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v^ iju^ 

Annals of Botany 











With 94 Plates, in part coloured, and 33 Woodcuts 



I 888-1 889 




No. V. 


Lister, Arthur. — Notes on the Plasmodinm of Badhamia utrictilaris 

and Biefeldia maxima. (With Plates I and II) . . . i 

Massee, George. — A monograph of the genns Calostoma, Desv. 

(Mitremyces, Nees). (With Plate III) 25 

Masses, George. — On the presence of sexnal organs in Aecidinm. 

(With Plate IVa) 47 

AcTOK, £. Hamilton. — On the formation of sngars in the septal 

glands of Narcissus. (With Woodcuts i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) . 53 

Bateson, Anna, and Darwin, Francis. — On a method of studying 

Geotropism 65 

Vaizey, J. Reynolds.— On Catharinea lateralis, Vaizcy (Catharinea 

anomala, Bryhn). A New British Moss. (With Plate IVb) 69 

Oliver, F. W. — On the Structure, Development, and Affinities of 
Trapella, Oliv., a new genus of Pedalineae (with Plates V, 
VI, VII, VIII, and DC) 75 


Vines, S. H. — On the systematic position of Isoetes, L. . . . 117 

Vaizey, J. Reynolds, — Preliminary note on the development of the 

root of Equisetum 123 

Masters, Maxwell T. — Pinus monophylla 1 24 


Das gieiiende Weuksihum bet dtr Giwebebildung der Gefdsspflanzen, 

von Dr. G. Krabbe 127 

No. VI. 

Johnson, T.—Arceuthobium Oxycedrl. (With Plate X a) . . 137 

Rendle, a. B. — On the development of the Aleurone-grains in the 

Lupin. (With Plate X b) 161 

Murray, George, and Boodle, Leonard A. — On the structure of 
Spongocladia, Aresch. (Spongodendron, Zanard.), with an 
account of new forms. (With Woodcuts 8, 9, 10, and 11) . 169 

Rbid, Clement. — Notes on the Geological History of the Recent 

Flora of Britain 177 

Hartog, Marcus M. — Recent Researches on the Saprol^nieae ; 

a Critical Abstract of Rothert*s results 201 

Marshall- Ward, H. — Illustrations of the Structure and Life-history 

of Pnccinia Graminis. (With Plates XI and XII) . . 217 


Vines, S. H. — On the systematic position of Isoetes, L. (second note) . 323 
Rendle, A. B. — On the occurrence of Starch in the Onion . . .224 
Sch(5nland, Selmar. — A modification of Pagan's Growing Slide. 

(With Woodcuts la, 13) aa7 



a 2 

IV Contents. 


Campbell, D. H. — ^The development of Pilnlaria globalifera, L. (with 

Plates XIII, XIV, and XV) 333 

Murray, George, and Boodle, Leonard A. — A strnctnral and 

systematic accoxmt of the genus Struvea (with Plate XVI) . 365 

SchSnland, Selmar.— Contributions to the Morphology of the 

Mistletoe (Viscum album, L.) (with Plate XvII) ... 383 

Johnson, T. — On Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Stackh. (with Plate 

XVIII) 393 

Ridley, H. N. — On the foliar organs of a new species of Utricularia 

from St. Thomas, West Africa (with Plate XIX) ... 305 

Hartog, Marcus M. — On the floral organogeny and anatomy of 

Brownea and Saraca (with Woodcuts 14, 15, 16) . 309 

Marshall-Ward, H.— a lily-disease (with Plates XX, XXI, XXII, 

XXIII, and XXIV) 319 


Farlow, W. G. — Apospory in Pteris aquilina (with Woodcuts 17, 18, 

19, and 3o) 383 

Vines, S. H. — On the relation between the formation of tubercles on 
the roots of Leguminosae and the presence of nitrogen in the 
soil 386 

Farmer, J. Bretland. — ^On the development of the endocarp in 

Sambucus nigra (with Woodcuts 3i, 33, and 33) . 389 

No. vin. 

NECROLOGY for 1888 393 





Acton, £. Hamilton.— On the formation of sugars in the septal glands 

of Narcissos. (With Woodcuts i, a, 3, 4, 5, and ^ . • 53 

Bateson, Anna, and Darwin, Francis.— On a method of studjdng 

GeotFopism 65 

Boodle, Leonard A. — See Murray, George .... 169, 265 

Campbell, Douglas Houghton. — The development of Pilnlariaglobn- 

lifera, L. (With Plates XIII, XIV, and XV) . . . .333 

Darwin, Francis.— .S^ Bateson, Anna 65 

Farlow, W. G. — Apospory in Pteris aqnilina. (With Woodcuts 17, 

18, 19, and ao) 383 

Farmer, J. Bretland. — On the development of the endocaip in Sam- 

bacus nigra. (With Woodcuts a i, a a, and 33) . . . 389 

Hartog. Marcus M. 

Recent researches on the Saprolegnieae ; a critical abstract of 

Rothert*s results aoi 

On the floral organogeny and anatomy of Brownea and Saraca. 

(With Woodcuts 14, 15, and 16) 309 

Johnson, T. 

Arceuthobium Oxycedrl (With Plate X. A) . . .137 

On Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Stackh. (With Plate XVIII) . 393 

Lister, Arthur. — Notes on the plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis 

and Brefeldia maxima. (With Plates I and 11) ... i 

Marsh ALL- Ward, H. 

Illustrations of the structure and life-history of Puccinia graminis. 

(With Plates XI and XII) 317 

A lily-disease. (With Plates XX, XXI, XXII, XXHI, and XXIV) 319 

Massee, George. 

A monograph of the genus Calostoma, Desv. (Mitremyces, Nees). 

(With Plate ni) 35 

On the presence of sexual organs in Aeddium. (With Plate IV. a) 47 

Masters, Maxwell T. — Pinus monophylla 134 

Murray, George, and Boodle, Leonard A. 

On the Structure of Spongodadia, Aresch. (Spongodendron, 
Zanard.), with an account of new forms. (With Woodcuts 
8, 9, 10, and 11) 169 

A structural and systematic account of the genus Strnvea. (With 

Plate XVI) 365 

Oliver, F. W. — On the structure, development, and affinities of Tra- 
pella, Oliv., a new genus of Pedalineae. (With Plates V, VI, 
VII, VIII, and IX) 75 

Reid, Clement. — Notes on the geological history of the recent Flora 

of Britain 177 

vi Index. 



On the development of the alenrone-grains in the Lapin. (With 

Plate X.b) i6i 

On the occuirenoe of starch in the Onion 334 

Ridley, H. N. — On the foliar organs of a new species of Utricnlaria 

from St. Thomas, West Africa. (With Pkte XIX) . . 305 
SchOnland, Selmar. 

A modification of Pagan's Growing Slide. (With Woodcuts la 

and 13) 227 

Contributions to the morphology of the Mistletoe (Viscum album, 

L.). (With Plate XVII) 283 

Vaizey. J. Reynolds. 

On Cathaiinea lateralis, Vaizey (Catharinea anomala, Bryhn). A 

new British Moss. (With Plate IV. b) 69 

Preliminary note on the development of the root of Equisetum . 133 
Vines, S. H. 

On the systematic position of Isoetes, L • ii7 

„ „ ,, „ (second note) . . . 333 

On the relation between the formation of tubercles on the roots of 

Leguminosae and the presence of nitrogen in the soil . . 386 


a. Plates. 

I, II. Plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia 
maxima (Lister). 

m. On Calostoma (Masses). 

IV. A. Sexual organs in Aeddium (Massee). 

IV. B. Catharinea anomala, Bryhn (Vaizey). 

V, VI, Vn, VIII, DC. On TrapeUa (Oliver). 

X. A. On Arceuthobium Oxycedri QOHNSON). 

X. B. On Aleurone-grains (Rendle). 

XI, XII. On Puccinia Graminis (Marshall- Ward). 

Xni, XIV, XV. Development of Pilularia globulifera (Campbell). 

XVI. On the genus Struvea (Murray and Boodle). 

XVII. On the morphology of the Mistletoe (Schon- 

XVin. On Sphaerococcus (Johnson). 

XIX. On Utricnlaria bryophila (Ridley). 

XX,XXI,XXn, XXm,XXIV. On a lily-disease (Marshall- Ward). 

b. Woodcuts. 

1-6. Formation of sugar in the septal glands of Narcissus (Acton) . 55 seq. 

7. Floral diagram of Trapella (Oliver) 81 

8-11. Structure of Spongocladia, Aresch. (Murray and Boodle) . 170 seq. 

13,13. Growing slide (SchSnland) ^^^ 

14. Floral diagram of Brownea cocdnea (Hartog) . 311 

15, 16. Diagrams showing the distribution of the floral leaf-traces in 

Brownea and Saraca (Hartog) 314 

I7~3a Apospory in Pteris aquilina (Farlow) 383 seq. 

91-33. Development of the endocarp in Sambncns nigra (Farmer) . 390, 391 

Index. vii 



Krabbe, Dr. G. — Das gleitende Wachsthmn bei der Gewebebildnng 

der Gefasspflanzen. (D. H. S.) 127 



Xhrling, Johann Erik Ewald 395 

Bary, Heinrich Anton de 393 

Bauer, Gustav Heinrich 397 

Bretfeld zu Kronenberg, Heinrich Freiherr von . . 398 


BucHiNGER, Jean Daniel 399 

Delamare, Ernest 399 

Dietrich, David Nathaniel Friedrich 399 

FoRQUiGNON, L. 400 

Gabrielsson, Johann August 400 

Gray, Asa 400 

Hennecart, Jules 414 

Hbrter, Lorenz 414 


Jeanbearnat, Ernest Marie Jules 414 

Johanson, Carl Johan 415 

Leitgbb, Hubert 415 

LiEURY, Jean Baptiste 418 

Loret, Henri 418 

Malbranche, Alexandre Francois 419 

MoRiiRE, Pierre Gilles 421 

PanCkS, Josef 432 

Planchon, Jules-£mile 423 

Sagot, Paul 428 

Smith, John 429 

Syms (afterwards Boswell), John Thomas Irvine Boswell . 430 

Therry, Joseph Jean 430 

Timbal-Lagrave, Edouard Pierre Marguerite . . .431 

Trouillard, Charles 435 



1. Books and Pamphlets i, Izi 

2. Periodical Literature xi, Ixxi 


In Profl Hartog's paper on the Floral organogeny and anatomy of Browtua 

vjoidi Saraca. 

P. 311, line 17, omitcomBOL after loag. 

P. 514, Fig. xvi, the semicircular traces for the unpaired posterior stamen should 

be omitted. 

P. 315, line 9, ^m foot, nod posterior /or anterior. 




Abbott : Cyclopaedia of Natural History. Troy. 

Adan : Le monde invisible d^voil^, revelations du microscope. Nouv. ^d. 

Allen : The Characeae of America. Part I. New York. 

Arnold : Cladoniae herbariorum Fcserke et Wallroth exsiccatae ant depictae 
(No. 1 263-1361). Miinchen. 

Bachinger : Beitrage zur Flora von Horn. Horn, 1887. 

Baillon : The Natural History of Plants. Vol. VIU. London. 

: Histoire des plantes. Tome ix, 3. (Dros^rac^es, Tamaricac^es, 

Salicac^cs, Batidacees, Podostemacees, Plantaginac^es, Solanac^es, Scro- 
fularincets). Paris. 

Baker : Handbook of the Amaryllidae (incl. the Altsroemerieae and Agaveae.) 

Basteri : Flora Ligustica. Genova. 
Bastin : Elements of Botany. Chicago. 

Batelly : Seconda contribuzione alia Flora Umbra. Perugia, 1 887. 
Baumann : Eine afrikanische Tropeninsel. Fernando Poo und die Bube. Wien. 
Baumgarten : Lehrbuch der pathologischen Mykologie. ate Halfte, Halb- 
band i. Braunschweig. 

Beal : Grasses of North America. Agriculture College, Mich. 1887. 

Beccari : Malesia. Vol. IH. Firenze-Roma, 1887. 

Behr : Flora of the Vicinity of San Francisco. 

Belt : The Naturalist in Nicaragua. 2nd ed. London. 

Bericht iiber die Thatigkeit des Thier- und Pflanzenschutzvereins fiir das Herzog- 
thum Coburg. Coburg. 

Berlese : Monografia dei generi PUosporat Chlathrospcra e Pyrenophora. Firenze. 

Berndt : Die Plaine de la Crau oder die proven 9alische Sahara, ate Halfte, 
Vegetation und Agricultur, &c. Breslau, 1887. 

Beyer : Die spontanen Bewegungen der Staubgefasse und Stempel. Wehlan. 

Bibliotheca historico-naturalis. Jahrgang 37. Heft 3 : Juli-Septembcr 1887. 

Blondel : Les Strophanthus du commerce ; etude de mati^re medicale. Paris. 

BosscH&RE : Les fleurs des champs et des jardins. Namur. 

Brass : Die niedrigsten Lebewesen. Leipzig. 

Braun : Contributiones ad Floram Rosarum Poloniae, I. Cracoviae, 1887. 

Br EN DEL : Flora Peoriana. Peoria. 111. 1887. 

Brennig : Bacteriologische Untersuchung des Trinkwassers der Stadt Kiel im 
August und September 1887. Kiel. 


ii Current Literature. 

Bresadola: Fungi Tridentini novi vel nondam delineati, descripti et iconibus 
illustrati. Fasc. vi, vii. Tridenti. 

Briosi : Esperienze per combattere la Peronospora della Vite {Peroncspora 
viticolay De Baxy). Serie III. Milano. 

Britzelmayr : Hymenomyceten aus Siid-Baiern. Theil VIII (Schlnss). Berlin. 
Bros IN : Ueber die schwarze Haarzunge. Hamburg. 
BucHERER : Ueber Athmung der niederen und hoheren Organismen. Basel. 
Camus : Catalogue des plantes de. France, de Suisse et de Belgique. Paris. 
Cappi : II Frutteto. Milano. 
Cariot : Etude des fleurs. Tome I et III. Lyon. 
Carpentier : La Botanique d'Andr6e. Paris. 
Cassino : The International Sdentist*s Directory. Boston. 
Castracano degli Antelminelli : Contribuzione alia Flora Diatomaoea 
Africana. Roma. 

Saggio di Flora Diatomacea delle cosidette Muffe delle Terme di 

Valdieri. Venezia. 
Cavara : Intomo al dissecamento dei grappoli della Vite {^Peronospora viticola, 

Coniothyrium diplodiella e nuovi Ampelomiceti italici). Milano. 

Cecchi : Fiinf Jahre in Ost-Afrika. Leipzig. 

Cesati, Passerini, e Gibelli : Compendio della Flora Italiana. Fasc. 36. 

Claus : Lamarck als Begriinder der Descendenzlehre. Wien. 

Clodd : Story of Genesis : a plain account of Evolution. 

Clos : Le jardin des plantes de Toulouse et la Botanique locale et pyr^n^enne. 

Cochin : L'^volution et la vie. 3* ^d. Paris. 
COHN UND Engler : Das botanische Museum der Universitat Breslau. Reden 

gehalten zur Einweihung dcsselben am 29. April 1888. Breslau. 

Compte rendu des travaux dn service du Phylloxera. Annee 1887. Paris. 
Cooke : Illustrations of British Fungi , Nos. 56-60. London. 
CouvREUR: Le microscope et ses applications ^ T^tude des v^g^taux et des 
animaux. Paris. 

Cross, Bevan, and King : Report on Indian fibres and fibrous substances 
exhibited at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886. New York, 1887. 

CuvELiER: Culture du Chrysanth^me. Gand. 

Dammer : Bibliothek der gesammten Naturwissenschaften. Liefg. ao-a8. Stutt- 

Daurel : Quelques mots snr les vignes americaines, lenr grefTage, les produc- 
tions directes dans la region du Sud- Quest, les maladies cryptogamiques 
et lenr traitement. 4* ed. Bordeaux. 

Davenport : Ophioglossaceae of the United States. 

Davis : Origin of life and species and their distribution ; a new theory. 

Davis: A text-book of Biology; comprising vegetable and animal Morphology 

and Physiology. London. 

Dawson : Geological history of plants. London. 

De Barv : Beitrage zur Morphologie der Pilze. iste Reihe, ate Aufl. Basel. 

Debv : Introduction 4 T^tude des Diatom^es. Paris. 

Dejardin : Recherches et observations sur la resistance de la vigne au Phyloxera. 
and ^. Paris. 

Delamare, Renauld et Cardot: Florule de Hie Miquelon (Am^rique da 
Nord). Lyon. 

Books and Pamphlets. iii 

Desbois : Monogmphie des Cypripediumy Selenopedium et Uropedium, Gand. 
Deschamps : Le Coton. Paris. 
D£y : Mon herbier tdratologique. Anxerrc. 

DiETEL : Beitrage zar Morphologie und Biologic der Uredineen. Jena. 
DiETZ: On the development of the flowers and fruits in Sparganium and 
Typha (in Hnngnrian). Budapest, 1887. 

DoMBROWSKi : Allgemeine Encyklopadie der gesammten Forst- und Jagd- 
wissenschaften, Bd. III. Liefg. 15-18, Bd. IV. Liefg. 1-4. Wien. 

DoscH UND Scriba: Excursions- Flora des Grossherzogthoms Hessen und 
der angrenzenden Gebiete. 3. Aufl. Giessen. 

Drake del Castillo, : Illustrationes Florae Insularum Maris Pacifici. 

Fasc. IV. Parisiis. 
Druery : Choice British Ferns, their varieties and culture, with illustrations 

of 1 20 select forms. Part I. London. 

Drummond : Tropical Africa. London. 

DuBiEF : Manuel pratique de Microbiologic. Paris. 

DuMONT : Etude sur les Bact^ries des Eaux min^rales de Boh6me. Paris. 

Du Noday : Catalogue des mousses des environs de Josselin, Morbihan. Mor- 

laix, 1887. 
Eberlin : Blomsterplanteme i dansk Ostgronland. Christiania, 1887. 

Eggers : Verzeichniss der in der Umgegend von Eisleben wildwachsenden 
Gefasspflanzen. Eisleben. 

Eimer : Die Entstehung der Arten auf Grund von Vererben erworbener 
Eigenschaften nach den Gesetzen organischen Wachsens. Theil I. 

Eisenberg : Bakteriolcgische Diagnostik, 2te Auflage. Hamburg. 

Emin Pascha in Central Africa: letters and Journals, collected and anno- 

tated by Schweinfurth, Ratzel, G. Hartlaub and Felkhi. Translated 

by Felkin. London. 

Engelmann : The Botanical Works of the late George Engelmann. Collected 
for Henry Shaw, Esq. Edited by \Vm. Trelease and Asa Gray. 

Ermengem, van : Manuel technique de miprobrologie. (Translated from 
F. Hueppe, Methoden der Bakterienforschung.) Paris. 

Engler und Prantl : Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Liefg. 16-19. 

16. Nymphaeaceae (Caspary) ; Ceratophyllaceae (Elngler) ; Magnoliaceae 

(Prantl) ; Lactaridaceae (Engler) ; Trochondraceae, Anonaceae, Myri- 
sticaceae, Kanunculaceae (Prantl.) 

17. Bromeliaceae (Wittmack) ; Commelinaceae, Pontederiaccae (Schon- 
land) ; Philydraceae (Engler) ; Iridaceae (Pax). 

18. Fagaceae (Prantl) ; Ulmaceae, Moraceae (Engler). 

19. Ranunculaceae, Lardizabalazeae, Berberidaceae, Menispermaceae, Caly- 
canthaceae CPrantl) ; Monimiaceae (Pax). 

20. Moraceae, Urticaceae, Proteaceae (Engler). 

Entz : Studien iiber Protisten, Theil I. Uebersetzt von A. Rozsaheghi. Budapest. 
Esser: Die Entstehung der BlUthen am alten Holze. Bonn, 1887. 
Ettingshausen, von, und Krasan : Beitrage zur Erforschung der ata- 

vistischen Formen an lebenden Pflanzen und ihren Bezi^ungen zu 

den Arten ihrer Gattung. Wien. 
UND Standfest, F. : Ueber Myrica liptitum, 

Unger, und ihre Beziehungen zu den lebenden Myrica- Arten. Wien. 

Everett: Outlines of natural philosophy. New York, 1887. 
Farlow : A supplemental list of works on North American Fungi. 


iv Current Literature. 

Farlow: Memoir of Edward Tuckerraann (1817-1886'. Washington, 1887. 

Fedtschenko*s Travels in Turkestan (Diagnoses in Latin, everything else in 
Russian). Berlin, 1887. 

Kegel : Priraulaceae et Liliaciae Turkestanicae. 

BuNGE : Astragaleae Turkestanicae. 

Kegel: Descriptiones plantamm novarum rariorumque \ cl. Olga Fed- 
tschenko in Turkestania nee non in Kokania lectarum. 
De Ferry de la Beixone : La Truffe. Paris. 

Filet : Plantkundig Woordenboek voor Nederlandsch Indie, 2. verm, utgave, 

Fischer : Flora von Bern. 5te Aufl. Wien. 

FoKKER: Untersuchungen uber Hcterogenese, in. Groningen. 

FORQUIGNON : Les Champignons snp^rieurs. Paris. 

FOEX : Cours complet de Viticulture, a. ed. Montpellier. 

FormAnek : Kosen des Hochgesenkes. Nebst kritischen Erlauterungen iiber 
die Kitaibel'schen Arten der Section Alpinae and Incanae von J. B. 
Keller. Wien, 1887. 

Fream : The Kothamsted experiments on the growth of wheat, barley, and the 
mixed herbage of grass land. London. 

Fritsch : Principien der Organisation der naturhistorischen Abtheilung des 
neuen Museums in Prag. Prag. 

FucHS : Herbarien-Etiketten fur die Flora Schleswig-Holsteins, &c. Kappeln. 

FOrst.: Die Pflanzenzucht im Walde. a Aufl. Berlin. 

Gadeau de Kerville : Note sur la variation de forme des grains et des 

p^pins chez les vignes cultivees de Tancien-monde. Kouen. 
Garnier : Ferments et fermentalions. Paris. 
Gen TIL : Cryptogames vasculaires de la Sarthe. Le Mans. 

Gillet : Champignons de France. Les Hym^nomyc^tes. Planches sup- 
pl^mentaires S^rie XIII. Alen9on. 

Godman and Salvin : Biologia Centrali-Americana, Botany, part i^. London. 

GoESCHKE : Das Buch der Erdbeeren. ate Aufl. Berlin. 

Goldi : Kelatorio sobre a MiEilestia do Cafesiro na Provincia de Kio de 
Janeiro. Kio de Janeiro. 

Good ALE : Syllabus of a course of lectures on forests and forestry. 

Goppert: Nachtrage zur Kenntniss der Coniferenholzer der palaeozoischen 
Formationen. Aus dem Nachlasse bearbeitet von G. Stenzel. Berlin. 

Gresswell : Examination of the theory of evolution and some of its im- 
plications. London. 

Grognier: Kecherches physiologiques et th^rapentiques sur le Strophanthus 
hispidus, Montpellier. 

Gunther und Windelband: Geschichte der antiken Naturwissenschaft 
und Philosophic. Nordlingen. 

Haberer : A list of plants in the vicinity of Utica for April, May, and a 
portion of June. 

Hauptmann : Methodik des Unterrichts in der Naturlehre. Wien. 

Hansen und Kohne: Die Pflanzenwelt. Liefg. 9. Stuttgart. 

HaNSGIRG : Prodomus einer Algenflora von Schlesien. Theil I, Heft a. 

Heiberg: Orienterende oversigt over laeren om de pathogene Bakterier hos 
Mennesket. Christiania, 1887. 

Heilprin : Geological evidences of evolution ; a popular exposition of facts 
bearing upon the Darwinian theory. Philadelphia. 

Books and Pamphlets. 

Heitz : Einige Bewegungserscheinimgen im Pflanzenreiche. Miihlbach, 1887. 
Uenslow : The origin of floral structures through insect and other agencies. 

: Botany for beginners. London. 

Hettner : Reisen in den columbianischen Anden. Leipzig. 
HiLLEBRAND : Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Heidelberg. 

HiNTZ : Ueber den mechanischen Bau des Blattrandes, mit besonderer Beriick- 
sichtigung einiger Anpassungserscheinungen zur Verminderung der 
lokalen Verdunstung. Berlin. 

Hunger : Ueber einige vivipare Pflanzen und die Erscheinnng der Apogamie 
bei denselben. Bautzen. 

HupERZ : Die Reblaus. Jena. 

HusMANN : Grape-culture and wine-making in California. San Francisco. 

Huxley : The advance of science in the last half century. New York. 

AND Martin : A course of elementaiy instruction in Practical Biology. 

Revised and extended by G. B. Howes and D. H. Scott. London. 

French edition by F, Prieur. Paris. 
Jauch et Stein : Flora artefacta. Ser. VH et VIIL Breslau. 
Jensen : Nye undersogelser og forsog over Komsortemes Brand. Kjobenhavn. 
Johan-Olsen : On Sap (Afucor) pa Klipfisk, densalkaldte Mid. Christiana. 

Joseph, L'Archiduc (d'Autriche-Hongrie) : Essais d*acclimatation des 
plantes et influence d'un hiver tr^-rigoureux ^ Fiume. Traduit par 
Mad. Marlot et M. Marlot. Alger. 

Karlsson : Transfusionsvafnaden hos Coniferaema. Lund. 

Karsch : Vademecum botanicum, Liefg. 6. Leipzig. 

Kerner von Marilaun: Studien liber die Flora der Diluvialzeit in den 
ostlichen Alpen. Wien. 

: Floren Karte von Ocsterreich-Ungam (in Phys.-stat. 

Handatlas von Oest.-Ung.). Wien. Text von R. v. Wettstein. 

Kessler : Weitere Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen iiber die Reblaus, Phyl' 
loxera vastcUrix^ Planchon. Cassel. 

Ketchum : Botany for Academics and Colleges. Philadelphia. 

Klausch : Ueber die Morphologic und Anatomie der Blatter von Bupleurum 
mit Beriicksichtigung des Einflusses von Klima und Standort. Leipzig, 

Klein : Revue der Naturwissenschaften. Bd. XVI. Heft i. 

Knuth : Schulflora der Provinz Schleswig-Holstein und der anliegenden Gebiete. 

KoEHLER : Medicinalpflanzen, heransgegeben von G. Pabst und F. Eisner. Liefg. 
27-28. Gera. 

KOEHNE UND Geyler : Botanlscher Jahresbericht, 1885 (Schluss). Berlin. 

KoEPPEN : Ueber das Verhalten des Zellkems in ruhenden Samen. Jena. 

Kraus, C. : Beobachtungen iiber die Kultur des Hopfens im Jahre 1886. Miinchen. 

Kraus, G. : Der botanische Garten der Universitat Halle, Heft i. Leipzig. 

Kraus, M. : Die einheimischen Giftpflanzen. Luxemburg. 

Labarl^trier : La terre arable. Paris. 

Lambotte : La Flore mycologique de la Belgique. Suppl. I. Bruxelles. 

Lange : Haandbog i den Danske Flora. 4., omarbejdede Udgave, Heft 4. 

Lanzi: Le Diatomice fossili del Monte delle Piche et della Via Ostiense. 

Less : Flora of West Yorkshire. London. 

vi Current Literature. 

Le ContE: Evolation and its relation to religions thought. New York. 

Lehrke : Mischnng nnd Aussaat der Grassamereien, sowie Pflege nnd Ertrtg 
der Grasknltnren. Breslan. 

Leimbach : Beitrage znr Geschichte der Botanik in Hessen im i6., 17., nnd 
Anfang des 18. Jahrhnnderts. Arastadt. 

Letourneux : Exploration sdentifique de la Tun^sie (Botaniqne). Paris. 

Leuba : Leg Champignons comestibles et les esp^s v^ndnenses avec lesquelles 
ils pourraient 6tre confondus. Livr. 2. Paris. 

Lewis: Ph3rsiological and pathological researches; being a reprint of his 
principal scientific writings (on pathological Microorganisms, &c.). 

LlEBE : Die Elemente der Morphologie. 4te Aufl. Berlin. 

LiNDLEY : California of the South. Physical geography, climate, resources, &c. 
New York. 

Lock : Coffee, its culture and commerce in all countries. London. 

LoEBEL : Anatomie der Laubblatter, vorziiglich der Blattgriin fuhrenden 

Gewebe. Konigsberg. 
LOEW : Pflanzenkunde fur den Unterricht an hoheren Lehranstalten. Theil a. 


LojACONO-PojERO : Flora Siciliana. Vol. I : Thalami florae. Panormi. 

LuBACH, LoGEMANN, DoijER, V. Cleeff : Album der Natuur. Haarlem. 

Lyitkens : Om Svenska Ogras, deras forekomst och utbredning samt intagande 
af uppgifter om Ograsfion i Froanalysbevis. Lund. 

Maillard : Considerations sur les fossiles decrites comme Algues. Berlin. 

Maiewski : On the structure of double flowers (in Russian). Moskau. 

Malbranche et Letendre : Champignons nouveaux ou pen connus recolt^ en 
Normandie. Liste IV. Rouen. 

Male : L'Aspcrge. Paris. 

Malloizel : Oswald Heer. Stockholm. 

Malvoz : Sur le mdcanisme du passage des Bacteries de la m^re an foetus. 

Marshall : Spaziergange eines Naturforschers. Leipzig. 

Martelli : Ri vista critica delle specie e variety del genere Siatice. Firenze, 1887. 

Martin : Apr^ sept ann^ de lutte. Mes experiences, mes rdsultats. Recon- 
stitution des vignobles par les rdparias grants glabres et les jacquez 
fructif^res. Rennes. 

Martius, Eichler et Urban : Flora Brasiliensii, fasc. loi-iio. Lipsiae. 

Matthews : Incwadi Yami ; or ao years* personal experience in South Africa. 

Mayer-Eymar : Systematisches Verzeichniss der Kreide- und Tertiarverstei- 
nerungen der Umgegend von Thun nebest Beschreibung der neuen Arten. 
Bern, 1887. 

Mengarini : La Viticulture e la Enologia nel Lazio. Roma. 

Menze: Zur Kenntniss der t'aglichen Assimilation der Kohlhydrate. Halle, 

Mercanti : Traltato elem. de storia nat. Botanica. Milano. 

Meyer, Mobius, Karsten, Hensen, Reinke : V. Bericht der Commission zur 
wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der deutschen Meere fiir die Jahre i88a- 
1886. Beriin, 1887. 

Miliarakis: Tyhgonus Agavae, ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der niederen en- 
dophytischen Pilze. Athen. 

MiLLARDET : Notes sur les vignes am6ricaines. S^rie IIL Bordeaux. 

Books and Pamphlets. vii 

MiLLARDET £T Gayok : Les nonvelles fonnules de la Bouillie Bordelaise (ponr 
le traitement du mildiou et de ranthracnose). Bordeaux. 

MiTTMANN : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Anatomie der PHanzenstacheln. Berlin. 

MOLISCH : Ueber Wurzelaosscheidungen und deren Einwirkung anf organische 
Substanzen. Wien. 

Moos : Pilzinvasion des Labyrinths be! Masem. Wiesbaden. 
Morel : Herborisations 4 la Bourboule et an Mont Dore. Lyon. 
MoRGENTHALER : Der falsche Mehlthau, sein Wesen und seine Bekampfung. 

MtJLLER : Atlas der Holzstruktur, dargestellt in Microphotographieo. Halle. 

MOller-Thurgau : Das Rauchem und die sonstigen Mittel zum Schutze der 
Weinberge gegen Friihjahrsfroste. In welcher Weise lasst sich die 
Weingahrung gunstig beeinflussen ? Das sogenannte Durchfallen der 
Trauben und die dagegen anzuwendenden Mittel. Drei Vortrage. Mainz, 

Neumann : Nagra kritiska eller salls3mta Vaster, bufondsakligen fran Medelpad, 
jakttagna under sommaren 1887. Sundsvall. 

Neu MAYER : Anleitung zu wissenschaftlichen Beobachtungen auf Reisen.^ a^ 
Auflage. Bd. II. Berlin (Landwirthsdiaft von Orth; Landwirthschaftliche 
Culturpflazen von Wittmack; Pflanzengeographie von Drude; die geo- 
graphische Verbreitung der Seegraser von Ascherson ; Pflanzen hoherer 
Ordnung von Schweinfurth ; Das Mikroskop und der photographische 
Apparat von Fritsch). 

Nylander : La malice des Lichens. Paris. 

: Addenda nova ad Lichenographiam Europaeam exposuit in 

Flora Ratisbonensi Dr. W. Nylander; in ordine vero sybtematico disposuit 
A. Hue. Pars II. Berlin et Paris. 

Ormerod: Report of observations of injurious insects and common farm 
pests during the year 1887, with methods of prevention and remedy. XL 

■ : The Hessian fly, Cecidomya destructor^ in Great Britain in 1887. 


OuDSCHANS : De Bacterien van den Mond in verband met Caries en andere 

ziekten der Tanden. Amsterdam. 
Pacher und Jabornegg, von : Flora von Kamten. Thcil i, Abth. 2. Klagenfurt. 
Patton : Natural resources of the United States. New York. 
Pelletan : Les Diatom^s. Vol. I. Paris. 

Penard : Recherches sur le Ceratium Macroceros avec observations sur le 
Ceratium comutum. Geneve. 

Perrens : Etude sur les Quinquinas de culture. Bordeaux. 

Petit : La petiole des Dicotylddones au point de vue de I'Anatomie compar6e 

et de la Taxonomie. Bordeaux. 
PiccoNE : Nuove spigolature per la Ficologia della Liguria. Venezia. 
PiCHi : Elenco delle Alghe Toscane. Pisa. 

Pierre : Flore Foresti^re de la Cochinchine. Fasc. IX et X. Paris. 
PiNOLiNi : Le Crittogame piti dannose alia Vitc ; norme pei Viticultori. Torino. 
PlCss : Unsere Baume und Straucher, Fiihrer durch Wald und Busch. a** Aufl. 


PoTONii, H. : Elemente der Botanik. Berlin. 

Prantl : Lehrbuch der Botanik. 7te Aufl. Leipzig. 

Preliminary catalogue of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta reported as growing spon- 
taneously within one hundred miles of New York City (compiled by 
a committee of the Turrey Botanical Club). 

viii Current Literature. 

PULLIAT : Mille vari^tes de Vignes, description et synonymies. Montpellier. 
Quillet : Flore mycologique dc la France et des pays limitrophes. Paris. 

Rabenhorst: Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der 

Bd. I, Abtli. iii : Pilze von G. Winter. Liefg. 30, Discomycetes (Pezizaceac) 

von H. Rehm. 
Bd. Ill: Die Fampflanzen (Pteridophyta) von Ch Luerssen. Liefg. ii 

Bd. IV: Die Laubmoose von K. G. Limpricht. Liefg. 9. (Stegocarpae 

RAthay: Die Geschlechtsverhaltnisse der Reben und ihre Bedeutung fiir den 

Weinbau. Wien. 
Report upon the Botanic Gardens and Government Herbarium, Cape Town, for 

the year 1886. Cape Town, 1887. 
Report on the progress and condition of the Government Botanical Gardens at 

Schiranpur and Mussoorie for the year ending 31 March, 18S7. 


Rhein : Beitrage zur Anatomie der Casalpiniaceen. Kiel. 

Richard : Le jardin d'hiver. Poitiers. 

RiCHON ET Rose : Atlas des champignons de la France, etc., 8« et 9* fasc. 

(fin). Paris. 
Ricks : Natural history objects lessons. Manual for Teachers. London. 
RiMBACH : Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Schutzscheide. Jena. 
Roberts : Naturalist's Diary. Year-book of mral biology. London. 
Robinson, P. : In my Indian garden. With a preface by E. Arnold. London. 

Robinson, W. : Hardy flowers. Descriptions of upwards of 1300 of the most 

ornamental species. 4th ed. London. 
Rosen VI NGE : Undersogelser over dre faktorers inflydelse pra Organdannelsen 

hos plantemer. Kjobenhavn. 

R6szaheggi : On Bacteria (in Hungarian). Budapest, 18S7. 

ROUY: Suites i la Flora de France de Grenier et Gadron. Diagnoses des 
plantes signalisees en France et en Corse depuis 1SS5. Fasc. i. Paris. 1887. 

S — : Darwin and his works ; a biological and metaphysical study. London. 

Saccardo: Sylloge Fungorum. Vol. VII, pars i (Gasteromyceteae, Phycomyceteae 

et Myxomycetaceae). 
Sadebeck : Untersuchungen iiber die Pilzgattung ExoascuSy und die durch 

dieselbe um Hamburg hervorgerafenen Baumkrankheiten. Berlin. 

Sahut : Les Eucalyptus. Montpellier. 

Sambuc : Contribution k T^tude de la Flore et de la matiere medicale de la 
S^n^gambie. Montpellier, 1887. 

Saporta : Origine pal^ontologique des arbres cultiv^sou utilises parThomme. Paris. 

Saposhnikoff : Zur Frage vom Geotropismus (in Russian). Moskau, 1887. 

ScHAFER : Ueber den Einfluss des Turgors der Epidermiszellen auf die Funktion 
des Spaltoffnungsapparates. Berlin, 1887. 

SCHERRER : Der angebende Mikroskopiker. Bern. 

SCHIEBOLD : Ein Blick auf die unserer Fischzucht, der Forst- und Landwirth- 
•chaft schadlichen und niitzlichen wirbellosen Thiere. Leipzig. 

SCHIMPER : Die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Pflanzen und Ameisen im tropischen 
Amerika. Jena. 

SCHLECHTENDAL, Langethal, VON, UND ScHENK : Flora von Deutschland, 
Oesterreich und der Schweiz. 5*' Aufl. (von E. Hallier). Bd. XXX, 
Theil 2. Gera. 

Books and Pamphlets. ix 

Schmidt : Atlas der Diatomaccenkunde. Liefg. 29 and 30. Aschersleben. 

SCHREBEL : Der Getreidebau. Stuttgart (also * VVandtafel Ausgabe* of the same). 

SCHUBELER : Viridarium Norvegicum. Bd. II. Heft 2. Christiania. 

Schubert : Pflanzenkunde fiir hohere Madchenschulen, Berlin. 

ScHUCH : Die Kultur der Rose in ihrem ganzen Umfange. 2** Aufl. Ilmenaa. 

ScHULZE : Uebcr die Flora der subhercynischen Kreide. Halle. 

Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain and Ireland. Yearbook for 

1888. (5th annual issue). London. 
Seblari : Compendio storico sal progresso della botanica dalla creazione de 

monde ai tempi modemi^ con Torigine dell* agricoltura in Italia. Napoli. 

SCRIBNER : Report on the fungus-diseases of the grape-vine. Washington, 1886. 

S^DE : Souvenir d*un naturaliste en Islande. Arras. 

Semler : Die tropische Agricultur. Bd. III. Wismar. 

SiMONKAY : Revisio Tiliarum hungariarum atque orbis terraram. Budapest. 

: Cytisi Hungariae terrarumque finitarum. Budapest. 

SoMMER : P'iihrer durch den botanischen Garten zu Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe. 
Spegazzini: Fungi Fuegiani. Buenos Aires, 1887. 

: Fungi Patagonici. Buenos Ayres, 1887. 

Steinbruch : Der Darwinismus und seine Folgerungen. Hilchenbach. 

Steinhaus: Materialien zu einer Kryptogamenflora von Polen, Heft i (Laub- 
Lebermosse und Flechten). Warschau (in Russian). 

Stillmark: Ueber Ricin, ein giftiges Ferment aus dem Samen von Ricinus 
communis^ L., und einigen anderen Euphorbiaceen. Dorpat. 

Strassburger : Histologische Beitrage. Heft I. : Ueber Kern- und Zelltheilung 
im Pflanzenreich, nebst einem Anhange Uber Befruchtung. Jena. 

Strecker : Erkennen und Bestimmen der Wiesengraser. Berlin. 

Sydow : Mycotheca Marchica. Cent. XIX et XX. Berlin. 

SzYSZYLOWicz : Plantae a A. Rehmann a. 1875-80 in Africa australi extra- 
tropica collectae. Cracoviae. 

Teitz: Ueber definitive Fixirung der Blattstellung durch die Torsionswirkung 
der Leitstrange. Berlin. 

Tempore et Dupray : Les Algues de France en preparations microscopiques. 

et Petit : Les Diatom^es de France en preparations microscopiques. 


Thom£ : Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz in Wort und Bild. 
Bd. in. Gera. 

Thumen, von : Die Pilze der Obstgewachse. Wien. 

Tichomirow, W. a. : Anleitung zur Erlcmung der Pharmakognosie. Bd. I. 
Moskau (in Russian). 

ToNi, DE, E Levi : Flora algologica della Venezia. Parte III. Le Cloroficee. 

: L* Algarium Zanardini. Venezia. 

Traitteur, von : Flora von Schweinfurth. Schweinfurth. 

RUAN Y LuARD UND WiTT : Die Diatomaccen der Polycistineenkreide von 
jer^mie in Hayti (Westindien). Berlin. 

Underwood : Our native Ferns and their allies. 3rd Edit. (United States of 
North America). 

Van Tieghem : Traite de Botanique. 2« ed. Fasc. i. Paris. 

Veitch and Sons : A manual of orchidaceous plants cultivated under glass in 
Great Britain. Part III. Dendrobium^ Bulbophyllum, and Cirrhopetalum, 

:x Current Literature, 

ViERHAPPER : Prodromns einer Flora des Innkreises in Oberosterreich. Theil III. 

Ried. 1887. 
Vilmorin's illustrierte Blumengartocrci. a** Aufl. von Th. Riimpler. Erganinngs- 

band : Die Neuheiten des letzten Jahrzehnts. Liefg. a. Berlin. 
Vilmorin-Andrieux et Cie : Catalogue gdn^ral de graines, (raisiers, oignons 

et flears, &c. Paris. 
Vogel, Mullenhoff und Kienitz-Gerloff : Leitfaden fur den Unterricht in 

der Botanik. Heft II. Berlin. 

VoS| DE : Handboek tot de practische Kennis der voomaamste Boomen, Heesters 
en Coniferen, voor den vrijen grond geschilst. a verm, en verb. druk. 
Amsterdam y 1887. 

Vries, de : Karte der Tabaksbaudistrikte auf Sumatra, &c. Amsterdam. 
VuiLLEMlN : Etude exp^rimentale de Taction de quelques agents chimiquei 
sur le d^veloppement du bacille de la tuberculose. Paris. 

— -^ : La biologic v^g6lale. Paris. 

Waeber : Lchrbuch fiir den Unterricht in der Botanik. a*« Neubearbeitong, 

Wakker : Onderzoek der Ziekten van H3racinthen en andere Bol- en Knolgewassen 

gedurendi de Jaren 1883-85. Haarlem 1887. 

Wallace : Australasia. London. 
Ward : Microscopical slide catalogue. London. 

Weber van, Bosse : Etude sur les algues des paresseux. Haarlem, 1887. 
Webster : British Orchids. Bangor, 1887. 

Weinzierl, von : Die schweizerische Samenkontrolstation zu Ziirich und ihr 
Einfluss auf die Hcbung des Futterbaues. Wien, 1888. 

: Jahresbericht der Samenkontrolstation der Landwirthschafts- 

Gesellschaft in Wien 1 886-1 887. Wien. 

Die qualitative Beschaffenheit der Getreidekomer-Emte des 

Jahres 1887 in Nieder-Oesterreich. Wien. 

Weiss : Vademecum Botanicorum (List of German, Austrian, and Swiss plants). 

WiESNER : Grundversuche iiber den Einfluss der Luftbewegung auf die Tran- 
spiration der Pflanzen. Wien. 

: Die mikroskopische Untersuchung des Papiers. Wien. 

WildeRMann : Jahrbuch der Naturwissenschaften (Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete 
der Botanik, &c.) Freiburg. 

Wills : Beitrage zur Elntwicklungsgeschichte der physiologischen Gewebesysteme 
bei einigen Florideen. Halle. 

WiLLKOMM : Ueber die Grenzen des Pflanzen- und Thierreichs und den Ursprung 
des organischen Lebens auf der Erde. Prag. 

— — — : Schul flora von Oesterreich. Wien. 

WossiDLO : Leitfaden der Botanik fiir hohere Lehranstalten. Berlin. 

WvssODSKV: Mastigophora and Rhizophora found in the Weissowo and Reparoe 
lakes. Chaskow, 1887 (in Russian). 

Zanichelli : Le Nozze delle Piante. Reggio Emilia, 1887. 

Zoffmann : Skema over de i Medicinen anvendte PlanteraastofTer. Kjoben- 

Zopf : Untersuchungen iiber Parasiten aus der Gruppe der Monadinen. Halle, 

ZUrn : Die Schmarotzer auf und in dem Korper unserer Haussaugethiere. II. Theil. 
Die pflanzlichen Parasiten. a. Hiufte. a^ Aufl. Weimar. 


A M E B I O A. 


Baenos Aires. Sociedad Oientifloa Argentina, Anales. Tomo XXIV. 
Sp£GA2:zini : Tnberaceae argentinae. 
— ^— ^— — : Las Faloideas argentinas. 


Department of Agrioulttire of Canada. 

Fletcher : Report of the Entomologist and Botanist for 1887. 
Bulletin No. 3, Smuts affecting wheat. 

Tranaaotiona Boyal Society of Canada. 

Fowler : Arctic Plants growing in New Brunswick. 


Frooeedings and Tranaaotiona of the Nova Sootian Institute of Natural 
Soienoe. Vol. VII. 

SOMERS : Additions to the list of Nova Scotian Fungi. 


Annala of New York Aoademy of Soienoea. Vol. IV. 

No. 4. Britton : On an Archaean plant from the White Crystalline Lime- 
stone of Sussex CO. N. J. 

Bulletin of the Soientiflo Ijaboratortea of Deniaon Univeraity. Vol. III. 
No. 3. Payne : Fertilisation of Lobelia syphilitica. 
„ 4. Deming : List of Diatoms from Licking Co. 

Bulletin of Iowa State Agricultural College, Botanical Department. 

Halsted : Various papers. 

Bulletin of Kanaaa State Agricultural College. II. 

Shelton : Cultivated grasses and clovers in Kansas. 

Bulletin of the New York Statea Muaeum of Natural History. Vol. I. 
No. a. Peck : Contributions to the Botany of the State of New York. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Vol. XV. 

No. I. MORONG : Studies in the Typhaceai. (Continued in No. 3.) 
„ — Scribner : New or little-known grasses (PI. LXXVI). 
„ — Allen ; Nitella (not Tolypella) Macounii. 
„ — Vasev : New western grasses. 

y, — Sterns : Re-discovery of Nymphaea eUgans, Hook, at a new station. 
„ — Safford : Botanising in the Strait of Magellan (cont. in No. 4). 

xii Current Literature. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club {continued). 

No. I. James: Anthophyta for Phaenogamia. 

„ — Index to recent botanical literature (continued in No. a, 3). Botanical 

No. a. ScHRENK : On the histology of the vegetative organs of Brasenia 

peltata, Pursh. (PI. LXXVII-LXXVIII). 

„ — Vasey : New or rare grasses. 

„ — The proposed Botanical Exchange Club. 

„ — James : Castaiia versus Nymphaea. 

„ — Sterns : Notes on Smilax pumilay Walt. 

„ 3. Deane : Asa Gray. With portrait. 

„ — Halsted : Trigger hairs of the thistle flower (illustrated). 

— Greene : Bibliographical notes on well-known plants {Nymphaea^ 
sp.) (continued in No. 4, Gleditschia inermisy Mill., Hespero- 
chiron nanus^ Lowl.). 

— Sterns : Proposed revision of North American Smiiaces. 

4. Britton : New or noteworthy North American Phanerogams, I 
(PI. LXXX Scirpus PringUi^ Britton ; S, heterocarpus, 

— Sturtevant : Capsicum umbiliccUum. 

— Sterns : Cryptogamia versus Heterophyta ; a new variety of Ery^ 

5. Bebb : White Mountain willows. 
„ — Greene : Linnaeus and his genera, 
y, — Kain : Diatoms of Atlantic City. 
„ — Sturtervant : Capsicum fasciculatum^ n. sp. 
„ 6. Foerste : The development of Symplocarpus foetidus (L.), Salisb. 
„ — Harvey : Fresh water Algae of Maine, I. 
„ — Sterns : Some peculiarities in the seed of Smilax^ Toum. 

: Saxifraga virginiensis^ Mich. var. pentadecandra^ Stems. 

— Smith : Another station for Rhododendrtm Vaseyi. 

„ — Robinson : Aquilegia cancuiensis^ L., var. flavifloray (Tenney) Britton. 

Department of Agrioulture, United States. 

Fernow : Report on the relation of railroads to forest supplies and 

Scribner: Fungicides. 

: Report on the experiments made in 1887 in the treatment 

of the doMmy mildew and the black-rot of the Grape- Vine. 
Increasing the durability of timber. 
Report on the relation of railroads to forest supplies and forestry. 

Garden and Forest. Vol. I. 
No. I. Watson : Iris tenuis. 

2. : Note on our native Irises. 

— : Lilium Grayi. 








3. : Aquilegia longissima. 

— MoHR : The hardwood forests of the south. 

4. Watson : Iris bractecUa. 

— Macoun : The forests of Vancouver's Island. 

5. Sargent : Yucca Treculiana, 

— HOOPES : The Retinosporas. 


Periodical Literature. xiii 

Garden and Forest {continued). 
No. 5. Dawson : Forest trees of the far north-west. 
„ 6. Watson: Phlox adsurgtns. 

— Sargent : Photinia villosa, 

— Pringle : The forest vegetation of Northern Mexico. 
8. Watson : Cypripedium fasciculatum. 

— Sargent : The yellow- wood. 
„ — Fernow: Influence of undergrowth on the increase of timber, 
„ 9. CuRTiss : How the Mangrove forms islands. 
„ — Watson : Rosa minutifolia, 
„ — Pringle : The forest vegetatipn of Northern Mexico, II. 

10. Watson ; Hymenocallis humilis. 

— Pringle : The forest vegetation of Northern Mexico, III. 
,, II. CuRTiss : How the Bald Cypress converts lakes into forests. 
„ — Watson : Brodiaea Bridge sit. 

„ — Tweedy : The forests of the Yellowstone National Park. 
„ 12. Watson: Hymenocallis PcUmeri. 

- : Rocky mountain Cypripediums. 




„ — Pringle : The forest vegetation of Northern Mexico, IV. 

13. Watson : Delphinium viride, 

— Sargent : Japanese apples. 

14. Watson : Heliconia chocouiana. 
„ — Sargent : A new Jersey pine forest. 
„ 15. Watson : Camassia Cuseckii. 

„ 16. : Amelanchier alnifolia. 

,, — Pringle: Selaginella Pringlei. 

„ — HiLGARD: Forest trees of California. 

17. Watson: Pitcaimia Jaliscana, 

— Sargent : Prunus pendula, 

„ — Dauglas : Forest tree planting on the Prairies. 

,, — Dawson : Northern Range of the Western Service-berry. 

Gasette, Botanical, Vol. XIII. 

No. I. Campbell : The botanical institute at Tiibingen (with portrait of Prof. 


— Moll : The application of the parafhne-imbedding method in botany. 

— SCRIBNER : Some results of mycological work in U.S. Dept of 

— Kelsey : A handy Herbarium. 

— Can BY : Erigeron Tweedyiy n.sp, 
„ 2. Smith : Undescribed plants from Guatemala, II. 
„ — Tracy and Galloway: Uncinula polychaeta, Betl. 
„ — Schonland: Plan of a botanical laboratory. 
,, — Robertson : Effect of wind on bees and flowers. 
„ 3. Farlow : Asa Gray. 

„ — Halsted : Iowa Peronosporeae and a dry season. 
„ — Power : Heinrich Anton de Bary. 
,, — Schonland : Further notes on imbedding. 
„ 4. Asa Gray : New or rare plants. 
„ — Smith : Undescribed plants from Guatemala III (¥rith Plate). 



xiv Cur rati Literature. 

Oasette, Botanioal {contintud). 
No. 4. Coulter and Rose : Notes on Western Umbelliferae, 
„ — Bailey : Notes on Carex, IX. 
,, — Unterwood : The distribution of /r<7^/^x. 

— Knowlton : Lichens from the Easter Islands. 

— ScHENCK : Notes on some Illinois grapes. 
„ — Memminger : Prunus pumila in N. Carolina. 
„ — Vasey : Synopsis of the genus Panicum. 
„ 5. Bebb : Notes on North American willows. 
„ — Unterwood : Undescribed Hcpaticae from California. 

— Coulter : Memoir of Jacob Whitman Bailey. 

— Marong : Castalia Leibergi^ n. sp. 
„ — Macaem : Notes on the flora of Janus Bay. 
„ — Tracy and Galloway : Puccinia mirabilima, 
„ — Hitchcock : Abnormal Anemone and Convohmlus, 
,, — Smith : Death from eating Cicuta maculata. 

6. Coulter and Rose : Some notes on Western Umbelliferaey II. 

— Robertson : Zygomorphy and its causes, I. 

— FoERSTE : Notes on structures adapted to cross-fertilisation (PI. VIII). 

„ — Knowlton : Description of a new fossil species of the genua 

„ — Meehan : Veronica peregrina, 

,t — Campbell : The paraffin-embedding process in Botany. 
„ — Vasey : Rnles for the Bot Exchange Club. 

QftBeite, Therapeutic. 1888. 

Rusby : Coca at Home and Abroad. 

Oeologist, Amerioan. Vol. I. 

Le Conte : The Flora of the Coast Islands of California in relation 
to recent changes of physical geography. 

Journal, American Chemical. Vol. X. 

Ladd : Sngars and starch in fodders, and their determination. 

Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Vol. X. 

Morgan : The mycological flora of the Miami Valley, Ohio, Cont. 

Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Soientiflc Society. Raleigh, 1887. 
Mc Carthy : The study of local Floras. 

Journal, Amerioan Monthly Microscopical. Vol. IX. 

DOHERTY : The staining of animal and vegetable tissue. 
Smith : The microscope in the study of bacteriology. 
Rafter : Fauna and flora of Hewlock Lake. 

Journal of the Microscopical Society of New York. Vol. IV. 

Dudley : The common Bacillus, the reputed cause of Asiatic cholera. 

EccLES : Thallophytes in medicinal solutions. 

Zabriskie : Phyllactinia guttata on leaves of Celastrus stanJens, 

— ^— ^— — : Phragmidium mucronatumy var. americanum^ Peck, the 

Leggett : Microgastery parasitic on the hawk-moth. 

LocKWOOD : The pathology of pollen in aettivis or hay fever. 


Periodical Literature. xv 

Journal of Mycology. Vol. IV. 

Ellis and Everhart : Additions to Ramularia and Ctrcaspora, 

AND Halsted : New Iowa fungi. 

AND Everhart : New species of fungi from various localities. 

Morgan : The genus Geaster. 

De Ton I : Revision of the genus Daassansia. 

Rau : A Lichen new to the United States. 

Tracy and Galloway : New Western Uredineae, 

FORSTER : Agarics of the United States, genus Panus. 

Ellis and Kellerman : New Kansas Fungi. 

Swingle : Notes on Fungi from Western Kansas. 

Tracy and Galloway : Notes on Western ErysipheaeaxA Peronosporeae, 

Pammel : Some Mildews of Illinois. 

Ellis and Everhart : Synopsis of the North American species of 
Hy poxy Ion and Nummularia. 

: New species of Fungi from various localities. 

Journal of Soienoe, American. Vol. XXXV. 

Dana : Asa Gray. 

Goo dale: Recent contributions to our knowledge of the vegetable 

Journal of Trenton Natural History Society. Vol. I. 
No. 3. Stowell : Notes on the Flora. 

Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History. Vol. IV. 
No. 4. Trelease : North American Geraniaceae, 
„ 6. Thaxter : The Entomophthoreae of the United States. 

Naturaliat, American. Vol. XXII (1888). 

Bessey : Tumble-weed again {Corispermum hyssopifolium, L.) 

: The grass-flora of the Nebraska plains. 

Haaker : The germination of dodder. 

Coulter : Evolution in the Plant-Kingdom. 

Beal : The rootstocks of Leersia and Muhlenburgia. (Illustrated). 

Bessey : Effect of ice upon trees. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Part 3. Meehan : Contributions to the life-histories of plants. 

: The origin of the grassy prairies. 

Wilson : On the relation of Sarracenia purpurea to S, variolaris. 
Roth ROCK : Mimicry among plants. 
RusBY : Lecture on Cinchona, 

Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Vol. XXIII. 

Gray : Notes upon some Polypetalous Genera and Orders. 

Watson : Some new species of plants of the United States with re- 
visions of Lesquerella, and of the North American species of 
Draba, Some new species of Mexican Plants, chiefly of Mr. 
C. G. Pringle^s collection in the Mountains of Chihuahua in 
1887. Description of some plants of Guatemala. 

xvi Current Literature. 

Frooeedings of "WisooxiBin Natural History Society. 
Wheeler : Flora of Milwaukee County. 

Psyche. Vol. V. 

Forbes : American Bibliography of Insect-diseases. 

Beport of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, 6th Report 
for 1887. 

Arthur : Report of the Botanist. 
GoFF : Report of the Horticulturist. 

Beport of the New York State Museum of Natural History. XL for 1 889. 
Peck : Report of the Botanist. 

Beview, Agricultural. Vol. II. 
No. I. Sturtevant : Notes on peppers. 
„ 1. GoFF : The office of the seed-tuber in the potato plant, 
yt 6. Short : A carbonic acid apparatus. 
Scientist, "West American. Vol. IV. 
No. 34. Yates : Fossil Botany. 
,, — Orcult: Cactuses. 
M 35- Lopatechi : The violets of British Columbia. 

Transactions of New York Academy of Sciences. Vols. VI and VII. 

Britton : Note on the growth of a vinegar-plant in fermented grape- 

Newberry : The Fauna and Flora of the Trias of New Jersey and 
the Connecticut Valley. 

Britton and Rusby : A list of plants collected by Miss Mary B. 
Croft, at San Diego, Texas. 



Journal and Proceedings of the Boyal Society of New South "Wales. 
Vol. XX. 

Mueller, von : Description of an unrecorded Ardisia of New 

Bancroft : Preliminary notes on some new poisonous plants discovered 
on the Johnstone River, North Queensland. 

Mueller, von : Further additions to the census of genera of plants 
hitherto known as indigenous to Australia. 

Rennie : Notes on the sweet principle ol Smilax glycyphylla. 

Vol. XXI. 

Maiden : Some New South Wales Tan-substances, Parts 1-4. 

Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South "Wales, and series, 
Vol. II. 

Part 4. Katz : Further remarks on phosphorescent Bacteria. 

„ : Note on the Bacteria met with in case of bovine Pleuro- 

„ — Haswell : Notes on Tmesipteris and Psilotum, 



Periodical Literature. xvii 


Naturalist, The Viotorian. Vol. IV {continued). 

No. 7. The Annual Exhibition of Wild Flowers. 

,, — Wools: Plants of New South Wales, having medicinal properties. 

„ — Sullivan : Mosses of Victoria, with brief notes. 

— Mueller, von : Description of a hitherto unrecorded Rhododendron 
from New Guinea (-A*. Carringtoniae^, 

8. Mueller : Note on the Araucaria of New Guinea. 

„ — Campbell : Vegetable Pathology. 

„ 9. The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 

„ — Mueller, von : Flora of King Island. 

„ 10. French : Botanical trip to Wimmera. 

„ 1 1. : Wolffia and Lemna. 

„ li. Wilson : Notes on Lichens. No. 2. 

„ — TiSDALL : Victorian Agarics. 

Vol. V. and VI. 

„ I. Mueller von: Description of an hitherto unrecorded Goodenia, in* 
digenous also to Victoria. 

„ : Supplement to enumeration of Victorian plants. 

„ a. HowiTT : Notes on the distribution of Eucalypts. 

„ — W^ILSON : Description of two new lichens and a list of additional 
lichens near to Victoria. 


Annalen des k. k. natnrhiBtorisohen HofinuBeuma in "Wien. Bd. III. 
No. I. Beck, von : Ueber die Torf-bewohnenden Fohren Nieder-Oesterreichs. 

ErtesitO, Orvos-term^szettudom&nyi. Bd. XIII. 

ISTviNFFV : Zur Kenntniss der Ulothrix zoncUa, Kiitz. (In Hungarian 
with German r^um^.) 

Ftisetek, Term^aaetrajzi. Vol. XI. 

Richter : Mykologishe Mittheilungen aus dem Gbmorer Comitate. 

Mittheilungen ana dem botaniachen Institut au Qraa (Lcitgeb). Heft II. 

ScHERFFEL : Die Drusen in den Hohlen der Rhizomschnppen von 

Lathraea squamariay L. (Taf. VI). 
Leitgeb: Der Gehalt der DahliaknoUen an Asparagin und Tyrosin 

(Taf. VII). 
Heinricher : Beeinflusst das Licht die Organanlage am Famembryo? 
Leitgeb : Uebcr Sphaerite (Taf. VIII und IX). 

Mittheilcmgen der k. ong. geologischen Anstalt. Bd. VIII. 

Felix : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der fossilen Holzer Ungams. 

Mittheilungen aua dem Iiaboratorium fur "Waarenkunde an der "Wiener 
Handels-Akademie. 1887. 

Hanausek : Ueber eine unechte Macis. 

IIassack : Die cultivirten Sorghum- hj\tiit der anatomische Bau ihrer 
Friichte und ihre technische Bedeutung. 


xviii Current Literature. 

Bitmngsberiohte dar kgl. bOhmiaohdn GeaalUiohaft dar Wistentohaftdn. 

(Prag). 1887 icontintud). 

Celakowsky : Resaltate der botanischen Darchforschang Bohmens im 

Jahre 1885. 
Velenovsky : Neae Beitrage znr Kenntnisi der bohmisohen CenomaQ». 
Celakowsky : Ueber die morphologische Bedsutung der Cupala bei den 

echten Cupuliferen. 

Verhandlongen der k. k. geologisohen BeiohBanstalt in 'Wien. 1 888. 

Stefan I : Andeutungen einer palaeozoischen Flora in den Alpi Marit- 

ToNDERA : Ueber Pfianzenreste ans der Steinkohlenfonnation im Krakauer 

Stur : Ueber die Flora der feuerfesten Thone von Grojec in Galizien. 

Verhandlungen der k. k. zoologisoh-botanisohen Oesellsohaft in Wien. 
Bd. XXXVII (1887) {continued). 

Beck, von : Die in den Torfmooren Niederosterreichs vorkommenden 

Breidler : Bryum Reyeri^ n. sp. 

Burgerstein : Materialien zn einer Monographie betrcffend die Enchei- 
nnngen der Transpiration der Pdanzen. 

Hackel : Ueber das Vorkommen von Leersia hexamirat Sw. in Spanien. 

HalAcsy : Cirsium Vindahonenstt nov. hybr. 

Krasser : ZerklUftetes Xylem bei CUtnatis Vitalba^ L. 

: Zur Kenntniss der Heterophyllie. 

Kronfeld : Ueber das Doppelblatt. 

: Ueber Wurzel-Anomalien bei kultivirten Umbelliferen. 

MoLiscH : Ueber Wurzelausscheidongen. 

Procopianu-Procopovici : Beitrag zur Kenntnisi der Gefasskrypto- 

gamen der Bukowina. 
Rassmann : Ueber die Flora der TUrkenschanze wahrend der letzten 

5 Jahre. 
RjIthay : Ueber die Geschlechtsverhiiltnisse der Reben und ihre Bedeu- 

tung fiir den Weinban. 

RiCHTER : Ueber die Gestalt der Pfianzen and deren Bedentung fiir die 

Sennholz : Ueber zwei nene Can/f/iu-Hybriden und einige nene Stand- 
orte von solchen und einer Cf/x/irm-Hybride. 

Staff : Ueber die Schleuderfriichte der Alstroemeria psittacina. 
Stohl : Ueber das Auftreten des Lipidium majus, Darr, in Oesterreich. 
Wettstein, von : Pinus Cemhra^ L. in Niederoesterreich. 

: Ueber die systematische Verwerthung der Anatomie 

der Coniferen. 
ZuKAL : Ueber die Asoenfriichte des Penicillium crustaceum^ Sk. 
Bd. XXXVIII (18S8). 

KiEFFER : Ueber Gallmticken und MUckengallen. 

Entleutner : Die Ziergeholze von Siidtirol. 

Fritsch : Ueber die VerbascMm-KsXxA and Bastarde aas der Section 

Kronfeld : Geoffroy d. Aelt. Antheil an der Sexualtheorie der Pflanzen. 
— — » : Ueber das Ovar von Juglans rtgia^ L. 
: Ueber die Ovula von Draba vema^ L. 

Periodical Literature. xix 

Verhandltmcfen der k. k. soologisoh-botanisohen G^esellBohaft {continued), 
Kronfeld : Die Entwicklnng der Spatha von Galetnihus nivalis, L. 
LoiTLESBERGER : Beitxag zur Algenfiora Oberosterreichs. 
MOLISCH : Die Herkunft des Salpeters in der Pfianze. 
MuLLNER : Ueber einen neuen Ca/f/<xMr^a-Bastard und fur Nieder- 

osterreich nene Pflanzen. 
Raimann : Ueber die Fichtenformen ans der Umgebung von Ltrnz, 

sowie iiber Calycanthemie von Cyelamen. (Taf. II). 
RiCHTER : Floristischcs aus Niederosterreich. 
Sennholz: Fiir Niederosterreich nene VAzxiiQTi.—Medicago mixta^ nov. 

Staff : Ueber das Edelweiss. 

Weinlander : Die bliihenden Pflanzen der Hochschobergmppe. 
Wettstein, von : Rkamnus Hydriensis^ Hacq. — Ueber die Aaffindang 

der Daphne Blagayana^ ^^rty* in Bohmen. — Beobachtungen 

iiber den Baa und die Keimung der Samen von Nelumbo 

nucifera, Gaertn. (Taf. I). — Vorarbeiten zu ciner Pilzflora der 

Steiermark, II. 

Zeit- und Streitfragen, Klinisohe (Schnitzler). Neue Ausgabe. Bd. I. 

Weichselbaum : Der gegcnwartige Stand der Bakteriologie und ihre 
Beziehongen zur praktischen Median. 

Zeitsohrift, Oesterreiclilsche botanisohe. Jahrgang XXXVIII. 
No. I. Krasan : Autobiographie. 
„ — Celakovsk'C' : Orientalische Pflanzenarten (continued in No8. a, 3). 
,, — BORNMULLER : Ptelotrychutti Uechtritzianum. 
„ — Staff : Ueber einige /ri>- Arten des botanischen Gartens in Wicn. 
„ — Blocks : Viola roxolanica. 

„ — Con rath : Zur Flora von Bosnicn (continued in Nos. 2, 3, and 4). 
„ — Ullepitsch : Neue Pflanzenarten. 

„ — FORMANEK ; Flora von Nord Mahren (continued in Nos. a, 3). 
— Strobl : Flora des Etna (continued in Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5). 
2. Hansgirg : Zur Algenflora Bohmens (continued in Nos. 3, 4, 5). 
„ — BorbAs, von : Cynoglossum paucisetum. 
„ — Blocki : Hieracium psetuiobijidum. 
„ — KissLiNG : Botmische Notizen. 

„ 3. Fritsch : Zur Nomenclatur unserer Cephalanthera-hxiea. 
„ — VuKOTVi^iNO : Neue Eichenformcn. 
„ — Zukal : Wahrung der Prioritat. 
„ 4. Sauter : Zwei neue Formen von Potentilla : P. porpkyracea^ Saut., P, 

Bolzanensiformis, Saut. 
„ — Blocki : Rosa Liechtensteinii, n. sp. 
„ — Degen, von : Weiterer kleiner Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Pressburger 


„ — WoLOSZCZAK : Heracleum simplicifoliumy Herb. 

„ — BoRNMULLER : Einiges iiber Vaccaria paruiflora^ Much, und V. grandi- 
Jlora, Jaub. et Sp. 

,, — JETTER : Ein Friihlingsausflug an die dalmatische Kiiste (continued in 

Nos. 5 and 6). 
,, — Tom ASCII EK : Ueber Symbiose von Bacterien (in Zoogloeaform) mit der 

Alge Cloeocapsa polydermatica, Ktz. 

C % 

XX Current Literature. 

Zeitsohrift, OeBterreiohisohe botanisohe {continued). 

No. 5. Braun : Kleiner Beitrag zar Flora von Hainburg a. d. Donau in Nieder- 


„ — Block I : Hieracium Andrzejoiviskii, n. sp. 

„ — ZiMMETER : Zur Frage der Einschleppnng and Verwildening von 

„ — BoRB^s, VON : Geum spurium^ C. A. Mey. in Ungam, und G, rnon- 
tanunty var. geminijlarum, m. 

„ — KissLiNG : Notizen zur Pflanzengeographie Nieder-Oesterreichs. 

„ — BUBRLA : Berichtigungen and Nachtrage zar Flora von Mahren (con- 
tinaed in No. 6). 

„ 6. KraSan : Hubert Leitgeb. 

„ — FoBMANEK : Mahrische Thymus-Yoimca., 

„ — Block I : Hieracium subauriculouies^ n. sp. 

„ — Kra§an : Reciproke Culturversuche. 

„ — RiCHTER : Botanische Notizen zur Flora des Comitates Gomor. 

„ — Marr : Wichtigere neue Funde von Phanerogamen in Nordtirol. 


Arohives de Biologle. Tome VII. 

Henrijean : Influence des agents antithermiques sur les oxydations 

Bambeke : Des deformations artificielles du noyeau (Plate XI-XIII). 

Bulletin de la 8ooi6t6 Beige de Mioroscopie. Tome XIV. 

Errera : Mouvement protoplasmique et tension superficielle. 
Scheurlen : Le bacille du carcinoma. 
Ermengen, van : Discussion sur T^tiologie da cancer. 
: Phagocytose et Bact^rioth^rapie. 

Oomptes BenduB de la Sooi^t^ Boyale de Botanique de Belgique. Tome 
XXVII, 2« partie (1888). 

Van de Broek : Catalogue des plantes observe aux environs d*Anvers 
(2* suppl.) 

Cr£pin : Quelques reflexions sur la situation de Botanique descriptive. 

: Sur le polymorphisme attribu^ i certains groupes g^neriques. 

: Examen de quelques id^es ^mises par MM. Bumat et Gremli 

sur le genre Rosa, 

: Le Rosa villosa de Linn^. 

: Novae Rosae descriptio (^Rosa Watsoniana^ sect. Synstylae), 

: Observations sur les Roses d^crites dans le Supplementum 

Florae Orientalis de Boissier. 

Massart : Les Etudes de M. Pfeffer sur la sensibility des v^getaux aux 
substances chimiques. 

De Wildeman : Les esp^s du genre Treniepohlia, Mart. {Chroolepus^ 

— ^— — : Note sur le Nitella syncarpa, Al. Br. 

: Les etudes de M. Allen sur les Charac^es americaines. 

' : Sur r Ulothrix flaccida^ Ktz. et le Stichococcus baciiiaris, 


Periodical Literature. xxi 


Videnakabelige Maddelelser. 1888. 

Warming : Tabellarisk Oversigt over Gr^nlands, Islands og Foer^rnes 

Flora, 1887. 
KiNDBERG : Enumeratio Muscorum (Bryineonim et Sphagnaceonim)| 

qui in Groenlandia, Islandia et Foeroer occurrunt. 

F B A N C E. 

Annales A^onomiques. Tome XIV. 

No. I. PORION ET Deh^rain : Caltures experimentales de Wardrecqucs 
(Pas-de-Calais) et de Blaringhem (Nord), troisi^me ann^e. 

,, a. Lawes et Gilbert : Les sources d'azote de la vegetation. 

„ 3. Deh^rain : Recherches sor la fabrication du famier de ferme. 

„ 4. Berge : Experiences sor la culture du bU dans le pays de Caux. 

„ — Ladureau et Mousseaux : Etudes experimentales sur la culture de 

Pavoine en Champagne, 
y, 5. AUDOYNAUD : Sur la fermentation rapide des moOts de raisin. 
„ — Deh^rain : J.*E. Planchon. Notice necrologique. 
„ 6. JODIN : £tude sur les algues unicellulaires. 

„ — Nantier : Cultures du champ d*experiences de la station agronomique 
de la Somme. 

,, — Pagnoul : Richesse et densite du bie. 

Axmales de la Soienoe Agronomiqae FranpaiBe et Etrangdre. 1887. 

Tome I. 
Fliche et Grandeau: Recherches chimiqaes et physiologiques sur 
les lichens. 

Petermann : La composition du topinambour. 
: Etudes sur les enveloppes des graines. 

Shinkizi Nagai : L'agricultnre au Japon. Son etat actuel et son 
avenir. Traduit de Tallemand par M. H. Grandeau (continued 
in vol. ii. fasc. i). 

Girard : De Tabsorption de Tiode par les mati^res amylac^es. 

Lejeune : Le Tabac mexicain. Son present et son avenir. 

Gayon et Dubourg : De la fermentation alcoolique de la dextrine et 
de Tamidon par les mucors. 

MuNTZ : Sur la dissemination du ferment nitrique et sur son rdle dans 
la desagregation des roches. 

: Examen preiiminaire et echantillonage des engrais. 

Tome II. 

ScHULZE : Recherches sur les elements azotes des plantes. 

Feltz : Les Terres noires de Russie, leur origine, leur composition et 
leurs proprietes d'apr^s un ouvrage recent de M. P. Kostitscheflf. 

Henry : Le Tannin dims le ch$ne (Nouvelles recherches). 

Petermann : Recherches sur la culture de la betterave & sucre. — ^Le 

Fumier de Tourbe. 
Mondesi R: Note additionnelle sur le dosage rapide du carbonate de 

chaux actif dans les terres. 
Margottet : Grifiith*s recherches sur Temploi du sulfate de fer en 


xxii Current Literature. 

Annales de la Soienoe Asronoznique Francsise et Btrangdre (jconiinued). 

La WES : Culture pennanante du ble et de I'orge dans les champs d'ex- 
p^ences de Stackyard (Wobum) 1877-86. (Traduit de 1 anglais 
par L. Grandeau). 

AnnalM de Chimid et de Physique. S^rie 6, Tome XIII. 

Berthsiot^ Fixation de Tazote atmosph^rique sur la terre veg^tale. 

: Fixation de Tazote libre par certains terraux argileux. 

•— ^— : Sur le carbone organiqne contenu dans les sols qui fixent 

Tazote libre. 

: Fixation directe de Tazote gazeux de Tatmosph^re par les 

terres v^g^tales. 

Fixation directe de Tazote gazeux de Tatmosph^re par les 

terres v^g^tales avec le concours de la v^g^tation. 

Azmalea de I'lnstitut Pasteur. Tome II. 

Bardach : Nouvelles recherches sur la rage. 

Roux : Notes de laboratoire sur la presence du virus rabique dans les 

: De la culture sur pommes de terre. 

RujwiD : Sur la reaction chimique des Bacilles du cholera. 

Yersin : De Taction de quelques antiseptiqnes et de la chaleur sur le 
Badlle de la tuberculose. 

Chauveau : Sur le m^canisme de Timmunit^. 

Wasserzug : Variations de formes chez les Bact^ries. 

■ : Variations durables de la forme et de la fonction chez les 


Mentschnikoff : Pasteuria ramosay un representant des Bact^ries i 
division longitudinale. 

Straus et Wurtz: Sur un proc^d^ perfectionn^ d*analyse bact^rio- 
logique de I'air. 

Straus : Sur Tabsence de microbes dans I'air. 

Freudenreich : Sur I'antagonisme entre bact^ries et sur Timmunit^ 
qn^l confbre aux milieux de culture. 

Wasserzug : Recherches morphologiques et physiologiqnes sur un 

GamaleIa : Sur la destruction des microbes dans les organismes f^bri- 

Fernbach : Sur Tabsence des germes vivants dans les bottes de con- 
serves alimentaires. 

Anii^i^ des Soienoes Naturelles. Botanique. S^rie 7. 

Tome VI {continued), 

DuMONT : Recherches sur Tanatomie compar^e des Malvac^es, Bom- 
bacees, Tiliac^es et Sterculiac^es (PI. IV-VII). 

Leblois: Recherches sur Torigine et le d^veloppement des canaux 
s^cr^eurs et des poches ^cr^trices (PI. VIII-XII). 

Went : Etude sur la forme du sac embryonnaire des Rosac^es (PI. XIII). 

Petit: Le petiole des Dicotyl^dones au point de vue de I'anatomie 
compar^e et de la taxonomie. 

Tome VII. 
Saporta : Demi^res adjonctions i la flore fossile d*Aix-en-Provence. 
Dangbard : Recherches sur les Algues inferieures. 

Periodical Literature. xxiii 

Annales des Soianoes Naturellea {continued), 

BORNET ET Flahault : Revision des Nostocac^s h^terocyst^s coti- 
tenues dans les principaux herbiers de France (^quatri^me et 
dernier fragment). 

Arohives Botaniques da Nord de la France. 4e Ann^. 
Nos. 46, 47. LiGNiER : Recherches snr Tanatomie compart des Calycaothto, 

des M^lastomac^ et des Myrtac^. 

„ 48, 49. Bertrand et Renault : Recherches snr les Poroxylons, Gymno- 
spermes fossiles des terrains houillers inp^rieurs. 

Archivea da MoB^um d'Histoire Natorelle, Noavelles. Tome X, Fasc I. 
Franchet : Plantae Davidianae. 

Arohives de Physiologie Normale et Fathologlqae. S^rie 3. ao* Ann^. 
Nos. 3,4. Les age : Du Bacille de la diarrh^ verte des enfants dn premier ^e. 

„ — Blake : Sur les rapports entre I'atomicit^ des dements et leur action 

Bulletin de la Sooi^t^ de Botaniqae de Franoe. 
Tome XXXIV {conHntud), 

Camus : Herborisation de la soci^t^ & Montigny-sur-le-Loing. 

Degagny : L*hyaloplasma on protoplasma fondamental. 

Hue : Qnelqaes lichens int^ressants pour la fiore fran9ai8e et lichens du 

Battandier : Note snr qnelques plantes d'Alg^rie rares, nonvellcs on 

pen connues. 

Trabut : Additions \ la flore d* Alg^rie. 
CosTE : Herborisations sor le cansse central. 

Tome XXXV, Nog. i et a. 

ROUY : G^ogiaphie botaniqae de T Europe. 

Hub : Lichenes de Miquelon envoy^s par Delamare. 

ViLMORiN : Experiences de croissement entre des bl^s diff^rents. 

Flot : Sur les tiges aeriennes de quelques plantes. 

Daguillon : Sur la structure des feuilles de quelques Conif^res. 

Gay : Sur les Ulothrix a^riens. 

LuiZET : Herborisation au Val di Piora, pr^s Airolo. 

Lkclsrc du Sablon : Sur les poils radicaux des Rhinanth^es. 

FOUCAUD : Vari^t^ nouvelle du Ceratophyllum demersum, L. 

DuCHARTRE : Organisation de la fleur dans les vari^tes cultiv^es du 
Delphinium elatum, L. 

COLOMB : Essai d*une cUssification des fougeres de France bas^ sur 
leur ^ude anatomique et morphologique. 

Van Tieghem et Douliot : Origine, structure et nature morpho- 
logiqne des tubercules radicaux des L^gumineuset. 

NiEL : Herborisation k Saint-Evroult-N.-D.-Du-Bois. 

BouY : Excursions botaniques en Espagne. 

De Seynes : Ceriomyces et Fihrillaria. 

Daugeard : Observations sur les Cryptomonadin^es. 

Camus : Note sur le PotentiUa procumbem^ Sibth. 

Chastaingt : Rosies croissant natnrellement dans le d^partement 

d*Indre-et* Loire. 
Legrand : Essai de rehabilitation des genres de Toumefbrt. 

DUFOUR: D^veloppement et fructification du Trichociadium csperum, 

xxiv Current Literature. 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ de Botanique de France {continued). 
Mi^GEViLLE : Daphnoiddes des Pyr^ndes centrales. 
Wasserzug : Snr les spores chez les Levnres. 
Daugeard : Gaine foliaire des Salicomieae. 
Fliche : Note sur les formes du genre Ostrya . 

Bulletin trimestriel de la 8oci6t6 de Botanique de Lyon, 1887 {continued). 

No. a ViviAND-MoREL : Les Anemones d^crites dans le Florilegium de 

Veuillot : Champignons recolt^s ^ EauUy et i St. Quentin. 

Beau VISAGE : Anomalies des feuilles d*an Phaseolus vulgaris. 

: Des bractees chez quelques Cruciftres. 

Prudent : Diatom^es recolt^es k Villars-les-Dombes. 

Garcin et Morel : Cause de la decoloration da Lilas cultiv^ dans 
les serres. 

Viviand-Morel : Anomalies observ^es sur diverses plantes. 

: Plantes cueillies aux Echets et vers Port-Galland 


: Polymorphisme du Carex acuta. 

Saint-Lager : Utility des noras significatifs pour designer les variations 
parall^les des esp^ces d*un meme genre. 

Roux : Drosera longifolia dans les marais du Bourget (Savoie). 
1} 3-4. Blanc : Plantes du marais de Cbaramel pr^ Frontonas. 

Lachmann : Bifurcation terminale du tronc d*un Dioon edule. 

: Recherches sur la structure et croissance de la racine des 

Blanc : Plantes recoltees entre Rochemaure ct Cruas (Ard^che). 
• : Observations sur quelques plantes d* Ajaccio. 

Beauvisage : Remarques k propos d'un travail sur la vrille des Cucur- 
bitac^es par M. Colomb. 

DE Ton I et Levi : Liste des Algues trouv^es dans le tube digestive 
d'un tetard. 

Magnin : Note sur la flore des environs de Salins et du Haut-Jura. 

: Note sur Vffiercuium scorzonerifolium du Mt. Poupet. 

Garcin : Etude anatomique de X Hydrophyllum canadense. 

BouLLU : Variety k fleur jaune de V Euphrasia salisburgensis, 

Saint-Lager : Plantes nouvelles ou rares de la Haute-Maurdenne. 

Gerard : Note sur une anomalie florale chez le Vanda suavis. 

Bulletin de la 8oci6t6 Chimique (Paris). Tome XLIX. 

Claudon et Morin : Des produits de la fermentation alcoolique. 

Arnaud : Sur la mati^re cristallis^ active des Heches empoissonn^es des 
Comalis, extraite du bois d'Oabaio. 

Jacquemin : Du Saccharomyces ellipsdideus et de ses applications in- 
dustrielles k la fabrication du vin d*orge. 

Bulletin meuBuel de la 8oci6t6 Linn^enne de Paris {continued). 
No. 90. Baillon : L*ovule des Pediculaires et des Scutellaires. 

„ — : Le Tripinna de Loureiro. 

„ — : Le Digitalis drcuocephaloides du flora flumincnsis. 

„ — Franchet : Cyrtandrac^es nouvelles de la Chine (suite). 

„ — Baillon : Observations sur les Gesneriac^es (continued in Nos. 91, 92). 

,,91. ; Le genre Newtonia. 

Periodical Literature. xxv 

Bulletin mexiBuel de la Sooi^t^ Linn^enne de Paris [continued). 
No. 91. Baillon : Une question de nomenclature, ^ propos des Bignonia. 

— : L*ovule des Acokanthera. 

— : Ijc g<^nTc Amblyocaiyx. 

— : Remarqucs sur les Temstrocmiac^es (suite). 

93. : Observations sur les Veratrilla. 

— : Les feuilles abnormales des Codiaeum. 

Bulletin de la Sooi^t^ Philomathique (Paris). Serie 7, Tome XI. 
Nos. 1-3. MocQUARD : Du genre HeUroUpis et des esp^ces qui le composent. 
n — Drake del Castillo : Geographic botanique des ties de la Societe. 

Bulletin de la 8oci6t6 Zoologique de Paris. 1887. 

MoNiEz : Note sur un parasite nouveau (champignon) du ver-^-soie. 
Bulletin Soientifique de la Franoe et de la Belgique. Annee i, 1888. 

Errera : Les Bact^ries photogenes. 

Comptes BenduB. Tome CVI. 

No. 1. Sauvagean : Sur la pr^senci de diaphragmes dans les canaux a^rif^res 
de la racine. 

„ — BORDAS : Sur une maladie nouvelle du vin en Alg^rie. 

,, 3. Henninger et Sanson : Sur la presence d'un glycol dans les produits 
de la fermentation alcoolique du sucre. 

„ 4. Meunier : Contribution i Thistoire des organismes probl^matiques 
des anciennes mers. 

„ — Bourquelot : Sur la fermentation alcoolique de la galactose. 

,, — Billet : Sur le cycle ^volutif et les variations morphologiques d'une 
nouvelle Bacteriac^e marine {Bacterium Laminaricu). 

„ — Hovelacque : Sur les tiges souterraines de lUtricularia montana, 

f, — Mer : Sur les causes qui produisent Texcentricite de la moelle dans les 

„ 5. MoRiN : Sur les bases extraites des liquides ayant subi la fermentation 

— WuRTZ : Sur la toxicity des bases provenant de la fermentation 

6. Tanret : Sur une des bases extraites par M. Morin des liquides ayant 
subi la fermentation alcoolique. 

„ 7. Hovelacque : Sur les propagules de Pinguicula vulgaris. 

fy 9. Berthelot: Sur quelques conditions gen^^es de la fixation d 'azote 
par la terre v^g^tale. 

„ — Pourquier: Un parasite du cow-pox. 

„ — Bartet et Vuillemin : Recherches sur le ronge des feuilles du Pin 
sylvestre et sur le traitement k lui appliquer. 

,f 10. Berthelot: Sur la transformation, dans le sol, des azotates en 
composes organiques azotes. 

„ II. Berthelot et Andr^: Sur le phosphore et I'acide phosphorique 
dans la v^g^tation. 

,, — Gautier et Drouin : Recherches sur la fixation de Tazote par le sol et 
les v^g^taux (continued in Nos. la, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 23). 

„ 13. Berthelot etAndr^: Sur Tabsorption des mati^res salines par les 
v^taux ; Sulfate de potasse. 

„ — ScHLOESiNG : Sur les relations de Tazote atmosph^rique avec la terre 
v^^tale (continued in Nos. 13, 14). 

f, —^ Charrin et Roger : Sur une pseudo-tuberculose bacillaire. 



XX vi Current Literature. 

Comptes BasduB {continued^ 

No. I a. Leclerc du Sablon : Sar la formation des anth^rozoides des 


„ 13. Berthelot et Andr£ : Sar Tabsorption des mati^res salines par les 
veg^taux. Acetate et Azotate de potasse. 

„ — Petit : Note compl^mentaire du petiole des Dicotyl^dones. 

„ 14. Deh^rain : Sur la fabrication dn fumier de ferme. 

„ — Arnaud : Sur la mati^re cristallisee active des fl^ches empoisonndes 
des Comalis, extraite du bois d'Ouabalo. 

„ — Levallois : Influence des engrais chimiques sur la composition de la 
graine du Soja. 

,, — Brulle : Falsification des huiles d*olive. 

,, — Leplay : Sur la formation des acides organiques, des mati^res organiones, 
azot^ et da nitrate de potasse, dans les diflf^rentes parties de la 
betterave en v^g^tation de premiere annee, par Tabsorption par 
les radicules des bicarbonates de potasse, de chaux et 

„ — Dor : Pseodo-tnbercalose badllaire. 

„ 15. Berthelot: Observations sur la fixation de I'azote par certains sols 
et lerres veg^tales. 

„ 16. SCHLOESING: Sur les relations de Tazote atmosph^rique avec la terre 
veg^tale. R^ponse aux observations de M. Berthelot. 

^ — Giard : Sur les Nephramyces, genre nouveau de champignons parasites 
du rein des Molgulidees. 

» — Straus et Sanchez Toledo : Recherches bact^riologiqnes sar rutems 
mpr^ la parturition physiologique. 

„ — Galtier : Nouvelles experiences sur Tinoculation antirabique en vae 
de preserver les animaux herbivores de Im rage k la suite des 
morsures de chiens enrages. 

„ 17. Berthelot : Sur la fixation de Tazote par la terre v^g^tale. R^ponse 
aux observations de M. Schloesing. 

„ — Blake : Sur les relations entre Tatomicit^ des ^l^ments inorganiques et 

leur action biologique. 
„ 18. Nepveu : Contribution k Tetude des bact^riens dans les tumears. 

„ 19. Frechon : Du mode de formation des asques dans Physalospora 

n — Arloing : Sur la prince d'une mati^re phlogog^e dans les bouillons 

de culture et dans les humeurs naturelles oil oot v^cu certains 


,( — Galtier : Sur un microbe pathog^ne chromo-aromatique. 

„ aa SchUtzenberger : Recherches sur la synth^ des mati^res albmni- 
noKdes et prot^iques. 

M — VoiRY : SxaVt^xno^d^ Eucalyptus globulus. 

— Heckel et Schlagdenhauffen : Sur les Batjentjor {Venumia 
nigriiiana, S. et H.) de TAfrique tropicale ocddentale et sur 
son principe actif, la vemomine, nouveau poison du coeur. 

ai. Chevreul: Sur le role d*azote atmosph^rique dans T^nomie 

a a. Saporta : Sur les Dicotyl^ prototypiques du syst^me infra-cr^tac^ da 

— VoiRv : Sur Tessence de cajeput. 

— Janczewski : Geimination de VAmmone apenninay L. 

— Mac£ : Sur la presence du bacille typhique dans le sol. 






Periodical Literature. xxvii 

Oomptes Bendua {continued). 

No. 33. Balland : Sur le developpement du grain de ble. 
„ — Mac^ : Sur les caract^res des cultures du Cladothrix dichotoma^ Cohn. 

., — FoKKER : Sur Taction chimique et les alterations v^getativcs du 

„ — Heckel et Schlagdenhauffen : Sur le produit des laticif^res dcs 
Mimusops et des Payena compart ^ celui de Isonandra GuUa, 

„ 34. KUNSTLER : Les Elements vesiculaires du protoplasm chez les 

„ 35. Olivier : Experiences physiologiques sur les organismes de la glairine 
et de la bar^gine. R61e du soufre contenu dans leurs cellules 
(continued in No. 26). 

„ — CORNIL ET TouPET : Sur une nouvelle maladie bact^rienne du canard 

(cholera du canard). 

f, — Arloing : Essais de determination de la mati^re phlogog^ne s^cret^e 
par certains microbes. 
Comptes Bendus hebdomad ivirea des Stances de la 8oci6t6 de Biologie 
S^rie 4i Tome V. 

BouRQUELOT : Sur la fermentation alcoolique du galactose. 
Panchet : Remarques sur la dissemination des esp^ces d'eau douce. 

Journal de Botanique, 1887 (continued). 

No. 5. DUFOUR : Les recents travaux sur le tissu assimilateur des plantes (fin). 

„ — Hariot : Algues magellaniques nouvellcs (fin). 

,, — Bonnier et de Layens : Nouvelle flore des environs de Paris et 
des plantes communes dans Tinterieur de la Franje. 

„ — Hiring : Le Lilas blauc d'hiver, ou la decoloration du Lilas. 

„ 6. BouDiER : La for^t de Carnelle au point de vue botanique. 

„ — Belzung: Sur la naissance libre des grains d'amidon et leur trans- 
formation en grains de chlorophylle (continued in No. 7). 

- Duchartre : A propos de la decoloration du Lilas. 
J. V ALLOT : Plantes recueillies entre Fez et Oujdah (Maroc). 

- Maury : Sur les variations de structure deaFcucinium de France. 
9. Wasserzug : Sur quelques champignons pathog^nes. 

- Franchet : Plantes du voyage au golfe de Tadjourah (fin). 

- Le Monier : Sur la valeur morphologique de Talbumen chez les 

„ — COLOMB : Sur la vrille des Cncurbitacees (continued in No. 10). 

„ — Bois : Sur quelques plantes rares des environs de Paris. 

10 Flahault : Les herborisations aux environs de Montpellier (continued 
in No. 14). 

— Brunaud: Esp^ces et varietes nouvelles de Sphaeropsidees trouvees 
aux environs de Saintes. 

: Culture de Aponogeton distachyus, 

1 1. Vallot : Sur une periode chande snrvenue entre Tepoque glaciaire 
et repoque actuelle. 

— Patouillard : Sur quelque champignons de Therbier du Museum 
d^histoire naturelle de Paris. 

13. DUFOUB: Influence de la lumi^re sur les feuilles, etude d'anatomie 
experimentale (continued in No. 13). 

— Bonnet : Flonile des ties Saint Pierre et Miquelon (continued in Nos. 
14, 15, 16, 17). 






xxviii Current Literature. 

Journal de Botaniqne, 1887 {continuea). 

No. 13. Berbre : Statistique dn departemedt des Vosges ; Phanerogames, Mus- 

clones, Lichens. 

„ 13. Hy : Remarques sur le genre Microchaete^ Thuret, It Toccasion d*une 
nouvelle esp^ce M, striatuia, 

„ — Camus: Notes sur les Anemonees du type de V Anemone puhcUilla, 

„ 14. Boudier: Sur une nouvelle esp^ce ^Helvelle, 

„ 15. Patouillard : Etude sur le genre Laschia, Fr. 

„ — Ha RIOT : Note sur le genre Mastodia. 

,, 16. Franchet : Le genre Cyananthus (continued in Nos. 14-18). 

„ — Patouillard : Note sur quelques champignons extra-europ^ens. 

17. Le Comte : Effets produits par les decortication annulaire des arbres 
(continued in No. 18). 

— Winter : Diagnoses nouvelles des Sph^riac^es. 

18. Hariot : Les Cladoni^es magellaniques. 

„ 19. Van Tieghem : OUina et Podocapsa^ deux genera nouveaux des A»- 

„ — RozE : La mode de fi^condation de Zannichellia paiustrisy L. 

„ — Wasserzug : Principaux proc^^sde coloration des Bact^ries Ccontinued 
in No. 21). 

„ 3o. Van Tieghem : Structure de la racine et disposition des radicelles 
dans les Centrolepid^es, Eriocaul^es, Jonc^^s, Mayac^es et 

„ — VuiLLEMiN : Sur une maladie des Cerisiers et des Pruniers en Lorraine. 

,, 31. Bois: Herborisations dans le departement de la Manche. 

„ — Boudier : Note sur Tremella fimetariay Schum. 

,, — Du traitement des graines .par le sulfure de carbone. 

Journal de Miorographie, 1887 {continued). 

Balbiani : Evolution des micro-organismes animaux et veg<^taux para- 
sites : les Acinetiniens (suite). 

Smith : Contribution k Thistoire naturelle des Diatomacees. 

CHAviE-LEBOY : Consultation sur la maladie des vins du Ch&teau- 

WkvRE : Localisation de Tatropine dans la Belladone. 

Gallemaerts : De Tabsorption du Baciilus subtilis par les globules 

Chav^e-Leroy : Sur les maladies des vins. 
Moll : Application de la m^thode d'inclusion dans la paraffine k la 


HovELACQUE : Sur les tiges souterraines de 1' Utricularia montana. 

Billet : Sur le cycle ^volutif et les variations morphologiques d'une 
nouvelle Bact^rie marine. Bacterium Laminariae. 

Delamotte : De Timmunit^ vadnale ; throne phagocytaire du Dr. 

Pelletan : Les Diatomac^, histoird naturelle, classification et de- 
scription des principales espies. 

CHAviE-LEROY : La question phyllox^rique. 

Journal de Fharmaoie et de Chimie. S^rie 5. Tome XVIL 

GuiGNARD ET Charrin : Sur les variations morphologiques des 

Periodical Literature. xxix 

Journal de Pharmaoie et de Ohimie {continued)^ 

Henninger et Sanson : Pr^ence d'un glycol dans les prodnits dela 
fermentation alcoolique du sucre. 

MlQUEL : Analyse micrographique des eaux. 

Blondel : Snr les graines de Strophanthus de commerce. 

: Sur Tadult^ration des graines de Strophanthus. 

Rietsch et Coreil : Sar les falsifications du safran en poudre. 

Jacquemin : Dn Saccharomyces ellipsoideus et de ses applications k la 
fabrication d'un vin d*orge. 

LiOTARD : Etude sur le Kousso. 

Lajoux : Coloration des vins par les fmits ^ArUtotelia Macqui, 

Blondel : Sur le Strophanthus du Niger. 

Bevue de Botanique. Tome VI. 

NODAY : Notice bryologique sur les environs de Nice. 

Timbal-Lagrave : Note sur trois plantes int^ressantes de la flonile 
d'Aix (Ariego). 

RouY : Sur Vlleracieum alpinum^ L. 

Bel : Une gramin^ nouvelle pour la Flore fran9aise. 

Gay : Trois jours d^herborisation ^ Cherchel (Alg^rie). 

CONTAN : Une excursion au Chenona (Alg^rie) chez Sidi-Moussa. 

Harm AND : Descriptions des difT^rentes formes dn genus Ruhus 

observ^ dans le d^paitement de Meurthe-et-Moselle, ai^me 


Beyue Bryologique. 1888. 

No. I. Liste des Bryologues (36 supplement). 
„ — Gronval : Remarques sur quelques formes du genre Orthotrichum. 
,, — Phi LI BERT : £tude sur le peristome (continued in Nos. a, 3, and 4). 
„ — Carekjt : Un Zygodon et une Fontinale. * 

,, a. Payot : Catalogue des H^patiques du Mont Blanc. 
„ — Philibert : Ceratodon dimorphus. 
„ 3. Spruce : Hepaticae in prov. Rio Janeiro a Glozion lectae. 
— : Hepaticae Paraguayenses Balansa lectae. 

— Breidler : Bryum Reyeriy n. sp. 
„ — Renauld et Cardot: La fructification de V Ulota phyllantha^ Brid. 
„ — HusNOT : Bryum carinatum et B, navicuiare, 

— Renauld : E. Jeaubemat 
4. Stephani : Anthoceros Husnoti^ Stephani, n. sp. 

— Demeter : Cynodontium Schisti (Wahlenb.), Lindb. en Trantylvanie. 
Bevue Mycologique. 1888. 

No. 37. MOller : Lichenes montevideenses. 

,, — Heckel: De la formation des deux hym^niums fertiles but Tune et 
Tantre face du chapean dans un Polyporus applanatus, Wallr. 

„ — Saccardo : Un nouveau genre des Pyr^noroyc^tes sph^riac^s. 

„ — RouMEGuiiRE: Fungi europaei praecipue gallici exsiccati. Cent. XLIV 
(XLV in No. 38, XLVI in No. 39). 

— Berlese : Le nouveau genre Peltosphaeria, 

— RouMEGufeRE : Le Tuber aestivum des environs de Senlis (Oise). 

— QUELET : Champignons chamus des environs de Luchon. 

38. Mueller : Lichenes Paraguenses \ cl. Balansa lecti (continued in 
No. 39). 

XXX Current Literature, 

Beyne Mycologique {continued). 

No. 38. Bonnet : Du parasitisme de la Truffe, 

,, — Karsten : Diafrnoses Fnngorum novornm in Fennia detectorum 
(continued in No. 39). 

„ — Berlese et RouMEGufeRE : Champignons du Tonkin. 

„ — Phillips : Monstruosites dans les Champignons. 

„ 39. Phillips : La luminosity des Champignons. 

„ — Briard : Champignons nouveaux de I'Aube. 

y, — Flagey : Herborisations lichenologiques dans les environsde Constantine 

„ — Patouillard: Sur quelques espies de Meliolay etc. 

Trayaux des amines , 1886-1887 Iiaboratoire d'Histologie du College 
de France. 

ViGNAL : Recherches sur les micro-organismes de la bouche (Pl. 

: Recherches sur Paction des micro-organismes de la bouche 

sur quelques substances alimentaires. 

: Recherches sur les micro-organismes des mati^res f^cales et 

sur leur action sur les substances alimentaires (PI. XI et 


Abhandlungen der senokenbergischen Gesellsohaft bu Frankftirt a. M. 
Bd. XV. 

Geyler und Kinkelin: Obcrpliocanflora aus den Baugruben des 
Klarbeckens bei Niederrad und der Schleuse bei Hochst. 

Noll: Experimentelle Untersuchungen liber das Wachsthnm der 

Axmalen der Ohemie (Liebig). 

Bd. 343. Hesse: Beitrage zur Kenntniss der China«Alkalo'ide. 

„ 244. Schon : Ueber Nichtvorkommen der Hypogaeasanre im Erdnussol. 

Arbeiten aua dem kaiserliohen Gesundheitsaxnte zu Berlin. Bd. II (1887). 

HocHSTETTER : Ueber Mikro-organismen ira kiinstlichen Selterwasser 
nebst einigen vergleichenden Untersuchungen iiber ihr Verhaltcn 
ira Berliner Leitungswasser und im destillirten Wasser. 
Arohiy der Fharmacie. Jahrgang XV, Bd. 226 (Reihe 3, Bd. 26). 

Shimoyama : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Bukublatter. 

Petersen : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der fliichtigen Bestandtheile der 
Wurzel und des Wurzelstocks von Asarum europacum. 

Schmidt und Heuschke: Alkaloide der Wurzel von ^ftf/^^/r'ayo^wVa. 

Heuschke : Ueber einige stickstofffreie Bestandtheile der Wurzel von 
Scopolia japonica, 

Schmidt : Alkaloide der Scopolia Hlardftackiana. 

Wernecke : Das Caffein. 

Strom EYER : Radix Ipecacuanhae pulverata. 

ScHAFKR : Die Chinarinden aus den Plantagen im Gebiete des Mapiri- 
flusses in Bolivien. 

Itallie, von : Ueber den Gerbsauregehalt der Enzianwurzeln. 

Wilhelm und Schmidt : Uber die Berberis Alkaloide. 

Shimoyama : Beitrage zur chemischen Kenntniss der Bukublatter. 

Baumert : Bestandtheile des Lapinensamens. 

Periodical Literature. xxxi 

Arohiy fur Anatoxnie and Fhysiologie, physiologlsohe Abtheilong. 1887 

Heft 6. Baginsky : Demonstration zur reducirenden Wirkung der Bakterien. 

Arohiv for die gesammte Fhysiologie (Pfluger). 

Bd. XLII. 

Engelmann : Ueber Bakteriopnrpurin und seine physiulogische 

: Ueber Blutfar^tofT als Mittel um den Gaswechsel 

von Pflanzen im Licht and Dimkeln zu tinter- 


ScHULZ : Ueber Hefegifte. 

Kruger : Ueber den Schwefel der EiweissstofTe. 

Arohiv fur Hygiene (Forster, Hofmann, nnd von Pettenkofer). 

Bd. VII {continued). 

Heft 4. BiRCif-HiRSCHFELD : Ueber die Ziichtung von Typhnsbacillen in ge- 

farbten Nahrlosungcn (Taf. V). 

Nakahama : Ueber den Rothwein- and Heidelbeerfarbstoff. 

Bd. VIII. 

Heft I . BoKORN Y : Ueber den Bakteriengehalt der offentlichen Brunnen in 


Arohiv fur pathologisohe Anatomie und Fhysiologie (Virchow). Bd. CXI. 

Lewin : Das Haya-Gift und das Erythrophlaein (Taf, XIII). 
Berichte der deutsohen botanisohen (>esellschaft. 
Jahrgang V (i8S7\ continued. 

Gtneralversammlung (\\. Abth.). 

Bericht liber neue and wichtigere Beobachtnngen aos dem Jahrt 1886 ; 
abgestattet von der Commission fiir die Flora von Deutschland. 

Jahrgang VI (1888). 

Heft I. 'i'scHiRCH : Ueber die Entwicklongsgeschichte einiger Sekretbehalter 

and die Genesis ihrer Sekrete (Taf. I). 
„ — RxzNKE: Die braunen Algen (Facaceen and Phaeosporeen) derKielcr 

„ — MuLLER : Ueber phloemstandige Sekretkanale der Umbelliferen nnd 

Araliaceen (Taf. II). 
,, — WiESNER : Zur Eiweissreaktion and Straktur der Zellmembran. 

„ — SchUtt: Ueber das Phycoerythrin ^Taf. III). 

,, — DiAKONOW : Ein neues Gefass zum Caltiviren der niederen Organismen. 
(Mit einem Holzschnitt.) 

,, — Schumann : Einige Bemerkungen zur Morphologie der Ca^ifa-BIiithe. 

„ a. Overton : Ueber den Conjngationsvorgang bei Spirogyra (Taf. IV) 

„ — Lagerheim : Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Hydrurus, (Mit a Holz- 

„ — Ambronn : Pleochroismus gefarbter Zellmembranen (Vorlaufigc Mit- 

theilung). (Mit 2 Holzschnitten.) 

,, — MiJLLER : Zweimannige Zingiberaceenblumen. TMit a Holzschnitten.) 

„ — Magnus : Ueber einige Arten der Gattung Schinzia, Naeg. (Mit einem 

„ 3. Krause : Ueber die Rubi corylifolii. 

fy — HiLDEBRAND : Ueber die Bildung von Laubsprossen aas Bliithensprosscn 

bei Opuntia (Taf. V). 

xxxii Current Literature. 

Berichte der deutschen botanischen GeselUchaffe {continued). 
Heft 3. Fischer : Zur Eiwcissreaktion der Membran. 
,, — AscHERSON : Berichtigung. 

„ — BoKORNY : Ueber Starkebildung aus verschiedenen Stoffen. 
„ — DiAKONOW : Eine neue Inficiningsmethode. (Mit einem Holzschnitt.) 
„ — Lagerheim : Ueber eine neue grasbewohnende Puccinia. (Mit einem 

„ — ASKENASY : Ueber die Entwicklung von Pediastrum (Taf. VI). 

„ — Tschirch : Ueber die Inhaltsstoffe der Zellen des Aillus von Myristica 
fragranSy Hott (Vorl. Mittheilung). 

„ 4. Reinsch : Species et genera nova Algarum ex insnia Georgia australi. 

,, — Hi)HML, VON : Ueber das Material welches zur Bildung des ai-abischen 
Gummis in der Pflanze dient. 

„ — Klebahn : Ueber die Zygosporen einiger Conjugaten (Taf. VII). 

„ — VocHTiNG : Ueber den Einfluss der strahlenden Warme auf die Bliithen- 
entfaltung der Magnolia (Taf. VHI). 

„ 5. Buchenau : Doppelspreitige Laubblatter (Taf. IX). 

„ — WiESNER : Ueber den Nachweis der Eiweisskorper in den Pflanzen- 

„ 6. Werminski : Ueber die Natur der Aleuronkomer (Taf. X). 

„ — Palladin : Ueber die Eiweisszersetzung in den Pflanzen bei Abwescn- 
heit von freiem Sauerstoff. 

„ — Reinke: Ueber die Gestalt der Chromatophoren bei einigen Phaeo- 

sporen i^Taf. XI \ 
„ — Ebermayer : Warum enthalten die Waldbaume keine Nitrate? 
„ — Hartig : Ueber die Wasserleitung im Splintholze der Baume. 

Beriohte der deutscliexi ohemisohen Gesellsohaft. Jahrgang XXI (1888). 
No. I. Einhorn : Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Cocains. 
„ 2. Liekermann : Ueber das Nuclein der Hefe und kiinstliche Darstellung 

eines Nucleins aus Eiweiss und Metaphosphorsaure. 
y, 3. Ahrens : Zur Kenntniss des Sparteins. 

,, 4. ScHON : Vorkommen der Oelsaure und nicht der Hypogaasaure im 

„ 5. Kreiling: Ueber das Vorkommen von Lignocerinsaure, Q^K^^fii^ 
neben Arachinsaure, C20H40O2, im Erdnussol. 

• • • • 

„ 6. Petersen : Uber das atherische 01 von Asarum europaeum^ L. 

,, — BoKORNY : Uber das angebliche Vorkommen von Wasserstoffsuperoxyd 
in Pflanzen* und Thicrsaften. 

7. WuRSTER : Aktiver Sauerstoff im lebenden Gewebe. 

— TOLLENS UND Stone : Uber die Gahrung der Gelactose. 

„ 8. Will: Uber Atropin und Hyoscyamin. 

„ 9. VOGEL : Uber den Unterschied zwischen Heidelbeer- und WeinfarbstofT 

und Uber spektroskopische Weinpriifungen. 
„ — Schmidt : Umwandlung von Hyoscyamin in Atropin. 

„ — Bokorny : Zur Frage der Silberabscheidung durch lebcnde Zellen und 
deren angeblichen Zusammenhang mit dem Wasserstoffsuper- 

„ 10. Thoms : Weitere Mittheilungen iiber die Bestandtbeile der Kalums- 

Berichte der deutaohen geologisohen Gesellsohaft. Bd. XXXIX (1887). 
Felix : Untersuchungen iiber fossile Holzer, III. 

Periodical Literature. xxxiii 

Berioht des naturhiBtorisohen Vereins su Augsburg:. 

Holler : Die Moosflora der Ostrachalpen. 

Britzelmayr : H3n3ienomyceten aus Siidbayem (Schluss). 

Nachtrage zur Flora von Schwaben und Neuburg, insbesondere ncue 
Fondorte in der Umgegend von Angsburg. 

Berioht der naturwissenaohaftlicheu Gesellsohaft su Chenmits. 

Kramer : tJber die Verandening des Pflanzenbildes Europas durch 
die Einwirkiing des Menschen. 

Zimmerman N : Die Pisanggewachse. 

Kramer : Phytopalaontologische Beobachtungen. 

Berioht uber die Sitsungen der naturforsohenden Q^sellaohaft bu Halle. 

Kraus : Berichte iiber einige Arbeiten aus dem bot Institute (Wille : 
Zur Diagnostik des Coniferenholzes ; Menze : Zur taglichen 
Assimilation der Kohlehydrate : Eiselen : Ueber den sys- 
tematischen Werth der Raphiden in dicotylen Familien). 

Cantralblatt, Biologiaohes. 
IM. VII {continued), 

Zach ARIAS : Die feineren Vorgange bei derBefruchtungdes thierischen 

Hoffmann : Vererbung erworbener Eigenschaften. 

Richter : Zur Vererbung erworbener Eigenschaften. 

Carri^re : Die Reblaus {^Phylloxera vastairixy PI.). 

Bd. VIII, Nos. 1-8. 

LoEW UND BoKORNY: Die chemische BeschalTenheit des protoplasma- 
tischen Eiweisses nach dem gegenwartigen Stand ihrer Unter- 

Tarchanoff und KolessniKoff : Ueber die Anwendung des 
alkalischen Albuminats des Hiihnereies als durchsichtiges 
Substrat fiir Bakterienziichtung. 

ScHiESS : Uebertragung erworbener Eigenschaften. 

Engelmann : Ueber Bakteriopurpurin und seine physiologische Bedeu- 

: Ueber BlutfarbstofT als Mittel um den Gaswechsel von 

Pflanzen im Licht und Dunkeln zu unterscheiden. 

wkiSMANN : Botanische Beweise fiir eine Vererbung erworbener 

Haacke : Ueber zoologische Museen und die Regelung des natur- 
kundlichen Museenwesens. 

Korschett : G. Haberlandt, Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen 
Funktion und Lage des Zellkems bei den Pflanzen : nebst eigenen 

Bos : Untersuchungen iiber Tylenchus deiKUtatrix, Kiihn. 

LUDWIG : Neue pflanzenbiologische Untersuchungen, i. Verbreitungs- 
mittel der Pflanzen, a. Bestaubungseinrichtungen, etc. 

BUtschli : Miissen wir ein Wachsthum des Plasmas durch Intussuscep- 
tion annehmen ? 

LuDWiG: Die Bliitennektarien des Schneeglockchens und der 
Schneebeere ; Neue Beobachtungen Fritz Miiller*s iiber das 
absatzweise Bluben von Marica. 



xxxiv Current Literature. 

Centralblatt) Botanisohes. 

Bd. XXXIII. No. I. Janko, JUN.: Equisetum albo-marginaiumt Kitaebel. 

JUEL : Die Anatomie der Marcgraviaceen. 

„ 2. LiNDMANN: Ueber die Bestaubungseinrichtnng einiger skandmavischen 

,y 3. Hansoirg : Einige Bemerkongen zum Au£satze A. Tomaschek's, Ueber 
Bacillus muralis. 

„ FORSBERG : Ueber die Geschlechtervertheilung bei Juniperus 

„ Olbers : Ueber den Bau der Fmchtwand bei den Boragineen. 

WiLLKOMM : V. F. Kosteletzky. 

„ 4. Murr : Ueber die Einschleppung nnd Verwildernng von Pflanzenarten 
im mittleren Nord-Tirol (continued in Nos. 5, 6, and 7). 

„ 5. LuNDSTROM : Ueber Mykodomatien in den Wurzebi der Papilonaceen 
(continued in No. 6). 

„ 6. Peter : Ueber die Pleomorphie einiger Siisswasseralgen aus der 
Umgebung Miinchens. 

7. Harz : Ueber vergleichende StickstofFdiingungsversuche. 

: Agaricus Ucensis, n. sp. 

— Johanson : Studien iiber die Pilzgattxmg Taphrina (continued in 
Nos. 8 and 9). 

„ 8. DiJNNENBERGER I BakteriologiscH-chemische Untersuchung iiber die 
beim Aufgehen des Brotteiges wirkenden Ursachen (continued 
in Nos. 9-13). 
„ — Beck : Geschichte des Wiener Herbariums (continued in Nos. 9, 10, 
and 12). 

^ 10. Solereder : Ueber den systematischen und phylogenctischen Werth 
der Get'assdurchbrechungen auf Gmnd friiherer Untersuchungen 
und eigener neuer Beobachtungen. 

„ II. Tubeuf : Ueber die Wurzelbildung einiger Loranthaceen. 

„ — : Eine neue Krankheit der Douglastanne. 

,,12. Stromfelt : Untersuchungen iiber die Haftorgane der Algen (con- 
tinued in No. 13). 

No. I. Beck : Geschichte des Wiener Herbariums (continued in Nos. 2-5). 
„ — Brotkerns : Musci novi transcaspici. 

„ 2. Godlewski : Einige Bemerkungen zur AufTassung der Reizerschei- 

nungen an den wachsenden Pflanzen (continued in Nos. 3-7). 
„ — WiLHELM : Anton de Bary (continued in Nos. 3-8). 

„ 7. Hauqk und Richter: Phycotheca universalis (index to three first 
fascicles) (continued in Nos. 8, 9). 

„ 8. ScHiLBERSZKY, JUN. : Aspidium cristatum, Sw. in Oberungam. 

„ 9. ToMASCHEK : Ueber Bacillus muralis, 

„ 10. Roll : Artentypen und Formenreihen bei den Torfmooren (contiuued 

in Nos. 11-13). 
,, II. Die Einweihung des botanischen Museums zn Breslau am 29 April, 

1888 (continued in No. 12). 
„ — Kronfeld : Eine Vorrichtung zur Einschliessung mikroskopisch- 

botanischer Praparate. 
„ 13. Massalongo : Ueber eine neue Species von Taphrina. 
Oentralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Farasitenkunde Bd. III. 
No. I. Buj%viD : Die Bakterien in Hagelkomem. 

Periodical Literature, xxxv 

Centralblatt ftir Bakteriolosie und Farasitenkonde {continued). 

No. I. Hartig : Die pflanzlichen Wurzelparasiten (continued in Nos. 2, 3, 
and 4). 

„ — Unna : Die Entwickelung der Baketerientarbung (continued in Nos. a-io). 

,, 3. BujwiD : Bemerkungen iiber Sterilisation und Desinfection. 

„ — Plaut : Zur Sterilisationstechnik. Mit i Abbildung (continued in 

No. 4). 

,, 4. Fischer : Ueber einen neuen lichtentwickelnden Bacillus (continued 
in No. 5). 

„ 6. KiTT : Der Micrococcus ascoformcms und das Mikofibrom des Pferdes 
(continued in Nos. 7, 8). 

„ 7. EiSENRERG : Bemerkungen liber Kartoffeldauerkulturen nach der 
Methode des Prof J. Sayka. 

„ 8. NoNEWiTSCH : Die Mikro-organismen einer enzootischen Leberentziin- 
dung by Ferkeln, Hepatitis enzootica porcellorum. 

,, II. EiSENBERG : Zur Aetiologie des Puerperalfiebers (continued in No. 12). 

„ T2. Selander : Ueber die Bakterien der Schweinepest. 

,,13. Baumgarten: Bakteriologische Mittheilungen. 

„ 14. Stenglein : Der mikrophotographische Apparat (continued in No. 15). 

„ — Mentschnikoff : Ueber die Bakteriologische Station in Odessa. 

,,15. Chenzinsky : Zur Lehre iiber den Mikro-organismus des Malariafiebers. 

Steinberg : Streptokokken in einem Fall verrukoser Endocarditis. 

„ 16. Weichselbaum : Zusammenfassender Bericht iiber die Aetiologie der 
Tuberkulose (continued in Nos. 17-24). 

,, 17. Neisser und Jacobi : Kleine Bcitrage zur bakterioskopischen 

„ 18. Gruber : Notiz iiber die Widerstandsfahigkeit der Sporen von BcuHllus 
subtilis gegen gesattigten Wasserdampf von 100° C. 

„ — KiTT : Ueber Abschwachung des Rauschbrandvirus durch stromende 
Wasserdampfe (continued in No. 19). 

,, 20. Gruber : Erklarung der Desinfectionskraft des Wasserdampfes. 

y, ai. Stenglein : Versuche iiber mikroskopische Momentphotographie 
(continued in No. 22). 

,,22. Giaxa : Ueber eine einfache Methode zur Reproduction der Koch*schen 

„ 23. Fraenkel : Ueber die Kultur anaerober Mikro>organismen (continued 

in No. 24). 

Flora. Jahrgang LXXI, 1888. 

No. I. MiJLLER Hal. : Musci cleistocarpi novi. 

— Arnold : Muellerella thallophila^ Am. n. sp. 
a. Mi^LLER : Lichenologische Beitrage, XXVI (continued in No. 3). 

,, 3. ScHLiEPHACKE : Das Mikromillimeter. 

„ 4. Karsten : Ueber Pilzbeschreibung und Pilzsystematik (continued in 
No. 5). 

„ — Lager HEIM : U^ber eine durch die Einvdrkung von Pilzhyphen 
entstandene Verietat von Stichococcus bcuillaris, Nag. 

„ 6. Arnold : Lichenologische Fragmente, XXIX (continued in No. 7). 

„ 7. ScHULTZ: Vergleichende physiologische Anatomie der Nebenblatt- 
gebilde (Taf. I) (continued in No. 8). 

9. MUller : Lichenologische Beitrage, XXVIII. 

— Nylander: Notiz iiber Parmelia per lata und einige verwandte 

d a 





XXX vi Current Literature. 

Flora {continued). 
No, lo. Chodat : Neue Beitnige zum Diagramm der Crnciferenbliithe 

(Taf. II). 

— ReichenbacH : Orchideae describnntur. 
1 1 . Hein RICHER : Zur Biologie der Gattung ImpatUns (Taf. Ill) (continiied 

in No. 12). 

— SCHLIEPHACKE : Ein neues Lanbmoos ans der Schweiz {^Bryum 
subglobosuntf Schlieph). 

), I a. Dammer : Einige Beobachtongen liber die Anpassnng der Bliithen 
von Eremurus oUtaicuSy Pall, an Fremdbestaabting. 

„ — Reinsch : Ueber einige neue Desmarestien. 

„ 13. MiJLLER : Lichenologische Beitiage, XXIX. 

„ 14. Hansgirg : Ueber die Gattungen Herposteiron^ Nag. und Apha- 
nochaetty Berth, non A. Br., nebst einer S3rstematischen Uebersicht 
aller bisher bekannten oogamen iind anoogamen Confenroide- 
engattungen (continued in No. 15). 

15 ScHULZ : Ueber Reservestoffe in immergriinen Blattem unter besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung des Gerbstoffs (Taf. IV). 

Forsohongen auf dem Gebiete der Agriculturphysik (Wollny). Bd. X 


Wollny : Untersuchungen iiber den Einfluss der Pflanzendecke und der 
Beschattung auf die physikalischen Eigenschaften des Bodens 
(Zweite Mittheilung). II. Der Einfluss der Pflanzendecke und 
der Beschattung auf die Bodenfeuchtigkeit. III. Der Einfluss 
der Pflanzendedce und der Beschattung auf die Sickerwasser- 
mengen im Boden. 

■ : Untersuchungen iiber die Temperaturverhaltnisse des Bodens 

bei verschiedener Neigung des Terrains gegen die Himmels- 
richtung und gegen den Horizont (Nachtrage). 

Sorauer : Zur Charakteristik der AUicatio. 

Wollny : Forstlich-meteorologische Untersuchungen. I. Unter- 
suchungen iiber die Temperatur- und Feuchtigkeitsverhaltnisse 
der Streudecke. 

Forschongen Bur deutschen Iiandes- und Volkskonde (KirchhofT). Bd. III. 

BoRGGREVE : Die Verbreitung und wirthschaflliche Bedeutung der 
wichtigeren Waldbanmarten innerhalb Deutschlands. 

Gartenflora. Jahrgang XXXVII. 

Heft I. Graebener : Planera Keaki^ Sieb. (Abbild. 6-8.) 
„ — Alphabetisches Verzeichniss sammtlicher im Monat Oktober 1887 
beschriebenen neuen oder abgebildeten alteren Pflanzen mit 
kurzen Beschreibungen (for November in Heft 3, for December 
in Heft 5, for January 1888 in Heft 7, for February in Heft 9, 
for March in Heft 11). 

„ 2. Regel : Cattleya velutifta, Rchb. f., var. Lietzei^ Regel (Taf. 1265). 

„ — Magnus : Natiirliches Ankopuliren. 

„ — Regel: BaUotaaceiabulosay'BeDX\i.\ Anemone pctuonicat'DC.yfiJulgenSf 
DC. ; Phrynium variegaiunty N.E. Brown (Abbild. i8-ao). 

„ 3. Regel : Sphcuralcea Emoryi^ Torr. und Oxyhaphus {Mirahilis) caii' 
fornicOy Gray (Taf. 1366). 

„ — Reichenbach : Cypripedium callosum, Rchb. f. (Abbild. a 2-23). 

„ — Regel : TuHpa Leichiini, Rgl. 

: Nephrolepis rufescens^ Prsl., var. tripinncUifida h. Veitch 

(Abbild. 24.) 


Periodical Literature, xxxvii 

Oartenflora {continued). 

Heft 4. Reichenbach : Zygopeialum Wendiandiy Rchb. f. (Taf. 1267). 

„ — ^. Hoffmann : Agave micracantka, Salm. (Abbild. 23-24). 

„ — Aristolochia ridicula^ N.E. Brown (Abbild. 30). 

,, — Kegel : Tulipa libanotica^ Rgl. ; Begonia Scharjffiana, Rgl ; Thyr- 
seuanthus LemairianuSj Nees. 

5. Philippi : Die Friihlingsvegctation von Colina in Chili. 

— Kegel : Pothuava nudicaulis (L.) Baker ; Philodendron Andreanum, 
Dev. (Abbild. 33) ; Cryptanthus Morreniana^ Kegl., n. sp. 

„ 6. BornmUller : Populus Steiniana, Bmmllr. (Abbild. 37, 38.) 

„ — Kegel : Nephthithys picturata, h. Bull. (Abbild. 40.) 

„ — Uber den Platanen-Husten. 

yy 7. Kegel : Gentiana calycosa^ Griseb. : Staiice eximia, Schrenk, var. 

turkestanicay Rgl. (Taf. 1270). 
„ — WiTTMACK: ^^jw/w^w^/^ri (Rgl.), Gravis etWittm.( Abbild. 41-43). 
„ — Elaeocarpus cyaneusy Sims. (Abbild. 44). 
„ 8. WiTTMACK UND Weber : Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Taf. 

„ — Goethe : Ueber das Drehen der Baumstamme. 
„ — Regel : Diastema picia^ Rgl. 

„ 9. Reichenbach, f., und Ortgies: Oncidium Jonesianum^ Rchb. f. 
(Tat 1372). 

,, — Goethe : Zor Bekampfiing des Apfel- and Bimenrostes. 

yy — Dammer : Stachys tuberiferay Vaud. eine nene Gemlisepflanze. 

„ 10. Stein: Vitis pterophora^ Baker (Taf. 1273). 

„ — Lindberg: Eine merkwiirdige Euphorbia {E. aphyllay Bronss. 
Abbild. 59). 

„ — SiEGERT : Exorcarpus cupressiformisy Labill. (Abbild. 60). 

„ II. Reichenbach : Cattleya {Labrata) Gaskellianayytx. albescens y Rchb. £ 
(Taf. 1274). 

„ 12. Regel: \. Bahia confertifloray DC; 2. Chaenactis tenui/o/ia, "Svitt ; 
Antirrhinum Nutta/ianum, Benth. (Taf. 1275). 

„ — Smilax glycophyllay Smith (Abbild. 74) ; Boronia serrukUay Smith 
(Abbild. 75). 

Hedwigla. Bd. XXVII. 

Heft I. KUndig: Beitrage znr Entwicklnngsgeschichte des Polypodiaceen- 


„ — Hartig : Trichosphaeria parasitica 9sA Herpotrichia nigra, 

— Hauck : Nene nnd kritische Algen des adriatischen Meeres. 


Die Characeen des Kiistenlandes. 


y, — Frank: Uber die Verbreitnng der die Kirschbanmkrankheit vemr- 
sachenden Gnomonia erythrostoma. 

2. Stein HAUS : Analytische Agaricineenstndien. 

— Hartig : Znr Verbreitnng des Larchenkrebspilzes, Pesita Wilkommii. 

yy — Lagerheim: Ueber die Anwendung von Milchsaure bei der Unter- 
snchnng von trockenen Algen. 

„ — Stephani : Hepaticae Africanae (continued in Heft 3 and 4). 
Heft 3 and 4. 

„ — Prantl : Anton de Bary, Nekrolog. 

„ — Hauck : Ueber einige von J. M. Hildebrandt im Rothen Meere 
and Indischen Ocean gesammelte Algen. 


xxxviii Current Literature. 

Hedwigia {continued). 
Heft 3 and 4. 
„ — Wettstein, von : Zur Verbreitung des Larchenkrebspilzes, Heio- 
Hum Willkommii, Hart. 

„ — Hartig : Zusatz zu dem vorstehenden Artikel. 
„ — Karsten : S3n3ibolae ad Mycologiam Fennicam, Pars XXII. 
Heft 5 und 6. 
„ — Klein : Bertrage zur Technik mikroskopischer Daaerpraparate von 
Susswasseralgen . 

„ — Hansgirg; Ueber die Siisswasseralgen-Gattungen Trochiscia, Ktz. 
{AcanthacoccuSf Lgrh. ; Glochiococcus^ De-Toni) und Tetra- 
eJroHy Ktz. {Astericium, Corda ; Polyedrium^ Nag. ; CerasteriaSj 

„ — Karsten : Bary's * Zweifelhafte Ascomyceten ' (figs, i — 3). 
„ — Rehm : Ascomyceten, fasc. XIX. 
Hefte, Botanische (Wigand's, Marburg). 

Heft 3. WiGAND : Das Protoplasma als Fermentorganismus ; £in Beitrag zur 

Kenntniss der Bacterien, der Faulniss, Gahrung und Diastase- 
wirkung, sowie der Molekularphysiologie. 

Humboldt. 1888. 

No. I. Schumann : Die modeme botanische Systematik. 

„ 3. Gunther : Der gegenwartige Stand der Bakterienfrage (continued in 

No. 4). 
„ — Knuth : Botanische Beobachtungen auf der Insel Sylt. 
„ — Detmer : Ueber Richtungskorper. 
„ 4. Dammer : Ueber die Beziehungen der Milben zu den Pflanzen. 

„ 5. Ueber die Veranderungen, welche der Mensch in der Vegetation Enropas 
hervorgebracht hat. 

Jahrbuoh des kOniglichen botanisclien Gartens (Berlin). Bd. IV. 

Fischer : Versuch einer systematischen Uebersicht iiber die bisher be- 
kannten Phalloideen. 

LoEW: Weitere Beobachtungen iiber den Blumenbesuch von Insekten 
an Freilandpflanzen des botanischen Gartens zu Berlin. 

Wenzig: Die Eichen Europas, Nordafrikas und des Orients. 

: Die Eichen Ost- und Siidasiens. 

Urban : Kleinere Mittheilungen iiber Pflanzen des Berl. botan. Gartens 
und Museums. 

KuNTZE : Plantae Pechuelianae Hereroenses. 

CoGNiAUX : Melastomaceae et Cucurbitaceae Portoricenses. 

Schumann: Vergleichende Bliithenmorphologie der cuculaten Ster- 

Klein : Beitrage zur Anatomie der Inflorescenzaxen. 
Urban : Die Bestaubungseinrichtungen bei den Loasaceen. 
Jahrbuoher, Botanische (Engler). 
Bd. IX {coniinu€d). 

Breitfeld : Der anatomische Bau der Blatter der Rhododendroideae in 
Beziehung zu ihrer systematischen Gruppirung und zur geogra- 
phischen Verbreitung. (Taf. V — VI, but ought to be VI 
and VII.) 

Krasan : Ueber continuirliche und spnmgweise Variation. 

Herder, von : Biographische Notizen iiber einige in den Plantae 
Raddeanae genannte Sammler und Autoren. 

Periodical Literature, xxxix 

Jahrbiicher, Botanische {coniintud), 

Hauck : Me«resalgen von Puerto Rico. 

Uebersicht der wichtigeren nnd nmfassenderen, im Jahre 1887 uber 

Systematik, Pflanzengeographie und Pflanzengeschichte er- 

schienenen Arbeiten. 

Bd. X. 

Engler : Plantae Marlothianae ; ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flora 
Sudafrikas, I. Theil (Taf. I-VI). 

HOBEIN : Beitrag znr anatomischen Charakteristik der Monimiaceen 
unter vergleichender Beriicksichtigung der LauracecQ. 

Pax: Monographische Uebersicht liber die Arten der Gattnng 

Jahrbuoher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik (Pringsheim). Bd. XIX. 

Prael : Vergleichende Untersuchongen iiber Schutz- und Kemholz der 

Wieler : Ueber den An theil des secundaren Holzes der dicotyledonen 
Gewachse an der Saftleitung, etc. 

Pringsheim : Ueber die Entstehung der Kalkinkmstationen an 

Pfitzer : Untersuchongen iiber den Bau und die Entwicklung der Or- 

Schafer : Ueber den Einfluss des Turgors der Epidenniszellen auf 

die Funktion des Spaltoflhungsapparates. 
BOKORNY : Ueber die Einwirkung basischer StofTe auf das lebende 

RoDEWALD : Untersuchungen Uber den Stoff- und Kraftnmsatz im 

Athmungsprocess der Pflanze. 

Jahrbuoher, Iiandwirthsoliaftliohe (Thiers). Bd. XVII. 
MOller-Thurgau ; Die Edelfaule der Trauben. 

Kreusler: Beobachtungen iiber die Kohlensanre-Aufhahme und 
-Ausgabe (Assimilation und Athmung) der Pflanzen, II 

HoFFMEiSTER : Die Rohfaser und einige Formen der Cellulose. 

Feska (und Imai) : Ueber Kultur, Behandlung und Zusammen- 
setzung japanischer Tabacke. 

Frank: Untersuchungen iiber die Emahrung der Pflanze mit Stick- 
stoff und iiber den Kreislauf derselben in der Landwirthschaft 

Jahreshefte des Vereins fur yaterlandische Naturlrande in Wurttemberg. 
Jahrgang XLIV. 

Koch : Die Blattflechten der Zwiefalter Gegend. 

Kirchner : Nachtrage zur Algenflora von Wiirttemberg. ^ 

Scheuerle : Die Weidenarten Wiirttembergs. 

Herter: Mittheilungen zur Flora von Wiirttemberg. 

Journal fur praktische Ohemie (Ernst v. Meyer). Neue Folge, Bd. XXXVII. 
No. 2. LoEW : Einige Bemerkungen iiber Enzyme. 

Mittheilungen des botanisohen Vereins fOr den Kreis Freiburg und 
das Land Baden. 1887. 
No. 43. VuLPius : Der Hohgau und das badische Donauthal. 

„ 44. ScHLATTERER : Die Epilobien in Doll's Herbar. 

„ — Zachmann : Neue Standorte. 

„ — Hausrath : Ueber ein eigenthiimliches Vorkommen von Convallaria 

xl Current Literature, 

MittheUungen, Fetermann's. Bd. XXXIV. 

No. a. Lendenfeld, von : Der Einfluss der Enlwaldung aui das Klima 


Naturforscher, Der. 1887 

No. 52. Hanusz : Der Kampf um das Dasein in der Pflanzenwelt der ungari- 

schen Steppen. 

Bundaohau, Naturwiasenachaftliche. Jahrgang III. 

No. I. ScHWENDENER : Ueber Richtongen und Ziele der mikroskopisch- botani- 

schen Forschung. 
No. 4. Noll : Die Wirkungsweise von Schwerkraft nnd Licht auf die Gestal- 

tung der Pflanze (continued in No. 5). 

Sammlung naturwissenaohaftlicher Vortrage (Huth). Berlin. Bd. IL 

HuTH : Uebcr die Einwirkung der Organismen auf die Bildong der 

Hi)CK : Einige Hauptcrgebnisse der Pflanzen-Geograpbie in den letzten 
20 Jahren, I. : Topographische Geobotanik. 

Schriften der naturforsohenden Gesellaohafb in Danaig, Neue Folge, Bd. VII. 
Brischke : Bericht iiber eine Excursion nach Hela wahrend des Juli 

Lakowitz : Die Vegetation der Ostsec im Allgemeinen und die Algen 
der Danziger Bucht im Speciellen. 

Klinggraeff, von : Bericht iiber die botanischen Excursionen im 
Jahre 1887. 

Treschel : Botanische Notizen, VIII. 

Brick : Beitrage zur Biologie und vergleichenden Anatomie der 
baltischen Strandpflanzen (Taf. II). 

Schriften des natnrwiasenschaftlichen Vereinea des Harzes. Bd. II. 

Warnstorf : Moosflora Gronlands. 

BitBiingsberiohte der math. phys. Klasse der k. bair. Akademie der Wissen- 

sohaften. 1887. 
Heft 3. Radlkofer : Ueber einige Ca/^am-Arten. 

Bitzungsbericht der (>esellschaft natnrforschender Freunde bu Berlin, 


MoBius : Ueber rothe Organismen des Rothen Mecrs. 

Magnus: Uber die Selbstbestaubung von Spergularia salina, Presl. 

Bitsiingsberichte der Gesellschaft for Botanik su Hamburg, 1887. 

Eichelbaum : Stengeldichotomie des Aspergillus glaucus, 

■ : Bildungsabweichungen mehrerer Arten der Gattung 


- : Hymenomycetts hammonienses. 

Prahl : Ueber die alteren Angaben beziiglich der Flora von Hamburg. 

Sadebeck : Die von der zweiten Singhalesen-Carawane mitgebrachten 
Cey loner Drogen, Friichte, Rohstoflfe, u. s. w. 

: Conservirungsfliissigkeiten fur fleischige und saftige Pflan- 


: Ueber sogenannte 'Jalappo' aus dem tropischen West- 


: Ueber die generationsweise fortgesetzten Aussaaten und 

Culturen der Serpentinformen der Famgattung Asplenium, 

: Ueber einige durch Protomyces mcurosporus^ Ung. erzeugte 

PflanzenkranUieiten im nordlichen Kalkalpengebiete. 

Periodical Literature. xli 

Sitzungsberiohte der Gesellsohaft far Botanik su Hamburg {continued), 
VOGEL : Ueber PilzwuchernDgen in den sogenannten Ohrpfropfen. 

Warburg : Za Kenntniss der Krebskiankheit der Kinabaume auf 

ZiMPEL : Interessantere zum Theil bisher in der Umgegend von Ham- 
burg noch nicht beobachtete Bliithenpflanzen. 

Bitsungsberiohte der Gesellsohaft fur Morphologie and Fhysiologie in 
MOnohen. Bd. III. 

BuCHNRR : Ueber die Vermehrungsgeschwindigkeit einiger Bakterien- 

Peter : Ueber die Jugendzustande einiger Siisswasseralgen. 
Lehman N : Ueber die Sporenbildnng bei Milzbrand. 
BucHER : Ueber die Wirkung der Jodiformdampfe auf den Choleravibrio. 

SitBungsberiohte der physikalisoh-medicinisohen Gesellsohaft m Wurs- 
bnrg. i8S8. 

No. 4. Lehmann : Ueber die Giftigkeit und Entgiftung der Komradensamen 

{Agrostemma Gitkago). 

XJntersuohungen aus dem botanisohen Institute su Tubingen (Pfeffer). 
Bd. II. 

Heft 3. Jentys : Uber den Einfluss hoher SauerstofTpressungen auf das Wachs- 

thum der Pflanzen. 

• * 

,, — Hassack : Uber das Verhaltniss von Pflanzen zn Bicarbonaten und 
iiber Kalkincrustation. 

„ — DiETZ : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Substratrichtung der Pflanzen. 

„ — Klebs : Beitrage zur Physiologie der Pflanzenzelle (Taf. V — VI). 

„ — Campbell : The staining of living nuclei (in English). 

„ — Pfeffer : Uber chemotaktische Bewegungen von Bakterien, Flagellaten 
und Volvocineen. 

Verhandlungen des naturhistorisohen Vereins der preussisohen Bhein- 
lande, Westfalens und des Beg.-Besirks Osnabruck. Jahrgang XLIV 

Nasse : Pflanzenfiihrende Dolomitconcretionen im westfalischen Stein- 

Versuohsstationen, Landwirthsohaftliche (Nobbe). 

Heft 6. ScHULZE UND Seliwanoff : Ueber das Vorkommen von Rohrzucker 

in unreifen KartoffelknoUen. 

„ — ScHULZE : Ueber den Nachweis von Rohrzucker in v^etabilischen 

,, — Seliwanoff : Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Zusammensetzung etioUrter 

Bd. XXXV. 

Heft I. BURGERSTEIN : Ueber den Einfluss des Kampfers (Kampferwassers) 

auf die Keimkraft der Samen. 

„ — JoHANNSEN : Bemerkungen iiber mehlige und glasige Gerste. 

„ — Prevost : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Beschadigimgen der Pflanzen und 
Baume durch Hiittenrauch. 

„ — Bauer : Ueber eine aus Pflrsichgummi entstehende Zuckerart. 

Woohensohrift, Naturwissenschaftliohe. 1888. 
No. 3. Hennings: Ueber das Conserviren und Prapariren von Hutpilzen. 

xlii Current Literature. 

Zeit8ohrift fur Biologie (Kuhne nnd Voit). Bd. XXIV, Neue Folge, Bd. VI 

Knieriem, von : Ueber die eiweisssparende Wirkung der Cellulose bei 
der Ernahnmg der Herbivoren. Entgegnimg. 

Rutgers : Ilaben vegetabilische Eiweissstoffe den gleichen NahrwertH 
fiir den Menschen wie die animalischen ? 

Weiske : Kommt der Cellulose eiweisssparende Wirkung bd der 
Emabrung der Herbivoren zu ? 

Zeitflohrift for Hygiene (Koch und Fliigge). 
Bd. Ill, 1887 {continued), 

Frankland : Methode der baktcriologischen Luf^untersuchung. 

Globig : Ueber Bacterienwachsthum bei 50-70°. 

■ : Ueber einen Kartoffel- Bacillus mit ungewohnlich widerstands- 

fahigen Sporen. 

Bordoni-Uffreduzzi : Ueber den Proteus hominis capsulatus und 
liber eine neue durch ihn erzeugte Infectionskrankheit des 

Frank : Die Veianderungen des Spreewassers innerhab und unterhalb 
Berlins in bacteriologischer und chemischer Hinsicht. 

KiTAESATO : Ueber das Verhalten der Typhus- und Cholerabacillen lu 
saure- und alkalihaltigen Nahrboden. 

ScHUTZ : Der Streptococcus der Druse des Pfeides. 

Bd. IV. 

Heft I. Hesse : Bemerkungen zur quantitativen Bestimmung der Mikro-oiga- 

nismen in der Luft. 

: Zur quantitativen Bestimmung der Keime in Fliissigkeiten. 

Ernst : tJber den Bacillus xerosis und seine Sporenbildung (Taf. I). 
Mori : Uber pathogene Bakterien im Canalwasser. 
Ullmann : Die Fundorte der Staphylokokken. 
Zeit8ohrift fur Naturwissensohaften. Halle. Bd. LX. Vierte Folge» Bd. 
VI (1887). 
Heft 5. ScHUTZE : Ueber die Flora der subhercynischen Kreide. 

Zeitsohrift fur Natorwissensohaften, Jenaisohe. 
B. XXI. Neue Folge. Bd. XIV. 

Boveri : Zellen-Studien (Taf. XXV-XXVIII). 
Bd. XXII, Neue Folge, Bd. XV. 

Frommann : Uber BeschafTenheit imd Umwandlungen der Membran, 
des Protoplasmas und des Kerns von Pflanzenzellen (Tafel I- V). 

Aderhold : Beitrag zur Kenntniss richtender Krafte bei der Bewegung 
niederer Organismen. 

Zeitsohrift fur physiologiache Chexnie (Hoppe-Seyler). Bd. XII {con-^ 

Heft 5. ScHULZE : Ueber einige stickstoffhaltige Bestandtheile der Keimlinge 

von Soja hispida. 

Smith : Zur Kenntniss der schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen der Cmci- 

Baginsky : Zur Biologie der normalen Milchkothbakterien. 

Zeitsohrift fur wissensohaftliche Mikroakopie und f&r mikroakopisohe 
Teohnik (Behrens). 
Bd. IV. 

Heidenreich : Sterilisation mittels des Dampfkochtop& (Papini' scher 
Topf fur bacteriologische Zwecke). 

Periodical Literature. xliii 

Zeitsohrift fiir wiasensohaftliohe Mikroskopie und fur mikroskopiaohe 
Technik {continued), 
Weinzierl, von : Eine Lupe fiir Samemmtersuchimgen. 

Strasser : Nachbehandlung der Schnitte bei Paraffineinbettimg. 

Groot : Ueber ein antomatisches Mikrotom. 

Per^nyi : Mikroelektron, neuer Apparat zur Hartnng. Tinction und 
Einbettung histologischer and embryologischer Gewebe. 

Weigert : Ueber Aufbewahnmg von Schnitten ohne Anwendung von 

Zimmermann : Eine einfache Methode zur Sichtbarmachung des Torns 
der Hoftiipfel. 

ViNASSA : Beitrage zur pharmakognostbchen Mikroskopie. 

Martinotti : Un metodo per rendere evidenti le figure cariocinetiche. 

KuLTSCHiTZKY : Zur Kenntniss der modemen Fixirung und Conaervi- 

Zwaardemaker : Hiilfsapparat zum Cambridge Rocking Microtome. 
Bd. V. Heft I und a. 

WOTHTSCHALL : Ueber die mikrochemischen Reaktionen des Solanin. 

ApXthy : Nachtiilge zur Celloidintechnik. 

Bordoni-Uffreduzzi : Notiz Uber Leprabacillen. 

List ; Mittheilungen zur Farbetechnik. 

MOELLER : Mikrophotographische Methoden. 

Kastschenko : Ueber das Beschneiden mikroskopischer Objekte. 

Klein : Ein neues Excursionsmikroskop. 

Zeitungy Botanisohe (Wortmann). Jahrgang XLVI. 

Beyerinck : Ueber das Cecidium von Nematus caprecu auf Salix 

Zacharias : Ueber Kern- und Zelltheilung. 

Detmer : Ueber physiologische Oxydation im Protoplasma der Pflan- 

SCHIMPER : Ueber Kalkoxalatbildung in den Laubblattem. 

ScHUTT : Ueber die Diatomaceengattung Chaetaceros, 

HiLDEBRAND : Ueber die Keimlinge von Oxalis rubella und deren 

Krasser : Ueber den mikrochemischen Nachweis von Eiweisskorpem 
in der pflanzlichen Zellhaut 

De Vries : Ueber den isotonischen Coefficient des Glycerins. 

WiNOGRADSKY : Ueber Eisenbacterien. 

Koch : Ueber Morphologic und Entwicklungsgeschichte einiger endo- 
sporen Bacterienformen. 

JosT : Zur Kenntniss der Bliithenentwicklung der Mistel. 

Kienitz-Gerloff : Die Gonidien von Gymnosporangium clavariae- 

De Vries : Ueber eine neue Anwendung der plasmolytischen Methode. 

Fischer : Glycose als Reservestoff der Laubholzer. 


Album, Orchid. 

Vol VII. {continued) contains plates ol—Cypripedium Morgianiae^ 
Rchb. f. ; Laelia cinnabarina^ Lindley ; Oncidium Lamelli' 
gerum, Rchb. f. ; Houbletia odoratissma antiquiensis, Linden ; 

xliv Current Literature. 

Album, Orchid (^continued), 

Mesospinidium vulcanorunty Rchb. f. ; Cattleya bicolor^ Lind- 
ley ; Dendrobium Macarthiae, Hooker ; Laelia alba sulphurea^ 
Rchb. f. ; Phalaerwpsis Esmeralda, Rchb. f. ; Dendrobium 
lutecium chiorocenirum, Rchb. f. ; Cattleya Bowringiana, 
Veitch; Vanda suavis^ Chatsworth var; Latlia anceps Scot- 
tiana ; Thunia Vettchiana, Rchb. f. ; Peristeria elata. 
Hooker ; Aerides expansum Leoniae, Rchb. f. ; Laelia 
anceps Stella^ Rchb. f. ; Mormodes pardinum, Bateman ; Iau- 
lia elegans Morreniana^ Rchb. f. ; Dendrobium Kingianum 
album \ Cattleya Harrisoniae violacea^ Hort ; Odcmtoglossum, 
Vuylstekeanum, Rchb. f. ; Schomburgkia undulata^ Lindley : 
Dendrobium FyUhianum roseum^ E. S. Berkeley. 

Aniiftln of Botany. 

VoL I {continued). 

WoODWORTH : The apical cell of Fucus. (PI. X.) 
Johnson : The procarpium and fruit in Gracilaria confervoides, Grev. 
(PI. XI.) 

Green : On the germination of the tuber of the Jerusalem Artischoke 
{Helianthus tuberosus). 

Oliver : On the sensitive labellum of Masdevallia muscosa, Rchb. f. 
(PI. XII.) 

Bateson : The effect of cross-fertilisation on inconspicuous flowers. 

Sanford: Microscopical anatomyofthe common Cedar- Apple {Gymno- 
sporangium Macropus). (PI. XIII.) 

Bower : On some normal and abnormal developments of the oophyte 

in Trichomanes. (PI. XIV-XVI.) 
Scott : On the floating roots of Sesbania aculeata, Pers. (PI. XVII.) 
Williamson : On some anomalous cells developed within the interior 

of the vascular and cellular tissues of tne fossil plants of the 

coal-measures. (PI. XVIII.) 

Marshall- Ward : Some recent publications bearing on the question 
of the sources of nitrogen in plants. 

Clarke : On Acalypha indica, L. (Woodcut 6.) 
Thiselton-Dyer : Calcareous deposit in Hicronyma alchomeoides, 

Gardiner : On the power of contractility exhibited by the protoplasm 
of certain plant cells. 

Balfour : The replum in Cruciferae, 

Necrology for 1887. 

Record of current Literature. 

Vol. II. 

No. V. Lister : Notes on the Plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis and Bre- 

feldia maxima. (PI. I, II.) 

Massee: a monograph of the genus Calostoma^ Desv. {Mitremyces, 
Nees). (PI. III.) 

: On the presence of sexual organs in Aecidium. (PI. IV a.) 

Acton : On the formation of sugars in the septal glands of Narcissus, 
(Woodcuts 1-6.) 

Bateson and Darwin : On a method of studying Geotropism. 

Vaizey : On Catharinea lateralis , Vaizey {Catharinea anomala, Bryhn). 
A New British Moss. (PI. IV B.) 



Periodical Literature* xlv 

AtiTiitiw of Botany {continued), 

Oliver : On the stracture, development, and affinities of Trapella, Oliv., 
a new genos of Pedalintae. (PL V-IX.) 

Vines: On the systematic position oi Isoitesy L. 

Vaizey : Preliminary note on the development of Equisefum, 

Masters : Pinus monophylla. 

Bulletin of Botanical Department, Jamaica. 

Annual Report on the Public Gardens and Plantations for the year 1887. 
Kingston, Jamaica, 1888. 

Bulletin of Miaoellaneous Information. Ro3ral Gardens, Kew, 1888. 
No. 13. xxix. Colonial fruit (continued). 

— XXX. Saccharine. 

14. xxxi. Seeds of Herbaceous plants. 

15. xxxii. Forsteronia rubber {Forsteronia gracilis ^ Benth.). 

— xxxiii. Patchouli {Pogosteman PcUchaulif var. suavis), 

— xxxiv. West African Indigo plants. 

— XXXV. Vanilla. 

— xxxvi. Streblus paper {Streblus cuper^ Lour.). 

— xxxvii. Urera fibre ( Urera fenaxy N. El. Br.) with plate. 

— xxxviii. Tea {Camellia theifera^ Griff.). 

16. xxxix. New garden plants. 

17. xl. Ipecacuanha {Cepkaclis lp€ccu:uanha, Rich.). 
„ — xli. Brazilian Gum Arabic. 
„ — xlii. Trinidad coffee. 

„ — xliii. Patchouli {Pogostemon PcUckouIiy var. suavis), 

„ — xliv. Cochin china vine {Vitis Martini, Planch.). 

„ — xlv. Madagascar ebony. 

„ — xlvi. Shantung cabbage {Brcusica chinensis, L.). 

„ 18. xlvii. Manufacture of Quinine in India. 

„ — xlviii. Job's Tears {Coix Lcuhryma, L. var. stenocarpa), 

„ ^- xlix. Ramie or Rheea {Bothmeria nivea, var. lenacissima). 

,f — 1. Botanical station at Lagos. 

19. li. Rhabur grass {Ischaemum angustifolium, Hackel). 

— lii. Cayman Islands. 

— liii. Valonia in Cjrprus. 

„ — liv. Prickley pear in South Africa. 

„ — Iv. Star Anise {Illicium verum, Hook. f.). 

Ohroniole, Gardeners'. Series 3. Vol. III. 

No. 54. Reichenbach, f. : Airides difforme. Wall ; Eria bicolor^ LindL 
,, — Brown : Ficus Cammiy n. sp. ; Cataseium pulchruniy N. £. Br. 
„ — Baker : Alhuca {Leptostyla) Allenae, n. sp. 
„ — Brown : Veronica cupressoides and its allies. (Figs. 3-6.) 
„ 55. Reichenbach, f. : Laelia Gouldiana, n. sp. or n. hybr. 

— W. B. : Bonatea speciosa. 

— Manda : Cypripedium Picherianum^ n. sp. 

— Picea ajanensis. (Fig. 10.) 

„ 56. Reichenbach, f. : Dendrobium strehloceras, Rchb. f., Possianum, n. var. ; 
Paphina cristata, Lindl., Modiglianiana, n. var. ; Oncidium 
chrysoraphis, n. sp. ; Airanthus Grandidierianus, Rchb. f. 






xlvi Current Literature. 

Chroniole, Oardeners' {continued). 

No. 56. RoLFE : Marmodes pardinum^ var. unicolor. 

— Coffee grown at Kew. (Fig. la.) 

57. Reichenbach, F. : Oncidium chrysops^ n. sp. ; Dendrobium Brymeri- 
anunty Rchb. f., histrionum^ n. subsp. ; Warrea bidentata^ Lindl. 

„ — F. E. : Korolkowiadiscolor^ Rgl. 

— Fasciated Petunia. (Fig. ai.) 

58. Reichencach, f. : Esmeralda bella, n.sp. ; Maxillaria Hiibschiiy n. sp. ; 
Catasetum tapiricipes, n. sp. ; Schomburgkia rhionodora Kim- 
ballianay n. var. 

— The Algerian Fir {Abies numidicd). (Fig. 33.) 

„ — Cycnoches chlorochilum. (Fig. 34.) 

„ — Anderson : Inarching the Vine and Mango. (Figs. 35, 36.) 

„ 59. Reichenbach, f. : Angraecum Sanderianum^ n.sp.; Catautum tnUla 
(Lindl.) maculatissimum, 

jj — RoLFE : Cypripedium Galatea^ n. hybr. ; Coelogyne graminifolia^ Pas. 
and Rchb. f. 

„ — Dixon: Nepenthes. Notes. 

„ — The last of its race {Psiadia rotundifolid) . (Fig. 31.) 

„ 60. D. : Leontyce darwasica ; Corydalis Ledebouriana. 

„ — Reichenbach, f. : Laelia anceps (Lindl.) radians^ n. var. ; Lycaste 
macropogon, n. sp. ; Phalaenopsis Stuartiana bella^ n. van; Leulia 
superbens (Lindl.) decorata^ n. vaOr. ; Odontoglossum + elegantius, 
n. Ins. vel hybr. nat. 

„ — Oxera pulchella. (Fig. 34.) — Biota Sieboldi. (Figs. 35, 36.) 

„ 61. Brown : Origanum hybridum (Fig. 37). 

„ — ROLFE : Dendrobium chrysenne^ n. sp. 

„ — ReichenbacH) f. : Masdevallia cupularis^ Rchb. f. ; Laelia anceps 
munda, Rchb. f. and L. anceps rosea^ Rchb. f. 

„ — Weevils and their gmbs (Fig. 39). Odontoglossum PisccUorii 
(Fig. 40). 

„ 63. Reichenbach, f. : Rodriguezia Bungerothii^ n. sp. 

„ — — : : Aeranthus trichoplectron^ n. sp. 

„ — Ridley : Ponthieva grandiflora^ n. sp. 

„ — Fmitnng of Brugmannsia lutea (Fig. 43). 

„ 63. Reichenbach, f. : Phalcunopsis denticulaia^ n. sp. ; Odontoglossum 
Boddaertianum, n. sp. 

„ — ' : Crassula lactea (Fig. 47) ; the Melon Pear {Solanum 

guatemalenscy Fig. 49). 

„ 64. : Lculia elegans Tautziana^ n.var. ; Odontoglossum 

dicranophorum, n. hyb. nat. (?) ; Cypripedium dilectum, n. sp. 

(hyb. nat.) ; callosum^ Rchb. f., sublaeve, nar.v. 

„ — Smee : New Zealand, its fruit and forest trees. 

„ — W. : Caryota sobolifera (Fig. 52). 

„ 65. Watson : Proliferation in Utricularia (Fig. 54). 

„ — Reichenbach, f. : Oncidium Kramerianum^ Rchb. f., resplendens, n. 
var. ; Odontoglossum dicranophorum, Rchb. f. ; Cattleya labiata 
Percivalliana be I la. 

„ — RoLFE ; Lculia virens, Lindl. ; Masdevallia culex. 

„ : Holothrix Lindleyana (Figs. 55 and 56), 

„ 66. Jenman : Eichhomias at Home. 


Periodical Literature. xlvii 

Chroniole, Gardeners* {cotitintud). 

No. 66. Baker : Agave {Euagatve) Baxteriy n. sp. 

„ — Reichenbach, f. : Coelogyne humilis (Lindl.) albaiay n. var.; Oncidium 
{Cirtochilum) detortuniy n. sp. ; DendroHum macrophyllum 
(A. Rich.) stenopterum^ n. var. 

„ — Jackson : Mexican fibre {Agave hetereuanthd), 

„ 67. Reichenbach, f. : Cynosorchis elegansy n.sp. ; C. Lamana^ n.sp. 

„ — Jones : The crossing of Ferns (continued in No. 69). 

„ — J. O. W. : The Lacqney Moth (Fig. 63). 

„ 68. The Forestry School at Cooper's Hill. 

,, — Reichenbach, f. : Cypripedium Rothschildianumy n. «p. 

„ — Eucalyptus urnigera (Figs. 64, 65); Anthurium Chamberlaini^ 
(Fig. 67). 
69. Bennet : Is Ivy parasitic ? 

— Coelogytu cristata, Chatsworth variety (Fig. 68). 

„ — I. O. W. : The fly of the IHs leaf (Fig. 69). 

„ — The Baobab tree (with photograph). 

„ 70. The Aostralian Baobab {Adansonia Gregorii (Fig. 70). 

y, — Reichenbach, f. : Epidendron Stamfordianum (Bat.) Lecanum^ 
n. var. ; Coelogyne lactea^ Rchb. f. 

— Douglasia laevigata (Fig. 71) ; Phalaenopsis Schilleriana (Fig. 72). 

— Jackson : Some vegetable products from Mincing Lane. 

71. Reichenbach, f. : EHa striolata^ n. sp. ; DendroHum nobiU (Lindl.) 
Sanderianum^ n. var. ; Phalaenopsis gloriosa^ n. sp. 

— P. : Smnt {Ustilago segetum) in Oats and Barley. 

„ — Erythronium giganteum, var. albiflorum (Fig. 74); Dichorisandra 
pubescensy var. Taeniensis (Fig. 75). 

„ — Knanrs and Burs (Figs. 76, 77). 

,,72. Gardening in the time of Addison. 

„ — Syme : Crossing of Ferns. 

„ — Foster : Freesias (Fig. 79 : Fr. Leichtliniemd), 

„ — Disa racemosa (Fig. 81). 

,, 73. Reichenbach, f. : Lissochilus giganteus^ Welwitsch (Fig. 83). 

„ — Pinus halepensis (Fig. 84). 

„ 74. Bennet : Arancaria excelsa (Fig. 85). 

„ — Adlam : Natal notes. 

„ — B. : Erythronium Hendersonii (Fig. 86). 

„ — RoLFE : The Cineraria (Fig. 87 : Senecio cruenta, together with 
illustrations of its modem developments). 

„ — Smith: Diseases of Omithogalum (Fig. 87: Heterosporium Orwh 

„ 75. Sabal Palmetto, Lord (Fig. 89). 

„ — Reichenbach, f. : Cattleya labiata, Mr. Scott's variety; Laelia 
purpurata (LindL), Whiteana, n. var. ; Cattleya (Jabiatd) 
Mossiae, Hook., Mr. T. Courtauld*s variety. 

„ — Bonnavia : The pouch of the Calceolaria, 

„ — Araucaria Cunninghami glauca (Moreton Bay Pine, Fig. 90). 

76. Latimer : Botanic Garden, Teneriffe (Fig. 92 : Dracaena Draco). 

— Dimorphic foliage in Tillandria virginalis (Fig. 93). 
„ — Pinus canariensis (Fig. 94). 

xlviii Current Literature. 

Chroniole, Gardenera' {continued). 

No. 77. R. W. : Early English gardening. 

„ — Yucca filiftray Carr. (Figs. 97 and 100). 

„ — Reichenbach, f. : Aerides felccUum (Lindl.) compacium, n. var. ; 
Cypripedium Lawrenceanum pUioUucum^ n. var. 

„ — Meehan : Knanrs and Burrs. 

„ — D. : Scixifraga pyramidalis (Fig. 98). 

„ — Picea orientalis (Fig. loi) ; Abies amabilis (Fig. loa). 

„ 78. Scott : Hardy rock plants at Kew. 

„ — Araucaria Cookii (Figs. 104 and 108) ; Araucaria brasiliensis. The 
Candelabra tree (Fig. 105). 

„ 79. Hardy Eucalypti in India and elsewhere (Figs. 108-111). 

G-088ip, Soienoe. 1888. 
No. 377. Haydon : Further notes on the Toothwort {LcUhraea squamarid), 

— Lett : Tree growing after girdling. 

— Tausley : Flowers and Fruits. 

— Emsworth : Yew trees, their size and age. 

— Eastbourne : Campanula glomerata, 

— Soutter : Fungus crop of 1887. 
278. Saunders : Campanula glomercUa and dntiana campesiris, 

— GiBBS : Flowers and Fruits. 

— Arnold : Dielytra spectabilis. 

379. Bennett : Notes on the eighth edition of the London Catalogue of 
British Plants (continued in No. aSo). 

— : Carex frigida. All. 




— Rebs : A Green Rose. 
a8o. Keegan : In the Isle of Man. 

„ — Ward : Drying plants on a tour". 

— Riches : The Economical Products of Plants. 

— Cocke RELL : Aecidium aquilegiae in America. 
381. BuLMAN : The Bee and the development of honey in flowers. 
a8a. Tanslev : The colours of Leaves and Flowers. 

— SwiNTON : Purple-eyed Daisies. 

— HoPKiNSON : Preserving Flowers. 
383. H. : A botanical journey in Switzerland. 

— Swan : Studies of common plants. The Marigold {Calendula), 

— Arnold : Notes on Trifolium stellcUum, 
— : A May ramble at Prinsted. 



— HiNSLEY: Unusual case of germination. 

— Rees : Lychnis dioica. 

— Lomax : Preserving colours of flowers. 

— Pope : Natural grafting. 

GreviUea. Vol. XVI. 
No. 79. Cooke : Some exotic Fungi. 

„ : Australian Fungi (continued in No. 80). 

„ : New British Fungi (continued in No. 80). 

„ : Notes on H3rmenomycetes. 

; Synopsis Pjrrenomycctum, 


,, — Fries : Laschiae nova species. 




Periodical Literature. xlix 

G-reviUea [continued). 
No. 79. Philipps : New British Discomycetes. 

„ — Cooke : British Hyphomycetes (continued in No. 80). 

„ 80. : Exotic Agarics. 

„ — Massee : British Pyrenomycctes. 

Journal of Botany, British and Foreign. Vol. XXVI. 

No. 301. Beddome : Ferns collected in Perak and Penang by Mr. J. Day. 

— Britten : The Nomenclature of Nymphaea^ etc. 

— Baker : A synopsis of Tillandsieae (continued in Nos. 302-306). 

— Druce; Notes on the Flora of Eastemess, Elgin, Banff, and West 
Ross (continued in No. 304). 

— Mueller and Baker : A new Sclaginella from New Guinea. 

— Flower : Botany of the Steep Holmes. 

— Marshall : HUracium Cibsoni, Backh. and Carcx irrigua^ Hoppe 
in Westmoreland. 

„ — : Equisetum sylvaiicum, L. var. capillaris^ Hoffm. in West 


„ 303. Forbes : A new Fern from New Guinea. 

„ — Bake r : On a collection of Ferns made by Baron Eggers in St. Domingo. 

„ — BouLGERS : * Endosperm.* 

„ — Rriiten and Boulgers: Biographical Index of British and Irish 
Botanists (^continued in Nos. 303-306). 

„ — Marshall : West Cornish Plants. 

„ — Linton : Carcx trincrvis, Dcgl. in Ireland. 

„ — Fry : Glamorganshire Plants. 

„ — Fryer : On leaf-bearing stipules in Potamogcton, 

»» 303- Murray : II. A. de Bary. 

„ — Scheutz : De duabus Rosis Brittanicis. 

„ — Bloomfield: The Moss Flora of Suffolk. 

,, — Scully : Notes on some Kerry plants. 

„ — Beeby ; On Potentilla reptans and its allies. 

„ — The late Dr. Boswell. 

„ 304. Battray : Notes on some abnormal forms of AulacodiscuSy Ehrh. 

„ — The late John Smith, A. L. S. 

„ — Druce : The nomenclature of Sparganium. 

— Beeby : The nomenclature of Sparganium. 

— Druce : Notes on the Flora of Eastemess, Banff, Elgin, and West Ross. 

— New Phanerogams published in Britain in 1882. 
305. Massee : A revision of the genus Bovista (Dill.) Fr. 

— Marshall : Notes on Highland plants. 

— Rogers : Some new Rubi records for 1887. 

— Marshall : Carex lagopina^ Wahlenberg. 
„ 306. Britten : Asa Gray. 

— Murray: Notes on the Botany of Northern Portugal. 

— Marshall : Suffolk plants, Pulmonaria officinalis^ L. as a native of 

— Sharland : Vitality of spores of Gymnogramtnt Uptophylla, 
Journal of the Chemical Society of London. 1887. 

No. 299. Yoshida : On Aluminium in the ashes of flowering plants. 
„ 301. Roman is: Certain Products from Teak. Preliminary Notices. 



1 Current Literature. 

Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Botany. Vol. XXIV. 

No. 163. Vaizey : On the Anatomy and Development of the Sporogonium of 


Henslow : Transpiration as a Function of living Protoplasm. Tran- 
spiration and evaporation in a saturated atmosphere. 

Ridley : A revision of the genera Microstylis and Malaxis. 
Journal of the NorthamptonBhire Natural History Society and Field Club. 
Vol. IV. (1886-87). 

Druce : The Flora of Northamptonshire. 

Dixon : Lycopodium clavatuniy L. in Northamptonshire. 

: Phenological Notes. 

: A Bank Holiday Moss Foray. 

: Polypodium Robertianum^ Hoffm., in Northamptonshire. 

: Second sii]>plementary list of Northamptonshire Mosses. 

: Botanical Notes. 

: Alisma ranunculoides, L. in Northamptonshire. 

: Northamptonshire Mosses. 

ScRiVEN : On the age of trees. 
Journal and Transactions, Pharmaceutical. Series 3. 
No. 916. Hooper : Bark of Michelia Nilagirka. 
yf — Hesse : Contributions to the Chemistry of Cinchona Alkaloids. 
,, — A few notes on the Microscopic Fungi. 
„ 917. Warden: Embelia Ribes. 

„ 918. Shand: The tea industry of Ceylon (^continued in No. 933). 
„ 919. De Bary : Asa Gray (necrology). 
„ 920. Mac Evan : Note on Sandall Wood Oil. 
931. Hooper: Bark of /?/tamnus Wightii. 

— Power and Weimar : The constituents of Wild Cherry Bark. 
933. Hill : Notes on a species of Astragalus from Cyprus. 


„ — DuNSTAN : The formation of Alkaloids in Plants. 
„ — Salamon : Yeast, its Morphology and Culture. 








933. Freire : Alkaloid from Solatium grandiflora. 

924. Amadeo : The Botany and Vegetable Materia Medica of the Island of 

Porto- Rico (continued in Nos. 930 and 931). 
935. Squire: The identification of theChmese Dye-Bark Hwang-Peh. 

— Ransom : Note on striated Ipecacuanhas. 

— Meier and Webber : An examination of Casara sagrada, 

— Hill : Occurrence of Canary Grass near Edinburgh. 

— : Flowering rush in an unlikely place. 

927. Luff : The Ptomaines. 

928. Hooper: Lesives of Ad/tado/a vasica. 

— Notes on Gambier. 

929. Mander : Ghatti and other Indian substitutes for Gum Arabic. 
932. Elborne : Jambul {£ugenia yamdo/ana, Lam.). 

935. Thiselton-Dyer: Note on Cineraria maritima in the treatment of 


— Warden : Cocotannic add from the leaves of Erythroxylon Coca 

grown in India. 

936. : Note on Erythoxylou Coca grown in India (continued in 

No. 937). 

Periodical Literature. li 

Journal and Tranaaotions, Fharmaoeutioal {continued). 
No. 937. Warden : The Cardamom Plant. 
If 938. Will : On Atropine and Hyoscyamine. 
„ — Richardson : Atropa Mattdragora. 

„ — Weiss : The chemical constitution of Cheken leaves {Myrtus Cheken, 

„ — RusRY : Gaarana and its home. 

n 939' • Coca at home and abroad .continued in No. 940). 

„ — Lucas : The fertilisation of flowers. 

Joomal of the Queokett Microsoopioal Club. Series a, Vol. Ill (continued). 

No. 21. Nelson : On the formation of Diatom Structure (PI. XVIII). 
„ — Michael: Parasitism. 

Journal of the Boyal Agricultural Society of England. Series 2, Vol. XXIV. 
W'att : On the con 'itions of wheat-growing in India. 
Bear : The Indian Wheat Trade. 

Journal of the Boyal Microscopical Society. Series J, Vol. VIII (1888). 

Part I. Bennett: i. Fresh- Water Algae of the English Lake District ; 2. With 
description of a new genus and five new species. (PI. I.) 

Maskell : Note on Micrastericu americana^ Ralfs, and its varieties. 
(PI. II.) 

Pnrt a. Massee : On the type of a new order of Fungi {Matula poronicuforme^ 

Mass. PI. IV). 

Part 3. Rattray : A revision of the genus Aulacodiscus. (PI. V-VII.) 

Magaiine, Botanical. Series 3. Vol. XLIV. 

Nos. 517-522 contains plates and descriptions of: — Phortnium 
Hookeri^ Gnnn. ; Ceratotheca triloba^ E. Meyer ; Thunbergia 
affinis, S. Moore ; Prunus Jcuquemontiiy Hook, f ; Mcudcvaliia 
Chestertoniy Rchb. f. ; Amorphophallus virosusy N. E. Brown ; 
Coelogyne Massangeana^ Rchb. t. ; ScUvia scapiformiSy Hance ; 
Aloe Hildebrandtii, J. G. Baker ; Oncidium Jonesianum^ Rchb. f.; 
Vanda SanderianOt Rchb. f. ; Primula geranii/o/ia, Hook. f. ; 
Afescmbryanthemum Broitmiiy Hook. f. ; Heioniofsis ja- 
ponica, Maxim. ; Onosma pyramidalisy Hook. f. ; Nymphaea 
Kewensis, Hort. ; Brodiaea (Triteleid) J/owelliiy S. Wats.; 
Masdevallia gibberosa, Rchb. f. ; Cantleya lutea^ Rovle ; Abies 
A'ordmanniana,SptLch.i Dendrobium ctavcUumfVfBli.; Aiiium 
Suwarowiy Regl. ; Alpinia offidarum, Hance. ; Douglasia 
laevigata^ A. Gray ; J'cusiflora violacea^ Vellozo ; CcUasetum 
Bungerothiy N. E. Brown ; Kampferia secunda^ Wall ; Huemia 
cupera, N. E. Brown ; Palicourea nicotianaifolia^ Cham, et 
Schlchd. ; Cassia coquimbensisy Vogel. 

Magaaine, The Oeological. New Series, Decade III, Vol. V. 

Ettinghausen : On the occurrence of a Ceratozamia in Styria. 

Monthly, Naturalist's. Vol. I. {continued). 
No. 5. Friend : The pathology of the Crucifers. 

— Batch ELOR : Carolus Linnaeus : a biography (part 3, part 4 in No. 6). 

— Fletcher : Bacteria and the germ theory of disease (part 2). 
6. Kerr : The Natural History of the Months. No. i. February. 

— Arnold : Notes on Stinging Nettles. 

e 2 


♦ » 

Hi Current Literature. 

Naturalist, The. 1888. 

No. 150. HOBKIRK : A curious habitat of some mosses. 
— : The leafing of the Oak and the Ash. 

— Martindale : The Lichens of Westmorland (continued in No. 151). 
151. Baker : The Botany of the Cumberland part of the Pennine Range. 

— Hodgson : Linaria mittcr in Cumberland. 

153. Fowler: Lincolnshire Marsh and Water plants. 
„ — Mason : Poly stic hum angulare in North Lincolnshire. 

— Leach : Some Ingleton plants. 

154, Percival: The Flora of Wensleydale, North- West Yorkshire (con- 
tinued in No. 155). 

ff '55' I^E TONI: Notes on Botanical Nomenclature. 

„ — Lees : Notes on the list of Ingleton plants. 

Naturalist, Essex. 1887 {continued). 

No. II. [Report of] The Eighth Annual Cryptogamic and Botanical Meeting of 

the Essex Field Club. October 1887. 

NaturaUst, Midland. Vol. XL 

No. iJi. Wilkinson: Colour Reaction ; its use to the Microscopist and to the 


^, — IIiLLiiousE : Some investigations into the function of Tannin in the 
vegetable Kingdom (continued in No. 122). 

„ — Grove : Fungus Eating. 

„ — Mathews : History of the County Botany of Worcester (continued in 

Nos. 122-125). 

,, 122. Bagnall : Notes on the Warwickshire Stour Valley and its Flora 

(continued in Nos. 123-124). 

,, 123. Twenty-ninth annual report of the Birmingham Natural History and 

Microscopical Society. 

„ 124. Grove : The Discomycetes of the Birmingham district. 

»» 1 35' ' The Fungi of Warwickshire (continued in No. 126.) 

Naturalist, Soottish. Vol. XVI. 

Stevenson : The Cryptogamic Society of Scotland. 

Macmillan : Inaugural Address. 

Trail : Additions to Scotch Peronosporeae. 

: Revision of Scotch Sphturopsideae and Melanconieae, 

: The Gall-making Diptera of Scotland. 

Beeby : On the Flora of Shetland. 

Obituaries : Professor Alexander Dickson ; Dr. John Thomas Irvine 
Boswell ; Mr. John Smith, A.L.S. 

Bennett : Additional records of Scottish plants for 1887. 


Vol. XXXVII {continued^ 

No. 949. Marshall- Ward : Timber and some of its diseases (continued in 950, 

95i» 96i,97o>970- 
— : Professor Alexander Dickson (necrology). 

»» 952. : Anton de Bary. 

,, 955. J. D. H. : Professor Asa Gray. 

ft 956. RUcker : Botanists and the Micromillimetre. 

Periodical Literature. liii 

Hfttvre {^continued). 

No. 956. JUDD : The relation between Geology and the Biological Sciences (con- 
tinued in No. 957 . 

No. 958. Hayward, Chaney, and d*Abbadie : The Micromillimetre. 

n 959. Morris : llie dispersion of seeds and plants. 

^ — : The public Gardens of British India, especially the Botanic 

Gardens , chiefly from an article by O. Warburg in Vol. XLIV. 

of the Bcitanische Zeitung). 

„ 961. Irvimg: Green-colouring matter of decajring wood. 

„ — : The Botanical Department, Northern India. 

„ 96J. The Forestry School at Cooper's Hill 

,, — Amadbo : The dispersion of seeds and plants. 

„ — Robinson : Green-colouring matter of decaying wood. 

„ 963. Eggers : Flora of the Bahamas. 

n 964. Asa Gray : Speech at the British Assodation in 1887. 

„ — Forestry in the Cape Colony. 

M S^5- GUPPY : Flora of the antarctic Islands. 

,, 968. Hemslby : Dissemination of plants by birds. 
„ 970. GurPY : The dispersal of seeds by birds. 

,, 971. Ernst : A remarkable case of fasciatioo in Fcurcroya cubensiSy Haw. 
„ 97J. Wrightson : Wheat cultivation. 
»» 973- Practical Forestry. 

,, 974. The opening of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Pl3rmouth (Illus- 
trated; . 

Vews, Ohemioal. Vol. LVII. 

BiscHOF : Extension of time of culture in Dr. R. Koch's bacteriological 
water-test by partial sporilisation, with special reference to the 
Metropolitan water-supply. 

Mac Iyor : The exhaustion of virgin soils in Australia. 

— . - . . : On some Australian indigenous saline fodder-plants. 

: The chemistry of the Onion as a field crop in Australia. 

Barlow : An improved modification of Soxhlet's apparatus for the ex- 
traction of oil and fat in plants, foods, &e. 

Teschemacher and Smith : On the determination of Morphia present 
in Opium ;continued in No. 1477). 

Williams : On the determination of the amount of Morphia present in 

Prooeedingt of the Cftmbridge Fhilotophlo*! Sooiety. Vol. VI. 

Shipley : On the Fungus causing the Onion disease, Peronospora 

Proceedings of the Bojal Sooietj of London. Vol. XLIII {continued). 
No. a6i. Henslow : A contribution to the study of the comparative anatomy of 

,, J63. Carnelley and Wii^on : A new method for determining the number 

uf micro-organisms in air. 

„ — — : Note on the number of micro-organisms in 

„ — Frankland: On some new and typical micro-organisms obtained from 

water and soil. 

Hv Current Literature. 

Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Botany. Series 3. 
Vol. II {continued). 

Part 15. Oliver: Enameration of the plants collected by Mr. H. H. Johnston 

on the Kilima-Njaro Expedition, 1884. 
Vol. III. 
Part I. AiTCHisoN : The Botany of the A%han Delimitation Commission. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Perth Society of Natural History. 
Vol. I. 

Meldrum : Mnium riparium in Scotland. Some localities for Perth- 
shire plants. 

Barclay : Flora of the woody Island. 

Transactions of the Boyal Society of Edinburgh. Vol. XXXIII. 

KiNDOT : On the fructification of some Ferns from the Carboniferous 
Formation. (PI. VIII, IX.) 

: On the Fossil Flora of the Radstock Series of the Somerset 

and Bristol Coal Field (Upper Coal Measures). (PL XVIIl- 

Rattray : A diatomaceous deposit from North Tolsta, Lewis. 


Annales du Jardin Botanique de BuitenaOKg. Vol. VII. 

Part a. Treub : Etudes sur les Lycopodiac^es. 

VoiGT : Untersuchungen iiber Bau und Entwicklung von Samen mit 
ruminierten Eindosperm. 

Treub : Nouv. recherches sur le Myrmecodea de Java. 

: Notices sur la nouvelle flore de Krakatau. 

Eykman : Notes Phytochimiques. 
Tijdschrifb der Nederlandschen Entomologisohen Vereenigung su 'S 
G-ravenhage. XXXI. 

W ASM ANN : Getreidesammelnde Ameisen in alter und neuer Zeit. 

Verslagen en Mededeelingen d. K. Akademie van Wetenschappen, 
Amsterdam. Ill Deel, 1887. 

Beyerinck : Over het Cecidium van Nematus Capreae aan Salix amyg- 

Forster : Over the * pasteuriseeren ' van bacterien. 


Annals and Magaaine of Natural Science, Indian. Vol. I. 

* On the injurious effects arising from the use, as articles of food, of Legu- 
minous seeds or Pulse, common in India. 

Proceedings of the Boyal Asiatic Society of BengaL 1887. 
Bruhl : Resin of Cannabis indica. 


Archives italiennes de Biologic. Tome TX. 

Marcacci : Sur Taction des alcalo'ides dans le r^gne v^g^tal et animal. 

ViNCENZl : Recherches exp^rimcntales ex^cut^es avec le bacille en 
virgule de Koch. 

Periodical Literature, Iv 

Arohives italiennes de Biologie {eoniinued). 

Marchiafava et Celli : Nouvelles Etudes sur la malaria. 

LusTiG : Sur le bacille napolitain. 

Bordoni-Uffreduzzi : Sur la culture dn bacille de la l^pre. 

Bareggi : L*examen bact^riologique du sang des snjets mordus, comme 
base rationelle de la cure Pasteur. 

Zaslein : Recherches bacteriologiques sur le cholera. 

Cattani : Action de la temperature sur le bacille dn cholera. 

Mattirolo : Sur le parasitisme des truffes et sur la question des my- 
corhizes (avec une planche). 

Arohivlo del Laboratorio di Botanioa Crittogamioa presso la B. Uni- 
▼ersitk di Favia. Vol. V. 

Atti del Conipresso Nasionale di Botanioa Crittogamioa in Parma (5-10 
Settembre, 1887). Fasc. II. Process! verbal!. 

Cattaneo : Sul male del Caffi. 

Bozzi : Muschi della provincia di Pavia. 

Oliva : Dei Miceti trovati sui corpo nmano. 

CuBONi : Sulla Peronospora dei grappoli. 

Perroncito e Varalda : Intorno alle cosi dette Mufife delle Terme 
di Valdieri. 

Majocchi : Di un Infomiceto nella pelle dei Pellagrosi, &c. 

Atti della Beale Aooademia dei Linoei di Boma. Kendiconto. Vol. IV. 

Menozzi : Ricercbe chimiche solla germinazione del Phaseolus 

De Toni e Levi : Pugillo di alghe tripolitane. 

BoUetino del B. Comitato geologioo d*Italia. Vol. XIX (1888). 

Mascarini : Le piante fossili nel Travertino ascolano. 
Bolletino della Sooietk Botanioa Italians. 

De Toni : Sopra un curioso Flos aquae osservata a Parma. 

BOTTINI : Appunti di bryologia toscana (seconda serie). 

Arcangeli : Sul Saccharomyces minora Engel. 

Tan FAN I : Nota preliminare sul frutto e snl seme delle Apiaoee. 

PiROTTA : Di una nuova stazione dell* Ophioglossum iusifanicum. 

PiCHi e Bottini : Prime Muscinee dell* Appennino Casentinese. 

Ricci : Nota suUa Festuca alpina^ Sat, raccolta al M. Vettore nella 

Marca d*Ancona. 
Arcangeli : Suir influenze della luce nell* accrescimento delle foglie. 

BoUetino della Sooietib di Naturaliati di NapolL 

Anno I, 1887. 

Savastano: Malattie dell* Olivo. 2 parti; La vajolatnra d^li 
Agnimi L*Anomala Vitis. 
Anno II, 1888. 

Mfanredi, Boccardi e Japelli : Influenza die micro-organismi sail* 
inversione del saccarosio. 

Oiomale Botanioo Italiano Nuovo. Vol. XX. 

No. I. Berlese : MonograBa dei generi PUospora, Clathrospora e Pyrenophora 

(contiou^ in No. 3). 

,, — Beccari : Nuove specie di Palme recentemente scoperte alia Nuova 

,, 2. Massalango : Contribazione alia teratologia vegetale. 

Ivi Current Literature. 

Malpighis. Anno II. 

Baccarini : Appunti intomo ad ftlcuni spnocnatalii. 

Saccardo : Funghi delle Ardenne cootenuti nelle Cryptogamae Ardu- 

Gallon I : Contribuzione alio studio del genere Achfys nelle Ber- 
beridacee. (Tav. VIII — IX.) 

Mattirolo e PiroTta: Enrico Antonio de Bary. 

Bolletino Btbliografico (Lavori Botanid italiani). 

BoRz) : Formazione delle radici laterali nelle Monocotiledoni. 

BeccAri : Le Palme inclose nel genere Cocos, 

Katurnitzki : Apparato per illustrare la teoria meccaneca della 

Berlese : Fungi veneti novi vel critici. 

POLi : La gelatina del Kaiser adoprata per disporre in serie i preparati 

BoRz) : Sullo soiluppo del MischococcUs cotrfervitola^ Na^. 
Pirotta : Per la storia dei betteroidi delle Legnminose. 
BoRZl : La Qturcus macedonica, Alph. DC. in Italia. (Tar. XI.) 
Matiibolo : Contribnzione alia biologia delle Epatiche, Movimenti 

igroscopici nel Tallo delle Epatidie Marchantieae. (Tav. 

Mori N I : Sulla forma ascofora del PenUillium candiduM, 
\ BoRZi : Chlorothetium Pirottaty Bzi. 

Notarisia. Anno III (1887) {continued). 
No. 9. Stroemfelt: Algae novae qnas ad litora Scandinaviae indagavit 

,, — Castracane: Saggio snlla flora diatomacea delle cosl dette MtifTe 
delle terme di Valdieri. 

— Bornet et Flahault : Concordance des Algen 'Sachen's und 
Europa*s* de L. Rabenhorst avec la Revision des Nostocac^ 
h^t^rocyst^, etc., de MM. Bomet et Flahauk. 

— Han SGI RG : Algae novae aquae dulcis. 

— Algae novae Diagnoses. 
10. Lagerheim : Spora una nuova specie del genere PUurocapsa. 

„ — De Ton I : Manipolo di Alghe portoglies i raccolte dal A. F. Moller, I. 

„ — Programme, Sylloge Algar 

„ — BORNET ; Algues du voyage au Golfe de Tadjoura, 

„ — PiccoNE : Nuove spigolature per la Freologia della Ligufta. 

Froceasi verbali della Secietii ToBcana di Sciense Natnrali. 1888. 

Pic HI : Alcune osservazioni sui tuberculi radical! delle Legunnnose. 

Bendioonto dell' Aooademia delle Scienze FiBidhe e Matematiche di Napoli. 

Series a, Vol. II 

Malerba e Sanna-Salaris : Su di im microrganismo trovato nell* 
nrina xmiana alia quale impartisce una consistenza vischiosa. 


Boletino da Sociedade Broteriana. Coimbra. Vol. V continued. 
Fasc. 3. Flora Lusitanica exsiccata. Cent. Ill, IV. 

Daveau : Excursions botaniques. Bas Alemtejo. 



Periodical Literature. Ivii 

Boletino d* Sooiedade Broteriana (cofitinueel). 

Henriques i Amaryllideae de Portugal .Observa9oes sobre algnmas 
especies de Narcissus encontrados en Portugal. 

Communioa9oe8 da OonimiBsao dos Trabalhos Qeologicoa de Portugal 
Tome I. 
Fasc. II. De Lima : Oswald Heer e a flora fossil portugueza. 


Acta Horti Fetropolitani. Vol. X. 

Herder, von: Labiatae, Plumbagineae et Plantagineae a cl. Dr. G. 

Radde annis 1855-59 ^^^ Si^ria orientali collectae. 
Winkler : Decas tertia Compositanun novarain Torkestaniae nee 

non Bacharae incolarum. 

Trautvetter, von : Contribntio ad floram Dagestaniae ex herbario 
Raddeano anni 1885. 

KUNTZE : Plantae orientali-rossicae. 

Regel : Allii species Asiae centralis. — Breviariam relationis de Horto 
Botanico Petropolitano. — Descriptiones plantamra nonnullanim 
horti imperialis botanici in statu vivo examinatarum. 

Bulletin de la Sooi€t6 Imp6riale des Naturalistes de Mosoow. 1887 

No. 4. Smirnov : Plantes vasculaires du Cancase. 


No. I. LiNDBMAN : Die schadlichsten Insekten des Tabak in Bessarabien. 

Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennioa. Helsingfors, 1888. 
Wain ID : Revisio lichenum in herbario Linnaei asservatorum, Revisio 
lichenum Hoffmanniorum. Notulae de synon3rmia lichenum. 
De subgenere Cladinae. 
Bremer : Om variationsformagan hos Primula officinalis i Finland. 
Om fbrekomsten af Festuca diuriuscula ; Finland. 

HisiN'GER: Recherches sur les tubercules du Ruppia rostellaiaeX du 
ZannicAellia polycarpa provoqu^s par le Telr amy s'a parasitica, 
I. (avec 10 planches). 

LiNDBERG : Bidrag till Nordens Mossflora, I. 

Karsten : Symbolae ad Mycologiam Fennicam. XVIII-XXII. 

KiHLMANN : Potamogeton vaginatus, ny for Europas Flora. 

Saelan : Om en for var flora my frovat, Eritrichium villosum, 

HuTT : Die alpinen Pflanzendeformationen des nbrdlichsten Finlands. 
Scripta botanioa Horti Universitatia imperialis Fetropolitansd. Tomus II. 

Knutizky : Ueber die Wirkung des Cocain auf Mimosa pudica. 

Krassnow : Descriptiones plantamm novarum vel minus cognitarum 
in r^onibus Thian-Schanicis lectarum. 

Aggu^enko : Notice sur nne croissance remarcablemcnt rapide. 

Shiliakow : Zur Myxomyceten- Flora des Gouvemements Kazan. 


Handlingar, Konigl. Svenska Vetenakaps-Akademiens. Ny Fjold, Bd. XXI. 

LiNDMAN : Om Postfloration och dess betydelse sasom skyddsmedel for 
Fruktanlaget (4 Tfln.). 


Iviii Current Literature. 

Handlingar, VeteiiBkaps ooh Vitterh. 8amh. QOtaborg. 1887. 

NiLSSON : Stndier ofver stammen sasom assimilerande organ. 

Notifler, Botaniska. 1887 {continuea). 

No. II. Ahlfvengren : Vaxtgeografiska bitrag till Gotlonds flora. 

„ — Fries : Terminologiska sminotiser. 

„ — Grevillius : Om stammens bygnad hos n&gra lokalfonner af Poly- 
gonum aviculare^ L. 

— KjELLMANN : Skottets bygnat hos fam. Chordariaceae. 

— LuNDSTROM : N&gra iakttagelser ofver Calypso borealis, 

— NiLSSON : Scirpus parvulus, Roem. et Sch. och dess narmaste for\'andts- 
kaper i v^ flora. 

— ^— — ^— : TTcnne nye Ramex-hybrider. 

— RiNGius : N&gra floristika anteckningar frin Wermland. 

— SkAricann : Salix depressa + tepens, Bnmn. 

— Trolander : Vaxtlokaler i Nerike. 
12. Andersson : Om Palnulla uvaiformis^ Kg. och hoilsporema hos Dm- 

pamaldia glomerata^ Ag. 

— DusiN : Om n&gra Sphagnnmprof fr&n djnpet af sydsvenska tarfmossar. 

— Johnson : Jaktlagelser rorande n&gra torfmossar i sodra Sm&land och 

— Lagerhsim: Mykologiska Bidrag iv: Ueber eine neoe Peronospora- 
Art ans Schwedisch Lappland. 

— LuNDSTROM : Om farglosa oljeplastider och oljedroppames biologiska 
betydelse hos vissa Potamogeton-arter. 

— Neumann : Om tvenne Rubi fr&n mellersta Halland. 

— Starback : Kritisk ntreduing af Leptosphaeria modtsta^ Auct. 

— Trolander: Vaxtlokaler I Nerike. 

No. I. Andersson : Redogorelse for senare tiders nndersokningaraf torfmossar 

Kalktuffer, sotvatlenslcror, sardeles med hansjm till den skandi- 
naviska vegetationens invandringhistoria. 

- Areschoug : Om Rubens affinis, Whe., och R. relatus, F. Aresch. 

- — ^ : Om Trapa natans, L., var. conocarpa^ F. Aresch., och 

dess harstamming fr&n denna art typiska farm. 
,. — Berggren : Om apogami hos prothakiet af A27/^^Ai^ffa. 
ly — Cnattingius : N&gra nya vaxtlokaler jemte ett par njra fanerogamer 

for Ostergotland. 

n — Leffler : Ofversigt af den skandmaviska halfons anmerkningsvardare 

„ — LjungstrOm : En Primula-exkursion till Moen. 

,» — LuNDSTROM : Om Jenissej-strandemas Salixflonu 

„ — Olsson : For norrlandska provinser nya vaxter. 


Bericht uber die Thatigkeit der St. Oalliachen Natorwissenflohaften 
1885-6 (1887). 

AsPER UND Heuscher : Zur Naturgeschichte der Alpensecn. 

Maillard : Ueber einige Algen aus dem Fly sch der Schweiier Alpen. 

Wild : Mathematik and Naturwissenschaiten in einigeo Wechsel- 





Periodical Literature. lix 

Bulletin de la Sooi^t^ Vaudoise des Soienoes Naturelles. s^rie 3. 
Tome XXni 'continued). 
No. 97. 

DuFOUR : Notice sur qnelques maladies de la vigne. 

Chuard : Note sur la prince du cuiyre dans le vin des vignes sulfat^es 
et sur le m^canisme de son Elimination. 

ScHNETZLER : Observations sur une mati^re colorante des eaux dn lac de 

PiTTiER : Le Cardamine irifoliaj L., dans la Suisse ocddentale. 

ScHNETZLER: Sur les diff^rents modes de reproduction du Thamnium 

FOREL : Les micro-organismes pelagiques des lacs subalpins. 

LuGEON : Notice sur la molasse de la Borde. (PI. IX.) 

Schmidt: Analyses de jus de raisins de Montreux et de Villeneuve. 

Denkflohriften der allgemeinen sohweiseriBohen Gesellsoliaft fur die 
gesammten Naturwisaensohaften, Neue. Bd. XXX. 

Cramer: Ueber die veiticillirten Siphonen, besonders Netnneris und 
Cymapolia (5 Tafeln). 
M^moirea de la Sooi^t^ de Fal6ontologie de Geneve. Vol. XIV (1887). 
Maillard : Considerations sur les fossiles d^crits comme Algues. 


1888 {continued). 



Ab^ldus : Recherches sar les microbes de restomac. Montpellier. 

Andersen : Botaniske Maanedsbilleder. Veile. 

Aristotelis quae fenmtiiT de Plantis, etc, ed. O. Apett Lipsiae. 

Arnold : lichenes ezsiccati Tiroliae et Bavariae. No. 1 362-141 1. Miincheo. 

Arvet-Tou VET : Les Hieracium des Alpes fian9aises oa occidentales de TEurope. 

AscHBACH : Die Wiener Universitat nnd ihre Gelehrten, 1520-1565. Wien. 
ASKENASY : Algen von der Forschungsreise S.M.S. Gazelle. Berlin. 
Baillon : Histoire des plantes (Bignoniac^, Gesn^riac^). Paris. 
Bailly : Contribution \ IVtnde dn Strophanthus hispidus. Nancy. 
Basteri : Flora Ligustica. Le Composite. Parte I, Corimbifere. Genova. 
Batelli : Flora Umbra. Contribozione III. Perugia. 

Battandier et Trabut : Flore de TAlg^rie. DicotylMones. Fasc. I. Tha- 
lamiflores. Alger. 

Baumgartbn : Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte in der Lehre von den patho- 
genen Mikroorganismen. Jahrg. Ill (1887). Bramischweig. 

' : Lehrbnch der pathologischen Mykologie. a. Halite, Halbband II, 

Liet I. Braunschweig. 

Bennett : Plants of Rhode Island, Providence. 

Berenger: Selvicoltunu Napoli. 

Berg : Einige Spielaiten der Fichte. Dorpat. 

Bergevin : Note sur les affinity des Thallophytes et des Mnsdnto. Rouen. 

Bbrlese : Fungi Moricolae. Fasc. V. Padova. 

Bernet : Catalogue des H^patiques du Sud-Ouest de la Suisse et de la Haute- 
Savoie. Geneve. 

Bbttany: The World's Inhabitants; or, Mankind, Animals, and Plants. 

Bibliotheca historica-naturalis, oder, vierteljahrliche, systematisch geordnete 
Uebersicht der in Deutschland und dem Auslande auf dem Gebiete 
der Zoologie, Botaoik und Mineralogie neu erschienenen Schriften 
und Au&atze aus Zeitschriften. J^hrg. 27. Oct.-Dec. 1888. Gottingen. 

BiNZER : Holzpflanzen-Kalender fur Forstmanner. 

Blasius: Lebensbeschreibungen Braunschwdgischer Naturforscher. Braunschweig, 

Blomeyer : Die Cultur der landwirthschafUichen Nutzpflanzen. Bd. I. Leipzig. 
[Annals of Botany, VoL n. No. VIIL February, 1889.] 


Ixii Current Literature. 

BoEHM : Ueber Krankheiten, Alter, Tod nnd Veijiingang der Pflanzen. Wien. 

BofiRY : Les plantes ol^agineuses, huiles et tourteaux. Paris. 

BoissiER : Flora Orientalis. Snpplementum ed. Bnaer. Genevae. 

BoKORNY : Studien and Experimente Uber den chemischen Vorgang der Assimi- 
lation. Erlangen. 

BOLDT : Stndier ofver Sotvattensalger och deras utbredning, II, III. Helsingfbrs. 

Bolus : Gmndziige der Flora von Siid-Afrika. Uebersetzt von Kersten. Leipzig. 

BoULGER : Familiar Trees, a Series. London. 

Bower : A course of practical instruction in Botany, and ed. London. 

Braithwaite : The British Moss Flora. Part XI. London. 

Brautigam : Kurze Zusammenstellung der hauptsachlichsten nnd fiir Apotheker 

leicht ausfuhrbaren Methoden der Bacterienforschung, nebst Bescnreibung 

einiger auf Nahnmgsmitteln haufig vorkommendeu Spaltpilze. Boma. 
Bredsted : Handbog i Dansk Pomologi. Bind I ; Paerer. Odense. 
Brefeld : Untersuchungen aus dem Gesammtgebiete der Mykologie. Heft VIII, 

Basidiomyceten III ; Autobasidiomyceten und die Begriindung des 

natiirlichen Systems der Pilze. Leipzig. 

Brisbin : Trees and tree-planting. New York. 

Briosi: Intomo alle sostanze minerali nelle foglie delle piante sempre verdL 

Brown : The Fofest Flora of South Australia. Part 8. Adelaide. 
Bruyssel, von : La R^publique Argentine. Ses ressources naturelles, etc. Bmxellea. 
BujiviD : Five Lectures on Bacteria (In Russian, by Storch). Moscow. 
Burchess : How to study Botany. U.S.A. 
Callsen : Pflanzenkunde in der Volksschule. Flensbuig. 
Cappi : La Botanica insegnata nelle Scuole secondarie. Milano. 
Cariaggi : La cultura del Cardo {Dipsacusfullonum) per nso industriale. Campo- 

Carter : Synopsis of the Medical Botany of the United States. 

Cavara : Appunti di Patologia vegetale (Alcuni Funghi parassiti di piante colti- 
vate). Milano. 

Cazeaux : Descriptions des principales vari^t^ de vignes. Tours. 

Cermenati: La Valtellina ed i Naturalisti. Fasc. 3 (Cap. III. Botanica). 

Chambers-Ketchum : Botany. Philadelphia. 

Clodd : The Story of Creation ; a plain account of Evolution, and ed. London. 

CoccoNi : Contributio alio studio dei Nettarii mesogamici delle Caprifogliaoee. 

COGNIAUX : Notice sur les M^lastomac^ austro-am^rlcaines de M. Andr^. 

CoHN : Kryptogamenfiora von Schlesien. Bd. III. Pilze von J. Schroeter. 
Lie£ 4. Breslau. 

Collins : Marine Algae of Nantucket, U.S.A. 

CoLMEiRO : Enumeracion y revision de las Plantas de la Peninsula Hispano-Lusi- 
tana ^ Islas Baleares. Tome III. Calicifloras, secc. a. Madrid. 

Comes : Botanica generate ed agraria. Napoli. 

Cooke : Illustrations of British Fungi (Hymenomycetes), Nos. 61-67. London. 

Costantin : Les Mucedin^s simples. Paris. 

Creation, The order of. The conflict between Genesis and Geology. A controversy 
between Gladstone, Huxley, Max Miiller, R^ville, and Linton. New 

Books and Pamphlets. Ixiii 

Cresswell : Examination of the Theory of Evolution. London. 

CUBONI : Le Peronospora des Grappes. Paris. 

DIMMER: Bibliothek der gesammten Naturwissenschaften. Lief. 29-63. Stutt- 

Darwin : Life and Letters. Translated into French by H. C. de Varigny. Paris. 

: „ „ „ Swedish by O. Johan-Olsen. Chris- 


Da WE AND Collins : Flora of Middlesex Comity. Massachusetts. Maiden. 

Dawson : The chain of life in geological time. 3rd ed. London. 

Day : Catalogue of flowering and fern-like plants growing without cultivation in 
the vicinity of the falls of Niagara. Troy. 

De Toni e Levi : Phycotheca italica. Cent. I. Padova. 

Del Lupo : Elementi di Botanica. Torino. 

Delamare, Renauld et Cardot: Flora Miquelonensis. Florule de Ttie 

Miquelon (Am^rique du Nord). Lyon. 
Dblogne : Flore analytique de la Belgique. Namur. 

Demitsch : Literarische Studien iiber die wichtigsten russischen Volksheilmittel 
aus dem Pflanzenreiche. Dorpat. 

Dexter : The Kingdoms of Nature ; or life and organisation from the elements 
to man. Chicago. 

DiETEL : Verzeichniss sammtlicher Uredineen, nach Familien ihrer Nahrpflanzen 
geordnet. Leipzig. 

Dixon : Gair-loch in North-west Ross-shire, its records, traditions, inhabitants, and 
natural history. Edinburgh. 

DOMBROWSKi: Allgemeine Encyclopaedie der Forst- und Jagdwissenschaften. 

DossBT : Datos para la Sinopsis de las Diatomeas de Arag6n. Zaragoza. 
Dbuery : Choice British Ferns, their varieties and culture. London. 
DURAND : Index Generum Phanerogamorum. Berolini. 
DUBRULLE : Cours d* Arboriculture. 4* 6d. Bruxelles. 
Dus^N : Ombargstraktens Flora och Geologi. Stockholm. 

Eberdt : Beitrag zu den Untersuchungen Uber die Entstehungsweise des Pallisaden- 
parench3rms. Freiburg, 1887. 

Edmonds : Elementary Botany, theoretical and practical. New and rev. ed. 

Eggert: Kaiser Wilhelms Universitat, Strassburg; II. Das Lehrgebaude, der 
Garten und die Gewachshauser des botan. Instituts. Berlin. 

EiLCKER : Neue Beitrage zur Flora von Geestemiinde. Geestemiinde. 

Endres : Die Waldbenutzung vom 13. bis Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts. Tiibingen. 

Engelmann : Botanical Works. Collected for H. Shaw. Ed. by Trelease and 

Gray. Cambridge, Mass. 1887. 
Engler und Prantl : Die natiirlichen Pflanzen£amilien. Liefg. ai-25. Leipzig, 
ai. Musaceae, Zingiberaceae, Cannaceae, Marantaceae (Petersen) ; Burmanni- 

aceae (Engler). 
a a. Burmanniaceae (Engler) ; Orchidaceae (PBtzer). 
33. Orchidaceae (Pfitzer). 

24. Rosaceae (Focke). 

25. Orchidaceae (PBtzer). 

Ettinghausen, von : Die fossile Flora von Leoben in Steiermark. Wien. 

Fabrs-Domergue : Premiers prindpei dn microscope et de la technique micro- 
scopique. Paris. 

Ixiv Current Literature. 

Faroes : La vie ct revolution des esp^ces. T. IV. St Dizier. 

Farlow : A supplemental list of works on North American FungL Cambridge! 

: AND Seymour : A provisional host-index of the Fmigi of the United 

States. Part I, Polypetalae. Cambridge, Mass. 
Farneti : Muschi della provincia di Pavia. Cent. II. Milano. 
Felcini : Appunti di Storia natorale applicata all' Agricoltura. JesL 

: Ouadri sinottici di Fisiologia e Taasonomia vegetale ; Qnadri tinottici 

di Morfologia vegetale. Jesi. 

Fischer : Die neueren Arzneimittel. 3. Aufl. Berlin. 

FoRSSELL : Inledning till Botaniken. Stockholm. 

Fream: The Rothamsted Experiments on the growth of wheat, barley, and 
mixed grass (i 847-1 887). London. 

Frerichs : Zur modemen Naturbetrachtung. 4 Abhandltmgen. Norden. 

Fries : Synopsis Hymenomycetum regionis Gothoburgensis. Goteborg. 

Gaillard : De Tinfluence de la lumi^re sur les microorganiimes. Lyon. 

Gander : Flora Einsiedlensis. Einsiedeln. 

Gandoger : Flora Europae Terraramque adjacentinm, etc. T. XIV et XV. 

Gaucher : Handbnch der Obstkultur. Berlin. 

GiLLET : Champignons de France. Les Hym^omyc^tes. Planches Sappl^men- 
taires. Srie 14. Alen9on. 

GooDE : The beginnings of American Science. Third century. 
Graf: Geschichte der Mathematik und der Naturwissenschaften in Bemischen 
Landen. Heft I : Das 16. Jahrhnndert. Bern. 

Griffon: Cours d' Arboriculture. Toumai. 

GUnther : Botanik zum Gebrauche in Schulen und anf Excursionen. 3. Aufl. 
Theil I. Hannover. 

GuTWiNSKi : Bacillariaceae tairenses. Cracoviae. 

•^^— ^— : De organisatione atque evolutione ductunm sncci lacti qui sunt 
apud Mammillariam (Polonice cum argumento latino). LeopolL 

Hanausek: Kurze Darlegung der wichtigsten Verhaltnisse der Pflanzenkorper 
mit besonderer Riicksicht auf deren Anwendung in der Waarenkunde 
und Technologie. 3. Aufl. Wien. 

Hauck und Richter : Phycotheca universalis. Fasc. 1-5. Triest. 

Handring, von : Bacteriologische Untersuchung einiger Gebrauchswasier Dor- 
pats. Dorpat. 

Hauptfleisch : Zellmembran und Hiillgallerte der Desmidiaceen. Grei£i- 

Hartig und Weber : Das Holz der Rothbuche in anatomisch-physiologischer, 
chemischer und forstlicher Richtung. Berlin. 

Hayek, von : Grosser Volks- Atlas der Naturgeschichte aller drei Reiche. 
3. Aufl. Wien. 

Hector: aa. Annual Report on the Colonial Museum and Laboratory (1886-87). 

Hehn : The wanderings of plants and animals from their first home. Ed. by 
Stallybrass. London. 

HiMENT : L*origine des etres vivants. Paris. 

Hemsley : Biologia Central!- Americana. Botany. Part 25. London. 

Herlant : Introduction k T^tude descriptive des m^icaments naturels d'origine 
v^g^tale. Bruxelles. 

Books and Pamphlets. Ixv 

Hsrpbll: Das Praepariren nnd Einlegen der Hutpilze fiir das Herbarium. 
a^ Ansgabe mit einem Nachtrag. Berlin. 

: Sammlung praparirter Hutpilze. Lief. V. St. Goar. 

Hess : Encyklopaedie nnd Methodologie der Foritwissenschaft. Theil II, Uef. 
I. Nordlingen. 

: Uebcr Rauschbrand. Leipzig. 

Hetley : The native flowers of New Zealand (illustrated), 3 parts. London. 
HiBBERD : The Fein-Garden ; how to make, keep, and enjoy it. loth ed. London. 
Hildebrandt : Handbuch des landwiithschaftlichen Pflanzenbaues. Berlin. 
Himpel : Excursions-Flora fiir Lothringen. Metz. 

Hoffmann : Lehrbuch der praktischen Pflanzenkunde. 4. Aufl. Stuttgart. 
HoLZNSR : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Gerste. Miinchen. 

Hooker : The Flora of British India. Part XV (Euphorbiaceae-Orchidaceae). 

Horn: Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Entwicklungs- und Lebensgeschichte des 

Plasmakorpers dniger Compositen. Gottingen. 

HoULBERT: Catalogue des Cryptogames cellulaires du D^partement de la 
Mayenne. Partie I. Muscinees. Angers. 

— ^— : Documents pour servir k rhistoire de la Botanique dans le d^parte- 
ment de la Mayenne. Angers. 

HovELACQUE : Recheiches sur I'appareil v^^tif des Bignoniac^es, Rhinantha- 

c^es, Orobuich^ et Utriculari^es. Paris. 
HuEPPE : Die Methoden der Bakterienforschung. 4. Aufl. Wiesbaden. 
HULST, van, et Parys : Precis de Botanique ^l^mentaire. Bruxelles. 
Husmann : Grape^ulture and wine-making in California. New York. 
HusNOT : Muscologia Gallica. Livr. 7. Paris. 
Israel : Schliissel zum Bestimmen der in der Umgegend von Annaberg-Buchholz 

wildwachsenden Pflanzen. 3. Aufl. Von Ruhsam. Annaberg. 
Jackson : General Index to the Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany. London. 
Jacquemet: Etudes des Ipecacuanhas, de leurs falsifications et des substances 

v^^les qu'on pent leur substituer. Lyon. 
Jaeger und Beissnbr : Die Ziergeholze der Garten und Parkanlagen. 3. Aufl. 

Jahresbericht der forstlich-phaenologischen Stationen Deutschlands. Heraus- 

gegeben von der Grossherzogl. Hessischen Versuchsanstalt zu Giessen. 

Jahrg. II. Berlin. 
Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der Pharmakognosie, Pharmacie und Toxiko- 

l<^e (BeckurU) 1887. (TheU I.) Gottingen. 

Janot : Sur la pathog^nie du Phlegmon diflus. Nancy. 
JOLY : La Espede Oiganica ; las formas transitorias de las Especies. Madrid. 
JONQUiiRB, Studer UND Demme: Verglftung durch die Speiselorchel {Hel- 
vella escuUnta) in Folge von Ptomainbildung. Bern. 

Jordan : Gothe — ^und noch immer kein Elnde. Kritische Wiirdigung der Lehre 
Gothes von der Metamorphose der Pflanzen. Hamburg. 

JOUSSBT : Traits de I'acclimatement et de Tacclimatation. Paris. 

Just's Botanischer Jahresbericht (Kohne und Geyler). Jahrgang XIV (1886}. 

Heft a-4. Berlin. 
JirrriNG : Wanderungen im Reiche der Natur. a. Aufl. Braunschweig. 
Kaltbrunner und Kollbrunner : Der Beobachter. 2. Aufl. ZUrich. 
Kampe : Flora von Harzburg und Umgebung. Harzburg. 
: Brockenflora in der Westentasche. Harzburg. 

Ixvi Current Literature. 

Kanitz : On the calture of Science, and especially of Botany, in Hnngaiy. (In 
Hungarian.) Kolozsvart, 1887. 

Karsch : Vademecam botanicnm. Liefg. 7. Leipzig. 

Katalog nnd Beschreibung der Sammlongen im Mnsenm des Missionshanies zn 

Basel. BaseL 
Keller : Natur- nnd Volksleben der Insel Reunion. Basel. 

Kerner: Flora exsiccata Anstro-Hungarica, Cent. XVII. et XVIII. Vinda- 

— — ^— : Florenkarte von Oesterreich. Erlantert von R. v. Wettstein. Wien. 

KsTCHUM : Botany ; consisting of Plant Development from sea- weed to Clematis. 
With a manual of plants including all the known orders with their 
representative genera. Philadelphia. 

KiLiAS : Die Flora des Unter-engadins. Chur. 

Kindberg : Elnnmeratio Bryinearum Dovrensium. Christianiae. 

: Enumeratio Bryinearum exoticarum alphabetice disposita. Linkoe- 


KiRCHNER : Flora von Stuttgart und Umgebung. Stuttgart. 

Knoblauch : Anatomic des Holzes der Laurineen. Regensburg. 

KohWs Medidnalpflanzen in naturgetreuen Abbildungen. Herausgegebea von 
Pabst. Lief. 29-36. Gera. 

K5PPEN : Geographische Verbreitung der Holzgewachse des europaischen Ross- 
lands und des Kaukasus. St. Petersburg. 

KOZESNIK : Die neue Pflanzungsmethode im Walde. 2. Aufl. Wien. 

KORSCHINSKY : Northern limit of the Tschemose-region. I. Introd. Botanical 
geographical sketch of the Kasan Government. (In Russian.) Kasan. 

Krass und Landois : Das Pflanzenreich in Wort und Bild. 5. Aufl. Freiburg. 

Kronfeld, M. : Zur Biologic der Mistel. Offener Brief iui Prof. A. Komhuber, 
Wien. Wien. 

KChne : Praktische Anleitung zum mikroskopischen Nachweise von Bakterien im 
thierischen Gewebe. Leipzig. 

Kuntze : Um die Erde. Reiseberichte eines Naturforschers. 2. Ausgabe. Leipzig. 

Kunz : Bacteriologisch-chemische Untersnchungen einiger Spaltpilzarten. Ziirich. 

Laborie : Recherches sur Tanatomie des axes floraux. Paris. 

Lachmann, H. : Das Terrarium, seine Einrichtung, Bepflanzung und Bevolkerung. 

— — ^— P. : Structure et croissance de la racine des Foug^res, origine des 
Radicelles. Lyon. 

Laing : Modem Science and modem thought. London. 

Lange: Haandbog i den Danske Flora. 4- omarbejdede udgave. Hefte V. 

LarbalAtrier : L* Agriculture et la Science agronomique. Paris. 

Lewin : Ueber spanlshe Susswasseralgen. Stockholm. 

LiMMON : Pines of the Pacific slope. 

L'HiRAULT: Asperges. Instructions g^n^rales sur leur culture k Argenteail. 

Lentz : Pflanzenkunde. 7. Anflage. Karlsruhe. 

Lindner : Die Sarcina-Organismen der Gahrungs-Gewebe. Berlin. 

Linn£: Ungdomsskriften, samlade af £. Aehrling och efter bans dod utgifiia 
af K. Vetenskaps-Akademien. Ser. I. no. 1. Stockholm. 

Liron d*Airolles: Poiriers les plus pr^cieux parmi cenx qui penvent €tre 
cultives 4 haute tige, aux vergers et aux champs. Paris. 

Books and Pamphlets. Ixvii 

LoRET: La Flore Pharaoniqne d'apr^s les documents hieroglyphiqaes et les 
specimens d^couverts dans les tombes. Paris. 

LuBSN : Leitfaden fiir den Unterricht in der Natnrgeschichte. 19. Anfl. Leipzig. 

LucAND : Figures peintes de Champignons de la France (suite k Vlconographie 
de Bulliard). Fasc. 10. Autun. 

Macchiati : Prima contribuzione alia Flora del Viterbese. Modena. 

MAci : Traits pratique de Bact^riologie. Paris. 

Malbranche et Letendre : Champignons nouveaux ou peu connus r^olt^ 
en Nonnandie, Liste III. Rouen. 

Marshall : Die Tiefeee und ihr Leben nach den neusten Quellen gemeinfiuslich 

zusammengestellt Leipzig. 
Martius, Eichler und Urban : Flora Brasiliensis. Fasc. 103, Melastomaceae, 

II, auct. Cogniaux. Lipsiae. 

Meech : Quince culture. New York. 

Merker : Gunntra macrophyUa, Blum. Marbuxg. 

MiGOUT : Les Rosa de la Flore de I'Allier. Moulins. 

MiLANi : Manuale di Botanica elementare. Torino. 

MiQUEL : Die Mikro-organismen der Luft Aus dem Franzosischen Ubersetzt von 

R. Emmerich. Miinchen. 
MiTTMANN : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Anatomic der Pflanzenstacheln. Berlin. 
MoELLER : Lehrbuch der Pharmakognosie. Wien. 
MONIEZ : Les parasites de Thomme, animaux et v^g^taux. Paris. 

Mueller, von : Iconography of the Australian species of Acacia and cognate 
genera. Dec. V-XI. Melbourne. 

MiJLLER, F. : Ueber den kinfluss des Ringelschnitts auf das Dickenwachsthum 
und die StofFvertheilung. Halle. 

MUller, J.: Pyrenocarpeae F^anae in F^i essai (1824) et supplement (1837) 
editae, etc. Genovae. 

Nesslbr : NaturwissenschafUicher Leitfaden fur Landwirthe und Gartner, a. Aufl. 

Newton : Lichenes Portugallenses. Ullisiponae. 

NoLDECKE : Flora von Liineburg, Lauenburg und Hamburg. Liefg. i. Celle. 

NoRDSTEDT : Fresh- water Algae, collected by S. Bcrggren in New Zealand and 
Australia. Stockholm. 

: Conjugatae und Characeae gesammelt auf der Expedition S. M. S. 

Gazelle. Berlin. 

Nylandbr: Enumeratio Lichenum Freti Behringi; Lichenes Fuegiae et Pata- 

goniae. Paris. 
Ottavi : Enologia teoretica-pratica. 2. ed. Casale. 
Otto : Die Vegetationsverhaltnisse der Umgebung von Eisleben. Eisleben. 

OVERHAGE : Anatomische Untersuchung und Keimungsgeschichte von Canna und 
Musa, Erlangen, 1887. 

Owen : Catalogue of plants growing without cultivation in the county of Nan- 
tucket, Mass. Northampton, Mass. 

Parlatore: Flora Italiana, cont. da T. Camel. Vol. VIII, p. i. Campanulaceae, 
Jasminaceae, Oleaceae per E. Tanfani. Firenze. 

Pau : Notas botanicas k la Flora EspaSola. Fasc. I. Madrid, 1887. 

Peckolt : Plantas medicinaes e uteis de Brazil. Rio de Janeiro. 

Pellizzabi : Rioerche sul Trychophyton tomuram. Pisa. 

PiRAGALLO : Diatom^ du midi de la France. Diatomees de la baie de Ville- 
franche (Alpeft-maritimes). Toulouse. 

Ixviii Current Literature, 

Perkins : Catalogue of the Flora of Vermont. Bnrlingtoo. 

Peyron : Recherches sur Tatmosph^re interne des plantes. Corbeil. 

PicciOLi : Guida alle Escursioni botaniche nei dintoroi di Vallombrosa con chiave 
analitiche. Firenze. 

PiCTET : La constitution chimique des alcaloldes v^g^taux. Paris. 

Pointsfbrteckning ofver Scandinaviens Vaxter. a. upplaga. I. Fanerogamer och 

Karlkryptogamer. Lund. 

POLi : Percnospora dei Grappoli, Black Rot e Coniothyrium diplodiilla^ Saoc. 

PoNEY : Recherches sur lea microbes du Pus blennorrhagique. Paris. 

Prahl, von Fischer-Benzon und Krausb: Kntische Flora der Provinz 
Schleswig>Holstein und der angrenzenden Gebiete. Theil L KieL 

Praktikus : Der kleine Pilzsammler. Wiirzburg. 

Preston : The flowering plants of Wiltshire. Salisbury. 

Prove : Micrococcus osteroleucus^ eine neue Spaltpilzform. Breslan. 

Rabenhorst : Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. 

Bd. IV.: Die Laubmoose von K. G. Limpricht. Liefg. lo, ii (Biyineme : 
Stegocarpae [Acrocarpae]). 

Raibaud l*Ange : L'Olivier, sa culture et ses produits. Paris. 
Reid : The culture and manufacture of Indigo. Calcutta. 
Renault : Les plantes fossiles. Paris. 

Rhone-Converset : La Vigne, ses maladies, ses ennemis, sa defense, en Bour« 
gogne et en Champagne. Paris. 

Riley : On the causes of variation in organic forms. Salem. 
Rossi : Gastromicologia. Milano. 

Roster : L'Aria atmosferica studiata dal lato fisico, chimico e biologico. Milano. 
Rostrup : Vejledning i den Danske Flora. 7. udgave. Kjobenhavn. 
Ruhsam : Abbildungen der wichtigsten Theile vieler im Erzgebirge wildwach- 
senden Pflanzen nebst kurzen Erklarungen derselben. Annaberg* 

RiJMKER : Die Veredelung der vier wichtigsten Getreidearten des kalteren Klimas. 

RiJTZOU : Oversigt over den systematiske Botanik. 3. oplag. Kjobenhavn. 

Sab ATI ER : Planchon et son oeuvre. Montpellier, 1888. 

Saccardo : Sylloge Fungorum. Vol. VI (Polyporeae, Hydneae, Telephoreae, 
Clavarieae, Tremellineae). Patavii. 

Saldanha de Gama et Cogniaux : Bouquet de M^lastomacto Brasiliennes. 
Verviers, 1887. 

Salverda : Handleidmg bij het Onderwijs in de Beginselen der Plant- en Dierkunde. 
8. uitgave. Groningen. 

Sander : Reichenbachia. Orchids illustrated and described. Parts 1-14. 

Saporta : Pal^ontologie Fran9aise : t. IV ; V^g^tion. Paris. 

Sartori : Prospetto di Organografia vegetale. Lodi. 

Savastano : Tuberculosi, Iperplasie e Tumori del)*OUvo. Napoli, 1887. 

Sassenfeld : Flora der Rheinprovinz. Trier. 

Schaffranck : A floral Almanac of Florida. 

ScHAR : Die Arznei- und Genussmittel in ihrerconmierciellen und ethnographischea 
Bedeutung. Basel. 

ScHENK : Handbuch der Botanik. Lief. 33-23. Breslau. 

ScHLiTZBERGER : Unsere haufigeren essbaren Pilze. Cassel. 

Schmidt : Atlas der Diatomeenkimde. Liefg. 33-34. Aschersleben. 

Books and Pamphlets. Ixix 

ScHOLZ : Morphologie der Smilaceen mit besonderer Beriicksichtigimg ihres Spross- 
wechsels und der Anatomie der Vegetationsorgane. Stockerau. 

ScHULZ : Die floristlsche Literatar fiir Nordthiiringen, den Harz und den provin- 
zialsachsischen wie anhaltischen Theil an der norddeutschen Tiefebene. 

SCHURIG : Der Botaniker. Eiae Anleitnng znr Kenntniss der uberall hanfig 
vorkommenden Bliithenpflanzen. Halle. 

SCHWAIGHOFER : Tabellen zor Bestimmong einheimischer Samenpflanzen. a. Anfl. 

(ScoPOLl) : La solenne Commemorazione di G. A. Scopoli, celebrata nel primo 
Centenario della sua morte in Cavalese. 8. Sett. 1888. Trento. 

Semler : Tropische und amerikanische Waldwirthschaft find Holzkunde. Berlin. 

Senft : Der Erdboden nach Kntstehnng, Eigenschaften imd Verhalten zar Pflah- 

zenwelt. Hannover. 
DB Seynes : Recherches pour servir ^ Thistoire natorelle des v^g^nx inffrieurs 

Fasc. a (Polypores). Paris. 
SiATS: Anleitnng zn einfiEu:hen Untersachnngen landwirthschaAlich wichtiger 

Stoffe. Hildesheim. 

SORAUER : Atlas der Pfianzenkrankheiten. 3. Folge. Berlin. 

: Die Schaden der einheimischen Cnlturpfianzen durch thierische nnd 

pfianzliche Schmarotzer, sowie durch andere Einfliisse. Berlin. 

Spamer : Die Diatomaceen von Diiren und Umgegend. Diiren. 
Spiribille: Verzeichniss der in den Kreisen Inowraclaw und Strelno biaher 
beobachteten Gefasspfianzen nebst Standoitsangaben. Inowraclaw. 

Staudinger : Im Herzen der Haussalander. Berlin. 

St. John: The wild sports and natural history of the Scottish Highlands. 
Popular edition. London. 

Stoll : Wandtafel iiber Obstbau. Berlin. 
Stragusa : Ricerche sul Geotropismo. Palermo. 
Sulzberger : La Rose. Histoire, botanique, culture. Namur. 
Sydow : Mycotheca. Cent XXI-XXIV. BerolinL 
•^— — : Uredineae exsiccatae. Fasc. i. Berlin. 

Th^riot : Quelques faits de T^ratologie v^^tale observes pendant I'Ann^ 1887. 
Le Mans. 

THOMi: Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. Lief. 39-44 

(Schluss). Genu 
ToscANO E Martelli : Elementi di Storia Naturale. P. L Botanica. Imola. 

Toula: Die Stemkohlen, ihre Eigenschaften, Vorkommen, Entstehung und 

nationalokonomische Bedeutung. Wien. 
Tripp : British Mosses. New ed. a Vols. London. 
TscHiRCH : Angewandte Pflanzenanatomie. Berlin. 
TUBEUF : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Baumkrankheiten. Berlin. 
TuCKSRMANN *. A Synopsis of North American Lichens. Part III. Amherst. 
Unterwood : Our native Ferns and their allies. 3rd ed. New York. 
Van Tieghem : Traits de Botanique. a M. fasc. II. Paris. 
ViALA : Le Black Rot en Am^rique. Montpellier. 
ET Ferrouillat : Manuel pratique pour le traitement des maladies de la 

vigne. Montpellier. 

Vogl: Flora der Umgebung Salzburgs analytisch behandelt (Ranunculaoeae- 

Cruciferae). Salzburg. 
Wagner : Tabakkultnr, Tabak* nnd Cigarrenfabrikation. 5. Auil. Weimar. 

Ixx Current Literature. 

Ward : Asa Gray and Darwinism. 
Wallis: Bakteriologi. Stockholm. 

Wawra von Fernsee: Itinera principum S. Coburgi. Die botanische Ans- 
beute anf den Reisen ihrer Honeiten der Prinzen von Sachsen-Cobor^- 
Gotha am die Welt (1872-73) und nach Brasilien (1879). '^^^ H- 
von G. von Beck. Wien. 

Wbssbl : Flora Ostfirieslands. 4. Aufl. Leer. 

Westermair: Die wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten des Botanischen Institnts der 
Universitat zn Berlin in den ersten 10 Jahren seines Bestehens. Berlin. 

WiLKOMM : Schnlflora von Oesterreich. Wien. 

: Illnstrations Florae Hispaniae insulammqae Balearinm. Livr. XIV. 


WiNOGRADSKY: Beitiage zor Morphologic nnd Ph3rsiologie der Bacterien. 
Heft L Schwefelbacterien. Leipzig. 

WOENIG : Die Pflanzen im alten Aegypten. a. Anfl. Leipzig. 

Wolf : Traits th^or^tique et pratique sur la cnlture des fong^res de serre et de 
pleine terre. Geneve. 

Wood : Illnstrated Natural History (in 15 parts). Part I. London. 

Wrotschke : Knrzes Lehrbuch der Botanik. Wien. 

WiJNSCHE : Schulflora von Deutschland. 5. Anfl. Leipzig. 

WiJRTH : Uebersicht der Laubmoose des Grossherzogthmns Hessen. Darmstadt 

Zalewski: Contributions to the Biology of the lower Fungi. (In Polish.) 

Zeiller: Description de la Flore fossile du Bassin Houiller de Valenciennes. 

— — ET Renault : Flore fossile du terrain houiller de Commentry. Paitie I. 
par R. Zeiller. St Etienne. 

2k)FFMANN : Skema over almindelig Botanik og lavere Planter. Kjobenhavn. 

ZOPF; Zur Kenntniss der Infektionskrankheiten niederer Thiere und Pflanzen. 

ZuRN : Die Schmarotzer auf und in dem Korper unserer Haussaugethiere. a. Aufl. 
Th. II. Die pfianzlichen Parasiten bearbeitet von Ziim und Plant, 
a. Halfte. Weimar. 



TnuiMMtion* of the South African Philoaophioal Sooietj. 1888. 
Bolus : The Orchids of the Cape Peninsula. 



Boletin de la Academia Naoional di Oienoias en Ckirdoba. Tomo XI. 
Entrega i, a. 

Spegazzini : Fungi Patagonici. 

: Fungi Fuegiani. 


Timehri. VoL II. New Series. Part I. 

Francis : On Gypsum as a Cane-Fertiliser. 

The Rice Industry on the North Coast, Essequebo. 

ni. CANADA. 

Bulletin of the Natural Hiatoxy Society of New Brunswick. No. VII. 
Vroom : Does our indigenous flora show a recent change of climate ? 

Canadian Becord of Science. Vol. III. 

LiNDBERG AND Macoun : Contributions to the Bryology of the Domi- 
nion of Canada. 
Lawson : Revision of the Canadian Equiseta. 

Dawson : Sporocarps discovered by Prof. E. Orton in the Erian shale 
of Columbus, O. 

G^eologioal and Natural History Surrey of Canada. 1888. 

Macoun : Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part IV. Endogens. 

Naturalist, The Ottawa. Vol. II {continued), 
Fletcher: Flora Ottawaensis. 

Proceedings and Transactions of the Boyal Society of Canada. Vol. V. 
1887 (1888). 

McGiLL : Notes on the analysis of Coffee. 

Harrington : On the sap of the ash-leaved Maple {Negundo aceroidei), 

Dawson: Note on fossil woods and other plant remains from the 
Cretaceous and Laramie formations of tne western Territories of 

Penhallow : A Review of Canadian Botany from the first settlement of 
New France to the nineteenth century. Part I. 

Ixxii Current Literature. 

Frooeedingfl and Tranaaotion* of the Boyal Society of Canada {continuat). 

Hay : Marine Algae of New Brunswick (with an appendix containing a 

list of the marine Algae of the maritime provinces of Die 

Dominion of Canada) , wiUi notes by Hay and MacKay. 

Fowler : Arctic plants growing in New Bronswick, with notes on their 


Lawson : Remarks on the Flora of the northern shores of America, with 
tabulated observations made by Mr. F. F. Paine on the seasonal 
development of plants at Cape Prince of Wales, Hadson Strait, 
during 1886. 

Proceedings of the Canadian Institute. Vol XXIV. 
Lawson : Canadian Spruces. 


Anales del Moseo Nacional, San Jos6. Tomo I. 

Lists de las plantas encontrados hasta ahora en Costa Rica y en los 
territorios limitrofes, extract, de la Biologia Centrali-Americana. 


Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. Vol. VIL Part a. 

Honeyman : Carboniferous Flora with attached Spirorbis, 


Agricultural Bxperiment Station, University of Minnesota. Bull. 4. 
Lugger : Fungi which kill insects. 

Agricultural Science. Vol. II. No. la. 
Stone : A reaction for arabinose. 
Crozier : Does the effect of a cross appear in the fruit the first yesr f 

Board of Agriculture of the State of Vermont. Tenth Report. 
Perkins : Catalogue of the flora of Vermont. 

Bulletin of the Oalifomian Academy of Science. Vol. I. New Series. 
Brandegee : Flora of the Santa Barbara Islands. 
Trelease : Synoptical list of North American species of Ceancthus, 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Vol. XV {continuid). 

No. 7. RusBY : An enumeration of plants collected in South America, 1885- 

1886, 1. 

„ — Macoun : Bryological notes. 

„ — Britton : The genus Disporum, 

f, — Sterns : A suggestion concerning Smilax herbacea, 

„ — Claypole : On some inaccuracies in De Candolle^s ' Cultivated Plants.* 

„ 8. Sterns : The fruit of Calycantkus. 

„ — Safford : An inviting field for a collector. 

„ — Sterns : Cheilanthes vestita^ on New York Island. 

y, — Halsted : Abnormal ash-leaves. 

„ — Oyster : Kansas botanical notes. 

. M — Beauchamp : Onondaga plant names (continued in No. 10). 

n — Ha YARD : Distribution of the Buffalo Grass. 


Periodical Literature. Ixxiii 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club {continued). 
No. 9, Davenport : Fern notes. No. 10. 

— Sterns : The nomenclature question, and how to settle it. 

10. Britton : Ennmeration of the plants collected by Dr. H. H. Rasby in 
South America : Pteridophyta. 

>y — Campbell : Report upon the meeting of the Botanical Club of the 
A. A. A. S., Cleyeland, Ohio, Aug. 15-ai, 1888. 

», — : Systematic position of the RMzocarpeae. 

„ — Mebhan : Irregular tendencies in tubifloral Compositae. 

„ — Wolcott : Is the amber-coloured Choke^herry entitled to a distinct 

„ II. Britton : The genus Hicoria of Rafinesque. 
,, — Greene : Biographical notes on well-known plants, No. 9. 
„ — Roth : On the opening of stomata. 
„ — Vasey : On two new species of Gramineae. 
yy — ' : Notes on some rare grasses. 

y, I a. Hollick : Recent discovery of hybrid oaks on Staten Island. 
„ — Collins : Algae from Atlantic City. 
yy — James : Notes on the development of Corynites Curtisii. 
y. — Meehan : On the bract in Tilia, 
yy — Sterns : Bulblets of Lycopodium iuciduium, 

Bulletiny Druggist's. Vol. II. 
Rusby: Ephedra. 
Schrenk : Pharmacognostical notes on the bark of Sycocarpus Rusbyi, 

Oaiette, Botanical. Vol. XIII {continued). 
No. 7. Newcombe : Spore-dissemination of Equisetum. 
y, — Bebb : Notes on North American willows {continued). 
„ — Smith : Undescribed plants from Guatemala (continued in No. 11). 
,y — Trelease : The subterranean shoots of Oxa/is violacea. 
„ — Galtinger : Diervilla rivularis. 
„ 8. Renauld and Cardot : New mosses of North America. 
y, — Robertson : Zygomorphy and its causes (continued in No. 9). 
^y — Coulter and Rose : Some notes on Western Umbdlifexme {continued). 
yy — Smith : A date-palm fimgus. 
yy — Galloway : Parasitic fimgi of Missouri. 
„ — Bailey : The black maple. 
yy — CocKERELL: 'Whxit'^oyftxtdi Linum perenue, 
,y — Smith : Buchloe dactyloides. 

„ — Pammel : Colour variation in flowers of Delphinium. 
9. Schoenland : The botanical laboratory at Oxford. 

— Crozier : Silk seeking pollen, 
yy ID. Gregory : Development of corkwings on certain trees (continued in 

Nos. II, la). 
,y — Vasey : Characteristic vegetation of the North American desert, 
y, — Evans : The stem of Ephedra. 
„ — Johnson: A tramp in the North Carolina mountains '(continued in 

No. I a). 
„ — James : New variety of y^xr/r/tof tuberosa, 
yy — Anderson : Exploding fruits. 

Ixxiv Current Literature, 

Gasette, Botanical {continued). 
No. II. Stone : Botany at the University of Gottingen. 
„ — ScRlBNER : Notes on Andropogon, 
„ — SCHRENK : Notes on the inflorescence of Callitriche 
jf — Anderson : Oenothera albtcatUis, 
„ — McGee : Some Nebraska plants. 
„ — Underwood : The clover rust. 
,, — Crozier : Dioecism in Andropogon provincialis, 
y, la. Dudley : Strassbnrg and its botanical laboratory. 
„ — Chickering : Some Maine plants. 
„ — Watson : An erratmn. 
y, — Hill : Some Indiana plants. 

Jonmal of Sdence, American. Vol. XXXVI. 

Ward: Evidence of the fossil plants as to the age of the Potomac 

: List of the writings of Dr. Asa Gray. 

Ball : Heather in Townsend, Mass. 

Newberry : Rhaetic plants from Guatemela. 

Jonmal, American Dmc Clerk*8. Vol. II. 

Smith : Ciyptogamic plants employed in pharmacy. 

Journal, American Monthly Microaoopioal. Vol. IX {continued). 

Kain : Diatoms of Atlantic City. 

OsBORN : Protococcus, 

Terry : Diatoms and other algae of New Haven Harbom*. 

Windle : The black spot. 
Jonmal of Mycology. Vol. IV {continued). 

No. 7. Tracy and Galloway: Notes on Western Uredineae. 
Noi. 7, 8, 9, 10, II. 

l^Lis and Everhart : New species of Fungi from various localities. 

Nos. 7, 9, II. 

: Synopsis of the North American species of 

Hypoxylon and Nummularia, 

No. 9. Kellerman and Swingle : New species of Kansas frmgi. 

Jonmal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. Vol. XI. 

Morgan : The mycologic flora of the Miami Valley, Ohio (continued). 

Jonmal of the ISlisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Vol. V. 
Polcat : North Carolina Desmids. 

Monthly, Popular Science. Vol. XXXIII. 
Mc MiLLAN : Heliotropism. 
: Sketch of Moses Ashley Cmtis. 

Naturalist, The American. Vol. XXII {continued). 
No. 5. Sturtevant : History of garden vegetables (continued in Nos. lo^ 11). 

— Rock : Guatemala forests. 

— Palmer : The ash of Tillandsia usneoides, 

: Effect on vegetation of the variable rain&ll of North- Western 


6. Bessey : An overlooked function of many fruits. 

— Smith : A depauperate grass. 

Periodical Literature. Ixxv 

Naturalist, The American {continuid). 
No. 7. GiLLMAN : The flora of Palestine. 
„ 8. Burgess : Oar fresh-water algae. 

M 1 1. Dawson : Cretaceous floras of the North-West Tenitoriei of Canada. 
„ 12. Bessey : A few notable weeds of the Nebraska Plains. 
,, — Pound ; Ash rust in 1888. 

Pittonia. Vol. I {cmttnued). 
Part 4. Greene : New species of Mexico. 

„ : New or noteworthy species. 

„ : The botany of Cedros Island. 

,y : A list of the known species of Cedros Island plants. 

„ — .^— : On some species of Dodecathton, 

„ 5. : New or noteworthy spedes, IIL 

,, : Concerning the making of many synonyms. 

„ : Concerning the citation of authors. 

„ : Sketch of the life of Thure Kumlien. 

„ — Drew : A new Brickellia, 

of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1888. 
Meehan : Contributions to the life-histories of plants, No. a. 

Proceedings of the Ninth- Avenue Meeting of the Society for the Promotion 
of Agricnltnral Science. 1888. (Cleveland). 

Beal : Flora of the Jack-pine plains of Michigan. 

Caldwell : Present aspects of the question of the direct utility of the 
free nitrogen of the atmosphere for plant food. 

Farlow : Notes on fungus diseases in Massachusetts. 

Forbes : Relation of wheat culture to the Chinch-bug. 

Halsted : Potato flowers and firuit 

: The tomato flower and fruit. 

Lazenby : Notes on the flowering plants of Ohio. 

SCRIBNER : New observations on the fungus of black-rot of grapes. 
- : Successful treatment of black-rot 

Sturtevant : A further study of the dandelion. 

Wiley : Sweet cassava {Jatropha Manihot'), 

Proceedings of the Califomian Academy of Science. VoL I, and series. 
CURRAN : Botanical Notes. 

Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten Island. 

Hollick and Davis : Hybrid oaks of Staten Island. 
Proceedings of the Newport Natoral History Society. 1888. 

Smith : Native plants of Rhode Island. 
Proceedings of the Providence Franklin Society. 1888. 

Bennett : Plants of Rhode Island. 
Proceedings of the United States National M osenm. 1888. 

Knowlton : New species of fossil wood fh>m Arizona and New Mexico. 

: Description of two new species of fossil coniferous wood 

from Iowa and Montana. 

Lbsquereux : Recent determinatioins of fossil plants from Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Oregon, California, Alaska, Greenland, etc. 

Ward : The paleontologic history of the genus PlaUmus, 

Ixxvi Current Literature. 

Prooeedinffs of the United States National M uBenm {continued), 

Lesquereux: List of fossil plants collected by Mr. J. C. Russell at 

Black Creek. 
Knowlton : Description of two species of PalmoxyUm, 

Beport of the New York State M oseuxn of Natural History. 4i8t Report 
for 1887. 

Peck : Report of the Botanist. 
BondBohau, Fharmaoeutisohe. Vol. VI. 

MoHR : Pflanzenwandenmg in der ostlichen Golfregion der Vereinigten 

: Verbreitung der Pflanzen dorch Thiere. 

Scientist, "West American. 
No. 36. The tea rose crab. 
„ 37. LOPATECHI : The willows of British Columbia and Alaska. 
„ — Orcutt : The most northern station of Agave Shawii, 
„ 38. Yates : Fossil Botany. Part 5. 

„ — CocKEREi.L : Notes on the Flora of Custer County, Colorado. 
Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 1887. 

Russell : The Propagation, Planting, and Growing of Native Trees. 
Fewkes : The Chrysanthemum. 
Hadwen : Degeneration of Fruits and Vegetables. 
Smith : Horticultural Education for Women. 
Barker : Ornamental Climbing Plants. 
Paxon : Annuals and their Cultivation. 
Man DA : Our Native Plants. 

GoESSMANN : Rational Fertilisation of Garden Crops and Fruits. 
Stewart : The Progress of Commercial Horticulture. 
Appleton : Embellishment of Grounds with Trees and Shrubs. 
Strong : List of Trees, Ornamental Shrubs. 
Nebdham : Horticultural Reminiscences. 
Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Science. Vol. V {continued), 

Pammel : On the pollination of Phiomis tuberosa and the perforation of 

Eliot and Trelease : Observations on Oxalis, 

Trelease : Description of Lycoperdon Missouriense, 

Transactions of the "Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Iietters. 

Trelease : Morels and puff-balls of Madison. 
Department of Agriculture of United States. 

Division op Chemistry. Bull. 18. Sugar-producing plants. 

Division of Pomology. Bull. i. Report on the condition of tropical 
and semitropical fruits. 

Bureau op Animal Industry. 3rd Report. Stalker: Investigation 
of the * Loco ' plant and its effects on animals. 

Division of Forestry. Fernow : Report for 1887. 
Report on the forest conditions of the Rocky Mountains. 
Botanical Division. Report of an investigation of the grasses of the 
arid districts of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. 
Scribner and Viala: Black-Rot. 
Scribner : Report in vegetable pathology for 1887. 

Periodical Literature. Ixxvii 



Journal and Prooeedingt of the Boyal Society of New South TVales. 
Vol. XXII. Parti. 

Abbott : Forest-destrnction in New South Wales, and its effects on the 
flow of water in water-courses and on the rainfall. 

Prooeedinge of the Iiinnean Society of New South TVales. Vol. III. 

Mueller, von : Descriptions of two hitherto unrecorded West Austra- 
lian plants {Pttlotus Macleayi ; Acacia spodiosperma), 

Katz: Notes on the bacteriological examination of ice supplied in 

Haviland : Flowering seasons of Australian plants, VIII. 

WooLLs: Notes on Jussiaea repens, and some rare plants from the 

Maiden : Some reputed medicinal plants of New South Wales (Indi- 
genous species only). 

Vol. in. Part II. 

Maiden : Australian indigenous plants providing human foods and food- 


Proceedings of the Boyal Society of Queeneland. Vol. IV (1887). 
Bancroft : On the Poisonous Property of Nicotiana suaveolens, 

: On the Discovery of Saponin in Acacia delibrctta, 

— — — : On the Physiological Action of Crysotocarya Australis. 

: On the Ph)rsiological Action of Daphnandra rcpanduia. 

Shirley : An account of the Chief Objects of Botanical Interest collected 

during the recent visit of the F. N. Section to Peechey*s Scrub, 



TraneactionB and Proceedings and Beport of the Boyal Society of South 
Australia. Vol. X. 

Rennie : Notes on the colouring matter of Drosera Whittakeri. 
Mueller, von, and Tate : Definitions of two new Australian plants. 
Tepper : Notes on and additions to the Flora of Kangaroo Island. 


Papers and Proceedings of the Boyal Society of Tasmania. 1887. 

Carrington and Pearson ; Description of new rare Tasmaoian 

Bastow : On the Riccia ncUanT, 

Mueller, von : On some plants new to Tasmania. 

Bastow : The Tasmanian Hepaticac. 


Transaotions and Proceedings of the Boyal Society of Victoria. Vol. 
XXIV. Parts I. and II. 

Tisdall ; Notes on Fungi in Mines. I, II. 


Ixxviii Current Literature. 

Transaotions and Frooeedingf of the Boyal Soeiet^ of Tletoria {fOfUinued), 

Mueller, von : Descriptive notes on a Victorian Haloragis and a 

J DescriptioD of some Papuan plants. 

: Two hitherto unrecorded plants from New Guinea. 


Annalen des k. k. natnrhistoriBchen Hofmnsetuxis. Wien. Bd. III. Hefr 3. 
Beck, von : Die Flora des Stewart-Atolls im Stillen Ocean. 
Zahlbruckner : Beitrag zur Flora von Neu-Caledonien, enthaltend die 
von A. Grunow im Jahre 1884 daselbst gesammelten Pflanzen. 

Denksohrifben der K. Akademie der 'Wissenschaften, 'Wien. Mathe- 
matisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. Bd. LIV (1888). 

Ettinghausen, von, und Krasan : Beitrage zur Erforschung der atavi- 
stischen Formen an lebenden Pflanzen (m. 4 Tfln.). 

Standfest : Ueber Myrica lignitum^ Ung. und 

ihre Beziehung zu den lebenden J^ru-a-arten (m. 2 Tfln.). 

: Die fosslle Flora von Leoben, Steiermark (m. 9 Tfln.). 

Srtesitd Orvos-term^saettudom&nyi Kolossv^urt. {In Hungarian with Ger- 
man abstracts.) Jahrg. XIII. (1888.) Heft 2. 

Demeter : Weitere Beitrage zur Moosflora Ungams. 

ISTVANFFi : Ueber das Prapariren der Pilze fiir wissenschaftliche Zwecke. 

Magyar (kir) tudom&ny-os akad^mia Budapest. (Mathematikai es Term^szet* 
tudomdn3ri Kozlem^nyek.) Vol. XXII, Nos. 7 and 8. 

SiMONKAV: Revisio Tiliarum hungaricarum atque orbis terrarum (c. 2 

: Cytisi Hungariae terrarumque finitarum. 

Lotos. Neue Folge, Bd. IX. 

Hering : Zur Theorie der Vorgange in der lebendigen Substanz. 

Mittheilungen des Ifatnrwissensohaftliohen Vereins fos Steiermark. 
1887. Heft 24. 

Haberlandt : Zur Anatomie der Begonien. 

WiLHELM : Die Reblaus. 

Monatshefte der Chemie. Vol. VIII. 

Marawski und Stingl : Ueber die Natur der Zuckerarten in der 

: Ueber das Fett der Sojabohne. 

Molisch : Ueber einige Beziehungen zwischen anorganischen Stickstofl*- 
salzen und der Pflanze. 

GOLDSCHMIDT : Uutersuchungen liber das Papaverin (V. AbhandlungV 

Honig und Schubert : Ueber Lichenin. 

POMERANZ : Ueber das Cubebin. 

Sitsungsberiohte der k. k. Akademie der 'Wisaensoliaften, TVien. Abth. I. 
Bd. XCVII. Heft 1-7. 

Kerner, von : Studien liber die Flora der Diluvialzeit in den ostlichen 

Wettstein, von : Rhododendron p<mticumy L. fossil in den Nordalpen. 
Kronfeld : Ueber vergriinte Bliithen von Viola alba^ Bess. 
Brucke : Ueber die optl(^hen Eigenschaften des Tabaschir. 

Periodical Literature. Ixxix 

Sitsungsberiohte der k. k. Akademie der 'WisseiiBohaften, 'Wien {continued), 

LosBiscH UND Malfatti : Zur Kenntniss des Strychnins. 

Skraup : Zur Constitution der Chinaalkaloide. 

JOHANNY UND Zeisel : Zur Kenntniss des Colchidns. 

GOLDSCHMIDT UND OsTERSETZER : Untersuchungen iiber Papaverin, 
VIII and DC. 

Hazura UND Grussner : Zur Kenntniss des Olivenols. 

Sitsnngsberiolite der k. BOhmiBohen Gesellsohaft der 'Wissensohaften. 

1887 {concluded), 

Palacky : Ueber Flora von Egypten, China, Madagaskar. 
Velenovsky : Ueber die Farrenkrauter der bohmiscben Kreideformation. 

Ueber einige Pflanzen ausder bohmiscben Kreideformation. 

Resultate de^ botanischen Ausflugs nach Bulgarien. 

Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Flora der Halbinsel Athos. 

Ueber die Resultate der heurigen botanischen Durchfor- 
schung von Bohmen. 

Palacky : Ueber den Endemismus der Pflanzengenera in Amerika. 


Ueber Planchon's Ampelideen. 

Feistmantel: Ueber die geologischen und palaeontologischen Ver- 
haltnisse der kohlenfuhrenden Schichten in Ost-Australien und 

Verhandlungen der k. k. geologisohen Beiohsanstalt in 'Wien. 1888. 
No«. 8-10. 

G UMBEL: Algen-Vorkommen im Thonschiefer des Leogangtfaales bei 

Stur : Die Lunzer- (Lettenkohlen-) Flora in * the older mesozoic beds of 
the coal-field of Eastern Virginia.' 

Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereins in Brunn. Bd. XXVI. 
FORMANEK : Mahrisch-schlesische Meuthen. 

Verhandlungen der k. k. soologisoh-botaniBohen Getellaohaft in "Wien. 
1888. Bd. XXXVIII {continued), 

II. QuartaL 

Braun : Referat iiber Simonkai, L. : ' Revisio Tiliamm Hungaricarum 

atque orbis terrarum.' 
Fritsch : Zur Phyllogenie der Gattung Salix, 
HALicsY und Wettstein, VON : GUchoma serbica, n. sp, 

Haring: Floristische Funde aus der Umgebung von Stockerau in 

Keener von Marilaun : Ueber die Bestaubungseinrichtungeo der 
Euphrasiaceen. (Tfl. XIV.) 

Palla : Ueber die Gattung Scirpus, 

: Zwei fiir Niederosterreich neue Car^jr-Arten. 

Sennholz: Symphytum Wettsteinii, 

Staff : Ncurthex PolaJtiit n. sp. 

: Beitrage zur Flora von Persien. 

Wettstein ; Pulmonaria JCemeriy n. sp. (Tfl. XIII). 

■ : Ueber Sesleria coerulea^ L. 

Voss : Das Scopoli-Denkmal in Idria. 

III. Quartal. 

Beck, von : Paroptyche^ n. gen. Polyporeomm (mit 3 Holzschnitten). 


Ixxx Current Literature. 

Verhandlungen der k. k. £oologiBoh-botaniBolien G-eaellsohaft in Wien 


Freyn und Brandis : Beitrag zur Flora von Bosnien nnd der angren- 
zenden Hercegovina. 

Keener von Marilaun : Beitrage vox Flora von Niedeiosterreich. 

Palla : Ueber die S3rstematische Stellung der Gattung Caustis, 

Zahlbruckner : Beitrage znr Flechtenflora Niederosterreichs. 

ZUKAL : Hymenoconidium petasatum, n. sp. 

: Penicillium luteuniy n. sp. 

IV. Quartal. 

Baumler : Fungi Schemnitzenses. 

Beck, von : Mittheilungen aus der Flora von Niederosterreich. 

' — : Die alpine Vegetation der sUdbosnisch-hercegovinischen 
Fritsch : Die Gattungen der Chrysobalanaceen. 
: Vorlaufige Mittheilungen iiber die Rubus-YXQ/n, Salzburgs. 

HalAcsy, von : Beitrage zur. Flora der Landschaft Doris, insbesondere 
des Gebirges Kiona in Griechenlaml (Tfl. XXII). 

Heimerl : Die Bestaubungs-Einrichtungen einger Nyctaginaceen (mit 
3 Holzschn.). 

Kerner von Marilaun : Ueber den Duft der Bliithen. 
Kronfeld : Zur Blumenstetigkeit der Bienen und Hummeln. 

UND Hofer: Die Volksnamen der niederosterreichischen 


: Ueber Polyphyllie bei Pinus Mughus^ Scop., und P, 

silvestris, L. 

MoLiscH : Ueber Thyllen und Wundheilung in der Pflanze. 

Rathay : Neue Untersuchungen uber Geschlechtsverhaltnisse der Reben. 

Richter: Ueber den Bastard von Scnecio viscosus, L., und .S*. sil- 
vaticuSf L. 

Stockmayer : Ueber eine neue Desmidiaceengattung. 

Studni^ka : Beitrag zur Kenntniss der boehmischen Diatomeen. 

Verhandlungen und Mittheilungen des Siebenburgisohen Vereins for 
Naturwiasenaohaften, Hermannstadt. Jahrgang XXXVII. 

Jahn : Analyse einger siebenbiirger Weine. 

Zeitaohrift, Oeaterreiohisolie botaniaolie. Jahrgang XXXVIII {continued). 

No. 7. SiMONKAi : Zur Flora von Ungam (continued in Nos. 9-1 a). 
„ — WoLOSZCZAK : Saiix bifax und S. Mariana, 
„ — Hansgirg : Kellerbacterien (continued in No. 8). 
„ — Degen, von : Botrychium virginianum, 
,, — KraSan : Reciproke Kulturversuche. 
„ — MuRR : Neue Funde in TiroL 

„ — FormAnek : Flora von Bosnien (continued in Nos. 8-12). 
„ — Jetter : Ausflug nach Dalmatien. 
„ 8. Braun : I. Pandit (continued in No. 9), 
,, — Fritsch : Neues Verbascum. 
„ — BoRNMULLER ; Verbascum PanHHi. 
„ — Blocki : Zur Flora von Ostgalizien. 
„ — Voss : Scopoli-Feier. 

Periodical Literature. Ixxxi 

Seiteohrifi, Oeeterreiohisohe botanisohe {contintud), 

,f 9. Krasan : Weitere Bemericongen iiber Parallclformen (continued in 
No. 10). 

„ — Blocki: Hiertuium gypsicola, 

„ — MURR : Zur Flora von Tirol. 

„ 10. Vandas : Beitrage znr Kenntniss der Flora von Siid-Hcrccgowina (con- 
tinned in Nos. II, la). 

„ — Blocki : Rumex Skofitsii. 

,, — Winter: Scesaplana (continued in Nos. 11, ia)» 

„ II. Blocki : Rumex Kemeri^ n. hybr. 

„ — Entleutner : Die periodischen Lebenserscheinnngen der PHanzenwelt 
in den Aniagen von Meran (continued in Na. la). 

,, — Kronfeld : Pflanzennamen. 

„ — KissLiNG : Notizen zur Pflanzengeographie Nieder-Oesterreichs. 

„ la. Heimerl: Beitrag zur nieder-osterreichischen Pilz-Fiora^ 

n — Blocki : Potentilla Andrujowsku. 

„ — BORBAS : ^r^wwi*x-Formen. 

„ — KOCBECK : Bildnngsabweichungen an Paris quadrifoliay L. 


Annalet de la Sooi^t^ Beige de Miorosoopie. Tome XII (1885-1886) 1888. 

Errera, MaistrIAU et Clautriau : Premieres recherches sur la 
localisation et la signification des alcaloldes dans les plantes 
(avec pi. color.). 

Bulletin de I'Aoad^mle Boyale dee Soienoet de Belgique. 3* s^rie, Tome 
XV, No. 6-8. 

Dewalque : Etat de la v^g^tation ^ Andeime, it Li^ge, ^ Spa et it 
Vielsalm le ao-ai avril 1888. 

COGNIAUX : Sur quelques Cucurbitac^es rares on nouvelles prmcipalement 
du Congo. 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ Beige de Miorosoopie. BmxeUes. 1888. 6-7. 
Gallemareis : La microbe de la malaria. 
Ermengen, van : L'^tiologie du cancer. Le bacille de Scheurlen. 

Bulletin de la 800. Boy. Linn^enne de BruxeUes. 1888. 

Carriers : Quelques Liliac^es printanni^res. 

Pailleux : Note sur le Concombre Angourie {Cucumis anguria, L.). 

BossCHARE, DE: Etude El^mentaire des principales plantes qui fleurissent 
de F^vrier ^ Octobre. 

Carron et Zwendelaar : Florule des environs de Bruxelles. 

BORY : Les Nymphata et les Nelumbium rustiques. 

Comptee Bendua dee Stances de la 8oci6t6 Boyale de Botanique de 
Belgique. 1888 {continued), 

Laurent : Sur les aliments organiques de la levure de bi^re. 
Wildeman, de: Observations sur quelques formes du genre Trente^ 

pchJia, Mart 
CuiPlN : Description d'nne nouvelle rose asiatique. 
TONI, DE : Sur un nouveau genre {HansgirgicC) d'AIgues aeriennes. 
Wildeman, DE: Observations sur le genre Bulbotrichia^ Kiitz. 
Durand : Notice sur Asa Gray. 

Ixxxii Current Literature. 

Comptes BenduB des S^anoes de la Soci^t^ Boyale de Botaniaue de 
Belgique {continued). 

Christ : Appendice an nonvean Catalogue des Carex d'Eorope. 
Delogue : Note sur le Palmella squarrosa^ Brid. 

DURAND : Quelqnes notes snr les r^coltes botaniques de M. H. Pittier 
dans TAm^rique centrale. 

Cr^pin : Snr des restes de Roses d^converts dans les tombeaux de la 
n^cropole d'Aisinoe de Fayoum (Egypte). 

Lindenia, loonographie des Orohidtes. (Broxelles). Vol. IV. livr. i con- 
tains plates and descriptions of : — 

Odontoglossum lati-mtuulatum ; Cryripedium Mittoluanum ; Nanodts 
Medusae ; DendroHum Bemoniae. 


Botanisk Tidsskrift. Bind XVI. Haefte 4. 
RosTRUP : Bidrag til Islands Flora. 

Petersen : Momenter til Caryophyllaceemes Anatomic (Tavle 3). 
RosENViNGE : Ii;ra en botanisk Rejse i Gr^nland. 
Petersen : Staengelbygningen hos Eggersia buxifolia, Hook (Tavle 4). 
Johannsen : Om Amygdalinets og Emnlsinets Plads i Mandleroe. 


Warming : Notes biologiques sur des plantes de Gr^nland. II (avec 
13 xylographies). 

Raunkjaer : L'organisation et Thistoire du d^veloppement da spermo- 
derme des G^raniac^es (avec pi. a). 

Petersen : Sur Tanatomie des Caryophyllac^es (avec pi. 3). 

: Anatomie de la tige chez V Eggersia buxifolia. Hook 

(avec pi. 4). 

Friedrichsen et Gelert : Les Ruhus de Denmark et de Slesvig. 

Bind II. Haefte 1-3. 

ROSENVINGE : Sur la disposition des feuilles chez les Polysiphonia, 

: Sur la formation des pores secondaires chez les Poiy' 


Raunkjaer : Myxomycetcs Daniae eller Danmarks Slimsvampe. 

Meddelelser fira Carlsberg Laboratoriet (KjObenha^m) [in Danish with 
French Abstracts]. Vol. II, No. 5 (1888). 

Holm et Poulsen : Jusqu'^ quelle limite peut-on, par la m^thode de 
M. Hansen, constater une infection de levure sauvage dans nne 
masse de levure basse de Saccharomyces cerevisiae ? Partie II. 

Hansen : Recherches sur la physiologic et la morphologic des ferments 
alcooliques. VII. 

: Recherches faites dans la pratique de I'industrie de la fermen'- 


Johannsen : Sur le Gluten et sa presence dans le grain de ble. 


Aotos de la 8ooi6t6 Linn^enne de Bordeaux. 

Tome XI S^rie 4. Tome X (1886). 

Deloynes : Les Sphagnum de la Giroude. 

Periodical Literature. Ixxxiii 

Aotet de la Sooi^t^ Iiinn^enne da Bordeaux {continued ). 

Brunaud: Liste des Sphaeropsid^es trouvi^es ^ Saintes (Charente-Inf<£- 
rienre) et dans les environs. 

: Liste des Hyphomyc^tes r^colt^s anx environs de Saintes. 

Deloynes : Essai d'un Catalogue d'H^patiques de la Gironde et de 
quelqnes localit^s da Sud-Ouest. 

Tome XLL— S^rie 5. Tome T ^1887). 
Brunaud : Mat^riaux poor la Flore mycologique des environs de Saintes. 

Annalea A^pronomiquM. Tome XIV, Nos. 7-13. 

Deh^rain : Recherches sur la formation des nitrates dans les terres 
arables in^galement fertiles. 

ZOLLA : Application rationelle des engrais azot^ 

Sidersky : Recherche sur Tanalyse indirecte de la betterave ^ sucre. 

Br^al: Observations sur les tubercules k bacteries des racines des 

Deh^rain : Cultures du champ d'exp^riences de Grignon en 1888. 

Pagnoul : Experiences diverses relatives ^ la culture et \ la composition 
de roeillette. 

Annalas de Ohimie et de Physiaue. S^rie 6, Tome XIV {continued^ 

Berthelot : Sur quelques conditions gen^rales de la fixation de Tazote 

par la terre v^g^tale. 
: Sur le drainage. 

etAndr^: Sur T^tat de la potasse dans la plante, le 

terreau et la terre v^g^tale, et sur son dosage. 

: Sur le dosage de la chaux dans la terre, le 

terreau et les plantes. 

: Sur les ^tats du soufre dans les plantes, la terre 

et le terreau, et sur son dosage. 

: Sur les ^tats du phosphore dans la terre, le 

terreau et les plantes, et sur son dosage. 

: Sur le phosphore et Tadde phosphorique dans 

la v^g^tation. 

Ajmalet d^Hygidne publique et de M 6decixie legale. 
Tome XIX. 

Mac^ : L*analyse bact^riologique de Teau (avec 5 fig.). 
Tome XX. 
Dandrien: Influence de la lumi^re dans la destruction des bacteries 
pour servir ^ T^de du • tout ^ Tegout* 

AwTi^i^ de la Science Agronomique. 1888. Tome I. 

LlEBSCHER : La marche de Tabsorption des principes nutritifs par les 

VuiLLEMiN : Les tubercules radicaux des l^gumineuses. 
Fliche : Un reboisement : Etude botanique et foresti^re. 
Mangin : Recherches sur la penetration ou la sortie des gaz par les 

Zetterlund : Sur les qoalites des semences scandinaves. 

Bartet : Recherches sur la production ligneuse pendant la phase des 
coupes de regeneration. 

Axmales de I'lnstitut Fasteor. Tome II. Nos. 6-1 2. 

Pawlowski : Culture des bacilles de la tuberculose sur la pomme de 

Ixxxiv Current Literature. 

Annales de I'Institut Pasteur {continued). 

BouTROUX : Sur Toxydation dn glucose par les microbes. 

MiQUEL : Des proc^des usit^s pour le dosage des bact^ries atmo- 

Perdrix : Sur la transformation des mati^res azot^es dans les cultures 
de bacteridie charbonneuse. 

Straus et Sanchez-Toledo : Recherches microbiologiques sur Tnt^rus 
apr^s la parturition physiologique. 

Gamaleia : Sur T^tiologie de la pneumonic fibrineuse chez Thomme. 

: Vibrio Metschnikcvi et ses rapports avec le microbe du 

cholera asiatique. 

: Vibrio Afetschnikoviy son mode naturel dWection. 

Laurent : Recherches sur le polymorphisme dn Cladosporium herbctrum. 

Fernbach : De Tabsence des microbes dans les tissus v^g^taux. 

Roux ET Yersin : Contribution ^ IVtude de la diphtheric. 

Gilbert et Lion : De la recherche des micro-oiganismes dans les 
^panchements pleuraux. 

Di Vestea : De Tabsence des microbes dans les tissus v^g^tanx. 

Annales des Soiences G^ologiques. Tome XX. Nos. 1,2. 

Saporta, de : Notions stratigraphiques et paleontologiques appliqu^ ^ 
Fetude du gisement des plantes fossiles d'Aix en Provence. 

Annales des Soienoes Natnrelles. Botaniaue. S^rie 7. 
Tome VII. Nos. 5, 6. 

BORNET ET Flahault: Revision des Nostocacees h^t^rocyst^ con- 
tenues dans les principauz herbiers de France (quatri^me et 
dernier fragment). 

Courchet: Recherches sur les chromoleucites (PI. 15-18). 

Van Tieghem : Sur le r^seau de soutien de I'^corce de la radne. 

Tome VIII. 

Van Tieghem et Douliot : Recherches comparatives sur Torigine des 
membres endog^nes dans les plantes vasculaires (PI. i-a6). 

Arohiyes de Physiologie Normale et Fathologique. S^rie 4. Tome II. 

No. 6. Heckel et Schlagdenhauffen : Sur la racine de Batjetjor ( ^rrwutti 

nigriiiana, Oliv. et Hiem) de TAfrique tropicale, nouveau poison 
du coeur. 

Arohiyes de Zoologie ezp^rimentale et g^n^rale. Serie 2. Tome VI. No. i. 

Khawkine : Le principe de Th^r^dite et les lois de la m^canique en 
application k la morphologic de cellules solitaires. 

Arohiyes slayes de Biologie. Tome IV. Fasc. 2, 3. 

Diakonow : Sur le role de la substance nutritive fermentescible dans la 
vie de la cellule veg^tale (suite). 

Pawlowski : Contribution au sujet de T^tiologie de la pyemic. 

Tschistowitsch : Influence de la racine d*elldbore vert. 
Le Botaniste. 

Fasc I. Dangeard : Recherches sur les Cryptomottadinae et les Euglenae, 
Fasc II. : M^moire sur les Chytridin^es. 

Bulletin de la Sooi^t^ de Botanlque de France. 
Tome XXXIV, No. 8 (1887). 

Coste : Herborisations sur le Causse Central. 

R. Caspary (1818-1887). 

Periodical Literature. Ixxxv 

Bulletin de la 8ooi6t6 de Botanique de France {continued ). 

Db Nauteuil : Quelques plantes rares ou nouvelles pour la flore des 

environs de Paris. 
DouLiOT : Sur le p^riderme des Rosac^es. 
Brunaud : Champignons des environs de Saintes. 
Camus : Sur quelques plantes des environs de Paris. 
RoMY : Plantes de Gibraltar et d'AIgeciras. 

Chastaingt : Plantes rares ou nouvelles pour la florule de I'lndre. 
Van Tieghem : Sur Texoderme de la radne des Restiac^es. 

GuiGNARD : Remarques ^ propos d'un r^nt travail de MM. van 
Beneden et Neyt sur VAscaris megalocephala, 

Bois : Sur le Trapa verbamnsis. 

DUFOUR : Sur quelques experiences relatives k des germinations de F^ve. 

MOROT : Sur les variations de forme du PUurotus ostreatus. 

Bonnier: Sur des cultures compar^es des memes esp^ces \ diverses 

Hue : Quelques Lichens int^ressants pour la flore fran9aise et Lichens du 

Tome XXXV {continued^ 

No. 3. Fliche : Sur les formes du genre Ostrya. 

— Maury : Sur les Cyp^rac^ du Mexique. 

— Franchet : Sur le Cheilanthes hispanica. 

— Dangeard : Sur Tanatomie des Salsokae, 
: Nouvelles observations sur les Pinguicula, 

— Wasserzug : Recherches sur un Hyphomycfete. 

— GOMONT : Sur les enveloppes cellulaiies des Nostocac^es filamenteuses 
(with 2 plates). 

— Leclerc du Sablon : Sur les anth^rozoldes du Cheilanthes hirta, 

— Clos : Dodart et les deux Marchant. 

— DUCHARTRE : Sur Tenracinement de Talbumen d'un Cycas. 

: Sur un cas d*abolition du g^tropisme. 

: Flenrs proliftres de Begonias tub^reux. 

— Van Tieghem : Sur le r^seau sus-endodermique chez les L^gumineuses 
et les Ericac^. 

ET MoNAL : Roseau sous-^pidermique de la racine des 


ET DOULIOT : Sur les plantes qui forment lears radioelles 






sans poche. 

— RozE : L* Usiilago Caricis aux environs de Paris. 
: Galanthus nivalis aux environs de Paris. 

— Chastaingt: Deux Rosiers nouveaux {R, sazilliacensis et R. superba). 

— Camus et Duval : Herborisation ^ Saint-Lubin. 

— COSTANTIN : Recherches sur un Diplocladium. 

: Sur quelques parasites des champignons sup^rieurs. 

ET RoLLAND : D^veloppement d'un Stysanus et d*un HormO' 


— Jumelle : Sur les graines ^ deux teguments. 

— Devaux : De Taction de la lumi^e sur les racines croissant dans Teau. 

— Pomel: Evacidium Htldreichii {^Evax Heldreichii). 

„ — Lothelier : Observation sur les piqoants de quelques plantes. 



Ixxxvi Current LiieralurCn 

Bulletin de la Sooi^t^ de Botanique de Franoe {continued ). 

No. 3. RouY : Sur les Tencrium Majorana^ Pers. et 7*. majoricum, Rouy. 

4. GuiGNARD ET CoLiN : Sur la presence de rdtervoirs k gomme diez les 

— Emery : Le bourgeon du tulipier. 

— Daveau : Un Armeria nooveau. 

— PoMEL : J^tude sur des esp^ces barbaresques des types des Evax et des 

— Battandier et Trabut: Elxcursion botanique dans le sud de la 
province d'Oran. 

— Degagny : Origine nucl^aire du protoplasma. 

— CossoN : De speciebus generis Polygala ad subgenus Chtttnaebuxus 

— Bornet : Note sur une nouvelle esp^ce de Laminaire de la M^iterran^ 

— Dangeard : Sur la formation des renflements souterrains dans VEranihis 

— Duchartrb : Remplacement des ^tamines par des carpelles chez le Sedum 

— Camus: Locality nouvelles de plantes int^ressantes des environs de 

— Flah ault : Herborisations algologiques au Croisic. 

Sesaion extraordinaire. 

CosTE : Mes herborisations dans le bassin du Dourdou. 

Baich^rb : Note sur la v^g^tation des environs de Carcassonne. 

Martin : Sur une Euphorbe hybride. 

Oliver : Sur le Lathyrus ienuifolius, Desf. 

Vincent : Note sur I. Blanche, ancien consul de France en Syrie. 

Mouillefarinb : Sur une famille de botanistes : les Thomas de Bex. 

Baich^re : Herborisations dans le Cabard^ et le Minervois. 

Flahault : L'herbier mediterraneen form^ k la faculty des sciences de 

VuiLLEMiN : Sur les Pezizes des chancres des Conif^res. 

Oliver: Sur un projet de session dans les Alb^res (Pyrenees-On- 
entales) pour I'ann^e 1891. 

Gautier : Herborisations et excursions. 

CoPiNEAU: Excursions et herborisations. 

Hy : Lichens recueiUis aux environs de Quillan. 

Chevallier : Mousses et Hdpatiques r^colt^s dans la for6t des Fanges. 

Gautier: Liste m^thodique des plantes, Phan^rogames et Crypto- 

games sup^rieures, recolt^ pendant la session. 
Rouy : Notice sur les collections botaniques de M. Gaston Gautier. 

Bulletin trimestriel de la Soci^t^ botanique de Lyon. 1888. Nos. i & 2. 
KiBFFER : Anomalies d*un Agropyrum campestrt. 
Blanc, Louis : Flore des environs d'Ajaccio. 
ViviAND-MOREL : Origine de la M&che. 
Beauvisage : L^Inuline dans les lonidium. 
Blanc, L£on : Excursion au Mont Granier. 
Jacquembt: L*Ip^cacuanha stri^ noir. 
Gerard : Localisation microchimique des alcaloides. 
Beauvisage : Note sur un faux Ip<^cacuanha stri^ noir. 

Periodical Literature. Ixxxvii 

Bulletin trimestriel de la Sooi^t^ botanique de Lyon {contintud). 

Blanc, Leon : Excursion an col de la Rnch^re. 

ViviAND-MOREL : DivcTS cas de teratologic. 

D^BAT : Anatomie de la tige des Mousses. 

Garcin : D^veloppement des fleurs et des fruits. 

Blanc, LioN : Excursion aux environs de Givors. 

Magnin : A propos de plantes silicicoles. 

Blanc, Louis : Anomalies de Narcissus. 

Blanc, L^on : Elxcursion k. la for^t des Eparres. 

Magnin : La famille de Jussieu. 

BouLLU : Le Doum et TArgan. 

Blanc, L^on : Dispersion des Tulipes. 

Saint- Lager : Decoloration des fleurs. 

Blanc, L^on : A propos de Microbes. 

Beauvisage et Blanc, L^on : Excursion ^ Donz^re et Viviers. 

Peteaux : Bunias orientalis naturalist k Ecully. 

Vivian D-MoREL : Hybridations de Hosiers. 

Meyran : Divers cas de teratologic. 

Bulletin de la 8ooi6t6 Chimique de Farie. Tome L. 

Berthelot : Sur quelquet conditions generalei de la fixation de I'azote 
par la terre v^g^tale. 

ET Andr^ : Sur T^tat de la potasse' dans les plantes, le 

terreau et la terre v^g^tale. 

: Sur retat du soufre et du phosphore dans les 

plantes, la terre et le terreau et sur leur dosage. 

Sur le phosphore et I'acide phosphorique 

dans la v^g^tation. 

— : Sur Tabsorption des mati^res salines par les 


VoiRY : Etude chimique de Tessence ^Eucalyptus globulus, 
: Etude chimique de Tessence de Cajeput. 

GiLLET : M^thode nouvelle pour reconnattre la falsification des poivres 

par addition de grignons d'olives. 
Hardy et Gallon: Sur Tanagyrine. 

Cazeneuve et Hucounenq : Sur rhomopt^rocarpine et la pt^rocarpinc 
du santal rouge. 

Bulletin de la Sooi6t6 d'Etudes Soientiflquee d'Angers. Nouv. S^rie, 
XVII* ann^ (1887). 

HouLBERT : Catalogue des Cr>'ptogames cellulaires du d^partement de la 

Bulletin de la 8oci6t6 G^ologique de France. S^rie 3, Tome XVI, No. 6. 

Zeiller : Note sur les v^g^taux fossiles des calcaires d'eau douce subor- 
donnes aux lignites de Simeyrols. 

: Flore fossile du bassin houiller de Valenciennes. 

Bulletin de la Soci^t^ Linn6enne de Normandie. Serie 4, Vol. I. 

Barb£ : Sur la polyst^lie dans le genre Pinguicula, 

CORBiiRE : Nouvelles herborisations aux environs de Cherbourg et dans 
le Nord du D^partement de la Manche. 

: Excursions botaniquei de la Soc Linn, dans la Manche. 

: Sur Tapparition de quelques plantes ^trangeres ^ Cherbourg 

et ^ Fecamp. 

Ixxxviii Current Literature^ 

Bulletin de la 8ooi6t€ Lin^enne de Normandie {continued )» 

Dangeard: Observations snr le d^veloppement du Chlamydococcm 


: Un proc^d^ op^ratoire en Histologie v6g^tale. 

: Note sur le genre Chlamydomonas, 

: Note snr le genre Chlorogonium. 

: Remarques sur Ics canaux secretenrs de VAraucaria im- 


: Sur la polyst^lie dans le genre Pinguicula, 

: Le mode de propagation da Nephrocytium Agardhianum, 


— : A propos d'une r^cente communication. 
— : Sur les parasites v^g^tanx. 


Le Jolis : Le Glyceria Borreri k Cherbourg. 
MoRi^RE : Notice sur une Cycad^e du Lias. 
Nylander : Enumeratio Lichenum Freti Behringii. 
Renault : Note sur le Clathropodium Morieri, 

Comptes BenduB. Tome CVII. 

No. I. Dangeard : Sur un nouveau genre de Chytridin^es, parasite des Algues 

f, 3. Bonnier : Recherches sur le d^veloppement du Physcia parietina, 
„ — Mangin : Sur la constitution de la membrane des v^g^ux. 

„ 3. Arnaud : Sur la composition ^l^mentaire de la strophantine cristallis^, 
extraite du Strophanthus Kombi, 

y, 4. Berthelot et Andr£ : Remarques sur le dosage de Tazote dans la 
terre vdgetale. 

— JUMELLE : Sur la constitution du fruit des Gramin^. 

— Dangeard : Le Rhizome des TnusipUris, 

„ 5. ScHLOESiNG : Sur la relation de Tazote atmosph^rique avec la terre 

„ : Sur le dosage du carbone et de Tazote dans la terre 


„ — Gley : Sur la toxicity comparee de Tonabalne et de la strophantine. 

„ — PRILLIEUX , Traitement efficace du Black Rot. 

„ 6. Berthelot : Experiences nouvelles sur la fixation de Tazote par certaines 
terres veg^tales et par certaines plantes. 

„ •— B|l£al: Observations sur la fixation de Tazote atmosph^rique par les 
L6gumineuses dont les racines portent des nodosit^s. 

„ — LiGNiER : De Timportance dusysteme lib^ro-ligneux foliaire en anatomic 

,, 7. Billet : Sur le cycle ^volutif d*une nouvelle Bacterlac^e chromog^ne et 
marine, Bacterium Balbianii, 

,f 8. Raulin : Observations sur Taction des micro-organismei sur les 
mati^res colorantes. 

„ — Prillieux : Experience sur le traitement de la maladie de la pomme de 

„ II. Chatin : Les vigncs fran9aises. 

„ 13. Gaucher, Combemale et Marestang ; Sur Taction physiologique de 
VHedwigia baUamifera. 

„ 14. Fliche : Snr les bois silicifi^s de la Tunisie et de TAlg^rie. 

Periodical Literature. Ixxxix 

Comptes Bendus {continued'). 

No. 14. Bleicher : Kecherches lithologiques sur la fonnation ^ bois silidfi^ de 

Ttmisie et de TAIg^rie. 

„ 15. Tr£cul: Ordre d'apparition des premiers yaisseaux dans les fenilles des 
Humulus Lupulus ti japonicus. 

fy 16. Charrin et Ruffer : Sor r^limination, par les urines, des mati^res 
solubles vaccinantes iabriqu^ par les microbes en dehors de 

„ — Dangeard : Le mode d'union de la tige et de la racine chez les 

„ 17. Magnin : Sur rhermaphrodlsme da Lychnis dioica atteint ^*Ustilago, 
„ 18. Hericourt et Richet : Sur un microbe pyog^ne et septique {Staphy- 
lococcus pyosepticus) et sur la vaccination contre ses effets. 

„ 19. Cazeneuveet Hugounenq : Sur lliomopt^rocarpine et la pt^rocarpine 
du bois de santal rouge. 

„ — Margono : Sur le yaraque, boisson ferment^ des tribus sauvages dn 

haut Or^noque. 
,, — GiARD : Sur la castration parasitaire dn Lychnis dioica,!,., par tUstilago 


„ 20. PoRiON ET Deh^rain : Sur la culture du bl^ k 6pi carr^ en 1887 et en 

„ 22, Berthelot et ANDRi : Nonvelles experiences sur le dosage de I'azote 
dans les terrcs v^getales. 

„ — Brongniart : Les Entomophthor^es et leur application ^ la destruction 
des insectes nuisibles. 

„ — VuiLLEMiN: Sur une bact^rioc^cidie au tumeur badllaire du pin 

„ — Magnin : Sur rhermaphrodisme parasitaire et le polymorphisme floral 
du Lychnis dioica, DC. 

,, 34. Heckel et Schlagdenhauffen : Sur un latex du Bassia iati/olia, 

„ 35. Verneuil et Clado : De la presence des microbes dans les kystes 

dermoides cong^nitaux de la face. 

„ — COLOMB : Sur la place de quelques Foug^s dans la classification. 

„ — CriI^ : Sur les afiinit^ des flores jurossiques et triasiques de TAustralie et 
de la Nouvelle-Zeiande. 

Ck>mpte8 Bendua hebdomadaires de la 8ooi6t6 de Bioloffie, S^rie 8, 
Tome V. Nos. 16-41. 

Grancher et Chautard : Influence des vapeors d'acide fluoihydrique 

sur les bacilles tuberculeux. 
Bonnieb : Germination des spores de lichens sur les proton^mas des 
mousses et sur des algues difT^rant des gonidies du lichen. 

Linossier : Influence de Toxide de carbone sur la germination. 
Legrain : Sur les caract^res d*un streptocoque non pathog^ne existant 

dans le mucus vaginal. 
Netter : Du Streptococcus pyogmes dans la salive des sujets sains. 
Chabry: Proc^^s pour injecter un liquide k rint^rieur de cellules 

Peyrou : Variation de I'atmosph^re interne des plantes, 
Crouppe: Influence de la salive humaine sur la v^g^tation et sur la 

Gilbert et Lion : Note sur la tuberculose exp^rimentale du foie. 

xc Current Literature. 

Comptes BendoB hebdomadaires de la Sooi6t6 de Biologie {contintud), 

SouLii : Snr F^tiologie da paludisme. 

GiARD : Note sar denx types remarqnables d'entomophthor^, Empusa 
Freseniiy Norv. et Basidiobolus ranarum, £id., taivie de la 
description de quelques esp^ces nouvelles. 

Journal de Botanique, 1888. 

Jan. I. Mangin : Sar le d^veloppement des flenis dans les bonigeons. 

Rose : La Flore Parisienne an commencement du XVII'*"* sihM. 

Patouillard : La classification des Champignons. 

Jan. 15. BoRNET : Algues du voyage an golfe de Tadjoora. 

MOROT : SurTidentit^ sp^ifiqne dn Polyporus ahieiinus, Fr., et de Virpex 
fusco-violcueuSf Fr. 

Feb. I. Nylander : Note snr le Pantielia perlaia et qnelqnes esp^ces affines. 

Flahault : Les Herborisations aux environs de Montpellier. 

GoMONT : Sur les envelopes cellulaires dans les Nostocacte filamen- 
Feb. 16. Patouillard : Fragments mycologiques {Camillia^ i pi.). 

RozE : La Flore parisienne an commencement du XVIII* si^cle. 

Mar. I. Franchet : Les Mutisiac^s du Yon-nan {Noueliat gen. nov., with 


DOULIOT : Sur le p^riderme des L^gnminenses. 
Mar. 16. Strasburger : Snr la division des noyanx cellulaires, la division des 

cellules, et la f<6condation. 

COSTANTIN : Note sur un Papulaspora (with plate). 
Ap. I. Flahault : Les herborisations aux environs de Montpellier. 

Garcin : Sur le fruit des Solanees. 
Ap. 16. BouLAY : Sur les plantes fossiles des gr^s tertiaires de Saint-Satnmin. 
Dangeard : Les P^ridiniens et leurs parasites (with plate). 
DUCHARTRE : M^moire d'Asa Gray. 
May I. Dangeard : Les Peridiniens et leurs parasites. 
Patouillard : Fragments mycologiques. 
BouLAY : Plantes fossiles des gr^ tertiaires de Saint-Satnmin. 
DouLlOT : Note sur la formation du p^riderme. 
BoRNET ET Flahault : Denx nouveaux genres d*algues perforantes 

t^Hyella, Gomoniia). 
Mer : De Tinfluence de Texposition snr le d^veloppement des conches 
annuelles dans les sapins. 
June I. Masclef : Sur la geographic botanique du Nord de la France. 
Mer : Du developpement des conches annuelles dans les sapins. 
Roze : Le Jardin des Plantes en 1636. 
June 16. Elfving : Sur la courbure des plantes. 
July I. Bureau : Sur un figuier ^ fruits souterrains (with plate). 
Patouillard : Fragments mycologiques. 
RozE : Le jardin des plantes en 1636. 
Morot : J. E. Planchon (1823-1888}. 
July 15. CosTANTiN : Observations critiques sur les Champignons H^tero- 

Masclef : Geographie Botanique du Nord de la France. 
Aug. I. Garcin : Sur le genre Euglena et sur sa place dans la classification. 
Masclef : Geographic Botanique du Nord de la France. 
Vuii.LEMiN : VAscospora Beijerinckii et la maladie des cerisiers. 

Periodical Literature. xci 

Journal de Botanique, 1888 {continued^ 
Aug. 1 6. BOUDIER : Snr le vrai genre PiUure. 

Maury : Eranthemum plumbaginoidesy n. sp. 

Patouillard : Proiotremella^ n. gen. 

Masclef : Flore des collines d^Artois. 

Sep. 1, 1 6. Bonnet et Maury: D'Ain-Lefra ^ Djenien-bon-resq. Voyage 

botaniqne dans le Sud-Oranais. 

Maury : Prasophyllum Laufferianum, n. sp. 

Franchet : Les Sanssurea dn Yon-nan. 

QUELET : Sur les genres Ombrophila et Guepinia. 

Oct. I. Vallot : Juniperus phoenicea ^ fonne spiculaire. 

Franchet : Les Saussurea du Yiin-nan. 

Boudier et Patouillard : Clavaria eckinospora et C cardinalisy 
spp. nn. 

Masclef : Flore des collines d'Artois. 

Oct. i6. Camus : x Orchis Timbaliana {0, Morio x O, maculata — with 

Dangeard : La sexnalite chez quelqnes Algues snp^rienres. 
Franchet : Les Saussurea dn Ytin-nan. 

Nov. I. Van Tieghem : Sor la limite dn cylindre central et de T^orce dans les 

Cryptogames vasculaires. 

Franchet : Lefrovia, genre nonvean des Mntisiacto. 

Macgret : Le tissn s^cr^tenr des Alois. 

Dangeard : La sexnalite chez quelqnes Algues inferieures {Carlnerea, 
n. g.). 

Nov. 15. Maury : Cyp^racte de TEcuador et de la Nouvelle Grenade. 

Savageau : Sur un cas de protoplasme intercellulaire. 

Van Tieghem : Sur le dedoublement de Tendoderme dans les Crypto- 
games vasculaires. 

Patouillard : Neurophyllum viride, n. sp. 
Dec. I. Dangeard : La sexuality chez quelques Algues inf<^rieures. 

Maury : Cyp^rac^ de I'Elcuador et de la Nouvelle-Grenade. 
Dec. 15. Van Tieghem : Hydroleucites et grains d*aleurone. 

Lagerheim : Sur un nouveau genre de Chytridiac^es {plpidieUa), 

Boudier et Patouillard : Hydnangiumnumosporum^ sp. n.; Hehella 
Barlae^ sp. n. 

Joomal de Micrographie. 1888 {continutd). 

Chav^e-Leroy : Les v^hicules du mildew. 

ViALA ET Ravez: Kecherches exp^rimentales sur les maladies de la 

Giard : Sur les Nephromyces^ Champignons parasites des Mollusques. 

Billet : Sur le cycle evolutif d'une nouvelle Bacteriac^e chromog^e. 

Petit : Les Diatomac^es du Cap Horn. 

Sacchi : Les Protistes des Mousses. 

Balbiani : Evolution des micro-organismes animaux et v^g^taux para- 

Per AG A LLC : Liste complete des Diatom^ signal^ en France. 

Babes : Sur lli^moglobinarie bact^rienne du boeuf. 

H^RICOURT ET RiCHET : Sur le Streptococcus pyoseptiais, 

Peter : Microbes et Alcaloldes. 


xcii Current Literature, 

Journal de Miorographie {continued), 

Chavj^e-Leroy : Le Peronospora on la briUnre des Vignes en 1888. 

GiARD : La castration parasitaiie dn Lychnis dioica. 

Smith : Contributions k l^istoire natnrelle des Diatom^es. 

VuiLLEMiN : Sur nne Bact^rioc^ddie du Pin d'Alep. 

Amann : M^thodes des preparations microscopiqnes pour I'tode des 

Journal de Pharmacie at de Chimie. 5* s6r. T. XVII. 
No. 7. MiQUEL : Analyse micrographique des eanx (continaed in Nos. 8, 9, 10, 

,, 8. Jacquemin : Du Saccharomyces ellipsotdeus et de ses applications k la 
fabrication d'nn vin d*orge. 

„ 9. LiOTARD : Etnde sur le Konsso. 

10. Gascard : Sur la cire de la gomme-laque. 

11. Cazeneuve et Hugounenq : Sur le dosage de Tazote total dans les 
substances organiques. 

Blondel : Sur le Strophanthus du Niger. 

Ses^r. T. XVIII. 

No. a. VoiBY : Sur Tessence ^Euccdyptus globulus. 

Manche : Preparation des sirops avec les sues de fruits. 

„ 4. Straus et Wurtz : Sur une m^thode perfectionn^e d*analyse bact^rio- 
logique de Tair. 

VoiRV : Sur Tessence de Cajuput. 

Balland : Le Cephcdaria syriaca. Presence des graines de C, syriaca 

dans les bl^s. 
,f 6. Heckel et Schlagdenhauffen : Sur le produit des laticifbies des 

Mimusops et des Payina, compare ^ celui de VIsonandra 


Balland : Sur le developpement du grain de h\€, 

7. Cotton : Etude sur la noix d*Argan, nouveau principe immediat, 

9. Gaucher, Combemale et Marestang : Sur Taction physiologique de 
VHedwigia balsamifera, 

„ 13. Blondel : Observations sur la structure des graines de Soja hispida, 

M^molres de la Soci^t^ des Scienoes de Bordeaux. 3* s^rie, T. III. 

DuPETiT : Sur les principes toxiques des Champignons. 

Petit : Le petiole des Dicotyl^dones an point de vue de I'anatomie com- 
paree et de la taxinomie. 

M6moireB de la Soci6t6 Rationale des Scienoes NatureUes et Hath6ma- 
tiques de Cherbourg. T. XXV. $• serie, T. V. (1887). 

JEANBERNAT ET Renauld : Bryo-g^ographie des Pyr^n^es. 

Bornet et Flahault : Tableau synoptique des Nostochacto fila- 

menteuses h^t^rocystees. 
C0RBii:RE : Erythraea Moricri, sp. n. et les Erytkraea fleurs 


NouTelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. S^r. II, T. X. 
Fasc. 2. 

Franchet : Plantae Davidianae ex Sinarum imperio. II. 

Bevue biologique du Nord de la France. Ann^e I, No. 3. 

FocKEU: Premiere liste des galles observ^es dans le Nord de la 



Periodical Literature. xciii 

Bame Bryologique. 1888. 

No. 5. Philibert : Etudes snr le peristome (continued in No. 6). 

Renauld : Note snr nne fontinale de l^Anreigne. 

■ ET Cardot : Notice snr qnelques mousses de rAm^rique da 


Arnell : Scandinavian bibliography {continued), 

,y 6. Amann : M^thodes de preparations microscopiques poor r^tnde des 

— — : Canserie bryologique. 

Renauld : Notice snr une collection de Mousses de Maurice. 

Bevue de Botanique (Courrensan). T. VII, Nos. 72-74. 

Du NODAY : Notice bryologique sur les environs de Josselin. 

Gay : Variations de Viola odomta^ L. aux environs de Blida. 

Olivier : Glossologie lich^nique. 

Gay : Snr les Afyssum annnels des environs de Blida et en particulier sur 
les variations de VAlyssum luteolum, Pomel. 

Beme d'Hygidne et de Police Sanitaire. T. X, Nos. i-ii. 

MiQUEL: De la valeur relative des proc^des employ^ pour Tanalyse 
micrographique des eaux. 

Arloing : Appareil pour Tanalyse bact^riologique des eaux. 
KiENER ET Aldiber : Remarques sur les proc^^s de determination 
quantitative des germes contenus dans Tair. 

Bevne Myoologique. No. 40. (October 1888). 

Mueller : Lichenes paiaguenses a CI. Balansa lecti (Jin), 

RouMEGU^RE : Fungi selecti exsiccati. XLVII* Cent. 

Viala et Ravaz : Maladies de la Vigne : La Milanese. 

Le remMe du Black Rot decouvert par M. Ed. Prillieux. 

FOEX ET Ravaz : L'organisation du White Rot (Rot Blanc). 

C. R. : Le Rot Blanc dans la Haute-Garonne et le Tarn en 1888. 

Cavara : Champignons parasites nouveaux des plantes cultiv^es. 

- : Les nouveaux Champignons de la Vigne. 
Lb Breton : Forme anormale du Polyporus obducem. 
Bayue Scientiflque du BourbonnaiB (£. Olivier). Moulins. Ann^ I. 

Du BUYSSON : Monogniphie des Cryptogames vasculaires d*£nrope. 

Perot ; Note sur les bois fossiles. 

BeMion Ciyptogamique tenue ^ Faris en Octobre 1887i par les Boci^t^f 
Botttniques et MycologiqueB de France. 

Prillieux : Les maladies de la Vigne en 1887. 

GOMONT : Note sur le genre Phormidium, 

Dangeard : Notes mycologiques. 

Seynes, de : La moisissure de TAnanas. 

FoRQUiGNON : Description d'nne esp^ nouvelle de Coprin. 

Malbranchb : Plantes rares, etc., observ^es r^cemment en Normandie. 

RozB : Une nouvelle esp^ de Geeuter. 

VuiLLEMiN : Un cas d'empoissonnement par V Amanita panthaina, 

Patouillard : Note sur une Tuberculari^ graminicole. 

VuiLLEMiN : Sur nne maladie d'Amygdal^es observ^ en Lorrame. 

xciv Current Literature, 

Session OrTptogamique tenue lb Paris en Octobre 1887» par les Bool^tte 
Botaniques et Mycologiques de France {coniinued), 

BOUDIER : Description de trois nouvelles espices d'Ascobol^ de 

Bernard : Note snr nne L^piote nonvelle. 
RiCHON : Snr qnelqnes esp^ces nonvelles. 

BOUDIER : Note sur une forme conidifbre curieuse dn Polyporus Hennis^ 


Abhandlungen herausgegeben vom Natnrwissensohaftlichen Verein an 
Bremen. Bd. X. 

Koch und Brennecke : Flora ron Wangerooge. 

Koch : Die Kerbelpflanze nnd ihre Verwandte. 

FocKE : Ueber die Verbreitung beerentragender Pflanzen dorch Vogel. 

: Ueber die Arten von Hemerocallis, 

: Moosflora der Umgegend von Bremen. 

: Propfmischlinge von Kartoffeln. 

Klebahn : Ueber Blasenroste. 

MtlLLER : Oldenbnrgische Moosflora. 

BucHENAU UND FocKE : McHiotus albus X macrorrhizus. 

Buchenau : Standortskarten von Gewachsen der nordwestdeatschen 

Miscellen: Erica Tetralixt L. mit getrennten Kronblattem. Bil- 
dnngsabweichong einer Hiilse von Gleditschia. Zor Flora von 

Arbeiten des botanisohen Instituts in Wfiraburg (Sachs). Bd. Ill, Heft 4. 

Sachs : Erfahrungen iiber die Behandlnng chlorotischer Gartenpflanzen. 

: Nachtrag zur vorigen Abhandlnng. 

: Erklanmgen der diesem Hefte beiliegenden Taf. I- VII. 

Noll : Uber die Fnnktion der ZellstofTfasem der CauUrpa prolifera, 

: Uber den Einfluss der Lage anf die morpbologische Ansbildmig 

einiger Siphoneen. (Mit a Holzschnitten.) 

: Uber das Leuchten der Schizostega ostnundcuta^ Schimp. (Mit 5 


: Die Farbstoffe der Chromatophoren von Bangia fuscopurpurea^ 

Lyngb. (Mit i Holzschnitt.) 

- : Beitrag zur Kenntniss der physikalischen Voigange, welche den 
Reizkhimmungen zn Grunde liegen. (Mit 4 Holzschnitten.) 

Detlefsen : Die Lichtabsorption in assimilirenden Blattem. (Mit 3 

Annalen der Chemie (Iiiebig's). Bd. 248, Heft i. 

Bauer : Ueber die aus Flohsamenschleim entstehende Znckerart. 

ArohiT der Fharmacie. 1888. Nos. 11-24. 

Tschirch und Holfert: Ueber das Siissholz. 

Hartweg : Ueber den Strophanthussamen. 

FlUckiger: Englische Beitiiige zur Geschichte der Pharmade und 

Kunz: Beitrage zur Kenntniss der chemischen Bestandtheile von Acorns 

Periodical Literature. xcv 

Arohiv der Fharmaoie {continued). 

SCHWABE : Ueber die chem. Bestandtheile von Cortex Frangulae {Rham- 

nus Franguld) and Cascara Sagrada {Rhamnus Arshiand). 
Schmidt : Ueber Papaveraoeen-Alkaloide. 
Heuschkk : Ueber das Chelidonin. 

Weiss : Ueber die chemischen Bestandtheile der Chekenblatter {Myrtus 

Graf : Die Bestandtheile des Kakaofettes. 

Peters : Kiitische Stadien uber die Priifong der vegetabilischen fetten 
Ole anf ihre Verf alschungen. 

FLiJCKiGER : Illicium vcrum, der Stemanisbanm. 

Block : Die Bestandtheile der Epheupflanze {Hedtra Helix). 

Arohiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturflreschiohte in Meoklenburg. 
Giistrow. 1887. 

KOBBE : Fossile Holzer der Mecklenbnrger Braunkohle. 

ArohiT far Anatomie and Fhysiologie, phyaiologisohe Abtheilting. 1888, 
Heft 5, 6. 

KossEL : Ueber einen neaen Bestandtheil des Thees. 

Will : Ueber Atropin and Hyoscyamin. 

ArohiT fur Bthnographie, Internationales. Bd. I, Heft 5. 

Grabowsky : Das Betelkauen bei den malayischen Volkem. (Mit Tfl. 
XVI and 4 lUastrationen.) 

ArohiT fox experimentelle Fathologie and Fharmakologie. Bd. XXV, 
Heft a. 

HoFMEiSTER : Ueber den schweissmindemden Bestandtheil des Larchen- 

ArohiT fur Hygiene. Bd. VIII, Heft a-4. 

MuNNiCH : Beitrag zar Kenntniss des Favaspilzes (Tfl. I-IV). 

Uffslmann : Untersuchongen aasgefiihrt im hygienischen Institut der 
Universitat Rostock. 

FiRTSCH: Untersuchungen iiber Variationserscheinnngen bei Vibrio 
proteus (Komma-Bacillos von Finkler-Prior). 

KuNTZE UND HiLZER : ZoT Kenntniss des Safrans and dessen Verfal- 

ArohiT fox wissensohafUiohe and praktisohe ThierheUknnde. Bd. XIV. 
Ellknberger UND HoFMEiSTER : Das Vorkommen einesproteolitischen 

and anderer Fermente im Hafer and deren Einwirkang aof die 

SCHtJTZ : Der Streptococcus der Drase der Pferde. 
LusTiG : Das Contagiom der Influenza der Pferde. 
ScHilTZ : Bemerkangen za der vorherstehenden Abhandlong. 

Beriohta der deatsohen botanisohen Gesellsohaft. Bd. IV. 
No. 7. HiRC : Coronilla emeroides^ Boiss. et Spronn. 
„ — Rein KB : Einige neae braane and griine Algen der Kieler Bacht. 
„ » MoBius : Beitrage zar Kenntniss der Algengattong Chaetopeltis, Bert- 
hold (Tat XII). 
„ — Frank : Ueber die physiologische Bedeatang der Mycorhiza (Taf. XIII). 

„ — ScHLiCHT : Ueber neae Falle von Symbiose der Pflanzenworzeln mit 

i 2 


xcvi * Current Literature, 

Beriohte der deutsohen botanisohen Gkesellsohaft {continued), 

' No. 7. Clark : Ueber den Ebfluss niederer SauerstofTpFessnngen auf die Bewe- 

gnngen des Protoplasmas (vorlaufige Mittheilung). 

„ — VoCHTiNG : Ein Dynamometer zom Gebrauch am Klinostat 

,, — AsCHERSON : Ein neues Vorkommen von Carex aristala^ R. Br., in 

„ 8. Palladin : Ueber Zersetznngsprodnkte der Eiweii&-ttofie in den Pflanzen 
bei Abwesenheit von freiem Sanerstoff. 

— Krause : Zwei fiir die deutsche Flora neue Pbanerogamen. 

— ScHUTT : Weitere Beitiage zur Kenntniss des Phycoerithrins (Taf. XV). 

— Reiche : Gefliigelte Stengel nnd herablanfende Blatter. 

— Hanausek : Ueber die Samenbantepidermis der Capsuum-Axitsi (Taf 


„ — Celakowsky : Ueber einen Bastard von Anthemis cotula, L. nnd Matri" 
carta inodora^ L. (Mit 2 Holzschnitten.) 

„ — Campbell : Einige Notizen iiber die Keimnng von Marsilia aegyptiaca 
(mit Taf. XVII nnd i Holzschnitt). 

„ — Klebahn : Znr Entwicklnngsgeschichte der Zwangsdrehnngen (Taf. 

„ — MOLISCH UND Zeisel: Ein nenes Vorkommen von Cnmarin. 

„ — MoBius: Berichtignng zn meiner friiheren Mittbeilnng iiber eine neue 

,, — Eberdt : Ueber das Palissadenparenchym. 
„ — Wittmack : Die Heimath der Bohnen nnd der Kurbisse. 
,) — Kornicke : Bemerknngen iiber den Flachs des hentigen nnd alten 

„ — Stein BRINCK : Ueber die Abhangigkeit der Richtnng hygroskopischer 
Spannkrafte von der Zellwandstruktnr (^TaC XIX). 

„ 9. DiETEL : Ueber eine neue auf Euphorbia dulcisy Jacq. vorkommende 

„ — Beauvais : Ueber den anatomischen Ban von Grindelia robusta. 
„ 10. WiELKR : Ueber den Ort der Wasserleitnng im Holzkorper dicotyler nnd 
gymnospermer Holzgewachse. 

„ — Wortmann : Einige kurze Bemerknngen zu einer Abhandlnng von Dr. 
Fr. Noll. 

Necrologe : — 

Rees : Anton de Bary (mit Bildniss). 
Pfitzer : Robert Caspary. 
Farlow : Asa Gray. 
Haberlandt: Hubert Leitgeb. 


Klebahn : Weitere Beobachtungen iiber die Blasenroste der Kiefem. 

BOsGEN : Ueber die Art nnd Bedeutung des ThierfEmges bei Utricularia 

vulgaris, L. 
Zacharias : Ueber Entstehung und Wachsthnm der Zellhant. 

Moeller : Anatomische Untersuchungen iiber das Vorkonunen der 

Beissner : Ueber Jugendformen von Pflanzen, speciell von Coniferen. 

Frank : Ueber den Einfluss, welchen das Sterilisiren des Erdbodens anf 

die Pflanzen-Entwicklung ausiibt. 

Periodical Literature, xcvii 

Beriohta der deutsohen botonisohen Geaellsohaft {continued^, 

Klein : £in neaes Exkursionsmikroskop. 

— : Beitrage zur Morphologie und Biologie der Gattung Vohox 
(vorlaufige Mittheilimg). 

KiRCHNER : Ueber einen im Mohnol lebenden Pilz (Taf. XIV). 

Bericht iiber nene und wichtigere Beobachtnngen ans dem Jahre 1887* 
Abgestattet von der Commission fur die Flora von Deutsch- 

Beriohte der deutsohen ohemiBohen GKesellschaft. 1888. Nos. 11-18. 

KossEL : Ueber eine neue Base aus dem Pflanzenreiche (ans Thee). 

LiEBERMANN : Ueber ein Nebenalkaloid des Cocalns, das Isopropyl- 

Abbot und Trimble : Ueber das Vorkommen fester Kohlenwasserstoffe 
in Pflanzen. 

GUTZEIT : Ueber das Vorkommen fester Kohlenwasserstoffe im Pflanzen- 
EiNHORN : Weitere Untersnchnngen iiber das Cocaln. 
Fragner : Ein neues Alkaloid ' Imperialin ' (ans Fritillaria imperialis\ 
Jahns : Ueber die Alkaloide der Arecannss. 
LiPPMANN : Ueber einige seltenere Bestandtheile der Riibenasche. 

Bericht uber die SenckenberglBche Naturforaohende GeasellBchafb in 
Frankftirt a. Main. 1888. 

Jannicke: Die Gliedemng der dentschen Flora. 

Bibliotheca Botanica. Heft i a. 

Stenzel : Die Gattnng Tubicaulis, Cott. (Mit 7 Tafn.). 

Oentralblatt, BiologlMhes. Bd. VIII. 

No. 9. Haacke : Das Endergebniss aus Weismann*s Schrift : ' Ueber die Zahl 

der RichtnngScorper und iiber ihre Bedeutung fur die Vererbung.* 

„ la Richter : Zur Vererbung erworbener Charaktere. 

y, — Prazmowski : Ueber Sporenbildung bei den Bakterien. 

„ — Rosenthal und Schulz : Ueber AUcali-Albnminat als Nahrboden bei 
bakteriologischen Untersuchungen. 

„ II. Haacke: Weismann*s Richtnngskorpertheorie. 

„ I a. Eimer: Die Entstehung der Arten auf Grund von Vererben erworbener 

,,15. Raskin : Zur Ziichtimg der pathogenen Mikro-oiganismen auf aus Milch 
bereiteten festen und durchsichtigen Nahrboden. 

„ 16. LUDWIG : Ueber weitere pflanzenbiologische Untersuchungen. Schutz^ 
mittel der Pflanzen. 

,, — Brock : Einige altere Autoren iiber die Vererbung erworbener Eigen- 

„ — Quincke: Ueber Protoplasmabewegung. 

„ 17. Miqula : Die Verbreitungsweise der Algen. 

,, — Kronfeld : Nenere Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen. 

,, — Zacharias : Landplanarien auf Pilzen. 

y, 18. Schulz : Ueber Huminsubstanzen (continued in No. 19). 

„ — Rosenthal : Die Malaria und die Mittel zu ihrer Bekampfung. 

„ 19. LUDWiG : Weitere Untersuchungen iiber Ameisenpflanzen. 

xcviii Current Literature. 

Centralblatt, Botanisohes. 
Bd. XXXV. 

No. I. Petersen : Ueber Quernetze in Gefsissen. 
„ — LUNDSTROM: Ueber die 5<z/M:-Flora dcr Jenesseij-Ufer (continued in 

Nos. 3-4). 
„ 3. Hansgirg: Ueber Bacillus muraliSy Tomaschek, nebst Beitragen zur 

Kenntniss der Gallertbildong einiger Spaltalgen (continued in 

Nos. 3, 4). 

Nos. 3, 4. 

ElCHELBAUM : Mykologische Beobachtungen. 
,, — Starback : Einige kritische Bemerkungen iiber Leptosphairia modesta^ 

Nos. 5, 6. 

Keller : Wilde Rosen des Kantons ZUrich (continued in Nos. 7-10). 
„ — LundstrQm : Ueber farblose Oelplastiden und die biologische Bedeutung 

der Oeltropfen gewisser Potamogeion-hTita. 
„ — Berggren : Ueber Apogamie des Prothalliums von Notochlaena. 
„ — LjUNGSTROM : Eine /VimM/u-Excursion nach Moen. 

No. 7. ToMASCHEK : Ueber eine angeblich nene Methode die Keime einiger 

niederen Algenpilze aus dem Wasser zu isoUren. 
„ 8. Areschoug : Ueber Trapa naiansj var. conocarpa^ F. Aresch. und ihre 
Abstammnng von der typischen Form (continued in No. 9). 

,, to. JOH ANSON : Einige Beobachtungen iiber Torfmoore im siidlicben Schwe- 

„ II, Wenzig : Nova ex Pomaceis. 

„ — IstvAnffi : Ueber das Prapariren der Pilze fur wissenschafUiche 
Zwecke (continued in Nos. 13, 13). 

„ — Andersson : Ueber Palmella uvae/ormiSf Ktzg. und die Dauersporen 
von Draparfuddia glomerataf Ag. 

„ — Dus^N : Ueber einige Sphagnum-Vtohexi aus der Tiefe siidschwedischcr 


No. I. BoRNMiJLLER : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Flora des bulgarischen 

KUstenlandes (continued in Nos. 3-5). 

,, — Keller : Doppelspreitige Blatter von Valeriana sambucifolia, Mik. 

,, 3. Brotherus : Musci novi exotici. 

I, — Kronfeld : Bemerkungen zu Herm Dr. Istvdnffy's Au&atz : ' Ueber das 
Praepariren der Pilze', etc. 

,, 6. ToMASCHEK : Ueber Bacillus muralis und Zopf 's Coccen und Stabchen- 
zoogloea der Alge Glaucothrix gracillima, 

f, 7. Prazmowski : Ueber die WurzelknoUchen der Leguminosen (continued 
in Nos. 8, 9). 

,, 9. Hartig : Untersuchnngen iiber den Lichtstandszuwachs der Kiefer. 

„ : Zur Verbreitung der Larchenkrankheit. 

,', — Peter : Ueber die Pflanzenwelt Norwegens. 

») — Allescher : Ueber einige aus Siid-Bayem bisher nicht bekannte Pike 
(continued in Nos. 10, 11). 

„ 10. Tepper : Bemerkungen iiber die Kangaroo-Insel und einige Charakter- 
pflanzen derselben (continued in Nos. 11, 12). 

u — Grevillius: Bau des Stammes bei einigen lokalen Formen von /^i?^- 
gonum aviculare, L. (continued in Nos. 11, 12). 

Periodical Literature. xcix 

Otnindblfttt, BotaniiohM {continued ). 

No. II. Saoebcck: Neuere Untersachungen iiber einige Knmkheitsformen von 

Alnus imana and A. giutinosa, 

„ : Die Anthcrcn der Clusiaceen. 

,, 13. Harz : Ueber Bergwerkspilze (continued in No. 13). 

,, — SKAjtM ANN : Monstrose Form von SaJix cUprtssa x repens^ Bnmner. 

13. DiNGLRR : Die Mcchanik der pflanzlichen Flogorgane. 

— Hartig: Der Einfloss der Samenprodnction anf Zuwachsgrosse nnd 
Reservestoffvorrath der Baume. 

— TUBEUF, VON : PestcUozzia Hartigii, 

— DiNGLER : Kleinere Mittheilongen. 


OtntrttlbUtt for Bakteriologie and Farasitenknnde. IM. IV. 
Bbnder : Ueber den Erysipehoccus (Fchleisen). 
Babes : Ueber einige Apparate zur Bakterienantersuchnng. 
BucHNER : Eine nene Methode zur Knltor anaerober Mikroorganismen. 
Plaut : Ueber eine Verbessening meiner Wassersterilisations-Flaschen. 
GamaleIa : Zur Aedologie der Hiihnercholera. 

ScHMELCK : Steigenmg des Bakteriengehalts wahrend des Schnee- 

Weichselbaum : Nachtrag zum znsammenfassenden Bericht iiber die 
Aetiologie der Tuberculote. 

Bartoschewitsch : Die feuerfesten Wattepfropfen fiir die bakteriolo- 
gischen Probirglaser. 

Weibel : UntersQchnngen iiber Vibrionen. 

Perroncito : Chyiridium elegans^ n. sp. 

Bonome : Plenro-Pericaiditis nnd Cerebro-Spinal-Meningitis Serofibrinota 
dnrch einen dem Diplococcus pncumonicus tehr ahnlichen Mikro- 
organismns erzeugt. 

LuDWio : Der braune Schleimflass, eine neue Krankheit unserer Apfel- 

BucHN£R : Ueber die vermeintlichen Sporen der Typhnsbodllen. 
SOROKIN : Ueber Algophaga pyriformis^ n. gen. et sp. 
LuDWiG : Wciteres iiber den Schleimfluss der Banme. 

Tassinari : Experimcntaluntersuchnngen iiber die Wirknng det Tabaki- 
ranches aof die Mikroorganismen im Allgemeinen nnd im Beson- 
dcren auf die krankheiterzengenden. 

Ten HOLT : Nene Studien iiber die Pebrine-Krankheit der Seidenspinner. 

BujwiD : Neue Methode znm Diagnosticiren nnd IsoUren der Cholera- 

Belfanti UNO Pescarolo : Ueber eine pathogene BacUrium-hri, 
entdcckt im Tetannsmaterial. 

Janowski : Ueber den Bakteriengehalt des Schnees. 

Schmelck: Eine Glctscherbakterie. 

BujwiD : Traubcnzucker als die Unache der Eitemng neben StapkyU' 
coccus aureus. 

SoROKiN : Parasitologische Skizzen. 

Seiilen, von : Klcine Beitrage znr bakteriologischen Methodik. 

ScHOTTELius: Beobachtnng kemartiger Korper im Innem von Spalt- 

Benecke : Ueber die Mycorhiza. 

c Current Literature. 

Centralblatt fur Bakteriologie und Farasitenkiinde (continued), 

Ferrari: Ueber das Verhalten von pathogenen Mikroorganismen in 
den subcntan einzuspritzenden Fliissigkeiten. 

Frank : Ueber den Untergang der Milzbrandbadllen im Thierkorper. 
Pfuhl : Zur Sporenbildong der Tjrphnsbacillen. 

Petri : Einfacher Apparat zum Einspritzen von Fliissigkeiten fiir bak- 
teriologische Zwecke. 

Flora. Jahrgang LXXI, 1888. 

No. 16. Wenzig : Die Gattung Spiraea^ L. (continued in Not. 17, 18). 
„ — ScHULZ : Ueber Reservestoffe in immergrunen Blattem nnter besonderer 

Beriicksichtigung des GerbstofTs. 
„ 17. Hansgirg : Ueber die aerophytischen Arten der Gattnngen Hormidium, 

Ktz., Schizogoniuntf Ktz., and Hormiscia (Fr.) Aresch. 

Nos. 19-21. 

Haberlandt : Die Chlorophyllkomer der Selaginellen (Taf. V). 

Gnentzsch : Ueber radiale Verbindnngen der Gefasse und des Holz- 
parenchyms zwischen auf einander folgenden Jahrringen dikotyler 
Laubbaume (Taf. VI). 

Nos. aa-a6. 

Knoblauch : Anatomie des Hokes der Laurineen (Ta£ VII). 

No. 37. MOller Hal : Die Mooswelt des Kilima-Ndscharo. 

Nos. a8, 39. 

Teitz: Ueber definitive Fixirung der Blattstriinge durch die Torsions- 
wirkung der Leitstrange (Taf. VIII). 

ScHRODT: Beitiilge zur Oeffnungs-Mechanik der Cycadeen-Antheren 
(Taf. IX). 
Nos. 30-33. 

Lindau : Ueber die Anlage und Entwicklung einiger Flechten (Taf. X). 

MiJLLER : Lichenes Portoricenses. 

Stephani : Porella Lcvieri^ Jack, et Stephani, n. sp. 

No. 33. Hansgirg : Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Algengattungen Entocladui^ 

Reinke (Entonemay Reinsch ex. p., Entodtrma^ Lagrh., Reinkia, 
Bzi. ? Peripligmatium^ Ktz.), und Pilinia, Ktz. {Acroblasta^ 
Reinsch) mit einem Nachtrage zu meiner in dieser Zeitschrift 
(1888, No. 14) veroffentlichen Abhandlung (Taf. XII). 

MOller: Revisio Lichenum Eschweilerianorum (continued in Not. 

Nos. 34-36. 

Veleno VSK^ : Zur Deutung der Fruchtschuppe der Abietineen (Taf. XI). 
MtJLLRR : Lichenologische Beitrage, XXX. 

Forsohxingen auf dem Gebiete der AgriculturphyBik (WolUiy). Bd. XI. 

WoLLNY : Electrische Kulturversuche. 

Raman N : Untersnchnngen iiber Waldboden. I. Abhandlung. 

Kraus : Das Wnrzelsystem der Runkelriiben und dessen Beziehungen zur 

Font- and Jagdseitmig, AUgemeine. Juli 1888. 

Brecher : Ueber den Anbau von Acer {Ncgundo) califomicutn. 

Hoffmann : Ueber den phaenologischen Werth von Blattfall und 

Periodical Literature. ci 

Gartenflora. Jahrgang XXXVII. 

Heft 13. Kegel: Aster alpinusy L. 3 speciosus^ Rgl., und Trichopilia Lehmanniy 

Rgl. (Taf. 1276). 

„ — KiJHN : Welche Samen der Levkoye bringcn gefiillt bluhende Blnmen ? 

„ — Alphabetisches Verzeichniss sammtlicher im Monat April 1888 

beschriebenen neueo oder abgebildeten alteren Pflanzen mit 
korzen Besdireibnngen (for May in Heft 15, for June in Heft 17, 
for July in Heft 19, for Angost in Heft ai, for September in 
Heft as). 

— Riss : Ein Nelkenfeind {Anihomyia radicum), 

14. Reg EL : Zygopetalum hrachypetalumy Lindl. 3 sUnopetalum^ Rgl. (Taf. 
„ — KiTTEL : Dendrobium {Demlrocoryne) speciosum^ Smith (Abb. 85), 

,, — BORNMULLER : Noch Einiges iiber Populus Steiniana nnd P, hybrida 

(Abb. 88). 

„ — Iberis Gurrexiana^ All. (Jh. sempervirenSy Lap.) (Abb. 90) ; Gahesia 
juncea^ Benth. (Abb. 91). 

y, 15. Zabel: Polygonum baldschuanicumj^Rgi. (Taf. 1278). 

„ — Hennings : Eine giftige Kaktee, Anhalonium Lewiniiy n. sp. (Abb. 92 

nnd 93). 

„ — Bredemeir : FreeHa refracta^ F. W. Klatt, var. aJba (Abb. 94). 

„ — WiTTMACK : Was ist Nidularium striatum und Mdkoyanum \ 

„ 16. Regel : Oncidium Lietui 7 aurco mcLCulatum^ Rgl. (Taf. 1 279). 

: Ixora alba, L. ; Pleurothallis platystcuhys^ Rgl. 


„ 17. Sprenger : Narcissus pachybulbus, D.R. ; Crocus Imperati, Ten., var. 

purpureus, Hort. Danun ; Cyrthanihus Mackennii^ Hook f. 
(Taf. 1280). 

„ 18. Regel : Cattleya labiata^ Lindl., var. magnifica^ Rgl. ; Quesnelia 

Wittmackiana, Rgl. (Taf. 1281). 

„ — Zabel: Beitriige zar Kenntniss der Gattnng StaphyUa^ L. (Abb. 113, 

114) (continned in No. 19, Abb. 117, 118). 

„ 19. WiTTMACK : Siephanandra incisa (Thbg.) Zabel. 

„ 20. Araucaria Cunninghamii (^hhh. 127). 

„ — Stephanotis floribunda in Frncht (Abb. 128, 129). 

„ 21. Sprenger: Begonia geranioides. 

„ — Alnus glutinosa^ L., var. /ti^fifio/a, Ehrh. (Abb. 131). 

„ — Nagy, von : Syringa japonica und eine Uebersicht der ^^riif^-Arten. 

„ 22. Stein : Eulophia maculcUa^ Rchb. f. (Taf. 1285). 

„ — Dammer : Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Fichtenformen. 

„ 23. Regel : Echinocactus texensis, Hopfer (Taf. 1 286). 

„ — Lindemuth : Ueber eine botanisch interessante Bimensorte (Abb. 137). 

„ 24. Regel : Ein nenes Zycpetalum : Z, Sanderianum, Rgl. (Taf. 1 287). 

Hedwigia. Bd. XXVII. 

Heft 7 nnd 8. 

Nordstedt: Einige Characeenbestimmungen. i. Ueber einige Chara- 
ceen im Herbarium des k. botanischen Gartens za Berlin. 
2. Ueber einige Characeen aus Puerto-Rico. 3. Ueber einige 
Cbaraceen aus Deutsch-Siid-west-Afrika. 

Heft 9 und 10. 

MoBius: Ueber einige in Portorico gesammelte Siisswasser- und 

cii Current Literature. 

Hedwigia {continued ). 

Stephani : Calycularia crispa^ Mitten. 

Hansgirg : De Spirogyra insigni (Hass), Ktz., nov. vax, falltui, Zygne- 
mate chalybeospermo, n. sp. et Z, rhynchommate^ n. sp. adjecto 
conspectu subgenenim, sectionnm, snbsectioonmqae generis 
Spirogyroi, Link, et Zygnematis (Ag.) de By. 

Karsten : Fragmenta mycologica, XXIII et XXIV. 

Lagerheim : Eine nene Entorrhiza. 
Heft II und 12. 

Warnstorf: Revision der Sphagna in der Bryotheca europaea von 

Rabenhorst and in einigen alteren Sammlnngen. 
Stephani : Westindische Hepaticae. I. Hepaticae portoricenses. II. 

Hepaticae ex insulis St Domingo et Domininica qaas collegit 


Dietel : Ueber einige anf Compositen vorkommende Rostpilze. 

Klebahn : Beobachtnng iiber die Sporenentleening des Ahoninm- 
zelschorfs, Rhytisma cuerinum^ Fr. 

Nawaschin : Ueber das auf Sphagnum squarrosum, Pers. parautirende 

Hefte, Botanische (Wigand's, Marburg). 

Heft III, heransgegeben von £. Dennert. 

WiGAND : Das Protoplasma als Fermentoiganismos. 
Hmnboldt. 1888 {continued). 

Pfeffer : Ueber Anlockung von Bacterien und einiger andem Orga< 
nismen durch chemische Reize. 

Haberlandt: Das Princip der Oberflachenvergrosserung im anato- 
mischen Bau der Pflanzen. 

Reiche : Ueber die Verandeningen, welche der Mensch in der Vegetation 
£uropa*s hervorgebracht hat, II. 

LUDWIG : Ueber einige merkwiirdige Rostpilze. 

MoEWES : 1st die Schuppenwurz {Lathraea squamaric^ eine thierfangende 

Beck : Die neuesten Anschauungen iiber die Pflanzen der Steinkohlenzeit. 
MoEWSS : Zur Biologie der Gattung Impatiens. 
Keller : Atavistische Erscheinungen im Pflanzenreich. 
Jahresbericht der naturhiBtoriBohen Gesellaohaft eu Hannoyer. 

Nos. 34-37. 

Andree : Vaccinium macrocarpum, Ait. 

: Pflanzenansiedlungen auf Neubruch. 

Hess : Tabelle zur Bestimmung der dem Rettig und Radieschen schad- 

lichen Insecten. 
Mejer : Veranderung der Flora der Eilenriede in den letzten 30 Jahren. 

JahreBbericht des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins der Bheinpfala. 
Landau, XLUI-XLIV. 

BoKORNY : Kurze Mittheilungen iiber die Bakterien im Brunnenwaiser. 
• : Neue Untersuchungen iiber den Vorgang der Silberabschei- 

dung durch aktives Albumen. 
: Das Wasserstoffsuperoxyd und die Silbeiabscheidung durch 

aktives Albumen. 

: Die Keimung der Samen. 

: Ein chemischer Unterschied zwischen lebendem und todtem 


Periodical Literature- ciii 

Jahresberioht der SohlesiBohen Ghesellschaft fur vstorlandisohe Kultar. 
LXV, 1887. 

Kassner : Ueber Lactnrin. 

: Ueber das fette Oel der Hirsefrucht 

POLECK : Ueber die fluchtigen Bestandtheile der Wurzel und des Worzel- 
stocks von Asarutn europacum. 

: Ueber die chemische Natur des aetherischen Oels von Asarum 

CoHN : Ueber die phjrsikalischen Eigenschaften des Tabaschir. 
: Ueber Mandragora. 

: Bericht uberdie Enthiillimgsfeier der Goppertschen Buste aaf der 

Breslaner Promenade. 
Engler : Ueber die Flora der Insel Socotra. 
FiCK : Resultate der Dnrchferschong der schlesischen Pbanerogamenflora 


HiERONYMUS : Ueber Tephrosia h^tcrantha, Griseb. 

: Ueber einige Algen des Riesengebirges. 

Krassnow, von : Versuch einer Entwicklongsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt 
in Central-Thian-Schan. 

LiMPRiCHT : Ueber Th. Giimpers Beitrage znr Entwicklongsgeschichte 
der Laubmoose. 

Pax : Ueber die BlUthenbildung der Capparidaceae, 

ScHROTER : Beitrage znr Kenntniss der nordischen Pilze. 

SONNTAG : Ueber die Diatomeen der Umgegend von Wiiste-Waltcrsdorf. 

Stenzel : Ueber Oderholzer. 

Stein : Ueber Flechten vom Congo tind aus dem Orient und iiber 
Strophanthus Ledienii. 

Jahrbuoher, Botanische (Engler). Bd. X. 

Ileft 3. Pax : Monographische Uebersicht iiber die Arten der Gattnng Primula 


f, — Engler : Plantae Marlothianae ; ein Beitrag znr Kenntniss der Flora 
Siid-Afrika's, II Dicotyledonae sympetalae (Taf. VII-X). 

„ — De Candollb: Plantae Lehmannianae in Guatemala, Costa Rica, 
Columbia, Ecuador, etc. collectae : Piperaceae. 

„ — ScHWACKE : Eine neue Olacinee {Tetrastylidium EngUri, Schwacke, 
n. sp.). 

„ 4. Palla : Zur Kenntniss der Gattung Scirpus (Taf. XI). 

„ — Schumann : Ueber einige verkannte oder wenig gekannte Geschlech- 
ter der Rubiaceen Siidamerikas. 

„ — Warming : Ueber Gronlands Vegetation. 

„ — SoLEREDER : Beitrage zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Aristolochiaoeen 
nebst Bemerkungen iiber den sjrstematischen Werth der Secret- 
zcllen und iiber die Structur der Blattspreite bei den Gyrocaipeen 
(Taf. XII-XIV). 

Jahrbuoher for wlssensohaftliche Botanik (Pringsheim). Bd. XIX. 
Heft 3. Went : Die Vermehrung der normalen Vacuolen durch Theilung (Tail 


„ — Schumann : Einige neue Ameisenpflanzen (Taf. X-XI). 

yt 4. Wakker: Studien iiber die Inhaltskorper der Pflanzenzelle (Taf. 

n — MCller, Carl : Ueber den Bau der Commissuren der Equisetenscheiden 
^Taf. XVI-XX). 

civ Current Literature. 

Jahrbuoher f&r wissensohaftliohe Botanik (Pringsheim) {coniinuid), 
Bd. XX. 

Heft I. Koch : Znr Entwicklungsgeschiclite der Rhinanthaoeen {Rhinanthus 

minor, Ehrh.) (Taf. I). 

„ — LoEBEL : Anatomic der Lanbblatter, vorziiglich der Blattgriin fUhreoden 
Gewebe (Taf. II nnd III). 

„ — MitLLER (Munden) : Spectralanalyse der Bluthenfarben (Taf. IV-VI). 

Jahrbiioher, Iiandwirthsohaftliohe (Thiel). Bd. XVII. 

Heft 4, 5. ScHULZE : Ueber die Bildongsweise des Asparagins und iiber die Bezie- 

htmgen der stickstonfreien StofTe zam Eiweissumsatz im Pflan- 

,, — Kreusler : Zam Nachweis von Nitrates im Erdboden, etc. 

„ — Frank : Bemerkungen zu vorstehendem Artikel. 

,y ^- Plath : Ueber die Nitrification des Ammoniaks and seiner Salze, II. 

„ 6. LtJPKE : Ueber die Bedeatong des Kaliums in der Pflanze (Taf. XV). 

„ — Meyer : Untersachangen iiber die Entwicklang einiger paiasitischen 

Pilze bei saprophytischer Ernahrung (Taf. XVI-XIX). 

Mittheilnnaren sua dem Natarwiaaensohaftliohen Verein fur Neu-Vor- 
pommem and Bu^n in QreifiBwald. Jahrg. XIX (1887). 

MoLLER : Ueber das Verkommen der Gerbsaare ond ihre Bedeatang fiir 
den Stoffwechsel in den Pflanzen. 

Mittheilungen, Botanisohe, aus den Tropen. Heft II. 
SCHIMPER : Die epiphytische Vegetation Amerikas. 

Mittheilungen der Oeogr. Oesellachafb (far Thtiringen) su Jena. Bd. VII, 
Heft I, a. 

Haussknecht : Beitiage zar Gattang Epilobium. 

Mittheilungen des botanisohen Vereins for den Kreli Freiburg and 
daa Iiand Baden. 

No. 45. Zahn : Sommer nm den Feldberg. 
,, 46. Lagerheim : Mykologisches aas dem Schwarzwald. 
„ — Winter : Unsere Bnmnenflora. 

Nos. 47, 48. 
„ — Kneucker : Beitrage znr Flora von Karlsrnhe. 
„ — Mbz : Die amerikanischen Lauiaceen des DoU'schen Herbars. 

Nos. 49, 50. 
,y — Klein : Beitrage zar Technik mikroskopischer Dauerpraparate. 
„ — Neae Standorte aas der Pfalzer Flora. 
„ — - Klein : Anton de Bary (Nachraf). 

Nos. 51, 5a. 
y, — ScHEURLE : Die badischen Weidenarten. 
9, — ScHATZ: Die badischen Ampferbastarde (continaed in No. 53). 

Mittheilungen des Vereins f&r Brdkunde. Halle a. S. 1888. 

SCHULZ : Die floristische Litteratar fiir Nordthiiringen, den Harz and den 
provinzialsachsischen wie anhaltischen Antheil an der nord- 
deatschen Tiefebene. 

Periodical Literature. cv 

Mitthailmuren, Monatliohe, ana dem Gesftmmtgebiete der NaturwiMen- 
aohaften (Hmh). Bd. V. 

No. 5. HuTH : Nachricht von einer alten nnd wenig bekannten pharmazentischen 

„ 6. AsCHENSON : Die Verbreitnng von Achillea cartaliginia^ Ledeb., nnd 

Polygonum danubiale, Kem. im Gebiete der Flora der Proyinz 

n — Hock : Einige Hanptergebnisse der Pflanzengeographie in den letzten 20 

Jahren (continued in No. 7). 
,» 7. Hager : Ueber die giftige Wirknng einiger Lathyrus-AxXta. 
„ 8. HuTH : Die Verbreitnng der Pflanzen durch die Excremente der Thiere. 
,y — H(>CK : Phaenologisches aus Friedeberg, Nm. 

MittheUunffen, Fetermann's. Bd. XXXIV. Nos. 8, 9. 

Semler: Die Veranderungen, welche der Mensch in der Flora Kali- 
fomiens bewirkt luit. 

Monatstohrift, Deutaohe Botanisohe. 1888. 

No. I. Callm^e : Beitrage znr Caricologie (continued in Nos. 4, 5). 

y, — LuDWiG : Biologische Notizen. 

„ — Enrico : Neue Standorte einiger selteneren Rosen der italianischen und 

sUdtirolischen Flora. 

„ — LORCH : Beitrage zur Flora der Laubmoose in der Umgegend von Mar- 

Nos. 2, 3. Schneider: Ueber Hauptspecies nnd Zwischenformen innerhalb der 


»y — WiESBAUR : Verbreitnng der Veronica agrestis in Oesterreich. 

yy — Eine Naturforscherversammlung in Niimberg (an unpublished paper hy 


»i 4,5. ScHEUERLE : Ein siidlicher Standort der ScUix livida^ Whlbg. 

„ — Wettstein, von : Zur Verbreitnng der Veronica agrestis, L., in Nieder- 


„ — Artzt : Zur Flora von Schluderbach in Siidtirol (continued in Nos. 6, 7). 

I, — WoRLEiN : Neue und kritische Pflanzen der Umgegend von Miinchen. 

„ — DUrer: Der ' Hengster' bei Frankfurt a. M. mit seinen botanischen 


„ — Geisenheyner : Ueber eine Fasciation. 

„ — KoNiG : Beitrag znr Algenflora von Cassel (continued in Nos. 6, 7). 

M 6, 7. Freyn : Beitrag zur Flora von Syrien nnd des dlicischen Taurus. 

„ — Kaulfuss : Flora von Lichtenfels in Ober-Franken (continued in Nos. 

8, 9). 

,, 8, 9. Schneider : Uebersicht der sudetischen und systematische Gruppimng 

der enropaeischen Archieracia (continued in Nos. 11, 12). 

„ — Winter: Pilatus. 

„ — WiESBAUR : Zur Verbreitnng der Veronica agrestis, L, in Ober-Oester- 


Beitrag znr Flora des Regnitzgebiets (zusammengestellt vom Bot Verein 
in Niimberg) (continued in Nos. 11, 12). 

„ — Roll : Die Thiiringer laubmoose nnd ihre geographische Verbreitnng. 

„ 10. Sagorski : Plantae criticae Thuringiae. 

„ — Zigert : Carex paniculata x canescens, n« hybr., C. silesiaca, m. eia 

nener Car/x-bastard in Schlesien. 

„ — Callier ; Botanische Excursion ins Riesengebirge. 

cvi Current Literature, 

Monatosohxift, Deutsohe BotaniBohe {continued), 
Nos. 8,9. Hallieb : Convolvulus arvensis^ L., var. corolla partita, 
fj — Knuth : Die Orobanchen Schleswig-Holsteins. 
„ II, 12. 

Geisenheyner : Bemcrkungen und Znsatze znr dritten Anfla^ der 
Kxcnrsionsflora des Grossherzogtums Hessen von Dosch and 

Sammlung naturwiflseiiflohaftlioher Vortrage (Hath). Berlin. Bd. II, Heft 
7 und 8. 

HUTH : Die Hakenklimmer (mit 2 Taf. und 6 Holzschn.) ; Ueberstamm- 
friichtige Pflanzen. 

Sohriften der physikaliBoli-Okononiiaoheii GesellBohaft lu KOnigsberg i. 


Caspary : Einige neue fossile Holzer Preussens nebst kritischen Bemer- 
knn^en iiber die Anatomie des Holzes and die Bezeichnong 
fossiler Holzer. 

Abromeit : Gedachtnissrede aaf Prof. Dr. Robert Caspary. 

Bericbt iiber die 25. Versammlung des preuss. bot. Vereins za Insterbaig 
am 5. Okt. 1886. 

Klien : Ueber die Fanktionen der sogenannten LegaminosenknoUchen. 

: Ueber das Wurzelwachstham entlaubter Bilnme. 

Caspary : Ueber neoe fossile Holzer aus Ost- and West Preossen. 

KiTTHAUSEN : Ueber die Alkaloide der Lapinen. 

Klien : Ueber vegetative Bastarderzeogong dorch Impfong. 

Sohriften des NatiirwiaaenaohafUiolLen Vereina far 8ohle8wig«Holatein. 
Kiel. Bd. VII, Heft I. 

FUCHS : Beitiiige zor parasitischen Pilz-Flora Ost-Holsteins. 

Sitsungsberiolite der Gesellachaft fiir Morphologie und Fhysiologie an 
Munohen. Bd. IV. Heft i. 

Hartig : Ueber den Einflass der Verdanstungsgrosse aaf den anatomi- 
schen Baa des Holzes. 

Sitsungsberiolite der Ghesellsohaft naturforschender Freunde an Berlin. 
1888, Nos. 3-10. 

ASCHERSON : Ueber eine ans Ceylon stammende, nach Veilchen rie- 
chende Droge, die aus den Antheren von Mesua ftrrea, L. 

Magnus : Einige Beobachtangen betreffend die BestHnbang von Spergu* 
laria salina, Presl. 

. : Ueber das epidemische Aaftreten einer Urophfyctis-Axt, die cr 

U, Kriegeriana nennt, aaf Carum Carol, 

WiTTMACK : Mittheilnng des Herm A« Ernst in Caracas iiber fischveigif* 

tende Pflanzen. 
: Ueber Sanseviera longiflora^ Sims. 

: Ueber den Bliitenstand einer ftir den Gartenbau neaen 


ScHRODT : Ueber eine Vergiftong darch Colckicum autumnale, 

Magnus : Ueber Warzeln von Passiflora mit kleinen seitlichen V«r- 
dickangen verursacht von Heterodora, 

ScHARRER : Ueber Volksarzneimittel in Transkaakasien. 

Magnus : Ueber eine epidemische Erkrankang der Gartennelken. 

Periodical Literature. cvii 

Sitsnxigsberiohie der K. baier. Akademie der WiBsexiaoluiften. Munchen. 
1887. Heft 3. 
Radlkofer : Einige Co/^riJ-Aiten. 

SitsnxigsberiolLie der physikaliBoli-medioinisoheii Oesellaohafl in Wiiri- 
borg. 1888 {continued), 

BuMM : Ueber Einwirkmig der Eiter-Microorganismen aaf Bindegewebe. 

Sitningsberichte and Abhandlangen der NatorwiaaenaohafUiohen Geaell- 
aohaft Isia in Dresden. 1888. Jan. — June. 

KoSMAHL : Die Fichtennadeliothe in den Sachsischen Staatsforsten. 

Sitinngberiohte der physikalieoh-mediainisohen Sooietat an Brlangen. 
Heft 19, 1887. 

Tamba : Die Herknnft der Zellkeme in den Gefassthyllen von Cncnrbita. 
(Abb. 88). 

Verhandlungen dee Botaniaohen Vereina der ProTina Brandenburg. 
Jahrgang XXIX (1887). 

Magnus und Kohne: Bericht Uber die 46. Hanptveraammlung zn 
Buckow am 5. Juni 1887. 

Magnus: Ueber den Einflnss des Standorts aaf die Ausbildnng des 
Leontopodium {tlpinum^ Cass.; Aaftreten von Lanbblattem 
unter den Katzchen von Popuhts tremula ; Ueber die Bestan- 
bnngsverhaltuisse von Silene inflata, Sm. in den Alpen bei 
Zermatt ; Ueber die Verbreitung von Caeoma CheliiUmii^ziffi. ; 
Berichtigong ; Verzeichniss der am i. Mai, 5. and 6. Joni bei 
Buckow gesammelten Pilze. 

WiTTMACK : Ulex europaeusy L. and Zelkova acuminaUt, 

SCHEPPIG : Cytisus Adami, hort. ohne Riickschlage. 

AscHERSON : Reisebriefe ans Aegypten. 

: Bericht Uber die 47. Hauptversammlnng za Berlin am 

29. Oktober 1887. 

Mez : Myrmekophilie der Laaracen-Gattong PUmothyrium, 

Thomas : Ueber das darch eine Tenthredinide erzeagte Myelooeddiam 
von Lonicera, 

• : Bemerknngen iiber die Holzkropfe von Birken, Aspen and 
Magnus : Augost Wilhelm Eichler. Nachraf (mit Bildniss). 

KXrnbach : Die bisher im Koniglichen Botanischen Garten za Berlin 
beobachteten Uredineen and Ustilagineen mit Einscblnss von 
Protomycei, Mit Vorwort von P. Magnas. 

Magnus : Nachtrag hlerzo. 

: Peronospora effusa, Grev. aaf den iiberwinterten Spinatpflanz- 

chen bei Berlin, nebst Beobachtangen iiber das Ueberwintem 
einiger Peronospora-AiXisn., 

Ludwig : Die Fampflanzen des reassischen Vogtlandes. 

Seemen, von : Carex acutiformis x filifarmis^ Aschs. ; Melicapicta^ C. 
Koch, bei Solza in Thiiringen. 

Beyer : Ueber Primeln ans der Section Euprimula^ Schott {Primula 
vert's, L.) and deren Bastarde. 

Mez : Beitrage zar Kenntniss des Umbelliferen-Embryos. 

Winkler : Die Keimpflanzen der Koch*schen Clematia-Arten« 

- : Die Keimpilanze von Ccry/us Avel/ana, L. (Taf. I). 

cviii Current Literature, 

Verhandlungen des Botanisohen Vereina der Frovins Bimndenbur^ 

ScHiNZ : Beitnlge mr Kenntniss der Flora von Deatsch-Siidwest-Afrilca 
and der angrenzenden Gebiete, I. 

Laux: £in Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Leitbiindel im Rhizom mono- 

kotyler Pflanzen (Taf. II. nnd III. and i Holzichnitt). 

Winkler : Ueber das Artenrecht des Chenopodium opulifolium, Schrad. 
and CficifoHunit Sm. (mit 3 Holzschn.). 

POTONii : Ueber die fossile Pflanzengattung Tylodendnm* 
Friedel : Die alten Weiden von Berlin. 
AscHERSON : Ueber Knaths Flora von Schleswig-Holstein. 
ViRCHOW : Zwei Riesentannen in den Voralpen des Canton Bern. 

Seemen, von : Anemone ranunculoides x nemorosa bei Berlin 

Magnus: Peter Simon Pallas. 

— : Robert Caspary. Nachruf (mit Bildniss). 

: Ueber die Bestaubungsverhaltnisse der Spergularia salina, 

Presl. nebst einer brieflidien Mittheilung von Aag. Schalz. 

Jacobasch : Mittheilungen : A. Teratologisches {Cyclamen persicum^ 
Gagea pratensis^ mit Holzschn., Papaver somniferum and Dip- 
sacus Silvester) ; B. Abnorme Bliithenzeit von Papaver Rhoeas ; 
C. Floristisches. 

Verluuidliiiigen des xiatiirhistorisohen Vereina der prenssiflohen Bhein- 
Iftnde, 'Westfalena und des Beg.-Besirks Osnabrtiok. Jahrgang XLIV 


Piedboeuf : Ueber devonische Pflanzen im anteren Wnpperthale. 
GURTT : Ueber die verkieselten Coniferenstamme in Apache Coanty. 
Brandis : Ueber die Bambasen von Birma. 

KoRNiCKE : Ueber die wilde Stammform des Daha, Pennisteum spica" 
lum, Kom. 

Kreusler : Ueber Assimilation and Athmang der Pflanzen. 

VersachBatationeiiy Die IiftndwirthBcliaftliohen (Nobbe). 
Bd. XXXV. 

Heft 3. NoBBR, Schmidt, Hittner und Richter : Ueber den EinBuss der 

Keimangsenergie des Samens aaf die Entwicklang der Pflanze. 

„ : Untersuchangen iibcr 

den Einfloss der Kreazbefrnchtang aof die Nachkommenschaft. 

y, — Heine : Die physiologische Bedeatang der sogenannten Starkescheide. 

,, 4. Dietrich : Zor Kenntniss des indischen Weizens. 

Heft 5,6. Mayer : Heilang der Mosaikkrankheit des Tabaks. 

„ — Planta, von : Ueber die Zusammensetzang der Knollen von Stachys 

ViertelJahrMchrift, deateohe, fur OfTentliche Ghesundlieitopflege, 
Bd. XX, Heft 4. 

BiscHOFF : Ueber getrocknete Pilze des Handels. 

Zeiteohrift der deutsohen geologischen Gesellsohaft. 
Band XL. Heft i. 

KoLBB : Zar Kenntniss von Insektenbohrgangen in fossilen Holzem 
(Taf. XI). 

Periodical Literature. cix 

ZeitMhrift des deutMhen Falastina-Vereins. 
Bd. XI, Heft 2. 

Anderlind : Die Frachtbaame in Syrien, insbesondere Palaestina. 

Zeitaohilft far analytiBolie Chemie (Fresenins). 
Jahrgang XXVII. 

Heft I. BoRGMANN : £in Beitrag zur Priifung von Gewiirzpnlvem. 
„ 3. Horn : Ueber das Oel der Samcn yon Jatropha Curcas. 

Zeitoohrift for Biologie (Kiihne nnd Voit). 

Bd. XXV, Neue Folge, Bd. VII. 

Heft I Salkowski : Ueber das eiweisslosende Ferment der Faulnissbacterien 

und seine Einwirkung anf Fibrin. 

Zeitsohxift fur Hygiene (Koch and Fliigge). 

Bd. IV, Heft 2. 

Neisser : Versuche iiber die Sporenbildong bei Xerosebacillen, Strepto- 
kokken und Choleraspirillen. 

Smirnow : Ueber das Wesen der Abschwachung pathogcner Bakterien 
(m. Tafel). 

NuTTALL : Experimente iiber die bacterienfeindlichen Einfliisse des 
tbierisdien Korpeis. 

Bd. V, Heft I und 2. 

EIsmarch : Die Milzbrandsporen als Testobjecte von Desinficientien. 
Cornet : Ueber das Verhalten der Tuberkelbacillen im thierischen 

Organismus unter dem Einfluss entwicklungshemmender Stoffe. 
KiTASATO : Die Widerstandsfahigkeit der Cholerabacterien gegen das 

Eintrocknen und gegen die Hitze. 

LUDERITZ : Zur Kenntniss der anaeroben Bacterien (m. Taf.). 

Babes : Ueber isolirt farbbare Antheile von Bacterien (m. Taf.). 

Cornet : Die Verbreitung der Tuberkelbacillen ausserhalb des Korpers. 

Frankel : Die Einwirkung der Kohlensaure auf die Lebensthatigkeit 
der Microorganismen. 

Zeitvohrift fOr Klinlsohe Medioin. 
Band XV, Heft i, 2. 

Baumgarten : Zur Kritik der MetschnikofTschen Pbagocytenlehre. 

Zeitoohrift fOr NatarwisBensoliafteii (Halle). 
4. Folge, VII. Band, Heft 2. 

Schlechtendal, von : Ueber Zoocecidien. 

ZeitMhrift f&r pliysiologisohe Ghemie (Hoppe-Seyler). Bd. XII, Heft 6. 
Amthor :^ Ueber den Saccharomyces apiculatus. 
Bd. XII, Heft 1-3. 

Jacobson : Ueber einige Pflanzenfette. 

Hoppe-Seyler : Ueber Huminsubstanzen, ibre Entstehung und ihre 
Eigenschaften. I. Ueber die Bildung von Huminsubstanzen in 
Pflanzen. II. Veibalten der Cellulose und des Holzgummi. 
III. Ueber die Zusammensetzung und Eigenschaften der 

LiMBOURG : Ueber die antiseptische Wirkung der Gallensauren. 

PoHL : Bemerkungen iiber kiinstlich hergestellte Eiweissnuclelne. 

KossEL : Ueber das Theophyllin, einen neuen Bestandtheil des Thees. 


ex Cttrrent Literature. 

Zeitsohrift fur wissensoliaftliohe Mikroskopie (Behrens). 
Bd. V. Heft 3. 

Griesbach : Theoretisches iiber mikroskopische Farberei. 

Resegotti : Ulteriori esperienze salla colorazione delle figure cario- 

IIein RICHER : 1st das Congoroth aU Reagenz aof Cellulose brauchbar ? 

Zeitsohrift, Jesaisolie, fur NaturwiasenaolLafb. 
Bd. XXII (Neue Folge. Bd. XV), Heft 3 und 4. 

Stahl : Pflanzen und Schnecken. Biologische Studie iiber die Schutz- 
mittel der Pflanzen gegen Schneckenftass. 

BovERi: Zellen-Studien (m. 15 Tafeln). 

Zeitunfir, Botanisohe (Graf zu Solms-Laubach ; J. Wortmann). 
Jahrgang XLVI {concluded), 

MUller : Ueber die sogenannten Spermat\^ der Ascomyceten. 

Zacharias: Ueber Strasburger*s Schrift, Kern- und 2^11tbeilung im 

Wortmann : Zur Beurtheilnng der Kriimmungserscheinungen der 

VocHTiNG : Ueber die Lichtstellung der Laubblatter. 

Karsten : Ueber die Entwicklung der Schwimmblatter bei einigen 

De Bary : Species der Saprolegnieen (Taf. IX und X). 

Engelmann : Die Purpurbacterien und ihre Beziehungen zum Licht 

Beyerinck : Die Bacterien der Papilionaceen-Knollchen (Taf. XI). 

Fischer : Zur Kenntniss der Pilzgattung Cyttaria (Taf. XII). 

Hartig : Ueber die Bedeutung der ReservestofTe fiir den Banm. 


Album, The OroUd. 

VoL VIII (July-Dec. 1888) contains plates and descriptiona oi^ffoul- 
Utia BrockUhurstiana^ Lindley; Vanda taniellata Boxalli, 
Rchb. f. ; Dendrobium macrophylluniy A. Richard ; Cypripedium 
Amesianum^\^''^\2JSi%\ Batemannia CoUeyi^'LvadXty \ Cattleya 
Laurencianay Rchb. f. ; Odontoglossum Rossii Amesianum ; 
Masdrvallia Harryana decora; Oncidium intermedium ^ Knowles 
and Westcott; LcLclia purpurcUa Blenheimense^ Hort. ; Brcusia 
Keiliana tristis^ Rchb. f. ; Odontoglossum vexillarium roseum, 
Hort. ; Trichopilia tortiliSy Lindley ; Cypripedium Fitchicmum^ 
Hort. ; Rodriguezia secunday Kunth ; CcUasetum Bungerothii^ 
N. £. Br. ; Cattleya Gas Relliana alba ; CaUmthe masuca^ 
Lindley ; Odontoglossum eugeneSy Hort. Veitch ; Disa racemcsa^ 
L. ; Cattleya btcolor Measuresiana ; Angraecum caudatum, 
Lindl. ; Comparcttia falcata^ Poeppig et £ndl. ; Oncidium 
Jonesianum flavensy Rchb. f. 

Annf^.'piy and Magaiine of Natural Hiatory. Ser. 6, Vol. 11, Nos. 7-1 a. 

KiDSTON : On the fructification of two coal-measure Ferns. (PI. I.) 

: On a new species of Calamite from the Middle Coal-measnres 

{Eucalamites {Catamites) britannicuSy Weiss Ms,). (PI. VII.). 

ScHNETZLER : Observations on a colouring-matter of the water of the 
Lake de Bret. 

Periodical Literature, cxi 

AnnalB of Botany. 

Vol II {cmtinueeT). 

No. VI. Johnson : Arceuthobium Oxycedri, (PL X A.) 

Rendle: On the development of the Aleorone-Grains in the Lupin. 
(PI. X B.) 

Murray and Boodle : On the strnctare of Spongocladia^ Aresch. 
{Sfxmgodendron^ Zanard.) with an account of new forms. 
(Woodcuts 8-1 1.) 

Reid : Notes on the Geological History of the Recent Flora of Britain. 

Hartog : Recent Researches on the Saprolegnieae, a Critical Abstract of 
Rothert*s results. 

Marshall Ward : Illustrations of the Structure and Life history of 
Puccinia Graminis, (PI. XI, XII.) 

Vines : On the systematic position of Isoftes, L. (second note). 

Rendle : On the occurrence of Starch in the Onion. 

ScHONLAND : A modification of Pagan's Growing Slide. (Woodcuts 1 2 
and 13.) 

No. VII. Campbell: The development of Pilularia globulifera, L. (PI. XIII, 

XIV, XV.) 
Murray and Boodle : A structural and systematic account of the genus 
Struvea, (PI. XVI.) 

SchQnland : Contributions to the Morphology of the Mistletoe ( Viseum 
aidum.U) (PI. XVII.) 

Johnson : On Sphaerococcus coronopifolius^ Stachh. (PI. XVIIL) 

Ridley : On the foliar organs of a new species of Utricularia from St 
Thomas, West AMca, (PI. XIX.) 

Hartog: On the floral organogeny and anatomy of Brownea and 
Sariua, (Woodcuts 14-16.) 

Marshall Ward : A lily disease. (PI. XX-XXIL) 

Farlow ; Apospory in Pteris aquilina, (Woodcuts 17-20.) 

Vines : On the relation between the formation of tubercles on the roots 
of Leguminosae and the presence of Nitrogen in the soil. 

Farmer: On the development of the endocarp in Sambttcus nigra. 
(Woodcuts a 1-23.) 

A«olepiad, The. Vol V. No. 18. 

A history of original researches in Therapeutics. Atropa Mandragora. 

Botanical Bxohange Olub of the British lales. 
Report for 1887. 

Bulletin of Miacellaneoaa Information. Royal Gardens, Kew, 1888. 
No. 20. Colonial finit (continued in Nos. 21, 22). 
„ »- India Rubber in Upper Burma. 
„ 23. Lagos Rubber {Ficus Vogelii, Miq.). 
„ — Liberian coffee at Straits Settlements. 
„ — Tea oil and cake {Camellia Sasanqua^ Shb.). 
„ — Demerara Pink Root {Spigelia anthelmia, L.). 
„ — Food Grains of India {Coix gigantea^ Roxb.). 
„ — Toruba Indigo {Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Bth.). 
„ — Trinidad Ipecacuanha {Cephailis lomefUosa, W.). 
„ — Treatment of vines in France. 
„ — Huskless barley. 





cxii Current Literature. 

Bulletin of MlaoelUuieoiia InfomiAtioii 'jconHmud). 

No. 25. Rjunie ^Boehmeria nivea, H. f.^ 'oontioned in No. 24^. 
24. InhambaDe Copal {Copaifera Gcrskiana, Btb.). 

— CnltlTatioii of Rice in Bengal. 

— Silkworm Thorn {Cudrania triloba, Hanoe.}. 

„ — Jamaica India Robber (JForsUromaJhrUmnda^ Don.). 
„ — Seedlings of togar cane at Barbados. 

Chronicle, The Chwdenen*. Series 5. Vol. IV. 

No, 80. RoLFE : Megeulinium scaberulum, n. sp. 

~~ Vegetable products in Central Africa. 

— Smith, W. G. : Disease of Garden Hdleboret : Peroncsfora Ficariae, 
TuL (Fig. 3;. 

„ 81. Reichenbach, f. : Tltunia candidissima, n. sp. ; Epidendron auricmli' 
gerum, n. sp. 

— RoLFE : Angratcum tridactylites, n. sp. 

— Foster : Iris Korolkowi (Fig. 3). 

— Pinus Sabiniana, Dongl. (Fig. 4). 
„ — Westwood : The Pear Midge (Fig. 5). 
,y 82. Johnson : Helithrysum devium, n. sp. (from Madeira). 
„ — Ostrowskia magnificat R^L (Fig. 6). 
„ 83. Reichenbach, f. : Megaciinium oxyodon, n. sp. ; Airanihus ophiopUe- 

tnmy n. sp. ; Spathioglottis aurea, Lindl. (Fig. 9). 
„ — Smith, W. G. : Disease of Omithogalum, Puccinia Liliacearum, 

Duby (Fig. 11). 

,, 84. Heuchera sanguima (Fig. 13) ; Styrax obassia (Fig. 14). 

„ 85. S. : Funkias (Fig. 17, F, grandijlora), 

„ — Hameria collina (Fig. 19). 

„ 86. Baker : Aloe {Etialo€) penduliflora^ n. sp. 

,, — RoLFE: Masdevallia plaiyrackis, n, si^. 

„ — Cyclopodium Saintlegerianum (Fig. 20). 

„ — Baker and Foster : Irises. 

„ — Smith, W. G. : Disease of Lilies. Peronoipora elliptica (Fig. 21). 

„ — Nicholson : Stuartia pseudo-Camellia, Max. (Fig. 22). 

„ — A proliferous strawberry (Fig. 23). 

,, 87. Reichenbach, f. : Saccolobium cerinum, n. sp. ; Bollea kemixantha. 

n. sp. 

„ — Plagianthus Lyalli (Fig. 24). 

„ — Mueller, von : The Melbourne Herbariam. 

„ — Schomburgkia tibicinis (Fig. 25). 

„ 88. RfilCHBNBACH, F. : Odontoglossum Hruhyanum, n. sp. 

„ — Lilhospermum graminifolium (Fig. 2 7) ; Lisianthus Russelianus (Fig. 28 ). 

„ 89. Dewar : Pentstemon rotundif alius, n. sp. (Fig. 31). 

„ — Masters : The Calabrian pine {Pinus pyrenaica, Lap. Fig^,32). 

„ — Arauja graveolens (Fig. 33). 

„ 90. Reichenbach, f. : Phalaenopsis Buyssoniana, n. sp. 

„ — Rhododendron Colletianumy Aitch. et Hemsl. (Fig. 38) ; Convolvulus 

tenuissimus (Fig. 39). 

„ — Croeosma aurea (Figs. 40, 41). 

„ 91. Rolfe : Masdevallia punctata, n.s^. 


Periodical Literature, cxiii 

Chroniole, The Oardenen* {continutd). 
No. 91. W. : Ckironia peduruularis (Fig. 42). 
'— Abnormal fruit of Opuntia (Fig. 43). 

— Pentapera sicula (Fig. 45). 
„ 9a. Reichenbach, F. : Oncidium robustissimumf n. sp. 
„ — Masters : Passifiora Micrsii (Fig. 46). 
„ — WOLLEY DOD : The gum Cistus, 
„ — Ursinia pulchra (Fig. 47) ; Roupellia grata (Fig. 48). 

— Smith, W. G. : Black Canker of bulbs. 
93. Pterocaryafraxini/olia (Fig. 53). 

„ — Juglans mandshurua (Fig. 53). 

„ — Adventitious buds on Phalaenopsis Stuartiana (Fig. 54). 

n 94* Pseusdophoenix Sargenti : a new palm from Florida (Fig. 56). 

„ — Douglas : The genus Primula. 

n — Lilium fupaleme (Fig. 57). 

,, 95. Dragon trees in Madeira (illustrated). 

„ 96. Fraser : Enemies of the apple and pear (Figs. 59-67). 

I, — RoLFK : Catasetum fuliginosum^ Lindl. 

„ — Hippeastrum rcticulcUum (Fig. 68). 

„ — Douglas : The genus Stanhopea (Fig. 69). 

„ 97. O'Brien, J. : Cypriptdium Elliotianum, n. sp. 

„ — Rolfe : The genus Poiycynis. 

— Ellacombe : Plant-names a thousand years ago. 

— Nicholson : The Persimmon {Diospyras virginiana) at Kew (Figs. 71, 
7 a) ; Ccusalpinia japmica^ Sieb. et Zucc. (Fig. 73). 

, , 98. Rolfe : Dendrophylax Fawceiti^ n. sp. 

„ — Begonia boliviensis^ Veitchiiy socotrana (Figs. 75-77); Arthrotaxis 

selaginoides (Fig. 79). 
„ 99. Newberry : The early history of vine culture in England. 
„ — Crocosma aurea, var. macuiaia. Baker (Fig. 8p). 

- Masters : Decaschistia ficifolia^ n. sp. 

- Maxillaria fuscata (Fig. 81). 
„ 100. Eucalyptus viminalis (Fig. 8a). 
„ — Reichenbach, f. : Cynoches versicolor^ n. sp. 
„ — Calandrinia oppositi/oUa, S. Watson, sp. nov. (Fig. 83). 
,, — Pinus Pifua (Figs. 84, 85). 

„ 1 01. Baker : Eucharis grandijlora. Planch., var. Moorti^ Baker. 
„ — Arutidina bambusae/olia (Fig. 87). 
„ — J. O. W. : Callidium {Gracilia) pygmaea (Fig. 9a). 
„ loa. Baker : Lilium (^Archelirion) Henryi^ n. sp. 

— Brown : LHsa lacera, Sw. and var. muUifida^ N. E. Br. (Figs. 93, 94). 

— Nicholson : Phillyrea decora (Fig. 96). 
103. Pinus Laricio (Fig. 97, 99). 

- Rolfe : Catasetum Camettianum, n. sp. 
„ — Reichenbach, f. : Cypriptdium insigne, Wall., var. Horsmanianum^ 

n. var. 

„ — 0*Brien : Satyrium cameum (Fig. 98). 
„ — Ficus Roxburghii, Wall, (with PUte). 
„ 104. Arbutus Andrachne (Fig. 100). 


cxiv Current Literature. 

Ohroniole, The Gardeners' {continued). 

No. 104. Reichenbach, f. : Cleisostoma ringens^ n. sp. 

„ — 'R^oyiYH I Stapeiia gigantea {¥'\g, loi), 

„ — Crataegus nuxicana^ var. CarrUrii (Fig. 104). 

„ — Coniocybe pallida (Fig. 105). 

M ^05' Symphyandra Hoffmanni^ Pantozsek (Fig. 107). 

„ — J. O. W. : The red grub of the plum (Fig. 108). 

,, — Pinus CouUeri (Fig. 109). 

Oasette, Agricultural Student's. 

New Series. Vol. III. 

Gilbert: Results of experiments at Rothamsted on the growth of 

: Results of experiments at Rothamsted on the growth of root- 


£. K. : Field experiments. 

Brown : Microorganisms with special relation to Anthrax. 

Maude : Rare plants near the College (Cirencester). 

Vol. IV, part I. 

Harker: Studies of Grasses. 

A. H. : Visit to Sutton's Grass Garden. 

Oossipy Science. 1888. 

No. 284. Bennett: Remarks on British Botany and on Plant Collecting. 
„ — Jenner: Notes on the Flora of the South Downs. 
„ 285. Lett: The Sunflower. 
„ — Riches: The economic products of plants. 

„ Gillett : Botanical notes at Hastings. 

„ CONFAR : Aftergrowth among Hardwood and Coniferous Tree-stumps. 

,1 286. Arnold : Lathyrus iuberosus in Sussex. 

„ BuLMAN : The red leaf again : a reply (continued in No. 287). 

„ 287. Worsley-Benison : The Sunflower. 

„ HowsE : Fungus-Forays in France. 

„ a 88. Odell : Notes on fieisciation in Pyrethrum. 
,, Confar: Abnormal growths on forest-trees. 

Qrevillea. Vol. XVII. 

No. 81. Cooke : New British Fungi (continued in No. 83). 
„ — Massee : British P3rrenomycetes. 
„ — Cooke : Berkeley and Curtis tjrpes. 
„ : Australasian Fungi. 

- : British Hyphomycetes. 

- — - : Exotic Fungi (continued in No. 82). 

- : Mutinus bambusinus in Britain (with Plate). 

„ 8a. Synopsis Pyrenomycetum. 

„ — Cooke : Notes and Queries on Russulae. 

„ — Phillips: British Discomycetes. Notes and additions, No. i. 

History of Berwickshire Naturalists' Olub. Vol. XII. 

Stuart : Contrasts between the Scottish and kandinavian Floras, with 

a few remarks on the Scenery. 
Amory : Alnmouth Marine Algae. 


Periodical Literature. cxv 

History of the Berwiokahire Naturalists' Olub {continued ). 

Paul : List of Fungi '(Hjrmenomycetes) fotmd mostly in the neighbour- 
hood of Roxburgh in 1887, and hitherto unrecorded from the 
district of the Club. 

loones Flantamm (Hooker). 

VoL VIII, Part I, contains plates and descriptions of — PolydrcLgma tncU- 
lotiformisy H. f. ; Sphyranthera capitellaia, H. f. ; Ptychopyxis 
costaiay Miq, ; Andrcuhne fruticosa^ Dene. ; Rubus Henryi^ 
Hemsl. and O. Ktze. ; Scortechinia Kingiiy H. f. ; PUUystigma 
myristiceumy R.Br. ; MegaphylUua perakensis Hemsl. ; Mun- 
ronia unifolicUaf Oliv. ; Sageretia fcrrugineay Oliv. ; EletUher<h 
coccus Henryiy Oliv. ; Wendlandia {Sestinia^ Henryi^ Oliv. ; 
Othonna camosay Less. var. ; Lophopyxis Maingayi, H. f. ; 
Schisandra propinqua^ H. f. and Th. var. ; Petrocosnua sinensis y 
Oliv. ; Aster ptrfoliaiusy Oliv. ; Mussaenda mutabiliSy Hemsl. ; 
NcLsturtium Henryiy Oliv. ; Bombax Jenmani, Oliv. ; Phyl- 
lohoea sinensis, OUv. ; Lysiloma Sadicu, Bth. ; Oldenburgia 
Papionunty D. C. ; Stocksia droAuica, Bth. ; Caragana decorti- 
cans, Hemsl. 

Part II: — Nanolirion capense^ Bth.; Polyxena haemanthoides^ Baker 
Angraecum Saundersiae^ Bolus; Satyrium princeps. Bolus 
Inula rhizocephalay Schr. ; Inula rhizocephcUoideSy C. B. C. 
Tricholepis tibetica^ H. f. et Th. ; Tricholepis spartioideSy C 
B. C. ; Saussurea leptophylla, HemsL ; Saussurea decurrens^ 
HemsL ; Saussurea Gifesiiy Hemsl. ; Statice Gilesii, Hemsl. 
Tahebuia longipeSy Baker ; Chelidomum lasiocarpum, Oliv. 
Actinotinus sinensis, Oliv. ; Decumaria sinensis, Oliv. 
Hamamelis mollisy Oliv. ; Polygonum amplexicaule, Don 
var. ; Chrysosplenium macrophyllum, Oliv. ; Isopyrum Henryi 
Oliv. ; Cimiccifuga calthaefolia. Max. ; Engelhardtia nudifiora 
H. f. : Urera ienax, N. £. Br. ; Limacia striata, Oliv. 
Abutilon sinense, Oliv. 

Part III : — Brcuhyclcuios lycioides, G. et D. ; Boopis crcusifoliay A. Gray ; 
Trigonopleura malayanay H. f. ; Berberis {^Mahonia) gracilipes, 
Oliv. ; Heliotropium gymnostomumy Hemsl. ; Polygonum Gilesii, 
Hemsl. ; Symplocos Curtisiiy Oliv. ; Melodinus coriaceus^ Oliv. ; 
Rhamnus heterophyllusy Oliv. ; Cocculus affiniSy Oliv. ; Buett- 
neria Curtisii, Oliv. ; Mappia pittosporoides, Oliv. ; Euonymus 
mcurocarpuSy Gamble ; Cotx Lachryma, L.var. stenocarpay Oliv. 
TVialictrum ichangensey Lee; Thalictrum microgynum, Lee 
Ribes pachysandroideSy Oliv. ; Passijlora cupiformisy M.T.M. 
Talisia prineeps, Oliv. ; Dendrocalamus sikktmensiSy Gamble 
Derris Fordiiy Oliv. ; Sindechites Henryi, Oliv. ; Ischaemum 
angustifoliumy Hack. ; Alangium Faberiy Oliv. ; Campanumaea 
axillariSy Oliv. 

Part IV I— Stirhoneuron memhranaceumy H. f. ; Musa proboscideay Oliv. ; 
Pamcusia Faberi, Oliv. ; Oberonia Clarkei, H. f . ; O. tenuis, 
Lindl. ; O. Falconeriy H. f. ; O, Scyllae, Lindl. ; 0, zeylanica, 
H. f. ; O. forcipata, Lindl. ; 0, obcardata, Lindl. ; 0. recurva, 
Lindl. ; O, Whightiana, Lindl. var. ; 0. Helferi, H. f. ; O, 
demissa, Lindl. ; O, Treutleriy H. f. ; (?. Myosurus, Lindl. ; 
Ilex macroccarpa, Oliv. ; Lindera fragransy Oliv. ; Primula 
Faberi, Oliv.; Bauhinia Faberiy Oliv.: Lonchocarpus cyanescens, 
Benth. ; Cudrania triloba, Hance ; Castostemma fragrans, 
Benth. ; Alexia Imferatricis, Baker ; Achras bakamensis. Baker ; 
Artabotrys Montetrocte, Oliv.; Diddissandria sesquifolia, C.B.C. ; 
Demiboea Henryi, C.B.C. ; Didymocarpus stenanthos, C.B.C. ; 
Indigofera podothylla, Benth. 

cxvi Current Literature. 

Journal, BrltiBh Medioal. 1 888. 

Crookshank : A further investigation into the so-called Hendon Cow- 
disease and its relation to scarlet-fever in man. 

DUTTON : Strophanthus in heart-disease. 

Philip : A contribution towards the etiology of Phthisis. 

Thomas : On the etiology and curability of Phthisis. 

Roberts : Treatment of alcoholism by Niix vomica, 

Lipscomb : Poisoning by Belladonna and Aconite. 

Mahomed : Acetic acid and Ergot. 

Davidson : Salix nigra, 

ROUTH : Peppermint water in Pruritus Pudendi. 

Parkes : The chemical incompatibility of tubercle through cow's milk. 

Sheaf : Toxic action of extract of Eucalyptus, 

Joy : Poisoning by Stramonium. 

Boxall : The chemical incompatibility of antiseptic agents. 

Cole : Jambnl in Diabetes. 

Birch : Jambul in Diabetes. 

Jackson : Strophanthus, 

Barnes : An address on the etiology of Diphtheria. 

Rake : Report on cultivation experiments witk Bacillus Leprae. 

AiTKEN : On the progress of scientific Pathology. 

Tomkins: Bacteriological researches in connection with Summer 

Jacob I : Remarks on the nature and treatment of Diphtheria. 

Charteris : A lecture on the relation of microorganisms to the treat- 
ment of disease. 

Robertson : On the study of microorganisms of the air. 

Stewart : Poisoning by LcUntmum, 
Journal and Transactions, The Fharmaoeutioal. Series 3, Vol. XIX. 
No. 941. Prebble : Notes on East Indian gums. 
„ — "Wilson : Note on Ginsing. 

„ — Todd : The treatment and distillation of peppermint-plants. 
,, 942. Holmes : The Asafoetida Plants (continued in Nos. 943, 959). 
„ — Paul and Cownley : Chemical notes on tea. 
,, 943. Kessel : A new base in tea. 
„ — Fischer : Proximate analysis of Grind^i^ robtista, 
„ 944. Lloyd : Maize Oil (Oil of Com). 
^ 946. Holmes : Note on Star Anise. 

— Maisch : The genus Luffa, 

— Maiden : Some reputed medicinal indigenous plants of New South 
Wales (continued in No. 947-949). 

947. Hooper : Proximate analysis of Saxifraga ligulata, 

— Kennedy : The * Loco * W^eed (^Astragalus mollissimus), 
it 951* Creuse : Elixir of Black Currant. 

„ — Holmes : Report on the cultivation of -<4r<7wV«/;i iVJi/<r//«j. 
„ 95 a. Hooper: Some drugs of British Sikkim. 
„ — West : Oil of Cajuput. 

„ — Elborne : Proximate Analysis of Cassia Tora. 
fi 953- Moss : English distilled oil of Mentha arvensis. 

— Ransom : Note on CethaHlis tomentosa. 









Periodical Literature, cxvii 

Journal and TranBaotions, The Fharmaoeutloal {continued ). 
No. 954. COHN : Mandragora. 

955. Hooper: Carthagena bark ; The hybridisation of Cinchonas. 

956. Warden : EmMia Ribes. \ 
„ — Robinson : Kauri gum industry. 
yy — Trimble : Catechu and Gambier. 

957. Warden : Margosa oil {Melia Azadirachta). 
-^ Ellwood: Gum arabic and substitutes (continued in No. 958). 

958. Power and Werbke: The constituents of Wintergreen leaves (6ii«/- 
theria procumhenSf L.). 

959. Green : The chemical processes which accompany germination in seeds. 

960. Holmes : Note on two resins used by the ancient Eg3rptian8. 

961. Elborne : Plant structure. 

I, 964. Holmes : Recent donations to the Museum : Massoi Bark. 

ff — Moerk : Carbon bisulphide in oil of mustard. 

„ — Meyers : Emulsion of oil of Chenopodium, 

,y 965. Cultivation of Sesamum and Ground-Nuts in China. 

,t 966. Thiselton-Dyer : Ferments and Fermentation. 

„ — The cancer of the Cinchona. 

Journal of Botany, BritlBh and Foreign. Vol. XXVI {continued). 

No. 307. Murray : Catalogue of the marine algae of the West-Indian region 

(continued in Nos. 308, 310, 311, 312 ; Plate 148). 

„ — Buchanan White : SalixfragiliSy S. Kussellianay and S, viridis. 

„ — Clarke, C. B. : Root-pressure. 

„ — Hanbury : Notes on some Hieracia new to Britain. 

„ — Grove : Pimina^ nov. gen. Hyphomycetum. 

,, — Centenary of the Linnean Society ot London. 

yy — Britten and Boulger : Bibliographical Index of British and Irish 

Botanists (continued in Nos. 308-312). 

„ — Brebner: Experiments with (7y»f«^j/^raii^«wy««i*^r». 

„ — Masters : A heterodox onion. 

„ — Geldart : Vicia hybriday L. 

„ 308. Baker : On two recent collections of Ferns from Western China. 

„ — Smith : Sowerby's models of British Fungi. 

„ — Beeby : On Callitriche polytnorphay Lonnroth, as a British plant. 

„ — Beddome : New Manipnr Ferns collected by Dr. Watt. 

yy — Briggs : Remarks on Pyrus latifoliay Sm. 

„ — Clarke, W. A. : Cerastium pumilum in Wilts. 

„ — Baker : Note on Buckinghamshire Rubi'y Note on SaJixfragilis. 

„ — Whitwell : Polygala austriacay Crantz, in Surrey. 

yy 309. Britten : Recent tendencies in American Botanical Nomenclature. 

„ — Wright: Mosses of Madagascar. 

„ — Carruthers : Note on Sowerby's models of British Fungi. 

„ — Daydon Jackson : Note on the botanical plates of the Expedition of 

toe * Astrolabe * and the * Z^We.* 

„ — Fryer : Notes on Pond-weeds (continued in No. 310). 

„ — Britton, E. G. : Ulota phyllantha in fruit from Killamey, 

„ — Bolton King: Hants plants. 

cxviii Current Literature, 

Journal of Botany, British and Foreign {continued^ 

No. 310. De Candolle, Britton, N. L., and Britten : Botanical Nomen- 

„ — Obituary notice of John Goldie. 

„ — Ito : Ranzania^ a new genus of Berberidaceae. 

- Mornington : Alchcmilla vulgaris^ L., in Kent. 

- Rogers : Polygonum maritimum still in S. Hants. 

- Marshall : East Kent plants. 

- Rogers : Elymus arenarius, L., in Dorset. 

»> ~ 


i» ~~~' 

„ — Roper : Rumex maritimus and R. pcdustris in East Sussex. 

„ — Towndrow : HUracium tricUnUUum in Worcestershire. 


— Fry : Helianthtmum polifoHum^ Pers., in N. Somerset 
,, 311. Bailey : Carex notes from the British Museum. 
„ — Baker : On a third collection of Ferns made in North Borneo by the 

Bishop of Singapore and Sarawak. 

„ — Greene : Botanical Nomeilclature in North America. 

„ — Linton : South Derbyshire plants. 

„ — West : The Desmids of Maine. 

,, — Beeby : On the two Valerians. 

— Melvill : Arum italicum^ Mill. 

— Druce : East Kent plants. 

„ 312. Moore : Photolysis in Lemna trisulca (PI. 285). 

,, — Druce : Notes on the Flora of Ben Laiogh, etc. 

„ — Babington : On Botanical Nomenclature. 

„ — Baker : On a new Acrostichum from Trinidad. 

, , — West : New county records. 

„ — Preston : Additions to the Flora of Wilts. 

„ — Stewart : Botanical Nomenclature. 

„ — Briggs : Arum italicum^ Mill., and A, maculatum, L. 

„ — Beeby : The two Valerians. 

— Marshall : Valeriana Mikanii^^ 

— Babington : Rubus thyrsiger, Bab. 

— Marshall : Goody era repens in Yorkshire. 

Journal of Comparative Fatholo^y and Therapeutics (M*Fadyean). Parts 
I and II. 

Cheyne : Can suppuration occur without microorganisms ? 

M*Fadyean : The nature of immunity and protection in the case of 
infectious diseases. 

■ — : Actinomycosis and Tuberculosis in the horse. 

Selander : The Bacterium of Swine Pest. 

Journal of Miorosoopy and Natural Science (the Journal of the Postal 
Microscopic Society). New Series, Vol. I. 
The Hessian Fly. 

BODINGTON : Microorganisms as parasites. 
Wheatcroft : Equisetacecu ; life-history, antiquity, etc. 
Webb : Smut of Wheat, Oats, and Barley. 
The late Dr. Asa Gray. 

Worsley-Benison : The romance of seed-sowing. 
LocKWOOD : The pathology of pollen in aesHvis or hay-fever. 

Periodical Literature. cxix 

Journal of Physiology, The. Vol. IX. 

No. 4. Harris and Howard : On the relations of microorganisms to pan- 
creatic (proteolytic) digestion. 

,, — Halliburton : On the nature of fibrin-ferment. 

Journal of the Chemical Society. 1888. 

Frankland : The action of some specific microoiganisms on nitric acid. 

Thorpe and Smith : On Morindon. 

Divers and Kawakita : On the compositioli of Japanese bird-lime. 

Gladstone and Hibbert : The optical and chemical properties of 

Warington : The chemical action of some microorganisms. 

Journal of the Geological Society, Quarterly. Vol. XLIV, part 3 (No. 175). 
Adamson : On a recent discovery of Stigmaria ficoides at Clayton. 

Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Botany. 
Vol.XXIlI. Nos. 155-7. 

Forbes and Helmsley : An Ennmeration of all the Plants known from 
China Proper, Formosa, Hainan, Corea, the Luchu Archipelago, 
and the Island of Hong Kong, together with Synon3rmy and 
Vol. XXIV. 

No. 163. Moore : Studies in Vegetable Biology, IV. The Influence of Light upon 

Protoplasmic Movement, Part 1. 

„ — Ridley : Notes on the Self-fertilisation and Cleistogamy in Orchids. 

— Veitch : On the Fertilisation of Cattleya labiatay var. Mossiae^ lindl. 

164. Clarke : On Panicum supervacuum^ sp. nov. 

— AND Baker : Supplementary Note on the Fems of Northern 


— Post : Diagnoses Plantarum Novarum Orientalium. 

— Shattock : On the Scars occurring on the stem of Dammara robusta^ 
C. Moore. 

— Batters : A description of three new Marine Algae. 

— Fream : On the Flora of Water-Meadows, with notes on the species. 

— Baker : On a species of Cytinus from Madagascar. 

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Slingdom. 
No. II (August 1888). 

Heape: Preliminary report upon the Fauna and Flora of Pl3rmouth 
Sound (contains * A Catalogue of the Marine Algae of Plymouth 
by Boswarva and Holmes *). 

Journal of the Northamptonshire Natural History Society and Field Club. 
Vol. V. (Nos. 33-35)- 

Druce : The Flora of Northamptonshire {continued). 

Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club. Ser. II, Vol. Ill, No. 2 a. 

Waddington : Note on Marine Aquaria. 

Smith : On Arachnoidiscus as a test for high-power objectives. 

BuFFHAM : On the reproductive organs, especially the antheridia of some 
of the Floriaeae. 

Journal of the Boyal Agricultural Society of England. Vol. XXIV, Part 2. 
Jensen : The propagation and prevention of Smut in Oats and Barley. 
Fream : The herbage of old grass lands. 



cxx Current Literature, 

Journal of the Boyal Miorosoopical Society. 1888, Part 6. 

Rattray : A revision of the genus Auliscus, Ehrb., and some allied 
genera (PI. XII-XVI). 

Journal of the Society of Arts. Vol. XXXVI. 

Tobacco cultivation in Mexico. 

Dxy woods of the Argentine Republic. 

Annatto Cultivation in Guadeloupe. 

Warren : Cultivation of India-rubber producing trees. 

The cultivation and exportation of fruit from Demerara. 

Production of Indigo in China. 

Discovery of exotic flax. 

BoNAViA : Fruits of India. 

Mexican Sugar-production. 

Cotton-ginning in Ningpo. 

British Tobacco. 

SiMMONDS : The economic use of flowers. 

: Alimentary aquatic plants. 

Jackson : Canes and sticks used in the manufacture of walking-sticks 
and umbrella-handles. 

Salomon : Yeast : its morphology and culture. 

Preparation of yeast in Japan. 

Fruit trade of California. 

Forests of Uruguay. 

Morris : Textiles. 

Tea-culture in Japan. 

Journal of the Society of Chemical Induatry. Vol. VII. 

KiNGZETT : Note on the atmospheric oxydation of turpentine, camphor 
oil, and oil of sunflower. 

Spence : Note on the estimation of starch. 

Macadam : Manures, Natural and Artificial. 

KiNGZETT : On the comparative antiseptic values of chlorides, nitrates, 
and other substances, Part II. 

Todd : The treatment and distillation of peppermint plants. 
Knowledge. Vol. XL 

Christy: A botanical atrocity (action of Awn of Stipa spartea on 

Ijftnoet, The. 1888. 

Coats : The Pathology. of infectious and infective diseases as illustrated 
by the facts of inheritance. 

Crookshank I Further investigation into the so-called Hendon cow- 
disease, and its relation to scarlet fever. 

Braddon : On oil of peppermint as an antiseptic and as a remedy 
in Phthisis and Diphtheria. 

DowDESWELL : On the mode of action of the Contagion and the Nature 

of Prophylaxis in some infective diseases. 
G RES WELL : The application of the theory of evolution to Pathology. 
Evans : On a group of cases treated with Strophanthus hispidus, 
BouLTON : The chemical incompatibility of antiseptic agents. 

Periodical Literature. cxxi 

Magaiine, The Botanical. Series 3. Vol. XLIV {continued), 

Nos. 523-528 contain plates and descriptions of: — Macrotomia Ben" 
thami, DC. ; Asphodebus acaulisy Desf. ; IllUium verum^ Hook, 
f. ; Coehgyne graminifoliay Par. et Rchb. f. ; Cyperorchis 
eleganSy Blume ; Trevesia palmatay Vis. ; Echinoccutus Hasel- 
berniy Forst ; Sarcochiltis Hartmanni, F. de Muell. ; Arisio- 
lochia IVestlandif Hemsl. ; Narcissus Pseudo- Narcissus y var. 
Johnstoniy Bak. ; Spaihoglottis Vieillardiy Rchb. f. ; Caraguata 
Andreana^ £. Morren ; Masdevallia Mooreana^ Rchb. f. ; Nar- 
cissus Brouisonetii, Lag. ; Erythronium Hendersoni^ Bak. ; 
Ilowea Belmoreanay Becc. ; Rhododendron Colletianum, Aitch. 
et Hemsl. ; Iris Alberti^ Rgl. ; Disa rcuemosa^ L. f. ; Asarum 
incuranthunty Hook. f. ; Phajus WaUichiiy Lindl. ; Peumus 
fragransy Pers. ; Iris JCorolkowiy Rgl. ; CcUanthe striata. 
Brown ; Agave Elemeetiana, Jacobi ; Begonia Scharffiana, Hook, 
f. ; Iris Suwarowi, Rgl. ; Pentapera sicula, Klotzsch ; Hexisia 
bidentata, Lindl. ; Primula Rusbyi^ Greene. 

Magaiine, The Geological. New Series, Decade III, Vol. V. 
No. 7. Seward : On CcUamites undulatus^ Stnmb. 

„ 8, ' : Woodwardian Museum Notes. On Cyclopteris^ Brongn. 

„ 10. Reid and Ridley : Fossil arctic plants. 

The Scottish Geographical Magasine. Vol. IV. 

ScHWEiNFURTH : Rccent Botanical Exploration of Arabia. 

Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester liiterary and Philosophical 
Society. Fourth Series, Vol. I. 

Melvill : Notes on a small collection of Mosses from Mauritius. 

Bailey .* Obituary notices of Dr. A. de Bary, Dr. Asa Gray, and Dr». 
J. T. Boswell. 

Williamson : On the fossil stigmarian roots of a lepidendroid or 
sigillarian tree in the Museum of the Owens College. 

Naturalist, The. (London and Leeds). 1888 {concluded). 

No. 156. Lee : Sparganium ramosum, var. microcarpum in Yorkshire. 

„ — Gain : Varieties of Viola odorata. 

„ 157. Christie : Notes on * The Flora of West Yorkshire.' 

„ — Whitlock : Varieties of Viola odorata. 

— Lees : Ceterach officinarum in Wensleydale still. 

158. Babington : List of Plants noticed at Fylingdales (Robin Hood's Bay) 
in September 1882. 

„ — Lees : New West Yorkshire plant {Pyrola rotundifolid). 

„ — Christie : Thalictrum alpinum, L. at Settle. 

„ — CocKERELL : Dichroism in Viola odorata, 

„ — Mason : Carduus acaulis in North Lincolnshire. 

n 159* West: Additional localities for the vascular plants of the West Riding 


„ — Stabler : On the Hepaticae and Musci of Westmoreland (continued in 

No. 160). 

„ — Edmondson : The Hounds-Tongue at Skipton-in-Craven. 

— Slater : Spiraea filipendula in South-East Yorkshire. 

— Whitwell : Notes on Settle plants. 

— West and Slater : Goodyera repens near Market Weighton. 
„ 160. Fungus Foray at Bramham and Harewood Parks. 



cxxii Current Literature. 

Naturalist, The {continued). 

No. 1 60. Waddell : Aecidium calthae, Grev. near Kendal. 

„ — Hey : SiUne nutans still at Knaresborough. 

„ — Bunker : Stratiodes aloides at Carlton near Selbom. 

„ — Christie : Notes on Settle plants. 

,, 161. Bibliography of Cryptogamic Botany in 1886 and 1887. 

STaturalist, The Essex. Vol. II (1888), Nos. i-io. 

Shsnstone : A report on the flowering plants growing in the neighbour- 
hood of Colchester (addition^ notes). 

Cole : Extermination of plants by ' Botanists ' (?) 

BouLGER : Yew Sapling and birds in Epping Forest 

Elliott : Large Chcstnnt Tree. 

GiBBS : Compound spike of Plantago, 

Paulson : The Bee-Orchis {Orchis apifera) in Essex. 

Cooke : Contributions towards a list of the Fungi of Essex. Discomy- 

Naturalist, The Midland. Vol. XI, new ser., No. 127-132. 

Baker : On Kew Gardens and some of the Botanical Statistics of the 

British Possessions. 
Grove and Bagnall : The Fungi of Warwickshire. 
Mathews : History of the County Botany of Worcester. 
Grove : A Cellar Fungus. 
Saunders : Botanical notes from South Beds. 
Blunt : The Life-history of a Myxomycete. 

Naturalist, The Scottish. New ser. 
No. 20. 

Grant and Bennett : Contributions towards a Flora of Caithness 
(continued in No. 2^1). 

Stirton : Lichens. 

Trail: The gall-making Diptera of Scotland (continued in No. 21), 

Schentz : Two varieties of roses new to Scotland. 

Druce : Some additions to the Scotch Flora. 

Paul: Fungi found near Roxburgh in 1886. 
No. 21. 

Druce : Rediscovery of Deyeuxia neglecta^ Kunth in Scotland. 

Wilson : Notes on the Botany of the district around Alford. 

Trail : Report for 1888 on the Fungi of the East of Scotland. 

Cryptogamic Society of Scotland, Meeting at Inverary. 

Grove : Lachnclla RhytismcUy Phill. near Stomoway. 


Vol. XXXVIII {continued^. 
No. 975. Crisp : Micromillimetre. 

fi — S. : Parasites of the Hessian Fly. 

)i — Frankland : The micro-organisms of air and water (illustrated). 

„ 976. Rucker : Micromillimetre. 

I) — Buckland : Distribution of animals and plants by ocean-currents. 

u — Baker : Preserving the colours of flowers. 

„ 977. Buckland : Preserving the colour of flowers. 

Periodical Literature. cxxiii 

Nfttare {continued). 

No. 977. Thompson : Distribntion of animals and plants by ocean-currents. 

„ — Marshall Ward : Timber, and some of its diseases IX (X in No. 978, 

XI in No. 981). 

„ — Green : Vegetable Rennet. 

y, 978. La yard : The dispersion of seeds and plants (illustrated). 
it 979' Wrightson : How to increase the produce of the soil. 
„ 980. Argyll, Duke of : Functionless organs (discussion in the foUowmg 


,, — Hem sley : The new vegetation of KrakatSfo. 
,,981. Morgan : Natural selection and elimination. 
The Fauna and Flora of the Lesser Antilles. 
„ 985. Thiselton-Dyer : Opening Address (Brit. Assoc Sect. D.— Biology). 
„ 986. Wallace : Mr. Gulick on divergent evolution. 
„ 989. NiCHOLLS : < Fauna and Flora of the Lesser Antilles.' 

„ 990. The Queen*s Jubilee Prize Essay of the Royal Botanic Society of London 

(see also No. 992). 
,, 991. Romanes : Definition of the theory of natural selection. 
,, — Hemsley : Flora of the Kermadic Islands. 
„ 992. Thiselton-Dyer : Mr. Romanes's Paradox. 
„ — Johnstone : The colouring matter of the testa of the seeds of Rape 

{Brassica Rapa) (illustrated). 

News, Chemioal. Vol. LVII. No. 1484-1492. 

Stocks : Iodide of Starch. 

Blake : The relation between the atomicity of the inorganic elements 
and their biological action. 

Collin and Benoist : Estimation of Tannin. 


Nettlefold : A Seaweed dye. 

Tidy : Poisons and poisoning. 

Phipson : On Rhinanthin. 

Cross and Bevan : The action of Chlorine on the Ligno-Cellulose. 

Williams : The chemical examination of certain gums and resins. 

Johnstone : Existence of a volatile Alkaloid in pepper. 

Warden : Note on Erythroxylon Coca grown in India. 

Papsra and Proo- of the Hampshire Field Olub. No. 2. 

Eyre : A list of Hants Fungi. 

Dale : List of private collections in the county of Hampshire of objects 
of Natural History, etc 

Shore: Ancient Hampshire Forests and the geological conditions of 
their growth. 

: Microscopic examination of a gelatinous growth found on a 

small pool in connexion with a spring in ue grounds of Red 
Lodge, Bassett. 

Prooeedinga of the Briatol ITattiraliBts' Booiety. New Series. Vol. V, 
Part III. 

Jones : Varieties of Ferns in the Bristol District. 
White : Flora of the Bristol Coal-field. 
Jones : The Crossing of Ferns. 

cxxiv Current Literature. 

Frooeedings and Transaotions of the STatural History Society of GUuisow. 

Vol. II (New Ser.), Part I. 
EwiNG : On Carex spiralis , a species new to Science. 

: On some Scandinavian Forms of Scottish Alpine Plants. 

WiSHART : A glance at the July Flora of Alyth. 

M'Andrew : Botanical Notes from Portpatrick, 1886. 


Notes on Scotch plants, etc., by yarioos authors. 

Frooeedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Vol. VI, Part IV. 
Rendle : On the development of Aleurone grains in the Lupine. 

Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow. Vol. XIX. 

M'Kendrick : On the Modem Cell Theory, and the Phenomena of 

Proceedings of the Boyal Irish Academy. Ser. II, Vol. IV, No. 6. 
Barrington : Report on the Flora of the Shores of Lough Ree. 
Ser. Ill, Vol. I, No. I. 

Ball : Further Notes on the identification of the animals and plants of 
India that were known to early Greek authors. 

Proceedings of the Boyal Institution of Great Britain. 1888. 
Klein : The Etiology of Scarlet-Fever. 

Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society of Edinburgh. VoL IX, Part 3. 

Ramage : Notes on a visit to Fernando Noronha. 

Thomson : Synthetic Summary of the Influence of the Environment upon 
the Organism. 

KiDSTON : On the fructification of two Coal-measure Ferns. 

: On the fructification and affinities of Archaeoptcris hibtmica^ 

Forbes, sp. 

Proceedings of the Boyal Society of Edinburgh. 

No. 134. EwART : On the Presence of Bacteria in the Lymph, etc., of Living Fish 

and other Vertebrates. 

„ — Griffiths: On Degenerated specimens of Tulipa sylvestris, 

„ 126. : Researches on Micro-Organisms, including ideas of a new 

method for their destruction in certain cases of Contagious 

„ 127. : On a Fungoid Disease in the Roots of Cucumis sativa. 

Proceedings of the Boyal Society of Ijondon. Vol. XLIV. 

Sanderson : Electromotive properties of the leaf of Dionaea. 
ScHUNCK : Contributions to the Chemistry of Chlorophyll. 

Public Health (A. Wynter Blyth). 1888. 

Crookshank : The history and present position of the germ-theory of 

Quarterly Becord of the Boyal Botanic Society of Ijondon. 1888 (Vol. 
III. Nos. 33-36). 

Ellis : The vegetable substances introduced into Britain for use in the 
arts and manufactures, and as food during the reign of Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria. 

Cogswell; Hemp. 

Short History of the Society and Gardens. 

Periodical Literature. cxxv 

Baport And Tnnaaetioiia of the PenBance STAiurml History and Anti* 
qmrian Sooietsr. 1S86-87. 

Scott : Some £u:ts about the reproduction of sea- weeds. 

Tbllam : The Mosses of East Cornwall. 

Baport of the British ▲ssociatioxi for the Advanoement of Science. Man- 
chester. 1887 (1888). 

Report of the Committee appointed for investigating the Flora and 
Fauna of the Cameroons Mountains. 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of continuing the 
preparation of a report on our present knowledge of the Flora 
of (Jhina. 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of considering the 

auestion of accurately defining the term ' British* as applied to 
le marine Fauna and Flora of our Islands. 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of taking steps for 
the establishment of a botanical station at Peradeniya, Ceylon. 

First report of the Committee for the purpose of collecting information 
as to the disappearance of native plants from their local 

Third report of the Committee for the purpose of reporting on the fossil 
plants of the tertiary and secondary beds of the United Kingdom. 
(Drawn up by Mr. Gardner.) 

Bowman : The Chemistry of the Cotton fibre. 
Warington : The reduction of nitrates by micro-organisms, 
Carnelley and Wilson: A new method for determming Micro- 
organisms in air. 
Vines : Notes on the nitrogenous nutrition of the bean. 
: On the movement of the leaf of Mimosa pudica. 

McNab : Note on the stomata and ligules of Selaginella ; on the adven- 
titious buds on the leaves of Lachenalia pendula ; on the root- 
spines of Acanthorhiza aculeatay H. Wendl. 

Fream : On the gramineous herbage of water meadows. 

Bailey : /uncus cUpinus^ Vill. as new to Britain. 

Frankland : Studies on some new micro-organisms obtained from 

Riley : The problem of the hop-plant louse {Phorodon Aumuli, Schrank) 
in Europe and America. 

Hick : On the Physiology of some Phaeophyceae. 

Riley : On Scerya Purckasi, an insect injurious to fruit-trees. 

Fbeam : On the Hessian Fly, or American Wheat-midge, Cccidomyia 
destructor ^ Say, and its appearance in Britain* 

Vaizey : Alternations of generations in green plants. 
HOBKIRK : On a curious habit of certain mosses. 
Vaizey : On the constitution of cell-walls and its relation to absorptioii 
in mosses. 

Annual report of the Wellington College STatnral Science Society. 


Fhenological report. 
Botanical report 


cxxvi Current Literature. 

Transaotions and FrooeodingB of fhe Botanioal Booietj. Edinboigh. 
Vol. XVII, Part I. 

Balfour : Obituary notices of Dr. James Gilchrist, Dumfries. 

Taylor : Obitnary notices of C. W. Peach, Robert Gray, William 
Williamson Newboold, and Edonard Morren. 

Cleghorn : Obituary notices of William Traill, M.D. 

Howie : Obituary notices of John Jeffrey, Balsusney. 

Landsborough : Australian and New Zealand trees in Arran. 

Webster : Notes on three rare Camanronshire plants. 

Buchanan White : On a supposed new British species oiSagina. 

SiMSON : Notes on the finding of Trichomanei radicans in Arran in 

August 1863. 
Landsborough : Additional note on the occurrence of Trichomanes 

radicans in Scotland. 

Scott Elliot : Recent researches in regard to the vegetable cell-wall. 

Bennett : Notes on British species of Epilolnum, 

Christison : On the monthly increase in girth of trees at the Royal 
Botanic Garden and at Craigiehall, near Edinburgh. 

Craig : Excursion of the Scottish Alpine Botanical Club to Glen Spean 

and Pitlochrie in 1886. 
Wilson : On dimorphism of flowers of Wachend&rfia paniculata (PI. I). 

Traill : On the fructification of Sphacelaria radicans^ Harv. and Sph. 

olivaceay J. Ag. (PI. II). 
Norman : The indigenous Flora of Madeira, in special relation to its 

peculiar plants. 

Scott Elliot : On the movement of water in plants. 

Sewell : Facts regarding the morphology and affinities of certain genera 
of the order Scrophulariaceae. 

Mann : On the mechanism for fertilisation in the flowers oi Bolbophyllum 
Lobbii (PI. III). 

Bennett and Grieve : List of new and rare plants presented to the 
Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden. 

Grieve : List of Hepatics and Mosses collected in the Island of Rum, 
Hebrides, during July 1884. 

MoiR : Elxperimental planting in Central Africa. 

Allan : Report on a visit to Applecross by the members of the summer 
camp, 1886. 

Lindsay : Report on temperature and open-air vegetation at the Royal 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from July 1880 to June 1887. 


Traill : Marine Algae of Elie. 
Janczbwski : Fruits of Anemone, 

Bennett : Additions to the Scottish Flora, 1887. 

Craig : Excursion of the Scottish Alpine Botanical Club to Hardanger 
district of Norway, 1887. 

Gray and Hinxman : Flora of West Sutherland. 

CouTS : Visit to Glenure. 

Lindsay : Heterophylly in Veronicas (with Plate). 

Christison : Annual increase in girth of trees. 

Sewell : Colouring matter of leaves and flowers. 

Fothergill : Leaves of climbing plants. 

Obituaries of Sir Walter Elliot, Asa Gray, and A. de Bary. 

Periodical Literature. cxxvii 

Transaotions of the Coonty of Middlesex STatural History and Soienoe 
Society 1887-1888. 

Barraclough : Fossils of the Flint. 

RoussELET : On some methods of collecting and keeping pond-life for 
the microscope. 

Natnral History Transaotions of STorthumberland, Durham, and ITew- 
oaatle upon Tyne. Vol. X, Part i. 

HowsB : Contributions towards a Catalogue of the Flora of the Car- 
boniferous System of Northumberland and Durham. 

Tranaaotiona of the Edinburgh Geological Society. Vol. V, Part III. 

Melvin : . On Hutton's Views of the Vegetable Soil or Mould, and 
Vegetable and Animal Life. 

Tranaaotiona of the Hertfordahire Natural History Society and Field Glub. 

Vol. rv. 

HOPKINSON : Reix>rt on phenological phenomena observed in Hertford- 
shire during the years 1 885-80. 

Lloyd : Wild plants, their attributes and names. 
Pryor : Notes on some Hertfordshire Carices, 
Campbell : The Hessian Fly. 

FoRDHAM : A Naturalist's calendar for the northern border of Hertford- 

Robinson : Observations on Diaiomaceae from the neighbourhood of 

Tranaaotiona of the Boyal Scottish Arboricultural Society. Vol. XII, 
Part I. 

Bailey : Forestry in Hungary. 

Brandis : The proposed School of Forestry. 

Cadell : Forest Administration in the Canton Vaud, Switzerland. 

Brandis : Dr. Cleghoro's Services to Indian Forestry. 

Methvsn : Deciduous Trees, with Ornamental and Coloured Foliage, 
useful in Landscape Forestry. 

DODDS : The Plantations on the Estate of Wentworth, Yorkshire. 

Webster : The Plantations on the Penrhyn Estate, North Wales. 

Transactions of the Ijeicester Iiiterary and Philosophical Society. Parts 

MOTT : The native trees of Leicestershire. 

: The cause and the limits of organic growth. 

Tranaaotiona of the Manchester Geological Society. Vol. XIX {c<mtim*ed), 

Williamson : On the fossil trees of the Coal-Measures. 
TranaacUons of the Boyal Society of Edinburgh. Vol. XXXV (1887-88). 
Nos. 1-7. 

KiDSTON : On Neuropteris plicata^ Stemb. and ^europterU rectinnvis, 

: On the fossil Flora of the Staffordshire coal-field. 

Fhiloaophical Tranaaotiona of the Boyal Society of London. Vol. 179 

Sanderson : On the Electromotive Properties of the Leaf of Dianata in 
the excited and unexcittd states. 

Tranaaotiona of the Pathological Society of London. Vol. XXXIX. 

Crookshank : An investigation into the so-called Hendon cow disease 

in its relation to scarlet fever in man. 
— ^-^— : Streptococcus alleged to be the contagium of scarlet fever. 


cxxviii Current Literature. 


Arohlyes de la 8ooi€t6 HoUandaise des Soienoes. Harlem. Tome XXII, 
Nos. 4, 5. 

Van Visselingh : Snr la parol des cdlules sub^renses. 

Arohiyes du Mu86e Teyler. S^rie II, Vol. Ill, deaxi^me partie. 

Bos : L'Anguillule de la Tige et les maladies des Plantes does ^ oe 

Arohiyes ST^erlandaises des Boienoes Exaotes et STatorelleB. 
Tome XXII, 1-5. 

Engelmann : Les coaleurs non vertes des feailles et leur signification 

f>oar la decomposition de Taclde carbonique sons Tinflnence de 
a Inmi^re. 

Rauwenhoff : Recherches sur le SphaeropUa annulina, Ag. 

Van Visselingh : Snr la paroi des cellules snb^renses. 

De Vries : Le coefficient isotonlqne de la glycerine. 

Tome XXIII, i. 

Wakker : Contribntions k la pathologie v^g^ale (avec 3 PI.)- 

Engelmann : Le microspectrom^e (avec PI.). 

Maandblad for Natuurwetenschappen. 

1887 {contintud). 

CosTERUS : Jets over de strnctnur en de bestanddeelen van Kefir. 

Janse : De groei van de bloem bladeren van CypHpedium caudtUumy 
Ldl., en van Uroptdium Lindenii, Ldl. 

De Vries : Over het bewaren van plantendeelen in znren alcohol. 

Moll : De toepassing der paraffine-insmelting of botanisch gebied. 

Wakker : Alenronkorrels zijn vacuolen. 

1888 (Jan.— Sep.). 

Modderman : Bijdrage tot de vraag : Komen nitrieten normaal in 
planten voor ? 

Db Vries : Befaling van het molecnlaire gewicht van raffinose volgens 

de plasmolytische methode. 
Treub : Eenige woorden over Knop-bedekking in de tropen. 

nrederlandsch Kruidkundig Arcliief. II. Serie. 5. Deel a. Stnk (1888). 

Lijst der planten waargenomen te Terschelling door de leden der Neder- 

landsche Botanische Vereenigung. 
OuDEMANS : Contributions ^ la fiore mycologiqne des Pa3rs*Bas, XII. 
Bon DAM : Overzicht der Flora van Harderwijk (Plantae vasculares). 
KoBUS EN GOETHART : De Nederlandsche Carices, 
Janse : Protoplasma beweging bij Caulerpa prolifera, 
Abbleven : Flora van Nijmwegen. 

Vertlaffen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie yan Weten- 
sohappen ; Afdeeling STatuorkande. Derde Reeks, Vierde DeeL 

Janse : Die Permeabilitat des Protoplasma. 


Annals of the Boyal Botanic Garden, Calcutta. Vol. I, p. a. 

King : The species of Ficus of the Indo-Malayan and Chinese coantries, 

Periodical Literature. cxxix 

JonnuJ of the Adatio Bodety of Bengal. 
Vol. LVI. Part II. 
Barclay : A descriptive list of the Urtdimae occurring; in the neighbonr* 
hood of Simla (Western Himalaya). (PI. XII-XV.) 
Vol. LVII, Part II, No. i. 

Pedler and Warden : On the natnre of the tonic principle of the 

Boientiflo Memoirs by Medical Oflloers of the Army of India. Part III. 

(1887). Calcutta, 1888. 

Cunningham : On a new genus of the family Ustilagineoi (with Plate). 
On an endophytic Alga occurring in the leaves of Limtumthe- 
mum indicum (with Plate). On the phenomena of propagation 
of movement in Mimosa putiica. 

Tomes : The fly-catching habit of Wrightia coccinea (with Plate). 

Carter : On the occurrence of a minute Blood-Spirillum in an Indian 
Rat (with Plate). On the lately demonstrated blood-contamin- 
ation jamd infective disease of the Rat and of Equines in India 
(vrith Plate). On some aspects and relations of the blood- 
organisms in Ague (with Plate). 

Bom FORD : Observations on Bacteria in Cholera (with a Plates). 


ArohiTOB italiennea de Biologie. (Mosso.) 
Tome IX. 

Fasc 3. Menozzi : Recherches chimiques sur la germination du Phcueolus 


„ — Marchiafava ST Celli : Sur I'infection malarienne (avec une Planche). 

„ — ; Notes sur les Etudes modemes de IVtiologie 

de la fi^vre malarienne. 

Tome X. 

Fasc. I. Mosso : Application du vert de m^thyle pour connattre la reaction 

chimique et la mort des cellules. 

„ — Venturini et Gasparrini : De Tanesth^sie de ThelUbor^ine. 

„ a. TizzoNi ET Mircoli : Sur la septicemic qui provient du Streptoco<cus 

„ — Maggi : Sur les protozoaires vivant sur les mousses des plantes. 
,, — Marcacci : Action physiologique de la Cinchonamine. 

ArohiTio del I«aboratorio di Botanic* Crittogamioa presso la B. Uni- 
Tenit4 di Favia. Vol. V. 

Cattaneo : Sul male del Cafft. 

Bozzi : Muschi della Provincia di Pavia. 

OLIVA : Dd Miceti trovati sul corpo umano. 

Attt del B. latitato Veneto. 1888. Nos. 1-8. 

Saccardo e Paoletti : Hycetes Malaccensi. 

Spica : Ricerche sulla Dicsma crenata. 

: Studio chimico sni principii attivi dell' Abrus preccUorius. 

De Toni : Intorno ad alcone DUtomee riven nti nel tubo intettiiiale di 
una Trygon violacea pescata nell' Adriatico. 

-^— — E Levi : Flora algologica della Venezia. 

cxxx Current Literature. 

Atti del B. Istituto Veneto {continued), 

De Toni e Levi : Kicerche suUa istiologia del tegamento semioale e sol 
valore dei caratteri carpologici della classificazione dd Geranii 

Morenos : Contribuzione alia conoscenza dell' Antocianina stndiata in 
alcmii peli vcgetali. 

Atti del Aooademia Gioenia di Soienze STatorali in Catania. Ser. III. 
Tome XX (1888). 

Aradas : Esame batterioscopico dell* acqna della Reitana. 

: Ricerche chimico-batterioscopiche sopra talune acqne potabili 

della citt^ di Catania. 

Atti dell' Aooademia Pontifioia de' Nuovi Ijinoei. Anno XL. 

Lanzi : Le Diatomee fossili della Via Flaminia sopra la tomba dei 

Lais : Applicazione dei sali di rame al preservamento delle viti contro la 

Castracane : Contribnzione alia flora diatomacea africana. Diatomee 
dell' Ogoue riportate dal conte Giacomo di BrazziL 

Lanzi : Le Diatomee fossili del Monte delle Piche e della via Ostiense. 

Atti della R. Aooademia ddi Ijinoei. (Roma). Rendiconti. Vol. IV 

Tommasi-Crudeli : II bacillo della malaria. 

Passerini : Diagnosi di funghi nuovi. Nota III, IV. 

Atti della B. Aooademia delle Soiense fisiche e matematiohe. (Napoli.) 
Serie seconda, Vol. II. 

LicoPOLi : Sul polline deir Iris tuderosa, L. e d'altre piante (con una 

Atti della B. Aooademia Economioo-Agraria dei Gkeorgoflli di Firenie. 
Vol. LXVI (Ser. IV, Vol. XI). 

Sestini : Della composizione chimica dei Carda per la Lana, Dipsacui 

Bargagli : Ricerche suUe relazioni piii caratteristiche tra gli Insetti e le 

Passerini : Sulla quantity di olio contenuto nelle Olive, ecc. 

Atti della B. Aooademia delle Soiense di Torino. Vol. XXIII. 

Mattirolo: Sopra alcuni movimenti igroscopici nelle Epatiche Mar- 

VOGLINO : Illustrazione di due Agaricini italiani. 

Mattirolo : Intoroo al valore specifico della PUospora sarcinulac e 
della P. alternaricu di Gibelli e Griffin!. 

Atti del la Sooiet& dei Naturalisti di Modena. Memorie. Ser. Ill, VoL VI. 

SiLiPRANTi : Contribnzione alia Flore dei dintomi di Noto. 
Vol. VII. 

Macchiati : Prima contribuzione alia flora del viterbese. 

Atti della Society Tosoana di Soiense Natnrali (Pisa). Memorie. Vol. IX. * 

VoGLiNO: Enumerazione di alcuni funghi raccolti nella provinda di 
Massa (Carrara). 

PiCHi : Elenco delle Alghe toscane. 

Arcangeli : Sulla fermcntazione panaria. 

: Ulteriori osservazioni zXV EuryaU feroxy Sal. 

Rossetti : Contribuzione alia Flora della Versilia. 

Periodical Literature. cxxxi 

Atti della Sooietib Veneto-Trentina di Soienze STaturali. (Padova.) Vol. 
XI, Fasc. I. 

Berlese : Intomo ad alcune specie poco note del genere Leptosphaeria. 
Paoletti : Revision del genere Tubercularia, 

Bolletino della Society Botanioa Italiana. Fireiize. T. XX, 4. 

Massalongo : Sulla germogliazione delle sporule nelle Sphaeropsideae, 

Berlese : Sopra due parasiti della Vite per la prima volta trovati in 

Gasperini : II Leghhi o vino di Palma. 

BoRZi : Eremothecium Cymbalariae^ nnovo Ascomicete. 

MiCHELETTi : Raccomandazioni intese ad ottonere che Tltalia abbia la 
sua Lichenografia. 

Batelli : Escursione al M. Tenninillo. 

Arcangeli : Sal germogliamento della EuryaJe ferox^ Sal. 

Macchiati : Xantofillidrina. 

BORZI : Xerotropismo nelle felci. 

Bolletino della Societib Veneto-Trent. di Padova. T. IV, a. 

Berlese : Lo svilnppo del parassiti vegetali. 

De Toni : Notizia sopera on caso di fasciazione caulina. 

: Sopra un caso teratologico riscontrato nella Sogliola. 

E Paoletti : Spigolatore per la flora di Massaua e di 


Valeriani : Di Darvinismo in Pedagogia e letteratora. 

Gaietta Chimica Italiana. Vol. XVIII, Fasc. 4. 

Korner : Intomo alia Siringina, on glicosidc della Syringa vulgaris, 

Oiomale Botanico Italiano, Nuovo. Vol. XX. 

No. a. De Toni : Sopra un curioso Flos aquae osservata a Parma. 

„ — BOTTINI : Appunto di briologia toscana (seconda serie). 

„ — Arcangeli : Sul Scucharomyces minor, Engel. 

„ -— Tanfani : Nota preliminare sul frutto e sul seme delle Apiacee. 

„ — Pirotta : Di una nuova stazione deir Ophioglossum lusitanicum, 

„ — PiCHi E Bottini : Prime Muscince deir Appennino Casentinese. 

„ — Kicci: Nota sulla Festuca alpina^ Sut., raccolta al M. Vettori nella 

Marca d*Ancona. 

„ — Arcangeli : SuU* influenza della luce nell' accrescimento delle foglie. 

„ 3. Martelli : Nota sopra una forma singolare di Agaricus, 

„ — Macchiati : Caratteri delle prindpali varieti di Viti che si coltivano net 

dintomi di Arrezo. 

„ — Martelli : Contribuzione alia flora di Massaua. 

— Caruel: L'orto e il museo botanico di Firenze nelP anno scolastico 

— Arcangeli : Sul Kefir. 

„ — Tanfani : Su tre piante nuove o rare per la Toscana. 

„ — Martelli : Webb, fragmenta florulae aethiopico-aegyptiacae {con* 


: Due funghi nuovi dell' agro Bellunese. 




„ — GoiRAN : Alcune notizie sulla flore Veronese. 

„ — Martelli : Dimorfismo floralc di alcune specie di Aesculus. 

cxxxii Current Literature. 

Oiomale Botanioo Italiano, STuovo {continued). 
No. 3. Macchiati : Le Diatomacee nella fontana del Regio Istituto tecnico di 


„ : Diatomacee del Lago Santo modenese. 

„ — RossETTi : Appunti di epatologia toscana. 

„ — BocCACCiNi : Prima nota suUa resistenza alia stagione e solla precodtli 

di alcune piante del pressi di Cuneo. 

„ — Macchiati : Contriburione alia flora del Gesso. 

— Tan FAN I : Cenno suUa distribuzione altimetrica dell* Olivo in Italia. 

— SoMMiER : Una Genziana nuova per I'Earopa. 
„ — Martelli : Sulla Quercus mcuedonica. 

,y 4. Massalongo : Sulla germogliazione delle sporule nelle Sphaeropsideae. 
yy — Berlese : Sopra due parassiti della Vite per la prima volta trovati in 

„ — Gaspbrini : II Leghhi o vino di Palma. 
„ — BoRZi : Eremothecium Cymbalaruu^ nuovo Ascomicete. 

— MiCHELETTi : Raccomandazioni intese ed ottenere che I'ltalia abbia la 



sua Lichenografia. 

„ — Batelli : Escursione al M. Terminillo. 

„ — Arcangeli : Sul germogliamento delle Euryaleferax. 

„ — Macchiati : Xantofillidrina. 

„ — BORZI : Xerotropismo nelle Felci. 

Malpighia. Anno II, Fasc. VII, VIII. 

Terraciano : Intomo al genere Ehocharis ed alle specie che le rappre- 
sentano in Italia (Tav. XIV). 

Lojocono-Pojero : Sulla Rosa moschaia, Mill., in Sicilia, 

Baccarini : Appunti per la Biologia del Coniothyrium Diplodulla 
(Speg.) Sacc. 

Memorie della B. Aocademia delle Soienae dell' Istituto di Bologiuk. 
Vol. VIII. 

COCCONI e Morini: Enumerazioni del funghi della provincia di 
Bologna (quarta centuria) (con 3 Tavofe). 

Verardini : Studio clinico esperimentale sulP azione della radice 
d'ipccacuana, etc. 

Cavara : Sulla flora fossile di Mongardino (con tre Tavole). 

Delpino : Fiori doppii (Flores pleni). 

Morini : Riccrche sopra una nuova Chitridiacea (con una Tavola). 

Brugnoli : Uso della noce vomica nella epilessia da irritazione del Vago. 

Delpino : Funzione mirmecofila nel regno vegetale, Prodromo d*ima 
monografia delle piante formocarie. 

Notariaia. (De Toni c Levi). Vcnezia. (Anno III). 

No. II. Reinsch : Familiae Polyedriearum monographia, accedunt species 15 et 

genera 2 nova (c. 5 Tab.)- 
„ — De Toni : Notizie sopra 3 specie del genere Trentepohlia, Mart. 

„ — Hauck ; Ueber einige von J. M Hildebrandt im Rothen Meere und 

Indischen Ocean gesammelte Algcn. 

„ — Ardissone : Le Alghe della Terra del Fuoco raccolte da Spegazdni. 

„ — Algae novae : diagnoses. 

„ I a. De Toni : Sopra un nuovo genere di Trentepohliaceae {Hansgirgid). 

Periodical Literature. cxxxiii 

Notariiia {continued ). 

No. xa. Hansgirg: Synopsis generam subgenenimqae Myxophycearam (Cyano- 

phyceamm) nncusque cognitornm, cum aescriptione generis 
novi * Dactylococcopsis* 

„ — Lagerheim : Sopra alcone Alghe d*acqua dolce nnoye e rimarchevoli. 

„ — Algae novae : diagnoses, etc. 

Bendioonto dell* Aooademia dalle ScienBe Fiaiche e Matematiolie. (Napoli.) 
Serie a, Vol. II, Fasc. 6-11. 

Traversa e Manfredi : Sail* azione fisiologica e tossica dei prodotti 
dl coltara della Streptococco dell* Erisipela. 


Journal of the College of Bcience, Imperial Uniyersity, Tokyo. Vol. II, 
p. a (1888). 

Okubo : On the plants of Sulphur Island. 

Mittheilungen ana der MediciniBChen Facoltat der Kaia. JTap. Uniyersitat. 
Bd. I, Nos. I, 2. 

Disse und Taguchi : Das Contagium der Syphilis. 

Inoko : Untersnchungen iiher die Wirkungen des Macleyin's auf den 

thierischen Organismus, I. 
Hyrano : Ein Beitrag zor Kenntniss der Samen von Pharbiiis triloba^ 


Boletim da Booiedade Broteriana. Vol. V, Fasc. 4 (1S87). 

Murray : Notes on the Botany of the Serra do Gerez. 

Henriquez : Da Serra da Estrella a da Lonza. 

: Contribui9oes para estudo da Flora d* Africa. 

Vol VI. Fasc. I, a (1888). 

De Mariz : Subsidios para o estndo da Flora Portngneza. 

Henriquez : Additamento ao Catalogo das Amaiyllldeas de Portugal. 

: Distriba9ao dos Carvalhos portnguezes e soa importancia 


• " : Os Quercus de Portugal. 


▲ota Bocietaiia pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. (Helsingfors.) Vol. III. 
HuLT : Moosfloran Itraktema mellan Aavasaksa och Pallastnnturit. 

NORRLIN : Bidrag till HUracium'^oxz. ; Skandinaviska halfons meilersta 

Acta Bocletatia Bcientiarom Fennicae. T. XVI. 

Karsten : Icones selectae Hymenomycetum Fenniae nondom delinea- 
torum. Fasc. I, Tab. I-IX. 

Beitrftge sur Kenntniaa des roaaichen Belches. (Schrenk und Mazimowicz). 
Bd. V. 

K5PPIN : Geographische Verbreitung der Holzgewachse des eoropaiKhen 
Russlanos und des Kaukasus. 

cxxxiv CurrcfU Literature. 

Balletin de rAoad6mie Imp6riale de« Boienoe* da St. P6ter«boiirg. 

Chrapowitzki : Synth^ des substances albnmiiieusea dans les plantes 
contenant da Chlorophyl. 

Maximowicz: Diagnoses des plantes noovelles asiatiqiies, VII (ayec 
4 Planches). 

Bulletin de la 8ooi6t6 Imp6riale des STaturalistea de Koeoou. i888y 
Nos. a, 3. 

RiABiNiNE : Les Chlorophyc^es des environs de Khaxkow (avec i PL). 
M6moire8 de la 8ooi6t^ des Naturaliates de Eiew. (In Russian.) T. IX, i, a. 

BoRDZiLOWSKi : De la mani^re da d^yeloppement des froits chamos 
et bales. 

De Montr^sor : Expose des plantes de la flore de rArrondissemeot 
scolaire de Kiew. 

Patschoski : Mat^riaax poor servir k T^tade de la flore des districts de 
Zaslawl et de Kowel, gouv. de Wolhynie. 

: Sar la fanne et la flore des environs de Wladimir-Wol- 

hynski, goav. de Wolhynie. 

Kazlowski: Mat^rianx poar servir k T^tade de la flore algologiqoe 
d*eau doace de la Sib^rie. 

M6moire8 de la 8oci6t^ des STaturalistes de la NouTelle-Biuaie. Odessa. 
T. XIII, I. 

Chmielevsky : Zar Frage iiber die Kopalation der Zellkeme beim 
Geschlechtsprocesse der Pilze. 

: Zar Frage iiber die Wasserau&ahme dorch die oberirdi- 

schen Oxgane der Pflanzen. 

Bchrifton herauBgegebezi yon der STaturforschenden-Qesellaohaft bei der 
IXniyeraitat Dorpat. 1 887-1 888, Nos. a-4. 

Russow : Zar Anatomie, resp. physiologischen and vexgleichenden Ana- 
tomic der Torfoioose (m. 5 Tafeln). 

Graf Berg : Einige Spielarten der Fichte (mit la Tafeln). 

Bcripta botanioa Horti IXniyeraitatis Imperialia Fetropolitanae. Tomos 11, 
Fasc. a. 

GOLDE : Aufzahlong der Gefasspflanzen, die in den Jahren 1884-86 in 
der Umgebang von Omsk gesammelt sind (in Russian with 
German r^am^). 

Krutizky: Versuche iiber die Bewegungen der Gase in Pflanzen (in 
Rassian with German r6sam^). 

AcciENKO : Addendum II ad Chr. Steveni enumerationem plantarum 
in peninsula Taarica sponte crescentiom. 

BitBungBoherichte der sratorforschenden QeaellsohAft. Dorpat. Bd. VIII, 
Heft a. 

Braun : Beitrage zar Flora Baltica. 
SiNTENis : Die livlandischen Trypetinen. 

: Die livlandischen Sapromyzinen. 

: Ueber den Begrifi' der Art. 

MiJHLEN, VON ZUR : Varietaten der Syringa chinensiSf etc. 
Bbuttau : Hepatologische Excarsion nach Kurland. 
Russow : Ueber Stadien an einheimischen Torfmoosen. 

Periodical Literature. cxxxv 

Sooi^i^ dM Nataralistes de Kharkow. T. XXI (1888). 

ALisci^NKO : Algoes chlorosporte des envircms de Kharkow. 

Gruner : CoDspectns stirpinm vascalarium in vicinitate urbis Waro- 
nesch spoute nascentium. 


Bihang till Kongl. Bvenaka Vetenakaps-Akademiens. Bd. XIII. 

Henning : Vaxtfysiognomiska' anteckningar frSn vestra Harjedalen, 
med sarskild hansyn till Hymenomycetemas forekomst inom 
olika vaxtfonnationer. 

Olbers : Om finktfaggens byggnad hos Borragineema (2 Tailor). 

Lov^N : Om utvecklingen af de sekondara karlknippena hos Dracaena 
et Yucca (i Tafla). 

Johansson : Studier ofVer svamslagtet Taphrina (i Tafla). 

BOLDT : Desmidieer fr^ Gronland (2 Tafl.). 

■ : Gnmddragen af Desmidieemas ntbredning i Norden. 

JUNGNER : Bidrag till kannedomen om anatomien hos familjen DtO' 
scoreat (5 Tafl.). 

Af Klercker : Stndien iiber die GerbstofTvacnolen (i Tfl.). 

Lagerheim : Ueber Desmidiaoeen aus Bengalen nebst Bemerkui^n 

liber die geographische Verbreituig der Desmidiaceen in Asien 

(I Tfl.). 

Nathorst: Om de froktformer af Trapa natans, L. som fordom 
fimnits i Sverige (3 Tafl.). 

Ortbnblad : Om den hognordiska tallformen, Pinus silvestris, L. /9. /s/- 

Andersson : Om de primara karlstrslngames utveckling hos monokoty- 
ledonerna(2 Tafl.). 

. Botaniaka Notiaer. 1888. 

Haftet 2. 

Andbrsson: Om Palmella uvaeformis. Kg. och hvilsporema hos 
Drapamaldia glomerata^ Ag. 

DusiN : Om nigra Sphagnumprof frin djupet af sydsvenska torfmossar. 

JOHANSON : Takttagelser rorande nigra torfmossar i sodra Smiland och 

Lagerheim : Mykologiska Bidrag, IV : Ueber eine nene Peronospora' 
Art ans Schwedisch Lappland. 

LuNDSTBdM : Om farglosa objeplastider och objedroppames biologiska 
betydelse hos vissa Potamogeton arter. 

Neuman : Om toenne Rubi frin mellersta Halland. 

StarbXck : Kritisk ntredning af Leptosphaeria modesta, Anct. 

Trolander : Vaxtlokaler i Nerike. 

Haftet s. 

Ahlfengren : Vaxtgeografiska bidrag till Gotlands flora. 

Fries: Terminologiska sminotiser. 

Grevillius: Om stammens Cygnad hos m&gra lokalformer af Pofy' 
gonum aznculare, L. 

KjELLMANN : Skottets bygnad hos fam. Chordariaceac. 

LUNDSTROM : Nigra iakttagelser ofver Calypso bcrtalis. 

cxxxvi Current Literature. 

Botaniska Notiser {continued ). 

NiLSSON : Scirpus parvulus, Roem. et Sch. och de» niirmaste lonrandt- 
skaper i var flora. 

: Tvenne nye Rumex-hyhn^tt, 

RiNGius : Nigra floristiska anteckningar fiin Wermland. 

SkArman : Salix depressa x repens, Bnmn. 

Trolander : Vaxtlokaler i Nerike. 


Kaurin : Brachythecium Ryani, n. sp. 
KlHLMAN : Finsk botanisk literatar 1883-87. 
Neuman : N&gro anteckningar ofver postflorationen. 
KiHLMAN : Om fbrekomsten zi Festuca glauca i Finland. 
Arrhenius : Stellaria ponojensis, 
HuLT : En gnipp 9S Salix alba, 

Haftet 5. 

Fries : Nigra anmarkningar om Pilophorus, 

: Om Stenanthus curvijlorus^ Lonnr. 

HooRELL : Botaniken i Holland i 19® seklet. 

Juel : Morfologiska nndersokningar ofver Koeningia isUmdica, 

JUNGNEB : Rumex crispus, L. x HippolapcUhum, Fr. 

Kaalaas : Nogle nye scandinaviske moser. 

Kleban : Ueber den Rindenrost der Weymouthskiefer, Peridermium 
{Aecidium) StroH. 

Lagerheim: Mykologiskr Bidrag. vi: Ueber eine nene 9Joi Juncus- 
Arten wachsende Species der Gattang Urocystis, 

LindstrOm : Bidrag till Sodermanlands Vaxtgeografi. 

Lundstrom : Om formforandringar hos itskilliga lignoser och deras 

Starback : En samling Stereum och Corluium-aLiten, 

SvANLUND : Forteckning ofver botanisk litterator rorande Blekinge, som 
hittils ar utkommen, uppstald ; kronologisk ordningsfolja. 

Westerlund : Nigra bidrag till Blekings Flora. 

Smarre: Notiser. 

Haftet 6. 

HoGRELL : Nytt vaxstalle for Hyppophai rhamnoides, 

Krok : Svensk botanisk literatur 1887. 

LiNSTROM : Spridda vaztgeografiska bidrag till Skandinaviens flora. 

LiNDMAN : Nigra anmarkningar till 'Nigra anteckningar ofver post- 
florationen ' af L. M. Neuman. 

SvANLUND : Tillagg till forteckningen ofver botanisk literatnr rorande 

Handlingar, Konigl. Svenaka Vetenakaps-Akademiena. Ny Fjold, Bd. 
XXI, H. a. 

WiLLE : Bidrag till Algemes physiologiske Anatomi. 

Nathorst : Nouvelles observations sur les traces d*animaax et autres 

ph^nom^nes d'origine pnrement m^caniqne d^crits comme algact 


Periodical Literature. cxxxvii 


AhaIm de la Booiedad Espaflola de Historia NaturaL (Madrid.) T. XVn, 
Nos. 1-2. 

Castellarnau : Unidad del plan generativo en el reino vegetal. 
RoDRiQUEZ Y Femenias : Algas de las Baleaxes. 


Berloht der NaturwissenaoliafUiclien Qeaellsohaft an St. Qallen. 

Maillard : Algen ans dem Flysch der Schweizer Alpen. 

Bibliothdqne TTniTenelle : ArohiTOs dea Boienoea FhTsiqiiea et NatureUes. 
I* p^ode, T. XVni. 

MiCHAUD : Recherches chimiqnes sur le rhizome dn Cyclamen euro^ 

Gallon I : Naturalisation dn Commelina communis ^ L. pr^de Lngano. 

Chodat : Notice sur les Polygalac^ et synopsis des Polygqia d'Eorope 
et d'Orient. 

ScHNETZLER : Quelques observations sur Acanthus spinosus, L. 

ScHROTER : Influence de Osw. Heer sur les progr^ de la g^ographie 

: Sur Tezistence de deux formes sexuellement difii6rencito chez 

le Scirpus coispitosus, 

: Notices phytographiques sur quelques plantes alpines. 

T. XIX. 

Thury : L*&ge actuel des rignes organiques et la th^rie de la descen- 

Chodat et Chuit : Etude sur les noix de Kola. 

Pictet: La constitution chimique des Alcaloldes v^g^taux. Compte 

rendu par Rilliet. 
Candolle, de : Notice biographique sur Asa Gray. 

Fischer: Influence du dimat alpin sur la structure det feuilles de 

: Note sur le Graphiola fhocnicis, 

: Le genre Cyttaria, 

ScHNETZLER : F^ondation de VEremurus robustus, 

Micheli : Le Coniothyrium diplodiella et la gr61e. 

— — : L^gumineuses du Paraguay. 

Tripet : Plantes de THimalaya de Tabb^ Delavay. 

— — : Excursion botanique ^ Cogne. 

BucHERER : Morphologie des Dioscor^s. 

NuESCH : Bact^ries phosphorescentes. 

SchXr : Perezia fruticosa et Fouquitria spUndens. 

Treub : Notice sur la nouvelle flore de Krakatau. 

BnUatin de la Booi^t^ VaudoiBe. 3* s6rie, VoL XXIV, No. 98. 

SCHNETZLER : Sur la resistance des v^g^ux ^ des causes qui alth«nt 
r^tat normal de la vie. 

Notes on the Plasmodium of Badhamia utri- 
cularis and Brefeldia maxima. 




With Plates I and n. 

THE study of the plasmodium of Mycetozoa has received 
considerable attention on the Continent, and the account 
of the life-history of these remarkable organisms given by 
De Bary in the last edition of his * Comparative Morphology 
and Biology of Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria,' as well as 
those by Zopf and Sachs, afford an interesting view of their 
habits and properties ; but the investigations recorded by 
these authorities appear to have been chiefly directed to 
Fuligo varians and various species of Physarutfty and in 
following the development from spore to sporangium of 
Chondrioderma difforme. 

Although the plasmodia of many Mycetozoa may be 
induced to crawl on a glass plate, where their rhythmic 
streaming may be observed, yet the comparatively short 
time that elapses between their emerging from hidden recesses 
in the substance of rotten wood, and their changing into 
sporangia, renders the greater number of them unsuitable 
for prolonged examination; none that I have met with is 
so favourable in this respect as that of Badhamia utricularisy 
which wanders for the most part over the surface of dead 
stumps, and can easily be cultivated in glass boxes or under 
bell-jars. Another advantage in dealing with the plasmodium 
oi Badhamia is the facility with which it can be thrown into 

[ Ann«1« of Botany, Vot n. No. V, June z888. ] 


2 Lister. — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

a sclerotium or resting stage. In this condition it may 
be stored away and can be brought back again into the 
active state by the application of water, at any time within 
several months. I shall have occasion to revert to this 

The notes I now offer refer principally to this species, 
which I have kept in constant streaming movement on various 
kinds of woody fungi for more than a year. 

In January, 1877, Badhatnia was abundant in my garden 
at Leytonstone on some old hornbeam logs, which were 
also overgrown with extensive patches of Corticium puteanum^ 
an effused fungus consisting of a central portion, brown and 
lurid from the multitude of its spores, surrounded with a 
white byssoid margin. The Badhatnia advanced over the 
Coriiciuniy entirely consuming the hyphae, or cut broad paths 
through the larger patches, leaving the bark to all appearance 
clean and bare where the plasmodium had passed on. 

I allowed the plasmodium which had been thus feeding, 
to crawl on a glass plate, when its usual colour of rich 
chrome-yellow had changed to deep brown; this alteration 
of colour was shown by the microscope to be caused by 
the countless undigested brown spores of the Corticium held 
in suspension. These spores could be seen hurried along 
in the torrents that coursed through the branching channels, 
rolling over and over among the minute yellow granules 
and transparent vacuoles of the plasmodium. 

When this had retreated from the glass plate, a map of 
its lace-like network was left behind, formed by the ejection 
on each side of the veins, of thousands of the Corticium-spores 
mixed with other refuse matter. 

I placed some wet cotton-wool in front of the still dingy 
Plasmodium ; this it readily penetrated, and afterwards emerged 
possessing its normal yellow colour, leaving the wool charged 
with spores and other debris ; it soon after changed to 
sporangia which became black in the course of about thirty- 
six hours, and as they dried assumed the blue-grey colour 
characteristic of the species. 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 3 

The consumption of the Coriiciutn was so interesting a 
fact that I exhibited specimens of the hornbeam bark with 
the Carticium in the act of being invaded by the plasmodium 
at a meeting of the Linnean Society. I also showed under 
the microscope the streaming plasmodium on a glass plate. 

The difficulty of obtaining satisfactory observations when 
the Plasmodium is spread over an exposed surface led me 
to cultivate it in glass boxes suitable for examination on 
the stage of the microscope (Fig. 5). The boxes are easily 
made, with two sides of thin glass measuring three by two 
inches fitted with wood ends half an inch wide, and a glass 
bottom, the whole fastened together with stiff glue and 
varnished at the points of junction and over the wood with 
Canada balsam ; a glass slip half an inch wide serves as a 
cover secured with an elastic band ; in such boxes the plas- 
modium can be kept for any length of time in a damp 

Besides the Coriiciutn before mentioned, most effused fungi 
as well as thin species of Daedalea and PolyporuSy especially 
P. versicolor and P. adustus^ afford good nourishment to the 
Plasmodium of Badhamia, though in cultivation these are 
apt to grow Mucor which leads to the decay of the plas- 
modium if allowed to spread ; but its favourite food is Stereum 
hirsuiuniy a fungus that abounds on logs of oak and horn- 
beam, and on which Badhamia is constantly found during 
the winter months. With this we have no trouble from 
Mucor ^ while it is so rich a pabulum that in April and May 
of last year I cultivated plasmodia thickly covering an area 
of at least thirty inches, all of which had grown from a small 
quantity creeping over a piece of Stereum about the size 
of a half-crown with which I commenced operations on 
April 6 ; and in addition to this plasmodium which remained 
in a creeping state, an equal amount had changed into 
sporangia in glass boxes or under bell-jars. 

Although the plasmodium grew very rapidly during the 
summer, and showed such vigour that it frequently spread 
completely over the glass shades placed over the piles of 

B 2 

4 Lister. — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

Stereum if I omitted for two or three days to supply fresh 
food, yet none changed to sporangia between May 24 and 
September 27. 

In hot weather, considerable attention is needed to keep 
the Plasmodium in health, a fresh supply of Stereum must 
be frequently added, and the decayed bits cleared away. 
The new pieces are usually crawled over in the course of 
a few hours, and can be taken off and placed in a glass box 
for observation, or put under a glass shade with more Stereum 
to start a fresh colony. In the colder months no serious 
consequences follow if a pile is left alone for a week, the 
Plasmodium may settle down with sluggish movement or 
pass into a resting stage ; but in the height of summer a 
promising-looking colony will often fall into foul decay in 
twenty-four hours if it is n^lected. 

When Plasmodium is placed in a glass box it will soon 
crawl up the sides, and it is then in a favourable condition for 
observation (see Fig. i). The following experiments bearing 
on its manner of feeding have been conducted with these 
moist chambers. 

In the first place I submit the results of a number of 
observations with regard to the action of the Plasmodium 
of Badhamia upon starch, which has been stated on the 
authority of Dr. Wortmann to have been absorbed by the 
Plasmodium oi Fuligo^. 

In arranging for these experiments, I cut slices of raw 
potato and pounded them in a mortar; I then carefully 
washed the pulp so as to collect only the unbroken starch- 
grains, as an appearance of erosion is easily given by a slight 
bruise. Starch obtained from this source seems to be better 
for our purpose than any other, on account of the large size 
and regular form of the grains. 

If this raw starch is spread with water on the side of a 
glass box in front of an advancing wave of the plasmodium, 
it is simply incorporated without any material stimulus to 

' See De Bary, Morphology and Biology of the Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria. 
Engl. ed. p. 45 a. 

Badhamia utricularis atul Brefeldia maocima. 5 

the flow being set up, and as a rule no change whatever 
takes place in the starch-grains ; they are seen to be swept 
over by the streaming currents, or carried along the larger 
veins, and after five or six days' retention, they may be cast 
out or left behind on the glass with no more visible alteration 
than if they had been grains of sand. 

On one occasion I watched what I supposed at the time 
to be the actual absorption of starch. On May 26, 1887, I 
was observing Plasmodium in a glass box on the side of 
which I had spread raw starch scraped from potato. I 
noticed a body having the size and general form of a starch- 
granule, with a slight indentation, and drew it with camera 
lucida (Fig. 16 ^); a thin stream of plasmodium was then 
flowing over it. I left the glass box on the stage of the 
microscope, with the drawing below the camera; after an 
hour's interval I looked again and found that the object 
had diminished to the size b in Fig. 16 ; from that time it 
was under constant observation for an hour and a half, 
during which it passed through the forms c^ d, e^ /, g^ 
drawn with the camera at intervals of about a quarter of 
an hour; the last fragment then disappeared in the film of 
Plasmodium which had continued to stream with the r^ular 
rhythmic alternate flow during the whole of the time. From 
subsequent experience I can hardly suppose this to have 
been a grain of raw starch, for I have since watched hundreds 
of these grains, often for hours without intermission, and in 
no single instance have I been satisfied that any change has 
taken place, nor have I seen any appearance of erosion of 
raw grains left by retreated plasmodium that could not be 
explained by the effect of bruising. 

I have frequently examined raw starch which has remained 
for a week and from that to ten days constantly enveloped 
in moving plasmodium, and not a grain has shown the 
slightest erosion ; yet I give the above observation as possess- 
ing considerable interest as an undoubted instance of the 
absorption of a solid substance. 

If instead of using starch in its raw state, it is first warmed 

6 Lister. — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

with water in a test-tube, just sufficiently to swell most of 
the grains, the effect is very different from what I have 
described. On the Plasmodium reaching this swollen starch, 
it rapidly advances in a concentrated opaque mass, and at 
the same time the flow along the more distant veins is much 
accelerated. After some hours, when the wave of Plasmodium 
has retired, all the completely swollen grains are found to 
have disappeared, while those that have been only slightly 
affected by the warm water have lost their softer portions 
and show their margins more or less eroded according to 
the length of time they have been subjected to the action 
of the Plasmodium. In cases where repeated waves have 
passed over the starch, the erosion of such imperfectly 
softened grains is markedly greater, but they are not entirely 
consumed, and there always remains a large residuum of 
whole or eroded grains. Application of iodine shows the 
side of the box to be strewn with small fragments of starch. 

It is very difficult to observe the process of absorption, 
because the stimulus given to the plasmodium occasions it 
to accumulate in a broad border, often i mm. in thickness, 
and it is only after its retreat that we can see the chaise 
that has taken place. 

The Plasmodium with which one of these observations was 
made, had crawled upon a glass shade from a pile of Stereum 
over which it had been placed. I took off the shade and 
half filled it with water, and with a feather gently detached 
the film of Plasmodium, allowing it to float about ; I then 
passed under it a piece of wet cotton wool, and in this way 
was able to collect it upon the wool without materially 
disturbing the network of veins. I placed it in a clean glass 
box, and with a pair of forceps took out the remaining 
floating pieces and added them to the rest ; by these means 
the streaming of the plasmodium is hardly checked, and it 
will often b^in to climb up the side of the box in the course 
of a few minutes. This method is useful when it is desired 
to make experiments with pure plasmodium free from any 
foreign matter. 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima, 7 

I now proceed to relate observations on the absorption of 
various fungi. 

On October 10, 1887, I placed a thin section of the pileus 
and gills of Agaricus campestriSy measuring 7x4 mm., in 
front of an advancing wave of plasmodium, which at once 
concentrated in a turgid mass upon the agaric, and in the 
course of an hour had entirely enveloped it. On the retreat 
of the Plasmodium after some hours, not a trace of the 
mushroom remained. I have repeated this again and again 
with always the same result ; a sluggish condition of the 
Plasmodium is invariably revived and rapid streaming in the 
surrounding veins towards the object is set up when this 
agaric is offered to it. 

Several experiments were made with slices of the pileus 
of Boletus flavuSy which were even more greedily devoured 
than the mushroom. 

On October 11, I placed a section of the pileus and gills of 
Agaricus melleus before a wave of plasmodium. The action 
was less rapid than in the other cases, but in two hours the 
section was densely enveloped, and next morning, when the 
Plasmodium had withdrawn, nothing remained on the glass 
but a heavy grey deposit of granular and slimy dibris. 

As the tissue of the pilei of the fungi hitherto used is 
composed of delicate hyphae, I next tried an experiment 
with harder material. On October 12, I cut a section of 
the stem of Agaricus melleus from a specimen which was 
tough and mature, the buff-coloured outer coat being 
especially firm, and the hyphae strong. I placed the sec- 
tion in front of a thin film of plasmodium (Fig. i). 
Almost immediately on its touching the first threads of the 
agaric a concentration took place as in former instances. 
Figs* 2, 3, 4 show the manner in which the turgid 
border advanced. In less than two hours the whole piece 
was overspread, but in this case the absorption was 
not so rapid as it was with the softer tissue, and the 
section could be seen beneath the plasmodium for several 
hours. On the following morning the plasmodium had with- 

$ Lis/er. — Notes on tlie Plasmodium of 

drawn on to the Stereum in the box, and all that remained of 
the section on the glass side was a slimy deposit in which 
were scattered a few broken hyphae which I concluded had 
belonged to the tough outer bark. 

On October 3, I experimented with a section of the gills 
and pileus of Agaricus rubescens. On the plasmodium 
reaching the section, the hyaloplasm became in some way 
affected, and appeared to absorb water, for it rapidly 
penetrated among the hyphae unaccompanied by granules 
and stained the section throughout gamboge-yellow. This 
influence on the hyaloplasm seemed to destroy its protecting 
power, and at the point of contact the granular plasmodium 
gushed out from the interior in the form of multitudes of 
globular bodies measuring 15 /x to ^25 /x in diameter, each 
enclosed by a thin covering of hyaloplasm. Some of these 
floated into the surrounding water showing amoeboid move- 
ments, and were afterwards reabsorbed into the general mass, 
but many lost their vitality and fell to pieces, mixing with 
the grey slime of dead plasmodium. It was a considerable 
time before the main wave of plasmodium had covered the 
section, which could be detected lying beneath it for some 
hours without much apparent change ; next morning, however, 
on the Plasmodium having retreated, only a denser mucilage 
remained covering the spot where the section had been 

This experiment was repeated with another section from 
the same specimen of A, rubescens \ this was also stained 
yellow, but no breaking up of the plasmodium followed. I 
have, however, seen the same clusters of balls when a lai^e 
supply of swollen starch was submitted to plasmodium. 

Some days after I again tried with A. rubescens^ but not 
the same specimen. The section was considerably thicker 
than in the former case, and, as before, the progress of 
consumption was slow ; here, however, there was no yellow 
staining and no breaking up of the plasmodium, but it was 
not altogether a favourable diet, for on the following morning 
a heavy deposit of dead plasmodium was left upon the glass. 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 9 

in which could be seen grey lines of undigested spores showing 
the remains of the gills ; the hyphae had all disappeared. 

On October a6, I treated plasmodium in two glass boxes 
with sections of the pileus and gills oi Agar icus fascicular is. 
The action was very different from what had been observed 
with the other agarics and with Boletus, In one box, after 
the slice had remained touching the plasmodium for 3^ hours, 
no advance had been made ; so in order to stimulate its 
movement, I applied a small section of Boletus jlavus to the 
same wave and about an eighth of an inch from the 
A, fascicularis : in forty minutes not only was the Boletus 
absorbed, but the plasmodium had surged in a broad fan over 
the A, fascicularis which could be seen unchanged beneath it. 
On the following morning the plasmodium had retreated 
leaving the section with no apparent alteration surrounded 
by a mass of mucus, and here this experiment came to 
an end. 

In the other box with A, fascicularis^ at 11.50 A.M. a 
section of pileus and ten gills was placed in contact with a 
strong wave of plasmodium ; at i.ioP. M. there was scarcely 
any advance upon it ; at 3.40 I made a note, ^fascicularis 
rejected.' Towards evening, however, the plasmodium ad- 
vanced and enveloped the section ; next morning it was left 
stranded and little changed. In the afternoon it was again 
swept over by the plasmodium, which began to prey upon 
the hyphae of the pileus, but it was evidently an unwholesome 
morsel, for it was surrounded with much grey mucus ; amongst 
this were many isolated patches of plasmodium pushing their 
way in the slime with constant change of form ; some appeared 
to have broken up into clusters of globules similar in size to 
the balls which escaped from the plasmodium in the experi- 
ment with A. rubescens\ a few of these coalesced and were 
taken in by the larger patches, but the greater number fell to 
pieces and died. Again the plasmodium withdrew, and 
although the section had been subjected to its action for 
aa hours, the gills had been so little affected that in the forks 
the spores could be seen arranged on their basidia in groups 

lo Lister. — Notes an the Plasmodium of 

of four surrounded only by water. Now, however, another 
wave of Plasmodium advanced over it, and when again left 
bare on the following morning, the third day of the contest, 
the section was broken into small pieces and so reduced, that 
not a tenth of the original quantity remained. The struggle 
had been a tough one, for the whole lower side of the box 
was covered with broad bands and patches of grey slime, 
through which a tangle of long strings of bright orange 
Plasmodium was twisted in strange disorder. 

To restore its healthy condition^ I placed in the box a piece 
of fresh Stereum, upon which the Plasmodium soon concen- 
trated itself in rich orange turgid waves, entirely withdrawing 
from the old pieces which were loaded with dead refuse. 
The following day, October 29, I cleaned out the glass box, 
replacing the healthy Plasmodium, and added more fresh 
Stereum, on which, after rapidly increasmg in volume, the 
Plasmodium changed into sporangia on November 1 7. 

A species of Merulius with small brown spores and with 
a white muccdinous border, somewhat resembling Corticium 
puteanum, was quickly dissolved ; here again the dense ac- 
cumulation of the Plasmodium prevented the process being 

My next experiment was with the shaggy hairs scraped 
from the upper surface of Stereutn hirsutum^ well teased 
apart with needles. I placed the preparation in a glass box 
with pure plasmodium on cotton wool. It was at once seized 
upon and the plasmodium spread over a space measuring an 
inch and a half in circumference in the course of a couple 
of hours ; in another hour it had nearly withdrawn, leaving 
the bundles of hyphae apparently little changed, but close 
examination showed many threads to be thinned away and 
broken in their continuity. After four days, when waves of 
Plasmodium had repeatedly passed over the preparation, it 
had diminished to about half its original amount, and a mag- 
nifying power of 560 showed fragments in all stages of 
dissolution. At the same time much remained in which 
no alteration could be observed. Other experiments gave 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 1 1 

the same results, showing that the consumption of coarse 
fibres, though it does take place^ is very slow. 

The eflfect of Stereum on the plasmodium is very different 
from that produced when it feeds upon agarics ; there is com- 
paratively little residue of slimy matter, and the flow is easy 
and free. With agarics, on the other hand, a heavy grey 
mucous deposit is left upon the glass, and the veins of the 
retreating plasmodium are rugged and loaded with particles, 
the streaming being confined to a narrow central channel. 
This condition, however, i$ frequently observed under other 
circumstances when the plasmodium becomes sluggish. 
Scrapings from the hymenial surface of Stereum are much 
more rapidly dissolved than the shaggy fibres ; twelve hours 
immersion will often be sufficient to cause the whole to dis- 
appear with the exception of the coarse hyphae. 

The most remarkable activity of plasmodium that I ever 
witnessed was caused by the supply of this pabulum. 

Plasmodium crawling over pieces of Stereum had been kept 
for several days in a glass box, and at the time of my ob- 
servation it had spread over both sides of the chamber and 
was slowly retreating in a widely-meshed network of narrow 
veins upon the clean glass. To a point on the upper edge 
of the network I applied a thin pulp, about the consistence 
of cream, of the scraped hymenial surface mixed with water. 
There was at first, as I have not unfrequently seen, a shrinking 
backwards of the margin of the network, as if notice of the 
presence of a food-supply had been sent off to the more 
distant parts ; then came on a quick stream, and in a quarter 
of an hour the whole side was pouring up its plasmodium 
with astonishing rapidity. The wide meshwork was not 
sufficient to conduct the abundant supply, and fresh veins 
started off in all directions, cutting up the broad meshes ; at 
one time the current along them all was so precipitate that 
I endeavoured in vain to follow the course of the particles ; 
they rushed across the field of the microscope at a speed 
that was truly amazing. While the streaming was at its full 
height, I noticed a brown lump about the size of a large 

1 2 Lister, — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

starch-grain, and which I took to be a piece of dead sclero- 
tium, rush along a swollen vein until it reached a fork, when 
it blocked the passage. Fresh streams immediately broke out 
on each side of the obstruction, but the main current still 
forced its way along the old channel, and in so doing it cut 
away the dark substance as a projecting point of sand is 
swept off by a runnel on a sandy shore. The granular con- 
stituents streamed away along one side of the vein and were 
dispersed in the torrent before it had passed out of the field, 
and all was dissolved before the reverse flow of the current 
set in. Meanwhile the new veins were crossing and re-crossing 
the wide network in every direction, and in a few minutes it 
was converted into a film of rapidly-moving plasmodium 
perforated with small openings, ending in an opaque mass 
which overspread the 5/^r^«w-pulp. The stimulus * soon 
extended all over the glass box, and in the course of a few 
hours the opposite side as well as some of the pieces of pileus 
at the bottom were overrun with rich waves. 

It was a sight not soon to be forgotten ; the marvellous 
exhibition of such active life in so low an organism was most 

In my experience with the plasmodium of Badhamia the 
flow is usually more rapid in the larger than in the smaller 
veins, which is what one would expect on mere hydraulic 
principles. The flow through the veins continues for about 
a minute and a half to two minutes in one direction, when 
it comes to a stand and immediately reverses its course ; it 
gradually increases in rapidity for about half a minute and 
retains the maximum of speed for a varying length of time, 
when the rate again gradually diminishes. The continuance 
of the flow is longer when in the direction in which the plas* 
modium is moving ; sometimes when the advance is rapid it 
will go on for three minutes before the return current sets in. 
When a wave is spreading over the glass in ordinary con- 
ditions, the maximum flow through the veins is at the rate 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 1 3 

of about half an inch in a minute ; it is often of course slower, 
but in the case just referred to the speed was very much 
greater ^. 

With r^ard to the digestion of food-material, there is 
no doubt that it goes on to a large extent in the inner 
and streaming part of the plasmodium ; but that the hyalo- 
plasm has also an absorbing power was beautifully shown 
in the following instance. 

On February 16, 1886, 1 was engaged in watching Badhamia'- 
Plasmodium in a glass box, where it had remained for several 
days in a moist atmosphere, when I noticed on the side a 
dark object, probably a cluster of spores of some fungus, 
from which mycelium was spreading in diverging threads 
(Fig. 17). I saw the plasmodium advance with a clear 
margin of hyaloplasm from the line a in Fig. 1 7 to the line by and 
as it encroached upon the hyphae, they instantly melted away 
in its transparent substance like sugar in boiling water. They 
left no trace beyond two small fragments of the cellulose-wall 
(Fig. 18, e) which remained in the hyaline medium and were 
never mixed up with the granular part. In this case the 
stimulus of the food was not powerful enough to occasion an 
opaque concentration of the plasmodium, which spread over 
the clean glass in an almost transparent film (Fig. 17, b). 

The wave was arrested at the line b in the figure and soon 
retreated. It was then interesting to note the effect produced 
on the parts of the threads which had not been immersed ; 
in the course of half an hour, there was observed a breaking- 
up of the cell-wall with its contents into a string of bead-like 
fragments for a considerable distance from the point reached 
by the plasmodium, and this process continued for some 
hours, until the chain attained the length marked in the 
figure (Fig. 1 8, c'). 

^ The question of light has nothing to do with the movements of the plasmodiam 
of Badhamia ; waves will spread over the sides of a glass box or a glass shade, 
quite indifferently whether in day or night, whether on the part exposed to full 
daylight or that tnmed to a dark comer. 

14 Lister. — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

I have repeatedly examined cotton wool to see if there 
was any appearance of absorption, but find that no change 
takes place, even when it has been penetrated by the Plas- 
modium for many weeks together. 

To sum up these experiments, — they indicate a remarkable 
power possessed by the plasmodium of Badhamia of discrimi- 
nating between different foods. We find that it can be raised 
from a sluggish and scarcely moving condition to one of great 
activity by supplying it with Agaricus campestris^ Boletus 
flavus^ or with the prepared hymenial surface of Stereum hir- 
sutum ; that the coarser fibres of the latter fungus are more 
slowly absorbed, but that this plant is so nutritious to the 
Plasmodium that it grows rapidly and healthily upon it. 

We find that Agaricus melleus and A, rubescens^ though 
quickly overspread, are less freely assimilated and afford doubt- 
ful nourishment; while with A. fascicularis we see that for 
three hours the plasmodium refused it altogether ; and when 
at last invaded, in one instance the section was rejected and 
never touched again, and in the. other, like a hungry man 
with an unwholesome meal, the creature fed, but almost died 
of indigestion. 

We find that starch, when swollen by moderate heat, is 
absorbed, which is proved, not only by the manner in which 
the grains are eroded or disappear, but by its stimulating 
influence on the plasmodium, while raw starch and cotton 
wool are not affected ^ 

Again, these experiments show, that whatever may be the 
digestive principle of plasmodium (possibly a peptonising 
ferment as suggested by Krukenberg^), it is not confined to 

* The spores of ftmgi also appear to be protected by their firm walls, and an 
Oidium or small pullulating fungus (Fig. ii, r, </) which always accompanies the 
Plasmodium of Badhamia is not only uninjured, but would seem to thrive within 
its substance ; it forms a considerable proportion of the refuse matter thrown oat 
by retreating waves upon the sides of the moist chamber, where it multiplies with 
great rapidity. 

' See De Bary, Comparative Morphology and Biology of the Fungi, Mycetocoa 
and Bacteria, p. 452. 

Badftamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 1 5 

any special part of the mass. With starch and the sections of 
agarics the absorption took place in the streaming interior, 
while in the case last related, it occurred in the hyalo- 
plasm alone; the threads were completely dissolved in the 
hyaline margin, with the exception of the small fragments 
referred to, which were kept under constant observation until 
they were almost ejected by the far-retreating plasmodium. 

While I have thus endeavoured to summarise the prin- 
cipal facts brought out by earlier observations as well as 
by the experience of the last twelve months, during which 
time the organism has remained under daily notice without 
a break in its constant rhythmic motion, it may not be out 
of place to refer to some of the n^ative results that have 
attended these investigations. I need hardly say that they 
aflford no clue to the mystery of this rhythmic streaming 
any more than they explain why, at uncertain intervals of 
hours or days, the plasmodium will rouse up without pro- 
vocation from a quiescent condition, and flow over a glass 
shade and then return to its former state. We may suppose 
that it is searching for food, but this is far from accounting 
for the unity of action that appears to pervade the creature. 

At the risk of being tedious, I give the following note 
taken in February, 1887: — Plasmodium under a glass bell 
four inches high by four wide, crawled up the sides, com- 
pletely clothing the shade with the most exquisite yellow 
tracery; on the following day this had changed to a loose 
reticulation of thicker orange-coloured veins ; on adding water 
upon the plate beneath, the whole of the glass was in a 
short time covered with delicate little fans of yellow plas- 
modium starting from the orange veins, as it were, clothing 
the bare stems with leaves. I then introduced two pieces 
of Stereuffty and in five hours the plasmodium, which for two 
days had overspread the shade, had almost entirely retreated 
and concentrated upon the Stereum. 

Here we had an area of about forty square inches, covered 
with two or three hundred little advancing fans of plas- 
modium, springing from a network of branches, which was 

1 6 Lister, — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

simultaneously influenced to withdraw to the food placed 
upon the glass plate below. 

Then again I have not been able to obtain any light on 
the impulse that occasions the change to sporangia. I have 
had a large supply of plasmodium spreading over a pile 
of Stereum under a bell-jar, and have removed portions into 
glass boxes and under glass shades^ so that I have sometimes 
had seventeen separate colonies at one time, where the con- 
ditions of food and moisture have been apparently the same ; 
one after another of these colonies have undergone the 
change, while others continued to stream. Again, the whole 
of the main supply has suddenly formed into sporangia, 
some of them suspended in clusters by yellow threads or 
bands, and others formed into sessile plasmodiocarps upon 
the plate or pieces of Stereum \ the portions transferred to 
the smaller receptacles have meanwhile remained unaltered. 
On the other hand, so long as the plasmodium has been 
continuous, however extensive, the change to sporangia has 
taken place simultaneously throughout the whole ^. There 
is no doubt that hot weather is unfavourable to the develop- 
ment of sporangia, but it is remarkable that for four 
months not a single colony went into its final stage; 
though I should say that I lost a number from want of 
proper attention, they died and decomposed with a strong 
ammoniacal smell, having been poisoned by the products 
of the rapidly decaying Stereum, Many of the surviving 
colonies went into sporangia in the month of October; one 
which changed on the 25th seems worthy of special mention. 

This was in part revived sclerotium which had dried in 
July. I wetted it on October i, and it returned to active 
movement in the course of an hour or two ; to this I added 
about an equal quantity of plasmodium from the store under 

* Since writing the above, a large growth of plasmodium has formed into spo- 
rangia nnder a bell-jar ; more than half changed on March 13, 1888, the rest on 
March 15. On March 11, when an appearance of sporangia occurred, I had added 
water, which checked the development. This plasmodium was a part of the 
continuous cultivation begun on Jan. 3 2, 1887. 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 1 7 

a bell-jar, and the two quickly coalesced ; on October 13, 
I fed this mixed plasmodium with Merulius, which it de- 
voured, and all went into sporangia together eleven days after. 

In connection with the change to sporangia I here refer 
to a beautiful exhibition of spore-formation which came under 
my notice in a specimen of Brefeldia maxima. 

On November 27, 1887, a large mass of opaque white Plas- 
modium was found emerging from the ground at the foot of an 
old fir stump. I cut off a part which had spread over some dead 
oak leaves, and placed it in a glass box with the cut surface 
against the side (Fig. 5). The piece was cushion-like in form, 
apparently homogeneous in substance, and closely studded 
with papillae. The face resting against the glass measured an 
inch and a quarter in length, and half an inch in height. 

At ten o'clock on the following morning, the base and 
central part of the cut surface assumed a loose spongy 
texture, which, as the day advanced, became filled with air 
and occupied about half the area of the section. 

At 1 1 A.M. a flush of pale purple appeared along the upper 
edge of the spongy tissue ; upon this rested the broad white 
mass of the aethalium, composed of narrow and somewhat 
branching sporangia, closely cohering together and spreading 
radially towards the surface, where they terminated in the 
papillae before mentioned. 

About 2 P.M. the papillae lying against the glass began 
to push upwards irregular and broad extensions sufficiently 
thin to be examined by transmitted light, and filled with 
remarkably large colourless granules measuring from afi to 
4fi in diameter; the movement among these granules was 
extremely slow and difficult to follow, except when they 
poured into the pseudopodia which were here and there 
thrown out; no vacuoles were visible. At about 3.30 the large 
granules broke up into very minute bodies and numerous 
vacuoles made their appearance ; and now for the first time 
the streaming movement was observed with alternate flow 
at intervals of about two minutes. This condition of things 


1 8 Lister. — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

continued for about half an hour. At 4 P.M. the broad ex- 
tensions of Plasmodium suddenly branched out from centres 
into clusters of short diverging branchlets (Fig. 6, a), most 
of which, if not all of them, contained a vacuole. At 4.30 
each branchlet had constricted itself from its neighbour and 
taken a spherical form, the vacuoles disappeared, and the 
whole substance was divided into a multitude of spores (Fig. 
6, d). In a few hours these had developed their spore-walls, 
and on the following morning had become purple-brown in 
colour, and in every respect resembled those which filled 
the sporangia. The capillitium with its strange many- 
chambered vesicles had already formed in the lower parts 
of the sporangia before any apparent change had taken place 
in the plasmodium at the extremities. 

Brefeldia may be an especially favourable species for 
showing this phenomenon, on account of the extremely thin 
membrane which covers the sporangia, for I have never 
observed this free spore-formation, unconfined by any en- 
closing wall, in any other of the Mycetozoa. 

I now return to the consideration of the resting condition 
referred to in the earlier part of these notes. 

If Plasmodium of Badhamia, spread on the side of a glass 
box, falls into an inactive state, a mottled appearance of 
the film is very frequently observed, which is caused by a 
tendency of the granules to draw together in loose groups : 
this passes off if the streaming revives ; but if causes arise 
which produce greater stagnation, the concentration becomes 
more marked, and in process of time the aggregations are 
separated from each other by more or less defined hyaline 
spaces. When this has taken place all streaming has 
ceased, the plasmodium contracts to a thicker mass, and the 
surface is observed to be partitioned into slightly convex 
areas corresponding to the superficial layer of so-called 
sclerotium-cells which have now taken definite form ^. 

* See De Bary, Comparative Morphology and Biology of Fungi, Mycetozoa and 
BiM^eria, p. 428. 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 1 9 

When the process is going on* slowly we may sometimes 
notice all these stages in one lobe of plasmodium; at one 
extremity there may be a thin film showing streaming move- 
ment with no aggregations; then follows the mottled ap- 
pearance, and further on the definite thin-walled cells may 
be traced, densely crowded and constituting the thick 
sclerotium. Sometimes a piece of plasmodium will become 
detached on the glass plate, and be left behind by a retreating 
wave, and will form into cells while all the rest continues its 
streaming movement. 

I have had plasmodium change to the sclerotium form on 
wet cotton wool, but this was probably from want of nourish- 
ment. As the supply of moisture was here abundant, the 
margin of the sclerotium was not so abrupt as usual, and in a 
narrow border the cells were spread in a thin layer ; many of 
the outermost were quite detached from the rest, and showed 
slow amoeboid movement. 

The chief cause of the resting condition in Mycetozoa, as is 
well known, is lack of moisture. 

When I changed my place of residence last spring, and 
wished to take with me the store of plasmodium which 
was in active state under a number of covers and in 
glass boxes, I removed the glass shades from those not 
required to be retained in the streaming condition. They 
at once began to form into sclerotia, and in three days 
were dry and ready to be packed away. After the lapse 
of five months, on adding water to parts of these sclerotia, 
the thin hyaline walls of the cells broke down and were 
dissolved, and in three or four hours the streaming move- 
ment returned. 

On October 16, 1 had a rich plasmodium covering a pile of 
Stereum under a large bell-jar, which was inadvertently exposed 
for about three hours to hot sunshine. At the end of that 
time the whole of it had changed to fine rugged sclerotium, 
which I removed from the bell-jar and set aside. When 
portions of this were wetted again within a few days they 
returned to the active state in about half an hour; when 

C 2 

20 Lister. — Notes on the Plasmodium of 

moistened, after three or four weeks, they took a longer time 
to recover the movement. 

The dry sclerotium of Badhatnia utricularis is dark brick- 
red in colour, of brittle, horny texture (Fig. 7), and con- 
solidates in irr^^lar effused masses, which are usually made 
up of cord-like convolutions and knobs ; the cells of which it is 
composed vary in size from 10 to 20fi in diameter. 

When a thin section of dry sclerotium is placed in water and 
examined under the microscope, the cells are seen to swell 
from absorption of moisture, and in a short time a slow change 
of position takes place in the contained granules, among 
which may be observed from 5 to 20 nuclei, according to the 
size of the cell (Fig. 8). These are not easy to detect, but 
if the swollen cells are carefully separated and crushed on a 
cover-slip, then dried and stained with magenta, the nuclei, 
with their nucleoli, are brought out with beautiful distinctness, 
especially when mounted in Canada balsam (Fig. 10). 

The sclerotium is often formed with free rods connecting one 
part with another (Fig. 7,^) ; a section of one of these, when 
softened in water, shows very well how the refuse matter is 
discharged by encysting plasmodium ; the outer wall of the 
rod is composed of mucus charged with spores of Fungi and 
cells of Algae, together with other rubbish, while the enclosed 
cells contain only pure plasmodium. 

The sharpest definition of nuclei and nucleoli which I have 
succeeded in obtaining has been when the cover-slips on which 
the Plasmodium of Badhamia had been thinly smeared, were 
instantly dropped into absolute alcohol ; the preparations were 
then stained with magenta and mounted in balsam. Stainings 
of hyaloplasm taken from turgid plasmodium show very few 
nuclei, which appear to be confined to the interior substance, 
for the scattered individuals that are met with were probably 
introduced through imperfect manipulation. 

If the streaming plasmodium is examined without having 
resort to staining, and a morsel is placed under a cover-slip 
with slight pressure, the nuclei cannot at first be recognised ; 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima, 2 1 

but as disintegration takes place they gradually become 
visible (Fig. ii,«). 

They are rendered more conspicuous if a bit of plasmodium 
is torn with needles in a drop of water, care being taken that 
the cover-slip does not press too closely; viewed under a 
magnifying power of about 1200, the globular vesicles of finely 
granular plasma which ooze out from the mass are seen to 
contain nuclei, which are colourless and faint, but at the same 
time perfectly distinct in outline. They measure, as a rule, 
a little over 3/iA in diameter, and show a clearly defined 
nucleolus. Occasionally a nucleus may be seen to be shot into 
an expanding vesicle in which none had previously appeared, 
as if it had formed an obstruction in the narrow passage through 
which the plasma issued ; some globular vesicles that have 
become detached contain nuclei in great abundance, while 
others again have few or none. 

When an object such as is here described has remained for 
half an hour or so under the cover-slip, the yellow granules 
will be found to have mostly disappeared, the minute granules 
will have more or less dispersed or congr^ated together, 
while the colourless plasma is seen crowded with nuclei 
throughout the preparation. 

The most successful arrangement for minute observation of 
the streaming plasmodium is obtained when we happen to 
have it climbing freely over the sides of a glass shade. If this 
has been going on for a day or two, we fi-equently see little 
buddings out from the larger veins of delicate fans of network 
measuring perhaps an eighth of an inch across, or less. A 
drop of water is placed over one of these, and it is gently 
detached, with precaution that no branches are injured except 
the main stem, which connected it with the vein. If the little 
fan be placed in water on a glass slide, and the cover-slip 
supported at one side by a piece of blotting-paper to prevent 
its pressing the plasmodium, it will continue its streaming 
movement without interruption, and will remain in healthy 
condition for some days. If the fan lies in a small bubble of 
air surrounded by water, it will confine its movements very 

22 Lister. — Noies on the Plasmodium of 

much within the limits of the bubble, and will spread out 
in the most delicate reticulation. I have watched such an 
object for hours with a yV immersion lens, when every granule 
and particle of food-matter was brilliantly defined, but I have 
not been able to distinguish with certainty any trace of the 
nuclei ; though when I took away the bit of blotting-paper 
and allowed the pressure of the cover-slip to kill the Plas- 
modium, and water at the same time to mix with it, almost 
immediately the whole field was seen closely beset with well- 
defined nuclei (Fig. ii). 

From the fact that the nuclei are invisible when surrounded 
with living protoplasm, it is not surprising that the process of 
their multiplication is difficult and perhaps impossible to 
observe. That the nuclei multiply with the increase of the 
Plasmodium, there is no question. As before stated, I have 
cultivated large quantities of Badhamia plasmodium from a 
very small centre, and stainings taken at any time, whether 
on the eve of the change to sporangia, or many weeks before, 
are invariably found to swarm with nuclei. 

In the stainings we find that, as a rule, the nuclei are of the 
same size, and each possesses a single nucleolus ; at the same 
time, we not unfrequently meet with forms which suggest that 
division was taking place. This appearance was especially 
frequent in the plasmodium of Brefeldia, before referred to, the 
stainings of which were taken several days before the spore- 
formation occurred in the part remaining at the foot of the fir- 
stump. We notice in these forms the presence of two nucleoli 
taking a relative position in the two halves of the nucleus, and 
occasionally we meet with three nucleoli in the ^ame nucleus 
(Fig. la). 

In the figure taken from stainings of Brefeldia, the difference 
in size is partly owing to the stretching of the nuclei in the thin 
film of Plasmodium. 

In concluding these notes I would just refer to the last 
ofHce we see performed by the nuclei. 

If a sporangium oi Badhamia, taken about twenty-four hours 
after it has assumed its ultimate shape, but before the spores 

Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 23 

have ripened, is thinly spread upon a glass slide, we find that 
each nucleus has collected round itself the proportion of 
protoplasm which would finally constitute a spore in which 
it stands as a centre, and each such portion has separated from 
those around it, or is in the act of so doing, and has become 
a distinct organism; for if examined at the right maturing 
moment these young spores may be seen in slow movement, 
and throwing out hyaline pseudopodia which fill with granular 
plasma, with the same amoeboid character which they would 
again exhibit when the ripe spores burst, and the new swarm- 
cdls began the circle of development afresh (Fig. 13). 

A staining taken at this stage presents a beautiful object, 
resembling a tesselated pavement, each polygonal area being 
dotted with its nucleus. 


Illustrating Mr. Arthur Lister^s Notes on the Plasmodium of Badhamia 

utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 

Figs. 1-4. Badhamia utricularis. Advance of plasmodium on section of stem 
oi Agaricus mellius. i drawn at ia.35 p.m., a at la^o p.m., 3 at i p.m., and 
4 at a p.m. x 3^. 

Fig. 5. Brefeldia maxima. Twenty-four hours after it was placed in glass box : 
spore-formation just commencing. Natural size. 

Fig. 6. Brefeldia maxima. Branchings from papillae lying against side of box, 
a and b taken at 4.10 p.m., c at, d at 4.30, when the spore division was com- 
pleted. X 350. 

Fig. 7. Badhamia utricularis, Sclerotium. x 4. 

Fig. 8. Badhamia utricularis. Sclerotium-cells. x 565. 

Fig. 9. Badhamia utricularis. Sclerotium-cell, stained with magenta, nuclei 
just discernible. 

Fig. 10. Badhamia utricularis, Sclerotium-cell crushed, a part of cell-wall. 
b nndei. x i aoo. 

Fig. II. Badhamia utricularis. Creeping plasmodium, pressed with water 
under cover-glass, a nuclei, b oil-globules, c pullulating fungus, x i aoo. 

24 Badhamia utricularis and Brefeldia maxima. 

Fig. I a. Brefeldia maxima. Nuclei with nucleoli of plasmodiuiii ttained with 
magenta, x laoo. 

Fig. 13. Badhamia utricularis. Young spores showing amoeboid movement, 
the spore a changing its form to ei" in the coarse of a few minutes, x 565. 

Figs. 14 and 15. Starch grains swollen in warm water, drawn from the side of 
glass box in which Badhamia utricularis was spreading. The grains in Fig. 15 
have been overspread and eroded by plasmodium ; those in Fig. 14 have not been 
reached by Plasmodium, x 160. 

Fig. 16. Substance dissolved by plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis diminishing 
in size as by letters, taken at intervals of about a quarter of an hour, x 250. 

Fig. 17. Mycelium growing on side of glass box. a edge c^ advancing 
Plasmodium of Badhamia utricularis when it first reached the mycelium, b line 
reached by plasmodium before it retreated, r, d threads of mycelium, which were 
dissolved by plasmodium between the lines a and b, x 66. 

Fig. 18. ^ the thread c drawn half an hour after the plasmodium had retreated, 
showing the extremity breaking into bead-like fragments from action of plasmodium. 
^' the same some hours after, showing extent of injury beyond the point reached 
by Plasmodium, e fragments of mycelium, showing all that remained of the threads 
( and d between the lines a and b, x 250. 


^n/uils of Botany 


Fi0. IS. 

Fig. Iff. 

6 o 


A.Liftttr itl. 

Universilj Press, Oxford. 


Annals ofBotofiy 


Fi^. IS. 

Fig. M. 

6 o 



A.Liftttr itl. 

Universilj Press, Oxford. 


A monograph of the genus Calostoma, Desv. 

(Mitremyces, Nees). 



■ •♦ - 

With Plate m. 


I. Morphology. 

HE presence in the Royal Herbarium, Kew, of a fine 
-■- series of specimens representing the various stages of 
growth in Calostoma cinnabarinum^ Desv. {Mitrentyces lutescens^ 
Schw.), from 8 mm. in diameter to the mature stage, has 
enabled me to follow the course of development from the 
period of differentiation of the gleba to that of dehiscence. 
The smallest specimen is spherical, 8 mm. across when dry, 
not at all attenuated towards the base, of a pale red colour, 
and covered with a hard, thin, translucent, wrinkled coat; 
which after soaking for some time in water became very 
much swollen and mucilaginous (Fig. i), and on removal 
from the water broke away in fragments, appearing under 
the microscope as a structureless, colourless mass, with the 
exception of a thin ill-defined peripheral portion of inter- 
woven hyphae with thick mucilaginous walls, which, becoming 
more compact at the base, form there a short stem persisting 
after the disappearance of the upper portion. 

The above structure is in every respect homologous with 
the peridium in the PhaUoideae^ but differs in being entirely 
deliquescent at an early period ; hence no trace of its presence 
is to be seen in mature specimens. Its appearance as studied 
in the living condition is described as follows by the Rev. 

[Annals of Botany, VoL II. No. V, June 1888.] 

26 Massee. — A mo^tograph of 

Edward Hitchcock in a paper, containing many points of 
interest, relating to the development of the present species : 
'On bursting from the soil it is enclosed in a gelatinous 
envelope, like Phallus foetidusy nearly a quarter of an 
inch in thickness. This immediately bursts, even before 
the whole body of the fungus has risen above the ground, 
and the exterior part of it falls upon the soil around the 
fungus in the form of a viscid jelly, and is ere long absorbed 
in the earth ^' 

The short stem-like base arises from a few firm, white, 
mycelium strands composed of thin-walled, sparsely septate, 
branched hyphae about 4 fi in diameter, the free tips bristling 
with minute amorphous particles of oxalate of lime. After 
removal of the external gelatinous volva, a vertical section 
shows an external colourless zone about i mm. thick, sepa- 
rated from the internal portion except at the base by. a 
thin red line (Fig. a). The outermost zone is composed of 
thick-walled mostly aseptate densely interwoven hyphae, 
passing through the red zone into the central less-compact 
portion, where they are mixed with thin-walled, septate, 
branched hyphae, having numerous slightly thickened free 

A second specimen, 1.5 cm. in diameter, is spherical in form, 
with a small obtuse umbo at the apex and abruptly at- 
tenuated below into a thick stem-like base about 0-5 cm. 
long, every external part being smooth and of a bright 
vermilion colour. The only evidence of the external gela- 
tinous volva consists in the presence of an irregular carti- 
laginous ridge near the base of the stem. 

When dry the plant is rigid and cuts like horn ; a median 
vertical section in this condition shows the external wall to 
consist of three distinct layers, the two outermost confluent 
at the base, the innermost free below but in contact with 
the middle layer at the umbonate apex. The external layer 
or exoperidium is at first continuous over every part of the 

* Physiology of the Gyropodium coccineum^ by the Rev. Edward Hitchcock, in 
Sillinu Amer. Journ. vol. ix (1825^ p. 56, pi. iii. 

the getius Calostama, Desv. 2 7 

plant, about 1-5 mm. thick when dry, except at the apex 
where it is thinner, and increasing to 3-4 mm. when placed 
in water. 

The red streak present in the small specimen is now seen 
to form the innermost portion of the exoperidium, and at 
the present stage of development exists in the form of red 
powder. In the earlier condition the cells forming the red 
zone are thick-walled, the substance of the walls being studded 
with numerous small red granules. Eventually the walls 
of the cells constituting this zone become mucilaginous and 
disappear, leaving the red granules in the form of a fine 
powder, thus effecting the separation of the exoperidium 
from the originally homogeneous spherical weft of hyphae. 
The innermost portion of the exoperidium consists of com- 
pactly interwoven thick-walled hyphae about 8 ft thick, not 
at. all mucilaginous, and furnished with a few red granules 
which become rarer towards the outside and eventually dis- 
appear ; the hyphae at the same time becoming thinner and 
thinner owing to the diffluent walls, and at the outside entirely 
converted into a homogeneous mucilaginous jelly. 

When a section of the exoperidium has been soaked for 
some time in water, the thin hyphae forming the outer portion 
are straight, the principal branches more or less parallel 
and growing out towards the periphery after the manner 
of the palisade-tissue of a leaf, but not at all crowded and 
frequently anastomosing. Septa and clamp-connections are 
present. If a section is allowed to dry slowly under the 
microscope the external gelatinous portion contracts, the 
small hyphae at the same time becoming spirally coiled, 
straightening out again on the application of water. 

The red colouring matter is soluble in ammonic or potassic 
hydrate, agreeing in this respect with the colouring substances 
in Carticium caeruleum^ C. sanguitieum, and in the fungal 
element of many lichens. Owing to a slight increase in 
length of the basal portion between the exoperidium and 
endoperidium, and continued increase in size of the latter, 
the exoperidium is ruptured at the apex in an irregularly 

28 Massee. — A monograph of 

stellate manner, the lobes when moistened curling inwards 
owing to expansion of the external mucilaginous portion, 
and soon breaking away at the base. The rupture of the 
exoperidium is described by Hitchcock as follows: 'A 
specimen dissected in a young state exhibits this envelope 
covering every part of the spherical head, with no seam 
discernible in it, but ere long it opens at the top, beginning 
to separate into numerous divisions or rays, like the opening 
calyx or petals of a common flower. Several valves on 
the top of the plant, opening into its head, are thus disclosed. 
A portion of the jelly, often ^js of an inch thick, adheres 
to these calyx-like divisions of the envelope now under 
consideration, and as the inner part of it is very tender, 
they rarely become much expanded before they begin to 
coil inwards and break off at the base ; merely from their 
weight they drop to the ground, or as is more usual adhere 
to the footstalk ^' 

Several specimens in the Kew Herbarium show this apical 
splitting of the exoperidium, which is however sometimes 
ruptured in a circumscissile manner at or near the base, 
the margin splitting into irregular teeth as represented in 
an exaggerated manner by Nees^, who selected the name 
Mitremyces as expressive of the mitriform exoperidium or 
calyptra as it is called by Berkeley. One specimen of C 
cinnabarinum and one of C. fusca (Fig 24^) in the Kew 
Herbarium illustrate this mode of rupture, which is probably 
abnormal, as in each specimen the spores are quite mature, 
but prevented from escaping owing to the persistent ex- 
operidium. In most species the exoperidium becomes com- 
pletely disorganised, often remaining in the form of warts 
on the endoperidium, as in many species of Lycoperdon. 
When dry the endoperidium is cartilaginous and brittle, of 
a dirty ochraceous colour and less than i mm. thick, becoming 
much swollen when moistened. When young it consists of 
thick- walled, closely compacted hyphae more or less gela- 

* L c. p. 57. 

' Pilze and Schwamme, T. 1 1, f. 129, a. 

the genus Calostoma^ Desv. 29 

tinous, and must be considered as homologous with the 
collenchyma-layer in Geaster. At a later stage the thick walls 
become disorganised, when a section presents the appearance 
of a loose weft of hyphae not more than 2 \k thick imbedded 
in a homogeneous mucilaginous matrix, but in reality the 
apparent hyphae are the lumina of the original thick-walled 
cells, or more correctly the few remaining contents of the 
cells, as on staining with iodine the apparent hyphae are 
seen to consist of minute granules forming a broken line; 
and from this appearance every transition can be observed 
in young specimens to the clearly defined thick-walled cells. 
Even in old specimens where the mucilage appears perfectly 
homogeneous in water, if the latter is replaced by alcohol, 
and iodine solution afterwards added, the outlines of the 
swollen walls are seen, owing to the accumulation of iodine 
in the interstices between adjoining cells, the mucilage itself 
undergoing no change in colour. 

When young the wall of the endoperidium is of equal 
thickness throughout, but during the period of spore-for- 
mation, local growth takes place at the apex, resulting in 
the formation of an excrescence or umbo of cylindrical form, 
from a-3 mm. high and the same across. The circumference 
of the umbo is furnished with from 5-7 deep vertical fur- 
rows situated at equal distances, so that when viewed from 
above the umbo presents the appearance of a 5-7-rayed 
star, the rays starting from a boss-like centre. At this stage 
a fine red streak appears in the median line of each vertical 
ridge separating the furrows ; these streaks are continued 
along the apical portion of the ridge and meet in the 
boss-like centre. A transverse section shows that the streaks 
extend through the entire thickness of the wall and form 
a central core down the umbo, the component hyphae under- 
going disint^ration similar to that already described in the 
red zone between the exoperidium and endoperidium. This 
process results in the formation of an aperture or mouth, 
the surrounding teeth (which are subquadrate in form with 
a depressed central line corresponding to a groove on the 

30 Massee. — A monograph of 

wall of the umbo) remaining in apposition until the period 
of dehiscence, when by a process to be afterwards described, 
separation of the teeth takes place, the margins and inner 
surface of each being covered with red powder. 

The endoperidium, as already stated, is not differentiated 
from the exoperidium at the base. There is no trace of a 
columella springing from the basal portion of the inner wall 
of the endoperidium. The innermost layer or spore-sac is 
at first composed of hyphae similar to and continuous with 
those of the endoperidium, its external delimitation being 
due to gelification of the latter, the hyphae of the spore-sac 
remaining unchanged. The wall is about '5 mm. thick, 
yellowish white in colour, flexible, and perfectly free from 
the endoperidium except at the apex, where it remains 
attached to the inner surface of the teeth; but even here 
it is completely difTerentiated, and after soaking, by the 
exercise of a little care it can be entirely separated, when 
it resembles the mouth of the inner peridium in Geaster^ 
the teeth being very delicate and continuous with an external 
circular depression in the substance of the spore-sac cor- 
responding to the portion in contact with a zone below the 
teeth of the endoperidium. The hyphae on passing into the 
spore-sac become thinner and are loosely felted, mostly 
aseptate, but a few sparsely septate branches occur. During 
the period of spore-formation the central mass or gleba is 
continuous with the inner wall of the spore-sac, and consists 
in an early stage of densely wefted trama-like bands enclosing 
irregular cavities as described by Fischer^ in Spkaerobolus^ 
but the development of this portion can only be satisfactorily 
studied in a complete series of living plants. The basidia 
are broadly obovate, measuring from 40-50 x 15-20 ft, and 
bear five or sometimes six spores supported on minute 
wart-like prominences arranged in a circle round the apex 
(Fig. 14/?). The spores are at first globose, smooth, and 

^ Zur Entwickel. der Gastromyceten {JSphaerobolus and Afitremyces\ in Bot. 
Zeitg. 1884. 

the genus Calostoma, Desv. 3 1 

colourless, becoming eventually elliptical from 15-18 x 8-10 /i, 
of a pale ochraceous tint, and minutely warted (Fig. 15). 

When the spores are ripe, the basidia and hyphae forming 
the trama become mucilaginous, the septate hyphae breaking 
up into detached cells, which before complete disorganisation 
become very much swollen, and probably correspond to the 
vesicular mucilage-cells described by Fischer as occurring 
in the gleba of Sphaeroboltis, The disorganisation extends 
to within about '5 mm. of the outside of the spore-sac, which 
now appears as a sharply defined membrane ever3nvhere up 
to this period in contact with the inside of the endoperidium, 
but after the above-mentioned changes in the gleba contracts 
into a sphere less than i cm. in diameter, attached to the 
apex of the endoperidium immediately below its closed 
mouth. The contraction of the spore-sac is due to the 
peculiar behaviour of certain thick-walled hyphal constituents 
fixed at the point where it is attached to the teeth sur- 
rounding the orifice. These hyphae after becoming sticky, 
contract in an irregular spiral manner, and draw the spore-sac 
with its contents up to the summit of the endoperidium. 
These contracted hyphae remain for a long time unchanged 
in water, but if placed in dilute potassic hydrate soon b^in 
to expand and reveal their true nature (Figs. 16, 17). There 
is no trace of a capillitium. The mucilage resulting from 
disintegration of the hyphae contracts into irregular-shaped 
masses, leaving the spores perfectly free and dry in the 
spore-sac. The functional value of the various parts in 
connection with spore-dissemination can only be determined 
from an examination of living plants. 

In several old specimens the spore-sac with its contents has 
completely disappeared from the endoperidium, and in two 
examples has passed through the mouth and remains attached 
to the teeth of the endoperidium as in Sphaeroboltis. This 
extension of the spore-sac has been observed by Hitchcock 
and Berkeley, and may be considered as the normal mode of 
dehiscence, but sometimes the dry spores are forced out of the 
mouth without extension of the spore-sac, as described by 

32 Massee. — A monograph of 

Hitchcock. When the dried plant is placed in water up to 
the mouth without allowing the inside to become wet, the 
endoperidium contracts from the base upwards, the teeth at 
the same time separating and exposing a large aperture. 
Until the spores are ripe the stem-like base remains small, 
afterwards increasing to 5-6 cm. in length by i'5-a cm. 
across, and then consists of yellowish cord-like strands of 
hyphae forming a complicated mucilaginous weft when moist. 

The remaining species agree in all essential points of 
structure with C. lutescens. There is no evidence of the 
presence of a capillitium in any species, the threads described 
by Berkeley as being present in the spore-sac of C lurida 
prove on examination of the original specimens to be frag-* 
ments of the trama that have not become disorganised, owing 
to the plant being immature when collected. The spore-sac 
of C. Ravenelii is described by the same author as * entirely 
filling the cavity of the second peridium ^* but this is only true 
of the young plant, in which it agrees with all known species ; 
an examination of a mature specimen shows the spore-sac 
contracted at the apex of the endoperidium. Berkeley 
was aware that when young the spore-sac filled the endo- 
peridium, as in speaking of the structure of C lutescens the 
following statement occurs : * The inner peridium .... in an 
early stage clearly lines the outer, and the void space arises 
from its ceasing to grow sooner than the outer *.' 

In all species, every part of the plant with the exception of 
the spore-sac is perfectly rigid and cartilaginous when dry, 
every part with the exception of the inner surface of the endo- 
peridium becoming swollen and more or less mucilaginous 
when moistened, which probably corresponds to the state of 
things in the living state. 

The genus Husseia was established by Berkeley ^ from an 
examination of two specimens sent by Gardner from Ceylon 
in 1846, and he makes the following remarks on its affinities: 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxii. p. 130. 

* Ann. Nat Hist vol. iii. p. 325. 

* Hook. Lond. Jouni. Bot. vol. vi. p. 508, t. 17, 18, fig. 3, a, b ; 1 19, fig. I, a. 

the genus Calostoma^ Desv. 33 

* This genus externally resembles Mitremyces^ but not only 19 
the covering of the peridium viscoso-cartilaginous, and 
reflected in the form of a veil, instead of falling off like a 
calyptra, but the capillitium exactly fills the cavity, the 
outer portion consisting of a barren stratum of coloured 
flocct, and the spores instead of being elliptic are globose 
and coarsely echinulate. The inner peridium is clearly 
represented by the barren flocci which form a dense lining to 
the cavity.' Both plants are figured on the plate quoted, 
one being immature with the exoperidium continuous, the 
other having the exoperidium ruptured and persistent on 
the stem at some distance below its apex, and the spore-sac 
has disappeared from the endoperidium. The immature 
specimen has been cut open, and shows the spore-sac filling 
the endoperidium. 

In 1868 several more specimens of the same species were 
sent to Berkeley from Ceylon, one having the spore-sac 
extended and remaining attached to the mouth of the endo* 
peridium (Fig. 38 a) ; two others show the spore-sac contracted 
as in Calostoma, In some specimens the stem is cylindrical, 
in others ventricose and slightly lacunose. The exoperidium 
has in every instance disappeared from the stem. 

The genus Husseia was established before the globose* 
spored forms of Calostoma were known ; but as there are 
now four described species of these, one of the three points 
of distinction between Husseia and Calostoma {Mitremyces) 
disappears ; and a second relating to the spore-sac filling the 
cavity of the endoperidium, being only true of the immature 
condition, also is invalid ; whilst the third point of difference 
supposed to be afforded by the texture and mode of rupture 
of the exoperidium has its homologue in Calostoma cinna" 

The structure of Husseia agrees in every essential point 
with that of Calostoma. The presence of the ruptured exor 
peridium attached half-way down the stem is due to increase 
in length of the tissue between the endoperidium and exo- 
peridium during and after the rupture of the latter. Numerous 



34 Massee. — A monograph of 

clusters of adculate crystals of oxalate of lime are present in 
the gleba (Fig. 40), and are alluded to by Berkeley as follows : 
* Some parts of the flocci have at tolerably regular intervals 
little fascicles of bristles, the nature of which I cannot deter- 

The above statement explains why Husseia insignis has 
been placed in the genus Calostoma in the following arrange- 
ment. All the species referred to still exist in an excellent 
state of preservation in Berkeley's herbarium at Kew. 

II. Affinities. 

Ccdostoma is morphologically most nearly related to the 
genus Geasier^ the homology in many respects being absolute, 
the differences at the same time extreme. The external 
peridium of Geaster^ which splits in a stellate manner when 
ripe, corresponds to the exoperidium and endoperidium in 
Calostoma^ the inner peridium in Geaster being the morpho- 
logical equivalent of the spore-sac in Calostoma. The outer 
flakey layer of Geaster ^ which is more or less mucilaginous in 
most species when young, as proved by the presence of 
numerous foreign particles in its substance, represents in a 
reduced form the universal gelatinous volva of Calostotna, 
The thick brown continuous layer of Geaster represents the 
exoperidium of Calostoma^ and finally the collenchyma-layer 
of Geaster corresponds to the endoperidium of Calostoma, 

In Geaster ^t morphological equivalents of the exoperidium 
and endoperidium in Calostoma usually remain in contact 
and break away as one membrane, but there are exceptions. 
In Geaster triplex^ Jungh., the thick brown layer splits from 
the apex in a stellate manner, the rays becoming reflexed, 
whereas the collenchyma-layer remains in the form of a cup 
enclosing the inner peridium like the endoperidium in Calo-- 
stoma. In Geaster fornicatusy Fr., the brown layer and 
collenchyma-layer remain in contact until after splitting into 
rays, when the latter separates and becomes strongly arched 

the gmtis Calostoma, Desv. 35 

upwards, remaining in contact with the brown layer at the 
tips of the rays. A young unexpanded Geaster is more or 
less globose and furnished at the apex with a prominence or 
umbo, as in Calostoma. A vertical section at this stage shows 
the external brown layer to be continuous over the apex, 
whereas the umbonate portion of the coUenchyma-layer is 
fluted, as in the endoperidium of Calostoma. 

The fluted appearance of the umbo in Geaster is due to 
what might be described as puckering, extending through the 
entire thickness of the substance, the external ridges producing 
corresponding internal furrows. At this period the umbo and 
upper portion of the inner peridium are differentiated from, 
but in intimate contact with, the inside of the collenchyma- 
layer, and are as it were modelled into form during the 
differentiation of the latter, the external configuration of the 
mouth and depressed area circumscribing it, resulting, as in 
Calostoma^ from external pressure. In Geaster the inner 
peridium is confluent at the base with the collenchyma-layer, 
in some species sessile, in others elevated on an elongated 
stem. This feature constitutes the most pronounced structural 
difference between the present genus and Calostoma. Points 
of minor importance are the presence of a more or less 
prominent columella and capillitium in Geaster. 

Professor de Bary, in pointing out the connection between 
the Phalloideae and the rest of the GastromyceteSy says: *The 
connection between Clathrus and Geaster appears to me to be 
still more completely established by the genus Mitremyces^ 
which is chiefly American and still far from being thoroughly 
known. But I do not attempt to describe it here, for I have 
no sufficient account before me of the history of its de- 
velopment ^' 

This idea, which suggested the present attempt to trace the 
affinities of the genus under consideration, is in the main 
correct, although the intermediate forms necessary to prove 
true relationship between Calostoma and Phalloideae are not at 

^ Fongi, Mycetozoft and Bacteria, Engl. ed. p. 326. 

D 2 

36 Mas see. — A monograph of 

present forthcoming, hence there is the danger of confounding 
analogous with homologous structures. Coltis hirundinosus, 
one of the Phalloideae described in detail by Tulasne ^, appears 
to approach Calostofna most nearly in structure. This species 
when young is enclosed in a universal volva which is ruptured 
by continued growth of the receptaculum. This receptaculum 
is certainly analogous, if nothing more, to the endoperidium in 
Calostoma^ surrounding the gleba, which at maturity contracts 
and remains suspended from the apex. The receptaculum, 
which is at first sessile, is not furnished with a mouth at the 
apex, but its lateral wall has several long slits, and the apical 
portion is also perforated, thus furnishing an efficient arrange- 
ment for spore dissemination by rain or insects. In the allied 
genera Clathrtis and Ileodktyon the receptaculum at maturity 
resembles a sphere composed of large irr^ular meshes sur- 
rounding the gleba, its obvious function being that of placing 
the latter in the most favourable position for the diffusion of 
the spores, in which it agrees with the endoperidium in 
Calostoma^ although in the latter this is effected in a different 
manner, as already described. 

III. Distribution. 

Although the species are, with two exceptions, restricted 
to narrow areas, the genus is widely distributed, extending 
from Massachusetts (42° N. lat.) to the south of Tasmania 
(42° S. lat.), and from New Granada (74° W. long.) to Tasmania 
(174° E. long.), with a vertical range from near the sea-level to 
9000 feet in the Sikkim Himalayas. 

The species are divided into two natural groups charac- 
terised by the form of the spores. An eastern g^oup, including 
six species with globose spores, of which C. Junghuhni may 
be considered the type, are distributed as follows : — C. Jung^ 
huhni^y Java, Sumatra, Ceylon, Sikkim Himalayas (8000 feet) ; 
C. Berkeleyiy Ceylon, south of the island ; C. orirubra^ Larut, 
Perak, Malay Peninsula ; C. viridis^ Tonglo and Sinchal, 

' Scient. Expl. d*Algerie, Fungi, p. 435, t. 23, figs. 9-22. 

the genus Calostoma, Desv. 37 

Sikkim Himalayas (7000-9000 feet) ; C, insignis, Ceylon ; C. 
brachystelis^ Borneo and Ceylon. 

The western group includes four species with elliptical 
spores, of which C cinnabarinum is the type ; distributed as 
follows: — C, cinnabarinum^ east side of the United States, 
from Massachusetts to Carolina, New Granada , C. Ravenalii^ 
Mountains of South Carolina; C. fusca^ Tasmania and S. 
Australia ; C. lurida^ Australia (Swan River). 

The close relationship of the Australian and Tasmanian 
with the American species has its parallel- in the genus Ileo^ 
dictyon^ including two species not uncommon in South Australia 
and Tasmania, one of which, /. cibarius^ has been received by 
Berkeley from Chili, and I have collected the same species in 
Ecuador at about 6000 feet elevation. 

IV. Classification. 
Calostoma, Desv. 

Exoperidium continuous, eventually irregularly ruptured. 
Endoperidium furnished with an apical toothed ostiolum. 
Spore-sac when young filling the endoperidium, afterwards 
contracting towards the apex and remaining attached to the 
teeth of the ostiolum. Stem composed of agglutinated cord- 
like strands, forming irregular reticulations or lacunae. 

Calostoma, Desvaux, Journ. de Bot., vol. ii. (1809), p. 94. 

Mitremycesy Nees, Pilze und Schwamme (181 7), p. 136. 

Gyropodium, Hitchcock, in Silliman's Amer. Journ. Sc, 
vol ix. (1825), p. 56. 

Scleroderma,Pcrs, in Desv. Journ. de Bot, vol.ii.(i8o9),p. 15. 

Lycoperdon^ Bosc, in Berl. Mag., vol. v. p. 87. 

The absence of information respecting the universal volva in 
other species than C lutcscens forbids it forming part of the 
generic diagnosis ; nevertheless, judging from the monotypic 
structure of all known species in the mature condition, it may 
reasonably be assumed as common to all. 

The remarkable diversity of appearance presented by Ccinna-^ 
barinum, Desv. (Mitremyces lutescens, Schw.) during different 

38 Massee. — A monograph of 

periods of development has beeathe cause of several mistakes; 
even Schweinitz did not know the plant in the young condition, 
as proved by the following statement in his Syn. Fung. Amer. 
Bor. in Amer Phil. Soc, 1831, p. 255 : — 

* I. M. lutescens^ L. v. S., Syn. Car. 345 ; Sprengel, p. 518, 
rarius occurrit in Pennsylvania quam in Carolina, tamen passim. 

* %. M, cinnabarinum (Calostoma\ Desvaux et Brongniart, 
Bethl. et New York. Satis affine Mitremyci — sed peridium 
externum, corneum, coccineo-cinnabarinum, primum omnino 
clausum, demum deciduum et revolutim fissum in lacinias. 
Stipite prioris.' 

It is evident that the above new species of Schweinitz is the 
young condition of his own M. lutescens. It is not quite clear 
whether the above specific character is original or a quotation; 
if the latter, I have not been able to trace it. Further, 
Schweinitz does not appear to have been acquainted with 
Desvaux' original generic diagnosis, or that of the species 
{M. lutescens, Schw.) on which it was founded, as Brongniart 
is not mentioned in anyway. The following is the description 
as given by Desvaux ^ : — 

* Ccdostomay Sclerodermate spec, Pers. 

' Pediculus coriaceus, lacunoso-clathroideus ; peridium glo- 
bosum, cortice duplici ; exteriore coriaceo, apice aperto dentato 
persistenti, dentibus marginato-reflexis appropinquatis ; cortice 
interiore tenuissimo, pulvere copioso luteo filis multis inter- 

^Colostoma cinnabarinum. Scleroderma calostoma, Pers. 
page 15 du a® voL de cet ouvrage, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

*Pediculo lacunoso; peridiogloboso dilute pur pur eo,^-^ dentato, 

* Habitat in America boreali, supra terram. 

*Obs. Cette plante est quelquefois d^colorde, lorsqu'elle a 
ixk, dess^ch^e sans precaution, parceque sa couleur, qui est 
seulement ext^rieure et ne penitre point dans le tissu de 
r^corce, ext^rieure du pdridie, est form^e par une esptee de 
Pruine rouge, susceptible de se detacher.' 

^ Observations snr qaelqaes genres ^ ^tablir dans la famille des Champignons, 
par N. A. Desraux, Jonmal de Botaniqne, vol. ii. pp. 94-95- 

the genus Calosioma, Desv. 39 

The above incontrovertibly proves that the plant described 
by Desvaux is the same as Mitremyces lutescens, Schw. ; hence 
Calostomay having priority, must replace Mitremyces, 

Persoon's figure quoted by Desvaux is very characteristic 
of the plant intended, whereas the same cannot be said for 
the figure of Nees, which does not represent a real plant, yet, 
as the species of this genus are not generally known to myco- 
logists, a preconceived idea is formed from the last-named 

Colostoma Junghuhni (Schl. et MiilL), Mass. Plate III, 
Fig. 21. 

Exoperidium ochraceous, with sometimes a greenish tinge, 
soon breaking up into irregular warts, which persist for some 
time on the broadly elliptical ochraceous endoperidium, mouth 
vermilion, teeth 4-6, erect at first Spore-sac pale, spores 
globose, coarsely tuberculose, pale ochre, 14-18 ft diameter, 
stem-like base composed of more or less parallel mycelial 
cords above, ending in a thickened mass of finer interwoven 

Mitremyces Junghuhni^ Schlechtendal et K. Miiller, in Bot. 
Ztg. 1884, p. 401, Taf. iii. B. ; Sacc. Syll. v. 7. n. 204. 

M, Beyrichii, Sch. et MiilL, 1. c. Java (Junghuhn), Sumatra 
(Junghuhn), Sikkim Himalayas, 8000 feet (Dr. G. King). 

Variable in size, endoperidium '5-1 '5 cm. high; stem-like 
base 1-2 cm. long. In some specimens the warts of the 
exoperidium are persistent, in others disappearing at an 
early stage of development, leaving the endoperidium smooth 

Calostoma Berkeleyi^ Mass., n. sp. Plate III, Fig. ^^. 

Exoperidium ochraceous externally, inside reddish brown, 
ruptured irregularly at the apex and breaking away, leaving 
the subglobose, ochraceous endoperidium smooth; ostiolum 
vermilion, teeth 5, acute, erect. Spore-sac pale, spores globose, 
minutely verruculose, very pale ochre, 7-9 /a diameter, stem- 
like base ochraceous, irr^ularly lacunose. 

Mitremyces lutescMis^ Schw., Berk, in Herb. (Type in 

40 Massee. — A monograph of 

Herb. Berk. Kew, n. 4472). Ceylon, south side of the island 
(Gardner, n. 673). 

Superficially resembling C. lutescenSy to which species it was 
referred by Berkeley and Broome in their enumeration of the 
fungi of Ceylon in Linn. Soc. Journ. vol. xiv. p. 78, but 
readily distinguished by the globose spores. It differs from 
C. Junghuhni in the smaller and less coarsely warted spores 
and in the structure and colour of the exoperidium. 

Calostoma orirubra^ Cooke. Plate III, Fig. 31. 

Fasciculate. Exoperidium dark brown, soon broken up 
into large persistent pointed warts. Endoperidium broadly 
ovate or elliptical, ostiolum vermilion, teeth 4-5, erect and 
forming a cone before expansion. Spore-sac pale ochre, 
spores spherical, coarsely tuberculate, very pale ochre, 14-17 fi 
diameter. Stems confluent, forming a subglobose lacunose 
brown mass. 

Mitremyces orirubra^ Cke. in Hb. Kew. (Type in Hb. Kew.) 
In a cluster on the ground. Larut, Perak, Malay Archipelago. 
(Dr. King.) 

Endoperidium i-i«5 cm. high, studded with prominent 
brown-pointed warts. Growing in clusters of three or four 
together, the confluent stems forming a knob 2-3 cm. across. 
A very distinct species, most nearly allied to C, Junghuhni, 

Calostoma viridis (Berk.), Mass. Plate III, Fig. 29. 

Exoperidium in the form of dingy green irr^^ular scales 
adhering to the subglobose pale green endoperidium, ostiolum 
vermilion, teeth 5-7, sub-acute, erect and forming a cone before 
expansion ; spore-sac pale, spores globose, closely tuberculose ; 
very pale ochre, 12-15 fx diameter. Stem-like base, stout, 
greenish, irregularly lacunose. 

Mitremyces viridis. Berk., in Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. vol. iii. 
(^851), p. 201 ; Ic. Plant, pi. 869, f B. (type in Hb. Kew); 
Sacc Syll. v. 7. n. 207. On the ground and on dead timber. 
Tonglo and Sinchul, Sikkim Himalayas, 7-9000 feet. May, 
June, rare. [Dr. (now Sir Joseph) Hooker, with fig.] 

A ^ery beautiful and well-marked sjJecies, the whole plant 

the genus Calostotna, Desv. 4 1 

of a dull green colour. Endoperidium about 2 cm. in diameter. 
Stem 2 cm. or more long by i-i«5 cm. thick. Its nearest 
affinity is with C. orirubra. 

Calostoma insignis (Berk.), Mass. Plate III, Figs, '^^y 36. 

Exoperidium ochraceous, broken into irregular lobes^ which 
sometimes remain attached to the middle of the stem-like 
base. Endoperidium, smooth, ochraceous, ostiolum pale 
green, teeth 5-8, erect. Spore-sac pale green, spores globose 
coarsely spinulose, pale ochraceous, 14-1 7 /x diameter. Stem- 
like base cylindrical or ventricose, smooth or lacunose. 

Husseia insignis^ Berk, in Hook. Lond. Joum. Bot vol. vi, 
p.5o8,Tab. 17 and i8,f.3, a, b,Tab. 19, f. 1, a (1847); Sacc.Syll. 
V. 7. n. 2CO. (Type in Herb. Berk. Kew, n. 4478.) Adam's 
Peak, Ceylon ; and south of the island (Gardner), Borneo. 

Endoperidium 1-5-2 cm. diameter, stem-like base 3-4 cm. 
long by "5-1 cm. thick when ventricose. 

C pachystdis (Ces.), Mass. 

Exoperidium thick, irregularly ruptured, and persistent at 
the base of the stem. Endoperidium globose, mouth umbonate, 
furnished with teeth. 

Husseia pachysteliSyCtsdXx.'^ycttwm in itinereBomeensi lecti 
ab O. Beccari descrip. p. 13, with fig.; Sacc. Syll. v. 7. n. 201. 

Sarawak, Borneo (Beccari). 

The lai^est species of the genus. Exoperidium nearly 1 cm. 
thick, from 5-7 cm. across when ruptured ; endoperidium little 
more than 2 cm. in diameter ; stem 4-5 cm. long by i*5-2 cm. 
thick, internally lacunose, externally furrowed. Evidently a 
good Calostotna ; the spore-sac appears to have disappeared 
from the endoperidium in the mature specimens, and is repre- 
sented as filling the cavity of the latter in the section given by 
Cesati, which is evidently an immature plant with the thick 
exoperidium still continuous over the endoperidium, and Cesati 
says, * Gleba sporifcra totum peridium replens in fungo juvenili 
vel adhuc clauso.' No mention is made of the form of the 
spores, which, judging from affinity and locality, were pre- 
sumably spherical. 

42 Massee. — A monograph of 

Calostoma cinnabarinum (Desv.) Plate III, Figs. 6-8. 

Exoperidium vermilion inside, becoming dingy red, sepa- 
rating at the base like a calyptra, or breaking into irregular 
lobes at the apex. Endoperidium subglobose, ochraceous, 
ostiolum vermilion, teeth 5-7- Spore-sac very pale ochre, 
spores elliptic-oblong, minutely verruculose, pale ochre, 
15-18 X 8-io;ji. Stem-like base variously lacunoso-reticulate. 
Desvaux, Journ. de Bot, tom. il (1809), p. 94. 

Gyropodium coccineuniy Hitchcock, Sillim. Amer. Journ., 
vol. ix. (1825), p. 56, pi. 3. 

Lycoperdon heterogeneum^ Bosc, in Berl. Mag., v. p. 87, t. 6, 
f. \oa^ b, 

Lycoperdon callostomay Poir, Encycl. suppl., v. 476. 

Scleroderma callostoma^ Pers., in Desv. Journ. de Bot., voL ii. 
p. 15, pL 2, f. 2. 

Mitremyces heterogeneuSy'i!itts^ Pike und Schwamme, p. 136, 
t. xii, f. 129 a (1817). 

Mitremyces lutescens, Schweinitz, Syn. Carol, n. 345, t. 2, f. i ; 
Nees, Syst. der Pilze, PL 1 1 ; Fr. S. M. 3. 64 ; Sacc. Syll. n. 202. 

Mitremyces cinnabarinum, Schw. Syn. Fung. Amer. Bor. in 
Amer. Phil. Soc, p. 255 (1831); Exs. Ellis, N. Amer. Fung, 
n. 727 ; Sacc. Syll. 7. n. 208 ; the Kew copy contains a 
beautiful specimen in the young state, with the bright red 
exoperidium continuous, and the stem-like base rudimentary. 
(Specimen from Schweinitz, in Hb. Bk., Kew\) On the 
ground. United States, New Granada. Endoperidium 1-2 
cm. in diameter ; stem 2-5 cm. long, 1-2 cm. thick. 

Calostoma Ravenelii (Berk.), Mass. Plate III, Figs. 26, 27. 

Exoperidium becoming broken up into irregular warts, 
which often remain attached to the subglobose, ochraceous, 
endoperidium ; mouth vermilion, teeth 4-5 ; spore-sac pallid, 
spores elliptic-oblong, smooth, colourless, 15-1 7 x 8-9 fu Stem- 
like base, short 

Mitremyces Ravenelii^ Berk, in Trans. Linn. Soc, vol xxii. 

' The bracketted reference indicates the value and locality of the specimen 
from which measurements, drawings, &c. have been taken. 

the genus Calosloma, Desv. 43 

{^"^Sl^ P- 130, tab. 25 B ; Sacc Syll. 7. n. 203. (Type in 
Herb. Berk., Kew, n. 4473.) O^ the ground, Caesar's Head ; 
mountains of South Carolina (Ravenel). 

Endoperidium •5-1 cm. in diameter; stem-like base less than 
I cm. long. Berkeley's measurements are in all instances 
taken from dried specimens, and consequently rather smaller 
than mine, which are taken from specimens that have been 
moistened. Agreeing with 61 lurida in size, and in the smooth 
elliptical spores. 

Calostofna fusca (Berk.), Mass. Plate HI, Fig. 24. 

Simple or caespitose. Exoperidium dark brown externally, 
dingy red within. Endoperidium pale brown, subglobose, 
ostiolum vermilion, teeth erect, and forming an umbo before 
expansion, 4-6 in number. Spore-sac white, spores elliptic- 
oblong, minutely verruculose, pallid. Stem-like base stout, 
elongated, brown, costato-lacunose. 

Mitremyces fuscus. Berk, in Ann. Nat. Hist, vol. iii. (1839), 
PP- y-S-Jflf^^ PI- vii, f. I ; Sacc. Syll. v. 7. n. 206. (Type in 
Herb. Berk., Kew, n. 4474.) 

Mitremyces australis, Berk, in Herb. Tasmania (Archer), 
(Gunn); near Melbourne, Australia (Berggren); Lake Muir, 
Australia (Muir). 

Solitary or in clusters, two or three springing from a common 
base. The whole plant is of a dark brown colour, endo- 
peridium from I-I-5 cm. in diameter, stem-like base 2-3 cm. 
long by I cm. thick. Most nearly allied to C. lutescens, with 
which it agrees in the mode of separation of the exoperidium. 

Calostoma lurida (Berk.), Mass. Plate HI, Fig. 19. 

Exoperidium breaking up early into small blackish granules, 
which remain attached to the ochraceous, subglobose endo- 
peridium ; ostiolum black internally, as well as the margins of 
the 4-5 teeth. Spore-sac pale ochre or whitish, spores elliptic- 
oblong, smooth, pallid, 16-20 x 7-9 ;x. Stem-like base short, 
brown, irregularly lacunose. 

Mitremyces luridis. Berk, in Hook. Journ. Bot., vol. iv.(i845), 

44 Massee. — A monograph of 

pp. 65, 66, tab. I, f. 5 ; Sacc. Syll. v. 7. n. 205. (Type in Herb. 
Berk., Kew, n. 4475.) On sandy soil, Swan river, Australia 

In the text Berkeley has called the above species M. luridis^ 
on the plate it is called M. lucidus, and in the description of the 
plate M, luridens, hence three names are given to the plant in 
the original description. 

The exoperidium disappears very early, the small persistent 
wart-like remains showing little or no structure. Endoperidium 
about I cm. in diameter ; stem-like baise i cm. or less in length* 
and evidently more or less mucilaginous when growing, as it is 
studded with firmly imbedded grains of sand, and fragments 
of various kinda Allied to C, Ravenelii^ but readily distin- 
guished from this and every other known species by the black 


Illnstrating Mr. Massee's Monograph of the genus Calostomay Desv. 

Fig. I. Very young specimen of Colostoma cinnalHirinumf showing the mncila- 
ginoQS external Tolva, a ; and the cord-like mycelium, b, Nat size, after being 
soaked for some time in water. 

Fig. a. Vertical section of Fig. i, after removal of the volva ; the thin red line 
is the commencement of differentiation of the exoperidium. Nat. size« 

Fig. 3. Transverse section of Fig. i. Nat. size. 

Fig. 4. Older specimen of C ctnnabarinum ; the volva has disappeared and the 
exoperidium is continuous over every part. At this stage the spores are mature, 
but the spore-sac still completely fills the endoperidium. Nat. size. 

Fig. 5. Transverse section of Fig. 4; a, exoperidium; b, endoperidium ; c, spore- 
SAC ; d, gleba. Nat. size. 

Figs. 6, 7, 8. Mature condition of C. cinnabarinutn ; a, remains of exoperidium ; 
b, endoperidium ; Cj spore-sac extruded. Nat. size. 6, drawn from a dry specimen ; 
7, 8, after soaking in water. 

Fig. 9. Ostiolum of Fig. 7. x about 10 diam. 

Fig. 10. Diagranmiatlc representation of the structure of the umbo in vertical 
section ; a, exoperidium ; by endoperidium ; r, core of red tissue that eventually 
becomes disoiganised and forms the centre of the ostiolum passing vertically 
through the umbo of the endoperidium ; </, spore-sac ; e^ ostiolum and surrounding 
portion of spore-sac which remains in contact with the endoperidium after con- 
taction of the lower portion. 

the genus Calostoma, Desv. 45 

Fig. II. C cinnabarinumf section through exoperidiom, a ; endoperidinm, ^ ; 
and spore-sac, c ; </, mncilaginous matrix towards outside of exoperidium ; t^ a few 
spores that have become mixed with the hypha forming the spore-sac. x 400 

Fig. 12. Portion of a thread from the red zone between exoperidiom and endo- 
peridinm daring the first stage of disintegration, indicated by the appearance of 
nnmerons minate red grannies in the substance of the wall, x 700 diam. 

Fig. 13. Hypha showing clamp-connections from exoperidiom of C cinna- 
barinum. x 400 diam. 

Fig. 14. Basidia with spores of C cinnabarinum^ a, rudimentary wait-like 
sterigmata. x 400 diam. 

Fig. 15. Free spores of C. einnadarinum, showing the various forms, x 400 

Fig. 16. Portion of one of the coiled hypha that cause the contraction of the 
inner peridium in C. cinnabarinum, x 400 diam. 

Fig. 17. Same as Fig. 16, after being treated with dilute potassic hydrate. 
X 400 diam. 

Fig. 18. Portion of mouth and upper portion of spore-sac of C. cinnabarinum^ 
showing teeth, a ; and depressed circumscribing zone, b, x about 4 times. 

Fig. 19. C. lurida, Nat. size (after being moistened). 

Fig. 20. Spores of Fig. 19. x 400 diam. 

Fig. 21. C, Junghuhni. Nat. size (after soaking). 

Fig. 22. Vertical section of C. Junghuhni\ a, endoperidium ; ^, spore-sac con- 
tracted. Slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 23. Spores of CJunghuhni, x 400 diam. 

Fig. 24. C./usca; at a, the exoperidium shows the circumscissile mode of rup- 
ture. Nat. size (after soaking). 

Fig. 25. Spores of C./usca. x 400 diam. 

Figs. 26, 27. C. Rauenelii in different stages of development Nat. size 

Fig. 28. Spores of C Ravenelii. x 400 diam. 

Fig. 29. C. viridis, Nat size (after being moistened). 

Fig. 3b. Spores of C. viridis. x 400 diam. 

Fig. 31. C. rir bra. Nat. size (moistened). 

Fig. 32. Spores of C. orirubra, x 400 diam. 

Fig. 33. C. BerkeUyi. Nat size (moistened). 

^^S* S4* Spores of C. Berkeleyi. x 400 diam. 

Figs. 35, 36. C insignis ; a, ruptured exoperidium. Nat size (moistened). 

Fig. 37. Vertical section of C. insignis \ a, endoperidium ; b, spore-sac in con- 
tracted state. Slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 38. C. insignis ; endoperidium with spore-sac* a, extruded. Nat size. 

Fig. 39. Spore of C. insignis. x 400 diam. 

Fig. 40. Cluster of adcular crystals of oxalate of lime from gleba of C. insignis. 
X 700 diam. 

On the presence of sexual organs in Aecidium. 




With Plate IV. A. 

TJROMYCES Poae, Rab., is considered by Winter^ as a 
stage of the Aecidium found on Ranunculus Fkaria. The 
former is rare with us, having been hitherto only recorded from 
two districts, whereas the latter is probably the commonest and 
most universally distributed of any member of the genus. In 
the Royal Herbarium grounds at Kew it is very abundant, but 
no trace of the Uromyces has occurred, although carefully 
looked for throughout the season, which led to the idea that, 
like Puccinia graminis^ this Aecidium might possess some 
means of reproducing itself independent of the Uromyces, 
During the past spring, while looking for mycelium in 
' healthy' leaves of R. Ficaria obtained from plants having the 
Aecidium present on other leaves, I noticed in one section a 
spherical weft of interlaced hyphae, the tip of one thread 
situated in the centre of the mass ending in a clavate head, 
rich in coarsely g^ranular protoplasm (Fig. i). The section 
was kept alive for several days, during which the clavate body 
increased in size, its protoplasm becoming less granular, 
several highly refractive globules appeared, and staining with 
methyl-green demonstrated the presence of a well-defined 
nucleus with a nucleolus. The mycelium found in the leaf 
agreed in every respect with that of the Aecidium^ and was 
traced down the petiole and into the tubers. I cannot say 

^ Kryptogamen-Flora (Pilze) p. i6a. See also Rab. in Uniy. itin. 1866, No. 38. 
C Aimala of Botany, VoL IL No. V, June 1888.] 

48 Massee. — On the presence 

whether the mycelium originated in the leaf from germinating 
spores of Uromyces and passed down the petiole into the 
tubers, or spread from the latter into the leaf, but it will be 
shown later on that, when the spores germinated, they sent 
germ-tubes into the tubers of the Ranunculus, 

Being desirous of ascertaining whether the clavate body 
mentioned above was in any way connected with the Aeci- 
diunty numerous young unopened peridia were cut, but with- 
out result, as when the presence of the parasite is manifested 
by elevation of the leaf-epidermis, even before the latter is 
ruptured by the peridia, the weft of mycelium has undergone 
important changes ; and it was not until I had made sections 
through those portions of the leaf first showing traces of the 
fungus in the form of a slight discoloration or the appearance 
of spermogonia, that I discovered the clavate body in a ball 
of mycelium which represented the initial stage of an 
Aecidium. In this instance the object of search was in a 
more advanced stage (Fig. a), clearly showing it to be an 
oogonium, accompanied by an antheridium. The oogonium 
was much larger than the one first seen, in form irregularly 
oblong, measuring about 50 x 25 ft, terminal on a thread from 
which it was cut off by a transverse septum, and containing 
finely granular protoplasm with numerous refractive globules. 
I could see no trace of a nucleus without reagents, which I did 
not apply, being desirous of observing the development as 
long as possible. The antheridium is cylindrical, about 40 x 
12 /A, and like the oogonium filled with protoplasm and oil 
globules and termianted by a short lateral branch, springing 
from a thread distinct from the one supporting the oogonium, 
so far as I could trace the two in the mass of mycelium. The 
antheridium is cut off from its supporting hypha by a trans- 
verse septum. The point of contact between the antheridium 
and oogonium was on the side turned away from the eye, so 
that I am unable to state the exact manner in which fertilisa- 
tion is effected. After remaining for two days in water with 
a per cent, of glycerine, the antheridium became empty and 
shrivelled ; the oogonium during the same period having in- 

of sexiial organs in Aecidium. 49 

creased in size and assumed a broadly obovate outline (Fig. 3). 
The hypha supporting the oogonium and immediately below 
it gave origin to a considerable number of lateral branches 
which grew up round the oogonium, and, along with the 
original weft of hyphae, forms the external covering of inter- 
laced threads enclosing the peridium during its development. 
On the third day the oogonium collapsed, when methyl-green 
revealed the presence of several small nuclei. The next phase 
of development consists in the oogonium becoming coarsely 
nodulose (Fig. 4), each nodule, with the exception of the basal 
row, eventually developing into a thick cylindrical basidium 
from the apex of which spores are cut off in succession by 
transverse septa, the oldest at the apex, the youngest at the 
base. The basal row of nodules develops like the others, but 
the adjacent rows of cells are agglutinated together and form 
the peridium (Fig. 5), which after dehiscence is reflexed, the 
component rows again separating from each other at the free 
margin. The growth of lateral branches below the oogonium 
after fertilisation recalls to mind what takes place in Peziza^ 
as shown by Tulasne^, and also in the Florideae, whereas the 
development of a protective organ from the oogonium itself is 
rare, if not without parallel. The spores are capable of ger- 
mination the moment they become free in the peridium, and 
when placed in a damp atmosphere send out one, rarely two, 
germ-tubes, which may remain simple, but generally produce 
several lateral brancheis- The whole of the protoplasm and 
orange colouring matter passes from the spore into the germ- 
tube (Fig. 6). Spores sown on sections of tubers of Ranun- 
culus Ficaria germinated, the tubes entering the tissues of the 
tuber. Tulasne has pointed out^ that when the spores of 
Aecidium ranunculacearum are sunk in water, they do not- 
germinate so readily as when placed in a damp atmosphere. 
During the past season, at the end of May, I placed a quan- 
tity of leaves bearing the Aecidium in question in a bottle 

^ Ann. Sci. Nat. t6r. 5, Tome yi, p. an, pi. 11-12. 

' Sur les Ur^din^es et les Ustilagin^es, in Ann. Sci. Nat. s^r. 4, Tome 2, 
p. I a;. 


50 Massee. — On the presence 

containing water, where they remained until the third week in 
July, when on examination I found the spores still remaining 
in the peridia apparently unchanged, and on being placed in a 
damp growing-cell germination took place in a very peculiar 
way. On the thisd day most of the spores were filled with 
broadly elliptical colourless bodies, measuring about 6 x 4 fi ; 
some had already escaped, the remainder following, accom- 
panied by a cloud of granules and disintegrated ectoplasm 
when the spores were placed in water (Fig. 7); the whole pro- 
cess resembling very much what takes place in the germinating 
spores of Spumaria edba^ Bull., only in the present instance 
the escaping bodies exhibited no spontaneous movements, 
neither could I detect the presence of cilia. Further experi- 
ments with the remaining material corroborated the above 
observations in every particular, with the exception in one in- 
stance of a suspicion of movement, but too vague to justify the 
term zoospores being given to the bodies in question. I have 
reasons for believing that a shorter period of submergence 
suffices for the production of the above method of germination, 
as I have detected similar bodies in the spores of herbarium- 
specimens, the peridia of which had probably been flooded 
with water for a short period and collected before the spores 
discharged their contents. In Phytophthora, according to De 
Bary^, the mode of germination varies from a germ-tube to 
the production of zoospores, depending on the nature of the 
solution in which the gonidia are placed. 

* Fungi, Mycetozoa, and Bacteria (Engl, ed."), p. 109. 

of sexual organs in Aecidium. • 5 1 


Illnstrating Mr. G. Massee*s paper on the presence of sexual organs in Aecidium, 

Fig. I. Young oogonium of Aecidium ranunculcuearum. x 400 diam. 

Fig. a. Oogonium and antheridium of same, x 400 diam. 

Fig. 3. Oogonium of same after fertilisation ; with hyphae growing from the 
hypha supporting the oogonium, x 400 diam. 

Fig. 4. Oogonium of same at a later stage of development, showing the 
prominences which form basidia and peridium respectiyely. x 400 diam. 

Fig. 5. Young plant of same before rupture of peridium : a, peridium ; b^ 
aecidiospores ; c, basidia ; d, external covering of hyphae, some of which originate 
from the hypha supporting the oogonium, others from the original weft ac- 
companying the oogonium ; e, epidermis of leaf, as yet unbroken by the parasite ; 
f^ cells forming mesophyll of leaf, x 400 diam. 

Fig. 6. Aecidiospores of same germinating, x 500. 

Fig. 7. Aecidiospores of same, germinating after having been under water 
for several weeks, and afterwards placed in a damp atmosphere, x 500 diam. 

£ % 

On the formation of sugars in the septal 
glands of Narcissus. 



St.JohfCs College, Cambridge. 


With Woodcuts i, 3, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 


THE nectaries of Narcissus belong to the class known 
as septal glands or inner nectaries, which constitute 
one of the most remarkable examples of the specialisation 
of tissues for a definite function to be met with in the 
vegetable kingdom, and are consequently well suited for 
a study of the changes which occur during secretion. 

Septal glands are only known to occur in monocotyledonous 
plants ; they were first described by Ad. Brongniart * in 


The best account of the general nature of these organs 

is by Grassman"'', which deals Chiefly with the occurrence 

and rough anatomy of septal glands. The author gives a 

detailed list of all the natural orders and genera in which 

nectaries of this form have been observed, and also an account 

of their development'*. With regard to the latter point 

Grassman arrives at the general conclusion, * Die Septaldriisen 

entstehcn durch teilweise Nichtverwachsung der Frucht- 

blatter in den Septen.* All my observations on the young 

stages of the ovary in Xarcissus Tazctta, L., and N, pscudo^ 

narcissus, L., show that this statement holds good for Narcissus. 

* Ann. dcs Sc. Nat., str. 4, torn. ii. 1S55. * Mora, Uvii (1884). 

' Cf. sect. B. of hi» i>ai>cr, Lnt^tchnni; (kr Septaldruicn* 

[Aaaals of BoUnj, VoL U. No. V. J vim iSM.; 

54 Acton. — On the formation of sugars 

The well-known papers of Bonnier^ and Behrens* on the whole 
subject of floral nectaries contain scattered allusions to septal 
glands ; but neither author devotes special attention to them. 
Full details of all the literature devoted to this subject are to be 
found in the works of Bonnier, Behrens,and Grassman. Stadler' 
describes the structure of certain septal glands. 

I selected Narcissus Tazetta^ L., and N, pseudo-narcissus^ 
L., for observation in preference to other plants containing 
septal glands for the following reasons: the protoplasm of 
the cells is only slightly coloured; the tissues in the early 
stages at least are moderately free from tannin ; the gland- 
cells are comparatively large. 

The ovaries were cut into small pieces and preserved in 
absolute alcohol without any previous treatment, as this was 
found to be the most satisfactory method of fixing the 
protoplasm. Dilute solutions of picric or chromic acid 
(•5 — 2 p.c.) also gave good results; but where there is little 
tannin present absolute alcohol is decidedly to be preferred. 
All the observations on the protoplasm were made from 
sections of material preserved in this way ; but in testing for 
sugars at the different stages described below fresh tissue 
was used, the ovaries taken being as nearly as possible the 
same size as those preserved in alcohol from which the 
sections were cut. Details as to the method of treatment 
before observation are given in the explanation of the figures. 
In the observations as to the nature of the free cell-walls 
bordering on the lumen or cavity of the gland use was made 
of S^^S P-c. solution of aluminium chloride in absolute 
alcohol, to clear the sections before staining; this reagent 
was found to cause no swelling-up of the cell-wall provided 
the alcohol was perfectly anhydrous, whereas alcoholic potash, 
strong enough to clear the tissues, caused the cellulose 
structures to lose their sharp outline. 

In speaking of the sugars in liquid secreted by the glands, 

* Lcs Nectaires, in Ann. des Sc. Nat. 1878-79. 

' Die Nectaricn der Bluthen, in Flora, Ixii (1879). 

' Beitrage zur Kenntn. dcr Ncctarien und Biologie der Bliithen. Berlin, 1886. 

in the septal glands of Narcissus. 55 

I use the term glucose to denote any soluble carbohydrate 
which reduces Fehling's solution immediately, and saccharon 
for those which reduce the same only after inversion. There 
is unfortunately a good deal of confusion as to the use of 
these terms S but I wish to point out that the term as used 
below is to be taken, not as signifying a definite substance 
sucro-dextrose, but any member of the class of glucoses; 
thus, * invert sugar* and even maltose might be included 
under the term as used here. 

Cane-sugar, sucrose, or saccharon, is the only substance 
capable of inversion likely to be present, and where the term 
is used below it can fairly be regarded as synonymous 
with cane-sugar; but here again I only intend the term to 
stand for any member of the class of saccharons as defined 

Before proceeding to the account of changes in the secreting 
cells I give a brief description of the general structure of 
the glands in Narcissus. 

In the genus Narcissus^ ^ ■-^ »^ ^^^ ^.Or. 

there are three separate 
glands: one in each sep- 
tum of the ovary, not 
united in the centre and 
simple; they only occupy j^.o...- 
the upper part of each sep- I \J ^y O^* -3[ 

turn not extending below ^ ^^ CTuW''^ 

the middle of the ovary. 
The ducts are short and 

straight widening some- ^*^* '* transverse sccUon of upper part of 

^ ' ^ ovary of a fully open flower of Narcissus 

what at the free end where pseudonardsstis, L. ; showing general position 

they open into the base of of the glands, 
the floral tube (Fig i ). 

The tissue of the septa is loose, with large intercellular 
chambers, but becomes close towards the centre in which 

^ See Armstrong and Groves, in Miller's Elements of Chemistry, Part III, § i, 
p. 649. London, 1880. 

' Compare Grassman on Crinum asiaiicum, taf. i. 11-13, and Stadler, loc cit. 


Acton. — On the formation of sugars 

the glands are situated. The fibrovascular tissue b con- 
spicuously developed in the close small-celled septum-paren- 
chyma surrounding the epithem of the glands. 

The cavity is straight and narrow, widest in the central 
portion of the gland, prolonged upwards into the short 
straight duct, and gradually diminishing tn width towards 
the lower extremity, till the epithelial cells become almost 

The epithelial cells are 
somewhat elongated, entirely 
contiguous laterally, but rather 
irregular in shape and size ; 
the free walls bordering on the 
cavity are more or less arched 
outwards, and show no traces 
of cuticle ; they are of the 
same thickness as the lateral 
walls and stain perfectly uni- 
formly with chlor zinc-iodide 
and methylene blue (Fig. a). 

Several layers of well-marked 
epithem tissue invest the epi- 
thelium on the inner side; 

Fig. 2. A'anistui Tastlla, L. Trans- 
verse scclion, showing struclurc of the 
glud shortly before opening of flower, 
framK section tnonnted in dilute glycerine, 
and stained with methylene blue, after thosC next the epithelium are 
treatment for three hours before stainitie -> i, i, ., ., 

with lo per cent. alamioium.MoriJe in Considerably Smaller than the 
absolute alcohol; /. cavity; tpi. epi- cells of the septum-parenchy- 
thelium ; r. epithem. ma ; but the Outermost layers 

pass gradually over into the ordinary septum-tissue ; there is 
no endodermis or distinct line of demarcation between 
the epithem of gland and the surrounding parenchyma. 
The epithem-cells are more or less angular and fit closely 
without any intercellular spaces, whereas the surrounding 
tissue is very loose. The connection of the fibrovascular 
bundles with the epithem tissue is very evident ; some of 
the branches run entirely in the epithem, and endings of 
the usual nature can be observed at intervals. Other branches 
run with one side contiguous to the epithem and the others 

in the septal glands of Narcissus. 57 

surrounded by the septum-parenchyma ; every variety of 
intermediate stage between bundles which run completely 
in the cpithem and completely in the septum-parenchyma 
may be observed. 

It is interesting to note here that it follows from Grass- 
man's account of the development of septal glands that the 
epithelium is true epidermal tissue, although the epithem is 
derived from the fundamental ground tissue; and that in 
these structures we find an instance of epidermal cells taking 
on a secretory function also assisted by the adjacent hypo- 
dermal layers, as is so frequently the case in v^etable 
secretory structures. 

Fig. 3- 

Fl« + 

^■E*- 3i4. AppMnmceorprotopIumiD tbeepilhemuidepitheliDTii celliofgUiid 
of Narcistia Tau/la, L. before fomuiion of sogu-, from trantvene McdoD of & 
jooDg bud. Mounted m glycerine and alcohol after itaining with borax carmine ; 
fron mkterial piewrred in absolute alcohol. /. positiaii ofgUcd-cavitj', 

W. Gardiner' compares the structure of nectaries to that 
of chalk-glands occurring in Saxifragaceae and Crassulaceae, 
and this is especially noticeable in the case of septal glands ; 
but it must be remembered that the physiological significance 
of the two cases is quite different, as chalk-glands only 
excrete in virtue of the activity of root-pressure, whereas the 
secretion in nectaries is entirely independent of the same. 

If a transverse section through the upper part of the ovary 

> Froc Camb. PhU. Soc, vol. *, pt 1, and Q. J. Hie ScL, toL kii, N. S. 

58 Acton. — On the formation of sugars 

of a young flower bud, before the gland-cells have reached 
their full size, be examined under a high power, the proto- 
plasm of the epithelium and epithem-tissue appear as shown 
in Figs. 3 and 4. 

The cells are completely filled with protoplasm having no 
vacuoles; they contain a large conspicuous clearly-defined 
nucleus,, and numerous small roundish or irregularly-shaped 
granules of a proteid nature; the proof that these granules 
are of a proteid and not carbohydrate or resinous constitution 
is given in full below. At this stage the cells contain no 
sugar or substances which reduce Fehling's solution even 
after treatment with dilute acid to * invert'^ any saccharons 
which might be present. 

These observations may be made on sections mounted in 
dilute glycerin or glycerin and alcohol, but are milch more 
easily observed when the sections are stained with borax- 
carmine or Hoffmann's blue, especially if the latter be used 
dilute so as to colour the protoplasm only and not also the 
cell-wall. Haematoxylin and ammonia-carmine also show 
the structure well if used dilute. 

In the older buds, where the gland-cells have reached their 
maximum development, but still some time before the 
opening of the flower, small vacuoles can be observed in the 
protoplasm, and the number of granules rapidly diminishes 
with the advancing age of the cells. At this stage small 
quantities of sugar can be detected in the cells by the Fehling 
test; an immediate red precipitate of cuprous oxide is ob- 
tained on dipping the sections in the boiling reagent, which 
shows that glucose is present ; but the precipitate is markedly 
more copious if the sections are allowed to remain for some 
time in the reagent, or are previously treated with dilute 
acid, to cause inversion of any saccharons, showing that 
saccharon is present in addition to glucose. 

In the next stages the vacuoles rapidly enlarge, the granules 

* See Roscoe and Schorlemmer, Treatise on Chemistry, vol. iii, pt ii, * Cane 
sugar,' London, 1884 ; and Armstrong and Groves, loc. cit. 

in ike septal glands of Narcissus. 59 

disappear almost entirely, and the outline of the nucleus be- 
comes less distinct. Glucose and saccharon are now abundant 
in all the cells, and can also be detected in the cavity of 
gland and duct, if very thick sections are used. 

I was not able to ascertain accurately at what stage the 
sugars are first passed into the cavity, because any sugar 
in solution in the cavity is immediately washed out on placing 
in the hot Fehling's fluid ; for this reason a section taken 
across the ovary, even when the flower is open and the gland- 
cavity and duct consequently filled with saccharine liquid, 
docs not appear to contain any sugars. If, however, very 
thick sections be used, a few particles of cuprous oxide can 
generally be observed in the cavity adhering to the walls ; 
but such appearances are by no means 3 trustworthy indica- 
tion, as they might easily be derived from the contents of 
the surrounding cells which have been ruptured- 

'( — \r 

Figt. 5, e. Appeannce of ptolopUsm in the epitheliuin and e[dlbeiii cell* of a 
gland of a fnllj open flower of Nartistui Tau/ia, L. Same tieatment as In 
case of Figs. 3 and 4. 

I may here notice that neither M this nor any other period 
during the activity of the glands could I detect any sugars in 
the intercellular spaces of the surrounding septum-parenchyma, 
and that as a general rule the epithem cells next the 
same contained much less sugar than those nearer to the 

6o Acton. — On the formation of sugars 

Little further change takes place in tlie protoplasm of the 
cells after this till the opening of the flower. Figs. 5 and 6 
may be regarded as showing the structure of one of the cells 
at the period when the secretion is being most actively 
poured out. 

The nectariferous secretion first makes its appearance in 
the floral tube some time before the opening of the flower, 
but how long before seems to vary greatly with the rate of 
growth even in flowers of the same plant. After the flower 
is fully open further changes rapidly take place in the gland 
cells, the vacuoles increase largely in size, all the granules 
disappear, and oil-drops begin to be formed in the now 
diminished protoplasm (Figs. 5 and 6). Tannin was first 
observed in the vacuoles at this stage (by the iron and 
chromic acid reactions), and the cell-sap is more distinctly 
acid than in earlier stages. No starch-grains or solid matter 
giving a carbohydrate reaction with iodine, or chlor-zinc- 
iodine, could be detected in any of the stages, nor do any of 
the dextrins which colour with iodine (erythrodextrins) seem 
to be present. 

The gland-cells appear to contain sugar even after the 
withering of the perianth, but after tannin begins to be copiously 
formed, it is very difficult to draw certain inferences from the 
reaction with Fehling's solution, as many varieties of tannin 
readily reduce the fluid. The subsequent changes in the cells 
were not followed out in detail as they have no connection 
with the formation of sugar, but it may be stated here that, 
owing to the rapid increase in size of the septa after withering 
of the perianth, the epithem and epithelium cells split away 
from one another, and the cell-walls quickly lose their distinct 
outline, and undergo a mucilaginous degeneration. 

In the mature capsule the positions formerly occupied in the 
septa by glands are indicated by small cavities with a more or 
less ragged outline containing fragments of cellulose and 
mucilage attached to the lining cell-walls. 

Observations on the gland-cells in Nothoscordinn bulgari- 
cum^ Lindl., Ornithogaluvi nutans^ Lk., and Alliuvi sp. ? 

in the septal glands of Narcissus. 6 1 

appear to confirm the results described for Narcissus^ but I 
hope to publish shortly a comparative account of the changes 
in the allied plants. 

The reactions of granules in the protoplasm, which prove 
them to be of a proteid nature, are, that with borax- 
carmine they stain more deeply than the mass of the cell- 
protoplasm, though not so darkly as the nucleus. With 
Hoffmann's blue they stain as the surrounding protoplasm. 
If the sections are ovcrstained so that the re-agent also 
colours the cell-walls, the granules appear darker than the 
surrounding protoplasm. In common with the surrounding 
protoplasm they show the xantho-proteic reaction when 
treated in the usual way with nitric acid and ammonia. 
They do not show any swelling up with water or dilute 
acids, but are easily soluble in 5 to 8 per cent, aqueous 
potash. In alcoholic potash weaker than 10 per cent., or 
in aluminium chloride than 3 per cent., they do not 
alter, but protracted exposure (8 to la hours) to concen- 
trated solution of either re-agent causes their gradual dis- 
appearance. With iodine in potassium iodide, iodine and 
sulphuric acid, chlor-zinc-iodine, or tincture of iodine, they 
only assume a yellow or brownish colour, and show no trace 
of blue or violet. RosoHc acid (corallin) with sodium carbonate 
gives no distinct coloration. They are not altered by alcohol 
containing 3 per cent, of ether benzene, or petroleum spirit 
(therefore not of a resinous or fatty nature). If sections of the 
fresh tissue be mounted in water or dilute glycerin, the granules 
do not show any indication of the * starch-grain crossing ' with 
polarised light. 

The sections with which these reactions were tried were all, 
except in the last case, where fresh tissue was used, taken from 
material preserved in absolute alcohol, without any previous 

When thin sections of the fresh tissue were placed in abso- 
lute alcohol I was not able to observe in any cases a separation 
of the saccharon crystals in the cells, probably the quantities 
present are too small to allow this to take place, although 

62 Acton, — On the formation of sugars 

saccharon is said to be almost completely insoluble in cold 
anhydrous alcohol. 

In the formation of glucose ^ from starch or cellulose, dex- 
trins are always formed simultaneously during the eaiiy stages 
of the reaction, whether the change is brought about by the 
agency of diastase or of artificial reagents, and the dextrins 
first formed (e. g. erythrodextrin) g^ve a reddish colour with 
iodine. Now, as stated above, no substance showing the 
reactions of an erythrodextrin was detected at any stage in 
the cells, and I consider that the absence of such, especially at 
the time when the sugars can first be detected, is of some 
value as evidence that the glucose is not formed by hydrolysis 
of a carbohydrate. 

Although there is evidently a close connection between the 
groups of saccharons and glucoses, cane-sugar has not been 
artificially prepared by any reaction, and it does not seem 
possible to obtain it by any simple process from starch or 
cellulose. Maltose^, a carbohydrate having the formula 
Ci2 H22 On, is easily obtained from starch, etc., but differs 
greatly in its properties from cane-sugar. 

The conclusions I should draw from these experiments as 
to the nature of the process of secretion of sugars in Narcissus 
and other plants having the kind of nectaries called septal 
glands, are : — 

1. That the first stage consists in a maximum formation of 
protoplasm containing a large amount of metaplasm, especially 
in the form of proteid granules, but not of starch-grains, 
mucilage, or any form of solid carbohydrate. 

2. That the sugars are probably derived from the decomposi- 
tion of this metaplasm, and constitute one of the products of 
the change. That both glucose and saccharon are formed 

3. That the excretion of the saccharine liquid^ into the 

' See O'Sullivan, Jonni. Chem. Soc. xxix. 479, and xxx. 1 26 ; Brown and Heron, 
m Jonm. Chem. Soc. xxt. 618. Mnsculus and Gruber, Comptes Rend. 86, 1459 ; 
Roscoe and Schorlemmer, loc. cit. ; Armstrong and GroTes, loc. cit. 

* See O'Sullivan, loc. cit. ; and Schnltze in Ber. Dent. Chem. Ges. vii. 407. 

' Compare Wilson in Unters. Bot. Institut, Tiibingen, 1881 ; and Gardiner, loc dt. 

in the septal glands of Narcissus, 63 

gland -cavity in the first instance takes place through the 
cell-walls (which are not cuticularised) without any rupture, 
splitting away of the cells of epithelium from one another, or 
mucilaginous degeneration, and must therefore be supposed to 
result, in the first instance at least, from the direct activity 
of the protoplasm in the secreting cells. 

Finally, I should wish to call attention to the close analogy 
between the results deduced from these observations and those 
of W. Gardiner ^ on the secretion of mucilage in the hairs of 
Blechnum occidentale and Osmunda regalis^ and especially to 
his remarks on the similarity of the process of secretion in 
its general features by animal and vegetable protoplasm. 

I think also that the formation of sugars in this manner may 
be regarded as comparable to the formation of cellulose from 
microsomata *, and of starch from amyloplasts * in its general 
nature, but in such a comparison it must be remembered that 
the formation of solid products, such as mucilage, starch, 
cellulose, etc., from specialised portions of the protoplasm 
admits of direct proof, whereas it is hardly possible to obtain 
more than indirect evidence in the case of soluble bodies, such 
as sugars. 

* Annals of Botany, vol. i. No. i. 

» Sec Vines, Phys. of Plants, p. 25-26, Cambridge, 1886. 

* See Vines, loc. cit. p. a6 and 180. 

On a method of studying Geotropism. 



Neumham College^ Cambridge^ 


University Lecturer in Botany^ Cambridge, 

IT is commonly assumed, in accordance with the teachings 
of Sachs, that the gravitation-stimulus which produces 
geotropic curvatures acts most strongly when the geotropic 
organ is placed horizontally. In other words, when an organ 
is placed obliquely, it is in a less favourable position for 
the development of geotropism than when it is horizontal^. 

On the other hand, Elfving^ has given evidence to show 
that in the case of roots the position of maximum effect is 
when the apex of the root is directed vertically upwards, 
i.e. when the organ is at 180° from its normal position. 

Our inquiry on this question is far from complete, and is. 
published rather as pointing out a new method of attacking 
the problem, than as by any means solving it. 

The subject is one on which it is difficult to obtain satis- 
factory evidence. Thus, if we compare two negatively 
geotropic organs placed obliquely, so that the free end of 
one of them is above, while that of the other is below the 
horizon, we are at once confronted with a well-known diffi- 
culty. Assuming that the horizontal is the position of 
maximum effect, we must suppose that the stem which is 
beneath the horizon, and which therefore approaches the 

^ See Sachs, Arbeiten, ii. p. 240, i. p. 454. Flora, 1873, p. 326. 
* Acta Soc. Scient. Fennica, 1880. The question is discussed by Vines in his 
Phys. of Plants, p. 460. 
[ Annals of Botany, VoL H Na V, June 1888.] 


66 Bateson and Darwin. 

horizon as it curves upwards, is exposed to an increasing 
stimulus. In the same way the stem, starting from above 
the horizon, curves away from the optimum position, and 
thus encounters a stimulus diminishing in a similar ratio. 
It is clearly therefore extremely difficult to find out what 
were the initial geotropic tendencies corresponding to the 
two positions. The difficulties inherent in this experiment 
made it seem desirable to apply to the question a method 
differing from those hitherto employed. 

If a flower-stalk (or other apogeotropic organ) remains 
for an hoifr or two pinned down to a board in a horizontal 
position, so that no curvature can take place, a well-known 
result is seen on its being released: — the freed end springs 
up with a sudden geotropic curvature. Our method is based 
on this fact. Geotropic stems were immoveably fixed at 
various angles, and the amounts of curvature occurring on 
release were taken as representing the geotropic stimulus 
corresponding to each position. Whatever may be the faults 
of the method, it has one merit, namely, that the organ is 
exposed to a constant instead of to a varying stimulus, as 
must be the case if the stem is free to curve during the period 
of stimulation. 

Sachs ^ has compared shoots constrained in this manner 
in a horizontal position, with shoots fixed at one end only, 
and therefore free to move from the first. He shows by an 
analysis of the distribution of growth and tension, that the 
curvatures in the two cases are of an essentially similar nature. 
These results encourage us to believe that we are right in 
drawing conclusions as to normal geotropism from the be- 
haviour of constrained shoots ; for we do not consider the 
difference pointed out by Sachs between the two classes of 
curvature sufficient to vitiate our method. 

Our experiments were made in the following manner : — 

Young flower-stalks of plantain {Plantago lanceola(a) were 
gathered, and after the removal of the flower-heads were 
pinned on to boards. This was not done by transfixing 

* Arbeiten, i. p. 204. 

On a method of studying Geotropism. 67 

the stalks, but by using a pair of crossed pins at each point 
which it was desired to confine. In this way every stalk 
was attached at both ends and in the middle. The boards 
were then placed in a tin box containing damp sand. One 
board was placed horizontally, and the others at angles of 
60°, — in one case with the apical end of the stalk upwards, 
in the other downwards. The three sets may be distinguished 
as Above y Below ^ and Horizontal. The box was placed in 
a damp chamber at a constant temperature of 2^ C, for 
two hours. The stalks were then released and placed in 
water for an hour, during which time the curvatures materially 
increased ^ The form assumed by each was recorded by 
tracing^ the curvature on paper. The amount of curvature 
was measured by taking, from the tracings, the angle between 
the older and younger parts of the stalks. This could be 
done by drawing tangents to the curves, and was found 
more satisfactory than estimating the radius of curvature in 
each case. 

The following table gives the results of experiments, made 
in June 1887, on 148 plantain stalks. The whole series of 
angles is given, in order that the great amount of inequality 
in the results may be seen. 

Above : 39°, 27^ 38^ 33^ 37^ j,%\ 3o^ 35^ 57°, 4I^ a8^ 32^ 
43°. 46°, ib\ 3o'> ^7°, 44°, io\ 35°, 6%\ 90^ 34^ n\ 
39^ U\ 90°, 39^ 8i^ 30^ 47°, 30°, il\ i^\ 60% 29^ 
45} 54} 63^ 41°, 40°, a8^ 52°, 56% a3^ 15°, 46^ SS""^ 
56°, 15°. Average of 50 angles=4a'8. 

Below : 29^ 4»\ a6^ 6o^ 53^ o^ 39^ 37^ 44°. 34°, 24°, 58°, 69^ 
43°, 2i\ 44°, 1 8^ 41°, 44°, 26^ 33°, 5o^ 83^ 34^ 4^°, 4»\ 
53°. 59°. 24°, 59°, 56°. 47°, 40^ 36°, 84°, 45°, 55^ 4o^ 26% 


Average of 46^ angles = 43* i. 

' The stalks were placed on their sides in a flat-bottomed vessel, so that the 
increase of curvature was due to after-effect, not to a continuance of geotropic 

' The form was traced with a fine paint-brush, by which means a more tmst< 
worthy representation of the curvature can be made than with a pencil. 

' Omitting one which remaine<f straight. 

F 2 

68 On a method of studying Geotropism. 

Horizontal : 47', ^f. 45', 5o^ 56°, 8a^ 51", 6a^ 54% 67^ 51% 

^1\ 66% 58°, 35^ 43^ 45^ 45^ 36^ 48^ 59^ 78% 

64°, 48% 57°, 74% 75\ 67% 6o^ 33% 5o% 50% 45% 

64% 58% 71% 70% 56% 6o^ 45% 81% 74% 63% 3«% 

74% 75% 89% 90% 34% 44% 55% 
Average of 51 angles =58«4. 

In spite of the want of uniformity, the results are sufficiently 

clear when the averages are compared. 

Average Angle. Or as 

Horizontal . . . 58-4* 100 

Above .... 42-8° 73-3 

Below . . . . 43-1° 73-8 

From these figures we get some idea of the amount of 
difference in geotropic tendency between horizontal and 
oblique stems. Having regard to the want of uniformity in 
the angles, it would not be safe to suppose that the averages 
represent the difference in question with any kind of accuracy. 
But they certainly confirm the belief that tAe horizontal 
position is the most favourable for geotropic stimulation. 

The results with plantain were confirmed by a few experi- 
ments (three sets of 12) made with flower-stalks of the 
cabbage. Here the average angles were : — Or as 

Horizontal . . . 527 100 

Above . , , . '^j^-i 63-0 

Below .... 39.8 75-5 

We do not attach any importance to difference between 
the Aboves and Belows, because the number of experiments is 
too small to allow of trustworthy conclusions. But tlie ex- 
periments with cabbage, like those with plantain, certainly 
give additional support to the belief that the horizontal 
is the position of maximum effect. 

Cambridge, February, 1888. 

On Catharinea lateralis, Vaizey {Catharinea 

anomala, Bryhn). A new British Moss. 




With Plate IV» B. 

IN the autumn of 1886 I found several of what I believed to 
be anomalous specimens of Catharinea undulata^ differing 
from typical C. undulata by possessing lateral fruits either in 
the place of or in addition to the normal terminal fruits. 
These specimens I unfortunately lost. 

I happened to mention the fact of my finding this anoma- 
lous form to Professor Lindberg, of Helsingfors, who informed 
me that the same or a similar anomalous form had been dis- 
covered and described by Dr. N. Bryhn ^ as a new species, 
under the name of C, anomala. 

As Bryhn*s description is very brief and without figures, I 
propose to describe and figure the new species, if such it be, 
giving at the same time some of my observations of new 
facts in regard to it. 

From the information we have at present, it may be 
concluded that the distribution of the form extends over at 
least the north of Europe and Asia. Professor Lindberg tells 
me, in a letter dated December 13, 1887, that specimens were 
collected by Dr. Arnell in 1876 near the river Jenisei in 
Siberia ^ In May, 1886, Dr. Bryhn discovered it near Skien, 

^ Bryhn, Caiharinta anomala, n. sp. in Botaniska Notiser, 1886. Haftet V, 

p. 157. 

* In a letter dated December 30, 1887, Dr. Braithwaite writes that ' some thirty- 
five years ago ' he foond a plant with all the appearance of the form I am now 
to describe near Snaresbrook in Essex ; bnt he did not keep the specimen, 

[Annals of Botany, VoL H Na V, June 1888.] 

70 Vaizey. — On Catharinea lateralis. 

in Telemarken, in Norway, and subsequently in other localities 
in the south of Norway. In October, 1886, I first found 
it at Broxbourne, in the county of Hertford, and again in 
October, 1887, and I have seen it frequently since in other 
localities in the same neighbourhood. 

This form is distinguished by bearing sporogonia laterally 
on the stem of the oophyte in the axils of the leaves, in addi- 
tion to the sporogonium borne at the apex of the oophyte- 
stem (Figs. 2, 5, and 6). There may also be more than one 
lateral fruit on the same stem, and each of the additional ones 
may be produced in the axil of the same leaf as the first, or in 
that of another (Fig. 3). I have in some specimens even found 
a young partially developed embryo of a third. It is probable 
that this would develop later, as some of the specimens which 
I have in my possession gathered by Dr. Bryhn, dated 
May 26, i886\ have some sporogonia still immature ; and in 
one specimen I have found three mature lateral setae in 
addition to the single terminal one. Bryhn mentions as many 
as five altogether. Sometimes lateral fruits only are developed, 
as shown in Fig. 4. 

In the majority of specimens that I have examined the 
sporogonia appear to be formed in archegonia, fertilized in 
acropetal succession, the lateral fruit being the youngest. 
In some few specimens this was not the case, the oldes't being 
that furthest from the apex; and in one or two no order 
acropetal or basipetal could be recognised. 

The lateral fruits differ from the terminal constantly, 
or almost constantly, in having a distinctly flexuose and 
slightly thinner seta; in many the flexuose character is 
very marked, in only a few it is hardly perceptible. 

The arrangement of the antheridia and archegonia presents 
considerable variations. In all the Scandinavian specimens 
which have been examined the inflorescence has been described 
as autoicous. In my English specimens three different con- 

' These specimens were kindly sent me by Professor Lindberg from his 

A new British Moss, 71 

ditions have been observed. In some specimens I have been 
unable to find any antheridia at all. It is, of course, possible 
that, as at the time the specimens were examined they were 
in fruit, the antheridia had in some specimens decayed or been 
destroyed, though I think this unlikely^. These specimens 
were therefore dioicous. In other specimens antheridia were 
found in the axils of the leaves in considerable numbers, but 
without any archegonia with them, the archegonia in this case 
being found in the axils of other leaves ; the plants were there- 
fore autoicous. In others, again, antheridia and archegonia were 
found mixed in the axil of the same leaves, a synoicous con- 
dition. Unfortunately I did not note down each specimen as 
I examined it, and consequently I cannot give any figures to 
represent the proportions of dioicous to autoicous and synoicous 
specimens. My impression is that autoicous and synoicous 
are both rather more numerous than dioicous ; the autoicous 
and synoicous being about equal in number. I did not examine 
enough specimens to form a really just estimate of the pro- 
portion of the different arrangements ; not more than thirty 
specimens were dissected altogether. 

I have not been able to make out any difference in the 
structure of the leaf from that found in C undulata. 

Besides the form just described, certain other variations from 
the normal Catharinea-X.y^^ have been found. In some speci- 
mens I have found two terminal fruits growing from the 
same inflorescence. This variation is, I believe^ fairly common, 
and has, I think, been recorded before. I have in 
other mosses, e.g. Dicranum scoparium and Polytrichum for- 
mosuniy Hed. A variation that I have not before seen noticed 
is one represented in Fig. i, which I have seen twice at least. 
On the one year-old oophyte stem, with a terminal fruit, an 
innovation is produced immediately below the * floral ' axis. 

' It curiously happens that in all the specimens I sent to Professor Lind- 
berg and to Dr. Braithwaite which they examined they failed to find any 

72 Vaizey. — On Catharinea lateralis. 

In this way a sympodium is formed on which the fruit comes 
to have an apparently lateral position. 

I have found two specimens cladocarpous, the oophyte 
stem having sent out a lateral branch, on the end of 
which there was a sporogonium, as well as on the main 
stem. I have also one specimen in which the lateral branch 
has a lateral fruit Through the kindness of Mr. J. G. 
Baker, of Kew, I learn that in the Kew Herbarium a clado- 
carpous form occurs as C undulata under Desmaziere's Crypt. 
France, Series I. No. 250. I find that Milde^ described 
and named a form as Atrickum anomalum in 1869 quite 
different from that now described ; consequently, in con- 
formity with usage, the name of Bryhn must be discarded as 
having been previously occupied. I therefore propose, after 
having consulted with Dr. Braithwaite, to call the present 
form, whether it be regarded as a variety or species, C. 

As we have no absolute criterion of species and variety, I 
shall not discuss in which category the present form should be 
placed. I am rather inclined myself to regard it as an 
incipient species. 

With the knowledge of the existence of such a form as that 
just described, and of the pleurocarpous species of Fissidens 
among acrocarpous mosses, it is impossible not to think a 
classification founded upon the difference between acrocarpous, 
cladocarpous and pleurocarpous mosses, a highly artificial and 
unnatural one. If this view be adopted, it may be hoped that 
it will be a step towards the discovery of a new and more 
natural system of classification for the mosses. 

^ Bot. Zeit. 1869, and Jaeger et Sauerbeck, Genera et Species, Mnscomm. 

Botanical Laboratory, Cambridge, 
February, 1888. 

A new British Moss. 73 


HlostratiDg Mr. J. Reynold Vaizey*s paper on Catharinea lateralis. 

Fig. I. Catharinea^ with terminal fruit having an innovation arising jnst below 
floral apex. 

Fig. a. C. lateralis^ with terminal \a) and lateral (/) froit. 

Fig. 3. C. lateralis^ with two lateral fruits (/). The vaginula (v) is shown in 

Fig. 4. C. lateralis^ having a lateral fruit, but without a terminal fruit. 

Fig. 5. C lateralis y with leaves dissected off to show truly lateral position of 
lateral fruit : A, s, terminal firuit ; P. s, lateral fruit ; v. vag^ula ; /. s. leaf bases. 

Fig. 6. Median section, to shew relation of setae to leaves, &c. ; letters as in 
Fig. 5 : / leaf ; o. si. oophyte stem ; arcA. archegonia. 

Fig. 7. Male flower from autoicous specimen, with part of a female flower jnst 
below : /. leaf; /. d. leaf-base ; anlhr. anthridia ; arch, archegonia. The specimen 
from which this was drawn had two or three mature setae. 

Fig. 8. Synoicous flower : letters as in Fig. 7. 

On the Structure, Development, and 

of Trapella, Oliv., a new Genus of Peda- 


F. W. OLIVER, B.A., F.L.S., 

Scholar of Trinity College ^ Cambridge, 


With PUtes V, VI, VII, Vm, IX, and Woodcttt 7. 

« M 

IN a collection of plants received at the Kew Herbarium 
from Dr. Augustine Henry, from central China, in February 
of last year, there were, along with many other new and 
interesting plants, some specimens of a bilabiate aquatic with 
curiously appendaged fruits and inferior ovary. This plant, 
recalling in habit and in its appendaged fruits the well-known 
Trapa nutans, was made by my father the type of a new 
genus, Trapella, with specific name sinensis. It is described 
and figured in the 'Icones Plantarum^,' and placed pro- 
visionally in the Order Pedalineae. Amongst the observations 
made upon it there is the following: — *The form of the 
ovules remains uncertain, the stigma is very curious and of, 
as yet, uncertain structure, and there are one or two other 
features of biological interest that we want more light upon.* 
The possession of these marked peculiarities — unintelligible 
without proper investigation of material preserved in alcohol — 
and, if a true Pedalinea, its exceptional habit, made it desirable 
that further material should be obtained. On this account 
Dr. Henry was communicated with, the result being that in 

* D. Oliver, Id Hook. Ic PI. 1595. 
[Annals of Botany, VoL IL No. V, June 1S88.] 

76 Oliver. — On the Structure^ Development^ 

the autumn of 1887 a sufficient supply of spirit-material of 
this plant arrived from China. 

This was handed to me for more complete and detailed 
investigation ; and in the present paper are given the results 
of my research, carried out during the past winter. 

That I am able now to give this monographic account of a 
plant unknown to science before 1887, speaks to Dr. Henry's 
prompt courtesy in obtaining and dispatching material. No 
Botanist in China of recent times has sent home collections 
richer in entirely new forms than has Dr. Henry, who is now 
working at the flora of central China, hitherto an almost 
sealed book. 

Trapella (for general view of the plant, see PL V. Fig. i) is 
an aquatic Phanerogam with long straggling and simple or 
sparingly branched stems, which ascend obliquely through 
and float at the surface of the water. At intervals of from 
40-50 mm. opposite leaves are borne, deltoid-rotundate, and 
without stipules. Their petioles always twist so that the 
lamina of the leaf is parallel to the surface of the water. 
The lower, submerged leaves diff*er from the floating ones ; 
they are oblong. The intemodes in this region also are much 
longer than in the upper part of the stem. The lower 
ends of these shoots would appear to arise from a 
system of horizontal thread-like rhizomes which grow at 
the surface of the mud and give off" several such ascending 
branches. Many adventitious roots arise from the nodes of 
these submerged parts, and sometimes even from the inter- 
nodal regions. In this way the plant is anchored to the 
bottom (Fig. 2). 

In the axils of the floating leaves, and of the submerged 
ones for some distance below the surface, flowers are formed, 
which in the former case open just above the surface, but 
in the latter are cleistogamic. Generally speaking, flowers 
are not produced in both the leaf-axils at one node, though 
in some cases this is so, and both may develop into fruits 
(V. Fig. i). Ramification of the ascending axes is not fre- 
quent ; when it occurs it is from the axil of a submerged 

and Affinities of Trapella. 77 

leaf, and often the shoot formed remains insignificant (as in 
Fig. i). 

The bilabiate corolla has, Dr. Henry says in his note 
accompanying the material, a limb pale blue above, passing 
into a tube below which is yellow both outside and in^ It 
would appear that only one flower is in bloom at once on 
any shoot. After the corolla has fallen away five spines 
arise below, and alternating with, the calyx-lobes. These 
spines give the fruit an extremely characteristic appearance ; 
and this, taken with its floating habit, has led the Chinese, 
Dr. Henry informs us, to speak of the plant (from its re- 
semblance to Trapa) as fich ling-chio, 1. e. * iron Trapa ' ; the 
adjective *iron' indicating the uselessness of the plant, in 
contrast to Trapa itself, which is of great value economically. 
The word seems to be used in a sense analogous to that in 
which we use * dog,' e. g. dog-rose, etc. 

The plant grows in \-% feet of water in a pond in the 
neighbourhood of Ichang, in the province of Hupeh ; and the 
material which has been investigated by me was gathered 
July i8th-aist last — less than nine months ago at the time of 

Soon after the first material of Trapella was received at 
Kew, M. Maximowicz of St Petersburg received from a 
correspondent at Tokio, Japan, fragments, which though in- 
sufficient to describe, rendered it probable that it was at 
any rate a species of our genus. On the strength of this 
I hunted through the illustrated Japanese plant-books in the 
Kew Library, and in volume 76 of the beautiful *Phonzo 
Zoufou,' devoted to aquatics, occurs a coloured hand- 
drawing* of a plant, undoubtedly belonging to our genus, 

* In his memonuidiira accompanying the first received dry specimens, Dr. Heniy 
speaks of the corolla as being white above, so that the shade of blue is probably 
very faint. 

' In this figure a floating stem only, with fruits, is drawn ; no flowers are given, 
nor any of the submerged oblong leaves. The leaves are rather more deeply 
cut than in our plant, and adventitious roots are represented arising from nodes at 
which are inserted floating leaves. The fruits, though fancifully drawn, belong 
undoubtedly to Trapella, 

78 Oliver. — On the Structure^ Development^ 

and likely enough is the same as that of which M. Maxi- 
mowicz had a fragment. I am indebted to Mr. Atsushi Matsura, 
a Japanese gentleman at present studying at University 
College, London, for a translation of the remarks accompany- 
ing the sketch in question, of which the substance is here 
given : * Hishimodoki ' — the Japanese name of the representa- 
tive of our genus — Ms brought from Owari or Bishiu' (an 
eastern province of Japan). ^The plant comes Into leaf in 
the spring ; its leaves are of small size, resembling those of 
Trapa incisa * ; they are arranged in rows opposite one 
another, and roots originate at the side of every node of the 
plant. In the autumn it produces a fruit betwixt leaf and 
stem (i. e. in the leaf-axil), in form resembling an anchor or 
long-legged spider. The plant is very different from Trapa 
incisa^ and it must not be eaten.' 

We see then that the Japanese, like the Chinese, distinguish 
between Trapa and Trapella^ though at the same time noting 
the points of resemblance. 

Although in the following sections all the appearances pre- 
sented by the vegetative and reproductive organs of Trapella 
are entered on in more or less detail, special attention is 
given to certain striking anomalies in structure and develop- 
ment shown in the ovules. Not only are these described in 
detail, but throughout the account mention of analogous cases — 
whether in remote or allied types — is introduced for comparison 
where it would seem that such reference is required. 

I introduce here a technical description of the genus, based 
on that given in the * Icones Plantarum,' but altered from that 
in so far as the examination of more complete or better 
preserved material requires it. 

Trapella, OHv. in Hook. Ic. Plant, tab. 1595. (Char, 

CaJyx tubo ovario adnato, limbo libero 5-fido, lobis ovatis 
acutis. Corolla perigyna tubuloso-infundibuliformis, limbo 

* T, incisa is given as a variety of T. bispinosa by C. B. Clarke in Hook. Flor» 
Brit. Ind. Vol. ii. p. 390. 

and Affinities of Trapella. 79 

patente bilabiato albido v. pallide caerulescente, labio superiore 
breviter bifido lobulis rotundatis, labio inferiore trifido lobulis 
rotundatis, centrali paulo minore ; tubo flavido basi abrupte 
angustato ; aestivatione imbricata, labio superiore exteriore. 
Stamina pollinifera % epipetala inclusa, antheris bilocularibus 
loculis sub-parallelis v. leviter divergentibus connectivo peltato 
rotundato camosulo insidentibus ; filamentis filiformibus gla- 
bris ; staminodia antica % elongata, antheris rudimentariis ; 
stamen posticum o. Ovarium inferum apice tantum liberum 
biloculare, loculo antico rudimentario, loculo postico bi-ovu- 
lato ; stylo gracile elongato, stigmate basi lateraliter dilatato 
bilabiato lobo postico minore adnato ; ovula 2, anatropa prope 
apicem cavitatis septo inserta pendula, superiore sessili, in- 
feriore breviter funiculato deinde abortivo. Fructus ang^stus 
elongatus monospermus indehiscens, apice appendicibus 5 
coronatus 3 elongatis rigidis gracilibus arrectis apice un« 
cinatim incurvis, % brevioribus spinosis anguste subulatis 
rectis patentibus ; pericarpio tenuiter chartaceo-lignoso. 
Semen pendulum, elongatum, cylindraceum, endospermio 
tenui ; embryonis recti radicula supera, cotyledonibus lineari- 
oblongis semi-teretibus radicula brevioribus. — Herba natans^ 
foliis oppositis petiolatis^ inferioribus lineari-oblongis basi an^ 
giistatis denticulatis^ superioribus deltoideo-rotundatis v. cordi" 
farmibus obtusis crenato-denticulatis glabratis v. ftervis subtus 
puberulis, Flores axillares^ solitariiy pedunculati ; pedunculus 
fructiferns recurvus. 

T. SINENSIS, Oliv. 1. c. {sp. unica). Hab. Ichang, China, Dr. 
A. Henry. 

Caulis gracilis infeme radices fibrosas ad nodos emittens. 
Folia superiora ^15-30 mm. lata ; petiolus 15-ao mm. longus, 
inferiora 30-^50 mm. longa,5-7 mm. lata. Flores pedunculati, 
pedunculus \%-2S mm. longus ; corolla perigyna 10-15 mm. 
longa. Fructus 15-20 mm. longus, a-3 mm. latus; spinis 
apicalibus longioribus 40-70 mm. longis, % brevioribus 
3-5 mm. longis. 

8o Oliver. — On the Structure^ Development^ 

The Flowers. 

These are borne solitary in the leaf-axils, one only as a 
rule being developed at each node. Those which reach the 
surface open normally, but many — found especially in the 
axils of the submerged leaves, occasionally also in those of 
floating ones — remain quite small and closed. These are 
the cleistogamic flowers, to be described hereafter. 

The pedicels reach a length of about 25 mm. and show 
a slight thickening at their distal end, corresponding to the 
inferior ovary, which becomes more prominent after the fall 
of the corolla. Immediately below the calyx-lobes, and 
alternating with them, are already visible rudiments of the 
five fruit-spines. These are one anterior {a. s,) and two small 
posterior tubercles {p»s.), and a minute elevation on either 
side (/.J.); these are seen in Figs. 10 and 11, which are anterior 
and posterior views of the ovary at this period. The free 
part of the calyx is inserted just above them, and is divided into 
five acute segments, with imbricate aestivation in bud. The 
outer surface of the calyx, and of the pedicel, is densely 
covered with 4-rayed epidermal glands (indicated in Fig. 16), 
similar to those on the leaves described on p. 101. The 
corolla is infundibuliform with spreading limb; the two 
posterior lobes forming the upper, the three anterior the 
lower lip. The anterior median lobe {a.p. Figs. 3, 4, 5) is 
inside in aestivation, the two posterior (/. p.) outside, and the 
two lateral lobes {Lp.) half inside, half outside. The tube and 
lobes show a beautiful pencilling well rendered in the Figures. 

The curious stamens are inserted in the corolla-tube (Fig. 
5) and are visible at its mouth, though not projecting. The 
posterior pair (j. m.) alone are fertile, and their structure is 
interesting enough to be described. The connective has the 
form of a flat circular disc, attached to the filament in a 
peltate manner (Figs. 6 a and b are front and back views of 
a single stamen), the anther-cells being inserted at its upper 
edge, a trifle to the outer side of the median line. The cells 
are slightly divergent, with longitudinal dehiscence. In Fig. 23 

and Affinities of Trapella, 


is given a transverse section corresponding to A-B in Fig. 6 by 
showing the anther after dehiscence. 

The anterior pair are barren and to be regarded as stami- 
nodes. The connective is here 
smaller than in the fertile stamens, 
but still peltate. Its upper edge 
is drawn out into two small pegs, 
to each of which is attached a 
small barren anther-cell (Figs, "ja 
and b). These are slightly diver- 
gent, as in the stamens; evidently 
the staminodes have been derived 
from a pair of stamens quite like 
the fertile ones here. 

Of the median posterior stamen 
no trace remains. ^'^- 7.— Floral diagram. 

The stamens in Pedalineae vary considerably from one 
genus to another. Thus in Pretrea I find the anthers parallel 
and dorsifixed, with no conspicuous development of connective; 
in Pedalium the anthers are divergent, and the connective 
produced into a small glandular apiculus ; the same holds for 

On removing the corolla and cutting away the calyx-limb, 
the free part of the ovary is seen, terminating in the style, 
inserted somewhat anteriorly. The stigma is interesting, 
being cruciform ; in this it deviates from the ordinary Pedali- 
naceous structure which is bi-lamellate, i. e. with equal an- 
terior and posterior lobes ^. The cruciform stigma of Trapella 
is doubtless derived from this type. The cross-like form is 
due to horizontal lobes standing out right and left (see 
Figs. 8 and 9) at the insertion of the anterior and posterior 
lamellae. These lamellae are not equally developed, but 
the posterior has undergone great reduction* (Fig- 9 gives 

^ See my paper, *Ueb. Fortleitnng d. Reizes bei reizbaren Narben,' in Ber. d. 
dent bot. Ges. 1887. 

' It is to be noted that although the anterior loculns of the ovaiy is almost 
obsolete, it is ^<t posterior stigmatic lobe which has undergone reduction. This is 


82 Oliver, — On the Structure^ Development^ 

posterior aspect), so that the anterior lamella towers above 
it. A longitudinal median section shows the exact relations 
of the lamellae (Fig. 22). The surfaces, corresponding to the 
inner applied faces of an unmodified stigma, are covered with 
stigmatic hairs — the posterior, reduced lobe (/- /.) having its 
papillose surface continued some little distance down its 
posterior face (see Fig. 22). The two vascular bundles, 
running respectively dorsally and ventrally in the style, die 
out at the base of the stigmatic lobes. 

Passing on to the ovary itself, I have been able to show 
that this is in reality two-celled ; but from the fact of one of 
these cells — the anterior — being quite rudimentary, it escaped 
notice in the original diagnosis made from imperfect material. 
The placentation is axile, and the two ovules are inserted 
high up in the free part of the ovary. These are shown 
in situ in Fig. 18; here we have represented the upper part 
of the ovary after the removal of the right side. Both are 
pendulous, and apparently anatropous, with superior (and 
exterior) micropyle. They are attached, right and left of 
the median line, to the top of the partition separating the 
reduced and fully-developed loculi. The upper {pv}) at- 
tached on the right side of the median line is sessile, but 
the lower one (pv?) is suspended by a longish funicle {fun.). 
The point of insertion of the funicle is slightly below that 
of the sessile ovule {ov?), and to the left of the median 
line. In Figs. 19 and 20 are given longitudinal sections 
through the insertion of the ovules ov} and ov? respect- 
ively ; Fig. 19 being slightly to the right and Fig. 20 to the 
left of the absolutely median section. 

The rudimentary loculus {red. /.) is on the anterior side 
of the partition, and there is projecting into it, near the top, 
a small cushion of tissue (r Figs. 18 and 21), representing 
perhaps a rudimentary ovule. 

especially well seen in a median antero-posterior section of a cleistogamic flower 
(Fig. 21), in which the stigma is sessile on the ovary. This would point to the fact 
that entirely different factors have been at work in causing the reduction in the two 
cases, and that we have not to deal simply with the gradual atrophy of one or 
other carpel, as might at first be supposed. 

and Affinities of Trapella. 83 

The relations of the parts may be elucidated by the 
examination of a number of transverse sections, taken through 
the flower at different heights. Such a series is given in 
Figs. 40-45. In these sections the vascular bundles running 
to the different floral organs are variously coloured. Those 
to the carpels are blue^ to th*e stamens yellow^ red to the 
petals, and green to the calyx-lobes. Fig. 40 is a transverse 
section cut half-way down the ovary. The rudimentary 
anterior loculus (fred. /.) is a mere slit in the thick wall of 
the ovary, co-extensive however with the fully-developed 
(posterior) loculus {loc). The position which should be 
occupied by the vascular bundle to the posterior stamen — 
which has become obsolete — is indicated by a x. Of the 
four bundles (blue) belonging to the carpels, the anterior 
and posterior ones are continued unbranched to the top 
of the ovary, and up the style (cf. Figs. 40-45). 

The other pair, lying right and left in the partition, supply 
the two ovules, the right-hand one the sessile {pv}\ the left- 
hand one the stalked ovule {pv?\ 

Fig. 41 is cut just at the insertion of the spines. Five new 
bundles, tinted brown, are seen, outside and opposite the red 
ones of the corolla; these run into the five spines, and are 
inserted on those which pass up to the corolla. 

In Fig. 42 the section passes through the base of the free 
part of the ovary, the calyx-tube being seen on the outside 
free from it Corolla and stamens are not drawn, having 
fallen away. Fig. 43, higher up still, shows the insertion 
of the lower stalked ovule and the bundle passing to it; 
Fig. 44 that of the upper sessile ovule. The bundle to this 
ovule is seen cut across twice — due to its arching over before 
running to the ovule (cf. also Figs. 19 and %6). In Fig. 43 
is seen projecting into the anterior reduced loculus the 
small cellular cushion (r), which may be possibly an ovule- 
rudiment. Later it becomes tightly pressed against the 
outer wall of the ovary, and possibly assists in the 
transfer of nutriment from the ovary-wall to the ripening 
ovule. A longitudinal section through this rudiment is 

G 2 


84 Oliver. — On the Structure^ Development, 

given in Fig. 39. Finally, the section in Fig. 45 is acrbss 
the style. 

It is the upper sessile ovule {ov}) alone in which develop- 
ment is continued after fertilization; the lower one {ov.^\ 
though up to the stage of fertilization it in no way diflfers 
from the upper, except in the possession of a funicle and 
in being slightly smaller, ceases to grow. With care it may 
be found, even in an old fruit, as a collapsed remnant, near 
to the point of attachment of the seed. In the upper ovule 
(pv?) development after fertilization appears to be very rapid ; 
it grows down extending towards the base of the loculus, 
which it ultimately completely fills (Fig. 35). The details 
of this development will be resumed directly. 

Development of the frtiit-appendages. — At the time of 
flowering the rudiments of the spines are visible, and before 
the corolla has fallen away, have quite a tangible presence. 
In Figs. 10 and 11 these rudiments are shown; 10 is the 
anterior face and shows an unpaired rudiment (a. j.) situated 
below the interval between the two anterior sepals. In 11 
are shown the paired rudiments (/. j.) of the posterior spines, 
and in both figures, the less conspicuous paired rudiments 
of the lateral spines are represented (/. j.). 

After the fall of the corolla the calyx-lobes close over 
the ovary, and remain with their edges overlapping. The 
five rudiments grow out into spines, as indicated in Figs. 
12, 13 and 14. The last number represents the mature fruit. 
The paired lateral appendages (/. j.) alone remain compara- 
tively short, each rigid and sharply pointed. The anterior 
and posterior spines grow out to a great length — often ex- 
ceeding that of both fruit and pedicel. As the fruit ripens, 
their ends become incurved in a circinate manner (Fig. 14), 
and the whole fruit — both pericarp and spines — becomes 
much hardened and lignified. As the fruits ripen their 
pedicels usually become recurved, as shown in Fig. i, and 
the fruits are in this way brought down to or even slightly 
below the surface of the water. In the ripe fruit the pedicel 
becomes extremely brittle at the point of its insertion in the 

and Affinities of Trapella. 85 

leaf-axil, so that if the fruit be disturbed in any way it 
breaks off. The fruits offer every opportunity for distribution, 
with their clinging, coiled appendages, and it is surprising 
that our plant has so circumscribed a distribution, contrary 
to what is usual amongst aquatics apparently by no mean3 
so well-furnished as Trapella. 

CUistogamic flowers, — The examination of several complete 
specimens of Trapella does not fail to show not only the 
presence of fruits in the axils of the floating, but also some- 
times in those of the submerged leaves which can never have 
been exposed to the air. This at once suggests the presence 
of cleistogamic\ in addition to normal flowers, as indeed 
proves to be the case. Careful investigation of the leaf-axils 
demonstrates the presence of minute unopened flowers about 
2-3 mm. in length, in the axils of many of 'the submerged 
leaves. These are cleistogamic flowers, and are at no time 
open. The calyx remains tightly folded over them and the 
corolla is reduced, and, so far as I could ascertain, two fertile 
anthers are developed, but in most cases these parts were 
disorganised. The stigma is here sessile on the top of the 
ovary (Fig. 21); in this lies their chief structural difference 
from normal flowers. The pollen is applied directly on to 
the stigma from the anthers. The cells of the ovary, insertion 
and number of ovules, &c., are quite similar in both forms, 
as also is their further history after fertilisation. Hence in 
order to distinguish whether any fruit has been cleistoga- 
mically or normally produced it must be noted, (1) whether 
it comes from the axil of a submerged or floating leaf; {%) 
whether it is pedicellate or almost sessile; (3) whether its 
stigma is sessile on the top of the ovary or not. No. i is 
not however absolute, as I have not unfrequently found 
cleistogamic flowers in the axils of floating leaves, even of 

^ Cleistogamic flowers are well known in many aquatic plants : Darwin men- 
tions (Forms of Flowers) instances in Ranunculus aquatilis, Alistna natans^ 
Suhularia aquatica^ Illecedrum vertkillaium, Menyanthes^ EuryaU and Hottonia 
inflcUa (Torrey in Bull. Torrey Botan. Club, vol. ii. p. a a). In none of these 
would there appear to be any modification of structure, other than a mere reduction 
of parts due to their remaining closed. 

86 Oliver. — On the Structure, Development^ 

leaves nearer to the growing-point than fruits which have 
been normally developed. The cleistogamic flowers are 
simply slightly arrested normal ones, and their presence on 
the floating parts is perhaps due to the fact that, for some 
reason, it was diflicult for them to reach the surface. It 
would be interesting to investigate whether cleistogamic 
flowers cannot be produced at will in Trapella, an experiment 
which might easily be performed— should the plant come 
into cultivation — by artificially keeping the flower-buds below 
the surface of the water. It seems quite probable that in 
this way cleistogamic flowers would be produced, and these 
in considerable numbers, showing that they are interchange- 
able, and that the production, in any case, of one form or 
the other depends on external causes rather than on any 
internal tendency. 

Mature fruits, in whichever way produced, are similarly 
appendaged. They are naturally held at the level of the 
water or at a depth of some 3 or 4 — or if cleistogamic of, 
at the most, 8-10 cm. Fish occur to me as the most pro- 
bable agents in dispersal here, and the incurved fruit- 
appendages are admirably adapted to clinging to their spines. 
Jaggi^ has suggested that fish are instrumental in distributing 
the somewhat similarly appendaged fruits of Trapa nutans ; 
but both Ascherson^ and Nathorst^ give it as their opinion, 
that more probably it is by ducks or other aquatic birds. 
In Trapella we have the same conditions to deal with, and 
a much greater proneness of the fruits to become entangled ; 
it is on this account a great puzzle to me that this plant 
should have so circumscribed a distribution*. Still it may 

* J. Jaggi, Die Wassemnss, Trapa natans^ L., 1883. 
' Ascherson, in Bot. Centralbl. Bd. xvii. p. 248. 

» Nathorst, in Bot. Centralbl. Bd. xviii. p. 278. 

* Dr. Henry states that he only found Trapella in one pond out of some twentj 
he had seen. The pond in question differed from the others, he says, in being on the 
top of a hill, so that the water was little affected by floods of rain ; nor was the 
pond used for irrigation purposes, so that its undisturbed condition woald be 
especially favourable to our plant, and might account for this being its sole 
habitat in the district. In the event oifish being the agents in question, distribatioa 
would depend on the facilities for their visiting other ponds. 

and Affinities of Trapella, 87 

be that when this little known region is more thoroughly 
worked out, Trapella may turn out to be a fairly common 
plant. ^ 

Development of the flower. — In the youngest buds that I 
have been able to investigate, all the organs were already 
formed. Fig. 16 is an antero-posterior section of a bud 
less than i mm. long. In it are seen the functional and 
reduced loculi of the ovary {loc. and red, I. respectively), and 
the insertion of the upper sessile ovule {pv}). The lower 
ovule — which originated side by side with the upper — fills 
up the rest of the cavity of the ovary, but is not represented 
in the figure, since its point of insertion cannot be given. 
In Fig. 17 is the section at right angles to the antero-posterior 
plane, showing the insertion of the stamens and the state of 
pollen-development. As yet the pollen-mother-cells (/. m, c^ 
are undivided, and lie enclosed in the tapetal layer {tap^. At 
this stage about equal parts of the ovary are inferior and 
free respectively, and the vascular bundles, drawn darker, show 
some differentiation, though of course they are not lignified 
as the parts have still to undergo great stretching. Gradually 
the lower part of the ovary elongates, leaving the ovules 
high up, attached to the axile placenta quite at the top 
(Fig. 15): then later on, after fertilization, the uppermost 
ovule comes almost to fill this deep ovary. 

Development of ovule and embryo-sac, — Up to a certain point 
the developmental history of both upper and lower ovules is 
identical ; since, however, in all cases it is the upper one only 
which becomes a seed, it will be the history of this one which 
I shall follow, except where otherwise indicated. 

The ovule is essentially anatropous from a very early stage 
(Fig. 24). The nucellus is small in comparison with its 
developing integument (ci). In stages a trifle earlier than the 
one figured, the undivided archesporial cell may be seen, 
occupying the upper part of the nucellus, and invested only by 
a single epidermal layer. In Fig. 24 the archesporium has 
divided into two cells : an upper one (e, s. m, c,), which is the 
embryo-sac mother-cell, and a lower one (c\ which later will 

88 Oliver. — On the Structure^ Development^ 

give rise to two cells, one above the other. The very thick 
integument now closes over the free end of the nucellus. 
There is, as is customary in Monopetalae, only one int^^ment 
formed. The closure of the integument is very complete, and 
the micropyle is reduced to a mere line {m in Fig. 27). 
Indeed in some cases I could detect no trace of this even (as 
in Fig. 26), and without proper developmental stages, the 
ovule might easily have been judged to be a naked one. 

The cell which is cut off from the archesporal cell lies, not, 
be it noted, as is usual, at the micropylar, but at the 
opposite end of the embryo-sac mother-cell. This first cell {c 
in Fig. 24) is sister- cell to the embryo-sac mother-cell, and 
divides by a horizontal wall into two cap-cells (^ and t? in 
Figs. 25-28). The embryo-sac mother-cell itself also divides, 
and a new cap-cell (c^ in Figs. 25-28) is cut off, lying between 
the embryo-sac and the two lower cap-cells. There is now a 
row of four cells, the uppermost of which is the embryo-sac (as 
in Fig. 25). In one case only did I find an exception to this 
state of things. In this, not the top, but the second cell of the 
row, became the embryo-sac ; it thus had one cap-cell above 
and two below it. 

By the succeeding growth of the ovule, the embryo-sac 
comes to lie very deeply, approaching very nearly the lower- 
most tip of the ovule (Fig. 19). No raphe whatever is 
developed ; the vascular bundle ends abruptly at the insertion 
of the ovule (Figs. 19, 31, 32, 36). There can, however, be no 
doubt as to the base of the embryo-sac being, theoretically, 
the chalazal end. 

In early flowering stages are found, the three cap-cells (r^, 
c^y ^, Fig. 25) of fairly equal height, and the embryo-sac, 
above, fairly rectangular in form ; in slightly older stages the 
topmost (Fig. 26) of the three cap-cells (c^) becomes partially 
absorbed, and then the second of them (r^. Fig. 27). The 
terminal cell {(?) always increases in length, at first at the 
expense of c^ and c^. The walls of the embryo-sac and of 
these cap-cells are highly refringent and deliquescent, as is 
usually the case. In each cap-cell is a large, round nucleus. 

and Affinities of Trapella. 89 

At the time when the two proximal cap-cells (c^ and c^) begin 
to dwindle, the embryo-sac goes through the stages which 
precede fertilization. The single nucleus of the embryo-sac 
divides into two (Fig. 27), and each of these gives rise in the 
normal manner to the egg-apparatus, antipodals, &c. In Fig. 28 
the embryo-sac is ready for fertilization. Its upper (micro- 
pylar) end has become much widened and its apex pointed. 
A line {m) representing the micropyle is seen in Fig. 27, and 
in Fig. 28 this is occupied by the pollen-tube (f. t.) The 
nuclei constituting the group of antipodals {ant) are of small 
account and shortly dwindle. 

It must be observed that in this stage the tip of the apical 
cap-cell (^) has become pointed, and that it gradually elon- 
gates downwards. A later stage is given in Fig. 29 : this 
however is taken from the lower ovuler The apical cap-cell 
here almost equals the embryo-sac in length. In the embryo- 
sac itself I have only drawn one nucleus, as the others were 
not distinguishable. The stage is given to help to fill a 
gap in the history of the upper ovule. It seems, however, 
certain that this cap-cell steadily elongates. 

From this point the lower ovule gradually retrogrades, and 
hangs, in older stages, as a shrivelled remnant, which may be 
found with care even in ripe fruits, as already noted. 

The upper ovule now begins to elongate very rapidly so as 
to extend right down into the lower region of the loculus. 
That active division of the cells of the nucellus and integument 
is taking place may be seen from the arrangement in rows of 
the flat cells on either side of the embryo-sac in Figures 26, 
27. The stage next following, in which the egg-cell undergoes 
its first segrmentation and endosperm begins to form, I have 
not been fortunate enough to secure. My youngest fruit, 
though younger than that given in Fig. 12, where the spines 
are just showing prominently, has a much elongated ovule, in 
which profound changes have already occurred. The changes 
must be very rapidly passed through at this point, since in the 
material at hand I have been able to obtain numerous 
preparations of the stages both before and after the hiatus 

90 Oliver. — On the Structure, Development, 

in question. I hope at some future time to be able to fill 
it up. 

After fertilization. — Passing on now to the next oldest 
stage found, which is given in Fig. 30. • The ovule has elon- 
gated much and continues to do so until the ripening of the 
seed, wh6n it entirely fills the loculus (Fig. 35). In Fig. 30 
the fertilized egg-cell has already divided and a long suspensor 
formed {sp^ ; the latter remains attached to one side of the 
embryo-sac very near its upper end, and by its elongation the 
embryonic cell (emb,), in which no divisions have yet arisen, 
is carried to a point below the middle of the embryo-sac. 
The contents of the embryo-sac (other than the embryo and 
suspensor) are shaded in the figure. A development of endo- 
sperm has taken place, but is confined to the lower two-thirds 
of the embryo-sac ; in the synergidal region no cell-division 
takes place. 

At the base of the embryo-sac a most unusual appearance is 
seen. The lowest cap-cell (r*), as above described, was found 
to elongate very much ; now it has considerably outstripped 
the embryo-sac in length ; further, by a longitudinal median 
wall it has become divided into symmetrical halves. The 
* appendage,' as I shall at present denote this structure, consists 
therefore of two very long, tapering cells, applied side to side 
and ensheathed in the down-growing ovular tissue. The walls 
of this appendage are brightly shining and fairly thick, and 
consist of unaltered cellulose. Its contents are richly proto- 
plasmic, and each of its cells contains near its proximal end a 
large nucleus («). At this time, and in the next following 
stages, the appendage contains great quantities of small 
starch -granules, no doubt transitory. This extraordinary 
structure is, I believe, to be regarded as an absorptive org^n. 
By its large surface much food-material is absorbed from the 
tissues outside it (perisperm), which is in turn passed on to the 
embryo-sac ; the embryo-sac from this point increasing in bulk 
at the expense of the outside tissues. So long as this con- 
tinues do we find transitory starch-granules deposited in the 
appendage. In later stages — when its object is fulfilled — the 

and Affinities of Trapella. 91 

appendage is found with sparing, highly vacuolated protoplasm, 
and with nuclei much lobed, and showing a tendency to frag- 
mentation (Figs. 34, 34 a). As the ripening seed and embryo- 
sac increase in size, the appendage becomes relatively less 
important, as in Fig. 32, and especially in Fig. 35, where it is 
but an appendix to the ripe seed. 

In favourable preparations, what I take to be the dwindled 
remains of the two proximal cap-cells (Fig. 33, c^ and c^) may 
still be made out. These flattened remnants in older stages 
are not to be found. These dwindling cap-cells retain still 
their deliquescent walls — in contradistinction to those of the 
endosperm. In later stages, also, the basal parts of the appen- 
dage become, to a certain extent, sheathed by a layer of 
endosperm-cells — as it were a lip growing over it (Fig. 34). 
This arises only later on, and is perhaps due to the still active 
elongation of the endosperm, after the tip of the appendage 
has reached its furthermost limit. Figure 34, showing this, is 
taken from a section at right angles to Fig. 33. In it the 
appendage appears to consist of a single cell, an appearance 
due to the partition-wall being parallel to the plane of the 
section. This sheathing by endosperm-cells is not generally 
equal on all sides, but unequal as in Fig. 34. 

This appendage — unparalleled so far as I know — is all of a 
part with the sequence of events in this strange plant. For 
here is a plant, no doubt descended from forms with superior 
ovary, in which the only ovule which continues to develop, for 
some reason elongates downwards with great rapidity, and has 
in course of time brought about the considerable invagination 
of the ovary to accommodate it It is not wonderful then that 
the plant hsis, pari passu, seized on a means for supplying its 
developing endosperm, and ultimately of course the embryo, 
with food-material. It has been the apical cap-cell, which 
normally dwindling to nothing, in Trapella has become 
modified into this embryonic absorptive organ. 

As the seed ripens it is to be noticed that the wall of that 
part of the ovary which is above the insertion of the calyx- 
limb, and which before fertilization was thick and very 

92 Oliver. — On the Structure y Development ^ 

succulent, and the cells of which were richly starch-containing, 
becomes quite shrivelled, from the travelling away of these 
stores, which are conveyed to the developing seed. 

Resuming the history of the embryo-sac and its contents. 
As the endosperm continues to grow, it gradually encroaches 
on the tissues lying outside it. Indeed the process is con- 
tinued until of the nucellus and integument we have remaining, 
throughout the greater part of the seed, only a single layer of 
cells (/«/., Fig. 37). 

As already stated for the earlier stages, no endosperm 
formation takes place in the micropylar region of the embryo- 
sac. This region is occupied by the synergidae, and perhaps a 
certain amount of protoplasmic remainder ; these, instead of 
dwindling after fertilization in the usual manner, go on in- 
creasing much in bulk. By the time that the seed is ripe, so 
large have they become that there is a conspicuous tubercle — 
which I shall speak of as the synergidal tubercle — present at 
the top of the seed (Figs. 35 and 37). It is the side of this 
tubercle which is attached to the placenta, and, externally, it 
is separated from the rest of the seed by conspicuous con- 
striction. In such a stage as that represented in Figure 36 
these greatly developed synergidae have a granular protoplasm, 
often highly vacuolated ; each synergida containing a large 
nucleus («.) with tendency to fragmentation. In the ripe seed 
they have reached their maximum development, and their 
protoplasm shows a very curious, congealed-looking reticulum. 
Immediately round the edge there is a denser limiting layer, 
but the bulk is made up of the oddly areolated, granular and 
sometimes vacuolated protoplasm. It is difficult to describe 
the effect in question, but in Fig. 38 I have given an enlarged 
view of the region around A in Figure 37, which comes as 
near to the appearance in question as I can manage. The 
large, lobed, fragmenting nuclei present a very degenerated 
appearance, coloured often a deep brown or black by tannin. 
Each is surrounded by a small, comparatively homogeneous, 
protoplasmic areola {n,a.\ which does not show the typical 
reticulations of the other regions. 

and Affinities of Trapella. 93 

As the endosperm is developing, we find that its upper 
layers have their cells arranged in strata, more or less parallel 
to the base of the synergidal region (/. d. Fig. 36). The cells 
making up the layers in question are large and conspicuously 
granular, with large, well-defined nuclei ; and in later stages 
their walls become thickened and lignified. In this way a 
diaphragm is formed across the embryo-sac, absolutely cutting 
off the synergidal region from that which is occupied by the 
endosperm and embryo. 

In Fig. jfi are seen the preparations for this diaphragm, 
i. e. the parallel rows of cells, /. d. : in Figs. 37 and 38 the walls 
of these cells constituting the diaphragm have become ligni- 
fied and are drawn in black (/. rf.). The transition from the 
lignified diaphragm to the non-lignified normal endosperm 
below it is as sudden as it is represented as being in thef 
figures. At the most, the diaphragm is five or six layers 

We find in the adult seed that its narrowest part cor- 
responds to this diaphragm (Fig. 35 and 37). This is due to 
the fact that the other parts go on expanding (corresponding 
to the growth of the embryo &c.) after the diaphragm has 
become hardened and non-extensible ; hence in this region 
a circular constriction is formed. The development of such 
a barrier is, doubtless, to prevent any contamination of the 
embryo and endosperm in which it lies, by the death and 
possible subsequent decay of the synergidae. 

It may be that these enlarged synergidae in some way 
assist in the absorption of food-material from the placenta 
just as the appendage at the other end does from the tissues 
of the nucellus and integument. Indeed the occurrence of 
such a sucker at one end of the embryo-sac does not render 
'it at all less probable that there will be one at the othCT. 
It is interesting to compare the respective morphological 
values of the two special organs in question, in the one 
case a cap-cell, in the other the synergidae, and to notice how 
by a special adaptation they play, on this view, identical 

94 Oliver. — On the Structure^ Devetopment^ 

The embryo, meanwhile, has been developing. In F%are 30 
the suspensor has elongated, and the embryonic cell has been 
carried down and become immersed in the endoq>enn. 
There is no point of special interest in its mode of segmenta- 
tion. The developing embryo gradually encroaches upon 
the endosperm, which it absorbs. Soon after the stage 
represented in F^. 36, the two cotyledons are diflferentiated 
(Fig. 46) and the arrangement of tissues at the root-apex is 
that obtaining in the adult root The root end is gradually 
brought higher up towards the micropylar end of the embryo- 
sac (F^. 27), and the shoot end (with the cotyledons), to the 
base of the seed, so that ultimately only a narrow layer of 
endosperm remains between the cotyledons and the appendage 
(Fig. 35). In Figure 47, the arrangement of the tissues of 
the young root-apex is well shown. This apex is from an 
embryo of about the same age as Fig. 46. There is an inde- 
pendent plerome (^/.), and a periblem {pb) arising from a 
single layer of cells. Outside, and independent of this, is the 
dermato-calyptrc^enic layer (dx^. At the apex the suspensor 
(sp^ is attached. Essentially the same arrangement is re- 
tained in the ripe seed (Fig. 37), though here the tip of the 
radicle is very much wider, and the number of cells formed 
from the three initial groups much greater. 

In the ripe seed there is a considerable width of endosperm 
remaining (some six or eight layers), the cells of which are 
stored with aleurone- grains and oil-droplets. It is not sur- 
prising that the seed was originally described as being 
*exalbuminous,' for the tissues of the integument are, in the 
ripe seed, reduced to a single layer of cells (= testa), so that 
without embryological evidence it would be impossible to 
regard what I find to be endosperm, as other than integument. 
In Pedalium even — usually described as exalbuminous — I find 
also several layers of true endosperm, almost as much as in 

With the ripening of the seed the suspensor is gradually 
obliterated ; the walls of that part which runs through the 
synergidal tubercle become pressed together, so that only 

and Affinities of Trapella, 95 

here and there is its lumen visible (Fig. 37, sp,). That 
part which runs through the * diaphragm* is early lost to 
view — though in Fig. ^6^ where the diaphragm is not yet 
ligniAed, the whole course of the suspensor can be traced. 
Finally, its lowest segment, which abuts upon the embryo, 
is lost with the elongating of the radicle — all that remains 
being some three or four cells attached to the apex of the 
radicle, and flattened, more or less, up against it (Fig. 37, j;^^). 

Before passing on to describe the vegetative organs of 
Trapella, it will be well to see in how far the conditions I have 
just described are to be regarded as unique. Our plant com- 
bines in itself so many unusual characters, any one of which 
would make it remarkable, that such a digression may be 

The early stages of development of the ovule forcibly 
recall similar conditions in Hipptiris. At a very early stage 
the nucellus becomes invested in the ample single integument, 
and in it, as in Trapella^ it becomes diflicult to decide (older 
stages only being examined) whether the ovule is naked 
or not. Unger \ Schacht ^ and Schleiden * all describe the 
ovule of Hippuris as being destitute of integument, and it is 
only recently that Fischer * has explained what really takes 
place. The embryo-sac mother-cell in Hippuris gives rise 
by transverse divisions to a row of four sister cells ; the three 
upper ones become quickly absorbed, — the nucellus — with 
the gradually enlarging embryo-sac — becomes enveloped in 
the developing integument. The behaviour of the epidermal 
cell lying at the top of the nucellus is peculiar ; it undergoes 
a longitudinal division, and then both cells undergo a number 
of transverse divisions, so that a small wedge-shaped cushion 
of cells is formed at the micropylar apex of the embryo-sac 
The cushion plays the part of preventing the micropyle from 

' F. Unger, Die Entwicklung d. Embryo's von Hippuris vulgaris, in Bot. Ztg. 
1849, p. 339. 

' H. Schacht, Entwicklongsgesch. d. Pflanzen-Embryon., Tab. xxv. fig. i a. 

' Schleiden, Nova acta Acad. Leop. caroL, vol. xix. Tab. v. fig. 69. 

^ A. Fischer, Zor Kennt d. Embryosackentwicklung, &c., in Jenaische 
Zeitschrift, Bd. xix (1880), pp. 117-iao. 

g6 Oliver. — On the Structure, Development, 

being entirely closed by the powerfully developed integument 
(loc. cit. p. 119), and allows the embryo-sac as it elong^ates to 
make its way some little distance up the micropyle — the 
cushion of cells being driven like a root-cap in front of it. 
In Trapella such an apical cushion is not developed, which 
perhaps accounts for the difficulty in recognising the mi- 
cropyle in any but the youngest stages. 

Fischer points out (loc. cit, p. lao) how Hippuris displays 
monopetalous characters in the development of its ovule. 
Besides being similar to Trapella in these, it seems that a 
considerable space at the top of the embryo-sac in Hippuris 
is left unoccupied by endosperm^. This r^on does not 
enlarge or form the well-marked tubercle found in Trapella, 
but we see in Hippuris^ a state of things which may have 
existed in the group of plants from which our type has 
sprung. In many Monopetalae, indeed, considerable space 
is left, in the synergidal region, unoccupied by endosperm ; and 
in several genera, Lathraea, Pedicularis, Lamium, Veronica, 
&c., there arise from this upper region appendages and caeca 
of an extraordinary nature ; these make their way in amongst 
the tissues of the ovule. It would seem that when the 
synergidal region is left unoccupied in this way, there is a 
proneness to singular developments of one sort or another. 

In Trapella the cap-cells normally all lie below, i. e. at the 
chalazal end of, the embryo-sac, and not at its micropylar 
end. It is the uppermost cell of the row which becomes the 
embryo-sac ^ This state of things is only paralleled, to my 
knowledge, in Rosa livida, described by Strasburger* and 
A. Fischer ^. In this plant Strasburger found often the second 

' Vide figares to Unger*s paper, in Bot. Ztg. 1849. 

' As will be shown later, the vascular cylinder in the stem of Trapella mach 
resembles that in Hippuris, 

' In one ovule of Trapella only, I found that the second cell of the row became 
the embryo-sac 

• Strasburger, Angiospermen und Gymnospermen, pp. 15-16. 

* A. Fischer, Zur Kenntn. d. Embryosackentwicklung, &c., in Jenaische 
Zeitschrift, Bd. zix (1880), p. lao. 

In Atherurus attenuatus {Aroideae) as figured by B. Jonsson [Om embryosac- 
kens utvecklung hos Angiospema, Tab. viii. fig. i a, in Lund*s Universitets Ars- 

and Affinities of Trapella. 97 

or third cell of the row developed into the embryo-sac, the 
other daughter-cells being ultimately absorbed. Fischer, who 
investigated several other genera of Rosaceae, failed to find 
this behaviour in any other case. 

In Loranihus sphaerocarpus^ from Treub's^ account, it 
seems that each embryo-sac mother-cell divides into a row of 
three, of which the top one in each row becomes the embryo- 
sac, increasing in length. The two small cap-cells below 
(anticlines of Treub) disappear, and the narrow embryo-sac 
elongates downwards very much, penetrating with its pointed 
tip the tissues to a considerable depth. Here then is a case 
analogous to that of Trapella. 

In a few plants the antipodal cells at the base of the 
embryo-sac are conspicuously developed. Thus Hofmeister* 
gives in his figures several cases of this, though usually they are 
hardly commented upon in the text. In Asarum europaeum and 
canadense the embryo-sac is long and narrow, and the three 
antipodals are very long, extending, at fertilization, from one 
third to one half up the embryo-sac. Thus they remain, 
or may divide up forming a small tissue. Jonsson ^ also 
examined this genus, but in his figures the antipodals are 
not proportionally so long as Hofmeister gives them. In 
Crocus vernus the embryo-sac is very broad, and the anti- 
podals, though not relatively very large, form a prominent 
beak at the centre of the base of the embryo-sac. They dis- 
appear later. 

In no case do we meet with a persistent, enlarged cap-cell 
as in Trapella. The antipodals of Asarum, as figured by 
Hofmeister, are the only structures at all recalling it, but 
differ morphologically. In Loranthus sphaerocarpus the lower 

skrift, T. xvi (1880)] it is the second cell of the row of daughter-cells which 
becomes the embryo-sac. I am unable to read this interesting, but somewhat 
inaccessible paper, it being in Swedish. 

* M. Treub, Obs. sur les Loranthac^es, in Annales dn Jardin botanique de 
Buitenzorg. T. ii (1881), p. 54. 

' W. Hofmeister, Neue Beitrage z. Kennt. d. Embryobildung d. Phanerogamen, 
Tab. X. fig 12, in Abh. d. K. S. Ges. d. Wiss. vi. 1859. 

* loc cit.f Tab. viii. fig. 7. 


98 Oliver, — On the Structure, Development^ 

end of the embryo-sac elongates, penetrating the tissues, but 
neither is there any homology here. 

It is interesting to remember that amongst the few plants 
in which it is stated no endosperm is at any time formed, 
Hofmeister gives Trapa as one (also Zostera^ Naias^ Tro- 
paeolumy and Orchidaceae). 

An ATOM V OF Vegetative Organs. 

The Stem, — In Trapella the stem has an average thickness 
of i'5 mm., and conforms in its general structure to the 
normal, reduced, aquatic type. It consists of an axial vascular 
cylinder, surrounded by a wide parenchymatous cortex freely 
supplied with air-spaces. In different regions of the stem 
these spaces differ in their extent. No peripheral bundles 
whatever are present, and the vascular cylinder — ^which runs 
unbranched throughout the intemodes — is delimited by a very 
well-marked endodermis {ens,^ Figs. 49-51). In the adult 
parts of the stem, the radial walls of the endodermis are 
thickened in a very characteristic manner (Fig. 51). 

In the axial bundle-cylinder, and immediately surrounding 
a central * pith,* is a ring of vessels, constituting the xylem 
(yv.y Fig. 51), which, in its distribution, recalls that of Hippuris 
vulgaris. Outside this is a zone of thin-walled tissue, which 
is the phloem, and consists, for the most part, of sieve-tubes. 
Externally this zone is limited by a well-marked endodermis 
(^;/j., Fig. 51). The ' pith' consists of thin-walled parenchyma- 
cells, oblong in longitudinal section, and with longitudinal axes 
about three times as great as the transverse. They contain a 
number of small starch-granules. Here and there, in the pith, 
an intercellular space {us., Fig. 51) is seen, due to the breaking 
down of spiral vessels ; in them, at places, the remains of the 
spiral coil may be seen remaining. The vessels are both spiral 
and scalariform ; in the former case the spire is a close one. 
The cells which immediately abut on the outside of the ring 
of vessels are wide and resemble those of the pith. 

Next follows a zone of sieve -tubes, with a width varying 
from two to three tubes. Sieve-plates occur only upon the 

and Affinities of Trapella, 99 

horizontal walls, separating the different members of any tube. 
Each horizontal wall constitutes a single sieve-plate, both 
faces of which are callous, as shown by appropriate re-agents 
(corallin-soda, &c.). The outermost sieve-tubes of the zone 
have a narrower lumen than the other ones, and are generally 
(in my material, gathered, July) found obliterated by callus- 
plates (^./., Fig. 56). The inner ones, though also callous, are 
not sufficiently so to be obliterated. 

In longitudinal section the latter show the familiar schlauch- 
k'opfe {s.k., Fig. 55), with quantities of mucilaginous droplets 
and granules, in the neighbourhood of the sieve-plate. Very 
narrow companion-cells, with granular protoplasm and small 
spindle-shaped nuclei, are seen, co-extensive with the sieve- 
tube members. Besides companion-cells, other narrow, elon- 
gated, parenchymatous elements are present, distributed 
throughout the zone of phloem. The layer also lying imme- 
diately within the endodermis belongs to the same category. 
It is from this layer — together with the endodermis to a 
subordinate degree — that the adventitious roots take their 
origin. The sieve- tubes ^ vary in width from -016 --008 mm. ; 
from each sieve-tube member not more than one companion- 
cell is formed. 

The broad cortex is traversed longitudinally by large air- 
spaces. These, in the submerged parts of the stem, are very 
large (as seen in a transverse section of the stem), extending 
from the axial cylinder almost to the periphery ; there is how- 
ever usually an outer zone of much smaller spaces (Fig. 50). In 
the floating regions these spaces are divided, up, so that several 
will lie on any radius. The arrangement indicated will be 
sufficiently understood by a reference to Fig. 49. These 
spaces are entirely schizogenetic in their origin. 

At the nodes, at which are inserted the floating leaves, 
a modification of the cortex is met with, of importance 

' The occurrence of a continuous zone of well-developed sieve-tubes in the 
reduced vascular cylinder of an aquatic is of interest from their supposed absence 
in certain cases; v. I. B. Balfour, on the genus Ifa/opAt'/a, p. 19 in Trans. Bot. 
Soc. Edinb. 1877-78. 

H a 

lOO Oliver. — On the Structure^ Development, 

mechanically. Here, in the regions between the leaf-base^ 
(i.e. right and left, supposing the leaves to run anteriorly 
and posteriorly), the cell-walls of the cortex are strongly 
thickened, in striking contrast to the thin-walled cortical cells 
of the internodes. This, no doubt, is to resist the pressure 
and strain occasioned by the continuous rippling of the water 
against the leaves. Further, there is present in the hypodermal 
layer of cells a meristem (r^., Fig. 52), by the activity of which 
fresh cortical cells can be added to lend, if necessary, addi- 
tional strength. In Fig. 5a, a portion of a cortex at a node is 
given. The thick-walled cells are strongly pitted where they 
abut upon one another, but this I have not indicated. 

It is only at the nodes that the axial bundle-cylinder is 
branched. Here there is an anastomosis of equivalent elements, 
and two bundles are given off (one on either side, Fig. 57) to 
the leaves. The bundle (/. tr) running to a leaf passes hori- 
zontally through the cortex of the stem and divides into three 
bundles, which lie in the same horizontal plane. This division 
into three takes place close to the central bundle-cylinder. 
The three bundles run undivided up the petiole, and have 
their elements collaterally arranged. Directly the leaf-bundle 
enters the axial-cylinder it forks, and its elements anastomose 
with the groups A and B (see Fig. 57). Immediately above 
or below the point at which the bundles run in, the normal 
ring of vessels is seen. The bundle which runs to the axillary 
bud originates from the main leaf-trace bundle just before it 
divides into three (/. /r.). In the horizontal section, which 
shows the insertion of the leaf-bundles, adventitious roots may 
be seen originating {adv, rt) ; these are formed from the layer 
of cells next below the endodermis, and pierce through the 
cortex. They usually lie dormant, however, in the upper 
floating nodes of the stem. 

The Root. — I have in no instance been able to observe the 
^di\i\t primary root; no doubt it is of little importance, being 
early superseded by numerous adventitious roots. A transverse 
section of one of these latter shows, as in the stem, a small 
central cylinder, surrounded by a wide cortex. The axial 

mid Affinities of Trapella. loi 

cylinder is bounded by a well-marked endodermis (see Figs. 
^J^ and 54). The air-spaces of the cortex are very largely 
developed, and are formed simply by the separation from one 
another of radial plates of cells (Fig. 53). Their arrangement 
recalls that found in the stem of Myriophyllum, Several of 
the radial lamellae of cells are found collapsed, and are drawn 
simply as lines in Fig. 53. 

The arrangement of the bundles in the axial cylinder, though 
somewhat reduced, is characteristically tetrarch. Each xylem- 
group is generally reduced to a single vessel (z/.). In Fig. 54, 
however, the right-hand group is more extensive, and is in 
connection with the large axial vessel. In the four groups of 
thin- walled tissue {ph,\ which alternate with the xylems, sieve- 
tubes may be found, similar to those described in the stem, 
though not so numerous. 

The arrangement of the tissues at the apex of an adventitious 
root sufficiently resembles that given in Figs. 37 and 47, for 
the embryonic root, to render further description here needless. 

The Leaves. — As has been seen, there are essentially two 
forms of leaf found, the linear-oblong submerged leaves and 
the deltoid-rotundate floating ones. In some specimens, leaves 
intermediate in form (Fig. 63 b) are found at the point where 
the transition from one form to the other occurs. When the 
leaves are young, and before they are unfolded, their surfaces 
are densely covered with small four-celled glands. These are 
formed in greatest numbers on their undersides. After un- 
folding many drop off, leaving, however, their pedicels — 
which are small round cells, easily distinguishable from the 
other epidermal cells. In Fig. to a is given the surface 
view of the epidermis of the under side of a floating leaf. 
There are present four-celled glands (^/.)» and also their 
pedicels {gl\ where the gland itself has fallen off. There are 
no stomata. These are only found on the upper surface of 
the floating leaves, where they are present in great numbers 
(Fig. 60 st). The characteristic glands are also present, and 
are often eight- instead of four-celled (Fig. 60^/., also Fig. 61). 
I have sometimes found stomata like that in Fig. 62, especially 

102 Oliver. — On the Structure, Development, 

near the edges of the leaves. These, from the arrangement of 
the guard-cells, must remain permanently open. 

In Figs. 64 and 65, a surface view and vertical section of 
one of these four-celled glands is given. In 64 its pedicel (/.) is 
supposed to be seen through, and is dotted in. In 65 the exact 
relations of the parts are given. The development — which 
can be easily traced in young leaves — is simple. A small cell 
projects from the epidermis, and is divided by a horizontal 
wall ; the lower cell constitutes the pedicel, the upper enlarges 
and divides cross-wise into four cells. In some cases, especially 
on the stem and flower-stalks, the cells of the gland grow out 
to a great length, forming a distinctly quadrifid gland. The 
possession of these glands is a decidedly Pedalinaceous 
character — they are formed in great quantities in Pedalium, 
Preirea, etc. In these latter genera they secrete mucilage in 
quantities, preventing the plant from drying up. In Fig. 66 
a and b are given views of such a gland from Pretrea for com- 
parison with Figs. 64 and 65. The concentric layers within 
the cuticle swell and break down into great quantities of 
mucilage when the gland is placed in water. The shaded rod 
at the inmost angle of each cell represents the collapsed proto- 
plasm of the cell. That Trapella, an aquatic plant, should need 
special mucilage-glands to prevent its being dried up is im- 
probable. It may be that their presence in our plant is due 
to the retention of an ancestral character. In any case, the 
possession of such glands by many genera of Pedal ineae is 
a point worth noting, though in determining affinities it is 
possible to place too great belief in anatomical characters. 

Another very interesting point in the leaf-anatomy of 
Trapella is the possession of water-glands by both floating and 
submerged leaves. These are situated in the small incisions 
of the leaf-margin (one in each), as in Saxifraga crustata. 
Fig. 58 is a vertical section through a water-gland in one of 
the floating leaves. The string of tracheides may be seen 
ending in a mass of small-celled tissue, the epithem {e) well- 
marked off" from the surrounding mesophyll. Above the 
water-gland is the water-pore {li'.p.). In Fig. 59 this is seen 

and Affinities of Trapella. 103 

in surface view ; the pore is formed by the separation of a 
number of cells, which later on all break down (i. e. the ring of 
cells surrounding the pore), leaving a large hole. The water- 
glands of the submerged leaves are similar in structure, though 
not quite so large. Fig. 63 1: is a surface view of two teeth of 
a submerged leaf, showing the water-glands and the vascular 
bundles running to them. In the glands of the submerged 
leaves I was never able to find a mere water-pore ; there was 
always a hole, leading from the epithem to the exterior, formed 
by the breaking down of a number of epidermal cells. This 
occurrence of water-glands, on the submerged as well as on 
the floating leaves of Trapella, is of interest, but it is not 
unique, as in CaUitrictte^ a similar state of things has been 

The general arrangement of the mesophyll in the two forms 
of leaves differs. In the floating leaves there are some three 
layers of palisade-cells towards the upper face, and spongy 
parenchyma below. Running in the mesophyll are the small 
vascular bundles with very well-developed parenchymatous 
sheaths and collaterally arranged elements. 

In the submerged leaves no palisade-tissue is present — the 
mesophyll having a reduced structure. 


From the account of the morphology of the plant, it will be 
seen that some difficulty must attend the reference of Trapella 
to any existing Natural Order. There can however be little 
doubt of its belonging to the bilabiate Monopetalae, its more 
than half-inferior ovary, a rare thing in that series, not- 
withstanding*. The group of the Labiatiflorae contains a 
number of Orders, many of which are not well-defined. In 

* V, Dc Bary, Comp. Anat. Vcg. Oi^ns, &c., Eng. ed. p. 53. 

' It will I think be acknowledged that Trapella must find its allies among the 
Monopetalae with superior rather than with those with inferior ovaries. In the 
latter possibility Caprifoliactae is the only group to which it might be technically 
allied. In the discussion which follows I am assuming it to be allied to plants 
with superior ovary. 

I04 Oliver. — On the Structure, Development ^ 

any case the ordinal distinctions in this assemblage are by no 
means so well marked as in other groups of Dicotyledons. 
This applies to the small order Pedalineae, to which Trapella 
has been referred ; certain genera being included in it, rather 
from the difficulty of placing them elsewhere, than from 
any other reason. Professor Oliver, in referring our plant to 
Pedalineae, did so, not that it agreed with the more normal 
genera in all points of structure, but rather as an alternative 
to making it the type of a new Natural Order intermediate 
between Pedalineae and Myoporineae. 

Not only was such a course expedient, but it was also one 
that is justified by a careful investigation of adequate spirit- 
material and a renewed study of the morphology of its 
supposed allies. In the next few pages I shall try to show 
that Trapella — though differing widely from all known 
Pedalineae — may yet be traced back to the stock from which 
it may be conceived the true Pedalineae arose. 

Before entering on this matter, it will be well to consider 
what claims Trapella may have to be united to certain other 
Orders of Monopetalae. 

Gesneraceae must be considered as one of the possible 
homes for Trapella^ since here alone in the Labiatiflorae do 
we find in addition to superior, also inferior and semi-inferior- 
ovaried forms. Our plant essentially differs in having a 
bilocular ovary with axile placentation and two ovules ; 
Gesneraceae, on the other hand, having a unilocular ovary 
with two parietal placentas and very numerous ovules. The 
appendaged seeds of such genera as Aeschynanthus offer no 
possible homologies, the appendages in question being mere 
outgrowths of the testa. Gesneraceae, it must be remembered, 
belong essentially to the New-World — the tribe of the 
Cyrtandreae alone (to which several Chinese genera belong) 
being Old-World. Trapella, if it were found necessary to 
refer it to Gesneraceae, would have its relationship through 
this latter tribe. 

From Scrophulariaceae, Trapella differs in its solitary seed, 
and in the small amount of endosperm which it. contains. It 

and Affinities of Trapella. 105 

agrees in its axile placentation ; but the spines developed on 
the fruit are a non-scrophularineous character. This Order 
gives us but few aquatic memhcrs, LimnopAila and Hydrotriche^ 
and isolated species of larger genera, none of which however 
especially recalls Trapella, 

Bignoniaceae constitute a homogeneous group with their 
winged seeds, and, furthermore, essentially parietal placenta- 
tion, Trapella deviating in both these particulars. 

Trapella has been referred to Pedalineae, since in this Order 
occur forms with few ovules, and curiously-appendaged, lig- 
nified, non-dehiscent fruits. These characters taken together 
with its opposite leaves, solitary axillary flowers, and its 

* quaternary vesicles* and general disposition, confirm such 
determination. The appendaged fruit forms an especially 
strong analogical character. 

To Myoporineae Trapella approaches very nearly in some 
respects. In the more typical forms of this Order the ovary 
is bilocular, with two pendulous ovules in each loculus 
inserted on the partition. The seeds are often long, with 
only a small amount of endosperm and superior radicle. The 
leaves however are rarely opposite, and the fruit is un- 
appendaged. Our plant must thus be classed with Pedalineae 
rather than here. 

The affinity between Myoporineae and Pedalineae I believe 
may turn out to be a nearer one than that indicated in the 
Genera Plantarum — indeed Lindley (Vegetable Kingdom) 
places them very close together. I shall revert to this matter 

In view of the heteromorphous nature of Pedalineae, as it at 
present stands, and in view of the possibility of its being 
divided up in the future and its genera relegated to other 
Orders, it may be well to see to what genus, or group of 
genera, now included in Pedalineae, our plant seems most 
nearly allied ^. 

' Since the above was written the concluding part of vol. ix. of Baillon's 

* Histoire des Plantes * has appeared, containing Scrophulariaceae. Baillon makes 
Pedalineae (with the exception of the Martyneae, which will doubtless be treated 

io6 Oliver. — On the Structure, Development^ 

An examination of the chief genera ^ soon showed me that 
those forms with bilocular ovary and axile placentation, in 
which the loculi do not become subdivided by the development 
of false septa stretching across, must be r^arded as typical of 
the Order — as in Bentham and Hooker's group Pedalieae. 
Others with ovaries unilocular and plurilocular to be regarded 
respectively as distinct forms with different origin, and as 
forms derived from such as have the typical bilocular arrange- 
ment, as will appear in the sequel. 

In Pedaliutn and Pterodiscus the ovary is bilocular, with 
two pendulous ovules in each loculus attached to the septum 
right and left of the median line as in Trapella, In Harpago^ 
phytutny which is placed in the same group, we find the same 
characters, combined with numerous ovules. Our plant I 
believe comes nearest to Pedaliuniy differing in its aquatic 
habit and semi-inferior ovary. If this surmise be correct, 
Trapella must have diverged early — whilst yet its ovary was 
superior and both loculi were fully developed. This state of 
things has persisted in Pedalium^ but in Trapella, for reasons 
to be considered hereafter, the ovary has become adherent and 
the anterior loculus rudimentary. 

The tribe Pretreeae have also probably diverged from the 
same centre, and Pretrea shows a strong resemblance to 

under Gesneraceae) a tribe of Scrophulariaceae — Sesameae, mider which the genera 
are given without any further subdivision of the tribe. The only reference to 
Trapella is in a foot-note, where it is spoken of as a genus of doubtful affinity. In 
this place, with the results of an investigation of complete material before me, I try 
to show its close relationship to Pedalium, Baillon had only the incomplete account 
(Hook. Ic. PI. 1 595), made from the first specimens which arrived, to go by. 

^ For convenience, the arrangement of the genera adopted by Bentham and 
Hooker in the Genera Plantarum is given here. 

Tribe I.— Martynieae. 

I. Martynia. 
a. Craniolaria. 

Tribe H.— Pedalieae. 

3. Pedalium. 

4. Pterodiscus. 

5. Harpagophytum. 

Tribe III. — Sesameae. 

6. Rogeria. 

7. Sesamothamnus. 

8. Sesamum. 

9. Ceratotheca. 
Tribe IV. — Pretreeae. 

10. Pretrea. 

11. Linariopsis. 

12. Josephinia. 

and Affinities of Trapella. 107 

Pedalium on the one side, and Trapella on the other ; this is 
seen especially in the form of the leaves and in the general 
habit ; it must however be remembered that Pretrea is 
adapted to an arid climate. The greatest difference is shown 
by the fruit, which is primarily bilocular with erect basal 
ovules ; partitions are developed as outgrowths from the 
median wall, which, becoming forked before meeting the 
dorsal and ventral walls of the fruit, divide each loculus into 
three compartments. The compartments lying right and left 
respectively are fertile, but the median compartment of each 
loculus is empty. 

The genera included in the tribe of the Sesameae are to be 
derived from the Pedalieae through the genus Harpagophytum. 
Baillon ^ has pointed out that in H. Grandidieri dorsal and 
ventral ingrowths arise, which do not reach the placenta at 
any stage. This I can confirm for the species in question, and 
find that Decaisne ^ figured it for H. Zeyheru In the recently 
created genus, Holubia, Oliv.^ which is placed in the tribe 
Pedalieae^ it seems that there is also a tendency to dorsal and 
ventral ingrowths of the ovary wall ; these, however, do not 
reach the placenta. Doubtless Holubia is nearly allied to 
Harpagophytum^ though its fruit is as yet unknown. It may 
be a link between Pedalium and Harpagophytum. In this 
way the completely divided loculi of Sesatnum and Rogeria 
are foreshadowed, as indicated by Baillon (loc. cit.). It is 
only necessary to conceive the false septa of Harpagophytunt 
fusing completely with the axile placenta to give us the four 
locelli, each bearing numerous ovules along its inner angle, of 
Sesamum and its allies. In Rogeria^ it should be mentioned, 
the two anterior compartments are much larger than the 
posterior, the latter containing only a few, sometimes no 

^ H. Baillon, Notes snr les P^dalin^es in Bulletin mensuel de la Soc. Linn, de 
Paris, No. 84 (1887), p. 665. 

" Decaisne, Revne du groupe des P^dalin^s, pi. ii. fig. 6, in Annales d. Sc. Nat. 
Bot. 5 s^r. T. iii. 

' D. Oliver, in Hook. Ic. PI. tab. 1475. 

io8 Oliver. — On the Structure^ DevelopmefUy 

The genera Martynia and Craniolaria deviate entirely from 
the type of Pedalineae, from which all the others can be 
derived. In them piacentation is parietal ; and, as Baillon 
has pointed out, they may reasonably be removed from 
Pedalineae to be placed perhaps with Gesneraceae. Such a 
severance from Pedalineae is strengthened when we consider 
that these two genera alone are American — all other Pedalineae 
being Old-World. As above stated, Gesneraceae are, with the 
exception of the Cyrtandreae, which belong to both, also New- 

Passing on to Trapella itself. In it we find a genuinely 
axile placenta, and no trace of any tendency to develop false 
partitions. As in Rogeria^ one loculus has become much 
reduced ; in Rogeria it is the posterior, in Trapella the 
anterior. This is to be regarded only as an instance of 
abortion of one ovary-cell arising independently in the same 
Natural Family, not as indicating a very close affinity between 
Trapella and Rogeria. Trapella^ in its pendulous ovules and 
primarily bilocular ovary, approaches Pedalium, Even in its 
rudimentary loculus we find in Trapella what may very well 
be regarded as a rudimentary ovule (p. 82). The essential 
points of distinction depend perhaps upon its ovary being 
semi-inferior, for correlated with this, it may be, are all the 
peculiarities at issue. 

It is an important thing to notice that Pedalium is not 
limited to S. Africa, as are so many of the other genera. It 
is a native also of Eastern India, and this brings it into 
relation with Trapella, a native of Central China (Ichang) and 
Japan. Trapella^ I believe, has originated from the Pedalium 
stock, and adapting itself to an aquatic mode of life, has 
become profoundly modified. The tendency of the ripening 
seed (only one of the two ovules ever develops into a seed) to 
elongate downwards may perhaps have been an important 
factor in the initiation of great floral changes. The ancestral 
superior ovary, it may be supposed, has become invaginated 
into the receptacle, and its extension, in a downward direction, 
very greatly increased to accommodate the enlarging seed. 

and Affinities of Trapella. 109 

Comparing the ovary in the young bud (Fig. 17) and in the 
mature flower (Fig. 15), it is unquestionable that that part 
which is inferior (i.e. below the insertion of the calyx) 
constitutes a much larger proportion of the whole ovary in 
the flower than in the bud ; and this difference is more 
marked in the fruit. The elongation of the fertilized ovule 
would appear to be extremely rapid (see p. 89), and due, to a 
great extent, to the active growth of the lower apical tissue of 
the ovule. 

It being, for some reason, advantageous for this stage (i. e. 
the elongation of the ovule and development of the endosperm) 
to be rapidly passed through, it is not surprising to find 
developed a special organ, by means of which ultimately the 
embryo is enabled to make use of the food contained in the 
lower ovular tissue. Hence we find (i) the absorptive organ, 
in this case formed from the modified apical cap-cell, at an 
early period filled with transitory starch-grains ; (2) the endo- 
sperm growing at the expense of the surrounding tissue, 
from which nourishment is absorbed, partly direct and partly 
by the special absorptive organ in question ; (3) the embryo 
growing at the expense of the endosperm. 

Finally, the fact of the prominent spines being in Trapella 
borne by the invaginated part of the fruit, whilst in PedaHum 
they arise from a superior fruit, is obviously correlated with 
the grand modifications undergone in the floral relations. 

The possession still in the ripe seed of a thin layer of endo- 
sperm points towards, rather than away from, the Pedalinaceous 
affinity. The Order is usually given as * exalbuminous,' and 
Trapella itself even was at first described as such ; for, from the 
reduction of the int^ument to a single layer of flattened cells, 
it was impossible then without embryological evidence to say 
that the described testa was not such in reality. But not 
only is the seed of Trapella provided with several layers of 
endosperm, but in Pedalium ^ also a like state of things exists. 
Indeed were investigation pushed further in the same direction, 

* Baillon in the new part of his Histoire des Plantes (vol. ix. p. 444) describes the 
endosperm in this genus — ' aUmmint membraniformV 

no Oliver. — On tfie Structure, Development, 

other genera would probably be found not really entirely 
* exalbuminous ' ^. 

Hence, then, although at first sight the gap between Trapella 
and Pedalium appears a wide one, still when we consider that 
Trapella has entirely changed its habit of life and lived under 
fresh conditions, it is not difficult to understand that the 
relationship may be a close one, though the differences be 

The alternatives to placing Trapella in Pedalineae would be 
to place it in Myoporineae, or to make it the type of a new 
Natural Order. Such a course as that of founding a new 
Natural Order would be, in the present state of bilabiate 
Monopetalae, ill-advised *. 

Trapella must thus rest in Pedalineae, forming the only 
genus in a new tribe, Trapelleae. Following the 'Genera 
Plantarum' classification, this will make five tribes in all. (See 
footnote, supra, p. 106.) 

Though coming in touch with Myoporineae in the form and 
arrangement of the seeds, it is separated therefrom by its 
eminently Pedalinaceous fruit and opposite leaves. None the 
less Trapella forms a connecting link between the two, some- 
what artificially separated, cohorts of the Genera Plantarum, 
namely the Personales and the Lamiales; Pedalineae being 
placed with the former, Myoporineae with the latter. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my indebtedness to my 
father, at whose suggestion this work was undertaken, and to 
Mr. Thiselton Dyer, for his warm interest, and for the many 
facilities which he has afforded me. 

Miss Matilda Smith has kindly drawn for me figures 1-7 on 
Plate V. 

* This I find to be the case in Pterodiscus, Rogcria and Linariopsisy in addition 
to Pedalium. 

^ The arguments against investing an aberrant monotypic genus with the dignity 
of a separate Natural Order have been very succinctly stated by Sir Joseph Hooker, 
in his paper on Hydrothrix, a new genus of Pontederiaccae, in this Journal, vol. i. 
pp. 91-2. 

JoDRELL Laboratory, Kew, 
March, 1888. 

and Affinities of Trapella. iii 



Illustrating Mr. F. W. Oliver's Paper on the Stractnre, Development, and Afi&nities 

of Trapella, Oliv,, a new Genos of Pedalineae. 

Fig. I. General view of the plant, showing both floating and submerged parts. 
In several of the leaf-axils are fully developed fruits, and one flower (to the right) 
from which the corolla has fallen away. To the left is a submerged axillary shoot, 
bearing a young cleistogamic fruit. Nat. size. 

Fig. a. Shows two nodes of a submerged stem, with adventitious roots arising 
from them. To the right are two roots arising from the intemode. Nat. size. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Side and front views of a flower, a./., anterior petal; /./., 
lateral petals ; p.p., posterior petals, a/i. 

Fig. 5. The corolla laid open. a. p., etc., as in Figs. 3 and 4; sd., staminodes; 
sm.f stamens, a/i. 

Fig. 6 a and b. Front and back views of a stamen. A-B, plane of section 
given in Fig. 33. 5/1. 

Fig. 7 a and b. Front and back views of a staminode. 5/1. 

Fig. 8. Front view of calyx, style and young spines after falling away of 
corolla. 3/1. 

Fig. 9. The stigma from posterior face. 5/1. 

Figs. 10 and 11. Front and back views, respectively, of ovary, whilst corolla is 
still in situ, showing relations of calyx-lobes to the young ovarian spines, a. s., 
anterior spine ; /. x., lateral spines ; /. s., posterior spines. 3/1. 

Figs. 13, 13, and 14. Young, medium, and adult fruits respectively. The calyx- 
lobes have closed over the ovary, a. s., anterior spine ; /. x., lateral spines ; /. ss., 
posterior spines. Slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 15. Section of a flower, showing insertion of calyx-lobes, corolla, ovules, 
etc. a.s., rudiment of anterior spine ; cal,, calyx-limb ; cor., corolla ; loc., functional 
loculus of ovary ; av. S upper sessile ovule ; av. ', lower stalked ovule ; red. /., 
rudimentary loculus; x/., style. 3/1. 

Fig. 16. Longitudinal section of a young bud, made in the antero-posterior 
plane. The insertion of the upper ovule only is given, that of the lower not being 
m the plane of section. The calyx is invested outside with a dense covering 
of quadrifid glands. The vascular bundles are shaded, cal., calyx; cor., corolla ; 
loc., the fully-developed loculus ; ov. *, the upper ovule : red. I., the rudimentary 
loculus. 35/1. 

Fig. 1 7. Longitudinal section of a bud of same age as Fig. 16, but made at 
right angles to the antero-posterior plane, so as to show the insertion of the 
stamens. The section passes through the fully-developed loculus only. /. m. c, 
pollen mother-cells; lap., tapetal layer: other references as in Fig. 16. 35/1. 

Fig. 18. Upper part of ovary, with right side removed, to show the insertion of 
the two ovules, /un., fimicle of lower ovule ; ov.\ upper sessile ovule ; ov.\ lower 
stalked ovule ; r., cellular emergence, possibly representing a rudimentary ovule ; 
red. I. reduced loculus. 45/1. 

112 Oliver. — On the Structure^ Development^ 

Fig. 19. Longitudinal section, slightly to right of antero-posterior median plane, 
showing insertion of upper ovule, ov} e. s.j embryo-sac, with two cap-oells below 
it ; w., mycropyle. 45/1. 

Fig. 30. Similar section, slightly to left of median plane, showing insertion of 
lower stalked ovule, <w.' 45/1. 

Fig. 31. Longitudinal'section of acleistogamic flower, with* stigma sessile on the 
ovary, a. /., anterior lobe of stigma ; /. /., posterior lobe, which is reduced. Note 
that the reduced stigmatic lobe corresponds to fully>developed loculus of ovary 
and conversely, 45/1. 

Fig. 33. Antero-posterior section of stigma, and upper part of style, a./., 
anterior lobe ; /. /., posterior lobe ; v.B., vascular bundles. 

Fig. 33. Transverse section (A-B of 6^) of anther after dehiscence, con., con- 
nective ; /. /., fibrous layer. 70/1. 

Fig. 34. Very yoxmg upper ovule, ov.^, showing the nucellus and origin of thick 
integument. In the nucellus is the embryo-sac mother-cell, and one cell (c) 
lying below it, which has just been cut off from ita lower end. r/., integument ; 
e.s.m.c., embryo-sac mother-cell. 480/1. 

Fig. 35. Embryo-sac, with three equal cap-cells {c\ r', f*), lying below it. 
Section taken from a flower not yet opened. * 400/1. 

Figs. 36 and 37. Two sections of upper ovule, showing the embryo-sac, e. x., and 
three cap-cells (f*, ^, c^), below it, together with the surrounding tissue of the 
ovule. In 36 the uppermost cap-cell, c^, is becoming obliterated ; in 37 the 
lowermost, f*, is much larger than either r^ or c\ In 37 notice also the pointed 
summit of the embryo- sac, where it abuts upon the micropyle, m, 450/1. 

Fig. 38. Embryo-sac at time of fertilization. The lowermost cap-cell is now 
much larger than c^ or c\ In the micropyle is seen a pollen-tube, /. /. an/., 
antipodals ; f*, ^, f*, cap-cells ; e., egg-cell ; e. s., embryo-sac ; n. e. s., definitive 
nucleus of embryo-sac ; /. /., pollen-tube; syn., synergidae. 450/1. 

Fig. 29. Embryo-sac, e. s., and cap-cells, c^, ^, c^, from the lower ovule at a 
slightly later period than that in 28. Notice especially that the lowermost cap-cell, 
c^f has elongated considerably, c^ and c^ remaining quite small. Only one 
nucleus was observed in the embryo-sac in this preparation, the others very 
probably being in another section, or fallen away. The figure is given, however, to 
show^e elongated cap-cell, r*. 400/1. 

Fig. 30. Shows the ovule and embryo-sac soon after fertilization. The terminal 
cap-cell, c^, has become divided longitudinally, and now forms a large appendage 
to the embryo-sac. The egg-cell has developed into a suspensor terminated by an 
undivided embryo-cell. Large endosperm cells have already arisen within the 
embryo-sac. The ovule has elongated downwards considerably, c^, the divided 
and much enlarged terminal cap-cell ; ^w^., embryo ; end.j endosperm ; w., micro- 
pyle; sp.f suspensor; syn., synergidae ; a. j., ant. spine. 150/1. 

Figs. 31 and 32. Somewhat later stages than that given in 30 ; references as 
before. Fig. 31, 30/1 ; Fig. 32, 22/1. 

Fjg- 3.^- Enlarged view of section of appendage, f', in Fig. 32. The base of 
the embryo-sac with endosperm, end., is seen, with the probable remains of the 
intermediate cap-cells, r' and r', between it and c^. The nuclei are large and 



Vol II. PI. v. 

Umitrtttf Prnc, Oxfsid. ,^ 




Fig. 21. Qs 



•^nfuils ofBota/^ 


UnivCTHlJ Pun. Orini 




and Affinities of Trapclla. 1 1 3 

granular. In the figure the upper part of the appendage only is given ; its pointed 
end is continued some distance down. 355/1- 

Fig. 34. A somewhat shorter appendage than that in Fig. 33. The section is 
perpendicular to that in Fig. 33, and a proliferation of endosperm cells has grown 
over its proximal part. 

Fig. 34 a. Shows the nucleus of one of these cells beginning to fragment. 250/1. 

Fig. 35. I.ongitudinal section of mature seed in situ. Section passes through 
antero-posterior plane. The embryo now occupies the greater part of the embryo- 
lac. It is surrounded by a thin layer of endosperm, end. Only one cotyledon, 
cot.<, is seen, since the cotyledons lie right and left of the antero-posterior plane. 
The appendage, ^, is seen at the base of the seed, attached to the embryo-sac ; 
rod., radicle ; ra/., calyx ; a. s., anterior spine ; sJ.j style. lo/i. 

^ig> 35 ^' Shows the embryo seen in section, at right angles to that in Fig. 35. 
The extent of the cotyledons is seen. lo/i. 

Fig. 36. Longitudinal section of the upper part of a ripening 'seed, passing 
through the antero-posterior plane. The embryo, emd., and suspensor, x/., are 
seen in sitUy surrounded by endosperm, end. The upper part of the embryo-sac is 
dilated, and contains a vacuolated protoplasm with conspicuous nuclei. This vacuo- 
lated mass, syn., represents the altered synergidae. The upper endosperm cells, 
/. d.y are arranged in more or less horizontal strata ; these becoming lignified later 
form the lignified diaphragm referred to on p. 93. a.sp.^ point of attachment of 
suspensor to embryo-sac wall; emb.y embryo; ^if</., endosperm ; /ii/., integument 
(and nucellar tissue) of ovule ; /. d., lignified diaphragm ; m., micropyle ; /r., peri- 
carp ; sp.y suspensor ; v. ^., vascular bundle, i lo/i. 

Fig. 37. Longitudinal section of top of adult seed, similar to Fig. 36. The 
endosperm and enlarged synergidae have encroached still more upon the integu- 
ment, which is reduced to a single layer of cells throughout the greater part of the 
seed. The synergidal region has a curious mottled effect ; the upper part of the 
suspensor is seen running obliquely downwards across it. The embryonic root is 
seen just below the lignified diaphragm, /. d. e.^ epidermis of root ; d. c, dermato- 
calyptrogenic layer ; /^., periblem ; //., plerome ; other references as in Fig. 36. 


Fig. 38. Enlarged view of the region in the neighbourhood of A in Fig. 37. 
The curious mottling of the synergidal region is shown, and the disintegrated looking 
and granular nucleus (».), in a special area of its own, n. a. The lignified 
diaphragm is drawn in dark, /. d, 300/1. 

Fig. 39. Longitudinal section of the supposed rudimentary ovule, r., which projects 
into the reduced loculus, red, I, 135/1. 

Figs. 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, and 45 are transverse sections of a flower at different 
heights indicated by the numbers 40-45 in Fig. 15. Fig. 40 is taken half- 
way down the ovary ; Fig. 41, at the insertion of the emergences; Fig. 43, just 
above the insertion of the calyx (the corolla has fallen away, and is not represented) ; 
F^* 43} ftt the insertion of the lower ovule, <rv} ; Fig. 44, at the insertion of tho 
upper ovule, tv^ ; Fig. 45 is a transverse section of the style. The vascular 
bundles are coloured x-^green to the calyx-lobes ; red to the coroUine-lobes ; brown 
to the emergences (these originate from the corolline bundles, red just below the 
insertion of the emergences) ; yellcw to the stamens and staminodes (the position 
marked x in Figs. 40 and 41 is that which would be occupied by a bundle to 


114 Oliver. — On the Structure, Development^ 

aborted posterior stamen if it were present); hltu to the carpels, loc^^ inlly- 
developed postenor locolos ; red. /., reduced anterior locnlns ; r., rodimentary 
ovule in the reduced loculus {(f. Fig. 43). 

Fig. 46. Outline of embryo and suspensor from a young seed, slightly older than 
that given in Fig. 36. cot,^ cotyledons ; sp,^ suspensor. 

Fig. 47. Median longitudinal section through the apex of radicle, of about same 
age as that in Fig. 46. e,^ epidermis; d.c,^ dermato-calyptrogenic layer ;/i^., 
periblem ; //., plerome ; sp., suspensor. 

Fig. 48. The ripe seed in situ, ap.y pocket -like outgrowth of testa, in which is 
inserted the appendage, ^ ; syn. tub., syneigidal tuborde. The reduced loculus 
is represented by a dotted line. Nat. size. 

Fig. 49. Transverse section of a floating stem. ^«r., cortex ; ens., endodennis ; 
ep.i epidermis ; i., intercellular spaces; ph., phloem ; v., vessels. 70/1. 

Fig. 50. Transverse section of submerged part of stem, showing larger inter- 
cellular spaces. References as in Fig. 49. 70/1. 

Fig. 51. Transverse section of the axial-cylinder of the steuL ens., endodennis ; 
i, s., intercellular spaces in the ' pith,* due to breaking down of vessels ; ph,, phloem ; 
s. /., sieve-tubes ; v., vessels of xylem. 1 20/1. 

Fig. 52. Transverse section of peripheral part of cortex from a node, showing 
the thick-walled cortical-cells, with intercellular spaces (t . s.) between, c, b., meri- 
stem formed from sub-epidermal layer ; ep., epidermis ; gl., quadrifid gland. 240/1. 

Fig. 53. Transverse section of an adventitious root, showing the large radially- 
arranged intercellular spaces. Several of the radial rows of cortical cells have 
collapsed, and are represented merely as lines. References as in Fig. 49. 70/1. 

Fig. 54. Transverse section of the axial cylinder of an adventitious root ; it is 
essentially tetrarch. ens., endodennis ; ph., phloem ; tnt.t vessels of xylem. 340/1. 

Fig. 55. Longitudinal section of a sieve-tube from the steuL ex., companion 
cell; s.k, schlauch-kopf ; s.p., sieve-plate. Much enlarged. 

Fig. 56. Similar section of one of the outer obliterated sieve-tubes, e, p., callus- 

Fig. 57. Diagrammatic transverse section at a node, showing the entrance of 
leaf-bundles. A and B, groups of anastomosing vessels ; adv. rt., adventitious 
roots ; /. tr., united bundle of leaf traversing the cortex; pet., petiole. 

Fig. 58. Vertical section through the edge of a floating leaf to show a water- 
gland, e., epithem ; v. b. e., ending of vascular-bundle in the gland ; w. p., water- 

Fig. 59. The water-pore, w.p., seen from above. 

Fig. 60. Epidermis of upper side of floating leaf, showing stomata, St., and one 
eight-celled gland, gl. The dotted lines below gl. indicate the walls of the 
epidermal cells seen through. 

Fig. 60 a. Epidermis of lower side, with four-celled glands, gl., and the pedicels 
of glands which have fallen away, gl ^ 
Fig. 61. Eight-celled gland from floating leaf, drawn to larger scale. 

Fig. 62. A form of stomate occasionally met with at the edge of the leaf, in the 
immediate neighbourhood of a water-gland. 
Fig. 63 a. Outline of submerged leaf. Nat. size. 






VoU/.i'L vm. 

ivCTiitj Press. Oxfotd. 








• and Affinities of Trapella. 115 

Fig. 63 b. Similar oatline of leaf, intermediate in form between a submerged and 
floating leaf. Nat. size. 

Fig. 63^. Two teeth from a submerged leaf seen under a low magnifying 
power, so as to show the course of the vascular bundles as they run to the water- 
glands, w. g. 

Fig. 64. Epidermis of submerged leaf, showing four-celled glands, ep,^ epi- 
dermal cells; /., pedicel of gland (dotted outlme). 

Fig 65. Vertical section of same gland, f. j., intercellular-space ; /., pedicel of 

Fig. 66 a and b, Pretrea ; four-celled gland from leaf, seen from above, and in 
section, for comparison with Figs. 64 and 65. 




(i) Since this paper has been in proof, Dr. Vines has 
kindly called my attention to the similarity presented by the 
sucker or appendage described above and the cotyloid cell of 
Avicennia {vide M. Treub, in Annales du Jardin Botanique de 
Buitenzorg, vol. iii, 1 883, p. 79). The cotyloid cell resembles 
the 'appendage' of Trapella in being a 'feeder/ and also in 
its origin — in that it originates outside the embryo-sac. 
Whether the cotyloid cell be a cap-cell or not remains to be 
shown. The cotyloid cell is seen, after the commencement 
of the development of endosperm, lying beside the embryo-sac 
(loc. cit PI. XIV, Fig. 18), to which it may be a sister cell. 
This remains to be shown. 

(a) In one of his letters. Dr. Henry mentions that in the 
Chinese illustrated Botany * Chi Wu Ming,' vol. xvii, folio 43, 
an aquatic plant somewhat resembling Trapella is figfured. 
This plant is known as 'Chi-Mi' in the province of Chi-li, 
and *Ch'a ling' {i.e. Tea Trapa) in the province of Honan. 
The description is too incomplete for any decision as to its 
affinity to be made, and the figure (of which Dr. Henry 
encloses a tracing) shows a plant with habit somewhat re- 
calling Trapella^ but with leaves alternate, and pseudopodial 

I 2 

^ruLoIs of Botany 





"■^'^-^1 <7-p 





The systematic position of this genus has been the subject of much 
speculation on the part of botanists. £7 some it has been placed 
among the Phanerogams ^ by others among the Mosses*, and by 
the majority among the Vascular Cryptogams, the last being un- 
doubtedly its true position. There has also been considerable 
difference of opinion as to its place among the Vascular Cryptogams. 
The earlier botanists all associate IsoHies with Pilularia ^xA Marsilea, 
Thus Linnaeus' associates these genera as a group of the Filices 
having ^ frtutificationes radicaks,* and Gleditsch* assigns to Iso^tes 
a similar position. The aflSnity of Isoe'ies with Piluldriay MarsiUa^ 
Salvinia^ and AzoHa^ is affirmed more definitely by Willdenow', 
who associates them in the group Hydropterides ; and by Batsch^ 
who unites these genera in the group Rhizocarpae, as does also 
Bischofif^ Bartling' takes the same view, classifying the Rhizocarpae 
into the three orders, Salviniaceae, Marsiliaceae, and Iso^^'teae. 

On the other hand, De CandoUe* removes Isoi'ies from the Rhizo- 
carpeae, the group being now termed Rhizospermae, and incorporates 
it with the Lycopodiaceae, on the following grounds: 'Ce genre 
semble se rapprocher, par son port, des rhizospermes, mais il touche 
Tenement aux lycopodes ; i^ par ses fructifications axillaires, et non 

* Reichenbach (Conspectns, i8a8) places Isoites together with Potamogetoneae 
and Aroideae in a gronptwhich he terms Limnobiae. Adanson (Fam. des Plantes, 
1 763) makes it a genus of Aroideae. 

' Dillenins (Hist Muse 1741) places Isoites ^ together with Pilularia and 
Subularia in the Mnsci, nnder the name Calamaricu B. Jussien (HtTrian. 1759) 
also places it among the Mosses. 

' Linnaeus, Systema Vegetabilium, 1751. 

* Gleditsch, Syst Plant 1764. 

' Willdenow, Bem. Farrenkrauter, 1803; Species Plantarum, t. v, 1810. 

* Batsch, Tab. affinitatum Regni Vegetabilis, i8oa. 
^ BischofT, Die Kryptogamischen Gewaechse, i8a8. 

* Bartling, Ordines Naturales Plantarum, 1 830. 

* Lamarck et A. P. de Candolle, Flore Fran9aise, t ii, 181 5 (Lycopodiaceae, 
fam. Monocotyledonum cryptogamamm). 

1 1 8 Notes. 

pas proprement radicales; 20 par Texistence des deux genres de 
coques qu'on trouve dans plusieurs lycopodes, savoir, les coques k 
poussibre et les coques qui portent des globules chagrinds et munis 
de trois c6tes rayonnantes \ leur base.' In this he is followed by 
Brongniart^ Endlicher', recognising the aflSnity between hoiUs 
and the Lycopodiaceae, does not, however, unite them^ but founds 
the class Selagines which includes the two orders Lycopodiaceae 
and Iso6'teae. The attitude of Lindley on this point is curious. 
In his Natural System of Botany (Ed. 2, 1836) he follows De Candolle 
in including Iso^tes in the Lycopodiaceae, founding at the same 
time the cohort Lycopodales, consisting of the orders Lycopodiaceae, 
Marsiliaceae, and Salviniaceae ; whereas in his later works (Vege- 
table Kingdom, Ed. 2, 1846, Ed. 3, 1853), he removes Isoites from 
the Lycopodiaceae and places it, with Marst'lia, Pilularia, Salvtnia, 
and Azo/ia, in an order Marsiliaceae. Payer' retains Isoe'/es in 
the Lycopodiaceae, uniting it with Psilotum and Tmesipteris in the 
group Psiloteae. Berkeley* says with regard to it, *on the whole, 
therefore, notwithstanding the difference in tissue, it should seem 
that it is a true Lycopod/ 

The next important step in the classification of the Vascular 
Cryptogams was made by Sachs. Recognising the importance of 
distinguishing the homosporous (or isosporous) from the heterosporous 
forms, and at the same time overestimating it, in the three earlier 
editions of his Lehrbuch, he divides the Vascular Cr3rptogams into 
two groups, the isosporous, containing Filices, Equisetaceae, Ophio- 
glosseae, and the heterosporous, containing the Rhizocarpae and 
the Lycopodiaceae, pointing out at the same time that, among the 
Lycopodiaceae, heterospory only occurs in the Selaginelleae and 
Isofeteae. The fourth edition of the Lehrbuch* (1874) shows a 
marked advance. The classification here adopted brings to light 
the appreciation of the fact that heterospory has arisen within the 
limits of the several groups, each group (ex. Equisetaceae) therefore 
including both heterosporous and homosporous forms; the Rhizo- 
carpae are recognised as the heterosporous forms of the Fern-alliance, 

* Ad. Brongniart, in Diet. Classique d*Hist. Nat. t ix, 1826. 
^ Endlicher, Genera Plantarum, 1836-40. 

' Payer, Botaniqne Cryptogamique, 1850. 

* Berkeley, Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, 1857. 

* English edition, Oxford, 1882. 



Notes. 119 

and the Selaginelleae and Isofe'teae, united into the group Ligulatae, 
as the heterosporous forms of the Lycopodium-alliance. It is as 
follows : — 

Class I, Equisetaceae. 
„ Ily Filicinae. 

Order i. Stipulatae (incl. Ophioglosseae, 
Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae ?, Schizae- 
aceae ?). 

2. Filices. 

3. Rhizocarpae. 
,) III, Dichotomae. 

Order i. Lycopodiaceae (Lycopodieae, 
Psiloteae, Phylloglosseae). 
„ 2. Ligulatae (Selaginelleae, Iso(f- 
In the edition of the systematic portion of the Lehrbuch by Goebel*, 
the classification is in the main adhered to, though with some 
modifications. Thus, the class Equisetaceae is reconstituted as 
Equisetinae, certain heterosporous fossil forms probably belonging 
to this group being included. The orders of the Filicinae are 
arranged in two groups in accordance with the results of Goebel's 
researches on the development of the sporangia: the majority of 
the Ferns being grouped with the Rhizocarpae (now termed Hy- 
dropterideae) as Leptosporangiate Filicinae, the remainder (Ophio- 
glosseae, Marattiaceae) constituting the Eusporangiate Filicinae. 
Sachs' class Dichotomae is re-named Lycopodinae^ as Sachs' name 
is misleading. There are three orders of Lycopodinae : Lycopodiaceae 
{Lycopodium, Phylloglossum), Psilotaceae {Psilotum^ Tmesipttris\ Ligu- 
latae (Selaginelleae, Iso^'teae). The proposal is made to distinguish 
homosporous and heterosporous forms in the order Lycopodiaceae, 
the heterosporous forms being represented by the fossil genus 
Lepidodendron^ but the value of this is questionable. Selaginella 

' Goebel, Gnmdziige der Systematik, 188 a; Outlines of Classification and 
Special Morphology, Oxford, 1887. 

' It should be borne in mind that the term Lycopodinae had been previonsly 
used in a different sense by Link (Ennmeratio, iSaa) as the eqaivalent of Lycopo- 
diaceae of De Candolle. The order Lycopodineae was founded by Svartz (Syn. 
Fil. 1806) to indnde the genera Lycopodium, Tmesipteris^ and Psilotum, and 
this term has since been used in many different senses by various writers. 

1 20 Notes. 

appears to be the real heterosporous form corresponding to LycO' 
podium, and probably the fossil heterosporous Lycopodinous forms 
belong really to the Selaginelleae. 

Although this position of Isoites has met with general acceptance, 
yet it is a question whether it really corresponds to its true affinities. 
Goebel himself says*, * The groups which have been brought together 
under the name of Ligulatae have scarcely anything in common but 
the presence of a ligule, and it would be better perhaps to make 
separate divisions of them/ But if there is litde in common between 
the Isoe'teae and the Selaginelleae, there must be still less in common 
between Isoeies and the Lycopodiaceae. The question at issue is, 
therefore, not merely whether the Selaginelleae and the Iso€teae 
should be separated, but whether Isoe'Us really belongs to the 
Lycopodinae at all. This raises the further question; if Isottes 
be removed from the Lycopodinae, with what group of Vascular 
Cryptogams shall it be associated? It is the object of the present 
note to endeavour to answer these questions. 

Taking first the question of the affinity of Isoeies with the Lyco- 
podinae, it becomes at once apparent that there are many important 
differences between them. The general characteristic of the sporo- 
phyte of the Lycopodinae is that the stem is slender and much 
branched, the leaves being small and numerous; in Isoi'ies^ on the 
contrary, the stem is short, thick, and unbranched, and the leaves 
are relatively large. It is true that in habit Phylhglossum more nearly 
resembles Isoetes than it does the other Lycopodinae; but even 
here^ there is a branching of the stem, at least in the sporangiferous 
forms, in connexion with the formation of the tubers. Again, the 
sporangia of the typical Lycopodinae are borne on sporophylls which 
are confined to special branches ; and in the majority the sporophylls 
differ from the foliage-leaves and are aggregated together into cones 
on special shoots : in Isoetes all the foliage-leaves are sporangiferous. 
P'urther, so far as the embryogeny of the sporophyte is known in 
the Lycopodinae, that is, in the case of Lycopodium and Selagtnella^ 
there is a suspensor but no primary root ; whereas in Iso6'tes there is 
a primary root but no suspensor. As regards the gametophyte, the 
mode of germination of the microspores is much the same in Isoe'Us 

* Outlines, p. 196. 

' Bower. On the development and morphology of Phylhglossum Drummondiiy 
Phil. Trans, II, 1885. 

Notes, 121 

and in SeU^inella, but there is the well-known difference in the 
germination of the macrospores. 

These differences between Isoe'tes and the recognised members 
of the Lycopodinae are surely sufficiently striking to raise a doubt 
as to the propriety of continuing to include them all in one group, 
and thus the question is raised as to what other position can, with 
any probability, be assigned to Isoeies, 

In its general habit, and in the absence of sporangiferous cones 
and specially diflferentiated sporophylls, Isoe'tes resembles the Filices, 
as also in the more general features of its embryogeny. This re- 
lationship is emphasised in a remarkable manner if, as Sadebeck 
suggests S the velum of Isoe'tes be truly homologous with the 
indusium present in many Filices and in the Salviniaceae. It must 
be admitted, however, that both the male and female gametophytes 
of Isob'tes resemble rather those of Selaginella than those of the 

The general tendency of these remarks would seem to be towards 
a reunion of Isoe'tes with the Rhizocarpae ; but in view of Goebel's 
researches on the development of its sporangium this cannot be done. 
Isoi'tes is distinctly eusporangiate, whereas the Rhizocarpae are as 
distinctly leptosporangiate. If Isoe'tes is to be included in the 
Filicinae, it must be connected with the eusporangiate forms of that 
group. This is, in fact, the answer to the question as to the 
systematic position of Isoe'tes, if removed from the Lycopodinae: 
it is a heterosporous form, the only one hitherto recognised as such, 
of the Eusporangiate Filicinae. It certainly resembles the Ophio- 
glosseae and the Marattiaceae in its general habit; in IsoHtes as 
also in these forms the stem is remarkable for its extremely small 
longitudinal growth, for the consequent absence of intemodes and 
of branching, for the entire concealment of its surface by the 
insertions of the leaves, and for the formation of roots in acropetal 
succession close behind its apex. There is a more special point 
of resemblance, though it may amount to no more than an analogy, 
between the imperfectly multilocular sporangia of Iso^tes and the 
compound sporangium of most of the Marattiaceae. 

Doubtless, many objections wiU be raised to this view of the 

* Sadebeck, Die Gefaiskryptogftmen, in Scfaenk's Handbuch der Botanik, I^ 
p. 336 k, 1879. 

1 2 2 Notes. 

systematic position of Isoiies, some of which I will now endeavour 
to meet by anticipation. 

In the first place, it may be objected that, in the growth in 
thickness of its stem, Iso^ies differs from the FHicinae and indicates a 
relationship with the extinct Lycopodinae. In reply to this it may be 
pointed out that secondary growth in thickness of the stem is by 
no means a peculiarly Lycopodinous character; and further, that 
some indication . of such secondary thidcening is to be found in 
the rhizome of existing Ophioglosseae. 

Secondly, the absence of a single apical cell in the growing-point 
of either stem or root may be urged as an objection to the in- 
corporation of Isohtes with the Filicinae. This is not, however, 
an objection of any weight ; for among the Lycopodinae, on the one 
hand, the presence of a single apical cell is common in Selaginella^ 
and among the Filicinae, on the other, the presence of a single apical 
cell is not universal, there being in the roots of the Marattiaceae 
a group of apical cells. 

It may be added here that Russow^ has already drawn at- 
tention to certain histological resemblances between Iso'e'tes and the 

Further, the resemblance between the male and female gameto- 
phytes of Isoeies and Selaginella may be urged as a ground for 
keeping these genera together, and therefore also for retaining Isottes 
among the Lycopodinae. It has been already pointed out that the 
two genera do differ in this respect, and it may be further suggested 
that the reduction of the gametophytes of Isoetes, as compared with 
those of the Hydropterideae, is just what might be expected in higher 
and lower groups of the same series. In fact, the comparison of the 
gametophytes of Isoeies and Selaginella rather supports the view that 
they are forms, not belonging to one group, but occupying cor- 
responding positions in two different series: that is to say, that 
Isoi'ies occupies in the Filicinae the same relative position as Sela- 
ginella in the Lycopodinae. 

The presence of a ligule in both Isoeies and Selaginella might also 
be brought forward as a reason for classing them together; but, 
when contrasted with the wide difference in the class-characters, 
the importance of this common feature is but small. Moreover, it 

* Russow, Vergleichcnde Untersuchungen, M^m. de I'Acad. imp. dc St. 
P^tcrsbourg, s6r. 7, t. xix, 187a, p. 192. 

Notes, 123 

is easy to imagine that a ligule may have been developed in the 
Filicinae as it has been in the Lycopodinae, to say nothing of other 
groups of plants. 

On summing up the evidence, it appears to be proved that there 
is quite as much resemblance between holies and the Eusporangiate 
Filices, as there is between Selaginella and the Lycopodiaceae ; and 
further, that there is a closer resemblance between Isolates and the 
Eusporangiate Filices than there is between Isoldes and the recognised 
Lycopodinae. At the same time, it must be admitted that there is 
some affinity between IsoUks and the Lycopodinae. But it has long 
been recognised that the Eusporangiate Filices are those Filices which 
have most affinity with the Lycopodinae ; and, in uniting IsoUes with 
the former group, this affinity merely becomes more marked. 

In conclusion, I would point out that the proposed change in the 
systematic position of Isoties throws an altogether new light on the 
evolution of the Phanerogams from the Pteridophyta, but I reserve 
the discussion of this question for a future occasion. 


THE BOOT OF EQUISETXTM. — I undertook, as the result of 
some discussion with, and at the suggestion of, my friends Dr. Vines 
and Mr. Gardiner, to determine the somewhat doubtful point of the 
development of the double endodermis of the root of Equisetum. As 
I have not, at present, time to prepare a full account of my investi- 
gations I propose to give in this note the main results obtained. 

The apical cell of the root gives rise to two kinds of tissue which 
can at once be distinguished from one another by the sequence of 
divisions. Of these, one forms an outer layer or cylinder constituting 
the exonurutem of Russow; the other is enclosed by it forming a 
central cord of tissue, constituting the mdonuristem of the same 

The exomeristem is distinguished from first to last by its cells being 
arranged in radial rows, most distinctly so in the zone of cells 
immediately surrounding the endomeristem. The endomeristem may 
be said to be chiefly distinguishable by the fact that its cells are not 
arranged in radial rows, and are also smaller than the cells of the 
exomeristem. No one can possibly fail to see at the first glance 
where the line passes separating the two meristems. This is especially 

1 24 Notes. 

the case at the later stages, for in the innermost layers of the 
exomeristem no more radial walls are formed, so that consequently 
the tangential diameter of these cells becomes very great. In the 
endomeristem, divisions having taken place freely towards the peri^ery, 
the junction of the tissues is made plain by the small-celled endo- 
meristem abutting directly on the large-celled exomeristem. For 
some time the layer of exomeristem immediately surrounding the 
endomeristem remains unchanged, but eventually each cell of this 
layer divides radially by a tangential wall, thus making the layer 
double; it is these two layers which eventually form the double 
endodermis so well known in Equisetum. Roots of E, hyemale, L. 
were used. The material was hardened with picric acid and de- 
hydrated with absolute alcohol; it was subsequently imbedded in 
hard parafin and sections cut with a microtome, the sections being 
carefully mounted in the order in which they were cut. 


PINTTS MONOFHYLLA (Torrey and Fremont).— This is a 
species which differs from its congeners by its * solitary glaucous terete 
leaves ' (Sargent). Now, if the leaf were really solitary it would aflford 
an illustration of a terminal leaf, the real existence of which has been 
denied. It must be remembered, however, that by some botanists 
the * needles ' of Ptnus have been considered to be axial not foliar. 
Whether, however, there is any fundamental difference between axial 
and foliar structures is still to my mind a matter for doubt, but the 
point need not here be discussed, as for practical purposes, and es- 
pecially for the purposes of this communication, I assume that the 
two are really different. As, moreover, the axial nature of the typical 
Pine needle is now pretty generally discredited it is not necessary here 
to allude to the matter further, but as Bertrand* considers that the 
particular species now under discussion is exceptional, and that its 
* needle ' is really axial, it is advisable to cite what he says about it. 
*C'est une sorte de rameau dont le cylindre ligneux s*est ouvert 
suivant une de ses generatrices, et s*est 6idX6 siu* un plan tangent 
diam^tralement opposd \ cette gdneratrice.' Engehnann* says ' it was 

* Annales des Sciences Natnrelles, scr. 5, Tom. xx (1874), p. loa. 
' Botany of California, II. (1880), p. 124. 

Notes. 125 

long considered probable that the terete leaf T^as in reality a connate 
pair, but the structure shows a single bundle, and therefore a single 

As it happens that the tree in question often does produce some of 
its leaves in pairs the probability mentioned by Engelmann did not 
seem remote, and Sir Joseph Hooker^ adopted this view, saying that 
' the anomaly in the foliage is due to the cohesion of the two semiterete 
leaves of each sheath by their adjacent faces, and is far from being a 
constant character. In the plants at Kew the two leaves are as often 
free as connate ; and, on making a transverse section of any connate 
pair, it will be seen that the vascular bundle traversing the centre of 
the cylinder is, in fact, double, and that the two parts are sometimes 

In the hope of reconciling the discrepancies between these state- 
ments, or of ascertaining which is the more correct, I have recently 
repeated some observations, which I made first in 1883, both as to 
the minute anatomy of these leaves and as to their mode of develop- 
ment. These observations are so readily checked, that it will be easy 
to confute or to confirm the conclusions at which I have arrived. 

Alluding in the first place to the anatomy of the single cylindrical 
leaf, a transverse section through the middle shows that it is really, 
what it seems to be, a single leaf. The section is circular, the epiderm 
broken by stomata and consisting of more or less cubical cells, beneath 
which lies a double layer of thick- walled hypoderm. Close to the hypo- 
derm and each surrounded by a girdle springing from it are the resin 
canals, two or three in number. Then comes the leaf-substance of 
several layers of polygonal cells filled with chlorophyll and with 
abimdant starch grains. The outermost of these cells have sinuous 
walls, while the innermost are straight-walled and radiate in all 
directions from the bundle-sheath or endoderm. This latter sheath 
consists of a circle of ellipsoidal colourless cells filled with starch and 
surrounding the circular (in section) pericycle. The pericycle con- 
sists of ordinary colourless parenchymatous tissue, interspersed among 
which are some relatively very large libriform cells, while in the 
centre is the vascular bundle proper, in the form of a wide crescentic 
band, the convexity of which is directed towards the axis, the con- 
cavity in the opposite direction. The thick-walled xylem occupies the 
side nearest to the axis, the thin-walled, but relatively more abundant 

* Card. ChroD. 1886, July 31, p. 136. 

1 26 Notes. 

phlo(;m being on the lower or outer side, a position indicative of the 
truly foliar nature of the body in question. 

On the same shoot with these terete leaves are others arranged in 
pairs. The transverse section of either of these twin leaves, whether 
taken in the centre, at the base, or at the apex, shows a nearly semi- 
circular outline, with the convexity beneath, the concavity above. The 
pericycle has the same general shape. In all other material points the 
structure is absolutely the same as in the terete leaves. Sir Joseph 
Hooker therefore examined a section of a 'connate pair,' and the 
vascular bundle he saw was really double— one portion belonging to 
one leaf, one to the other. My observations as to structure agree 
with those of Bertrand, as illustrated by him^, and from them it will be 
seen that (form apart) the structure is in all essentials absolutely the 
same as in the leaves of other species of Pinus. The figure of the 
leaf-structure of Pinus Sirobus, given on the same plate by Bertrand 
(fig. lo), shows how closely similar is the leaf-structure in the two 

Anatomy then shows that the leaf-like body is a true leaf, which 
occurs singly, but occasionally in pairs. There is of course no diffi- 
culty in understanding the latter condition, the anomaly consists in 
the single cylindrical leaf to all appearance occupying the apex of a 
shoot. To clear up this anomaly I investigated the development of 
the constituent parts of the leaf-bud at various stages of growth, and 
without going into details which are for this purpose unnecessary, I 
may say that development supplied the clue which neither outward 
morphology nor internal anatomy sufficed to give. In point of fact, 
in the earliest stages examined there were always two foliar tubercles, 
one of which speedily overpassed the other, so that ultimately all 
traces of the second leaf were obliterated. 

The monophyllous sheath of this pine therefore owes its peculiarity 
to the generally arrested development of one of its two original leaves. 


* Loc. cit. tab. ix, figs. 5-^. 



Berlin, 1886. 

The existing investigations on the development of the tissues of 
plants have dealt rather with the course of the cell-divisions to which 
the different tissue-systems owe their origin, than with the peculiarities 
of growth by means of which the elements assume their permanent 
form. Of late years there has been a tendency, chiefly owing to the 
influence of Hofmeister and Sachs, to minimise the importance of the 
single cell, and to regard its growth as subordinate to, and dependent 
on, that of the whole organ to which it belongs. This view has 
undoubtedly received support from the recent researches on the 
continuity of protoplasm through the walls of cells. The brilliant 
results obtained in this direction by Gardiner, Russow, and others, 
seem to afford direct anatomical evidence of the mutual dependence 
of the constituent cells of a tissued A work, therefore, which is 
entirely devoted to the investigation of those changes in the tissues of 
plants which are due to the independent growth of their individual 
cells, claims quite exceptional interest. Such a work is the treatise 
by Dr. G. Krabbe on sliding growth in the tissue formation of 
vascular plants. 

The object of the present paper is to give a critical account of the 
more important results of Dr. Krabbe's work on this subject, and to 
call attention to the conclusions which seem to follow from the facts 
that he has brought forward. 

By the term ' sliding growth ' those processes of growth are meant 
which are accompanied by mutual displacements of certain cells or 
groups of cells. The fact that changes of this kind occur during the 

' See especially the introductory passage in Gardiner, Continuity of Protoplasm, 
in Phil. Trans. Royal Soc, Part iii, 1883, p. 817. 

1 28 Notice of Book. 

development of the tissues of plants has long been known. For 
example, the so-caUed ' false tissues ' of most Fungi and some Algae 
consist of felted masses of interwoven branched filaments arising 
from a small number of originally distinct hyphae. It is evident that 
during the growth of such tissues the constituent hyphae must con- 
stantly have to force their way between their neighbours, and that 
thus complicated processes of sliding growth are involved 

A similar case is found in the development of laticiferous cells. 
These cells, as is well known, attain an enormous length, and send 
out branches into every part of the plant, so that the whole complex 
laticiferous system consists of the innumerable ramifications of a 
small number of undivided cells. The penetration of these branches 
into the various tissues of the plant necessitates the continual sliding 
growth of the laticiferous cells on the adjacent cells. As has often 
been pointed out, these organs behave quite like the hyphae of a 
parasitic fungus when making their way through the tissues of the 

Nor has the occurrence of sliding growth in the formation of other 
kinds of tissue been wholly overlooked. The definition of 'prosen- 
chyma,' for example, even in the older text-books, contains the 
statement that the end of the cells ' are insinuated into the spaces 
between those lying above and below them^.' This implies a change 
in the relative position of the elements in question. 

In De Bary*s work on the Comparative Anatomy of the Phanero- 
gams and Ferns the occurrence of mutual displacements of cells 
during their development is explicitly mentioned in various cases. 
Thus, at p. 462 (English edition) the possibility of such displace- 
ments during the formation of irregular groups of sieve-tubes is 
recognised ; and at p. 470 it is stated that the fibrous elements of the 
wood 'show a great elongation on transition from the cambial 
condition to that of mature tissue, in the course of which they insert 
their tapering ends, which are the principal seat of growth, between 
each other/ Displacements in the transverse direction, *due to the 
growth of large vessels, are also referred to, p. 470. 

It would be easy to cite many other passages from the various 
works on the anatomy of plants, showing that some of the changes 
comprehended under the term 'sliding growth' have long been known 

* Henfrey, Elementary Course of Botany, and edition, 1870, p. 501. 

Notice of Book. 129 

to botanists. But, though the existence of phenomena of this kind 
has been recognised, it will be admitted that Dr. Krabbe is justified in 
saying that they have never yet been made the subject of accurate 
study. It is proposed to deal seriatim with the principal points of 
Dr. Krabbe's work, leaving to the end the more general conclusions 
suggested by it. 

Having defined ' sliding growth/ the author goes on to speak of 
the cases in which it is well known to occur, pointing out that the 
most obvious examples, such as those above described in the growth 
of fungal hyphae and laticiferous cells, are connected with the rami- 
fication of cells. He then calls attention to the fact that sliding 
growth, so far from being limited to cases of this kind, takes place 
wherever single cells of a tissue grow in such a manner that theif 
original arrangement cannot be maintained. In all such instance^ 
there must be independent growth of the several elements of the 
tissue, resulting in certain definite displacements and changes in their 
form. These changes are not only remarkable in themselves, but are 
of interest in relation to the superficial growth of the cell-wall, and 
also from their influence on the characteristic structure of the various 

The author illustrates the importance of his subject by pointing 
out that cell-divisions by themselves only play a limited part in 
the differentiation of the tissues of the vascular plants. The mo8| 
characteristic constituents of the vascular bundle, namely ves.sel8 and 
sieve-tubes as well as tracheides, and bast and libriform fibres, all owe 
their mature form to processes of sliding growth. It is further 
maintained that the differences in the structure of successive annual 
rings and of spring and autumn wood depend on differences in the 
individual growth of their cells. 

The striking statement is made that whole tissues may be formed 
by sliding growth, without any cell-divisions taking place ; the authof 
here refers, not to the familiar case of laticiferous cells, but to the 
development of the xylem in the secondary bundles of Dracaena an4 
its allies. To this important point we shall have to return. Pr« 
Krabbe further shows that with the proof of the general occurrenee 
of ' sliding growth ' in the higher plants, the distinction between the 
so-called * true ' and * false ' tissues is obliterated. 

The above general considerations serve to define the position of the 
author, and to introduce his detailed work. 


130 Notice of Book. 

The first part of the subject examined is the sliding growth in the 
transverse direction, which occurs during the formation of the vessels 
of the xylem. Attention is chiefly directed to the vessels of the 
secondary wood of Dicotyledons, as here the regularity of the radial 
arrangement of the cambial cells and their immediate derivatives 
renders it comparatively easy to follow the subsequent displacements. 
In the first instance the growth of the developing vessel in the 
tangential direction is considered. The author proves that the 
tangential extension of the cambial zone as a whole, during the 
development of any one vessel, is so insignificant that it may be left 
out of consideration. 

The exact description of the tangential growth of the young vessels 
■Would not be intelligible in all its details without reference to the 
author's figures. It is shown, however, that the extension which 
these elements undergo cannot be accounted for in any other way 
than by the hypothesis of sliding growth between the vessel and the 
cells of the neighbouring radial rows. Three other possibilities are here 
discussed ; of these only one is sufficiently probable to need mention 
here, namely, that the vessel in its growth simply compresses and 
obliterates certain of the adjacent cells. According to Dr. Krabbe's 
observations such obliteration takes place very rarely, a statement with 
which those who are familiar with transverse sections of wood will 
probably agree. 

The facts to be accounted for are: that the vessel increases in 
diameter ; that it is in contact with more numerous cells when mature 
than it was at its first origin, and that the radial rows of cells 
adjoining the vessel on either side become interrupted by its tan- 
gential extension. This penetration of the growng vessel between 
the adjacent cells is shown by careful measurements to involve sliding 
growth between the growing portion of the wall of the vessel, on the 
one hand, and the walls of the cells, between which it penetrates, on 
the other. In cases where larger vessels are formed this tangential 
growth may extend through several radial rows. In describing these 
phenomena the author points out that they cannot be explained with- 
out supposing that each cell has a distinct membrance of its own, — a 
point which does not admit of direct microscopic demonstration at so 
early a stage. 

It is shown that the tangential growth of the vessel is only possible 
so long as the tissue to which it belongs is undergoing extension in 

Notice of Book. 131 

the radial direction, as is actually the case during the development of 
the young wood from the cambium. Owing to this radial extension 
of the tissue the growth of the vessel is able to take place without 
involving the obliteration or even any serious reduction in the 
dimensions of the neighbouring cells. In this case it is only the 
tangential extension of the vessel which is due to sliding growth, the 
increase in its radial diameter being accounted for by the growth of 
the tissue as a whole. This, however, only applies to vessels of 
moderate size ; the very large vessels, such as are found in the spring 
wood of the oak, require, as we shall see, sliding growth in the radial 
direction also for their development. 

In connection with this part of the subject the author discusses the 
interesting question, whether the extension of the vessel is due to 
growth all round or to localised growth at the points where it pene- 
trates between the neighbouring cells. He decides in favour of the 
latter alternative. There is nothing improbable in this view, as 
localised growth often occurs in other cases ; at the same time this 
conclusion cannot be said to rest on any decisive observations. 

In the formation of the larger vessels, as already mentioned, sliding 
growth must take place in the radial, as well as in the tangential 
direction, for here the radial extension of the vessel is in excess of 
that of the young wood generally. It is obvious that in this case the 
growth of the vessels inwards, that is, towards the already formed 
wood, can only go on so long as the cells in this region are still 
capable of extension. Towards the cambium the radial growth will 
be able to go on for a longer time. 

Dr. Krabbe next proves that the growth of the vessel may induce 
sliding between cells not immediately in contact with it. This will be 
the case wherever the radial growth of the vessel is greater than the 
average radial growth of the young wood, for here the growth of the 
cells in the same radial row with the vessel will be less than the 
average, as the cambium is not displaced. Hence sliding must take 
place between the slowly growing cells of this radial row (which are 
passively pushed out by the growth of the vessel) and the cells of the 
neighbouring rows, which grow at the average rate. 

Another case of induced sliding growth occurs wherever the vessel, 
in its tangential extension, exerts pressure on a medullary ray. The 
medullary rays are never interrupted by the growth of the vessel, a 
point of some physiological interest ; but they are often, as it were. 

132 Notice of Book. 

bulged out by it. It is shown by the author that the curvature thus 
induced in the ray causes the cells of the ray to slide on those 
elements which adjoin it on its convex side. 

It is unnecessary to follow Dr. Krabbe in his consideration of the 
sliding growth of sieve-tubes ; the facts are here quite similar to those 
observed in the development of the xylem vessels. 

The cases next dealt with differ essentially from those just 
described, in so far as the sliding takes place in the Umgitudinal^ 
instead of in the transverse direction. This occurs in the development 
of the tracheides, and of the bast and libriform fibres. It is here that 
the process is most obvious. Where, for example, a fibre of the 
secondary wood or bast grows to many times the length of the cambial 
cell from which it is derived, and that at a time when the elongation 
of the organ as a whole has long ceased, it is clear that mutual 
displacements must go on between the growing cells. This fact has 
been insisted on by many observers. The author shows in detail that 
these displacements necessitate sliding between the growing ends of 
the cells undergoing elongation. He further points out, that the 
process can only take place in a tissue which is still growing in the 
transverse direction. The tracheides or fibres insert their ends 
between cells, which are at first in contact with one another, and thus 
additional room is required, which can only be afforded by general 
transverse growth of the tissue. Dr. Krabbe shows that the small 
cell-lumina, which are found in transverse sections between the 
larger elements, represent the cut ends of intruding prosenchymatous 
cells. All elements, which thus force their way between those lying 
above and below them, must necessarily undergo changes of form in 
this process. 

It would have added to the interest of this part of the work if the 
author had been able to add figures of the fibrous elements at 
intermediate stages of their development from the comparatively short 
cells of the cambium. This would have given a much clearer idea of 
the phenomena actually involved than can be attained by the aid of 
reasoning alone. 

Although the occurrence of sliding growth is most evident in the 
case of the secondary tracheides and fibres, which are developed in 
regions no longer undergoing general elongation, there is no reason 
to doubt, that the same process goes on during the formation of the 
primary tissues. The author points out, that the disturbances actually 

Notice of Book. 133 

observed in the arrangement of the cells afford evidence for this. 
Careful comparative measurements, both of the growth of the whole 
organ and of the individual fibrous elements, are clearly necessary in 
all such cases. 

Dr. Krabbe then proceeds to discuss the development of the xylem 
in the secondary bundles of those Monocotyledons which are capable 
of indefinite growth in thickness. These bundles are formed from 
the cambium in parts of the stem in which longitudinal growth has 
ceased. Dracaena Draco is the first example considered. In most 
cases all the elements of a bundle seen in any transverse section arise 
from a single cell of the cambium. The bundles are here concentric, 
the small phloem being surrounded on all sides by the zylem. The 
latter contains some woody parenchyma, but is chiefly composed 
of very long tracheides. The formation of a new bundle begins with 
the appearance of longitudinal divisions in a cell of the cambial zone. 
The cells thus formed only differ from the cambial cells in theu* smaller 
diameter and in their transverse walls becoming slightly inclined 
instead of horizontal. These young elements of the vascular bundle 
may be termed, for the sake of clearness, the sub-cambial cells \ 
Now the length of these cells, which is very constant, is found by 
Dr. Krabbe to average o-i mm. The average length of the mature 
tracheide is 38 mm. Thus, as each sub-cambial cell, which becomes 
a tracheide, grows to thirty-eight times its original length, while 
there is no elongation of the organ as a whole, it follows that in any 
given transverse section the mature tracheides cut through will appear 
on the average thirty-eight times as numerous as they would have 
appeared before their elongation. Or, in other words, each mature 
tracheide will make its appearance in successive transverse sections 
thirty-eight times as often as the sub-cambial cell from which it is 
derived. The author has repeatedly counted the tracheides seen in a 
transverse section of a fidly formed bundle. He finds that their 
number varies from thirty-two to forty-four, the mean thus being 
thirty-eight. On the author's assumptions it is possible to calculate 
from these data the number of sub-cambial cells at any one level, 
which give rise to the tracheides. It may be convenient to give a general 
expression for his calculation, as it is applicable to all cases of longitu- 

^ Thb is not the terminology used by the author, bnt the terms adopted here 
will probably be more intelligible to English readers. 

1 34 Notice of Book. 

dinal sliding growth, if branching of the cells be left out of considera- 
tion. If the total number of mature tracheides seen in a transverse sec- 
tion be called x^ the number of sub-cambial cells from which they are 

derived will be - j where m is the ratio of the length of the mature 


tracheide to that of the sub-cambial cell. In Dracaena Draco the 
average value of ;i; is thirty-eight, and that of m is also thirty-eight. 
Hence the number of sub-cambial cells at one level, which become 
tracheides, will be oru^ i.e. the whole system of tracheides in each 
bundle arises from a single vertical row of sub-cambial cells. Here 
then, according to Dr. Krabbe, we have a most striking case of the 
formation of a system of tissue from a simple row of cells, without 
the aid of any further cell-division. The tracheides form by far the 
most important constituent of the bundle, and the author estimates 
that fourteen-fifteenths of the whole sectional area of the bundle are 
occupied by tissues developed by sliding growth. Thus, on this 
hypothesis the central phloem must gradually become enveloped by 
the growing tracheides, as by a web of hyphae. It is unnecessary to 
enter into a more detailed consideration of this case or of the similar 
phenomenon alleged to occur in Aloe and Yucca. It will be well 
known to many readers, that a totally different explanation of the de- 
velopment of the so-called tracheides of these plants has been given by 
Professor Kny^ in a work published almost simultaneously with that of 
Dr. Krabbe. Professor Kny finds that the elements in question are not 
tracheides at all, but short vessels, arising from the fusions of a series 
of sub-cambial cells. If this be the case, their formation does not 
necessarily involve sliding growth, though Professor Kny allows that 
this may occur to a small extent at the ends of the elements. 

So direct a contradiction in the results obtained by two competent 
observers is certainly remarkable, and further investigation is urgently 
required. The writer of this article has himself made some obser- 
vations on this subject, but they are not yet sufficiently complete for 
publication. The very pointed ends and occasional branching of the 
tracheides indicate that a certain amount of sliding growth must take 
place, but this by no means excludes the possible occurrence of 

* Beitrag zur Entwickelungsgeschichtc der * Trachciden.' Berichte der deutschen 
bot. CJescllschaft. Bd. IV, S. 267, 1886. 

Notice of Book. 135 

The remainder of Dr. Krabbe's work, though touching on many 
points of great interest, will not require detailed consideration. 

Some of the points here discussed, as, for example, the causes of 
annual rings and the relation of turgidity to growth, have only an 
indirect connection with the immediate subject of the paper. 

In my opinion it must be granted that Dr. Krabbe has succeeded, 
not only in demonstrating the occurrence of sliding growth, but in 
showing that it is probably universal among vascular plants, and that 
thus the difference between their tissues and the false tissues of the Fungi 
and Algae is only a difference of degree. Special cases, like that of 
Dracaena and its allies, will clearly require much further investigation, 
and in all cases of longitudinal sliding growth there is room for 
additional evidence from direct observations of the elements at various 
stages of development. 

In the light of the author's researches it is clear, that greater im- 
portance must be attached to the independent growth of the individual 
cell than has been usual in recent years. The structure of the most 
important tissues depends to a great extent on the special mode of 
growth of certain of the constituent cells. 

The fact that sliding growth takes place between very young cells 
is also of interest as proving that the wall between them must be a 
double one, even at this early stage. This conclusion agrees with the 
observations of Wiesner*. 

The localised growth of certain portions of the cell-wall is no new 
discovery, but Dr. Krabbe's observations supply additional instances 
of its occurrence. It is probable that the careful study of cases of 
this kind will confirm the author's conclusion, that the turgidity of 
the cell is by itself quite insufficient to account for the phenomena 
of growth. 

Dr. Krabbe is of opinion that contmuity of the protoplasm through 
the cell-wall cannot exist in the case of any cells between which 
sliding growth takes place. In this I am unable to follow him. It 
is well known that the perforation of the sieve-plates is a secondary 
process, the plate at its first origin being a continuous cellulose wall. 
It appears quite possible that the same may be true of the more 
delicate perforations through which the protoplasm is continuous 

' Untersachangen liber die Organisation der vegetabilischen Zellhaat. Sitznngs- 
berichte der Kais. Akad. der Wissenschaft. Wien, 1886. 

1 36 Notice of Book. 

from cell to cell, and if this be so there is no reason whj the pores 
should not be formed after the sHding growth is completed. It is 
certain that vessels and other elements with sliding growth have 
corresponding pits. These pits must be developed when the mutual 
displacements are at an end, and it is quite likely that the per^ 
foration of their closing membranes maj take place at the same 
time. We must wait for further researches on the development of the 
protoplasmic strands in the cell-wall before this point can be deter- 
mined. It is of interest to note that, according to the researches of 
Fischer \ the sieve-tubes are connected by fine protoplasmic strands, 
not only with one another, but also with their companion cells; 
but that neither of them are connected with the cambiform cells. The 
latter, however, are in communication among themselves. It would 
be important to ascertain whether these differences have any relation 
to the sliding growth of the various elements on one another. 

It may be hoped that Dr. Krabbe*s work will lead to much im- 
portant investigation along the lines which he has indicated. 

D. H. S. 

^ Neue Beitrage z. Kenntniss d. Siebrohren, Berlin, Gesellschaft Wist. 1886. 

Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 


T. JOHNSON, B.Sc. (London), 

University Scholar in Botany ^ Demonstrator of Botany in Normal School of 

Science t Kensington. 


With Plate X. A. 


SO much has already been written on this genus of the 
Loranthaceae that many readers of the Annals will no 
doubt be surprised that there should be anything new to be 
said on the subject. Indeed I intended at the outset of this 
investigation to confine my remarks to the mechanism of 
dehiscence of the fruit, but an examination of the plant led me 
further, especially as the published accounts of the plant differ 
from my own observations in some important particulars. I 
suppose the reader to be acquainted with the characters 
of the plant, of which a technical description, extracted from 
the Genera PJantarum of Bentham and Hooker, will be found 
on the next page. This paper begins with a description of 
the contents of the ovary as seen by myself, followed by its 
comparison with the observations of different investigators of 
the characters oi Arceuthobium and other Achlamydospermeae; 
after which the endeavour is made to assign to the structures 
in the ovary their morphological values. Descriptions of the 
structure of the fruit and, as a result, of its peculiar mode of 
dehiscence follow naturally. The arrangement of the parts of 
the expanded male flower as seen under the compound 
microscope, succeeded by the development of the male flower 
and of an individual stamen, is next taken, the last parts of 
the plant considered being the vegetative organs, already fully 

(Annals of Botany, VoL IL No. VL Anfiist 1888.I 


138 Johnson.— On Arceuthobium O^cedri. 

examined by Solms-Laubach. A summary of the investi- 
gation as a whole is given at the end of the paper. My 
knowledge of the plant is limited to spirit and herbarium 
material, all the figures being derived from spirit specimens 
of the plant, for which my thanks are due to Dr. Scott, to 
whom the material was given by Mr. Thiselton Dyer. 

Arceuthobium^ y Bieb. FI. Taur. Cauc. Suppl. 629 [Razou^ 
mowskia^ HofTm. ex Bieb. 1. c). 

Flores dioici, in axiJlis solitarii. Perianthii tubus in fl. 6 a-5 
partitus, in fl. ? minimus, 2-partitus. Antherae fl. i in medio 
segmentorum sessiles, transversae, loculis confluentibus rima 
unica dehiscentibus, demum apertae fere orbiculares. Discus 
utriusque sexus carnosus. Ovarium fl. ? ovoideum, ad normam 
ordinis [ante fecundationem solidum apparet v. in centro 
textura tcnuipre plus minus distincte (in speciminibus siccis) 
cavum, ovulo saepissime a substantia ovarii non rite distinguen- 
dum, etsi a variis auctoribus nunc erectum nunc pendulum v. 
lateraliter affixum dicitur.] (v. ex Baillon ovulo distincto v. 
basi erecto) ; stylus brevis, crassus, subconicus, stigmate 
obtuso. Bacca ovoidea, breviter stipitata, perianthii lobis 
minutis coronata, basi lata ad apicem dilatatam stipitis ad- 
nata, pericarpio carnoso viscifluo, endocarpio saepe distincto, 
maturitate basi circumscissa et elastice dehiscens, semen longe 
ejiciens. Semen ovoideo-oblongum ; embryo aJbumine car- 
noso copioso inclusus. Fruticuli in arboribus imprimis cbni- 
feris parasitici, subaphylli, foliis nempe omnibus ad squamas 
parvas oppositas in vaginam apertam coalitas reductis. Flores 
in vagina utrinque solitarii, parvi, sessiles v. subsessiles, ebrac- 

Species 5 v. 6, quarum una per Europam australem, Asiam 
occidentalcm, et Americam borealioccidentalem late dis- 
persa, cacterae Americae borealis imprimis occidentalis v. 
Mcxici incolae. 

On making longitudinal sections of a female flower of -/4rr^//- 
ihobium Oxycedri at a stage corresponding to pollination (end 

* G. Ikntham and J. D. Hooker. Genera Plantarum, vol. iii (1883), p. 213. ■ 

Johnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 139 

of September or beginning of October) and in such a direction 
as to pass through the median plane of the two perianth-seg- 
ments, the unilocular inferior ovary will be seen to be almost 
entirely filled by a conical cellular papilla continuous with the 
cells forming the floor of the ovary and projecting freely into 
the ovarian cavity. On the surface of the cone lie the dis- 
tinctly columnar cells of the continuous epidermis and beneath 
it is a mass of cellular tissue, near the apex of which two 
large ovoid cells occur, one towards each side of the axis 
of the papilla, and having their outer sides parallel and in 
contact with the epidermis (Fig. 1). These are two embryo- 
sacs, and they are obliquely inclined towards one another, and 
only separated at their upper, usually broader ends by one or 
two median cells of the papilla. 

Each embryo-sac has a thick highly refractive pitted cellulose 
wall enclosing very abundant and granular protoplasm. In 
a successful preparation the arrangement of the cells in the 
interior of this embryo-sac may be ascertained, as shown in 
Figure 2. 

Though I was not able to see all the stages from the 
uninucleate condition to that in which the embryo-sac is ready 
for fertilisation, I saw enough to convince me that the develop- 
ment is as in a normal Angiosperm. In one embryo-sac there 
was at the antipodal end a resting nucleus and one in 
the segmentation stage, in another there were two nuclei 
meeting in the middle of the embryo-sac, and other inter- 
mediate stages were observed. The antipodal cells of the 
embryo-sac were in all cases quite distinct ; but it was different 
with the egg-apparatus. Both synergidal cells and oosphere 
were often so obscure that their presence could not be 
ascertained with certainty. This iiegative result may have 
been due partly to the exceeding granularity and tendency 
to opacity of the general protoplasm, and partly to the 
faintness of the nuclei themselves, a phenomenon which has 
been observed in other parasites^. In several cases however, 

' Hofmeister records this of Visatm album. This is the more strange since the 
nuclei in the other parts of parasites are usually so distinct 

L 2 

I40 Johnson, — On Arceulhobium Oxycedri. 

especially after staining with safiranin or picronigrosin, the 
two apical synergidal cells and the lateral oosphere were 
distinctly seen. The general outline of the ovarian papilla 
is not affected by the presence of the embryo-sacs ; there is 
no indication by lobes on the papilla of their occurrence in 
its interior. 

Each embryo-sac arises as a hypodermal cell which divides 
by a horizontal wall into two ; the upper and smaller cell is 
the primary tapetum-cell, and divides into two by a vertical 
wall. The lower one is the mother-cell of the embryo-sac, 
and after having cut off from its lower end two small cells by 
horizontal walls, it enlarges into the embryo-sac. The nucleus 
of the uninucleate stage of the embryo-sac is very large and 
pronounced (Figs. 4-5). Whether each embryo-sac should be 
regarded as derived from a special hypodermal archesporium, 
or as a fully developed cell of a hypodermal multicellular 
archesporium common to the two embryo-sacs, will be made 
clear, it is hoped, by what is said further on. 

The flowers were seen first in September, by Reinaud. 
Pollination occurs towards the end of September or the 
beginning of October, and judging from analogy with 
Viscum album and Loranthus europaeuSy fertilisation does 
not take place till the following spring. The thin pollen- 
tube passes down the stylar canal and penetrates into the 
ovarian papilla at its summit, passing into it for a certain 
distance towards the apex of the embryo-sac and resting there 
till the beginning of vegetation in the next year. It seemed, 
on first consideration, that the interval of time between polli- 
nation and fertilisation gave some support to the suggestion of 
Marshall Ward^ that the effect of parasitism is to degrade 
sexual organs and their function ; that, indeed, there might be 
some subtle connection between fertilisation and the forma- 
tion of the seeds in parasite and host in the case of Arceu^ 
thobiufHy which grows on Pinus^ or on Juniperus^ the two 
genera of the Coniferae in which a year intervenes between 

* Marshall Ward, in Q. J. M. S. xxiv. 

' Pinus brachyptcra, J\ Banksiatta, /unipents communis, J, Oxycedrus, 

yohnson. — On Arceutliobium Oxycedri. 141 

pollination and fertilisation. The occurrence, however, of a 
similar long interval in Viscuvi album growing on the apple 
which shows no such interval does not give much countenance 
to this view. 

Before attempting to assign to the ovarian papilla and its 
two embryo-sacs their morphological values it will be well to 
consider the condition of the ovary as seen in Arceuthobium 
and other Loranthaccae (Eulorantheae and Visceae of the 
Genera Plantarum) by different observers. 

1. Arceuthobium. 

Professor Oliver^ was the first, in 1870, to notice a papilla 
in the ovary q{ Arceuthobium, the species being A, crypiopodum. 
I cannot do better than quote his remarks : — ' From the 
material at my disposal I cannot at present satisfactorily 
explain the nature of the ovuliform body. It may be a 
fertilised embryo-sac the lower portion of which is so engaged 
in its early stage in the subjacent cellular tissue as to appear 
to be in continuous connection with it. In this case the 
minute enclosed sac bounded by a free but well-defined 
membranous wall and full of more or less distinct definite 
cells must represent an early condition of development of the 
embryo in the embryo-vesicle, although its occurrence thus, 
as a minute spherical sac without trace of suspcnsor near the 
apex of an embryo-sac already filled with cellular tissue, 
appears to be at variance with the usual mode of its formation 
in Loranthaceae. 

* On the other hand, the papilla [figures 8 and 9 in Icones] 
looks at first sight much like a naked free ovule, and the 
enclosed vesicle [figure 10 in Icones] an embryo-sac filled 
with cellular tissue. Against this apparently reasonable view 
is the circumstance that at the stage represented by figure 9 
[in the Icones], or rather later, the entire body exhibits a ten- 
dency to separate on pressure by a clear line at the base from 
the tissue beneath. We have not, moreover, any case that I am 
aware of in Loranthaceae, in which the ovule is wholly free. 

* D. OliTcrj in Hooker's Icones Plantamm, 1870, t 1037. 

142 Johnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxyce4ru 

* I recommend the case to those botanists who may happen 
to have access to a sufficient series of specimens in different 
stages of development.* 

In 1876 Baillon^, admittedly owing to Professor Oliver's 
description, examined Arceuthobium Oxycedri in many stages 
of its development. At one stage he found a freely projecting 
basally attached cellular papilla in the ovary, which he 
described as an ovule naked and orthotropous and com- 
parable to the nucellus of Polygonum. All the cells of 
this ' ovule ' in its free condition and when pollination has 
taken place are represented as uniform ; it is not until 
later, when the ovule is no longer free but is enclosed in 
well-developed viscid cells [which are not formed in Loran- 
thaceae until after fertilisation], that one embryo-sac, median 
and apical, is said to be formed and fertilisation to occur. 
It will be seen how different this account is from that which I 
have given above. M. Baillon seems to have overlooked the 
embryo-sacs. A comparison of the figures in Plate VI. of 
the Association Franjaise, 1876, shows that the embryo-sac s 
has the same relation to o the young seed in fig. 1 7 that the 
embryo e has to the endosperm (unnamed) in figures 19 and 
20. I believe all three figures represent very similar stages 
in the development of the fruit, and prefer to think the 
lettering 5 the embryo-sac in fig. 17 a slip of the pen for 
e the embryo, rather than to suppose that the embryo-sacs 
have been overlooked and the embryo mistaken for one of them. 
Some years before, in 1840, Sir W. J. Hooker ^ took Arceu- 
thobium as the type of the Loranthaceae, and for the first time 
figured the male and female flowers of Arceutftopiumy making 
use of A. Oxycedri for the purpose. In Tab. XCIX. fig. 8 
of the Flora Borealis Americana an undissected female flower 
is represented. It looks however very much like a young 
fruit, and the likeness is still more apparent in fig. 9, which 
is a longitudinal section of the same. There is no ovarian 

* Baillon, Fleur femelle de V Arceuthobium Oxycedri^ in Assoc Franc Clerm., 
1876, p. 495, t. 6. 

* W. J. Hooker, Fl. Bor. Amcr., 1840, t. 99. 

yohnson. — On ArceutJiobium Oxycedri^ 143 

cavity present, and the apical central sac shown nearly en- 
closed in cellular tissue is not the embryo-sac but the embryo 
imbedded in endosperm, as is the case in fig. 1 2 of the same 

a. The Ovarian Papilla in other Loranthaceae. 

In 1836 Griffith's^ valuable and interesting paper, 'Notes on 
the Development of the Ovule of Loranthus and Viscum^ ap- 
peared. In Viscum [species not given] he found a nipple-shaped 
process in the ovarian cavity, at the base of which he saw two 
projecting more or less pendulous bodies, which he regarded 
as naked ovules, the nipple-shaped process being the placenta. 
This arrangement was so different from anything seen in any 
genus of the Loranthaceae, more especially so different from 
what several subsequent observers saw in species of Viscum, 
and at the same time so like the condition of the gynaeceum 
in the Santalaceae (e. g. Santalum album as described by 
Griffith'-' himself), that by Hofmeister and others Griffith's 
Viscum was regarded as a genus of the Santalaceae. Against 
this, however, Treub has protested, for he considers our 
knowledge of the structure of the gynaeceum of the Loran- 
thaceae too imperfect to permit of dogmatism, and his protest 
is supported by the structure of A. Oxycedri. It is not 
difficult to see how the two apical embryo-sacs buried in the 
nipple-shaped process in A, Oxycedri could be derived from 
the two basal pendulous projecting bodies on the nipple- 
shaped process in Griffith's Viscum. In Griffith's Loranthus 
Scurrula neither ovarian cavity nor papilla was seen. In 
a later paper — read 1843 — Griffith^ describes a Malaccan 
Viscum in which he found no nipple-shaped pro<icss, but 
such a process was found in Loranthus bicolor, though in it 
subsequently rendered obscure by the migration of the embryo- 
sacs half way up the style. 

' Griffith, in Trans. Linn. Soc., xviii. p. 76. 
'' Griffith, in Trans. Linn. Soc., xviii. p. 59. 
' Griffith, in Trans. Linn. Soc., xix. 

144 Johnson. — On Arceutfiobium Oxycedri. 

In 1858 Hofmeister^ described an ovarian cellular papilla 
in Loranthtis europaetis and in Viscutn album. In each case 
he found the papilla lost its identity at an early stage by 
fusion with the surrounding tissue, the ovarian cavity becoming 
obliterated in the process. 

In 1859 Hofmeister* entered into much more detail as 
regards these two plants, and from his illustrations it is 
apparent that the ovarian papilla is far less pronounced in 
either plant than in A, Oxycedri, A whorl of three (often 
only two) embryo-sacs was observed, their position relatively 
to the carpels not being given. 

Of Viscutn album Hofmeister says, * The carpels soon come 
into contact with one another by their upper flattened sur- 
faces, leaving only a narrow intervening space. The group of 
very few cells at the bottom of this space must be regarded as 
the ovule of the mistletoe ^' Two to three embryo-sacs 
were found in a later stage, formed from cells beneath the, 
now, absent ovary. 

Hofmeister described a third form of the Loranthaceae, 
Lepidoceras Kingii^, in which he saw a long free much atten- 
uated ovarian papilla having some three embryo-sacs in it at 
its base. 

In 1869 Van Tieghem* found it impossible, after repeated 
attempts, to observe any ovarian papilla in Viscum alburn^ 
and came to the conclusion that it does not exist. Several 
embryo-sacs were found formed from sub-epidermal cells of 
the upper (ventral) surfaces of the carpels in their median 
plane. If more than one embryo-sac was formed for each 
carpel, they were still in its median plane and one above the 
other. Unfortunately the descriptions are not illustrated. 

' W. Hofmeister, NeuereBeobachtungeniiberEmbryobildung der Phanerogamen, 
in Pringsheim*s Jahrbiicher, i. 1858, p. 113. 

^ W. Hofmeister, Neue Beitrage znr Kemit. d. Embryobilduig d. Phanerog. 
in Abh. der Sachs. Ges. d. Wiss., vi. 1859, p. 634, Plates I-IX. 

* W. Hofmeister, op. cit. p. 555. 

* W. Hofmeister, op. cit. p. 553. 

* Van Tieghem, Anatomie des fleurs et du fruit du Gui, in Ann. Sc. Nat. 
xii. p. 1 01. 

yohfison. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 145 

In 1881 Treub^ began his * Observations sur les Lorantha- 
c^es/ the firsX, sptcxts AQszr\h^Ahe\ng Loranthus sphaerocarpus. 
In this he found an ovarian papilla with several apico-lateral 
slightly projecting lobes on it. This papilla, like that found 
by Hofmeister in Loranthus europaeus^ soon fuses with the sur- 
rounding tissue, causing the gynaeceum to appear in section as 
a solid body composed of vertical continuous columns of cells, 
each originally distinct lobe of the papilla being how repre- 
sented by an elongating embryo-sac. In forms still more 
recently examined, Viscutn articulatutn^ and Loranthus pen- 
tandrus^y Treub found no ovarian papilla, though in the 
last-mentioned species there was a slight indication of a 
tendency to form one. 

3. Morphological value of the Ovarian Papilla 
and accompanying structures in loranthaceae. 

Griffith purposely called the papilla in Viscum and in 
Loranthus bicolor a nipple-shaped process in order to leave 
open the question ofits morphological nature. He would go no 
further than to say he regarded this process as a placenta, and 
the two projections on it in Viscum as naked ovules. He 
regarded the condition in the Loranthaceae as an extreme 
reduction of the free central placenta with ovules of such an 
angiosperm as Primula^ an intermediate stage being exhibited 
by the Santalaceae. 

Hofmeister regards the papilla in the plants in which he 
found it as a free naked orthotropous ovule containing several 
fully developed embryo-sacs. 

Professor Oliver's opinion as to the nature of the papilla 
in Arceuthobium cryptopodum has been already quoted (ante, 
p. 141). 

Baillon says of A. Oxycedri^ *The papilla is an ovule, 
erect, orthotropous, and comparable to the nucellus of Poly- 

' Treub, in Annales du Jardin Buitenzorg, ii. !**«• paxtie, p. 54, Plates VIII-XV. 
' Treub, in Annales du Jardin Buitenzorg, iii. i*^* partie, p. i, Plates I-II. 
' Treub, in Annales du Jardin Bnitenzorg, iii. a^^'"* partie, p. 184, Plates 

146 yohnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 

gonum ' [and like it formed of the modified apex of the floral 
axis ^]. 

Treub cannot think that the ovarian papilla in Loranthus 
sphaerocarpus is an ovule ; the hypothesis which he suggests 
is this^: 'La region axile du mamelon, constitue un placenta, 
et les trois ou quatre segments lat^raux libres, qui se pro- 
duisent, sont des ovules rudimentaires. La plurality des 
cellules-mires de sacs embryonnaires, dans chaque segment 
emp6che d*assigner le rang d'ovules aux sacs embryonnaires 
mfimes.' In support of this hypothesis Treub found the 
ovules (usually four) in Loranthus sphcerocarpus represented 
by distinct lobes near the apex of the placenta. In each 
lobe there was a large number of embryo-sac mother-cells 
side by side, of which only one gave a fertilisable embryo-sac. 

There are no lobes on the papilla in A. Oxycedri. The two 
embryo-sacs are separated by uniform tissue, each one is 
apparently derived from a unicellular hypodermal arche- 
sporium, and so in this respect there could be no objection to 
regard each embryo-sac as an ovule. It would not be a long 
step from Loranthus sphaerocarpus to A, Oxycedri^ thus passing 
to a placenta bearing two completely imbedded ovules reduced 
in each to a single archesporium cell. 

Several objections may be urged to the view that the 
papilla in A. Oxycedri is an erect orthotropous ovule con- 
taining two fully developed embryo-sacs. There is no 
example in the Phanerogams of an ovule containing two 
such embryo-sacs. It would be a forced comparision to 
regard the condition in A, Oxycedri as capable of expla- 
nation by reference to the macrosporangium of Isoetes. The 
nearest approach to this structure of an ovule is that de- 
scribed by Strasburger for the ovule of Rosa livida^. In 
this plant there is a multicellular archesporium forming 
(generally) four embryo-sac mother-cells lying side by side. 
Of these only one, after they have all passed through one or 

* Strasburger, Die Angiospcrmcn «. d. Gymnospcrmen, p. 3. 

* Trtab, in Annales du Jard. Buitcnzorg, ii. p. 64. 

* Strasburger, op. cit., p. 14. 

Johnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 147 

two division-stages, gives a mature embryo-sac. If we think 
of the papilla in A. Oxycedri as an ovule, we have an archc- 
sporium which is apical, hypodermal and multicellular, from 
which two embryo-sac mother-cells developcinto ripe embryo- 
sacs, the cells between them being undeveloped sporogenoua 
tissue. If this view be correct, we have in this parasite an 
ovule which is more highly developed than in any other 
Phanerogam. It would too be quite opposed to the basis of 
the distinction of the Loranthaceae from the Santalaceae. The 
absence of a distinct ovule in the Loranthaceae is the essential 
ordinal character of separation from the Santalaceae. To 
regard the papilla in A, Oxycedri as an ovule would be to 
give to the most modified genus of the Loranthaceae a struc- 
ture on the absence of which the separation of the Lorantha- 
ceae from the Santalaceae is based. It appears to me to 
be impossible to regard it as an ovule, and yet, as in the 
case of Myzodendron^ to exclude it from Santalaceae. 

I hoped that a consideration of the relative time at which 
the papilla in the different Loranthaceae appears would throw 
some light on its morphological value. Hofmeister in Loran* 
t/ius europaeus and in Viscum album, and Treub in Loranthus 
sphaerocarpus, found that the ovarian papilla appeared after 
the carpels as an upgrowth from the floor of the ovary ; and of 
L. sphaerocarpus it is recorded that the segments appear 
later, followed by the formation in their interior of their 
respective embryo-sacs. Whether the placenta in Z. sphaero* 
carpus should be regarded as formed by the fusion of * claws ' 
of the carpels, as in Santalum album and Primulaceae, or 
as a derivative of the apical part of the floral axis, does 
not appear. 

The time of appearance of the papilla is different in A. 
Oxycedri, Baillon found that the apical part of the floral 
axis persisted throughout the development of the female 
flower, changing from a hemispherical to a conical swelling in 
becoming the ovule. It should however be mentioned that 
the embryo-sacs were overlooked. While in the case of this 
plant a knowledge of the time and mode of development of 

148 yohnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 

the papilla does not help one to decide its whole nature, it 
does prove that it is a modified part of the floral axis and not 
a body derived from the fusion of the * claws ' of the two 
carpels. The definiteness of position of the two embryo-sacs 
in A. Oxycedri should be taken into account. After cutting 
longitudinally a number of pollinated flowers without getting 
satisfactory views of the embryo-sacs except as it seemed 
accidentally, I found by making longitudinal sections through 
the median plane of the two perianth-segments that I almost in- 
variably got complete sections of the two embryo-sacs. I also 
made successive transverse sections of the flower, beginning in 
some cases at the apex of the style, in others at the base of 
the flower. I had noticed that the apex of the style was 
grooved, that the stigma was bilobed, and that the lobes were 
elongated parallel to the upper (ventral) faces of the perianth 
segments. The sections showed — 

I. That the style was traversed by a canal formed by the 
unapplied parts of the ventral faces of the carpels. 

a. That this stylar canal was, as seen in transverse section, 
elongated parallel to the ventral faces of the carpel (Fig. 7). 

3. That there were two embryo-sacs opposite the median 
planes of the two carpels (Fig. 6). 

4. That the carpels had no vascular bundles. 

5. That the carpels were opposite the two segments of the 
perianth (Fig. 7). 

It was not without much hesitation that I allowed myself 
to be convinced that the carpels are evascular and opposite the 
perianth-segments, for by Eichler^ and Baillon* they are placed 
at right angles to the lobes of the perianth (compare Figs, i, 
6 and 7 with Fig. 236 in Bluthendiagramme). It should be stated 
that in a few cases isolated irregularly distributed (reticulate), 
isodiametric tracheides were found in the carpels. Taking all 
the different circumstances into account, I prefer, so far as I 
may express an opinion, to follow the direction of Treub's view 
of Loranthus sphaerocarptis^ and to call the ovarian papilla in 

^ Eichler, Bluthendiagramme, p. 553. ' Baillon, op. cit on p. 143, Plate VL 

yohnson. — On Arceulhobium Oxycedri, 149 

A. Oxycedri a placenta formed of the modified apical part 
of the floral axis bearing two imbedded ovules reduced to 
their simplest condition, that of unicellular hypodermal arche- 
sporia, one mature embryo-sac being developed from each of 
the two archesporial cells. 

4. The Fruit of A. Oxycedri. 

It is known that an interval of fourteen months elapses 
between the formation of the female flower and its dehiscence 
as a ripe fruit. Unfortunately, the material at my disposal 
was collected at one time, probably the middle of November. 
Mr. Carruthers very kindly gave me some dried material oiA. 
Oxycedri from the Herbarium of the Natural History Museum ; 
it was unfortunately in the same stages as my spirit material, 
as was also some in the Herbarium at Kew which Professor 
Oliver was so good as to look through with me. It was 
so well preserved that nearly all the details seen in the 
spirit material could be verified in it. 

Between the oldest pollinated flower and the youngest fruit 
there is a difference of a year. I cannot say whether 
Arceuthobium shows any migration of its embryo-sacs or 
embryo such as Grifiith, Hofmeister, and Treub have seen in 
different Santalaceae and Loranthaceae. It would be still more 
interesting to know whether the two embryo-sacs have each 
an embryo and endosperm, whether the two sacs become ever 
fused, whether if there are two endosperms they become one ; 
phenomena observed by Van Tieghem in Viscum album. 
There is one important respect in which the reduction in 
Arcetithobium is much less than in other Loranthaceae. While 
in other Loranthaceae the papilla of the ovary when present 
becomes fused with the wall of the ovary so that the gynaeceum 
is a solid body even before fertilisation, this does not happen 
in Arceuthobium. The ovarian papilla does not at any time 
become fused with the wall of the ovary. 

In the ripe fruit the apical part of the papilla forms a sort 
of calyptra to the radicle, and the basal part is thrust to one 

^5^ yohnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 

side by the enlarging endosperm, beneath the base of which it 
is visible as a yellowish patch of completely crushed cells, the 
walls of which are not easily made out. Reinaud's ^ is the 
only account I have found of the dehiscence of the fruit, 
and to his description I must acknowledge my indebtedness 
in framing the explanation of the dehiscence I have suggested 
at the end of the description of the fruit. Unfortunately, 
Reinaud's paper is not illustrated. He found the parasite 
gfrowing equally well on Juniperus Oxycedri and J. communis 
in the woods of Sisteron. The female flowers are visible 
in September, and ripe fruits in November of the following 
year, by the end of which month they are all fallen. He 
says of the fruit, ' It is a little more than two millimetres 
long, and not quite one millimetre broad. The lower 
part up to just beyond the middle is cylindrical, smooth, 
transparent, and of a pale yellowish green colour. Two 
longitudinal and diametrically opposite lines, the rudiments of 
the commissures, are visible through the transparent wall [the 
two vascular bundles of the perianth]. The seed is embedded 
almost entirely in this part in the midst of a colourless liquid. 
The upper cap-like part of the fruit is pulpy, opaque, greener, 
and conical. The fruit is detached from the plant at its 
articulation with the peduncle, by which operation a circular 
hole is formed. This dehiscence takes place suddenly with 
elasticity, the seed is forcibly ejected through the resulting 
opening by the help of the liquid in which it is found, and by 
which the pressure of the pericarp is communicated to it In 
this way the seed is thrown more than a metre, carrying with 
it the viscid part of the " umbilical cord." It is mentioned 
that the dehiscence of the fruit in Momordica Elaterium is 
very similar (I have been struck quite sharply with its ejected 
seeds standing two and three yards off").' 

Before attempting an explanation of the dehiscence I will 
supplement this description of macroscopic features of the 

' M. Am. Reinaud de Fonvert, Note sur V Arcmthobium Oxycedri^ in Annales 
des Scien. Nat., 3* s^rie, T. vi (1846), p. 130. 

yohnson. — On Arceuthobtum Oocycedru 151 

fruit by an account of the microscopic structure. In a vertical 
median section of a ripe fruit (Fig. 8) the centre is seen to be 
occupied by ordinary endosperm tissue of large volume and 
with a single median embryo imbedded in its apical part 
(Fig. 9). I have never found more than one embryo. It is 
straight, with the two cotyledons only very slightly indicated. 
Its radicle is superior and has no root-cap; the whole embryo 
is covered by a continuous layer of columnar dermatogen- 
cells (Fig. 10); the radicle is exserted ; the endosperm-cells 
extend no further upwards than to the point at which the 
hypocotyledonary stem passes into the radicle. The protective 
function of the root-cap is apparently assumed by the apical 
part of the ovarian papilla which forms a conical cap of empty 
cells covering the radicle much as the calyptra of the Moss 
covers the tip of the developing sporogonium. The absence of 
a true root-cap and the faint indication of the cotyledons 
are characters in keeping with the parasitic habits of the 
plant, and are conspicuous in other parasites, e.g. Cuscuta^. 
The only differentiated part of the embryo is the epidermis ; 
the sub-epidermal tissue is uniform, and there are no pro- 
cambial strands. 

Owing to the absence of the integument of the ovule, 
and consequently of the testa of the seed, the protective 
function of the testa is assumed by the endocarp, which 
forms a complete envelope to the seed when the latter 
18 forcibly ejected from the dehisced fruit. The endocarp 
consists of some five layers of cells. All the layers 
except one, and this the outermost, consist of simple 
thick-walled cells without contents, parenchymatous at 
the apex and base, prosenchymatous laterally. The outer- 
most layer is, except in its basal part, converted into obliquely 
radiating viscid cells, some of which are half the length of the 
seed proper, their length as a general rule being greater the 
nearer they are to the radicular end of the seed. The walls of 

* Goebcl, Vergl. Rntwick. d. Pflanz. ; Anhang, Parasiten, in Schenk's Hand- 
bach der Botanik, 1884, p. 374. 

152 Johnson. — On Arcmthobium Oxycedri. 

the viscid cells have become converted into viscine, and, in 
spirit-material, are as broad as the lumina of the cells. 
In many^ by no means all, viscid cells the wall presents 
thickening in the form of a double spiral. I have seen side 
by side in different cells a double spiral, a single spiral, and 
annular markings. When fully developed the cavities of the 
cells have each a very thin layer of parietal protoplasm 
enclosing a large quantity of cell-sap. At each end the 
cavities of the cells are dilated (Fig. la). On its inner surface 
this outermost layer is organically continuous with the rest 
of the endocarp, while at its outer surface it is just as 
intimately connected with the mesocarp, though the con- 
nection is less easily made out 

I have given this detailed description of the endocarp, 
since the origin Baillon assigns to the viscid cells is es- 
sentially different and at variance with what is known 
of their derivation in other fruits : — * The surface of the 
ovule presents interesting changes which render the in- 
ternal appearance of the ovule and fruit quite different. 
The most external cells of the ovule grow rapidly and 
produce projecting papillae on the originally naked surface of 
the nucellus. These cells soon become long viscid hairs 
which fill the cavity of the pericarp and have a double spiral 
on their walls. In the end all these soft and viscid hairs lie 
close together and form a kind of pulp which could be taken 
for a continuous parenchyma. It is the nucellus which here 
provides the integumentary covering, it is from it also that 
the internal parenchymatous mass playing the part of the 
endosperm is derived ^.' Striking proof of the incorrectness of 
this view came in quite an unexpected manner. In the 
material I had received from Mr. Carruthers were several 
very young fruits, judging from their size. On making 
sections the cause of their smallness was plain. There was 
no seed at all formed ; the ovarian papilla had died early, and 
though readily recognisable was shrivelled ; nevertheless the 

* Baillon, op. cit. on page 142, p. 500. 

yohnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 153 

pericarp had passed through most of the changes seen in it in 
a ripe fruit; the viscid cells were comparatively well-developed ; 
and yet between the inner surface of the endocarp, of which 
the viscid cells were the outer surface, and the shrivelled 
ovarian papilla (*nucellus* of Baillon) there was a large gap 
of the same nature as that in the ripe fruit between the 
endocarp and the endosperm. It was of interest to find all 
the specialised accessory modifications in the fruit, while the 
essential parts, embryo and endosperm, were quite absent. 

Returning to the ripe fruit, the mesocarp consists of two strata, 
an inner one composed of thin-walled cells pressed completely 
out of shape, and an outer one, which, between the points a and 
b in Fig. 9, consists of five or six layers of thick-walled pitted 
parenchymatous cells. The walls are lignified and the pits 
wide (Pig. 11). The change from this sclerotic tissue to thin- 
walled cells above b and below a in Fig. 9 is very abrupt. 
At tf. Fig. II, represented on the surface of the fruit by a 
circular horizontal groove (the place of articulation 'of the 
fruit with its peduncle), there is, as seen in a longitudinal 
section, a horizontal plate of extremely thin-walled cells, eight 
to ten tiers high, and formed very probably by the meri- 
stematic activity of a single layer of cells. Where this meri- 
stematic tissue abuts against the vascular bundles the xylem 
vessels atrophy. Between its uppermost layer and the base 
of the endosperm the lower part of the * endocarp,' some five 
layers thick, is situated. At dehiscence of the fruit this zone 
of meristematic tissue is torn in two horizontally, the vascular 
bundles being also bansversely cleft. (Cp. Fall of Leaf*.) 
Taking these structural facts into consideration, it seems to 
me an anatomical explanation of the mechanism of dehiscence 
of the fruit may be given. Before fertilisation the unoccupied 
part of the ovary is very small, the ovarian papilla is almost in 
contact with the wall of the ovary. This is not less so after 
fertilisation. The formation of the bulky endosperm begins 
simultaneously with intercalary divisions of the pericarp. 

* Strtibnrger, Bot. Pract., 1887, p. aas. 


154 Johnson, — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 

This latter process does not keep pace with the former ; the 
basal part of the ovarian papilla is pressed out of shape by 
the developing seed, which is also causing considerable pressure 
on the pericarp, so much so that the inner part of the meso- 
carp is completely crushed, an obliteration which does not 
extend to the outer part of the mesocarp, the walls here 
having begun to be thickened and ligniiied. The seed comes 
to have a relation to the pericarp similar to that of the proto- 
plasm to a cell-wall in a turgid cell. The mutually exerted 
pressure is further and greatly increased by the formation of 
the thick layer of viscid cells, a formation which has proceeded 
with the other changes in the production of the fruit. At 
maturity the degree of tension is so great, the weakest part 
of the pericarp gives way. This spot has already been 
prepared by the development of the meristematic zone at the 
base of the fruit. This zone is torn in two horizontally, the 
elasticity of the stretched pericarp comes into play, the * seed ' 
(its shape helping) is forcibly ejected enveloped by the 
endocarp. The viscid cells are torn across at their peripheral 
ends, which are left on the inner surface of the mesocarp. 
The cell-sap of these cells escapes and gives to the viscid 
walls a more sticky consistency, by which the seed is enabled 
to adhere to the host-branch on which it may fall. It has 
been noticed that the viscid layer is not present at the anti- 
radicular end of the seed. 

5. The Male Flower of A. Oxycedrl 

Sir W. J. Hooker^ first figured the male flower magnified 
ten or twelve times. Examination after greater magnification 
of a flower just before expansion shows that the stamen con- 
sists of a sessile anther, bilocular at first, becoming unilocular 
by the breaking down of the separating trabecula in the usual 
way. The wall of the anther consists of one layer of cells 
only, and it is curious that this, though it is the epidermis, 

* W. J. Hooker, op. cit. on p. 142, Tab. xcix. 

yohnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 155 

has the fibrous markings typical of the sub-epidermal 
layer of cells of an ordinary anther (Fig. 13). The ta- 
petum is represented by yellowish brown spheroidal bodies 
averaging ^^Vir i^ch in diameter. The structure of the pollen- 
grain at this stage (Fig. 14) comes out very clearly, and is 
normal. Still further reduction is noticeable of the staminal 
leaf ; the stamen has no vascular bundle. The single vascular 
bundle of the perianth s^ment on which the stamen occurs 
makes a slight bend towards the stamen beneath its insertion, 
and one or two of the vessels may point a little towards it, but 
there is no Indication of an independent vascular supply in the 
stamen. On making longitudinal sections of a very young 
flower, the expansion of which would have happened in the 
following year, the development of the flower as a whole and 
of its several parts can be ascertained. The position of the 
stamen is seen to be very different from that in the expanded 
flower. It arises as a multicellular lateral outgrowth of the 
floral axis, independently of the perianth-segment, and acquires 
its final position by the intercalation of the lower half of the 
perianth-segment as a belt of tissue common to the stamen 
and perianth-segment (Fig. 15). 

Whilst this observation may do nothing to further the 
elucidation of the precise nature of the perianth-segment, 
whether it is a sepal or a petal, it does strongly support 
Eichler's opinion^ of the nature of the androecium in the 
Visceae : — * The anther of Viscum is so completely fused with 
the perianth-leaf, even in its early stages, that Hofmeister 
regards the two as forming only one phyllome. Van Ti^hem, 
who agrees with this determination, quotes in support of it 
the presence of one vascular bundle in the organ. I must 
however adhere to the old statement, that we have to do here 
with a very intimate fusion of two different leaves ; for not only 
in different species of Visaim itself, but also in closely allied 
genera, Eremolepis^ Phoradendran^ &c., the two leaves can be 
so fully isolated that they often show only a faint fusion 

^ Eichler, Bliithendiafi^Tamme, p. 556. 

M 2 

156 Johnson. — On Arccntliobhim Oxycedri. 

at the base, and in these cases the anther returns to the usual 
form of this organ. Also, it sometimes (exceptionally) happens 
in those genera that there are flowers with three perianth- 
leaves and only two stamen -leaves, in which case one of the 
latter is placed in the space between two perianth-leaves; 
certainly the best evidence against Hofmeister's determination. 
The superposition of stamens and perianth-leaves can be ex- 
plained as in Loranthus^,^ In Arcaiihobium the stamen is 
distinct from the perianth-leaf at first, just as it is practically 
throughout life in Eremolepis, The absence of a vascular 
bundle in the stamen finds its counterpart in the evascular 
character of the carpels, which, except for this absence of 
bundles, have all the characteristics of the carpels of a normal 
Angiosperm. It is only by a great strain of comparison that 
the stamens and carpels can be regarded respectively as ligules 
of the perianth- leaves, or as similar to the integument of the 
ovule in Con i ferae — hypotheses which have been advanced 
as favouring an affinity of Loranthaceae with Gymnosperms. 
The comparison of the young and old male flowers of Arccu- 
thobmvi furnishes one more illustration of the representation 
of phylogeny in ontogeny : Arceuthobium, one of the most 
highly modified of the Visceae, passes through a stage in the 
development of its male flower which is permanently repre- 
sented in less modified members of the group ^ (e.g. Ercmolepis), 
Allowing for the decrease in the number of layers composing 
the wall of the pollen-sac, the course of development is normal * 
(Fig. 16). There was however an interval of twelve months 
between the young and old male flowers examined. There 
were no flowers showing stages intermediate between the 
archesporial cells and the nearly ripe pollen-grains. 

6. Vegetative Organs. 

The detailed and fully illustrated description of the vegeta- 

* Eichlcr, liliithcndiagramme, p. 554. 

* Bentham and Hooker, op. cit. on page 138, p. 206. 

^ Goebcl, Outlines of C.'lassif. and Sp. Morphol, p. 362. 

yoJmson, — On Arceulhobiiim Oxycedri. 157 

tivc organs by Solms-Laubach ^ is exhaustive. The course 
and structure of the vascular bundles are described and figured 
by Chatin ^. Objection to the course of the bundles described 
by Chatin is taken by Solms-Laubach, who points out that 
this observer has overlooked the two small lateral vascular 
bundles in the scaly vegetative leaves. The extremly com- 
plicated system of intra-cortical mycelioid branching haustoria 
is shown by Solms-Laubach to be deducible from the 
single primary haustorium of the Santalaceae, just as is the 
case in the other less modified Loranthaceae examined by him. 
The modification wrought by parasitism in Arccuthobium has 
not proceeded pari passu in the vegetative and sexual 
organs. Its intra-matrical vegetative organs present an ex- 
treme of modification, whilst itsgynaeceum is much less affected 
than that of most other Loranthaceae. I could not find 
any purely vegetative specimens in the crowded adventitious 
extra-cortical shoots. The connection between the xylem- 
elements of the parasite and those of the host is easily 
observed. The radial wall of the xylem-tracheide of the 
host is split along the middle lamella, so that the fine 
secondary haustorium with its thin wall has only half the 
thickness of the tracheide-wall on each side intervening 
between it and the cavity of the trachcide. 

The germination of Arceiithobium is unknown. I found one 
or two ejected seeds on pieces of the host-branch, and in one 
the radicle showed a distinct curve towards the host-branch, 
so that Arceuthobium is probably in its hypocotyledonary 
stem negatively heliotropic, and in its root independent of 
geotropism like Viscum albunu 

Of the thirteen species mentioned by Eichler ^ only five or 
six arc regarded as good in the Genera Plantarum of Bentham 
and Hooker, and of these A, Oxycedri is the most widely 

' Solms Laubacb, Ucb. d. Bau u. d. Entwick. d. Emahmogsorganc parasit. 
Phanerog, in Pringshcim's Jahrbiichcr, vi. 1867, p. 615. 

Solms-Laubach, Das Haustorium d. Loranthaceae, etc., in Abh. d. Natnrf. 
Gescll. zu HaUc, xiii. 1875, p. 256. 

* Chatin, Anat. Comp. d. Veg<5taux, Paris, 1856-1862, p. 484, PI. Ixvii. 

' Eichler, M. liiasil. V, Pars 2, p. 105. 

158 Johnson. — On ArceuthoHum OxycedrL 

distributed. The general result of the investigation tends to 
show that in the possibility of the formation of two embryos 
and in habit the affinity of ArceuthoHum to Viscum album 
is closer than was generally supposed ^. 

7. Summary. 

There is found in the ovary at the time of pollination a 
basally attached freely projecting conical ovarian papilla, 
containing two apico-lateral imbedded embryo-sacs in which 
the contents are arranged as in a normal angiosperm. The 
embryo-sacs arise in each case from a single hypodermal 
archesporial cell. The morphological value of the contents of 
the ovary is the same as in Loranthus sphaerocarpus as 
described by Treub, the papilla consisting of the modified 
apex of the floral axis and constituting a placenta bearing two 
buried ovules reduced to embryo-sacs. At no time docs the 
papilla fuse with the wall of the ovary, its apical region 
becomes a pscud-calyptra to the solitary embryo which is 
straight, and has an exscrted radicle without a root-cap. The 
dehiscence of the fruit is due in the end to the rupture of a 
basal horizontal meristematic zone. The seed is covered by 
the endocarp, the most external layer of which consists of 
viscid cells, which are severed at their peripheral (distal) ends 
at ejection of the seed. The sessile anthers in the expanding 
male flower, with a fibrous epidermis and no vascular bundle, 
arc in the young flower seen to be distinct stamens. The 
carpels like the stamens are evascular, and are opposite, not at 
right angles, to the perianth-segments. The only points to be 
added to the complete description of the vegetative organs by 
Solms-Laubach are the absence (in my material) of any 
adventitious purely vegetative shoots, the presence of a con- 
stant connection of the xylem-vessels of the parasite with 
the tracheides of the host, and the cleavage of the radial 
wall of the tracheide of the host by the finest parasite- 

* Jost's paper, Zur Kcnntniss der Bliithenentwicklung der Mistcl, in Botanische 
Zeitung, i888, No. 24, has appeared since this paper was in the press. 

yohnson. — On Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 159 


Illustrating Mr. Johnson's paper on Arceuthobium Oxycedri. 

Fig. I. Longitudinal section of pollinated female flower, through the median 
plane of the perianth-segments. /. s. perianth-segment with vascular bundle. 
s. c. style and stylar canal, formed by the two carpels, o.p, ovarian papilla. 
€. s. embryo-sacs, x 120. 

Fig. 2. Ovarian papilla of Fig. I. e. s. embryo-sac, a vacuole in each. 
0. oosphere. /. /. pollen-tube, penetrating into apex of papilla, ep. /. epidermis 
of papilla. Only the egg-apparatus in e. s. is fully figured, x 1020. 

Fig. 3. Embryo-sac, a little younger than in Fig. a, and from a section of 
the flower made at right angles to the median plane of the perianth segments. 
0. oosphere. a. c. antipodal cells, x 1020. 

Fig. 4. Longitudinal section of the * ovule.* /. /. primary tapetum cell divided 
/. s. uninucleate embryo-sac. s. c. two sister-cells of embryo-sac. x 480. 

Fig. 5. Longitudinal section of ovarian papilla showing embryo-sac in same 
stage as Fig. 4. 0. p. ovarian papilla, e. s. embryo-sac. f . w. 0. inner surface 
of wall of ovary between which and the papilla is the cavity, x 480. 

Fig. 6. Transverse section of a female flower through the ovarian papilla. 
e, s. the two embryo-aacs opposite the * fused * perianth-segments, v. h. vascular 
bundle of/, s. the perianth-segment, o.p. ovarian papilla, x 120. 

Fig. 7. Transverse section of female flower through the style to show the two 
carpels opposite the two perianth-lobes, c. the carpel, s. c. the stylar canal. 
/. s. perianth-segment, x 1 20. 

Fig. 8. Ripe fruit in surface view. a. the zone of dehiscence, b. the line of 
separation between the sclerotic cells of the mesocarp {a . , b) and the ordinary 
parenchyma of the pericarp. The dotted lines indicate the stalk of the fruit enclosed 
in a pair of scaly leaves, x 1 2. 

Fig. 9. The same fruit in section, endtn, endosperm, emb, embryo, v. s. viscid 
cells of endocarp. rn. c. crushed cells of mesocarp. x 14. 

Fig. ID. Longitudinal section of an ejected seed. endp. inner part of endocarp. 
a, 0, p. apical part of ovarian papilla, b, 0. p. basal part of ovarian papilla. 
V. c, viscid cells now open at outer ends, emb, embryo, endm, endosperm, x 120. 

Fig. II. A little of the basal part of the pericarp dotted line at a in Fig. 9. 
5. m, c. sclerotic cells of mesocarp. a, the meristematic zone at the base of the 
fruit, endm. endosperm, x 480. 

Fig. 1 2. Apical part of viscid cells in longitudinal section, showing connection 
with the crushed mcsocarp*celIs, m. c. p.v.c, dilated peripheral end of viscid 
cell, m', c. nncrushed mesocarp-cells. /. c. line of cleavage of viscid cells at 
ejection of seed, x 1020. 

Fig. 13. Longitudinal section through two stamens of male flower just before 
ex^>ansion. /. s, perixmth-segmcnt. st. stamen, v. b. vascular bundle. 

i6o yohnson. — On Arceuthobtum Oxycedri. 

Fig. 13, cont. In the evascular stamens, the fibrous wall, the remains of the 
tapetum, and a few pollen-grains are shown, x 120. 

Fig. 14. A nearly ripe pollen-grain. Exine, intine, large spheroidal Tegetative 
nucleus and fusiform generative nucleus were all very distinct, x 480. 

Fig. 15. Longitudinal section of a very young male flower. /. s, perianth- 
segment. St. stamen distinct from perianth-segment, Jl. still younger male 
flowers. X 50. 

Fig. 16. A part of the same more highly magnified, p. s., si, as in Fig 15. 
archp, archesporium-cells dividing into tapetum and mother-cells of spores. 
X 1020. 

Annals /ifSolayy 


3 ^^ f%. ' 


-.veriitj Hinij .f.-.Ti 


On the development of the Aleurone-grains 
in the Lupin. 


A. B. RENDLE, B.A., 

St, John's College t Cambridge, 


With Plate X. B. 


T^HE formation of aleurone-grains, the characteristic 
proteid reserve-material found in seeds, was studied 
by Pfeffer^ sixteen years ago. According to his results, 
the mineral contents, crystals of calcium oxalate, or the 
' globoids ' of double phosphate of lime and magnesia, first 
make their appearance in the cell-sap, and then, singly or 
in groups, act as centres of attraction for the proteid matter, 
which, as the seed in ripening loses water, is precipitated 
from the turbid cell-sap. Where proteid crystalloids occur, 
they too appear in the cell-sap simultaneously with the 
inorganic solids. 

In describing their development in Lupin (referring more 
especially to L. polyphylliis\ Pfeffer says, *The protoplasmic 
strands having been converted into ground-substance, the 
resulting arrangement might at first sight easily suggest the 
idea that the protoplasm becomes a parenchymatous network 
whose meshes form moulds for the immigrating metaplasmic 
substance. But the history of development is opposed to 
such a conclusion.' 

It would appear, however, at any rate in Lupinus digitatus 
which has been investigated in the present instance, that this 

> Priagsheim's Jahrb. for W'issenschaft. Bot. Bd. 8. 1873. 
[Annals of Botany, VoU II. No. VI. Auguat 1888. ] 

1 62 Rendle. — On the development of 

rejected idea is more nearly correct than the conclusion at 
which Pfeffer eventually arrives, inasmuch as the grains are 
evidently actually secreted by and in the protoplasm itself. 

Until the cotyledons completely fill the seed-coat, there 
is no trace of the aleurone-grains ; the cells contain a con- 
spicuous nucleus slung in the centre by thick protoplasmic 
bridles or sometimes lying in the parietal protoplasm. In 
the latter is the layer of chlorophyll-corpuscles in which 
small grains of starch appear, which, by gradual increase in 
size and number, have filled the corpuscles by the time the 
cotyledons have filled the seed-coat. When this stage is 
reached the seed begins to swell and its outline can be traced 
through the pod. If we examine sections of the cotyledons 
at this stage, the cells are seen to contain small spherical 
or oval bodies partly or wholly projecting from the granular 
protoplasm, whether the parietal layer, or that surrounding 
the nucleus or forming the connecting bridles (Fig. i). These 
bodies at first appear as little convex protrusions, but rapidly 
increase in size till spherical or oval bodies are formed more 
or less embedded in the protoplasm. They stain deeply, more 
so than the protoplasm itself, with iodine, haematoxylin, 
Hofmann's blue, and eosin, and the staining is perfectly homo- 
geneous. Nowhere in the cell is there any suspicion of solid 
mineral matter ; crystals of calcium oxalate and globoids are 
alike absent. 

If a section be mounted in iodine and watched while 
dilute potash (i per cent, or 5 per cent solutions were used) 
is run under the cover-slip, the bodies are seen to swell up 
considerably, and project into the vacuole, while the sub- 
stance contained in them evidently dissolves. In the now 
very transparent section their fine clear distended outlines 
are seen to be in continuity with the protoplasm. If we now 
carefully wash, by drawing a little water through, and then 
run in iodine, the section shrinks and again becomes stained, 
but the deeply staining bodies have gone ; we can still see 
however, especially in the uncompressed cells towards the out- 
side, the delicate stained protoplasmic membranes in perfect 

Aleurom-grains in the Lupin, 163 

continuity with the rest of the protoplasm and enclosing 
the cavities from which the soluble matter has been abstracted 
(Fig. 2). It is therefore evident that the above-mentioned 
bodies consist of some substance, presumably proteid, soluble 
in dilute potash, which has been secreted by and in the 

If sections be similarly treated with 10 per cent, or saturated 
solutions of common salt or potassium phosphate, the bodies 
merely swell up somewhat but are not dissolved, and, if 
washed in water, even after lying for twenty hours in the 
salt solutions, appear quite unaltered, i per cent, and 10 
per cent, solutions of hydrochloric acid, even after twenty 
hours' action, only cause slight swelling. The bodies therefore 
differ in solubility from the grains of the ripe seed, which are 
completely and at once soluble in such solutions. 

After solution a perfectly clear space is seen to remain, 
and there is no sig^ whatever of crystalline or globoid 

These bodies, which, as the sequel shows, are the primitive 
alcurone-grains, increase in size and number and soon fill up 
the vacuole, so that the cell contains within the parietal layer 
of protoplasm a number of roundish grains quite separated 
from each other by a protoplasmic reticulum, made up of the 
bridles and the membranes originally separating the secretion 
from the vacuole. By watching a section in which this stage 
has not quite been reached, while dilute potash is run under 
the slip, the limiting protoplasmic membranes of adjacent or 
opposite masses of the secretion are seen to swell out and 
meet to form what has now every appearance of a proto- 
plasmic strand, indicating how the same would take place in 
the ordinary process of growth. Near the centre, or sometimes 
at the side, is seen the nucleus, which is becoming more or 
less compressed by the growing grains ; these relations are 
clearly brought out by iodine, and the protoplasmic network 
demonstrated by running in dilute potash which at once 
dissolves the grains, leaving quite empty cavities. 

By the time the vacuole has been nearly filled up, a dif- 

164 Rendle. — On tJie development of 

ference in solubility is noticed, the grains now reacting like 
those of ripe seeds, dissolving completely in 10 per cent, and 
saturated solutions of common salt and potassium phosphate, 
and also in i per cent, of hydrochloric acid, though still insoluble 
in water. One gets sometimes preparations in an intermediate 
state with the grains only partly soluble, even after twenty 
hours' exposure to the reagent. It has been shown ^ that the 
aleurone-grains of ripe seeds contain several distinct proteids 
belonging to the albumose and globulin groups, and the 
change in solubility during development may be the ex- 
pression of the breaking down of some complex proteid 
substance, originally secreted by the protoplasm, into the 
several simpler proteids known to occur in the ripe seed, 
and it is during this process that one would expect the 
separation of solid mineral constituents to take place in 
cases where they are found in the ripe seed. The grains 
continue to increase in size but are at first rather watery, 
and in absolute alcohol material show a vacuolation, probably 
due to the reagent, the denser part forming an external ring, 
or very often collecting chiefly on one side and forming a 
crescent (Fig. 4); the ring or crescent stains well with the 
above-mentioned dyes, while the portion inside remains clear. 
On solution, however, the denser portion is seen gradually to 
diffuse throughout the whole, forming a homogeneous stnic- 
ture (Fig. 5) ; when this stage is reached the seed is beginning 
to get ripe, as indicated by the end of the radicle turning 
yellow. As ripening goes on the denser part encroaches 
more and more on the clearer, and by the time the yellow 
coloration has extended up the radicle and is affecting the 
cotyledons, the majority of the grains have again come to 
stain homogeneously, as in the ripe seed, indicating increase 
in quantity of the denser part and loss of water of the grain 
coincident with the general drying of the seed. The proto- 
plasm has meanwhile been diminishing, and the starch-grains 
have by the end of this process disappeared, drops of oil 

^ Vines, Journal of Physiology, 111, i8Si. 

Aleurone-grains in the Lupin. 165 

having however been formed. In the ripe seed the grains, 
which are roundish or somewhat angular through mutual 
compression, are still separated by a protoplasmic network 
in which oil-drops occur, while starch is wanting. Hanstein's 
solution brings out the network and nucleus very well, 
staining these a deep violet, while the grains scarcely stain 
at all (Fig. 7). 

Solid inorganic constituents were repeatedly sought for, 
but without success. Sections of the ripe seed, from which 
the oil had been removed by ether, were treated on a slide 
with I per cent, of potash, which was allowed to diffuse in so as 
not to wash away any small globoids which might be present ; 
individual cells or grains were carefully watched meanwhile, 
sometimes under Zeiss* F objective, at others under the D, 
but in all cases an empty space was left in the protoplasmic 
network after solution. Some granules scattered over the 
section, but especially, and almost exclusively, near the few 
cell-layers with very granular contents beneath the epidermis, 
and with no definite relation to the grains, proved to be small 
starch-grains washed out from these cells. No crystals could 
be detected by double refraction when such a section was 
examined under a polarising microscope. Hence we may 
conclude that the aleurone-grains of Lupinus digitatus have 
no solid mineral contents. From the forgoing facts it ap- 
pears that the presence of mineral matter is of very secondary 
importance in the development of the grains, whereas in the 
process as described by PfefTer the mineral matter was es- 
sential, forming the point of attraction for the aggregation 
of the proteid. But PfefTer's suggestion is too mechanical, 
and moreover gives no reason whatever for the fact that the 
grains in the ripe seed are always embedded in a protoplasmic 
matrix ; they should rather be lying loose in the vacuole. 

The earliest stage, namely, secretion in the protoplasm of 
matter soluble only in dilute potash, has also been observed 
to occur in precisely the same way as above described in 
another species of lupin (?Z. varius). 

It is most interesting to note that the development of 

1 66 Rendu. — On the development of 

aleurone-grains described here corresponds most closely with 
the manner of secretion of mucilage as lately described * by 
Gardiner and Ito in the glandular hairs of Blechnum and 
Osmunda ; in both cases the secretion is strictly intrapro- 
toplasmic, both the aleurone-grains and mudlage-drops more- 
over remaining, after secretion, quite separate in a reticulum 
of protoplasm. In both cases too there is some chemical 
change in the originally secreted substance, before the final 
product is formed. 

The seeds used in these investigations were preserved in 
absolute alcohol ; % per cent, chromic acid material shows 
the early stages very well, but as the grains begin to increase 
in size, the cells are seen to be full of empty rings, an ap- 
pearance which is maintained up to the time when the seed 
is fully ripe ; the grains are moreover rendered quite insoluble, 
even in the ripe seed, in salt solutions and 5 per cent, potash. 
By placing sections of the ripe seeds, preserved in alcohol, in 
% per cent, of chromic acid solution, the homogeneous grains 
are converted into rings, which now resist for several minutes 
the action of 5 per cent potash and remain undissolved, even 
after twenty hours, in saturated salt solution. 

The development of aleurone-grains in general is obviously 
not completely indicated above, as no account is taken of the 
time and manner of appearance of the globoid and crystalloid, 
which may both be present, as e.g. in Ricinus communis^ 
though Lupinus digitaitis has neither. I hope to work out 
these points also, in the summer, when material can be 

To judge from the titled which alone I have seen, and 
that only a few days since, my results agree with those 
arrived at in a paper by Wakker. 

* Annals of Botany, I. i. 1887. 

' ' Aleuronkorrels zijn vacaolen/ in Maandblad voor Natunrweteoschappen, 
Nos. 5 and 6, 1887. 

A leur one-grains in the Lupin. 167 


Illustrating Mr. Rendle's paper on the development of Aleorone-grains in the 


Fig. I. First stage in formation of alenrone-grains in Lupinus digitatus. Drawn 
from a preparation stained with Hofmann's bine. Portion m, unshaded, not in 
focus. The bodies mentioned in the text are line-shaded. Zeiss' D objective and 
ocular 4. n, the nucleus. 

Fig. 2. Same stage as the last, showing the little pockets in the protoplasm from 
which the secretion has been dissolved out by dilute KOH. Now in iodine. The 
swollen starch-grains shaded dark, a and b same magnification as in Fig. i. c under 
F objective, if, the nucleus. 

Fig. 3. A little older than the above, grains filling up the vacuole, a and b both 
£rom preparations stained with Hofinann's blue ; b, after action of dilute KOH 
showing the protoplasmic network. D objective, ocular 4. Colourless starch- 
grains seen in the protoplasm lining the wall. 

Fig. 4. The growing grains largely fill the cell. In it are seen the grains 
vacuolated as described in the text, and colourless starch-grains in protoplasm, 
after staining with Hofoiann*s blue, b, after solution of grains with dilute KOH, 
and staining of protoplasmic network with iodine. Swollen starch-grains lining 
the ¥rall. if, the nucleus. D objective, ocular 4. c k little older than it. 

Fig. 5. Shows progress of solution of two vacuolated grains, in dilute KOH on 
the left, in 10 per cent, of salt solution on the right. D objective, ocular 4. 

Fig. 6. From a nearly ripe seed, a, a cell before, b, one after action of dilute 
KOH. a shows the deeply and homogeneously stained grains, b the protoplasmic 
matrix and nucleus, n. The colourless drops are oil. D objective, ocular 4. 

Fig. 7. From a quite ripe seed stained with Hanstein's solution. Nucleus and 
protoplasmic matrix have stained a deep violet, the wall a lighter colour, the 
grains almost perfectly colourless, n, nucleus. D objective, ocular a. 

On the structure of Spongocladia^ Aresck. 
(Spongodendron, Zanard.\ with an account 
of new forms. 



Stnior Assistant, Department of Botany, British Museum, 




(With Woodcuts 8, 9, 10, and n.) 


UNDER the name of Spongodendrotty Zanardini^ established 
in 1878 a genus of Siphoneae from specimens collected 
by Dr. Beccari in New Guinea. In the course of the work 
of one of us at the above group, it became necessary to see 
specimens or drawings of this type which should give more 
information than the short description in the Nuovo Giomale. 
On applying to Dr. Beccari, he at once with the greatest 
kindness and courtesy sent specimens of the two species 
5. crassum and 6'. dichotomum described by Zanardini. On 
examination they proved to belong to the remarkable genus 
Spongocladia of Areschoug, described by him in 1853*. Only 
one species of this genus, 6". vaucheriaefarmis^ has been re- 
corded hitherto, and specimens of it collected at Mauritius 
(whence Areschoug's material came) by Col. Pike are in 
the herbaria of the British Museum and Kew. Spongocladia 
can hardly be said to be siphoneous, and so it follows that 

' Phyceae Papuanae novae, etc., in Nnovo Giora. Bot. Ital. x. 
' Oversigt af Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandl. Stockholm. 
[ Asmala of Botany, VoL II. No. VL Aosust x888.] 



Murray and Boodle. — On the 

Zanardini's genus is not only merged in Areschoug's, but the 
type disappears from the group of Siphoneae. At first sight, 
however, it looks so like certain members of the group that 
there is ample room for mistake. It may be recalled indeed 
in justification of Zanardini^s opinion that in 1886 one of 
the present writers found with the Kew specimens of 
S. vaucheriaeformis a note by the late Professor Dickie, pro- 
posing to found on them a new species of Rhipilia — though 

subsequent examination, as 
shown by his own her- 
barium in the British Mu- 
seum, enabled him to cor- 
rectly place the form under 
Areschoug's name, which it 
bears in his published list 
of Algae of Mauritius ^ 
This likeness will be under- 
stood from the following 

The thallus of S, vau- 
chcriaeformis consists, as 
Areschoug pointed out, of 
long, filiform tubes so inter- 
woven as to form a number 
of irregularly dichotomous 
branches, the whole recalling 
in appearance a digitate 
sponge. These branches are 

tr- o 171 ^ e OM 1 J' of the thickness of well- 

Fig. 8. Filament of Spongociaaia van- 

cheriaeformis, Aresch. grown Specimens of Codium 

tofnentostitn^ though another species about to be described re- 
sembles this Alga much more strikingly. The tubes of which 
the branches are composed are septate below, and short lateral 
branches are given off at about right angles from the cells, 
often on the same side of the filament from three or four 

* Linn. Soc. Journ. Bot. xiv. 

Structure of Spongocladia, Aresch. 171 

successive cells, their insertion being sometimes at the 
upper end, as in Cladophora, or the middle. At times, 
however, the diameter of a branch is nearly as great as the 
length of the cell from which it takes its origin. The lateral 
branches, which are sometimes again branched irregularly, 
probably serve to bind more closely t<:^ether the interwoven 
filaments. This function is more effectually performed by 
certain other branches which become permanently attached 
to the surface of adjacent tubes by numerous, short, rhizoid 
processes. This possibly explains the anastomosing described 
by Zanardini. Above the septate portion of the filament 

Fig. 9. Portion of fil&mmt of Spvngo- Fig. lo. Zoospores of Sfengodadia 
iladia vatuheriatformis, showing obli- vatakeriaiforniis gennuuting is situ 
tentioD of lamen. (after Areiclioug). 

there is commonly found one cell longer than the others, and 
above that again the main portion of the tube — the terminal 
cell — of great length without cross-partition of any kind, and 
very closely resembling in this respect as well as in its com- 
paratively great diameter, and the nature of its contents, 
the tubes of a Vauckeria. Throughout the course of the 
tube it is much wrinkled lengthwise. Some of the wrinkling 
is probably due to drying, but there are also finer markings 
which seem to represent fibrillar thickening of the cell-wall. 
This structure is seen when a filament has been broken by 
stretching, and fine threads are left projecting from the 
broken edge. Areschoug's figure 5 shows the cell-wall rc- 
N a 

1 72 Murray atid Boodle. — On (he 

solved into Rbrillae by the action of sulphuric acid. The 
cell-wall in the older parts of the filaments is very much 
thickened, and in optical section shows numerous layers of 
stratification without the use of a reagent. This thickening 
frequently goes so far as to nearly obliterate the lumen, and 
sometimes this actually happens (Fig. 8). 

Areschoug figures what he regards as zoospores germinating 
in situ in a terminal cell. We have observed an appearance 
which must be a later stage of the process. Here two inter- 
calary cells, which arc about twice their diameter in length, 
are filled with a densely packed mass of tubular cells with 
delicate walls, containing chlorophyll. Owing to the crowding 
of the mass it could not be distinctly resolved, but it appeared 
to consist of rather elongated and interwoven 
tubes. Possibly a small colony of tubes is 
formed by the division of the contents into 
zoospores, which germinate inside the mother- 
cell, and increase in size until they burst 
it. Zanardini mentions terminal and other 
coniocysts. We are not quite sure what he 
does mean, but on lateral branches globular 
terminal cells occur here and there which 
may possibly have a reproductive function. 

The appearance however which we venture 
to think possesses special interest is pre- 

, sented by the groups of siliceous spicules 
Fie- II- Filament of . . . ,^ „ , ^ , 

S(ons«ladia vBHthi- which plentifully strew the course of the 

^iT^"^^^TZ t"bes. These were noted by Areschoug, 

cboue} and also the further fact that the grey 

compact appearance of the apical portions of the branches 

is owing to the dense occurrence of these (obviously) sponge- 

spiculcs — which moreover cause the whole thallus to feel 

hard to the touch — like a fresh sponge in short. Areschoug 

does not appear to have satisfied himself as to the origin 

of these spicules beyond supposing that they belong to 

a sponge. They are manifestly far more abundant than is 

consistent with a merely accidental presence. Mr. Kirkpatrick 

Structure of Spongocladia, Aresch, 1 73 

of the department of Zoology, British Museum, kindly 
undertook to compare them with the spicules of other 
sponges, with the result that he found them to agree most 
closely with the spicules of a Halichondrine sponge. Not 
only this, but traces were soon discovered in abundance of 
the presence of the sponge itself, especially investing the 
whole of the apical portions of the branches of the thallus, 
giving them that characteristic grey and compact appearance 
already noted. Each branch bears therefore, without ex- 
ception, a cap of sponge bristling with spicules, and from 
the presence of these throughout the whole body of the 
Alga it may be inferred that with the growth of the branch 
the cap is carried upward, while groups of spicules and 
portions of sponge remain attached to the sides of the 
tubes. Of course, it is not to be forgotten that sponges 
frequently are to be found on Algae, and Mr. Kirkpatrick 
showed us, as being much to the point, Halichrondria panicea 
growing on Janiay as it may be seen on our own shores. 
In Spongocladia^ however, there is an intimate relation of 
sponge with Alga of such a character as to suggest at least 
further inquiry. Accordingly the specimens of Spongadcndron 
were brought into evidence. They came from another part 
of the world — from New Guinea. These, as has been said, 
are of two kinds, 5. crassum, Zanard., which we find indis- 
tinguishable from Spongocladia vaucheriaeformis^ by which 
name it will now be known, and S. dichotomumy Zanard., 
which now becomes Spongocladia dichotoma^ Nob. 

In this New-Guinea specimen of S. vaucheriaeformis {Spongo^ 
dendron crassttnty Zanard.) we have been unable to find in the 
limited portion at our disposal any trace either of an apical cap 
of sponge or indeed of sponge-tissue. But here again sponge- 
spicules are abundant, though not so much so as in the 
Mauritius specimens. The spicules are those of another 
sponge. In 5. dichotoma from the same locality spicules 
also are present to much the same extent, and they are 
those of yet another sponge. (It may be mentioned here 
that in 5. dichotoma the walls are thinner and the septation 

1 74 Murray and Boodle. — On the 

and branching of the filaments less frequent.) In addition to 
these forms Dr. Grunow very kindly sent us another species, 
not hitherto published, which he had collected in New Cale- 
donia, which we have described under his name of 5. neo- 
cakdonica. Its habit is more diffuse, and in fact the thallus 
can hardly be described as branching at all. The filaments 
which compose it are of great diameter and contain abundance 
of starch. In this form we find still fewer spicules and no 
trace of sponge. The spicules here again belong to a sponge 
different from all the others. 

Are we to regard this occurrence of sponge and of sponge- 
spicules in all these instances as accidental ? Taken by itself, 
the case of 5. neocaledonica, for example, we confess might 
easily be so explained. Taken together with these other 
forms from other parts of the world in which spicules were 
more abundant than they usually are on Algae growing 
among sponges ; taken especially with the case of S. 
vaucheriaeformis^ we venture to think the subject presents 
another aspect. It is possible that we have here some bio- 
logical relation between sponge and Alga. Farther than this 
suggestion of inquiry we should not be justified in going on 
the material at our command. It would certainly be inter- 
esting to know whether such biological relation, if any, is 
concerned with nutritive adaptation. 

We append a systematic account of the genus, in which 
we have adopted so far as possible the descriptions of 
Areschoug and Zanardini. Areschougs generic characters 
have been so amended as to admit S. neocaUdonica, As to 
its systematic position it is scarcely advisable to speak very 
definitely, but it certainly appears to come nearer Cladophora 
than any other type known to us. 

Spongocladia. — Aresch. in Oversigt af Kongl. Vetensk. 
Akad. Forhandl. 1853. 

Alga viridis, adnata, filis cellularibus laxe implexis con- 
tcxta. Fila unica cellularum serie constructa, inferne parce 

Structure of Spongocladia, A resch. 1 7 5 

ramosa, acrogenia ; cellulae inferiores breviores, superiores 
longissimae, tubuliformes, vaucheriaeformes, utraeque intus 
granulis chlorophyllinis vestitae. Schizogonidia seu zoo- 
sporae in cellulis tubuliformibus formatae. 

Syn. Spongodendron^ Zanard. Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. x. 

P- 37- 

1. S. VAUCHERIAEFORMIS, Aresch. loc. Clt. 

Thallus extus coloris griseo-flavescentis 1. griseo-albidi, 
intus viridis, 3-4 pollicaris, caespitosus, a basi digitato-dicho- 
tomus, 2-4 lineas crassus, teres 1. compressus, apicibus nunc 
subattenuatis, nunc incrassatis I. incrassato-truncatis. 

Syn. Spongodendron crassum^ Zanard. loc. cit. 

Hab. ad litora insulae Mauritii, Lithothamniis innascens 
(Areschoug; Pike I) et ad Sorong (non ins. Am) Nova 
Guinea (Beccari I). 

2. S. DICHOTOMA, Nob. 

Thallus gracilis, filiformis, irregulariter dichotomus, seg- 
mentis elongatis distantibus ad axillas parum dilatatis, hue 
illuc invicem conglutinatis, apice valde attenuatis, fills fron- 
dem constitucntibus tenuioribus conspicue articulatis. Facies 
omnino Codii tomentosi, 

Syn. Spongodendroii dichotomum^ Zanard. loc. cit. 

Hab. ad Sorong, Nova Guinea (non ins. Aru) (Beccari !). 

3. S. NEOCALEDONICA, Grun. in litt. 

Thallus compactus, vix ramosus, extus coloris griseo- 
flavescentis, intus viridis, 2-3 pollicaris ; filis frondem con- 
stitucntibus crassis, baud in ramos distinctos implicatis. 

Hab. ad Poro, Nova Caledonia (Grunowl). Prope litus, 
aqua non semper obtecta, crescens. 

Notes on the Geological History of the Recent 
Flora of Britain. 



HAVING had occasion some years since to study the 
plants of our latest Pliocene deposit — the Cromer 
Forest-bed — and more recently the flora of several deposits 
between that ancient period and the present time — I thought 
it would be of interest to collect any information that might 
throw light on the questions : What plants are truly native ? 
What are the variations of climate that the plants show? 
What can we learn as to differences of geographical dis- 
tribution of the living species in past times ? 

Of course these questions will take many years of work to 
answer, but the material already collected seems of sufficient 
importance to justify the publication of the following notes. 

Instead, therefore, of attempting at present to analyse the 
flora of the different beds or periods, as originally intended, 
these notes have been put together in the form of a record of 
anything that is known of the geological history of each 

A good many plants have been incidentally recorded from 
old alluvial deposits in archaeological or geological papers, 
but I have commonly found that the specimens were lost, or 
were never preserved, or still more often were never properly 
determined. It has therefore been necessary to confine these 
notes to specimens that I have examined, and which may still 
be found in some collection, so that any mistakes can be 
rectified. The only exceptions are in favour of a few species 
recorded by competent botanists. 

With regard to the beds from which the plants were 

(Annala of Botany, VoL IL No. VL August 188B. ] 

1 78 Rdd. — Notes on the Geological History 

obtained, only those are included that date from a period 
previous to the Roman occupation. This limit was fixed on 
the ground that the Roman invasion and the constant going 
to and fro which followed it, must have gfreatly assisted the 
spread of weeds of cultivation. Of course many weeds of 
cultivation must have come in at an earlier period, when 
cereals were first introduced, but nearly all the deposits from 
which plants have been examined, seem to be of a much more 
ancient date. The newest ' submei^ed forest ' is probably the 
most modern deposit from which material has been obtained, 
and this submergence dates fully 3000 years since. 

To the officers of the botanical department of the British 
Museum, especially to Mr. Carruthers and Mr. Ridley, I am 
indebted for much assistance in the determination of many of 
the more obscure fossils. The specimens being usually only 
seeds, or the hard parts of the fruit, often strangely altered in 
decay, this has been a very difficult task. The specific 
determination is comparatively easy, but it is sometimes very 
difficult to obtain a first clue in the form of an ordinal or 
generic character, very similar seeds sometimes occurring 
in several different orders — e,g, Car>'ophylleae and Chenopo- 
diaceac. Mr. Carruthers has kindly undertaken the deter- 
mination of the Grasses, so the species of that order are given 
on his authority. 

Specimens have been received from so many sources, that 
it is impossible here to mention all of them. The most 
important contributions were those from Mr. Jas. Bennie, of 
the Geological Survey of Scotland, who has most industriously 
collected the seeds and other fossils from a number of Scotch 
Pleistocene deposits. These specimens are all preserved in 
the collection of the Geological Survey in Edinburgh^. 

From other Scotch localities I have received specimens 
from Messrs. David Robertson, J. C. Howden, Robert Craig, 
and Thomas Scott, and also from the Hunterian Museum at 

' By permission of the Director-General I have been enabled to make use of the 
material in the preparation of these notes. 

of the Recent Flora of Britain. 1 79 

The specimens from Southampton Dock were received from 
Mr. Whitaker ; those from the Tilbury and Albert Docks 
from Mr. Spurrell. Those from other English localities are 
nearly all of my own collecting. 

Age of the Plant-bearing Deposits. 

Roughly, the deposits from which plants have been obtained 
may be divided into Postglacial, Interglacial^ and Pre- 

The first group includes the * submerged forests/ and con- 
temporaneous upland deposits; raised marine deposits, like 
the Clyde beds ; and beds with arctic plants, lying directly 
above the latest boulder clay of the district. This group is 
apparently separated from the next one by a period of intense 

The second group includes all beds which underlie boulder 
clay, but are newer than the Cromer Forest-bed. These are 
cut off from both the newer and older deposits by periods of 
intense cold and glaciation. With these may be classed the 
bed with arctic plants which underlies the lowest boulder- 
clay in Norfolk. 

The third group contains the Cromer Forest-bed, which 
underlies all the glacial deposits, and forms the highest 
portion of the Pliocene formation. 

It is not suggested that the different beds in each group are 
exactly contemporaneous, but that they occupy somewhat 
similar positions in the series. For instance, further study 
may show that there are several interglacial periods grouped 
together in section a, but at present I see no means of 
separating them. Some of the postglacial deposits in the 
south of England may also be equivalent to interglacial 
deposits further north. But this point also cannot yet be 

Commencing with the newest group, the prehistoric peat of 
the mountain districts has been very imperfectly searched, the 
only sample examined beii^ one given me by my colleague, 

i8o Reid. — Notes on the Geological History 

Mr. George Barrow. This was obtained thirteen feet down in 
the peat at Corb, in the Highlands, at a height of over 1400 
feet above the sea. It yielded a few upland plants^ but only 
species still found in similar situations. 

At the base of similar hill-peats in the Yorkshire moors, 
large well-grown oaks are found, but the associated seeds have 
not been collected, and it is doubtful whether the oaks alone 
are sufficient evidence of a change of climate. 

From the raised marine deposits with arctic shells bordering 
the Firth of Clyde, I have determined fifteen species, prin- 
cipally sent me by Mr. Thomas Scott and Mr. Bennie. 
Though associated with a decidedly northern marine fauna, 
there is nothing arctic about the plants. At that time the 
temperature of the air was apparently higher than that of the 
sea in the Clyde district. The plants, though few, are interest- 
ing, for they include dry-land forms — such as Bartsia Odontites 
and Thymus Serpyllunt — not known from any other localities. 

The * submerged forests ' and associated deposits in Holder- 
ness yield a few species, all still living in the district. But 
from another bed in the same part of Yorkshire, Betula nana 
has been obtained, at Bridlington by Dr. A. G. Nathorst, and 
at Holmpton by myself. 

In Norfolk a few plants occur in a postglacial river-deposit 
at Mundesley, associated with the elephant and river-tortoise ; 
and Mr. H. N. Ridley and I have lately obtained a number of 
others from Hoxne, but have not yet finished the de- 

From peat below the sea-level at the Albert and Tilbury 
Docks, I have received a few specimens from Mr. Spurrell. 
All the species are still living in the neighbourhood. 

A sample of similar peat from Southampton Docks, given 
me by Mr. Whitaker, yielded a few widely distributed 

The different localities from which interglacial plants have 
been obtained are nearly all in Scotland. This is largely due 
to the thorough way in which the Scotch glacial deposits 
have been searched, for similar beds certainly occur in England, 

of the Recent Flora of Britain. 1 8 1 

though the plants of the only one I have been able to examine 
were nearly all too much decayed for determination. 

Kilmaurs, in Ayrshire, is probably the most celebrated of 
these interglacial deposits^. Here, beneath a thick bed of 
till, and associated with a tusk of mammoth, a number of 
seeds were found. Mr. John Young, of the Hunterian 
Museum, has given me the opportunity of examining the 
original specimens, and I have also received some others from 
Mr. Bennie. The number of species, however, only amounts 
to six, all plants of wide range. 

The most interesting, botanically, of all the Scotch inter- 
glacial deposits are found at Redhall and Hailes quarries, 
about three miles from Edinburgh. 

The peaty mud at the first of these localities occurs beneath 
a mass of boulder clay, the position of which both Dr. Arch. 
Geikie and Mr. Howell assure me cannot be accounted for by 
any landslip or similar cause. This question it was very 
important to settle, for a large number of species occur in the 
interglacial peat at Redhall, that are elsewhere unrecorded in 
a fossil state from beds of any age. Two of these species till 
now have been considered recent introductions into Britain. 

Through the industry of Mr. Bennie, we can now form a 
very good idea of the flora of this period, for he has sent me 
the fruits and seeds of no less than forty-six species of flower- 
ing plants from Redhall, besides ten or fifteen not yet deter- 
mined. They occur, associated with elytra of beetles and 
caddis-cases, felted together with Mosses. There are no 
mollusca or mammals, but probably the peaty water has dis- 
solved all calcareous oi^anisms. It is to be hoped that before 
long Mr. Bennie may be able to publish a full account of his 
interesting discoveries in these interglacial deposits. 

The whole of the plants from Redhall are still native of the 
Scotch lowlands, with the exception of Gakopsis Tetrahit and 
Carum Carui, However, the recent distribution of these two 
species makes it surprising, not that they are found fossil in 
an interglacial deposit in Britain, but rather that they are not 

* See R. Craig and John Young, in Trans. Geol. Soc, Glasgow, toI. iii. p. 310. 

1 82 Reid. — Notes on the Geological History 

truly natives of Britain now, if such really be the case. Still, 
it must not be forgotten that the occurrence of a plant in these 
interglacial beds^ does not prove that it ought to be accepted 
as a native of this country in postglacial times, though it may 
be good evidence that it was not first brought to this country 
as a weed of cultivation. Between the interglacial and post- 
glacial periods there occurred a period of glaciation, during 
which a large portion, probably most, of the native plants were 
exterminated, to be reintroduced when the climate ameliorated. 

The peaty bed from which the plants were obtained in the 
neighbouring quarry of Hailes, though probably of about the 
same age, does not now lie under boulder clay. However, in 
a letter dated September a^th, 1887, Mr. Bennie writes that 
* Hailes quarry is very large, and in the south side of it a few 
years ago there was exposed a peat bed interbedded in 
boulder clay, as described and figured in "Prehistoric Europe" * 
[by Prof. James Geikie]. The occurrence of Salix herbacea 
and abundance of Isoetes^ neither of which are found in the 
neighbourhood now, shows that the peat is, at any rate, no 
modem deposit, and I think it may be classed provisionally 
with the interglacial beds. It is unfortunate that the bed of 
peat actually under boulder-clay is not now visible, and can- 
not be searched for plants. 

Mr. Bennie has sent me twenty-five species of flowering 
plants from Hailes, besides several still undetermined. With the 
two exceptions already mentioned, they are species still found 
in the lowlands, though the absence of all, except such as 
have a considerable northward range, is suggestive of a climate 
somewhat colder than that of the south of Scotland at the 
present day. The flora of the extreme north of Scotland is 
more similar. 

A similar peaty bed between two masses of boulder-clay 
has recently been described by Mr. Robert Dunlop, as occur- 
ring at Airdrie, near Greenock^. Through the kindness of 
Mr. Dunlop and Mr. Bennie I have been able to examine the 
plants, but find the flora is poor, the majority of the specimens 

* Sec Trans. Gcol. Soc., Glasgow, 

^ of the Recent Flora of Britain. 183 

belonging to two species, Hipptiris vulgaris and Carex rostrata. 
The occurrence of Betula nana gives a somewhat northern 
character to this flora. 

There is one other deposit which provisionally, and with 
great hesitation, has been placed in the interglacial division. 
This is the well-known peaty bed of Cowden Glen, in Renfrew- 
shire, so well described in Mr. Craig s paper ^. At the present 
day this old lacustrine deposit certainly lies beneath a boulder- 
clay, but the question has arisen — to what extent is this 
overlying boulder-clay merely the remains of a landslip? 
The bed is certainly ancient, for it contains remains of the 
Megaceros and Bos primigenius ; but Mr. John Young points 
to the landslips that still occur as sufficient to account for the 
overlying boulder-clay. Prof. Jas. Geikie, Mr. Craig, and 
Mr. Bennie, on the other hand, consider that part, at least, of 
this overlying boulder-clay is in place. The plants do not 
throw any light on the question, for they are all species still 
living in the district. 

Mr. Bennie has sent me a lai^e number of specimens from 
this locality ; but Mr. Mahony has recorded several species 
that I have not seen, and I cannot now learn what has become 
of them. 

Older than any of the deposits already mentioned, there is 
another bed with Salix polaris and other arctic plants lying 
at the base of the whole of the glacial deposits of Norfolk, 
and proving the existence of very arctic conditions previous 
to the formation of the first till or boulder-clay. This was 
first discovered at Mundesley, in Norfolk, by Dr. A. G. 
Nathorst Afterwards, by following his instructions, I was 
enabled to add a few other species, including Betula nana^ and 
also to trace the same plants in two fresh localities — at 
Beeston, three miles west of Cromer, and at Bacton, four 
miles south of Mundesley^. At present this bed has not 
been traced beyond the Norfolk coast. 

^ Trans. Geol. Soc, Glasgow, vol. iv. p. 17. See also J. A. Mahoney, Organic 
Remains found in Cowden Valley, in Geol. Mag. vol. vi. p. 390. 
' See Memoirs of the Geological Survey — Geology of Cromer, p. 83. 

184 Rdd. — Notes on the Geological History 

Still older, and beneath the whole of the glacial and arctic 
deposits, we find the pr^lacial * Cromer Forest-bed,^ with elm, 
beech, oak, pine, and spruce. This flora has already been 
described ^ though I have taken the opportunity to bring the 
account up to date, and to make a few necessary corrections. 

In the flora of the Cromer Forest-bed, we find for the first 
time a marked admixture of species no longer found in 
Britain, and also a certain number which there is every reason 
to believe are now entirely extinct, though, in the absence of 
generic or ordinal characters, I do not propose to describe 
them, or give them new names. 

This oldest representative of the living flora of Britain is 
associated with a number of large mammals, most of them 
extinct, and many characteristic of the Newer Pliocene 
period. Many of the moUusca are also extinct. 

Unfortunately, at this interesting point of our enquiry we 
are stopped by the imperfection of the geological record, 
which is so great that not a single recognisable plant has been 
obtained from any deposit in Britain lying between the 
Upper Pliocene and the Middle Oligocene ^. When plants are 
again met with the flora has a sub-tropical character, and is 
quite unlike that now found in Britain. 


Thalictrum minus, Linn. 

Numerous very acute achenes of Thalictrum have been 
formerly referred to this species. They may, however, belong 
to the sharp-fruited variety of T, flavutn. Horizon — Cromer 
Forest-bed. Localities — Sidestrand and Mundesley (C.R.). 

Thalictrum flavum, Linn. 

The small blunt achenes of this species are very common in 
the preglacial beds. Horizon — Cromer Forest-bed. Localities 
— Sidestrand, Mundesley, Ostend, aud Pakefield (C.R.), 

* Trans. Norfolk Nat. Soc. vol. iv. p. 189. 

" The so-called Miocene Floras of Bovey Tracey and Mull, according to Mr. 
Gardner, are probably of Eocene age. 

of the Recent Flora of Britain. 185 

Ranunculus aquatilis, Linn. 

Very abundant in most lacustrine deposits. Several 
varieties are found fossil, but the characters of the fruit in the 
recent forms do not seem to be sufficiently constant to allow of 
any determination of sub-species from fruit alone. Horizons — 
Cromer Forest-bed, passim ; Scotch interglacial beds, passim. 

Ranunculus sceleratus, Linn. 

Two detached carpels from Hoxne in Suffolk, in a lacustrine 
deposit overlying boulder- clay, were found by Mr. Ridley 
and myself. Unknown elsewhere fossil. 

Ranunculus flammula, Linn. 

Mr. Bennie has sent me numerous carpels from Redhall and 
Hailes quarries, and one badly-preserved specimen from 
Cowden Glen. Badly-preserved fruits, apparently belonging 
to this species, also occur in more modern peats. Horizons — 
postglacial and interglacial (not yet found in preglacial beds). 

Ranunculus ungua, Linn. 

A few detached carpels have been found at Redhall, near 
Edinburgh, in interglacial beds. 

Ranunculus repens, Linn. 

Detached achenes. Postglacial beds of Garvel Park, on 
the Clyde, and Hoxne, in Suffolk. Interglacial beds, Redhall 
and Hailes, near Edinburgh. Preglacial, in Cromer Forest- 
bed, at nearly all localities. 

In shape and sculpture of the achenes, R^ repens is so 
similar to R. bulbosus and R. acris that great care is needed 
to distinguish between them, especially when the beak is 
missing. The slight differences seem, however, to be quite 
constant, and all the specimens belong to R. repens. 

Caltha palustris. Linn. 

Seeds are not uncommon in the interglacial beds at Red- 


1 86 Reid. — Notes on the Geological History 


Seeds are common in a postglacial river deposit at 
Mundesley, and also in the preglacial Cromer Forest-bed at 
nearly all localities. I have not seen any from interglacial 


[Nymphaea alba, Linn.] 

Recorded by Heer as occurring in the Cromer Forest-bed at 
Happisburgh. The seeds may have been obtained from a 
recent alluvial deposit at that locality. No specimens have 
been found in the larger collections made within recent years, 
and I do not know of any trace of this species in Britain in 
deposits older than the recent alluvium. 

Lychnis diurna, Sibth. 

One well-preserved seed from Redhall, and two from Hailes, 
in interglacial beds. 

Lychnis flos-cuculi, Linn. 

Postglacial beds of Garvel Park, on the Clyde, eight seeds 
received from Mr. Thomas Scott. Interglacial beds of Red- 
hall, three capsules and numerous seeds received from Mr. 

Stellaria aquatica. Scop. 

Three seeds, from the preglacial Cromer Forest-bed at 

Stellaria media? Linn. 

A badly-preserved compressed seed, shows concentric lines 
of tubercles becoming obsolete towards the centre, and form- 
ing a double keel on the periphery, as in 5. media, Inter- 
glacial, Hailes, near Edinburgh. 

OxALis acetosella, Linn. 
One seed. Interglacial, Redhall, near Edinburgh. 

Prunus communis, Huds. 

A few stones. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), West 
Runton, Happisburgh, and Pakcfield. 

of the Recent Flora of Britain. 187 

Prunus padus, Linn. 

A few stones. Postglacial, Homsea and Sand le Meer, in 
East Yorkshire. Interglacial, Hailes, near Edinburgh, and 


Stones (often split by birds or rodents). Postglacial, Clyde 
beds at Black Burn, East Tarbet (from Mr. Robertson), and 
Garvel Park near Greenock (from Mr. Scott). * Submerged 
Forest,' Southampton Docks (from Mr. Whitaker). Old 
lacustrine deposit, Hoxne in Suffolk (C. R. and H. N. Ridley). 
Interglacial beds, Redhall (abundant) and Hailes (rare), (from 
Mr. Bennie). 


One stone at each locality. Interglacial, Hailes, near 
Edinburgh. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), Pakefield, and 


One stone. Postglacial (Clyde beds), Roxburgh Street, 


Achenes retaining their white colour. Interglacial, Redhall 
(common), and Airdrie. 


One well-preserved fruit at each locality. Pr^lacial 
(Cromer Forest-bed), Mundesley, and Sidestrand. 

, [Crataegus oxyacantha, Linn.] 

Recorded by Hugh Miller from postglacial brick-clay of 
Portobello. I have not been able to examine the specimen 
(said to be wood), and cannot find any trace of the hawthorn 
elsewhere. The fruits of the hawthorn are so hard, and are 
scattered so widely by birds, that it is difficult to understand 
its absence from prehistoric deposits, or at any rate its great 
scarcity, if the tree is really native. 

O % 

i38 Rod.— Notes am Uu GmUfgUal History 

HiPPrmis TULG^kRis^ Lam. 
Fruits abundant. Intergiadal beds. Haxks. KilmantSy Cow- 
den Glen, and Airdric:. Pieg^adal (Cfoaicr Focest-bcdX 

Mtrjophtlltm SPICATUX, Limi. 

Fruits and dctadbed carpels^ IntergladaL Kilmaurs and 
Ccnrdcn Glen. Fregiadal (Crocner Forest>bed\ CntMner, Sidc- 
stiand, and Mundesley. 

Trapa naxaxs, Linn. 
Wdl-prescnred firuits. Pr^ladal (Cromer Forest-bed), 
Mundesley, Sidestrand, Ostend, and PakefiekL No trace of 
^)ecies has yet been found in any later deposit in Britain. 


Three fruits with the carpels still attached — apparently not 
quite ripe. Interglacial, Airdrie. near Greenock (Bennie). 

Carum Carui, Linn. 

One well-preserved detached carpel. Interglacial, Redhall, 
near Edinburgh. This species is unknown from postglacial 
deposits, and is generally considered to occur in Britain only 
as an introduced plant. 

Oexaxthe Lacuenaui, Gmelin. 

Only single specimens from each localit>'. Postglacial 
(Clyde beds), Garvel Park (from Mr. Scott). Pregladal 
(Cromer Forest-bed), Mundesley and Pakefield. 

Peucedanl'm palustre, Mcench. 

A single well-preserved detached carpel. Preglacial ^ Cromer 
Forest-bed), Pakefield. 

Corn us sanguinea, Linn. 

Recognised by the characteristic two-celled stones. Post- 
glacial (submerged peat), Albert Docks, near London (Mr. 
Spurrell). Pr^lacial (Cromer Forest-bed), Happisburgh. 

of the Recent Flora of Britain, 189 

Sambucus nigra, Linn. 
Several seeds from each locality. Postglacial, Southampton 
Docks, from peat below the sea-level (Mr. Whitaker). Post- 
glacial, Tilbury Docks, from similar beds (Mr. Spurrell). 
Interglacial, Redhall, near Edinburgh (Mr. Bennie). 

Valeriana OFFiaNALis, Linn. 

Nine detached fruits, all rather smaller than my recent 
specimens, but otherwise indistinguishable. Interglacial, 


Detached fruits. Postglacial, Tilbury Docks (Mr. Spurrell). 


Fruits abundant but small. Interglacial, Redhall, near Edin- 


Fruits very rare. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), Mundesley 
and Kessingland. 

Matricaria inodora, Linn. 
Thirteen well-preserved fruits. Interglacial, Redhall. 

Senecio sylvaticus, Linn. 
Six fruits. Interglacial, Redhall. 

Carduus lanceolatus, Linn. 

Several fruits. Interglacial, Redhall. Some thistle seeds 

from the Cromer Forest-bed perhaps also belong to this 

species. From both horizons the fruit are rather small for C. 


Carduus, sp. 

One fruit from Redhall has a conspicuous collar, and ap- 
parently belongs to another species. It does not satisfactorily 
agree with any with which it has been compared, but seems 
nearest to C palustris, 

Lapsana communis, Linn. 
Three well-preserved fruits. Interglacial, Redhall. 

iQo Rdd. — Notes ott the Geological History 

Leontodon autumnalis, Linn. 
One well-preserved fruit, showing the characteristic dilated 
base of the pappus-hairs. Interglacial, Redhall. 

Taraxacum officinale, Web. 
A few fruits with portion of the beak. Postglacial (Clyde 
beds), Garvel Park and Roxburgh Street, Greenock (from 
Mr. Thomas Scott). Interglacial, Redhall (Mr. Bennie). 

Sqnchus arvensis, Linn. 
Six fruits. Interglacial, Redhall. 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Spreng. 
Seeds and leaves. Bovey Tracey, Devonshire. (Nathorst, 
Joum. Bot. n. s. voL ii. p. 227). 

[Fraxinus excelsior, Linn.] 

Ash wood is recorded from several localities in postglacial 
beds, but I have not been able to obtain any specimens. The 
well-marked and characteristic fruit has not been found. 

Menyanthes trifoliata, Linn. 

Seeds (many split by birds). Postglacial submerged peat, 
Montrose (Mr. J. C. Howden). Interglacial, Redhall and 
Airdrie. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), /^w.rm. 

Myosotis lingulata, Lehm. 

A few nutlets. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), Beeston 
and Mundesley. 

Bartsia odontites, Huds. 

Four seeds. Postglacial (Clyde beds), Garvel Park (Mr. 
Thomas Scott). 

Pedicularis palustris, Linn. 

A few seeds. Interglacial, Redhall. 

Lycopus europaeus, Linn. 
Four or five nutlets. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), Mun- 

of the Recent Flora of Britain. 1 9 1 

. Thymus serpyllum, Linn. 
A detached calyx. Postglacial (Clyde beds), Roxburgh 
Street, Greenock. Mr. Thomas Scott has sent a calyx of 
Thymus^ which, though it does not exactly match any of the 
recent specimens with which Mr. Ridley and I were able to 
compare it, yet seems undoubtedly to belong to this species. 
The calyx in the recent plant is very variable, and our fossil 
comes within the extreme limits. 

[Scutellaria galericulata, Linn.] 
Interglacial, Cowden Glen. Mr. Mahony records a leaf 
closely resembling this species ^. The leaf of Scutellaria being 
non-deciduous and of a soft texture, it is scarcely likely to be 
found fossil, and in the absence of the very characteristic fruit 
the species ought not to be included in the list. 

Prunella vulgaris, Linn. 
Two nutlets, only one well-preserved. Interglacial, Red- 
hall. Somewhat smaller than my recent specimens, but other- 
wise indistinguishable. 

Stachys PALUSTRis, Linn. 
Several nutlets. Interglacial, Rcdhall. Pr^lacial (Cromer 
Forest-bed), Beeston. 

Galeopsis tetrahit, Linn. 
Three nutlets. Interglacial, Redhall. This species is com- 
monly considered to be an introduced weed of cultivation, but 
it was certainly native during this interglacial period. The 
specimens agree in every respect with the recent forms, but G, 
Tetrahit and (7. spcciosa cannot be distinguished by the fruit. 

Atriplex patula, Linn. 
Numerous seeds. Postglacial (Clyde beds), Garvel Park, 
and Roxburgh Street, Greenock (Mr. Scott). Interglacial, 
Redhall. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), Sidestrand and 
Pakefield. In the interglacial and pr^lacial beds only the 
smaller seeds of this species have been found. 

^ Geological Magazine, vol. vi. p. 396. 


I I I I r^ * i 

inns. ^jJxssi^saosL ^>-TfcxiT 

^cttTicjKn: 3^a.'^aTv^ir^^ 1 

fJrrai'rifTf ir» t :a ':ntJ??^ « ac gL iLs^ai 

me or x: Hr niJ 

~ iHrT3B>rxm5. Una 

FrzEt 31 fr - ifr jii^ 

5x friairrrffg aerrg's. aod JgriLrTrtf sots. F:s^!iacal 

rTrgxiTTa- •^r^cscr r crsst— Dec . ^^ ■p'»r' i u*- i at 


ie recent Kinr:*. 

A soigle veTt-pTEscrved fnit. Pns^^acal Crccicr 

E^ht leeds. all split logthwisc by birds ri latergiacial 

Two seeds. Pregladal . Cromer Forest-bed l Mundesley. 

Uufus, sp. 
Elm leaves are common in the preglacial Cromer Forest- 
bed at Happisburgh. Wood has been recorded from a depth 
of ten feet in Digby Fen ^ 

' SkerlMj, MtauAr oo the Fcnland, MetEoirs of the Geologkad Scxtct, 1S77, 

k no 

of the Recent Flora of Britain. 193 

Betula alba, Linn. 

Wood, leaves, and seeds. Postglacial, passim Interglacial, 
Hailes and Cowden Glen. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), 

Betula nana, Linn. 

Leaves. A common species in beds associated with boulder 
clay. Postglacial, Bridlington (Nathorst), Holmpton, near 
Withemsea, Bovey Tracey (Heer). Interglacial, Airdrie. At 
base of the glacial deposits at Happisburgh in Norfolk. 

Alnus glutinosa, Linn. 

Cones. Postglacial, Hornsea and Sand le Meer in Hol- 
derness ; submerged peat of Albert and Tilbury Docks (Mr. 
Spurrell). Interglacial, Hailes and Redhall. Pr^lacial 
(Cromer Forest-bed), at most localities. 


Nuts. Postglacial, Sand le Meer in Holdemess; South- 
ampton Docks (from Mr. Whitaker) ; Albert Docks (from 
Mr. Spurrell), &c. Interglacial, Hailes and Redhall. Preglacial 
(Cromer Forest-bed), Ostend and Pakefield. 


Wood, leaves, and acorn-cups. Postglacial at many local- 
ities. Interglacial, Redhall. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), 
at many localities. 

Castanea sativa, Mill. 

Mr. H. N. Ridley has found charcoal of this wood in a bed 
with palaeolithic implements between Crayford and Erith^. 
This is apparently the only record of the chestnut in a fossil 
state in this country. 


Leaves. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), at Happisburgh. 

' Jonrn. Bot. vol. xxiii. p. 353. 

194 Reid. — Notes on the Geological History 

Salix cin£REA, Linn. 

Leaves. Bovey Tracey, Devonshire (Heer and Nathorst). 
Preglacial (Cromer-Forest bed), (Nathorst). 

Salix repens, Linn. 

Leaves. Postglacial, Barnwell. A number of leaves 
in the Woodwardian Museum (Cambridge) appear to be cor- 
rectly referred to this species. 

Salix herbacea, Linn. 
Leaves. Interglacial, Hailes. 

Salix polaris, Wahlb. 

Leaves. Below the glacial deposits, Beeston, Mundesley, 
and Ostend in Norfolk (Nathorst and Reid). 

Several other species of Salix have been recorded with 
doubt, but the determination from leaves is very difficult. 

Empetrum nigrum, Linn. 
Compressed berries and stones. Interglacial, Airdrie. 

Ceratophyllum demersum, Linn. 

Fruit. Postglacial, Mundesley. Preglacial (Cromer Forest- 
bed). The preglacial specimens vary much in the length 
of the spurs, but only one has been found entirely without 


Taxus baccata, Linn. 

Wood and seeds. Postglacial in submerged peats, &c. 
of the Fenland ; Albert Docks (Mr. Spurrell). Preglacial 
(Cromer Forest-bed) at several localities. 

Pin us sylvestris, Linn. 

Cones, wood, and bark. Postglacial, in submerged peats 
of the Fenland. &c. Interglacial (bark, but no cones), Hailes, 
Redhall, and Cowden Glen. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed) 
at many localities (wood and cones). 

of the Recent Flora of Britain. 195 

Cones. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), abundant. Un- 
known in later deposits in Britain. 



Fruit of rushes are abundant, but I cannot obtain any 
specimens in a determinable state. Some from Redhall and 
Hailes apparently belong to J, glaucus, 

Sparganium ramosum, Curtis. 
Fruit. Postglacial, Garvel Park — two very small and 
doubtful specimens received from Mr. Scott. Interglacial, 
Redhall — very abundant, but small. Preglacial (Cromer 
Forest-bed) — abundant at Pakefield, very rare elsewhere. 

Alisma plantago, Linn. 

Fruit. Interglacial, Cowden Glen. Preglacial (Cromer 
Forest-bed), common at various localities. 


Drupe. Postglacial, Hoxne (Ridley and Reid.) 


Drupes. Interglacial, Hailes. Preglacial (Cromer Forest- 
bed), abundant at most localities. 


Drupes. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), on the foreshore 
between Cromer and Runton. This species and P. praelongus 
have only been found at this one locality in the Forest-bed, 
the other four preglacial forms are abundant nearly everywhere. 


Three drupes. Pr^lacial (Cromer Forest-bed, between 
Cromer and Runton). 

1 96 Reid. — Notes on the . Geological History 


Drupes. Interglacial, Kilmaurs, Redhall, Hailes, and Cow- 
den Glen. 


Drupes, and occasionally spikes of fniit. Pr^lacial (Cromer 
Forest-bed), at various localities. 


Drupes. Interglacial, Redhall, Hailes, and Cowden Glen. 


Drupes. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), abundant at 
several localities. 


Drupes. Interglacial, Cowden Glen, Preglacial (Cromer 
Forest-bed), common at most localities and often very large. 

Zannichellia palustris, Linn. 

Achenes. Interglacial, Kilmaurs, one specimen received 
from Mr. John Young. Preglacial (Cromer Forest-bed), 
abundant. At Pakefield a remarkably spinose form occurs. 

Eleocharis palustris, R. Br. 
Nuts. Interglacial, Hailes and RedhalL 


Nuts. Interglacial, Redhall, Hailes, and Stair. Preglacial, 
at several localities. 

It is not easy to distinguish S, pauciflorus from certain 
species of CareXy in the absence of the utricle ; it is possible 
that some of the specimens referred to Scirpus may belong 
to Carex, 


Nuts. Preglacial, abundant at various localities. 


Nuts. Preglacial, occasionally found at Beeston. 

of ifu Recent Flora of Britain. 197 


Nuts. Interglacial, Redhall and Hailes. Previously re- 
corded in mistake from the Cromer Forest-bed. 


Nuts. Interglacial, Hailes and Cowden Glen. Preglacial 
(Cromer Forest-bed), common at Beeston and Mundesley. 


A single damaged nut, from peat beneath the sea-level at 
Southampton Docks, seems to correspond more closely with 
this species than with 5. locus tris. 

Eriophorum angustifolium, Roth. 

Portions of stem and base of the leafy bracts. Preglacial 
(Cromer Forest-bed), between Cromer and Runton. Several 
specimens showing the very characteristic bracts have lately 
been found. The nut of Eriophorum does not appear to be 
able to resist decay — it has not been found fossil. 

Cladium germanicum, Schrad. 

The hard fruit are occasionally found in the preglacial 
Cromer Forest-bed at Beeston and Mundesley. 

Carex dioica, Linn. 

Detached nuts. Postglacial (Clyde beds), Roxburgh Street, 
Greenock — two nuts received from Mr. Scott probably belong 
to this species. Interglacial, Redhall and Airdrie. 

Carex echinata, Murr. 
Nuts. Interglacial, Hailes and Redhall. 

Carex canescens, Linn. 
Nuts, retaining the pale colour. Intei^lacial, Redhall. 

19S RdiL —Notes an the Geological History 

Cakex paxicsa, limi. 

Nuts, with and witlioiit utride. Inteiglacial, RedhalL 

Carex flava, limi. 

Nuts apparently belonging to this species are found in the 
interglacial beds at Hailes and RedhalL 

Cakex paludosa. Good. 
Nut in utricle. Pregladal, Cromer Forest-bed, Pakefield. 

Car£X riparia? Curds. 

Nut in utricle. Preglacial, Cromer Forest-bed, Mundesley, 
A doubtful determination. 

Carex rostrata, Stdces. 
Nuts in utricle. Interglacial, Airdrie and Cowden Glen. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum, Linn. 
A single fruit, determined by Mr. Camithers. Postglacial, 
Greenock (from Mr. Scott). The specimen looks very recent. 

Agrostis, sp. 
One seed. Interglacial, RedhalL 

HoLCUS lanatus, Linn. 
Fruit, determined by Mr. Carruthers. Interglacial, RedhalL 

Phragmites communis, Linn. 
Portions of panicles are found in a postglacial peaty bed 
on Kelsey Hill near Hull. Matted stems are common in the 
Cromer Forest-bed. 

Poa trivialis, Linn. 
A single fruit, determined by Mr. Carruthers. Postglacial, 
Greenock (from Mr. Scott). The specimen looks very recent. 
Another fruit from the interglacial beds of Redhall has been 
obtained by Mr. Bennie. 

of the Recent Flora oj Britain. 1 99 


A single • fruit found at the gas-works in Montrose, in peat 
beneath 20 feet of estuary mud and sand. (J. C. Howdcn, 
Trans. Edin. Geol. Soc. vol. 1. p. 144). Mr. Howden has 
kindly allowed me to examine the plants from this locality. 
The barley is of a brownish colour, and uncompressed. Seeds 
of bog-bean, said to have come out of the same bed, are mere 
husks, without any remains of the albumen. The peat is 
much compressed, and changed into a bituminous-looking 
lignite, while the associated wood is brown or black, and much 
altered. The seed of barley has all the appearance of a 
specimen that has been washing about in the sea for some 
time, but it does not appear to be fossil. 



The woody root-stocks are common in the preglacial Cromer 


Macrospores, abundant. Postglacial, Garvel Park. Inter- 
glacial, Hailes, Airdrie, and Kilmaurs. Cromer Forest-bed, 
Beeston, one specimen. 

Recent Researches on the Saprolegnieae ; a 
Critical Abstract of Rothert's results. 



THE study of the spore-formation of the Saprolegnieae as 
a most accessible type has been renewed again and 
again since Strasburger's * Cell-book' gave an impetus to 
cytology. Biisgen (in Pringsheim's Jahrbiicher, xiii, 1882), 
and a little later Marshall Ward (in Quart. Journ. Micr. Soc. 
N.S., xxiii, 1883) elucidated the contradictory statements of 
older observers by showing that the zoospores were segregated 
in two distinct stages, interrupted by a third in which the 
contents of the sporange appeared uniform and homogeneous. 
They regarded the clear spaces between the origins (Anlagen) of 
the spores in the first stage as transitory cell-plates (Biisgen), 
or nuclear-plates (Ward), and referred the homogeneous stage 
to the absorption of these plates. They described the appear- 
ance of shifting vacuoles in the young spores on their second 
and definitive separation. Finally, Biisgen expressed the view 
that the substance of the transitory cell-plates of the first 
segregation become converted into the * expulsive substance,* 
which by its supposed swelling effected the dispersion of the 

In 1884 ^ careful examination led me to a totally different 
interpretation of the facts correctly observed by my pre- 
decessors. In a paper first read at the Association Fran9aise 
(July 1886), and printed in extenso in the Quarterly Journal 
of Microscopical Science, March 1887, I was able to prove 
that the hypothetical cell-plates of the first segregation are 
merely the optical expressions of thinnings on the parietal 

(Annals of Botany, Vol. IL No. VL August 1888. ] 


202 Hartog. — Recent Researches 

layer of protoplasm left by the aggregation into the * origins ' 
of zoospores, or of lacunar spaces between the latter filled 
with cell-sap. I interpreted the homogeneous stage as con- 
sisting * essentially in the swelling up of the protoplasm and the 
loss of its resistance to osmosis/ accompanied but not caused 
by plasmolysis; and regarded it as * probable that the *' Haut- 
schicht" and vacuolar walls break up at this stage as con- 
tinuous layers,' and that therein was the explanation of the 
phenomenon. I also pointed out that a contraction of the 
sporange can be observed at the homogeneous stage, ac- 
companied by the excretion of a dissolved substance strongly 
attractive to certain bacteria. 

A second part of my paper dealt with the liberation of 
the zoospores. I disproved by the use of reagents the existence 
of any swelling expulsive matter in the sporange, proved the 
correctness of Cornu's discovery of flagclla in the sporangial 
zoospores of AchlyUy and referred the liberation to the auto- 
motility of the zoospores reacting to the chemical stimulus 
of dissolved oxygen in aerated water. 

Two other accounts have now appeared ; one by Berthold 
incidental to his work on * Protoplasma Mechanik,* 1886 ; and 
a paper by Ladislaus Rothert which appeared in Polish in 
the Proceedings of the Cracow Academy, xvii, 1887 (it was 
only ' in the press * in September of that year), and in German 
in Cohn's Beitrage for 1888. As Rothert's work is fuller than 
Berthold s, and in no way contradicts it, I shall only deal with 
the former author. It is interesting to note that all of us 
except Berthold began, at least, our work in the Strassburg 
Institut, under the stimulus and aid of the same kindly 
master — Anton De Bary. 

Rothert's paper we may greet as affording the first full and 
complete account of the double segregation and homogeneous 
stage, worked out independently, but confirming my views so 
far as they went, and completing them by showing what is 
the real cause of the solution of continuity in ' Hautschicht ' 
and vacuolar wall. His paper however does more than this ; 
it affords the first complete account we have of the formation 

on the Saprolegnieac. 203 

of the zoosporange, its septum, and the tubular process 
through which the spores escape. On these grounds I think 
it is well worth abstracting to show exactly what is our 
present knowledge of this most interesting study ; and I shall 
supplement this abstract by criticisms of all points on which 
my own work has led me to take a different view to the 

Rothert's work was principally conducted on three forms of 
Saprolegnia belonging to the ferax group. A well-chosen 
field is half the battle ; it is very difficult in working over a 
group to give equal attention to each; and he has shown 
that these species are far more favourable than Dictyuchus 
(genus) or Achlya ^ 

The sporangial formation begins by the slackening to final 

* The following brief analysis of the genera may prove useful to readers : — 
Saprolegnia, — Spores leaving the sporange and swarming freely, then encysting to 
swarm later in the ' second form.' Innovation usually growing through the 
empty sporange. 
Leptomitus. — Resembling SaproUgnia, but with frequent strangulations on hyphse 
and sporangia. As these occur also according to Comu, in forms otherwise 
referable to Achlya {Achlyogeton Schcnk,) and Pythium {Myzocytium Schenk), 
I regard them as mere habit characters, of less worth probably than the septa 
of Saprolegnia torulosa^ which De Bary regards nevertheless as scarcely more 
than a form of S. ferax. Hence it is that I described (' falschlich/ as Rothert 
writes) as a Saprolegnia ^ a form with constricted hyphae, but with the innova- 
tions growing into the empty sporangia, and with the sexual reproduction 
oiS. ferax, 
Achlya, — Spores on their liberation assembling to encyst in a hollow sphere at the 
mouth of the sporange, then swarming in the second form ; innovation growing 
out laterally at the base of the empty sporange. 
Aphanomyces. — Like Achlya^ but with linear sporangia containing only a single 

file of zoospores ; innovation growing into the empty sporange. 
Dictyuchus (genus). — Spores do not leave the sporange but encyst in situ, 
emerging only in the second form. The sporange wall often deliquesces at 
the maturity of the spores. 
* Dictyuchus'form* — When the spores of Achlya or Saprolegnia fail to leave it at 
maturity they encyst within, constituting this form or dictyosporange. They 
either swarm ultimately in the second form or germinate in situ by emission 
of a hypha. 
The * first form * of zoospore is ovoid with a pair of flagella from the front (narrow 
end). The 'second form' is uniform with an anterior and a posterior flagellum 
diverging from the hilum. The existence of these two forms constitutes the phe- 
nomenon of * diplanetism.* 

P 2 

204 Hartog. — Recent Researches 

arrest of the apical growth of a h)rpha, while protoplasm 
continues to stream in from the base, usually determining an 
ovoid enlargement; at first the thick protoplasm of the 
sporangial part of the hypha passes gradually into the thinner 
investment of the basal part ; but soon the contrast is sudden 
and sharp. Then at this junction the granules disappear or 
migrate from the protoplasm so as to form a longish ring of 
hyaloplasma which grows at its inner circumference to finally 
form a transverse disk extending across the hypha from wall 
to wall, sharply bounded towards the basal hypha but on 
the sporangial side gradually passing into the granular 

In about half-a-minute the transverse septum appears 
(simultaneously) at the base of the disk, at first pale (* verwas- 
chen'), soon sharp-contoured. In favourable cases we may 
see that a rather broad basal section of the disk of hyalo- 
plasma assumes a higher refraction ; this gradually thins off 
and becomes more clearly defined and finally condenses 
(*sich verdichtet') into the septum; which is clearly not 
formed from a granular cell-plate as Strasburger states. 
Before this, however, a number of Pringsheim's cellulin cor- 
puscles had accumulated about the limiting area, and fell, 
by the appearance of the hyaloplasma disk, into an upper and 
a lower group. As the upper group disappear on the comple- 
tion of the hyaloplasma disk, Rothert thinks it probable that 
the granules, consisting of a very soluble form of cellulose, 
are absorbed into the disk and by their solution afford materials 
for the septum. 

Slight modifications occur in the formation of the hyalo- 
plasma disk according to the relative fulness or emptiness of 
the sporange. 

We now come to the formation of the zoospores, and first of 
all their partial segregation, in which stage we may call them 
' spore-origins ' (Sporen - Anlagen). We can distinguish 
between (i) full sporangia which at first contain no central 
cavity or to which class usually belong the smaller sized ones ; 
(2) ordinary or normal sporangia with a fairly thick parietal 

on the Saprolegnieae. 205 

investment surrounding the cell cavity or lumen [often two or 
three vacuoles in Achly(i\ ; and (3) starved sporangia, as I 
have elsewhere named them, the * inhaltsarme' of Rothert, with 
only a thin parietal investment of protoplasm and an immense 
vacuole. These differ in the processes of segregation. 

In the full sporange granules gradually wander into the 
hyaloplasma disk which thus becomes indistinguishable. In 
the other forms the granular protoplasm first retracts from 
the disk with which it is only connected by a thin hyaline 
layer investing the wall and a few delicate plasmatic threads, 
so that the lumen is widest at the base of the sporange. 
Vacuoles then appear in the disk, soon enlarging and 
communicating with the main vacuole of the sporange. The 
disk then thins in the centre, and rises peripherally up the 
walls. The granular protoplasm again stretches down towards 
the septum, and finally by the wandering of granules into the 
hyaloplasma the latter loses its character. At the beginning 
of this process, the septum usually bulges towards the basal 
hypha, thus indicating an increase in the turgescence of the 
sporange. At the end of these processes the protoplasm 
usually shows more or less striation or flockiness, due to the 
uneven distribution of granules, and, in unfilled sporangia, 
has an uneven surface towards the lumen. The distribution 
of granules in the protoplasm, and of protoplasm in the 
sporange, gradually becomes uniform. During these stages 
after the formation of the septum the sporange never 
elongates by more than half per cent., irrespective of the 
concavity of the septum and the formation of the * process,* 
except in Rothert's Saprolegfiia^ sp. a. 

The * process ' may be formed even before the septum, at 
the same time with the differentiation of the spore-origins, or 
most frequently between these two formations. It usually 
occupies the apex of the sporange, but may develop at any 
point [except the septum]. Here again hyaloplasma ac-> 
cumulates at a spot, bulging out the membrane ; the bulging 
of the membrane continues with the accumulation of hyalo- 
plasma, until a short cylinder with a nearly hemispherical top 

2o6 Hartog. — Recent Researches 

is formed, filled with this substance. The convex terminal 
wall or *cap ' is duller and less sharp-contoured than the rest 
of the sporangial wall ; its boundary not being distinct 
from the protoplasm on its inner side. The hyaloplasma 
plug soon becomes granular, except a thin layer lining the cap 
of the process. [The protoplasm of the apex of all growing 
hyphae is hyaline; in all cases this 'hyaloplasma* shows 
granules on treatment with iodine.] 

The segregation of the zoospores proceeds thus. In normal 
sporangia appear numerous splits in the protoplasmic invest- 
ment, stopping just short of the cell-wall and opening into 
the vacuole ; these appear and disappear, and finally become 
constant forming a honeycomb network. At first numerous 
plasmatic bridges connect the origins so mapped out; but 
most of these soon disappear ; it is to the optical expression 
of these bridges that we must refer Busgen*s ' Komerplatten ;' 
this is especially clear in Achlya, Some protoplasm may 
remain long distinct from the * origins,' apart from the con- 
tinuous wall. 

In full sporangia the appearance of a zigzag slit indicates 
the segregation of the origins in the smaller sporangia ; in 
the larger the segregation is produced by the appearance of 
linear lacunae (Spalten) which form a connected system. 

In poor sporangia the segregation rather takes place by 
the aggregation of protoplasm in heaps, at the expense and 
by the thinning of the intervening part of the parietal layer. 
Here also plasmatic bridges may occur, and some fragments 
of protoplasm are left out of the schema. (In Aphanoffiyces 
the spore-origins appear as bulgings of the parietal layer of 
protoplasm, which meet and form transverse disks, joined 
by the intervening thin annular portions of the parietal 
layer.) Rothert describes these elevations as shifting, rising 
and flattening out for some time before becoming stable ; 
but I feel sure that this is a misinterpretation of the gradual 
* rotation ' of the protoplasmic lining of the sporange as a 
whole, carrj'ing the origins with it, which may also be well 
observed in thin * full ' sporangia of my Saprolegnia {Lep^ 

on the Saprolignieae. 207 

iomitus) corcagiensis, as in other species of Saprolegnia and 

At the period of this * rotation ' (as I hold it) there appear 
clear spots free from granules in the centre of each origin, 
near the sporangial wall ; these Rothert interprets as nuclei, 
though he has failed to stain them. I have succeeded once in 
so doing in Aclilya with Draper's dichroic ink, a logwood stain. 
In a long discussion Rothert insists on these origins being 
simply * Anlagen,' and united by the uninterrupted * Wand- 
beleg^ of granular protoplasm ; and discusses Biisgen's * Korner- 
platten,' which he shows rest on a confusion between the 
plasmatic threads often uniting the origins, and the fact that 
there is usually an accumulation of coarse granules on the 
whole of the convex half of the origins, a point to which I 
have also drawn attention. 

He ascribes the errors of his predecessors to unsuitable 
objects for research, to the use of insufficient powers, and 
the influence of preconceived ideas derived from the con- 
sideration of the embryo-sac. I may mention that Dr. Busgen 
has written to me that this last was actually the case with 
himself. Of course these facts and considerations do away 
with the hypothetical gelatinous * Zwischen-substanz,' which 
is only the expression of the * Wandbeleg ' between the 

This description of the stage of preliminary segregation 
is essentially the same as mine, completed however by the 
observation of the plasmatic threads joining the 'origins,' 
which I have verified and accept. I have adverted to one 
error of interpretation in these preliminary processes. 

The origins now contract, widening the interspaces and 
breaking most of the plasmatic threads, and at the same time 
become smooth on their free surfaces which before were rough 
and granular. In this stage Rothert has seen the * rotation ' 
and change of place I have before adverted to. This stage 
lasts at most one or two minutes, to give place to Biisgen's 
* homogeneous stage,* which Rothert calls the stage of swelling 
up of the spores. The origins swell up, touch, and apparently 

2o8 Hartog. — Recent Researches 

fuse, the sporange becoming clear and brighter ; the septum, 
previously concave, becomes convex, bulging into the sporange, 
and the rounded cap of the process becomes flat ; the sporange 
has lost its turgescence. Directly afterwards vacuoles appear 
in the protoplasm ; they come and go for some time. 

Closer observation of a favourable object like S. Tkuretii 
shows that the larger granules have disappeared leaving the 
protoplasm finely granular ; and that the fusion of the spores 
is not complete, they are only in contact, polyhedral and 
separated by fine plane spaces. In many cases however it 
is difficult, in some impossible to see any separation even 
in this species ^ In others the apparently complete fusion 
may be the rule, the demonstration of separation the ex- 
ception. The interspaces now extend to the wall of the 
sporange, which has now ceased to be a single cell ; the 
* origins * have become spores. 

Accompanying this stage is often seen a swarming of 
Bacteria from all parts to execute a lively dance round the 
wall of the sporange and at its expiration to scatter anew. On 
one occasion zoospores of Saprolegnia [In which period of 
their diplanetism ? probably the second] behaved in the same 
way. Everything seems in favour of its being some nutri- 
tive substance that attracts the Bacteria rather than oxygen. 
This can only be cell-sap ; and if it passes out in suflficient 
quantities to attract Bacteria, there must be a diminution 
of the volume of the sporange; probably greater than that 
due to the inbulging of the septum and the flattening of 
the process. Measurements gave a shortening of from i 
to 4 per cent. Taking the latter figure the reduction in 
volume would be ii-5 per cent., or with that due to the two 
septa 13 per cent. The wall, previously turgescent, now 
contracts with expulsion of cell-sap, and the cause of this 

* Vet Rothert wrote in the Botanische Zeitung, 'lasst die Quellung bis zur 
volligen Verschmclzung gehen, was nicht richtig ist.' He sees now that I was 
right in my observation ; and that it needed other favourable objects to obtain the 
correct interpretation ; and I had noticed, as he admits, the incompleteness of the 
homogeneity in S. conagiensis. 

on t/ie Saprolegnieae. 209 

contraction is the complete rupture of the continuous pro- 
toplasmic investment of the walls into segments belonging 
to each origin. This is easily seen in poor sporangia — in 
optical section the protoplasmic investment can be seen to 
rise and divide between two origins, and go half to each. At 
this moment the origins (now spores) become full of minute 
vacuoles, which diminish in number and enlarge as the spores 
swell and the protoplasm becomes finely granular. * It is here 
quite clear that the two processes, the vacuolation and the 
swelling up of the spores, go hand in hand ; the phenomenon 
of swelling is easy to understand if we make the really obvious 
supposition that the protoplasm of the spores has a tendency 
to take up water. This could not hitherto have full play so 
long as the " Hautschicht," which must be regarded as con- 
tinuous, hindered endosmose : but when the investment of the 
wall is ruptured, the ** Hautschicht *' is interrupted at the points 
of severance, and before its reconstitution cell-sap is taken up 
into the protoplasm of the spores and determines their swell- 
ing. The cell-sap so absorbed, or a part of it, is at once 
excreted in the form of the shifting vacuoles ^.* I must here 
note that in my paper in 1886 I had pointed out that 
* probably the ** Hautschicht" and vacuolar wall break up at this 
stage and become reconstitute^! later on, and that herein is 
the true essence of the homogeneous stage,' which I had 
written a page above * consists essentially in the swelling up 
of the protoplasm, and the loss of its resistance to osmosis.' 
I thus had perceived and demonstrated the essence of the 
homogeneity; but owing to the unfavourable type I had chiefly 
worked over I had failed to discover the rupture of the 
continuous ' Wandbel^,' which is undoubtedly its proximate 
cause. The demonstration of this belongs to Rothert and 
Berthold. I also demonstrated to Prof. De Bary and Dr. 
Blisgen in 1884 the loss of turgescence of the sporange, 
and its marked contraction, accompanied by the bacterial 

^ In £i,ct the vacuolation is really paralleled by such cases as the vacuolation 
of the protoplasm of a torn Vaucheria filament. 

2IO Hartog. — Recait Researches 

After this stage the lines of separation become dear, con- 
tract, and gradually round off, beginning at the angles; and as 
they contract they retreat from the sporange wall, which now 
shows a double outline. The front spore, as it retreats from the 
process, leaves the layer of hyaloplasma at the apex, and is 
only connected with it by one or two strings which are finally 
retracted into the spore, as the hyaloplasma from which they 
are drawn disappears or becomes confounded with the end 
wall. [My description would state that one or more vacuoles 
appear at the base of the hyaloplasma disk^ and by their 
enlargement separate a terminal portion from the front spore, 
leaving one or two strings along which the hyaloplasma is 
retracted into the front spore.] Next appear the cilia, as slow 
outgrowths, at first short straight bristles, with simple oscilla- 
tions. The front spore has its cilia always at the front end 
next the process; but there appears no polarity about the 
others. At the same time the spores manifest shaking 
(wackelnde) movements, increasing in strength till their dis- 

During this contraction and development of the spores, 
they become warty, and some of the processes are abstricted. 
These lumps of protoplasm after independent movements arc 
mostly absorbed (probably always) by the very spores from 
which they were separated ; a few may be unabsorbed, pass 
out with the spores and undergo diffluence ; but this makes 
no difference to the spores themselves. Rothert recalls similar 
processes described by De Bary in the formation of the 
oospheres. The mature zoospores now contain three vacuoles, 
of which at least one, that at the front end, contracts rhyth- 
mically. [I have seen in Achlya at this stage all three vacuoles 
rhythmically contractile.] 

On treatment with iodine about a quarter of the protoplasm 
turns dark brown, and contains black granules just below the 
surface. Nothing of this shows in the fresh state, nor is there 
any polar relation of the dark portion to the axis of the spore. 
Rothert suggests no explanation ; it seems to me that we may 
fairly refer the browning to glycogenic contents to be used 

on the SaproUgnieae. 2 1 1 

up in the formation of the cyst-wall when the spores come 
to rest. 

The discharge of the spores occurs thus. The end wall may 
open in various ways, (i) The front spore presses into the 
process and against the cap, pushing it up into a hemisphere. 
The end wall gets paler and lost to view a little before it dis- 
appears. (2) The end wall disappears before the spore reaches 
it ; discharge at once ensues. (3) In a few cases it lifted like 
a lid, and only disappeared after discharge was completed. 
(4) In cases where the end wall was unusually stiff and clearly 
outlined, the front spore pressed through an invisible opening, 
tearing to pieces in the passage ; a few others followed, under- 
going the same fate ; but these gradually enlarged the hole so 
that the rest could pass through normally, but very slowly, 
leaving part of the end wall in sit(i, which probably never dis- 
appears. In my paper I have described the first two modes 
of discharge ; the third I have not seen ; the fourth I have 
since observed in S.ferax (monoicd). 

In discharge the front zoospore, which had retreated from 
the process, now moves up into it ; and as soon as it opens^ 
presses out and goes on its own spontaneous motion. The 
others follow, at first * stormily,' the front ones close pressed 
against one another ; and this is sometimes the case with all ; 
quite as often, however, the later ones move to and fro, with- 
out haste, and only find the exit after much hesitation ; not 
infrequently do the last fail to find it, and encyst within the 
sporange. No change in calibre or length takes place in the 
sporange during this process. 

While this description of the formation of zoospores and the 
opening of the sporange is chiefly taken from Saprolegnia^ it 
applies on the whole to the other species examined, including 
the Achlya polyandra of the Strassburg Laboratory. 

Rothert admits that his observations on Achlya were less 
complete and numerous than on Saprolegnia. Here ap- 
parently he has never seen the stage of swelling result in 
complete homogeneity; the planes of separation persisted 
throughout ; after this the spores, instead of contracting from 

212 Hartog. — Recent Researches 

one another, retreat from the cell-wall, and cease to be clearly 
separated. In liberation the spore-mass forms a cylinder and 
presses out, becoming thinner at the outer end, and only later 
at the base ; sometimes this column breaks up transversely 
into several, and finally these break up into separate spores 
often united by plasmatic threads ; as the spores pass out they 
group into a hollow sphere at the mouth of the sporange. 

In his * Nachtrag ' he insists strongly that my description of 
the liberation of the zoospores in Achlya polyandra is incorrect, 
and that they are not biflagellate as Cornu and I describe. 
This involves two points ; first of all the identity of my species 
with A.polyafidra of Hildebrand (who founded the species in 
Pringsheim's Jahrbiicher, vii. 1867-8), and next whether I am 
justified in extending my observations to other species of 
Achlya. As to the first point, my species was identical in all 
characters with Hildebrand's careful diagnosis ; while De Bary 
expresses grave doubts as to the identity of his ^. As to the 
second point, the behaviour of the zoospores at and after 
liberation in another species, which I identify with Achlya 
recurva, Cornu, is exactly the same as in A. polyandra. Cornu 
ascribes flagella to the zoospores of Achlya generally, without 
particularising the species ; and a positive assertion of a trust- 
worthy observer is worth all the negative evidence in the 
world. I have always failed to see the flagella without iodine 
staining ; and Rothert has never definitely looked for them by 
staining at the stage of liberation ^. We shall see later that 
there is independent ground for believing in their presence. 

Dictyuchus clavatus was also observed by Rothert. Its 
processes are essentially the same as in the other genera, 
except that the liberation is effected by the deliquescence of 
the sporangial wall when the spores slowly separate a little 
and at once encyst. Leptomitus lac tens shows the relations of 
Saprolegnia in the main. 

The oogonia, as seen in Achlya^ show exactly the same 

' Beitrage zur Morph. u. Phys. d. Pilze, Ser. IV. p. 49. 
^ As he has informed me by letter. 

on the Saprolegnieae. 213 

processes as the sporangia : formation of oosphere * anlagen ' ; 
development of septum ; rupture of the connecting layer ; 
swelling of the oospheres ; excretion of cell-sap, as shown by 
a contraction of the oogonium and the assemblage of swarming 
Bacteria. After this swelling the oospheres (oospores Rothert 
terms them) contract and round off, excreting lumps of pro- 
toplasm and taking them up again. They also show the same 
dark granules on treatment with iodine. In position as in 
development zoosporangia and oogonia are homologous; which 
is to be developed seems rather a matter of date than anything 
else : a hypha cut off to-day produces the former ; to-morrow 
or the next day it would have produced the latter ; but on the 
whole it appears that cultures from successive generations of 
zoospores tend to produce oospores more readily, and recent 
cultures from oospores produce especially abundant crops of 
zoosporangia. To this I may add that cold, and drying up of 
the water (to a less degree), both tend to induce the early for- 
mation of the sexual fruit. 

I have found in a Saprolegniay which I believe to be De 
Bary's S,ferax^ form torulosa, that small cultures drying up 
tended to produce spheroidal dilatations at the ends of fine 
hyphae which were cut off by septa. On moistening, the con- 
tents became ordinary zoospores, and these were freed by 
deliquescence of the cell-wall. 

In his supplement or *Nachtrag,* Rothert first gives an 
abstract of Berthold's confirmatory work : and then proceeds 
to investigate my theory of liberation, which I ascribe in my 
paper * not to any such expukive matter as has been assumed, 
but to the chemical stimulus of the oxygen in the medium 
acting on the automotile zoospores.* He asserts that I have 
founded this on insufficient data, and have pushed it too far, 
as it cannot apply to Aphanomyces^ Achlya (other than those 
species which Cornu and I have examined), and to Dictyuchus^ 
for that these have no cilia. I have already shown that the 
probability is that flagella will everywhere be found when 
properly looked for in the escaping zoospores of Achlya and 
Aphanomyces, The genus Dictyuchusy in which the spores 

214 Hartog. — Recent Researches 

only slowly roll a little apart on the deliquescence of the 
cell-wall, has nothing to do with the case at all ; and I cannot 
conceive why he refers to it in this connection. 

Rothert denies that in ill-aerated cultures Diciyuckus-iorms 
occur owing to the zoospores failing to escape. I thought the 
fact notorious, and did not adduce details. Here, however, is 
a crucial case. The cover of a culture was luted to an air-tight 
cell of wood-pulp saturated with paraffin, fixed to the slide 
while warm. The first two zoosporangia to open discharged 
all their zoospores ; the third discharged half, and one remained 
sticking in the passage; many more opened, but all their 
zoospores encysted in the sporange, constituting the Dictyu^ 
cAuS'fortn. The inference is obvious that they escape to get 
into purer conditions than inside the sporange; but that I 
pushed this evidence somewhat far in ascribing the stimulus 
to free oxygen is rendered probable by some experiments 
Rothert publishes as conclusive ; they are, however, very im- 
perfect. I shall now discuss these. 

I. Water is boiled in a test-tube and quickly cooled to 
24° C. by pouring cold water on the outside ; a square paper- 
cell is put on the slide, filled with the boiled water, and 
covered with a well-fitting cover, so that the water, very poor 
in air, was almost completely shut off from the atmosphere; 
and we have reason to assume that during the observation it 
remained approximately free from air. Before covering, ex- 
cised SaproIe^^nta'mdLttrial with sporangia in various stages was 
introduced, and observed. Both development and liberation 
of the spores was normal, though both were much slackened ; 
no spore remained in the sporange though they soon came to 

In answer to this we may note four distinct points, (i) 
The air is very imperfectly expelled from water by a single 
boil up. (2) Air is taken up on cooling, and especially in 
placing on the slide. (3) Slide, cover, and especially paper- 
cell, are coated with an air film which they give up to the 
water. (4) This poor solution of air in water is probably in- 
finitely richer than the inside of the sporange with the active 

on the Saprolegnieae. 215 

metabolism that from all analogy we must infer goes on in 
the maturation of the zoospores. The experiment is not 

II. The zoospores on emission in a similar experiment are 
not attracted when a cleft for air is left, nor when there are 
air bubbles. This is quite possible according to Fechner's 
law ; from zero to a very small quantity of air the attrac- 
tion may be more marked than from a small quantity to 

But I admit that my reasoning went too far in definitely 
ascribing the exit of the zoospores to positive aerotaxy. The 
facts are equally ascribable to what I may term ^negative 
pfieumatotaxy^ or the escaping from the products of their own 
metabolism. Some preliminary experiments lead me to think 
however that carbon dioxide is not the stimulating substance. 

Rothert has repeated Walz's experiments, which tended to 
show that liberation was due to an expulsive substance, treat- 
ing the zoosporangia at the moment of liberation with syrup 
(twenty-five per cent, cane sugar) or glycerine. He found first 
that the motion of the free zoospores is arrested by these, but 
does not recommence on dilution, though they retained their 
power of germination. On the sporange the effect was peculiar 
and apparently irreconcilable with either theory. On adding 
a drop of the reagent, liberation stopped and soon recom- 
menced ; the same sequence occurred on adding a second drop, 
&c.; finally it stopped, not to recommence even on dilution. 
This is certainly conclusive against the expulsive substance ; 
but I fail to see how it tells at all against my views, as the 
free zoospores are also arrested in the reagent. 

Rothert has confirmed my absolute disproof of the existence 
of an expulsive substance ; for after the arrest of liberation by 
the action of iodine or alcohol, on dilution no further liberation 
takes place. He concludes that on the whole his experiments 
tell rather in favour of spontaneous liberation. But he is 
met by the difliculty that all the reagents behave in the same 
way to Achlya as to Saprolegnia^ while for Achlya he cannot 
admit the possibility of any but an expulsive mechanism. 

2 1 6 Hartog. — Recent Researches on the Saprolegineae. 

This IS obviously due to his having overlooked the cilia, and 
cannot weigh at all in the matter. 

I may here point out that the aggregation of the spores in 
Achlya into a hollow head at the mouth of the sporange they 
have just left, appears to be due to the mutual attraction of 
the spores and the tendency to place themselves with their 
axes parallel. This is visible even in the sporange, and in- 
duces the aggregation into a cylinder or gut-shaped mass in 
poor sporangia, and materially interferes with their final 
separation. When they leave the sporange this is counter- 
balanced by that peculiar irritability (* negative pneumato- 
taxy'?) which determines their exit. This mutual attraction, 
which I may term adelphotaxy^ can only act at a short 
distance ; when the sporange is discharged near the margin of 
the hanging drop, or in a thin layer of water on a slide, we 
constantly see single spores escape from the mass, swim away, 
and encyst apart. Cases of adelphotaxy are not so rare as 
we might think ; in the embryology of animals this form of 
irritability is implicitly assumed by every one. In the vegetable 
kingdom we find it most obvious in the Pediastreae. 

This paper is not final ; it is obvious that while I have 
shown that the liberation is due to irritability of the zoospores, 
and is probably induced by a chemical stimulus, we are still 
in the dark as to whether this stimulus is really the positive 
one of oxygen in the medium (aerotactic), or the negative one 
of the soluble products of the metabolism of the zoospores in 
the sporangia themselves (pneumatotactic). Moreover there 
are numerous processes of differentiation in Achlya which I 
am now studying, and which will, with the completion of my 
researches on the nature of the liberative stimulus, form the 
subject of a fresh publication. 

We are indebted to Rothert for the discovery that frag- 
ments of a healthy culture of Saprolegnia may be cut off and 
will continue to thrive in the hanging drop, and are much 
more normal than the fly-leg cultures usually worked with. 
I have found garden-centipedes far more suitable for large 
cultures than meal-worms. 

niustrations of the Structure and Life-history 
of Puccinia Graminis, the Fungus causing 
the ' Rust ' of Wheat. 



Fellow of Chrisf s College ^ Cambridge, and Professor of Botany in the Forest 9 y 

Schoolt Royal Indian College^ Cooper^ s Hill. 


With Plates XI and XH. 

THE accompanying figures, in illustration of the biology 
of the Fungus which causes the Rust of Wheat, have 
been prepared in continuation of the series of illustrations of 
life-histories of parasitic fungi which I was commissioned to 
make for the Science and Art Department, South Kensing- 
ton, and the first of which (on the fungus of the Potato- 
disease) appeared in the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical 
Science in 1887^. As before, the text is only to be regarded 
as a description of the figures in the plates, and I have pur- 
posely avoided any reference to matters of theory, and also to 
several points of interest which have cropped up during the 

Fig. I (PI. XI) was drawn from a longitudinal section through 
a still green leaf of the wheat, attacked by the fungus in what 
is termed the Uredo4orm. It shows the epidermis, to the left 
above, with a stoma in nearly median longitudinal section. 
Below this are several mesophyll-cells of the leaf, with their 
curiously sinuous outlines, and the large intercellular spaces 
between them ; these cells contain chlorophyll- corpuscles. 
To the right below is part of a vascular bundle in oblique 

' Q. J. M. S., vol. xxvii. part 3. p. 413. 
[ Annals of Botany, VoL IL No. VI, August 1888.] 


2 1 8 Marshall Ward. — Illustrations of the Structure 

longitudinal section : it is already discoloured. Further 
details are not shown. In the intercellular spaces of 
the right-hand moiety of the figure are the fine septate 
branching hyphae of the fungus, and these are giving rise 
beneath the epidermis to the first series of spores, known as 
uredospores\ all stages of development being shown, as the 
uredospores force up the epidermis, rupture it, and appear 
on the surface as the rusty streaks so hated by the farmer. 
(Zeiss B.) 

In Fig. 2 are seen the details of development of the uredo- 
spores under a higher power. Separate branches of the 
septate mycelium (which contains protoplasm with scattered, 
oily, orange-red drops) ascend and become swollen at the tip : 
the tip becomes full of very dense, fine-grained protoplasm, 
and a septum is formed across below the swelling. The 
swelling enlarges, and its oil-like orange-coloured contents 
increase in amount : the cell-wall thickens also, and a pale 
central nucleus-like body is seen at a certain stage. Further 
enlargement follows, the orange contents increase in amount 
and in depth of colour, and the cell-wall becomes thicker : 
then regular spike-like projections are formed on the outside 
of the thickened cell-wall. When the spore is completely 
developed, as in the larger specimen above, the wall is 
found to be divisible into at least two evident layers, a thick 
outer exosporiuitiy which is in its turn stratified into at 
least two layers, and a very thin ettdosporium. The spore 
is ellipsoidal in form, and has three or four rather large 
germ-pores at equal distances apart on a zone midway 
between the two ends : the germ-pores are really pits — thin 
circular depressions in the inner part of the endosporium 
and exosporium, and they serve for the emergence of the 
germ-tubes. Occasionally there is a thin place at the end 
where the spore isjoined to the stalk. (Zeiss E.) 

Fig. 3 shows a series of four successive stages in the ger- 
mination of the same uredospore, sown in water on glass. In 
a are seen two germ-tubes, emerging from opposite germ- 
pores ; by several hours later ; r, later still. It will be noticed 

and Life-history of Pucciiiia Grajuinis, 219 

that the granular protoplasm of the spore becomes vacuolated, 
and the contents pass into the germ-tube. (Zeiss E.) 

Fig. 4. A longitudinal section through the leaf of a young 
wheat-plant, on which uredospores had been allowed to ger- 
minate for forty-eight hours. The section passed through a 
stoma, cutting one of the guard-cells (omitted in the drawing); 
through the cut guard-cell is seen the germ-tube from an 
uredospore which had germinated on the epidermis. The 
tube had formed a slight swelling over the stoma, and then 
entered ; its end branches around one of the mesophylKcells 
bounding the respiratory cavity. The nucleus of the distal 
guard-cell is very clearly seen. Orange-red granules are 
observed in the protoplasm of the germ-tube. 

In Fig. 5 (PI. XII) is a group of the tekutospores, obtained 
from a longitudinal section of the dry ripe straw of the wheat. 
The mycelium has now completely destroyed the cellular 
tissue, and its branches produce the two-celled elongated 
teleutospores, instead of the uredospores ; specimens can be 
obtained with both uredospores and teleutospores arising 
from the same matrix. In this stage the fungus was named 
Piiccinia, (Zeiss B.) 

Fig. 6 shows in greater detail two of the teleutospores 
from the above patch. As before, each arises as a swelling 
at the end of a hypha ; this club-shaped swelling becomes 
filled with dense protoplasm, and separated off from its pedicel 
by a septum. The young spore is then divided into two by a 
horizontal wall, and each of the two cells acquires a very 
thick hard coat, divided into several strata, as shown in the 
drawing. The colour also becomes much darker than before, 
the outer coats of the exosporium especially being sienna- 
brown ; owing to this the streaks of teleutospores on the wheat- 
leaf appear brown or nearly black, in contradistinction to the 
orange-red streaks of uredospores. These teleutospores, 
developed in the autumn as the wheat ripens, contain oily 
drops in the protoplasm, and the outer shells of the exosporium 
are cuticularised. Unlike the thinner walled uredospores, 
which are developed in the summer (July) and germinate 


2 20 Marshall Ward. — Illustrations of t/ie Structure 

forthwith, these teleutospores need to be kept for some time 
before they will germinate. In the usual case they are scat- 
tered with the straw, and germinate in the following spring. 
(Zeiss E.) 

Fig. 7. Four teleutospores germinating. The one to the 
left and that to the right had been kept for three years in my 
laboratory, and germinated as seen after lying for three days 
in water on glass. The two middle specimens, left uncoloured, 
were six months old. The process of germination consists in 
the erosion of the thick exosporium from within, the contents 
enveloped by the endosporium dissolving their way through at 
some one point ; both cells may germinate, or one only. The 
germ-tube grows to a short and often curved (or longer 
and siY2i\g\i\.cr) pro-fftycelmmy which gradually acquires all the 
contents of the cell of the teleutospore, except perhaps a 
few granules and an oily drop or two. This pro-mycelium 
then becomes segmented into four or five (occasionally three) 
one-celled joints by transverse walls. Each cell of the pro- 
mycelium then puts forth a short delicate branch, sierig'may 
much thinner than itself, and the tips of this sterigma slowly 
swells up into a spheroidal vesicle, sporidiuni^ which takes up 
all or nearly all the protoplasm ; occasionally the sterigma 
branches and more than one sporidium is formed. These 
sporidia arc very minute, as may be seen by comparing Figs. 
.*; and 7. All attempts to cultivate them on wheat have 
failed, and De Bary discovered the remarkable fact that they 
develop successfully only on the barberry. 

Fig. 8. Three of the sporidia germinating in water on glass. 
(Zeiss E.) 

Fig. 9. This preparation is taken from De Bary, and repre- 
sents three of the sporidia germinating on the epidermis of 
the barberry-leaf, and sending their germ-tubes through the 
cuticle into the plant below. In the leaf of the barberry, 
the mycelium developed from these tubes ramifies between 
the parenchyma cells, as septate branched hyphae, with 
orange-red granules jn the protoplasm (see Fig. 10 a\ and 
eventually produces the form known as Aecidinvi Bcrbcridis, 

and Life-history of Puccinia Graminis, 221 

Fig. 10. Transverse section of a leaf of barberry infested 
with the Aecidtf/m-form. The section has passed through 
three spermogonia and two aecidia (to the right below). The 
mycelium, ramifying in the mesophyll of the leaf, causes 
hypertrophy — due to the stimulated cells acting as centres 
of attraction for larger shares of food-materials, and then 
growing abnormally rapidly at their expense — whence the 
cushion-like thickening especially on the under side of the 
leaf. After developing in the cushion for about eighteen or 
twenty days, spermogonia begin to form, especially (but not 
only) on the upper surface. All that I can say about their 
earliest stages is that closely-woven balls of hyphae arc 
formed below the epidermis, gradually become larger and 
hollow, and burst at the apex through the epidermis. 
After developing several series of spermogonia, the my- 
celium begins to form larger balls of interwoven hyphae 
beneath the epidermis of the lower side of the leaf. These 
gradually increase in size, and form the aecidia — hollow, 
spheroidal cavities filled with the aecidiospores. By this 
time the cells of the mesophyll in the neighbourhood of the 
aecidia are becoming disorganised : the chlorophyll-grains 
lose their firmness of contour, and the walls of the cells 
turn light brown, as shown in the figure. (Zeiss B.) 

Fig. 10 a. Vertical section through an aecidium much more 
highly magnified. The aecidium is seen to consist of a cup- 
like casing of cells, peridium^ with thickened and striated 
outer walls and orange contents, enclosing vertical series of 
aecidiospores developed in regular rows from the basidia 
below ; as seen in the figure the peridium is simply formed 
by a modified series of cells with similar origin to the aecidio- 
spores — all spring from a radiating series of basidia, which, 
again, are merely branches from the mycelium. At first the 
peridium forms a closed body (see Fig. 10 to the right below) 
beneath the epidermis ; but as development proceeds the 
epidermis is ruptured — often at a stoma — and the peridium 
separates above. The aecidiospores ripen from above 
downwards, i.e. the older ones are ripe and separate off. 

2 2 2 Marshall Ward, — Structure of Puccinia Graminis. 

before the lower ones of the same series. The successive 
development of spores continues for some time; the young 
crowded spores assume polygonal shapes, but they round 
off as they ripen and their walls thicken. I have repeatedly 
examined these aecidia in the youngest stages discernible, 
and can find no trace of sexual organs; the search for 
such organs has been equally unsuccessful in aecidia of 
other species — e. g. those on Ranunculus and on Tussilago, 
The basidia clearly arise from a tufted felt of mycelium, 
continuous with that in the tissues of the leaf, but no defi- 
nite organs of the nature of sexual organs were discovered. 
The aecidiospores will germinate readily in water on the 
leaves of the wheat, and their germ-tubes enter the stomata, 
and develop a mycelium which gives rise to the uredospores 
and eventually to the teleutospores of Puccinia Graminis. 
(Zeiss E.) 

Fig. I T. A portion of a very thin section through a spermo- 
gonium (Zeiss E). To the right below a filament and its 
spermatium more highly magnified (Zeiss J). 

A/rna/s o/'ffofii/iy 

MARSH^H. VJCftO - a» VM^tM 


,i^^^^' l'-;>:y,\^ 


2 24 Notes, 

It may be further pointed out that the dorsal position of the 
sporangia is not quite universal in the Filicinae. Thus, it has been 
ascertained* that ventral, as well as dorsal, sporangia are normally 
borne by the sporophyll of Acrostichum (pl/ersia) cervinum^ and the 
same thing has been observed as an abnormality in various other 
Ferns, such as Scolopendrium vulgare^ Polypodium anomalum^ &c. It 
appears also from Goebel's researches' that the sporangia of Marsilia 
and Pilularia are ventral. 

S. H. VINES, Oxford. 


— ^The leaves of the onion are known to be somewhat exceptional in 
that they do not form starch in the process of assimilation, glucose, 
which is present in large quantities in the mesophyll-cells, apparently 
taking its place. Many other plants behave in a similar way, the 
chlorophyll-corpuscles of their leaves forming no starch in the normal 
process of assimilation, but by placing the plant or its leaves under 
unusual conditions in connection with its nutrition, starch may, in 
almost every case, be made to appear in larger or smaller quantities. 
Thus in the Musaceae, where oil might seem to take the place of 
starch as a product of assimilation in the mesophyll-cells, Godlewski • 
has shown that by isolating small pieces of healthy young leaves for a 
few hours in an atmosphere containing from six to eight per cent, of 
carbon dioxide, the mesophyll-cells become crowded with starch. 
Bohm* by laying the leaves in twenty per cent, sugar solution 
succeeded in bringing about formation of starch in a number of 
Monocotyledons, Galanihus, Hyacmthus^ &c., in the leaves of which 
starch does not normally occur, but which, like the onion, contain a 
great deal of glucose. 

He was, however, unsuccessful with the onion, both when he used 
a twenty per cent, sugar-solution, and in an atmosphere containing 
five per cent, of CO2. Schimper ^ in his account of the formation and 
travelling of the carbohydrate in foliage-leaves, concludes that in some 

* See Knnze, in Bot. Zeit. 1848 ; Moore, On some Suprasoriferous Fems, in Joum. 
linn. Soc. II, 1858 ; Brann, Die Frage nach dcr Gymnospermie der Cycadeen, 
inMonatsber. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin, 1875, p. 352. 

' Goebcl, Entwicklungsgeschichte der Sporangicn, in Bot. Zcitg., 1882, p. 776. 

=• Flora, 1877, p. 215. ♦ Bot. Zcit. 1883. * Bot. Zcil. 1885. 

Notes. 225 

species of Euphorbia glucose is first formed and then starch from 
it, just as can be effected by experiment in many Liliaceae and 
Orchidaceae, and in the /r/j, and he suggests that glucose is always 
first produced and then starch from this when the quantity of it in the 
cell exceeds a certain maximum, varying according to the place. He 
did not succeed in making the onion form starch, and says this may 
be due to one of two things, either, 

(i) the necessary strength of glucose was not reached; or 
(2) as he thinks more probable, the chlorophyll-g^ins of the onion 
have entirely lost the power of forming starch. 

1 have found, however, that starch can not unfrequently be detected in 
the elongated parenchymatous cells bordering on the vascular bundle, 
which, in the green part of the leaf, always contain chlorophyll- 
corpuscles, in fact the layer known as the * leitscheide,' or conducting- 

Thus in a seedling about six-and-a-half inches long, picked at 

2 P.M. on a warm sunny day, this layer contained starch, in small 
quantities, but at once noticeable when treated with dilute iodine 
solution after potash; it was found through the whole length of the 
leaf right down to the base, where the leaf had already begun to swell 
to form the future succulent leaf-scale. The green leaf of a seedling 
similar to the above, picked at the same time on a cold damp day, 
contained no starch at all. I have very rarely found small quantities 
in the same layer of cells in the green tubular leaf of older onions, 
e.g. the ordinary spring-onion whose largest leaf reaches a diameter of 
about a third of an inch, when the leaf has stood several hours in 
water after being picked. The chance of finding starch diminishes 
therefore as the leaf grows older. It is usually to be found in larger 
or smaller quantity, often in fair-sized grains in the parenchymatous 
cells round the vascular bundles in succulent leaf-scales of all ages, 
as also in the general parenchyma of the stem where the primary root 
and leaves come off. 

In testing for starch, I followed Sachs' method of wanning the 
sections in potash, neutralising with very dilute acetic acid, and then 
mounting in very dilute iodine. If this was carefully done it was seen, 
at any rate on the side of the bundle towards the epidermis, that the 
starch was contained in the chlorophyll-corpuscles. 

As seedlings are evidently more in the habit of forming starch 
than older plants, I thought they perhaps might be induced to make a 

Notes, 227 

extreme instance of a plant like Euphorbia Lathyris^ since, at any rate 
in seedlings, starch occurs under natural conditions in the same 
position as in this plant. Why more copious formation of starch 
cannot be induced under circumstances which succeed in other cases 
is not evident. One of Schimper's alternative explanations, viz. that 
the chlorophyll-corpuscles cannot form starch, must be rejected after 
what has just been described, as some of them evidently can and do 
form starch. It is however quite consistent with the present state of 
our knowledge to say that the chlorophyll-corpuscles of the assimilating 
tissue proper of the green leaves cannot or do not form starch. 

The other alternative, that it is because the solution of glucose in 
the cell-sap is never sufficiently concentrated, seems rather doubtful, 
since, in the first place, from the quantity of glucose contained in the 
leaves the solution is probably at least as concentrated as almost any- 
where in any plant; and secondly, because in isolated leaves and 
pieces of leaves placed under the various conditions mentioned above, 
as e.g. in highly concentrated glucose solution in a warm moist 
atmosphere, one would imagine the cell-sap to contain a sufficiently 
concentrated solution of glucose, if such were the necessary condition 
for formation of starch. 

We can only say that for some reason or reasons unknown the 
onion almost invariably stores up the excess of carbohydrate formed 
as glucose instead of in the more usual form of starch. The habit of 
forming starch may have been for some purpose abandoned in the 
course of evolution, in which case it is interesting to note that it is in 
the seedlings that we get an intimation of the more general process of 
assimilation in which starch plays so conspicuous a part. 

A. B. RENDLE, Cambridge. 


— In the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club of last year* 
Mr. Spencer Smithson described an arrangement designed by the Rev. 
A. Pagan for growing on microscopical slides small organisms, such as 
Rotifers, Algae, &c., which live in water and require a frequent change 
of the medium. The results obtained with it were very remarkable ; 
but in the original design the slide had always to be removed from the 
microscope and kept on a specially-constructed stage, and although in 

1 Scr. II. Vol. III. No. 18. 



many eases (his is of no importance, for instance when there is no 
difficulty in finding again the individual which has previously been 
under observation, or when it is not desired to observe constantly the 
same individual, yet it is a very great drawback in other cases. I have 
therefore devised an arrangement which allows of the slide being kept 
constantly on the stage of the microscope and thus of the continuous 
observation of the same individual ' for weeks and even, under certain 
conditions to be mentioned later, for an indeQnite period. \Vhilst it 
is based on the principle of Pagan's 'growing slide,' almost every 
detail is different in my arrangement, and its new features justify its 
publication. I have had it in use for the last six months, and I may 
say that the results which I have obtained in growing Algae were 
extremely satisfactory. 

Fig. IJ. Fig. 1.1. 

The arrangement which is represented on Figs. 12 and 13 requires 
very little csplanaiion. Fig. 1 2 represents the essential parts of the 
apparatus. The slide. A, ha.s the ordinary form, but is made slightly 
longer than the stage of the microscope, so as to project a little at 
both ends. On it is placed a piece of ordinary blotting papier, B, 
which just leaves the margins of the slide free ; a hole is cut out in the 
centre of this paper, C, and at one end is a triangular prolongation, 
B', which is bent downwards close to the slide. Water is drawn from a 
tumbler, E, by means of a capillary lube, D, and drops on to the blotting 
paper. 1 usually make the lube just wide enough to allow a small 
drop of water to escape about every 20 seconds. The water is drained 

' < )f course only as long rs it is in a non-mobile Male. 

Notes, 229 

off by the triangular prolongation of the blotting paper already men- 
tioned. An inverted flask, F, filled with water, has its mouth just 
touching the surface of the water in the tumbler, E, and keeps the level 
of the water in the tumbler constant, thus ensuring the regular escape 
of drops from the capillary tube, D. The capillary tube has a 
thickened portion in the middle, which I find convenient to keep the 
tube steady. To be quite sure that the tube will work properly it is 
well to empty and refill it every 24 or 48 hours. 

The object to be observed is placed on the slide within the central 
hole, C, cut in the blotting paper. It is covered with a coverslip 
slightly larger than the hole. The coverslip must not be put on in the 
usual manner, for in this way it is difficult to avoid having air-bubbles 
under it ; but, when the paper is thoroughly saturated with water, the 
coverslip is placed beside the hole ; it is then slid slowly over it, and 
the space between it and the slide is gradually filled with water. 

Fig« 13. copied from a photograph taken by Mr. J. B. Farmer, and 
for which I am very much indebted to him, represents the apparatus 
in use. I may here state that the apparatus does not interfere with 
the dra>\'ing of an object, as the large vessel which receives the water 
dropping down from the blotting paper may be replaced by a very 
small one for some time, and thus the space on the right-hand side of 
the microscope is almost entirely left free. 

As the water between the coverslip and the slide is in direct com- 
munication with the water in the blotting paper, which is constantly 
being renewed, it cannot become foul. I have never yet observed in 
my cultures (some of which lasted over a month) a strong growth of 
Bacteria, such as one would be sure to find in foul water. But in 
certain cases it may become desirable to have the water more rapidly 
renewed than is possible in the way above described. This is easily 
done by cutting a narrow channel (either straight or curved) from the 
central hole in the blotting paper to the place where the water drops 
down on the slide from the capillary tube. The strength of the current 
of water which one gets in this way may be regulated by a small 
piece of blotting paper which has been teased out with a needle. 

With the arrangement described above it is only possible to use 
moderate powers (up to the combination of Zeiss' Ocular 5, Objective 
D). For many purposes this is quite sufficient. If higher powers are 
required, the paper may be removed and the object observed in the 
usual way, but of course it is then very difficult to continue the culture 

230 Notes, 

in the case of very minute objects. In some cases I have, however, 
succeeded in carrying the culture a little further by proceeding in the 
following manner : — The hole in the blotting paper was made slightly 
larger than the coverslip. The latter was thus allowed to come closer 
down on the slide than when it was supported by the paper. The 
portions of the paper surrounding the hole were then teased out by 
means of a needle, and the teased parts were made to touch the 
margin of the coverslip. This was sufficient to prevent the water 
under the coverslip from becoming foul, and at the same time it pre- 
vented drying up. After some days, however, the water usually flooded 
the coverslip more or less. 

When the paper has been used for about 20 days it does not allow 
the water to pass through very freely, and it has therefore to be 
renewed. This is not very easily done, but I have almost invariably 
succeeded by proceeding in the following manner : — First of all an 
excess of water is brought on the paper. As soon as the coverslip 
begins to float it is removed. When this is done, as much water as 
possible is removed from around the object with a piece of fresh 
blotting paper, and then the blotting paper which has been used the 
whole time is carefully lifted and taken off", and a new piece of exactly 
the same size is put down in its place. When this has become 
thoroughly soaked with water, the hole is again covered with a cover- 
slip in the manner already described. During this whole process the 
object is almost constantly kept under observation with a low power, 
so that it may not be lost even if it be slightly moved. As this process 
may be repeated any number of times, it is obvious that a culture may 
be kept in operation any length of lime. 

To make a culture successful, it is of course necessary to adapt it 
as much as possible to the needs of the organism which one wants to 
grow. It is not my purpose to discuss this point here in detail. I 
wish only to point out that the supply of light and of heat has to be 
carefully regulated. One ought, for instance, never to forget to turn 
away the mirror of the microscope after observation, so that concen- 
trated light may not fall on the object for any length of time. Special 
attention has also to be paid to the fact that certain organisms will 
only grow in certain kinds of water, &c. 

In order to show what results can be attained with this arrange- 
ment, I will shortly describe my last culture, which is still in progress 
to-day (July 5th). On the 2nd of June a culture oi Pcdiastrum Bory- 

Books and Pamphlets received, 231 

anum Menegh., var. granulatum Rabh., was begun. It produced new 
colonies on June 6th. One of the latter was again selected for ob- 
servation, the others not being removed. Its development could be 
studied with the greatest ease in all its stages, and on June 25th a third 
generation was produced, which is now developing, although I must 
say it does not seem to flourish. The first generation belonged dis- 
tinctly to the above-mentioned variety oiP, Boryanum ; its membranes 
were strongly * granulated.' The second generation reached the same 
size as the former, and was in all respects like it, but its membranes 
were only slighdy * punctate.' It had therefore to be referred to the 
true P, Boryanum {P, Boryanum, Menegh., a. genuinum, Kirchner *), 
or at least to some variety which was not the var. granulatum. It was 
thus shown that these two rather extreme forms belong to one and 
the same species, and do not even deserve to be distinguished as 

If nothing else could be gained with the arrangement I have de- 
scribed than to show to what extent Algae vary, and thus to reduce 
the confusing synonymy in this branch of Botany, it should recom- 
mend itself to all those interested in its study, but it is obvious that 
other and more important problems may be solved by its aid. 



D*AssiER : Note sur le Transfonnisme. Bordeaux.— Baker : Handbook of the 
Araaryllideae, including the Alstroemericae and Agaveac. George Bell 8c Sons, 
London, 1888. — Cash: On the Fossil Fructifications of the Yorkshire Coal 
Measures. (Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society), 
1887. — Christy & Co. : New and Rare Drugs, being a concise reference to the 
uses, doses, and Preparations of some 250 of the latest introduction. London, 1888. 
— CoHN: Bericht Jihtr die Thatigkeit der botanischen Section der Schlesischen 
Gesellschaft. Barth & Co. (W. Friedrich), Breslau, 1887. — CoHN UND Engler : 
Das Botanische Museum der Universitat Breslau. J. U. Kem*s Verlag (Max 
Miiller), Breslau, 1888. — Delpino : Funzione Mirmccofila nel Regno Vegetole. 
Bologna, 1888. — Elfving: Zur Kenntnlss der Kriimmungserscheinungen der 
Pfianzen. Helsingfors, 1888. — Geddes: The rise and aims of Modem Botany. 
John Long & Co., Dundee, 1888. — Gibson : The History of the Science of 
Biology. J. A. Thomson & Co., Liverpool, 1888. — Id. : On the Ter- 
minology of the reproductive organs of plants (Proc. Biol. Soc. Liverpool), 

* Kryptogamen-Flora von Schlesien. a Bd., Erste Halfte. Algen von Dr. 
Oscar Kirchner. 

232 Books and Pamphlets received. 

igg^. — Goethe : Bericht der Konigl Lehranstalt fiir Obst- und Wcinbau. Bedi- 
told Bl Co., Wiesbaden, 1888. — Greene : Pittonia, a Series of Botanical Papers, 
Vol. I, part 4. Berkeley, California. — .Halsted: Bnlletin from the Botanical 
Department of the State Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
1888. — Hillhouse: Some Investigations into the function of Tannin in the 
Vegetable Kingdom (Midland Naturalist), Birmingham, 1888. — Joly : Note snr 
le Bulletin de Kew. G. Rangier et Cie, Paris, 1888. — Koturnitzky : Apparato 
per illustrare la teoria meccanica della Fillotassi. Gaetano Capra & Co., Messina, 
1888. — Macaulay: Financial Department, Resolution. Calcutta, 1888. — 
Massee : A Revision of the Genus Bovista (Dill) (Journal of Botany for May, 
1888). — Mez : Morphologische Studien iiber die Familie der Lauraceen. 
Berlin, 1888. — Oliver: On the Sensitive Labellum of Masdevallia mucosa, 
Rchb. f. (Ann. of Botany). — Oyster: Catalogue of North American Plants. 
Paola Kansas, U.S.A., 1888. — Prevost: Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Be- 
schadigung der Pflanzen und Baume durch Hiittenrauch. Paul Parey, Berlin, 
1888. — Pringsheim : Ueb. die Entstehung der Kalkincrustationen an Siis- 
swasserpflanzen (Pringsheim's Jahrb. XIX, i). — Sadebeck: Berichte ueb. d. 
Sitzungen der Ges. fiir Botanik, Heft III. Hamburg. — ScHiNZ : Beitrage zur 
Kenntniss der Flora von Deutsch-Siidwest-Afrika und der angrenzenden Gebiete. 
Mesch & Lichtenfeld, Berlin, 1888. — Schweinfurth : Ucber Sammeln und 
Conserviren von Pflanzen hoherer Ordnung. Robert Oppenheim, Berlin, 1888. — 
Siragusa: Ricerche sul Geotropismo. Palermo. — Stewart and Corry: A 
Flora of the North East of Ireland, including the Phanerogamia, the Cryptogamia, 
Vascularia, and the Muscineae. Macmillan & Bowes, Cambridge, 1888. — 
Taylor : Diphtheria in connection with damp and Mould- Fungi. Whiting Bl 
Co., London, 1888. — Thaxter: Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, Vol. IV, No. vi. Boston, 1888. — Trelease : North American Gera- 
niaceae. (Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History). 1888. — Vaizey: 
On the Anatomy and Development of the Sporogonium of Mosses (Joum. Linn. 
Soc. XXIV). — DE Vries : Determination du poids moUculaire de la raflinose 
par la m^thode plasmolytique (Comptes Rendus, 1888). — Weismann : Botanische 
Bcweise fiir eine Vererbung erworbener Eigenschaften (Biol. Centralblatt, Bd. VIII, 
Nos. 3 and 4). — W iesner : Grundversuche ueber den Einfluss der Luftbewegung 
auf die Transpiration der Pflanzen (k. Akad. d. Wiss. Wien, Sitzber. XCVI). — 
Wilhelm: Nachruf an Anton de Baiy, Botanisches Centralblatt. 1888. — 
Annual Report on the Public Gardens and Plantations, for year 
ended 30th September, 1887. Jamaica, 1888. — Scientific Memoirs by 
Medical Officers of the Army of India, Part III (Simpson). 1887. 
Calcutta, 1888, — General Prize List of the Agricultural and In- 
dustrial Exhibition, to be held at Mysore, in October. 1888. — 
Proceedings of the Scientific Committee of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society. 1888. — Journal of Comparative Pathology and 
Therapeutics (M^Fadyean). W. & A. K. Johnston, Edinburgh & London, 
1888. — Journal of Botany, British & Foreign (Britten). — Nuovo 
Giornale Botanico Italiano (Carnel).— Botanische Zeitlng (Wort- 
mann}. — Jahrbucher fur Wissenschaftliche Botanik (Pringshelm). 

The Development of Pilularia globulifera, L. 




With Plates Xni. XIV. XV. 


THE Pteridophytes, standing as they do between the non- 
vascular plants and the Phanerogams, are in many ways 
of especial interest to the botanist, and since the first work of 
Hofmeister^ on their embryology, there has been a long series 
of works of greater or less value bearing upon the subject. 

Owing to the imperfect methods of the earlier investigators, 
it was impossible to satisfactorily make out much that is 
rendered relatively easy by the employment of the more 
improved methods of to-day, this being particularly the case 
with the study of the early stages in the germinating spores of 
the heterosporous forms. 

In undertaking the work, the results of which are embodied 
in the accompanying paper, two objects were had in view : — 
1st, the investigation of the life-history of PiltUaria globti- 
lifera ; and 2nd, to determine how far the paraffin imbedding- 
process was of practical application in the study of vegetable 
embryology. In regard to the first point, the results are given 
at length in the following pages, and will not be recapitulated 
here ; touching the second, it will be sufficient to say that the 
perfection of the sections thus obtainable, and especially the 
fact that series of sections can be made, will convince any one 
who has seen it that this method, or at any rate some 
method of imbedding by which similar serial sections can be 
made, will in future be as essential for the study of the em- 
bryology of the higher plants as it has come to be regarded in 

' Hofineister, Vergleichende Untersnchungen. 
[Annals of Botany, VoL II. No. VII. November 1888.] 


234 Campbell. — On the development 

zoology. The old method of rendering the embryo trans- 
parent by caustic potash and similar violent agents, while it 
may enable one to get a general idea of the structure of an 
embryo, can never show with exactness the cell-arrangement 
in a many-celled embryo, owing to the inevitable confusion 
arising from trying to get optical sections where several super- 
posed layers of cells are present. At the same time the 
structure of the cell-contents is absolutely destroyed by these 
means. With freehand sectioning it is impossible to get more 
than a very few sections, indeed seldom more than a single 
good one of a young embryo, and of course only a partial idea 
of its structure is thus obtainable. 

Hofmeister's brief account oi Pilularia^^ while in some par- 
ticulars correct, is on the whole very imperfect, and the same 
may be said of Hanstein's work*. The later work of Arc- 
angeli^ is much better, but is also in several particulars, 
notably the development of the male prothallium and the 
earliest stages of the female prothallium also, far from com- 
plete, and his account of the development of the embryo, 
as well as the figures of the same, leave very much to be 

The material used in making the investigations here re- 
corded was obtained from the botanical garden in Berlin, 
where, in the autumn of 1887, Pilularia was growing luxuri- 
antly and had formed great numbers of ripe fruits. These 
were gathered at different times up to the middle of December, 
and placed in ordinary unglazed earthen pans filled with 
earth. They were kept in the cold-house connected with 
the laboratory, and retained their vitality perfectly as long as 
the observations lasted, all that was necessary being to water 
them moderately from time to time. In this way an abundant 
supply of fresh material was kept on hand all winter. It was 
found that if the spores were allowed to become perfectly dry 
for any length of time, that many of them, especially the 

* Vergleichende Untersuchungen. 

" Pilulariae globuliferae generatio cum Marsilia comparata. Bonn, 1866. 

' * Sulla Pilularia e Salvinia^ in Nuovo Giomale Botanico Italiano, viii. p. 320. 

of Pilularia globulifera, L, 235 

macrospores, lost their power of germination. In order that 
the spores may germinate, it is necessary that they be brought 
into direct contact with water, and in order to facilitate this the 
fruit should be cut open, or if it has spontaneously opened, the 
tough membrane covering the sporangia should be partially 
removed. The fruit is then placed in a vessel of water, and at 
a temperature of from i8°-20° C.from forty to forty-eight hours 
is usually sufficient for the complete formation of the prothalHa 
and sexual organs. It was found convenient, however, in 
many cases to retard the development, and this was readily 
accomplished by keeping the water at a lower temperature. 
In this way it is possible to so regulate the germination that 
all stages can be obtained, a difficult matter where the de- 
velopment proceeds too rapidly. With fresh material the 
spores germinate almost without exception. 

The fruit of Pilularia globulifera^ as is well known, is 
a round body about 3 mm. in diameter, at maturity pro- 
tected by a hard dark-brown covering. It contains four 
chambers, each enclosing a single large sorus attached to the 
outer wall. The upper half of each sorus contains only micro- 
sporangia, while the lower half contains for the most part only 
macrosporangia, although sometimes an occasional micro- 
sporangium occurs. At maturity the fruit splits into four 
parts, but the sori remain covered with the brown membrane 
that separated the four chambers of the unopened fruit, this 
membrane being firm and more or less impervious to water. 
It was possibly a failure to remove this membrane that led 
Arcangeli to mistake the length of time required for the 
germination of the spores. If it is removed so as to allow 
water free access, the mucilaginous cell- walls of the sporangia 
absorb the water with great rapidity, and the spores are carried 
into the water surrounded by a soft mass of colorless jelly. 
Probably under natural conditions germination does not begin 
until the fruit has been open long enough for the covering 
membrane to become somewhat decayed, as the spores retain 
their vitality for months after the fruit is open if kept in 
slightly moistened earth in a cool place. 

R 2 

236 Campbell. — On the development 

The Microspores and Male Prothallium. 

The spores are of the tetrahedral type, and the vertical 
diameter is considerably less than the transverse. The three 
radiating ridges where the spore was formerly in contact with 
the other members of the tetrad are very prominent, and mark 
the place where the episporium and exosporium rupture when 
the antheridium is mature. 

Arcangeli^ succeeded in demonstrating the presence of a 
v^etative cell of the prothallium, but beyond this his obser- 
vations were very incomplete, owing to the fact that he did 
not succeed in freeing the prothallium from the exosporium, but 
simply rendered the latter as transparent as possible. It is, 
however, possible to remove the exosporium entirely, and when 
this is done it is found that we have to do with a much more 
complicated structure than was supposed, and one whose 
development can be followed with a precision that is quite 
out of the question when the observations are hindered by 
the semi-opaque exosporium, which absolutely prevents a clear 
view of the interior of the spore, even when every available 
means is used to render it transparent The spore contains 
much starch, and in the later stages it is sufficient to place 
the spores in a drop of water upon a glass slide and cover 
them with a cover-glass, and heat the slide over a flame 
until the water boils, when it will be found that the starch 
swells up sufficiently to rupture the outer coats of the spore 
and force out the young prothallium, surrounded only by the 
perfectly transparent endosporium. The prothallium is in no 
d^ree injured by this process and the dissolution of the 
starch is rather an advantage, as the cell-walls and nuclei are 
more easily studied than when the cells are filled with the 
opaque starch-granules. 

In the earlier stages this simple process is not sufficient, 
and it is necessary to employ caustic potash in order to 
free the prothallium from the exosporium, but a very small 
amount must be used, and it must afterwards be thoroughly 

* I.e., p. 339. 
















^ -I 

^ o 


236 Campbell, — On the development 

The Microspores and Male Prothallium. 

The spores are of the tetrahedral type, and the vertical 
diameter is considerably less than the transverse. The three 
radiating ridges where the spore was formerly in contact with 
the other members of the tetrad are very prominent, and mark 
the place where the episporium and exosporium rupture when 
the antheridium is mature. 

Arcangeli* succeeded in demonstrating the presence of a 
vegetative cell of the prothallium, but beyond this his obser- 
vations were very incomplete, owing to the fact that he did 
not succeed in freeing the prothallium from the exosporium, but 
simply rendered the latter as transparent as possible. It is, 
however, possible to remove the exosporium entirely, and when 
this is done it is found that we have to do with a much more 
complicated structure than was supposed, and one whose 
development can be followed with a precision that is quite 
out of the question when the observations are hindered by 
the semi-opaque exosporium, which absolutely prevents a clear 
view of the interior of the spore, even when every available 
means is used to render it transparent. The spore contains 
much starch, and in the later stages it is sufficient to place 
the spores in a drop of water upon a glass slide and cover 
them with a cover-glass, and heat the slide over a flame 
until the water boils, when it will be found that the starch 
swells up sufficiently to rupture the outer coats of the spore 
and force out the young prothallium, surrounded only by the 
perfectly transparent endosporium. The prothallium is in no 
degree injured by this process and the dissolution of the 
starch is rather an advantage, as the cell-walls and nuclei are 
more easily studied than when the cells are filled with the 
opaque starch-granules. 

In the earlier stages this simple process is not sufficient, 
and it is necessary to employ caustic potash in order to 
free the prothallium from the exosporium, but a very small 
amount must be used, and it must afterwards be thoroughly 

* I.e., p. 339- 














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236 Campbell. — On the development 

The Microspores and Male Prothallium. 

The spores are of the tetrahedral type, and the vertical 
diameter is considerably less than the transverse. The three 
radiating ridges where the spore was formerly in contact with 
the other members of the tetrad are very prominent, and mark 
the place where the episporium and exosporium rupture when 
the antheridium is mature. 

Arcangeli^ succeeded in demonstrating the presence of a 
vegetative cell of the prothallium, but beyond this his obser- 
vations were very incomplete, owing to the fact that he did 
not succeed in freeing the prothallium from the exosporium, but 
simply rendered the latter as transparent as possible. It is, 
however, possible to remove the exosporium entirely, and when 
this is done it is found that we have to do with a much more 
complicated structure than was supposed, and one whose 
development can be followed with a precision that is quite 
out of the question when the observations are hindered by 
the semi-opaque exosporium, which absolutely prevents a clear 
view of the interior of the spore, even when every available 
means is used to render it transparent. The spore contains 
much starch, and in the later stages it is sufficient to place 
the spores in a drop of water upon a glass slide and cover 
them with a cover-glass, and heat the slide over a flame 
until the water boils, when it will be found that the starch 
swells up sufficiently to rupture the outer coats of the spore 
and force out the young prothallium, surrounded only by the 
perfectly transparent endosporium. The prothallium is in no 
degree injured by this process and the dissolution of the 
starch is rather an advantage, as the cell-walls and nuclei are 
more easily studied than when the cells are filled with the 
opaque starch-granules. 

In the earlier stages this simple process is not sufficient, 
and it is necessary to employ caustic potash in order to 
free the prothallium from the exosporium, but a very small 
amount must be used, and it must afterwards be thoroughly 

^ I.e., p. 339- 

of Pilularia globulifera, Z. 237 

neutralized, and the preparation washed until every trace of it 
is removed. Before the potash is applied the spores must 
be thoroughly hardened in alcohol, or better a chromic acid 
mixture, either a i per cent, watery solution, or Flemming s 
mixture of chromic, acetic, and osmic acids, a thorough wash- 
ing being requisite after use of either of the latter. After 
addition of the potash the slide is heated as before. If the 
prothallium is not completely set free, this can generally 
be accomplished by gently rubbing the cover-glass to and 
fro, but the potash should previously be as far as possible 
drawn off by means of blotting paper, and pure water run 
under the cover-glass. After a final washing, the preparation 
is neutralized with acetic or hydrochloric acid, and may then 
be stained with haematoxylin or some anilin color. Haema- 
toxylin is preferable, as the preparation can then be preserved 
in dilute glycerine, which extracts anilin color at once or 
after a short time. Care must be taken with haematoxylin 
not to overstain, as the color deepens very much after the 
spores have lain in the glycerine for a short time. 

According to Arcangeli ^ there are but two primary coats 
to the spore, the outer one showing, however, a division into 
three layers. The outermost of these is composed of numerous 
fine papillae of irregular form, and more or less anastomosing 
so as to form an irregular network. Within this is a layer to 
which these papillae are attached, and lastly the exosporium 
proper, which he describes as * sottilissbno^ ' very delicate,' 
while in reality it is of appreciable thickness and decidedly 
firm and resistent. All of these three layers react like cuti- 
cularized membranes, while the endosporium proper shows the 
reaction of cellulose. Besides these there is often to be seen, 
at least in chromic acid preparations, what appears to be a 
loosely-fitting, nearly transparent but well-defined membrane 
outside, the episporium. Arcangeli assumes that all the mem- 
branes are derived from the plasma of the mother-cell, but it 
is more than likely that, as in the spores oi Marsilid^ and in 

» 1. c, p. 337. 

' Strasborger, Ban tmd Wachsthnm der ZelUuitttc 

238 Campbell. — On the development 

others more recently investigated, the episporium is derived 
from the epiplasma, and must therefore be regarded as an 
entirely independent membrane and not as a part of the 

The spore (PI. XIII, Fig. 1) contains an easily-demonstrable 
nucleus, and is filled with densely granular protoplasm in 
which, as we have already seen, are imbedded numerous starch- 

The first wall formed in the germinating microspore (PI. XIII, 
Fig. 2) is at right angles to the shorter axis of the spore, and 
divides it into a small basal cell and a much larger upper one, 
the mother-cell of the antheridium. The basal cell frequently 
becomes further divided into two cells of very unequal size, 
which represent the v^etative part of the prothallium. In 
the mother-cell of the antheridium there is next formed a wall 
which corresponds to that formed in the mother-cell of the 
antheridium of the Polypodiaceae. It is more or less dis- 
tinctly concave above, and may be funnel-shaped, meeting the 
basal wall (PI. XIII, Figs. 3, 4 tn). This wall is followed by 
a dome-shaped wall whose base is in contact with it, but 
the upper part usually free and approximately concentric with 
the outer wall of the spore (PI. XIII, Figs. 3, 4«), but not in- 
frequently cases were observed where it was to a greater or less 
extent in contact with the endosporium, so that the cell thus 
formed has its wall in part made up of the endosporium (PI. XIII, 
Fig. 5). This cell is the central cell of the antheridium, and 
from it alone are derived the mother-cells of the spermatozoids. 
Finally a ring-shaped wall is formed at the top, constituting 
the cap-cell of the antheridium. The succession of walls in 
the mother-cell of the antheridium, as will be seen from the above 
statement, follows almost exactly that of the Polypodiaceae, and 
shows a much less reduced state of the antheridium than was 
supposed to be the case ; indeed occasionally the vegetative 
part of the male prothallium of certain Polypodiaceae (e.g. 
Asplenium Filix-foemina) may be reduced to a single cell ^, and 

* D. H. Campbell, The Prothallinm of Ferns, in Botanical Gazette* 1885. 

of Pilularia globulifera, L. 239 

the resemblance between such a reduced fern-prothallium 
and that of Pilularia is evident at a glance. 

All the divisions in the central cell are by means of walls, 
there being no primordial cells formed as asserted by Han- 
stein ^ for Marsilia^ and Arcangeli * for Pilularia, The first 
wall is nearly vertical, but generally more or less inclined, and 
divides the central cell into two nearly equal cells (PI. XIII, 
Fig. 5). This stage is reached at a temperature of about 
20°C., in about ten hours from the time the spores are placed in 
water. Each of the two cells now divides by a wall at right 
angles to the first and also approximately vertical, so that the 
young antheridium at this stage, when seen from above, shows 
the central cell divided into four equal parts arranged like the 
quadrants of a circle (PI. XIII, Fig. 6). Each cell next divides 
by a horizontal wall, so that there are two strata of cells, each 
composed of four similar cells. The position of the succeeding 
walls appears to vary more or less, but in general the next 
wall formed in each of the eight cells seems to be generally 
nearly parallel to its outer wall (PI. XIII, Fig. 10^), thus dividing 
it into an inner and an outer cell. Each cell now divides once 
more, forming altogether thirty-two cells, the number of sperm- 
cells usually formed in the completed antheridium (PI. XIII, 
Fig. 11). The whole process of division occupies not far from 
thirty hours at a temperature of 18° to 20°C., but of course 
varies slightly in individual cases. The nuclei of the central 
cells color very intensely with haematoxylin, but those of the 
wall-cells of the antheridium are apparently very deficient in 
chromatin, to judge from the difficulty of demonstrating them 

As already stated, it is an easy matter to free from the 
exosporium the full-grown male prothallium and antheridium 
by simply heating. The v^etative part of the prothallium (PL 
XIII, Fig. 13) is separated by a firm wall. Above this lies the 
large basal cell of the antheridium, which like the vegetative 

^ Hanstein, Befinchtnng nnd EDtwicklnng der Gattung Marsilia^ in Pringsheim's 
Jahrbiicher, iv. p. 197. 
• 1. c, p. 339- 

240 CampbelL — On the development 

cell has a small amount of granular content. The central part 
of the antheridium shows plainly the original bipartition, the 
sperm-cells being arranged in two groups. Numerous cases were 
observed (Fig. 90:) which looked as if sometimes a sterile cell were 
formed within the central cell, although this appearance may 
have been due to the formation of a large intercellular space. 
At maturity the sperm-cells are much crowded, and so nearly 
fill up the antheridium, that at first sight there appear to be no 
peripheral cells ; but a careful examination shows that they 
are not in immediate contact with the endosporium, but are 
separated from it by a more or less evident space. The cap- 
cell is also somewhat difficult to detect at this stage, but just 
before the antheridium opens it absorbs much water, and 
becomes then very conspicuous (PI. XIII, Fig. 14 c). Owing to 
the destruction of the starch through heating, the whole pro- 
thallium appears much more transparent than in life. 

The mechanism of opening seems to be the same as in other 
Pteridophytes. The parietal cells absorb a great deal of 
water, becoming in consequence very turgid. At the same 
time the mucilaginous walls of the ripe sperm-cells also absorb 
water, increasing their volume thereby, and at the same time 
freeing the separate cells. The tension finally becomes so 
great that the wall of the antheridium is ruptured and the 
sperm-cells are forced out. The opening usually occurs be- 
tween the cap-cell and the second parietal cell. As the 
internal pressure is removed, the parietal cells, in case they 
have not been ruptured, become much distended, and in the 
few cases where it was possible to free the empty antheridium 
from the spore, the parietal cells were found to project into 
the cavity of the antheridium, nearly filling it. Owing to 
the thinness of the walls the empty antheridium usually 
collapses, so that it is not easy to follow the outlines of the 

The presence of parietal cells in the antheridium oiPilularia 
corresponds with the later investigations in regard to other 
heterosporous Pteridophytes. BelajefT^ demonstrated the 

* Belajeff, in Bot. Zeit., 1885, pp. 793-809. 

of Pilularia globuliferay L. 241 

presence of such cells in the antheridia of Isoctes and Scla- 
ginella, and I called attention to the same fact in Salvinia^. 

In the study of the development of the spermatozoids 
chromic acid was used as a fixing medium, and the prepara- 
tions were stained with haematoxylin. After removing the 
prothallium from the spore, it may be carefully crushed, and 
the sperm- cells thus separated. The nuclei are relatively 
small, but contain much chromatin, so that they color very 
intensely. The development differs in no wise from that of 
other plants studied by me *. 

The nucleus becomes contracted on one side so as to appear 
somewhat crescent-shaped (PI. XIII, Fig. 17). It rapidly elon- 
gates, becoming at the same time thinner and more homo- 
geneous in appearance. As it elongates it winds about the 
cell close to the wall in the form of a delicate spiral band, 
having about two complete coils (PI. XIII, Figs. 19, 20). It 
occupies but a small part of the cell, the greater part being 
taken up with central contents, including numerous relatively 
large starch-granules. The cilia appear to originate from the 
peripheral cytoplasm, as in other forms. The sperm-cells 
are still clothed with a delicate membrane at the time they 
are expelled from theantheridium,but this is soon completely 
dissolved and the spermatozoids escape. These are very 
small, and coiled in a nearly flat spiral about the upper part of 
the vesicle, which is derived from the central part of the 
mother-cell, and contains the starch-granules which occupied 
that position in the sperm-cell. On killing the spermatozoid 
with an iodine solution the body becomes deeply colored, 
and the cilia are then plainly seen (PL XIII, Fig. ai). They are 
numerous, and relatively long and very delicate. Arcangeli ' 
states that there are but two cilia, but how he could have 
failed to see the others is hard to understand, as they are very 
easily demonstrated. The vesicle is very large, and becomes 
still more so by the absorption of water. Besides the starch- 

^ Campbell, in Berichte der Deutschen botanischen Gesellschaft, 1887, p. 125. 
* Campbell, 1. c, p. lao, 
' 1. c, p. 340. 

242 Campbell. — On the development 

granules, it often contains others that are not colored blue by 
the action of iodine. It is surrounded by a very delicate 
membrane that in some cases shows a bluish tint when treated 
with iodide of potassium. 

Not infrequently the spermatozoid becomes entirely free 
from the vesicle, and then its coils separate and the spiral 
becomes elongated. This is always the case with those found 
about the open archegonium, the vesicle being held fisist in the 
mucilaginous matter about its opening. The spermatozoids 
are often held in the mucilage in which the macrospore is 
imbedded, so that often one sees hundreds about the macro- 
spore, not only in the vicinity of the open archegonium, but 
about the whole spore. It is true that the number is greatest 
about the open archegonium, which frequently becomes com- 
pletely choked up with them ; but only one reaches the 
oosphere, which thereupon becomes clothed with a cell-wall so 
as to effectually prevent the further entrance of spermatozoids. 
The basal walls of the neck-cells quickly turn brown, as an in- 
dication that fertilization is effected. Under normal circum- 
stances it seldom happens that an archegonium fails to become 

In one case free spermatozoids were observed thirty-five 
hours from the time the spores were placed in water, but 
ordinarily from five to ten hours longer were necessary. 

The Macrospore and Female Prothallium. 

The structure of the macrospore of Pilularia has been so 
thoroughly studied, that no attempt will be made here to give 
more than a brief outline of the same. The spores are oval 
in form and white in color, quite large enough to be readily 
seen with the naked eye. About one-third the distance from 
the top is an evident constriction, above which the diameter 
of the spore is noticeably greater. 

As already shown by the researches of Hofmeister ^, Stras- 

* Hofmeister, Vergleichende Untersuchungen. 

of Pilularia globuliferay L. 243 

burger ^, Arcangeli ^, and others, the wall of the spore is very 

On the outside is a mucilaginous layer that swells up greatly 
when placed in water. Below this is a very characteristic 
layer, showing a prismatic structure (PI. XIII, Fig. 23 a). It is 
to the sudden thickening of this layer that the enlargement of 
the upper part of the spore is due. Within this two layers 
(Fig. 23. by c) are further to be distinguished before the 
endosporium (d) is reached. Of these the outer is thicker 
and presents a punctated appearance. Sections stained with 
safranin, or gentian-violet, show the structure of the wall of 
the spore very plainly. 

Owing to the mucilaginous character of the outer coat, as 
well as the delicate character of the spore -contents, it 
is quite impossible to get satisfactory sections of the fresh 
spore, and recourse must be had to fixing agents. Various 
ones were used with good results, but on the whole absolute 
alcohol, in which the spores should be left for two or three 
days at least, was found the best. A i per cent, chromic 
acid mixture, and Flemming's mixture of chromic, acetic and 
osmic acids were also successfully used, but care must be taken 
to thoroughly wash out the acids before further treatment. 

In making the sections the spores were imbedded in paraffin, 
and then cut with a Cambridge rocking microtome. Schon- 
land's methods ^ with some simplifications, were used in most 
cases, but in others the spores were gradually brought into 
clove oil, and then into xylol instead of turpentine. This 
method requires little time, and often gives excellent results, 
but is not always to be relied on, though in the early stages 
it answered very well, and the penetration of the paraffin 
was facilitated. When chromic acid mixtures were used, the 
specimens were brought gradually into absolute alcohol, which 
was then replaced by clove oil, and finally by a saturated cold 
solution of paraffin in turpentine before being placed in the 

^ Ban u. Wachsthnm der Zellhaute. 

• 1. c, p. 323. 

> Bot. Centralblatt, 1887, No. 22. 

244 Campbell. — On the development 

melted parafRn. As a staining agent haematoxylin was used 
to some extent, but the best results were had with safranin 
and gentian-violet, the latter especially giving particularly 
beautiful coloring, the nuclei being much better differentiated 
than with the other colors ^. 

The spore is filled with protoplasm, in which are contained 
numerous starch-granules of various sizes, as well as oil-globules 
and granules of albuminous nature. The larger starch-granules 
are oval in form, and show more or less distinct concentric 
striation. Sections through the spores that have been treated 
with alcohol or some other fixing agent show a reticulated 
arrangement of the contents, and sometimes portions separate 
in the form of small vesicles, surrounded by a thin protoplasmic 
membrane. These vesicles probably represent vacuoles in 
the living spore. The upper part of the spore is filled with 
denser protoplasm, which also shows a reticulated structure, 
but with much finer meshes. This part (Plate XIII, Fig. 22) is 
almost completely free from starch-granules, and in the middle 
lies the nucleus, which is large and separated from the 
surrounding plasma by a clearly-marked membrane. It is 
discoid in form, strongly flattened above, and more or less 
undulate on the upper surface. Whether this latter peculiarity 
is in any way due to the reagents used cannot be determined, 
as it is quite impossible to make out the nucleus in the living 
spore. On account of its large size the nucleus is readily 
divided into sections in sectioning the spore, so that the 
interior structure is easily studied. It does not appear 
homogeneous (Plate XIII, Fig. 22 b\ but is filled with numerous 
fine granules which act with reference to staining agents much 
like the surrounding protoplasm, and also form an indistinct 
net-work. The amount of chromatin is relatively very small, 
the chromatin-bodies being few and occupying only a very small 
part of the nucleus. They stain readily and deeply, the rest 
of the nucleus staining but little. No nucleolus was detected. 

The spore, on being, placed in water, begins to germinate 

^ See Moll's article on the paraffin-imbedding process in the Botanical Gazette 
for January, 1888. 

of Pilularia globulifera, L. 245 

in a very short time. The protoplasm at the top increases in 
volume, and begins to push out the inner spore-membranes, so 
that the upper part of the spore becomes decidedly more con- 
vex than at first (Plate XIII, Fig. 24). At the same time the 
nucleus becomes much more nearly globular, and the amount 
of chromatin is seen to be evidently greater, as well as to have 
become more evenly distributed (Plate XIII, Fig. 25). This 
stage was observed in sections made four-and-a-half hours 
after the spores were placed in water. At this time the 
appearance of the protoplasm in the upper part of the spore 
had also changed, having enlirely lost the reticulated appear- 
ance which it has in the ungerminated spore. 

This stage is figured by Arcangeli^ who did not, however, 
recognise the true nature of the nucleus, supposing it to be 
the beginning of the oosphere. 

The youngest stage in which it was possible to demonstrate 
positively the first division in the spore occurred sixteen-and- 
a-half hours from the commencement of germination. In 
this stage (Plate XIII, Figs. 26 «, b) the primary nucleus 
had completely divided, and a transverse wall, a^ had formed, 
cutting off the mass of protoplasm at the top of the spore 
from the rest of the spore. This wall does not always have 
the same form, being sometimes convex above, sometimes 
decidedly concave. The next wall to appear is nearly parallel 
with the first, and is completed within three or four hours from 
the time the first is formed (Fig. 27, b). A few cases were ob- 
served where this second wall did not seem to have been 
formed, so that the central cell of the archegonium was in direct 
contact with the first- formed wall, but this is exceptional. 

Next are formed two walls in the upper cell, nearly per- 
pendicular to the wall b^ and meeting each other so as to 
enclose a nearly circular central cell. When seen from above 
(Plate XIII, Figs. 33, 34) these walls appear nearly semicircular 
and concentric with the periphery of the prothallium. The 
nearly circular central cell is the mother-cell of the archegonium. 

» 1. c, Plate VII, Fig. a. 

246 Campbell. — On the development 

The prothallium (Plate XIII, Fig. 28) now consists of four cells, 
the discoid basal cell, h, the two peripheral cells, //', and the 
central cell, c. As is usually the case, the mother-cell of the 
archegonium is distinguished from the other cells not only by 
its position, but also by its more densely granular protoplasm. 
The nucleus is also larger. It occupies the centre of the cell, 
and has a well-defined membrane. It is oval in form, and 
has chromatin-bodies of nearly round shape. A nucleolus does 
not seem to be present in most cases, though once a body 
was seen that may have been a nucleolus. 

About the time that the mother-cell of the archegonium is 
formed, the basal cell undergoes division by a vertical wall 
into two nearly equal cells. 

According to Arcangeli^ there is an almost regular con- 
centric arrangement of the cells of the basal part of the pro- 
thallium, but numerous sections failed invariably to show 
anything approaching his figures. The first wall (PL XIII, 
Fig. j^^^ i) generally can be distinguished even after numerous 
divisions have taken place, and the radial walls, 2, which suc- 
ceed this can also frequently be traced in the later stages, but 
the number of these secondary walls is so variable, and the 
succeeding ones so very irregular, that beyond the first three 
or four divisions it is quite impossible to distinguish any 
regular succession in the order of division. 

The order, so far as it can be traced, is as follows. After 
the first wall (PI. XIII, Fig. 35, i) is formed, a number of 
secondary walls, 2, are formed running from the primary 
wall to the circumference but not strictly radial, and variable 
in number. The tertiary walls, 3, run from the secondary 
walls to the circumference, and like these are usually some- 
what curved. The next series of walls are tangential, but 
beyond this no regular order seems to prevail. In consequence 
of the variable number of the secondary and tertiary walls, as 
well as the subsequent differences in the arrangement of cells, 
the resulting cell-complex is extremely irregular, and differs 
widely in appearance in different individuals. The marginal 

» 1. c, Plate VIII, Fig. 4. 

of Pilularia globuliferay L. 247 

cells undergo division by horizontal walls, but in the central 
part all the walls are vertical, so that the central cell of the 
archegonium, and later the embryo, are only separated from 
the cavity of the spore by a single layer of cells. 

In the meantime the cells of the upper part of the prothal- 
lium have also been undergoing rapid divisions. In the peri- 
pheral cells are formed numerous radially placed vertical walls 
(PI. XIII, Fig. 34), so that the central cell, seen from above, 
appears surrounded by a single circle of small cells. The 
central cell next divides by a wall parallel to its outer surface 
(PI. XIII, Fig. 29), the outer cell being the mother-cell of the 
neck of the archegonium, the inner one giving rise to the 
oosphere and canal-cells. The contents of all the peripheral 
cells are less uniform than those in the central cell^ and the 
nuclei are much smaller. 

The development of the archegonium proceeds as follows. 
The mother-cell of the neck becomes divided by two cross- 
walls into four equal cells, and soon after the central cell has 
a small discoid cell, the primary canal-cell, cut off at the top 
(PI. XIII, Fig. 31). 

Up to this time, about thirty hours from the beginning of 
germination, the prothallium has increased but little in size 
and is still completely enclosed in the spore, and all the cells, 
including the central one, are very much flattened. A rapid 
growth in height nowbegins. Thecells, which hitherto have been 
divided by vertical walls for the most part, now form horizontal 
walls, and at the same time increase in height, so that the 
young prothallium rapidly assumes its completed form. Each 
of the four primary neck-cells divides by a transverse septum 
into two, and the upper cells so formed project when full grown 
as a colorless papilla beyond the spore-membrane. As the neck 
increases in length the canal-cell elongates with it, and the 
ventral canal-cell is formed (PI. XIII, Fig. 32). It was impos- 
sible to get specimens where the nuclear division was taking 
place, which would of course determine the matter posi- 
tively, but from the relative position of the walls in the canal- 
cells one would certainly conclude that the ventral canal-cell 

248 Campbell. — On the development 

arises here, at any rate, not by a further division of the central 
cell, but by division of the primary canal-cell. The wall 
dividing the two canal-cells is so high up, and so much shorter 
than the wall by which the primary canal-cell was separated 
from the central cell, that it is hard to see how such changes 
of position could be otherwise accounted for. 

The divisions in the female prothallium are usually com- 
pleted in from forty to forty-five hours from the time the spores 
are sown, and shortly thereafter the archegonium opens and is 
ready for fecundation. Owing to the opacity of the covering 
membranes, the only part of the archegonium that can be seen 
in the living prothallium is the upper part of the neck. The 
cells of this, as in other Pteridophytes, become much distended 
with water and diverge widely when the neck opens, and at 
the same time, as has been so often observed in other Arche- 
goniates, the contents of the disintegrated canal-cells are forced 
out of the opening. 

Fecundation takes place very soon after the archegonium 
opens, the spermatozoids, as already mentioned, collecting 
in great numbers about the open archegonium. The opacity 
of the spore-membranes makes it impossible to follow the 
spermatozoid to the central cell, but this probably takes place 
very quickly owing to the shortness of the neck. In nearly 
every case where the spores were placed in alcohol imme- 
diately after it was supposed that fecundation had been 
effected, the lower neck-cells had already begun to assume the 
dark-brown line indicative of the fact. In these cases the two 
nuclei could generally be demonstrated in the germ-cell. 

The oosphere becomes almost at once surrounded by a 
membrane which prevents the further penetration of sperma- 
tozoids. As soon as the spermatozoid enters the germ-cell it 
appears to go through a similar series of changes, only in 
reverse order, to those which the nucleus of the sperm-cell 
undergoes in forming the spermatozoid. In the earliest stages 
observed, the elongated, more or less curved form of the 
spermatozoid was still indicated, but the body was less homo- 
geneous than in the free spermatozoid. The body was also 

of Pilularia globulifera, Z. 249 

broader and shorter, indicating a separation of the chromatin- 
masses of which the body is composed. In all the later stages 
(PI. XIII, Figs. 3H-39) the spermatozoid, sp,^ had assumed 
much the appearance of an ordinary nucleus, nearly round in 
shape, and in close contact with the nucleus of the oosphere. 
The actual fusion of the two nuclei was not observed, but 
there is no reason to doubt that, as in other cases ^ observed, 
the cavities of the two nuclei are thrown into direct com- 
munication, and that the contents of the male nucleus flow 
into the cavity of the female nucleus, thus completing the act 
of fecundation. 

The nucleus of the oosphere (PI. XIII, Figs. 38-39) is large 
and has a well-marked membrane, but although a membrane 
may be present in the male nucleus, it is certainly much less 
evident, and it is by no means improbable, that a definite 
membrane is not developed. 

The upper part of the oosphere, about one-third (PI. XIII, 
Fig. 38), is nearly transparent, and constitutes the so-called 
receptive spot. This is traversed by what look like con- 
tinuations of the granular protoplasm of the lower part of the 
oosphere. The nucleus at this stage presents the appearance 
of a transparent vesicle, containing a faintly-marked net-work 
of fine filaments which do not stain readily, and a small 
amount of chromatin. 

How long after the union of the two nuclei the first 
division in the fertilized germ-cell takes place could not be 
exactly determined, but it is probably within two or three 
hours, and possibly even sooner. In one case the germ- 
cell was observed undergoing division. In this instance 
(PI. XIV, Fig. i) the daughter-nuclei were already complete, 
but the cell-wall was not yet complete. The nuclear spindle 
was still very evident, and in the middle lay the cell-plate, 
showing plainly the separate elements of which it was com- 

If for any reason the germ-cell fails to become fecundated 
the prothallium may continue to grow for some time, but this 

^. Strasbnrger, Ueber Kem nnd Zelltheilimg im PflanzcDreiche, 1888, pp. 335-449. 


250 Campbell. — On the development 

is by no means invariably the case. In no case, however, are 
new archegonia developed. Arcangeli's statement^ that the 
chlorophyll is developed independently of the action of light 
was confirmed. Spores were placed in water and removed 
at once to a dark place, where they were allowed to remain 
undisturbed for a week. At the end of this time young plants 
were found developed in a perfectly normal manner. They 
were slightly smaller, and the amount of chlorophyll may 
have been possibly rather less than in plants grown under 
normal conditions, but the difference was very slight. 

The Embryo. 

The fertilized oosphere is not perfectly spherical, but more 
or less elongated transversely, and before the first division is 
completed this is strongly marked (PI. XIV, Figs, t, 2). The 
first wall (basal wall) in the young embryo is approximately 
parallel to the axis of the archegonium, and divides the germ- 
cell into two equal cells (PL XIV, Fig. 2). The youngest 
case where the completed division was seen was forty-six 
hours after the commencement of germination, but it is not 
improbable that it may occur somewhat earlier, as embryos 
only two hours older were observed in some cases (PL XIV, 
Figs. 6-8) to be already divided into numerous cells. 

Of the two primary cells, one, as in the Polypodiaceae, gives 
rise to the first leaf and stem, the other to the root and foot. 
Of course, as the structure of the prothallium is radial, it is 
impossible to speak of an anterior and posterior cell at this stage. 

The second or quadrant-wall (PL XIV, Fig. 3 ll) follows as 
in other Pteridophytes, and divides the embryo into quadrants, 
the two upper being as a rule evidently larger than the lower 

In regard to the following divisions there is much difference 
of opinion, at least for Marsilia, which probably does not differ 
materially from Pilularia. Hanstein claims that the first wall 
in the embryo separates at once the stem and root, and that 

^ 1. c, p. 336. 

of Pilularia globulifera, L. 251 

the subsequent divisions are to be looked upon as segments 
of these primary organs. Leitgeb and Arcangeli assert on 
the other hand that there is a regular formation of octants. 
My own observations do not confirm either view, but in- 
dicate that the quadrant-wall was the one which separated 
the primary organs, and that the quadrants are of equal 
morphological importance. In regard to the formation of 
octant- walls, while they are formed in the anterior quadrants, 
the corresponding walls in the root- and foot-quadrants form 
very unequal angles with the basal wall, so that the resulting 
cells are of unequal size. From this fact (see PI. XIV, 
Figs. 5, 6), it is possible to distinguish the primary organs of 
the embryo as soon as these walls are formed. 

In order to avoid confusion it will be best perhaps to take 
up each quadrant separately and follow its development in 

The Leaf. 

The leaf-quadrant, as already stated, undergoes division by 
an octant-wall into two entirely similar cells. Each octant 
now divides by a curved wall (PI. XIV, Figs. 4-5), meeting 
basal and octant walls so as to form two cells, one retaining 
much the same form as the octant, that is tetrahedral, and 
appearing in section triangular; the other quadrilateral, as 
seen in section. The two tetrahedral cells function for a short 
time as apical cells, forming three series of segments corre- 
sponding to their lateral faces. Each segment next divides into 
an outer and an inner cell, from the former of which is derived 
the epidermis, from the other the ground -tissue and the 
vascular bundle. Sooner or later this apical growth ceases, 
and the growth is confined to the basal part of the leaf. The 
cessation of apical growth occurs about the fourth day, and 
before this the leaf begins to elongate (PI. XIV, Fig. 16 a). 
Not infrequently one of the cells persists longer than the 
others, and can be detected after the leaf has assumed its 
conical form and become noticeably larger than the other 
members of the embryo (PI. XIV, Fig. 15). In such cases the 

s % 

252 Campbell. — On the development 

succession of the segments may be traced with little difficulty, 
whereas when no definite apical cell is present {e.g, PI. XIV, 
Fig. 1 7 a), no such arrangement of the cells is distinguish- 
able. The obliteration of the apical cell as such is brought 
about by a wall parallel to its outer face. The outer cell 
divides by vertical walls, soon becoming indistinguishable 
from the other epidermal cells, and the inner cell also dividing 
becomes part of the ground tissue of the leaf. About the 
end of the fourth day the leaf begins to grow much faster 
than the other members and from this time onwards elongates 
with great rapidity. By the fifth day the differentiation of 
the future tissues is clearly indicated. A longitudinal section 
of the leaf at this stage (PI. XIV, Figs. 17^,^) shows on the 
outside a single layer of nearly cubical cells, especially well- 
marked near the apex of the leaf, which is somewhat pointed. 
This layer of cells constitutes the primary epidermis. Beneath 
it are usually about two layers of cells arranged in nearly 
straight rows, which converge towards the apex of the leaf. 
These cells give rise to the mesophyll, and at an early stage 
large intercellular spaces are formed between them. Within 
these is a conical mass of cells, the outer ones of which differ 
but little from those lying outside them, but the innermost 
ones have undergone division by longitudinal walls forming 
the beginning of the procambium of the future vascular 
bundle. This longitudinal division ceases at some distance 
from the point of the leaf, and in consequence the vascular 
bundle does not extend into it. The cells of the leaf-tip 
above the point where the procambium ceases increase 
enormously in size, elongating to many times their original 
length, and forming thus a very loose large-celled parenchyma 
that ultimately dies away. From this time the growth of the 
leaf is due entirely to the activity of the basal part. If we 
examine somewhat older embryos (PI. XIV, Figs. 22, 23) the 
differentiation of the young tissues is still more evident, and 
the limit between the actively dividing basal cells and the tip 
of the leaf is very conspicuous. If the base of the leaf of such 
an embryo as that figured in Fig. 23 is examined, it is usually 

of Pilularia globulifera^ L. 253 

found to be decidedly convex above, in consequence of more 
active growth on the upper side, and the young ground-tissue 
is much more strongly developed than on the ventral side, 
where there was but a single layer of cells separating the 
young epidermis from the young vascular bundle. The inner 
procambium-cells at this stage have increased considerably 
in length, and begin to show the pointed ends character- 
istic of the elements of the mature bundle, but no tracheids 
are yet distinguishable, these appearing first about the ninth 

The Root-quadrant. 

The first wall in the root-quadrant (PL XIV, Fig. 5) forms 
an angle of about 60° with the basal wall, and thus divides the 
quadrant into two unequal tetrahedral cells. The larger of 
the two is the future apical cell of the root, and from the first 
it forms regular series of segments, but at the beginning only 
the lateral faces give rise to segments, that is, three series only 
are developed, the first segment of the root-cap being cut off 
only after about two complete sets of lateral segments have 
been formed (PI. XIV, Figs. 12-16^). The apical cell of the 
root is from the first very conspicuous, and immediately re- 
cognizable as such. By the fourth day there have been two 
segments cut off from each lateral face of the apical cell, and 
the first segment of the root-cap has also appeared. The cell- 
division in the segments is very regular, and corresponds with 
what has been observed in other Pteridophytes. The first 
wall in the lateral segment (PI. XIV, Fig. 20, 1, II) is perpen- 
dicular to the broad faces of the tabular segment, and divides 
it into two nearly, but not quite, equal cells, as the wall does 
not extend quite to the centre, but meets one of the lateral 
walls a short distance above it. Each of the cells thus formed 
next divides by a tangential wall into an inner and an outer 
cell, the former giving rise to the cells of the plerome-cylinder, 
the latter to the epidermis and periblem. 

An excellent idea of the succession of the divisions can be 
had by making a series of cross-sections through the tip of the 

254 Campbell. — On the development 

root, but this is best done after the root has attained some 
length. Part of such a series is shown in Plate XV, Figs. 
2-5, taken from an embryo of nine days. The younger 
segments, as will be seen on comparing them with those from 
a younger embryo (PI. XIV, Figs. 20, 21), are much the same, 
but as the sections are made further from the tip of the root 
changes are observed which had not yet appeared in the 
younger embryo. The outer of the two original cells of each 
semi-segment divides by a tangential wall into two nearly 
equal cells, and these ultimately undergo further division by 
similar walls, the outer into two, the inner into three. 

About the time that these cells are formed (PI. XV, Fig. 3), 
intercellular spaces appear at the points where the inner and 
outer cells are in contact, and these appear larger and larger 
as the root increases in diameter. The two outermost layers, 
i.e. epidermis and hypoderma, undergo further radial divisions 
and form an uninterrupted double layer of cells, but the three 
original cells lying between the hypoderma and the plerome- 
cylinder divide subsequently only by horizontal walls and form 
single rows of cells separating the large intercellular spaces. 
The older sections (PI. XV, Figs. 4, 5) show a perfectly uniform 
radial structure. In the centre is a group of about nine cells, 
the young bundle, from which radiate at regular distances rows 
of three cells each. The lower cells of these rows are in con- 
tact and constitute the bundle-sheath, but the others are sepa- 
rated by the large intercellular spaces. Bounding the section 
are the two rows of cells forming epidermis and hypoderma. 

The cell-division in the cap-segments is illustrated in PI. 
XV, Fig. 2 «, b. In Fig. 2 b the central part shows the 
youngest cap-segment, the peripheral cells belonging to the 
next oldest segment. As seen here each segment-cell has 
divided into two nearly equal parts, and these, by walls at 
right angles to the first, also into approximately equal cells. 
These are next divided by tangential walls and the resulting 
marginal cells by radial walls, so that on section four central 
cells and a marginal circle of smaller ones are now visible 
(Fig. 2 a). These marginal cells later undergo further 

of Pilularia globuliferay Z. 255 

divisions, but only in two planes, there never being any 
horizontal walls formed, so that the segments of the root-cap 
form single layers of cells, and its stratified structure as seen 
in longitudinal section is very marked. 

The Stem-quadrant. 

The stem quadrant, like that of the leaf, divides first 
by a regular octant-wall, and the resulting octants grow for 
a time in the same way. As in the root, the apical cells 
are distinguishable from the first, each octant in fact func- 
tioning as such from the beginning, and dividing by segments 
cut off in regular order from the three inner faces of the 
octant, which has the tetrahedral form that characterizes the 
apical cell of the older stem. The first wall in each octant 
(PI. XIV, Fig. \\ y) meets octant- and quadrant-walls, and cuts 
off a large cell which is in contact with the foot, and according 
to Hanstein and Arcangeli is to be regarded as part of the 
foot. That physiologically this is the case is indisputable, as 
these cells, lying as they do next the basal cells of the pro- 
thallium, must help to absorb the nutriment from the spore. 
As, however, these segments are cut off from the stem-quad- 
rant, and not from the foot itself, and are in all essential par- 
ticulars both in regard to form and methods of division like 
the later segments, it seems more in accordance with the facts 
to regard these segments, morphologically at least, as the first 
segments of the stem and second leaf, and the equivalent of 
the later ones. 

Hanstein's statement that the first wall in the stem-quad- 
rant of Marsilia corresponds to the wall in the accompanying 
figures, and that the octant-wall is formed subsequently, is not 
confirmed by later observers, nor was it found to occur in any 
instance observed by me in Pilularia. 

Of the two octants, one becomes the stem and the other the 
second leaf, corresponding with the earlier observations of 
Hanstein and Arcangeli. These are often not to be dis- 
tinguished from each other for some time, but as a rule the 

256 Campbell. — On the development 

divisions in the leaf-octant are less regular, and very often the 
apical cell becomes obliterated at an early period (PI. XIV, 
Fig. i6r). 

There seems to be no rule as to which of the octants of 
the stem-quadrant forms the apical cell of the stem, as it 
was found in about an equal number of cases to be right or 
left. The succession of segments cut off from the apical cell 
proceeds from the outside towards the octant -wall, the 
three segments of each series being respectively approximately 
parallel to the quadrant-, basal, and octant -walls. The 
direction of the leaf-spiral, which depends upon the arrange- 
ment of the segments, will of course be determined by the 
position of the original stem-octant with reference to the octant- 
wall. Kny ^ comes to similar conclusions with reference to the 
establishment of the leaf-spiral in Ceratopteris, 

Each segment divides by a tangential wall into an inner and 
outer cell, the former dividing again by a similar wall and the 
latter by a radial wall, so that a vertical section through the 
young segment at this stage (PL XIV, Fig. 18) shows four cells, 
two inner and two outer ones. The inner cells undergo re- 
peated division in all directions, but the outer ones only by 
radial walls. 

The stem grows very slowly at first, and by the time the first 
leaf and root have attained length enough to break through 
the prothallium, the stem shows only about two completed 
series of segments. Even at this stage (PI. XIV. Fig. 23) the 
inner cells of the segments have rapidly divided and the first 
traces of the vascular bundle are distinguishable. 

The first segments are larger than the succeeding ones, and 
the broadly tetrahedral form of the original octant is thus 
rapidly reduced to the much narrower form of the apical cell 
of the older stem. 

The octant which does not become the apical cell of the 
stem, forms, as we have seen, the second leaf of the plant. In 
a certain sense, assuming that the quadrant-wall establishes 

* Kny, Die Entwicklung der Parkeriaceen, in Nova Acta Acad. Leopold, xxxvii, 
No. 4, p. 58. 

of Pilularia globulifera, L. 257 

the primary members of the embryo, we may say that the 
second leaf originates like the later ones, as a segment of the 
apical cell of the stem. Like the stem, it grows slowly at 
first, and in case the apical cell persists, is scarcely to be 
distinguished from it (PL XIV, Fig. 22 dj'^). About the 
eighth day, however, it begins to elongate, though much more 
slowly than the primary leaf, and from this time onwards 
is very easily recognised (PI. XIV, Fig. 25 ; PI. XV, Figs. 
I, 8). About two weeks after sowing the spores the second 
leaf begins to grow rapidly, and in a very few days reaches 
its full size. 

The Foot-quadrant. 

The first divisions in the foot-quadrant (PL XIV, Figs. 8, 9, 
&c.) follow closely those of the root, but this regularity soon 
ceases, and after the first two or three divisions no definite 
succession of the walls can be distinguished. The foot never 
attains any great size, and as already said, all the lower cells 
of the embryo probably absorb the nutriment from the spore. 

As the embryo grows the prothallium keeps pace with it for 
some time. About the time the embryo is divided into eight 
cells, the upper part of the archegonium has its cells divided 
by tangential walls, so that this part of the embryo is sur- 
rounded by a double layer of cells (PL XIV, Figs. 10, 13). 
Both Hofmeister and Arcangeli^ figure this condition in the 
unfertilized archegonium, which in Pilularia never occurs. 

The basal cells of the prothallium divide further and develop 
numerous root-hairs. The plasma in the upper part of the 
spore increases in quantity as the embryo develops and pushes 
up the base of the prothallium and embryo, which become in 
consequence strongly concave below (PL XIV, Fig. 23). Al- 
though the nucleus was not observed in actual division, in a 
number of instances in the later stages of development bodies 
which behaved with reference to staining agents in the same 
way as nuclei were seen in this plasma-mass, and were quite 
probably derivations of the original 'endosperm nucleus.' 

» 1. c, Plate VIII. Fig. 5. 

258 Campbell, — On the development 

The Structure and Division of the Nuclei 

IN THE Embryo. 

Owing to their small size the nuclei of the embryo are not 
well adapted for the study of nuclear division. Except during 
the actual division the nuclear membrane is well defined. 
With safranin, or better with gentian-violet, the chromatin 
stains very intensely, the same treatment being used as 
recommended by Moll for the root-tips of Phanerogams^. In 
the actively growing embryo all stages of division may be 
found. As elsewhere, the amount of chromatin increases very 
perceptibly at the time of division, the resting nucleus showing 
but a small amount of chromatin, and the chromatin-masses 
being extremely small and scattered. A small nucleolus can 
generally be seen. A stage was observed (PL XIV, Fig. 28) which 
was not thoroughly understood. Apparently a single relatively 
large and intensely coloured body was present. This was so 
small in some cases as to be readily taken for a nucleolus, 
but usually it was larger, and when sufficiently magnified did 
not appear perfectly homogeneous ; all intermediate forms 
between this and others where numerous chromatin-masses 
were present could be readily found, and led to the conclusion 
that the apparently single mass is in reality composed of 
closely apposed, but not united chromatin-bodies, which sub- 
sequently separate more widely previous to the division of the 
nucleus. The chromatin-bodies are short, and with ordinary 
lenses appear like round granules, but when more strongly 
magnified are seen to be somewhat elongated. 

After they have completely separated a nuclear spindle is 
formed, the nuclear membrane having disappeared, and the 
division proceeds in the usual manner. The segments now 
undergo division, as is indicated by the evidently greater 
number of segments forming the nuclear plate (PI. XIV, 
Fig. 29 a), but owing to their extreme minuteness it is 
quite impossible to make an exact computation of their 

* 1. c. on page 244. 

Srr>$EQVENT Growth ok thk yoini; Tuvnt. 

After the ci^hih day the tins* leaf gi\^\\*s with ^rcMt mpHHty* 
and soon reaches its full sixe, breakinj;^ lhr\>ugh the oxxrlyli^j 
prothallium-cells about the ninth da\\ All the celU eloivgutc 
ver>- much, and in the ground-tissue are dexxlopcil Urge hUcr- 
cellular spaces fonning air-passages \xr\* similar to thivae in 
the root but less s\"stcmatically disp<>sed. They are sei>ar;Ueil 
by single la>-ers of cells, radially disjx^scd. so that a cnvw- 
section (Plate XV, Fig. 6) presents tlie same wheeUsliapcd 
appearance that is observed in a simibr section of the root. 
Small intercellular spaces are also formed later between the 
outer cells of the h^Tpoderma, There is only one vascular 
bundle, and this is of a ver>^ simple character. It is surroundcil 
by a bundle-sheath of small cells, whose walls color more 
intensely than those of the mcsophyll. The rest of the bundle 
is composed of narrow cells, with more or less pointed ends, 
and no intercellular spaces. At two or three points are 
developed small spirally-marked tracheids, which are the first 
to be developed in the young plant. The first signs of 
the thickenings in their walls is evident about the ninth day, 
that is, about the time that the young plant breaks through 
the prothallium. 

The epidermis consists, as is usual in leaves of this form, of 
very much elongated cells. As in ferns, there is some chloro- 
phyll formed in the epidermal cells. The stomata (Plate XV, 
Figs. 12, 13) are few in number and of simple structure. 

The second leaf (Plate XV, F*ig. 8), and the succeeding ones, 
exhibit perhaps more frequently than the first the growth by 
an apical cell. This develops three series of segments, each 
of which divides first into an inner and an outer cell, the first 
forming the young epidermis, the other the mcsophyll and 
vascular bundle, which develop in the same way as in the 
first leaf. 

About the time that the first tracheal tissue is distinguish- 
able, the second root is formed at the base and on the under 
side of the first leaf. The apical cell is formed at some 
distance below the surface, and the root begins to grow at 

26o Campbell. — On the decehfnnaU 

once by means of segments cut oflf from it in the same way as 
the primary root. The first trace of the vascular bundle is 
formed at a point in immediate contact with that of the leaf 
(Plate XV, Fig. 7), and its development proceeds from this 
point toward the apex of the young root. 

The apex of the stem grows slowly, producing from time to 
time a complete set of segments in rapid succession, and then 
resting for some time before another set is formed, so that 
there is always considerable difference in the ages of any two 
succeeding sets of s^ments ; and as the segments divide 
rapidly after being formed, if the apex of an older plant is 
examined (PL XV, Fig. 9), while the youngest set of s^ments 
may be perfectly plain, it is not easy to trace the limits of the 
older ones. From the slowness with which new segments are 
formed, and the crowded manner in which the young leaves are 
arranged, it is probable that each segment gives rise to a leaf, 
or rather that the two dorsal segments of each set form 
leaves, while the third, or ventral s^ment, gives rise to a root, 
at least the regular occurrence of roots in relatively the same 
position to the apical cell of the stem, as the young leaves 
would indicate that this is the case (PL XV,. Fig. 9 r). All the 
roots however cannot be thus formed, as their number exceeds 
that of the leaves, and it is highly probable that the others 
originate from the bases of the leaves in the same way as 
the second root. 

Owing to the rapid growth of the young leaves, and the 
slowness of that of the apex of the stem, the latter becomes 
more and more sunk, until after three or four leaves are com- 
pletely grown it scarcely projects at all. The younger por- 
tions of the stem and leaves are more or less covered with 
short-jointed hairs, which also covered the growing-point of 
the stem to a certain extent. The elongation of the stem 
is due almost entirely to intercalary growth of the older 

The first leaves show scarcely a trace of the coiling that 
characterizes the young leaves formed later, but this becomes 
more and more evident as the plant grows. 

of Pilularia globulifera, L. 261 

The Relationships of the Marsiliaceae. 

Botanists have long recognized the evident relationship 
of the Marsiliaceae to the true ferns, especially to the Poly- 
podiaceae, and this view is strengthened by the very great 
resemblance in the structure of the antheridium. Whether 
a more complete knowledge of Salviniaceae will show further 
relationships between them and the Marsiliaceae is doubtful, 
for apart from both families being heterosporous, they have 
little in common. 

In conclusion I beg to express my sincere thanks to Pro- 
fessor Kny, in whose laboratory the investigations were made, 
both for his valuable assistance and also for the great interest 
he has taken in the work from the time it was begun. 

, Berlin, Juncy 1888. 



lllastrating Mr. Douglas H. Campbeirs paper on the Development of 

Pilularia globulifera, L. 


Figs i-ii. Saccessive stages in the development of the male prothallium and 
antheridiam of Pilularia globulifera. Figs. 4^, 6, 7, and 10^ are seen from 
above ; the others are optical longitudinal sections. Fig. 7 is from a preparation 
fixed with Flemming*s mixture, the others are chromic acid- preparations. All 
were stained with haematoxylin and mounted in dilute glycerine, x^ the second 
cell of the prothalliun. x 37 s. 

Figs. 12, 13. Ripe antheridia removed from the spore by heating. Fig. li 
stained with haematoxylin and mounted in glycerine; Fig. 13 uncolored and 
examined in water, x 375. 

Fig. 14. A living microspore which is on the point of discharging the sperma- 
tozoids. c^ the cap-cell of the antheridium distended with the water it ha« 
absorbed, x 375. 

Pig- 15- A partially emptied antheridium removed from the spore by heating, 

X 375- 

Figs. 16-20. Successive stages in the development of the s[)ermat07oids. Chromic 
add-haematoxylin-preparation. I'be starch -granule* have been mostly destroyed 
by heating, but in tig. 20 trace* of them are fetill to be (<een. Leitz oil -im- 
mersion , •^. 

262 Campbell. — On the development 

Fig. ai. Free spermatozoids, a from above, b from the side ; colored with iodide 
of potassium, v, the vesicle with the included starch-grains, c^ alcohol-gentian- 
violet-preparation, d^ a vesicle from which the spermatozoid has become free. 
Leitz oil'immersion, •^. 

Fig. a a. a, Longitudinal section throogh an nngerminated macrospore. x 90. 
hf The nucleus of the same examined wiih a t^ oil-immersion. Alcohol-gentian- 

Fig. 33. A section through the wall of the macrospore. x 300. Alcohol- 

Fig. %\. Longitudinal section through a macrospore 4^ hours after being placed 
in water. Flemming*s mixture-haematoxylin- preparation. 

Fig. 35. The nucleus of a spore of the same age, but colored ¥rith safranin and 
examined with a -^ oil-immersion. 

Fig. 26. Two sections through a spore 16^ hours after the commencement of 
germination, x about 100. Alcohol-haematoxylin-preparation. 

Fig. 27. The first wall is completely formed. In a is shown the nucleus of the 
mother cell of the prothallium, in b that of the spore. 

Figs. 27-32. Successive stages in the development of the female prothallinm 
and archegonium, x 300. a, the first wall, b^ the second wall, c, the primary 
canal-cell. Figs. 27, 31, 3a, alcohol-gentian-violet-preparations ; Fig. 28, alcohol- 
safranin ; Fig. 29, Flemming's mixture-safranin ; Fig. 30, chromic acid-safranin. 
Fig. 27, 19^ hours; Fig. 32, 41^ hours from the beginning of germination. 

^ig* S3* Cross-section of a prothallium 24 hours old. c^ mother-cell of the 
archegonium. /, /', peripheral cells. Alcohol-gentian- violet-preparation, x 300. 

Fig. 34. A similar section to Fig. 33, but somewhat further advanced. 

Fig* 35- Cross-section of the basal part of a young prothallium. The succession 
of the walls is indicated by the numbers. Alcohol-gentian-violet-preparation. 
X 300. 

Fig. 36. A similar section from a full-grown prothallium. Alcohol-Bismarck- 

Fig. 37. A section through the neck of a full- grown archegonium. Alcohol- 
Bismarck-brown-preparation. X 300. 

^igs. 38, 39. Sections through archegonia in which fertilization has recently 
taken place. Fig. 38 a longitudinal, Fig. 39 cross-section, j/, the male nucleus. 
In Fig. 38 several spermatozoids are seen about the neck of the archegonium. 
Alcohol-gentian-violet-preparation, x 300. 


Fig. I. Transverse section of the fertilized germ-cell undergoing the first division. 
Alcohol-safranin-prcparation. x 300. 

Fig. 2. Longitudinal section of a somewhat more advanced stage, in which the 
first division is complete. This and the succeeding figures, unless otherwise stated, 
were drawn from preparations fixed with absolute alcohol, and colored with 
gentian-violet, and magnified 300 diameters. 

of Pilularia globulifcra^ L. 263 

Fig. 3. Vcrticail section through an embryo composed of four cclU. The firtt 
wall (basal wall) is here and in the succeeding figures indicated l)y the numlwr t, 
the second (quadrant- wall) by 1 1. The direction of the arrow indicates the antciior 
end of the embryo. 

Fig. 4 vertical y Fig. 5 transverse section through somewhat older embryo. Fig. 4, 
alcohol-borax-carmine-preparation. Fig. 5, alcohol-safranin-preparation. 

Figs. 6^. A series of three transverse sections through a very advanced embr)'o 
48 hours after sowing the spores. /, leaf-quadrant ; r, root ; x, stem ; /, foot. 

Fig. 9. Series of four vertical sections through an embryo three days from the 
commencement of germination. 

Figs. 10, II. Two vertical sections through an embryo of four days^. 
Fig. I a. A similar section, but showing better the apical cell of the root 
Fig. 13. Median transverse section through an embryo of four days. 
Fig. 14. Two other sections of the same embryo, a, above: b^ below the 

Fig. 16. Three transverse sections of an embryo of four da)rs, but somewhat 
further advanced. The apical cell of the root has already formed the first cap-cell. 
Fig. 15. A still more advanced embryo. Vertical mtdian section. 

Figs. 17-21. Series of vertical sections through an embryo of five days. Fig. 17, 
the leaf. Fig. 18, stem. Figs. 19-ai, root. In 17 ^ may be seen the beginning 
of the vascular bundle of the leaf. 

Fig. a I a. Longitudinal section through the root of an embryo of the same age. 

Fig. 22. Series of four transverse sections of an embryo of seven days (not as far 
advanced as usual\ In b and c are seen the indications of the vascular bundles 
of the root and leaf. 

Fig. 33. Median longitudinal section of an embryo of eight da3rs, still surrounded 
by the prothallium-cells and showing the macrospore. x about 100. 

Fig. a4. The basal part of the same embryo, x 300. i, intercellular spaces. 
r, apex of the root, x , apex of the stem. 

Fig. 25. Second leaf of the same embryo. 

Figs. 26-29. Details of the stiucture and division of the nuclei of the young 
embryo. All examined with a -^ oil-immersion lens. Fig. 26 from a two celled 
embr)'0. Fig. 27, embryo of four days. Fig. 28, embryo of five days; alcohol- 
safranin-preparation. Fig. 29, embryo of eight days. 


Fig. I. Transverse section through the apex of the stem of an embryo of nine 
days, a, apical cell of the stem. Z^, the second leaf. The vascular bundle of 
the first leaf lies above, x 300. Alcohol-gentian-violet-preparation. 

Figs. a-5. Series of transverse sections through the root of an embryo of the 
same age. a, b, sections through the root-cap, the others through the root itself. 
t, intercellular spaces. Alcohol-Bismarck-brown-preparation, x 300. 

* The expressions four da3rs, five days, etc., will be understood to mean from the 
time the spores were first placed in water. 

264 Campbell. — On Pilularia globulifera^ L. 

Fig. 6. Transverse section near the base of the first leaf of an embryo nine days 
old. iy intercellular spaces. Alcohol-gentian -violet-preparation, x 300. 

Fig. 7. Vertical section of an embryo thirteen days old showing the second root. 
R*. X 300. 

Fig. 8. The second leaf of the same embryo, x 300. 

Fig. 9. Longitudinal section through the apex of a young plant that had four 
fully-developed leaves, s. Apex of the stem. Z, ZS young leaves, r, a young root. 
X about ICO. 

Fig. 10. Transverse section of a leaf of the same embryo, x 48. 

Fig. II. Vascular bundle of the same, x 300. 

Figs. ia-r3. Stomata from the first leaf. x 300. Fig. la in longitudinal 
optical section Fig. 1 3 from the surface. 



Jnnals ofBolcmy 




l^iSiilM '4|^ 


■ /^' 'i 



^nfuUs of3o(4Lft^ 



u.\i4'A '•■•di 

^innaZs ofBofany 





A structural and systematic account of the 
genus Struvea. 



Senior Assistant ^ British Museum ; 



With Plate XVI. 


THE genus Struvea was founded by Sonder in 1845, in a 
paper ^ in the Botanische Zeitung for that year, in which 
he described the new algae collected by Preiss in his 
Australian travels. The name was chosen in honour of 
H. de Struve, Ambassador from Russia to the Hanseatic 
Towns, and a patron of Natural History. The only species 
described was 5. plttviosa, Sond., subsequently figured by 
Kiitzing'^ and later by Harvey^. In the same volume 
Harvey figures the next species known under the name 
5. macrophylla^ both forms being remarkable for their grace- 
ful habit. We have examined Harvey's specimens of 5". 
plumosa in the British Museum, and Dr. Perceval Wright 
with great kindness sent us for examination not only the 
unique of 5. macrophylla^ known to Harvey at the time of 
its publication, but also a specimen collected later in the 
same region (West Australia) by Mr. G. Clifton. Harvey's 
unique is a bleached specimen, but the later one retains its 

' Nova Alganim genera et species, qnas in itinere ad oras occidentales Novae 
HoUandiae, coUegit L. Preiss. G. Sonder, in Botan. Zeit. 1845, p. 49. 
* Tab. Phyc. Bd. vi. pi. 90. ^ ' Phyc. Austr. vol. i. pi. 32. 

[Annals of Botany, Vol. II. No. VII. November x886.J 


266 Murray and Boodle. — A structural atid 

green colour. Kutzing describes and figures^ two forms, 
which he names 5. scoparia and 5. delicaiula. They were 
both collected by Vieillard in New Caledonia. Dr. Suringar, 
the happy possessor of the Kiitziog Herbarium, has been 
good enough to lend us the type specimen of 5. scoparia^ 
and, from an inspection of it, we have no hesitation in ex- 
cluding it from the genus. It agrees in all respects with the 
neighbouring genus Apjohnia^ and though hardly in perfect 
accord with A, laeie-virens, Harv., we have not sufficient 
reason to separate it from that form. 5. delicaiula is no 
doubt a Siruvea, and from a comparison of Harvey's speci- 
mens of his Cladophora? anastomosafts^ (published seven 
years before) there appears to be equally little doubt that 
it too belongs to the same species. Dr. Grunow has kindly 
called our attention to certain Ceylon specimens collected 
by Mr. Ferguson (No. 98), and it is right to add that the 
examination of a series of these has materially helped us to 
this conclusion, in which we find we have been anticipated 
by M. Crouan^, The next form recorded was collected by 
the 'Challenger Expedition' from thirty-one fathoms off 
Bermuda, and described by Prof. Dickie* under the name 
of 5. ramosa. Since then Drs. Piccone and Grunow have 
published^ a form from the Canary Islands to which 
the name was given of S. anastoniosans (Harv.) van cana-- 
rieitsis. Dr. Piccone mentions, in a note, that he intended 
to make this plant the type of a new genus to be called 
Cormodiciyon^ but he wisely gave way to the eminent Dr. 
Grunow, who insisted on its being a Struvea, The authors, 
however, are mistaken in quoting 5. anasiomosans^ Harv., 
since the Cladophora anastomosans of Harvey, although 
published previously, is none other than 5. delicaiula^ Kiitz. 
In the second place, Dr. Grunow, never having seen specimens 
of 5. ramosa^ Dickie, was thus prevented from placing the 

* Tab. Phyc. vol. xvi. p. i, Tab. 2. ' Phyc. Austr. vol. ii. pi. loi. 

' Maz^ ct Schramm, Algucs de la Guadeloupe. 
* Limi. Soc. Joum.Bot., vol. xiv. 
' Crociera del Corsaro. Alghe, 1884. 

systematic account of the genus Struvea, 267 

Canary Island form under it as we have now done, after 
inspecting a specimen kindly sent us by Dr. Grunow. In 
1878 Zanardini described^ a very beautiful minute form 
collected by Dr. Beccari, in New Guinea, under the name of 
5. tenuis. We have to thank Dr. Beccari for the opportunity 
of examining this species. 

Passing over for the present the hitherto unpublished form 
sent us by Dr. Grunow, under the MS. name of 5. delicatulay 
Kiitz., van Caracasana, Grun., we now come to what is perhaps 
the most striking and beautiful of all forms of Struvea. Dr. 
J. E. Gray, in his paper on the genera Anadyomene and 
Microdictyon ^, established the genus Phyllodictyon to include 
a very remarkable specimen collected by Mr. Menzies in the 
Gulf of Mexico in 1802, and preserved in the Herbarium of 
the British Museum. This very fragile specimen, large as it 
is (i foot by 3 inches), is but a fragment of the whole 
plant, as the remains of the stalk clearly show. It was 
probably about an inch higher and six or seven inches in 
breadth. (See reduced Fig. 4 a.) Though so much larger than 
5. macrophylla the texture, of the frond is even more delicate. 

Dr. Agardh, in his recent monograph of Siphoneae, gives an 
accouilt of the genus as known to him at p. 108. He merely 
enumerates the four species and one variety known to him 
(some of them by name only), and records his doubt as to 
whether they all belong to the same genus. So many more 
forms have become known to us, and we have obtained access 
to so much material, that we venture to hope that the follow- 
ing account may in some degree improve upon the unsatis- 
factory state in which Dr. Agardh was compelled to leave 
the genus. 

The Stalk consists of a single cell from its earliest stages 
up to the time of formation of the frond, when a transverse 
wall is formed a short distance below the base of the frond. 
The form of the stalk, however, differs greatly according to 
the species. 

* Phyceae Papnanae Novae, in Nnovo Giom. Bot. Itat. x. 

* Journ. Bot. 1866, p. 69. 

T 2 

268 Murray and Boodle. — A structural and 

In 5. plumosa (Fig. i a) the stalk is at first club-shaped 
with a smooth and delicate wall in which, as well as in the 
nature of its contents, it very closely resembles some species 
of Valonia (Fig. i b\ At a later stage it becomes annularly 
corrugated below, while the apex remains smooth and obtuse. 
In this condition it increases in length, and ultimately the 
upper part becomes prolonged into a slender corrugated 
filament, from the apex of which a cell is cut off which, by 
subdivision, produces a series of ten or twelve cells one above 
the other, which, by their branching, give rise to the whole 
of the frond. This statement is derived from Harvey's 
description ^, which we have been unable to verify as regards 
the first stages in the formation of the frond, because the 
specimens of S. plumosa accessible to us do not include smy 
of the exact age required. The mature stalk tapers slightly 
at both ends, and is corrugated throughout (Fig. i c). By 
making a longitudinal section of a well-developed frondless 
stalk, we came to the same conclusion as Harvey and Agardh, 
viz. that the cavity of the stalk is not interrupted by any 
transverse walls. The outer wall is so much thickened, and 
in the older specimens encrusted with a Melobcsia in addition, 
that without making a section one would probably be unable 
to detect septa if they were present. The constrictions are 
only inflexions of the membrane. The wall is formed of a 
great number of layers, and when cut or otherwise roughly 
treated the inner layers tend to break up into fibrils, as 
observed by Agardh ^ in the nearly related genera Apjohnia 
and Chamaedoris, A similar fibrose structure is described by 
us in the present volume (p. 171), in a paper on Spongocladia ; 
it is of course connected with the striations seen in surface view 
in all these cases. The older stalks are incrusted in various de- 
grees with calcareous algae, chiefly a Melobesia, which Harvey 
refers to as a thin coating of calcareous matter, making it one 
of the characters of the genus. According to Leitgeb ^ the 

* Phyc. Austr. pi. 32. ' Monogr. Siphon, p. 107. 

' Quoted from Bot. Zeit. 1888, No. 14; Sitzb. Kais. Akad. d. Wiss. in Wien, 
Bd. (/). 

systematic account of the genus Struvea. 269 

incrustation of Acetabtilaria consists chiefly of calcareous 
algae, just as in the present genus. 

We have seen only one branched specimen in 5. plutnosa^ 
in which two stalks sprang from a very short common sac-like 
base. In 5. macrophylla (Fig. 2 a) the stalk tapers slightly 
from the middle towards each end, is corrugated throughout, 
and resembles that of 5. plumosa \ and it is presumable that 
the stages of development are the same in the two species, for 
they seem nearly related to one another. 

In 5. raniosa the stalk has a very different appearance from 
that of the two species just mentioned. It is here filiform and 
of about equal diameter throughout, except for a few transverse 
corrugations which occur usually at the base of a stalk, but 
are sometimes absent altogether and would be overlooked at 
the first glance owing to the small diameter of the stalk. 
The stalk is often branched in this species, in which case the 
branches generally show a few corrugations at their bases. 
Branching is generally opposite, Fig. 3 b being a typical ex- 
ample. The branches here are of about equal value, but in 
some specimens the central filament branches again. Before 
the frond is formed the stalk is simply an erect cylindrical 
unicellular tube. Dickie, after describing 5. ramosa^ mentions 
the presence of a * thin, reddish, calcareous coat at the lower 
part' of the stipes, as one of his reasons for referring it to 
the genus Struvea, This calcareous coat is however, as in 
S. plumosa and 5. macrophylla^ evidently due to incrusting algae. 

In 5. pulcherrima (Fig. 4 a) the stalk is filiform, cylindrical, 
and smooth (where it is visible, being mostly enveloped by a 
short tufted red sea-weed — no Melobesia being present). It is 
apparently branched into three filaments, each of which is 
again divided into four, but as the whole system bears only 
a single frond, it is better to regard the branches as forming 
the lower part of the frond. In 5. ramosa the stem was re- 
garded as branched, because each of its divisions bore a per- 
fectly distinct frond ; but taking a single frond of this species, 
it is seen that the filament bearing it divides into three 
branches, which remain simple for a short distance before 

270 Murray and Boodle. — A structural and 

entering, or rather forming, the frond. If these three branches 
were increased in length below the frond they would produce 
an arrangement approaching that of •$*. pulcherrima, 

S. tenuis has a very minute stalk (Fig. 5 d)y which bears a 
greater proportion to the frond as to length than is the case in 
S, plumosa. It is smooth with a delicate wall, and below the 
frond there is a septum in the usual position, i.e. at a distance 
below the frond a little greater than the length of the lowest 
cell of the midrib. The stalk is unbranched except in one 
specimen, where it is forked about half way up ; one of the 
branches bears a frond, but the other is simple. 

The stalk of 5. delicatula is never corrugated. It is simple 
or branched, and usually of about the same diameter as the 
midrib (Figs. 6 ^, 7 ^r, 8 a). 

The Roots of 5. plumosa (Fig. i <i) are given off laterally 
from the lowest quarter-of-an-inch of the base of the stalk ; 
they are very tenacious, branched, irregularly septate, occa- 
sionally transversely corrugated, bearing discs or tufts of root- 
lets here and there which are sometimes very like the organs 
of attachment to be described in the frond. The roots contain 
a great number of starch-grains and sometimes chlorophyll, 
even in the ends of their branches ; they become very much 
entangled and matted together, so that the stalks, which grow 
together in tufts, can often only be separated by tearing some 
of their roots. 

It seems very probable that vegetative multiplication may 
take place by some of the roots assuming the character 
of creeping rhizomes, which produce vertical frond-bearing 

In support of this it may be mentioned that a root of 
S. plumosa connected with a frond bore a vertical branch 
which, though small, was very like a young stem. 5. macro^ 
phylla has well-developed roots, but they have relatively thin 
membranes and an almost entire absence of cross walls, but 
numerous rhizoid attachments. The roots of S. delicatula are 
generally very septate and irregular (Fig. 8 c), S. ramosa has 
very slight development of roots in the specimen where the 

systematic account of the genus Struvea. 271 

base of the stem was best seen. In S. tenuis they were hidden, 
and in S. pulchcrrima they were not very clear owing to the 
fragments of shell, etc. to which they were attached. 

The Frond of 5. plmnosa is formed, according to Harvey, 
by the subdivision of the apical cell into a vertical series of 
cells, each of which produces from its shoulders two opposite 
branches, at first free and pectinate, then once and again pin- 
nulate, the pinnulae 'anastomosing* and producing the net- 
work. Agardh supposes that an apical cell is repeatedly 
cut off and a pair of branches formed below it each time. If 
this be so, and Harvey's Fig. 4 makes it probable, then this 
species differs in the mode of development of its frond from 
that of S, tenuis^ which is described below. 

The filaments composing the frond of S.plumosa show stria- 
tion of their walls very well (Fig. \h)\ it is seen equally well 
in the young stalk before it becomes too much thickened. 
Longitudinal and transverse striations are easily observable. 
The former appear to be more numerous in the outer layers of 
the cell wall, the transverse ones in the middle layers, and the 
longitudinal again in the innermost. Fig. i // shows these striae 
in one of the cells of the midrib. In some cases only the longi- 
tudinal striations are to be seen. Longitudinal and transverse 
striae of this kind are mentioned by Thuret ^, and were held 
by him to be characteristic of the genus Conferva^ but they 
have since been described in other genera, as mentioned above, 
in connection with the stalk. 

The structure of the frond of S.plumosa is very regular, 
the primary veins or pinnae being given off in opposite pairs 
from the midrib at an angle of about 60"* ; they remain 
parallel to one another for some distance and then each curves 
upwards and inwards, attaching itself by its apex to the lower 
side of the similarly curved pinna next above it. 

The frond is regularly crcnate, its margin being formed by 
the curved ends of the pinnae, which produce no branches 
from their outer side where they form part of the margin. 

' Annates des Sciences naturelles, Bot. ser. 3, Tome III (1845), p 274. 

272 Murray and Boodle. — A structural and 

Thus the tips of the pinnae form exceptions to the rule of 
opposite branching which prevails elsewhere in the frond of 
this species, because they give off pinnules on their upper side 
only (Fig. i e\ The pinnae are constricted at regular in- 
tervals so as to appear to consist of a series of s^ments 
about twice as long as broad, separated by transverse walls. 
To prove that the apparent septa were not merely annular 
thickenings, a filament (allowed to swell up in water) was torn 
at one of the constrictions, and the cross wall was seen to 
bulge out under the microscope when the filament was pressed. 
Below each transverse wall of a pinna two (except at the apex) 
opposite pinnules are given off, which lean slightly forward and 
attach themselves to the next pinnae on their respective sides 
(Fig. I e\ In the lower part of the frond they become con- 
stricted at a varying number of points (dependent on the 
length) and form transverse walls at the points of constriction. 
In the upper part of the frond the pinnules give off short uni- 
cellular branches below some of their septa, thus increasing 
the complexity and compactness of the frond. Owing to the 
comparative shortness of the cells which form the pinnae, the 
pinnules are inserted pretty close to one another, and as they 
are directed slightly forwards (i. e. towards the apex of their 
pinna), they cross one another, so that, when looking at the 
frond, one sees one series of pinnules at the surface partly 
covering another series below. The length of the pinnules is 
about 3-5 times their diameter, their articulations being about 
I \ times. They are relatively thick, so that in a mature frond 
there are hardly any interstices to be seen, on account of their 
overlapping arrangement. The general arrangement of the 
pinnules in the specimens we have examined is a little different 
from that shown by Harvey \ 

The mode of attachment of the pinnae and pinnules has 
now to be described. When a pinnule has by its growth 
brought its tip into contact with another part of the frond, it 
forms at its apex a special organ of attachment which we 
propose to call a tetiaculum (Fig. i /). 

* Phyc. Austr., Tab. 32. 

systematic account of tfie genus Struvea. 273 

The tenaculum consists of a ring of radiating branched 
rhizoids which surround the disc of contact between the apex 
and the wall of the pinna. The mode of formation of this 
seems to be that the tip of the pinnule becomes somewhat 
flattened on the wall of the pinna, and then, from the outer- 
most region of contact, puts out a number of small radiating 
rootlets which creep along the surface of the pinna, and 
branch so as to form a compact rosette-like structure, which 
adheres to the surface of the filament and fixes the pinnule 
in position. 

Careful Tocussing has led us to believe that these rootlets 
are entirely superficial, never penetrating the cell-wall, but 
adhering to it probably by some process like that by which 
the root-hairs of higher plants adhere to particles of soil. 

These organs appear to be formed only in response to con- 
tact, like the adhesive discs oi Ampelopsis^ and they are nearly 
universally terminal in position, only a single lateral tenaculum 
was seen among all the species. A transverse wall is nearly 
always formed in the pinnule at a short distance from the 
apex, thus cutting off a sub-globular terminal cell which bears 
the ring of rootlets (Fig. i /). This wall is evidently con- 
nected with the formation of the rootlets, for it seems to be 
formed only when attachment takes place. A possible func- 
tion of this septum is to prevent too great loss of contents in 
case of injury to the delicate rootlets. Fig. 3 e shows a fila- 
ment of S. ramosa bearing two of these organs at its apex ; 
one or two similar cases were seen in S, plumosa. 

As occurring in Valonia fastigiata^ Harv., Agardh^ men- 
tions certain structures, which he terms fibulae. These seem 
from his description to have the same function as the organs 
which we have described under the name of tenacula, in our 
opinion a more appropriate word. His figure (Tab. I, Fig. 5) of 
these organs shows that they differ a good deal in appearance 
from those of Struvea^ in being lateral and in the different 
character of the rootlets (if one can so call them), though they 

* loc. cit. p. 94. 

2 74 Murray and Boodle. — A structural and 

serve the same purpose of attaching branches to one another. 
Agardh refers to the well-known similar structures in several 
of the encrusted Siphoneae (Udotea^ etc.), though he believes 
that among these latter their function may sometimes be that 
of attachment, and may sometimes be connected with the 
deposition of lime. We examined a piece of Microdictyon 
Velleyanum, to see if similar organs were present in that genus, 
and found that an apex of a filament, when it comes into contact 
with another filament, forms crenations round the edge of con- 
tact, which are sometimes sufficiently pronounced to be termed 
rhizoids, but the attachment, which is very firm, must be 
chiefly due to cohesion between the filament-surfaces, which 
is here sufficient without increase of contact-surface by forma- 
tion of long rootlets like those of Struvea, Tenacula occur 
also in Spongocladia, where they resemble those of Struvea, 

In describing species of Struvea^ Harvey^ and Dickie * both 
speak of * anastomosis ' of filaments, and Harvey further men- 
tions it among the generic characters. This word cannot be 
correctly applied to the frond of Struvea^ for though the fila- 
ments become attached to one another by means of tenacula, 
there is no resorption of the double membrane which separates 
the cavities of the cohering filaments. The attachment, how- 
ever, is sometimes very firm, as in 5. delicatula, described 

The frond of 5. macrophylla (Fig. 2 a) bears a slight general 
resemblance to that of 5. plumosa, but differs in the mode of 
branching of the filaments which compose it and in its much 
greater size. The two specimens of this species differ some- 
what from one another in detail. The. branching and arrange- 
ment of the filaments is almost precisely similar, but the frond 
of the one 3 is oblong-oval, cordate, and strongly crenate, while 
the other (Fig. 2 ^) is oblong-elliptical with a very slightly 
crenate margin. The midrib is v«ry distinct, and of about 
the same diameter as the upper part of the stalk. The primary 
branches or pinnae are given off oppositely from the midrib 

* Phyc. Aus., PI. 7 and 3a. * Linn. Soc. Joum. Bot. vol. xiv. 

» Harv. PI. 7. 

systematic account of the genus Struvea. 275 

at angles varying, from below upwards, from 90° to about 45°. 
The secondary branches are very regular and so arranged as 
to produce zigzags connecting each pair of primary branches. 
The tertiary branches run parallel to the primary, three or 
four bridging over the V-shaped space between two pinnules, 
and enclosing elongated meshes. 

Quaternary branches are formed here and there. The frond 
of the bleached specimen, which Harvey described, is a good 
deal incrusted with calcareous algae, but this may have taken 
place after the death of the plant. 

In 5. ramosa the frond has a midrib and pinnae, which are 
rather inconspicuous as their diameters are not much greater 
than that of the pinnules (Figs. 3 a and 3 c). The lowest cell 
of the midrib and the lowest cell of each of the two basal 
branches are elongated in the mature (?) frond. The branching 
in some of the specimens is very regular. Two or four branches 
are given off from the top of each cell of the midrib, and their 
pinnules become attached to one another and to the pinnae 
and midrib, so as to form a reticulum which has usually tri- 
angular meshes (Fig. 3 c\ The margin of the frond generally 
has projecting pinnae and pinnules, which probably shows that 
the specimens arc not mature. The regularity of the reticulum 
varies very much in the different specimens, and sometimes in 
different parts of the same specimen. Similar irregularity 
is seen in 5. delicatula and in 5. tenuis, where it is 
sometimes due to injuries, but at other times merely to 
change in the angle of branching or suppression of some 
of the branches, where no injury is apparent. Branching in 
5. ramosa often takes place before the formation of a trans- 
verse wall, as shown in Fig. 3/, but that septa are ultimately 
formed was proved by examining the ends of filaments which 
had been torn up, as was done in 5*. pltimosa. The tenacula 
are here very much like those of 5. pbimosa, but, like the 
whole of the frond, they have thinner walls than the latter 
species. The rhizoids are well developed, and very delicate (Fig. 
3 d\ By focussing the cell-wall at the apex of the tenaculum, 
three or four pits with granular contents are often seen. They 

276 Murray and Boodle. — A structural and 

must be the mouths of tubes which, by their repeated branch- 
ing, produce the whole of the rootlets. 

In addition to these usual organs of attachment, there are 
also remarkable structures of the kind at the bases of some of the 
filaments of the frond, which in shape resemble the sporangia 
of Botrydium (Fig. 3 A). They have evidently been produced 
by the formation of a small wart-like outgrowth from the base 
of a branch just above its basal wall. The outgrowth then grew 
downwards parallel to the filament, producing a neck-like pro- 
longation which curved inwards and came into contact with 
the surface of the filament below the transverse wall, and then 
threw out a fan-shaped mass of branched rootlets on the wall. 
These organs occur in the specimen examined at the point of 
origin of the frond, where the stalk divides into three filaments, 
each of which has two of these organs at its base (Fig. 3 g) ; 
there are three or four at each of the next two points of branch- 
ing of the midrib, and, at a point in the stalk where there 
is a transverse wall, five or six of these clamps connect the 
part of the stalk above the cross-wall with that below. 

Similar bodies were detected at the base of the frond of 
Dr. Piccone's specimen, but nothing like them has been seen 
in the other species of Struvea, From the arrangement of 
contents these bodies do not seem to be cut off from the cavity 
of the filament which produces them. 

The frond of 5. pulcherrima^ as stated above, is supported 
by three main filaments. Its outline and dimensions cannot be 
determined, owing to the fragmentary nature of the specimen, 
but the probable shape is that given in Fig. 4 ^, and the size 
would be about 10 inches in length by 6 to 7 inches in 
breadth. Each of the three filaments branches into four; 
these remain simple for a short distance and pass into the 
frond, where they arc traceable as veins, which in their turn 
produce veinlets, and the branching is repeated several times, 
so that, by the attachment of the ultimate branches to each 
other and to the veins, a very perfect network is formed (Fig. 
4 b). The veins and veinlets generally give off two or four 
branches just below their transverse walls, but here and there 

systematic account of tfie genus Struvea. 277 

an arrangement occurs which reminds one of the branching of 
the main filaments in Anadyomene, One of the cells is 
club-shaped, and from its swollen end gives off five or seven 
branches of about equal value, though smaller than itself, 
and separated from one another by nearly equal angles. 

The frond appears septate throughout ; a small piece was 
tried, as in 5*. plumosa^ and found to have real transverse walls. 

The tenacula have very well-developed rhizoids, and adhere 
very closely to the filaments. 

5. tenuis (Fig. 5 a) has a shortly ovate cordate frond with 
5-7 pairs of pinnae, which form a crenate margin by their 
incurved apices, and give off pairs of pinnules, mostly united 
with one another in a very regular manner, the apex of 
one attaching itself to the middle of another (see Fig. 5 b). 
Transverse walls appear to be formed rather late: thus in 
Fig. 5 c there are only one or two present, the other transverse 
marks being slight constrictions. 

The very regular arrangement seen in Fig. 5 b does not 
seem to be constant in this species, for in another specimen 
the mode of attachment varies in different parts of the frond ; 
one pinnule gives off two branches, and some of the pinnules 
attach themselves to the pinnae instead of to each other. A 
very early stage in the formation of the frond is seen in 
Fig. 5 dy which shows five pairs of protrusions below the apex, 
and below them a constriction, which will probably be the 
point of formation of the septum in the stalk below the frond. 
Although slight creases are seen in one or two places, we 
think there is no doubt that the whole is a single cell. This 
agrees with the late formation of the transverse walls in the 
pinnae. In 5. plumosa the pinnae form their transverse walls 
before giving rise to pinnules, so it is very likely that in the 
formation of the frond cell-walls would precede the branch 
protusions, in that species, as described by Harvey. 

5. delicatula (Fig. 6 a) is the most variable species of the 
genus. On comparing Kutzing's figure of this species with 
Harvey's figure of his Cladophora ? anastomosans one would 
not be much disposed to unite the two, but in looking through 

278 Murray and Boodle. — A structural and 

a large number of the specimens of this species collected by 
Ferguson, we found that the fronds exhibited almost every 
degree of reticulate cohesion between the two types, and 
equally wide variations in the angle of branching, size of ulti- 
mate branches, etc., so that it is hardly possible to make a 
diagnosis to suit all the specimens. 

The branching in the frond of most of Harvey's specimens 
is rectangular, and the reticulum very perfect ; this is also the 
case in several of Ferguson's specimens (Fig. 6 b\ but in many 
of the latter the cohesion of branches is very imperfect, whole 
pinnae with their pinnules remaining free from one another 
or united only at one or two points. The cohesion evidently 
begins at different times in different individuals, for in some 
the fronds show a reticulate structure when they are still very 
small, but in others the pinnae grow to a considerable length 
before the pinnules become attached, thus producing a frond 
like that in Kutzing's figure ; but we are of opinion that these 
forms would, when older, become like the more reticulate 
forms. The angle of branching is sometimes acute, but 
when the pinnae have become united with one another by 
means of their pinnules, if, as is probable, growth ceases in 
the pinnae in acropetal order, they become straightened out 
so as to stand at right angles to the midrib. The lower parts 
of the frond are often, as in 5. macrophylla^ more rectangular 
than the upper. 

The specimens of 5. delkatula^ var. Caracasana (Fig. 7 a), 
have regularly bipinnate fronds, and the pinnules have only 
become attached in one or two places (Fig. 7 b\ but, from 
the mode of attachment, the fronds must be pretty nearly 

One very anomalous form (Fig. 8 a) was collected by 
Ferguson ; it has very upright branches, and we should have 
classed it as an oppositely branched Cladophora, but for the 
following facts : — the character of its roots and stalk is exactly 
the same as that of the specimens of the Struvea delkatula^ 
with which it is associated, its plan of branching (although 
more upright) is very much the same, and here and there the 

systematic account of the genus Struvea. 279 

branches are united by terminal organs of attachment precisely 
the same as the tenacula of 5. delicatula. The branching 
takes place oppositely, and in one plane, but as the branches 
are mostly free they become more or less irregularly arranged 
when dried (Fig. 8 b), 

S. delicatula often grows in tufts with the fronds attached to 
one another by some of the pinnules of one adhering to the 
other frond by their tenacula. In one of the erect forms the 
end of a branch has attached itself by a tenaculum to a small 
piece of shell, which had fallen on the top of the tuft. 

The attachment of the branchlets must be very firm, be- 
cause^ when two pinnules are torn apart, the tenaculum of the 
one sometimes tears off the outer layers of the wall of the 
other. Prolification of filaments sometimes occurs in S, deli^ 
catula^ as seen in Fig. 6 rf, where the old filament must have 
broken off and a transverse wall helped in the formation of 
a new filament. 

We have been unable to find any traces of reproductive 
organs in any of the species of Struvea, In S. plumosa Kutzing 
observed in one of the filaments ^ some dark green granular 
spherical bodies which he calls * Keimzellen (?).' They may 
be reproductive bodies, of some kind, but they remind one of 
the often spherical masses into which the protoplasm and 
chlorophyll of a cell of Cladophora frequently resolve them- 
selves when the wall has been injured and the turgidity 

Until the reproduction of Struvea has been discovered its 
systematic position must remain doubtful. It is indissolubly 
linked with Chamaedoris and Apjohnia^ and the evidence before 
us seems to point to this group as occupying a position among 
Siphoneae (sensu Agardh) near to Valonia, but connecting this 
series of forms with other green algae, such as Cladophora and 

» Tab. Phyc, Bd. vi. Tab. 90 f. 

28o Murray and Boodle. — A structural and 


Struvea Sond. Bot. Zeit. (1845), P- 49- 

Alga viridis, marina, erecta, stipitata, flabelliformis. Stipes 
simplex vel ramosus, radicatus, monosiphonius, continuus, in 
aetate majore reticulo flabelliformi, costato, coronatus. Reti- 
culum ex fills confervoideis plus minusve articulatis, pinnatis, 
apice per tenacula radicantibus, evolutum. 

Syn. Phyllodictyon^ J. E. Gray, Joum. Bot (1866), p. 69. 
Pterodictyotiy J. E. Gray, loc. cit., p. 70. Cormodictyotty Pic- 
cone in Crociera del Corsaro (1884), p. 21. 

I. Str. plumosa^^ Sond., loc. cit., p. 50. Stipes rugosus, reti- 
culo oblongo-ovali (i-a uncias longo) crenato, coronatus ; filis 
2-3-pinnatis ; articuHs pinnarum diametro a-3-plo, pinnu- 
larum sesqui-longioribus. Harv. Phyc. Austr., Tab. xxxii. 
Kiitz. Tab. Phyc, Bd. vi. Tab. 90. 

Hab. ad oras occidentales Novae HoUandiae legit Preiss, 
Harvey! Clifton. 

a. Str. macrophylla^ Harv. Phyc. Austr., Tab. vii. Stipes 
rugosus, reticulo oblongo-ovali grande, spectabili (4-6 uncias 
longo, %\ uncias lato) crenato, coronatus; filis pluries pinnatis, 
articulis pinnarum 5-6-plo, pinnularum 3-4-plo, diametro 

Hab. ad oras occidentales Novae HoUandiae legit Mrs. 
Drummond! Clifton! 

3. Str, ramosa^ Dickie, in Linn. Soc. Joum. Bot., vol. xiv, 
p. 316. Stipes rugosus, sursum opposite ramosus, reticulis 
subellipticis ; filis tripinnatis, articulis inferioribus pinnarum 
7-8 -plo, superioribus 3-4-plo, diametro longioribus. 

Syn. Struvea anastomosanSy Harv. (sic.) var. canariensis. Pice, 
et Grun. in Crociera del Corsaro, Genova (1884), p. 20. 

Hab. ad Bermudam, ex profundis extracta. H.M.S. * Chal- 
lenger ' ! et ad insulas Canarienses legit Piccone ! 

* We have seen, in the Edinburgh Herbarium, a type specimen of S. plumosa 
coUccted by Sender. The plants, though younger, have very much longer stalks 
than Harvey's, and an examination of the young frond confirms the view expressed 
above as to its development. 

systematic account of the genus Struvea, 281 

4. Str,piilc/ierrima,noh.r\,s^. Stipes laevis reticulo oblongo, 
cordato, tricostato, maximo (10 uncias longo, 6-7 uncias lato) 
coronatus; filis iterum atque iterum pinnatis, articulis pin- 
narum diametro 3-4-plo, pinnularum 2-plo longioribus. 

Syn. Phyllodictyon ptdcherrimnm^ J. E. Gray, Journ. Bot. 
(1886), p. 70. 

Hab. in sinu Mexicano legit cl. Archibald Menzies ^ ! 

5. Sir. tenuis^ Zanard. in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. (1878), 
p. 39. Stipes laevis pusillus reticulo pulcherrimo, cordato- 
ovato, tenuissimo (i unc. et longo et lato) coronatus; filis 
bipinnatis articulis diametro 2-3-plo longioribus. 

Hab. ad Soroilg, Nova Guinea legit O. Beccari ! 

6. Sir, dclicatula^ Kiitz. Tab. Phyc, Bd. xvi, Tab. 2. Stipes 
laevis, simplex vel ramosus, pusillus, reticulo subpyramidato 
(1-2 uncias longo), coronatus; filis distiche pluries pinnatis, 
pinnis pinnulisque oppositis horizontaliter patentibus, hie illic 

Species quam maxime variabilis. 

Syn. Cladophoraf anastomosans, Harv. Phyc. Austr., Tab. ci. 

Hab. ad Novam Caledoniam leg. Viellard; ad oras occi- 
dentales Novae HoUandiae leg. Harvey I ad Ceylonam leg. 
Ferguson ! ad ins. Guadeloupe leg. Maz^ I 

Var. Caracasana^ Grunow, in lit. filis reticuli regulariter bi- 

Hab. ad Cap. Blanco Caracas leg. GoUma I 

Species exclusa. 

Sir. scoparia, Kiitz. Tab. Phyc. Bd. xvi, Tab. %-=^Apjohnia 
laete-virens^ Harv. 

Cl. Grunow misit sub nomine Valoniae radicantis^ Grun. 
(Adelaide, Nova HoUandia) et Valoniae rhizophorae^ Grun. et 
Pice. (Suakin in mari rubro) duas species immaturas forsan 

' On searching Menzies* own Herbarium in Edinburgh Botanic Garden we found 
another specimen of S. pulcherrima —unfortunately even more incomplete than the 
one referred to. It however exhibits perfectly the beautiful structure of the frond, 
and bears the additional information that it was dredged from ao fathoms. 


282 An account of the genus Struvea. 


lUastrating Messrs. Mnrray aod Boodle*8 paper on the genus Struvea, 

Fig. I. a^ Struvea plumosa (nat. size), b^ c^ dy Stages in development of S, 
plumosa (nat. size), e^ Part of nearly mature frond ( x 6). f^ Apex of filament 
with tenaculum (x 60). g, Melobesia coating of part of stalk ( x 5). A,Striations 
of membrane of midrib (highly magnified). 

Fig. 2. a, »S*. macrophylla (nat. size), b. Part of frond oi S. macrophylla ( x a). 

Fig. 3. a» S, ramoson, unbranched specimen (nat. size), b. Branched specimen 
showing rugae (nat size), c^ Part of frond of .5*. ramosa ( x 6). dy Tip of filament 
with tenaculum ; the rootlets are seen partly in surface view ( x 130). e, Pmnule 
bearing two tenacula ( x 30). /, Pinnule forming two branches ( x 30). g^ Base 
of frond showing position of clamps (x 30). h^ One of the clamps more highly 
magnified ( x 130). 

Fig. 4. 0, S, pulcherrima restored and reduced to one fourth, b^ Part of frond 

Fig. 5. tf, S. tenuis (nat. size), b^ The same magnified ( x lo'). r. Upper part 
of frond ( x 40). d^ First stage in formation of the frond ( x 35). 

Fig. 6. a, S. delicatula (nat. size), b^ Part of frond ( x 6). r, Early stage in 
formation of frond ( x 6). d^ Case of prolification ( x 30). 

Fig. 7. a, S, delicatula var. Caracasana (nat. size), b. Part of frond ( x 6). 

Fig. 8. fl, S, delicatula erect form (nat. size), by Part of frond ( x 30). r, Roots 
of same ( x 30). 

^rmaZs of Botany 


Contributions to the Morphology of the 
Mistletoe (Visctim album, L.). 




With Plate XVn. 

DURING the past few years I have repeatedly had 
opportunities of observing a large number of abnor- 
malities in the structure and arrangement of the organs of the 
mistletoe, many of which have been noticed before, while others 
are apparently new. They have led me to give interpretations 
to some morphological characters of this plant different from 
those hitherto given, and I therefore think they are worth 

In the present paper I propose to deal chiefly with the 
morphology of the flowering shoots, including both the arrange- 
ment and the general structure of the flowers. In order 
to make my remarks more intelligible, I have included almost 
all that has been said on the subject by Wydler^ and Eichler *. 

The mistletoe is dioecious ^. The plants of the two sexes 
have on the whole the same structure. The axis of the seed- 
ling produces two cotyledons and a pair of foliage-leaves 
alternating with these. It then ceases to grow any further, 
but in the axils of the foliage-leaves buds are produced which 
develop into branches the next year. Each branch bears at 
its base two minute opposite scale-leaves, the prophylls of 
the new shoot (^, p in the diagrams) ; they are at right angles 
to the bract of the shoot {B in the diagrams). Near the top of 

* Flora, i860, p. 443. 

* Bluthendiagramme, ii. p. 553. 

' Only a single case in which a male plant had also produced some female 
flowers and fruits is mentioned by Masters in his Vegetable Teratology, p. 509. 
[Annals of Botany, Vot IL No. Vn, November 1888.] 

U 2 

284 Schihtland.— On the Morphology 

a branch two foliage-leaves (Z,, Z, Figs, i, a, etc.) are usually 
found, which alternate with the prophylls, and are therefore 
median. During the first years the apex of each shoot is 
either naked, or it bears two more scale-leaves, which again 
alternate with the foliage-leaves, but the growth is always 
continued by buds springing from the axils of the latter, and 
thus the well-known pseudo-dichotomous structure of the 
mistletoe is produced. The foliage-leaves normally last only 
one season, while the prophylls may remain for a period of 
eight or more years. In about the fourth or fifth year of the 
life of the plant a small capitate inflorescence is produced at 
the top of each shoot. 

It commonly happens that foliage-leaves or shoots are not 
developed in places where the general plan of the plant would 
lead us to expect them. The shoots especially may remain 
dormant for several years. If only one shoot is developed, it 
often appears as the direct prolongation of its mother axis. If 
this goes on for several years a sym podium is produced which 
is frequently of considerable length. It also happens some- 
times that new shoots are produced in the axils of the pro- 
phylls, and thus false whorls of three to six shoots are formed. 
As this may be repeated in the case of the accessory 
shoots, their number may be increased still more, and 
Wydler ^ found as many as twelve in one case ; he also saw 
prophylls developed into foliage-leaves. Shoots bearing a 
whorl of three foliage-leaves are not rare, whereas whorls of 
four foliage-leaves^ are uncommon, but I found them in both 
male and female plants. The increase in the number of 
foliage-leaves seems on the whole to be more frequent in 
the male plants. As a rule, this is due to the substitu- 
tion of a trimerous or tetramerous whorl for the normal 
dimerous whorl, as is shown by the fact that each of them may 

* Flora, i860, p. 445. 

' In one case I found five foliage-leaves in a rather irregular whorl. This was 
due to the fasciation of two shoots, one bearing two, the other three leaves. The 
true nature of this abnormality was clearly shown by the intemode being groved, 
etc, also by the structure of the two inflorescences which terminated this double 

of the Mistletoe {^Viscum alburn^ Z.). 285 

bear an axillary bud, and thus true whorls of three or four 
branches may also be produced. I have actually observed 
such true whorls of three and four branches. The structure 
of the inflorescence, moreover, corresponds usually to the 
number of foliage-leaves, as we shall see later. In one case 
only, where three foliage-leaves occurred, they seemed to have 
arisen from the normal two leaves. One of the three leaves 
was rather broad, and showed beginning of splitting at the 
apex, while two others were about the normal size ; but neither 
one nor the other of these had, like the third, a bud in its axil, 
there was, however, a bud between them, which served, as it 
were, as a common axillary bud for the two together (Fig. 
3). It is probable, therefore, that they owed their origin to 
the splitting of one of the normal leaves. The odd leaf of the 
true trimerous whorls of foliage- leaves is always turned towards 
the axis (Figs. 4, 5 I), whereas the leaves of the tetramerous 
whorls are placed diagonally (Fig. 5 II, 6). 

The inflorescences are usually found between the two foliage- 
leaves, and normally consist of two lateral flowers at right 
angles to these leaves, and a terminal flower. Each of the 
former stands in the axil of a small scale-leaf, the two together 
thus forming a third whorl of leaves (j, j. Figs, i, 2). No 
more leaves are borne directly by the primary axis of each 
shoot in the male plants, but in the female plants the terminal 
flower is usually preceded by a fourth pair of leaves, which is 
like the one preceding it, and continues the regular decussate 
arrangement of leaves^ (j^, j^. Fig. i). Where three or four 
foliage-leaves are borne by a shoot, the number of the upper 
scale-leaves is increased at the same rate ; this is often also the 
case with the lateral flowers, but frequently their full number 
is not developed (Figs. 5 I and 5 II). Very often scale-leaves are 
only developed where foliage-leaves ought to be, either in the 
place of one or of both of a pair. This occurs chiefly in shoots 
which have been dormant one or more years. Very commonly 
these additional scale-leaves also bear flowers in their axils, 

' From a remark made by Wydler, Flora, i860, p. 443, I conclnde they may 
also bear flowers in their axils. 

286 SchonlatuL — On the Morphology 

and thus we get an inflorescence of five flowers, as represented 
in Fig. 7. Such an inflorescence has usually a short stalk, and 
is like the ordinary shoots provided with two prophylls at the 
base. Whole inflorescences or single flowers may also be formed 
in the axils of the prophylls of ordinary shoots. 

The terminal flower of the male inflorescence is, as a rule, 
not preceded by scale-leaves, as indicated above. But Hof- 
meister^ has stated that they are present here, as in the female 
inflorescences. This is really often the case, although not 
observed by Eichler, but still the structure of the inflorescences 
in which it occurs is not the same as that of the female 
inflorescences. I only observed this apparent abnormality in 
inflorescences developed from dormant buds. I have repre- 
sented it in Fig. 8 I. It is shown there that in the abnormal 
cases the shoots of male plants have only three pairs of 
decussate leaves, as in the normal cases. The abnormality 
is at once understood by comparing it with a case such as 
is represented in Fig. 7, and which I have explained already. 
If in such a case the two lateral flowers are not developed, as 
frequently happens, a three-flowered inflorescence is produced 
which, it is true, agrees in its general structure with the normal 
female inflorescences, but there is one difference (quite apart 
from the number of leaves) by means of which its true nature 
may be at once detected. A normal female inflorescence is 
always transverse (Fig. 1), whereas these inflorescences are 
always median, which must be the case, as two out of the 
three flowers composing it are seated in the axils of the 
equivalents (/, t) of the two foliage-leaves, which are always 
median. The uppermost pair of leaves preceding the terminal 
flowers (j, s) in such cases is therefore not equivalent to the 
uppermost sterile pair of leaves (j^, j^, Fig. i) in the female 
inflorescence. If, again, both the lateral flowers and their 
bracts are suppressed (Fig. 8 II), the resulting inflorescence is 
exactly like the normal male inflorescence, difi'ering only in its 
relative position to the mother-axis and the bract of the shoot. 

* Neue Keitrage, i. p. 553. I am quoting here from Eichler, Bluthendiagramme, 
p. 553- 

of the Mistletoe {Viscunt album, L). 287 

In the female flowers the perianth^ consists usually of two 
dimerous alternating whorls of scale-leaves, which cohere, more 
or less, at the base. Their position will be readily understood 
by a glance at Fig. i, which has been copied from Eichler^. 
The two carpels which compose the ovary continue the regular 
alternation. No exception has come under my observation 
with r^fard to the number of parts composing the lateral 
flowers, whereas in the terminal flowers of shoots bearing three 
foliage-leaves only one whorl of perianth- leaves, alternating 
with the three scale-leaves which precede the flowers, was 
observed (Fig. 4). Wydler mentions a case in which a female 
terminal flower, preceded by two scale-leaves, had also a 
trimerous perianth. An increase in the number of perianth- 
leaves beyond four has also been described by the same 
author, and is very likely to be explained in the same way as 
a similar increase of the organs composing the male flowers, 
which will be treated of later. Whether any variation in the 
number of carpels takes place I am unable to say. 

The male flowers are, on the whole, built on the same plan 
as the female ones, but every trace of an ovary is absent in 
their centre. Each perianth-leaf bears six to twenty pollen-sacs. 
Hofmeister ^ and van Tieghem* consider each of these structures 
(taken as a whole) as a single leaf. The former bases his view on 
the development, which shows that it arises apparently as one 
organ ; while the latter bases his view chiefly on anatomical 
grounds, but he is careful to call them simply polliniferous 
sepals (*s^pales poUinifires'); he does not call them stamens, 
as one would expect. Eichler, on the other hand, who 
based his view on a comparison between the structure of the 
flower of the mistletoe and that of nearly allied forms, came 
to the conclusion that each consists of two parts, namely of 

' I have never seen the so-caUed ' calycnlos ' of the flowers. It is frequently 
mentioned that it does not occur regularly, and it seems to be certain that it is 
only an outgrowth of the axis without leafy character. Compare Hofmeister in 
Flora, 1854, P- 644 (note); Wydler, in Flora, 1860, p. 445; Eichler, Bliithendia- 
gramme, p. 553. 

« 1. c, Fig. 236, B. » 1. c, p. 539- 

* Ann. d. Sc. Nat. s^rie 5, Tome xii. p. loi. 

288 Schonland. — On the Morphology 

a perianth-leaf and an anther. I am inclined to think that his 
view is right, although I cannot offer much additional evidence 
to support it. But I may mention that I have often seen the 
posterior perianth-leaf of lateral flowers forming a compact 
body with the adjoining perianth-leaf of the terminal flower, 
both of them bearing their pollen-sacs in their proper places. 
Now, when we thus see that leaves of different flowers frequently 
coalesce to form a single structure, we are certainly justified 
from a morphological point of view to assume that such a 
coalescence may constantly take place in the leaves of the same 
flower, if there are other reasons to support such an assumption. 
Eichler adduces as an argument in support of his view the fact 
that in other species of Viscunty as also in the nearly allied 
genera Eremolepts^ Phoradendron^ and others, the two leaves, 
which are only hypothetical in our species, may actually 
become nearly separate; and, further, that it also happens 
exceptionally in these genera that the flowers possess three 
perianth-leaves and two anthers, one of the latter being then 
placed between two of the former, * certainly the best evidence 
against Hofmeister's view ^.' 

Eichler says that the male lateral flowers are 'always' 
tetramerous, but I found them frequently to be trimerous or 
even pentamerous. In the trimerous flowers there was appar- 
ently a single whorl of perianth- leaves^ substituted for the 
normal two dimerous whorls, whereas in the pentamerous 
flowers evidently a splitting of a perianth-leaf with the adnate 
stamen had taken place (compare the diagrams of the lateral 
flowers in Fig. 6). The terminal flowers of shoots with a 
dimerous (and I may add also those with a tetramerous) whorl 

* See also Schumann in Pringsheim^s Jahrbiicher, 1887, Bd. xviii. p. 133, where 
questions of this kind are treated of in a more general way ; the case of V'iscum is 
mentioned on p. 1 70. My paper was in the hands of the editors before No. VI. 
of the Annals of Botany was published. I have noticed with satisfaction that 
Mr. T. Johnson in his paper in that number, on ''Arceuthobium Oxycedriy brings 
forward very strong arguments in support of Eichler*s view (cf. Annals of Botany, 
Vol. II. No. VI. pp. 155 and 156). 

* For shortness' sake I am only speaking of perianth-leaves here and in the 
following passages. It will be understood that I always mean the structures 
composed of a perianth-leaf and an anther. 

of the Mistletoe {^Viscum alburn^ L). jSo 

of foliage-leaves are usually tetranicrous. the outer whorl of 
perianth-leaves being median, and, therefore, differing in this 
respect from the terminal female flowers, as will be seen when 
Fig. I and Fig. 2 are compared. It will also be seen that the 
outer whorl of perianth-leaves of the male flowers has the 
same relative position as the uppermost pair of scale-leaves 
in the female ones. The terminal male flowers of shoots with 
three foliage-leaves usually possess two trimerous whorls of 
perianth-leaves, the outer one having also the relative position 
of the three scale-leaves in the corresponding female flowers. 
Eichler is of opinion that in the common male terminal flowers 
the two scale-leaves which precede the female flowers are 
made use of (' werden einbezogen ' ^) in the formation of the 
perianth. Although at first sight this appears obvious, I 
cannot agree with such an interpretation. First of all it 
may be argued, from a general point of view, that the 
outer and first formed perianth-leaves take a median position, 
simply because there is room for them to develop in this 
position on account of the scale-leaves being absent. If we 
adopt Eichler's view we must further admit that the male 
terminal flower is constantly without the inner dimerous whorl 
of perianth -leaves which the corresponding female flower 
always possesses. But there is, thirdly, one reason which 
directly compels us to give up the view brought forward by 
Eichler. I have already mentioned that dormant buds often 
produce inflorescences composed of a various number of flowers. 
I have described the three cases which are the most frequent. 
Let us compare the two cases represented in Fig. 8 I and II. 
These two inflorescences were found side by side. It will be 
admitted that in these two cases the terminal flowers are 
absolutely equivalent, and yet, if we examine the relative 
position of their parts, we notice the actual difference which 
exists between the normal male and female terminal flowers. 
If, as in Fig. 8 I, the terminal flower is preceded by two sterile 
scale-leaves, the outer whorl of perianth-leaves is median, and 
thus alternates with them ; but if it is not preceded by them, 

' It must be said that the German expression is rather vague. 

290 Schonland. — On the Morphology 

as in Fig. 8 II, this whorl is placed transversely, assuming the 
position of the scale-leaves which are wanting. I have tested 
this fact in many cases, and always mth the same result. I am 
thus led to believe that the difference between the terminal 
male and female flowers, with regard to the position of their 
parts, is simply caused by the complete suppression in the 
former of the uppermost (fourth) pair of leaves. 

An increase in the number of parts composing the male 
terminal flowers is not rare. Eichler only knew of pentamerous 
and hexamerous flowers besides the normal ones; but I have 
also observed one heptamerous and one decamerous flower*. 
Eichler explained the abnormal cases known to him by 
assuming that in the hexamerous flowers the inner dimerous 
whorl of normal flowers was replaced by a whorl of four 
members, and in the pentamerous flowers by a whorl of three ; 
but his own figure, which I have copied (Fig. 9), suggests at 
once the idea that the increase is simply due to the splitting 
of the two normal members composing the inner whorl 2. I 
have already adopted such an explanation in the case of the 
pentamerous lateral flowers, where I usually found it to agree 
extremely well with the position of the parts of the flowers. 
In the terminal flowers a regular arrangement of the parts 
cannot always be recognised when their number has been 
increased, but it is easy to find all intermediate stages between 
perianth-leaves only slightly divided at the top, and others 
which are divided down to the base. My explanation covers 
also the cases in which seven and ten perianth-leaves were 
found, whereas those adopting Eichler's view would find 
difficulty in explaining them. The view that the increase 
is due to splitting may perhaps be strengthened still more 
when I restate the fact, which I hope has been distinctly proved, 
that splitting of foliage-leaves also occurs in the mistletoe. 

* The hexamerous flowers of shoots with three foliage-leaves were also ap- 
parently onknown to him, but these must be left out of account here, as in a certain 
sense they have to be considered as normal. 

* I may here call attention to the similarity between our case and the interpre- 
tation of the androccium of Cruciferae, regarding which Eichler holds exactly the 
view I take of it in Viscum. 

of tfie Mistletoe {Viscum album, L). 291 


Illustrating Dr. Schonland^s paper on the Morphology of the Mistletoe 

( Viscum alburn^ L.). 

[All fignres represent diagrams of flowering shoots as actually observed by the 
author, with the exception of Fig. 9.] 

[/I = mother axis of each shoot; ^ = bract; / — prophyll; Z » foliage- leaf ; 
^» axillary bud; /» scale-leaf corresponding to Z; s and /» scale-leaves in 

Fig. I. Normal female shoot (after Eichler). 

Fig. a. Normal male shoot. 

Fig. 3. Male shoot in which the posterior foliage-leaf has split into two ; the 
anterior leaf shows beginning of splitting ; the terminal inflorescence is also abnormal. 

Fig. 4. Trimerous female shoot. 

Fig- 5* !• Trimerous male shoot ; one lateral flower is not developed. II. Tetra- 
merous male shoot ; one lateral flower and the terminal flower are not developed. 
The two median lateral flowers are trimerous, and occupy the apex of the shoot. 

Fig. 6. Tetramerous male shoot ; one lateral flower is trimerous, another penta- 

Fig. 7. Male shoot with five flowers developed from a dormant bud. In the 
place of the two foliage-leaves, scale-leaves are developed which also bear flowers 
in their axils. 

Fig. 8. I. A similar case as represented in Fig. 7, only the two lateral flowers 
are suppressed. II. Case similar to the preceding one : a further reduction has 
taken place by the suppression of the uppermost pair of scale-leaves. 

Fig. 9. Male shoot with hexamerous terminal flower (after Eichler). 

rr ■ 


,innals ofBotuny,Pi.Jn7i. 


{.(©fii)l '(.(SO©).)' if.(90a)-n 

Fi^. 6. 




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"{(;-«3i>- ')< 



Fig. 5. 




K .( O ). } 







University Pre**. Oxfora. 

Schonland del 


Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Stackh. 


T. JOHNSON, B.Sc. (London), 

University Scholar in Botany, Demonstrator of Botany in the Normal School 

of Science , Kensington. 


With Plate XVin. 

Vegetative Thallus. 

THE red sea-weed Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Stackh., 
occurs, in England, along the south-west coast from the 
Isle of Wight to Land's End, being found attached to rocks at 
extreme low-water and deeper levels, by means of a disc-like 
* root,' from which one to three main * stems' arise. The main 
stem produces irregularly placed branches, from which very 
numerous short upwardly directed branchlets spring. These 
alternate or subdichotomously formed branchlets are flattened 
and relatively wide, and have the whole length of their two edges 
closely beset with small cylindrical filaments, often themselves 
slightly branched (Fig. i ). The whole plant may be a foot long, 
and as broad as it is long. Each cylindrical filament repeats on 
a smaller scale the structure of its parent branchlet, and this of 
its parent branch (Fig. 2). Running through the middle of the 
filament is a central axis consisting of a uniseriate row of large 
tubular cells in which the usual Floridean characters are well- 
marked. From the distal end of each joint-cell of this central 
axis two lateral uniseriate cellular branches are given off right 
and left, obliquely inclined in an upward direction to the 
surface of the thallus-filament. Each lateral cellular branch 
forms a number of short secondary lateral branches arranged 
at right angles to the surface of the thallus, and closely 

[ Animls of Botany, Vol. II. No. VII, November 1888.] 

294 Johnson. — Sphaerococcus caronopifoliuSt Stackk. 

applied to one another, side by side, so as to produce a com- 
pact cortex, the thickness of which is increased by the apical 
growth of these cortical secondary lateral branches (Fig. 7). 
Each member of the branch-system of the thallus thus con- 
sists of three layers ; a medulla formed by the central axis, 
a middle layer formed of the loose lateral cellular branches of 
the central axis, and a cortex formed as just described. The 
* midrib' (central axis) and the * lateral ribs' (lateral cellular 
branches) were first observed and described by Sowerby, ac- 
cording to Harvey^, but their relation to one another and to 
the rest of the thallus in the way with which Schmitz ^ has 
made us familiar in the Florideae generally, was not known. 
Up to the present the central axis and its lateral branches 
have not been figured. Most of the figures of the thallus 
branches published are life-size, and taken from living or dried 
specimens. Examination however of spirit-material treated 
with clearing reagents and magnified four or five times 
brings out the central axis and its branches well (Figs, i 
and 2). 

The Procarpium. 

As it is in the cylindrical filaments, the ultimate branches 
of the thallus, and in them only that the female sexual 
organs — the procarpia — occur, I shall speak of them as pra^ 
carpium-branches. It is no doubt in a great measure owing to 
the opacity of these branches, the absence of any external in- 
dication of the presence, not to say the exact position, of the 
buried procarpia, the smallness of the cells, and the number 
of different planes in which the various parts of the procarpium 
lie, that they have not hitherto been even mentioned. Their 
number somewhat atones for their general obscurity. We 
have seen that the whole margin of the thallus-branchlet is 
beset right and left with cylindrical filaments. These are all 

* Harvey, Phycolog. Brit. ii. pp. 182-184, PI. 61. 1846-1851. 

* F. Schmitz, Untersuchnngen iiber die Befnichtung der Florideen in Sitzangsber. 
d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Berlin, 1883. Translation by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S., in Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. xiii. 1884, in which any following references will be found. 

yohnson. — Sphaerococcus coronopifolius^ Stackh. 295 

procarpium-branches potentially. In each of them the pro- 
carpia, the number of which varies from one to six or more, 
occur at intervals throughout its length, close to the central 
axis, above, below, right or left of this as seen from above. 
In fact any primary lateral cellular branch of the central axis 
may develope a procarpium. From the second (proximal) 
joint-cell, rarely from the basal cell, of such a cellular branch, 
a usually three-celled secondary lateral branch arises. The 
three cells are so related to one another as to form a curved 
branch (Fig. 3) ; they are full of highly refractive minutely 
granular nucleated protoplasm, and constitute a carpogenous 
branch, the apical cell of which is the carpogonium and de- 
velopes the trichogyne. This carpogenous branch is readily 
distinguishable from the other secondary lateral branches by 
lying deeper within the procarpium-branch and by the cha- 
racters of the contents of its cells (Fig. 7). The procarpium 
is completed by the formation of a number of small secondary 
lateral branches of limited growth, from the basal and next 
joint-cell of the lateral branch bearing the carpogenous branch. 
These small cells, having similar but less refractive and dense 
contents than the cells of the carpogenous branch, are the 
* carpogenous cells,' and have an important part to play in the 
formation of the fruit. In a longitudinal section of a procarpium- 
branch seen under an inch objective, the procarpia, situated close 
to the central axis in the middle layer of the procarpium-^ branch, 
stand out by the brightness of one or more of the cells of the 
carpogenous branch and by the closeness of aggregation of 
the small carpogenous cells. It is possible only under a higher 
power to make out the details of structure of any individual 
procarpium. Thus in Fig. 7, in the procarpium p\ only one 
cell of the carpogenous branch could be observed under an 
inch objective, though under a J-inch objective all the cells of 
the carpogenous branch as well as part of the trichogyne 
were recognisable. The trichogyne is unusually variable in 
its course in Sphaerococcus, It reaches the surface of the 
thallus after curving in different cases in almost every im- 
aginable direction, sometimes creeping for a long way in the 

296 Johnson. — Sphaerococcus coronopifoUus^ Stackh. 

interior of the thallus as if searching for a weak spot in the 
cortex, there to project on to the external surface. It is only 
rarely that it passes almost directly to the surface (Fig. 4). It 
was not until I had spent a long time in examining some 
hundreds of sections under a J-inch objective that I could 
satisfy myself that the coiling filament I saw in connection 
with the carpogenous branch was really the trichogyne, and 
that it projected at the thallus surface. I was constantly 
cutting it across. Indeed, in making thin sections of a pro- 
carpium-branch, it is almost sure to be so cut even if the rest 
of the procarpium is left intact. I found it very useful to place 
a piece of a thallus-branchlet bearing several procarpium- 
branches for twenty-four hours or more in a mixture of 
pure glycerine and alcohol until it became semi-transparent, 
then to examine each procarpium-branch on both sides with 
a high power until one was seen in which the procarpia were 
likely to yield useful results, and taking this particular 
procarpium-branch, after noting the exact position of its pro- 
carpia, to cut it longitudinally between thumb and finger. 
The sections, though sometimes lost or spoilt, were usually 
thin enough to allow examination of the procarpia and yet 
thick enough to prevent injury of them. Subsequent staining 
with various reagents often rendered the parts, in the usual 
way, more distinguishable. 

The Cystocarp. 

I did not clearly see the contact of a spermatium with the 
trichogyne, but judging from changes in the procarpium it is 
highly probable that fertilisation takes place in the normal 
way. More than once I found the trichogyne cut off from 
the rest of the carpogonium by a constriction at its base 
(Fig. 5), the contents of the carpogonium being thus divided 
into a useless non-nucleated part (compared by Schmitz to 
the polar body of Vaucheria), and a more important nu- 
cleated part, the fertilised ovicell, the foundation of the fruit. 
In one case in which the trichogyne had been cut off I found 
two nuclei in the * fertilised ovicell,' but whether they were the 

yohnson. — Sphaerococctis coronoptfolius^ Stackh. 297 

male and female nuclei about to fuse, or were due to the 
division of the nucleus of the fertilised ovicell, I cannot say 
(Fig. 6). In another case the wall of separation between the 
carpogonium and the middle cell of the carpogenous branch 
had broken down, the contents of the two cells were com- 
pletely fused together, but the nuclei were still separate. A 
fusion of this fused cell with the basal cell of the carpogenous 
branch I did not observe with certainty. There is, I think, 
little doubt that it occurs. Investigations of later stages of 
development gave some very interesting results which show 
the necessity of the examination of each genus of the Flo- 
rideae. The course of events in the development of the cysto- 
carp in Sphaerococctis is briefly as follows. The carpogonium 
(after fertilisation) fuses with the hypogynous cell, and this 
apparently fuses with the basal cell of the carpogenous branch. 
The common cell so formed next fuses with the mother-cell 
of the carpogenous branch, the second (proximal) joint-cell of 
a lateral branch, and this cell then fuses with the basal cell 
of the same branch. Fusion however does not cease at this 
point, for the basal cell of the lateral branch fuses with the 
cell bearing it, a joint-cell of the central axis of the pro- 
carpium-branch, and this joint-cell fuses with the next joint- 
cell below it. By this means a large common conjugation-cell 
is obtained, from the greater part of the surface of which (not 
from that part formed by the two joint-cells of the central axis) 
ooblastema-threads arise even before the process of fusion is 
completed. These threads are short radiating, branching, and 
of few cells, the end one or two cells becoming carpospores. 
It has been seen that each procarpium is completed by a cell- 
complex of carpogenous cells borne by the two basal cells of the 
primary lateral branch concerned. These carpogenous cells do 
not remain sterile here. They become more directly connected 
with the common fused cell, the central cell of the cystocarp, 
and produce at their free ends chains of carpospores just as do 
the ooblastema-threads directly sprouting from the central 
cell. Carpogenous cells similar to these have been described 
in other genera, and have had ascribed to them a similar 


298 Johnson. — Sphaerococcus caronopifolius^ Stackh. 

function. Schmitz states that a closer investigation of their 
fate shows them to be sterile and not connected with spore- 
formation. This conclusion will throw doubt on the accuracy 
of my statement. Still all the observations I have made in 
Spliaerococcus support my view, and in addition it should be 
stated that in no other genus of the Florideae (Gracilaria 
excepted) is a fusion of the individual cells of a procarpium 
known to take place to such an extent ^. 

As the development of the fruit proceeds its size increases 
until there is a clear indication to the naked eye of its 
presence, in the form of a spherical swelling. As a fruit 
may arise from any one of the procarpia scattered through 
the whole length of a procarpium-branch, and as this branch 
may be quite short when fertilisation occurs, it is easy to 
explain the earlier descriptions of the cystocarp of Sphaero^ 
cocctis taken from an external examination of the plant. 
* Fructification tubercula minutissima, modo sessilia, modo 
pedunculata, in ramulis extremis sita, atro-purpurea^.' The 
fruit-sheath (pericarp or involucre) is derived from the cortex 
of the procarpium-branch, and is thus present before the fruit 
begins to form. The fruit-cavity is a result of the arching 
of the pericarp and of an increase in the distance between 
the lateral cellular branches of the joint-cells of the central 
axis. Lysigeny does not occur, schizogeny strictly speaking 
occurs to only a limited extent ; the fruit-cavity is due 
rather to the increase of the space between the cellular 
branches which have been free from one another at their 

' Schmitz, op. cit., p. 23, says, ' Perhaps, also, in some of these forms (Rhodome- 
leac) a plurality of auxiliary cells may be formed in the individual procarpium ; but 
I haye hitherto never been able to demonstrate such a case with certainty.' Again, 
in a footnote on p. 20, Schmitz says : ' This point [the conjugation of the fertilised 
ovicell with the nearest auxiliary cell] in the development of the fruit of the 
Corallincae (the exact investigation of which is, as is well known, rendered re- 
markably difficult by the small size of the cells), I have hitherto been unable 
to establish directly. Moreover, not only in the Corallincae, but also in many other 
Florideae with small-celled, closely packed cellular tissue, there are special diffi- 
culties opposed to the exact ascertainment of the fate of the fertilised ovicell which 
render these investigations extremely troublesome and tedious, and greatly hinder 
any certain decision.* 

' Good, and Woodw., in Trans. Linn. Soc. iii. p. 185. 

yohnson. — Sphaerococcus coronopifoliuSy Stackh. 299 

proximal ends from the first. The carpospores escape from 
the ripe fruit through an irregular slit in the pericarp, not 
through a definite pore. On account of the frequent for- 
mation of a fruit-cavity of large size, especially towards the 
apex of the procarpium-branch before there is any indi- 
cation of carpospores, the size of a swelling is not a safe 
guide as to the stage of development of the fruit. Each 
cystocarp is the product of one procarpium and of one only, 
close as the procarpia are to one another and loose as is 
the middle layer of the procarpium-branch. The carpogo- 
nium has in its immediate neighbourhood a number of cells, 
some of which are specialised, and with all of which it fuses 
to produce the central cell of the cystocarp. All these cells 
are auxiliary cells, and being close to the carpogonium do 
not need any ooblastema-thread (connecting-tube) to place 
them in connection with the fertilised ovicell. I am not 
able to throw much light on the fate of the nuclei in these 
auxiliary cells, and cannot say how far their fusion with one 
another, following on that of the hypogynous cell with the 
carpogonium^ should be regarded as a second act of fer- 
tilisation (granting this may happen), here many times re- 
peated. Looking at the development of the cystocarp from 
another point of view, Sphaerococcus exhibits the phenomena 
of fecundation as seen in the Florideae at their best. In no 
other genus in which one cystocarp results from one pro- 
carpium is the possibility of the abundant supply of nu- 
triment from a number of different regions in the thallus 
to the central cell of the cystocarp and so to the sporigerous 
filaments insured to such a degree. In Sphaerococcus y not 
only does the carpogonium fuse with the other cells of the 
carpogenous branch, but with the two basal cells of a lateral 
branch and with two joint-cells of the central axis of the 
whole procarpium-branch. The nearest approach to this 
(after Gracilaria) is seen in Chondria tenuissima^ Ag., one 
of the Rhodomeleae. In this species \ after fertilisation, the 

' Schmitz, op. cit, p. 28. 
X 2 

300 yohnson. — Sphaerocouus coronopifolius, Stackh* 

sujixilbiry cell which is the mother-cell of the carpogenous 
branch and bears in addition a cell-complex, fuses with the 
carpogonium, and with the nearest cells of the cell-complex, 
giving a large multinucleate cell from which sporigerous fila- 
ments sprout out. In Spliaerocaccus there is a combination 
of the three chief types of fruit-formation of the Florideae ; 
for the ooblastema-threads arising from the surface of the 
carpogonium are comparable to the sporigerous filaments of 
the Helminthocladieae {Nemalum^ Batrachospermum^ etc.), and 
those from the surface of the fused auxiliary cells and from 
the carpogenous cells (secondary auxiliary cells) are com- 
parable to the sporigerous filaments of the Rhodomeleae 
and other Florideae with more or less compact thallus, and 
to the sporigerous filaments (meta-ooblastema-threads) of the 
Squamarieae and Cryptonemiaceae. A comparison of the 
course of development of the fruit in Sphaerococcus with that 
in Gracilaria will show how very similar these two genera 
are in this respect. Comparison of the vegetative thallus 
of the two shows Sphaerococcus to be the less modified form. 
In Grcicilaria the central axis of the thallus branch is no 
longer evident, since its lateral branches are as well-developed 
and have applied themselves closely together and to its sides, 
forming a central medulla of large cells in which the joint- 
ed! of the central axis is obscured. The absence of a clearly 
marked central axis in ^S. australis Harv. caused Harvey ^ 
to exclude this plant from the genus Sphaerococcus and to 
place it nearer Gracilaria. Opinions differ as to the other 
genera to be included in the Sphacrococcaceae. Schmitz^ 
considers Nitophyllum to be a member of the family and 
describes its procarpia as being the simplest. Its thallus is 
very different from that of either Sphaerococcus or Gracilaria, 
and its fruit, judging from the brief account of Schmitz, is not 
at all like that which I have described in these two genera. 
Hauck^ considers Chondrymenia to be the third genus of 

' Harvey, op. cit. 

• Schmitz, op. cit., p. 24. 

' Haiick, Rabcnhorst*8 Krypt.-Flora, Die Meeresalgcn, 1885, p. 184. 

yohnson. — Spkaerococcus coronopifolius, Stackh. 30 1 

the family. Its thallus is readily conformable with that of 
Spkaerococcus y though its procarpia and fruit-development are 
not yet known. Kiitzing ^ describing 5. coronopifolius as 
mentioned under the name Rhynchococcus, places Rhyncho- 
coccus with Calliblepharis in the family Rhynchococceae. If the 
latest view, that of Schmitz, be followed and the genus 
Nitophyllum be regarded as one of the Sphaerococcaceae, this 
family presents a striking example of the difficulty of deter- 
mination of the exact systematic position of a genus from 
a consideration of the structure of its thallus ; for in these 
three genera we have examples of three of the four main 
types of thallus-structure met with in the Florideae : — 

1. In the simplest Florideae (many of the Helmintho- 
cladieae) there is a uniseriate cellular central axis with apical 
growth and bearing numerous free lateral radiating branches. 
This type is not represented in the Sphaerococcaceae. 

2. The lateral branches (also uniseriate, cellular, branching, 
and apically growing) have become more or less closely 
applied to one another so as to form a loose cortex to the 
distinct central axis. This type, seen in the Gelidea^ and 
Rhodomeleae (e.g. species of Polysiphonid), is represented by 
Spkaerococcus . 

3. The lateral branches are closely applied to, and as well- 
developed as, the central axis, which is no longer distinguish- 
able as such (CoralHneae). Represented by Gracilaria. 

4. The lateral branches are closely applied to one another, 
and occur right and left of the parent axis in one plane, 
essentially giving the thallus a flattened parenchymatous 
character (some of the Rhodymenieae). Represented by 

Supposing the accounts of the structure of the procarpia 
and of the development of the cystocarp in Spkaerococcus and 
Gracilaria to be correct, I still refrain from any attempt to 
assign to them any other position than that they at present 
occupy, hoping that when more genera have been examined 

* Kiitzing, Phyc. Gen., p. 403 (1843). 

302 Johnson. — Sphaerococcus coranopifoUus^ Stackk. 

and the systematic arrangement of the Florideae is under- 
taken afresh, the results of the present investigations may 
prove useful. 

It remains for me to compare the present account of 
Sphaerococcus coronopifolius with that of previous observers. 
According to Harvey^ the plant was first noticed by Ray 
and described by him in his Synopsis K Sowerby, as already 
noted, was the first to observe, with the aid of the simple 
microscope, the 'midrib '.and faint veins of the thallus- 
branches. Goodenough and Woodward in a paper read 
before the Linnean Society in 1795, * Observations on the 
British Fuci, with particular descriptions of each species,' 
described S, coronopifolius as Fucus coronopifolius^. Their 
description of the fruit has been already quoted. In 1801 
Stackhouse's work on Marine Plants ^ was published. In this 
treatise Stackhouse objects to the wide range of forms in- 
cluded in the genus Fucus^ and suggests amongst other new 
genera Sphaerococcus^ the generic diagnosis being 'external 
globular pericarps adnate or immersed ; sessile or pedun- 
culate ; containing seeds as above.' Stackhouse continues : 
' This forms a very numerous genus, as many of the lai^er 
shrubby species and almost all the minuter kinds are found 
to be tubercled, and it does not appear to me that the 
tubercles being sometimes internal is a sufficient reason to 
separate them from this genus, as it may arise either from 
accident or from the plant not being sufficiently advanced 
in maturity.' The latter theoretical alternative is seen to 
be practically true. Speaking of the fructification, Stackhouse 
says : * The fructification of this species is subject to vary ; 
in its luxuriant state the margin is fringed with soft forked 
branching spinules^ among which the orbicular seed-bearing 
tubercles are intermixed like berries. It seems however at 
times to have simple pedunculate tubercles on the margins.* 
The description is accompanied by a colored illustration of 

* Harvey, op. cit. * Ray, Synopsis. 

' Good, ct Woodw., op. cit. p. 185. 

♦ Stackhouse, Nereis Brit. 1801, p. 83, PI. XIV. 

yohnson. — Sphaerococcus corofiopifolitis, Stackh. 303 

the fruiting thallus (natural size). Harvey^ describes the 
branches as * multifid ending in acute laciniae [branchlets' 
fringed with cilia [procarpium-branches], tubercles [cystocarps' 
immersed in the cilia.' The first biologist who gave any details 
of the internal structure of the cystocarp was J. Agardh^, and 
in these words : * Coccidia . . . nucleum simplicem foventia ; 
placenta basalis cellulis strati medullaris contexta, a vertice 
et lateribus fila gemmidiifera ima basi subfasciculata.' Kut- 
zing^ in 1843 was the first and only observer who figured the 
internal structure of the cystocarp. In this figure, repeated 
in Kiitzing's * Tabulae Phycologicae* ' and in Hauck's^ *Die 
Meeresalgen,' taken from a transverse section of the fruit, 
the sporigerous filaments are represented radiating from a 
central placenta of numerous small cells. There is no in- 
dication of the very large fused * central cell ' which I have 
described. It looks very much as if Kiitzing's figure was 
made from a transverse section of the fruit beyond the point 
of origin of the sporigerous filaments from the central cell 
and in the region of the * carpogenous cells.' The procarpia 
have not hitherto been observed. 

I am very much indebted to Dr. D. H. Scott for the sug- 
gestion of the investigation, for the supply of the material, and 
for opportunities of examining it. 

' Harvey, op. cit. 

* J. Agardh, Sp. Alg., iii. p. 395. 

' Kulzing, Phyc. Gencr., p. 403, Tab. 61. 1. 

* Kiitzing, Tab. phyc. xviii. Tab. 10. 

* Hauck, op. cit., p. 1 79, Fig. 76 b. 

304 yohnson. — Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Stackh. 


lUustratiiig Mr. Johnson's paper on the procarpinm and frnit in 
Sphaerococcus coronapifoUus (Stackh.)* 

Fig. I. A piece of the fmit-bearing thallos. cys^ cystocarp. /. h. procarpiiim<* 
branch, x 4. 

Fig. 2. The small piece, a, of Fig. i more hig^y magnified. Letters as before. 
X 40. 

Fig. 3. A procarpitim (except carpogenous cells), r. carpogoninm. h, c, hypo- 
gynotts celL c, /. oells of lateral branch, c. s, cells of central axis. t. trichogyne 
projecting at right angles to plane of vision, x 1000. 

Fig. 4. A part of a procarpinm-branch. /. trichogyne projecting, x 480. 

Fig. 5. Beginning of cjrstocarp. Carpogoninm, r., and hypogynous cells, h, c, 
fusing. /. trichogyne cut off. x 1000. 

Fig. 6. Part of a procarpinm just after fertilisation. In the carpogoninm, c, are 
two nuclei. Other letters as before, x 1000. 

Fig. 7. Longitudinal median section of a procarpium-branch. c. s. joint-cell of 
central axis, p' p*' P*" three procarpia ; cfg. c. the carpogenous cells. In /' the 
cells of the carpogenous branch and a little of the trichogyne were visible under a 
|-inch obj. In/'" the greater part of the trichogyne was observable, the cells of 
the carpogenous branch were found in another section, c. c. the fused central cell 
of the fruit, showing radiating ooblastema-threads. pp. pericarp or involucre 
(fruit-sheath), x 120. 

Fig. 8. Part of a procarpinm (p\ of Fig. 7), showing some of its carpogenous 
cell% cp^. c. Other letters as before, x 400. 

Uninnitr Pm*. Mmi. 


On the foliar organs of a new species of Utri- 
cularia from St. Thomas, West Africa. 


H. N, RIDLEY, M.A., F.L.S. 


With Plate XIX. 


IN examining a small epiphytic species of Utricularia^ sent 
me by Professor Henriquez, of Coimbra, from St. Thomas' 
Island, I observed that it possessed spathulate leaf-like bodies 
resembling those of several other species. They were narrow 
and filiform at the base, broadening into a lamina about 
one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter, and apparently had been 
green in colour with three veins. Most of them had lost the 
apex, but in one specimen the body was terminated by a 
slender filiform process bearing utricles. Further examination 
showed that every stage occurred between the slender filiform 
process frequently branched and bearing numerous utricles 
and the flattened leaf-like lamina. In slightly expanded and 
flattened processes it was easy to see that the utricles sprang 
from their edge only and were not scattered over their sur- 
faces ; further, in the case of one branched process, while one 
ramus was flattened and leaf-like, the other appeared slender 
and utriculiferous. The most completely leaf-like bodies bore 
no utricles upon their edges, but where there was only a slight 
flattening the utricles occurred. 

A similar modification was figured by Professor Oliver ^, in 
Utricularia Jamesonianay a small epiphytic species from the 

* Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. iv. 
[Annals of Botany, Vol. IL No. Vn. November 1888.I 

3o6 Ridley. — On the Foliar Organs of a 

Andes, and apparently allied to the one I describe below ; 
but he seems to have considered the spathulate leaves ending 
bluntly as quite distinct organs from the flattened bodies bear- 
mg utricles along their edge. I have seen the specimens of U. 
Jamesoniana in the Kew Herbarium, upon which Professor 
Oliver based his drawings, and find them exactly as figured. 
In them the two members seem at first sight different, but 
from our African specimen it would appear that they are really 
of the same nature, and are merely forms of the same member 
modified for different uses. 

If this be the case doubt may well be thrown on the foliar 
nature of these leaf-like bodies. For though they are somewhat 
regularly arranged on the little tuber from which they spring, 
yet as they are able to branch irregularly, some of the branches 
becoming spathulate leaf-like bodies with three nerves, and 
others remaining as utriculiferous threads, it seems impossible 
to consider them leaves, and they should rather be regarded 
as of the nature of stem -structures^. This view is confirmed 
by the African plant, in which one of the utriculiferous threads 
bears a small tuber, similar to the one from which it has sprung, 
at its apex, which again has emitted threads (Fig. I A). 

It is clear that an organ which can elongate and branch 
irregularly, and eventually produce a tuber, cannot be any- 
thing but a stem-structure. Hence it would appear that in 
the epiphytic species of Utricularia^ at least, these leaf-like 
bodies are dilated phylloclades. 

U. bryophila, n.sp. Planta humilis muscicola, tubere minuto. 
Phyllocladi longe petiolati, petiolis linearibus angustissimis, 
semiuncialibus, laminis loratis \ uncia longis jV uncia latis, 
apicibus longis filiformibus, utriculiferis, | uncia longis, vel 
ultra interdum ramosis. Utriculi pauci minimi. Scapus 
I \ uncia longus scabridus. Bracteae lanceolatae acutae paucae. 

* I have added to the Plate a sketch of an utriculiferous thread from Uiricularia 
pusilla^ a Ceylon species, in which one branch is similarly converted into a spathulate 
phylloclade. I believe it to be a constant occurrence in many other species, but in 
herbarium material is not very easy to make out, owing to the fragility of the 
threads when dry. 

new species of Utricularia. 307 

Flores singuH majusculi flavi \ uncia longi pedicelHs scabridis. 
Calycis lobus superior ellipticus ovatus obtusus. Corollae 
labium superius bifidum dentibus duobus acutis recurvis, 
labium inferius latum trilobum ferme \ uncia latum lobi 
laterales rotundati quadrati lati, obtusi, medio longiore recti 
obtuso. Calcar pedicello ferme aequale abrupte truncato. 

St. Thom6 ad 1300 ped. alt. inter muscos apud arbores. 
Leg, Moller, Com. Prof. Henriquez. 

The flowers seem to have been bright yellow, with a very 
bright band down the centre. The utricles are small and 
scanty, as is often the case in the epiphytic species of Utricu- 
laria. They are globose, and shortly stalked, and there are 
two horns which, arising from the outer margin, are curved 
down over the opening of the utricle, and between them a 
smaller process lies which bears on the inner end a small 
flat plate armed with little teeth. 


Illustrating Mr. H. N. Ridley's paper on the Foliar Organs of a new species of 

Utricularia from St. Thomas. 

I. Utricularia bryofhilay n.sp. Twice natural size. A. Tuber borne on a 

II. Flower from above, enlarged. 

III. Calyx. 

IV. Utricle, much enlarged. 

V. Mouth of utricle from above. 

VI. Section through the utricle, showing the plate with teeth. 
VII. A branch bearing a phylloclade of U. pusilla from Ceylon. 


i^nnaJs ofSotany. 



On the Floral Organogeny and Anatomy of 
Brownea and Saraca. 




With Woodcuts 14, 15, and 16. 


THE Caesalpinieae have been scarcely investigated from 
any but a purely systematic point of view ; a study of 
the floral ontogeny of Cassia by Rohrbach^ and of Amherstia 
by Griffith * are the only two extant. * The free flowering 
of several specimens of Brownea coccinea^ B. grandUepSy and 
Saraca indica^ L. {Jonesia Asoca^ Roxb.) in the plant-houses 
of Queen's College, Cork, has led me to investigate these 
two closely allied genera with a view to All up a gap in our 
knowledge. Both genera belong to the group Amherstieae, 
characterised by the excentric position of the gynaeceum on 
the posterior lip of the calyx-tube next the vexillary petal, 
and with the dorsal suture towards the tube. 

Brownea coccinea (from which B, grandiceps differs in no 
essential point) has shortly stalked flowers in short capitate 
racemes, often from defoliated axils and on the old wood. 
The lower bracts are distichous and equitant when young, 
empty or with their axillary flowers developing late ; the 
upper are narrower, spathulate, arranged in a |^ spiral, and all 
axillant to flowers. Each pedicel bears two closely connate 
bractlets forming an obconical sac, opening by an apical slit 
(antero-posterior). The flower shows only four sepals, owing 
to the connation of the posterior pair ; allowing for this they 

^ Bot. Zeit. 1879. ' Notalae. 

(Annals of Botany, VoL IL No. VIL November 1888.] 

3IO Hartog. — On the Floral Organogeny 

imbricate quincuncially (sep. i antr.). The four sepals become 
free at the rim of the long floral tube, on which are also 
inserted the five (variably) imbricate petals, not markedly 
heteromorphic or unequal, and nine or eleven ^ stamens mona- 
delphous, the long erect tube split to the base on the posterior 
(vexillary) side. The solitary carpel has the normal orien- 
tation of the Leguminosae, its dorsal suture being anterior, 
its placenta posterior; its stipe is adnate as a ridge to the 
posterior edge of the floral tube, and becomes free at the 
posterior edge just within the vexillary petal. 

Saraca has the calyx, gynaeceum, and floral tube of Brownea ; 
but it is free, only slightly equitant. The flower is always 
apetalous, and has only the seven anterior stamens, which are 
free to their base ; an eighth sometimes occurs, it is then pos- 
terior. The inflorescence is a stiff" panicle twice or thrice 
branched, from the old wood. The bracts of the base of the 
main peduncle are distichous, but higher up they are spiral 
with the divergence | as they are (with antidromy) on the 
secondary and tertiary axes. The upper bracts of the primary 
and secondary branches and all the tertiary are axillant to 

I. The Floral Development of Brownea and 


The young inflorescences of Brownea^ like so many closely- 
packed racemes, contain flowers nearly of the same age. These 
appear first in the axils of the lowest of the spiral bracts, 
and follow in rapid basifugal succession, the main axis often 
bearing finally a terminal flower. The lower floral bracts 
occasionally bear flowers, which, however, take origin much 
later than those in the axils of the spiral bracts. The bract- 
lets appear right and left in quick succession, one a little 
before the other. They soon become connate, i. e. their bases 
are confluent and rise up so as to form a bag of truncated 

* Ten is a very rare number to find ; eleven is commoner in B. co€dnea, nine in 
B. grandiceps. 

and A natomy of Brcwtua and Saraca. 311 

conical form, with only a median slit at the apex, the mai^in 
of the older {Fig, 14,0) bractlet overlapping the other (Fig. 
14, /9). Within this sac the receptacle has widened and 
become obconical, somewhat tilted outward, so that the 
rounded upper surface, covered by the slit of the bracteolar 
sac, looks towards the hollow of the bract ; hence in Brownea 
we have not the same marked difference of pressure between 
the anterior and posteripr sides of the flower that usually 
prevails at this stage in closely-packed inflorescences. The 
sepals appear in quincuncial order ; sepal i is anterior (see 
Fig- 14)1 s postero-Iateral on the ^ 

side of bractlet a, 3 antero-lateral on 
the ^ bractlet side, 4 antero-lateral 
on the o. side, 5 postero-Iateral on 
the & side again ; 2 and 5 early be- 
come confluent at the base ; but the 
resulting posterior member is long, 
unequally divided by a notch into 
a larger portion corresponding to %, 
and a smaller to 5. 

The petals arise as a simultaneous Fig. 14, Fiorsi diagram of 
whorl, and so do the altemipctaloua iZT^'^i^i.if^'^^Z. 

outer stamens. At this stage the of the petals and the four pcnterior 

swollen centre of the floral re- 
ceptacle has become excentric to the flower, coming close up 
to the base of the vexillary petal behind. Hence we usually 
find in B. grandiccps only four antipetalous inner stamens, 
there being no room left for a posterior stamen before the 
vcxillum ; in B. coccinea, however, two are formed here ; we may 
regard this as a true case of chorisis due to the pressure of the 
gynaeceal tubercle. This now rises up as a horseshoe with 
its limbs closely approximated behind. The staminal sheath 
forms late, and so do the receptacular tube and gynophore. 

In Saraca the bractlets soon overlap above the young 
receptacle, on the side of the bract, but leave a small gap 
at the posterior side of the flower until the appearance of the 
sepals ; they never become connate, though a overlaps (3 on 

312 Hartdg. — On the Floral Organt^eny 

the posterior as well as anterior side of the flower. The 
receptacle is nearly erect, not tilted outwards. The calyx 
develops as in Browntay but the confluence of the sepals, 
2 and 5, is earlier and more complete. I have failed to see 
any sign of petaline tubercles. The staniens appear in 
ascending order in an antero-posterior direction in rapid 
succession. First, an anterior stamen, then the pair next to 
it, then another pair, and then another; between these, on 
the posterior side of the flower, is seen a narrow ridge which 
soon shows three minute tubercles ; the middle one may 
enlarge somewhat, but their identity and presence are soon 
lost to view. At the time that there are five stamens, the 
central tubercle shows a slight annular margin which almost 
immediately becomes horseshoe-shaped owing to uneven 
growth ; this is the carpel. 

Now the important point in the above developments is, that 
in two closely allied genera the flower of the one develops 
as one would say * normally,' by successive whorls, and in 
the other genus there is a marked acceleration of the anterior 
side. Considering the flowers of these two genera alone, it 
might be thought that Saraca, the more modified form of the 
two, with its apetalous flowers and reduced androecium, owed 
to these points a distorted ontogeny. This conclusion, how- 
ever, is unsustainable. In all Leguminosae hitherto studied, 
including the actinomorphous Mimoseae, the flower is known 
to develop from below upwards, with the appearance of the 
parts next the bract accelerated, those next the inflorescence- 
axis retarded. In this order then Saraca is normal, Brownea 
is exceptional ; and it is the eucyclic development of Brownea 
which calls for explanation. We must, therefore, regard this 
eucyclic development as secondary, and hold that a reversion 
has taken place here, conditioned by the nearly actinomorphous 
relations of the adult flower. With this is correlated the 
peculiar position of the flower-axis (at right angles to the 
inflorescence-axis) at the stage when the flower-leaves make 
their first appearance. 

It is obvious that the flowers of most Leguminosae must 

and Anatomy of Brownea and Saraca. 313 

rank as dorsiventral structures, while in Brownea they are, 
by adaptation or reversion, radial structures. Suppose now 
that the flower-leaves themselves were caulomes, not phyl- 
lomes ; then, taking for our guide the aphorism that develop- 
ment, i. e. ontogeny, can alone elucidate the true nature of a 
structure, we should be constrained to refer the development 
of the flower in the two species to different types of branch- 
ing. Now I do not see how the substitution of phyllome 
for caulome can modify the validity of the precept. If we 
regard the scorpioid inflorescence of a Cordia as morpho- 
logically different from that of a Borage^ that of one species 
of Uriica as different from that of another, we must admit 
that the flower of Brownea is morphologically different from 
that of Saraca^ Cassia, Mimosa^ and every leguminous flower 
that has been studied ; and herein we have a reductio ad ab- 
surdum of the above aphorism. 

II. The Distribution of the Floral Leaf-Traces in 

Brownea and Saraca. 

This was the next problem to attack in order to see if it 
would shed any light on the morphology of the floral tube ; 
but I soon discovered that the anomalies presented needed 
themselves to be explained before they could be utilised to 
explain other difficulties. 

1. The bractlets. The arrangement in Saraca presents no 
difficulties. The fibro- vascular cylinder of the pedicel below the 
bractlets consists of six little arcs, two anterior, two posterior, 
and one on either side. The lateral arcs detach themselves 
at the node to go one to either bractlet, the one to the lower 
bractlet at a slightly lower level ; in other words, each bractlet 
sends down a single leaf-trace which enters the cylinder at 
the extremity of the lateral axis. 

In Brownea the bractlets send down numerous traces which 
are inserted uniformly at equal distances all round the pedicel. 
We must regard this distribution as a mere matter of con- 
venience as it were ; for, considering the development of the 
bracteolar sheath, the general occurrence of paired bractlets 

314 Hartog.— On the Floral Organogeny 

in other orders, the close kinship with Saraca, we are con- 
strained to admit that the uniformity of size and distribution 
and the number of the bracteolar leaf-traces in Brownea still 
do not Justify us in regarding the sheath as composed of more 
than two connate bractlets. 

a. The flower proper, — The easiest way to describe the 
distribution of the floral leaf-traces is perhaps to follow them 
from below upwards. In Saraca the vascular ring above 
the bractlets assumes a very irregular shape, with nine ai^lar 
prominences, and as many bays, the posterior bay being the 
largest. The apex of each of the angles becomes detached 


\\fe \ 





> a 




I * 


Fig. 15. Diagram to show the 
arrangement of the leaf- traces in 
the flower of Brawnta coccinea. 
The dotted lines show how they 
unite edge to edge in their descent. 
S^ sepal; /', petal; Ay stamen (of 
the 9 anterior) ; a, stamen derived 
from the chorisis of the one in 
front of the vexillnm ; r, traces of 
the carpellary stipe. 


.< )