
that of Murillo. 

All that is known of the personal history of 
Murillo tends to the advantage of his fame. Gifted 

^ Sandrart, Academia nobilisn'ma ArtU ptctorux, plate facing p. 392- 

* In Paris, by Calaniatta, in the GcUerie Aguado, 

' In the Espanoles Ilustres. 

^ GaUrie ImpSriale et RoydU de Florence^ sm. Svo, Flor. 1837, p. 127. 


with much energy and determination of mind, and ch. xi i. 
great powers of application, he obtained by his 
amiable and attractive manners a considerable in- 
fluence with his fellow-men. His character bears 
so close a resemblance to that of Velazquez, that 
the great court-painter may have been his model, 
both as a man and as an artist. Discreet and 
conciliating towards friends and rivals, both of 
these celebrated sons of Seville seem to have been 
free from that proneness to boasting and self- 
glorification, the besetting vice of Alonso Cano, and 
one generally inherent in the Oriental blood of 
Andalusia. The early history of the Sevillian 
Academy^ affords evidence of the good sense of 
Murillo, and of the moderation of his temper. Cean 
Bermudez records a happy reply made by him to 
his fellow-painter Vald^s Leal, a man too arrogant, 
he was accustomed to say, to admit of rivalry. This 
haughty antagonist having one day condescended 
to ask Murillo's opinion of a work which he had 
just finished, and of which the principal feature 
was a rotting cqarpse, the painter — who had probably 
not yet given an opening for a retort by painting 
the Tifloso* — replied, "Compadre,* it is a picture 
which cannot be looked at without holding one's 
nose." Cean Bermudez was doubtless repeating 

* Supra, p. 1008. • Ibid. p. 1026. • Compire, gossip. 



CH. XII. the tradition of Seville, when he relates that the 
scholars of Murillo found him in all things the 
opposite of the testy Herrera ; a gentle and pains- 
taking master, and in after-life a generous and 
&therly friend. One of them attended him in his 
last moments, and Meneses Osoiio, Marqnez Joya, 
Antolinez, and others of less distinction, lamented 
his death as if they had been his children. The 
friend of good Miguel Mafiara, and the yotary of 
the holy Almoner of Valencia, he practised the 
charity which his pencil preached ; and his frmeral 
was hallowed by the prayers and tears of the poor 
who had partaken of his bounties. His story 
justifies the hortatory motto graven on his tomb ; ^ 
he had lived as one about to die. 

Fame. Like Yclazquez, Murillo enjoyed a high con- 

temporary reputation. The invitation to court was 
not the most signal homage paid to his genius. He 
had the pleasure of reading his own praises in the 
''Memorial of the Festivals held at Seville on the 
Canonisation of St Ferdinand," one of the most 
beautiful books of Spanish local history.^ In that 
work Don Fernando de la Torre Far&n proclaims 
the renown of MuriUo's name, and the *' learning " 

^ Snpra, p. 1056^ 

' Ibid. p. 1003, note. I am informed by Mr. Ford, who pooseases a 
matchless copy of this rare Tolnme, with impressions of the plates 
selected from five difTerent copies, that the work was printed at the 
expense of the Chi^ter of Seville for presents. 



of his pencil; he asserts that he was a ^'better 
Titian/' and that Apelles might have been proud to 
be called the Grecian Murillo ; ^ and he remarks of 
one of his beautiful delineations of the Immaculate 
Conception, '* that those who did not know that it had 
been painted by the great artist of Seville, would 
suppose that it had liad its birth in heaven."' 
Murillo was probably better known abroad than any 
other Spanish painter, except Sibera and Velazquez. 
His portrait was, as we have seen,' finely engraved 
in Flanders the very year of his death, and the year 
following his name was chronicled, with high honour, 
and his life written with great inaccuracy, in the 
ponderous Latin. folio of the German Sandrart,^ who 
does not deign to notice any other Spaniard. 
Eleven years later, in 1693, one of his genial pic- 
tures of vulgar life was sold at Whitehall for a sum 
which surprised the oak-loving squire of Wotton.* 
His pencil was not unknown in the churches 
and palaces of Italy, or in the conventual shrines 
of the Netherlands.® 


^ Molifere spealcB still more handsomely of his own painter friend in 
his "Gloire da Val-de- Grace," CSuvre9,.6 torn. Paris, 1824, torn, tl p. 
451, wheze he talks of 

" Jules, Annibal, Raphael, Michel- Ange, 
Les Migncsrds de leur siMe." 

' FiuUu de Sevilla, pp. 164, 202, 233, 325. 

' Supra, p. 1067. ^ Ibid. p. 1056. ' Ibid. chap. L p. 55. 

* In the Art Union, June 1841, toL ilL p. 109, there is a pleasant 



CH- ^OL Among the ecclesiastical painters of Spain Mniillo 
8tji«. holds the same nnapproached pre-eminence that is 

held by Velazquez amongst the painters of the 
Spanish court. In variety of power and in mastery 
of all branches of his art, the one excels Soelas^ 
Herrera, and Znrbaran, as much as the other excels 
El MudOy El Greco, and Pereda. French rapine 
and the dissolution of the convents having dispersed 
over Europe a greater number of the masterpieces of 
MuriUo, have given him perhaps a higher place in 
public estimation. All the peculiar beauties of the 
school of Andalusia, says Cean Bermudez, its happy 
use of red and brown tints, the local colours of the 
region, its skill in the management of drapery, its 
distant prospects of bare sierras and smiling vales, 
its clouds light and diaphanous as in nature, its 
flowers and transparent waters, and its harmonious 
depth and richness of tone,^ are to be found in full 

anecdote of an altar-piece by Mnrillo, tamed to excellent acconnt by a 
society of Flemish friars. A bold Briton "came, saw, and conquered" 
this picture, for a considerable sum, and by the desire of the vendors 
affixed his seal and signature to the back of the canvas. In due time it 
followed him to England and became the pride of his collection. Bat 
passing through Belgium some years afterwards, the purchaser turned 
aside to visit his friends the monks, when he was surprised to find his 
acquisition, smiling in all its original brightness, on the wall where he had 
first been smitten by its charms. The truth was that the good fathers 
always kept under the original canvas an excellent copy, which they 
sold, in the manner above related, to any rash collector whom providence 
directed to their cloisters. Would that Marshal Soult had had to do with 
brethren of this knowing order ! 
* Carta, p. 123. 


perfection in the works of Murillo. As a religious ch. xi i. 
painter he ranks second only to the greatest masters 
of Italy. In ideal grace of thought and in force and 
perfection of style he yields, as all later artists must 
yield, to that constellation of genius of which Rafael 
was the principal star. But his pencil was endowed 
with a power of touching religious sympathies, and 
awakening tender emotions, which belonged to none 
of the Italian painters of the seventeenth century. 
Some of them doubtless display a more accurate 
knowledge of the rules, but none have so efficiently 
fulfilled the purposes, of art. He did not, because 
he could not, follow the track of the great old 
masters ; but he pressed forward in the true spirit 
towards the mark of their high calling. The genius 
of ancient art, all that is comprehended by artists 
under the name of the antique, was to him ''a 
spring shut up and a fountain sealed." He had 
left Madrid long before Velazquez had brought 
his collection of casts and marbles to the Alcazar. 
All his knowledge of Pagan art must have been 
gleaned in the AlcaU gallery, or, at second hand, 
from Italian pictures. Athenian sculpture of the 
age of Pericles therefore had, directly at least, 
no more to do with the formation of his taste, 
than the Mexican painting of the age of Mon- 
tezuma. All his ideas were of home growth; his 
mode of expression was purely national and Spanish ; 



CH. xn. 

subject ; 
The Im- 

his model, nature as it existed in and around 

The Mystery of the Immaculate Conceptioii is 
one of his most frequent and favourite subjects. 
His treatment of this delightful theme being 
unrivalled in poetic grace and feeling, he has 
sometimes been called, by pre-eminence, the painter 
of the Conception.^ The spotless purity of the 
Blessed Virgin, the opinion that she came into the 
world sinless as her own Divine offspring, has 
long been the darling dogma of the Spanish 
Church. Its slender foundation of ancient autho- 
rity is admitted, while excused, by Villegas, on the 
ground that had it been made manifest at an earlier 
time, men might have fallen into the error of wor- 
shipping the Virgin as an actual goddess.' In fact, 
it remained an open question, whereon belief and 
speculation were free, until 1617, when the impor- 
tunities of the Churcfi and crown of Spain drew from 
Paul V. a bull which forbade the teaching or preach- 
ing' of the contrary opinion. On the publication of 
this bull, Seville flew into a frenzy of religious joy. 
Archbishop de Castro performed a magnificent ser- 
vice in the Cathedral, and amidst the thunder of 
the organs and the choir, the roar of all the artillery 
on the walls and river, and the clangour of all the 

^ Handbook [1S45], P- 267 [3rd edition, 1855, Na 196]. 
> Villegas, Fio» Sctnetarwnf p. 576. 



bells in all the churches, swore to maintain and 
defend the peculiar tenet of his see. Don Melchor 
de Alcazar, doubtless the early friend of Velazquez 
at court,^ gave a splendid entertainment in the 
bull-ring, at which his fellow-nobles displayed their 
liyeries and gallantry, and he himself and his dwarf, 
attended by four gigantic negroes, performed pro- 
digies of dexterity and valour.* There was no 
church or convent that had not at least one picture 
or statue of the Virgin of the moat pure Conception. 
For the treatment of this important subject, the 
directions of Facheco are very full and precise.' 
The idea is borrowed from the vision in the Apo- 
calypse> of the wondrous " woman clothed with the 
sun and with the moon under her feet, and having 
upon her head a crown of twelve stars."* **But in 
this gracefuUest of mysteries," says the lawgiver of 
Sevillian art, "Our Lady is to be painted in the 
flower of her age, from twelve to thirteen years old, 
with sweet grave eyes, a nose and mouth of the 
most perfect form, rosy cheeks, and the finest 
streaming hair of golden hue, in a word, with all 
the beauty that a human pencil can express." * Her 
eyes are to be turned to heaven, and her arms 


mode of 
painting it. 

^ Supra, chap. iz. p. 685. 

* Ortiz de Znxiiga, Annalea de SeviUa^ pp. 624-629. 
' Pacheco, Arte de la TitUura, pp. 481-484. 

* Rev. zii. i. " Pacheco, p. 482. 



CH. XII. meekly folded across her bosom. The mantling 
sun is to be expressed by bright golden light behind 
the figure; the pedestal moon is to be a crescent 
with downward-pointing horns ; and the twelve 
stars above are to be raised on silver rays, forming 
a diadem like a celestial crown in heraldry. The 
robe of the Virgin, of course covering her feet with 
decent folds, must be white, and her mantle blue ; 
and round her waist is tied the cord of St. Francis ; 
because in this guise she appeared to Beatriz de 
Silva,^ a noble nun of Portugal, who, in 151 1, 
founded a religious order of the Conception at 
Toledo. About her are to hover cherubs, bearing 
emblematic boughs and flowers ; the upper glory is 
to reveal the forms of the Eternal Father and the 
mystic dove ; and the clouds beneath the moon, the 
bruised head of the great red dragon. These last 
accessories, however, Pacheco does not absolutely 
require ; and he is especially willing to forgive the 
omission of the dragon, " which, indeed," says he, 
" no man ever painted with good will." * No great 
obedience was, however, paid to these rules by any 

^ Compare chap. tL p. 417. 

* PachecOk p. 4S4. Justezimn de Ayali, Pidtot CkrManiu Eruditui, 
p. 193, has an ample dissertation on the Conception. See also Handr 
book [1S45], P> 2^ iS^ edition, 1855, pp. 195-6]. Disqmsitions on the 
Viil^Q*s stanry crown, and on the moon nnder her feet, may be found in 
Andrea VittoivUi, Gionose MttmanedeilaBeaiisnma Verffine, 8to, Roiiia» 
1616, pp^ 220-225. 



but the lawgiver himself. Koelas and Zurbaran, 
for example, generally, though not always, place the 
horns of the moon in the required downward posi- 
tion, and put ever the cord of St. Francis, but they 
frequently change the colours of the robes and 
drapery from white and blue to violet and crimson — 
colours which were more native to their palettes. 
Perhaps J. de Vald^s, not a very happy painter 
of Conceptions, is, after Facheco, the greatest purist 
in working after the letter of the law. 

Murillo is by no means exact in his adherence to 
the letter of Facheco's laws. The attitude of the 
figure and the colours of the drapery are the sole 
points in which he exhibits habitual obedience. 
The horns of his moon generally point upwards; 
he usually omits the starry crown ; and in spite 
of his predilection for the Capuchin order, he 
commonly dispenses with the girdling cord of St. 
Francis. His Virgin is sometimes a fair child 
with golden locks, gazing to heaven with looks 
of wondering adoration; sometimes a dark-haired 
woman, on whose mature beauty "the sun has 
looked,"* bending her eyes in benign pity on this 
sublunar sphere. Of the pictures of the first kind, 
one painted for the Capuchin convent, and now in 
the Museum of Seville, and another in the Koyal 


of the Con- 

^ Canticles L 6. 



Gallery at Madrid,^ are perhaps the finest. For 
these» in which the features are identical, the painter-s 
daughter^ is traditionally said to haire served him 
as a model. Seville also possesses the finest example 
of his leBS orthodox Virgin of the Conception, 
in the magnificent colossal picture in the Museum, 
hanging where the high*altar formerly stood in 
the convent-church. This work, painted for the 
Franciscan convent, is said to have been condemned 
by the friars, who saw it before it was raised to 
its proper position, as an unfinished daub,^ a 
hasty judgment like that passed by the stupid 
canons of Courtray on Vandyck's "Elevation of 
the Cross." * All, however, breathe the same senti- 
ment of purity, and express; so far as lies within 
the compass of the painter's art, that high and 
perfect nature, "spotless without, and innocent 
within," ascribed by the religion of the south to 
the Mother of the Redeemer. Nurtured in this 
graceful and attractive belief, and perhaps kneel- 
ing daily before some of these creations in which 
MuriUo has so finely embodied it, well might Sister 

1- Catdlogo [1843], No. 219 [edition 1889, No. 878]. 

» Supra, p. 1059. 

• Quilliet, Dictionnaire des Peintres Espagnoles, p. 99, note *•*•, tellr 
this story of the Conception in the Cathedral chapter-room, p. 852; I 
give it as I heard it at Seville. 

^ Descamps, Peintres FlamandSj Jtc, torn. ii. p. 14. 



Ines de la Cruz/ the cloistered swan of Mexico, 
exclaim in her passionate verse — 

"Quien la v^ de Dios Madre que no discurra 
Qae de quien la Luz nace, nunca fa^ obscura ?. 
Qaien la mira en su boHo que no conozca 
Que nunca fue pechera tan gran Senora ?"' 

Think'st thou the Saviour's mother was ever aught but bright, 
That darkness e'er polluted the fount of living light? 
Her queenly throne in heaven, and' her beauty canst thou see, 
Yet deem our glorious Lady a child of sin like thee ? 

The celestial attendants of the Virgins of Murillo 
are amongst the loveliest cherubs that ever bloomed 
on canvas. Like Cambiaso,' he permitted no diffi- 
culty of attitude or foreshortening to deter his facile 
and triumphant pencil. Hovering in the sunny air, 
reposing on clouds, or sporting amongst their silvery 
folds, these ministering shapes give life and move- 
ment to the picture, and relieve the Virgin's statue- 
Uke repose. Some of them bear the large white 


^ A Mexican nun, who flourished towards the end of the seventeenth cen* 
tury, and was authoress of an allegorical drama, called El Divino Nardso, 
the name under which she introduced the spiritual Bridegroom of the 
GospeL The third edition of her works is entitled Foenuxs de la unica 
poetisa Americana^ Musa dezima'Soror Juana InM de la Ortiz; sacolas 
a lu2 Don Juan Camaeho Gayna, Caff* de Santiago, 4to, Barcelona, 1691. 

* PoemaSf p. 328. From the third of a series of " Villancicoa " (a kind 
of hymn), sung in the Cathedral of Pnebla de los Angeles, at the feast of 
the Conception, 1689. In defence of the Virgin's sinless nature many 
reasons are adduced, one of the most curious of which, at least as regards 
the way of stating it, is because 

*' Era pundonor de Dios ennoblecer su fomilia " (p. 329). 

* Supra, chap. iv. p. 239. 




and Child." 

lilies, the symbols of her mysterious maternity;^ 
others, roses, sprays of olive, and palm-boughs, like 
those which are still annually blessed in the churches, 
and hung as charms on balconies and portals. Some- 
times, but more rarely, one of the band holds a small 
mirror, and another, a sceptre and a crown. All 
these details, finished with exquisite beauty, show 
the perfect skill of Murillo, and that the hand which 
could so well delineate the mother of God, was 

*^ in pratis studiosa florum, ct 

Debits Nymphis opifex coronsB." * 

In loftiness of character the Virgin of the Con- 
ception is generally superior to the other Virgins of 
Murillo. In his pictures of the " Mother and Child," 
of which those in the Corsini palace at Rome, and 
the Royal Gallery at Madrid,* are the finest ex- 
amples, the sinless Mary is commonly represented 
as a dark-haired comely peasant dame, with the 
ripened cheek and the soft repose of feature that 
belongs to southern beauty, embracing her first-bom 
darling with an expression of modest maternal con- 
tent. So, also, in his delightful " Holy Family," in the 

^ It was belieyed in the Middle Ages that eating the common lily 
would make a woman pregnant See Mr. Ford's leanied and coriouB 
essay on Spanish genealogy and heraldry, Quarterly RevieWy June 1838, 
vol. Ixii. p. 130. 

" Horat.p Car.^ lib. iii, ode xxviL 1. 29-3a 

* Caidlogo [1843], No. 271 [edition 1889* No. 862]. 



Queen of Spain's collection, known as el Pajarito, 
from the little bird which the Infant Saviour holds 
aloft to arouse the attention of a small white dog, or 
in that other, in the chapel at Belvoir Castle, the 
countenance of the Virgin-mother betrays no con- 
sciousness of the grandeur of her destiny. Except 
in works whereof the purpose was to set forth the 
mystery of her maternity, his desire seems to have 
been to present her to the eyes of the faithful, not 
arrayed in the glories with which fifteen centuries 
have invested her, but as she may have lived and 
moved in the humble home of the carpenter, and 
the simple world of Nazareth. 

The " Education of the Virgin, by her mother St. 
Anne," is a passage in her history which Murillo has 
delineated with singular grace, and which deserves 
notice as a subject, of high popularity, yet of re- 
cent origin, in Spanish art. According to Pacheco, 
the germ of the idea was to be found in a carving in 
the church of La Magdalena at Seville, where, about 
161 2, a modem artist had placed a figure of the 
youthful Virgin reading, beside an ancient sculpture 
representing the venerable spouse of St. Joachim. 
The hint was improved by Roelas, who painted for 
the convent of Mercy a picture of the mother and 
daughter, wherein the latter, in a rose-coloured 
tunic, a blue starry mantle, and an imperial crown, 
knelt at the knees of the former, and read from the 

CH. xiu 

The Virgin 
leaming to 

VOL. ni. 



CH. XII. pages of a missal. Pacheco, after weighing both 
sides of the question with his usual gravity, con- 
demns this painting, and quoting St. Epiphanius, 
asserts that the Virgin, being placed in the Temple 
in her third year, must have owed her knowledge 
of letters to the agency of the Holy Spirit.^ Never- 
theless, the subject being attractive, if not orthodox, 
daily grew in favour with painters, priests, and de- 
votees. Murillo's picture, formerly in the chapel- 
royal at St. Ildefonso, is now in the Queen of Spain's 
gallery at Madrid.* As in the composition of the 
canon of Olivares, the Virgin kneels by the side of 
St. Anne, resting the book on her knees, and listen- 
ing with affectionate attention to the discourse of 
the good dame ; but the gorgeous attire is entirely 
discarded, and the only ornament of the fair learner 
is a white rose placed amongst her luxuriant golden 
tresses. The head of St. Anne, with its becoming 
drapery, is very noble ; and both mother and child 
are evidently portraits executed with elaborate care, 
perhaps of Dofia Beatriz and the young Francisca, 
the wife and daughter of Murillo.' 

As a painter of children, Murillo is the Titian 

1 Pacheco, pp. 488-91. His view of the subject is taken by Inteiiau de 
Ayala, Pietor Christianus Eruditus, p. 324. 

> Catdlogo [1843], No. 310 [edition 1889, Na 872]. The original sketch 
hangs in the same room, No. 214 [edition 1889, No. 873]. 

' Mr. Swinburne, who saw it at San Ildefonso, remarks that ** the girl 
is the very picture of my little Patty." Courts of Europe cU the Clast 
oftheLcut Century, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1841, yoL i p. 105. 



or Bubens of Spain. He appears to have studied 
them with peculiar delight, noting their ways and 
their graces in the unconscious models so abun- 
dantly supplied by the jocund poverty of Andalusia. 
Amongst the bright-eyed nut-brown boys and girls 
of the Feria, he found subjects far better fitted 
for his canvas than the pale Infants and Infantas 
who engrossed the accurate pencil of Velazquez. 
In pictorial e£fect, the velvet doublet and hose, 
the satin fiounces and fardingales of the court 
must yield precedence to the picturesque rags of 
the market-place. These sketches from common 
life are worked up by Murillo in his religious 
pictures with consummate skill, and with a re- 
finement that detracts nothing from the reality of 
nature. Of this the "St John fondling a lamb," 
now in our National Gallery,^ and the "Good 
Shepherd," a lovely auburn-haired boy, looking 
to heaven with holy rapture, now in the posses- 
sion of the Baroness de Rothschild,* may be 
cited as charming examples. These pictures were 
once companion gems in the Palais du Lassay, 
and afterwards in the collections of Presle and 
Eobit, and at the sale of the latter, in 1801, they 
were acquired by the late Sir Simon Clarke.* His 

* [CatcUoffuey 1889, No. 176]. 

' At Gnnnersbury, Middlesex [now Baron RothschUd]. 
' Bachanan, Memoirs of Painting, voL ii. p. 70. Sir S. Clarke paid 
4,000 guineas for the two. At his sale, the " St John " brought 2,000, and 


Christ and 
St. John as 



CH. xn. 

Virgin and 
St. Ber- 

gallery being dispersed in May 1840, they were, 
unhappily, separated. The Earls of Lovelace and 
Wemyss possess a fine repetition, the first of the '' St. 
John," * and the second of the ** Oood Shepherd." * 
In the Boyal Gallery at Madrid, there is a beautiful 
picture by Murillo of the Baptist and the Saviour, 
in which the latter holds a shell of water to the 
lips of the former, and which is therefore known 
in Spain as los Ninos de la Concha^ the " Children 
of the Shell." ' His studies of Christ and St. John, 
generally with lambs by their sides,* are of very 
frequent occurrence. At Seville, where it is an 
Easter custom for each family to purchase a lamb 
for the holiday feast, many a dark-«yed urchin, 
playing in the sunshine with his Paschal pet, 
attracts the eye of the lover of art, as the type and 
representative of the children painted by Murillo.* 

Of Murillo's larger religious compositions, a few 
still remain to be noticed. "The Blessed Virgin 

the " Good Shepherd " 3,900 gaineas. Mrs. Jameson, Handbook for the 
Public Galleriei, p. 162. 
^ At Ockham [East Horsley Towers, Leatherhead], Surrey. 

* At Goeford Honse, East Lothian. 

* Catdlogo [1843], Na 202 [edition 18S9, No. 866]. 

* Ihid., Nos. 46 and 50, [Catdlogo 1889, Nos. 864-5I are amongst the 
host of these. 

* Since this sentence was printed, I haye met with a similar remark 
in a recent work hy a lively and pleasing lady-tourist, who does not permit 
her name to emhellish her title-page : Journal of a Few Months* Besidenee 
in PortugcU, and Glimpses of the South of Spain^ 2 vols. i2mo, London, 
1847, YoL ii. pp. 104-128. See^also Handbook [1845], P* ^77 [3^ edition 
1855, p. 205]. 



appearing to St Bernard/' in the Queen of Spain's 
gallery,^ is a remarkable example of his skill in 
treating with dignity and propriety a subject which, 
in many hands, might have suggested opposite 
ideas. The great Abbot of Clairvaux, seated 
amongst his books, and with a jar of lilies on the 
table, as an emblem of his devotion to Our Lady, 
is surprised by a visit from that celestial personage. 
As the white-robed saint kneels before her in 
profound adoration, she bares her beautiful bosom, 
and causes a stream of milk to fall from thence 
upon the lips of her votary, which were from that 
time forth endowed with a sweet persuasive elo- 
quence that no rival could gainsay, no audience 
resist.* Above and around the heavenly stranger, 
cherubs disport themselves in a flood of glory ; and 
on the ground lie the Abbot's crosier and some 
folios bound in pliant parchment, like those which 
once filled the conventual libraries in Spain, and 
which Murillo has so often introduced into his 
pictures. This noble work, remarkable for the 
beauty of the Virgin, has been engraved by 

The same collection boasts another fine picture 
by Murillo, on a similar subject, St. Ildefonso re- 
ceiving the miraculous chasuble from the hands of 

1 Catdlogo [1843]. No. 315 [edition 1889, No. 868]. 
* Villegaa, Flos Sanctorum, p. 403« 


Virgin ftnd 






Legend of 



Our Lady.^ This event is the proudest passage in 
the history of imperial Toledo.' The holy arch- 
bishop, says the legend, having written with great 
unction in defence of the spotless virginity of the 
mother of God, was entering his Cathedral at the 
head of a midnight procession, when he perceived a 
great blaze of light around the high-altar. He alone 
of all the clergy venturing to approach it, found the 
Virgin herself seated on his ivory throne, and sur- 
rounded by a multitude of angels chanting a solemn 
service from the Psalter. Bowing himself to the 
ground, he heard himself thus addressed by his 
heavenly visitor : " Come hither, most faithful ser- 
vant of God, and receive this robe which I have 
brought thee from the treasury of my Son." He 
obeyed her orders, and as he knelt before her, she 
threw over him a chasuble of heavenly tissue, which 
was adjusted upon his shoulders by a band of angelic 
choristers. From that night the ivory chair remained 
unoccupied, and the celestial vestment unworn, by 
any prelate, until the days of the presumptuous 
Archbishop Sisiberto, who died in consequence of 

1 Catdlogo [1843], No. 326 [edition 1889, No. 869]. 

* Yillegas, Floi Sanetorwnt p. 65a Antonio Qaintanadnellas, Santos 
de la imperial ciudad de Toledo, foL Madrid, 165 1, p. 473. Lozano, Los 
Reyes Nuevos de Toledo, pp. 65-75. A whole Yolnme has been written 
on this subject alone, entitled, Libro de la Descension de Nuestra Seiiora 
d la Santa Iglesia de Toledo, y vida de S, Ilde/onso Arfobispo delkiy per 
el P. Francisco Portocarrero de la Gompania de Jesus ; 4to» Madrid, 1616. 



sitting in the one, and putting on the other. 
Murillo has represented the Virgin and two angels 
about to invest the kneeling saint with the splendid 
chasuble. Other angels stand or hover around, and 
above; and behind the prelate there kneels, with 
less historical correctness, a venerable nun bearing 
in her hand a waxen taper. The Virgin, and the 
angel on her left hand, are lovely conceptions ; and 
the richly-embroidered chasuble is painted with all 
the careful brilliancy of Sanchez Coello or Pantoja 
de la Cruz. The reputation of this picture has been 
extended by the excellent graver of Fernando Selma. 
Murillo's picture of Rebekah and Abraham's 
steward at the well, likewise in the Queen of Spain's 
gallery,^ is one of the most delightful ever painted 
on that favourite subject. It is a composition of six 
or seven figures, about half the size of life. The 
pilgrim, whose camels and servants appear in the 
distance, is quenching his thirst from the pitcher of 
Rebekah ; and that courteous damsel and her com- 
panions, bathed in the golden light of a southern 
sunset, form just such a group as may still be seen 
gathered round a village fountain in Andalusia. It 
is worth remarking, that the face of Rebekah fre- 
quently occurs in the pictures of Murillo. He has 
bestowed it on the Virgin of the Corsini palace at 


Rebekah at 
the Well. 

[Catdlogo 1889, No. 885]. 




Pictures of 
low life. 

Rome,^ on th« forgetful mother in the great picture 
of MoseS)' and almost invariably on one of the sister 
patronesses of Seville, S*^ Bufina and S**- Justa. 

In England, and indeed generally on this side 
the Pyrenees, Murillo seems to have at first become 
known to fame as a painter of subjects of vulgar 
life, of ragged boys devouring fruit, playing at 
chuck-farthing, or ridding each other's heads of 
the pediculose population. Fainted with his usual 
technical skill, and with a genial sense of humour, 
his works of this kind alone would entitle him to 
a considerable reputation. Amongst these deserve 
notice, the picture in the Louvre * representing a 
ragged urchin hunting on his own person for the 
" small deer " of dirt and poverty, and perhaps iden- 
tical with that which was once famous in the palace 
o£ Madrid umder the name of M PiojosOy the four ex- 
cellent studies of boys, in the Pinacothek at Munich,* 
and the charming flower-girl at Dulwich College.* 

^ This is irrong. Rebekah is not the Corsini Virgin, bnt the Gonini 
Vitgin occois amongst her attendant maidens. She and the Corsini Lady 
are S**- Rufina and S^»- Justa. 

* Sapra, p. 102 1. 

' In the Long GaUery, l^les d'ltalie, Na 113a [CatcUognt 18S9, 
No. 547.] 

* Verzeichniss, Nos. 354, 363, 375, 376, 383. A fine repetition of the 
first, "Boys eating Fruit,*' is in the collection of John Balfonr, Esq., at 
Balbimie, Fifeshire. [Nos. 1305-8. Notes on the Principal Pictures in 
the Old Pinakothek at Munich^ by Charles L. Eastlake, 8yo, London, 
1884, pp. 148-50.] 

* Catalogue [1880], No. 248. Mrs. Jameson, Public Galleries, p. 483. 
From the cabinet of M. Randon de Boissy it was bought for 900 loais, by 



Murillo's portraits, though few in number, are of 
great beauty and value. Those of Herrera, Talaban, 
Neve, and himself already noticed,^ show to what 
excellent purpose he had studied in the school of 
the great master of portraiture. For his friends, 
the Franciscans of Seville, he painted a full-length 
picture of the Archbishop Pedro de Urbina, a 
brother and benefactor of the convent, and buried, 
by his own desire, within its walls, in 1663.* This 
picture was much injured in its removal by the 
French. In the Cathedral, the sacristy of the 
chalices has an excellent head, which he must have 
painted from some earlier portrait of the venerable 

M. de Calonne, at whose sale, in 1795, it was purchased by Mr. Desenfans 
for ;f 672. The canyas has been pieced in several places ; it has been 
engraved by Robinson. [See Curtis, Velazquez and ifurillo, M. No. 426, 
pp. 281-2, and CatcUogtte of the Pictures in DuluHch College Gallery, by 
Br. Richter and John C. L. Sparkes, 8to, London, 1880, pp. 99-100, in both 
of which the history of the picture is given in detail. It has been etched 
by M. Rajon, lor The Fort/olio.] The late John Procter Anderdon, Esq., 
of Farley Hall, Berks, possessed a large picture ascribed to Murillo, and 
representiog an old woman eating porridge, and turning round to chide 
a laughing urchin behind her. Mr. Davies, Life of Murillo, pp. Ixxxv. 
97, mentions it with qualified praise, informing us that he had seen it at 
Cadiz, in the collection of Don Manuel de Leyra, and that he was told 
that it was the picture praised by Ponz, torn, xviii. p. 21, in the gallery 
of Don Sebastian Martinez. The stoiy is repeated in the Art Union, 
December 1846, vol. viii. p. 327. The design indeed agrees with the 
description, but the execution is wholly unworthy of the eulogium of 
Ponz, who asserts that it \b equal, if not superior, to some fine works of 
the same kind by Velazquez. It is a coarse, harsh picture, possibly a 
copy substituted by the Spanish dealers for the original, neither credit- 
able to Murillo, nor worth the price, £202, 13s., for which it was sold by 
Messrs. Christie & Manson» at Mr. Anderdon's sale, on the 15th May 
1847, I believe to the late Duke of Wellington. 
^ Supra, p. 105 1. * Ortiz de Zufiiga, Annales de Sevilla, p. 773. 



CH. xiL mother Francisca Dorotea de Villalda, founder and 
abbess of the Dominican nunnery of Nuestra Se&ora 
de los Reyes ;^ a pale saintly lady kissing a crucifix, 
and recalling, with her grey eye and "ypinched 
wimple," Chaucer's good prioresse, in whom "all 
was conscience and tendre herte." * To the same 
class of pictures belong those of St. Ferdinand, in the 
National Museum at Madrid, and in the Cathedral 
library at Seville, of which the latter seems to have 
been engraved by Arteaga, for La Torre Farfan's 
volume.' In the collection of Don Julian Williams, 
at Seville, there is, or was, a portrait by Murillo of 
the good Miguel Mafiara. The Louvre has a fall- 
length picture, painted in a forcible Velazquez-like 
style, of a certain Don Andres de Andrade,* a per- 
sonage chiefly remarkable for his prodigious crop of 
coal-black hair and his bad legs, and attended by 
a white mastiff yet uglier than himself. The old 
woman, in the same gallery, known as the mother 
of Murillo,^ and that other, bearing a pestle and 

1 Ortiz de Znfiiga^ AnnaUs de Sevilla, p. 609. Her epitaph will be 
found at p. 638^ 
' Prologue to the Canterbury TcUes, ▼. 15a 
' Sapra, p. 1003, note i, and p. 1070, note 2. 

* GaL Esp., No. 182. [Sold, 1853. to Thomas Baring, Esq., and now in 
the poBsesBion of the Eafl of Northbrook. British Institution, 1S53 ; 
Royal Academy, 1870.] 

* Collection Standish, No. 122. The authenticity of the name is ^es- 
tionable, as the portrait bears the date 1673. Maria Perez; according to 
Cean Bermndez, was already dead in 1642, p. 831. It may, however, 
have been painted from an earlier sketch, or from recollection. [Sta ndi a h 
•ale, 1853, No. 231.] 


mortar, and called his servant,* perhaps Anna de ch. xn . 
Salcedo, mentioned in his will,* are likewise works 
which bear the stamp of truth in every wrinkle and 
pucker of their time-worn faces. Mr. Sanderson^ 
has a fine portrait of a lovely woman, with long 
auburn tresses and a loose white robe, who has 
been called, on dubious authority, the painter's 
mistress, a title which has perhaps often been be- 
stowed on a very vestal, in order to lend a romantic 
interest to a picture. At Madrid, the Royal Gallery 
possesses two of his most brilliant and effective 
studies of individual character; an ancient dame, 
plying her distaff,* the very crone that you find in 
every group of " knitters " in the sun or round the 
posada fire ; and a nut-brown gipsy sibyl,* with a 
white drapery thrown across her bosom, and wound 
turban-wise round her head, who, wheedling you to 
submit your palm to her inspection, smiles with all 
the force of her pearly teeth and wild bright eyes. 
Lord Heytesbury has a fine work of Murillo, for- 
merly an heirloom in the ducal house of Almodovar.® 

' Gal. Esp., No. 180. [Louis-Philippe sale, 1853, No. 326.] 
' Supra, p. 106 1, note. 

* At No. 46 Belgraye Square. [Sold in 1848, when it was acquired by 
the author. It is now at Keir.] 

« Catdlogo [1843], No. 324 [edition 1889, No. 892]. 
» Ibid. [1843], No. 313 [edition 1889, No. 893]. 

* The last Count in the direet line leaving only three daughters, the 
succession was divided, and all restraints being removed by the new 
constitution, the picture was bought, in 1823, by his lordship, then Sir 




Well known at Madrid as las GallegaSj the Galician 
women, it has been tolerably engraved by Ballester.^ 
It represents two women at a window, one still in the 
bloom of her teens, and leaning on the sill, the other 
declining into the " sere and yellow leaf" and half 
concealed by a shutter. These fair Galicians, says 

the tradition, were famous amancehadas^ of Seville ; 
and the gallants who were lured to their dwelling 
by the beauty of the younger frail one, frequently 
became victims of that sort of deception which made 

William A'Court, and BritlBh minister in Spain. It Ib now at Heytes- 
bnry House, Wilts [British Institution, 1828, 1864]. 

* The plate bears the inscription, ** Quadro original de Bartohn^ 
Murillo que posee el Exc?^ S<^- Duque de Almodovar." 

* Dunlop's Memoirs 0/ Spain, voL iL p. 384. 



the shepherd-patriarcli the unwilling husband of the 
elder daughter of his maternal uncle.^ A repetition 
of the picture is in the collection of Mr. Munro.* 

As a painter of landscapes, Murillo has been 
excelled by no Spaniard, excepting only Velazquez. 
Diffident at first of his own abilities in this branch 
of art, when he was employed by the Marquess of 
Villamanrique, says Palomino,' to paint a series of 
pictures on the life of King David, he applied to 
Ignacio Iriarte to execute the backgrounds. That 
painter, however, insisting that the figures should be 
executed before the landscapes, while Murillo re- 
quired that the landscapes should first be provided 
to receive the figures, the latter determined to 
undertake the whole himself. Taking the history 
of Jacob instead of that of David, he accordingly 
executed five large pictures, which were carried 
to Madrid, and eventually were made heirlooms in 
the family of the Marquess of Santiago** Dispersed 

1 Gen. zxix. 25. 

* [Now of Mr. Munro-Fergnson.] At Kovar, Ross-shire. 

' Palomino, torn. iii. p. 627. 

^ The Marquessate of Villanianriqne merged not in that of Santiago 
bat in that of Astoiga, and these pictures,, had they been painted for 
Villamanrique, would, probably, also have become the inheritance of the 
great house of Osorio. It is most probable that they were originally 
painted for the Marquess of Santiago, whose family name, being Man- 
rique, may have misled Palomino. See Bemi, Los Titulos de CastillOf 
foL, Madrid, 1769, pp. 235, 352. Cumberland saw them at Madrid, in 
the Santiago palace, <'in the possession of a family which, by the pre- 
caution of an absolute entail, has guarded against any future possibility 
of alienation ! " Anecdotes, vol. L p. 125. 





CH. xiL during the war of independence, two of these works, 
** Jacob receiving the Blessing of Isaac," and " Jacob's 
Dream,'' have found their way into the Imperial 
Gallery at St. Petersburg.^ Another, ** Jacob placing 
the Peeled Wands before the Flocks of Laban," a 
magnificent picture, is in the possession of Lord 
Northwick,' and a fourth, *' Laban seeking for his 
gods in the Tent of Rachel," adorns the collection of 
the Marquess of Westminster.* The latter is a large 
composition in which Rachel, seated at her tent-door, 
is the principal figure ; on one side are seen her 
husband and father in high debate, and on the other, 
the 'tender-eyed" Leah with the handmaids and 
children. The backgroxmd is a cool grey landscape, 
a broad valley bounded by hills, and covered with 
the flocks and herds of the patriarch in their 
different divisions. Although composed and painted 
with great care and skill, this picture is filled 
with coarse faces and forms, as if Murillo, contem- 
ning the pastoral poets and all their fables, had 
resolved to depict shepherd-life as it actually existed 
in the wilds of Estremadura. The late Marquess 
Aguado possessed several smaller works of Murillo, 
illustrating the history of Jacob, three of which, 

* Livret, ealle xli, Nos. 35 and 15, pp. 411, 405 [Catalogue 18S7, Nos. 
359, 360, p. 127]. 

* At Thirlestane House, Cheltenham. [Sold July 26, 1859, No. 456; now 
in the collection of Sir John Hardy, Bart, Danstall Hall, Staffordshire.] 

* At Grosvenor House, Loudon. 



his dream, his wrestling with the angel, and his ch. xil 
servitude with Laban, have been engraved by 
Pannier and Kemot. In these the patriarch is 
attired in the doublet, breeches, and hat that might 
have been worn by any contemporary herdsman in 
the marshes of the Guadalquivir. The Aguado col- 
lection likewise contained many other landscapes 
by MuriUo, more than were probably ever before 
found under one roof. At Madrid, the Royal Gallery 
has but one specimen, a lake vnth buildings,^ which 
will not, however, bear comparison with the bril- 
liant studies made by Velazquez at Aranjuez and in 
Italy. The landscapes of Murillo, though graceful 
in design, are generally pale and grey, and want 
richness and vivacity of tone. The golden simlight 
in which he loved to steep his religious composi- 
tions, seldom glows upon his hills, or sparkles upon 
his waters. 

The drawings of Spanish masters are, in general, Drawings, 
extremely rare, apparently because, in the absence of 
engravings and other models, they were passed from 
hand to hand in the schools until they fell to rags. 
The only considerable collection of the sketches of 
Murillo, of which any account has been preserved, 
was that possessed by the Count of Aguila, in a 
-book of drawings which, after his death, fell into 

Catdhgo [1843], No. 288 [edition 1889, No. 899]. 



CH. XII. the hands of Don Julian Williams. Twenty-two of 
these are now in the Louvre.^ For the most part 
of small size, and neatly j&nished, they are chiefly 
executed in pen and ink, and washed oyer with a 
solution of Spanish liquorice.* Mr. Ford* possesses 
three excerpts from the precious Aguila volume. 
One is an excellent sketch of "St. John and the 
Lamb;" another a "Crucifixion," executed with 
great care and effect, in coloured chalks, which is 
probably the largest and most beautiful drawing 
of Murillo now in existence. The third is a fine 
impression of the rare etching, representing St 
Francis adoring a cross, and about 3 inches high by 
2^ wide, the single known specimen of Murillo's 

Etching. skill as an engraver. It bears no signature or 
monogram, nor was it usual with the artist to sign 
his works; therefore the mark [iR^ which some 
writers on the history of engraving have supposed 
to belong to Murillo,* must remain of questionable 
authenticity. Cean Bermudez possessed a pen and 
ink drawing by Murillo, apparently made at Cadiz, 
and signed with his name, which contained twelve 

1 Collection Standish, Nos. 426-447. [Sold 1853]. 

* The facetious writer in Punch, vol. vi p. 200, who speaks of certain 
sketches in the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1844, as " drawings in 
stick-liquorice," probably little thought that that material was actually 
employed by Murillo, a fact of which I am informed by the author of the 
Handbook, on the authority of Don Julian Williams. 

■ At Hevitre, Devon. 

^ BruUiot, Dictionnaire des Monofframmes, part L p. 112. 



studies of ships cleverly sketched from different 
points of view. 

In Murillo the artistic genius of Andalusia 
blossomed into fiill beauty and perfection, as did 
that of Castile in Velazquez. The ablest of their 
successors are those who most closely followed in 
their tracks, and reflected in their works the 
greatest portion of their light. These great men 
acquired their wonderful skill by the same means, 
the close and earnest study of nature. The skill 
so acquired, however, was applied by each to a 
different purpose, and in each became modified 
by the different circumstances of their lives. The 
principal business of the court-painter being to 
pourtray princes and grandees, to represent " the 
tenth transmitter of a foolish face" to the best 
advantage, judgment was the faculty which he 
was forced most constantly to exercise. The 
painter of the Church, who lived by the composi- 
tion of altar-pieces, and in continual study of the 
histories of the Virgin and St Francis, might 
choose his models at will from the flower of 
Sevillian beauty, and therefore had a greater scope 
for the cultivation of his imaginative powers. 
The one, living amongst connoisseurs in art, 
and enjoying leisure and a fixed salary, was 
obliged and was able to bestow much care upon 
the execution of his works. The other, executing 







Opinion of 

large commissions for churches and convents, 
had less time to give to the elaboration of details, 
and, knowing that he was painting for ignorant 
monks, was satisfied with less technical excellence. 
The court-painter, whose pictures were the orna- 
ments of palaces, has been less exposed to have 
clumsy forgeries fathered upon him than the pro- 
vincial artist whose works were scattered far and 
wide amongst the convents of Andalusia. There 
can be no doubt but that the example of Velaz- 
quez had a great influence on the mind of 
Murillo. But he admired without imitating him, 
as he admired without imitating Campana.^ ** Their 
styles," says Sir David Wilkie, " are so diflferent 
and opposite, that the most unlearned can scarcely 
mistake them ; Murillo being all softness, while 
Velazquez is all sparkle and vivacity." * How well 
Murillo, however, could imitate when he pleased, 
may be seen in the portrait of Andrade, in the 
Louvre,* which might be taken for the work of 
Velazquez. His picture of St. James, in the Koyal 
Gallery at Madrid,* an obvious imitation of the 
style of Eubens, might pass for a production of 
the Fleming, painted from the olla-prepared palette 
of the Spaniard. It is Bubens translated into 

^ Supra, p. 1055. • Z(/3j, toL iL p. 47a. 

' Supra, p. 109a ^ Catdlogo [1S43], No. 189 [edition 1889, No. 865]. 



Spanish, and preserving much more of the spirit 
of the original than he himself preserved in his 
Flemish translations from Titian.^ Wilkie, in 
comparing Velazquez and Murillo, indicates the 
peculiar merits of each, without awarding the 
palm to either. "Velazquez," says he, "has more 
intellect and expression, more to surprise and cap- 
tivate the artist.* Murillo has less power, but a 
higher aim in colouring;' in his flesh he has an 
object distinct from most of his contemporaries, and 
seems, like Rembrandt, to aim at the general char- 
acter of flesh when tinged with the light of the sun. 
His colour seems adapted for the highest class of 
art ; it is never minute or particular, but a general 
and poetical recollection of nature.^ For female 
and infantine beauty, he is the Correggio of Spain.^ 
Velazquez, by his high technical excellence, is the 
delight of all artists ; Murillo, adapting the higher 
subjects of art to the commonest understanding, 
seems, of all painters, the most universal favourite." ^ 
In Andalusia Murillo holds a place in the affec- 
tions of the people hardly lower than Cervantes. 
Like Correggio at Parma, and like Rubens at 
Antwerp, he is still the pride and idol of Seville. 
When the great drama of Comeille was yet in the 

^ Supra, chap. yiiL p. 63S. 

» Life of Sir D, WUkie, voL ii p. 472. 

« Ibid. p. 487. ' Ibid. p. 528. 

» Ibid. p. 475. 

• Ibid. pp. 475, 487. 


Murillo at 



CH. xn. moming of its glory, it became a common expre^ 
don of piaise in France to say of anything admir- 
able, that it was ^ beau camme le Cid" ^ In Castile, 
when the most fertile and versatile of writers was 
daily astonishing the literary world with some new 
masterpiece, the word Lope came to be used in 
common speech as synonymous with excellent* The 
metaphor, in the course of time, has fallen into 
desuetude in spoken French, and the epithet has 
become obsolete in the Castilian. But at Seville, 
to this day, they call any picture of extraordinary 
merit, a Murillo; not that it may pass for one of 
his works, but to express its beauty in a word which 
suggests beauty more vividly than any other in that 
copious language.^ Seville owes a monument to 
her great painter, whose modest grave has been 
desecrated by the fiiry of the French. Should the 
proposed statue ^ ever be erected, may the glorioas 
subject call forth the genius of some new Montafies 
or Cano ! Meanwhile his works in the Cathedral, 
and at the hospital of Charity, are noble and 
sufficient memorials of that fame which has been 
ratified by the common voice of Europe. 

Sebastian Gomez, the mulatto-slave of Murillo, is 

^ Fontenelle, in the life prefixed to the (Euvres de P. Corneillet la 
tomes 8to, Paris, 182 1, torn, i p. 13. 
' Holland's Life of Lope de Vegc^ p. 85. 
» Life of Sir D, WHkie, vol. ii p. 516. 
^ Supra, chap. L p. 67. 


said to have become enamoured of art while per- ch. xn. 
forming the menial offices of his master's studio. Sebaatun 

^ Gomes. 

Like Erigonus, the colour-grinder of Nealces, im- 
mortalised by the Vasari of the ancients,^ or like 
Pareja, the mulatto of Velazquez,* he devoted his 
leisure to the secret study of the principles of 
drawing, and in time acquired a skill with the 
brush rivalled by few of the regular scholars of 
Murillo. There is a tradition at Seville, that he 
took the opportunity one day of giving the jfirst 
proof of his abilities when the painting-room was 
empty, by finishing the head of a Virgin, which 
stood ready sketched on the master's easel. Pleased 
with the beauty of this unlooked-for and Puck- 
like interpolation, Murillo, when he discovered the 
author of it, immediately promoted Gomez to the 
use of the colours which it had hitherto been his 
task to grind. *' I am indeed fortunate, Sebastian,'' 
said he, " for I have created not only pictures but a 
painter." * For the church of the Friars of Mercy, work». 
Gomez painted a picture of Christ at the column, 
with St. Peter kneeling at His feet, and for the 
Capuchins, pictures of St. Anne and St. Joseph. 
The Museum at Seville possesses the latter of these, 

^ "ErigonuB, tritor colomm Nealc» pictoris in tantum ipse profecit, 
at celebrem etiam discipnlnm reliquerit Pasiam." — Plin., Nat. EibU, 
lib. XXXV., c 36, voL ix. p. 534. 

* Sapra, chap. x. p. 847. 

' SemUa FirUare$ca, p. 381. 








or another work on the same subject; and like- 
wise a more important specimen of the powers of 
Gromez in the picture of the Vii^n appearing to St 
Dominic. Faulty in composition, his works have 
much of the rich harmonious colouring which be- 
long to those of his master. He survived Murillo 
only a short time, dying at Seville in 1682. 

Juan de Zamora was living at Seville, near the 
monastery of San Basilic, in 1647, and was dis- 
tinguished as a painter of landscapes in the Flemish 
style. The Cardinal-Archbishop Spinola employed 
him to paint several pictures for the archiepiscopal 
palace, representing the Creation, the Fall of Man, 
and other passages of holy writ; of which Cean 
Bermudez remarks, that although the figures were 
not without merit, the landscape backgrounds were 
the best parts. Zamora was a subscriber to the 
Academy of Seville, and an attendant at its meet- 
ings, from 1664 to i6yu 

Henrique de las Marinas, bom at Cadiz in 1620, 
became, from inclination and opportunity, so good a 
marine painter that his family name has been merged 
and forgotten in that which he derived from his 
works. Sailors and painters, says Cean Bermudez, 
were equally charmed by the skill and correctness 
with which he delineated the shapes and riggings of 
ships, and the soft shores and '' dark blue sea " of the 
bay of Cadiz. His gains enabling him to travel, he 


1 103 

went to Italy, and settled at Borne. There he for 
some time practised his art with success, and died 
in 1680. 

Pedro de Medina Valbuena was a painter of some 
note at Seville, about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. The intimate friend of Murillo, he was one 
of his most active associates in forming the Academy 
of Seville ;^ and he was appointed, in 1661, the first 
steward of that institution. In 1667 and 1671 he 
filled the office of president, and in 1674 that of 
consul ; facts which afford evidence that he enjoyed 
the confidence and esteem of his fellow artists. The 
chapter employed him in 1667-8 to repair Antonio 
Florentines monument of the Holy Week,* and to 
paint and gild the retablo of the Cathedral baptistery, 
for which Murillo painted the great picture of St. 
Anthony of Padua,® At the convent of St. Augus- 
tine he likewise painted and gilded the high-altar, 
and induced the friars to enrich it with the pictures 
of his friend.* Being a dexterous painter in water- 
colours, he executed in 1673-4 many flags for the 
royal fleet of New Spain. The year of his death is 

Andres de Medina was a disciple of Juan del 
Castillo at Seville, where he practised as a painter 


Pedro de 



Andres de 

* Supra, p. 1008. 

* Supra, p. 1002. 

* Ibid. chap, iii p. 124. 
^ Ibid. p. 1052. 




Igpaeio de 


for many years. He drew correctly, says Cean 
Bermndez, but his colouring was dry and hard. He 
etched several sacred subjects; amongst others, in 
1663, the image of Our Lady of the Mine, ''de la 
Soterrana" revered in the church of St. Nicolas, 
of which the original was revealed in 1392, by 
the Virgin herseli^ to a shepherd, in the plains of 

Ignacio de Iriarte was bom in 1620, at the inland 
town of Azcoitia, in the province of Guipuzcoa, of 
which his parents, Est^van de Iriarte and Magdalena 
Zabala, were natives. Having gleaned some know- 
ledge of painting at home, he came, in his twenty- 
second year, to Seville, where he entered the school 
of the elder Herrera. Under that choleric master he 
became a proficient in the management of colours, 
but he never learned to draw the human figure with 
any spirit or correctness. He therefore devoted him- 
self, with excellent judgment, to landscape painting, 
a rarely-trodden path, in which he became the most 
distinguished artist of Andalusia. 

In 1646 he was residing at Aracena, a picturesque 
town to the north-west of Seville, not far from the Por- 
tuguese frontier, and pleasantly situated on the cool 

^ This image vas likewise called Nuestia Sefiora de Nieva, from a 
village near which it was found. Compendio HtsUfrieo en que se da naUda 
de leu milagroscu, y devotas imagenes de la Beyna de delos y tierra Maria 
santimma que se veneran en las mas celebres santuariae de EspaMa, por 
Pad. Juan de Villafa&e, fol. Madrid, 1740, p. 364. 


brow of the Sierra Morena. There he married Dofia 
Francisca de Chaves ; and probably remained for a 
while, studying the fine mountain scenery, and storing 
his mind with images and his portfolio with sketches, 
which he afterwards reproduced in his compositions. 
Returning to Seville, he was soon left a widower, 
a disconsolate state from which he extricated him- 
self, without much delay, by marrying, in 1649, his 
second wife, Dofia Maria Escobar. By the diligent 
exercise of his pencil, he soon acquired considerable 
reputation. An original member of the Academy of 
Seville, he was appointed, in 1660, its first secretary, a 
post which he again held from 1667 to 1669. He was 
for many years the intimate friend and associate of 
Murillo, who so highly admired his landscapes that 
he was wont to say they were painted by divine 
inspiration.^ Like Claude and Courtois, the two 
artists frequently engaged in joint works, of which 
MuriUo executed the figures and Iriarte the back- 
grounds. This amicable partnership was at last un- 
happily dissolved, in consequence of a dispute about 
a series of pictures on the life of David ; in which 
each artist insisted on doing his portion of the work 
last.* Displeased with his friend's obstinacy, Murillo 
finally resolved to dispense with his assistance 
altogether, and accordingly painted the whole him- 

1 Palomino, torn, iii p. 609. * Supra, p. 1093. 








self. Within the present century, the Santiago 
collection at Madrid possessed a landscape, nearly 
finished, by Iriarte, with figures, mostly sketched by 
MuriUo, which was said to have remained untouched 
from the time of the rupture,^ and which proves that 
the Sevillian painter's demand was not always re- 
sisted by the Biscayan. As Iriarte's name does not 
appear in the records of the Academy of Seville after 
1669, Cean Bermudez conjectures that his health 
may have then declined, or that he may have 
removed to some other part of Spain. Perhaps his 
dispute with Murillo may have led to his withdrawal 
from the institution, for he died in 1685, says Palo- 
mino, at Seville.* 

The works of Iriarte, though highly esteemed, 
are of rare occurrence. The Eoyal Gallery at Madrid 
possesses three of his best landscapes, with rocks 
and water, and a few occasional figures.* In the 
National Museum there is also a pleasing work, a 
cataract dashing amongst brown crags and old trees, 
with a meditating monk in the foreground, and a 
range of blue mountains in the distance. The 
Hermitage at St. Petersburg has a landscape with 
cattle,* and the Louvre a composition on the subject 

^ Qailliet, DicHonnaire des PetrUres Espagnolett p. 103, note **. 

' Palomino, torn. iii. p. 610. 

» Catdlogo [1843], N08. 515, 526, 532 [edition 1889, Nos. 745-8]. 

« Livret, salle xli No. 61, p. 417. [Cataloguet 1887, No. 388, p. 135] 



of Jacob's dream.^ Sir Frederick Roe* possesses an 
admirable specimen of smaller size, which formerly 
belonged to Don Julian Williams. Its principal 
feature is a ruined castle, embosomed in woods and 
backed by grey hills ; in the foreground is a bank 
covered with browsing shfeep, and a river broken 
with a waterfall. 

iriarte has been called the Spanish Claude Lor- 
raine ; ^ but his style has a greater affinity to that 

of Salvator Rosa, 
the wilderness, 

Like the Neapolitan, he haunts 

CH. xn. 

" Per xnezz' i bosclii inospite e selvaggi ; " ^ 

and he delights in depicting the headlong streams 
and rugged glens of the Sierra Morena.'^ In one 
respect, however, he resembled Claude, in his in- 
capacity to design figures, which might, in general, 
be expunged from his works without loss. He 
sometimes painted fruit and flower-pieces, of which 
two good examples adorn the gallery of the 

Cristobal Ferrado was bom at Anieva, a village 
in the principality of Asturias, about 1620. His 

CriBtobal JT 
Ferrado. r 


1 Gal. Esp., No. 121 [sold 1853]. « At 96 Piccadilly. 

' Livret cU la Oal, Imp. de St Peterthvrg, p. 515. 

^ Petrarca, son* cxliii. 

' Widdrington, Spain and the Spaniards in 1843, toL i p. 205. 

' GaL Esp., Na 122. Collection Standish, No. 106 [sold 1853]. 


CH. xii. parents were of honourable descent, and his brother 
Agustin held the post of archpriest of the district. 
Having determined to embrace the monastic pro- 
fession, he took the Carthusian vows on the 2nd 
of July 1 64 1, at the convent of S**- Maria de las 
Cuevas, near SeviUe. There he applied himself to 
the study of painting, in which he acquired con- 
siderable skill, with the assistance perhaps of some 
instruction from Zurbaran, the friend and guest of 
the convent.* For one of the cloisters he painted 
a picture of Michael the Archangel, and nine land- 
scapes, with figures representing passages from the 
lives of various Carthusian worthies. The great 
cloister, the hospital, and the prior*s cell were like- 
wise adorned with his works, representing Our Lord, 
the Virgin, St. Jerome, and other sacred subjects. 
Cean Bermudez found various entries in the con- 
ventual books of sums disbursed for colours, pencils, 
and canvas, for Father Cristobal, to whom he assigns 
a respectable place amongst the artists of Andalusia. 
His drawing was correct, and his composition skil- 
ful ; and his colouring had considerable richness and 
force. As a monk, he was a pattern of austerity 
and devotion ; and martyred for many years by 
the stone, he endured that painful disease with 
exemplary patience. Being highly esteemed by 

^ Supra, chap. xL p. 921. 


1 109 

his order, he was chosen procurator and rector of 
the Chartreuse of Cazalla. It is possible, however, 
that he never took possession of that post, for he 
died within the walls of S**- Maria de las Cuevas, 
on the 29th of April 1673. 

Francisco de Herrera, the Younger, was the second 
son of the surly and celebrated painter of the same 
name.^ Bom at Seville in 1622, as he grew up in 
his father's studio, he learned to imitate his style 
with considerable success. But as he approached 
man's estate, finding the paternal tutelage daily 
more harsh and intolerable, he took occasion to 
decamp with what money the house afforded, and 
made his escape to Kome.* There he studied archi- 
tecure and perspective, and painted "bodegones," 
especially fish, with so much effect, that he became 
known amongst the artists as ^'il Spagnuolo degli 
pesciJ' He bestowed little time or attention, how- 
ever, on higher subjects, or on the great old models 
of painting and sculpture ; nor did he aspire to be* 
come anything better than a pleasing colourist. 

When he received intelligence of the death of 
his father, in 1656, he returned to Spain, and 
established himself at Seville. For the Most Holy 
Brotherhood of that city he soon afterwards painted 
a large composition representing the four doctors 

^ Supra, chap. viL p. 529. 

• Ibid. p. 533. 


de Herrera, 
el MoBO. 

Flight to 

Return to 




RemoTal to 

of the Church adoring the Host and the Immacu- 
late Conception, which was placed in the Sagrario 
of the Cathedral. He likewise executed for the 
chapel of St. Francis, in the Cathedral, a picture of 
that saint home to heaven hy angels. Of hoth these 
works etchings were afterwards made hy Matias 
Arteaga. The St. Francis, although wanting in 
simplicity and repose, is one of the best produc- 
tions of the artist He likewise painted portraits 
with great success ; and Fsdomino speaks of one of 
these, a Frenchman, in shooting costume, loading 
his gun, as a "miracle of art."^ In January 1660 
he was chosen second president of the Academy of 
Seville, as the deputy or assistant of Murillo, but 
his name was the first which was affixed to the deed 
of incorporation.* He remained, however, but a 
short time in the institution; caprice, or quarrel, 
or change of residence, having led him to with- 
draw himself before the month of November of 
that year. 

Jealousy of Murillo is supposed by Gean Ber- 
mudez to have been the cause of Herrera's removal 
to the capital. He settled at Madrid at the end of 
1660, or early in 1661. The barefooted Carmelite 
fiiars soon employed him to paint an altar-piece 
for the high-altar of their church, on the legend of 

1 Palommo, torn. iiL p. 610. 

' Supra^ p. 1008, note 2. 



St Hermenegild, the subject of his father's most cele- 
brated work. Of this task he acquitted himself 
much to the contentment of the Carmelites, and so 
entirely to his own satisfaction, that he remarked 
that the picture deserved to be carried to its destined 
place to the sound of trumpets and drums. Succeed- 
ing fathers, however, seem to have held it in less 
esteem, for in the course of time it was removed 
from the church to the staircase of the convent. 
Herrera next painted some frescoes in the church 
of San Felipe el Eeal, on the roof of the choir, which 
were so highly admired, that his reputation reached 
the Alcazar and the ear of the King. It being in 
contemplation to paint the dome of the chapel of 
Our Lady of Atocha, Philip IV. said to Sebastian 
Herrera Bamuevo,^ that he had heard of a painter, 
of his name, of ability sujficient for that work. The 
friendly architect being willing to vouch for the 
abilities of his namesake, the work was entrusted 
to Herrera. He accordingly painted the Assump- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin, with the Apostles 
standing below, on the holiest roof of Madrid, the 
roof which sheltered that celebrated image of Our 

" Morena, pero hennosa 
Tan diyina 7 milagrosa 


^ Supra, chap. x. p. S65. 



ca xiL 

painter to 
the King. 

Que la atocha que pisaba 
Convertid en lino y roea,** * 

" Black bat comely," and endued 
So by Him, who all disposes. 
That the grass whereon she stood 
Bloom'd with lilies and with roses, — 

a venerable piece of statuary, carved, or at least 
coloured and varnished, by St Luke himself.* This 
fresco, being allowed to go to decay, was retouched 
by Mufloz and Arredondo. Herrera likewise painted 
some medallions and other ornaments in the presby- 
tery of the church, which were afterwards altered 
by Luca Giordano, by order of Charles IL 

He was soon afterwards appointed painter to 
Philip IV., a distinction which gained him much 
patronage at court, and the honour of having one 
of his pictures placed in the Admiral of Castile's 
gallery of select works of the Spanish masters.* In 
the next reign he received a key, as one of the 
deputies of the Aposentador-mayor ; and in 1671, 
he was appointed master of the royal works in the 
room of Gaspar de Pefla. In the latter capacity he 

^ Lope de Vega, Isidro de Madrid, canto Tiii. ; Obras, tom. zi p. 232. 
Some say that the image was brought from AtUioeh, Antaquiat which the 
vulgar changed into Atoeha " como parroquia en parrocha," p. 241 ; others 
attribute the name to the bass-weed, cUocha, amongst which it was dis- 
covered, after being hidden from the Moors by Garcia Ramirez. 

' Villafafle, MUagrasas Imagenes, p. Sa Salas Barbadillo wrote a 
poem in praise of this image, entitled La Patrona de Madrid restiiuida, 
4to, Mad. 1609. See also Handbook [1S45], p. 773 [3rd edit, 1855, p. 711]. 

' Supra, chap. x. pp. S40, S41. 



was sent to Zaragoza in 1677,^ ^ design and super- 
intend the renovation of the Cathedral of the Pillar. 
His plans were equally remarkable for the speed 
with which they were prepared, and for the wretched 
architectural taste which they displayed. During 
his absence in Aragon the court-artists, Carreflo 
and Filipin, being ordered to design a silver statue 
of San Lorenzo for the Escorial, he chose to take 
offence at their invasion of his province, and, on 
returning to Madrid, revenged himself by writing a 
lampoon. Nothwithstanding this saUy he was em- 
ployed in 1680 to take the levels for a canal, to be 
led off from the Jarama at Aranjuez for purposes of 
irrigation.' He continued to reside at the capital 
till his decease, which took place in 1685. Chagrin 
at not obtaining the post of painter-in-ordinary to 
Charles H. is said to have been the cause of his death. 
He was interred in the parish church of San Pedro. 

"From the hide come the straps,"' says a Cas- 
tilian proverb, of which the younger Francisco 
Herrera may have been cited as an apt illustration 
by those who had known his eccentric sire. He 
was a genuine chip of the old cross-grained Herrera 


Works of 


^ Mandbook [1845], P* 9^ [3^ edition, 1855, p. 910]. Ponz, torn. zy. 
p. 7, erroneously says 1686. 

* Alvarez y Baena, Deseripdon de Aranjuez, p. 355. 

* ''Del cuero salen las oorreas." The 'same idea is likewise given in 
anoiher which more resembles our own, "De tal peda^o, tal retafa" 
Nofiez, RefraneSt ^o^ 3X-2* 

VOL. ni. T 



CH. xa- 


block. Ever jealous of his fellow-artists, he be- 
lieved that they were all jealous of him. On the 
dome of Our Lady of Atocha, he thought fit to 
symbolise their reciprocal ill-will by modelling a 
lizard gnawing the stucco-scroll upon which his 
name was inscribed, whilst some laughing children 
made the sign of the fig ; ^ thus turning a religious 
work into a vehicle of malice and uncharitableness, 
like a Rodriguez or a Warburton. In a picture of 
San Vicente Ferrer, likewise, there was a dog 
mouthing the jaw-bone of an ass, which was sup- 
posed to convey some covert satire; and in other 
works he frequently wrote his name on a piece of 
paper which rats, meaning rivals, were tearing to 
pieces. He stood much on his dignity, and was 
ever ready to avenge an affirost by means of a carica- 
ture. At a certain sale of pictures he was em- 
ployed to select the best for the gallery of a grandee, 
who, however, going to the place in person, saw fit 
to reject those chosen by the artist for others of in- 
ferior merit. Herrera immediately seized his pencil, 
and, inspired by ofiended pride, produced a very 
clever sketch of a monkey, grinning with delight, 
as he gathered a thistle from a bed of roses. It 
was his intention to present this agreeable allegoiy 
to the great man at whom the ridicule was pointed. 

* Palomino, torn. iil. p. 613— '*baciendo higaa"— see chap, ii p. 9h 



A pradent friend, however, says Palomino, one Don 
Antonio de Sotomayor, representing the possible 
consequences of such a measure, got possession of 
the drawing, and preserved the fortunes of the artist 
at the expense, perhaps, of his reputation as a wit.^ 

Herrera, with much of the mechanical facility, 
inherited little of the genius, of his father. He 
coloured with some brilliancy, but his drawing is 
strained, and his composition, for the most part, full 
of flutter and affectation. His small " bodegones,*' 
however, were well painted, and he excelled in 
flower-pieces. The title-page of La Torre Farfan's 
" Feasts of Seville " * was engraved from his design 
by Arteaga. For the chapel of the Biscayans, in the 
Franciscan convent at Seville, he designed the orna- 
ments of the dome, which, however, were little more to 
his credit as an architect than his doings at Zaragoza. 

Fernando Marquez Joya was a painter of some 
reputation at Seville in 1649, when he executed the 
portrait of Cardinal-Archbishop Spinola, afterwards 
engraved by Vauder Gouwen. He was a member of 
the Academy from 1668 to 1672, when he is sup- 
posed to have died. As an artist he was a toler- 
ably successful imitator of the style of Murillo. 

^ Palomino, torn. iii. p. 612, informs us that the collector who figured 
as the monkey was no less a personage than the minister Olivares ; which 
is impossible, as he was dead eight years before Herrera came to Madrid. 
The thing may, however, have happened with Haro or his son Heliche, 
or with the Admiral of Castile, a picture-collecting grandee, who pos- 
sessed more cash than critical skilL ' Supra, p. 107a 


Style and 







de 6ra- 


Juan Martinez de Gradilla was a scholar of 
Zurbaran at Seville. In the days of Cean Ber- 
mudez, his sole surviving work was a fresco, ruined 
by the "havoc of repair/' in the refectory of the 
convent of Mercy. Being chosen, however, to paint 
a conspicuous work in that fine convent, he was 
doubtless an artist of consideration. He, was one of 
the founders of the Academy, and one of its steadiest 
supporters until 1673, which was probably the date 
of his death. Twice Mayordomo of the society, he 
on one occasion cancelled a debt which it owed him 
on his accounts. He likewise presented to the 
common stock, a donation of charcoal, and a portrait 
of Philip IV. For two years he held the post of 
consul or vice-president, of which the duty was to 
place the models and overlook the scholars, an 
appointment which affords evidence of the respect 
in which his professional abilities were held. 

Bemab^ de AyaU, a Sevillian by birth, was a 
promising scholar of Zurbaran, whose course of 
instruction was unfortunately cut short by the re- 
moval of that master to Madrid in 1650.^ He had 
learned, however, to imitate his style with consider- 
able felicity ; and, like Zurbaran, he excelled in 
depicting draperies of brocade and other rich 
stuffs, which he painted from the lay figure. His 

^ Snpra, chap. xL p. 924. 



best works were executed for the church of San 
Juan de Dios at Seville, and consisted of a picture 
of the Assumption of the Virgin, over the high- 
altar, a series of Apostles, and six other saints 
in other parts of the building. An original member 
of the Academy, he was a constant attendant at its 
meetings ; and as his name disappears from its records 
in 1673, ^^ ^s probable that he died in that year. 

In 1660 Seville had no less than four painters 
named Bamirez, who may have been brothers or 
relatives* Of Pedro nothing is known but the 
name. Felipe was a clever painter of small '' bode- 
gones," generally representing dead game. Cean 
Bermudez possessed a large drawing signed with 
his name, carefully executed on paper, and repre- 
senting the martyrdom of St. Stephen. He likewise 
was the owner of the only specimen he had seen of 
Cristobal Bamirez, a sketch of the Virgin, appearing 
at the top of a holm-oak to an adoring Moor, with 
a body of cavalry retreating in the distance. There 
are two holy images of the Virgin of the holm-oak,^ 
one at Arciniega in Biscay, the other at Ponferrada 
in the remote highlands of Leon, both found in the 
old days of easy faith in trees of that kind, like the 





1 Villafsfie, Milagroscu Imctgenes, pp. 197, 201. Both are known as 
Nuestra Sefiora de la Enclna. The first was a great protectress of 
saUorSy and was found in a tree near the church which was afterwards 
hnilt to her honour. The second was hidden by the Christian Goths, 
"en una de las mas corpulentas " trees of the forest, where the Templars 





Pedro de 

Juan Men- 

enchanted lady in the ballad.^ The sketch probably 
was founded on a legend of one or other of them. 
Gerdnimo Bamirez was a scholar of Soelas, and 
painted with considerable skill and resemblance to 
the style of that master. In the church of the 
Hospital de la Sangre, there is an altar-piece, painted 
and signed by him, representing Pope St Gregory 
surrounded by his cardinals, a work of some merit. 

Pedro de Camprobin was a skilful painter of 
flowers, and an original member of the Academy. 
His flower-pieces were highly esteemed at Seville, 
and twelve of them adorned a chapel in the con- 
vent of San Pablo. The best are usually signed 
Pedro de Ca/mprohin Pasano. 

Juan Mendez was an engraver of some skill, who 
flourished at Seville, and executed in 1627 an 
architectural frontispiece, with Ionic columns and 
various figures, designed by one Juan de Herrera, 
for Rodrigo Caro's edition of the apocryphal chronicle 
of Flavins Lucius Dexter.^ The art was likewise 

discoYered her about laoo, when they were dealing the site for the town. 
Handbook [1845], P- 595 [3rd edition, 1855, p. 538]. 

1 The pretty Romance de la Infantina, Grimm's SUva de romances 
viefos, sm. 8yo, Vienna, 1831, p. 259. 

" A cafar ya el cavallero a ca^ar como soUa 
Los perros lleva cansados, el falcon perdido avia ; 
Arrimara sea nn roble, alto es a maraviila, 
£n una rama mas alta Tiera estar nn infantina," &c 

Translated by Mr. Lockhart, Spanish BcUlads, 4to, London, 1823, p. 164. 
^ Fkwii LucU D&dfi omnimodcs Histories, qws extant, fragmesUa, 



practised by Pedro de Campolargo, a painter of 
some repute in j66o. At Cordoba, Pray Tomas 
de los Arcos engraved, in 1633-4, two plates of 
armorial bearings for medical books by Leyva and 
Hermosilla,^ and Pray Jgnacio de Cardenas, about 
1662, the arms of the families of Cordoba and 
Pigueroa, and some prints of sacred images revered 
in that city* By the latter there also exists a large 
plate of the arms of the Count of Benevente, exe- 
cuted at Granada, in a very ornate style, 

A few sculptors closes the long array of Andalu- 
sian artists in this reign. Gaspar de Bibas was the 
scholar of Martinez Montanes, and carried on his 
profession at Seville. He carved the retablo of Our 
Lady of the Eosary, in the church of the nuns 
of S**- Paula, for which he was paid 16,600 reals, 
on the ist of August 1642. The design was in 
tolerable architectural taste, and would bear com- 
parison, says Cean Bermudez, with similar works 
of Alonso Cano in the same church. Ribas had 
two sons, Prancisco and Gonzalo, whom he in- 
structed in his own profession. The first was a 
carver of retablos, and, in conjunction with Alfonso 
Martinez, executed those of the high-altar of the 

cum ehr&nieo M, Mtueimi, ffeleca et S, Braulumis, ndu illustratett 4to, 
Hiapali, 1627. 

^ The sabjects are unpleasant, but the titles may be found in Antonio ; 
Bib, NovOf torn. L pp. 436, 526. Dr. Fra de Leyva wrote also a treatise 
against the use of tobacco, which was about as effectual aft the Counter', 
blatU of our Scottish Solomon. 

CH. xn. 

Pedro de 



Tomas de 
los Areoe. 



Gaspar de 





Gonsalo da 


convent of Mercy, and of the chapel of St. Paul in 
the Cathedral In 1663 he was employed to carve 
the great retablo of the Sagrario of the Cathedral, 
erected at the expense of the Most Holy Brotherhood, 
and designed by Sebastian de Ruesta, a painter of 
some skill, and cosmographer to the India Board.^ 
Six years afterwards he executed another for the 
brotherhood of the Biscayans, who placed it in their 
chapel in the Franciscan convent, and paid the artist 
110,000 reals for his labour. His retablos are in- 
ferior, says Cean Bermudez, to those of his father, 
and betoken the rapid decline of architectural taste. 
Gonzalo de Ribas, an original member, and for ten 
years a zealous supporter, of the Academy, was a 
painter as well as a sculptor; and painted, in 1673, 
the banners for the flagships of the royal fleet. 

Alfonso Martinez was a distinguished scholar of 
Martinez Montafies. He was at best, however, a 
diligent imitator of that master's style, the graces 
of which he never fully acquired. Amongst his 
best works were the retablos of St. John Baptist, 
St. John the Evangelist, and St. Augustine, in the 
church of the nuns of San Leandro, with their 

^ The office of ooamographer, co9mdgrafo de la easa de Contraiadon, 
was held by two pereons, the business of the first being to read lectozea 
on geography and practical navigation, whilst the second superintended 
the construction of the maps and instruments. Ruesta seems to have 
been second cosmographer, for he is mentioned as the author of a map 
by Veitia Linage, Norte de la ContraUteion, p. 146. 


statues, excepting those of the two Saints John, 
which were carved by his master. The Baptist's 
altar bore this inscription — A mayor gloria de dios 


1662. He afterwards finished the chief rotable of 
the nuns of San Clemente, an important work, 
designed, contracted for at the price of 22,000 
ducats, and begun by Martinez Montafies, many 
years before, but stopped in 1625 by the Chapter 
during the vacancy of the archiepiscopal throne. 
Martinez being the intimate friend of the sculptor, 
F. de Ribas, they constructed several retablos to- 
gether, Ribas undertaking the architectural work, 
and Martinez carving the statues. A Magdalene, 
covered with real drapery, in the Hospital de las 
Bubas, and several other sacred images in various 
churches, are likewise ascribed to the chapel of 
Martinez. He died on the 28th of December 1668 ; 
was buried in the church of San Martin. 

Josef de Arce, another pupil of Martinez MontafLes, 
executed the eight colossal stone statues, the four 
Evangelists and the four doctors of the Church, placed 
on the balustrades of the Sagrario of Seville Cathedral, 
and the saintly figures carved in wood, which adorned 
the high-altar of the Carthusians at Xeres ; all of 
them works of some merit. Juan Garcia, a disciple 


Josef de 





Juan Bau- 
tista Fran* 

of the same school, produced some good carvings, 
especially a figure of Our Lady of Sorrows, in the 
conventual church of Mercy, at Seville, 

Giuseppe Micael, an Italian, was a sculptor of some 
repute at Malaga. About 1631 ha began to carve 
the statues of the choir-stalls in the Cathedral, a 
work which, however, he did not finish. The bishop's 
throne is attributed to his chisel. In 1635 he exe- 
cuted the image of Our Lord at the column, 
famous for its miracles during the plague in 1649, 
in which, as has been already related,^ the artist was 
himself carried o£El 

The only goldsmith of note in Andalusia in this 
reign was Juan Bautista Franconio, who wrought at 
Seville about 1630, and was the friend of Pacheco. 

^ Supra, chap. L p. 29. 




HILIP IV., after receiv- 
ing, like Velazquez, the 
last sacraments of the 
Church, from the hands 
of the Patriarch of the 
Indies,^ and after being 
solemnly exorcised by 
his chaplains, died of a 
malignant fever on the 
1 6th of September 1665.* His body, ''clothed in a 
musk-coloured silk suit," and with the head combed, 
the beard trimmed, and the face and hands painted,' 
lay in state for two days in the private theatre of 
the Alcazar. Carried thence to the Escorial with all 
the pomp befitting a King of the Spains and the 


Death of 
Philip IV. 

^ Supra, chap. ix. p. 793. » Dnnlop's Memoirs, vol. L pp. 639n4a 
' Lady Fanshawe's Memoirs, p. 221. 




New World/ it was laid in the splendid Pantheon to 
which he had, eleven years before, committed the 
ashes of his ancestors.* Although his life had been 
distinguished by few kingly actions or qualities, his 
death was soon felt to be a national calamity. The 
incapacity, the dissensions, and the disastrous policy 
of those who swayed the sceptre of his infant son, 
hastened and consummated the down&ll of Spain. 
In the last Philip, with his regal mien, and envied 
moustachios,' the house of Austria lost the sole 
remaining prince who was worthy of the pencil 
of Velazquez; the Gastilian court, a sovereign 
of amiable disposition and cultivated taste; and 
Castilian art, the most powerful, discerning, and 
generous of patrons. 

On the death of her husband. Queen Mariana 
became Begent of the kingdom. In that high place 
her chief object of anxiety was to keep at a distance 
from public affairs Don Juan of Austria, the only 
Spaniard who was fitted to conduct thenu During 
her regency of twelve years, the machinery of govern- 
ment at home was daily growing more rotten and 

^ Deteripeion de Uu honrtu que se hiciiron d la Cathdliea MagcL de D, 
Fhelippe Quarto Rey de las StpaMas y del Nuevo Mundo, por el Dr. D. 
Pedro Rodrigaez de Monforte, Capellsn de S. M. (with many engrayings 
by P. de Viliafranca), 4to, Madrid, 1666. 

' Sapra^ chap. TiiL p. 604. 

> « Qu^ hombre esU I " says Velez de Gueyara, speaking of Philip IV., 
" qae bizarros bigotea tiene, y como pareoeRey en la cara y en la artel" 
Diablo Coxuelo, p. iio^ quoted by Donlop, Memoirs, p. 655. 



unmanageable; while, abroad, the King of France 
was possessing himself of the fortresses of the 
Spanish Netherlands, and the buccaneers were ravag- 
ing the fairest cities of Spanish America. No love 
or patronage of literature or art in any degree atoned 
for her political incapacity. Yielding perhaps to the 
exigencies of the climate, she set the example which 
female rulers in Spain have generally followed, of 
dividing her confidence between her confessor and 
her lover. The latter, a handsome Audalusian, 
named Fernando Valenzuela, was introduced to her 
notice by Father Nithard, a German Jesuit, who 
performed the functions of the former.^ Neither of 
these important personages were endowed with the 
taste of Olivares. Valenzuela, however, the Queen's 
duendo or fairy, as he was nicknamed, possessed a 
certain portion of brains beneath his beautiful hair. 
He wrote little dramatic pieces of some humour, for 
the diversion of his royal mistress and the audience 
of her private theatre. The few architectural works 
undertaken during this reign by the Crown were 
executed or planned in the short ministry of the 
Queen's minion. At Madrid he rebuilt the Flaza 
Mayor, great part of which had been destroyed by 
fire; and he finished one of the towers and the 
grand front of the Alcazar. Near the gate of Toledo, 





1 Dunlop's Memoirs, yoL ii. pp. 108-122. 




Don Juan 
of Austria. 

he projected, and perhaps commenced, one of the 
pompous bridges,^ of which a facetious envoy re- 
marked, that they ought to be sold to buy water for 
the Manzanares.^ Across this stream, which, although 
called ''the driest in Europe/" has been a great 
source of smart sayings, he likewise threw another 
bridge near the palace of the Pardo. His vanity 
and presumption, the arrogant mottoes and devices 
by which he loved to proclaim himself on public 
occasions the paramour of the Queen, soon, however, 
became intolerable to the grandees, and removed 
him from the post which enabled him to improve 
and display his taste at the public expense. Degraded 
from his dignities, and banished from Europe, the 
rest of his life was passed in acting his own plays 
at Manilla, and breaking horses at Mexico. 

His fall took place in 1677, when the young King, 
attaining the age of fifteen and his majority by his 
father's will, wisely called Don Juan of Austria to 
the chief place in his councils. This prince, the 
bastard son of Philip IV. by the beautiful actress 
Maria Calderona, is one of the few men who have 

^ Dunlop, YoL ii. p. 114, says, "he oonstracted this bridge at the cost of 
half a million of ducats." In Los ArquUedos, torn. iy. p. 57, we find that 
it was not begun until 1682. 

' Madame d'Aulnoy, Voyage^ torn, iii p. 9. 

' EekUion de Madrid, p. 2. The author of Mimoirea de la Cow 
cPEspagne depuis I'annSe 1679 ju3g[u*en 1681, i2mo, Paris, 1733, likewise 
has his fling at this unfortunate river, p. 3. These memoirs seem to be a 
compilation from Madame d'Aulnoy and others. 


added fresh lustre to a name already famous. In ohjoil 
military genius only was he inferior to the hero of 
Lepanto. His youth had been passed in retirement 
at Ocafia, and devoted to the cultivation of his 
mental powers. No legitimate son of the house of 
Austria could approach him in vigour of intellect, 
or in variety of knowledge and accomplishments. 
He spoke and wrote five languages well, and 
understood others ; he was well versed in history 
and the philosophy of the schools, and he took 
great delight in chemistry, judicial astrology, and 
the mathematics* Skilled in mechanical pursuits, 
he was a turner, a goldsmith, and a manufetcturer 
of arms ; and he could make and play upon almost 
every kind of musical instrument.^ His father, 
who loved him above all his children, assigned 
him Eugenie de las Cuevas as his drawing master. 
Under the instructions of that artist he acquired 
a degree of skill seldom attained by an amateur; 
and Juan de Carrefio remarked, on seeing a pic- 
ture painted by him on porcelain, that if he had 
not been bom a prince, he might have made his 
fortune as a painter. The most accomplished 
gentleman, Don Juan was likewise the ablest 
commander, of Castile. His early successes in 

^ Greg. Leti, Vita di Don Giovanni dP Austria, iimo, Cologne, 1686, 
p. 63a 



caxm. the Two Sicilies and in Catalonia displayed con- 
siderable military capacity, although the disasters 
which afterwards attended his arms in Flanders 
and Portugal prove that his genius could not 
cope with that of Turenne or of Schomberg. It 
was in consequence of these disasters that Queen 
Mariana, who hated Don Juan for his influence 
with her husband, at last succeeded in alienating 
the affections of Philip IV. from his once favourite 
son, and in depriving him of all share of power 
during the minority of his brother. When called 
to the administration, Don Juan retaliated by 
placing the Queen-mother in honourable imprison- 
ment at Toledo. His success in reforming the 
abuses of the home government and the foreign 
policy of Spain fell far below the expectations 
which had been raised on either side of the 
Pyrenees. The most important of his measures 
was breaking off the King's marriage, projected 
by his mother, with an Archduchess of Austria, 
and providing for him a French bride in the person 
of Maria Louisa of Orleans. This match was 
hardly concluded, when the cares and chagrins 
of ofl5ce brought on a fever, of which he died in 
1679, in the fiftieth year of his age, and the 
second of his ministry. He left the King his 
heir, and he showed some magnanimity in be- 
queathing some valuable pictures to his enemy 



the dowager Queen. In early manhood the friend ch.xiii. 
of Bibera at Naples, he frequently sat for his 
picture to that master, who made an equestrian 
portrait of the young and handsome plenipotentiary 
the subject of his finest etching.^ His later por- 
traits, by Carrefio, convey a favourable impression 
of his person. like the first Don Juan, he excelled 
the legitimate sons of his house no less in 

** Exterior fomi, outward accoutrement,'* « 

than in the inward qualities of mind. To the 
better features of his father's countenance, and 
his dignified bearing, he added the rich complexion 
and fine dark hair and eyes of the Nell Gwynne 
of Castile. 

Charles II. may be called the melancholy charieeiL 
monarch, to distinguish him from his uncle and 
namesake, the second Charles of England, who is 
familiarly known to history as the merry one. 
Feeble in body and imbecile in mind, he was a 
martyr to despondency, the hereditary malady of 

^ Supra, cbap. x. p. 905. This beautiful plate, the best and rarest of 
the series, is 13]^ inches high by io| inches wide. At the top is the name 
El S^' S«- Don Juan de Austria. The figure of the Prince is very 
good, but the horse is somewhat stiff, and awkwardly placed, prancing 
on the brink of a precipice overhanging the sea. The finely engraved 
portrait by Nanteuil, though one of the most esteemed of that master's 
works, is an efSgy of very doubtful authenticity. There is a better 
Flemish print 

* King John, act L sc i, 1. 211. 

VOL. ni. u 


c H-^on . j his race. It was the selfish policy, both of his 
mother and of Don Juan, to keep him in a state of 
mental darkness and dependence, in order to pro- 
long and secure their tenure of power. Their care 
was, not to encourage, but to prevent the expansion 
of a mind naturally narrow. In spite, however, of 
the disadvantages of his education, some glimmer- 
ing of the ancient taste of his house may be seen in 
the last male descendant of Charles Y. He loved 
pictures more than anything but his dog and gun, 
or his beads. When a mere child, hearing that 
Velazquez had been a knight of Santiago, he pro- 
posed to confer the cross of that order on Carreno, 
his painter-in-ordinary. His discernment in matters 
of art was not indeed precocious, for before he had 
seen his first Queen, he was enchanted with a 
squinting miniature portrait of that ill-fated princess, 
which greatly shocked the lively French countess,^ to 
whom we are so largely indebted for our knowledge 
of the court-gossip of his reign. He retained in 
his service Carreilo, Coello, and Mufioz, the most 
considerable Gastilian painters of the time ; and 
he is said to have invited Murillo to remove fiom 
Seville to Madrid.* His favourite artist, however, 
was Luca Giordano, who, in point of merit, bore 

^ Madame d'Aulnoy, Voyage, torn. iii. p. i68. 
' Supra, chap. xiL p. 1048. 




the same relation to those able Spaniards which 
Zuccaro bore to El Mudo. Besides a large salary 
and ample allowances, he gave this fortunate 
Neapolitan the key of chamberlain; and provided 
his sons with posts of honour and profit Accom- 
panied by the Queen, he frequently visited him, 
when at work in his studio, and on these occasions 
used to insist that he should remain covered like 
the best grandee of Castile. Two works of thi^ 
master he sent as a present to his father-in-law, the 
Duke of Orleans; a compliment which that prince 
acknowledged by contributing, in return, a "St. 
John in the Desert," by Mignard, to the galleries 
of the Escorial.^ Charles cordially hated France 
and Frenchmen,* could not abide French poodles or 
ragouts, and was wont to speak of the ambassador 

CH. xni. 

^ MouYUle, Vie de Mignard, p. 124. 

' Lettres de la Marquise de VUlare, Ambassadriee en Espagne dans le 
temps du mariage de Charles IL avec la Princesse Marie Louise d^Orleans, 
i2mo, Amsterdam, 1760, p. 79. Marie Gigaolt de Belief ends, bom 1624, 
died 1706, wife of Pierre Marquis de Villars, and mother of the Mar^chal 
Dnc, the hero of Denain, is described by St. Simou {Nouveaux Mitnoires 
de Dangeau, 8vo, Paris, 1818, p. 175) as "one bonne petite femme, s^he, 
vive, mecbante comme nn serpent, de Tesprit comme un d^mon, d*excel- 
lente compagnie." Her letters from Spain are addressed to Madame de 
Conlanges, the correspondent of Madame de Sevign^, to whose circle she 
belonged. They are very lively and pleasant, and as a record of the 
manners of the Castilian courts of high historical value, though by no 
meana flattering to the national pride. The fair writer disliked both the 
country and the people from the firsts for Madame de Sevign^ {Lettres, 
tom. vi p. 17), quoting an unpublished letter, written by the ambassa- 
dress on her arrival at Madrid, says, " Elle dit qnll n'y a qu'k 6tre en 
Espagne pour n'avoir plus d'euvie d'y b&tir des chAteauz." 



CH. xra. 


of his most Christian uncle as a gahacho^ a com- 
prehensive term of contempt long applied by the 
Iberian to the GauL' But he was so pleased with 
this picture that he immediately ordered two others, 
of an indicated size and for a particular situation, 
representing the classical fetbles of Apollo and 
Daphne, and Fan and Syrinx,' themes to which 
the soft pencil of Mignard was admirably qualified 
to do justice. 

The stately structures of the Austrian Kings of 
Spain received but few embellishments from Charles 
II. To the Escorial, which, in his reign, narrowly 
escaped destruction by fire,* he contributed a silver 
statue of St. Lawrence, weighing a quarter of a ton,* 
and holding in its hand a bar, more precious than 
gold, of that jocose martyr^s* veritable gridiron. 
The rusty iron, perhaps, may still remain to the 
monastery, but the splendid saint has not survived 
the French invasion. The frescoes of Giordano, and 
the altar of the Santa Forma ^ in the sacristy are the 
sole memorials of Charles II. now in the Escorial. 
New palaces, or new royal convents, were burdens 

^ Mimoires de la Cour cTEspagne, Paris, 1733, p. 133. 

* Some conoeiye the word to mean the dwellers on GatfeSy as many of 
the French Pyrenean streams are called ; others, with more prohahility, 
derive it from the Arabic eabaeh, filthy. Handbook [1845]. P- 975* ^^^ 
[3rd edition, 1855, p. 924]. 

• Vie de Mignard, p. 13a * Santos, Deeeripdon, foL 36. 
' Ximenes, Deeeripcion, p. 2S4. ' Supra, chap. iv. p. 259- 

^ Ibid. chap. x. p. 836. 


not to be borne by the crippled finances of Spain, ch. xiii. 
The treasures of Mexico and Peru were forestalled Financial 


and mortgaged long before they had crossed the 
Atlantic, and the pressing exigencies of state were 
supplied by the open and avowed sale of vice- 
royalties and other great posts. The ministers 
could hardly find funds for the annual visits of 
the court to Aranjuez and the Escorial. OflScers of 
the army begged openly in the streets of garrison 
towns; and soldiers of the royal guard greedily 
devoured the eleemosynary soup doled forth at the 
convents of Madrid. Sometimes, in the Alcazar 
itself^ the gentlemen of the chamber found their 
table unserved, and the favourite English horses 
of the Queen went without their com.^ The ex- 
chequer, indeed^ was hardly rich enough, as the 
French ambassador wrote to his Court, to pay for 
an dla for the royal board.' The King himself, 
careless of all display, and having no friends, had 
happily no passion for building. Contented with 
the shabbiest coach at Madrid,^ he had no desire 
to enlarge what was already a noble palace. The 
literary and dramatic glories of the court had passed 
away with Philip IV. There was now no Calderon 

^ Dunlop'B Memoirt^ yoL iL pp. 222, 369. Mimoire^ tU la Cour 
(PEspciffne, p. 302. 

* Le Maiqais de Louville, quoted by Ph. Cbasles, jStudes nir VEspctgne, 
Bm. 8to, Paris, 1847, p. 82. 

' Madame d'Anlnoy, Voyage^ torn. iiL p. 13. 



CH. xni. 


to write the plays, no Lotti ^ to devise the scenery 
and properties; the sun was represented by a few 
lamps of oiled paper, and in a Pandemonium scene, 
the demons clambered out of the bottomless pit 
by means of ladders." The King cared for none of 
these things ; his time being pretty equally divided 
between the chase, his galleries, and the chapeL 
When he was not shooting wolves in the Sierra, 
or killing time in the studios, he was adoring 
relics, assisting at autos-de-fe^ walking barefoot in 
processions, chanting anthems, or submitting to 
degrading penances.' 

The countenance of this unhappy prince, as pour- 
trayed by Carrefio, is the index of his character. As 
a child, there is something to please the eye in his 
pale pensive features and long fair hair, and the 
projection of his lower jaw is hardly discernible. 
In later pictures this deformity becomes apparent,* 
as his face grows larger and leaner; his eyes are 
lustreless, his complexion 

*' From pale turns yellow, and his face receiyes 
The faded hue of sapless boxen leaves," ^ 

and his general appearance is so dementate, that in 

^ Sapra, chap. yiii. p. 66 1. 
* Madame d'Aolnoj, Voyttge^ torn, iii p. 21. 
< Dunlop's Memoirs, toI. iL pp. 2S4-5. 

^ Spain under Charles IL, p. gg, where the poor king is graphicall j 
described by Mr. Stanhope, in a letter to the Duke of Shrewsbury. 
" Diyden, Falaman and AreiU, book ii. 


those days of superstition almost any churchman, 
hut the keen-sighted Primate Fuertocarrero, might 
he excused for enforcing upon the dying monarch 
the frightful ceremony of exorcism.^ Weak in mind 
and diseased in body, weighed down through life 
by constitutional melancholy, and cares of state 
under which even a strong man might have suc- 
cumbed, and tormented on his death-bed by in- 
trigues for the succession, the last inglorious son of 
Charles V. was one of the most unfortunate sove- 
reigns ever cursed with an hereditary crown. 

The first and favourite Queen of Charles II., 
Maria Louisa, daughter of Philip Duke of Orleans 
and Henrietta of England, is perhaps the most in- 
teresting personage of the Spanish house of Austria. 
The Peregrina, the pearl of great price of the 
Castilian crown,* never adorned a lovelier or purer 
brow. Transplanted in the bloom of girlhood from 
the brilliant court of France, and condemned by the 
selfish policy of her uncle to the arms of an impotent 
and half-idiot lord, the fate of this fair and gentle 
creature was but too truly foreshadowed by the 
omen of the broken^ mirror which fell to pieces at 
her touch, to the great horror of the ladies of the 

^ Dnnlop's Memoirs, yoL iL p. 299. 

' *' Awaai grosse qa'ime petite poire," says Madame d'Aolnoy, Voyage, 
torn, iii p. 219. The Queen wore it in her hat, at her entry to 





CH. xm. palace.^ Never was splendid misery more hopeless 
and nnhappy. Fresh from the revels of St Cloud or 
Fontainbleau, she was shut up in the Alcazar, and 
permitted neither to ride on horseback, laugh, nor 
look out of the window ; * or she was taken by way 
of recreation to see horses gored to death in the 
bull-ring, Jews condemned to the stake at an atrfo- 
de-f&y or wild animals shot down by hundreds in a 
pen in one of the royal forests.* Knowing little 
Spanish, she was forbidden to speak French ; fond 
of society, she was left in sohtude, or in the more 
irksome company of duefias ; * endowed with a heart 
full of generosity and affection, it was her melan- 
choly task to study the fancies of a feeble fool, 
jealous he knew not of whom or of what,* and 
detecting a rival sometimes in the French ambas- 
sador, sometimes in a French beggar asking alms in 
the street^ Yet no woman, however versed in affairs 
and intrigue, could have borne herself more wisely 
in the discharge of her difficult duties, than this 
young and amiable princess. By a rare combination 
of firmness and gentleness, she managed to remove 
many of her chief grievances. She obtained the 

* Ibid. p. 214. 

* D'Anlnoy, Voyctge^ torn. iii. p. 213. 
' MHnoirta de la Cour (TEspoffTie, pp. 196, 236. 

* Ibid. p. 86. 
" Lettres de Madame de Sevignd, 28th Feb. 1680, torn. vi. p. 181 

* M6moire8 de la Courd'Espagne, p. 155. 



friendship and support of the Queen-mother. She 
baffled, and finally ejected from office, her imperious 
mistress of the robes, the Duchess of Terranova, 
that most morose of dowagers, who had wrung the 
necks of her parrots for speaking French.^ By 
humouring her husband's whims and playing with 
him for hours together at spilikens,' she succeeded 
in gaining his confidence and affections, and a strong 
influence over his mind ; and by a few words spoken 
in season, she caused his ministers to fear and 
respect her. Happy would it have been for Charles 
and Spain, had she lived to close his eyes! But 
Heaven early doomed " the bright fleur-de-lys to the 
scythe."' After a reign of little more than nine 
years, and in the twenty-seventh year of her age, she 
was carried off by a sudden disorder, in 1689, dis- 
playing in her last moments those Christian graces 
which so justly endeared her memory to Spain.* In 
the impoverished state of the royal finances, a Queen- 
consort had little opportunity of befriending art 
She chose a painter, however, of some repute, Leon 
Leal, for her guardadamas ; ^ and her beautiful face 


^ D'Anlnoy, Mimoires, torn. iL p. 36. 

* Villara, Lettres, p. 117. . 

* Flores, Leu Reyruu Cathdliccu, torn. iL p. 983. 

^ Noticuu historicUet de la enfermedad, muerte y exequias de nvettra 
Catdliea Reyna L^ Maria Luisa tTOrUans, Borhan, Stuart, y Aiutria^ 
por Don Joan de Vera Tassis y Villaroel, foL Madrid, 1690, p. 11. 

" SapiB, chap. z. p. 862. 



CH. xin. 




of Castile. 

was the fEurest model which Garrefio found at 

In her successor, Mariana of Neuburg, a good- 
natured German princess, Luca Giordano had an 
admiring patron, but art in general cannot be said 
to have found either a model or a protector. Nor 
did her endearments obliterate in the breast of her 
husband the image of his beloved Maria Louisa, 
for one of the last acts of his melancholy life was 
to open the tomb of his first wife, and hang over 
her embalmed remains, in the sepulchral vault of 
the Escorial.^ 

The love of art, although declining, was not 
extinguished at Court and amongst the aristocracy. 
The witty and handsome Admiral of Castile, with 
the broad lands of the house of Henriquez, like- 
wise inherited his father's fondness for collecting 
pictures.* At Madrid, in his fine palace surrounded 
by delicious gardens, he lived in luxurious re- 
tirement, amusing himself with mistresses and the 
composition of verses, an exercise at which he was 
remarkably expert for a grandee.' He was a muni- 
ficent patron of artists, and retained Juan de Al&ro 

* Danlop's Memoirs, voL ii p. 307. 

* Supra, chap, viii p. 623. 

* D'Aulnoy, Minunres, torn. L p. 136. The French counteBs was quite 
captivated by the gallant admiral, and pnuBes his manners and his person, 
in spite of his age, which he himself thought a misfortune. " 11 iUA%^ 
she says, " inconsolable d'ayoir-d^jk dnquante-huit ans." 



as his painter, a selection which does no credit to 
his taste, and justifies the contemporary suspicion, 
that, in affairs of art, he had less knowledge than 
zeal. His son-in-law, the intriguing Marquess of 
Heliche and Carpio, son of the minister Haro, 
and possessor of the rich collections of Olivares, 
was somewhat of a MsBcenas, though more noted 
as a Lothario.^ In early life the £riend and host 
of the Italian painter Colonna,* he improved his 
knowledge of art and enriched the halls of his 
palace, during his unwilling residence at Some as 
ambassador from Charles II.* He died Viceroy 
of Naples, where he was equally distinguished 
by the vigour of his administration and by the 
interest which he evinced for artistic affairs. The 
Count of Monterey, brother to Heliche, and heir of 
one of the "Thieves" of the last reign, was like- 
wise the possessor of an hereditary gallery and 
taste.* Treasures of art still enriched the fine 
mansions of Alba, Onate, and Fefiaranda, Ossuna, 


of Heliche. 

Count of 

^ His Marchioness was one of the finest women of her day ; Villars, 
Lettrest p. 37 ; whence her lord's notahle saying, that if he had a mistress 
as handsome as his wife, he wonkl be the happiest of men. Danlop's 
Memoirs, voL ii. p. 180. 

* Supra, chap. viiL p. 664. 

• Miffhoirea de la Cour tTEspcigne, pp. 129, 130, where there is an amusing 
story of a trick played him by the Pope, about a marriage dispensation, 
a just reprisal for the many incivilities committed by the ambassador in 
hopes of proYoking dismissal from Rome. 

^ Snpra, chap. Tiii. p. 623. 

1 140 






Don Joan 
de Valdea. 

Coant of 
Las Torres. 

and that great teiritoiial lord, the Constable of 

Amatenr painters were still to be fonnd, of high 
rank and respectable skilL Don Francisco Antonio 
Ethenard 7 Abarca, bom at Madrid of a Gastilian 
mother by a German knight of Galatrava, was 
himself a member of the same order,' a captain in 
the royal guard, and a painter and engraver as well 
as an author. He wrote and published, in 1670, 
a treatise ' on the use of arms, in which he likewise 
showed his proficiency in the use of the pencil 
and grayer, by designing and executing an orna- 
mental title-page. Dying at Madrid, early in the 
eighteenth century, he was buried in the church of 
St. Gines, in his family chapel of the Conception. 
Don Juan de Valdes, member of the Council of 
State for home affairs, painted for his own amuse- 
ment with considerable skill and intelligence. 
Towards the end of the reign, the Count of Las 
Torres was a tolerable amateur painter at Madrid. 

^ Don Vinoencio Juan de Lastanosa, Se&or of Figamelaa^ dedicates his 
scarce treatise on coins, Mtueo de las Medalku desconoddas E^aHoias, 
4to, Hnesca, 1645, to Don Bernardino Femandei de Velasco, Condestable 
de Gastilla 7 Leon, Dnqne Marqnes 7 Conde, senor tU mil y euatro eiaUot 

' N. Antonio, Bibliotheea Nova, torn. L p. 402. 

' Compendia de los fundamentoe de la verdadera destreza yJUctofta de 
las armcu, 4to, Madrid, 167 1. Cean Bermudez gives 1675 as the date, 
but I follow the professional bibliographer. He also mentions another 
work b7 Ethenard, called. El diestro Italiano y Espaiiol, 4to, Madrid, 
1697, not noticed b7 Antonio. 



Geronimo Mascareilas, a noble Portuguese, was a 
knight of Calatrava, usher of the curtain ^ to Philip 
IV., and Bishop-elect of Leyria. The revolution in 
Portugal, and his adherence to his Castilian sove- 
reign, debarring him from that diocese, he received, 
in exchange, the mitre of Segovia, and during his 
residence there amused his leisure with the pencil' 
He was chaplain and historian of the embassy to 
Trent to fetch home Queen Mariana, which Velaz- 
quez accompanied as far as Genoa.' A busy man 
of letters, he projected and partly executed no less 
than twenty-six works of history, biography, and 
antiquarian research, of which he lived to publish 
seven.* Fray Cristobal del Viso, of the Order of St 
Francis, and commissary-general of the Indies, was 
also a painter, and left to the Capuchins of Cordoba 
a series of pictures of the canonised Franciscans. 
Don Francisco Vera Cabeza de Vaca and Don Fran- 
cisco de Artiga distinguished themselves amongst 
the remote gentry of Calatayud and Huesca by their 
talents for painting and architecture. At Seville, 
we shall find Don Pedro Nunez de Villavicencio, a 
military knight of St. John, amongst the ablest 

^ Supra, chap. viii. p. 625, note 2. 

> Palomino, torn. L p. 186. 

' Supra, chap. ix. p. 752. 

* A list of his intended works will be found in the Pr61ogo to his 
Viage de la Beyna; his published writings are enumerated by Nic 
Antonio, Bib. Nova, torn. iL p. 589. 

CH. xin. 



Fray Cris- 
tobal dol 

Don Fran- 
oisco Vera 

cisoo de 

Don Pedr 
Nafiea de 

1 142 



dor Boxaa. 





Ducheaa of 

Cotintem of 




scholars of Mnrillo; and Don Salvador Boxas y 
Velasco, likewise a man of family, and amateur of 
the pencil, was a constant student at the Academy, 
and a subscriber to its funds. Don Estevan de 
Espadafia, inquisitor in the Holy OflBce at Valencia, 
indulged in painting as a recreation, and was a 
patron of the Academy established by the artists of 
that city in 1676. Even Murcia had its amateur- 
painter in Don Nicolas de Villacis. 

A few ladies of rank also were distinguished by 
their skill in the fine arts. Dona Teresa Sarmiento, 
Duchess of Bejar, probably daughter-in-law to the 
ducal amateur of the last reign,^ under the inslxuc- 
tions of the elder Bizi,^ upheld the artistic honours 
of the house of Zufliga. She presented several 
pictures, painted by herself, to various churches at 
Madrid ; and Palomino extols a " Head of Our Lady 
of Succour," • executed with infinite delicacy, on 
glass, by her fair and noble hands. The Countess of 
Villaumbrosa, an ornament of the court of Philip IV.,* 
was likewise eminent in that of his son for her 
skill in painting as well as for her wit.* Dofia 
Mariana Cueva Benavides y Barr^as, wife of Don 
Francisco Zayas, knight of Calatrava, distinguished 
herself with her pencil amongst the ladies of Granada. 

^ Supra, chap. TiiL p. 628. 
* Palomino, torn, i p. 187. 
■ D'Aulnoy, Mimoires, torn. L p. 146. 

' Ibid. chap. z. p. 832. 
* Supra, chap. viiL p. 629. 



Notwithstanding the poverty of the royal coffers, 
the great nobles were still able to dazzle foreigners 
with a show of almost barbaric magnificence. Their 
ladies blazed with jewels of inestimable value, and 
their sideboards were loaded with an amount of 
plate which appears fabulous in these days of 
general circulation of wealth. In the palace of the 
Duke of Albuquerque, says Madame d'Aulnoy, at 
the end of the great dining-hall rose a monster 
buffet, tall as an altar, and covered with vessels of 
gold and silver, amongst which the lackeys ascended 
and descended by means of forty silver ladders. The 
Duke of Alba possessed six hundred dozen of plates, 
and eight hundred dishes, of silver, and conceived 
that his service was rather modest than splendid 
in character.^ The Prince of Stigliano, son of the 
Duke of Medina de las Torres by a Sicilian heiress, 
inherited his father's taste for sumptuous equi- 
pages ; ^ for he caused to be constructed for his wife, 
a daughter of the house of Toledo, a sedan chair of 
gold and coral, which was so heavy as to be unfit 
for use.' The grandees of the Church were still 
lavish in their oblations of gold and silver to the 
sanctuary. They still held, with S**- Teresa, that 
while plate sparkled on their own tables, no meaner 

oa XIII. 

of the 
and the 

^ D'Aulnoy, Voyage, torn. IL p. 173. ' Supra, chap. iz. p. 790. 

* D'Aulnoy, MHnoires, torn. L p. 138. 





metal should be placed on the altar of the Lord.^ 
An Archbishop of Santiago, the son of a wealthy 
Mexican family, entertained the magnificent design 
of adding an entire chapel of pure silver to his 
Cathedral; and when his more prudent Chapter 
dissuaded him from setting up so great a tempta- 
tion to the needy pilgrim, or pillaging inyader, he 
erected, instead, an edifice of the most precious 
marbles, still more costly, it is said, than the pro- 
posed silver shrine.^ But although the bullion was 
there, the cunning workmen in gold and silver and 
brass were gone; the D'Arphes and Becerrils had 
passed away with the Toledos and Herreras. 

Madame d' Aulnoy, the most charming of historical 
prattlers, informs us that Madrid, in this reign, 
possessed no good painters, and that the few persons 
who followed that unprofitable profession, were, for 
the most part, Flemings, Italians, or Frenchmen.' 
But the attention of the lively countess was directed 
to obj ects rather of social than artistical research. She 
loved better to study the costumes and the humours 
of the Prado, to compare the ruffed and rapiered 
cobbler* or euphuistic courtier* with the genteel cit 

^ CkMritu d$ la serdJSea y myMiiea doeiara Santa Teresa de Jeeus, eon 
noias del Sciior Dom Juan de Falafoa^ Obispo de Osma^ 4to, 9&rag09a, 

1671. p> 331- 
s Widdrington, Spam amd the Spaniards, toL iL p. 179. 
* D*Aalno7, Foyaffe, torn, iii pw 12a 
« Ibid»p^ 114. * lUd. p. 46. 



or ridiculous marquis of her native soil, than to 
draw parallels between Carrefio and Mignard. The 
truth is that there were fewer foreign artists than 
usual at Madrid during this reign, at least fewer 
whose names have survived. Amongst the latter, is 
Dionisio Mantuano, a native of Bologna, who came 
to Spain in 1656, as scene-painter to the royal 
theatre at Buenretiro. Being also an architect, he 
became, in that capacity, mixed up in some trans- 
action, of which no particulars have been preserved, 
but which sent him to prison, and had nearly ex- 
posed him to a heavy fine. The friendship of the 
papal muncio, however, not only delivered him from 
durance and all costs, but obtained for him the post 
of painter to the King, and the cross of the order of 
Christ. Besides many scenes for the court theatre, 
he painted the ceiling of the ladies' gallery at the 
Alcazar; he executed, with Vicente de Benavides, 
the fresco decorations on the front of the house of 
the Marquess of Los Balbases, the heir of Spinola 
and Spanish ambassador to the congress of Nimeguen; 
and he painted various works for the Marquess of 
Heliche, and for the church of San Isidro el Real, 
At Toledo, he assisted Rizi and Carrefio in painting 
the monument for the Holy Week, in the Cathedral.^ 
He died at Madrid in 1684, aged sixty years. 

CH. xni. 


^ Supra, chap. x. p. 835. 

vol*. III. 







Giuseppe Bomani was bom at Bologna in 16 16, 
and became a scholar of Michel Colonna. It is 
uncertain whether he came with that master to 
Spain in 1656, but, if he did not accompany him, 
he followed him soon afterwards. The Admiral of 
Castile was one of his chief patrons, and employed 
him to execute a variety of fresco decorations in 
his palace and gardens. He was likewise engaged 
in painting for various churches, amongst which 
was that of Our Lady of Atocha, where he exe- 
cuted figures of S**- Domingo, and St. Catherine of 
Sienna. Dying at Madrid in 1680, he was interred 
in the church of San Ildefonso. 

Francisco Leonardoni was bom at Venice in 
1654, and there studied painting with considerable 
success. Expatriated for some unknown cause, he 
travelled through various parts of Europe, and came 
to Madrid about i68o. There he distinguished 
himself by his portraits, especially miniatures, in 
which style he had the honour of painting the King 
and Queen. He also executed some large works on 
sacred subjects, such as the Marriage and Death of 
St. Joseph, for the church of the college of Atocha, 
and a picture of the Incarnation, for the conven- 
tual church of San Gerdnimo el Real. To him, 
likewise, was attributed the principal picture of 
the high-altar of the parish church of Leganes. 
His colouring, says Cean Bermudez, was rich and 



effective, but his drawing deficient in correctness. 
During the greater part of his residence at Madrid 
he occupied apartments in the palace of Buenretiro, 
where he died in 171 1. He was a man of amiable 
disposition and polished manners, and no less re- 
markable, says Palomino, who must have known 
him, for his stately bearing, than for his great 
stature and personal strength.^ 

Of the great foreign artists, whom the taste and 
munificence of the house of Austria attracted to 
Spain, Luca Giordano was the last, and, perhaps, in 
his own time the most famous. He was bom in 
the city of Naples in 1632, of a family which 
Palomino asserts to have been an offset of that of 
Jordan, an ancient and honourable name in the 
Andalusian kingdom of Jaen.^ His father, Antonio, 
was an indifferent painter, who earned his bread by 
copying the works of Ribera ; and the name of his 
mother was Isabella Imparato." At the early age 
of five the inclinations of young Luca led him to 
adopt the pencil as a plaything, and before a year 
had elapsed he could draw the human figure with 
surprising correctness. The painter Stanzioni, pass- 
ing by his father's shop, near the public prison, and 



* Palomino, torn. iii. p. 725. ' Ibid. torn. iiL p. 686. 

* Dominici, Vite de Fittori, Ac, NapoUtani, torn. iii. p. 394, whence I 
have derived all the facts of Giordano's life which are not to be found in 
Palomino or Cean Bermudez. 

1 148 



Visit to 

seeing the child at work, is said to have predicted 
that he would one day become the first artist of the 
age. Before he was eight years old, he painted, 
unknown to his father, two cherubs, in a fresco 
entrusted to that artist in an obscure part of the 
church of S*^ Maria la Nuova — figures so grace- 
ful as to attract considerable public attention. This 
feat coining to the knowledge of the Duke de 
Medina de las Torres, the Viceroy, he rewarded the 
precocious painter with some gold pieces, and a re- 
commendation to Ribera, who accordingly admitted 
him into his school, at that time the most celebrated 
in Naples. There he spent nine years in close ap- 
plication to study, and there, towards the end of 
that time, he may have enjoyed the advantage of 
seeing Velazquez, during the great Spaniard's second 
visit to Naples.^ 

Having learned all that Ribera could teach, he 
conceived a strong desire to prosecute his studies 
in the capital of art. To this step, his father, who, 
probably, could ill aflFord to lose his earnings, 
steadily refused his consent. Luca, therefore, took 
the earliest opportunity of absconding, and, in due 
time, found his way to the Vatican. There he 
applied himself to the study with his usual furv, 
and having copied all the chief frescoes of Rafael 

^ Supra, chap. iz. p. 757* 


1 149 

more than once, and the Battle of Constantine CH.xm. 
twelve times, turned his dashing pencil against 
the works of Carracci in the Famese palace. Mean- 
while poor Antonio, divining the direction which 
the truant had taken, followed him to Rome, and, 
after a long search, discovered him sketching in 
St. Peter's. They remained in the papal city about 
three years, the father, who seems to have been a 
helpless creature, subsisting by the sale of the son's 
drawings. When their purse was low, the old man 
would accompany Luca to the scene of his labours, 
and even feed him whilst he painted, that not a 
moment might be lost. At such times, ** Luca fa Niokname. 
presto ! " being ever on his lips, the phrase became 
a byword among the painters, and was fixed upon 
the young artist as a nickname singularly appro- 
priate to his wonderful celerity of execution. The 
only memorable facts connected with his stay in 
Bome are, that he invented an effective and expe- 
ditious method of tinting his drawings with pounded 
chalks, and that he studied for some time in the 
school of Fietro da Cortona. He afterwards made TVayeis. 
a journey, still accompanied by his father, through 
Lombardy to Venice, and having sufficiently studied 
the works of Correggio, Titian, and other great 
northern masters, returned, by way of Florence and 
Leghorn, to Naples. 

The first public works which he executed in his 




Return to 




native city, were a picture of the Holy Rosary for the 
church of S. Potito, three small frescoes on the life 
of St. John Baptist for the chapel of S. Giacomo 
della Marca, and some oil paintings for the church 
of Santa Teresa, in which he imitated with success 
the style of Paolo Veronese, Amongst the clergy 
and friars he seems early to have become a fEtvourite, 
and to have obtained a large share of their patronage. 
He soon afterwards married Dofia Margarita Ardi, 
a woman of great beauty, who served him as a model 
for his Virgins, Lucretias, or Venuses. 

Amongst his lay patrons was a certain Gasparo 
Romero, who was in the habit of inflicting upon 
him a great deal of tedious and impertinent advice. 
For this he had his revenge, by causing his father 
to sell to that connoisseur, as originals, some of his 
imitations of Titian, Tintoret, and Bassano, and 
afterwards avowing the deception. He managed, 
however, to eflfect this pleasantry without sacrificing 
his friend to his jest 

In competition with Giacomo Farelli, an artist of 
some fame, he painted, in 1655, for the church of 
S*^ Brigida, a large picture of St. Nicolas borne away 
by angels, a work of such power and splendour that 
it completely eclipsed his rival, and established his 
reputation at the early age of twenty-three. Two 
years afterwards he was employed with Andrea 
Vaccaro, by the Count of Pefiaranda, the Viceroy, 



to paint some pictures for the church of S*^ Maria 
del Pianto. The principal of the suhjects which 
fell to Giordano's share were the " Crucifixion," and 
the " Blessed Virgin and St. Januarius pleading with 
the Saviour for Naples afflicted with Pestilence," 
which he painted with his usual ability. He and 
Vaccaro had, however, a dispute about placing their 
pictures, which was decided by the Viceroy in favour 
of the elder artist Giordano immediately gave way, 
with so much grace and discretion, that he made a 
firm fiiend of his successful rival. His master, 
Bibera, being now dead, he soon stepped into the 
vacant place of that popular artist. The religious 
bodies of the kingdom, from the Barefooted Angus- 
tines of Naples, to the rich Benedictines of Monte 
Cassino, were all eager to obtain pictures from his 
easel. Caressed by the viceroys, he soon became the 
favourite of the Neapolitan nobles. The palaces 
of Avellino Caracciolo, Montesarchio d^Avalos, 
Bisignano Sanseverino, Mataloni Caxaffa, and other 
princely families, were adorned with his works. 

In 1678, on the conclusion of peace between 
France, Spain, and Holland, he painted an immense 
picture in commemoration of the event The upper 
part of the composition showed the gods of Olympus 
assembled to do honour to a majestic figure repre- 
senting the Spanish monarchy, for whom Ganymede, 
at the nod of Jove, filled a cup of nectar ; beneath, 


honour of 
the peace 
and the 
Viceroy de 




Visit to 

with the 
and the 
Jesuits at 

stood a concourse of assenting mortals, amongst 
v^hom the Sicilian Viceroy, the Marquess of Los 
Velez, pranced conspicuous on a milk-white chai^er. 
This piece of adroit homage was doubtless not lost 
on the powers that were, when the picture was ex- 
hibited to the admiring populace in the street of 

Invited in 1679 to Florence to paint the chapel 
of S. Andrea Corsini in the church of Carmine, 
Giordano was overwhelmed with civilities by the 
Grand Duke Cosmo III., who honoured him with 
several audiences, and hung a gold chain and medal 
about his neck. While sojourning in that beautiful 
city, he became acquainted with Carlo Dolci, then 
an old man, who is said to have been so affected by 
comparing the bold speedy style of the Neapolitan 
with his own slow laborious manner, that he fell 
into a profound melancholy, of which in a few days 
he died. This circumstance, Dominici assures us, 
Giordano long afterwards remembered with tears, 
on being shown at Naples "a picture painted by 
poor Carlino." ^ 

On his way to Florence, he had paid his respects 
to the Marquess of HeUche, the Spanish ambassador 
at Rome, and was graciously received ; but he 
somewhat offended that nobleman, by declining an 

^ Dominiei, torn. iii. p. 408. 


invitation to his palace, given for the purpose of celxiil 
seeing him paint Heliche was afterwards recalled 
from the hated papal court/ and promoted to the 
dignity of Viceroy of Naples. It happened in 1685, 
that Giordano, who had established himself in 
Ribera's fine house, opposite the Jesuit church of 
San Francisco Xavier,' was employed by the fathers 
to paint a large picture for one of their principal 
altars. As the viceregal palace adjoined this church, 
the Marquess took an interest in its embellishment, 
and signified to the painter a wish that the work 
should be completed by the approaching festival of 
the patron saint. Giordano, however, was busied 
about other things, and put off the execution of the 
altar-piece so long, that the Jesuits began to be 
clamorous, and the Viceroy to feel offended for the 
second time. Determining to see for himself how 
matters really stood, the great man paid an unex- 
pected visit to the studio. The artist had barely 
time to escape by a back door ; and Heliche, find- 
ing the vast canvas as yet guiltless of the brush, 
retired muttering complaints and menaces. Luca's 
dashing pencil now stood him in good stead. On 
his return home he immediately sketched the out- 
lines of his composition, for which the first drawing 
was hardly finished; and setting his disciples to 

^ Supra» p. 1139^ and note 3. * Ibid. chap. x. p. 900. 




Affair with 
the Duke 
of Diano. 

prepare his palettes, he painted all that day and 
night with so much diligence, that by the following 
afternoon he was able to announce to the impatient 
fathers the completion of the picture. The subject 
was the patron saint of the church, the great Jesuit 
missionary St. Francis Xavier, baptizing the people 
of Japan, a ceremony which he performed standing 
on a lofty flight of steps ; behind him, in the dis* 
tance, was a party of zealous converts pulling down 
the images of their gods ; and beneath, in the fore- 
ground, knelt St. Francis Borgia in the attitude of 
prayer. It was immediately carried to the church, 
and placed over the destined altar ; and the Viceroy, 
whose anger was hardly cooled, was invited to visit 
it Charmed with the beauty of the work, and 
amazed by the celerity of its execution, he ex- 
claimed, on seeing it, '' The painter of this picture 
is either an angel or a demon." Giordano re« 
ceived his compliments and made his own excuses 
with so much address, that the Marquess, forgetting 
all past ojSences, engaged him to paint in the 
palace, and passed much of his time by his side, 
observing his progress, and enjoying his lively con- 

These honours, however, compelled him to neglect 
and offend other patrons. One of these personages, 
the Duke of Diano, being very anxious for the com- 
pletion of his orders, at last lost all patience, and 


collaring him in public, threatened him with personal C ELxm . 
chastisement. The Viceroy, being informed of this 
insult, took up his friend's quarrel in a right royal 
style. He invited the Duke, who affected connois- 
seurship, to pass judgment on a picture lately painted 
by Giordano for the palace, in imitation of the style 
of Kubens. The unlucky noble fell into the trap, 
and pronounced it a work of the Fleming. Seeming 
to assent to this criticism, the Viceroy replied that 
Giordano was painting a companion to the picture, 
a piece of information which Diano received with a 
sneer, and a remark on the artist's uncivil treatment 
of persons of honour. Here Heliche tartly inter- 
posed, telling him that the work which he had 
praised was painted, not by Bubens, but by Giordano, 
and, repeating the sentiment of several crowned 
heads on like occasions,^ admonished him of the 
reverence due to a man so highly endowed by his 
Maker. " And how dare you,*' cried he in a louder 
tone, and sei^sing the Duke by his collar, ** thus insult 
such a man, who is besides retained in my service ? 
Know for the future that none shall play the bravo 
here, so long as I bear rule in Naples ! " This scene 
passing in the presence of many of the courtiers, 
and some of the witnesses of the insult offered to 
the painter, the poor provincial grandee retired 

^ Supra, chap. xL p. 942, note i. 





Count of 

to the court 
of Madrid. 




covered with mortification, and falling into de- 
spondency, died soon after of fever. 

The Marqness of Heliche died in 1688, in the 
eighth year of his government. His successor, 
Don Francisco de Benavides, Count of Santistevan, 
was no less favonrahly disposed towards Giordano. 
He purchased all his unfinished pictures, which had 
been ordered by Heliche, and gave him many new 
commissions, amongst which was one for a series of 
works illustrative of Tasso's great poem. The fame 
of the artist had now reached Castile, and the capital 
of the monarchy. A Spanish grandee had ordered 
a series of pictures for Queen Maria Louisa, and 
fourteen were completed at the time of her sudden 
death; an event of which Don Giulio Navarretta, 
Marquess della Terza, took advantage to obtain them 
for his own palace at Naples. But Don Cristobal de 
Ontafion, a favourite courtier of Charles H., return- 
ing from Italy, full of admiration for Giordano and 
his works, so sounded his praises in the royal ear, 
that the King invited him to court, paying the 
expenses of the journey, and giving him a gratuity 
of 1,500 ducats. 

The painter, therefore, embarked at Naples, on 
board one of the royal galleys, accompanied by his 
son Nicholas, a nephew named Giuseppe Giordano, 
his confessor Baldassar Yalente, and two scholars, 
Aniello Rossi and Mateo Facelli, and attended by 



three servants. Landing at Barcelona, and resting 
there for a few days, he finally reached Madrid in 
May 1692. Six of the royal coaches were sent to 
meet him on the road, and conduct him to the 
house of his friend Ontafion. On the day of his 
arrival he was carried, by the King's desire, to the 
Alcazar, and presented to his Majesty. Charles 
received him with great kindness, inquired how he 
had borne the fatigues of the road, and expressed 
his joy at finding him much younger in appearance 
than he had been taught to expect. The artist, 
with his usual courtly tact, replied, that the journey, 
to enter the service of so great a monarch, had 
renewed his youth, and that in the presence of his 
Majesty, he felt as if he were twenty again.^ 
"Then," said Charles, smiling, "you are not too 
weary to pay a visit to my gallery;" and led him 
through the noble halls of Philip II., rich with the 
finest pictures of Italy and Spain. It was probably 
on this occasion that the Neapolitan, pausing before 
Velazquez's celebrated picture of the Infanta and 
her meninas, bestowed on it its well-known name 
of the "Theology of Painting/'* The King, who 


1 Mignard made a still happier reply to Louis XIV. on a more difficult 
occasion, " Yons me trouTez vieilli?** said the King on beginning to sit 
for one of his later portraits. '' II est vrai, sire,'* answered the Lawrence 
of Versailles, " que je vols qnelques campagnes de plus traces sur le 
front de votre Majesty." Mouville, Vie de Mignard, p. 144. 

* Supra, chap. iz. pp. 769-774. 




of Bosaano. 

Works for 



had embraced the painter when first presented, 
honoured him, at parting, with a kiss on the fore- 
head, and with a key as gentleman of the royal 

One of Giordano's earliest works in Spain was a 
clerer imitation of the style of the elder Bassano. 
The King, during his audience^ had remarked with 
regret that a certain picture in the Alcazar, by 
that master, wanted a companion. Luca, therefore, 
secretly procured a frame and a piece of old Vene- 
tian canvas of the proper size, and by means of his 
practised pencil, and a preparation of boiled gall 
and soot, the required picture, with all the neces- 
sary appearance of age, was speedily painted and 
hung up. In their next walk through the gallery 
the King noticing the change, heard the story 
with great surprise and satisfaction, and laying his 
hand on the artist's shoulder, said, "Long life to 

The first large works on which he was engaged 
for the King, were two pictures for the chapel-royal 
of Buenretiro. One was the "Archangel Michael 
vanquishing Lucifer," the other, St. Anthony of 
Padua, "the strong hammer of heresy,"^ delivering 

^ Vida y MUagrot delglorioto San Antonio de Padua, Sol brillante d€ 
la Iglesia, Lustre de la Religion serd^ficaf Gloria de Portugal, Honor de 
EspaHa, Tesorero de Italia, Terror del Infiemo, Martillo fuerte de la 
Heregia, entre loa Santos, por exceUnda, el Milagrero; esorita por el B. 
P. Fr. Miguel Mestre, Geiona, no date. 



that celebrated sennon, which, despised by the un- 
believing men of Bimini, found shoals of listeners 
among the fish of the Adriatic.^ He was then sent 
to the Escorial, and began his labours in the grand 
staircase of the convent. On its vaulted roof he 
painted the Most Holy Trinity, the heavens, and all 
the powers therein ; taking care to give due promi- 
nence to Hermenegild and Ferdinand, the Emperor 
Henry, Stephen of Hungary, Casimir of Poland, and 
other canonised kinsmen of the house of Austria^ and 
to place, on the threshold of the empyrean, St. Jerome 
in the act of introducing Charles V. and Philip II. 
to the mansions of eternal bliss. He decorated the 
walls with other frescoes representing the virtues 
and the exploits of these two celebrated monarchs, 
the battle of St. Quentin, and the foundation of the 
building. Of these works the latter is the best ; its 
colouring is brilliant and effective, and the figure 
of Philip II. is carefully executed, after the fine 
portraits by Titian. The staircase was finished in 
seven months, a space of time which many artists 
would have spent in making the necessary sketches. 
The applause with which these frescoes were 
received, led the King to employ Giordano to paint 
some other subjects on the vaults of the church. 
He commenced at the ends of the side aisles, taking 


and the Ei- 



Frescoes in 
the church 
of the Es- 

^ Ribadeneira» FUurs, torn. i. p. 694. 



CH.xni. for his subjects the "Fall of the Rebel Angels," the 
''Immaculate Conception/* the "Incarnation," the 
" Nativity,*' and the " Epiphany/* and the triumphs 
of the spotless Virginity, and of the Church militant, 
themes which he expanded into large allegorical 
works. On the dome of the chapel of the high-altar 
he painted the "Death of the Blessed Virgin," a 
yast assemblage of angels, apostles, and other figures, 
which, says Cean Bermudez, resemble rather an epic 
poem than a mere historical composition. The 
"Passage of the Red Sea," the "Fall of Manna," 
the " Overthrow of the Amalekites,'* " Samson extract- 
ing Honey from the Carcase of the Lion," " Elijah 
sleeping under the Juniper,'* "David taking the 
Shewbread," and the " Last Judgment,** were likewise 
treated by his hasty pencil in various parts of the 
vaults. All these works, including those in the 
staircase, and certain passages from the histories of 
David and Solomon on the ceilings of the galleries 
leading from the college and convent to the choir, 
were completed within two years. Fray Francisco de 
los Santos, prior and historian of the royal convent, 
wrote a minute eulogistic description of them ^ as a 
supplement to his larger work ; and Palomino, who 
devotes several pages to the same object, pronounces 

^ Descripcion de los excelentes pvnturas al fresco can que la MageHad 
del Bey nuestro SerU)r Carlos IL (que Diosguarde) ha mandado aumemtar 
d adomo del Beal Moncuterio de S. Lorenzo del Eseorial, 4to, N. D. 



Giordano to be far superior, as a painter of frescoes, 
to Cambiaso or any other artist, native or foreign, 
who had ever v^rought at the Escorial.^ 

Whilst Giordano was employed at the Escorial, 
two doctors of theology were ordered to attend upon 
him, to answer his questions and resolve any doubts 
that might arise as to the orthodox manner of treating 
his subjects. A courier was despatched every evening 
to Madrid, with a letter from the Prior to the King, 
rendering an account of the artist's day's work ; and, 
within the present century, some of these letters 
were still preserved at the Escorial. On one occasion 
he wrote thus: "Sire, your Giordano has painted 
this day about twelve figures thrice as large as life. 
To these he has added the powers and domina- 
tions, with the proper angels, cherubs, and seraphs, 
and clouds to support the same. The two doctors 
of divinity have not answers ready for all his 
questions, and their tongues are too slow to keep 
pace with the speed of his pencils." ^ 


^ Palomino, torn. iiL p. 698. 

' Les Arts ItcUiens en Eapagne^ au histoire des artistes Itodiens qui 
cofUnbttirent d embellir les CastiUes; foL Rome, 1824, p. 119, note 29. 
This work, which appeared in the same form in the same year in Italian, 
was puhlished by anthoiity and at the expense of the Academy of St. 
Luke, to which body it is dedicated, and was written by M. Quilliet, 
anthor of the Dictionnaire des Peintres Sspagnols^ 8vo, Paris, 1816 ; who, 
indeed, in the preface to that volume (p. xi, note *) refers to his Diction^ 
naire des Artistes lEtrangers qui ont travailU en Espagne^ a book of 
which I have been unable to find any other mention, and which, pro- 
bably, was first published in. the above-mentioned form at Rome. The 










Returning to Madrid, Oiordano was again em- 
ployed at Buenretiro, in painting on the ceiling of 
a great hall, a fresco history of the order of the 
Golden Fleece. The antechamher also he embel- 
lished with a composition representing Morning, and 
with four large oil-pictures of the wars of Granada. 
The King afterwards sent him to Toledo, to paint 
the ceiling of the Cathedral sacristy, a work which 
he is said to have undertaken with reluctance. The 
subject was the Virgin bestowing the holy chasuble 
on St. Ildefonso, the favourite theme of Toledan 
pens and pencils,^ and one into which Giordano 
contrived to introduce his own portrait, looking 
out of a window. For the chapel-royal of the 
Alcazar at Madrid, he painted various frescoes, and 
some oil-pictures on subjects taken from the Old 
Testament; he executed a variety of allegorical 
subjects for the saloons at Aranjuez; he altered 
and made considerable additions to the frescoes of 
the younger Herrera, in the church of Our Lady of 
Atocha,' and he painted the life of the Blessed 
Virgin for the royal convent of St. Jerome. In 
the church of San Antonio of the Portuguese, he 

avtbor calls himself ^ Aneien oonservateiir des Monnmens des Arts dans 
les Palais royaux d'Espagne,** and says that he lived for sixteen years in 
Spain, and collected a large mass of materials for a history of Spanish arti 
which was lost in the ront at Vittoria. The letters mentioned in the text 
were shown to him by one of the monks of the EsooriaL 
^ Supra, ohap. xii. p. 1085. * Ibid. p. iiii. 



retouched some decaying frescoes of Carrefio and 
Francisco Bizi ; and he painted on the walls, in 
imitation of tapestry, a series of the most remark- 
able of the miracles of the patron saint. He is 
said likewise to have been employed to veil some 
of the nudities in the Escorial pictures which 
offended the austere souls of Charles II. and his 
monks. Besides piecing the robe of Titian's St. 
Margaret,^ he is supposed to have metamorphosed 
a picture, by that master, of Tarquin violating 
Lucrece, into a whiskered and turbaned Turk bran-^ 
dishing a scimitar over the head of a Sultana 
robed in ermine. Happily these audacious changes 
were wrought in water-colours, and a damp sponge 
applied in the present century recalled the rich 
Venetian colouring to its original brightness.' 

Notwithstanding these large and important under- 
takings, he found time to execute a vast number 
of pictures for other churches, as well as for the 
palaces of the nobility. No labourer was ever more 
constant to his task; and, to the scandal of his 
more devout brethren, he was to be found at his 
easel even on days of religious festivals. His daily 

^ Sapra, chap. L p. 38. 

* Les ArU ItaHena en Espagne, p. 115, note 6. This fine picture, 
bought from the collection of Charles I. at Whitehall by Phihp IV., 
was stolen from Madrid by Joseph Bonaparte, and is now in the posses- 
sion of William Coningham, Esq. [A picture of this subject by Titian 
is now at Hertford House.] 






Habits of 




habit was to paint from eight in the morning till 
noon, when he dined and rested for two hours. 
At two o'clock he resumed his pencil, and continued 
working till five or six o'clock. He then took an 
airing in the Frado, or along the dusty bed of the 
Manzanares, in one of the royal carriages, which 
was placed at his disposal. ^'If I am idle for a 
single day," he used to say, "my pencils get the 
better of me; I must keep them in subjection by 
constant practice." Avarice, however, was supposed 
to be the real cause of his intense application ; he 
received great prices for his works; and to amass 
a large fortune was his ambition. The King found 
him in all the necessaries of life, and paid him 200 
crowns a month. Of this salary he was never 
known to spend a maravedi, except in the pur- 
chase of jewels, which he considered a safe and 
profitable investment, and with which he loved to 
astonish his friends, as he did Palomino with a 
magnificent pearl necklace.^ 

No painter, not even Titian himseli^ was more 
caressed at court than Giordano. For ten years he 
was the man whom Charles II. delighted to honour. 
His brilliant success is said to have shortened the 
life of Claudio Coello, the ablest of his Castilian 
rivals. That painter, desirous of impairing bis 

^ Palomino, torn. iiL p. 699. 


1 165 

credit with the King, says the historian of Neapolitan 
arty^ proposed that he should paint a large composi- 
tion on the suhject of " Michael quelling the Arch- 
fiend/' on a canvas fifteen palms high, in the 
presence of his Majesty. Giordano at once accepted 
the challenge, and in little more than three hours 
produced a work, which, if of no great merit, was 
sufficient to amaze and delight the royal judge of 
the field. " Mirad homhre / " " Look here, man I " 
said the latter to the discomfited Coello, and pointing 
to Luca Fa-presto, " there stands the best painter in 
Naples, Spain, and the world ; verily he is a painter 
for a King." Both Charles and Queen Mariana of 
Neuburg sate several times to him for their portraits. 
They were never weary of visiting his studio, and 
took great pleasure in his lively conversation, and 
his exhibitions of artistic tricks. Whilst the Queen 
was one day questioning him about his wife and 
her personal appearance, he quietly painted her 
portrait, and cut short further interrogation by 
saying, ''Here, madam, is your Majesty's most 
humble servant herself," an eflfbrt of memory or 
imagination which gained Doiia Margarita a string 
of pearls from the neck of her most gracious 
sovereign. Sometimes he would lay on his colours 
with his finger and thumb instead of brushes, and, 

^ Dominici, torn. iii. p. 421. 


celerity of 




Charles II. 

in this unusual manner, he executed a tolerable 
portrait of Don Francisco Filipin, a feat over which 
the melancholy middle-aged monarch rejoiced with 
almost boyish transport It seemed as if he were 
carried back to that delightful night when he first 
saw his beautiful Maria Louisa dance a saraband at 
the ball of Don Pedro de Aragon.^ His satisfaction 
found Tent in a mark of favour, which had occurred 
to none of his condescending ancestors, and which 
not a little disconcerted the recipient. Semoving a 
skull-cap, which the artist had permission to wear 
in the presence, he kissed him on the crown of the 
head, and pronounced him a prodigy, and further 
caused him to execute, in the same digital style, 
a picture of St. Francis of Assisi, for the Queen. 
He sometimes said, that if he, as a King, were 
greater than Luca, Luca, as a man especially gifted 
by God, was greater than he, a sentiment somewhat 
novel from . royal lips in the seventeenth century. 
The Queen^mother, Mariana of Austria, was also an 
admirer of the fortunate artist. On occasion of his 
painting for her apartment a picture of the ** Nativity 
of Our Lord," she presented him with a rich jewel, 
and when he brought it home finished, with a 
diamond of great value from her own imperial 

1 Dunlop'B Memoin, toL ii. p. 216. 



Charles II. dying in 1 7cx), Giordano remained for a 
time in the service of his French successor, Philip V., 
who treated him with the favour to which he had 
now become accustomed from crowned heads, and 
ordered him to paint a series of pictures as a pre- 
sent to his grandfather Louis XIV. The War of 
the Succession, however, breaking out, the artist 
was glad to seize the occasion of the Bourbon 
prince's visit to Naples to return to his native land. 
He accompanied the court to Barcelona in February 
1702, but as Philip delayed his embarkation, he 
proceeded on his journey by land. Passing through 
Genoa and Florence, he was received with distinc- 
tion, and left some pictures, in those cities. At 
Rome he kissed the feet of Clement XI., and was 
permitted, by special favour, to enter the papal 
apartments with his sword at his side and his 
spectacles upon his nose. These condescensions he 
repaid with two large and highly-praised pictures of 
the '^Passage of the Bed Sea," and '^ Moses striking 
the Rock." 

At his return to Naples he does not seem to have 
relaxed in his industry and application. His renown 
in Spain made him yet more famous at home. His 
constitution finally gave way under the combined 
effects of hard labour and high living, and he died 
of a putrid fever in January 1705, in the seventy- 
third year of his age. 

CH. xin. 

Death of 
CharlM II.| 

returns to 





Person and 


In person Luca Giordano was of middle height, 
and well proportioned. His complexion was dark 
and his countenance spare, and chiefly remarkable 
for the size of its nose, and for an expression rather 
melancholy than joyous. He was a man, however, 
of adroit wit and jovial humour, and possessed 
manners so engaging that he passed through life a 
social favourite. His school was always filled with 
scholars, and as a master he was in the main 
kind and popular, although, on one occasion, he 
acknowledged to having broken a handsome silver- 
mounted maulstick, the gift of a fiiend, upon the 
backs of his assistants.' Greediness of gain seems 
to have been the blot of his character. He refused 
no commission that offered, being wont to say that 
he had three sorts of pencils, of gold, of silver, 
and wood, and so made his pictures tally with his 
prices. Yet he frequently painted gratuitous works 
as pious offerings to the altars of poor churches 
and convents. He died very rich, leaving I50,cxx) 
ducats invested in various ways, 20,cxx) ducats' 
worth of jewels, many thousands in ready money, 
1300 pounds' weight of gold and silver plate, and a 
fine house full of fine furniture. Out of this he 
founded an entailed estate for his eldest son 
Lorenzo, and bequeathed liberal provisions to his 

^ Palomino, torn. ii. p. 44. 



1 169 

widow, two younger sons, and six daughters. His 
sons and son-in-law enjoyed several lucrative posts, 
conferred on them in the kingdom of Naples by 
the favour of Charles II. 

Perhaps no artist ever enjoyed so large a share 
of contemporary fame] as Giordano. Possessed of 
inexhaustible invention and a marvellous facility of 
hand, which enabled him to multiply his works to 
any required amount, he had the good fortune to 
hit upon a style which pleased, while it still farther 
corrupted, the declining taste of the age. It became 
the fashion to admire everything that came from his 
prolific pencil. At Madrid and at Naples every 
work of his was received with acclamations of 
applause, from his frescoes at the Escorial to his 
portrait of himself sketched on a playing-card, and 
enclosed in a letter to his anxious wife,^ from his 
vast allegorical altar-pieces to his imitations of 
Durer, Bubens, and Bassano. His works were as 
eagerly purchased by Dutch burgomasters as by royal 
and imperial collectors at Paris and Vienna; and 
Prior, beneath the oaks of Burghley, sang the praises 
of ''divine Jordain."* That he was a man of 
genius there can be no doubt, and had he lived in 
the better times of the sixteenth century, and acquired 

^ Dominici, torn. iii. p. 441. 

* Lines on a picture of Seneca, by Jordain. 



Faults of 
his style. 





His pic- 
tures in 

habits of accurate as well as diligent study, it is 
probable that he would stiU have been remembered 
as one of the greatest artists. Palomino has justly 
said of El Greco that what he did well, no man 
could do better, and what he did ill, was never done 
worse.^ On Giordano, Cean Bermudez passes an 
opposite, but equally true, judgment, that he has 
left nothing that is absolutely bad, and nothing that 
is perfectly good. His compositions always bear 
the marks of the fdrious haste in which they were 
painted, and they are disfigured in many cases by 
an incongruous association of pagan and Christian 
mythology, of history and allegory, a blemish as well 
of the literature as of the art of that age. In his 
groups and figures he delighted in strained and 
affected attitudes ; in the management of light and 
shade he loved glare and glitter ; and to the exhibi- 
tion of his power of contending with difficulties of 
drawing he too frequently sacrificed the harmony 
and repose of his works. Still he deserves praise 
for the fertility of his invention, for great force and 
richness of colour, and for a certain grandeur of 
conception and freedom of execution, which belong 
only to a great master. The Royal Gallery at Madrid 
possesses no less than fifty-five of his pictures — of 
all sizes, and on every variety of subject — a selection 

^ Palomino, torn. ilL p. 481. 


from the multitude which he left in the various ch.xiii. 
palaces of Charles II. Andromeda on the rock, 
Bathsheba at the bath, Erminia wandering in the 
woodlands of Jordan, Samson, Tumus, Tancred, and 
St. Anthony, are only a few of the personages whose 
doings or sufferings his pencil has there recorded. 
Besides original works there are a considerable 
number of the imitations for which he was so famous, 
large compositions painted in the manner of Rubens,^ 
and Bibera,' a portrait in the style of Bembrandt,' 
smaller pictures on copper in the style of the minor 
Flemish masters,^ and a group of boys cuffing one 
another over a disputed point at cards, executed 
with considerable care on the model of similar works 
by Nuflez de Villavicencio.* Although these imita- 
tive efforts axe not without merit, none of them are 
sufficiently successful to deceive a practised eye. 
Beneath the mask of Bubens or Bembrandt there is 
always some indication of the features of Luca 

Erancisquito was a Spaniard by birth, who became Fmncia. 


the disciple of Luca Giordano, at Madrid. That achoiarof 

^ Giordano. 

master entertained the highest opinion of his 
abilities, and was wont to say that he would one 

» Catdlogo [1843], No. 890 [1889, No. 211]. 

s Ibid. Na 802 [1889, No. 203]. 

» Ibid. No. nil [1889. No. 233]. 

* Ibid. Noe. 823 and 824 [1889, NO0. 194-5]. 

> Ibid. Na 1620 [1889, No. 234]. 




Jxuok Van- 

day become a better painter than himself. These 
hopes, however, were never realised, for Francis- 
quito died, in the flower of his age, in 1704, at 
Naples, whither he had accompanied his master. 
For the church of S*^ Lucia del Monte in that 
city, he painted a picture representing Pope St. 
Pasquale, a great church-builder and exhumer of 
holy corpses ; ^ and he left behind him some draw- 
ings, in pen and ink, much resembling, and hardly 
inferior to, those of his master.' 

Juan Yankesel was bom in Flanders in 1644, 
and learned painting from his father, the eminent 
flower-painter, whose name he bore^ and who had 
been a scholar of David Teniers. He came to 
Madrid in 1680. There, an historical picture and 
some family portraits painted for a Flemish patron 
residing in the Spanish capital, brought him into 
notice, and gained him the favour of the court 
After painting the portraits of various of the lords 
and ladies of the palace, he executed that of Queen 
Maria Louisa, in a style so highly satisfactory to her 
doting husband, that he was appointed painter-in- 
ordinary to the King on the 21st of April 1686. 
By the Queen's desire he painted in the northern 

^ RilMuleneiTa, Fleurs des Viet det SainU, torn. i. p. 602. Battista 
Platina, Hutoria delle vite dei sommi PowUfici, nella volgar/avella da 
Lueio Fauno tradoUa^ 4to, Yenetia, 1592, fol. lao. 

s Dominici, torn. iiL p. 442. 



gallery of the Alcazar a passage from the story of 
Cupid and Psyche, representing the amorous god 
leading his nymph into the bowers of celestial bliss. 
Having been engaged on this work for a consider- 
able time, he was at last required by the King 
to fix the day for its completion. He asked for 
six weeks, which, however, not proving sufficient, 
the delay provoked Charles into punning and 
sarcasm, for he remarked that Yankesel was still 
more phlegmatic than Flemish,^ and seemed to 
reckon by the weeks of Daniel, which the Jews 
held to be eternal in duration. He afterwards 
painted another scene from the same fable, Psyche 
in the wilderness, which was more generally admired 
than the other, because it contained wild animals 
and a landscape, subjects in which he excelled. 
He enjoyed the favour of Queen Mariana of Neu- 
burg, whose portrait, as well as that of her lord, 
he painted more than once. At the King's death, 
in 1700, he accompanied the widowed Queen to 
Toledo, with the intention of following her to 
Bayonne, but illness compelled him to return to 
Madrid. There he had the honour of painting the 
portrait of Philip V., but had not the satisfaction of 
fulfilling the expectations of the royal sitter. He 
died soon afterwards, in 1708. He was an excellent 

^ Flenieneo, phlegmatic ; Flamenco, Flemish, Palomino, torn, iii 
p. 715. 

OH. xni. 

Charles 11. 




John CIoi- 

painter of flowers and fruit, and he engraved one of 
his own works, a portrait of Vii^nio Provenzali. 
Notwithstanding his connection with the court, 
there is no specimen of his skill in the Royal Gallery 
of Spain. The Louvre has a portrait,^ attributed 
to him, of the Queen-dowager Mariana in her 
widow's weeds, and apparently sinking beneath the 
cruel malady of which she died.* After being 
painted in her youth by Velazquez,' and in her 
comely matronly days by Carreilo,* this poor princess 
found but an indifferent successor in Vankesel, at 
the time when a skilful hand was most needed, 
to restore somewhat of bloom to her cheek and 
light to her eyes. 

John Closterman ^ was son of a painter, and bom 
at Osnaburg, in 1656. He set out on his travels 
in 1679, and went to Paris, where he wrought as 
an assistant to the historical painter Frangois de 
Troy. Two years afterwards he came to England, 
and executed the draperies for the portraits of 
John Kiley. In 1696 he visited Spain, where he 
pourtrayed Charles II., Queen Mariana of Neuburg, 
some of their dwarfs, Stanhope the English am- 

1 GaL Eap., No 453 [sold 1853]. 

* Flores, Reynas Cathdlicasy torn. iL p. 969. 

' Supra, chap. iz. p. 774. * Infra, p. 1182. 

B Descamps, Peintres Flamands, <!«., torn. iiL p. 351, calls Mm N, 
CloysUrmanj but I prefer taking Walpole as my guide ; Work$t 5 vols. 
4to, London, 1798, vol. iii. p. 373. 



bassador,^ and other personages, and likewise wrote 
letters to Richard Graham,' describing the treasures 
of art at Madrid. Returning to Covent Garden, 
he had the honour of painting Queen Anne for the 
Guildhall of London, and many other celebrities 
of the day, amongst whom was John Dryden. In 
praise of that poet's portrait, Elsum, one of the 
dullest of the English followers of Martial, delivered 
himself of a pointless epigram, of which the con- 
cluding couplet may be taken as a specimen — 

" CloBterman, 'tis confest, haa drawn him well, 
Bat short of Abt'lom and AehitopheL" * 

Although Closterman's colouring was heavy and his 
style graceless, he was a favourite artist amongst 
the wearers of "wigs of Marlborough's martial 
fold," and no mean rival to Kneller himself. He 
died in 1710, of grief, it is said, at being robbed 
and deserted by his kept mistress. 

Fray Nicolas Busi was a German sculptor, brought 
to Spain by Don Juan of Austria. He was sculptor- 

* Mahon's Spain under Charles II., p. isa 

* Probably itte editor of the second edition of Dryden's translation of 
Bufresnoy, 8vo, London, 1716^ and author of the appended account of the 
most eminent painters, both ancient and modem. 

' JSpigrams upon the Paintings of the most eminent Mcuters^ Ancient 
and Modem, with Reflections upon the several Schools of Painting, by 
J. E. Esq., 8vo, London, 1700 ; Ep. clxir. p. 126. The work is sometimes, 
bnt most unjustly, ascribed to Evelyn. John Elsum was likewise author 
of The Art of Painting after the Italian Manner ^ Svo, London, 1704 ; 
but his prose is almost as heavy as his poetry. 








Painters of 





in-ordinary to Philip IV., whose portrait he executed, 
as well as that of his second Queen. Charles 11. gave 
him the cross of Santiago and a handsome pension. 

We come now to the native artists of Spain. 
Juan Carrefio de Miranda was bom at the town of 
Avil^s, in the principality of Asturias, on the 25 th 
of March 16 14. His parents were both of noble 
family, the name of his father being that which he 
himself, in due time, made distinguished, and that 
of his mother, Catalina Fernandez Bermudez. The 
Carrenos were eminent amongst the knights and 
nobles of Castile, so early as the reign of Don 
Sancho lY. In 1326 that monarch granted to 
Garci Fernandez Carreflo and his heirs for ever, 
the dress worn on Holy Thursday by the sovereign, 
a perquisite redeemed by the Emperor Charles V. 
by an annual payment of 11,200 maravedis, which 
was made within the present century to the Asturian 
family of Carbayedos, in which that of Cairefio 
had merged. The elder Carreno having a law-suit 
on hand, and being, besides, a place-hunter and a 
projector, repaired to Madrid in 1623, and in that 
year, and 1626, he printed three memorials setting 
forth a plan for improving the revenues of the 
Crown-property. His fortunes in the precarious 
life of a pretendiente ^ are not known ; but he seems 

^ Supra, chap. ix. p. 809. 



to have remained for several years in the capital. 

The yonng Juan, evincing an early inclination for 

art, vf^as placed in the school of Pedro de las 

Cuevas, where he learned to draw, and afterwards 

in that of Bartolom^ Boman, from whom he derived 

his instruction in the use of colours. In his 

twentieth year he painted some pictures for the 

cloisters of the college of DoiLa Maria of Aragon, 

and for the conventual church of the Bosary, which 

were favourably received by the public, rendered 

critical and fastidious by such artists as Carducho, 

Mayno, and Velazquez. 

It is uncertain whether CarreiLo passed the most 

active and important period of life, from twenty to 

forty, in the metropolis, or in his native province. 

In 1657, being chosen alcalde of the nobles in his 

native town of Avil^s, he declined the office on the 

plea of residence at Madrid. The year following, 

Madrid elected him to the same municipal post, and 

he was obliged to sacrifice a considerable portion of 

his time to the discharge of its duties. Velazquez 

becoming aware of the inconvenience to which he 

was put, and being ever ready to do a brother artist 

a good turn, obtained for him employment in the 

palace, which exempted from further official drudgery. 

In the hall of mirrors in the Alcazar, he began to 

paint in fresco the fable of Vulcan and Pandora, 

but being attacked by illness, the work was finished 
VOL. m. z 


CiTio potts. 

good em- 
at the 




painter to 
the King. 


by Rizi. Some years afterwards, however, the roof 
of the hall being damaged by rain, he repainted the 
story in oil, so much to the satisfaction of Philip IV., 
that he was appointed one of the royal painters 
before the death of that monarch.^ Perhaps he 
owed his promotion, in some degree, to a work 
which he had painted in the vaults of Our Lady of 
Atocha. The subject was the "Dream of Pope 
Honorius III.," wherein that pontifiF beheld his 
church of St. John Lateran tottering to its fall, but 
miraculously supported by the holy Dominic and 
Francis, a piece of visionary service for which he is 
said to have confirmed the two famous monastic 
orders still known by their names. The Bolognese 
painter, Colonna,* was so struck with the genius 
displayed by this fresco, that on being asked by 
Philip IV. whom he considered the best painter at 
Madrid, he gave his voice in favour of CarreiLo.' 

He seems to have gained a considerable reputa- 
tion as an artist in the capital before he obtained a 
footing at court. The churches of San Martin, San 
Juan, and San Gines, and the chapels of the Ber- 
nardine, Franciscan, and Carmelite nunneries, and 

* Cean Bennndei, departing from bis n^nal aocuney, infonnB ub tbat 
Philip IV. » "le hiio la meroed de nombrarle sa pintor en 27 de Sep- 
tiembre de 1669." Pbilip died in 1665. The appointment probably took 
place in 1660, after tbe death of Velazqnez. 

* Sapia, chap. tiiL p. 661. * Palomino, torn. iiL p. 619. 


many other convents, were adorned with his works. 
To the chapel of San Isidro, in the chnrch df San 
Andres, he furnished two large pictures, represent- 
ing passages in the life of that holy husbandman, to 
the illustration of whose history, in the same place, 
the rapid pencil of the younger Kizi had likewise 
contributed.^ The first represented the patron of 
Madrid, like another Moses, opening a miraculous 
fountain with his sheep-hook, to quench the thirst 
of his master, Ivan de Vargas ; ' the second, the mani- 
festation of the saint's precious and fragrant corpse 
to King Alonso VIII.' Both have been highly 
praised by Palomino ; * and the former was toler- 
ably engraved by that historian's nephew, Juan 
Palomino, in 1760. For the parish churches of 
Orgas and Alcorcon, he painted two large pictures 
of the Assumption of the Virgin ; and for the 
chapel of the noble family of the Bracamonte, 
in the church of PeiLaranda, a composition from 
the exemplary life of S*^ Isabel, Infanta of Aragon 
and Queen of Portugal, grand-niece and rival of 
the holy Princess of Hungary.^ Carreflo's works 
were not confined to the capital, but were to be 

> Snpra, chap. z. p. 837. * YiUegas, Flos Sanctorum, p^ 843. 

s Ibid. p. 845. * Palomino, torn. iiL p. 618. 

' Supra, chap. xiL p. 1025. Joan. Tamayo Salazar, Anamnesis, sive 
eommemoratio Sanctorum Hispanorum, 6 torn. foL Lugdnni, 1656, torn, 
iv. p. 14. 





Works at 

found at Almeida, AlcaM de Henares, Segovia, 
and other towns of Castile. Pamplona also possessed 
a fine specimen of his religious painting in a large 
altar-piece in the convent of Trinitarian friars, which 
being painted to be seen from a distance, was at 
first condemned by the ignorant fathers, like the 
great Virgin of Murillo by the Franciscans of 

In 1665 Carrefio was employed, as we have 
already seen,' in conjunction with Francisco Bizi, 
in executing certain works for the Cathedral of 
Toledo. For that venerable temple he likewise 
assisted the same artist in 1671 to paint the monu- 
ment for the Holy Week, and he was also his 
associate in decorating with frescoes the dome of 
the church of St. Anthony of the Portuguese at 
Madrid. On the nth of April 1671, on the death 
of Herrera-Bamuevo, he was appointed painter-in- 
ordinary and deputy- Aposentador to the young King, 
with whom he became a great favourite. He was 
painting his Majesty's portrait one day in the 
presence of the Queen-mother, when the royal sitter 
asked him to which of the knightly orders he 
belonged. "To none," replied the artist, "but the 
order of your Majesty's servants." "Why is this?" 
said Charles. The Admiral of Castile, who was 

^ Supra, chap, zil p. 1078. 

' Ibid. chap. x. p. 835. 




standing by, promptly replied that he should have a 
cross immediately, and on leaving the royal presence, 
sent CarreiLo a rich badge of Santiago, assuring him 
that vehat the King had said entitled him to wear 
it. The artist's diffidence and modesty, according 
to Palomino,^ or some other cause, prevented him 
from accepting the proffered distinction. His royal 
master continued to treat him with unabated re- 
gard, and, following the example of Philip IV. in 
his conduct to Velazquez, would allow no artist 
to paint his sallow countenance without CarreiLo's 

Most of the distinguished personages of the first 
half of this reign were pourtrayed by Carrefio. He 
painted the King himself frequently in his boyhood, 
and two of his early portraits are in the Royal 
Gallery at Madrid, and there is one at Hampton 
Court* which is probably from his easel. During 
the negotiations for his Majesty's first marriage he 
painted him armed and on horseback, to be sent to 
France for the inspection of Louis XIV. and the 
expectant bride. Mademoiselle d'Orleans, of whom 
also he executed an equestrian portrait soon after 
her arrival in Spain. He frequently pourtrayed the 
fine face of Don Juan of Austria, of whom Lord 



^ Palomino, torn, iii p. 62a 

* Where it is ascribed to Mrnillo, aa absud mistake» bat of a Idnd of 
which that collection has many examples. 


CH.xni. Clarendon^ possesses a good portrait by Carreflo. 
The Queen-dowager Mariana was likewise often 
his sitter, and, in his picture in the Queen of Spain's 
gallery,* she is far more interesting in her widow's 
weeds, than in the butterfly garb in which she 
flaunts on the canvas of Velazquez. He also painted 
her handsome paramour, Valenzuela, Marquess of 
Villa Sierra; Benavides, Patriarch of the Indies ; and 
Cardinal Sabas Milini, papal nuncio at the court of 
Madrid. He was, likewise, fortunate in a subject 
which did not generally fall to the lot of a Castilian 
painter, in Bishop Peter Ivanowitz Potemkin, the 
long-bearded ambassador of the Czar of Muscovy, 
probably Feodor II., who appeared at Madrid about 
1682, and whose full-length portrait, in red robes, 
still exists in the Royal Gallery of Spain.* That 
collection likewise possesses his curious study of a 
female dwarf* of monstrous obesity, with her person 
encased in a gaudy flowered dress, and with an 
apple in each hand. This uncouth "bundle of 
flesh," to borrow the graphic words of the Mar- 
gravine of Baireuth,* is said, by Palomino, to 
have served Carreiio as the model for the figure 
of Bacchus, which, being popular, was multiplied 

^ At No. I Grosyenor Ciescent. * Catdlogo, No. 85. 

' Ibid. No. 517. * Ibid. No. 124. 

' She deflcribes the two fat maids of honour of the MaignTine of 
Erlangen, as ** deux paquets de chair.^ Memoires, torn. iL p. 74. 


1 183 

by copyists, and seems to have been attributed to 

Carreno died at Madrid, in September 1685, aged 
72, and was buried in the conventual church of San 
Gil. He was greatly regretted, as well by his fellow- 
artists and numerous disciples as by the King, who 
continued his allowances &om the privy purse to his 
widow, Dofia Maria de Medina. With the post he 
seems to have been endowed with the kindly dis- 
position of Velazquez. The following anecdote, 
preserved by Palomino, exemplifies his ready good- 
nature. One Gregorio Utande, an obscure artist of 
Alcaic de Henares, had painted for the Carmelite 
nuns of that town a picture of the " Martyrdom of 
St. Andrew." The price which he demanded, 100 
ducats, appearing exorbitant to the prudent sister- 
hood, it was agreed that he should take the work 
to Madrid, to be valued by Herrera-Bamuevo and 
Caireiio. On reaching the capital, however, the 
cunning artist called on the latter, and, without 
explaining the object of his journey, begged him to 
accept of a jar of honey and retouch his St. Andrew. 
Carreno kindly complied, and in fietct repainted the 
picture, which, to his astonishment, he was a few 
days afterwards called upon to value. He, therefore, 
declined the task, on the plea of his intimacy with 


Death and 


^ Sapra, ohap. iz. p. 732, note 3. 



caxm. the author, and left the matter to Herrera, who 
pronounced the fair price to be 2CX3 ducats. Utande 
went his way rejoicing, and appears to have received 
the money and divulged his trick, for the picture was 
long known at Alcald and in the nunnery as la Canr 
tarUla de miel, or " the jar of honey." Lampooned 
by Herrera the younger for performing a duty which 
that turbulent artist chose to consider as an infringe- 
ment of his rights,^ Carreiko displayed all the for- 
bearance and equanimity of Murillo.^ No man, 
indeed, was less disposed lightly to take offence. 
Palomino was one day in company with him at the 
house of Don Pedro de Arce, when a discussion 
arose as to the painter of a certain copy of Titian's 
St. Maigaret, which hung in the room, and which 
all present voted execrable. '^It at least has the 
merit," said CarreiLo quietly, "of showing that no 
man need despair of improving in art, for I painted 
it myself when I was a beginner.'* * An anecdote is 
also told of the abstraction of mind with which he 
pursued his labours. Being at his easel one morn- 
ing with two friends, one of them, for a jest, drank 
the cup of chocolate which stood untasted by his 
side. The maid-servant removing the cup, Caireflo 
remonstrated, saying he had not yet breakfasted. 

^ Supra, ohap. xiL p. 1113. 

* Palomino^ torn, iii p. 62a 

* Ibid, pi 1069. 



and on being shown that the contents were gone, ch.xiii. 
appealed to the visitors. Being gravely assured by 
them that he had actually emptied the cup with his 
own lips, he replied : " Well, really I was so busy 
that I had entirely forgotten it."^ Palomino has 
a story of a different complexion, in which he seems, 
by a slip of the pen, to have substituted the name 
of Garrefio for one of the hot-tempered Herreras. 
In his remarks on the maulstick,' he cautions his 
professional readers against having that implement 
made too thick, because Carreiio once broke a 
scholar's arm by a blow of the heavy staff, which 
he used like Giordano,' for the double purpose of 
supporting his wrist and maintaining order in his 
school When the lad's father complained of this 
more than Spartan discipline, the good-natured 
absent artist is said to have aggravated the outrage 
by seeking to excuse himself by a pun.' 

Garrefio deservedly held a high place amongst the style. 
artists of this reign. His religious compositions 
were highly esteemed, and he was particularly sue- 

^ So Dr. Stalcely, a wag of the Royal Society, ate up Newton's roast 
fowL "How absent we philosophers are/' said Sir Isaac, uncoyering 
the dish which contained the bones ; *< I really thonght I had not dined ! " 
Sir David Brewster's Lift of NewUm^ sm. Svo, London, 1831, p. 341, 

* Palomino, torn. ii. p. 44. * Supra, p. 1168. 

^ "I was yery unlucky/' he said, ''for the blow was given with the 
greatest tientOf caution." Tienio also means maulstick. 



Diego Gon- 

cessful in his delineations ^ of the Immacnlate Con- 
ception,' that fascinating mystery in honour of 
which the Castilian ambassador chastised a Moorish 
cavalier in the Alhambra,' and the first book, printed 
in Spain, issued from the press of Valencia.* His 
portraits are easy and life-like, and not unworthy 
of the walls gemmed with the productions of 
Velazquez. He drew correctly, and coloured in a 
style which recalls the soft and harmonious tints 
of Vandyck. A print of St. Anthony of Padua, 
with the Infant Jesus, about six inches high, has 
been ascribed to his graver. A portrait of Carreno, 
painted by himself, was in the collection of Don 
Gaspar de Jovellanos, and was engraved by a pupil 
of Juan Falomina 

Diego Gonzalez de la Vega was bom in 1622, 
at Madrid, where he learnt to paint under Francisco 
Rizi. After marrying and becoming a widower, 
he took priest's orders, but without relinquishing 
the use of his pencil. For the Society of Advocates 
he executed two large pictures, representing Our 
Lord going to Calvary, and His descent from the 
cross, which were placed in the Imperial College. 

^ Palomino, torn, iii p. 62a ' Sapra, chap. ziL p. 1074. 

> Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, toL L p. 418. 

^ Certamen poetieh en lohor de la Coneecio, 4to, VaL, 1474, for an 
acoount of which see Fray Franciaco Mendezi Tj^pographia Espatiola, 
8yo, Valencia, 1786, p. 56. 


1 187 

He painted other works for the Franciscan friars, 
and for the nuns of Don Juan de Alarcon; but 
the principal part of this picture which he left 
behind him belonged to the convent of the 
Saviour, in which he resided for a considerable 
time. Thence he removed to the hospital of the 
Italians, where he was remarkable for his strict 
performance of his religious functions, and where 
he died on the 23rd of June 1697. I^ ^^^ convent 
of the Saviour he founded a chaplaincy of fifty 
ducats yearly, of which the fathers allowed a sister 
who survived him to enjoy the fruits during her 
life. His works are feeble, wanting energy both 
in drawing and colouring. 

Alonso del Arco was bom at Madrid in 1625, 
and was generally known as el Sardillo of Pereda, 
because he was bom deaf and dumb, and because 
he learned to paint in the school of that fine 
master.^ Benefiting, perhaps, by the system of 
instruction invented by Bonet, the forerunner of 
L'fip^e,* he acquired, as he grew up, the power of 
articulating words, but his utterance was always 
slow, and painful both to himself and those whom 
he conversed with.' He displayed considerable 
fidelity and skill in portraiture; and he executed 

^ Supra, chap. z. p. 839. ' Ibid. chap. v. p. 300, note 2. 

* Palomino, torn. iiL p. 67a 


Alonso del 



CH.xnL his works so rapidly that he was much employed 
in painting those ephemeral pictures which adorned 
the triumphal arches erected for royal entries, 
churches during canonisations, or catafalques at 
great funerals. His studio, which was managed, 
says Palomino, by his wife,^ was a busy manufactory 
of such works, executed by his scholars from prints, 
and finally retouched by himsel£ In his old age 
his business declined, and he died in I7cx> so poor, 
that the Marquess of Santiago made a proyision 
for his widow, and placed his two daughters in a 
nunnery. His works, in general very hastily exe- 
cuted, and possessing little merit, were so numerous 
in the convents of Madrid, that the curious can 
hardly fail to find some of them in the National 
Museum. In the sacristy of the church of St 
Justo y Pastoral, AlcaU de Henares, there is a small 
and poor picture by him representing " Our Lady of 
the Conception ; " and the Academy of San Fernando 
at Madrid has a better specimen of his skill in a 
picture of the infant Saviour asleep on a cross, 
perhaps the same which once hung in the cell of 
Father Flores in the convent of St Felipe el Real. 
The portrait of the deaf painter, executed by him- 
self, was formerly in the collection of Don Bernardo 

^ Palomino, torn. iiL p. 671 



Antonio de Castrejon, bom at Madrid in 1625, 
was a scholar of Francisco Fernandez, and a painter 
whose colouring possessed some merit His best 
works were of a small size, although he sometimes 
executed large altar-pieces, such as the '* Martyrdom 
of S*^ Lucia/' the Sicilian maid of Zaragoza who 
owed her martyr^s crown to the spite of a rejected 
lover,^ which hung in the church of St. Felipe el 
Beal until the fire of 1 718. He occasionally painted 
the figures in the architectural pictures of Boque 
Ponce, a decorative artist of some repute, and some- 
times executed small subjects within flower-garlands 
by Gabriel de la Corte. Dying at Madrid in 1690, 
he was buried in the church of San Louis. 

Francisco Perez Sierra was son of a gentleman 
of Gibraltar, who followed the career of arms in 
the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and married the 
daughter of the governor of Calabria. Bom at 
Naples in 1627, he discovered an early inclination 
for art, and was placed in the school of A niello 
Falcone, the battle-painter, where he spent all the 
time he could spare &om his duties as page to 
Don Diego de la Torre, secretary to the council of 
S*^ Clara. He afterwards followed this patron to 
Madrid, where he became the disciple of the military 
artist Juan de Toledo.' Having thus learned to 

^ YillegaB, Flos Sanctorum, p. 58a 

* Sapia, chap. xL p. 973. 


Antonio de 




1 190 




paint battles and landscapes with facility, he quitted 
the service of La Torre, and, marrying Dofia Monica 
de los Rios, established himself as a painter. 

The younger Bizi, and Carrefio, esteeming his 
abilities, obtained for him some employment in the 
palace of the Marquess of Heliche, and in the church 
of the nuns of San Placido. Don Diego de la 
Torre, besides causing him to make a number of 
copies from works of Bibera, which he had brought 
from Naples, employed him to paint a series of saints 
for a chapel which he had founded in the conventual 
church of the Angels. For that church he likewise 
executed the paintings of a grand temporary monu- 
ment and of a triumphal car, constructed in honour 
of the admission of S*^ Rosa of Lima to the honours 
of the Calendar in 1671. This flower of sanctity, 
"whose fragrance has filled the whole Christian 
world," * is the chief patroness of America, the S*^ 
Teresa of transatlantic Spain. Her story, presenting 
many scenes attractive to the pencil, soon became a 
favourite subject with friars and painters. Not even 
Nicolas Factor was more ingenious in the art of self- 
torture. Her usual food was a herb bitter as worm- 
wood, and she frequently prefaced her meals by 
anointing her palate with gall. When compelled by 

* Vtda de la Gloriosa Virgen Dominicana Santa Rosa de 5** Marian 
Natural de Lima, i patron principal de las Americas, escrita por el 
Sefior Dr. D. Joa6 Manuel Bermudez ; 4to, Lima, 1827, p. 5. 



her mother to wear a wreath of roses, she so adjusted 
it on her brow that it became a crown of thorns. 
Rejecting a host of suitors, she destroyed the lovely 
complexion to which she owed her name by an 
application of pepper and quicklime.^ But she was 
also a noble example of filial devotion, and main- 
tained her once wealthy parents, fallen on evil days, 
by the labour of her hands. She died in 161 7, in 
the third order of St Dominic, and in the odour of 
sanctity.* Perez Sierra afterwards painted another 
altar, erected for a similar purpose, in the church of 
the Franciscans, on occasion of a festival in honour 
of their patron saint. 

Appointed under Charles II. to the office of 
general manager of prisons, he relinquished art as 
a profession, but he continued to amuse his leisure 
by painting flowers, for which a garden, attached to 
his house in the Calle de las Infantas, afforded a 
ready supply of models. These flower-pieces became 
popular with the public at Madrid, and some of 
them found their way into the galleries of Buen- 
retiro. Diego de Naxera wrote a poetical romance 
in their praise, in which he professed his inability 
to decide on the relative merits of Nature's floral 

* Vida de la Gloriosa Virgen Dominicana Santa Rosa de S*^ Maria, 
Natural de Lima, % patron principal de las Americas, escritA por el 
Sefior Dr. D. Jos^ Manuel Bermndez ; 4to, Lima, 1827, pp. 44, 45. 

' Interian de Ayala, Pictor Christianus Eruditus, p. 344 ; and Bio- 
graphic Universelle, torn, xzxix. p. 16. 



1 192 


CH, zm. 



productions, and his friend's.^ In his old age he 
was seized with palsy, which incapacitated him 
during the last years of his life from using the 
pencil, and finally carried him off in 1709. He 
was buried in the church of the Capuchins of La 
Paciencia, whose chapel of Our Lord he made his 
heir, a chapel which already possessed two of his 
works, his own portrait, and a picture of '* Our Lady 
of Solitude," 

Claudio Coello, one of the last of the great artists 
of Castile, was bom at Madrid, in what year is un- 
certain, but probably between 1630 and 1640. He 
was the son of Faustino Coello, a Portuguese sculp- 
tor in bronze, who, wishing for his assistance in his 
own craft, sent him to leam drawing in the school 
of Rizi the younger. Struck by the ability of this 
foreign scholar, Bizi persuaded the father to allow 
him to devote himself to painting ; and, in a short 
time, the young Portuguese, possessing no less 
industry than talent, outstripped all his compeers. 
His master used to find him hard at work with his 
pencil, both late and early, and was wont to say 
that he needed the rein rather than the spur. A 
friar, to whom he had been dilating on the merits 
of Coello, onc6 remarked that the lad's countenance 
showed little genius. " Ah ! father," said Rizi, " the 

^ Palomino, torn, ill p. 71 8w 



metal before the stamp ! '' And the event justified 
his expectations. Still, says Palomino, the £riar was 
partly in the right, for although he had an ample 
brow, and eyes full of thought and speculaition, his 
face was not pleasing, but rather heavy and melan- 
choly. Whilst still in the school of Bizi he was 
employed to paint various altar-pieces for the nuns 
of San Placido, the possessors of Velazquez's " Cruci- 
fixion," ^ and for the parish churches of San Andres 
and Santa Cruz. Those for the latter church, repre- 
senting the Incarnation of the Word, and John the 
Baptist and his father Zacharias, were so highly 
esteemed by Bizi, that he offered to let them pass 
for his own, that they might command a better price. 
This ofier Coello, however, honourably declined, pre- 
ferring honest fame to filthy lucre. 

He afterwards formed an intimate friendship with 
Carreiio, who, aft^ painter to the King, was able to 
procure for him permission to study in the galleries 
of the Alcazar. There he spent some time in copy- 
ing various works of Titian, Bubens, and Vandyck, 
an exercise which greatly improved his style of 
colouring. He next entered into an artistic partner- 
ship with Ximenez Donoso, a painter who had just 
returned from Italy. Amongst the jpint works 
which they undertook at Madrid, were frescoes, in 


of Carrefio. 

^ Sapra, chap. ix. p. 727. 

VOL. m 

2 A 



CH. xin. 



entry to 

the church of S*^ Cruz, which, with some other 
works of Coello, perished by fire early in the 
eighteenth century ; and other frescoes in the chapel 
of Our Lord and St. Ignatius in the church of San 
Isidro el Real, and in the churches of the Trinity 
and St. Basilio. In the Alcazar they painted the 
ceiling of a hall in the Queen's tower. At Toledo 
they executed the frescoes on the roof of the vestry 
of the Cathedral; and the Carthusians of Paular 
employed them to paint a series of pictures illus- 
trative of the history of the order for the conventual 

On occasion of Queen Maria Louisa's public entry 
into Madrid, they had the honour of superintending 
the artistic arrangements for that ceremonial, which 
may still be beheld in the graphic pages of Madame 
d'Aulnoy.^ From the palace of Buenretiro to the 
tapestried court of the venerable Alcazar, the way 
was spanned by many triumphal arches, painted with 
allegories and trophies, and bordered with galleries 
and pavilions gay with gilt statues and emblematical 
pictures. As the young Queen rode along, radiant 
in beauty and diamonds, through bands of nymphs 
scattering flowers in her path, her eye fell on figures 
representing the virtues of her character, and on 
pictured scenes of the Golden Age which was sup- 

^ Voyage, torn. iiL pp. 214-220. 



posed to be returning in her train. Ooello's most 
elaborate works were a great arch on the Prado and 
the pavilions between which it was approached, 
works which were considered of sufficient value to 
be commemorated by the graver. His paintings 
which adorned these edifices represented the king- 
doms and provinces of Spain offering votive crowns 
and garlands to the royal bride. He likewise gave 
designs for a series of pictures of the labours of 
Hercules, which were executed by Francisco de 

In 1683 he was called to Zaragoza by the Arch- 
bishop Francisco de Gamia to paint the vaults and 
dome of the collegiate church of the Augustines, 
a work which occupied him a year. At his return 
to Madrid he was appointed, on the 24th of March 
1684, to the post of painter to the King, vacant 
by the death of Dionisio Mantuano.^ At first no 
salary was attached to this distinction. But on the 
23rd of January 1686, he succeeded the younger 
Herrera as painter - in - ordinary, with the usual 
emoluments, and also received the key of cham- 
berlain, and the monthly allowance of 20 ducats 
formerly enjoyed by his friend Carrefio de Miranda. 
The post of deputy-Aposentador was afterwards 
conferred upon him, with certain allowances from 



Pointer to 
the KiDg. 

* Sapra, p. 1145. 




Piotare of 
the "Ado- 
ntion of 
the Santa 
Forma "at 

the privy purse, and a pension of 300 ducats was 
granted to his son Bernardino. 

At the death of the younger Rizi, in 1685, the 
altar of the Santa Forma in the great sacristy of the 
Escorial was left unfinished. The legend of this 
wondrous wafer has been already related.^ By 
some it is said that Charles II. erected its altar in 
token of gratitude for John Sobieski's victory over 
the Turk beneath the walls of Vienna, by others, 
in expiation of the violence done to the sanctuary 
of St. Lawrence, when Valenzuela was dragged from 
his lurking-place behind the wainscot of the prior's 
cell.' Bizi had completed the paltry retablo, and 
he left a sketch for a picture to serve as a veil to the 
sanguifluous Host. This sketch Coello was required 
to finish ; but on expressing his dissatisfaction with 
the plan, he was permitted to lay it aside and com* 
mence an original work. The difiiculties with 
which he had to contend were considerable. His 
canvas was six yards high by only three wide, and 
his subject nothing more nor less than Charles II. 
and his court receiving the sacerdotal benediction at 
the dedication of the altar. From these unpromis- 
ing materials he produced a work of great power 
and splendour, and one of the most interesting 

^ Supra, chap. x. p. 835. 

' Sapra, p. 1126 ; Dunlop's Memoirs^ vol. ii. p. lao.- 



pictures which has been spared to the desolate 
Escorial. The King and his principal courtiers are 
represented kneeling before the altar adoring the 
holy Host, which is held up by the officiating prior. 
Around that dignitary are grouped his assistant 
priests; in the distance are seen the Jeronymite 
friarsi drawn up in processional order, the students 
of the college, and the boys of the choir, chaunting 
under the orders of the chapel-master, while above 
hover three allegorical figures, representing Reli- 
gion, Piety, and the house of Austria, in contem- 
plation of the splendid scene. The picture contains, 
it is said, no less than fifty portraits, to most of 
which, unfortunately, there now exists no key. The 
King himself, gazing at the mysterious relic with 
a face of foolish awe, is evidently pourtrayed to the 
very life. Near him kneel the Duke of Medina- 
celi, a prime minister almost as weak as his master, 
his rival the Duke of Pastrana, grand-huntsman, 
the Count of Bancs, master of the horse, and the 
Marquess of La Puebla, gentleman of the chamber. 
The astute-looking prior is said to be Francisco de 
los Santos, the historian of the Escorial. Nothing 
can be more brilliant and masterly than the exe- 
cution of the rich robes of the churchmen, and the 
more sober suits of the laity. The latter do not 
wear the rufi", a fact which marks, says Cean 
Bermudez, the epoch at which that time-honoured 

CH. xm. 





piece of a Castilian hidalgo's costume began to 
yield to the Transpyrenean cravat. In spite of the 
King's anti-Oallican prejudices this innoyation 
seems to haye had its origin on his own most 
Catholic person, for Madame d'Aulnoy records that 
a cravat of fine lace was one of the earliest gifts 
of his French Queen, and that when he wore it at 
their first interview, its adjustment did no credit to 
his valet.* The portable organ of Charles V.,* the 
crucifix, the candlesticks, and the other accessories 
of the ceremonial, are all painted with great care, 
and are, many of them, interesting as records of 
precious things that were before the coming of the 

The picture was received vrith great applause. 
The King being highly satisfied with his portrait, 
by the advice of the Count of Benavente, had named 
Coello to the place of painter-in-ordinary, as has 
been already related,* before the completion of the 
work. The careless haste of Rizi not having de- 
scended to his disciple he was employed on this 
elaborate altar-piece for more than two years. Fart 

^ VoyagCf torn. iiL p. 212. 

* He is said to have carried it with him in his expedition to Tunis. 
In 1787 the author of Vathek was charmed with the delidoas sweetness 
of the tones which he drew from it^ in spite of the forbidding looks of 
"the sonr-Tisaged prior." Beckford's LeUers, fcap. Sto^ London, 1S4Q, 
p. 323 [2 vols. 8vo, London, 1834, vol. ii. p. 320} 

» Supra, p. 1 195- 


1 199 

of that time, indeed, he passed at Madrid, designing 
a fresco for the ceiling of the northern gallery of the 
Alcazar. The subject was the fable of Cupid and 
Psyche; his assistant, chosen by himself, was his 
future biographer, Palomino. Having executed cer- 
tain portions of the work together, Palomino carried 
it on alone, and Coello returned to the Escorial. 

For some years Coello reigned supreme amongst 
the artists of the court and capital. He had the 
honour of pourtraying the Queen-dowager, Queen 
Mariana of Neuburg, and most of the great person- 
ages of the realm, and he was besides the keeper of 
the royal picture-galleries. In 1691, the Chapter of 
Toledo appointed him to the post of painter to that 
Cathedral. The year following, however, brought a 
mortification which more than counterbalanced these 
honours, a triumphant rival in the person of Gior- 
dano. The painter of the *' Adoration of the Santa 
Forma" conceived, with some justice, that to him of 
right belonged the glory of embellishing the vvalls 
and domes of the Escorial. On finding himself 
eclipsed by the Neapolitan, he threw aside his pencil 
in disgust; and it was only at the urgent entreaty 
of Father Matilla, the King's confessor, that he 
consented to finish a " Martyrdom of St. Stephen," 
which that Dominican had ordered for his convent 
at Salamanca* This picture, Coello's last work, was 
carried by some of his friends to the Alcazar, where 



Eclipsed by 





Style and 
merits aa a 

it was highly admired by the courtiers, and by Luca 
Fa-presto himself. Not even a rival's praise, how- 
ever, "Could heal the wounded spirit of the Castilian, 
who, naturally of a jealous temper, 

" Bore, like the Turk, no brother near the throne," 

or, at least, had been too long the chief favourite to 
be content with the second place. Disappointment at 
length engendered disease, and he died on the 28th 
of Ajml 1693. He was buried in the church of San 
Andres, and his pension from the privy purse was 
continued to his widow, Dofia Bemarda de la Torre. 
Don Cristobal OntaiLon, before his friend Gior- 
dano appeared at Madrid, remarked to Coello, that 
when he came he would teach the Castilian artists 
how to get rich. " Yes," said Coello, " and also how 
to be content with our faults and get rid of our 
scruples," a reply which showed how correctly he 
appreciated the style of his dashing rival. He him* 
self set a quite opposite and far more wholesome 
example to his brethren, sparing neither time nor 
labour on his works. His reputation, says Cean 
Bermudez, has suffered by his frescoes, which were 
generally painted hastily, and in conjunction with 
artists of inferior abilities. But his oil-pictures 
exhibit the most anxious care, and with much of 
Cano's grace in drawing, they have also somewhat of 
the rich tones of Murillo, and the magical effect of 



Velazquez. The picture in the altar of the Santa 
Forma at the Escorial, is, without question, his 
masterpiece. The Royal Gallery of Madrid has, like- 
wise, two large compositions of great merit. One ^ 
represents the Blessed Virgin, enthroned and sur- 
rounded by impersonations of the virtues, and pre- 
senting her Divine babe to the adoration of the 
Baptist, St Francis, St. Michael, and St Anthony of 
Padua. In the other,' which is the finest, the Blessed 
Mary, seated beneath a portico, receives the homage 
of St. Louis, St Isabel, and other saints. The royal 
crusader lays his sword at the feet of the Virgin, and 
the good Duchess of Thuringia ^ offers a basket of 
fruit and flowers to the Infant Redeemer. Near 
them are two beautiful singing cherubs, and the 
picture is rich with draperies of gorgeous stuffs. 

The sketches of Coello, chiefly executed in black 
crayons, or with the pen, were highly esteemed by 
artists and collectors. A few of them may be 
seen in the Louvre.* He was the author of three 
etchings from his own works, portraits of Charles II. 
and one of .his Queens, and a Crucifixion, with 
the Virgin, S*^ Monica, and her son St Augus- 
tine standing at the foot of the cross, from a 

CH. xni. 

and en- 

^ Catdlogo [1843I No. 224 [edition 1889, No. 701]. 

' Ibid. No. 306 [edition 1889, Na 702]. 

' Supra, chap. xii. p. 1025. 

« Collection Standish, Noa 384-387 [sold 1853]. 



CH. xm. 




His works. 

picture in the church of the Augustine nunnery 
at Madrid. 

Juan Ximenez Donoso was bom at Gonsuegra 
in i628» and was taught painting by his fatheii, 
Antonio. Visiting Madrid, he studied for a short 
time in the school of Francisco Fernandez.^ At 
the death of that master he went to Rome, and 
acquired the art of painting in £resco, but more 
especially devoted himself to architecture, in which, 
doing as the Bomans did, he imbibed the declin- 
ing taste of the times. In seven years he returned 
to Madrid, and finished his artistic education by 
practising oil-painting for a while in the school 
of Carrefio. 

He afterwards went to Valencia, where he painted 
two large pictures for the shod fiiars of Mercy, 
and thence to Segorbe to paint a series of works 
representing Our Lady, the Adoration of the 
Kings, Christ betrayed in the Garden, St. John 
Baptist and St. Bruno, for the Chartreuse of Valde- 
cristo. On his return to Madrid he married Dona 
Isabel Moraleda, and formed an intimate friendship 
with the painter Claudio Coello, with whom he 
painted in the chapel and at Toledo the joint works 
which have already been enumerated.^ Many 
works, however, he executed alone, such as the 

* Supra, chap. x. p. 846. 

• Snpra, p. 1193. 



picture of the high-altax of the church of San Felipe 
Neriy afterwards demolished, six pictures for the 
cloisters of the Benedictines of San Martin, repre- 
senting passages from the life of the patron saint of 
their order, 

^ MoDastioo pimeipe y monarea 
De todo el Occidente patriarca,'' ^ 

and a "Virgin of the Conception" for the church 
of San Nicolas, which Palomino considered his best 

Great part of Donoso's time was devoted to the 
practice of architecture, in which he seems to have 
possessed as bad taste as Herrera the younger, and 
to have met with still greater success. At Madrid 
he designed the portal of the church of S*^ Cruz, 
the tomb of the Marquess of Mejorada in the 
Recolete church, the cloister of the college of St 
Thomas, the high-altars of the churches of Victory 
and the Trinity, works which obtained him so 
much credit that he was appointed, on the 13th of 
August 1685, master of the works to the Cathedral 
of Toledo. And the day after, the Chapter enhanced 
the obligation by naming him their principal painter 
in the room of the deceased Francisco Kizi.* Not- 



^ Fr. Nicolas Bravo, Benedictina, en que irata la milagrosa vida del 
glorioao S, BenitOy canto i, 4to, Balamanoa, 1604, p. 2. 
' Palomino, torn, iii p. 629. 
' I may here correct one of the few slips of Cean Bermndez's pen. He 





of bim. 

withstanding these appointments, Cean Bermudez 
does not notice any contribution, either in painting 
or architecture, made by Donoso to the venerable 
Cathedral* His last work was the plan of the 
church of San Luis at Madrid, for which he was 
painting a fresco in the chapel of the noble family 
of Canillejas, when he was struck with apoplexy. 
Carried to his own house, he died shortly after- 
wards, intestate, on the 14th of September 1690, 
and was buried in the church of San Gines. 

He left, says Palomino, a manuscript work on the 
art of hewing stone, and many papers on archi- 
tecture and the theory of perspective, which, never 
having been printed, have doubtless gone the way 
of many better things. One of Donoso's chief 
troubles in life was, that he could not get appointed 
painter to the King, a disappointment under which 
he adopted the philosophy of ^sop's grape-rejecting 
fox. Being asked one day if he had yet obtained 
that honour, he replied, ** I am not quite fallen so 
low as that, and I hope that you will not think so 
meanly of me as to suppose it." Palomino, who 
loves a pun or conceit, preserves another jest of the 
day, at the expense of the painter. Calling one 
day on Claudio Coello, and not finding him at home. 

says, Diceionario, torn. tL p. ii» that the place had remained unfilled 
since the death of Rizi, in 1653, a statement contradicted by himself in 
his life of that artist, tom. iv. pp. 204, 206. 


he left bis name with the maid, who forgot it before c h. xii i. 

her master returned. All she could remember was 

that it began with JDon, and ended with the name 

of a wild beast Coello suggested Icon, tigre, and 

at last 080 f bear. " Si, Senor" said the damsel, *' Oso 

con Don ; " and Donoso was accordingly nicknamed 

amongst his familiars Don Oso or Sir Bruin.^ 

Francisco de Solis was bom in the parish of San Frandaoo 

^ deSolia. 

Gines, at Madrid, in 1629. His father, Juan, had 
acquired, from Herrera of Segovia,* some knowledge 
of painting, which he imparted, as an amusement, to 
his son. Having views, however, for the youth in 
the Church, he gave him likewise a learned educa- 
tion, in the course of which he is said to have dis- 
played considerable aptitude for Latin and philo- 
sophy. But his inclinations pointing the other way, 
he eventually obtained leave to forsake theology for 
painting, and when he was only eighteen, he had 
made sufficient progress to execute an altar-piece for 
the Capuchin friars of Villarabia de los Ojos. Ex- 
hibited in the convent of Patience, at Madrid, this 
work attracted the notice of the connoisseurs, and, 
amongst the rest, of Philip IV., who was so struck 
with the excellence of the performance, and the 
youth of the artist, that he gave directions that his 
name and age should be inscribed on the picture. 

^ PalominOi torn. iii. p. 630. ' Sapra, chap. t. p. 344. 



CH. xuL With BO fair an introduction to public favour, and 
with Velazquez at hand as a friend and counsellor, 
Solis might have become one of the stars of his pro- 
fession. But he seems to have been in easy circum- 
stances, and of a somewhat indolent disposition, and 
being neither compelled to work, nor vexed by " the 
last infirmity of noble minds," he preferred collecting 
pictures to painting them. Some of the conventual 
churches, however, at Madrid, Alcali, and Valladolid, 
were adorned with his works, of which the most 
famous was a ''Virgin of the Conception," belonging 
to the Capuchins of the Frado. On occasion of the 
entry of Queen Maria Louisa into the capital^ he con- 
tributed to the properties of the procession a series 
of paintings representing the labours of Hercules, 
which he executed from the designs of Claudio 
Coello.^ For many years he maintained in his house 
an academy of design, where the amateur artists of 
the court used to congregate to draw from the living 
model. He was also engaged in writing the lives 
of the Spanish painters, sculptors, and architects, for 
which he had even engraved several portraits. It is 
much to be regretted that he did not live to publish 
this work, and still more that his manuscript eluded 
the search of Palomino,* for he appears to have 
possessed not only opportunities for collecting facts, 

^ Supra, p. 1 195. 

> Palomino, torn. iiL p. 602. 



but also taste and leisure for the undertaking, which 
did not fall to the lot of that well-meaning but 
wearisome biographer. He was painting some pic- 
tures for the Dominican friars of Marchena, when 
he died, at Madrid, on the 25th of September 1684. 
His wife, Do£La Luisa Barragan, having inherited a 
family vault in the conventual church of St. Martin, 
his bones were there deposited in the keeping of 
Our Lady of Good Delivery.* He left books, prints, 
and drawings, which Palomino assures us were 
worth 6,ocx^ ducats, a statement which Cean Bermudez 
considers very credible, for even in his time the 
autograph of Solis was frequently met with on fly- 
leaves and margins. His pictures were chiefly 
remarkable as agreeable pieces of colouring. They 
are unknown in the Royal Gallery, but some may 
probably lurk in the National Museum at Madrid. 

Matias de Toires was bom at Espinosa de los 
Monteros in 1631, and was invited to Madrid, as he 
grew up to manhood, by his uncle, Tomas Torrino, 
an obscure painter. Having learned what little this 
relation could teach, and having gleaned some in- 


l£atia8 de 

^ In 1598 a devout Castilian redeemed an image of the Virgin, for fifty 
maravedis, from an irreligions German, who was carrying it through the 
streets in a very disrespectful manner. Our Lady soon afterwards repaid 
the obligation by performing the part of Lucina to her deliverer's wife. 
Hence, in 1602, the chapel and name of Nuestra SeHora del Buen Aluni' 
hramientOy a miraculous image much trusted in by the Empress Maria, 
the Infanta who refused to be Princess of Wales. Villafafie, Milagroscu 
Imagenes, p. 3a 





struction in the schools of the younger Herrera and 
other artists, he established himself as a painter, 
and obtained a reputation and fortune beyond his 
merits. He bad a son named Gabriel, bom in 1660, 
who under his tuition became a skilful painter of 
illuminations, and brought him considerable gains. 
This artist, however, and a brother who followed the 
same craft, died young. Other misfortunes overtak- 
ing the elder Torres, reduced him in his old age from 
affluence to extreme penury. Falling sick, and 
being carried from the house of a fiiend, who had 
given him shelter, to the public hospital, he died on 
the way, and received a pauper's burial, in 1711. 
His productions were generally large and coarse 
pictures, hastily executed for processional decora- 
tions, once exhibited, and then as speedily forgotten. 
Sometimes he painted pictures of greater pretension 
for the churches, but even these displayed little 
merit. Affecting the forcible style of Caravaggio, 
his compositions were half veiled in thick impene- 
trable shadows, which concealed the design, and 
sometimes left the subject a mystery. Standing 
before one of these, representing some passage in 
the life of San Diego, and placed in the church of 
Victory, at Madrid, the painter Francisco de Solis 
was asked to explain the subject depicted. "It 
represents," said Solis pleasantly, " San Brazo," St 
Arm, nothing being distinguishable but the arm of 



a mendicant in the foreground. In painting land- 
scapes and battles, however, Torres was more suc- 
cessful ; and he left many works of this kind, of con- 
siderable merit, in the collections of Madrid. Two 
of his small cavalry skirmishes have found their way 
to the Imperial Hermitage at St. Petersburg,^ which 
likewise possesses a picture of the ** Presentation of 
Our Lord in the Temple," attributed to him.* His 
sketches, ** of moderate merit and small use," were 
also, says Cean Bermudez, a drug in the studios. 

Josef de Ledesma, bom in 1630 at Burgos, after 
acquiring some knowledge of painting in that city, 
came to Madrid and the school of Carrefio. His 
principal works were a composition representing the 
Blessed Virgin, St. John, and Mary Magdalene, with 
the body of Our Lord, in the Recolete convent, and 
pictures of the three persons of the Godhead, and 
various saints, in the convent of the Holy Trinity. 
They were pleasing in colour, and gave promise of 
future excellence which the author, dying in 1670, 
did not live to fulfil. 

Juan Antonio Escalante, son of Alonso de Fonseca 
and Francisca Escalante, was bom at Cordoba in 
1630. Being sent, however, at an early age to 


Josef de 




^ Livret, pp. 421 » 422. SaJle zlL Nob. 78, 81. [These do not appear in 
the CcUcUogue of 1887.] 

' Ibid. No. 98, p. 426. [No pictore aBcribed to Torres appears in the 
Caialogue of 1887, but a " Presentation " is catalogued among the works 
of unknown artists, No. 437.] 

VOL. in. 2 B 



CH. xiTL Madrid, he belongs to the school, not of Andalusia, 
but of Castile. His master, the younger Bizi, one 
of the painters to the King, obtained for him the 
privilege of frequenting the royal galleries, where he 
copied many of the works of Tintoretto, and formed 
for himself a style of a somewhat Venetian cast 
Before he was twenty-four years old, he attracted 
the favourable notice of the public by a series of 
pictures, for the cloister of the shod Carmelite friars, 
on the life of San Gerardo, an Archbishop of Braga 
in the eleventh century, gifted with the formidable 
faculty of causing demons to take possession of the 
sinners who contemned his authority.^ These works 
were so highly esteemed that the artist, for the rest 
of his life, found constant employment for his pencil. 
He was afterwards engaged in assisting his master 
in painting the monument for the Holy Week, in 
the Cathedral of Toledo.* His death took place at 
Madrid in 1670. The Boyal Gallery of Spain pos- 
sesses two of his works, one representing the Holy 
Family,' the other the infants Christ and St. John.^ 
The latter is the more pleasing. The two children 
are seated on silken cushions and bright carpets, 
with a lamp and a basket of flowers near them, 
accessories which well display Escalante's skill in 

^ Quiutanaduefiaa, Santas de Toledo, ik 344. Tamayo Salazaz; Mar- 
tyrologium Bispanum, torn. vi. p. 355. ' Supn, chap. x. p. 835. 

* Catdlogo [1843], No. 185 [edition 1889, Na 711]- 
< Ibid. [1843], No. 201 [edition 1889, No. 712]. 


imitating the rich colouring of Venice. But they caxni. 
suffer by comparison with the charming *' Children 
of the Shell/' Murillo's picture on the same subject, 
hanging upon the same wall/ 

Juan Fernandez de Laredo, bom at Madrid in juanFer- 
1632, became, under the instructions of Francisco La^do. * 
Bizi, an excellent painter in distemper. He assisted 
his master in painting the scenery for the theatre 
of Buenretiro, and, at his death, succeeded him in 
its management On the 24th of January 1687, he 
was iBtppointed painter -in* ordinary to the King. 
In 1689 he was a candidate, with Claudio Coello, 
Bartolom^ Perez, Vicente Benavides, and other 
artists, for the honour of designing the catafalque 
for the obsequies of Queen Maria Louisa, in the 
church of the Incarnation ; but his plans, like theirs, 
were rejected in favour of those of the extravagant 
Churriguera.* He was killed in 1692, by a fall in 
his own studio, feJling on his head, whilst retouch- 
ing a high picture, from an insecure seat. Palomino 
informs us that he was a man of much humour, 
citing, as an example, an occasion on which he won 
a breakfast of a foolish friend, by undertaking to 
cool wine or water without snow, and effecting his 
purpose with ice.* 

Pedro Ruiz Gonzalez was bom at Madrid in 

1 Supra, chap. xiL p. 1084. 
* Vera Tassifl, Notidas htsiorialesy p. 14a * PaL, torn. iiL p. 649. 




1633. Unlike most other painters, he does not 
appear to have turned his attention to art till he 
had attained the ripe age of thirty, when he hecame 
the scholar of Escalante. On the death of that 
master he passed into the school of CairefLo, under 
whose instructions he acquired considerahle skiU 
with the penciL Amongst his earlier works were 
three good altar-pieces for the church of San Millan, 
which unfortunately perished by fire in 1720, and 
two processional banners for the guilds of that 
parish and of the third order of Franciscans. In 
1699 he painted, for the convent of Mercy, an 
excellent .picture of one of the worthies of that 
beneficent order, San Pedro Pasquale, a bishop of 
Jaen, who wrote against astrology and Mahomet, 
and was martyred by the Moors, and to whom, 
during his captivity at Granada, the Saviour Himself 
vouchsafed a visit, in the form of a young Christian 
slave.^ His drawings in crayons and water-colours 
were executed with great care and neatness, and, in 
the opinion of Cean Bermudez, might have passed 
for sketches of some of the best Venetian masters. 
It was invariably his practice to inscribe his name 
on all his works, the slightest as well as the most 
important. A bantering friend once inquiring why 
he was thus scrupulous, Gonzalez adroitly replied. 

^ j^iiintanadnefias, Santos de Toledo, p. 353. 



" Because I do not wish that my faults should be 
attributed to other people." Towards the close of 
an exemplary and pious life, he was afflicted with 
partial paralysis and loss of sight He died at 
Madrid in 1709^ and was buried in the church of 
San MiUan. 

Juan Martin Cabezalero, bom at Almaden in 
1633, was one of the most promising of the scholars 
of Carrefio at Madrid. His pictures, representing 
scenes from the Passion of Our Lord, and various 
sacred subjects, in the Franciscan monastery, the 
nunnery of St Flacido, and other religious houses 
of the capital, are favourably noticed by Cean Ber- 
mudez, who conceives that his death in 1673 alone 
prevented him from taking a distinguished position 
amongst the painters of Spain. The chapter-room 
of the Carthusians at Paular was adorned with one 
of his works, a passage from the life of St. Bruno, 
forming part of a series of which the larger portion 
was furnished by Coello and Donoso. 

Juan Giachineti Gonzalez was the son of a Bur- 
gundian jeweller settled at Madrid, and was bom 
in that capital about 1630. Where he acquired his 
knowledge of painting is not known, but he is said 
to have been a great admirer of Titian, and a dili- 
gent copyist of his works. By this means he became 
a portrait-painter of considerable merit. His works 
were not very common at Madrid, so that he pro- 

CH. xm. 










Lorenso do 

bably removed rather early in life with his father to 
Italy, where he was known as the ** Bui^ndian of 
the heads/' U Borgognone dalle teste, from the spirit 
with which he painted them. He died at Bergamo 
in 1696. 

Lorenzo de Soto, bom at Madrid in 1634, became 
a tolerable painter, under the instructions of Agilero.^ 
The chief subjects of his pencil were landscapes, 
into which he introduced figures of saints and 
eremites. But he sometimes likewise painted large 
altar-pieces, of which he furnished one to the 
church of Atocha, representing a passage in the 
history of S**- Bosa, the Dominican flower of Lima.* 
He had gained a respectable place amongst the 
artists of Madrid, when a new attempt was made, in 
1676, by the revenue officers, to levy a tax upon 
works of art.' Lidignant at this attack on his order, 
of which the resistance of El Greco * and Carducho * 
ought to have prevented the recurrence, he adopted 
the singular revenge of relinquishing his profession, 
and retiring to Yecla, a town in the kingdom of 
Murcia, where he obtained the post of collector of 
the royal rents. During his residence of some years 
there, he occasionally amused his leisure by making 
sketches of the surrounding country, some of which 

^ Sapra, chap. x. p. 868. ' Supra, p. 119a 

* Palomino, torn. L p. 109. ^ Supra, chap. v. p. 343. 

" Ibid. chap. viL p. 494. 



he presented to Palomino, who mentions^ with pecu- 
liar praise, a view of a romantic rock, known as that 
of the Magdalene of Yecla. This desultory practice 
did not suffice to preserve his skill in its perfection. 
Returning, when above the age of fifty, to Madrid, 
he found that having been so long out of sight, 
he was also out of the public mind. Nor, in 
resuming his profession, did he ever regain his 
popularity or skill, but, falling into extreme indi- 
gence, picked up a miserable livelihood by selling 
the daubs of his declining years in the public 
streets, in front of the Alcazar, or near the gate 
of Guadalajara. Dying in 1688, he was buried in 
the church of S. Justo y Pastor. 

Bartolom^ Perez, bom at Madrid in 1634, was 
scholar and son-in-law of the flower painter, Arel- 
lano, whom he excelled as a draughtsman, and some- 
times assisted, by painting the figures in his works. 
In the delineation of drapery and curtains he was 
particularly successful, and so distinguished himself 
by some works of this kind for the theatre of Buen- 
retiro, that he was appointed painter to the Eling, 
on the 2nd of January 1689. His flower-pieces were 
likewise highly esteemed, and were to be found as 
well in the royal saloons of Buenretiro as in the town 
houses of the nobility. In 1693, ^hile painting a 
ceiling in the palace of the Duke of Monteleon, he 
was killed, like Fernandez de Laxedo the year 






Mateo de 

before,^ by a fall from a scaflFold. Taunting one of 
his scholars with cowardice, because he would not 
walk across a giddy and tottering plank, he proceeded 
to set the example, and paid for his rashness with 
his life." He was buried in the church of St. 

Mateo de Cerezo was bom at Burgos in 1635. 
His father was an obscure painter of the same 
name, whose chief occupation was to execute 
copies of that wondrous Crucifix of the Capuchins, 
which sweated every Friday for the edification of 
the pious, in the most richly appointed shrine at 
Burgos.' Some of these copies were afterwards 
ascribed to the more famous pencil of his son, whom 
he instructed in painting up to the age of fifteen, 
and then wisely sent him to Madrid, to the school 
of Carreno. Under that master, young Cerezo 
devoted himself to diligent study, drawing from life 
and copying pictures, with great perseverance, for 
five years. That period being expired, he began to 
exercise his profession on his own account. The 

^ Sapra, p. 121 1. 

' Such is the story as told by Palomino (torn. ilL p. 650), who was at 
Madrid when the accident happened. M. Hoard, who perhaps knew 
better, having inquired into the matter in 1838, at Paris, informs na that 
'* Perez en se reculant poor jnger de son effet, ne s'apper^ut pas qn'il 
posait ses pieds dans le vide, il fit une effroyable chute et on releva 
mort" Vie compUte des Peintret Espagnols, part ii. p. 166. For a 
notice of this superficial book, see Preface [to the first editiou]. 

> D'Aulnoy, Voyage, torn. i. p. 122. 


" Virgin of the Conception " was one of his favourite c h. xii l 
subjects^ and his delineations of that popular mystery 
soon came to be in request in the religious houses in 
and around Madrid. One of them found its way to 
the Chartreuse of Paular, together with a picture of 
St John writing the Apocalypse. From the number 
of his works which once existed at Valladolid, part 
of his life seems to have been spent in that city. 
The Franciscan friars possessed two of them, large 
pictures of the Virgin, in one of which she was 
represented sitting in a cherry-tree, and adored by 
St. Francis. This unusual throne may perhaps have 
been introduced by Cerezo as a symbol of his own 
devout feelings, his patronymic being the Castilian 
word for cherry-tree. The convents of San Barto- 
lom6 and Jesus Maria likewise possessed many of 
his pictures. But Bosarte, who visited Valladolid at 
the beginning of the present century, could discover 
only two specimens of his pencil, a "Crucifixion," 
and "Our Lady of the Cherry-tree," both in the 
Cathedral.^ From Valladolid, Cerezo proceeded to 
Burgos, where he painted an excellent " Crucifixion " 
for the Cathedral, and the "Flight into Egypt'* for 
the Dominican church of San Pablo. The latter 
picture represented the Virgin and Infant Saviour 
seated upon their ass, with St. Joseph and an angel 

* Bosarte, Viage, pp. 142-3. 



CH.xm. going beside them, and it is highly praised by 
Bosarte for the skill of the composition.^ The 
painter appears to have paid only a short visit to his 
native city, whence he returned to establish himself 
for life at Madrid. There he found constant employ- 
ment for his pencil in the churches and convents, 
and had the honour of assisting the younger Heirera 
in his fresco on the dome of Our Lady of Atocha. 
His best work was a picture of the risen Saviour and 
the two disciples at Emmaus, painted for the refec- 
tory of the Recolete firiars. Seated at a table, 
beneath a porch like that of a Castilian wayside inn, 
Our Lord is represented in the act of blessing and 
breaking the bread, so opening the eyes of Qeopas 
and his undisceming companion. Of four other 
figures, the principal are a country girl seated on 
the right of the picture, and a peasant on the left 
bearing in a bundle of sticks on his back. In the 
distance, the three travellers are seen approaching 
from Jerusalem, a curious example of adherence to 
that method of painting a story which obtained 
amongst the elder Vandycks and Hemlings. Of 
this picture Palomino remarked that its merits 
exceeded ''all human powers of ponderation," ' 
whilst an Italian critic was content to observe, as 
the Venetian magnifico had observed of Yigamy's 

* Bosarte, Fto^e, p. 33a 

s Palomino, torn. iiL p. 567. 



sculptore^^ that, for a Spaniard, it was not bad. 
Truth and Cean Bermudez, however, reject both 
of these opinions, and allow to the picture the 
praise of graceful composition and agreeable colour- 
ing. It was etched in 1778 by Josef del Castillo. 
The best, it was likewise the last work of Cerezo, 
or, in the words of the figure-loving Palomino, his 
swan-like death-song. He died at Madrid in 1675, 
aged forty.* 

Cerezo certainly deserves a place amongst the 
ablest painters of this reign. His success in life 
seems to have been hardly commensurate with his 
abilities. There is in his works a chaste richness of 
colour, a roundness of form, and an absence of out- 
line, which together produce an effect that recalls 
to the mind the style of Vandyck and Murillo. The 
Queen of Spain's gallery possesses three of his 
pictures, a large '' Marriage of St Catherine,"' 
a " St. Jerome Meditating," with his meagre limbs 
wrapped in rich purple drapery,^ and a fine 
^'Assumption of the Virgin," in which the Blessed 
Mary is borne to heaven by a band of ministering 
spirits, and the apostles are seen below grouped 

' Supra, chap. lii. p. 146. 

' Cean Bennudes says 1685, bat as he giyes forty as his age at his 
decease, and 1635 as the year of his birth, one or other of these dates 
most contain a misprint, unintentionally omitted in the list of errcUcu 

* Catdlogo [1843], No. 541 [edition 1889, No. 700]. 

^ Ibid. [1843I No. 48. [This picture does not appear in the Cataloffue 
of 1889]. 







lBid6ro de 

axoond her floriferous tomb.^ His small bodegones, 
painted with great skill and spirit, were rare and 
highly esteemed. Cean Bermudez possessed a 
curious sketch by him, executed with soot, and 
representing the dead Christ in the arms of the 
Virgin, and attended by St John and the Maries. 

Vicente Benavides was son of an officer in the 
army, and was bom in Barbary, in the garrison of 
Oran, in 1637. He studied painting at Madrid, 
under Francisco Eizi, whom he assisted in execut- 
ing the scenes of the theatre of Buenretiro. He 
likewise painted, with Dionisio Mantuano,* the 
frescoes on the front of the palace of the Marquess 
of Los Balbases, and some others, by himself, in 
the conventual church of Victory, and in the her- 
mitage of Our Lady of the Angels, near Getafe. 
Charles n. appointed him, on the nth of Septem- 
ber 1 69 1, one of his painters, but without salary. 
He died at Madrid in 1703. 

Isiddro de Burgos y Mantilla, probably a relative 
of the pupil of Velazquez,' painted, in 1671, a series 
of portraits of the Kings of Spain, from Henry H. 
to Charles II. inclusive, to adorn the apartments 
allotted to guests at the Chartreuse of Paular. 
They are designed with grace, says Cean Bermudez, 

^ Catdlogo [1843], No. 57 [edition ^1889, Na 699]. 

" Supra, p. 1 145. • Ibid. chap. x. p. 867. 



and agreeably coloured. The painter was likewise 
a poet, and printed a romance in honour of the 
statue of San Miguel, carved by Dona Luisa Boldan^ 
for the Escorial, 

Francisco Palacios, bom at Madrid about 1640, 
entered the school of Velazquez, and early gave 
indications of talent for portraiture. But the death 
of his master, in 1660, leaving him without an 
instructor, he never attained to any distinction in 
art. Only one of his works fell under the notice 
of Gean Bermudez, a picture of the hairy St. 
Onophrius,' in the church of the female peniten- 
tiary. He died in 1676. 

Gabriel de la Corte was bom at Madrid in 1648, 
and studied painting under his father Juan, whose 
death, however, left him an orphan in his twelfth 
year. Prom that time he supported himself by 
copying the flower-pieces of Mario and Arellano, 
or by painting garlands as borders for the works 
of Castrejon' or Matias de Torres.* He painted 
flowers with considerable skill, but with little profit 
to himself, for he died poor in 1694. He was buried 
in the church of St. Sebastian, at Madrid. 

Francisco Ignacio Buiz de la Iglesia was bom at 
Madrid about the middle of the seventeenth century. 



Oabriel de 
la Corte. 

Ruisde la 

^ Infra, chap. xIt. 
> Supra, p. Z189. 

' Supra, chap. xii. p. 989. 
* Ibid. p. 1207. 



CH. xm. He studied painting first under Camilo, and next in 
the school of CarretLo, where he formed an intimate 
friendship with his fellow-disciple Gabezalero/ and 
imitated his style, with advantage to his own. But 
being afterwards employed with Donoso in painting 
the decorations for the public entry of Queen Maria 
Louisa, he adopted the somewhat hard and affected 
manner of that master. Still he enjoyed consider- 
able credit ; and being entrusted with the execution 
of a fresco in one of the Queen's ante-rooms in the 
Alcazar, he acquitted himself so well that he was 
made painter to the King on the 30th of December 
1689. On occasion of the young Queen's death, he 
executed a good engraving of Churriguera's frightful 
catafalque,' erected for her obsequies in the church 
of the Incarnation, and six plates of emblems, for 
the historical notice of Maria Louisa's last illness 
and funeral rites. These plates axe signed with 
his initials, thus, 

On the King's second marriage, he was again 
employed to paint a variety of decorative pictures 
for the entry of Queen Mariana of Neuburg, and to 
prepare some new scenery for the theatre of Buen- 

^ Supia, p. 1213. 

' [Supra, p. 1 21 1.] 



retiro. He had been just promoted to the rank of 
painter-in-ordinary/ when death closed his royal 
master's melancholy career. Philip V. confirmed 
the appointment, and also made him deputy- Apo- 
sentador. He had the honour of painting several 
portraits of the new sovereign, for various public 
buildings, but none of them possessed much merit. 
In compliment to his adopted country, the French 
prince caused himself to be painted in the ruff of 
Castile, as the ultra-Spanish Charles assumed the 
Parisian cravat to please his Bourbon Queen.' Buiz 
de la Iglesia attended his new lord to Barcelona in 
1 70 1, and attempted to follow him to Italy. The 
ship, however, had hardly left the port, when he 
was seized with sea-sickness of so desperate a char- 
acter, that they put back and left him behind. He 
at first endeavoured to prosecute the journey by 
land, but failing in this, he returned to Madrid, and 
entered the service of the Queen-dowager. During 
his pangs on shipboard, his system had received a shock 
from which it never recovered, and he died in 1 704, 
and was buried in the church of San Felipe Neri, 
where he had been a punctual attendant at religious 
rites. That church possessed a picture of St. Joseph 


^ Pintor del Rey seems to have been an honorary title largely bestowed ; 
the Pintor de Cdmara, or, as I have hitherto translated it, painter-in- 
ordinary, was a person of higher dignity, and a member of the royal 

' Supra, p. 1 198. 




the kidneys 
cured bja 

painted by him ; the church of San Gines had the 
dome of a chapel painted in firesco ; in the convent 
of barefooted Carmelites were some portraits of 
friars, and in the hospital of Monserrate, a variety 
of frescoes, besides portraits of Philip V. and his 
first Queen, Maria Louisa of Savoy. 

EQs friend Palomino concludes his life with an 
anecdote, '* which," says he, '^ I must on no account 
omit, for the honour and glory of God and the 
saints/' ^ Buiz being afflicted with a severe pain 
in the kidneys. Palomino advised him to commend 
himself to St. Zoilus, the tutelary averter of nephritis, 
and procured for him, from Cordoba, some water 
from a well into which that particular portion of the 
martyr^s own intestines had been thrown, thirteen 
centuries before, by his Pagan tormentors.* This 
holy water cure proving perfectly successfrd, Buiz 
distributed the healing lymph amongst his friends, 
and Madrid soon rang with the praises of its medi- 
cinal virtues, and its pleasant smell, like that of amber 
water. This latter property, however, awakened 
the suspicions of Palomino, who had often drunk 
of the fountain itself at Cordoba, without being 
sensible of any peculiar sweetness of savour. He 
therefore privately sought out the carrier, and 

1 Palomino^ torn. iiL p. 71X. 

* Tamayo Salazar, Martyr, Sisp,, torn. iiL pp. 640-2, where there is a 
short Latin hymn descriptive of this cruel martyrdom. 




brought him to confess, how, having broken the 
bottle on the road, he had supplied its place with 
a flask of amber water of similar size, "which 
indeed shows," says the historian, "what can be 
done by good faith, and fervent devotion towards 
the saints/' 

Isidore Arredondo was bom at Colmenar de Oreja, 
in 1653. Having received some instructions in 
painting from one Juan Garcia, whose temper he 
found intolerable, he passed into the school of 
Francisco Bizi, where he speedily distinguished 
himself. His master, conceiving a great affection 
for him, married him to Doiia Maria Veguillas, his 
adopted daughter, and at his death, in August 1685, 
left him his books, drawings, and other appliances 
of his studio. A few weeks previous to the latter 
event, Arredondo had been appointed, probably 
through Sizi's interest, honorary painter to the 
King. On the nth of October, he had the usual 
salary of the post granted to him; and he after- 
wards became a great favourite with his royal 
master, who frequently made him presents from 
his privy purse. His principal works in the Alcazar, 
were two frescoes in the northern gallery, repre- 
senting passages from the eternal story of Psyche, 
and the adornments of a cabinet in the Queen's 
apartments. He likewise painted some similar 
works at Buenretiro, and various decorations in 


Iiidoro Ar- 


2 O 





distemper, for the entry of Queen Mariana of Nen- 
burg, and other royal personages, into the capital. 
The church of San Salvador possessed two pictures 
by him, from passages in the life of St. Eloy, Bishop 
of Noyon, a miracle-working worthy of Limoges.^ 
He died, while being bled, in 1 702. 

Sebastian Mufloz was bom at Navalcamero in 
1654. His first master waa Claudio Coello, in whose 
school he greatly distinguished himself, especially 
in pictures in distemper. His works in that style, 
on the arches and pavilions prepared for the entry 
of Queen Maria Louisa, were highly admired, and 
produced him a sufficient sum of money to defray 
the expense of a journey to Bome. There he 
entered the school of Carlo Marratti, and devoted 
himself, with considerable advantage, to the usual 
course of study in the galleries and academies. Be- 
tuming to Spain in 1684, he took the road to Zara- 
goza, where he found Claudio Coello engaged on 
his works in the collegiate church for the Arch- 
bishop.' Towards these Mufioz lent his assistance, 
and painted a fresco for the chapel of St. Thomas of 
Villanueva. Master and scholar afterwards returned 
together to Madrid. 

On his reappearance in the capital, Mufloz was 

' Ribadeneira, Fleun du Viet det ScUntes, torn. iL p. 568. 
' Snpra, p. 1195. 



receiyed with considerable attention, and obtained 
many orders. In the Alcazar he was soon called 
to paint, on the ceiling of the Queen's cabinet, a 
fresco on the subject of Angelica and Medoro,* with 
a border of architectural decoration, the latter of 
which was designed in the worst taste of the time. 
He was next employed in the northern gallery, and 
was there seized with a .severe illness, in which he 
receiyed much kindness and some pecuniary aid 
from their Majesties. On his recoyery, he painted, 
in 1686, an oil-painting of "Cupid with Psyche,*' 
and also the portraits of the Queen and some other 
personages of the courts with great success. He 
was appointed painter to the King on the 30th of 
August 1688. 

He afterwards painted eight pictures on the life 
of St. Eloy, which were placed in the church of San 
Salvador, on occasion of a festival held there by the 
goldsmiths in honour of that holy bishop, the patron 
of their craft. For the barefooted Carmelite friars 
he executed a large " Martyrdom of St. Sebastian," 
which was exhibited to the public in the streets on 
the feast of Corpus Christi, and in due time enriched 
the walls of the Louvre of Napoleon.^ It is now the 
pride of the National Museum of Madrid, and re- 
markable, not only for its rich and splendid colour- 

on. xiii. 

Works at 

Piotnres of 
St. Eloy, 

St. Sebai- 

^ Notice des Tableaux, 1815, Na 80, p. 7a 




and Qaeen 

Works at 
the Al- 

and church 
of Atocha. 

ing and the lofty beauty of the martyr, but as the 
latest work of first-rate merit produced by the pencil 
of Castile. On the death of Queen Maria Louisa, 
he was employed by the shod Carmelites to paint 
her portrait, in her coffin, as she lay in state beneath 
her canopy in the church of the Incarnation. This 
difficult subject they rendered yet more trying, by 
requiring the coffin to be placed exactly in the 
centre of the canvas, and at right angles to the plane 
of its surface, so that the foreshortening of the figure 
demanded all the skill of a Cambiaso. Mufioz was 
not successful in depicting the beautiful dead, or at 
least in satisfying the friars, who would not have 
admitted the picture to its place on their walls but 
for the suggestion of another artist, that the portrait 
of the living Queen should be painted on a medal- 
lion upheld by cherubs in one comer of the canvas. 
This addition Mufioz accordingly made, and the 
work was accepted by the Carmelites, from whose 
desolated cloisters it has passed into the National 

On the King^s second nuptials, Mufloz was 
appointed to paint, from a design of Coello's, a 
fresco in the unfruitful marriage-chamber of the 
mourning bridegroom. He was afterwards chosen 
to restore the frescoes of Herrera on the dome of 
the church of Atocha, and he was thus employed 
on Monday in Holy Week 1690, when he fell from 



the scaffolding, and was taken up dead. Unlike 
Our Lady of Nieva, who restored life to a painter 
that had met with a similar calamity in her service,^ 
the swart Virgin of Atocha left him to his fate, 
perhaps because of his breach of a holy day. The 
monks of the convent, however, buried him with 
great pomp in their chapter-room, and the King 
gave his widow five-and-twenty doubloons, to buy 
mourning, and an annual pension for life. His 
fellow-scholar, Buiz de la Iglesia, finished a pic- 
ture, of which he had only executed the outline, 
the " Martyrdom of St. Andrew," for the church of 
Casarubios. A portrait of Muikoz, by himself^ a 
dark pleasing head, is the sole specimen, in the 
Boyal Gallery of Spain,' of the last Castilian pencil 
that promised to maintain the fame of El Mudo 
and Velazquez. 

Juan Cano de Arevalo was bom at Valdemoro 
in 1656, and became a scholar of Francisco Camilo. 
His forte lying in designing small figures and 
groups, he became a painter of fans. The fashion- 
able world, however, of Madrid thought, as the 
English Fontaine afterwards sung, that 

" Gay France Bhonld make the Fan her artists' eaie, 
And with the coetl j trinket arm the fair." ' 

CH. xni. 


Juan Cano 
de Arevalo. 

1 Yillafafie, Milagrauu Imagenes, p. 372. 

> CcUdlogo [1843I No. 312 [edition 1889, Ka 853]. 

* Gay, The Fan, book iiL 



CH. xni. Cano was therefore forced to win his way by stra- 
tagem. Shutting himself up in his studio for a 
whole winter, he brought out his accumulated 
labours, with the swallows, as an assortment of 
fans fresh from France, a trick perfectly successfrd, 
and doubtless often practised by ingenious artists 
at Paris, since Spanish fans became the rage with 
Transpyrenean ladies. The truth, however, soon 
oozed out, but his wares, having become popular, 
continued to find purchasers, and he was even 
appointed fan-painter, ahaniqtierOy to the Queen. 
Being an expert master of the rapier, as well as 
of the miniature pencil, he wasted much of his time 
in fencing, and in the company of ruffling idlers. 
Quarrelling with one of these about a seat at a bull- 
feast, at Alcald de Henares, he sent him a challenge 
when the sports were over. The parties met, each 
attended by his second, and Cano proved himself 
the more dexterous swordsman. But his adversary, 
apprehending this result, had provided two ruffians, 
who rushed from their ambush at the critical 
moment, and in spite of the fan-painter^s gallant 
defence, inflicted upon him a severe thrust in the 
chest. His friend conveyed him to the inn, where 
the wound was sufficiently healed to admit of his 
removal to Madrid. But mortification ensued soon 
after his return home, and he died in 1696. 
Although his chief excellence lay in miniature 



painting, he sometimes executed larger works. At 
Alcallt he assisted a brother artist in some altar- 
pieces for the Jesuits' college and the church of 
S^ Maria/ that being the business, perhaps, which 
led him to his fate. He also furnished some works 
in distemper to the parish church of his native 
Valdemoro. At the death of Queen Maria Louisa, 
he designed a strange allegorical picture which re- 
presented that princess as a glorious winged spirit, 
surrounded with a halo of rays, each containing a 
text allusive to one of her many virtues. It was 
hung like a canopy over the coffin, within Churri- 
guera's grotesque catafalque, and was afterwards 
engraved by Gregorio Fosman for the work of Vera 
Tassis.^ The plate bears Cano's artistic mono- 
gr«^™ t.iKO* But neither these nor his oil- 
pictures equalled his feats upon £eins. The latter 
were so exquisite in their fibiish, that Palomino 
assures us he carefully preserved a fan, presented 
to his wife, by Cano. When too old to be worn 
by the lady at church or on the Frado« it became a 
" precious jewel* in the cabinet of her husband." 


^ Six of his pictares Btill remain in the high-altar of the church of 
S^ Maria at Alcald de Henares, though in a ruinous and ragged 
condition. They represent the Adoration of the Kings and of the 
Shepherds, ** Our Lord presented in the Temple," " The Annunciation 
of Our Lady," the << Visitation of Elizabeth," and the ''Birth of Our 
Lady." The last ia the best» though all are poor. 

* [Supra, p. 121 1, note 2.] ' Palomino^ tom. liL p. 665. 




Medina, or 
Sir John 
Medina of 

allegorical figures in the clouds, which was engraved 
in France by Edelinck. He designed the cata&lques 
erected in the church of the Incarnation for the 
funeral honours of the Dauphin in 1711, and of 
Queen Maria Louisa of Savoy in 17159 and he gave 
plans for the collegiate church and high-altar, and 
great part of the palace and gardens, of San Ude- 
fonso, in 17 19, and for the church of San Millan, at 
Madrid, in 1722. He was likewise an author, and 
published at Madrid, in 17 19, remarks on an archi- 
tectural work by Juan de Torija,^ and in 1724 a 
treatise on matters connected with civil engineer- 
ing.^ Lastly, he furnished in 1725, to Palomino, an 
encomiastic preface prefixed to his second volume, 
in which he has the efirontery to praise his prosy 
friend for the terseness of his style. 

The catalogue of the Castilian painters during 
this reign must close with the name of an artist 
whose life was passed entirely in foreign climes. 
The father of Juan Bautista Medina was a Spanish 
captain, a native of Asturias, and settled at Brussels, 
where the son was bom in 1659, and instructed in 

1 Dedaradon y extention aohre las ordenaneas de Madrid^ que eseribid 
Juan de Torija y de Uu que ee practicaban en Toledo y Sevilla, eon 
algunas advertencUu d las alarifes. Madrid, 17 19. Torija's original 
work ifl entitled Tratado bf'eve sobre las ordenaneas de la Villa de 
Madrid ypolida della, 4to, Mad. i66z. 

* Fluencias de la tierra y eurso subterrdneo de las aguas^ Mad. 1724. 
Neither of these works are mentioned by Nic. Antonia 


painting by Dnchatel/ While still young he married C H.xm . 
a Flemish wife, named Joan Mary YandaeL In 
1686 he came to England, and having painted por- 
traits there for some years, he was invited to Scot- 
land, in 1688 or 1689, by David, fifth Earl of Leven^ 
who procured for him promises of business beyond 
the Tweed to the value of ;^500. "He went 
thither," says Walpole, " carrying with him a large 
number of bodies and postures to which he painted 
heads," as sitters offered themselves. By this sum- 
mary process, in less than a quarter of a century, 
he had limned, as it was called, half the nobility, 
and scattered his works over most of the country 
mansions of Scotland. The Earl of Leven alone, 
the descendant of his early patron, possesses no 
less than twenty of his portraits. Amongst these 
are three of the fifth Earl, two of his C!ountess Lady 
Anne Wemyss, and one of his jGeither, George, first 
Earl of Melville, Secretary of State for Scotland 
after the Kevolution.* Of the beauties of the 
family, for whose fair heads Medina had the honour 
of finding bodies, the most pleasing are a pretty 
Lady Balgonie, of the house of Northesk, and the 
lovely Margaret Murray, wife of Lord StrathaUan 
slain at Culloden, and herself imprisoned in Edin- 

» Walpole, Works, voL iii. p. 375. 

' At Melville Hooae, Fifeshire. See also 8iipra» chap. xii. p. 1067, note 2. 



CH.XIII. burgh Castle for her Jacobite loyalty.^ The first 
Duke of Ai^ll was also one of his patrons, and he 
painted a large and excellent picture of that noble- 
man, with his two sons, both Dukes in their turn, 
John, who claimed the yictory of Sheriffinuir, and 
lives in the lines of Pope and the romance of Scott, 
and Archibald, better known as Lord Hay, and 
Walpole's Viceroy beyond the Tweed. The High- 
land heads of these chieftains Medina fitted upon 
Roman bodies, and he represented the sire, in boots 
of lustrous brass, giving a laurel wreath to his eldest 
boy, thus vindicating his claim to the national 
faculty of second-sight, as ''he stands pictured 
amongst his armed ancestors " ' at Inverary. Medina 
also painted a large family-piece for George, first 
Duke of Gordon, the "gay Gordon" who held out 
Edinburgh Castle for James IL It contained 
that gallant nobleman himself, who has been de- 
scribed by a contemporary as "a very fine gentle- 
man, handsome, and made for the company of ladies, 
but somewhat finical,'*' his son, Lord Huntly, 
and his daughter, Lady Jane, wife of the Duke of 
Perth of 1 71 5. At Edinburgh, where he resided, 
he executed the indifferent portraits of the members 

^ Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, by J. P. Wood ; 2 vols. foL, Edin. 
1813, voL ii p. 552. 

' Jeremy Taylor, Holy Dying ; Worka^ vol. It. p. 342. 

* Macky, Hiit of Rebellion, quoted by Douglas, Peerage ofScotiand, 
YoL L p. 654. 



of the College of Surgeons, which may still be seen ch. xm. 
in their hall. Amongst these, the witty physician 
Pitcaime has the only remarkable name, and George 
Dundas the most pleasing physiognomy. Knighted 
by the Lord High Commissioner Queensberry, Sir 
John Medina was the last man upon whom the 
honour was conferred in Scotland before the union. 
He afterwards paid a short visit to England, when 
he most probably designed his twelve plates for 
the fine but inaccurate edition of Milton's '' Paradise 
Lost,*' published by Tonson, in 8vo, in 1705. In 
these he displayed no very high powers of appreciat- 
ing his author, but they were thought worthy of 
being reproduced in a smaller form.^ He likewise 
drew some illustrations for Ovid's '' Metamorphoses," 
which were not, however, engraved. 

Ketuming to Scotland, he died on the 5th of i>eath. 
October 17 10, and was buried on the north side of 
the Grejrfriars' churchyard at Edinburgh, where no 
stone has yet been raised, nor line carved to his 
memory. By his will, still extant,' it appears that wui 
Lady Medina survived him, and that he left by her 
two sons and four daughters ; so that if Walpole be 

^ Ajb in Tonson's ismo edition, 171 z. 

* For the copy of it from which I have extracted these portieulara, I 
am indebted to the kindness of Mr. David Laing, of the Writers to the 
Signers Library at Edinburgh. It has enabled me to give Medina's full 
Christian name and the name of his wife, and also to correct Walpole's 
error in stating 171 1 as the year of his death. 



caxnL collect in his assertion that he was the father of 
twenty children, fourteen of them most have gone 
before him to the grave. His whole property, 
including his furniture and wardrobe, which is mi- 
nutely catalogued in the will, from his silver tankard 
and silver-handed sword, to his "peuther stoups" 
and *'pair of boots, very old," is valued at ;^ 13, 130, 
168. 8d« Scots, or somewhat less than ;^ 1,100 ster- 
ling. Many of his noble employers, amongst whom 
were Lords Erroll, Rothes, and Blantyre, owed him 
small sums, and he held the bond of his patron Lord 
Leven for £1$^ sterling. His studio contained a 
considerable number of pictures, and the sums 
attached to each enable us to judge of his prices. 
The highest, a portrait of the Countess of Gravrford 
and son, is valued at j^io sterling, the lowest are 
copies of his own works, which are numerous, and 
seldom exceed /^^ Several pictures on historical 
subjects are also entered in the inventory, such as 
" Adam and Eve driven out of Paradise," " Venus 
and Adonis," " Lucretia," " Rosamond with a Cup," 
and the like. The portrait of Sir John, a pleasing 
countenance embowered in a flowing wig, may be 
seen at Florence, amongst the effigies of painters 
painted by themselves. It was presented to the 
Grand Duke by the Duke of Gordon.* Another, 

^ It is engraved amongst the BUratii dei PiUari^ of which it f onns 
No. 192. 



painted in 1708, exists in the Surgeons' Hall at 
Edinburgh, and was badly engraved for Walpole 
and Pinkerton.^ Lord Wemyss possesses a picture of 
two of Medina's children, painted by their father, 
a boy and girl, rather plain than pretty, leaning oyer 
an open book. 

Medina's abilities as an artist were considerable, 
and he was certainly the Kneller of the North. His 
ladies are offcen pleasing and graceful, and his lords 
have some variety of expression, in sp^ of their 
wearisome sameness in panoply and periwig. He 
painted hands, however, very ill, and his works are 
very unequal in merit, perhaps because, like Oior- 
dano»* he took pains with each according to the 
price he was to receive. Or perhaps his reputation, 
like that of Morales, has suffered by the daubs of his 
son and grandson, both of whom bore the name of 
John, and followed his profession of limner.' Neither 
of these artists rose above mediocrity. They both 
died at Edinburgh, the first on the ist of December 
1 764,* the second on the 27th of September 1796. 
The latter resided some time in London, and was 
an exhibitor at the Boyal Academy, in 1772 and 




^ Pinkerton'8 Scottish Gallery, 8vo, London, 1799. 

* Supra, p. 116S. 

* Supra, chapw ▼. p. 277. 

^ Scots Magcusine^ 1764, p. 633. 

' Edwards' Antcdotet ofPamting^ 4to, London, 1S08, p. a4a 




The art of engnving did not boast of any remadt- 
able professor daring this reign. Gregorio Fosman, 
or Fortsman, was perhaps the best. Amongst his 
earlier works were a title-page to the ** Life of St 
Domingo de Silos,'' published by Fray Ambrosio 
Gomez de Salazar in 1653,^ and a portrait of Archr 
bishop Manso de Zufiiga, to whom the Tolnme was 
dedicated; and a retablo title to Ximena's *' Catalogue 
of the Bishops of Jaen," published in 1654.' In 
1677 he produced a yery elaborate title-page for 
Gandara's Tolume on the glory of the Church in 
Galicia;' and in 1680, a print of the AutO'de-fS, 
held in the Flaza-Mayor of Madrid, in the presence 
of the King, on the 30th day of June in that year. 
He likewise executed, in 1690, one of the plates 
for the work by Vera Tassis on the obsequies of 
Queen Maria Louisa;^ and a print of St Francis 
Xayier; and in 1697, the portrait of Cardinal 
Henrique Norris, whom he represented as offering 
his book, called ''Vindicis Augustinian®,'' to St 
Augustine seated in a car drawn by eagles. 

Marcos de Orozco was a priest, who resided at 

^ El Mauen Segundo, nuevo Redenior de EspalU^ nuutro Padre Sonic 
Domingo Maneo^ clamado Santo Domingo de Syloe; tu vida vittudeg y 
milagoe; fol. liadrid, 1654. 

* Catdlogo de lo* Obiepoe de lae Igleeiaa CdihedraUe de la dioeeeis de 
Jaen y anncUee eedesiatiicos de eu obiepado, foL Madrid, 1654. 

* El Cime oeeidenUU gw eanta ku palmas y triui^fin eocleeUuticoi de 
GalidOf 2 torn. 1677. 

^ Supra, p. 1 138. 


Madrid, and there practised the art of engraving c m. xii l 
with great industry and considerable talent. His Marcoade 
name appears more frequently than that of any 
other artist on the ornamental title-pages of books 
published in this reign. For Veitia Linage's work 
on the West Indian colonies,^ he executed in 1671 
a very curious one. At the top of the page are 
seated, on one side, the Catholic sovereigns Fer- 
dinand and Isabella; on the other, their reigning 
descendant Charles II., and his mother the Queen- 
dowager ; and beneath there is a view of the ocean 
and shipping, with Chimborazo in the distance, 
closed at the sides by pillars, between which are 
posted Columbus and Cortes in complete armour. 
Coats of arms and texts from the Vulgate garnish 
the whole. The execution of this plate is inferior 
to that of the title-page to Ortiz de Zufiiga's ** Annals 
of Seville," published in 1677, which is probably 
the best work of Orozco's graver. In 1680 he exe- 
cuted a title-page containing the royal arms, and 
the curious folding plan, for the authorised history 
of the great Auto-de-fSj at Madrid.' In 1682, he 
engraved a Crucifix and angels bearing shields 
charged with episcopal devices, designed by Ximenez 
Donoso, and prefixed to an official account of the 

^ Supra, chap. xii. p. 1075. 

' BdaeUm hist&rica del AiUo general de F6^ que se eelebrd en Madrid 
este arU) de 1680 ; 4to, Madrid, i68a The plan faces p. 144. 
VOL. III. 2 D 





synod held at Toledo in that year. Eight yeats 
later, in 1696, he executed a title-page, containing 
effigies of the seven first canonised bishops of Spain, 
for Don Pedro Suarez's ''History of the United 
Sees of Guadix and Baza;''^ and in 1697, '"Our 
Lady of the Forsaken/' and the arms of Archbishop 
Bocaberti of Valencia, for Don Felipe Fermin's 
treatise of minor benefices.* He was likewise the 
author of many devotional prints, such as the 
portrait of St Francis of Sales, executed in 1695, 
and that of Bishop Crespi de Borja of OrihueIa>' 
in 1664, one of his poorest and probably earliest 

The few sculptors of Castile in this reign re- 
main to be noticed. Fray Eugenio Gutierrez de 
Torices, a native of Madrid, became a fiiar of the 
Order of Mercy in 1653. He beguiled the tedium 
of the cloister by modelling figures, flowers, and 
fruitS) in coloured wax, an art in which he arriyed 
at a high degtee of perfection. The painters, 
Colonna and Mitelli, visited him in his retreat, 
and pronounced him, says Palomino, ''a mirade 
of nature/' * a favourable opinion to which he owed 

^ HiHoria d€l Obitpado de Chtadix y Baaa. 

* Tractaius de CapeUaniu^ teu benefidis minonbus. Neither of these 
works are mentioned by N. Antonio. 

> Afterwards prefixed to his life, Vida del Venerable Senior D. Litis 
Orespi de Boija^ per el P. IV. Tomas de la Resorrecdon ; 4to, yalencia» 
1676. ^ Palomino^ torn. iiL p. 672. 



much notice and patronage at court He died very 
old, and with a high reputation for sanctity, in 
his convent in 1709. The sacristy of the present 
chapel-royal attached to the palace at Madrid pos- 
sesses, or once possessed, a group of his, represent- 
ing Our Lady of Mercy appearing to the founder 
of the Order, and an oratory at the Escorial, a 
figure of St Jerome. 

Josef de Churriguera was a native of Salamanca, 
where he studied sculpture and architecture to such 
excellent purpose, that after-times have agreed to 
call any work, in either of these arts, Chur- 
riguresque, which is especially preposterous and 
extravagant. Being a favourite with the doctors 
of the learned city, he came, strongly recommended 
by them, to Madrid about 1688. On the death of 
Queen Maria Louisa, in 1689, he was a candidate, 
with Claudio Coello and many other artists, for 
the honour of designing the catafalque for her 
obsequies, in the church of the Incarnation ; and 
his plan, being preferred, was executed under his 
own eye. It was an edifice of three storeys, a con- 
fused mass of fantastic pillars and broken cornices, 
surmounted by the figure of Death sitting astride 
on a globe, from which he cuts with his scythe a 
crowned fleur-de-lys, emblematic of the Queen. On 
the dome which overhung the coflSn, was spread 
out Cano de Arevalo's allegorical synopsis of her 

OH. xin. 

Jooef de 




and Ara- 



virtues,^ and the exterior was adorned with skulk, 
crossbones, and skeletons, and other ghastly trophies 
of the tomb. It was engraved by Buiz de la Iglesia 
for the work of Vera Tassis y Villaroel. Chur- 
riguera was appointed assistant draughtsman in the 
office of royal works in 1690, without salary, which 
favour was conceded to him in 1696. In the 
capital, he built a new portal to the church of St 
Sebastian; he began the church of San Cayetano, 
and he built a palace for Don Juan de Goyeneche 
on the site now occupied by the Academy of St 
Ferdinand. He executed various pieces of sculp- 
ture for altars of churches and convents, of one 
of which, a statue of St. Augustine in San Fehpe 
el Beal, Cean Bermudez remarks that it has been 
abused more than it deserves. He died in 1725, 
opportunely for his reputation, while engaged in 
building the church of Santo Tomas, for soon after 
that the work had devolved on his sons Geronimo 
and Nicolas, the dome fell, and crushed many of 
the workmen, and worshippers whom a festival had 
attracted to the unfinished temple.' 

Catalonia and Aragon, as usual, have few artists 
of importance. Joaquin Juncosa was bom in 1631 
at Comudella, near Tarragona. He was the son of 
one Juan Juncosa, an indifferent painter, who had 

> Supra, p. 1231. 

* Los ArquUectot, torn. iv. p. 103. 


studied at Jaen, and Mariana Domadel, a native of ch. xni. 
that city. Learning from his father all that he could 
teach, he speedily excelled him in his art, and early 
acquired so high a reputation for decorative paint- 
ing, that the Marquess of La Guardia employed him 
to execute four large pictures, on classical sub- 
jects, for the municipality of the town of Cagliari, 
in Sardinia. On the 21st of September 1660, he 
became a lay-brother in the Chartreuse of Scala Dei. 
There he painted, for the chapter-room, a series of 
Carthusian worthies, and the Nativity and Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, and other works, for the 
church, in which he displayed so much skill, that 
his prior. Fray Jayme Cases, sent him to study at 
Bome. He returned in due time with considerable 
improvement, and painted many works for his own 
monastery, for the hermitage of Reus, the Char- 
treuse of Montealegre, and other religious houses. 
The Prior Cases seems to have allowed him, in con- 
sideration of his artistic skill, many indulgences 
which his successors were not disposed to continue. 
Teazed with perpetual interruptions, he was so pro- 
voked on one occasion by a summons to the choir, 
while giving vent to the fine frenzy of composition, 
that he threw off his robe and fled to Rome. The 
Pope gave him absolution for the offence, and per- 
mitted him to live, unmolested by his brethren, in 
a hermitage without the walls, where he died in 




Dr. Joaeph 

1708. Cean Bermudez notices, as one of the best 
of his works, a picture of St. Bruno reading the 
rules of his order to his first monks, which hung in 
the hospice maintained at Barcelona by the Carthu- 
sians of Scala Dei. He praises the correctness of 
his drawing, and the strength and brilliancy of his 

Joseph Juncosa, cousin of Fray Joaquin, was like- 
wise bom at Comudella, and instructed in painting 
by Juan Juncosa, his uncle. He also devoted him- 
self to the study of theology, and took priest's 
orders; he obtained the degree of doctor; and 
he preached, with considerable unction, in the 
Cathedral of Tarragona. Preferring the easel to 
the pulpit, he was still better known by his pictures 
than by his sermons, and perhaps left behind him 
more of the former than any other artist of Catalonia. 
In 1680, he assisted Fray Joaquin in painting the 
hermitage of Beus, and afterwards in various works 
at Scala Dei, Two years afterwards the canon 
Diego Giron de BeboUedo employed him to paint a 
series of frescoes representing the life of the Virgin, 
in the chapel of the Conception, which he had just 
founded in the Cathedral of Tarragona, and paid 
him 400 doubloons for his labour. These frescoes 
disappeared, however, in six years, in consequence 
of the dampness of the church, or the badness of 
the materials with which they had been executed. 


and Juncosa was paid 274 Catalonian pounds for c h, xii l 
repainting the subjects on canvas. The Archbishop 
Josef Sanchis ordered him to paint for the chapel 
of S*^ Tecla, in the cemetery, the martyrdoms and 
other passages in the life of that celebrated virgin. 
Tecla was a beautiful girl of Iconium, who was con- 
verted by St. Paul, and thereupon refused to marry 
her betrothed lover. Condemned to die for her 
contumacy, fire would not bum, wild beasts devour, 
nor vipers sting her ; and after a life of solitude and 
miracles, she died a maid in her ninetieth year.* 
By the order of the Archbishop, Juncosa also painted 
various pictures of San Pedro Nolasco, and other 
companions of hia order, for the convent of Mercy. 
He died early in the eighteenth century at Tarragona, 
His works, especially his portraits, were not without 
merit ; but they are less esteemed by Cean Bermudez 
than those of Fray Joaquin. 
About the end of the century, Palma, the capital Baatard of 

M • Palma. 

of Majorca, had a painter named Bastard, who 
painted a large picture, not without merit, and 
representing Our Lord served by angels in the desert, 
for the Jesuits' college. No record has been pre- 
served of any other work of his pencil, or fact of 
his life. 

Fray Salvador Ilia, a Carthusian at Scala Dei, who 

^ Villegaa, Flos Sanctorum, p. 455. See also Handbook [1845], p. 475 
[edition 1855, P* 403]* 



ca xiiL 

dor Ilia. 


there took the vows in 1684, and died in 1730, 
carved the columns of the high-altar, and executed 
some figures of prophets, in white stone, for the 
sacristy of the conventual church^ 

Francisco Vera Cabeza de Vaca was bom of a 
distinguished family at Calatayud about 1637, and 
began life as page to Don Juan of Austria, at 
Zaragoza. The example of this tasteful master,^ 
and the instructions of Josef Martinez,^ made him 
a skilful amateur painter, especially of portraits* 
When Don Juan went to Madrid to assume the 
reins of government, Cabeza de Vaca did not accom- 
pany him thither, but returned to his native city. 
There he spent the remainder of his days in the 
practice of piety, and in painting pictures to adorn 
his own mansion or the houses of his friends, or by 
offerings to the poorer churches. By his alms-deeds 
and godly deportment, and his devout habit of 
preparing himself for artistic labour by confession 
and the Eucharist, he gained a high reputation for 
holiness. It was said that the Blessed Virgin her- 
self stood by his easel and unveiled her celestial 
charms, that he might pourtray her in a picture of 
the Holy Family, which was afterwards jealously 
preserved and ardently adored in the convent of the 
Sepulchre. This is the last time that the Queen of 

* Supra, p. 1 1 27. 

> Ibid. cbap. x. p. S84« 



Heaven is recorded to have vouchsafed a visit to the 
studios of Spanish men. The favoured artist died 
at Calatayud in 1 700* 

Francisco de Artiga, a gentleman of Huesca, was 
a good mathematiciaui and an excellent amateur 
architect, painter, and engraver. He designed the 
plan and superintended the construction of the 
University of Huesca, a building with a florid 
portal and an octagonal Doric court, of which he 
also executed an engraving; and he engraved in 
1 68 1 the plates for his fellow-townsman Lastanosa's 
treatise on the coins of Aragon,^ besides several 
devotional prints. Amongst the latter there is a 
graceful representation of S^ Orosia, whose holy 
dust is the pride and Palladium of Jaca, with a view 
of that dull old city and the impending peak of Feiia 
de Oroel in the distance. A monument of his skill 
as an engineer still exists in the great dam at Pan- 
tano, by which the waters of the Huela are dis- 
tributed over the corn-lands and olive-groves which 
lie between Huesca and the lower Pyrenees. He 
likewise wrote a treatise on fortification, a work on 
mathematics, an essay on Spanish eloquence, and a 
comedy, none of which has ever been printed. His 
death took place in 171 1, at Huesca, in whose uni- 
versity he founded a mathematical professorship. 

^ Tratado de la Moneda Jaquesa y de otrcu de oroypkUa del reyno de 
Aragon, 4to, Zaragoza, 1681. 


de Aztiga. 








Fraj An- 
tonio Mar- 


Juan de Benedo was an engraver of some merit 
who flourished at Zaragoza, and engraved^ in i666» 
a bold title-page, adorned with heraldic and alle* 
gorical devices, for Sayas's " Annals of Axagon/' * 

Ger6nimo Secano was bom at Zaragoza in 1638, 
and acquired a knowledge of painting, partly there 
and partly at Madrid, He painted with great 
success at Zaragoza, where his best works adorned 
the church of San Pablo and the city hall At fifty 
years of age he turned his attention to sculpture^ 
and practised that art also with reputation till his 
death, in 1710, 

Fray Antonio Martinez was son of Josef Martinez, 
painter to Philip IV.* Bom in 1638, at Zaragoza, 
he studied painting, first with his father in that 
city, and afterwards at Borne, On his return he 
assisted his father in many of his works* In 1690 
he took the habit and vows of a lay Carthusian, in 
the monastery of Aula-Dei, where he painted some 
creditable pictures from the life of St. Bruno, and 

Bartolom^ Vicente was bom near Zaragoza about 
1640, and studied painting in the school of Carreno, 
at Madrid, He is said to have spent no less than 

^ Analet de Aragon deade el aHo 1520, hasta el de 1525 ; eserivialos 
Don Fran^* Diego de Sayaa Rabanera y Ortabia, Chr6nista delRey ; fol. 
Zaragon, 1666. 

* Supra, chap. x. p. 8S4. 


seven yeaxs iu copying pictures at the Escorial, and o h. xm . 
to have formed his style upon the works of the 
Bassanos. Returning to Zaragoza at a mature age, 
he passed the rest of his life in painting easel pic- 
turesy especially landscapes, with great taste and 
reputation, and in studying mathematics. He some* 
times also painted in fresco, and a specimen of his 
skill in that hranch of art, executed for the conyent 
of barefooted Augustines, was held in high estima* 
tion. Some of his works found their way to the 
cloisters of the Jeronymite friars at the Frado, near 
Valladolid. He died at Zaragoza in 1700. 

Francisco Flano, a native of Daroca, flourished Pmnrfsco 


as a painter towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, at Zaragoza. His works were chiefly 
architectural decorations, executed in fresco or dis- 
temper, with so much taste and spirit that Palomino 
pronounces him not inferior to Colonna and Mitelli 
on their own ground.^ Fonz notices some paintings, 
in distemper, by him, in the sacristy of the church 
of Our Lady of Portillo, at Zaragoza ; and an altar- 
piece in oils, representing the battle of Clavijo, in 
the church of Santiago at Daroca.' 
Juan de Eebenga was a gentleman of Zaragoza souiptor. 

Juan de 

of good family, who studied sculpture at Rome Robenga. 

^ Palomino^ torn. iiL p. 680. 

' Ponz, torn. xv. pp. 57, 241. In the latter passage he erroneously 
styles Mm Amlnvtio, 







for some years, and afterwards established himself 
at Madrid. Choosing to play the man of fashion, 
however, rather than to work as an artist for his 
bread, he soon spent his moderate patrimony, and 
at last died in a public hospital, in 1684. His 
works were generally modelled in wax, and of 
a small size ; the largest and most important being 
the graceful figure of Our Lady, hewn in stone, and 
placed over the door of the church of the Angels' 
nunnery, at Madrid. 

One painter, Miguel Serra, remains to be noticed, 
who owed his birth to Spain, but spent his life and 
displayed his genius chiefly in France. Bom in 
Catalonia about 1653, he ran away, when only eight 
years old, from his mother's house, which her bad 
temper and third marriage had rendered intolerable. 
He found his way to Marseilles, and means, at first, 
of becoming the scholar of an indifferent painter 
in that city, and afterwards of seeking better 
instruction at Rome. At the age of seventeen he 
returned to Marseilles, and established his reputa- 
tation by executing an altar-piece, representing St. 
Peter Martyr, for the church of the Dominican ftiars. 
From that time he was largely employed by the 
clergy of Provence, and began to grow rich and 
famous. He sent a picture to the Academy of Paris, 
and was immediately elected a member of that body, 
and appointed painter to the King. Like Giordano, 



his fancy and his brush were equally ready and c h. xm . 
nimble ; and it is related that some country church- 
wardens calling on him one morning to order a 
picture for their high-altar, he invited them to stay 
to dinner, and, leaving them to take the air in his 
garden, executed the required altar-piece before the 
meal was served. .Some of his best works were 
painted for the nunnery of S**- Claire and the 
church of S**- Madeleine at Marseilles, others for the 
Carmelite firiars of Aix, and many more for private 

In 1720 and 1721, memorable in the annals of ^u^^^S^' 
Provence as the years of the great plague, ^^^l 

'* When natnre sicken'd and each gale was death," ^ 

the Spanish painter earned a fame, which genius 
cannot give, by the noble devotion with which he 
walked in the footsteps of " Marseilles' good bishop," 
Henri de Belsunce. Amongst scenes of horror, such 
as that which the pencil of Gerard has delineated 
in the city hall, he played the part of the good 
Samaritan, tending the dying, burying the dead, 
and giving the savings of his life to relieve the woes 
of the widow and the orphan. When the calamity 
was past, he painted two pictures on the firight- 
fiil subject, and sent them to Paris, to his son, for 

^ Pope, Essay on Man, £p. iy. y. 108. 



CH. xm. presentation to the Regent, Philip Duke of Orleans. 
The youth, however, basely betrayed the trust re* 
posed in him, and sold them for his own profit 
at the £Edr of St. Germain's, a proceeding which, 
amongst the artists of the capital, injured the repu« 
tation of the unconscious sire. The latter died soon 
afterwards at Marseilles in 1728. 




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