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THE ANNALS ^^^^^^ 





(being a continuation of the 'magazine of botany and zoology,' and of 



Sir W. JARDINE, Bart.—P. J. SELBY, Esq., 


PAVID DON, Esq., Prof. Bot, King's Coll. Lond., 











" Omnes res creatse sunt divinae sapientiae et potentiae testes, divitiae felicitatis 
humanae : exharum usu honitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex 
ceconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper aestimata ; a vere eruditis 
et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit." — 

I/. G 




I. On early Contributions to the Flora of Ireland ; with Remarks on 
Mr. Mackay's Flora Hibernica. By the Rev. T. D. Hincks, LL.D., 
M.R.I.A 1 

II. On Sphcsronites and some other genera from which Cr'moidea 
originate. By L. Von Buck *^ 12 

III. Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 
By Wm. Thompson, Vice-President of the Natural History Society of 
Belfast 16 

IV. Observations on Spiral Formations in the Cells of Plants. By 
Dr. M. J. ScHLEiDEN, Professor of Botany in the University of Jena 
(With a Plate.) 35 

V. Characters of new Genera and Species of New Holland Cype- 
racecB, Restiacece, and Jimcacece. By Prof. C. G. Nees von Esenbeck. 45 

VI. On the Structure of the Stigma in Mimulus and Diplacus. By 
Mr. Joseph Henderson 51 

VII. A Note upon the Genus Decaisnia, Ad. Brong. By Professor 
Ltndley 52 

VIII. On a new British Species of Colymbetes. By Charles C. 
Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c \ 53 

IX. Additional Observations on the Gemmae of Polygonum vivipa- 
rum. By George Dickie, Esq., A.L.S., Lecturer on Botany in the 
University and King's College, Aberdeen 55 

X. On Lychnis diurna and vespertina of Sibthorp. By Charles C. 
Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c 56 

XI. Some Observations on the Origin and Direction of the Woody 
Fibre of the Stems of Palms. By George Gardner, Esq., Surgeon ... 57 

XII. Excerpta Botanica, or abridged Extracts translated from the 
Foreign Journals, illustrative of, or connected with, the Botany of 
Great Britain. By W. A. Leighton, Esq., B.A., F.B.S.E., &c. 

On the mode of Growth of the Ophioglossece. By Alex. Braun.... 62 

Proceedings of the Geological Society ; Zoological Society 62 — 71 

On a white variety of the Hyacinth and Columbine ; On a Species of 
Balcenoptera stranded on Charmouth Beach ; On Hybrid Phea- 
sants ; On a specimen of the Shearwater Petrel, Kite, &c. ; Notes 
on British Birds ; On the Discovery of Hypericum Unearifolium in 
England; Temperature of Vegetables; Micrography— new ob-. 


servations on the Infusoria of Rock Salt ; On the genus Pupina, 
by John Edward Gray, Esq. ; On the Byssus of Unto, by John G. 
Anthony, Esq., with Notes, by J. E. Gray, Esq. ; On some re- 
cently proposed Genera of the Viverridce ; Return of Mr. Gould ; 
Meteorological Observations and Table 72 — 80 


XIII. Observations on the Genus Typhlopone, with descriptions of 
several exotic species of Ants. By J. O. Westwood, F.L.S. (With a 
Plate.) 81 

XIV. Zoological Notices. By Dr. A. Philippi. (With Two Plates.) 89 

XV. Thoughts on the Equivocal Generation of Entozoa. By Jas. 
L. Drummond, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in the 
Royal Belfast Institution, &c 101 

XVI. Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater MoUusca of Ireland. 
By Wm. Thompson, Vice-President of the Natural History Society of 
Belfast 109 

XVII. On early Contributions to the Flora of Ireland; with Re- 
marks on Mr. Mackay's Flora Hibernica. By the Rev. T. D. Hincks, 
LL.D., M.R.I.A 126 

XVIII. Report of the Results of Researches in Physiological Bo- 
tany made in the year 1839. By F. J. Me yen, M.D., Professor of 
Botany in the University of Berlin 136 

XIX. Account of a Specimen of the Oblong Sunfish, Orthagoriscus 
Oblongus, taken at Par in Cornwall, and preserved in the Museum of 
the Royal Institution of Cornwall at Truro. By Jonathan Couch, 
F.L.S., M.R.G.S. of Cornwall 144 

New Books : — Icones Fungorum, &c. Tomus 3. J. C. Corda. — Plantes 
Cryptogames de France. Fasc. 21. Par J. B. H. J. Desmazieres. 
— Monographia Tuberacearum, Auctore Carolo Vittadini. — Lin- 
naea, ein Journal fiir die Botanik, &c 145 — 147 

Proceedings of the Botanical Society of London ; Zoological So- 
ciety 148—155 

Notice of a Species of Warbler new to Britain'; P/iysophores; Ec/ii" 
nidcB ; Carinaria ; History of Mollusca ; The Genus BroccJiia of 
Bronn ; " The Sexes of Limpets. Patellae ;" The exhibition of 
Fishes in Museums; Mr. Heckl's Method of closing Glass Jars; 
Stands for Birds, &c. ; The Genus Gynameda, Gray; The Epi- 
phragma of Achatina ; The Hoopoe ; Meteorological Observations 
and Table 155—160 


XX. On the Stinging property of the Lesser Weever-fish {Trachi- 
nns Fipera). By George James Allman, Esq. In a Letter to Wm. 
Thompson, Esq., Vice-Pres. Natural History Society of Belfast 161 



XXI. Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. By Arthur Hill Hassall, 
Esq., M.R.C.S.L. (With Three Plates.) 166 

XXII. A Synopsis of the Genera and Species of the Class Hypo- 
stoma {Asterias, Linnaeus). By John Edward Gray, Esq., F.R.S., 
Keeper of the Zoological Collection in the British Museum 175 

XXIII. On the true Method of discovering the Natural System in 
Zoology and Botany. By Hugh E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S., &c.... 184 

XXIV. Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater il/o//?/sca of Ireland. 
By Wm. Thompson, Vice-President of the Natural History Society of 
Belfast 194 

XXV. On some Objections to the Theory of attributing the Natural 
Terraces on the Eildon Hills to the action of water. By J. E. Bow- 
man, F.L.S. &F.G.S 207 

New Books: — The Flora of Yorkshire, by Henry Baines, Sub-curator 
to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. — A Flora of Shropshire, 
by W. A. Leighton, Esq., B.A., &c. — Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke 
Geschiedenis en Physiologic 215 — 219 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Linnsean Society 219 — 236 

Note on Mr. Hassall's Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes ; Obituary : Mr. 
Vigors; Red-breasted Snipe ; Hoopoe, Little Stint; Fossil P'ish ; 
Remarks on a specimen of Kingfisher, supposed to form a new 
Species of the Tani/siptera ; Fountain Gum Bottle ; Carinaria 
vitreoy Lamarck; Meteorological Observations and Table... 236 — 240 


XXVI. Zoo-Geological Considerations on the Freshwater il/o/Zw^ca. 

By Edward Forbes, Esq., M.W.S., For Sec. B.S., &c 241 

XXVI I. A Catalogue of Shells from the Crag. By S. V. Wood, 
Esq., F.G.S 243 

XXVIII. Carabideous Insects collected by Mr. Darwin during the 
Voyage of Her Majesty's Ship Beagle. By G. R. Waterhouse, Esq. 254 

XXIX. Excerpia Botanica, abridged from Foreign Journals. By 
W. A. Leighton, Esq. B.A., F.B.S.E., &c. 

On the Stricture of the Hairs on the Pericarp of certain Plants. 

By M. Decaisne 257 

Conspectus of the Genera and Species of the LemnacecB. By 

M. J. Schleiden 259 

XXX. Contributions to the History of the Development of the De- 
capod Crustacea. By Heinrich Rathke 263 

XXXI. Report of the Results of Researches in Physiological Botany 

for 1839. By the late Professor MeyeN; of Berlin 269 

XXXII. A Synopsis of the Genera and Species of Starfish. By 
John Edward Gray, Esq., F.R.S., &c 275 

XXXIII. Some Remarks on the British Species of the Genus 
Martes. By T. C. Eyton, Esq., F.L.S 290 



XXXIV. On the Occurrence of two Species of Shells of the Genus 

Conus in the Lias, or Inferior Oolite, near Caen in Normandy. By C. 
Lyell, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c , 292 

Proceedings of the Linnsean Society ; Zoological Society ; Microsco- 
pical Society 29/ — 312 

New Books : — Flora comitatus Pesthinensis. — Supplement to English 

Botany 313 

Dianihusplumarius, Linn.; Sinapis Cheiranthus, Koch.; Saxifraga 
umhrosa ; Menyanthes I'rifoliata ; Correction of a mistake rela- 
ting to the River-Sponge Insect, and to the Freshwater Sponge, by 
J. Hogg, Esq. ; The Animal of Hgria; Lottia pulchella; On the 
Genus Euplocamus of Philippi ; New Land Shells from New 
Zealand; Blood of Nudibranchia; Red Colour of the Salt-Marshes 
of the Mediterranean ; Fossil Fauna of Brazil ; Mr. Schomburgk ; 
Denny's Anopleura Britannice ; British Museum ; Meteorological 
Observations and Table 313 — 320 


XXXV. Horse Zoologicae. By Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S., &c. 321 

XXXVI. On the recent Additions to the Flora of Ireland. By 
Charles C. Babington, Esq>, M.A., F.L.S., &c 328 

XXXVII. Report of the Results of Researches in Physiological 
Botany for 1839. By the late Professor Meyen, of Berlin 330 

XXXVIII. Observations on the Genus Polycera of Cuvier, with 
Descriptions of two new British Species. By Joshua Alder, Esq. 
(With a Plate.) 337 

XXXIX. Additions to Mr. Wood's Catalogue of Crag Radiaria. 

By M. Agassiz 343 

XL. On the Existence of Infusoria in Plants. By Charles Mor- 
REN, M.D., Professor of Botany in the University of Liege 344 

XLI. On the Natural Terraces on the Eildon Hills being formed by 
the Action of Ancient Glaciers. By J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.S., &c. 346 

XLII. Carabideous Insects collected by Charles Darwin, Esq., du- 
ring the Voyage of the Beagle. By G. R. Waterhouse, Esq 351 

XLIII. Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
M.A., F.L.S. (With Five Plates.) 355 

XLIV. A List of Mammalia and Birds collected in Assam by John 
McClelland, Esq., Assistant Surgeon in the service of the East India 
Company: revised by T. Horsfield, M.D., V.P.L.S., &c 366 

New Works : — Dr. Johnston's History of British Sponges and Coral- 
lines. Memorie della Societa Italiana delle Scienze residente in 

Modena.— Species Hepathicanim, k J. B. G. Lindenberg. — Die 
Naturlichen Pflanzensysteme, von Dr. H. L. Zunck. — Florula Ca- 
prarise, a J. Moris et J. de Notaris. — Skandinaviens Fiskar 374 — 378 


Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society ; Botanical So- 
ciety of Edinburgh ; Royal Society of Edinburgh ; Tweedside Phy- 
sical and Antiquarian Society ; Dublin Natural History Society; 
Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society ; Geological Society ; 
Royal Botanic Society and Garden 379 — 394 

New species of the Australian genus Alcyone ; Freshwater Shells col- 
lected in Wexford ; Capture of some rare Birds on the Cotswold 
Hills; Remarkable Habit in a Fish; Aquilegiu vulgaris; Mr. 
Gutch on rare species taken near Swansea ; The former existence 
of Glaciers in Scotland ; New species of Hygrocrocts ; AntJius 
Richardi, Richard's Pipit ; Facility of Water Communication in 
the Northern Parts of South America ; Meteorological Observa- 
tions and Table 394 — ^00 


XLV. On Saxifraga urnhrosa and the Kerry Saxifrages. By the 
Rev. W. T. Bree 401 

XL VI. — On some new or rare Fish occurring on the Coast of Ire- 
land. By Frederick M'CoY, Esq., M.G.S., &c 402 

XLV 1 1. Some further particulars of the Coco de Mer (Lodoicea 
sechellarum). By George Clarke, Esq 408 

XLVIII. Commentary on Mr. G. R. Gray's * Genera of Birds.' 8vo. 
London, 1840. By H. E. Strickland, Esq., M.A,, F.G.S., &c 410 

XLIX. Report of the Results of Researches in Physiological Botany 
made in the year 1839. By F. J. Meyen, M.D., Professor of Botany 
in the University of Berlin 424 

L. Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., 
F.L.S. (With Five Plates.) 430 

LI. Notes on British Char, Salmo Umbla, Linn., S. Salvelinus, Don. 
By Wm. Thompson, Vice-Pres. Nat. Hist. Society of Belfast 439 

LII. A List of Mammalia and Birds collected in Assam by John 
McClelland, Esq., Assistant Surgeon in the service of the East India 
Company, Bengal Establishment : revised by T. Horsfield, M.D., 
V.P.L.S., &c. (Concluded.) 450 

LIII. Observations on the Great Seal of the Earn Islands, showing 
it to be the Halicheerus griseus, Nilss., and not the Phoca harbata. By 
P. J. Selby, Esq., F.L.S., &c., &c 462 

LI V. On the natural affinities of the Lepidosiren ; and on the dif- 
fering opinions of Mr. Owen and M. Bischoff with regard to them. By 
M. Milne Edwards 466 

LV. Information respecting Zoological and Botanical Travellers ... 468 

New Books : — Crania Americana, or a comparative view of the Skulls 
of various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America, to 
which is prefixed an Essay on the varieties of the Human Species, 
by S. G. Morton, M.D. — The Birds of Australia, by John Gould, 


F.L.S., &c. — Algae Scandinavite exsiccatae, quas distribuit Jolian. 

Ehr. Areschoug. — De Hydrodictyo utriculato dissertatio Botanica, 

a Dr. John Elir. Areschoug. — Icones Plantarum Ilarionim Horti 

Regii Botanici Berolinensis, herausgegeben von H. F. Link, Fr. 

Klotzsch, Fr. Otto. — Verhandelingen over de Natuurlijke Geschie- 

denis der Nedelandsche Overzeesche Bezittingen, door de Leden 

der Natuurkundige Commissie in Oost-Indie en andere Schrij- 

vers 469 — 474 

Proceedings of the Linnaean Society; Entomological Society ... 474 — 480 


Proceedings of the Entomological Society (continued) ; Geological So- 
ciety ; Zoological Society ; Royal Society of Edinburgh ; Wer- 
nerian Natural History Society ; Devon and Cornwall Natural 
History Society 481—525 

Diatithus plumarius ; Salicaria luscinioides ; The Tomtits and the Bee- 
hives ; Lams glaucus, Larus capisiratus; A strange News-Car- 
rier ; Locusts at Sea ; Mr. J. J. Gurney on Santa Cruz, St. Tho- 
mas, and Dominica; Meteorological Observations and Table 525 — 530 


Plate I. Spiral Formations in the Cells of Plants. 

IL Species of Typhlopone ; Anomma ; Solenopsis; Carebara, and 
IIL Clavagella Balanorum ; Pagurus hungarus ; Asterope elliptica ; 

Nauplius ; Laophonte. 
IV. Psamathe longicauda ; Thyone viridis ; Peneus siphonoceros ; 
Pontarachna punctulum ; Desmophyllum Stellaria. 

VI. )■ Irish Zoophytes. 
VIII. Map of the Family of Alcedinidae. 

IX. Polycera quadrilineata, P. citrina, and P. cristata. 


^British Fungi. 


Page 19, Vitrina, last line but one, for this read which. 

— 20, l6th line, for give read gain. 

— 26 Helis granulata, for 1838 read 18S4, 

— 31 ' Helijc umbilicata, for rock limestone read rock,— limestone,— 
_. 199 Helia; Pisana should be in the 4th instead of the 2nd column. 

— 199' Vertigo edentula should be in the last column but one, instead of the last. 

— 200' Ancylusfluviatilis, add to La Bergerie column. 

— 201, line 3, instead 0/ which is, read which latter is. 

— 202 line 19,/or renders reorf render. 

— 395' lines from bottom,/or Rio Bremo read Rio Branco. 




I. — On early Contributions to the Flora of Ireland'^ with Re- 
marks on Mr, Mackay^s Flora Hibernica. By the Rev. T. 
D. HiNCKs, LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 


Having met with various remarks which seem to imply a 
pecuHar neghgence on the part of the Irish in respect of the 
Natural History of their country, and these remarks having 
been repeated without any effort to correct them, may I beg 
permission through your valuable work to make some state- 
ments on the subject? As I have for nearly fifty years taken 
an interest in the botany of Ireland, and as I have had op- 
portunities of knowing many persons who interested them- 
selves about it, I hope I may not be deemed unreasonable, 
especially as I have no claim of my own to bring forward or 
any wish to speak lightly of the exertions of late botanists, 
who I believe would not knowingly claim more than they are 
fairly entitled to. As these remarks were chiefly suggested 
by Mr. Mackay^s Flora Hibernica, or the reviews of it, I beg 
to acknowledge my own obligation to him for that work, and 
to express the esteem and regard I have felt for him for more 
than thirty years that I have had the pleasure of being ac- 
quainted with him. 

Different opinions are entertained by botanists as to what 
a local Flora should be. Remarks on the subject have been 
made by Prof. Henslow*, attention to which might be of 
much use ; but I cannot blame Mr. Mackay, in the Flora of 
such an extensive district as Ireland, for having inserted the 
generic and specific characters, even though he may not have 
added to those of Sirs J. E. Smith and W. J. Hooker. 

The Flora of a country should however do more, it should 

* Magazine of Zoology and Botany, voL i. 
A7in, ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Sept. 1840. B 

2 The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 

I conceive, as far as possible, discriminate between those 
plants which are really indigenous, and those which appear 
to have been introduced, whether at an early or a later period; 
it should mark the situation in which the plant is found and 
the different parts of the country; whether abundant or scarce; 
and on what kind of ground, as limestone, basalt, &c. It 
should be an object to record the earliest notice of each plant, 
and the name of the discoverer, if it can be ascertained, to 
which may be added remarks on its nature and uses. And 
in the case of a country like Ireland, which has its own pe- 
culiar language still used in many parts of it, the name given 
to the plant in that language should be recorded, when known, 
as well as the common names in English, The author of a 
local Flora should be a man well acquainted with the past 
as well as present state of the district, and should be able to 
make various branches of science contribute to the usefulness 
of his work. Finally, if like Dr. Johnston, in his Flora of 
Berwick-on-Tweed, he can render his work entertaining as 
well as instructive, he will have a stronger claim on the gra- 
titude of those for whom he has been labouring. That my 
friend Mr. Mackay's work does not meet all these objects is 
no reason for censuring him, and with respect to the Irish 
names, unless he had it in his power to give real ones, it was 
much better to omit them altogether, than to do, what was 
done in another case, manufacture names for the occasion, 
which a native could hardly recognise. 

Mr. Mackay^s introduction begins with the remark, " It has 
been matter of complaint that the history of the natural pro- 
ductions of Ireland has hitherto been neglected,^^ but he 
considers the censure as one of too great severity. The 
authoress of an ^' Irish Flora,^' published about three years 
before Mr. Mackay's, viz. in 1833, says, "it has been re- 
marked, that when England and France had their provincial 
Floras, the botany of this island was as much unknown as that 
of an island in the Pacific ; although its peasantry possessed 
a very considerable knowledge of plants, which is, &c. — but 
among its enlightened inhabitants it has remained almost a 
sealed book, while men of science have been occupied inves- 
tigating other countries not possessing half its richness in 
vegetable production s.^' As a proof, the extraordinary de- 
ficiency of information in this science, to be met with in the 
surveys of counties in Ireland, is brought forward, with some 
exceptions ; and be it remarked, that the works excepted were 
published, or at least some of them, before 17^0; i. e. eighty 
years before the time of making the remark. A reviewer of Mr. 
Mackay's work in the Dublin University Magazine, in a very 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland. 3 

interesting article, which proves the information and abiHty 
of the writer, except that he knew little of the past state of 
Ireland, renews the complaint of the neglect of the natural 
history of Ireland, speaks of everything relating to it as only 
just beginning, and compares this with the state of things in 
Bavaria and Sweden, and then with America. He speaks of 
the demand for general treatises and the publication of local 
Floras in England ; adding, that " no local Flora has ever been 
attempted in Ireland.^^ Speaking of the progress of the sci- 
ence, he adds, " the valuable result of all is had in England ; 
and among the Scotch almost every town of any magnitude 
has its museum or botanic garden, or both, and it is but a few^ 
years since the only similar establishments in Ireland were 
those of Dublin — recently the spirited people of Belfast has 
established both a museum and botanic garden. When Cork 
or Limerick will choose to follow, where they did not know 
how to take the lead, we know not.^^ There are not many who 
are able to detect the errors here fallen into, and which have 
been of late often repeated, because the greater part of the 
readers are, like the writer, ignorant of the past ; and of what 
great consequence is it, some may think, if the efforts of earlier 
times be forgotten ? Now as science is progressive, every 
succeeding period derives advantage from that going before. 
^^ No effort is lost,^^ and it becomes those who are now making 
rapid advances, to acknowledge the advantages they derive 
from what their predecessors have done ; and such is the ge- 
neral feeling, though we occasionally meet with departures 
from it, arising perhaps more from the ignorance of the writer 
than from any desire to deprive the dead of any credit to which 
they were entitled. According to the reviewer no previous 
publication existed from which Mr. Mackay could obtain any 
great amount of information respecting our indigenous plants. 
^^ The only original work to which he could refer was that of 
Threlkeld, published more than a century ago, and which is 
unfortunately merely a catalogue of the more common plants 
alphabetically arranged, with brief indication of their real or 
supposed medical virtues. The work of K^Eogh is scarcely de- 
serving of notice, and with one or two exceptions no botanical 
information was to be obtained from the statistical surveys of 
the different counties. The task of ascertaining the habitats 
of rare plants and of discovering new ones, rested almost en- 
tirely with the author and his contemporaries.^^ Now some- 
what depends on the meaning annexed to contemporaries ; 
and if it includes all who were living at the same time, even 
those who were going off the stage when Mr. M. came on it, 
it would include a great many whose principal services to bo- 

B 2 

4 The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 

tany were previous to Mr. Mackay's settlement in Ireland, 
and were in a great degree a cause of that settlement, to whom 
I shall afterwards refer. 1 am willing to take it in that exten- 
sive sense^ and trust I shall make it appear that Mr. Mackay 
found much done by them before he saw Ireland. But does 
not Mr. Mackay in his preface tell us of Molyneux^s cata- 
logue of rare plants appended to Threlkeld ? and previously 
of Heaton^ and Llhwyd and Sherard ? Are not some of our 
rarest plants recorded by Ray ? Does not he tell us of Smithes 
Cork and Kerry ? of Wade's Flora Dublinensis and Plantae 
Rariores ? Does he not refer to a catalogue of the plants of the 
county Cork by Jas. Drummond ? These are mentioned by 
Mr. Mackay, but considered by his reviewer as absolutely 

Having thus stated the charge brought, that the literary 
men of Ireland had been peculiarly negligent of her botanical 
treasures, I shall endeavour to show that it is in great mea- 
sure not well-founded. It proceeds on the supposition that 
because a local Flora had not been published, therefore ^' the 
botany of Ireland was as much unknown as that of an island 
in the Pacific." Now we have seen that works were published 
early in the 18th century, and that references are made to bo- 
tanists in the 1 7th century : may we not then look to the com- 
parative state of botany elsewhere ? It is well known that for 
a long period this science was cultivated merely as ^"^ the hum- 
ble but engaging handmaid of surgery and medicine.^^ All 
the catalogues had a reference to this, except those of timber 
trees and articles of food. It was not till the latter end of the 
17th century, that botany began to make progress as a sci- 
ence, and notwithstanding the valuable labours of Ray and 
Tournefort, it was not till the establishment of the Linnaean 
System, about the middle of the 18th century, that there was 
any work " to enable a botanist by short determinate charac- 
ters to discover the name of an unknown plant." It is use- 
less then to lament that there was no Irish work of this kind, 
when none existed anywhere. Without urging our ignorance 
of what may be concealed in Irish MSS ; without alleging 
the change that had so recently taken place in Ireland by the 
cutting down of woods and the formation of bogs ; without 
dwelling on its wretched internal state, so adverse to all sci- 
entific inquiries ; it is enough to state that there was a like ig- 
norance of plants in other countries, and that the idea of di- 
stinct Floras as guides to students had not been conceived. 
The earliest works in Ireland, as in England, were chiefly in- 
tended to guide the medical practitioner, ^^ the culler of sim- 
ples," where to find what he wanted. It was not till 1 762, when 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 5 

Hudson published his Flora Anglica, that British botanists 
had a systematic manual, but are we therefore to regard the 
works of preceding botanists as useless ? An improved edi- 
tion appeared in 1778, and Lightfoot^s Flora Scotica, the first 
respecting the peculiar botany of Scotland which I have yet 
traced, appeared in 1777? the work, be it recollected, of an En- 
glishman, at the instigation and even the expense of a native 
of Wales, Mr. Pennant. From this time the progress of the 
science was rapid; in 1786 Dr. Withering published his 
'' Botanical Arrangement^^ in English, and shortly before or 
soon after commenced Curtis's Flora Londinensis and Bo- 
tanical Magazine, Smith and Sowerby^s English Botany (in- 
cluding Scotland and Ireland), and the Transactions of the 
Linnaean Society. Previous to 1780 botany could have made 
little progress in Great Britain, except amongst scientific 
men, though the dawn of a brighter day of botanical science 
may be observed in the records of the period immediately 
preceding. My business however is with Ireland ; and I shall 
first inquire what had been done towards a botanical know- 
ledge of that country previous to 1780 ; and then whether it 
accompanied England in its advance, or by unaccountable and 
shameful neglect, left all to be done, and by strangers, within 
the last few years. 

We have no records of the first discoverers, but we know 
that a Rev. Mr. Heaton communicated the names of plants 
he had found to How and Merret, and that, probably through 
him, those plants which at present constitute the most re- 
markable difference of the Flora of this island from that of 
Great Britian, were known and recorded long before the time 
of Threlkeld. In 1727 appeared the first list of Irish plants, 
except what may possibly exist in the Irish language. I will 
not repeat the slighting terms in which this work is spoken 
of, but by giving a fuller account of his work, show that the 
distinguished Robert Brown did not estimate the author of it 
too highly when he thought him deserving of a place amongst 
the promoters of botanical knowledge. I allude to the cir- 
cumstance of his having called a genus of plants by his name, 
which he would hardly have done if he considered his work 
so useless as some regard it. The title was " Synopsis Stir- 
pium Hibernicarum, &c. &c., being a short treatise of native 
plants, especially such as grow spontaneously in the vicinity 
of Dublin, with their Latin, English, and Irish names, and an 
abridgement of their virtues, with several new discoveries ; 
with an appendix of observations made upon plants by Dr. 
Molyueux, Physician to the State in Ireland.^^ The modest 
motto prefixed is, '' Est quiddam prodire tenus si non detur 

6 The Rev. Dr. Ilincks on the Flora of Ireland, 

ultra.^^ The work was dedicated to Primate Boulter. Threl- 
keld was an Englishman, who settled in Dublin as a physician 
and dissenting minister. In his preface he speaks of having 
devoted attention to botanical studies in England as well as 
since he came to Ireland, and particularly mentions his ha- 
ving been in danger in 1 70 7 (twenty years before the publica- 
tion of this work) in the neighbourhood of Tynemouth Castle, 
from having been observed clambering on rocks instead of 
keeping the high road. He expressly says too, that he col- 
lected plants for twelve years, marking the place where they 
grew, and preserving them in a Hortus siccus, whereas the 
author of the article Threlkeldia in Rees's Cyclopaedia 
(did Sir J. E. Smith continue his contributions so long ?) 
says, ^^ that this catalogue was founded on the papers of Dr. 
Thos. Molyneux, or the communications of other people,^^ and 
seems to question the propriety of Mr. Brown^s notice of him. 
Rank in science he neither claimed himself, nor have others 
done it for him ; but so far is the preceding charge from being 
just, that Dr. Molyneux^s contributions, having come too late 
to be incorporated with the work, were printed as an Appen- 
dix, and he appears to have expressly noticed every plant that 
was inserted in his catalogue on the authority of others. 
Threlkeld speaks of his work as a pocket-book, a small treatise, 
an abridgement, by which he hopes to stir up others to con- 
tribute their quota " to wipe off the ugly character Pompo- 
nius Mela has fixed on the Irish inhabitants, cultores ejus in- 
conditos esse, et omnium virtutum ignaros magis quam alias 
gentesP Yet he himself in the same preface gives a fair ex- 
cuse for the neglect of this branch of learning, when he ob- 
serves, ^^ that the wars and commotions have laid an embargo 
upon the pens of the learned, or discord among the petty 
subaltern princes has rendered perambulation perilous, least 
they should be treated as spies,'^ when he mentions his own 
danger at Tynemouth in 1707. In the days of Threlkeld bo- 
tany was little more than a branch of medicine, and in this 
light he chiefly regarded it. To detail the virtues of plants 
was his grand object, and he satisfies himself with the names 
by which they could be found in the works of Gerard, Caspar 
Bauhin and Ray, who appear to have been his authorities, 
though he sometimes expresses himself peevishly of the 
changes made by the last, which in his eyes were not improve- 
ments. To their Latin name he adds the English one and 
the Irish one, when he could attain it. These " Irish names," 
he says, " I copied from a manuscript which has great author- 
ity with me, and seems to have been written sometime be- 
fore the civil wars in 1641, and probably by that Reverend 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland. J 

Irish Divine Mr. Heaton, who is quoted by Dr. How in the 
Phytologia Britannica^^ for several plants^ and also by Dr. 
Merret. He could find no living person acquainted with so 
many, and whether K^Eogh also made use of the same MS. 
or not, I have found their Irish names generally to agree. 
The number of species enumerated by Threlkeld (exclusive 
of all Cryptogamous plants, except the Fern tribe), was 473. 
Mackay^s species in 1836 were 1054, and those of England 
1436. When amongst those of Threlkeld we find Arbutus 
Unedo, Dryas octopetala, Menziesia polifolia, Euphorbia Hi- 
berna, Baxifraga umbrosa, Epipactis ensifolia, Osmunda re- 
galis, Asplenium viride, and other rare plants, some peculiar to 
Ireland, can we fairly say of such a country, that ^' its botany 
was as much unknown as that of an island in the Pacific'^? 
May we not rather say that this collection made by Threlkeld, 
of plants observed by himself or by his predecessors, was a re- 
spectable foundation for future botanists to build upon ? and 
that it should be estimated not by the knowledge of the present 
day, but by that of the period before the introduction of the 
Linnaean system? Amongst those whose discoveries were pre- 
vious to Threlkeld^s work, were Llhwyd and Sherard. She- 
rard^s visit, as far as I can ascertain, was in 1695 or 1696, before 
he went abroad with Lord Howland afterwards Duke of Bed- 
ford; and he spent part of his time at Moira, not far from Lough 
Neagh, with Sir Arthur Rawdon. Amongst his discoveries were 
Subularia aquatica, Epipactis grandiflora,Lithospermum mari- 
timum, Drosera longifolia (previously by Mr. Heaton), An- 
dromeda polifolia, and probably others I have not noticed. 
The Murrogh of Wicklow is given by Mr. Mackay as one of 
the habitats of Lithospermum maritimum, where it grows 
plentifully ; and this is the habitat given by Sherard. Now 
is it not interesting to know, that nearly a century and a half 
before Mr. Mackay^s work this habitat was known ? True, 
the designations of the plants are not such as to lead a Lin- 
naean botanist to recognise them without some labour ; and 
the alphabetical arrangement is bad, though perhaps not 
much worse than if the author had adopted Gerard^s, C. 
Bauhin's, or even Ray^s arrangement; and I cannot help 
regretting that Mr. Mackay did not consider it an object to 
study Threlkeld's work, and make it the foundation of his 
labours. The appendix was supplied by Dr. Thomas Moly- 
neux, the brother of Lockers distinguished friend, and a man 
more known for his exertions to promote science in Ireland 
than for the honour of a baronetage, still enjoyed by his 
descendant. This Appendix contains a more bare list of the 
plants found than Threlkeld^s own, and a few are thus given 

8 The Rev Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland. 

a second time and even under a different name ; yet still it is 
a valuable record^ and deserving the attention of the Irish 
botanist. Another old work often referred to, is the Botano- 
logia Universalis Hibernica, or a ^^ General Irish Herbal/^ by 
Mr. K^Eogh, published in 1735. This gentleman was a 
clergyman, chaplain to Lord Kingston, and seems to have 
resided near Mitchelstown, the seat of that nobleman in the 
county Cork, to plants in whose garden he often refers. 
The garden of that nobleman's descendant, the present Earl 
of Kingston, is perhaps the finest in Ireland ; and there is 
attached to it, for the use of the gardeners, a library of valu- 
able botanical works, many of them very expensive, under the 
superintendence of the head gardener. Mr. K'Eogh also often 
refers to the Barony of Burren, in the county Clare, from 
which, I think it probable that he was a native of that county. 
His names are nearly the same as those of Threlkeld, his 
publication having taken place within eight years after. To 
notice the medical virtues of plants was his great aim, and 
this is done with respect to cultivated plants as well as wild 
ones ; but he states when got in gardens and when found 
wild, so that the work is not without its use in ascertaining 
the native plants then known. His botanical knoAvledge, 
however, may not have been such as to justify the insertion 
of plants merely on his authority, though it might direct at- 
tention to look for them in the district pointed out. Galega 
officinalis, Asclepias or Swallowwort (species not mentioned), 
Fabna Chris ti or the Greater Spurge, and others, are said to 
be wild in Burren. It is so unlikely that this should be so, 
that it throws a doubt on his authority ; but if the district 
were well examined, it might be found that other plants were 
taken for them, which an indifferent botanist in the then rude 
state of the science might mistake for them, as I have little 
doubt that the Ruta sylvestris, wild rue, also said to be found 
there, was a Thalictrum, as he has not noticed any of that 
genus ; and Jl majus and minus are said to be found in an 
adjoining county, and generally known as Meadow-rue^, 
This was suggested to me by a remark of Mr. Temple- 
ton's, who, having seen it stated that savin grew wild on the 
Mourne Mountains, and having diligently searched for it in 
vain, thought that Lycopodium alpinum, Savin-leaved Club- 
moss^ which does grow there, and on other high mountains 
in Ireland, gave rise to the report. It is at once more can- 
did and more probable to suppose that men mistake through 

* My son, the Rev. W. Hincks, F.L.S,, informs me that Caesalpinns 
gave the names Ruta sylvestris and Ruta sylvestris altera, to T'halictrum 
majus and minus, which confirms my conjecture. 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, D 

ignorance, than that they wantonly assert falsehoods. In 
judging of such works as those of Threlkeld and K^Eogh, 
we should consider them as abridgements of Gerard and his 
followers for medical purposes. No one now refers for de- 
scriptions to Parkinson, How, Merret, or even Ray, but these 
writers preserve to us the knowledge of their times, and for 
this purpose are referred to. In 171I a Botanical Lecture- 
ship was estabJished in Dublin College, to which a small 
physic garden was then or soon after annexed, in connexion 
with the medical school, but I have not traced any immediate 
benefit to the science derived from it. The Dublin Society, 
founded in 1731, by the attention it paid to agriculture and 
planting, both intimately connected with botany, indirectly 
contributed to its progress ; but a society called the Physi co- 
historical, about 1746, more directly contributed to our 
knowledge of the plants of Ireland by employing a botanist 
(name not recorded) to examine the county Down, the most 
important and interesting of the counties in Ulster, both on 
account of its varied surface and fertility, and its containing 
the Mourne Mountains. The list of plants collected by this 
person was submitted, I think, to Dr. Rutty of Dublin 
(esteemed a good naturalist for his time), and was published 
in the history of that county, attributed to Harris. The 
same Society sent Dr. Charles Smith to the south of Ireland, 
who published under their authority his histories of Water- 
ford and Cork, and afterwards, the Society having termi- 
nated, that of Kerry, at his own risk. Mr. Mackay seems 
to have confounded these histories with the statistical ac- 
counts published under the auspices of the Dublin Society 
at a much later period ; but he speaks of Dr. Smith's his- 
tories as possessing considerable accuracy with regard to the 
localities of plants, as he found during his botanical excur- 
sions through that part of the country. The next Irish pub- 
lication on the subject was " Dr. Rutty's Natural History of 
the county of Dublin,'' in 177^, in which, though Mr. Lee had 
explained the Linnaean system in England in 1760, and 
Hudson had adopted it in the Flora Anglica in 1762, the 
old system was retained, which, considering the age of Dr. 
Rutty, and the length of time he had been collecting his 
materials amidst the avocations of a laborious profession, is 
not to be wondered at or censured. Whatever useful inform- 
ation it may contain, Rutty's work appeared to me less cal- 
culated to serve the purposes of an Irish Flora than that of 
Threlkeld. Previous to 1780, we had then lists of plants 
by Threlkeld, K'Eogh, and Rutty ; of the rare plants of 
Down, by an unknown person, but under the direction of a 

10 The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 

Society in Dublin ; of the rare plants of Waterford, Cork, 
and Kerry, the three most southern counties, by Dr. Charles 
Smith, whose accuracy is admitted, and communications to 
the lists of How, Merret, and Ray, of the most remarkable 
plants that had yet been found in the country. We have 
now to inquire what progress was made in Ireland after 1 780, 
and previous to Mr. Mackay^s labours. In 1785, the Lecture- 
ship on Botany in the University was changed by Act of Par- 
liament to a professorship, and annual courses of lectures 
were made imperative. Dr. Edward Hill, who had been 
lecturer, was the first professor, and continued to fill the 
chair till his death in 1801. I have not heard any cha- 
racter of his lectures, but it is reasonable to suppose that 
the increasing love of botany, which led to the change in the 
College, and to other circumstances, must have originated 
with him. Be this as it may, we find Dr. Robert Scott, who 
was afterwards his successor. Dr. Wade, Dr. Young, a fellow 
of Dublin College (afterwards bishop of Clonfert), an emi- 
nent promoter of science. Dr. Whitley Stokes, Fellow of Dub- 
lin College, and now Professor of Natural History in it, Mr. 
Blashford, a barrister, and others, adding every now and then 
new contributions to the Flora. At this time the late Mr. 
Templeton turned his attention to botany, and in 1 793 had 
actually laid out that garden, known to all the botanists who 
have visited Belfast ; that garden in which he made the in- 
teresting experiments on raising plants in the open air, pre- 
viously found only in conservatories, communicated to the 
Royal Irish Academy in 1799; that garden which to this 
day is a monument of his zeal, his skill, and of that attach- 
ment to botany with which he inspired his family. In 1792, 
Dr. Brinkley came to Ireland as Professor of Astronomy, 
and he was an ardent botanist ; Dr. Barker made out a list 
of the plants of his native county, Waterford, Mr. Tighe 
of those of Kilkenny; and the illustrious Robert Brown, 
being at Derry for some time previous to his going to New 
Holland, not only carefully examined that county, but ex- 
tended his researches to the county of Donegal. All the gen- 
tlemen whose names I have mentioned were in communica- 
tion with Mr. Templeton, and he was urged by most of them 
to undertake the Flora of Ireland, with a promise of assist- 
ance. In the meantime Dr. Wade published his Flora of 
the county Dublin in 1794. About the year 1800 the 
Dublin Society established a professorship of botany, which 
was filled by Dr. Wade, and began the Glasnevin garden, 
having Mr. Underwood for their first gardener. The par- 
liamentary grant for this purpose was procured chiefly by the 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 1 1 

exertions of the Right Hon. J. Foster, Speaker of the House 
of Commons, who had long been a zealous promoter of botany, 
and was considered to be well acquainted with it as a science. 
In 1801 Dr. Scott was elected professor in the College, and the 
board which has the direction of the College funds deter- 
mined on having a suitable garden of their own, and engaged 
Mr.Mackayas curator, who came to Ireland about 1803 or 1804. 
In 1807 the proprietors of the Cork institution determined 
on having a garden, and engaged Mr. James Drummond as 
their curator. Previously to this, Mr. Templeton had a list 
of 815 species of phaenogamous plants with their habitats, 
whilst his list of mosses, lichens, fuci, and fungi, was even 
more extensive in proportion. Thus early too. Miss Hut- 
chins also had devoted herself to botanical pursuits, and had 
carefully examined the neighbourhood of Bantry Bay for 
phaenogamous plants, though her chief discoveries were in 
the Algae. The county surveys were at this time publishing 
under the auspices of the Dublin Society, in some of which 
lists of rare plants were given. It has been objected that 
the natural history part of these surveys is of little use, but 
it should be remembered that agriculture and statistics were 
the chief object, and we may surely ask whether the county 
surveys of England and Scotland displayed a more accurate 
knowledge of natural history? I date 1804 as the period 
from which Mr. Mackay's labours commenced, and I think 
I have a right to conclude, not only that the botany of Ire- 
land was tolerably well known before he came, but also that 
if a considerable desire of promoting the science had not 
been previously formed, the parliament, the Dublin Society, 
and the heads of the university would not have incurred such 
a heavy expense as to establish two gardens, maintain two 
professors, and employ two able curators. It was not these 
gentlemen who first formed the taste, but their engagement 
was the result of its having been already formed. The Dub- 
lin Society not only had their garden, but they employed an 
under gardener in going through the country, and enabled 
their professor to travel in the west, publishing the result of 
his tour. In like manner the CoUege employed Mr. Mac- 
kay in visiting the south and west, and the Cork institution 
sent Mr. Drummond into the west of their county and the 
county of Kerry. Mr. Mackay^s catalogue of rare plants, 
printed in 1806, and Mr. Drummond^s list of the plants of 
the county Cork, printed in 1810, both at the expense of 
the Dublin Society, show the result of these missions. It is 
no reflection on these gentlemen to observe, that having been 
employed for the purpose, they were able to do more than 

12 Von Buch on Crinoidea, 

those who could scarcely be expected to take long journeys at 
their own expense, merely for the sake of science. The same 
may be said of later discoveries, made under the Ordnance 
department. What has been done by such men as Messrs 
Mackay, Drummond, and Moore, (and no one can more 
cheerfully acknowledge that they have done much) is to their 
honour, but should never be brought forward to the dispa- 
ragement of those who were mere voluntary labourers. I now 
leave it to the judgement of the reader, whether it was fair to 
attribute almost all to Mr. Mackay and his contemporaries, 
or to use language which might appear to a stranger to im- 
ply, that even in 1833 the botany of Ireland had remained 
amongst its enlightened inhabitants almost a sealed book, 

[To be continued.] A, /2L^ . 

II. — On Sphaeronites and some other genera from which 
Crinoidea originate. By L. Von Buch*. 

Perhaps there are few schemes of general structure sketched 
by Nature within whose circle so many and so variously- 
modified forms have been unfolded as the beautiful Lilies 
of the Ocean, the Encrinites or Crinoidea. From their 
simple origin they diffuse themselves in every direction to the 
most wonderfully complex and numerous forms, and then 
suddenly return in the progress of creation to a propor- 
tionately small number; so much so, that of the numerous 
genera and species of the primitive age, only the solitary 
Pentacrinus has come down to our present period. But other 
forms have unfolded and diffused themselves in all oceans. 
The corolla of the lily has again closed, and perfectly enve- 
loped Asterice and Echini, capable of greater movement and 
development, have taken the place of the Crinoidea. 

No formation can produce a greater number of the most 
varied forms of these creatures of the primitive age, than 
the transition formation from the oldest strata to the carbo- 
naceous series. Their chief character in this period is, that 
the parts which envelope the body have still greatly the 
superiority over the auxiliary members which are to convey 
the nutriment, the far-spread many-fingered arms. This 
body becomes smaller and smaller, and consists of fewer 
pieces in the Jura formation ; the arms and fingers are on the 
contrary longer, more compound, and in greater number. 
With Comatula or the Euryalce, the body separates entirely 

* Read before the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin, March 16, 1840, 
and translated from the Berichte der Akademie. 

Von Buch on Crmoidea* 13 

from the petiole^ and in Echinus and the alHed genera there 
is no longer need of any corolla. 

But before the ocean-lily had opened and expanded its 
arms, it moved on a short pedicel in the closed state in innu- 
merable quantity, and only by frequent and highly varied at- 
tempts did this rupture and expansion succeed. These closed 
C7'i7ioidea are still but little and imperfectly known ; they 
deserve to be known, however, in every respect. For hitherto 
no Encrhius has been found in the lower beds, and from 
them there is formed an uninterrujited transition to the 
Pentacrinus of the existing ocean. Hitherto these forms have 
occurred almost exclusively in northern countries ; in Sweden, 
in Norway, and in the hills which bound St. Petersburgh on 
the south ; and among them the Sph€eromtes are most fre- 
quently met with. 

These are large round spheres, like oranges, with two poles 
at the extremities. Linnaeus, in his journey through Oeland, 
called them crystal-apples. Gyllenhahl, in an able investiga- 
tion and description (1772)^ was however the first to recog- 
nize their organic nature, and concluded that they might be 
placed near to Echinus, on which account Wahlenberg ap- 
plied to them the name Echinosphceintes, which Hisinger 
has exchanged for the better one of Sphceronites, These 
spheres are formed of numerous polyhedrons plates, gene- 
rally hexagonal, perhaps of two hundred in one specimen. 
Above opens a mouth, which is covered by a number of very 
small moveable shields. Below, a petiole of thin pentagonal 
articulations fixes the body to the soil. The plates are all per- 
forated. In Sphceronites Aurantium these small pores stand in 
a row from each angle of the polyhedron towards the centre, 
yet not quite up to the centre itself. Each of these pores is 
connected by a deep furrow with the adjacent plate, thus gi- 
ving rise to rhombs, which always extend over two plates or 
assula; sometimes so prominently, that the rhombs them- 
selves have been taken for assulcs, and a species erroneously 
named Sphceronites Granatum, because a similarity was found 
in these rhombs to the surfaces of a granite crystal. But 
Gyllenhahl had long before shown that the true polyhedrons 
assulae bisect the rhombs in the shorter diagonal, and at right 
angles with their striping. Pander, however, proves what had 
escaped Gyllenhahl, that these stripes or grooves connect ten- 
tacular apertures, as two pores do in the ambulacra of the 
species of Cidaris. And therefore it is very probable that 
Ischadites Koenigii (Murch. Silur. Syst. PI. 26. fig. 11.) is 
only Sphceronites Aurantium, upon which an outline has been 
given to the rhombs not belonging to them, and distorting 
the whole. This discovery of Pander of tentacular passages. 

14 Von Buch 07i Crinoidea. 

and consequently of tentacula, is important. They reappear 
on many Encririites ; for instance, on Actocrinites, on Rho- 
docrinites, and even on Marsupites. (Bronn, Letliaea, PI. IV.) 
The rhombs are not evident on the surface of SpharonUes 
Pomum, Each plate bears a number of small systems, sepa- 
rated inter se. Two pores are always connected with one 
another, but these systems are scattered without arrangement 
over the entire surface. This species has hitherto only been 
found in Sweden. 

In the upper half of the Sphceronites, but still a fourth of the 
sphere distant from the mouth, there is a large pentagonal 
aperture, which is closed by five triangular valves project- 
ing in a flattened pyramid. Gyllenhahl and his successors 
call this aperture the mouth. But analogy with the allied 
forms requires the mouth to be above, and an aperture closing 
exteriorly appears little adapted for a nutriment-receiving 
mouth. Probably it is an oviduct. Above, quite close to the 
mouth, and constantly to the right of the valvated aperture, 
there is a third very small opening, penetrating deep into the 
interior, probably an anus. A similar small anal aperture is 
likewise evident between three laminae on Apiocrinites, where 
hitherto it has not been observed, resembling the anus of the 
living Comatula, Gyllenhahl expressly states, " I always found 
this Sphceronites Pomum in Westgothland, at a greater depth 
than Sphtsronites Aurantium, and in far greater number.^^ It 
is therefore surprising that it has not yet been met with in 
the neighbourhood of St. Petersburgh. 

Hemicosmites pyriformis. — By means of this beautiful and 
extremely elegant form, we approach a great step nearer to 
the true Crinoidea, Although still without anns and closed, 
there are already here but few plates or assulcs, in definite num- 
ber and regularly combined. The Hemicosmites is reverse 
pear-shaped, and consists of three parts, oi pelvis, thorax, and 
vertex. The pelvis on the slender pentagonal petiole is formed 
oifour pieces, which are arranged in a hexagon. Two of them 
are pentagons, the two others lozenges (rhombs). Six costals 
in two different groups form the thorax. Three of these plates 
are narrower, and above, between those on the left, there is 
a pentagonal aperture closed with valves as in Spharonites, 
The three other assulae are broader, and the superior apex of 
the elongated hexagon is somewhat truncated. In accordance 
with this, the vertical plates arching over the whole also 
divide into two groups; on the side of the broader assula? 
there is on each truncation of their apex a longitudinal piece, 
as it were, inserted, and there are therefore three such pieces ; 
they are wanting on the side of the valvate aperture. The 
exceedingly small laminae which cover the mouth on the top 

Von Buch on Critioidea. 15 

of the vertex, appear to terminate in three small processes or 
arms which are pierced, and might perhaps form distinct 
oval apertures. No anal aperture is evident. The great regu- 
larity of this arrangement is still more evident from the great 
elegance with which prominences are distributed in series 
over each assula of thorax and vertex. They proceed on the 
costals from the centre to the upper angle of the hexagon, 
none towards the lower. On the vertical assulae, on the con- 
trary, these series go towards the lower angles, none towards 
the upper. Only the halves of the surfaces are decorated in 
this remarkable manner. The vertical and lateral series thus 
combine to form a highly elegant wreath environing the 
whole figure. These warts or prominences are pierced in 
the centre, and appear to be points of adhesion for spines. 
The central series of each assula is double. On the other 
parts of the assular surface there are but few similar warts 
scattered without any order. 

Cryptocrinites regularis and C Cerasus (Pander, t. ii. 
f. 24. /I. 26.). 

The pelvis is that of a Platycrinites, the thorax that of a 
Poteriocrinites; but the vertex is still closed, and without arms. 
However, five ribs or rings extending from the lower extre- 
mity to the vertex are hidden beneath the assulae, which are 
thus raised exactly in the form of a roof, just as may be 
observed in Actocrinites before the arms divide. The es- 
sential character of the Crinoidea exists, therefore, almost 
entirely in the Cryptocrinites, but it is yet hidden in the 
interior. The pelvis consists of three plates, which are 
united to form a pentagon, an arrangement which again 
occurs in Platycrinites, in Rhodocrinites, and in Actoctinites, 
but only in the older ones; in the later Jura Crinoidea 
it is no longer found. The thorax is surrounded by five 
costals, and the vertex likewise by five plates, which alter- 
nate with the costals. Minute plates surround the mouth, 
which is for the most part open. Between the vertex and 
costals there is again a large aperture covered by five valves. 
In Cryptocrinites Cerasus, intercostals are, moreover, situ- 
ated on the original five of the thorax, thus somewhat dis- 
turbing the regularity of the upper half; and there are also 
probably more than five assulae or plates on the vertex. The 
side on which the valvate aperture is situated is bulged out 
at all points ; the efibrt of the hidden arms to brealc through 
the sides is here evident. The size of these animals sel- 
dom exceeds that of a pea; the petiole which bears it has 
the thickness of a pin. Hitherto they have occurred solely 
in the hills near St. Petersburgh. 

16 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

III. — Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Ire- 
land. By Wm. Thompson, Vice-President of the Natural 
History Society of Belfast. 

On the subject of the Conchology of Ireland, three catalogues 
were published within a comparatively short period ; Dr. Tur- 
ton's in July 1816, in the ^Dublin Examiner, or Monthly Mis- 
cellany of Science, Literature and Art ;' Capt. Brown's in the 
second volume of the Wernerian Memoirs in 1818* ;, and in 
this same year a third appeared in the Appendix to Walsh 
and Whitelaw's History of Dublin, from the pen of M. J. 
O'Kelly, Esq. of that city. The species of land and fresh- 
water Mollusca enumerated in these three catalogues are much 
the same, and about fifty in number. In the subsequent 
works of Brown and Turton a few more species were added. 
To Bryce's ' Tables of Simple Minerals, Rocks and Shells,' 
found in three of the northern counties, published in 1831, 
Mr. Hyndman contributed two species hitherto unnoticed. 
In the London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine for 
1834 (p. 300.), about thirty additional species were made 
known by myself; in a paper entitled ^ Additions to the Fauna 
of Ireland,' pubhshed in the Annals for last March, I noticed 
a few more ; and in the present communication there are two 
species previously unrecorded. I shall here, for the sake of 
brevity, avoid entering into detail respecting any of the spe- 
cies thus alluded to, but shall correct in its proper place in 
the following paper, in so far as my information extends, 
every error, either of others or of my own. 

The order in which the genera and species appear in Mr. 
Gray's, edition of Turton's ^ Manual of the Land and Fresh- 
water Shells of the British Islands,' is adopted. 

Class 1. GASTEROPODA, Cuv, 
Order I. Phytophaga. 

Fam. 1. Neritid^. 
Gen. 1. Neritina, Lam. 
1. N . fluviatilis , Lam. Gray, Man. p. 83. pL 10. f. 124. 

Nerita fluviatilis, Mont. p. 470 ; Drap. p. 31. pL 1. f. 1 — 4. 

Is found in the east, west, and south of Ireland. The localities 

given by Capt. Brown are — " In a stream at Clonooney ; in the 

Shannon and Bresna ; and in some places of the canal adhering to 

stones," p. 532. In the vicinity of Dublin it occurs in the Grand 

• This catalogue was dated from Naas Barracks, Ireland, 20th August, 
1815, and read before the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh on the 16th of 
December in that year. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 17 

Canal ; at Lough Derg and Limerick it is found in the Shannon ; and 
in the county of Tipperary in some of the tributaries of this river ; and 
about Cork in the river Lee. The specimens which I possess from 
the Shannon and Grand Canal are identical vv^ith the N, jluviatilis 
represented by Rossmassler, and as distinguished from the N. Danu- 
bialis, N.strangulata* and N. transversalis . Icon. part. 2. p. 17, 18. 

pl. 7. 

Fam. 2. Paludinidje. 

Paludina, Lam. 

1. P. vivipara, Lam. Gray, Man. p. 90. pl. 10. f. 118. 

Cyclostoma viviparum, Drap. p. 34. pl. l.f. 16, 17. 

Helix vivipara, Mont. p. 386. 

In his ' Irish Testacea,' p. 527, Capt. Brown notices this species 
under the last-quoted name as found " in a stream near Newtown- 
ards, county of Down ; rare" — by a letter from this author I learn 
that he himself procured the shell in that locality. Mr. Gray (Man. 
p. 34.) incidentally notices Paludina achatina as an Irish species, but 
on inquiry from him he could not recollect from whom he had re- 
ceived the information. I have not seen undoubtedly native speci- 
mens either of P. vivipara or P. achatina. 

2. P. tentaculata, Flem. 

Helix tentaculata, Linn., Mont. p. 389. 

Bithinia tentaculata, Gray, Man. p. 93. pl. 10. f. 120. 

P. impura. Lam., Turt. Man. p. 134. f. 120. 

Cyclostoma impurum, Drap. p. 36. pl. 1. f. 19, 20. 

A common species throughout the island, generally approximating 
Draparnaud's var. f. 20. pl. 1. more nearly than his normal shell f. 19. 
I have on different occasions found the stomachs of Gillaroo Trout 
from Lough Neagh filled with this Paludina. 

Fam. 3. Valvatad^. 
Valvata, MuUcr. 
1. V. piscinalis, Lam. Gray, Man. p. 97. pl. 10. f. 114. 
Cyclostoma obtusum, Drap. p. 33. pl. 1. f. 14, 
Turbo fontinalis, Mont. p. 348. t. 22. f. 4. 

Common, and generally distributed over Ireland. Many of my 
middle-sized specimens correspond with PfeifFer's V. depressa, in so 
far as the figure and diagnostic description enable me to judge, PfeifF. 
part 1. p. 100. t. 4. f. 33. See Gray, Man. p. 98. This species is 
very variable in the degree of elevation of its spire, and consequently 
in its diameter relatively to its height. I have been favoured by 
Edward Waller, Esq. with specimens of this Valvata collected at 
Finnoe, county Tipperary, the volutions of which appear angular 
from being spirally cut, as they occasionally are in various species of 
Limneus, and the angles are marked with a white line. 

* Specimens from Carniola, named *' N. strangulata, Menke," by M. Mi- 
chaud, who favoured me with them, when compared with my N, Jluviatilis, 
fully bear this out. 

Ann, ^ Mag. Nat. Hist, Sept, 1840. c 

18 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

2. V. cristata, Mull., Gray, Man. p. 98. pi. 10. f. 115. 
Helix cristata, Mont. p. 460. vign. 1. f. 7, 8. 
Valvata spirorbis, Drap. p. 41. pi. 1. f. 32, 33. 

This handsomely formed species is distributed over the island. The 
Valv. Planorbis, Drap., noticed as Irish in Lond. and Edin. Phil. Mag. 
1834, p. 300, must be erased from the list. 

Order II. Pneumonobranchiata. 

Fam. 1. Arionid^. 
Arion, Ferus. 

1. A. ater, Gray, Man. p. 104. 

Limax ater, Linn. 
Arion empiricorum, Fer. 

This species, the common "black snail," is abundant throughout 
Ireland. Its varieties, A. rufus {Limax rufus, Linn.), and A. margi- 
natus, as remarked by Mr. Templeton, likewise occur. Under a co- 
loured drawing of the latter made by this naturalist is the remark, 
" common in fields about Cremorne, county Monaghan, August 4, 
1805." The yellow variety is likewise found in the north and south 
(Miss M. Ball). Under precisely the same circumstances of food 
and " habitation" I have met with the varieties above-mentioned. 
See Gray, Man. p. 105. 

2. A. hortensis, Fer. Gray, Man. p. 107. 

" Common at Cranmore (Belfast)," Templeton's MS. Coloured 
drawings of the variety of this or the preceding species, named ^. cir- 
cumscriptus by Dr. Johnston, were made by Mr. Templeton in 1808. 
To this I can only add, that the species is common throughout the 

Fam. 2. HELiciDiE. 

1. Limax, Fer. 

1. L. maximus, Linn. Gray, Man. p. 112. 

L. cinereus, Drap. 

This, the common " large grey slug," is equally abundant in 
north and south. In the stomach of the Song Thrush (Turdus mu- 
sicus), I have frequently found the shell of this species, the Limacella 
parma of Turton's Manual, after the animal, of which it had been 
part, had been entirely dissolved. I have procured similarly the shells 
of the smaller Limaces from the Blackbird {Turdus Merula). Either 
this or the next species is accused by Miss M. Ball of making its 
way into pantries and eating holes in bread. 

2. L.flavus, Linn. Gray, Man, p. 114. 

L. variegatus, Fer. Hist, de Moll. p. 71. pi. 5. f. 1 — 6. 

In Mr. R. Ball's collection are a number of these, which were 
brought by him from Youghal. In the north it has occurred to 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 19 

3. L. agrestis, Linn. Gray, Man. p. 117. 

This, the small rough yellowish species, is very common through- 
out the north, and I believe in Ireland generally. 

4. Limax 

The Rev. B. J. Clarke, of Merrion Square, Dublin, has favoured 
me with a coloured drawing and a description of a Limax which he 
has taken at La Bergerie, Queen's county, and describes to be '* black- 
ish-grey on the back, lighter underneath, with a sharp keel down the 
back proceeding from the shield." It may be the L. carinatiis. 
Leach, or L. gagates, Drap. ; but not having seen any specimens, I 
abstain from naming it even with a mark of doubt. 

2. VlTRINA. 

V.pellucida, Drap. p. 119. pi. 8. f. 36, 37. Gray, Man. p. 120. 
pi. 3. f. 21. 
Is in suitable localities distributed over Ireland, and may be found 
under the first stones we meet with in going inland from the sea- 
shore, up to as great an altitude in the mountain glens as there are 
moss and leaves to shelter it. I have remarked the colour both of 
animal and shell to vary, and the latter to present some differences 
in form. See Jeffreys on V. Mulleri and V. Draparnaldi in Lin- 
nsean Transactions, vol. xvi. When thin and of an almost crystal- 
line transparency, the shell is often more handsomely formed than 
when thicker and of a greenish colour, and is intermediate between 
the V. pellucida and V, diaphana, as represented by Draparnaud 
{pi. 8.) and Rossmassler (t. 1.) ; this state is equally common with 
the normal V. pelhcida ; of this, the animal is lighter in colour, and 
not so large compared with the shell as in the variety*. 

3. Testacella, Cuv. 

Testacellus haliotideus^ Fer. Gray, Man. p. 124. pi. 3. f. 19, 20. 
Testacella haliotidea, Drap. p. 121. pi. 8. f. 44, 45. 

This species was discovered many years ago by Mr. R. Ball in the 
town gardens at Youghal, where it has become much scarcer of late. 
The Irish specimens agree with English examples of the var. V. scu- 
tulum, with which I have been favoured by Mr. G. B. Sow^erby. 
Mr. Gray (Man. p. 123, 124.) seems to consider this a naturalized spe- 
cies, but the circumstance of its being found at Youghal speaks 
more strongly in favour of the T. haliotideus being a true native 
than that of its being met with in some of the gardens around 

* Most of the verjf numerous species of land mollusca which I find on the 
fallen leaves of trees are particularly partial to those of the Scotch elm {Ul- 
mus montana) ; when the large and rough leaves of this tree are mingled 
with those of the common forest or ornamental kinds, I have observed that 
about twenty specimens may be fonnd on them, for one on an equal propor- 
tion of any of the others. When the ground is saturated with moisture the 
cause of this preference is obvious, as the nerves of the leaves are so strongly 
developed, that when tlie under side is next the ground the membranous 
portion of the leaf between them remains quite dry. 

c 2 

20 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

London, to which it might much more readily have been in- 
troduced along with exotic plants. In a garden at Bandon, too, a 
Testacellus has been procured by Mr. G. J. AUman. The circum- 
stance of this species, indigenous to France and to the island of 
Guernsey, being found only in the south of England and Ireland, 
seems to me strongly in favour of its being equally indigenous to 
these countries. Mr. Ball, in reply to some questions, observes, " I 
first became aware of this Testacellus preying on worms by putting 
some of them in spirits, when they disgorged more of these animals 
than I thought they could possibly have contained ; each worm was 
cut (but not divided) at regular intervals. 1 afterwards caught them 
in the act of swallowing worms four and five times their own length. 
Some of these Testacelli, which I brought to Dublin and put in my 
fern house, produced young there." 

Testacellus Maugei is noticed by Dr. Turton (Manual, p. 28.) as 
found "in Ireland," but I have been unable to give any information 
respecting it, and these two words seem to me insufficient to esta- 
blish it either as an introduced species or otherwise. 

4. Helix. 

i. Helix aspersa. Mull. Gray, Man. p. 128. pi. 4. f. 35 ; Drap. p. 89. 
pi. 5. f. 22. ; Mont. p. 407. 

Although distributed over the four quarters of the island, this 
Helix is less generally met with than several other common species. 
In a well-cultivated and moderately wooded district near Belfast, 
stretching along the base of the mountains where chalk chiefly pre- 
vails, presenting different soils, especially clay and alluvium, and 
rising to an elevation of 500 feet above the sea, it is never found. 
Mr. Edward Waller, who has successfully investigated the Mollusca 
about Annahoe, county Tyrone, states that the H. aspersa is un- 
known there. It seems partial to the vicinity of the sea ; so much so, 
that about Ballantrae in Ayrshire, Scotland, I have remarked num- 
bers of them on rocks, subjected to the spray of the waves, which had 
bleached the portion of the shell thus exposed as white as it usually 
becomes in the progress of decay, although the animal inhabitants 
were all in the highest vigour. In the crannies of the ruined castles, 
which, like Dunluce, are based upon the summits of some of the high- 
est clifi^s washed by the sea in the north of Ireland, the H. aspersa is 

In one instance which may be mentioned, diff'erences of rocks, 
soil, or shelter will not explain the absence of this species from par- 
ticular localities. During a forenoon's walk on the marine sand- 
hills of Portrush and MacgilUgan (county of Londonderry), which 
are only a few miles apart, and present in every respect precisely 
the same appearance, I found the H. aspersa abundant at the for- 
mer, but at the latter wanting, and here the sand-hills are much 
more extensive than at Portrush. At the nearest sand-hills, again, 
on the coast to the east of the latter, and only a few miles distant, 
I did not during a short visit find the H. aspersa ; and here Helix 
virgata, which is not found at the other two localities, appeared, and 

Freshwater MoWuscsl of Freland. 21 

took the place of H. ericetorum, which is common to them ; here, 
too, and at Portrush, Bulimus acutus was present, though not so 
at MacgilHgan. On the 8th of June I once observed the H. aspersa 
in coitu, and with the spicula adhering (see Montagu in Test. 
Brit.) ; — these are half an inch in length, hollow, and broaden con- 
derably to the base. 

In the Magazine of Natural History, vol. v. p. 490, Mr. Denson 
states that in severe winters the H. aspersa is in the old botanic 
garden at Bury St. Edmunds eaten in quantity by the Norway rat ; 
a fact of which I some years ago had circumstantial evidence in the 
broken shells lying about the entrance to this animal's abode among 
heaps of stones in the Horticultural Society's garden at Chiswick, 

2. Helix hortensis. Lister. Gray, Man. p. 130. pi. 3. f. 24 ; Drap. 

p. 95. pi. 6. f. 6 ; Mont. p. 412. 

Although apparently not numerous anywhere, it would seem to be 
widely distributed in Ireland. To myselif it has occurred about Dub- 
lin, and at Portrush, along with H. nemoralis and H. hybrida ; has 
been obtained in the county Donegal ; at Moira and Newcastle, 
county Down ; King's County ; Kildare ; Tipperary ; and about the 
city of Cork. As some authors make the white lip and less size the 
only differences between this species and H. nemoralis, I was for 
some time in doubt whether it might not be a small variety of the 
latter, but was fully satisfied of its distinctness by finding both spe- 
cies plentifully in company at Dovedale (Derbyshire), when every 
individual in size, &c. maintained the respective characters of its 
species. The H. hortensis seems partial to limestone districts. 

3. Helix hybrida, Poiret. Gray, Man. p. 132. 

In July 1833 I obtained the handsome Helix, so designated by 
Mr. Gray, on the marine sand-hills at Portrush, near the Giant's 
Causeway, along with different varieties of H. nemoralis and a very 

* Helix Pomatia, Linn. The following observations of W. H. Harvey, 
Esq., communicated in a letter to me in January 1834, include all thatneed 
be said of this shell. " Dr. Turton, in his Conchological Dictionary, states 
that this species is mentioned by Dr. Rutty in his ' Natural History of the 
count)' of Dublin,' as not uncommon in his time. On referring to Dr. Rutty 's 
work I cannot find any such assertion. At p. 379. vol. i. he certainly ad- 
mits it in the following terms : ' Cochlea duplex primo terrestris, the ter- 
restrial snail, and particularly the house snail, which is thus distinguished 
by Lister ; Cochlea cinerea maxima edulis, cujus os operculo crasso gypseo 
per hyemem clauditur :' and then goes on to tell of its uses as food, the man- 
ner of cooking it, &c., but not one word about its habitat." 

The H. Pomatia has of late years been introduced from England to dif- 
ferent localities in Ireland, as Dalkey island, off the Dublin coast, Youghal, 
&c. In the autumn of 1834 I turned out a few individuals of this species 
and of Cyclostorna elegans on the chalk in the neighbourhood of Belfast, but 
they have not increased ; after a few months I could not find one of either 
species about the place. See Gray, Man. p. 35. 

22 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

few individuals of H. hortensis. When shown to Mr. Gray in the 
following spring he considered the specimens to be H. hyhrida. 
Judging from the shell alone, I should not be disposed to consider 
this Helix more than a variety of H. nemoralis, 

4. Helix nemoralis, Linn. Gray, Man. p. 132. pL 3. f. 23 ; Drap. 
p. 94. pi. 6. f. 3—5 ; Mont. p. 411. 

This Helix, presenting its endless and beautiful varieties in colour 
and the number and breadth of bands, is more commonly distributed 
over Ireland than any other species. When on the extensive rabbit 
warren or marine sand-hills at Portrush on the 10th of July 1833, I 
remarked it, together with H. aspersa, H. ericetorum, and//. Bulimus 
acutus, to be not only abundant, but huddled together in heaps v the 
animals were alive in all, and of the H. nemoralis several had the 
apertures closed up. Among the individuals of this species some 
were of the white-lipped variety, which has not uncommonly been 
mistaken for H. hortensis j others had tlie lip of a rose colour, mar- 
gined with white (/f. hyhrida) : the specimens, which were so nume- 
rous, that every variety of shade in the lip, from white to the darkest 
brown, could be traced, seem to prove that the colour of the lip no 
more than that of the shell is of any specific value. The absence of 
the Thrush genus (not an individual belonging to it could be seen 
on this occasion), of which some species feed very much on these mol- 
lusca, may be one cause of their being permitted to increase and 
multiply to such an extent. Considerably the largest specimens of 
H. nemoralis that I have collected were obtained in the South Islands 
of Arran off the coast of Clare. This species is generally noticed as 
inhabiting " woods and hedges," but to myself it has never occurred 
so abundantly in the vicinity of either wood or hedge (about which 
its enemies " most do congregate"), as entirely remote from them ; 
or among the debris of limestone or chalk cliffs and quarries, and 
on marine sand-hills. 

The Rev. R. Sheppard has observed in Suffolk that the plain co- 
loured, the single-banded, and the many-banded, do not mingle with 
each other in coitu, but that each is true to its banded or bandless 
mate. (Linn. Trans, vol. xiv. p. 163.) In Ireland those so differing 
have no such scruples ; such as I have seen in connexion and dis- 
playing each other's spicula or love-darts, have been very dissimilar 
in colour and markings ; they have so occurred to me from the 
middle of April to that of September. Mr. Hyndman once found a spi- 
culum of this species stuck through the leaf of a dandelion (^Leonto- 
don Taraxacum) ; if there be but the one use in this missile, it w^ould 
thus seem that the animal will occasionally miss its aim. 

A H. nemoralis of ordinary size which I found near Belfast, ex- 
hibits a prominent tooth where the basal margin joins the whorl. I 
have in the month of May detected the blackbird preying on this 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 23 

5. Helix arbustorum, Linn. Gray, Man. p. 137. pi. 3. f. 25 ; Drap. 

p. 88. pi. 5. f. 18 ; Mont. p. 413. 
This delicate and handsome species was noticed by Capt. Brown 
and Dr. Turton as having been found about Dublin ; at Killarney 
the Rev. Thomas Hincks of Cork informs me that it is met with ; 
but the north seems to be its more favourite abode : in suitable local- 
ities throughout the county of Antrim it prevails, as it likewise does 
in Down, but more sparingly. Of 147 specimens collected at the 
same time in the neighbourhood of Lame in the former county, all 
were of the ordinary state, or marked with the dark band (see Pfeiffer, 
tab. 2. f. 7.), except 12, which were of the variety in which the band 
is wanting, the spotting much paler, and the colour generally much 
lighter. (Pfeiff. tab. 2. f. 8.) Having collected this species in En- 
gland and Scotland as well as Ireland, I may observe that a certain 
degree of moisture and shelter have always seemed to be its desi- 
derata. At Dovedale in Derbyshire, and at Knockdolian in Ayrshire*, 
it occurred plentifully about moist limestone cliffs, and in the latter 
locality with little more than ferns (especially Cystea fragilis) to 
shelter it. In the north of Ireland I have met with it in shady woods 
in the lower grounds, and likewise in young plantations at a consi- 
derable elevation in the mountains, and where there was no more 
shade or moisture than the Luzula sylvatica requires. From its shell 
being so easily broken this animal is a favourite food of the thrush 
genus. (See Magazine of Zoology and Botany f, vol. ii. p. 436.) 

6. Helix pulchella, Mull. Gray, Man. p. 141. pi. 5. f. 49; Drap. 

p. 112. pi. 7. f.30— 34. 
H. paludosa, Mont. p. 440. H. crenella, Mont. p. 441. pi. 13. 
This species may more literally than most others be stated to be 
distributed over Ireland, for it is the verge of the sea that marks its 
boundary. Although occurring throughout the inland parts of the 
country, it seems especially to delight in the short pastures in the 
vicinity of the sea around the entire coast ; in some of the islets of 
Strangford Lough, too, I have in like manner observed it. 

The var. H. crenella, Mont, has been considered by some natu- 
ralists peculiar to damp situations ; but with this my observation 
does not accord, the beautiful ribbed variety being more frequent 
than the smooth state on the dry sea-banks of the North of Ire- 
land. Mr. E. Waller writes to me, with reference to Finnoe, county 

* At the Falls of Clyde Mr. Hyndman has collected specimens. 

t Helix lapicida, Linn. Gray, Man. p. 140. pi. 5. f. 51. Capt. Brown 
inadvertently noticed this species as found in the neighbourhood of Belfast 
by Dr. M'Donnell, p. 523, by whom I am informed that the specimens seen 
by that gentleman in his collection were English. In his Catalogue of Irish 
Shells, Dr. Turton says of this species, " found by Mrs. Travers of Belgrove, 
on the stone steps of her mansion at Cove;" — rather a suspicious habitat. 
The species has not occurred in Ireland either to myself or to any corre- 
spondent ; English specimens have in a living state been turned out in the 
neighbourhood of Limerick within the last year. 

64 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

Tipperary, " I have found both varieties of H. pulchella in high and 
and dry grounds as well as damp and low*." 

7. Helix fusca, Mont. p. 424. t. 13. f. 1 ; Gray, Man. p. 147t. pi. 4. 
f. 36. 

This handsome species was noticed by Turton as Irish, but merely 
in the words " woods in Dublin." (Conch. Diet. p. 61.) It is found 
in the north, east, west, and south, but in King's County and Tip- 
perary has not been met with by my correspondents. As this spe- 
cies, though widely distributed, is by no means common, the follow- 
ing habitats may be enumerated. Glens in the Belfast mountains 
and Drumnasole, county Antrim ; Florence Court, county Ferma- 
nagh, W. T. Altadawan, county Tyrone, Edward Waller, Esq. ; 
Kilruddery demesne, county Wicklow, T. W. Warren, Esq. ; Mo- 
nivea, county Galway, Rev. Benj. J. Clarke ; " near Limerick once,'* 
W. H. Harvey, Esq|. ; Youngrove near Youghal, Miss Ball ; Duns- 
combe Wood near Cork, Miss Hincks : in this locality the Rev. T. 
Hincks, who has supplied me with very fine specimens, remarks that 
it is abundant. The following notes are perhaps not irrelevantly 
introduced. Dec. 16, 1833. — Although several times before in Colin 
Glen near Belfast, in search of MoUusca, I today for the first time, 
in consequence of its somewhat peculiar haunts, obtained specimens 
of the H. fusca, and of them about two dozen. The ground was 
saturated with moisture, and they were all briskly traversing the 
rich green leaves of the Luzula sylvatica, and one or two other plants 
of similar foliage. The animal is much elongated, and moves about 
with considerably greater rapidity than any Helix I have seen ; its 
colour is uniform, but in different individuals varying from " wine- 
yellow" to blackish -grey§; tentaculaof the latter colour, the longer 
pair in the adult animal 2^ lines in length ; from their base a black 
line extends along the back for 3 lines. Dec. 10, 1837. — In Colin 
Glen today 1 obtained upwards of thirty of these Helices. The 
ground was wet, but there had been no rain in the preceding night, 
and consequently they were not found (with a very few exceptions) 
on the Luzula, but were instead lying sheltered and quiescent be- 

* Helix Cantiana, Mont. p. 422. pi. 13. f. 1 ; Gray, Man. p. 144. pi. 3. 
f. 26. , 

Is in Turton's catalogue of Irish Shells stated to have been found in 
"hedges and box borders about Dublin," and in his Conchological Dictio- 
nary " Cork" is noticed as a habitat. I have not seen Irish specimens of 
this Helix, nor is it known to any naturalist with whom I have communi- 
cated to have been ever found about Cork, Dublin, or elsewhere in Ireland. 
From the two localities just named I have seen specimens of H. virgata 
without bands, and coloured similarly to //. Cantiana, and being much de- 
pressed, closely approaching it in form ; they might thus possibly at a cur- 
sory view be passed over as immature individuals of this species. 

-f The two wood-cuts in this page are very characteristic. 

X From Mr. Harvey 1 have specimens which he collected at the Falls of 
Clyde, Lanarkshire ; near Ballantrae, Ayrshire, it has occurred to myself. 

§ On extracting the animals the shells were found to be all of the same 
amber hue. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 25 

neath masses of the fallen leaves of forest trees contiguous to that 
plant. About three o'clock, when it began to grow dusky, they com- 
menced stirring about on the green leaves of their favourite Luzula 
sylvatica, where in less than half an hour I procured a dozen of them. 
I have since occasionally seen this species on the stems of trees at 
a considerable height from the ground and in very dry weather. 

8. Helix fulva. Mull. Gray, Man. p. 148. pi. 5. f. 47; Drap. p. 81. 

pi. 7.f. 12, 13. 
H. trochiformis, Mont. p. 427. t. 11. f. 9. 

Although not common, is generally distributed over the island, 
and found in woods among fallen leaves and timber ; and under 
stones, &c. in various situations from the sea-side to the mountain. 
It seems rarely to occur in quantity, but once at Wolfhill near 
Belfast, I found thirty individuals congregated under one small 

The H. Mortoni, agreeing both in animal and shell with Mr. Jef- 
freys's description (Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. p. 332.) is obtained along 
with H. fulva, but has always seemed to me wanting in sufficient 
characters to render it a distinct species. That the animal of H. 
Mortoni is lighter coloured than that of H. fulva, is not of conse- 
quence, as the young of various Helices are lighter coloured than 
the adults. 

9. Helix aculeata. Mull. Gray, Man. 149. pi. 4. f. 33 ; Drap. p. 82. 

pi. 7. f. 10, 11. 
H. spinulosa, Mont. p. 429. t. 11. f. 10. 

Although the individuals of this Helix are generally but few in 
number where they do occur, the species is distributed over Ireland, 
and is found in moss, on fallen timber, under stones, &c. — out of 
•' woods " I have as frequently met with it as in them : high up the 
limestone mountain of Ben Bulben (county Sligo) I have obtained 
it, but nowhere in Ireland have seen so many specimens together as 
in the limestone debris at Feltrim Hill near Dublin. From the 
marine sand-hills at Miltown Malbay, on the western coast, Mr. W. 
H. Harvey has supplied me with a few specimens, noting the species 
at the same time as "very rare." Mr. T. W. Warren of Dublin in- 
forms me that early last winter he procured sixty individuals of this 
species on one occasion near Portmarnock (county Dublin) : some 
weeks previous to this time he found a few specimens at the place, 
and following the plan of the Rev. B. J. Clarke (see note to Helix 
lucida), he laid down sticks and stones that they might shelter under 
them, and with such success that he obtained this number. None of 
our Mollusca more than this requires the collector to be wide awake, 
else he may pass it by for a pellet of dirt or at least a seed. As one 
of the rarer species, it may be mentioned that out of Ireland I have 
found this shell at Dovedale, Derbyshire, the " dean" at Twizel 
House, Northumberland, and near Ballantrae in Ayrshire. 

26 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

10. Helix lamellata, Jeffreys. Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. p. 333 ; Gray, 
Man. p. 150. pi. 5. f. 48. 

H. scarburgensis, Bean. MS. Alder's Newc. Catal. p. 36 ; Tur- 
ton, Man. p. 62. 

This attractive species is vridely distributed in Ireland, and is 
found on the decaying leaves and fallen branches of trees, in moss, 
and under stones in shady and generally morst situations. I first 
met with it in Sept. 1833, in the Glen at Holywood House, county 
Down, and soon afterwards in various localities throughout this 
county and Antrim ; about O'Sullivan's cascade at the lower lake of 
Killarney, I had the gratification to find it in June 1834, and subse- 
quently in the Glen of the Downs, county Wicklow. By the Rev. 
B. J. Clarke it has been obtained at La Bergerie, Queen's county, 
and by the Rev. T. Hincks of Cork, at Dunscombe Wood near that 
city, and likewise at Ballinhassig Glen between Cork and Bandon. 
Mr. Hincks remarks that the species appears to be far from uncom- 
mon in that district. 

The following note relates to my most successful capture : April 
30, 1837. — In Colin Glen (near Belfast) during an hour's patient 
search today, I collected from amongst a mass of the dead leaves of 
trees contained within the area of a square foot, twenty- one full- 
grown individuals of Helix lamellata, and about half this number of 
younger specimens ; both shell and animals of these latter are lighter, 
coloured than the old, indeed almost hyaline, and the lamellse are 
apparent on the very youngest, which also exhibit the satin-like 
lustre of the adult. The mature animal is white beneath ; the ten- 
tacula, back and sides greyish black ; lower tentacula of moderate 
length, upper long and somewhat club-shaped. 

In Auchaime Glen near Ballantrae, Ayrshire, I obtained this spe- 
cies in August 1839. 

1 1 . Helix granulata, Alder, Mag. Zool. and Bot. vol. ii. p. 107 ; Gray, 

Man. p. 151. pi. 3. f. 29. 
H. hispida, Mont. p. 423. t. 23. f. 3. 
This would seem to be a very local species with us. By Mr. W. 
H. Harvey I was in 1838 supplied with specimens, accompanied by 
a note, stating that the species had occurred to him in "moist 
places, and the rejectamenta of streams about Limerick and Ballitore, 
(county Kildare)." At the same time Mr. Humphreys, of Cork, re- 
ported it to me as found, but not commonly, at " Belgrove demesne, 
east of Cove." 

12. Helix sericea, MuUer*. Gray, Man. p. 153. pi. 11. f. 134. 

In the rejectamenta of the river Lagan near Belfast, I have ob- 
tained specimens corresponding with those favoured me by Mr. Al- 
der under this name. This shell is, in general form, size of umbi- 
licus, &c. intermediate between H. hispida and H. granulata, but 

* According to Ferussac : see Alder, Mag. Zool. and Bot. vol. ii. p. 107. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland, 27 

hardly differs more from the ordinary state of H. hispida than the 
specimens of it common to the North of Ireland do, and which are 
considered by Mr. Alder and M. Michaud only varieties of the spe- 
cies bearing this name. I cannot look upon it otherwise than as a 
var. of H. hispida. 

13. Helix hispida. Mull. Gray, Man. p. 154.* pi. 4. f. 41 ; Turt. 
Man. p. 57. f. 41. 

This species is generally distributed over Ireland. It is one of the 
most common land shells in the North, and may be found under 
stones, fallen trees, decaying leaves, &c. from the sea- shore to the 
most elevated chalk districts, and both in moist and very dry situ- 
ations. It is most variable in colour; from beneath the same stone 
I have procured specimens varying from a crystalline transparency 
to dark reddish brown, and in these differences the animal partici- 
pates with the shell; like H. rufescens, Mont, and some other species, it 
occasionally presents a white band on the last volution ; in the very 
youngest state this species is hispid, and quite depressed or flat 
above. The internal rib, in what to distinguish it from H. con- 
cinna, may be called the normal state of H. hispida, which I find in 
the North is generally wanting ; on supplying Mr. Alder with spe- 
cimens of these in April 1836, he observed that they were the most 
strongly marked varieties he had seen ; and about the same time, 
M. Michaud, in acknowledging specimens I had sent him, remarked 
upon them as a very fine variety of H. hispida. The shells thus al- 
luded to are of the most common form in the North of Ireland ; and 
are larger, more depressed, and with the umbilicus comparatively 
wider than in specimens which I have found in various parts of En- 
gland and Scotland, and which are similar to those that under the 
name of H. hispida have been sent me from Newcastle by ]\Ir. Alder 
and from Lorraine t by M. Michaud ; specimens the same as the En- 
glish and French are likewise to be met with in the North of Ire- 
land, but are rare comparatively with the others. 

Note. — Sept. 17, 1837. On looking to the animals of full-grown 
specimens of this Helix collected at Wolf hill near Belfast, I could 
not perceive any difference between the inhabitants of the very his- 
pid shells wanting the internal rib, and those having the rib and dis- 
playing very few hairs — the animals are commonly pale grey above 
and whitish beneath ; in the very hispid shells they varied from this 
colour to black. 

14. Helix concinna, Jeff. Gray, Man. p. 154. pi. 12. f. 135. 

The shell alluded to under this name is that described by Mr. 
Alder, as " stronger, and with the hairs more deciduous than the 
usual form [of //. hispida']," Mag. Zool. and Bot. vol. ii. 107, and 
which I would add is generally more convex, and has an internal rib, 

* The four wood-cuts in this page are very characteristic, 
t The specimens, eight in number, from this locality, want the internal 

28 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

which in H. hispida, at least as I find it in the North of Ireland, is 
more often wanting than present. It commonly in Ireland takes the 
place of H. rufescens, Mont, where this is not found, as it has been 
remarked by Mr. Alder to do in England. In the northern half of 
the island it prevails abundantly ; and as the H. rufescens decreases 
northwards, so does the H. concinna southwards ; from extreme east 
to west they both range : in the central parts of the country, where 
both occur, they retain their distinctive characters, the H. concinna 
being smaller, more convex, and darker in colour than its ally. 

Specimens of H. concinna from the neighbourhood of Bristol, 
favoured me by Mr. Jeffreys, are, as he now considers, certainly no- 
thing more than H. hispida, and in its ordinary depressed form ; still 
the typical specimens of these two Helices are very distinct in ap- 
pearance, but through their varieties would almost seem to unite. 

"■ Helix circinata, Fer.'"' 

I cannot perceive any difference between some of my North of 
Ireland specimens of H. concinna, when completely denuded of their 
hairs, and a shell so named, which I owe to the kindness of Mr. Alder. 

15. Helix rufescens, *'Penn." Mont. p. 420. t. 23. f. 2 ; Gray, p. 

156. pi. 3. f. 28. 
H. glabella, Drap. p. 102. pi. 7. f. 6. 

This species is common to the southern two-thirds of the island : 
as far north as Banbridge in the county of Down it has been found. 

16. Helix Pisana, Mull. Gray, Man. p. 158. pi. 4. f. 30. 
H. cingenda, Mont. p. 418. t. 24. f. 4. 

H. rhodostoma, Drap. p. 86. pi. 5. f. 13 — 15. 

This fine and local species was first noticed as Irish in Turton's 
Catalogue (p. 8.), from specimens collected at " Balbriggan Strand," 
or as more correctly given by their discoverer M. J. O'Kelly, Esq. 
in the edition of Pennant's British Zoology, published in Dublin in 
1818, "near Balbriggan, on the county Meath side of the stream 
that divides this county from Dublin," vol. iv. p. 369. By Mr. 
O'Kelly and Mr. T. W. Warren I have been favoured with speci- 
mens of H. Pisana from this locality. My friend R. Callwell, Esq. 
of Dublin, informs me that this species has been found at another, 
though not far distant station, by Mr. Joseph Humphreys, on the 
north side of the river Boyne, three miles east of Drogheda, and ten 
north of Balbriggan. 

17. Helix virgata, Mont. p. 415. t. 24. f. 1 ; Gray, Man. p. 160. 

pi. 4. f. 31. 
H. variabilis, Drap. p. 84. pi. 5. f. 11. 12. 

In the north, east and south this species is found, but in the west 
I am not aware of its presence. It is a local species, occurs on the 
marine sand-hills at Ballycaslle, in the north of the county Antrim ; 
Dundalk (county Louth) ; Dublin, Wicklow, Youghal, and Cork ; 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland, 29 

and at the inland localities of La Bergerie, near Portarlington and 
Ballitore (county Kildare). H. virgata is one of the species which 
seems to follow no rule in the choice of its ahode or in that of its 
associates, or rather whose absence from or presence in particular 
districts cannot be accounted for ; it will be abundant on sea-banks 
at one place, and for a hundred miles again will not appear in similar 
localities. Some authors have remarked, from their own accurate 
observation in particular localities, that it is never found with H. eri- 
cetorum ; and Mr. W. H. Harvey, in supplying me with notes of four 
inland and marine stations in which he had observed it, remarked, 
" I have noticed that this species is never found mixed with H. eri- 
cetorum, nor is it generally in the same neighbourhood;" yet not 
very far distant from one of those alluded to, both species are found 
in company*, and on the same plant. 

In the collection of T. W. Warren, Esq. of Dublin, is a very fine 
series from one locality, Portmarnockf, presenting every variety of 
colour and bands that I have seen described, from the hyaline and 
opake white to the darkest brown. H. ericetorum has in similar va- 
riety been procured by this excellent and indefatigable collector at 
the same place, and H. Pisana, likewise differing, he possesses from 
its not far distant station : — one of the most beautiful of these three 
species is opake white wdth hyaline bands. At La Bergerie, near 
Portarlington, Mrs. Patterson of Belfast obtained a specimen of H. 
virgata, which both in form and colour bears a rude resemblance to 
the Helix eleguns of Brown. 

18. Helix caperata, Mont. p. 430. t. 11. f. 11 ; Gray, Man. p. 162. 
pi. 4. f. 32. 

H. striata, Drap. p. 106. pi. 6. f. 18—21. 

In Brown's " Irish Testacea" this species was noticed to be " not 
uncommon at Naas on mud walls," p. 526; and "Bullock ir^ Ire- 
land," was given by Dr. Turton as a habitat. (Conch. Diet. p. 51.) 
The H. caperata is in Ireland a very local species, is found in the 
southern half of the island, and appears to be plentiful where it does 
occur. From W. H. Harvey, Esq. I had specimens in 1833, which 
were collected by him at Glanmire near Cork; on "dry banks at 
Kilkee Castle near Ballitore, county Kildare," he had likewise pro- 
cured the species. At Kingstown near Dublin, contiguous to Dr. 
Turton's station, it has been collected by Mr. Warren. At La Ber- 
gerie (Queen's county) it was a few years ago obtained in abundance 
by Mrs. Patterson of Belfast. Among the specimens brought from 
this locality (and presenting gradations in colour from the ordinary 
state to that of being almost wholly of a deep reddish brown) was one 
shell entirely of a pale amber colour, and transparent, the fine and 

* Montagu mentions their so occurring. 

f In Mr. il. Ball's cabinet, and collected by him here off a single plant 
of Beta maritima, are specimens of a pure white colour, others of a uniform 
dark chocolate brown, in addition to the more common state, white with 
brown bands and the reverse. 

30 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

regular striae rendering it very beautiful. Here, in addition to this 
species, H. ericetorum and H. virgata were found by Mrs. Patterson, 
and were abundant on the same plant, the H. caperata being the 
most plentiful. 

The distribution of H. caperata seems rather anomalous ; it is un- 
known to me in the North of Ireland, but on the walls of the houses 
in Portpatrick, one of the nearest parts of Scotland to this country, I 
have remarked it ; about Ballantrae in Ayrshire it has not occurred 
to me ; at the base of the cliffs at Salisbury Craigs near EdinburgJ}, 
I in 1834 procured it in abundance. 

19. Helix ericetorum, Mull. Mont. p. 437. t. 24. f. 2 ; Gray, Man. 

p. 163. pi. 4. f. 37. 
H. cespitum, /3. Drap. p. 109. pi. 6. f. 16, 17. 

This Helix differs from its nearest British alHes, H. virgata, H. 
Pisana and H. caperata, in being pretty generally diffused over Ire- 
land and the adjacent islands ; most of the marine sand-banks around 
the coast claim it, but H. virgata in some places appears to its ex- 
clusion ; it likewise affects the most inland localities, from one of 
which, near Portarlington, I have specimens so large as 9 lines in 
diameter. An exception to the more ordinary places of its occur- 
rence may be mentioned ; the ruins of Dunluce Castle, situated on 
the summit of an insulated mass of rock, considerably elevated above 
the sea. In localities in the north, but a few miles distant, and in 
every respect i)resenting a similar appearance, I have remarked the 
specimens in the one to be without exception either uniform in colour 
or very faintly banded, and in the other not one to be of an uniform 
colour, but all banded, and almost every individual darkly so. Dra- 
parnaud's H. cespitum, /3. jdI. 6. f. 15, 17., and Pfeiffer's H. cespitum, 
taf. 2, f. 24. and /3. f. 25., are all very characteristic figures of our 
H. ericetorum, as is Rossmassler's var. f. 516. This author's H. eri- 
cetorum, f. 517. a. and b. likewise represent it. My fr'end Mr. E. 
Forbes informs me that in the Museum at the Jardin des Plantes, 
Paris, he in 1838 saw a young shell of this species marked " H. re- 
velata, Belfast," and as presented by M. Michaud ; it is doubtless 
one of a series of specimens, which, considering them to be H. erice- 
torum, I had the ])leasure of sending to this naturalist some time 

Mr. O'Kelly of Dublin, to whom the shell belongs that was de- 
scribed and figured by Capt. Brown in the Wernerian Memoirs as 
Helix elegans, and in his "Illustrations," &c. as Carocolla elegans, 
always considered it as an extraordinary state only of H. ericetorum, 
and as such noticed it in the Dublin edition of Pennant's Brit. Zool. 
vol. iv. p. 368. ed. 1818. To the same specimen Dr. Turton ap- 
plied the term Helix disjuncta. Conch. Diet. p. 61. f. 63. ; in his 
Manual (p. 40.) this author places it under H. virgata. See also 
Gray, Man. p. 161. 

20. Helix rotundata. Mull. Drap. p. 114. pi. 8. f. 4 — 7. 

Zonites rotundatus. Gray, Man. p. 165. pi. 5. f. 44. 
Helix radiata, Mont. p. 432. t. 24. f. 3. 

Freshwater MoUusca of Ireland. 31 

This very distinct and handsome species, both in form and colour, 
is common and universally distributed in Ireland. It affects situ- 
ations varying from very dry to very wet, and may be found on 
rocks, under stones, fallen leaves, &c., but seems rather to show a 
predilection for decaying wood. I have more than once detected the 
H. rotundata in company with Limaces banqueting on some of the 
larger Fungi. 

Specimens presenting much convexity are unfrequent, but in 
Shane's Castle Park (county Antrim) a full-grown one has occurred 
to me, whose height was equal to its diameter. At Holywood House 
(county Down) I once obtained two specimens of the beautiful 
crystalline variety. The young of this species differ very much in 
form from the adult, in being quite flat above and very convex be- 
neath. In the stomach of a Blackbird (Turdus Merula), I once found 
ten full-sized specimens of this shell, in addition to five of Achat ina 

21. Helix umhilicata, Mont. p. 434. 1. 13. f. 2. 

Zonites umbilicatus, Gray^ Man. p. \Q6. pi. 5. f. 45. 

Helix rupestris, Drap. p. 82. pi. 7. f. 7 — 9 ; Turt. Man. p. 60. 
Is commonly distributed throughout the southern three-fourths 
of Ireland, more especially over the great limestone belt which tra- 
verses the country : — " at its eastern commencement near Dublin, 
and at its extreme western verge, where it dips into the ocean" in 
the South Islands of Arran, I have found it in equal abundance. 
This Helix attaches itself more to one kind of rock limestone than 
any species hitherto treated of. With reference to what Montagu 
says of its habits, it may be remarked that I have commonly col- 
lected specimens on limestone debris resting on the ground and on 
loose stone walls or dykes. I have not seen any Irish specimens 
agreeing with Draparnaud's figure in tapering to the apex* ; but all 
were of his var. "/3. testa subdepressa, umbilico latiore." Mr. 
Gray's figure, as above quoted, is characteristic of this form ; in 
the 1st ed. of Turton's Manual the other form was given. It is 
Drap. var. /3. only that Mr. Jeffreys quotes (Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. 
p. 343.), ^nd it is this which Montagu describes ; his figure does not 
well represent either form. 

22. Helix pygmaea, Drap. p. 114. pi. 8. f. 8—10; Turt. Man. p. 61. 

f. 46. 

Zonites pygmaeus. Gray, Man. p. 167. pi. 5. f. 46. 
This species, so interesting from its minuteness, is indigenous to 
the more northern two-thirds of Ireland from east to west, and 
doubtless will be found by him who searches properly for it in the 
south. It is partial to shade and moisture, under stones in pastures 
may be procured, but is most readily and frequently obtained on fallen 
leaves, &c. in plantations. Since the MoUusca first claimed my 

* Draparnaud's figure is very characteristic of specimens sent me from 
France by M. Michaud. 

32 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

attention in 1832, this Helix has occurred to me in very numerous 
localities throughout the counties of Down and Antrim, in the 
county of Londonderry, and in the glen of the Downs in Wicklow. 
By Mr. Harvey it was sparingly found several years ago on the ma- 
rine sand-hills at Miltown Malbay (county Clare) ; more latterly by 
Mr. E. Waller of Dublin, at Annahoe (county Tyrone), and by the 
Rev. B. J. Clarke, near Portarlington (Queen's county). At Twizel 
House, Northumberland, and Ballantrae, Ayrshire, I have collected 
this species. Draparnaud's description and figure of H. pygmaea 
are most characteristic. 

23. Helix alliaria, Miller. Turt. Man. p. 56. f. 39. 

Zonites alliarius. Gray, Man. p. 168. pi. 4. f. 39. 

Although not an abundant species anywhere, is generally distri- 
buted over Ireland and her islands. From under stones at the sea- 
side to a great elevation on the mountains, — as near the summit of 
Divis, the highest of the Belfast chain — of Altavanagh, one of the 
mountains of Mourne in Down, and of Ben Bulben in Sligo, 1 have 
met with it — all situations, from the exposed sea-shore and mountain 
side to the umbrageous wood, seem alike to it. A greenish white 
variety, and the shell strong, is much more common in Ireland than 
the yellow, which is ranked the ordinary state : from under the same 
stone I have procured specimens of both colours. The animal is 
blackish. M. Michaud remarked, on acknowledging Irish specimens 
from me, that they were H. nitida, Drap., junior. 

24. Helix cellaria, Mull. 

Zonites cellarius. Gray, Man. p 170. pi. 4. f. 40. 
Helix nitida, Drap. p. 117. pi. 8. f. 23—25. 

Is common, and distributed over Ireland. It has a predilection for 
wet situations, and even from the bottom of drains, partially co- 
vered with water, some of my largest specimens were procured in 
the north ; the very largest Irish specimens — 7| lines in diameter — 
I have seen were found in drains within the city of Dublin, by Mr. 
T. W. Warren, to whom I am indebted for them. From the sto- 
machs of the Blackbird and Starling I have taken perfect specimens 
of this shell. 

25. Helix pur a. Alder. Turt. Man. p. 59. 
Zonites purus. Gray, Man. p. 171. pi. 4. f. 43. 

Is distributed over Ireland ; it is usually found in moss, under 
stones, &c., in sheltered situations, but on sea-side pastures likewise 
I have met with it. The yellowish horn-coloured variety has in all 
parts of the country occurred to me more commonly than the hya- 
line shell : the closely set, regular, and fine striae render recent shells 
of this species very beautiful. M. Michaud, on acknowledging Irish 
specimens of H. pura, observed that they were H. nitidula, Drap. 

26. Helix nitidula, Drap.* 

Zonites nitidulus, Gray, Man. p. 172. pi. 12. f. 136. 
• According to Mr. Alder. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 33 

This species, most characteristically described by Mr. Alder (Newc. 
Trans, v. 1. p. 38.), is common, and generally distributed over Ire- 
land. In the north I have found it chiefly among mosses in glens 
and sheltered places. From two localities in this country I have seen 
Helices of crystalline transparency, and in form intermediate be- 
tween H. nitidula and H. alliaria. 

27. Helix radiatula, Alder. 

Zonites radiatulus. Gray, Man. p. 173. pi. 12. f. 137*. 
This polished and well-marked species at every age — for when 
very young the regular and strongly marked striae serve to distin- 
guish it — has since 1832 occurred to me in the county of London- 
derry, in the neighbourhood of Dublin, and in very numerous locali- 
ties throughout Down and Antrim. I have seen specimens which 
were collected at Annahoe (county Tyrone), by Edward Waller, Esq. ; 
at La Bergerie (Queen's county), by Mrs. Patterson and the Rev. B. 
J. Clarke ; and in the neighbourhood of Cork, by Miss Hincks. In 
the North of Ireland the transparent greenish white var. H. vitrina, 
Fer., as often occurs as the deep yellowish horn-coloured shell. 
That this Helix is more widely distributed in this country than 
would appear from the above notes, I have no doubt. At Dovedale 
in Derbyshire, and Ballantrae in Ayrshire, I have met with it, 
and by W. H. Harvey, Esq. have been favoured with specimens 
which he collected at the Falls of Clyde in 1832. In moist spots, 
in the wildest and bleakest localities, as well as in " woods," I have 
procured it. In the stomachs of four out of seven Starlings (Sturnus 
vulgaris) brought to a bird-preserver in Belfast at different periods 
during one winter, I found specimens of this shell, of which some 
were very fine and perfect. M. Michaud, when acknowledging spe- 
cimens which I sent him, remarked that they were a var. of H. ni- 
tidula, Drap. 

28. Helix lucida, Drap. p. 103. pi. 8. f. 11, 12. 

Zonites lucidus. Gray, Man. p. 174. pi. 4. f. 38. and wood-cuts, 
p. 175t. 

The H. lucida, described and figured by Draparnaud, and charac- 
terized by Mr. Alder in the Transactions of the Natural History So- 
ciety of Newcastle (vol. i. part 1. p. 38), appears to be in Ireland, as 
in England, according to the latter author, " rare," and rather a lo- 
cal species. In the rejectamenta of the rivers Lagan and Blackwater, 
near Belfast, I in 1833 obtained a few individuals, and in Kilmegan 
bog (county Down) have since procured a series containing the living 
animal. I have seen specimens which were collected near Portar- 
lington by the Rev. B. J. Clarke J, and at Finnoe, in the north of 

* The form is well represented here. 

t Figm-es are hardly sufficient to enable us to determine this and some of 
the closely allied species from each other ; actual comparison of specimens 
is almost requisite to ensure certainty. 

I In a letter dated November 24, 1838, Mr. Clarke observed, in sending 
me specimens of H. lucida, " It is only under one stone I ever got this shell : 

Ann. ^ Mag. Net. Hist, Sept. 1 840. d 

34 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of Irish Molhisca, 

Tipperary, by E. Waller, Esq. Ours differ in no respect from En- 
glish specimens supplied me by Mr. Alder, and are identical with 
specimens from Dauphiny, marked *' H. lucida, Drap." by M. Mi- 
chaud, to whom I am indebted for them. 

29. Helix excavata, Bean, Alder. 

Zonites excavatus. Gray, Man. p. 175. 

Of this handsome shell I have yet seen but a single Irish specimen, 
which was obtained at Dunscombe Wood, near Cork, by Miss King 
of that city. On being shown to the Rev. T. Hincks, he at once 
identified it with H. excavata, and, with the kind permission of the 
owner, sent it to Belfast for my inspection ; it in all respects agrees 
with English specimens of this Helix favoured me by Mr. Jeffreys 
and Mr. Alder. 

30. Helix crystallina, Drap. p. 118. pi. 8. f. 13 — 18; Turt. Man. 

p. 58. f. 42. 

Zonites crystallinus. Gray, Man. p. 176. pi. 4. f. 42. 

Is generally distributed in Ireland, occurring in moss, under 
stones, upon decaying wood, &c., in dry and wet situations, though 
in the latter more frequently. Some adult specimens which I have 
collected have had but 3^ volutions instead of 4^ or 5, the ordinary 
number. Extensively as I have collected this Helix in Ireland, none 
but dead specimens would come under Draparnaud's var. ** /3 eburnea 
subopaca." The animal is of a white colour. 

Mr. Alder's views in reference to the last eight species (^Hyalina, 
Fer.), are here adopted ; but even the British species and their va- 
rieties belonging to this division seem not yet to be satisfactorily 
cleared up. The application of the same name too, by British and 
continental authors to different species, adds much to the confusion. 
Ireland possesses all the British species as distinguished by Mr. 
Alder, viz. H. cellaria, H. nitidula, H. lucida, H. excavata, H. alli- 
aria, H. radiatula, H. pura, H. crystallina. Rossmassler's H. nitens, 
f. 524 and 525, are very characteristic representations of shells I pos- 
sess from different parts of Ireland, and with his H. glabra, f. 528, 
so far as a figure and diagnostic description will suffice for judg- 
ment, I have specimens identical. 

on leaving it undisturbed for about a fortnight I generally find one or two 
specimens under it. The field is marshy ; and here I also find Vertigo palus- 
tris, but only within the space of a few square yards of the most marshy part. 
A little higher up, in the same field, Vertigo pygmcea is obtained. On going 
my rounds about once a fortnight, I procure a fresh crop of specimens of all 
three species from each spot !" 

[To be continued.] 

Dr. M. J. Schleiden on Spiral Formations, 35 

IV. — Observations on Spiral Formations in the Cells of Plants, 
By Dr. M. J. Schleiden, Professor of Botany in the Uni- 
versity of Jena*. 

[With a Plate.] 

The first discoverer of spiral vessels, it matters not whether 
Henshaw, Malpighi, or Grew, was without doubt astonish- 
ed in the highest degree by their elegant tissue; and the 
more he became acquainted with them, the more varied the 
forms unfolded before the eyes of the ingenious observer, the 
more eagerly attention must have been directed to this appa- 
rently so remarkable formation. Thence it happened that, 
although not agreed respecting the kind and manner, a 
higher import with regard to vegetable life was generally 
assigned to these parts in opposition to the cellular tissue. 

It was soon, however, found necessary to place the annular 
and porous vessels by the side of the spiral vessels ; and not 
relying on the observation of actual facts, but chiefly induced 
by their representative occurrence in similar or analogous 
parts, and misled by a false explanation of that actually ob- 
served. Link assumed the metamorphosis of these forma- 
tions into one another, without, however, at the time ex- 
pressing decidedly whether an ideal or real metamorphosis 
was intended. How far, then, this was from a correct compre- 
hension of the matter, is shown by his subsequent writings 
and annexed illustrations, in which he still explained the 
fibres as the thinner places, and the elongated pores as re- 
mains of the thicker fibres, a view which he still entertained 
in 1831, with the greatest confidence, for the porous vessels. 
A view differing much from Link's, but quite as erroneous, was 
supported by Kieser ; and even Meyen, in his ' Phytotomie,' 
declared the pores to be the remains of torn spiral fibre. 

What, on the other hand, is at present understood by the 
word metamorphosis of the spiral vessels, has nothing in 
common with the earlier views, except the name retained for 
convenience sake; and by this alone Meyen seems to be 
misled, when in his Physiology (p. 139) he ascribes to Link 
the merit of having first decidedly advanced this doctrine. 
This is the more evident, as Link himself, in his latest edi- 
tion of the ' Philosophia Botanica,' is still far from compre- 
hending all the facts belonging to this subject, and compri- 
sing them under a correct point of view. 

If we at present express the fundamental conception of 
this doctrine thus : ^^ The thickening layers deposited on the 

* Translated from the Flora, No. 21 and 22. June, 1839. 

D 2 

36 Dr. M. J. Schleiden's Observations on 

primary simple cellular membrane have^ on their first appear- 
ance, everywhere as a foundation an arrangement in a spiral 
band (or fibre) which becomes more or less distinct in various 
ways ; and from this fundamental form are variously evolved 
all the numerous modifications of the so-called vascular and 
cellular walls, without, however, the one being to be regarded 
as a transitory stage of the other ;'^ — then we must undoubt- 
edly ascribe to Valentin {Repertorium, Part I.) the merit of 
having first advanced this doctrine in all its generality. 

For along with those theories, observation had pursued 
her quiet course, and had found the porous and spiral forma- 
tions in the cellular tissue also, and had gradually extended 
her discoveries so far, that at present it would perhaps be diffi- 
cult, at least in the Phanerogamia, to point out any consider- 
able masses of completely developed cellular tissue which do 
not manifest distinct traces of these textures. 

I will here give a brief view of this doctrine from inquiries 
of my own, in which I lay claim to nothing new, more than 
those acquainted with the subject will ascribe to me ; but, on 
the other hand, I dispense with the trouble of everywhere 
enumerating my authorities. 

The cells of plants, including the so-called vessels, but 
with the exclusion of the laticiferous vessels*, the reducing 
of which to cells is still not at all clear to me, allow of 
two periods being distinguished in their life. In the first, 
that of their origin and isolated independent development, 
the membrane forming them grows, in its entire substance, 
by true intussusception. But as soon as the cells have ad- 
hered to form the cellular tissue and constitute the mass of a 
certain plant or its parts, this mode of growth either ceases 
entirely, or recedes so far into the background, that, from my 
observations up to the present time, I cannot venture to 
maintain its continuance ; but neither can I deny it on 
account of the frequently very considerable expansion of the 
cells after the appearance of the succeeding formations. But 
in every case at present a new and by far predominant mo- 
mentum is added, viz. that a new layer is deposited on the 
inner surface of the cellular wall, and indeed everywhere, in 
the form of one or more spiral closely wound bands, so that 
the coils, without continuity inter se, still mostly exhibit the 
completest contiguity. From personal observations, which, 
however, are still too imperfect to be detailed here, I think I 
may venture to conclude that originally there are always at 

* Moreover, the okl milk vessels of the leafless Eupkorbice exhibit a com- 
position of layers and spiral stripes exactly as the cells of the liher in the 

Spiral Formations in the Cells of Plants. 37 

least two such bands present*, whose extremities at the end 
of the cells pass into one another, and in most cases, even 
very early, cohere inter se to a single one. 

Hence, then, proceed all the varied formations of the cells 
and vascular walls, according to the different influence of the 
following momenta. 

A. The most essential circumstance, in my opinion, upon 
which is also founded the division of all these textures into 
two large principal groups, that of the Spiroidea (I borrow 
this expression, which is very useful, from Link), and that of 
the porous formations, is the following : 

Either the cell has, at the time when the thickening of its 
wall by spiral deposition commences, already attained its 
complete expansion, or not. 

1. Let us, in the first place, consider the latter case. Here, 
then, a second momentum becomes of importance ; it is the 
cohesion both of the fibre and the cellular wall, and of the coils 
of the fibre inter se ; at the same time, therefore, the number 
of fibres is likewise of value. 

a. Simple fibre (double in the sense above stated). The 
cell still expands considerably from the instant of its origin ; 
some convolutions cohere early, others tear asunder : annular 
vessels (of which a more detailed description bt,lo^\} In this 
case the fibre is generally not at all, or but loosely united with 
the cellular membrane. 

b. Simple or compound fibre, a still rather considerable 
expansion of the cell, slight, or no cohesion with the cellular 
membrane : spiral vessels with broad convolutions, capable of 

c. Simple or compound fibre, extremely slight expansion 
of the cellular membrane, generally intimate cohesion with it : 
narrowly wound spiral vessels cap)ahle of unrolling, false tra- 
chece, and in part the striped and scalariform vessels of older 

d. Compound fibre, moderate expansion of the cell, cohe- 
sion in some places of the convolutions inter se, generally 
also with the cellular membrane : the whole series of the 
forms of the so-called ramified spiral vessels to the reticulate. 
Hereto likewise belong a portion of the striped and scalari- 
form vessels of the older WTiters. 

In these last, as well as in all the preceding, the law, that 
the more intimately the fibre coheres with the cellular mem^ 
brane, the less this can expand, appears to obtain. 

• Corresponding to an ascending and descending current of the mucous 
formative substance. 

38 Dr. M. J. Schleiden's Observations on 

II. But if the cell has, at the time when the spiral deposi- 
tions have begun to form, already attained its complete ex- 
pansion, a new and highly remarkable circumstance comes 
into action, — namely, that the formation of air- vesicles on the 
outer wall of the cell, between it and the adjacent ones, pre- 
cedes the origin of the depositions ; and the convolutions 
forming, closely lying one upon another, and in most cases 
rapidly cohering inter se, separate from one another cleft- wise 
at the place which internally corresponds to those air-vesi- 
cles. Since this process can be followed very far, and can- 
not, merely on account of the minuteness of the parts, be 
followed in several otherwise exactly similar formations, sound 
analogy ad\dses us to extend it to all porous textures. This 
in general merely narrow slit, is often rounded by deposited 
formative substance, on which account the pore* appears the 
rounder the more the cell is developed ; the longer, but more 
cleft-wise, the younger it is. Now to this division belong all 
porous cells and vessels, and likewise a portion of the earlier 
striped and scalari/orm vessels, which then only differ from 
those called porous by the length of the fissure of the pore. 

B. A further momentum, which will here be but briefly 
noticed is, on the one hand, the form of the cell in the vari- 
ous intermediate stages between the two extremes of the 
small globular, and the much extended in length, in combi- 
nation with an actual perforation of the primary membrane 
by absorption. To this head belong several formations, first 
indicated by Moldenhauer, and then correctly and fully de- 
scribed by Mohl, for instance, the leaf-cells of Sphagnum. 
But hereto more especially belong the difference between 
cellular tissue and so-called vessels, the latter being nothing 
more than cylindrical cells, generally situated in the same 
direction, with the terminal surfaces on one another, the 
septa of which are perforated in the most varied manner by 

C. By far more important, however, is the following. 
Namely, in the vital process of the cell, spiral deposits are by 
no means at an end with the first layer ; but they are repeated 
in many cases, almost as frequently as the volume of the cell 
permits. The rule then is, that the successive strata arrange 
themselves entirely according to the first, be this modified by 
the above-mentioned influences as it may, so that the places 
of the cellular wall not covered by the first deposit likewise 
remain free from all the succeeding ones. In this class is com- 

* We have here omitted a note, which relates merely to the employment 
of Tiifel for Pore.-— Edit. 

spiral Formations in the Cells of Plants, 39 

prised the thickening of the annular and spiral fibres to such 
a degree that they appear as plates, which are placed with 
their narrow edge on the cellular wall ; for instance, in the 
Sphagnum-ceW^, in the ligneous cells of the MammillaruB, &c. 
Hereto also belong all the porous cells, with septa thickened in 
a stratified manner, for the knowledge of which we are chiefly 
indebted to Mohl. 

But we are now already acquainted with some interesting 
exceptions to this rule, namely, that after the first spiral 
deposit has been altered by the expansion of the cell, a 
new layer is deposited on the entire inner surface, on fibre 
and on primary cellular membrane without distinction ; but 
since this second layer stands in a different relation to the 
primary cellular membrane from the first, it also must, ac- 
cording to what has been above stated, adopt a different 
form, viz. the porous. These formations of distant fibres, 
between whose convolutions pores are found, are exhibited, in 
fact, by a number of dicotyledonous ligneous cells, especially 
of such plants as are subject to the strong antagonism of the 
period of vegetation and of winter sleep. Thus, for instance, 
Taxus baccata, Tilia europaa, Prunus Padus, &c. An allied 
phaenomenon is also found in the epidermis of the pericarp of 
Helleborus fcetidus. 

The most important of these views I had already expressed 
in my memoir, '^ Contributions to our Knowledge of Phyto- 
genesis,^^ in ^ Miiller's Archiv. flir Physiologic,^ 1838*. 

But recently have I been able to take in hand MohPs 
" Memoir on the Structure of the Vegetable Cellular Mem- 
brane'^t, (Tubingen, September, 1837) ; and I found, to my 
very great joy, that we entirely agree in two important 
points : first, in maintaining against Meyen, that every indi- 
cation of a spiral, fibrous, or porous structure, is a certain 
proof that we have no longer to do w^ith the original simple 
cellular membrane ; and next, in his position : ^' Fibre and 
membrane differ merely by their size, and by the form in 
which they occur,^^ which essentially agrees with my view 
that the spiral is only a secondary difference of form in the 
product of the vital force (in the fibre substance, or more 
correctly, the membrane substance). The slight chemical 
modification which I have demonstrated in it is, at least, far 
more inconsiderable, and consequently less essential, than the 

* Translated in Taylor's Scientific Memoirs, Part VI. 

t The paper here alluded to, and Meyen's opinion on the same subject, 
have been placed before the English reader in Mr. Francis's translation of 
Meyen's Report on Vegetable Physiology for 1837. — Edit. 

40 Dr. M. J. Schleiden's Observations on 

differences existing between the membrane of various plants 
and groups of plants inter se. Since Mohl and I have arrived 
at this result independently^ and in part by a very different 
path^ it is, in my opinion, a great presumption of its correct- 
ness. I gladly follow the steps of Mohl, whose memoir ap- 
peared some months earlier, as a confirmation only of a view 
already advanced ; and would with joy always renounce in his 
favour all claim to priority, could 1 thereby for ever purchase 
an agreement of our convictions. 

Scarcely more than in expression do Mohl and I differ in 
our views respecting the structure of the secondary deposits. 
If he admits an arrangement of the smallest parts in the di- 
rection of a spiral in the cases by far most frequent, and 
if I, — believing that I frequently have actually seen this ar- 
rangement even in cases where soon an apparent homoge- 
neity occurs, and also as the changes produced by the expan- 
sion of the cells prove that the connexion of the molecules, 
in any other direction than that of the spiral, is in the 
younger stages almost nothing, — consider myself justified in 
speaking in all cases of a spiral striping or band, there is in 
this, wdth respect to the essential point, little discrepancy. I 
also believe that many differences of opinion, in subordi- 
nate points, wall still disappear if Mohl keeps more accurately 
in view individual development, and especially pays more 
attention to the momentum of the expansion of the cells 
afler the appearance of spiral deposits. Thus, for instance, 
in all my inquiries into the structure of the ligneous body, 1 
have never contented myself with comparing the parts of 
different age of the same individual, but have constantly, 
as far as the material was at my disposal, at the same time 
pursued throughout a whole year the development of the 
same annular ring, by regularly repeated observations on the 
most varied parts of the plant. Highly instructive likewise 
is an accurate history of the development of the Spiroidea 
in the large Monocotyledonous vascular bundles, for instance, 
in Arundo Donax, where it must also be borne in mind not 
merely to compare on the same individual the younger with 
the older internodes, but to examine the homologous inter- 
nodes on several individuals of different age. In this plant 
the spiroidea are situated in the perfectly developed fasciculus 
in a series radial from the axis to the periphery, arranged 
betw^een the two large so-called porous vessels. The an- 
nular vessels, with the rings furthest from one another, are 
nearest to the axis of the internode, from thence towards the 
circumference the rings approach closer together, then pass 

spiral Formations in the Cells of Plants. 41 

into broad threaded spiral vessels, and these lastly into nar- 
row threaded spiral vessels*. Now if the history of the de- 
velopment of such a fascicle be investigated, it is found that 
those distant ringed vessels were first formed as spiral vessels ; 
that then, during the gradual expansion of the internode to 
which the vascular bundle belongs, the formation gradually 
progresses towards the exterior, and the last spiral vessel re- 
mains a narrow threaded one, merely because the longitudi- 
nal expansion of the cells was already nearly at an end when 
the spiral deposition took place. The two so-called porous 
vessels, on both sides, are, during the whole of this formative 
process, cylindrical cells, filled with a grumose fluid, and 
placed on one another, their walls being perfectly simple ; and 
only after the expansion in length is terminated, the pores 
originate on their parietes in the manner described, frequently 
only in the direction of cells in the interior of the vascular 
bundle. At the same time the perforation also of the septa 
takes place, according to the law which seems to me pretty 
generally valid, that the horizontal septa, or those slightly de- 
viating from this position, are only perforated with a round 
aperture, the steeper ascending ones become ladder-like or re- 
ticulate ; and lastly, the steepest are merely provided with 
usual pores. 

I conceive it arises from not paying due regard to this 
history of development that Mohl has not yet recognised the 
true origin of the annular vessels. I will, therefore, briefly 
communicate here what I have observed on this point. 

All that Mohl has objected in another place against the erro- 
neousness of the common view likewise supported by Meyen, 
that a tearing of the spirals into single coils, and a cohesion 
of the torn ends to rings takes place, remains perfectly cor- 
rect ; and I was long convinced of the untenability of that 
view before I had ascertained the true origin. The difficulties 
of actual observation of the process lie in what follows : — Of 
all spiroidea the annular vessels originate exactly from those 
cells in which a spiral deposition is earliest formed, therefore 
at a time when they are infinitely small and delicate. This 
period occurs in the outermost internodes of the bud, and 
every anatomist is aware of the almost insurmountable diffi- 
culties which here oppose a more accurate examination. It 
is true, the delicate indications of the spirals have undoubtedly 
been recognised everywhere here as of the earliest forma- 

* The same arrangement, with slight modifications, occurs in all vascu- 
lar bundles of Mono- and Dicotyledons (fig. 12), only that often, in all Di- 
cotyledons especially, porous formations succeed the narrowest spirals. 

42 Dr. M. J. Schleiden's Observations on 

tion ; but instead of observing their development into rings, 
many have only inferred that the annular vessels w^ere of far 
later origin. Moreover, the formation usually proceeds, at 
the moment when the bud comes to development, so rapidly, 
that the obsers^ation of the intermediate stages is rendered 
almost impossible by it. For obtaining a successful result 
everything here depends on finding a plant in which all these 
difficulties exist in a slighter degree, and on which therefore 
the process may be accurately observed ; if once a clear in- 
sight has been acquired in this way, it is easy to find oneself 
at home, even with the more difficult plants. I found for these 
inquiries the Campelia Zanonia, Rich, (frequent in most hot- 
houses), and the subterranean stem of Equiseium arvense most 

If the very youngest internodes of the buds of the first- 
mentioned plant be examined, a single extremely delicate and 
densely-wound spiral vessel is found in all the as yet scarcely 
limited vascular bundles. In older internodes the convo- 
lutions of this vessel are found further distant from one an- 
other, and near it exteriorly a new-formed narrow-threaded 
spiral vessel. But if we consider in this period the first 
formed vessel more accurately, Plate {fig. 11.), it will be seen 
that all convolutions are not separated in the same manner from 
one another, but that almost in regular alternation two en- 
tire coils adhere firmly together, and one convolution is drawn 
out. In still older internodes the extension is found to be 
so far advanced, that the free coil loosened from the cellular 
membrane frequently reaches as a mere band with a steep 
ascent from the one ring formed of two closed convolutions to 
the other. On still further developed vessels this elongated 
coil is seen corroded by the reabsorbing action of the cell, and 
all the stages of transition, as they are represented in the 
Plate (from fig. 1 to 5,) are frequently found in the continuity 
of a single vessel. Lastly, on still older vessels, the connect- 
ing coil is already perfectly dissolved ; but there may still be 
observed on the isolated rings the extremities of the previous 
spiral fibre (fig. 6, 7> «•) • Even on highly developed vessels, 
we still find on the perfectly closed and smoothened rings, 
their composition of two coils now and then indicated by 
single delicate dark lines (fig. 8 — 10.). Exactly the same 
process may likewise be easily followed in the subterranean 
stems of Equisetum arvense ; and in particular we frequently 
find long streaks in vessels modified as is represented in fig. 11. 
as the first stage of transition to the formation of rings. 

I must still mention another point respecting which I do 
not at present agree with M. Mohl ; it relates to the succes- 

Spiral Formations in the Cells of Plants. 43 

sion of the three layers in the formations we meet with in the 
ligneous cells of Taoms, in the so-called vessels of the Lime, 
&c. Undoubtedly the primary simple cellular membrane 
here also constantly forms the outer layer, as to which I agree 
with Mohl, and no doubt can remain in the mind of the careful 
observer, that with regard to time the spiral fibres are earlier 
formed than the porous layer. But I am rather inclined to 
doubt MohPs statement that this latter is developed between 
the primary cellular membrane and the spiral fibre layer. 
Mohl brings forward no reasons in support of it ; and this 
whole hypothesis seems to me entirely unnecessary, and if only 
on that account to be rejected. There is no fact which re- 
quires such an admission for its explanation ; but many, on 
the contrary, speak against it. Since the cellular membrane 
itself passes in forming, like all secondary depositions, in the 
same manner from a fluid through a semi-fluid state to a 
slighter or greater firmness, a period must necessarily occur in 
the process adopted by Mohl, during the origin of the porous 
layer, in which the spiral fibrous layer must be as good as 
entirely separated from the original cellular membrane, by 
the newly-formed still semi-fluid layer ; or at least could be 
separated from it by the gentlest manipulation. But I have 
never been able to notice a trace of this in Taxus ; and in 
Tilia exactly the contrary occurs, in so far as here in the cam- 
bial cells the spiral coils which then still he densely together, 
are, it is true, to be unwound with difficulty ; but as soon as 
the development of the cell begins, and long before the occur- 
rence of pores, they are already firmly united with the mem- 
brane. The contrary Hkewise appears to me to result from 
an accurate investigation of the above-mentioned cells on the 
germen oi Helleborus fcetidus. 

Also with regard to the porous cells of the Coniferce, I 
differ in some minor points from M. Mohl. It is true I 
concur in the main point with MohPs exposition in refutation 
of Meyen's theory ; but I must nevertheless confess that I 
think I have seen how in Pinus sylvestris the cells of the 
cambium, even in the latest annual rings, are constantly di- 
vided by delicate black lines into narrow spiral bands pre- 
vious to the formation of pores, (as matter of course with 
perfect homogeneity of the primary cellular membrane,) and 
how these, which I regard as the boundaries of the adjacent 
convolutions, first disappear on the formation of pores ; proba- 
bly glued to one another in a similar manner as the cells them- 
selves, whose boundary lines likewise frequently become in- 
visible in more advanced age ; for when I isolated the cells 
by boiling in caustic potash, even those from the outermost 

44 Dr. M. J. Sclileiden on Spiral Formations, 

layers of the oldest heart wood constantly exhibited more or 
less distinctly these delicate stripes, and the pores then again 
appear merely as narrow clefts between two separating spiral 

In consequence of this view of mine of the constant gene- 
rality of the spiral arrangement of the secondary depositions, 
I am also inclined, for the sake of consistency, to deduce the 
reticulated figures on the cells of the liber of the Apocynece, 
of the parenchymatous cells of numerous tropical Orchidecc, 
superposition Dahlia tubers, &c., rather from the adcumbency 
of two exceedingly delicate layers, formed of contrarily wound 
spirals, than to have recourse to quite a new mode of arrange- 
ment, which seems justified by no other peculiarity of the 
organ or of the occurrence. But I perceive it might be diffi- 
cult here to bring direct observation in aid. 

I may allow myself, in conclusion, some observations on 
the direction of the spiral coils. That all the reasons ad- 
vanced by Meyen and Link respecting the difficulty of the 
determination do not at all affect the subject, is evident ; for 
by reversion the relative position of two spirals is certainly 
not altered; but even the individual spirals remain wound 
right or left, in whatever w^ay they are observed, of which 
Meyen may easily convince himself on a rod figured with a 
spiral. The being wound right or left of a spiral depends not 
merely on a different mode of viewing it, but on an internal 
difference in its mathematical construction. Moreover the 
sole actual difficulty mentioned by Mohl is not of such a 
nature that it cannot be overcome by a good microscope and 
some practice of the observer. In general I cannot agree 
with Mohl, that the spiral vessels principally occur wound to 
the right ; I found some left-wound very frequently, and differ- 
ences in various individuals of the same species. From my 
observations up to the present time, I have provisionally abs- 
tracted the following rule as at least very frequently valid. 
" In all spiral formations developing cotemporaneously, (com- 
prising in the most general meaning all secondary depositions,) 
those which are situated immediately on one another in the di- 
rection of the radius are wound in the same direction ; but 
those lying immediately on one another in the direction of the 
parallels to the periphery are wound in different directions. 
I will only mention here, as an instance, some spiroidea from 
Cucurbita Pepo ; and I moreover appeal to the constant cross- 
ing of the pore fissures in contiguous parenchymatous and 
ligneous cells when observed on sections parallel to the me- 
dullary rays. But I must at once name, as a considerable ex- 
ception, the peculiar short, thick, but delicate walled cells, 

Prof. Nees von Eseiibeck 07i New Holland Plants, 45 

which in their interior contain plate-hke rings and spirals 
raised on the narrow edge^ which constitute nearly the entire 
mass of the wood of the Mammillarice, Echinocacti, and Melo- 
cacti ; and also occur in small quantity in the Opuntice, espe- 
cially at the contractions of the joints^ and which were first 
described by Meyen from Opuntia cylindrica, 


Fig. 1 — 10. Stages of the formation of the annular vessels from Campelia 
Zanonia, Rich. Explanation in text, page 42. 

Fiff. 11. Commencement of the formation into a ring of a spiral from 
Equisehim arvense. 

Fig. 12. Spiroidea on a section through the medulla perpendicular to the 
bark; a. the side towards the medulla, h. that toward the bark. 

Fig. 13. Spiroidea on a section parallel to the bark. 

Fig. 14. The same as in fig. 13, with an intermediate series of cells cor- 
responding to a right wound spiral. 

Fig. 12 — 14. From young stems of Cucurhita Pepo. 

V. — Characters of new Genera and Species of New Holland 
Cyperaceae^ Restiaceae, and Juncaceae. By Prof. C. G. 
Nees von Esenbeck. 

[Communicated by Professor Lindley.'] 



Locus inter Cyperaceas Acrolepideas. 

Gen. Char. Spicula disticha, squamis duabus inferioribus minori- 
bus sterilibus, duabus superioribus hermaphroditis. Stamina 
tria. Perigynii setse 4 (an semper .'') retrorsum scabrse. Stylus 
bifidus, a basi bulbosa deciduus. Caryopsis biconvexa, styli 
basi conica mucronata perigynioque stipata. 

Inflorescentia : spiculse axillares et terminales geminse brevipedun- 
Plantae pusillae habitu Acrolepidis, Schrad. aut Eleogitonis, in inundatis 
degentes, diifusse. Culnius ramosus, flexuosus, foliosus. 

*974. Helothrix pusilla. Culmi 2 — 4 poll, longi, flaccidi, geniculati, 
compressi. Vaginae internodiis breviores, totse herbaceae, striatse 
ore truncatae. Folia linearia, angusta, obtusa, margine scabra, 
trinervia. Spiculse vix lin. 1. longse ex vaginis superioribus 
emergentes, plerseque geminse, pedunculis inclusis, oblonga?, 
compressse, virides cum purpura. Squamae carinatae, duae in- 
feriores triplo majores uninerves acutae, duae superiores ovato- 
lanceolatae obtusae trinerves, apice virides, basi pallidas, deciduae. 
Stylus bifidus, ramis longis tortis hirtis. Caryopsis Candida, 

* The numbers refer to the collections of dried plants given away by 
Mr. Gunn. 

46 Prof. Nees von Esenbeck on New Holland 

brevis, obovata, filamentis longis persistentibus, perigyniique 
setis antrorsum denticulatis albis sequilongis cincta. 
An hue Isolepis fluitans, R. Br. ? 

956. Cyperus sanguineo-fuscus, N. ab E. umbella pluriradiata, radiis 
composite spiciferis spicis sessilibus patentibus, spiculis subu- 
latis patulis 4 — 8-floris, squamis alternis ovali-oblongis obtu- 
siusculis septemnervibus fusco-purpureis nitidis margine tenu- 
issime albido dorso basin versus quandoque virescente, involucri 
hexaphylli foliis planis scaberrimis ternis foliisque scabris lon- 
gissimis, involucellis setaceis (paucis) spica brevioribus, culmo 
trigono brevi. 
Cyperus lucidus, Rob. Br. Fl. Nov. Holl. p. 218. n. 40. ed. N. ab E. p. 

Cyperus sanguinalis, Schrad. Cyp. Bras. 

Adnot. Hie verus esse videtur Cyperus lucidus, R. Br. alter, in Sieb. 
Agrostogr. n. 500 evulgatus, nisi nova sit speeies, ad Cyperum venustum, 
R. Br. est revoeandus. 

420. Isolepis propinqua, R. Br. var. culmo ^ — f ped. alto, spiculis 
2 — 12 in glomerulo, squamis sanguineo-maculatis obtusissimis 
cum mucronulo. An distincta species ? 

976. Isolepis margaritifera, N. ab E., capitulo terminali oligosta- 
chyo laterali plus minusve cum terminali conlluente, spiculis 
compresso-trigonis, squamis ovato-lanceolatis obtusiusculis ca- 
rinatis uninervibus carina viridi lateribus fusco-sanguineis, in- 
volucre diphyllo capitulo longiori foliisque canaliculatis setaceis 
margine scabris, vaginis arctis ore nudo, caryopsi globoso-tri- 
gona albo-nitida lateribus convexis costulata sulcis scrobiculatis. 

Variat ». capitulis in unum confluentibus ; 

/3. capitulo laterali remoto in peduneulos mono-distachyos soluto ; 
y. spiculis in culmo singulis geminisve propter involuerum monophyllum 
erectum in speeiem lateralibus. 

Isolepis setacea, R. Br. Prodr. p. 222. n. 6. 

421. Isolepis car tilaginea, R. Br. var. a. et /3. Caryopsis trigona, 
tenuissime seriatim tuberculata. 

573. Eleocharis mucronulata, N. ab E., culmis teretibus brevibus, 
vagina truncata cum mucronulo brevi herbacea, spica cylindra- 
cea densa multiflora, squama infima una et altera latis amplec- 
tentibus sterilibus reliquis ovato-oblongis obtusis dorso ferru- 
gineo sanguineis, carina angusta viridula marginibus albo-mem- 
branaceis, stylo trifido, caryopsi obovata dorso gibbosa levissime 
tuberculata, styli basi pyramidali pallida, hypogynii setis sex 
caryopsi longioribus. 
/3. minor, squamis totis fere fuscis. 
Ab Eleocharite acuta R. Br. differt squamis spieae ovato-oblongis obtusis 

nee lanceolatis acutis. 

Ab Eleocharite multicauli differt culmis multo crassioribus, Eleocharite 

palustri magis accedentibus, et spica duplo majore densiore basi squama 

una binisve latis rotundatis sterilibus cincta. Vagina longa, recta truncata, 

viridis, mucronulo vix lin. longo subulato herbaceo. 

Cyperaceae, Restiaceae, and Juncaceae, 4? 

1013. Cladium glomeratum, R. Br. (genus proprium.) 

Isolepidi propinqua species, probabiliter proprii generis. Squamae 

bi-trifarise, carinatse, raembranacese, plerseque fertiles. Stamina 

tria. Stylus trifidus basi subincrassatus, caryopsi trigona ni- 

tida concretus, a basi deciduus. 

Fructus est Elynanihi, structura spiculae potius Isoschoeni, habitus Cladii. 

575. Chatospora concava, N. ab E., culmo ancipiti altero latere 
piano altero convexiusculo marginibus Isevibus, panicula elon- 
gata contracta decomposita. 
Lepidosperma concavum, R. Br. Prodr, p. 234. (90.) n. 2 ? 

Gymnoschcenus, N. ab E. 

Spiculae distichse, biflorse. Squamse ventricosse, Iseves, basi subtiliter 
nervoso-striatse ; inferiores quatuor minores steriles, quinta 
duplo major rigidior mascula involvens sextam hermaphroditam 
femineamve, extrema minor angustior sterilis inclusa. Setae 
hypogynse paucEe 1 — 3, graciles, antrorsum scabrse, ovario lon- 
giores. Stamina tria, filamentis longis planis, antheris lineari- 
bus mucronatis late dehiscentibus et tum magis oblongis. Stylus 
trifidus, basi conico-dilatatus, pubescens, cum ovario obconico 
compresso-trigono articulatus. Fructum non vidi. 

Inflorescentia : capitulum terminale, bracteis brevibus latis inter- 
stinctum basique involucratum. Culmi aphylli. 

Observ. 1. Ab Arthrostyli, R. Br. differt spiculis bifloris, sqnamis baud 
carinatis setisque hypogynis. 

Observ. 2. Ad hoc genus pertinere videntur Ch(Btospora sphcerocephalaf 
R. Br. et anceps, R. Br. 

952. Gymnoschcenus adustus. 

G. culmo compresso laevissimo apice incrassato, vaginis . . . ., spiculis 
tumidulis obtusis, squamis apice fuscis. 

984. Lepidosperma ensatum, N. ab E., panicula densa pyramidali 
brevi, ramis decompositis imbricato-spiculatis, culmo ancipiti 
medio utrinque convexo marginibus scabriusculis, spiculis 1- 
floris, squamis acutiusculis scabris. 

983. Lepidosperma squamatum, Labill. Spiculae subbiflorae, squama 
antepenultima mascula, penultima abortu feminea, terminalis 
Setulae tres, retrorsum scabrze, inter stamina. 

Igitur Chcetosporce potius generis quam Lepidospermatis. 

962. Restio complanatus, R. Br. Novum genus. Spicula undique 
imbricata squamis membranaceis setaceo-cuspidatis. Peri- 
anthium pedicellatum quadripartitum, laciniis lateralibus an- 
gustioribus. Stamina duo basi dilatata cartilaginea, lateribus 
ovarii adposita. Stylus bifidus. Utriculus compressus, retusus, 
saepe obliquus, monospermus. 

Culmus simplex, complanatus. Vaginae membranaceae, truncatae, 
aphylloe, limbo lacero. Spiculae in panicula racemosa brevi an- 

48 Prof. Nees von Esenbeck on New Holland 

599. Calorophvs elongata, Labill. ? Restio lateriflorus, N. ab E. in 
Sieb. Agrostoth. n. 29. et R. Br. Prodr. Culmi filiformes, 
longissimi. Vaginae ore barbatae. Spiculae laterales, distantes, 
bractea setacea basi vaginante ciliata cinctae, subsessiles. 
Squamae propriae tres, membranacese, ciliatae, obtusae. Sepala 
sex, tenuissime membranacea, subrotundo-ovalia, obtusa, aequa- 
lia, ciliata, nucem aequantia eidemque arete adpressa. Nux tri- 
gona, laevis, stigmatibus tribus in spicas revolutis persistentibus 
Haec vera femina est Calorophi elongatcc, Labill. Quam tamquam plan- 
tain femineam ineadem tabula pinxit Labillardiere (fig. 2.), ad Hypolainam 
exsulcam, R. Br. aut aliam hujus generis speciem pertinere puto. 

B. DrummondiantE ; ad Flumen Cygnorum lectce. 

1. Chorizandra multiarticulata, N. ab E., capitulo globoso exserto, 
squamis obtusis imberbibus, culmi articulis profunde striatis 
diametro sua paulo longioribus. Culmus magis ac in Ch. Cym- 
baria striatus, articulisque duplo brevioribus vel statu sterili di- 


2. Isolepis cartilaginea, R. Br. var. spiculis 1 — 8 pallidis, culmo se- 

mipedali, foliis plus minus elongatis. Culmus compresso-tri- 
queter. Involucrum sub capitulo polystachyo diphyllum. 

3. Elynanthus hifidus, N. ab E., culmo filiformi striate compressius- 

culo basi bulboso foliatoque, foliis canaliculato-filiformibus, spi- 
culis solitariis binisve pedunculatis terminalibus bifloris, bulbo 
styli in caryopsi muricato-rugoso. 

4. Elynanthus capitatus, N. ab E., culmo obtuse trigono compres- 

siusculo laevi basi bulboso foliatoque, foliis convoluto-canalicu- 
latis, vaginis margine membranaceis laceris, capitulo terminali 
polystachyo, spiculis unifloris squamis quatuor inferioribus cus- 

5. Elynanthus australis, N. ab E., culmis filiformibus laevibus foliosis, 

vaginis truncatis folio convoluto -filiformi basi rigide ciliolato 
multo brevioribus, ligula brevissima truncata, spiculis spicato- 
fasciculatis in panicula angusta ramis quinis singulisve bractea 
brevioribus dispositis lineari-lanceolatis unifloris, squamis steri- 
libus bracteolisque setaceo-cuspidatis. 
Affinis Elynantho cuspidato et gracili, at charactere suo distinctus. 

6. } Elynanthus octandrus, N. ab E., culmo compresso bulboso, foliis 
omnibus radicalibus linearibus planis, spiculis spicatis, spicis 
axillaribus solitariis, inferioribus remotis superioribus in spicam 
terminalem compositam coeuntibus, bracteis foliaceis culmi api- 
cem superantibus, rostro fructus ova to crasso. 

7. Schoenus fascicular is, N. ab E., culmo simplici compressiusculo 
exsulco laevi aphyllo, vaginis baseos ore subbarbatis foliolo lon- 
gioribus, spiculis fasciculatim confer tis brevissime pedicellatis 
falcatis subtrifloris, squamis margine ciliatis. 

Cyperaceae, Restiaceae^ and Juncacea?. 4p 

Proximus Schoeno brevifolio, a quo differt inflorescentia plerumque 
breviori, vix pollicari, ex paucis fasciculis approximatis conflata 
rarius iisdem paullo magis discretis, spiculis falcatis subsessili- 
bus, et vaginae foliiferse ore, saltern in juventute, barbulato nee 
nudo. Structura spiculse omnino ut apud Kunthium (En. II. 
p. 335.) sub Sch. brevifolio sed squamje 4. inferiores vacuse, 
5, 6, et 7 fertiles. 

IsoscHCENus, N. ab E. 

Spicula disticha, squamis sequalibus, inferioribus fertilibus, superio- 
ribus sterilibus. Rhachilla fructus curvato-sinuata. Perigy- 
nium nullum. Stamina tria, filaraentis persistentibus peracta 
anthesi elongatis. Stylus basi sequali deciduus, trifidus. Ca- 
ryopsis nucamentacea, sculpta, a flexuris rhachillae diutius re- 

Inflorescentia capitata aut per fasciculos axillares anguste panicu- 
lata. Culmi basi aut etiam superiora versus foliosi. V'aginae 
ligulatse. Folia angusta, filiformia aut canaliculato-filiformia. 

8. Isoschoenus Armeria, N. ab E., spiculis capitatis, culmo Isevi basi 


9. Isoschoenus acuminatus, N. ab E., Schoenus acuminatus, II. Br. Prodr. 

p. 231, et N. ab E. (87.) n. 6. — spiculis fasciculato-ternis bi 
nisve lateral ibus in panicula angusta dispositis, culmo foliato. 

10. Isoschoenus flavus, N. abE., capitulo terminali, culmo rigido sub- 

angulato scabro basi foliato foliis filiformibus canaliculatis 
scabris breviori. 
Culmus tripoUicaris, quam pro altitudine crassior. 

11. Ch^etospora aurata, N. ab E., culmo nudo compresso basi folioso, 
foliis subsetaceis canaliculatis incurvis, capitulo terminali glo- 
boso involucro di- triphyllo breviori, spiculis subbifloris squamis 
imberbibus carina scabris, perigynii laminis linearilanceolatis 
planis ciliatis. 

Similis Ch. curvifolice, sed evidenti differt charactere. 

Culmus spithamseus et ultra, compressus. Squamae atro-sangui- 
neae, basi aureo-flavse, omnes setaceo-cuspidatae, carinatae. Ca- 
ryopsis (nux) obovata, obtusa, scabra, squamulis 7 — 8 sequi- 
longis strigilosis apj)ressis cincta. Stylus trifidus. Stamina 3. 

12. Chcetospora cygnea, N. ab E., culmo compressiusculo estriato basi 
foliato, vaginis ore barbatis, spiculis binis ternisve lateralibus 
sessilibus involucro culmum continuante brevioribus, squamis 
trifariis enervibus interioribus margine puberulis, laminulis hy- 
pogynis fructu duplo brevioribus ciliatis, rhachilla fructus apice 
incur va. 

Juncum filiformem gracilem refert. 

13. Caustis dioica, R. Br. Est hermaphrodito-dioica pistillis pleris- 
que sterilibus. Ad hujus formam sterilem sj^iculis in ramulis 

Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Sept. 1840. e 

50 Prof. Nees von Esenbeck on New Holland Plants, 

recurvatis solitariis, nee vero ad Caustin Jlexuosam, spectat 
Caustis recurvata mihi (olim Restionis nomine a Siebero dis- 
tributa) ; quod quomodo scribse, nee mea culpa evenerit, ipse 
paulo post in eodem Diario botanico Ratisbonensi exposui. 
Sed Kunthius, qui omnia scit, ubi videor erravisse, ea sola 
nescire videtur, quae ad avertendam erroris falsam speciem feci. 
Id quoque monendum est, Melachnen Sieheri non ad Caustin 
flexuosam, sed ad Didymonema filiforme Presl. pertinere, et igitur 
longe distare a Causti genere. 

14. Restio curvuluSy N. ab E., culmis apice ramosis fastigiatis, ra- 

mulis compressis curvatis apice spiciferis, spicis masculis ap- 
proximatis (paucis) sessilibus oblongo-lanceolatis, squamis cus- 
pidatis vaginisque nudis, his mueronatis, perianthiis ( (^) 6-glu- 

15. Lepyrodia macra, N. ab E., culmis simplicissimis flexuosis va- 

ginis foliatis strictis, spica simplici pauciflora. 
Culmi spithamsei, curvati, subspongiosi, graciles. Vaginae her- 
baceae, striatae, truncatae, ore membranaceo, foliolo subulato ob- 
tuso 3 — 4-lineari erecto. Vaginae superiores basi solubiles ut 
in Restionibus, sed flores intra squamam bibracteolati. Spica 
tam mascula quam feminea 3 — 4-florae. Bracteae communes 
oblongae, membranaceae. Sepala aequalia. Flos masculus (de- 
floratus) angustior. 

16. Lyginia imberbis, R. Br. $ Schcenodum tenue, Labill. t. 229. 
f. 1 . Ovarium, in stylum longum crassum apice solummodo 
trifidum attenuatum, monospermum videtur. Perianthium sex- 
fidum, laciniis oblongo-lanceolatis muticis membranaceis aequa- 
libus. Bracteae late ovatae, setaceo-mucronatae, fuscae. Spica 
terminalis solitaria. Reliqua ut in charactere naturali a cl. 
Brown tradito. Vaginae aristato-cuspidatae. Culmi lutei, laeves, 

17. Anarthria grandiflora, N. ab E., culmis simplicibus teretibus fo- 
liisque compressiusculis striatis, racemo composito denso ob- 
longo, floribus masculis nutantibus, bracteolis geminis, sepalis 
lanceolatis compresso-carinatis. Squamae bracteales longae, 
lanceolatae, $ racemo minori contracto, ramis 2 — 3 minus 
divisis rigidis, floribus minoribus sepalis rigidis. 

18. Anarthria humilis, N. ab E., culmis simplicibus teretibus fili- 

formibus foliisque compressis striatis, racemo di- trifloro, brac- 
teolis singulis, sepalis lanceolatis obtuse carinatis. 
Culmus semipedalis. Sepala laneeolata, subulato-acuta, brunnea. 

19. Leptocarpus canus, N. ab E., amentis in glomerulos distantes 
laterales dispositis, squamis acuminatis, rhachilla pilosa, peri- 
anthii glumis omnibus margine lanatis, culmo simplicissimo 
cano. Culmi 1 — 1^-pedales, teretes. Vaginae fuscae, mucro- 
natae. Spiculae geminae — quaternae, a medio culmo in glome- 
rulos distantes agglomeratae, bractea setacea brevi-vaginata ci- 
nerea suiFultae. Flores bibracteolati. 

Mr. Henderson on the Stigma in Mimulus and Diplacus. 51 

20. Leptocarpus spathaceus, R. Br. Distinctum genus. Stylus tri- 
gonus, crassus ; ovarium triangulare, in stylum decurrens. Flores 
fasciculati (quos dicunt) terni quaterni, capituliformes ; spiculae 
squamis sufFulti. Sepala mucronata. 

21. Desvauxia Drummondiana, N. ab E., receptaculo subpaleaceo, 
stylis 6 — 7 basi connatis valvulis asperis infra apicem obtusum 
aristato-mucronatis mucrone valvula sua duplo breviori, foliis 
capillaribus scabris scapo glabro brevioribus. 

D. Billardieri, R. Br. affinis. 

VI. — On the Structure of the Stigma in Mimulus and Dip- 
lacus. By Mr. Joseph Henderson. 

To Richard Taylor, Esq. 
I HAVE observed a very singular instance of irritability in the 
stigmata of some species of Mimulus and of one species of 
Diplacus, a genus recently separated by Nuttall from Mi- 
mulus. As I have nowhere seen any mention made of the 
existence of the phaenomenon of irritability in any of these 
plants, you will perhaps favour me, should the fact not have 
been before observed, by inserting this notice in the Annals of 
Natural History*. 

In making an experiment to ascertain if Diplacus puniceus 
would hybridize with Mimulus cardinalis, I found on apply- 
ing the anther of the latter to the bilamellate stigma of the 
former, that the plates — which in their natural position are 
reflexed — immediately collapsed, and inclosing the mass of 
pollen grains that had fallen on them, pressed firmly against 
each other. The intimate connexion between the genus Dip- 
lacus and Mimulus, induced me to try if this unexpected pro- 
perty existed also in stigmata of the latter genus, and I found 
it to be present in Mimulus cardinalis, roseus, luteus and mos- 
chatus, all the species of Mimulus growing here. The move- 
ment in all these cases follows the touch as rapidly as in Mi- 
mosa pudica ; the stigma, however, is more active when the 
flower is first opened. If the stigma is touched w ith a pin or 
any other instrument, the plates, after collapsing, will revert 
to their natural position, generally in less than two hours ; but 
if pollen is interposed between the plates, they remain closed 
a much longer time. 

In the 27th Number of the Annals of Natural History there 
is a note on the movement o^ the style of Goldfussia aniso^ 
phylla by Professor Morren of Liege, in which he refers the 

* The excitable property of the stigma of Mimulus and Diplacus is a fact 
well known, but the peculiar structure of that organ has not been before ob- 
served. — Ed. 

E 2 

52 Prof. Lindley upon the Genus Decaisnia. 

cause of the movement to excitable globules contained in the 
fluid of what he calls the cylindrenchyme of the stigma ; this 
fluid being carried to the extremities of the cylindrenchyme, 
these extremities are dilated, which causes the stigma to bend 
in one direction ; but when the stigma is touched, the globules 
and the liquid flow back to the bottom of the cylinders, and 
in this case, this side becoming the longest, the style erects 
or bends in an opposite direction : M. Morren therefore re- 
fers the cause to the excitability of a vital fluid. 

In examining the stigmata of Diplacus puniceus and the 
different species of Mimulus, in order to ascertain if they con- 
tained any analogous structure to that described by M. Mor- 
ren, I found the inner surfaces of the stigmata in all com- 
posed of elongated cylindrical cells, the ends of which are free 
and prolonged into tapering jointed glandular hairs : these 
hairs, which thickly clothe the surface of the stigma*, are di- 
lated at the extremities, and at the base where they arise each 
one forms a thickened elbow, with the cell of which it is the 

When the plates of the stigma are in their natural position 
these hairs are erect, but on examining them after the plates 
had collapsed, I found them gathered together into bundles 
of a dozen or more with their points drawn closely together, 
and in some cases twisted spirally round one another : in the 
stigma of Mimulus roseus each hair was recurved over its own 
cell. It is easy to conceive that such a movement of the hairs, 
forming as they do the extremities of the cylindrical cells, 
would cause the stigma to incline inwards, and it is probable 
that the natural cause of their movement is, as M. Morren 
asserts^ the reaction of an excitable fluid. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

Joseph Henderson. 

Milton, near Peterborough, July 13, 1840. 

VII. — A Note upon the Genus Decaisnia, Ad. Brong, By 
Professor Lindley. 

This genus, founded upon a Brazilian plant from the Island 
of St. Catharine^s, was published by M. Adolphe Brongniart 
in the Botanical part of Duperrey's Voyage. It was admitted 
into the Neottideous tribe of Orchidaceae in my Natural Sy- 
stem of Botany, and by Endlicher has been equally adopted 
as a genus of the Arethuseous tribe. 

* In the stigma of Goldfussia ayiisophylla these hairs are shorter, more 
thickly crowded together, and less dilated at the points than in stigmata of 
Mimulus and Diplactis. 

Mr. Bablngton on a neiv British Species of Colymbetes. 53 

In examining critically the genera of Neottidece, I have been 
surprised to find that this Decaisnia is identical with Pres- 
cottia ; a circumstance easily overlooked^ since the species is 
somewhat different in habit from any of the Prescottias 
hitherto published, and is moreover so represented in the 
figure that accompanies M. Brongniart^s memoirs as not to 
call to mind the peculiar cucullate fleshy lip and revolute floral 
envelopes of Prescottia. I find, however, that both these cha- 
racters really exist in Decaisnia. 

M. Brongniart relies upon the adhesion of the lateral sepals 
and labellum into a pouch, two pollen masses, and a pair of auri- 
cles to the anther-bed, as characteristic features of Decaisnia ; 
but the first is equally the attribute of all Prescottias, and the 
others are of little moment. I am not able to ascertain whe- 
ther the granular pollen masses are simple or two-lobed, 
although I possess an 'excellent specimen of D. densiflora, 
through the liberality of M. Ad. Brongniart, so very difficult 
is the examination of the minute fructification of these plants : 
but even if the pollen be as is represented in the figure in 
Duperrey^s Voyage, it would not constitute, per se, a generic 
diff^erence from Prescottia ; and with regard to the auricles of 
the anther-bed, they occur in P. plantaginea itself, and in P. 
stachyodes form a still more striking feature in that part. 

Although the name Decaisnia must therefore be abolished, 
I do not think it desirable to restore it to those Indian Neot- 
tidece, originally so called by me, and afterwards, at the re- 
quest of M. Brongniart, altered to Cnemidia, for this would 
be to increase the confusion of names. It will, I think, be 
better that some new genus should be taken to commemorate 
the distinguished merits of M. Decaisne. 

VIII. — On a new British Species o/Colymbetes. By Charles 
C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. 

The water Coleoptera of South Britain have now been so 
carefully studied, that it is far from probable that any new spe- 
cies should yet remain to be discovered amongst the larger 
forms ; it is therefore with the greater satisfaction that I now 
introduce to the entomological readers of the Annals of Na- 
tural History a new species of Colymbetes, discovered by the 
Rev. J. L. Brown in Horning marshes, Norfolk, in the month 
of March, 1839, and again found in the same place in March 
1 840. This insect appears referable to the section Agabus of 
Erichson, in which the labial palpi have the third joint a very 
little shorter than the second, the claws being equal and 

54 Mr. Babington on a new British Species of Colymbetes. 

moveable, and the three basal joints of the anterior tarsi in 
the males being dilated with small acetabuli ; and to the fourth 
division of it, where the four basal joints of the posterior tarsi 
are ciliated beneath in the males. 

Colymbetes (Agabus, §. 4.) rectus, (Bab.). Lineari-oblongus, 
subconvexus, fusco-niger, subtilissime longitudinaliter strigosus, 
antennis pedibusque ferrugineis, elytris apice punctate et strigis 
tribus irregularibus punctorum impressis. 

(Long. Corp. 3^ ; lat. If lin.) 

Oval oblong, with the sides nearly parallel and straight, 
slightly broader behind the middle of the elytra, rather con- 
vex, fuscous black above and beneath, head nearly smooth, 
with two large deep punctures in front and two small deep 
foveae before and rather above the eyes, which have a narrow 
rugose line along their upper margin, crown with two round 
red spots. Thorax covered with minute anastomosing longi- 
tudinal striae, which are much stronger near to the lateral 
margins, a shallow depression next to each of the hinder an- 
gles, from each of which an irregular line of punctures ex- 
tends along the hinder margin half-way to the scutellum. 
There is also a line of irregular impressions along the whole 
of the anterior margin, and a faint trace of a dorsal channel. 
Scutellum smooth. Elytra having their sides in continuity 
with the thorax, covered throughout with minute longitudinal 
anastomosing striae, and having three irregular rows of punc- 
tures upon each, with distant scattered dots between them, 
which become more numerous towards the apex; also an ir- 
regular row of numerous punctures on the outer margin. 
Mouth, antennae, and palpi ferruginous ; the labial palpi with 
the second joint rather longer than the third. Legs ferrugi- 
nous, with the thighs darker ; tarsi of the male with the three 
basal joints of the anterior dilated, and the four of the poste- 
rior ciliated beneath ; claws of equal length upon each tarsus, 
but those of the posterior very minute. 

Inhabits Horning marshes, Norfolk, and was found by the Rev. 
J. L. Brown in March, 1839 and 1840.. 

Closely resembling C. branchiatus (Bab.) in form, but be- 
longing to a different subdivision of the section, and in that 
the colour is blueish black, the upper surface almost smooth, 
the legs, antennae, and palpi are much darker, and there is 
also a faint trace of a transparent line upon each of the elytra. 

St. John's Coll. Cambridge, July 14, 1840. 

Mr. G. Dickie on the Gemma of Polygonum viviparum. 55 

IX. — Additional Observations on the Gemmce of Polygonum 
viviparum. By George Dickie^ Esq., A.L.S., Lecturer on 
Botany in the University and King's College, Aberdeen. 

A DESCRIPTION of the Gemmae of Polygonum viviparum 
having been already given in the 32nd Number of the Annals, 
the following account of their original development, and of 
their manner of growth, will serve to complete the history of 
these remarkable bodies. Having procured in the early part 
of the season, from a locality in this neighbourhood, very 
young flower stems, both flowers and gemmae were carefully 
dissected ; the former (which invariably occupy the summit of 
the flower stems) were much more advanced than the latter. 
Fig. 1. represents one of these magnified. Two nearly co- 
nical processes are seen placed side by side ; on separating 
these, two similar bodies are seen in the interior alternating 
with the former ; by tearing asunder these last, two others are 
seen similarly inclosed (figs. 2» and 3.) ; the difference in length 

and breadth of the two innermost is now more conspicuous 
than in the two outer. Each of these concentric bodies may 
be considered, the one as a young leaf and the other a bud in 
its axil. They are all of a very deHcate texture and pale co- 
lour ; at this period the mass of cellular tissue enclosing starch 
grains is not developed, neither have the pink cells alluded to 
in the former paper yet appeared. The bud at the apex of 
each body is therefore first formed, and afterwards a quantity 
of fecula is stored up at its base. 

A considerable number of perfectly formed gemmae, shortly 
after being gathered from the mature flower stem, were planted 
in a pot of mould, the apex of each alone protruding from the 
soil; they were daily supplied^ with water. A few days after 
being planted, a young leaf appeared at the summit of each, 
the petioles made rapid progress, and some reached nearly 
the length of an inch a w^eek after the first appearance of the 

56 Mr. Babington on Lychnis diurna and vespertina. 

leaf (fig. 4.). Up to this period no roots are protruded; the 
young leaf is nourished solely by imbibition and by the fe- 
cula stored up at its base. It generally happens that no root 
is protruded until a second leaf has appeared ; I have, how- 
ever, seen a few cases in which a radicle appeared while only 
one leaf was yet visible. In most instances, shortly after the 
appearance of a second leaf, a root is protruded from the gem 
and always at one side near its neck (fig. 4.). This root is co- 
nical, at first entirely cellular and covered Avith minute fibrils ; 
it constitutes the root of the plant, and the fibres on its sur- 
face are spongioles. A perpendicular section shows that this 
root has an organic connexion with the youngest of the 
leaves when two are produced previous to its appearance. 
May it not be admitted that these remarkable bodies present 
a miniature illustration of Professor Morren's investigations 
regarding the functions of the Pith in Plants ? See Annals, 
No. 1.'2, vol. iv. pp. 73-87. 

X. — On Lychnis diurna and vespertina of Sibthorp. By 
Charles C. Babtngton, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. 

Thinking it right to bring before the public as early as is 
consistent with accuracy, any information that I may obtain 
concerning what may be denominated the contested parts of 
British descriptive botany, I make no apology for publishing 
specific characters for the two species of Lychnis which have 
been usually included under the name of L, dioica. 

In both of them I find a tendency to change in the colour 
of the flowers ; those of L. diurna^ although most commonly 
red, may yet be sometimes found of so light a pink as to be 
called white ; and those of L. vespertina, w^hich are usually 
white, vary occasionally to pink. In both the flowers are 
usually dioecious, but plants of each of them are at times 
found with perfect stamens and pistils in the same flowers. 
For this reason I propose to drop the name of dioica and to 
adopt those conferred by Sibthorp. 

I have not found any tendency to variation in the charac- 
ters drawn from the forms of the calyx-teeth and the capsule, 
and the direction of the'teeth of the latter. 

I make no claim to originality in these characters, all of 
which have, I believe, long been detected and employed upon 
the continent ; but only wish to bring them before our younger 
British botanists, to whom I suspect that they are totally un- 

Mr. Gardner on the Woody Fibre of the Stems of Palms. 57 

1. L, diurna (Sibth.). Petals half bifid crowned, stem, leaves, 
peduncles and calyces villose, leaves ovate- acute, flowers di- 
chotomously panicled dioecious, teeth of the calyx triangular 
short, capsule nearly globular with reflexed teeth. 

L. dioica, a. Linn. Sp. PL 626. Sm. Eng. Ft. 2. 328. Eng. Bot. 
t. 1579. 

L. diurna. Sibth. Oxon. 145. Koch. Sj/n. 107. 

L. sylvestris, " Hoppe*' DeCand. Prod. 1. 386. 

Flowering in May and June. Flowers usually red ; rarely 
nearly white. The length of the teeth of the calyx is variable, 
but I believe the form to be constant. 

L. diurna, Sibth. 

L. vespertiua, Sibth. 

2. L. vespertina (Sibth.). Petals half bifid crowned, leaves, pe- 
duncles and calyces hairy, leaves ovate-lanceolate, flowers di- 
chotomously panicled dioecious, teeth of the calyx linear-lan- 
ceolate elongated, capsule conical with erect teeth. 

L. dioica, ^. Linn. 626. Sm. 328. Eng. Bot. 1580. 
L. vespertina. Sibth. 146. Koch. 107. 
L. dioica. DeCand. 386. 

Flowering from June to September ; not commencing so 
soon, and continuing in flower much longer than the last. 
Flowers usually white, but rarely reddish. In the figure in 
Eng. Bot. the teeth of the calyx of the female flower appear 
to me to be those of L, diurna, although the rest of the figure 
agrees with L, vespertina. 

St. John's Coll. Cambridge, July 29, 1840. 

XI. — Some Observations on the Origin and Direction of the 
Woody Fibre of the Stems of Palms. By George Gard- 
ner, Esq., Surgeon*. 

The hidden remains of former worlds which the exertions of 
geologists are daily bringing to light, are no less subjects of 
wonder to the unlearned, than objects which give rise to spe- 

* In a Letter addressed to J. E. Bowman, Esq. 

58 Mr. Gardner on the Origin of the 

culations of the most interesting nature in the mind of the 
philosopher^ and enable him by induction to give a definite 
and harmonious idea of the former condition of the globe. It 
was only from the intimate knowledge which the immortal 
Cuvier possessed of the anatomical structure of the living 
animals which now people the earth, that he derived the 
power of giving all but life to a host of its former inhabitants, 
whose existence and real characters were before totally un- 
known. If such knowledge is requisite for throwing light on 
the remains of animals, it must be obvious that the relics 
which survive of the extinct vegetation of the earth can only 
be successfully investigated by those who have attentively 
studied the anatomical structure of that which now covers its 
surface. To the geologist, knowledge of this kind must be of 
the utmost value, since we now know that many tribes of 
plants are as readily distinguished by the structure of their 
stems, as by the characters which are given to them by their 
organs of fructification. Thus all the individuals of the na- 
tural order Coniferce are immediately recognized by there 
being scarcely any mixture of vascular tissue among the woody 
fibre of their stems, as well as by their ligneous tissue being 
marked with circular discs, which are supposed by Kieser and 
several other vegetable physiologists to be pores, but which, 
from apparently good reasons. Dr. Lindley considers to be 
semitransparent granules. Cycadece are recognized by the 
same want of vascular tissue as in ConiferiBi and by their 
wood being marked in the same manner ; but the zones of 
wood are separated by a layer of cellular substance resem- 
bling that of the pith, and often as thick as the zones them- 
selves. The shrubs which constitute the natural order Caly- 
canthea have square stems, with four woody imperfect axes, 
surrounding the usual central one ; and the investigations of 
those who are now devoting themselves to such inquiries may 
probably lead to the discovery of distinguishing characters in 
the stems of other well-marked tribes of the vegetable king- 

These remarks have been occasioned from reading the ac- 
count of the anatomical structure of endogenous plants given 
by Dr. Lindley in his ' Introduction to Botany.' After stating 
the general plan on which the stems of these plants are formed, 
the following paragraph occurs at page 82 of the second edi- 
tion of that work : " The investigations of Mohl appear to 
show that this view of the structure of endogens requires some 
modification. According to this observer, every one of the 
woody bundles of a palm-stem originates in the leaves, and is 
at first directed towards the centre ; arrived there, it follows 

Woody Fibre of the Stems of Palms, 59 

the course of the stem for some distance, and then turns out- 
ward again, finally losing itself in the cortical integument. 
In the course of their downward descent the woody bundles 
gradually separate into threads, till at last the vascular sy- 
stem, which for a long time formed an essential part of each 
of them, disappears, and there is nothing left but woody tis- 
sue. In this view of the growth of endogens, the trunk of 
such plants must consist of a series of arcs directed from 
above inwards, and then from within outwards ; and conse- 
quently the woody fibres of such plants, instead of being par- 
allel with each other, mast be interlaced in infinite intermix- 
ture. There are, however, some difficulties in the way of this 
theory, which we do not find adverted to by its author. If 
Mohl's view of the structure of endogens be correct, they must 
after a time lose the power of growing, in consequence of the 
whole of the lower part of their stems being choked up by the 
multitude of descending woody bundles. Is this the case ? 
The lower part of their bark, too, must be much harder, that 
is, much more filled with woody bundles than the upper. Is 
that the fact ? The hardness of the exterior of palm-stems 
cannot be owing to the pressure of new matter from within 
outwards, but to some cause analogous to the formation of 
heart-wood in exogens. Is there any proof that such a cause 
is in operation ? I mention these things,^^ continues Dr. Lind- 
ley, " not so much from distrust of MohPs views, as from a 
desire to see the difficulties which seem to lie in the way of 
an ingenious theory satisfactorily removed.^^ 

At the time of reading this I was prosecuting my botanical 
researches on the Organ Mountains of Brazil; and having 
ample opportunity for making observations on the subject, 
from the great number of individuals of the palm tribe which 
are found on this range, of all sizes, from the tall species that 
inhabit the plains, to the dwarf ones which are met with at an 
elevation of upwards of 5000 feet, I determined to ascertain 
whether or not the view^s of Mohl, as stated by Dr. Lindley, 
were correct. 

The first individual I examined was a large low-growing 
species, called by the Brazilians Coqueiro, The stem mea- 
sured 4| feet in circumference, and the leaves were inserted 
at the distance of 3 inches from each other. Having caused 
a longitudinal section of the stem to be made, both through 
the portion destitute of leaves, and that to which the leaves 
were attached, the bundles of woody fibre w^ere distinctly seen 
passing from the scars and the bottoms of the leaves down- 
wards and inwards to the middle of the stem at an angle of 
18°. The individual fibres being large in this species, I was 

60 Mr. Gardner on the Origin of the 

able to trace their course with great ease. I found that after 
entering the stem they made a gentle curve downwards and 
inwards till they reached nearly the centre of the column ; 
then, changing their direction, they turned downwards and 
outwards, with a greater degree of obliquity than before, till 
they reached within a little of the external surface of the stem, 
after which they continued to descend in a line parallel with 
its axis, ultimately becoming so much ramified that I was un- 
able to trace them. The chord of the arc, or the distance from 
the place where the fibres entered the stem, to the point where 
they finished their curve, was 2^ feet. I was not only able to 
trace the fibres as above described, but could also trace them 
from the interior of the stem for a considerable distance up 
into the substance of the leaf itself. 

Longitudinal sections of the stems and leaves of the cab- 
bage-palm {Euterpe edulis, Mart.), of a very tall species, called 
by the Brazilians Pati, and of a small one which they call 
Oricana, all exhibited precisely the same structure, the length 
of the curve of the fibres only differing according to the thick- 
ness of the stems of the different individuals and the distance 
between the insertion of the leaves. 

The stems of all the species split with difficulty, owing to 
the great mesh-work of interlaced fibres. 

Having thus shown that the views of Mohl regarding the 
origin and direction of the woody fibre of the stems of palms 
are quite in accordance with what I have myself observed, I 
shall now make a few remarks on the objections, or rather 
doubts, which Dr. Lindley has expressed concerning them. 
In the first place, he says, " if Mohl's view of the structure of 
endogens be correct, they must after a time lose the power of 
growing in consequence of the whole of the lower part of their 
stems being choked up by the multitude of descending woody 
bundles. Is this the case ?" In none of the oldest palm-trees 
which I have seen cut down did it seem that this would ever 
be the case, the stem always exhibiting a like thickness of ex- 
ternal hard, and internal soft portions, from the root to a 
height of many feet ; and that this ought to be the case, is ob- 
vious from their structure. As the bundles of woody fibre 
originate from the leaves, and as they are placed the one above 
the other on the stem, it follows that the fibres of the upper 
leaves will not descend so far as those of the lower, and that, 
consequently, as the stem increases in height so will the den- 
sity of its sides increase upwards also. In the second place, 
he says, " the lower part of their bark, too, must be much 
harder, that is, much more filled with woody bundles than the 
upper. Is that the fact ?'^ Every one who has been in the 

Woody Fibre of the Stems of Palms. 61 

habit of seeing old palms cut down knows this to be the fact. 
When the axe is laid to the bottom of some of these old stems, 
it rebounds from them as if it were striking a piece of iron, 
while the upper part can be cut through with the greatest 
facility. Every Brazilian is aware of this fact. So durable 
is the wood of the large species of palm which they call Pati, 
that they prefer it to most other wood for supports to their 
houses, which in the country are generally built of wood, but 
it is only the lower, never the upper portion of the stem that 
they choose. The explanation given above will also account 
for this fact. In the third place, he says, " The hardness of 
the exterior of palm-stems cannot be owing to the pressure of 
new matter from within outwards, but to some cause ana- 
logous to the formation of heart-wood in exogens. Is there 
any proof that such a cause is in operation ?" Before reply- 
ing to this, I may observe, that the opinions of vegetable phy- 
siologists are still unsettled regarding the formation of wood 
in exogenous stems ; Lindley, and others, maintaining the 
opinion of Du Petit Thouars, that the wood of a plant is 
formed by the multitude of leaf-buds by which it is covered, 
each of which may be considered a fixed embryo, having an 
independent life and action — that by its elongation upwards 
it forms new branches, and by its elongation downwards it 
forms wood and bark ; — whilst DeCandolle, and most of the 
French physiologists, explain its formation by the hypothesis, 
that new layers are developed by pre-existing layers, which 
are nourished by the descending juices formed in the leaves. 
In palms, a longitudinal section of their stems, with the leaves 
still attached to them, only requires to be seen to convince 
the most sceptical that the ligneous substance of them is 
formed by the leaves, and this affords another proof, at least 
an analogical one, to the many which have already been given, 
that the w^ood of exogens originates in the leaves. The only 
difference between the formation of these two kinds of stems 
seems to be, that in the exogenous tribes the woody fibre al- 
ways remains between the bark and the last-formed layer of 
^vood ; while in the stems of palms the bundles of woody tis- 
sue pass downwards and inwards to the interior of the stem, 
then gradually downwards and outwards, and finally descend 
parallel with the axis of the stem, through the previously 
formed tissue of the same nature. 

Organ Mountains, Brazil, May 28, 1837. 

62 Excerpta Botardca. 

XII. — Excerpta Botanica, or abridged Extracts translated 
from the Foreign Journals, illustrative of, or connected witK 
the Botany of Great Britain, By W. A. Leighton, Esq., 
B.A., F.B.S.E., &c. 

No. 2. On the mode of Growth of the Ophioglosseae. By 
Alex. Braun. (Ann. des Sc. Nat. n. s. xiii. p. 63.) 

The cellular body from which_, in the genus Ophioglossum, 
the leaves arise, is not a sheathing leaf, nor of the nature of a 
stipule or a ligule ; but is, in reality, a cellular body envelop- 
ing the centre of development, on the exterior of which centre 
the leaves are arranged in a regular spiral order, and in which 
situation they continue until their expansion, which, in Ophio- 
glossum vulgatum, takes place in the fourth year. In this 
body each leaf occupies its own particular cellule, which, en- 
larging with the growth of the leaf, is in succession elevated 
into a conical form and becomes finally ruptured like a sheath. 
The spike in Ophioglossum is axillary, and is the sohtary leaf 
of a bud developed in the axil of the sterile leaf, to the stalk 
of which that of the spike is agglutinated. In the genus 
Botrychium, at least in the advanced state in which alone it 
has been hitherto examined, this enveloping cellular body 
does not exist, but the leaves ensheath each other. M. Braun 
considers the cellular body in Ophioglossum as a thalloid for- 
mation remaining during the entire life of the plant, and cor- 
respondent to the cellular organ through which the primary 
leaves of germinating ferns penetrate, and to which the name 
oi proembryo has been given. As in the Phanerogamae the 
first commencement of a plant gives birth to a leaf developing 
itself in the interior of a cellular organ (the sac embryonaire), 
so it would appear that throughout the whole vegetable king- 
dom the formation of a thallus precedes the formation of 



December 4, 1839. — A paper was first read, entitled "A Descrip- 
tion of the Soft Parts and of the shape of the Hind Fin of the Ichthyo- 
saurus, as when recent," by Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The osseous frame-work of the fin of the Ichthyosaurus, Mr. Owen 
observes, having alone been the subject of direct examination, the 
exact shape and the nature of the soft parts had been matters of 
conjecture. A very striking deviation from the reptilian and mam- 
malian types had, indeed, been recognised, and resemblance also to 

Geological Society, 63 

the fins of fishes had been admitted in the digits of the fin exceeding 
five, in their being sometimes bifurcated, and in consisting of an ex- 
traordinary number of ossicles ; yet owing to the form of the digital 
ossicles, their breadth and flatness, and their large size, as compared 
with the joints of the fin-rays of fishes, it had been generally sup- 
posed that the locomotive organs of the Ichthyosaurus were en- 
veloped, while living, in a smooth integument, which, like that of 
the turtle and porpoise, had no other support than was afforded by 
the bones and ligaments within. 

Sir Philip Grey Egerton in a recent examination of Ichthyosaurian 
remains in the possession of Mr. Lee of Barrow-on-Soar, detected, 
with the penetration which has enabled him to bring to light many 
other obscure points in the structure of the Ichthyosaurus, traces of 
the soft parts of the fin in a slab of lias containing a mutilated pad- 
dle ; and having submitted the specimen to the examination of Mr. 
Owen, a detailed account of its character forms the subject of this 

Mr. Owen considers the specimen to be a posterior fin of the 
Ichthyosaurus communis. It presents impressions and fractured por- 
tions of six digits, with the impression, — and a thin layer, most di- 
stinctly preserved, — of the dark carbonized integument of the ter- 
minal half of th(i fin, the contour of which is thus most beautifully 

The anterior margin is formed by a smooth unbroken well-marked 
line, apparently a duplication of the integument ; but the whole of 
the posterior margin exhibits the remains and impressions of a series 
of rays by which the fold of the integument was supported. Imme- 
diately posterior to the digital ossicles, is a band of carbonaceous 
matter of a distinctly fibrous structure, varying from two to four 
lines in breadth, and extending in an obtusely-pointed form for an 
inch and a half beyond the digital ossicles. This band Mr. Owen 
believes to be the remains of the dense ligamentous matter which 
immediately invested the bones of the paddle, and connected them 
with the enveloping skin. The rays, above-mentioned, are continued 
from the posterior edge of this carbonized ligamentous matter, in 
which their bases appear to have been implanted, to the edge of the 
tegumentary impression ; the upper rays being directed transversely, 
but the others gradually lying more in the direction of the axis of 
the fin, as they approach its termination. The most interesting 
feature in these rays, Mr. Owen says, is their bifurcating as they 
approach the edge of the fin. 

From the rarity of their preservation, their appearance and co- 
existence in the present instance with remains of the integument, 
he states, it is evident they were not osseous, but probably either 
cartilaginous, or of that albuminous horn-like tissue, of which the 
marginal rays consist in the fins of the sharks and other plagio- 
stomous fishes. Besides the impression of the posterior marginal 
rays, the specimen presents a series of fine, raised, transverse lines, 
which cross the whole fin, and probably indicate a division of the 
rigid integument into scutiform compartments, analogous to those 

64 Geological Society. 

on the paddle of the Turtle and webbed foot of the Crocodile ; but 
they differ in the absence of subdivision by secondary longitudinal 
impressions. The structure of the integument of the fin agrees, 
therefore, with the known reptilian characters of the skeleton of the 
Ichthyosaurus ; and, as the skin with its appendages gives a charac- 
ter to the great primary groups of vertebrata, it might be expected 
that the skin of the Ichthyosaurus would exhibit some of the cha- 
racters of the integument of existing reptiles. 

In conclusion, Mr. Owen remarks, that the other new facts pre- 
sented by the specimen, accord with the indications of the natural 
affinities of the Ichthyosauri afforded by their less perishable re- 
mains ; and that all the deviations from the reptilian structure of 
the skeleton tend to the type of fishes and not to that of cetaceous 

Dec. 18, 1839. — A paper was first read, entitled "Description 
of the fossil remains of a mammal, a bird, and a serpent, from the 
London clay," by Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The author commences by observing, that only a few months had 
elapsed since the highest organic animal remains known to exist in 
the London clay were those of reptiles and fishes ; and that the 
danger of founding conclusions in Palaeontology from negative 
evidence was perhaps never more strikingly illustrated than by the 
fact, that the first scientifically determined relic of a warm-blooded 
animal from that formation proved to belong to the highest order of 
that class, if man be excepted ; and that besides those quadruma- 
nous remains, there have since been discovered in the London clay 
underlying the coralline crag, near Kyson, in Suffolk, teeth of cheiro- 
ptera, and of a species probably belonging to the marsupial order*. 

Mr. Owen then proceeds to describe the fossils, the immediate 
objects of the communication. 

1. The portion of the mammal was discovered by Mr. Richardson 
in the cliffs of Studd Hill, near Heme Bay, and belongs to a new 
and extinct genus of Pachydermata. It consists of a small mutilated 
cranium about the size of that of a hare, containing the molar teeth 
of the upper jaw nearly perfect, and the sockets of the canines. The 
molars are seven in number on each side, and resemble more nearly 
those of the Chseropotamus than of any other known genus of 
existing or extinct mammalia. They present three distinct modifi- 
cations of the grinding surface, and increase in complexity from 
before backwards. The first and second spurious molars have simple 
sub- compressed crowns, surmounted by a single median conical cusp, 
with a small anterior and posterior tubercle at the outer side, and a 
ridge along the inner side of its base. They are separated by an 
interspace nearly equal to the antero-posterior diameter of the first 
molar. The second and remaining molars are in close juxtaposition. 
The third and fourth molars form the principal difference between 
the dentition of the present genus and that of the Chccropotamus, 
being larger and more complex in the grinding surface. They 

* See Annals of Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 1S9. 

Geological Society. 65 

present a sudden increase in size and change of form. The 
plane of the crown is triangular, with the base outwards, and the 
posterior and inner side convex : it supports three principal cusps, 
two on the outer, and one on the inner side ; there are also two 
smaller elevations with a depression on the summit of each, situated 
in the middle of the crown, and the whole is surrounded with a ridge 
which is developed into a small cusp at the anterior and external 
angle of the tooth. The three true molars closely correspond with 
those of the Chseropotamus. The sockets of the canines indicate 
that these teeth were relatively as large as in the peccari. 

The bones of the head are separately described ; the palatal 
processes of the maxillary bones are shown to be rugous, as in the 
peccari ; the eye to have been full and large, as indicated by the size 
of the optic foramen and the capacity of the orbit, equalling an inch 
in vertical diameter : the general form of the skull is described as 
partaking of a character intermediate between that of the hog and 
the hyrax, though the large size of the eye must have given to the 
physiognomy of the living animal a resemblance to that of the Ro- 

These indications, Mr. Owen says, scanty though they be, of the 
form of a species nearly allied to the Chccropotamus, are extremely 
interesting, on account of the absence of similar information regard- 
ing that genus. The resemblance of the molar division of the 
dental system in the new genus, for which the name of Hyracothe- 
rium is proposed, and the Chseropotamus, is sufficiently close to 
warrant the conclusion, that the canines and incisors if not similar 
would differ only in form and proportion ; and that hence it may be 
ventured to solve analogically some of the doubts entertained by 
Cuvier respecting the dental characters of the Chteropotamus, and 
to afhrm confidently that it had canines in the upper as well as the 
lower jaw. The incisor teeth with the ossa intermaxillaria are 
wanting in the specimen of the Hyracotherium, and have not been 
found in any fragment of the Chseropotamus. 

2. The remains of birds described in the paper consist of a sternum, 
with other bones, and a sacrum, the former belonging to the collec- 
tion of the late John Hunter, in the Royal College of Surgeons, 
and the latter to the cabinet of Mr. Bowerbank. Both the speci- 
mens were obtained from Sheppey. The Hunterian fossil includes 
the sternum nearly entire, the proximal ends of the coracoid bones, 
a dorsal vertebra, the distal end of the left femur, the proximal end 
of the corresponding tibia, and a few fragments of ribs. Mr. Owen 
first shows, in approximating to which of the three great groups of 
birds, terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic, the Ornitholite belonged, that 
from the length of the sternum and the remains of the primary in- 
termuscular crest or keel, it could not have been a strictly terrestrial 
bird, though these diaracters do not prove that it was a bird of 
flight, as they occur in the Penguins or other Brachyptera, w'hich 
have need of muscular forces to w^ork their wings as paddles under 
water. In the present fossil, however, from the lateral extent 
and convexity of the sternal plate, the presence and course of 

Ann. §• Mag. Nat. Hist. Sej)t. 1840. f 

66 Geological Society. 

the secondary intermuscular ridges, the commencement of the keel 
a little way behind the anterior margin of the sternum, Mr. Owen 
says there is no affinity with the brachypterous family. The cora- 
eoid bones or posterior clavicles, he also shows are less available in 
determining the habits of the Ornitholite, as they relate much more 
closely to the respiratory actions than to the movements of the 
wings, and are strongly developed even in the Apteryx. There re- 
mained consequently for comparison the ordinary birds of flight; 
and of these, the native species, which resemble the fossil in size, 
first claimed Mr. Owen's attention. Though the sternum is not 
complete, yet sufficient remains to have enabled him to set aside the 
Gallinaceous, and those Grallatorial and Passerine birds which have 
deeply incised stemums, and to restrict the field of comparison to 
such species as have the sternum either entire, or with shallow pos- 
terior emarginations. After a rigid comparison of the minor struc- 
tural details and pursuing it from the sea gulls and other aquatic 
birds upwards through the Grallatorial and Passerine orders, omitting 
few British species, and no genus, he at length found the greatest 
number of correspondences in the skeleton of the accipitrine spe- 
cies. The resemblance, however, was not sufficiently close to ad- 
mit of the fossil being referred to any native genus of Raptores : the 
breadth of the proximal end of the coracoid removes it from the 
owls (Strigidce), the shaft of the same bone is too slender for the 
Falconidae ; and the femur and tibia are relatively weaker than in 
many of the British Hawks or Buzzards. It is with the Vultures 
that Mr. Owen has found the closest agreement ; but he says the 
fossil indicates a smaller species than any known to exist in the 
present day, and is probably a distinct subgenus. 

The professed ornithologist, Mr. Owen remarks, may receive 
with reasonable hesitation a determination of family affinities arrived 
at, in the absence of the usual characters deduced from the beak 
and feet ; but in the course of a long series of close comparisons, he 
says, he has met with so many more characters, both appreciable and 
available in the present problem, than he anticipated, that he confi- 
dently expects, in the event of the mandibles, the bones of the feet, 
or the entire sternum of the bird in question being found, they will 
establish his present conclusion, that the Sheppey ornitholite is re- 
ferrible to a member of the group of Accipitrine Scavengers, so 
abundant in the warmer latitudes of the present world. 

The Ornitholite in Mr. Bowerbank's museum consists of ten sa- 
cral vertebrae anchylosed together, as is usual in birds with a con- 
tinuous keel-like spinal ridge. Four of the vertebrae are analogous 
to the lumbar vertebrae in the mammalia, and they are succeeded by 
five others, in which, as in the Vultures, the inferior transverse pro- 
cesses are not develoj)ed. This character, however, Mr. Owen says, 
is not peculiar to the Vulturidae. Though the part of the fossil pre- 
served is eminently characteristic of the class of birds, yet it is not 
calculated to throw light on the closer affinities of the species to 
which it belongs : nevertheless it supports rather than affects the 
determination of the Hunterian specimen. For the apparently ex- 

Geological Society, 67 

tinct bird indicated by these fossils^ the name of Lithornis vultur'mus 
is provisionally proposed. 

3. Mr. Owen commences his description of the remains of an ex- 
tinct species of Serpent found at Sheppey, by pointing out the es- 
sential characters by which the vertebrae of an Ophidian Reptile are 

Vertebrae joined enarthrodially by a deep anterior transversely 
oblong cup and a corresponding prominent posterior ball, and fur- 
ther articulated by projecting posterior oblique processes, wedged 
like the carpenter's tenon into a mortice, excavated in the anterior 
oblique processes of the succeeding vertebra, supporting moreover 
on each side of the fore part of the body an oblong convexity for 
the moveable articulation of the rib, can belong, Mr. Owen ob- 
serves, to no other than a reptile of the Ophidian order. 

One of the specimens described in this portion of the memoir, 
consists of about 30 vertebrae possessing the above characters ; also 
of a number of long slender ribs, having expanded concave vertebral 
extremities cemented irregularly together by a mass of indurated 
clay, and it forms part of the Hunterian collection of fossils ; an- 
other specimen, consisting of 28 vertebrae, and some others of less 
magnitude, belong to Mr. Bowerbank's collection. All the speci- 
mens, Mr. Owen considers, are referrible to the same species, and 
they were all found at Sheppey. 

The vertebrae in each specimen present the same conformation, 
and nearly the same size, being equal in this respect to those of a 
Boa Constrictor 10 feet long. They belong to the ordinary dorsal 
or costal series, and differ from those of the Boa and Python in their 
superior length as compared to their breadth and height. The ridge 
continued from the anterior to the posterior oblique processes on 
each side is less developed : the oblique processes themselves do not 
extend so far outwards ; and the spinous process is narrower in its 
antero-posterior extent but longer. In the first two of these differ- 
ences, the fossil agrees with the Linnaean Coluber and its subgenera, 
but differs from the Crotalus ; and in the remaining points it differs 
from Crotalus, Coluber, Naja and Trigonocephalus. The long 
and comparatively narrow spine, the outward prolongation of the 
upper angle of the posterior oblique processes, the uniform convexity 
of the costal protuberance, the uneven or finely wrinkled external 
surface of the superior arch of the vertebra, are characters which 
distinguish these Ophidian vertebrae from those of any other genus 
of the order with which Mr. Owen has been able to compare them. 
He therefore proposes to call the species provisionally Palceophis To- 

The ribs are hollow as in all land serpents. 

From the agreement in the configuration of the under surface of 
the body of the vertebrae of the fossil with that in the vertebrae of 
the Boae and Pythons more nearly than with the Colubri, and in 
none of the differences above noticed indicating any obstacle to the 
entrapping and destroying a living struggling prey, as well as from 
the length (11 feet) which it may be inferred the creature attained. 

G8 Zoological Sociely, 

Mr. Owen concludes it was not provided with poisonous fan^. 
Serpents of similar dimensions exist in the present day only in 
tropical regions, and their food consists principally of the warm- 
blooded animals. Mr. Owen therefore in conclusion states, that had 
no evidence been obtained of birds or mammals in the London clay, 
he would have felt persuaded that they must have coexisted with 
the Palceophis Toliapicus, 


December 10, 1839. — William H. Lloyd, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter from Dr. Weissenborn, dated Weimar, October 6, 1839,, 
was read. It accompanied a present of two specimens (male and 
female) of the black variety of the common Hamster (Cricetus vul- 
garis), and a head, preserved so as to display the cheek-pouches of 
that animal. The writer of the letter states that he possesses a 
common Pigeon, just fledged, in which no vestiges of the organs of 
vision can be traced. " The orbits are tolerably well developed, and 
lined with a sort of half- mucous membrane, and therefore destitute 
of feathers. I have never heard of a similar defect in any animal ; 
and in one where the incubation is extra-uterine it appears doubly 
wonderful or anomalous. The bird is quite healthy, and presents in 
its habits several curious anomalies, which may be traced to its mon- 

Professor Owen communicated his notes on the Anatomy of the 
Biscacha {Lagostomus trichodactylus, Brookes). 

" The individual dissected," says Mr. Owen, " was a female, full- 
grown, weighing 8 pounds 2 ounces, avoirdupois : the weight of the 
brain was 5 drachms, avoirdupois, the proportion of the brain to the 
body being as 1 to 416. This is the smallest relative size of the 
brain that has yet been recorded in the Rodent order, in some of the 
species of which order, as the Mouse, the brain approaches that of 
Man, the relation of its mass to that of the body being as 1 to 46 ; 
that of the human subject is as 1 to 30. The brain presented the 
usual broad depressed form and simple unconvoluted surface charac- 
teristic of the Rodent order : its length was 1 inch 8 lines, its breadth 
1 inch 5 lines, and the length of the cerebral portion 1 inch 3 lines. 
The proportion of the cerebellum to the cerebrum was as 1 to 5. 
The breadth of the medulla oblongata was to that of the cerebrum as 
1 to 6. The upper surface of each lobe of the cerebrum is marked 
with two slightly curved fissures, each between 3 and 4 lines in 
length, and one a little in advance of, and exterior to the other : a 
single anfractuosity defines the external convex prominence of the 
cerebrum. On the under surface a fissure is continued from the 
posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere forwards, along the middle 
of the natiform protuberance, to the outer boundary of the root of 
the large olfactory nerve. 

•* On laying open the abdomen an immense accumulation of adi- 
pose membrane concealed the viscera ; the bag of the great omentum 

Zoological Society, ^ 

formed, however, a small part of this covering, as after extending 
down over half the abdomen it was reflected upwards, in front of 
the liver. The lower half of the abdominal cavity was overlapped 
by broad and thick adipose processes, continued from the lower con- 
volutions of the colon, without being connected with the great 
omentum, and from the fundus of the urinary bladder. The appen- 
dices epiploicee of the human colon may be regarded as rudimentary 
conditions of the adipose folds here so enormously developed. The 
stomach corresponded in form and relative size with that of the Chin- 
chilla (see Trans. Zool. Soc, vol. i. p. 51. pi. V.). The left blind 
extremity projected about an inch beyond the cardia ; the pyloric 
end became suddenly contracted : the cuticular lining of the oeso- 
phagus terminated at the cardia in five pointed processes, radiating 
from the cardia. 

" The duodenum was dilated, as in many other phytophagous Ro- 
dents, at its commencement ; it descends with a slight sigmoid 
flexure to the right lumbar region, then crosses over to the left side, 
being freely suspended in a broad duodenal mesentery, which con- 
tracts as the gut perforates the base of the meso- colon to become the 
jejunum. The small intestines presented the usual disposition : the 
caecum is of moderate length, viz. four inches, with a diameter of 
two and a half inches, thus corresponding in general form with that 
of the Chinchilla. The colon first crosses obliquely the lower part 
of the abdomen, and returns, forming a fold of about four inches in 
extent ; it then describes a second much larger and narrower fold, 
of ten inches in length : it is at the bend of this fold that the faeces 
begin to be separated into pellets, and it is from these loops that the 
omental processes are continued : the colon then bends over the root 
of the mesentery, passing below the stomach to the left side of the 
abdomen, where it describes a series of convolutions before ending 
in the rectum. No omental process is continued from these folds, 
but the meso-colon, to which they are suspended, is of great breadth, 
and was loaded with fat. 

Feet. Inches. 

Length of the small intestines 14 9 

; — large ditto 7 5 

*' The anal, vaginal, and urethral outlets are separate from one 

" The liver consists of a left lobe, a cystic lobe, and two small 
right lobes, with a spigelian appendage. I'he cystic lobe is fissured, 
and the left division is perforated on its free convex surface to re- 
ceive a process of the suspensory ligament. 

" The gall-bladder was of very small size. 

" The spleen is triangular, with the upper or anterior angle most 

" The kidneys and suprarenal glands as usual in Rodents. The 
heart presented the usual form ; two superior venae cavae, the left 
joining the inferior cava, and receiving the coronary vein. The 

70 Zoological Society, 

right lung presented three lobes and the median lobule; the left 
lung three lobes. 

" There was nothing remarkable in the ovaria or fallopian tubes. 
The two uteri terminate by distinct valvular orifices ; they are long 
and narrow : in each mesometry there is a plexus of transversely dis- 
posed vessels, principally veins, which runs parallel with the uterus, 
and seems to represent the remains of the wolffian body. The most 
interesting feature in the generative organs was a longitudinal sep- 
tum, dividing the vagina into two canals for upwards of an inch be- 
yond the ora tincce. This septum terminated by a thin concave edge, 
directed towards the outlet of the vagina. There was no constric- 
tion or valvular fold between the divided and the undivided portions 
of the vagina ; the former were somewhat more vascular, and slightly 
plaited longitudinally. The whole length of the vagina was four 
inches. The clitoris was perforated by the urethral canal, and was 
nine lines in length. 

" No other placental quadruped has hitherto presented so near an 
approach to the marsupial type of the female organs as the Lagosto- 
7nus. Rudiments of a vaginal septum occur in the young or virgin 
state of several genera ; but it is only in the Lagostomus that a con- 
tinuation of the median separation of the genital tubes has been 
continued beyond the uterine portion along so great an extent of the 
vagina, and as a permanent structure." 

Professor Owen also communicated the following paper, entitled 
*' Observations on the Generative System of some of the lower Ani- 
mals," by Professor Rudolph Wagner, M.D. 

" Among a variety of observations which I undertook on the coast 
of Nice in August and September 1839, for the purpose of obtaining 
a more intimate knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of marine 
animals, there are several which perhaps afford some more general 
interest for the natural history of animals. 

** Many of my own earlier observations had produced the convic- 
tion, that a disjunction of the sexes is much more universal than has 
been hitherto admitted. Cuvier, in his * Regne Animal,' and after 
him the most of those who have entered upon Zoological Classifica- 
tion, still assume that among the so-called lower animals many are 
no more than females, and others without sex . 

** Thus, to begin with the Mollusca, and judging from assertion, 
the Cyclohranchiata up to the present time are known only as fe- 
males. I succeeded as well in Patella as in Chiton in finding some 
individuals that were males, and others that were females. The 
males have a white testis, with active spermatozoa, resembling those 
of muscles ; the females have all the elements of the primitive ovum. 
The AscidiiB also appear to be of disjoined sex. I found, however, 
in several species merely ova, but ova that presented the germinal 
vesicle and germinal spot. 

" Among the Radiata I had hitherto found only females, as well 
in the Starfish as in the Sea-urchin and the Holothurice. The pear- 

Zoological Society. *J\ 

shaped vesicles which open into the efferent duct of the ovary in 
Holothuria tuhulosa, and which Delle Chiaje regards as testes, posi- 
tively showed no spermatozoa in three individuals, in which the pale 
rose-red ovary was otherwise much developed, and presented the 
most beautiful ova, with germinal vesicle and germinal spot. But 
in the first individual which my friend Professor Valentin opened, 
the organ corresponding and very similar to the ovary immediately 
presented a difference (from the ovary) in its white contents. We 
also saw indeed in those contents the most beautiful spermatozoa, 
much resembling those of osseous fishes. Numerous other individuals 
constantly presented themselves, either as males or females. 

** Regarding the Medusa, Von Siebold of Dantzic had already 
mentioned that he had found male individuals with spermatozoa in 
Medusa aurita. In Nice I convinced myself with the greatest cer- 
tainty in Pelagia, Aurelia, Cassiopeia, and a fourth genus, that tiiese 
Medusidce are always of disjoined sex. The males, with their sper- 
matozoa actively moving (even within the capsules of the testes), are 
at the first glance to be distinguished from the females, whose ovaria 
always contain ova in different stages of development*. 

•' It is of especial interest to find that a disjunction of sex admits 
of demonstration, even in the Polyps. One of my companions. Dr. 
Erdl, (?) of Munich, found in Veretillum only female individuals in 
one Polypary, and in others only males. He writes me that he has 
afresh convinced himself of the same relation in Alcyonium, though 
the specimen had been preserved in spirit ; and that among the MoU 
lusca he has found similar sexual differences in Halyotis ; thus in the 
Asjndobranchia of Cuvier. 

" I must here remark, that my earlier statements on the sperma- 
tozoa of the Actinia are erroneous, since I regarded entirely peculiar 
and remarkable capsules with long threads (situated even on the 
prehensile arms) as spermatozoa. 

" My researches on the spermatozoa of cartilaginous fishes have 
shown the remarkable fact that the individual genera of the Rays and 
Sharks are distinguishable by the form of their spermatozoa. These 
spermatozoa are for the most part spirally wound, as in birds of song. 
Very remarkable is the structure of the testis ; which is constantly 
connected with a largely developed and winding vas deferens. That 
which Johann Miiller has described in the Rays as a peculiar gland 
is nothing else than this vas deferens. The relations in form of the 
male genital organs alternate much, as I shall show in a special and 
more comprehensive work. 

** The facts here reported were not witnessed by myself alone, but 
also by Professor Valentin of Bern, Dr. Peters of Berlin, and five 
young zootomists, pupils of mine, who were all in Nice at the same 
time as myself, and took a part in my observations." 

* I shall state these sexual relations in a special and detailed work on 
the whole anatomy and physiology of tlie MeduscB. 

72 Miscellaneous. 



Pontypoo], July 16, IS-IO. 

Sir, — I have to apologize for having so long delayed the remainder 
of my communication upon spontaneous generation, but having been 
rather fully engaged since the first part of it was inserted, I have 
not been able to transcribe it : I hope to be able to send it in about a 
week or ten days, so that I am afraid it will be too late for the next 

In addition to the white varieties of plants mentioned by Mr. 
Adams in the last Number, I have observed in this neighbourhood 
white varieties of the common Hyacinth and Columbine (Aquilegia) : 
the whole plant of the latter varies very much in colour from the 
proper plant, being wholly of a light green, and possessing none of 
the purplish-brown shade on the stems, so conspicuous in its normal 
state, so that they may easily be known when not in flower. I have 
seen large bushes of it growing within a few yards of the other va- 

I remain, yours most respectfully, 

James Bladok. 

P.S. The species of Crane Fly alluded to is a species of Tricho- 
cera, according to Mr. Westwood, from whom I have received a let- 
ter to that effect ; he has also mentioned it in his " Introduction." 


Charmouth, Dorset, 9th July, 1840. 

Sir, — My communication to Mr. Charlesworth respecting a spe- 
cies of Balsenoptera stranded on Charmouth beach, which appears in 
your Magazine of Natural History of the 1st of July, should have 
been corrected by my second letter to him on the same subject pre- 
viously to its being published. In my second communication I re- 
quested that the paragraph stating " that two small bones repre- 
senting the pelvis in quadrupeds were attached (one on each side) 
to the first caudal vertebra," should be omitted, as no such bones exist ; 
my second letter also contained several particulars respecting the 
sternum, os hyoides, bones of the spine, &c., which should have 
been incorporated with the first account, as it would have rendered 
it more complete and correct. 

I gave as my chief reason for believing " that our species differed 
from those previously described," the circumstance of its possessing 
only sixty vertebra, the others having sixty-two ; a more particular 
and careful investigation has convinced me that two of the small 
caudal bones have been lost, making the whole number sixty-two, 
and I am now convinced that it is nothing more or less than a small 
specimen of the species stranded at Ostend some years ago, and ex- 
hibited in London, viz. the Rorqual " Balsenoptera boops." 

Yours, &c., 
R. H. Sweeting, Surgeon. 

Miscellaneous, 73 


Farnliam, July 11th. 

Dear Sir, — I have lately mounted a brace of hybrid Pheasants, 
and have been requested to forward a memorandum to you ; if it is 
any way interesting-, you are welcome to make use of it. I believe 
there is not an instance mentioned as having occurred in a wild state, 
at least I have been so informed. 

The keeper of Henry Halsey, Esq., of Henley Park, two years 
ago hatched a hen Golden Pheasant with a brood of common Phea- 
sants, and allowed her to take to the woods with the others ; the re- 
sult has been two beautiful hybrids, with the characters of the two 
species so beautifully combined, that the most casual observer would 
not fail to perceive it at first sight : they have not the bright mark- 
ings of the common Pheasant, nor the gorgeous colours of the Golden 
Pheasant ; but they present the more sombre tints of the two. 

They were shot by Henry Halsey, Esq. at the latter end of Ja- 
nuar)% and are now in his possession. 

Yours respectfully, 

James Lowcock. 

on a specimen of the shearwater petrel^ kite^ &c. 

Chipping Norton, Oxon, July 9th, 1840. 

Sir, — A fine specimen of the Roller (Coracias Garrula) has lately 
come under my notice, which was shot in the end of June, 1839, by 
the gamekeeper, on the Guiting estate, Gloucestershire ; and in 
September last a specimen of the Shearwater Petrel (PuJ/inus Anglo- 
rum) was taken within this parish. The bird rose from the ground, 
but being unable to fly far, was soon captured and brought to me 
alive ; I endeavoured to feed it, but after nearly two days, during 
which it appeared to have taken no food, I killed and stuff^ed it. The 
bird made good use of its bill and wings in self defence, making at 
the same time a loud breathing or hissing noise. 

The Kite (^Milvus regalis) is become a rare bird. I have recently 
obtained a specimen shot on December 29, 1838, about eight miles 
from hence, in the vicinity of Stow. The bird had frequented the 
neighbourhood several days, and shots were fired at it, but to no 
purpose, till at last it was seen by a boy to fly into a plantation at 
the bottom of Stow Hill ; he hastened up to the town and informed 
the parties who had previously been in pursuit, and on their arrival 
at the place it was shot whilst perched at roost. 

The third volume of Mr. Macgillivray's ' History of British Birds' 
has just reached me ; it is a most excellent work, and I would re- 
commend every ornithological student to procure a copy. There are 
other prettily and beautifully illustrated works, but this, in my opi- 
nion, for the accuracy and minuteness of its detailed descriptions, is 
scarcely to be excelled ; the " Lessons," too, of this practical orni- 
thologist, together with the author's account of his rambles " o'er 
moor and mountain," in company and alone, with other valuabie 

74 Miscellaneous. 

features, are highly entertaining and instructive. I sincerely hope 
the publishers will let us have the remaining portion of the vv^ork — 
the Water birds — with as little delay as possible, for the author's 
valuable experience with this tribe, advantageously located as he is, 
must prove exceedingly useful. 

Wild Geese (I cannot say what species) were seen in this neigh- 
bourhood on June 1 6 ; thirteen appeared in the flight. This appears 
unusually early, supposing them to be a brood of the present year. 

Thomas Goatley. 


To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

The Goshawk. — Of this handsome bird I kept three specimens 
in the year 1837 ; two were females, and at least one-third larger 
and stronger than the male. The young Hawk for some time after 
birth is covered with a thick white down in place of feathers, and, 
upon the whole, much resembles a young Turkey. Until four or five 
months old it does not stand erect, but holds the head low, round- 
ing the back like a Guinea-fowl. The cry, which is easily excited, 
resembles a quick shrill repetition of the letter P, pe-pe-pe-pe-pe. 
Whilst the bird is young its faeces are ejected with surprising force, 
even to the distance of eight or nine feet. 

When a bird was placed near the bars of the cage in which they 
were confined, one of the Hawks would rush up to it, and dashing 
into it a claw, drag it to one corner of the cage, extending his wings 
round it to prevent the approach of the others. This, however, was 
somewhat difficult ; and often, when the devourer least expected it, 
his bonne louche was snatched from him by another, who had perhaps 
relinquished his own piece for the purpose. Howbeit the loser never 
ajopeared incensed at the theft. 

When presented with a living bird, the Hawk invariably seizes it 
round the neck with his talons, and begins devouring the head, re- 
gardless of the cries and struggles of its victim. The pressure on 
the neck and blows on the skull quickly cause death, and the Hawk 
begins feeding with such hearty good will, that in a few minutes 
nothing remains but a few feathers. 

Fragilitas Ossium (?) in the Kestrel. — In the year 1837 I 
purchased a young Kestrel of a boy from Wilcot. I was at the time 
surprised at the peculiarity of its shape, and the difficulty it expe- 
rienced in walking. Its appetite was voracious, and it was exceed- 
ingly tame. When fully fledged, it was suddenly seized with violent 
spasms ; the leg being thrown over the back, and the wings drawn 
forwards over the breast. It appeared in great pain, but was very 
hungry. It continued in this state two days, when I killed it. 

On examining the body I found nearly every bone dislocated or 
fractured, and rather softer than usual, containing less eaithy mat- 
ter. One femur had been broken mfive places, the tibia in four ; 
indeed, there were upwards of twenty recent or partially united 

Miscellaneous, 75 

fractures in the long bones ; the legs were greatly distorted and the 
spine crooked. 

I am unable to account for the origin of the disease in this bird ; 
it had been reared with several other young Hawks, and had lived 
chiefly on young unfledged birds, mice, &c. &c. 

The Kingfisher. — Of this beautiful, but stupid bird, I have had 
nine living specimens ; seven young and two adult. 

On April 14, 1837, a boy brought me a living female Kingfisher, 
which he had taken on the nest in the act of laying an eg^, which I 
found on dissection covered with the shell and ready for expulsion. 
I immediately proceeded with him to the spot where the nest was 
found, for the purpose of examining its structure. It was formed in 
a hole about a foot in depth, which had been excavated in a bank 
overhanging a narrow brook. It was concealed from view by a tuft 
of long grass ; but as the male bird was constantly sitting on a branch 
near the nest, the accumulation of faeces led to the discovery of the 
place of its concealment. 

The nest itself was large and of peculiar structure, being composed 
exclusively of the exuvise of the small fish it had devoured, mixed 
with fins, scales, &c., and the skins and legs of a little insect some- 
what resembhng a shrimp, which adheres to stones, &c. in running 

Of this substance there was about sufficient to fill a pint cup. I 
preserved it, and possess some at the present time. The interior ca- 
vity is small : the eggs, of which I have four, are white, round, of 
moderate size, and six or seven in number. 

In the spring of 1837, a boy brought me four young Kingfishers, 
half-fledged, which he had just taken from a nest near the same 
spot. I kept them two months, feeding them exclusively on fish, and 
washing them in lukewarm water daily. Under this treatment they 
thrived in a remarkable manner, and the plumage became as clear 
and brilliant as in a state of nature. They were indeed generally 
admired, but I was at length compelled to give them away on ac- 
count of the great care and time I was obliged to devote to them. 

The young Kingfisher is a very stupid and inactive bird. It will 
stand in the same posture one or two hours without moving a muscle, 
and its enjoyments seem concentrated in the narrow circle of eating 
and sleeping. On touching the extremity of the bill it opens its 
mouth, and after swallowing the morsel gravely closes it again, and 
looks round with laughable slowness for a second mouthful. It will 
swallow without inconvenience a minnow or loach half its own 
weight, and in the course of the day will devour ten or twelve such. 
It is very tame, readily standing on the finger to be fed. It casts 
up the bones and fins of the fishes in the form of a pellet like the 
Owl and Hawk, and of these pellets its nest is formed. The adult 
Kingfisher is very intractable, and refuses to eat when in captivity. 
On the whole, the Kingfisher is only tolerable on account of the 
beauty of its plumage. 

Chakles Coward. 

Devizes, July 8, 1840. 

76 Miscellaneous. 


Hypericum linearifolium was found by the Rev. Thomas Hincks 
of Cork, among granite rocks near the banks of the Teign, Devon, 
in the summer of 1838. Specimens are in his own collection and 
in that of the Rev. William Hincks, F.L.S. of London, who lately 
ascertained the species in looking over that part of his herbarium. 

The same plant is amongst Mr. Babington's acquisitions in Jersey 
(see Annals, vol. ii. p. 348.), but it is interesting to know that it is 
also found in England, and it is somew^iat curious that so conspi- 
cuous a plant has been so long overlooked. 


I have to thank M. Van Beck for the eagerness with which he 
has repeated my experiments on the peculiar heat of vegetables. His 
verification of the existence of this heat and of its diurnal period 
places these facts in the number of those which may take a definitive 
place in science, which, generally speaking, admits only that which 
has been seen by more than one observer. 

M. Van Beck diflfers from me relative to a single fact of very little 
importance. I mentioned, that upon placing in the open air as a com- 
parative experiment, part of a living vegetable and a similar part 
dead, the latter always appeared colder than the former : M. Van 
Beck constantly obtained an opposite result. This opposition in the 
results of our observations is perhaps caused by a difference in the 
mode in which our experiments were prepared. M. Van Beck 
plunged, as I did, the portion of vegetable which he meant to de- 
prive of life into very hot water ; perhaps he then let it grow cold 
in the open air, and thus lose by evaporation a part of the water 
which moistened its surface ; whereas I cooled it by immersion in 
cold water, and it was thus completely soaked with water when I 
made the experiment. 

It will be seen that there must be more evaporation from it than 
the less moist living vegetable portion, and that consequently, it 
would necessarily be colder, whilst an opposite result might be ob- 
tained when the vegetable portion, killed by the hot water, had been 
able to evaporate the excess of water, which it had gained by re- 
maining some time in the open air. Perhaps, also, the peculiar na- 
ture of the vegetable parts may have an influence upon the difference 
of the results in question. — Note of M, Dutrochet on M. Van Beck's 
observations on the Temperature of Plants, Comptes Rendus, Jan. 13. 


In the ' Comptes Rendus' mention is made of a note received by 
the Academy of Sciences from M. Marcel de Serres relative to the 
observations which he is making on this subject along w'ith M. Joly, 

In the specimens of rock salt of a tolerably decided greenish co- 
lour brought from Cardona (Spain), the infusoria appear more rare, 
smaller, and less distinct than in the specimens of a red colour be- 
fore examined. 

This, says M. Marcel de Serres, finds an explanation in M. Joly's 

Miscellaneous. 77 

previous observations on the change of tint which the infusoria that 
colour our salt marshes undergo by age. These animalcules, which 
are white at their birth, become green in their middle age, and do 
not till their adult age take the purple tint which makes them so re- 
markable. In general the green infusoria are not so often seen as 
the red in salt marshes, which seems to indicate that these monads 
remain but a short time in their middle state. 

We have found the same infusoria in the argilo- calcareous marls 
which are found at Cardona beneath the rock salt. There they have 
their beautiful purple tint, but they are in too small numbers to com- 
municate it to the mass of marl which has remained grayish. This 
fact also proves, that in the ancient world, as in the present one, the 
animalcules were precipitated after their death to the bottom of the 
waters in which they previously lived. — Comptes Rendus, Mar. 16. 


The shell of this very curious and interesting genus has been 
placed by different authors in very different parts of the system, 
some persisting that it should be arranged with the marine genera 
on account of the grooves on the left side of the mouth. From a spe- 
cimen which Mr. Powis has very kindly given to me, I have no 
doubt in my own mind that it is a very distinct genus of Cyclosio- 
mida, for this specimen has a horny orbicular many-whorled oper- 
culum as large as the mouth of the shell, exactly resembling the 
opercula of some of the genera of that family. The polished surface 
of the shell and the form of the notch is very unlike any that I have 
hitherto observed among the shells of marine mollusca. The latter 
is peculiar, as being funnel-shaped, wdder outwards, and narrowed 
into a slit within, and only appears as a narrow simple groove on 
the outer surface of the peristome. 

I am acquainted with two species of this genus ; one Pupina fusca, 
small, pale brown, with a yellowish white peristome ; and the other, 
Pupina grandis, twice the size of the former, more ventricose, and 
.of a bright yelk yellow colour ; there is a fine specimen of the latter 
species in the cabinet of Mr. Stainforth. I suspected that this genus 
should be referred to the family of Cyclostomida directly I had seen 
the animal and operculum of Mr. Guilding's genus Megalomastoma ; 
but from the rarity of these shells, I had little hope of so soon being 
able to get the additional information furnished by the operculum, 
which was alone wanted to clear up the doubt. I have lately seen 
another shell which has the polished surface, mouth and operculum 
of this genus, but is destitute of the groove, and must form another 
genus of this family, for which I propose the name of Callia. — J. E. 

on the byssus of unio. by john g. anthony, esq. with notes, 

by j. e. gray, esq. 
** I have discovered another fact with regard to the Unios which 
has escaped the notice of other collectors thus far : in one locality 
■^near us (Cincinnati, U. S.), the Uyiios spin a byssus. The location 

78 Miscellaneous, 

is a very peculiar one, a strong rapid current running over a gravelly 
bottom : in such exposed situation our Unios do not often attempt 
a lodgement, but prefer sandy bars or muddy shores where the water 
is not very deep or rapid. Upon these gravel beds, however, the 
large shells are imbedded, and the young ones spin the byssus by 
which they attach themselves to the larger shells or the stones of 
the gravel. In this way I have seen hundreds moored and riding se- 
curely at anchor at the utmost tension of their lines ; for it is only, 
as far as I can perceive, a single filament. The thread appears to be 
attached to the mantle, and is probably produced by it, and is not an 
umbilical attachment. I saved some of the animals in spirits."— 
Letter, 16th May, 1840. 

This account is curious in several particulars ; first, as showing 
the relations of these animals to the family of Arcada ; second, as 
showing what I have long expected from the observations I have 
made on some marine gasteropodous moUusca, — that many, if not 
most of the kinds, have the power of forming a byssus when it can 
assist them in their habits. It is very desirable, however, that the 
place where the byssus is attached to the animal should be re- 
examined, for if it takes its origin from the mantle, it is an ano- 
maly in the organization of moUusca. It always arises, as far as I 
am aware, from some part of the foot, in general from the anterior 
part of the base, as in Mytilus, Pinna, Avicula, Pecteny &c., but some- 
times from the end of this organ, as in Area, from whence also, I 
should suspect, it most probably arises in the Uniones. — J. E. Gray. 


To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 

Gentlemen, — You did me the honour of reprinting in your * Annals 
of Natural History' for March, 1840, a short paper on the Crania and 
Dentition of the Carnivora, which I communicated to the Zoological 
Society. My object, as stated in that paper, was merely to point out 
a few simple characters by which the groups might be distinguished, 
the importance of those characters being confirmed by others exhi- 
bited, both by the internal anatomy and external structure of the spe- 
cies. Since the publication of that paper, M. Isidore GeofFroy* has 
furnished us with figures and descriptions of some interesting ge- 
nera of Carnivora from Africa and Madagascar, which, according to 
my views, should be added to those already included in my list of 
the Viverrida. They consist of the genera Ichneumia, Galidia, and 
Galidictis. The first of these (^Ichneumia) belongs to that subdivision 
of the Viverridee in which there is a complete bony orbit, and is 
founded upon three species described originally as species of the ge- 
nus Herj^estes or Ichneumon. The other two genera (Galidia and 
Galidictis\) , in the straightness of the lower margin of the rami of 

* See the * Magazin de Zoologie* of M. F. E. Gu^rin-Meneville, Parts 
9 and 10 for 1839. An extract of this paper appeared in the * Comtes 
Rendus,' &c. for October, 1837. 

f In the original paper Galictis. The alteration in the name was neces- 
sary, Mr. Bell having given the name Galictis to a group of the Mustelidce. 

Meteorological Observations. 79 

the lower jaw, approach the Cats, and in my opinion should therefore 
be placed at the opposite extremity of the Viverridce, the Herpestes 
group being apparently most nearly related to the Dogs. Galidia 
and Galidictis also approach the Cats in having the muzzle propor- 
tionately shorter than the other Viverridce, and in having the true 
molars smaller. The genus Galidia appears to be scarcely sufficiently 
distinct from Mr. Bennett's genus Cryptoprocta. 

In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 89, for May, 
1839, Mr. Evans has published his Notes on the Anatomy of the 
Arctonyx collaris, which tend to show that this animal is closely al- 
lied to the Badger, and should occupy the situation in which I have 
placed it in my classification. Arctonyx and Mydaus I can but regard 
as subgenera of Meles. — G. R. Waterhouse. 

Zoological Society, Aug. 27, 1840. 


We have much pleasure in announcing the safe arrival of our sci- 
entific friend Mr. Gould, the celebrated ornithologist, from Austra- 
lia, after an absence of two years and a half, which he has devoted 
to the investigation of the habits and ceconomy of the animals of that 
portion of the globe. His collections, we understand, are very ex- 
tensive ; and among other interesting materials brought home for 
the purpose of illustrating his work on the Birds of Australia, are 
the nests and eggs of a great portion of the species. 


Chiswick. — July 1. Overcast: boisterous. 2. Rain, with strong wind. 3. 
Cloudy and fine. 4. Very fine. 5. Cloudy: windy. 6, 7. Fine. 8. Fine: 
heavy rain. 9 — 12. Very fine. 13 — 17. Fine. 18. Overcast. 19. Cloudy : 
rain. 20. Heavy showers. 21. Very fine : rain. 22. Fine. 23. Cloudy. 
24. Overcast and fine : rain. 25. Showery. 26. Cloudy : fine. 27. Fine, 
28. Hazy. 29. Very fine. 30. Cloudy : rain. 31. Very fine. 

Boston. — July 1, 2. Rain. 3. Stormy. 4. Fine: rain early a.m. : rain a.m. 
5. Fine: rain a.m. 6. Cloudy: rain p.m. 7. Cloudy: rain early am. : rain 
Y.M. 8. Cloudy: rain p.m. 9. Cloudy. 10. Cloudy: rain p.m. 11 — 13. 
Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 14, 15. Fine. 16. Rain: rain early a.m. 17. 
Fine. 18, 19. Cloudy: rain p.m. 20. Fine. 21. Fine: rain p.m. 22. Fine. 
23,24. Cloudy. 25. Rain : thunder and lightning with rain p.m. 26. Cloudy. 
27. Fine. 28. Cloudy: rain a.m. 29. Fine. 30. Cloudy. 31. Fine. 

Jpplegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — July 1. Heavy rain a.m. : cleared up p.m. 
2. Drizzling all day. 3. Heavy rain all day. 4. Fair till 4 p.m. then wet. 5. 
Showery : fair evening. 6. Rainy. 7, 8. Showery : thunder. 9. Fair all day. 
10. Showery. 11. Warm: a single shower : thunder. 12. Very wet. 13. Fine 
dry day. 14. Wet afternoon. 15. Very wet all day. 16, 17. Occasional showers. 
18. Fair till afternoon, then wet. 19. Rain early a.m. : cleared up. 20. Fair all 
day. 21. Heavy showers all day : thunder. 22. Fair all day. 23. Fair till 
evening, then rain. 24. Showery all day. 25. Showery afternoon. 26 — 30. 
Fair all day. 31. The same : a few drops p.m. 

Sun shone out 29 days. Rain fell 22 days. Thunder 3 days. 

Wind north f day. North-north-east f day. East- north-east 1 day. East 
1 day. South-east ^ day. South 4 days. South-west 8 days. West-south-west 
3 days. West 7 days. North-west 2J days. North-north-west 3 days. 

Calm 11 days. Moderate 12 days. Brisk 4 days. Strong breeze 2 days. 
Boisterous 1 day. Variable 1 day. 



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XIII. — Observations on the Genus Typhlopone, with descrip- 
tions of several exotic species of Ants. By J. O. West- 
wood, F.L.S. 

[With a Plate.] 

Having in my * Introduction to the Modern Classification 
of Insects' figui'ed an insect from the collection of C. C. Ba- 
bington, Esq., under the name of Typhlopone futv a, and which, 
without hesitation, I considered to be a neuter Ant^, it be- 
comes necessary, — now that Mr. Shuckard has, in a previous 
page of these Annals, stated his conviction that it is the 
female of a genus belonging to another family, in which 
neuters do not exist, — that I should give my reasons for the 
opinion I have advanced, that it belongs to the family of the 
Ants, and is a neuter insect, and which I still retain. 

Ignorant although we are of the males of this genus, it is not 
only upon a comparison of known individuals of Typhlopone 
with the females and neuters of the Ants, and with the females 
of the MutillidcB, that I found my opinion ; we are now ac- 
quainted with four facts relative to the habits of these insects. 
1st, One of Mr. Shuckard's specimens is stated by him still to 
retain within its jaws the wing of a Termes. 2ndly, Another, 
of which the head alone remained, had attacked and pertina- 
ciously retained hold of the leg of an ant, which had evidently 
pulled off the body of the Typhlopone, in order to rid itself of 
its incumbrance. 3rdly, Mr. Raddon has obtained many 
specimens of Typhlopone, found alive in casks of sugar from 
the West Indies. And 4thly, Mr. Babington's three speci- 
mens were also found in sugar. Now these are circumstances 

* I have in this paper continued to employ the term ' neuter' for the abor- 
tive sex of the Heterogyna and other social Hymenoptera, although it is 
certainly improper, such individuals being, in fact, females, with partially 
developed female organs. The term * worker', which has also been applied to 
them, is not exclusively their own, because the real productive females, 
amongst the humble-bees and wasps, work as much as the so-called 'neuters'. 
It would perhaps be better to term them ' pseudo-females.' 

Ann. §• Mag. Nat. Hist. Oct. 1 840. g 

82 Mr. J. O. Westwood on the Genus Typhlopone, 

which are well known to be the habits of neuter Ants. Of the 
extraordinary pertinacity with which some of the latter retain 
hold of these and larger insects, I have collected various no- 
tices in my ^ Introduction' (v. 2, p. 230.), whilst the partiality 
of Ants for sugar is very great, and well known. One species 
is indeed named Formica Saccharivora by Linnaeus. 

I proceed, therefore, to structural peculiarities. 

The large and flattened head is not exclusively characteristic 
of the Formicid(<e, but the want of eyes and ocelli occurs only 
in Typhlopone, and in various blind ants, mentioned in my 
^ Introduction' (v. 2, p. 218.). The antennae are equally similar 
in structure in Typhlopone and several ants. In my drawings 
of T. fulva^ made immediately after the meeting of the British 
Association at Cambridge, the antennae of T.fulva are repre- 
sented as having only eleven joints ; that is, one joint less than 
the typical number in female and neuter aculeate Hymeno- 
ptera, A specimen recently given to me by Mr. Raddon, ex- 
hibits also eleven decided joints in the antennae. Mr. Shuck- 
ard describes them as '• consisting apparently of only ten 
joints," and blames me for not having described these organs, 
as well as for having omitted a generic and specific descrip- 
tion of T,fulva in my ^ Introduction,' where they would have 
been out of place. Mr. Shuckard does not endeavour to show 
in what way the loss of the two joints, which he states to be 
wanting, occurs, but he assumes that the circumstance of 
Myrmecodes and other apterous Muiillidce having only eleven 
joints in the antennae, proves that Typhlopone is allied ta 
those genera. Now Latreille, with true philosophic spirit, 
has shown how this loss occurs in the Myrmecodes and Myzine 
(^ Regne Animal,' 5. 316, 318.), namely, by the second joint 
being lodged within the extremity of the first joint, by which 
it is hidden. Such is also the case in the Thynni^ which are 
the males of Myrmecodes \ but it is not so in Typhlopone, 
and the loss must be accounted for in some other manner. 
Mr. Shuckard, indeed, describes the T. Thwaitsii as having 
eleven jointed antennae, and T. Spinolce as having apparently 
twelve joints, arising from the large terminal joint being 
divided in its middle by a slender dark ring, thus proving 
that it is by the soldering together of the terminal joints, 
and not by the immersion of the second joint within the apex 
of the long basal joint, that this is effected. Hence we per- 
ceive an identity of structure between Typhlopone and the 
Ants, and a dissimilarity between them and the Mutillidce, 
The former is still further confirmed by the fact, that I have 
detected in some species of Ants, which I shall describe at 
the end of this paper, only ten joints in the antennae, and that 

with descriptions of several exotic species of Ants. 83 

Odontomachus armatus, Latr. [ne^xiiev^Daceton armigerum, 
Perty), Cryytocerus attatus (female and neuter), Atta cepha- 
lotes (female and neuter), and others, have only eleven jointed 
antennae, the second joint being exposed. No previous au- 
thor has noticed this curious circumstance, and Mr. Shuckard 
stating that '^ this curtailment is never found in the apterous 
social Heierogyna'^^\ thereon founds an unwarranted rela- 
tionship with the MutUlidde. 

The situation' of the antennae close to the mouth, and the 
elongated basal joint with the following joint affixed so as to 
form an elbow, are also characters which Typhlopone possesses 
in common with the Ants. 

The mouth is remarkable for the extraordinary minuteness 
of the palpi. The curtailed structure of the trophi (that is, of 
the maxilla), labium and palpi) is stated by Mr. Shuckard pe- 
culiarly to distinguish the JDorylidce from both the Formicidce 
and the Mutilltdce, But this is not the case, as I have in- 
stanced a considerable number of species of ants. in which both 
the maxillary and labial palpi possess much fewer joints 
than the typical number (Introd. 2, p. 219.). 

The structure of the thorax is very interesting in Typhlo- 
pone, Mr. Shuckard has, however, completely mistaken its 
formation, considering the prothoracic collar as the meso- 
thorax, and overlooking the true mesothorax. This has evi- 
dently resulted from the want of a careful examination of the 
corresponding parts in the allied groups, and the absence of 
generalization in the views taken of the thoracic organization ; 
hence, therefore, the erroneous nature of the observations 
which Mr. Shuckard has published relative to the supposed 
peculiar distinction between Typhlopone and the other apte- 
rous Heterogyna of both groups, and of the relation between 
Typhlopone and the Dorylidce in this respect f. 

The principle upon which the variation in the development 
of the thoracic segments is regulated, depends entirely upon 

* Mr. Shuckard has made some observations relative to the adoption of 
the term Heterogyna of Latreille, contending that the term ought to be re- 
tained for the MutillidcB, instead of being applied to the Ant^, as it is by 
Saint Fargeau and Haliday. It appears to me, however, that the term was 
intended to apply either to the distinction which existed between the winged 
females of Formica and the wingless females of Mutillay or to the difference 
between the winged females and the wingless pseudo-females of i^or»zic«. 
In this latter sense the name is the most appropriate that could be applied to 
the FormicidcB as distinct from every other group of insects. 

t Amongst other things, Mr. Shuckard states that when the meso- and 
metathorax are of unequal size in the winged males of Heterogyna, it is the 
latter which is most developed, — a statement neither confirmed by nature nor 
by the principle that the segments of the thorax are always in px'oportion to 
the size of the locomotive organs which they respectively bear. 

G 2 

84 Mr. J. O. Westwood on the Genus Typhlopone, 

the locomotive organs and their action. In wingless insects 
motion is of course performed by the legs alone, and for this 
end the thoracic segments are nearly equally developed, espe- 
cially when the legs are nearly of equal size. This is especially 
to be seen in the typical Myrrnecia of New Holland, in which, 
from the elongated form of the body, each segment is neces- 
sarily drawn out to its full length of development. Here we 
find the collar of the prothorax large, oval, longitudinally or 
obliquely striated, emarginate behind, receiving the front of 
the mesothorax in the emargination, and which, as well as 
the metathorax, is transversely striated. The examination of 
a very few species of neuter Ants will show the more or less 
gradual coalescence of the meso- and metathorax ; the pro- 
thorax, however, remaining always most distinct and large, 
and such is exactly its structure in Typhlopone. In the apte- 
rous females of the typical Mutillidee, on the other hand, all 
the segments are consolidated into a single mass. 

Of the legs, I shall merely observe, that the employment of 
the character to be derived from the calcaria is fallacious, be- 
cause although many Ants possess but one spur to each tibia, 
there are certainly many which possess two to each of the 
four hind tibiae. Such is especially the case in the typical 
Myrmecice, in which one of the two spurs of each of the four 
hind legs exhibits a very beautiful structure. At the same 
time, there are others, such as Cryptocerus atratus, Pheidole 
providens, &c., which are entirely destitute of calcariae in the 
four hind legs. And it is moreover to be observed, that both 
in respect to the spurs and the tarsal ungues, the formation 
is identical in all the three kinds of individuals of Myrmecia, 
as well as in both sexes of Thynnus, and even in both sexes of 
Mutilla^. In Typhlopone the ungues are perfectly simple : so 
also may we reasonably expect them to be in their males. 

Another circumstance also deserves to be noticed, namely, 
the entire want of cilia or bristles on the fore legs of Typhlo- 
pone, a character found in the apterous female Mutillida, and 
dependent upon their habits of burrowing in sand. The ab- 
sence of these appendages consequently either proves that 
Typhlopone is an ant or a parasitic Mutillideous insect ; none 
such, however, have as yet been observed amongst the Mutil- 
lidce ; indeed it is not only contrary to analogy to suppose that 
the female of a parasitic aculeate Hymenopterous insect should 
want wings, (its oeconomy rendering the possession of them 
absolutely necessary for its existence,) but the habits noticed 
above are sufficient to disprove the supposition. 

* In both sexes of Mutilla Klugii, for example, each of the ungues of 
whicli is furnished with a remarkable seta, as long as the iu)gviis itself. 

with descriptions of several exotic species of Ants. 85 

Lastly, of the abdomen, it may be stated that the peduncu- 
lated base is especially characteristic of the ants, and that the 
trispinose apex is only found, as Mr. Shuckard notices, in an 
American Ant. 

One of the most important characters employed by Mr. 
Shuckard in his descriptions of the Dorylidae, is that derived 
from the structure of the male genital organs, — a character 
which has already been employed by Audouin in the Bombi, 
and by Vander Linden and others in the Libellulidae, and 
proved to be of very great value in determining the species of 
these insects. Mr. Shuckard, indeed, says, that in respect to 
its large size in the DorylidcB, ^^ it exclusively resembles several 
of the solitary HeterogyncB^^ and hence he considers the ana- 
logy as strongly in favour of the connexion of these genera 
with the Mutillidce. He, however, overlooks the fact that the 
males of all those groups which swarm in the air at certain 
periods of the year are furnished with very large organs of 
generation, and for a very evident purpose. This is extra- 
ordinarily the case in the wasps, as well as in the hive-bee, 
the Ephemerae, Chironomi, and the Ants. As regards the first 
and last of these groups, reference may be made to the plates 
of DeGeer's 2nd volume, or the figures 85.5, 88.6, in the 2nd 
volume of my ^ Introduction.^ In these groups, however, the 
males are much smaller than their partners, and therefore the 
analogy thence assumed in respect to the Dorylidce does not 
necessarily exist. 

Such are the considerations which induce me (although in 
the absence of an opportunity of ascertaining by internal dis- 
section the state of the sexual characters of the individuals of 
Typhlopone yet observed) to consider these insects as being 
unquestionably neuter Ants. And as they are equally strong 
when applied to the African genus Anomma, I have no more 
hesitation in deeming that genus equally Formicideous, as it 
differs only in trivial characters from Typhlopone. 

I had proposed to myself to have extended these remarks 
to an examination of the opinions entertained by Mr. Shuck- 
ard relative to the sexual relationship between Typhlopone 
and Labidus, the parasitic nature of the Dory tides, the relation- 
ship between the latter and the Mutillidae, and the observa- 
tions on Scleroderma ; all of which I consider untenable. I 
must, however, defer these subjects till another opportunity. 
Before laying down my pen, however, I must express the 
pleasure I have received from the careful manner in which 
Mr. Shuckard has executed the descriptive portion of his me- 
moir, and the ingenious manner in which he has treated the 
conjectural part. 

86 Mr. J. O. Westwood on the Genus Typhlopone, 

By way of supplement^ I submit the following descriptions 
of several Ants, which, especially in the structure of their an- 
tennae and oral organs, serve to illustrate the preceding obser- 
vations, and to confirm the relationship of Typhlopone with the 
Ants : — 

Carebara, Westw. 
{Kapr](3ap(ij, capite doleo, ob capitis exiguitatem.) Characteres e 

foemina desumpti. 
Caput minimum oculis ocellisque munitum. 
Antennae minimse vix capite longiores, graciles, ad apicem paullo 

crassiores, supra os insertse lO-articulatse, articulo l^° longo ; 

2ndo obconico ; S*^'' prsecedenti multo minori, reliquis magnitu- 

dine et longitudine sensim increscentibus ; ultimo ovali. 
Mandibulse mediocres corneae curvatse, apice oblique truncato et ir- 

regulariter denticulate. 
Maxillae minutse, apice in lobum tenuem ovalem terminate. Palpi 

maxillares minuti 3-articulati articulo I""" brevi crasso, duobus 

ultimis gracilibus subaequahbus. 
Mentum corneum obovale versus basin attenuato, labium subductum. 

Palpi labiales minuti graciles biarticulati. 
7'horax ovalis, supra mesothorace maximo fere omnino occupatus. 
Abdomen maximum ovale subdepressum segmentis subsequalibus, 

basi binodosum. 
Alae maximse; venis ut in fig. 6. dispositis. 
Pedes breves tibiis 4 posticis ecalcaratis. 

Species unica. Carebara lignata, Westw. 

Tota luteo-fulva, nitida tenuissime punctata ; facie linea longitudinali 
sub ocellum medium impressa et versus os furcata ; antennis in 
foveolis inter se et oculos aeque distantibus insertis ; mesotho- 
racis scuto utrinque linea impresso, parapsides fere efficientibus, 
scutelloque utrinque parapteris bene determinatis ; alis infusca- 
tis, cellula prima submarginali in una alarum anticarum in duas 
partes vena fere secta. 
Long. corp. lin. 10^ ; expans. alar. lin. 20. 
Syn. Myrmica lignata De Haan MSS. 
Habitat in Java. In Mus. Hope. 

SoLENOPSis, Westw. 
((TwXr/i' canalis et o\pis fades, ob faciem canaliculatam.) 
Characteres e pseudo-fcemina desumpti. 
Caput maximum subquadratum horizontale postice emarglnatum, 

supra linea media longitudinali in duas partes divisum anticd 

in medio bituberculatum. Oculi parvi laterales ante medium 

marginis locati. 
Antenute breves graciles prope os in foveolis duabus insertse ; lO-ar- 

ticulatae, articulis duobus aj^icalibus majoribus. 
Labrum parvum inter mandibulas et supra os deflexum bilobum. 
Mandibulse magnse valde curvatae crassae apice oblique, edentulae. 
Maxillee et mentum minima fere membranacea, labium subdue- 

with descriptions of several exotic species of Ants, 87 

turn. Palpi maxillares et labiales biarticulati ; gracillimi brevis- 

simi, apice seta instructi. 
Thorax valde angustus, prothorace mediocri ; mesothorace majori. 
Abdomen magnum fere circulare subdepressum segmentie basalibus 

duobus nodos duos formantibus, segmento proximo maximo. 
Pedes graciles tibiis 4 posticis ecalcaratis, unguibus tarsorum sim- 


Species unica. Solenopsis mandibular is, Westw. 
Tota castaneo-fulva nitida tenuissime punctata, hirta ; oculis, mar- 
gine antico capitis acuto, mandibulisque nigris ; abdominis apice 
fusco, mesothorace utrinque in tuberculum conicum elevato ; 
nodo 1°*° pedunculi abdominalis elongato, apice elevato-conico, 
2ndo brevi subrotundato. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3. 

Habitat in America ^Equinoctiali. D. L. Guilding. 
In Mus. D. Hope. 

This insect is so closely allied to the Pheidole providens, W. (^Atta 
providens of Col. Sykes, figured in the Transactions of the Entomo- 
logical Society, yoI. i. pi. 13. fig. 5.), that it can only be regarded as 
a geographical subgenus, distinguished chiefly therefrom by the pe- 
culiarity of its antennae and the smooth and glossy body. As the 
former has not hitherto been characterized generically, I take this 
opportunity of doing so. 

Pheidole, Westw. 

Sub-genus Asiaticum Solenopsidi proximum. 

Caput maximum postice emarginatum antic^ baud bituberculatum, 
striolatum obscurum, antice linea utrinque obliqua impressa 
versus oculos ducta in quibus insident antennae 12-articulat8e, 
graciles breves, articulo 2"^° sequenti majori, tribus ultimis mag- 
nis clavam formantibus. Mandibulse crassae intus concavae extiis 
curvatae apice truncato (in fig. supr. cit. erronee dente medio 
depictae) . 

Labrum, maxillae, labium, mentum, palpi, pedes, pedunculus et ab- 
domen ut in Solenopside. 

Species unica, Pheidole providens, W. 

Atta providens, Sykes, loc. cit. supr. 

Habitat in India Orientali. D. Sykes. 

The following are descriptions of the individuals of Typhlopone 
which have fallen under my notice, and which are distinct from those 
described by Mr. Shuckard : — 

Species typica, Typhlopone fulva. 

Luteo-fulva nitida tenuissime punctata, capite postice nonnihil an- 
gustiori, margine postico parum emarginato, margine antico ni- 
gricanti, tuberculis duobus mediis in lineas elevatas postic^ 
productis desinentibus et inter has carinas canali impresso 
postice ad tertiam partem capitis ducto et gradatim terminate ; 
antennis in fossulis duabus mediocriter impressis, insertis : cas- 
taneis 1 1 -articulatis articulo I'^^fulvo; ultimo articulis tribus 

88 Mr. J. O. Westwood on the Genus Typhlopone. 

antecedentibus vix majori; mandibulis castaneis apice nigro; me- 
tathorax sequalis baud impressus ; pedunculus abdominis antice 
subtruncatus, postice latior angulis lateral ibus posticis rotun- 
datis ; subtus ad basin angulariter productus. Mandibulae ad 
apicem subacutae angulo prominente versus medium lateris in- 
tern! denteque parvo paullo sub apicem, spatio inter angulum et 
dentem subapicalem subserrulato. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4^. 

In Mus. D. C. C. Babington. In saccharo detecta. 

Individuum alterum etiam in saccharo detectum difFert statura 
minori, lineas 3^ longitudinis tantum habens, colore obscuriori 
sc. testaceo-fulvo ; dente mandibularum subapicali magis pro- 
minenti angulo medio tamen fere obsoleto, canali faciei nisi inter 
carinas frontales obliterata. 

Typhlopone Shuckardi. 

Testaceo-fulva nitida tenuissime punctatissima ; capite lateribus par- 
allels, postice vald^ emarginato fronte carinata et canaliculata 
\it in T. fulva ; antennis piceo-castaneis 11-articulatis articulo 
ultimo duobus prsecedentibus paullo majori, mandibulis piceo- 
castaneis apice nigricantibus, dente subapicali minuto et obtuso 
vix prominente ; metathoracis dorso canaliculato ; pedunculo 
abdominis subtus versus basin in hamum brevem acutum pro- 
ducto, abdominis apice 5-denticulato, denticulis lateralibus ma- 
Long. Corp. lin. 5. 
In Mus. nostr. Communic. D. Raddon. In saccharo detecta. 

Typhlopone Dahlbomii. 

Pallide lutea, mandibulis obscurioribus ; nitida tenuissim^ puncta- 
tissima, capite lateribus subparallelis postice vix emarginato 
impressionibus duabus frontalibus magnis rotundatis in quas 
insident antennse breves clavatse 11-articulatse articulo ultimo 
maximo (prsecedentibus 5 majori) ; impressionibus carina media 
tenui antice dilatata separatis ; canali omnino obsoleto, mandi- 
bulis apice acutis dentibusque duobus magnis et acutis intus 
armatis; metathorace baud canaliculato pedunculoque abdominis 
subtus inermi, sequali. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1|. 
In Mus. D. C. C. Babington. In saccharo detecta. 

Fig. 1. Typhlopone fulva^ W. Magn. auct. 

1 a. Labrnm ; 1 h. mandible; 1 c. maxilla; 1 d. labium; 1 e. anten- 
na; 1 /. abdominal peduncle ; 1 g. posterior tibia and tarsus. 
Fig. 2. Thorax and abdominal peduncle of T. Shuckardi, W. ; X protho- 

racic collar ; + mesothorax ; metathorax. 
Fig. 3 a. Front of head of T. Dahlbomii, W. ; 3 h. antenna of the same. 
Fig. 4. Anomma Burmeisteri, Sh. Magn. auct. 

4 a. Front of its head. 

Fig. 5. Solenopsis mandibularis, W. Magn. auct. 

5 «. Underside of head ; md, one of the mandibles, the other removed ; 

Dr. A. Philippics Zoological Notices. 89 

/ 1. labrum ; m X maxilla ; I 2. labium ; 5 b. labrum ; 5 c. mandi- 
ble ; 5 c/. maxilla; 5 e. labium; 5/. antenna; 5 g. thorax and 
basal joints of abdomen ; X prothoracic collar ; + mesothorax ; 
Fig. 6. Carebara lignata, W. Mag. nat. 

6 a. mandible ; 6 b. maxilla; 6 c. labium ; 6 d. antennae. 
Fig. 7 a. Thorax and basal joints of abdomen of PheiJole pi-ovidens, W. ; 
X prothoracic collar ; -)- mesothorax ; metathorax ; 7 b. and 7 c. man- 
dibles in different position. 

XIV. — Zoological Notices. By Dr. A. Philippi*. 

[With Two Plates.j 

1. On Clavagella halanorum, Scacchi. Plate III. fig. 1 — 6. 

Ql. vagina adnata, abbreviata, apertura simplici ; valvis subtrian- 
gularibus ; libera tenui, nigosa, parum convexa ; spinis fistulosis 
irregularibus absconditis. 

Habitat in cespitibus Balanorum ad costam Pausilypi prope Nea- 

In December of the preceding year Sig. Scacchi made the 
highly interesting discovery of this living species of Clava- 
gella, and communicated it to the Royal Neapohtan Aca- 
demy ; but since years will pass away before the Memoirs of 
this Academy will appear in print, I believe I shall be doing 
a great service to zoologists in giving a detailed description 
of his discovery. We have examined the animal in company, 
but the observation on the formation of the spinoid tubes is 
due alone to Sig. Scacchi. 

The tube is short, at the most 1^ inch long, very thin 
walled, and cohering most intimately with the surrounding 
bodies (almost always Balanus balanoides) ; rarely does it pro- 
ject one or two lines. It is compressed, measures about 2|- 
lines in the one, Ig- — 2 in the other dimension; its superior 
(upper) aperture is simple ; it terminates inferiorly in general 
in a pear-shaped expansion, in which the shell is situated. 
This consists of a free and of an adhering shell. Theyree 
shell is the right one ; it is of an irregular structure at the dor- 
sal margin (Riickenrande), frequently concave, and seldom ex- 
ceeding 6 lines in length and 4 in breadth. It is thin and 
very slightly vaulted, so that there is a wide space on the ven- 
tral side between the two shells, which is closed by the thick 
mantle of the animal. The lines of growth are very distinct, 
and what is very remarkable, they do not run parallel with the 

* Translated from Wiegmann's ' Arcliiv/ Part 2, June, 1840. 

90 Dr. A. Phillppi's Zoological Notices, 

ventral margin^ but with the anterior margin ; so that the point 
of commencement of the shell is situated at its hinder end, 
and not at the vertex (Wirbeln), as in other Conchy lia. It 
appears that a great portion of the dorsal margin is subse- 
quently re-absorbed. The vertices thence appear in part un- 
cinate. The left adhering shell is exceedingly thin, other- 
wise similar to the other. The two shells inwardly, as well 
as the tube, are of a nacreous lustre; thus rendering it 
extremely difficult to distinguish mantle and muscular im- 
pressions. A hinge is entirely wanting, and there is even no 
peculiar cartilaginous hgament ; I merely find a w^eak fibrous 
corneous ligament. (Fig. 4 b.) Where the two shells touch 
one another at the back there is frequently a projection in the 
tube, and we in general meet with an oblique projection 
(Vorsprung) where the space for the shell ceases and the true 
tube commences. The spinoid tubes are present ; they are ir- 
regular, and are only employed by the animal where it finds 
a free space in the Balanus mass. They are in general lost 
on loosening the house, so that rarely any other trace remains 
of them than the point-like apertures in the interior of the 
shell, as I have represented in fig. 2 e. In some successful 
cases, however, they are seen very distinctly. 

The animal has exactly the form of a sack, which in front 
has but a very small fissure, out of which the apex of the very 
thin foot can scarcely exsert itself. (Fig. 1. and 4.) Poste- 
riorly the mantle is prolonged into two siphons, cohering nearly 
to the apex, which reach to the extremity of the tube. The 
common portion of the siphons terminates with a fringed 
border, and then follow two very short tubes, of which the 
inferior or branchial siphon is broadest. Both are provided 
at their aperture with simple cirrhi, and are carmine red, 
while the remainder of the animal is colourless. It has, 
moreover, to be observed, that the common tube before its 
border is covered with a quantity of grains of sand, which 
are not easily separable from it. (See Fig. 3.) Fig. 4. ex- 
hibits the animal, after having been some time in spirits, 
lying on the right shell. The two adductores, of which the 
posterior one is round and large, the anterior one kidney- 
shaped and small, are at present very distinct. If the mantle 
is cut open in the ventral line, it is first observed that the 
mantle in the ventral side is very thick and fleshy ; poste- 
riorly the strong muscles which draw back the siphons are in 
view ; in the centre, the semicircular branchiae, out of which 
the small narrow vermiform ybo/ [d in fig. 5. and 6.) projects; 
and above this, on each side, two very long, linear, somewhat 
curved appendices buccales, c. On each side there is only one 

Dr. A. Philippl's Zoological Notices. 91 

branchia, which however has fixed itself in the neighbour- 
hood of the back, and has above the seam another narrow ap- 
pendix, which might be compared with the second branchia, 
and which half surrounds with its free margin the anterior 
closing muscle. The branchiae of both sides cohere in the 
seam with the posterior half. They are strongly and distinctly 
striped. Remarkably small is the mass of intestines which 
project free between the branchiae. See fig. 6, where this is 
separately represented. 

Respecting the formation of the spinoid tubes Sig. Scacchi 
says, in his memoir read to the Academy, which he has com- 
municated to me in manuscript, as follows : — 

^^ Rang is of opinion that the spinoid tubes served the pur- 
pose of allowing the exsertion of a kind of byssus, with which 
the animal fastened itself to the basis of its dwelling ; but no 
observation supports this view, and I believe I may say with 
certainty that the Clavagellce have no byssus ; moreover, every 
one will easily conceive how useless this would be to them, 
since they cohere immoveably to one of their shells. Since 
they live in the midst of sea-acorns {Balani), which form a 
group of empty shells which grow one upon the other, it must 
necessarily happen that the Clavagella on increasing meets 
with the cavities of the surrounding Balani, when it absorbs 
or destroys everything round about in order to render its 
dwelling more spacious. Now observation has shown me, 
that when such cavities open near the animal, some fleshy 
fibres proceed from the great muscle which joins the margins 
of the mantle, and there direct themselves to the place where 
the cavity of the balanite is open, and form small calcareous 
tubes. They generally terminate with two small branches 
which finally close, yet I have sometimes found in some a 
small aperture at the end. These tubes prevent the entrance 
of any foreign body, and distribute themselves like the roots 
of plants, so that those which come near to the inner surface 
of the Balani adhere to it ; the others either remain free or 
attach themselves to sand, and any other foreign substances 
they accidentally meet with. It appears that but few days 
are necessary for the formation of these tubes, as among so 
many individuals which 1 have had occasion to examine alive, 
I have only twice had the pleasure to surprise the animal with 
the above-mentioned fleshy filaments, which lie in the tubes 
that were just formed; and some other times I have met with 
some of these filaments, which having performed their office, 
were dried and now hung as appendices of the epidermis to 
the great muscle of the mantle.^' These spinoid tubes serve 
then the animal to fix itself, and are consequently most 

92 Dr. A. Philippics Zoological Notices, 

strongly developed in those species which live in sand^ as for 
instance, Clavagella bacillaris. 

Plate III. Fig. 1. Clavagella Balanorum, Scac. Sitting in a mass formed 
for the greatest part of Balani overgrown with Sponges, Ser- 
puhe, &c., in natural size somewhat contracted ; the one 
wall of the cavity is removed. 
a. The fissure in the mantle, through which the foot is exserted. 

Fig. 2. The animal is removed ; the left shell cohering with the tube is 
seen, upon which the two muscular impressions are indicated. 
The points e. are the apertures of the spinoid tubes. 
Fig, 3. The end of the siphons, magnified, to show that the common 
part of it possesses its peculiar fringed border. 

Fig. 4. The animal killed in spirits, much contracted, lying on the 
right shell. 

a. The mantle fissure for the foot. 

b. The rudimentary ligament. 

c. d. The two adductors. 

Fig. 5. The same, the mantle cut open in the neighbourhood of the 
ventral line, and thrown back. The branchiae, the footed, the 
appendices biiccales, of which only the two of the one side 
are represented, are seen. 

Fig. 6. The foot with the belly or intestinal mass of the animal, mag- 

2. The genus Zo'e is the first state of Pagurus. (Fig. 7. and 8.) 

No genus among the Crustacea is perhaps more remark- 
able, and has more exercised the ingenuity of naturalists 
with respect to the place it must occupy in the System, than 
the curious animal discovered by Bosc, and named by him 
Zo'e, and but exceedingly few naturalists have seen it again 
after him. He placed it between the Branchiopoda and the 
Flea-crabs (Flohkrebse) ; Latreille, in the first edition of Cu- 
vierCg ' Regne Animal/ in the order Branchiopoda, between 
Polyphemus and Cyclops ; at the same time expressing the opi- 
nion that it might perhaps belong to the division of the Schi- 
zopoda. This latter opinion was adopted by Leach, but most 
zoologists have placed Zoe among the Branchiopods. To 
these doubts respecting the nature of this animal a new one 
associated itself, by Mr. Thompson announcing that these cu- 
rious animals were nothing more than the larvae of the com- 
mon crab {Carcinus Maenas), which underwent a true meta- 
morphosis. This opinion was strongly opposed by Mr. West- 
wood. Lastly, Milne-Edwards is of opinion (see Lamarck, 
^Hist. Nat. des Anim. sans Vert.^ edit. 2. vol. v. p. 195.) that 
Zo'e might indeed only be the young state of a species of De- 
capod, but belonging probably to his division of the Ano- 
moura (in which he includes Dromia, Homola, Albunea, Pa- 
gurus, &c.). Accident has afforded me the opportunity of 

Dr. A. Philippi's Zoological Notices. 93 

making the direct observation, that in effect Zoe is nothing 
more than the first stage of Pagurus. 

On the 1 3th of March of this year, I found in Palermo, in a 
basin in which I kept several sea animals, to my great joy, 
about a dozen individuals o^ Zoe, but unfortunately already all 
dead. I hastened to examine them under the microscope as 
well as possible. The next morning I found to my great sur- 
prise the same basin, in which I had the previous day fished 
out with great trouble a dozen Zoe, quite filled with several 
hundred Zoe. I had among other animals in the basin a Pa- 
gurus hungarus, Herbst., which sat in a Natica millepuncta : 
I immediately conceived the suspicion that the Zoe must be 
its young, broke carefully the Natica, and found, in fact, the 
ovary of the Pagurus nearly quite empty, while in the remain- 
ing ova I distinctly recognised the little Zoe. I freed it with 
some trouble from the tunics (Eihauten of the ovum). These 
small ^oe were perfectly transparent, with black eyes, a red spot 
in the medial line immediately behind the eyes, and at times 
with a second red stripe before the anus. These red spots are 
evidently in the intestinal canal, and are remains of the yelk. 
The cephalothorax occupies two-fifths of the length of the ani- 
mal, and is prolongated in front into an apparently horizontal 
beak, posteriorly rounded, behind the eyes slightly con- 
stricted. The neighbourhood of the eyes projects vesicularly. 
The abdomen is not quite twice as long and five-articulated. 
The four first segments are cylindrical and gradually increase 
in length ; the last has the form of a fan, and bears twelve ra- 
diately-placed spines, of which the outer ones are the short- 
est. The eyes are sessile, very large, black, reticulately lat- 
ticed. The exterior antennce are biramificate, and originate 
on the under side ; their common petiole scarcely projects 
to the margin of the cephalothorax ; the outer branch is 
pretty broad, terminates exteriorly with a spine, and bears at 
its apex a number of bristles : the inner branch is shorter, 
much narrower, and bears only two bristles. Between the 
two ramifications there is another short semifalcate, slightly 
ciliated member. The inner antennae are as long as the outer 
ones, narrow, biarticulated, and terminate with two bristles. 
Of all the other organs I only recognised the two perfectly si- 
milar pair of feet, which are biramificate, and recall to mind 
Cyclops. The outer branch is triarticulated, the inner some- 
what stronger one quadriarticulated. The terminal joint is 
in both short and acute, and furnished with long bristles. 
All the longer bristles of the feet, as well as those of the an- 
tennae, are ciliated. 

Fig 7. Zo'e^ the young of Pagurus hungarus, Herbst, very highly magnified. 
Fig. 8. The same, still in the egg, likewise very highly magnified. 

94 Dr. A. Phillppi's Zoological Notices, 

3. Aster ope ^ a new Genus of Ostracopoda. 
Plate III. fig. 9—11. 

I had frequently found in the sea-sand, and between Zoo- 
phytes, Cytheri7ia-\ike shells of several species, which differed 
essentially from Cytherina by an incision (indentation) in the 
shell, but only on the 6th of March of this year did I succeed 
in finding in Palermo an individual with the animal. If in- 
deed it was not possible for me to distinguish all its organs, 
yet I fully convinced myself that the animal also is so consi- 
derably distinct both from Cypris and Cytherina, as well as 
from Cypridina, Milne- Edwards (which genus I have likew^ise 
been so fortunate as to observe), that it must necessarily form 
a separate genus. 

The shell is only half a line long, of a brow^nish colour, per- 
fectly elliptical, but has in front and beneath an incision, and 
on both sides of this incision the margin is thickened. Be- 
neath the incisure lie the antennae ; behind the first pair of 
feet, at the hinder extremity, the apex of the tail peeped out. 
With a greater magnifying power the shells appeared beset 
with opake white points. The shells could be easily removed, 
and the animal now appeared as shown in fig. 11. Imme- 
diately behind the eye, which on being pressed between the 
glass plates showed itself to be a double one, a pear-shaped 
muscle is directed upwards, and serves to fasten the animal on 
each side to the shells ; behind which I observed a couple of cy- 
lindrical annulated filaments provided wdth some bristles, and 
behind these still two other pair, shorter, thicker filaments, 
not annulated, and not furnished with bristles. These organs 
probably serve for the adhesion of the eggs. There is only 
one pair of antennae, the greatest organ on the whole animal, as 
it equals the body in length. They are situated immediately 
beneath the eyes, have a large ovate basal joint, which forms 
with a second cylindrical joint of the same length the petiole, 
and terminates with a short many-jointed flagella (Geissel) be- 
set brush-like with long bristles. There are two pairs of feet, 
both of which are directed forw^ards, and seem to be only biarti- 
culate ; both joints are subelongate, much compressed, nearly 
foliaceous, and ciliated with few but strong bristles. The tail 
is compressed, broad, curved downwards, and somewhat for- 
wards, and furnished with about ten hooks, which are first at 
the apex bent, then curved backwards, and which gradually de- 
crease in size from the front hind wards. At the base of each 
foot are situated two nearly triangular lamellae, which are an- 
teriorly bent outwards, and densely beset with long stiff cilia, 
fig. B. query branchiae ? Behind these and before the tail I 

Dr. A. Philippics Zoological Notices. 95 

noticed another differently formed, and short ciUated lamella, 
ficy. g. I moreover found three pairs of falcate palpi or foot- 
jaws with long cilia, fig. c. I did not, however, succeed in ob- 
serving the other cibarian organs. 

Notwithstanding the imperfection of these observations, 
they still sufficiently prove the independence of this genus. 
It differs from Ci/pris; 1. by the incision of the shell; 2. 
by the existence of two eyes; 3. by the broad hook-bearing 
tail ; 4. by having only two pairs of foliaceous feet ; 5. by pos- 
sessing peculiar organs for bearing the eggs, which function 
in Cypris is performed by the third pair of feet. Asterope is 
distinguished from Cypridina; 1. by the incision of the shell; 
2. by the presence of only two pairs of foliaceous feet ; 3. by 
its simple tail (in Cypridina it consists of two lamellae), &c. 
Cytherina differs from Asterope ; 1. by the want of the incision 
of the shell; 2. by the presence o^ four pairs of feet, as quite 
correctly stated by O. F. Miiller; 3. by the tail consisting, as 
in Cypridina, of two lamellas. (I have observed about eight 
species of Cytherina near Naples.) 

The generic characters were accordingly as follows : — 

Testa bivalvis, corpus abscondens, antice subtusque incisa. An- 
tennce duse simplices, apice penicillatse. Oculi duo ! Pedes 
quatuor compressi, subfoliacei. Fila peculiaria ad retinenda 
ova. Cauda compressa uncinis pluribus terminata. 

The species might be characterized in the following man- 
ner : — 

Asterope elliptica. A. testa exacte elliptica, nitida, sublente for- 
tiori, punctis opacis albis adspersa. 

Plate III. Fig. 9. Asterope elliptica, Phil. Magnified. 

A. Its natural size. 

Fig. 10. The left shell, inside view, moderately magnified. 
Fig. 11. The animal magnified sixty times. 

B. One of the four lamellae attached to the base of the feet, still 

more highly magnified. 

C. One of the three pair of lamellae, which are situated near the 

cibarian apparatus. 
g. The lamellae between the feet and tail. 

4. Short characteristic of several new Genera of the Family 

of the Copepoda. 

During the great heat of the summer months I have occu- 
pied myself in Sorrent in examining the minute animals which 
live among the small Algae. Here dwell, only to speak of the 
Crustacea, especially Caprellce, some Dynamene, Janira, Jassa, 
Juera, which latter three appear to be very rare ; numerous 

96 Dr. A. Philippi's Zoological Notices. 

Amphithoe, some Gammari, and above all Cj/therina, and a vast 
number of Cyclops-like animals, together with Peltidia, and an 
allied genus. The new genera which I found among them I 
will now briefly enumerate, reserving a more detailed descrip- 
tion of them for a longer labour. 

1. Nauplius, mihi (non O. F. Miiller*). (Fig. 12.) 

Corpus elongatum, postice sensim attenuatum, segmento primo s. 
capite (cum segmento primo thoracis connate) maximo ; cauda 
bifida, setigera. Antennce quatuor ; superiores multiarticulatae, 
apice penicillatae ; inferiores tri-Particulatse, apice setis unci- 
natis, basi seta pectinata munitae. Pes masticatorius ungue in- 
curve falcate. Pes primus capiti insertus, desciscens, biramus, 
ramis elongatis, apice unguiculatis. Pedes natatorii biramisex. 
Pedes spurii duo, e lamellis duabus basi communi insidentibus 
formati, sacculum evorum ex parte obtegentes. 

This genus is abundant in species. It is distinguished from 
Cyclops', 1. by the varying construction of the first pair of 
feet which do not serve for swimming ; 2. by the foot-jaw ; 
3. by the lamella, with cover for the greater part of the ovary. 
It is remarkable that the foot-jaw and first pair of feet are ex- 
actly so constructed as in the genus Peltidiumf, which genus 
I have been able to investigate more completely on a couple 
of new species than it was possible on P. purpureum, 

2. Laophonte, mihi. (Fig. 13.) 

Omnia ut in Naupliis, sed primum corporis segmentum cum capite 
nen coalitum, ideoque par primum pedum desciscens nen capiti 
sed segmente peculiari thoracis insertum, biramum, ramo altero 
minimo rudimentario, altero ungue unico maximo terminatum. 

Only one species, but very common ; the back appears ser- 
rated, from the individual segments being placed sharply from 
one another. 

3. Psamathe, mihi. (PI. IV. fig. 1.) 

Corpus elongatum, semiteres. Pes masticatorius lamellis duabus 
terminatus. Pedes sex, birami, natatorii. Pedes spurii duo, 
biarticulati, angusti. Reliqua ut in Cyclope vel in Nauplio. 

Only one species, rare, elongated as Cyclops, but at the 
same time flat, thus forming the transition to the scutiform 
Copepoda. The cibarian apparatus is very peculiar, almost 
exactly as in the scutiform genus Thyone, Very remarkable 

* O. F. Miiller gave this name to the young state of Cyclops. 
t For description and figure of this new genus, see Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. 
p. 303. PI. IV. fig. 12, 13.— Edit. 

Dr. A. Philippics Zoological Notices. 97 

is the parallelism between Nauplius and Peltidium, and be- 
tween Psamathe and Thyone. 

4. Thyone, mihi. (PL IV. fig. 2.) 

Corpus depressum scutiforme, ovatum, segmentis quinque con- 
stans, segmento primo maximo. Cauda e lamellis duabus for- 
mata. Oculi duo confluentes. Antennae quatuor ; anteriores 
multiarticulatse ; inferiores triarticulatse, apice setis uncinatis, 
basi seta pectinata munitse. Pes masticatorius apice lamellis 
duabus terminatus. Pedes sex, natatorii, birami ; Pedes spurii 
duo lamellares, spatium inter segmentum penultimum caudam- 
que opplentes. 

Three species^ the one, Th. viridis, nearly j'" long, common. 
The cibarian apparatus exceedingly complicated. — Peltidium 
differs by the foot-jaws, the tail, and by the first pair of feet 
being differently constructed ; Sapphirina, Thompson, from 
the body having nine segments. There are two pairs of pe- 
culiar fringed lamellae near the cibarian organs (fig. 2 e. and^.), 
perhaps analogous to those lamellae in Cypris, regarded by 
Strauss as branchiae. 

5. Peneus sip/wnoceros, mihi. (PI. IV. fig. 3.) 

P. rostro brevissimo, supra 7-dentato inermi ; flagellis antennarum 
superiorum sequalibus, omnibus quatuor canalem clausum for- 

I have gradually obtained in Naples about half a dozen in- 
dividuals of this Peneus, so highly remarkable for the curious 
formation of the flagella of the upper antennae. They are 
flesh-coloured, the antennae, feet, and the hinder margins of 
the abdominal segments darker. The length from the apex 
of the beak to the extremity of the tail amounts to 2^ inches, 
of which the abdomen is 1 inch 7 lines, and the beak scarcely 
2^ lines. The cephalothorax has no longitudinal furrows. 
The abdomen is, as usual, very much compressed, the last 
three joints keeled. The terminal segment has in the centre 
a broad groove, and terminates with two points. The scale 
(Schuppe) of the exterior antennce is quite twice as long as 
the beak, of usual form, with a longitudinal groove ; the stalk 
does not attain to half the length of the scale ; the flagellum 
is once and a half as long as the body. The inner antemia 
have a very thick stalk, as long as the scale of the outer an- 
tennae, at the base excavated, as usual, for the large black eyes, 
and with a curved anteriorly directed appendage (process). 
They have two equally long, and as above stated, very pecu- 
liarly formed flagella. They form, namely, with those of the 
other side, an almost closed tube. For this purpose each single 

Ann. ^Mag. Nat. Hist. Oct. 1840. n 

98 Dr. A. Philippics Zoological Notices, 

flagellum is vaulted exteriorly with a keel, interiorly grooved^ 
serrated and finely ciliated at the margins, so that they close 
completely. The canal continues in the stalk (Stiel), but here 
only the upper half is formed by the stalk, and is closed in- 
feriorly by the scales of the outer antennae, as it seems the 
upper lip divides the canal, which then proceeds right and left 
to the branchiae. As far as I am aware, no similar formation 
exists among the Crustacea. 

l^hefeet are exactly as in the other species of Peneus ; all 
have at the base a filamentary process corresponding to the 
palpi of the foot-jaws ; the three first pair have pincers 
(chela;), and increase from the first to the third in length, 
which increase is effected, namely, by the growth of the tibia. 
The fourth pair of feet is as long as the second, the fifth as 
long as the third. The exterior foot-jaw is nearly twice as 
long as the first pair of feet, and consists of rather cylindrical 
and capillary joints. 

The figure PL IV. fig. 3. will render a more detailed de- 
scription superfluous. 

Plate III. Fig. 12. Nauplius ciliafus, Phil. Sixty times magnified. 

a. Natural size. 
Plate III. Fig. 13. Laophonte cornuta, Phil. Female, sixty times mag- 
Plate IV. Fig. 1. Psamathe longicauda, Phil. Magnified sixty times. 

X. Natural size. 

a. The outer foot-jaw magnified 150 times. 
Plate IV. Fig. 2. Thyone viridis, Phil. Examined with a power of sixty. 

a. Nat. size. 

b. The outer foot-jaw, with its palpus more strongly magnified. 

d. The second pair of antennae. 

e. The mandible, near it a foliaceous fringed organ similar to the 

one designated by ^: should it be considered as branchia? 
/. The one foot-jaw. 
N.B. The maxillae could not be represented on this scale. 
Plate IV. Fig. 3. Peneus sipkonoceros, Phil. Nat. size. 

a. Cross .section of the tube formed by the flagella of the upper 
antennae, magnified. 

6. Pontarachna punctulum,Ph,,Rn Hydrachnidan of the Ocean. 
(PI. IV. fig. 4. and 5.) 

Hitherto Hydrachnae have been found solely in fresh water, 
but I have met with, and not at all unfrequently in the bay 
of Naples, a spider belonging to this division of the Arachnida 
likewise in sea-water. Unfortunately it is so minute, scarcely 
^rd of a line in length, that I have not been able to recog- 
nise all its parts, although I have frequently examined several 
specimens. The body is rather globular, anteriorly somewhat 
acute, quite bare. Its colour is brownish-yellow, more fre- 

Dr. A. Philippi's Zoological Notices. 99 

quently orange-red or brown-red, sometimes even brown with 
whitish transparent variously indented (gezacktem) margin, 
so that rarely two individuals look perfectly like one another ; 
I once found one which was very beautifully marked with a 
white T on a dark-brown ground. The pale margin is an- 
teriorly broader, so that the two minute distant eyes may 
distinctly be recognised. The front feet scarcely exceed 
the length of the body ; the posterior ones are nearly twice 
as long. The four coxae are close to each other on every 
side, and the anterior ones even touch in the central line. 
(See PI. IV. fig. 5.) Between the coxae I find two small points, 
of the importance of w hich I am not able to form an opinion. 
Of the following joints the first are the shortest, the last the 
longest ; in gradual progression they are all nearly cylindrical ; 
nevertheless the femur seems to be excavated above, the 
tibia slightly below. All the joints, with the exception of the 
last, are beset on the under side, at the extremity, and like- 
wise in the centre, with bristles. The last is perfectly bare, 
at the extremity obliquely truncated above, and bears two 
hooked claws curved under a rather acute angle. Upon the 
under side of the body there is an annular pointed lamella 
which surrounds the fissure of the generative organs, fig. 5. /J 
as in Diplodonta and Atax, Of the cibarian organs I have 
only been able to distinguish the two palpi. These are nearly 
half as long as the anterior feet, filiform, and quinquarticu- 
lated. The first joint is very short; the second and third 
thick and cylindrical ; the fourth the longest of all, likewise 
cylindrical, but much thinner; the fifth short and acute. 
Palpi and feet are nearly colourless, at the most yellowish. 

Of the six genera which at present constitute the division 
of the Hydrachnae, viz. Diplodonta, Ataoc, A^Thenurus, Eulais, 
Limnochares and Hydrachna, it agrees by the annular lamellae 
surrounding the sexual apparatus and other characters, mostly 
with the first; but differs from them; — 1 .by the four coxae being 
close on each side ; 2. by the construction of the palpi, which 
in Diplodonta have at the fourth joint an apex of the length of 
the fifth ; — Atax possesses a very long fourth joint, which at the 
extremity is somewhat excavated in order to receive in the outer 
bend the fifth joint. The other four genera differ still more : 
Arrhenurus and Limnochares by the very short palpi ; Eulais 
by the palpi and the hips ; and Hydrachna by the palpi, the 
beak, &c. It hence follows, that even disregarding the maxillae 
not discovered by me, there are differences enough to justify 
the establishment of a new genus, which I call Pontarachna, 
and characterize as follows : — 

Corpus subglobosum. Oculi duo, remoti. Mandibulae . . . nullse ? 

H 2 

100 Dr. A. Philippics Zeological Notices, 

minirase ? Palpi duo, elongati, 5-articulati ; articulo quarto 
longiori, quinto brevi, acuminato. Coxse utriusque lateris 
unitse, anticse duae in linea mediana quoque sese tangentes. 
Pedes unguibus duobus uncinatis terminati. Vulva lamina 
Crustacea granulata cincta. 

Plate IV. Fig. 4. Pontarachna pnnctulum, Phil. Drawn magnified sixty 
g. Nat. size. 
Fig. 5. The body beneath, magnified ninety times. 

d. The palpi. 

e. The coxse. 

/. The plate surrounding the fissure of the generative organs. 

7. Desmophyllum Stellaria, Ehrenberg. (Plate IV. fig. 6.) 
The genus Desmophyllum^ established by Prof. Ehrenberg 
in the Memoirs of the Berlin Academy, is not less remark- 
able by the characters of its calcareous stem, which is con- 
stantly unramified, and has fascicularly united lamellae of the 
star (Sterne), than by its animal. In this the surprising thin- 
ness of the mantle is above all remarkable, which seems to be 
entirely missing, so that we can most distinctly perceive 
through it the cells at the margin of the star, nay, even the 
slightest roughness of the surface. Indeed the animal mass 
is in proportion to the calcareous mass a true minimum, and 
so retracts itself on the contraction of the animal into the cavi- 
ties of the lamellae, that I regarded the individual I received 
in this state for the mere house, long before deprived of its in- 
habitant. I have likewise observed the same on Cladocora 
cespitosa, Ehrenberg {Caryophyllia, Lamk.), while the ani- 
mal mass of Cladocora (Caryophyllia) Calycularis is far more 
considerable, and even on drying remains as a pretty thick 
membrane. When the animal of Desmophyllum Stellaria has 
fully expanded itself, it projects about a line above the star, 
while the border to a good breadth seems to be without any 
animal envelope. The yellowish coloured oval mouth, sur- 
rounded by an inwardly and outwardly folded lip, is distinctly 
perceptible. True tentacula are missing; a greenish fleshy 
mass extends from the mouth to near the margin of the star, 
and is there drawn out into several folds, at the apex yellow- 
ish, which, however, do not evince any definite arrangement, 
yet generally exhibit two rows. When the folds are most di- 
stinct they project at the furthermost only ^rd of a line; greater 
I have never seen, although I have preserved the animal alive, 
and observed it for several days. By this want of true ten- 
tacula the genus differs, likewise with respect to the animal, 
very essentially from Cyathina, Ehrenberg, where the tenta- 
cula are very regular, filiform, and orbiculate (geknopft). All 

Dr. Drummond on the Equivocal Generation 0/ Ftntozoa., 101 

the motions of the animal are in the highest degree slow and 
sluggish, which I have Ukewise observed in Cyathina, Oculina 
and Cladocora, 

Plate IV. Fig. 6. Desmophyllum Stellaria, Ehrenberg. Nat. size, sitting 
on Nidlipora Lithophyllum expansum, Phil. 

XV. — Thoughts on the Equivocal Generation o/Entozoa. By 
Jas. L. Drummond, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and 
Physiology in the Royal Belfast Institution, &c. 

In studying the Entozoa, one of the first things which de- 
mands our attention, is the peculiarity of the situations which 
they occupy. When we look abroad upon the features of the 
globe which we inhabit, we find that every part is filled with 
animal and vegetable life ; whether we visit the frozen regions 
of the poles, or the countries for ever exposed to the heat of an 
equatorial sun, we see that every clime has its animals and 
plants, and these in general, so constituted in their structure 
and oeconomy, as to be fitted peculiarly for the circumstances 
of the place in which they reside. The White Bear delights 
in the perennial snows and ice of its native region, and the 
Lion in the fervour of the torrid zone ; but were they to change 
situations, the former would die from the excessive heat, and 
the latter would as certainly perish from the intolerable cold. 

And so it is with the Entozoa ; they have been ordained 
to inhabit, alone, the interior of other animals ; and though 
many of them will live for several days when removed from 
that situation and put in water, yet that can only be deemed 
a lingering death, for at length they infallibly perish from the 
unnatural circumstances in which they are placed. It has 
been asserted, indeed, that some of the intestinal worms 
have been found living in other situations. Thus, Linnaeus 
supposed that the Fluke-worm [Distoma hepaticum) was to 
be found in fresh water, as also the common Tape-worm in 
muddy pools, and the Ascaris vermicularis in marshes among 
the roots of decaying plants. (Rudolphi, i. 371.) But it has 
been shown by Muller and Rudolphi, that he had mistaken 
other external species of animals for true Entozoa ; that his 
supposed Taenia and Fluke-worm were the Planaria lactea, 
and his Ascaris vermicularis a quite different animal. 

But even admitting that a true entozoon should be found in 
a pool or rivulet of fresh water, still something more would be 
necessary to prove that such was its natural habitat. Every 
one knows that when an animal is infested with Tape-worm, 
portions of the latter are frequently ejected alon^ with the 

102 Dr. Drummond on the Equivocal 

alvine excretions, and therefore the circumstance of a speci- 
men being found in water inhabited by fish of any kind may 
amount only to this, that it had originally belonged to the fish. 
Thus the celebrated Muller, when travelling on the borders 
of Sweden, was told of a rivulet in which Taeniae were to be 
found ; he visited it accordingly, and satisfied himself that the 
account was true, by taking out of its water bundles of dead 
Tape- worms coiled together. But what then? Did he find any- 
thing more? Yes, he found quantities of the intestines offish 
which had been thrown in by the fishermen, which fairly ac- 
counted for the presence of the worms. (Rud. i. 373*.) No 
one who has been in the practice of examining the intestines 
of fishes in pursuit of their living contents, will be surprised at 
this account, since the quantity of tape-worm sometimes 
found in them is often almost incredible. Thus in a salmon 
of eleven pounds weight, in July, 1838, I found a number of 
Bothriocephali, the longest of which was four feet ten inches, 
and their united lengths amounted to upwards of fifty-nine 
feet. In the common Cod their number is often very great, 
and in a middle-sized turbot I have found upwards of two 
hundred specimens of the Bothriocephalus punctatus, each 
measuring from ten to eighteen inches in length. 

It would be unnecessary to dwell longer on this subject, as 
I believe all Helminthologists, and all who have considered it, 
are fully agreed that the Entozoa have their natural abode in 
the animal body alone, and that in any other situation they 
infallibly perish. But the more difficult question is, how do 
they get there ? 

This query cannot at present be satisfactorily solved, for 
the truth is that we know nothing of their origin ; but I am 
not inclined therefore to suppose them to be the entities of 
equivocal generation, a doctrine still indulged in by natural- 
ists and physiologists of high name and authority, and which 
formerly was generally embraced with regard to all animals 
occupying the lower links in the great chain of animated 

But as the light of science burned bright, innumerable 
errors were by slow degrees seen into, and have long since 
ceased to blot the page of truth. They arose out of ignorance ; 
and to a similar origin we are, I believe, to attribute the theory 
of equivocal generation, whether it be applied to a fungus, 

* At a place about a quarter of a mile beyond Belfast Bridge, on Bally- 
macarret Strand, where worn-out horses are slaughtered, I have more than 
once seen dead Taeniae in a pool of water, but there could be no doubt that 
their original habitat had been the intestines of the slaughtered animals, 
dragged to the said pool by dogs, or kicked into it by idle boys. — J. L. D. 

Generation ofEtntozosi, 103 

an animalcule, or an entozoon. We know not how a miicor 
originates on a decaying vegetable or animal matter, nor how 
millions of animalcules appear in a vegetable infusion, nor 
how an entozoon shows itself in the intestines or the brain of 
an animal; but because we do not in our present state of 
knowledge understand these things, are we to fall into the er- 
ror of the ancients, and attempt to explain, by what seems 
next to an impossibility, their appearance on the supposition 
of a spontaneous generation ? Some of these obscure animals 
have an organization so perfect and admirable, that to me it 
would seem almost as consonant to reason and sense to attri- 
bute the formation and oeconomy of an elephant, or I might 
say, of man himself, to equivocal generation, as theirs. 

To some, however, there seems to be no difficulty in the 
matter ; and it is stated with great confidence, that because a 
clot of effused lymph from an inflamed serous surface becomes 
organized and sensible, so it is quite easy to conceive that a 
living worm may be equally produced from unorganized mat- 
ter ; the only difference between the two being this, — that the 
organized lymph continues adherent to the matrix, while the 
other is cast off as a separate being. 

But that the analogy between an orgazined portion of lymph 
and an entozoon is extremely remote, can, I think, be easily 
shown ; there is, indeed, a gap between them which can never 
be filled up. In the first place, the effused lymph in the ex- 
ample alluded to, however organized it maybe, is a constituent, 
though I grant an unnecessary and superfluous part, of the 
body to which it is attached ; but it is a natural product of 
that law of the animal oeconomy, by which it throws out lymph 
from inflamed serous membranes^ and from the sides of wounds, 
into which the vessels pullulate for the purpose of uniting the 
dissevered or adjacent surfaces. It is, in fact, a product of 
the adhesive action, or adhesive inflammation, as the common 
term is, and has no life whatever independently of the life of 
the part on which it is situated. However extraneous or un- 
necessary to the animal which has produced it, it has no vi- 
tality independent of the life of that animal of which it is now 
an integrant part, and its separation from which is its imme- 
diate death. 

Again, I would remark, that no growth from effused lymph 
is ever seen showing any mark of independent life, or in the 
state of passing from a dependent to an independent vitality. 
No instance has ever occurred of effused lymph, however or- 
ganized it may have become, exhibiting, as in the postic 
fictions of the animals formed from the mud of the Nile, one 
part as merely organized lymph, and another assuming the 

104 Dr. Drummond on the Equivocal 

form and functions of a worm. Nor further, has any entozoon 
been found in a semi-state of formation. There is never any- 
intermediate stage in which it can be shown that the animal 
is in its transit from an accidental origin to the more perfect 
state, in which it shall exhibit a complex and independent or- 
ganization, and like other animals, have organs for the conti- 
nuation of its species. It would, indeed, require no inconsider- 
able stretch of imagination to conceive that a portion of ef- 
fused lymph could assume to itself the power of producing 
other similar, or rather very dissimilar portions, which would 
propagate their kind from generation to generation, in scscula 
sceculorum ; for I incline to the behef that the Tcerdce and Lum- 
brici of Hippocrates were as much the progenitors of those 
found at the present day, as w ere the men and women of his 
time the ancestors of those now living in the nineteenth cen- 

In considering the formation of any animal, we cannot move 
a step without reference to an all-powerful architect ; in every 
structural part, in every function, in every action, in every 
instinct of such animal, we perceive so great a degree of con- 
trivance, creative power and wisdom, that the conviction is 
forced upon us that these cannot be the work of chance, that 
^^ there cannot be design without a designer; contrivance, with- 
out a contriver ; order, without choice ; arrangement, without 
anything capable of arranging ; subserviency and relation to 
a purpose, without that which could intend a purpose ; means 
suitable to an end, and executing their office in accomplish- 
ing that end, without the end ever having been contemplated, 
or the means accommodated to it*.^' Yet, in the doctrine of 
spontaneous generation all these are dispensed with ; we have 
'' contrivance without a contriver, and design without a de- 
signer,^^ and a number of atoms collected together form them- 
selves into wonderfully fabricated and sentient beings, inde- 
pendent of those conditions by which other organized bodies 
are produced. An insensible mass of matter will, we know, 
become developed into a living being of most complicated 
structure and wonderful oeconomy; an egg will be hatched into 
a peacock, but the egg could never have existed but for its fe- 
male parent, nor could it ever be hatched into the living bird 
without having received the permanent vital principle from 
its male progenitor, in obedience to those laws ordained by 
the Deity when the first male and female peacock were 
created ; but the beings of equivocal generation are independ- 
ent of all such laws ; of the contrivance which they display 

* Paley's Natural Theology. 

Generation q/'Entozoa. 105 

they themselves are the contrivers, of the design the de- 

Let us then suppose that a portion either of effused lymph 
or extravasated blood, or any other substance, is about to 
go through the process of converting itself into an intestinal 
worm, and consider what it has to do to effect so complete a 
metamorphosis ; we must suppose that before it assumed its 
independent and distinct life, the first object would be to form 
for itself a mouth and an alimentary canal for its future sup- 
port, a gastric juice of course, and the other necessaries for the 
function of digestion ; now even this, in a particle of matter 
destitute of mind or intelligence, as is the peacock's egg, would 
seem to border a little on the miraculous. 

Well, then, having provided for what many consider the 
most important business of life, the eating function, what has 
it to do next ? Why to shake off the homely and ungraceful 
form of its embryotic clot, and assume the elegant gracility 
of an ascarid, or a Spiroptera, or the broad and jointed ampli- 
tude of a tape-worm, the polymorphous structure of a Scolex, 
or the inextricable complexity of a Distoma, 

Having settled this point, the clot has next to regulate its 
growth ; clots are of very various dimensions, but the Ento- 
zoa are as certainly defined in their limits of magnitude as any 
other class of animals. Well, then, it must be obvious, that 
a clot larger than the species into which it is to be converted 
must fine itself down to the proper size, or if too small, plump 
itself up to the same ; but by what mysterious power it can do 
this I profess not to understand. 

Having got so far, however, in its own creation, what has 
it next to do ? To cover itself with a proper skin -, and in this 
great taste is often exhibited, the integument of many worms 
offering a very beautiful appearance; and observe the wonder- 
ful phaenomenon connected with this. The Deity has spread 
over the surface of animals and plants (I mean such as He is 
acknowledged to have formed) an insensible covering, the 
cuticle, to serve as a protection for the parts beneath. And 
what does the clot do ? Why just the same thing ; it covers 
itself with a cuticle too ; though indeed we need not wonder 
much at this, after its having made for itself an alimentary 
canal and bestowed upon it the function of digestion. 

But the work is not yet completed ; motion is not yet pro- 
vided for, a muscular apparatus is therefore next to be fabri- 
cated ; first, for the motion of the whole body, and next, for 
that of individual parts ; and so perfectly is this accomplished, 
that it often forms a source of disappointment and vexation 
to the investigator of these animals. Some of the nematoid 

106 Dr. Drummonil on the Equivocal 

worms roll themselves up so pertinaciously by the action of 
their longitudinal muscles, that it is with the utmost difficulty 
the ends of the animal can be so straightened as to be di- 
stinctly seen ; and the muscles of the head and bothria in some 
species, as in several of the Bothriocephali, and particularly 
in the Scolex polymorphus, are in such perpetual activity, 
and cause so many changes of figure, that hours at the micro- 
scope are necessary before we can obtain a satisfactory know- 
ledge of the structure of the head. 

It so happens that some species have a much smaller mus- 
cular strength and activity than others, as, for instance, the 
Echinorhynchi ; and these might be readily carried through the 
alimentary canal of the animal in which they reside, had they 
their muscular power alone to trust to. And how does the 
clot provide for this ? It forms a trunk or proboscis of ex- 
quisite workmanship, which it arms on all sides with sharp 
horny hooks ; it forms muscles for the especial purpose of 
pushing out this proboscis, and others for drawing it in at 
pleasure into a sheath specially provided for it ; moreover, 
this proboscis is so fashioned that it can be inverted or evert- 
ed upon itself, that is, it can be pushed out or retracted as a 
snail does its horn, without which second kind of motion it 
would be imperfect ; and thus by its twofold motion and its 
armament of rigid hooks, the proboscis is harpooned into the 
mucous coat of the intestine at the pleasui'e of the worm, 
which latter is thereby secured from removal by the pressure 
of the passing contents of the bowel. Some species, not con- 
tent wdth one proboscis, provide themselves with four, and 
these in some of the armed Bothriocephali present one of the 
most beautiful microscopic objects to be found in nature. 

But the work is not yet complete ; sensation is further 
wanted. We are to suppose, that as the animal has acquired 
a digestive apparatus, it has superadded to this the sense of 
taste ; but at all events it has the sense of touch, and therefore 
has provided for itself a system of nerves ; for without a ner- 
vous system in some form or another, none, I presume, will 
insist that there can be sensation. With regard to the sense 
of smelHng I say nothing ; and persons who consider such 
subjects, would perhaps be of opinion that the entozoic life 
would be as comfortable without as with that sense. But as 
respects seeing, since organs of vision would be altogether 
superfluous in habitats where midnight darkness holds per- 
petual reign, we find accordingly that in no instance have the 
Entozoa provided themselves with eyes. 

Let us next suppose that the clot, which has thus so mar- 
vellously metamorphosed itself into an entozoon of admirable 

Generation of ^utozoa, 107 

structure, with its organic and animal life, its digestive, mo- 
tive, and sensitive organs and functions, feels quite comfort- 
able, and wishes to perpetuate its happiness in the continua- 
tion of its race or family to future individuals like itself, that 
it possesses the phrenological organ of philoprogenitiveness, 
— what will it do ? 

It will do this, what the Creator has done with the creatures 
formed by his own hand ; it will provide itself with ovaries 
for containing eggs, the germs of future beings like itself; but 
how it is to form these, and how it is to impart to them the 
capability of being hatched into the identical resemblance of 
their parent, I pretend not to explain. 

But we know that even when eggs are formed there is a 
very essential requisite necessary for bringing them into active 
life. They must have a certain vivifying power, without 
which they will remain as dead matter, and the fond hopes of 
the maternal parent will be frustrated unless this vital influ- 
ence can somehow or other be procured. The task, then, 
next to be accomplished, is to provide this male influence ; 
and we find that many species are androgynous, that is, the 
clot having produced its ovaries and ova, next fabricates organs 
for secreting the vivifying fluid, by whose presence the ova 
shall obtain the power of being developed into worms of the 
same formation and structure as^their wonder-working parent. 

Yet surprising as all this may appear, the climax is not yet 
arrived at. The Ascarides and some other genera are not an- 
drogynous or hermaphrodite, but distinctly male and female. 
Now on the principle of equivocal generation, it must be evi- 
dent that the effused lymph or clot has the power of meta- 
morphosing itself not only into a worm, but into a worm of 
either sex, as it may choose to determine ; and it is equally 
obvious, that two clots must consult together in order to deter- 
mine into what species they shall by mutual agreement be- 
come transformed. This must be absolutely necessary ; there 
must be a predetermined arrangement between the two ; for 
without this millions of males might be formed without one 
corresponding female, and millions of females be condemned 
to live and die in single blessedness. 

These and many other wonders, or rather impossibilities, w^e 
must have recourse to, in order to support the theory of spon- 
taneous generation ; a theory which, in my mind, is as incon- 
sistent with all that we observe of the operations of nature, as 
those which in the days of ignorance taught that putrid flesh 
of itself generated bees, that vapour influenced by an east 
wind changed into Aphides, and that the Lepas anatifera 
grew upon trees, and dropping into the sea became at length 
the barnacle goose. 

108 Dr. Drummond on the Equivocal Ge7ieration o/Entozoa. 

And why should we have recourse to this theory of equivo- 
cal generation in order to account for the formation of the 
Entozoa ? Precisely for the same reason that our progenitors 
indulged in the erroneous notions alluded to. They cherished 
the absurdity, because they were ignorant of the truth. They 
did not know that insect ova were hatched into maggots, and 
that maggots change into flies ; and as the place of breeding 
of the barnacle was not known, they were determined to give 
it some origin, and they did so on grounds just as valid as 
those on which some modern physiologists rest the sponta- 
neous origin of entozoic worms. The tentacula of the Lepas 
resemble feathers ; w^hy then should the shell not grow^ up to 
be a goose ? An effused clot of lymph will become organized ; 
w^hy then should it not grow into a Tape-w orm ? The rea- 
soning on the one side is just as good as on the other ; but we 
may hope that a time will come w hen we shall have as direct 
proof of the origin of the entozoon as we have of that of the 
barnacle. At present, it is true, we are completely in the dark 
respecting the origin of w-orms in the interior of other animals ; 
but it is better, more philosophical, more like genuine dis- 
ciples of truth, to confess our ignorance, than to adopt a theory 
which is in direct opposition to what occurs in every depart- 
ment of organized nature with which we are properly ac- 

For my own part, I can no more conceive that Entozoa are 
the creatures of chance than the animals they inhabit ; though 
as to the manner of their origin, of which so little as yet is 
known, I pretend to go no further than is expressed in the 
old distich, — 

The things we know are neither strange nor rare, 
But wonder how the devil they got there. 

Got there as they will, however, their possession of a di- 
stinct and independent life, their having sensation, voluntary 
motion, generative organs and functions, a digestive apparatus 
and other attributes of animals, while they exhibit the most 
minute, elaborate and exquisite w^orkmanship, and also dis- 
play the most unquestionable proofs of their whole composi- 
tion, both general and partial, having been fabricated with the 
utmost wisdom and adaptation to their mode of life, show" as 
clearly as if the proofs were w-ritten w ith a sunbeam, that they 
cannot be beings of fortuitous origin ; that they are the off- 
spring and work of the same Almighty hand which formed all 
the other races of animated being ; and that to suppose their 
admirable formation to be the result of a kind of chance, is to 
impart to unintelligent matter that power and wisdom which 
belong only to the Deity himself. 

Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of Irish Mollusca. 109 

XVI. — Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of 
Ireland. By Wm. Thompson^ Vice-President of the Na- 
tural History Society of Belfast. 

[Continued from p. 34.] 

Gen. 5. Succinea, Drap. 

1. S. putris, Flem., Jeff. Gray, Man. p. 178t. 

S. amphibia, Drap. p. 58. pi. 3. f. 22 ; Turt. Man. p. 91. 

Helix putris, Linn. Mont. p. 376. t. 16. f. 4. 
Is generally distributed throughout Ireland. Specimens agreein"" 

with the var. p. of Draparnaud — " major solidior, colore cameo" 

in form (see pi. 3. f. 23.), colour, and more than ordinary thickness, 
though not in being larger than usual, are occasionally met with. The 
varieties yX {" media magis elongata et colorata") and ^ (" minor, 
apertura ovata") are found in the north. Individuals of this species, 
which adhere to stones in wet spots at a considerable elevation in 
the northern mountains, are, as may be expected, invariably much 
dwarfed in size. 

2. S. Pfeifferi, Rossm. Gray, Man. p. 179. pi. 6. f. 74.* 

S. gracilis. Alder, Mag. Zool. and Bot. vol. ii. p. 106. 

S. Amphibia, b. Pfeiffer, p. 67. t. 3. f. 37. 
Although less common than the last, this species or variety is 
widely diffused over the island — in the north it is not uncommon, 
and is here generally of the same amber colour as S. amphibia ; as 
likewise are English specimens which I owe to the kindness of Mr. 
Alder; specimens of a reddish horn-colour, and much thicker than 
usual, have occasionally occurred to me in the north, and in quan- 
tity they have been obtained by Mrs. Patterson of Belfast, near Port- 
arlington. Mr. Humphreys notices this shell under the name of B. 
oblong a, Turt., as found about Cork, and by this appellation Mr. Har- 
vey mentions BaUitore (county Kildare) and Limerick as habitats, 
adding at the same time — " animal darker than in the last [*S^. amphi- 
bia'], and found in far wetter places." From Finnoe (county Tip- 
perary) I have been favoured by Mr. E. Waller with typical speci- 
mens of this Succinea, as admirably represented in Gray's Manual 
(f. 74*). 

6. BuLiMus§, Bruguiere. 

1. B. obscurus, Drap. p. 74. pi. 4. f. 23 ; Gray, Man. p. 183. pi 6. 
f. 63; Turt. Man. p. 81. f. 63. 
Helix obscura. Mull. Mont. p. 391. t. 22. f. 5. 

f Wood-cut, p. 178. — The coloured figure, pi. C. f. 73, seems to me fo par- 
take as much of the form of S. Pfeifferi as of S. putris. 
X This is probably S. Pfeifferi. 
§ BiiUmus Lackamensis, Flem. Gray, Man. p. 181. pi. 6. f. G2. 

B. montanus, Drap. p. 74. pi. 4. f. 22 ; Turt. Man. p. 80. f. 62. 

Helix Lackamensis, Mont. p. 394. t, 1 1 . f. 3. 
In Capt. Brown's ' Irish Testacea' this species appears under its original 

110 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

This species is very local. In his * Irish Testacea' Capt. Brown 
notices " one specimen [procured] on a dry mud wall near Clo- 
nooney," p. 529. About the roots of trees in the demesne of Wood- 
lands near Dublin, I have, accompanied by Mr. R. Ball, obtained spe- 
cimens, the shells of all of which, adult as well as immature, were like 
those sent me from other localities, and according to the observa- 
tions of authors, covered with earth. From La Bergerie, Portarhng- 
ton, I have been favoured with specimens by the Rev. B. J. Clarke. 
In March, 1837, it was supplied me in quantity from Larne, county 
Antrim, by Mr. James Manks. From the Falls of Clyde (Scotland), 
I have specimens collected by W. H. Harvey, Esq. 

Animal, rather dark grey above, lighter towards the disk, and 
when viewed under a lens appearing closely marked all over the 
back and sides, with darker spots and markings so disposed as to 
render it very beautiful ; disk very pale grey. Tentacula cylindrical, 
stout, and club-shaped ; the upper of ordinary length, the lower 

2. B. acutus, *' Brug." Drap. p. 77. pi. 4. f. 29, 30; Gray, Man. 

p. 185. pi. 6. f. 67. 

B. fasciatus, Turt. Man. p. 84. f. 67. 

Turbo fasciatus, Penn. Mont. p. 346. t. 22. f. 1. 
This is a local species, but found from north to south — from the 
neighbourhood of the Giant's Causeway to Youghal. It is especially 
common on marine sand-banks and pastures, but in remote inland 
localities is likewise native. It would seem to be more common to 
the eastern than the western portion of the island, but in the latter 
it has occurred to me about Ballyshannon, county of Donegal. I 
have occasionally observed this species inhabiting the crevices of 
walls at a considerable height, as those of Howth church, county 
Dublin. M. Michaud remarked on some Irish specimens of this 
most variable species which I contributed to his collection, that they 
were the B. articulatus, Lam. 

3. B.\ lubricus, " Brug." Drap. p. 75. pi. 4. f. 24 ; Turt. Man. p. 82. 

f. 65. 

name, as last quoted, but no locality is assigned to it. Having written to 
Capt. Brown on the subject, he very kindly supplied me with the following 
note under date of April 9, 1840 : — " I found the Bulimus montanus on the 
sloping banks below an old castle about four miles from Maryborough, 
Queen's county, the name of which I cannot remember : it is, however, on 
the road between Maryborough and Stradbally. I also found it on a lime- 
stone gravel ridge near Maryborough, not a mile distant. I afterwards met 
with it among debris on the mountains of Mourne, close to the sea-shore." 
As B. Lackamensis and B. ohscurus differ little from each other, except in 
size, and as the period when the localities just alluded to were visited by 
this author is now so far distant, it would seem to me, judging from other 
circumstances connected with the species, that a large variety of B. obscurus 
may not improbably be the shell thus referred to. 

f In ignorance of the generic name — Cionella, Jeffreys ; Achatina, Al- 
der ; Zua, Leach, as adopted by Gray, which this species should properly 
bear, — I use the older appellation of Bulimus. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland, 111 

Zua lubrica, Gray, Man. p. 188. pi. 6. f. 65. 

Helix lubrica, Mull. Mont. p. 390. t. 22. fig. not good. 

Is common, and generally distributed over Ireland. From under 
stones on the dry mountain side at Wolfhill, near Belfast, and on 
sea-side pastures I have obtained a few specimens of a handsome va- 
riety, of a pale grey colour and transparent, with a white peristome ; 
in such localities this shell does not present to the same degree the 
rich amber colour and brilliant polish which it does in woods or 
shady places. The animal is blackish. From an examination of the 
food contained in seven Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), shot at differ- 
ent places in the north of Ireland, from the month of December to 
March, during a mild winter, it would appear either that the B. lu- 
bricus is a special favourite, or that its haunts are similar to those of 
the bird ; as six of the Starlings, in addition to Helices and other food, 
contained specimens of this shell varying from five to thirteen in 

7. AcHATiNA, Lam. 

1. A. Acicula, L^m. Gray, Man. p. 191. pi. 6. f. 71 ; Turt. Man. p. 
89. f. 71. 
Bulimus Acicula, Drap. p. 75. pi. 4. f. 25, 26. 
Buccinum terrestre, Mont. p. 248. t. 8. f. 3. 

This handsome species is found sparingly, but from east to west, 
in the more southern half of Ireland. Mr. W. H. Harvey has pro- 
cured it on the " sand-hills, Miltown Malbay, and from under stones 
near Limerick," but in the latter locality marks it as " very rare." 
Mr. T. W. Warren of Dublin, has supplied me with specimens pro- 
cured by him on different occasions in the rejectamenta of the river 
Dodder near that city. At La Bergerie (Queen's-county), it is 
found by the Rev. B. J. Clarke ; and at Finnoe (county Tipperary), 
by Mr. Edw. Waller ; by Miss Ball at Castle-martyr demesne 
(county Cork) ; and by Miss M. Ball at Dromana (county Water- 

For the Cionella elongata, JefF. noticed with doubt as Irish by Mr. 
Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. p. 348. see Gray's Manual, p. 18. 
under Achatina octona. 

8. Pupa, Lam. 

1. P. umhilicata, Drap. p. 62. pi. 3. f. 39, 40 ; Gray, Man. p. 193. 
pL 7. f. 78; Turt. Man. p. 97. f. 78. 
Turbo muscorum, Mont, p. 335. t. 22. f. 3. 

This is one of the most common of the testaceous Mollusca 
throughout Ireland and her islands, and especially abundant where 
limestone and chalk prevail. From the sea-shore to a great eleva- 
tion in the mountains it is foundf. It is subject to considerable va- 

t Mr. Alder, with reference to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, remarks of this spe- 
cies — " under stones, common ; seldom in moss" (Newc. Trans, vol. i. p.33); 
in Ireland it is common among mosses and lichens in suitable localities. 

112 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

riety in form and colour ; the toothless var. not unfrequently occurs, 
and on a sea-bank at Belfast Bay I once obtained a specimen with 
two teeth t, but differing in no other respect from the ordinary shell, 
I cannot consider it otherwise than an accidental variety of P. um- 
hilicata. Specimens whitish and bpake, like " dead shells," not un- 
frequently occur containing the living animal. Occasionally in the 
north, at the South Islands of Arran, and about the lakes of Killar- 
ney, I have procured a few individuals of a crystalline transparency, 
the elegance of their appearance being much enhanced by the pure 
white margin of the peristome. The animal is of a very pale grey 

2. Pupa Anglica, Alder. Gray, Man. p. 195. pi. 7. f. 82. 
Vertigo Anglica, Fer. Turt. Man. p. 102. f. 82. 

This species, considered peculiar to England when described by 
Ferussac, and in the very latest work treating of the British land 
Mollusca having only the localities — "north of England, Northum- 
berland, Lancashire," attributed to it, is found in the north and 
south, in the east and west of Ireland ; but at the same time is by no 
means general, or, except in particular spots, plentiful, like P. vmbi- 
licata. Under stones, on marsh plants, in wet moss, &c. it harbours. 
I first met with it in June, 1 833, in the county of Londonderry, at 
the side of the river Bann near its junction with the ocean ; in nu- 
merous localities throughout Down and Antrim, and in the demesne 
of Florence-court, county Fermanagh, it since occurred to me ; in 
the west on the mountain of Benbulben in Sligo ; in the south about 
O' Sullivan's cascade, at the lower lake of Killarney ; and in the east 
in the Glen of the Downs, county Wicklow. Mr. W." H. Harvey 
obtained this species '* near Ballitore and on the sand-hills, Miltown 
Malbay," but notes it as very rare. In the collections of Mr. T. W. 
Warren and Mr. Edw. Waller of Dublin, are specimens procured by 
the former gentleman at Ardmore (county Waterford), and in the 
neighbourhood of the metropolis ; and by the latter at Annahoe, 
county Tyrone — near Portarlington it is found by the Rev. B. J. 
Clarke, and by the Rev. T. Hincks near Cork, where it is '* abun- 
dant in wet moss." In England I have collected the P. Anglica 
at Twizel House, Northumberland ; in Scotland about Ballantrae, 

The shells of this Pupa commonly vary in colour from pale grey- 
ish brown to a deep reddish shade of this colour, and are rarely of a 
glassy transparency : the margin of the mouth and teeth are gene- 
rally of the colour of the shell, but sometimes pure white. Mr. Gray 
having had the opportunity of consulting the work only of M. Mi- 
chaud, refers his Pupa tridentalis with doubt to this species, but from 
having been favoured by its describer with specimens of this shell from 
the neighbourhood of Lyons, I can state with certainty that it is en- 

f Capt. Brown, in his ' Illustrations,' &c. quoting Pfeiffer, notices his P. 
hidentatus as a Portmarnock shell. My specimen is not identical with what 
Pfeiffer figures. Rossmassler does not consider P. hidentatus distinct from 
P.marginafa. See Rossm. Part I. p. 83; and Gray, Man. p. 197. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland, 113 

tirely distinct from P. Anglica, and a species unknown as British. 
Mr. Gray makes PfeifFer's Pupa bidentata, 1. 59. t. 3. f. 21, 22, syn- 
onymous with P. Anglica, but judging from the diagnosis and 
figures I cannot think them the same. 

3. Pupa marginata, Drap. p. 61. pi. 3. f. 36 — 38; Gray, Man. p. 
196. pi. 7. f. 79t; Turt. Man. p. 98. f. 79. 

Is common, and although not generally diffused, is found from the 
extreme north to south, and east to west of Ireland* It is particu- 
larly partial to the sand-hills or pastures bordering the coast, and to 
marine islets, as those in Strangford lough — in the inland parts of 
the country it likewise occurs. The tooth is rarely visible : speci- 
mens containing the living animal are not unfrequently of a whitish 
colour J. 

9. Vertigo, Muller. 

1. V. edentula. Alder. Gray, Man. p. 199. pi. 7. f. 80 ; Rossmassler, 
X. p. 28. tab. 49. f. 646. 

Pupa edentula, Drap. p. 59. pi. 3. f. 28, 29 ; Turt. Man. p. 99. 
f. 80. 

This species is found from north to south of Ireland. Since Sep- 
tember, 1832, I have met with it in numerous localities throughout 
the counties of Down and Antrim, at the Glen of the Downs in 
Wicklow, and in shell-sand from Portmarnock (county Dublin). An- 
nahoe, county Tyrone, Mr. E.Waller — La Bergerie, Queen's-county, 
Mrs. Patterson (of Belfast) — neighbourhood of Cork, Rev. T. Hincks. 
The typical form of V. edentula I generally find under stones ; the 
elongated and cylindrical variety in woods — in autumn and winter 
this latter is most readily obtained on the fallen leaves of trees ; in 
summer, on the under side of the fronds of ferns {Aspidii, &c.), the 
shell and plant, though the naturalist only will perceive the former, 
being in beauty equally attractive. This elongate variety has seven 
and occasionally even eight volutions, and attains the length of I5 
line : when of this size, the animal §, so very minute relatively to 
the shell, has a grotesque appearance when bearing this along, 
which is carried singularly erect, not more out of the perpendicular 
than the leaning tower at Pisa ! This variety, judging from descrip- 

•f The larger wood-cut at p. 1 97, representing this species magnified, is 
the most characteristic in the work. Rossmassler's figure 323 is particu- 
larly good. 

X Pupajunipera, Alder. Gray, Man. p. 197. pi. 7. f. 81. — Turbo juni- 
peri, Mont. p. 340. t. 12. f. 12. 
P. Secale, Drap. p. 64. pi. 3. f. 49, 50.— Vertigo Secale, Turt. Man. p. 
101. f. 81. 
In a list of additions to the Irish Fauna published in the Lond. and Edin. 
Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 300, this species was enumerated in consequence of my 
having been assured that specimens which 1 saw in a Dublin collection were 
found in this country — their owner now believes that they must have been 
brought from England. 

§ When adult, the animal varies in colour from greyish-white to black- 

Ann, ^ Mag, Nat, Hist, Oct. ISiO, i 

114 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

tion and figures, is perhaps the Pupa inornata, Michaud, Comp. p. 
63. pi. 15. f. 31, 32, apparently differing from it only in size — it is 
described to be two lines in length : my largest specimen is 1^ line, 
but this discrepancy is not greater than might be anticipated be- 
tween individuals obtained in the north of Ireland and at Lyons, 
where the P. inornata was discovered. I at first thought this var. 
might be Pupa muscorum, Drap. (Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 300.), but 
specimens of this shell from Montpellier, since sent me by M. Mi- 
chaud, prove that it is not so — these are identical with examples of 
Pupa cylindrica, which I have collected at Salisbury Craigs near 
Edinburgh, a locality in which this rare species was discovered by 
Mr. E. Forbes. 

2. Vertigo pygmcea, Fer. Gray, Man. p. 201 . pi. 7. f. 83 ; Turt. Man. 

p. 103. f. 83. 

Pupa pygmsea, Drap. p. 60. pi. 3. f. 30, 31. 
This is the most widely distributed species of Vertigo over Ire- 
land, occurring throughout the country. It is generally found but 
sparingly where it does prevail, and is most easily procured under 
stones, both in dry and wet situations, from the sea-shore to a high 
elevation in the mountains. The usual number of teeth is four, of 
which one is central on the upper or body portion. — On a sea-bank, 
Belfast bay, I once met with a Vertigo resembling the ordinary V. 
pygmcea in every respect, but with the addition of a tubercle, about 
the size of one of the teeth, placed outside the mouth and near the 
junction of the outer lip with the body volution. Animal dark lead 
colour, or rather blackish-gray above, disk blackish-gray anteriorly, 
becoming suddenly paler, so as to be nearly white at the opposite 

3. Vertigo suhstriata, Alder. Gray, Man. p. 202. pi. 7. f. 84. 

V. sexdentata, Turt. Man. p. 103. f. 84. 
This species, though rare, has a wide distribution in Ireland. In 
the glen at Holy wood House (county Down), I obtained specimens 
in 1832, and subsequently in shell-sand from Portmamock (county 
Dublin). Mr. W. H. Harvey gives as habitats " Miltown Malbay, 
and near Limerick — rare at Ballitore (county Kildare)." In the 
neighbourhood of Ballantrae, Ayrshire, this Vertigo has occurred to 
me. Reference alone to Montagu's specimens would seem to prove 
whether his Turbo sexdentata, p. 337, be this species, as his descrip- 
tion is partly applicable to this (in number of teeth), and partly to 
V. palustris (in being smooth) — the locality in which it was found 
would be more suitable to the latter : the figure in * Testacea Bri- 
tannica,' throws no light upon the subject. 

4. Vertigo palustris, Leach. Gray, Man. p. 204. pi. 7. f. 85 ; Turt. 

Man. p. 104. f. 85. 
V. septemdentata, " Fer." Rossm. Icon. x. p. 28, tab. 49. f. 
In numerous localities throughout the counties of Down and 
Antrim I have since 1832 procured this well-marked species, which. 

Freshwater MoUusca of Ireland. 115 

as its name denotes, is an inhabitant of the marsh : it nevertheless 
seems invariably to be not only free from dirt, but presents a high 
polish. By the Rev. B. J. Clarke the V. palustris has been obtained 
near Portarlington, and by Mr. Edw. Waller at Finnoe, Tipperary. 
In England I have procured it near Twizel, Northumberland, and 
in Scotland in several localities around Ballantrae. Mr. Gray, in the 
Introduction to his edition of Turton's Manual, mentions the V. pa- 
lustris and V. angustior to "have been only yet recorded as found 
near London and in the west of England," p. 37 — in 1834 I pub- 
lished both species as indigenous to Ireland. Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 300. 
Reference to this communication, though a mere list of species of 
land and freshwater Mollusca previously unrecorded as Irish, would 
have shown that several species noticed in the Manual as local, have 
a considerable range of distribution. 

5. Vertigo pusilla, " MUU." Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. p. 361. 

Gray, Man. p. 205. pi. 7. f. 86. 

V. heterostropha, Leach. Turt. Man. p. 105. f. 86. 

Pupa Vertigo, Drap. p. 61. pi. 3. f. 34, 35. 

Is very rare, but has been found in the north-east and west of the 
island. From under a stone on a dry bank in Colin Glen, near Bel- 
fast, I obtained a specimen in 1832, as Mr. Hyndman did in an ad- 
jacent glen some time afterwards ; in shell-sand from Portmamock 
I have detected it, and Mr. Harvey has supplied me with a speci- 
men from Miltown Malbay, where he states the species is very rare. 
A shell from Flanders, favoured me by M. Michaud, under the name 
of "Pupa Vertigo, Drap. {Vert, pusilla, Mich.)," is identical with 
that under consideration. 

6. Vertigo angustior, Jeffreys. Linn. Trans, vol. xvi. p. 361 ; Gray, 

Man. p. 205. 
Turbo Vertigo, Mont. p. 363. t. 12. f. 6. 
In 1833 I was favoured by Mr. W. H. Harvey with specimens of 
Vertigo labelled " V. heterostropha, two species, from the sand-hills 
Miltown Malbay, the smaller common, the larger very rare." The 
smaller are of this species, which has always seemed to me distinct 
from the V. heterostropha of Drap. and of Turton's Manual. A com- 
parison of Montagu's Turbo Vertigo (tab. 12. f. 6.) with the V. he- 
terostropha in the works just mentioned, will show the obvious dif- 
ference. To Mr. Jeffreys the merit is due of clearly distinguishing 
these species. Since 1834, when this Vertigo was published as in- 
digenous to Ireland, I have not obtained any more information re- 
specting it. 

10. Bal^a, Gray. 

1. B. perversa, Flem. Gray, Man. p. 207. pi. 6. f. 70. 
B. fragilis. Gray. Turt. Man. p. 87. f. 70. 
. Pupa fragilis, Drap. p. 68. pi. 4. f. 4. 

Turbo perversus, Mont. p. 355. t. 11. f. 12. 
This species is generally distributed over the island. Its favourite 

I 2 

116 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

abode is on the stems and branches of trees, where it shelters itself 
beneath the loose bark or in its crevices ; and on trees whose bark 
from smoothness will not afford it shelter, this Balaa lurks in the 
mosses and lichens which adorn them — in the tufts of these crypto- 
gamous plants I have remarked it buried, whilst the Vertigo eden- 
tula displayed itself at the outside. 

11. Clausilia, Drap. 

1. C. hidens, Drap. p. Q^. pi. 4. f. 5—7 ; Gray, Man. p. 212. pi. 5. 

f. 53. 

C. laminata, Turt. Man. p. 70. f. 53. 

Turbo laminatus, Mont. p. 359. t. 11. f. 4. 

Is a rare and local species in Ireland. The first native specimens 
I have seen were in the collection of Mr. T. W. Warren of Dublin, 
who had procured them in Belamont Forest near Coothill, county 
Cavan. In Sept. 1837 I had the gratification of seeing numbers of 
this fine Clausilia, after heavy rain ascending the stems of stately 
trees in the demesne of Florence Court, county Fermanagh, the seat 
of the Earl of Enniskillen. At Dovedale, in Derbyshire, I have met 
with it. 

2. Clausilia nigricans, Jeffreys. Gray, Man. p. 217. pi. 5. f. 58. 

C. rugosa, Drap. p. 73. pi. 4. f. 19, 20 ; Turt. Man. p. 74. f. 58. 

Turbo bidens, Mont. p. 357. t. 11. f. 7. 
Is very commonly distributed over Ireland and the surrounding 
islands. It is an extremely variable species in being more or less 
ventricose, in the striae being obscure or prominent, in the form of 
the mouth, and occasionally even in the number of internal lamellae 
— the largest specimen I have found in the neighbourhood of Belfast 
is 7^ lines in length, and has thirteen volutions ; several others of 
the usual length of 6 lines have likewise this number. The colour 
commonly varies from a very pale greyish-white to deep reddish- 
brown ; very rarely specimens of a glassy transparency occur, and in 
such of these as I have found, the animal was equally colourless. To 
Mr. Gray, Mr. Alder, and Mr. Forbes, I have shown the specimens 
diflfering as here described, and they agree with me that they must 
all be considered C. nigricans f. 

Fam. 4. " Auriculadjs.*' 
Gen. 1. Carychium, Miiller. 

1. C. minimum, Miill. Gray, Man. p. 221. pi. 7. f. 77 ; Turt. Man. 
p. 96. f. 77. 
Auricula minima, Drap. p. 57. pi. 3. f. 18, 19. 
Turbo Carychium, Mont. p. 339. t. 22. f. 2. 
This minute species is commonly distributed over Ireland, and 

f Since the above was written the fine work of Rossmassler has been con- 
sulted, in which numerous varieties of C. nigricans or " C. rugosa" are ad- 
mirably represented. Icon, part 7. p. 23. fig. 477 — 487. The C. ohtusa, 
PfeifTer, which is common in Ireland, is here included (and judiciously I con- 
sider) as a var. of C. rugosa. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland, 1 1 7 

may be found in moss, on decaying leaves and wood, under stones, 
&c., in dry as well as wet places, though the latter are its favourite 
abode — in the north of the island specimens rarely attain one line in 

Gen. 2. Acme, Hartmann. 
1. A,fusca, Gray, Man. p. 223. pi. 6. f. QQ, 

Auricula lineata, Drap. p. 57. pi. 3. f. 20, 21. 
Bulimus lineatus, Turt. Man. p. 83. f. QQ. 
Turbo fuscus. Boys and Walker. Mont. p. 330. 

Is rare in Ireland, but is widely distributed, being found over the 
island. Mr. W. H. Harvey was the first to find and distinguish this 
species as a native — he notes it as not uncommon on the sand-hills 
in Miltown Malbay, where in 1826 he procured both the ordinary 
form and the variety with the spires reversed. This shell has been 
procured by Mr. Hyndman and myself in various localities in the 
counties of Down and Antrim, but not more than three or four in- 
dividuals have been obtained on any one occasion. I have more than 
once found this shell, containing the living animal, under stones on 
bare clayey banks, in which situations the only other mollusk met 
with was Helix chrystallina. At Annahoe (county Tyrone), Mr. 
Edw. Waller has obtained the A.fusca (both a. and b. Turton, p. 
83.) ; as Mr. T. W.Warren has done in the neighbourhood of Dublin, 
and the Rev. B. J. Clarke at La Bergerie, Queen's county. The 
Rev. T. Hincks of Cork, favours me with two southern habitats—. 
BallinhassigGlen (county Cork) and near Mucruss, Killarney (county 

Fam. 5. LiMNiEAD^, Jeffreys. 

G&a.. 1. LiMNEUs, Drap. 

1. L. auricularius, Drap. p. 49. pi. 2. f. 28, 29, 32; Gray, Man. p. 
232. pi. 9. f. 100 ; Turt. Man. p 117. f. 100; Rossm. Icon. 
1. 98. t. 2. f. 55. 
Helix auricularia, Mont. p. 375. t. 16. f. 2. 

Through deference to those who have paid much more attention 
to the subject than myself, I note this Limneus under the head of a 
distinct species, although I am disposed to believe that it is only an 
extreme form of L. pereger. The L. auricularius, as figured in both 
editions of Turton's Manual, and by Draparnaud, is not very unfre- 
quent in Ireland, but of the extremely expanded form represented 
by Rossm assler is very rare, and from one or two still ponds only, 
abounding in subaquatic plants of various species, have I seen it. 
PfeiiFer's figure (part 1. t. 4. f. 17, 18.) is somewhat intermediate 
between those just mentioned, and corresponding to it I have pro- 
cured specimens. All forms, from the ordinary L. pereger to the L. 
auricularius, it seems to me may be closely traced blending into each 
other — reference to the figures in many works will be found to pre- 
sent various forms, though in all the aperture is greatly expanded. 
Some specimens of L. auricularius, which I collected in Stow Pool, 

118 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

Lichfield, in July, 1836, are more distinct than any which I have seen 
represented ; the spire is more minute, and the upper part of the outer 
lip goes off from the body of the shell in the form of a straight line ; 
but of all the individuals obtained on this occasion no two are pre- 
cisely alike, but vary from the extreme form described to the L. ova- 
tuSy Drap. 

2. Limneus pereger, Drap. p. 50. pi. 2. f. 34 — 37 ; Gray, Man. p. 

233. pi. 9. f. lOlf; Turt. Man. p. 118. f. 101. Avery rare 

Helix peregra, Mont. p. 373. t. 16. f. 3. 
Tliis species, presenting endless variety, is abundant throughout 
the w^aters of Ireland, from the smallest drain to the vast expanse 
of Lough Neagh. Some of the forms which have been considered 
as distinct species may be enumerated as occurring in this country, 
as L. ovatus, Drap., L. intennedia, Michaud (Comp. pi. 16. f. 17, 18.), 
L. marginata, Mich. (Id. f. 15, 16.), L. lineatus, Bean, L. acutus, 
Jeffreys — of these two last I judge from comparison of authentic 
specimens, the former favoured me by Mr. Alder, the latter by their 
describer. One variety seems to require especial notice — the Gul- 
naria lacustris, Leach. On the shores of Loughs Neagh and Earn 
I have collected specimens identical with those so named by Dr. 
Leach in the British Museum, and which are from the lakes of Cum- 
berland — their donor General Bingham. It would seem to be the 
same form which Capt. Brown figures under the name of ** Lymnasa 
lacustris. Brown's MSS.," and states to have been found by him in 
Loch Leven, Kinross-shire. Illustrations Brit. Conch., pi. 42. f. 24, 
25. From lakes in various parts of Ireland I possess this form, which, 
from its extreme delicacy, I look upon as an inhabitant of still water, 
and from its rare occurrence, except when cast ashore, of deep water 
also. The specimens, which containing the living animal, have occa- 
sionally been found in shallow water, have I presume been driven 
thence in storms, to which conclusion I am led by having once at 
Lough Earn, and frequently at Lough Neagh, looked in vain for a 
living individual with a shell of this form at the edge of their wa- 
ters, though plenty of the more common forms of L. pereger were 
there. The variety under consideration is intermediate in form be- 
tween the typical L. pereger and L. glutinosus, with a short spire 
and ample aperture ; shell very thin, longitudinally striated ; striae 
regular, frequent, and strongly marked ; about one in thirty of the 
specimens examined somewhat spirally cut, " like the facets of 
glass" ; slight fold on the pillar lip ; an epidermis-like covering, of a 
dull greenish-yellow colour. By the chief cultivators of this branch 
of natural history in Great Britain, to whom I have sent this shell, 
it was considered a particularly well-marked variety J, and M. 

f The wood-cut at p. 235 is much more characteristic than figure 101, 
which is that of the first edition repeated. I have shells similar to f. 101, 
from the vicinity of Belfast. 

J Mr. Gray remarks — " The Gulnaria lacustris of Leach is very peculiar, 
from the erosion of its tips, probably arising from its locality, the lakes of 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 119 

Michaud, in acknowledging the receipt of specimens from Lough 
Neagh, remarked that the form was unknown to him in France. 

I have seen the L. pereger attached in numbers to the backs of 
turtles, kept in a pond at Fort William, near Belfast, when it was 
amusing to observe these animals swimming about, with the Limnei 
still keeping " their seats" upon them. 

3. Limneus involutus, Harvey. 

Amphipeplea involuta. Gray, Man. p. 245. pi. 12. f. 147. 
This Limneus so remarkable in form was discovered by Wm. H. 
Harvey, Esq. in a small lake on Cromaglaun Mountain near the 
lakes of Killarney. A description of it will be found in the Annals 
Nat. Hist, for March 1840, p. 22. Its specific character is — spire 
sunk within the outer whorl ; aperture very large, extending to the 

4. Limneus stagnalis, Drap. p. 51. pi. 2. f. 38, 39; Gray, Man. p. 

236. pi. 9. f. 104; Turt. Man. p. 121. f. 104 ; Rossm. f. 49. 
Helix stagnalis, Mont. p. 367. t. 16. f. 8. 

This, the largest European Limneus, though by no means gene- 
rally distributed, occurs in every portion of the island. It differs 
very much in size, according to locality ; mature specimens, which I 
have found in the cold water of Lough Neagh, Where barren of sub- 
aquatic plants, did not exceed one inch in length, whereas in drains 
in which such plants abound, they attain double this size. 

A Limneus collected by my friend Richard Langtry, Esq., of Fort 
William, near Belfast, when on a tour through Upper Canada in 
1835, seems identical with L. stagnalis. It differs from the ordinary 
form only in tapering rather more towards the apex, and in the second 
largest volution being a little more tumid ; but in these respects an 
extensive series of Irish specimens before me differ very much. The 
American specimens were taken in the river connecting Buckhorn 
with Pigeon Lake. 

5. Limneus palustris, Drap, p. 52. pi. 2. f. 40 — 42. and pi. 3. f. 1, 2 ; 

Gray, Man. p. 239. pi. 9. f. 107 ; Turt. Man. p. 123. f. 107 ; 
Rossm. f. 51, 52. 

Helix palustris, Mont. p. 370. t. 16. f. 10. 
Common, and generally distributed over Ireland — in size, form, 
and colour very variable. In the river Bann, near Kilrea, I have 
procured specimens of the ordinary colour, but with the addition of 
spiral narrow white bands — in some waters the different species of 
Limnei, &c., are so marked. A shell differing from the L. palustris 
in general proportion (being much shorter relatively to its breadth) 
and in colour (generally of a uniform pale yellow), is common to 

Cumberland.'* Manual, p. 236. This erosion is but too common in the 
specimens I have collected in Ireland, but was always attributed by me 
simply to the progress of decay, the shells having for some time been ex- 
posed on the beach. When the tips were eroded the shells always presented 
other marks of decay. 

120 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

Lough Neagh and other lakes in Ireland : it is found attached to 
stones at the edge of the water, and where the adjacent bottom is 
stony, with very little vegetation — under similar circumstances it 
has also occurred to me in the first-named locality. It is identical 
with the var. /3. of Mr. Jeffreys, who has favoured me with speci- 
mens from Battersea, near London. The small size, different colour, 
and freedom from all adventitious matter, I should be disposed to 
attribute to the colder water and less food in such localities, than in 
the ponds and ditches, in which the ordinary form prevails. 

6. Limneus truncatulus, Jeffreys. Gray, Man. p. 240. pi. 9. f. 108. 

L. minutus, Drap. p. 53. pi. 3. f. 5 — 7. 
L. fossarius, Turt. Man. p. 124. f. 108. 
Helix fossaria, Mont. p. 372. t. 16. f. 9. 

Is generally distributed over Ireland. It inhabits drains, ditches, 
&c., like the L. palustris ; but in moist spots, and about springs, at 
a considerable elevation in the northern mountains f, is likewise 
found, and is here always of a very small size. In July, 1833, when 
accompanied by Mr. Hyndman, I remarked many of this species 
alive, and adhering to stones which lay dry upon the shore of Lough 
Neagh, far above the summer level of its waters J — these were of 
uniform size, very small, and when containing the living animal, of 
a very dark reddish brown colour. Many varieties of the L. trun- 
catulus have occurred to me in Ireland ; among them was one very 
much elongated, and another with regular longitudinal strise, the 
latter of which is well remarked by Dr. Turton, to be ** very elegant." 
Man. p. 125. 

7. Limneus glaber. Gray, Man. p. 242. pi. 9. f. 106. 

Limneus elongatus, Drap. p. 53. pi. 3. f. 3, 4 ; Turt. Man. p. 

122. f. 106. 
Helix octanfracta, Mont. p. 396. t. 11. f. 8. 

I have not seen any Irish specimens of this Limneus, which is thus 
noticed in the supplement to Mr. JefFreys's paper in the Linnean 
Transactions, vol. 16. p. 520 ; " Ireland, Rev. James Bulwer." On 
inquiry of Mr. Bulwer, he stated that the shell so noticed was con- 
sidered by him but a variety of L. palustris. By a letter from Mr. 
Jeffreys, dated June 8, 1840, I learn that " L. elongatus was men- 
tioned as Irish on the authority of the late Dr. Goodall, who stated 
that he had received specimens from Mr. Bulwer." Mr. Jeffreys 
adds, " I have, however, two or three undoubted specimens among 
a collection of Irish shells, which I purchased about three months 
ago from Mr. John Humphreys of Cork — the tray which contained 
them was labelled ' Cork.' " From Mr. Humphreys I learn that he 

f In such places it is preyed on by the Lapwing {Vanellus cristatus), from 
whose stomach I have taken it. 

X Montagu has, on the contrary, remarked that when left dry the aniraal 
perishes. Test. Brit., p. 372. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland, 121 

had not identified the species, but that the note of locality appended 
to the shells alluded to by Mr. Jeffreys was strictly correct f. 

2. Ancylus. " GeofFroy." 

1. A. fluviatilis, Mull. Drap. p. 48. pi. 2. f. 23, 24 ; Gray, Man. p. 

249. pi. 10. f. 125 ; Turt. Man. p. 140. f. 125. 
Patella fluviatilis, Mont. p. 482. 

This species is distributed over the island, and is equally found 
attached to stones in the mountain torrent, the river, and the still 
waters of the lake. The var. described by Montagu (p. 483.) as 
being strongly striated, and by Jeffreys (p. 390.) as being pellucid, 
&c., I find upon the first stones wet by mountain springs, on their 
gushing from the earth. All the specimens from these localities 
are much smaller than those found in still water, and coated with 
green vegetable matter, which is entirely adventitious, and may be 
seen in like manner coating the little prominences of the stone to 
which the Ancylus adheres — this and the animal being removed, the 
shell is crystalline. Under the name of " Ancy. fluviatilis, Drap. 
var. montana," M. Michaud has favoured me with specimens from 
the Pyrenees, quite identical with the var. just noticed, as it need 
hardly be remarked are others from France with the ordinary form. 

I had often observed that beautiful and graceful bird, the Gray 
Wagtail (Motacilla boarula), feeding about the mountain springs, but 
was not aware of its propensity for mollusca, until on opening the 
stomach of one without knowing where the specimen had been killed, 
I found it to be filled with shells of this species, all of which being 
of the var. a., afforded evidence whence they had been procured. 

Animal blueish-gray beneath ; portion which comes in contact with 
the shell blackish- green — of six specimens, which I once kept in a 
dry chip box for eighteen hours, two perfectly recovered on being 
immersed in water. 

2. Ancylus lacustris, Mull. Drap. p. 47, pi. 2. f. 26, 27 ; Turt. Man. 

p. 141. f. 126. 

Velletia lacustris. Gray, Man. p. 250. pi. 10. f. 126. 
Patella lacustris, Mont. p. 484. 

This species, although rare, has been met with in the north, east, 
and west of Ireland, in still and gently flowing waters. It was no- 
ticed by Captain Brown in his * Irish Testacea' as ' ' plentiful in a 
mill-race a mile below Naas." By the late Mr. Templeton's MS. 
I find that the species had been previously observed by him ** on 

f Limneus glutinosus — Ampkipeplea glutinosa. 

Is enumerated in Turtou's ' Catalogue of Irish Shells,' but without any 
locality being named. Mr. Gray notes it as found " in stagnant ditches, 
England, Ireland." Man. p. 244. — Mr. Gray informs me that he mentioned 
the species as Irish from specimens sent to the British Museum many years 
ago, by a gentleman then resident in Ireland, and who had contributed a 
number of species from this country to that collection ; but of the L. gluti- 
nosus having been one of those so derived there is now no certain record. 

122 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

Potamogeton, &c., in the drains of the bog-meadows near Belfast." 
Between the fourth and fifth locks. of the Lagan canal, a few miles 
from this town, I have, at the end of September, procured many- 
specimens, all of which were on the under side of the leaves of the 
yellow water-lily {Nuphar luted) and great water- plantain (Alisma 
Plantago) — Pond in the demesne at Moira, county Down, Mr. 
Hyndman — Near Limerick, Mr. W. H. Harvey — Beechwood, near 
Portmarnock, county Dublin, Mr. T. W. Warren — Glasnevin Bo- 
tanic Garden, Dublin, Dr. Coulter — Finnoe, county Tipperary, Mr. 
Edward Waller. 

3. Physa, Drap. 

1. P.fontinalis, Drap. p. 54. pi. 3. f. 8, 9 ; Gray, Man. p. 

9. f. 110; Turt. Man. p. 127. f. 110. 
Bulla fontinalis, Mont. p. 226. 
Is common, and generally distributed over Ireland, occurring on 
aquatic plants in stagnant and gently flowing water. It is subject 
to considerable variety. 

2. P. hypnorum, Drap. p. 55. pi. 3. f. 12, 13; Turt. Man. p. 128. 

f. 113. 
Aplexus hypnorum, Flem. ; Gray, Man. p. 255. pi. 9. f. 113. 
Bulla hypnorum, Mont. p. 228. 
Although much less common than P. fontinalis, is generally dif- 
fused over the island, and found as frequently in very shallow, as in 
deep water. 

4. Planorbis, Muller. 

1. P. corneus, Drap. p. 43. pi. 1. f. 42 — 44; Gray, Man. p. 258. 

pi. 8. f. 95 ; Turt. Man. p. 112. f. 95. 

Helix cornea, Mont. p. 448. 
Has been found only within a very limited portion of the island. 
It still prevails in the locality recorded by Capt. Brown — near May- 
nooth, in the county of Kildare. From about Naas in the same 
county I have been supplied with specimens by Mr. R. Ball ; and 
by the Rev. B. J. Clarke, with some obtained by him near Lea Castle, 
Queen's county. 

2. Planorbis alhus, Mull. Gray, Man. p. 259. pi. 8. f. 97 ; Turt. 

Man. p. 114. f. 97. 
P. hispidus, Drap. p. 43. pi. 1. f. 45 — 47. 
Helix alba, Mont. p. 459. t. 25. f. 7. 
Prevails generally over Ireland. Specimens of P. glaber, Jeffreys, 
which I owe to the kindness of their describer, seem to me (as to 
Mr. Alder) identical with P. alhus. 

3. Planorbis lavis, Alder. Gray, Man. p. 261. pi. 12. f. 148. 

Is found in the north-east of the island. Early in the winter of 
1832 I obtained a number of this species on aquatic jilants (espe- 
cially Callitriche aquatica), with P. itnbricatus, in a small pond at 

Freshwater MoUusca of Ireland* 123 

the Falls, near Belfast, and about the same time procured others in 
the rejectamenta of the rivers Blackwater and Lagan, in the same 
neighbourhood. In the demesne of Portavo, near Donaghadee, and 
in the vicinity of Portaferry, localities in the county of Down, it has 
likewise occurred to me. The animal is dark gray ; tentacula very 
pale gray — dead shells are white. It was the P. Icevis which was 
marked with doubt as " P. glaherl JefF." in Phil. Mag. 1834, p. 300. 

4. Planorbis imbricatus, Mull. Gray, Man. p. 261. pi. 8. f. 94; 

Turt. Man. p. 111. f. 94; Drap. p. 44. pi. 1. f. 49—51. 
P. cristatus, Drap. p. 44. pi. 2. f. 1 — 3. 
Helix nautileus, Mont. p. 464. t. 25. f. 5. 

This handsome and well-marked species is known to me as occurring 
throughout Ireland, with the exception of the extreme south, where 
however there is little doubt that it exists. It is very variable in 
form — the varieties 1 and 2, and the " monstrosity with the volutions 
detached, and raised above each other" (Turt. Man.), I have procured 
on the same plant. The entire animal, together with the tentacula, 
are of a pale gray colour. 

5. Planorbis carinatus. Mull. Gray, Man. p. 262. pi. 8. f. 89 ; 

Turt. Man. f. 89 ; Drap. p. 46. pi. 2. f. 13, 14, 16. 

Is much less common than P. marginatus, but found in all por- 
tions of the island — in the earliest catalogues it was inserted as in- 
digenous. In the neighbourhood of Portaferry, county Down, and 
about the city of Dublin (a recorded locality), it has occurred to me. 
I have seen specimens which were obtained near Portarlington by 
the Ilev. B. J. Clarke ; at a lake near Tyrrell's Pass, Westmeath, by 
Mr. Ovens'; and at Lough Gounagh (county Longford) by Mr. R. 
Callwell, of Dublin f. 

In 1833 Mr. W. PI. Harvey favoured me with specimens labelled 
** P. lAanatus, Turt. Man.," from Portumna on Lough Derg, an ex- 
pansion of the Shannon, where he stated that the form was frequent, 
noting it at the same time to have been found by him at Ballitore 
(county Kildare), where it is very rare — these shells correspond ex- 
actly with Turton's description oi P. planatus, Man. p. 110. This 
seems to be the common form (though the normal one does likewise 
occur) at Lough Derg, as testified by specimens since obtained from 
Portumna and Killaloe+, near its northern and southern extremities 
— some from Nenagh (county Tipperary) have been kindly submitted 
to my inspection by the Rev. T. Hincks of Cork ; near this city the 
'* P. planatus " is noticed by Mr. Humphreys as met with. Mr. Al- 
der and Mr. Forbes consider the Lough Derg shell P. carinatus, 
and, according to the former, it is the P. disciformis, JefF. 

\ Mr. Edw. Waller has favoured me with marl shells of this species from 
Finnoe, and remarks that it is the only shell found there in marl that is not 
to be had in a living state; but this he attributes to the draining of a marsh. 

X To the kind attention of Mr. John J. Marshall of the former, and the 
Rev. C. Mayne of the latter place, I am indebted for them. 

124 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

6. Planorhis umbilicatus, Mull. Jeffreys, Linn. Trans, v. 16. p. 384. 

P. marginatus, Drap. p. 45. pi. 2. f. 11, 12, 15 ; Gray, Man. p. 
265. pi. 8. f. 87, 88, 90; Turt. Man. f. 87. 
This species prevails in every quarter of the island, but is not ge- 
nerally distributed. Attached to stones at Ram's Island, Lough 
Neagh, I find a small variety f, about half the ordinary size, and 
which is concave beneath, v^^ith the keel obscure — Mr. Alder re- 
marked on some of these which I had the pleasure of adding to his 
collection in 1835 — " Turton's P. rhomhceus, of which he sent me 
specimens, is the same thing in a younger state." Mr. Jeffreys, in 
a letter dated Oct. 2, 1838, when acknowledging the receipt of the 
Lough Neagh shell, observed that he considered it distinct from P. 
marginatus, and that from a similar shell previously found at Cardiff, 
he had named the form P. inaqualis. It is to a distorted individual 
of the P. marginatus, found in a pond at the College Botanic Garden, 
Dublin, that Capt. Brown applied the name of Helix cochlea (Irish 
Test. p. 528. pi. 24. f. 10.), andTurton that of Helia; terebra (Conch. 
Diet. p. 62. f. 55.) — Mr. O'Kelly, to whom the shell belongs, always 
considered it P. marginatus, and as such noticed it in the Dublin 
edition of Pennant's Brit. Zool., p. 363. The Rev. T. Hincks writes 
me from Cork that ** the var. of Elan, marginatus with the volutions 
elevated into a spiral cone was once taken in Ballypheane bog." I 
have myself met with monstrous forms of several of the native spe- 
cies of Planorbis. 

7. Planorbis vortex. Mull. Gray, Man. p. 267. pi. 8. f. 91 ; Turt. 

Man. p. 109. f. 91 ; Drap. p. 44. pi. 2. f. 4, 5. 

Helix vortex, Mont. p. 454. t. 25. f. 3. 

8. Planorbis spirorbis. Mull. Gray, Man. p. 268. pi. 8. f. 98 ; Turt. 

Man. p. 115. f. 98. 
P. vortex, /3. Drap. p. 45. pi. 2. f. 6, 7. 
Helix spirorbis, Mont. p. 455. t. 25. f. 2. 

The species which my correspondents (chiefly judging from the 
descriptions and figures in Turton's Manual) have considered as the 
P. vortex and P. spirorbis, are noted as generally common in Ireland 
— these shells merge so into each other that I was in the habit of 
putting all that were collected throughout the north together. On 
comparing these with examples of "P. spirorbis" from the neigh- 
bourhood of Newcastle, and of "P. vortex" from that of London, 
presented me by Mr. Alder, I find that although some of them are 
as large as the P. vortex, have seven volutions, and a carinated 
edge to the lower one, that they are not of the extreme form desig- 
nated by this name, and consequently come under P. spirorbis ; so 
likewise do a number of specimens from the neighbourhood of 
Portarlington sent me by the Rev. B. J. Clarke — those from the 
river Shannon, favoured me by the Rev. C. Mayne of Killaloe, may 

f The size is, I conceive, atlributable to the coldness of the water and 
scarcity of subaquatic plants. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland, 125 

be placed under P. vortex, as may those also collected at Lough 
Gounagh, county Longford, by my friend R. Callwell, Esq. of Dublin. 
Is the more prominent keel, with other differences necessarily at- 
tendant on it, as form of mouth, &c., sufficient for specific distinction 
between P. vortex and P. spirorbis ? Under Planorbis disciformis 
Mr. Alder has well remarked, that " the degree of carination is so 
very variable in different individuals of the same species, that it is 
rather fallacious as a distinguishing character." Mag. Zool. and 
Bot. vol. ii. p. 113. 

Specimens of P. compressus, Michaud, from Lorraine, with which 
I have been favoured by their describer, are identical with those of 
P. vortex before noticed as from Mr. Alder. Examples of P. leuco- 
stoma, Michaud, with which I have been presented by this most li- 
beral author, differ only from Mr. Aider's P. spirorbis in having a 
white rim within the mouth — on this subject see Supplement to 
Mr. Alder's Paper in the Newcastle Transactions, and Mr. Gray's 
edition of Turton's Manual, p. 267 ; in this work P. leucostoma, Mich., 
is referred to P. vortex, but if this is to be considered distinct from 
P. spirorbis, to the latter P. leucostoma must be referred. 

9. Planorbis nitidus. Mull. Gray, Man. p. 268. pi. 8. f. 93. 

P. fontanus, Turt. Man, p. 110. f. 93. 

P. complanatus, Drap. p. 47. pi. 2. f. 20—22. 

Helix fontana, Mont. p. 462. t. 6. f. 6. 
Although somewhat rare, this species is distributed over Ire- 
land. On some living specimens taken near Belfast in Dec. 1834, 
by Mrs. Hincks, and kindly sent to me, the following note was made 
— "tentacula moderate, or rather short and uniform in colour with the 
body of the animal, which changes with age, the adult (with shell 
2^ lines in diameter) being black ; younger individuals pale gray — 
the shells of the latter are much the more transparent." These ani- 
mals seemed indifferent which side of the shell was uppermost, and 
when undisturbed often moved along with what is termed the under 
side next the surface of the water. 

10. Planorbis contortus, Mull. Gray, Man. p. 270. pi. 8. f. 96 ; Turt. 

Man. p. 113. f. 96 ; Drap. p. 42. pi. 1. f. 39—41. 
Helix contorta, Mont. p. 457. t. 25. f. 6. 
Like the P. albus, generally distributed over Ireland, but of more 
frequent occurrence, and in greater quantity where found than that 

Sect. II. Operculata. 


Gen. Cyclostoma, Lam. 
1. C. elegans. Lam. Gray, Man. p. 275. pi. 7. f. 75 ; Turt. Man. 
p. 93. f. 75 ; Drap. p. 32. pi. 1. f. 5—8. 
Turbo elegans, Mont. p. 342. t. 22. f. 7. 
Dr. J. L. Drummond informs me, that when at Sandymount near 

126 The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 

Dublin, in 1816, in company with Mr. Tardy, a well-known ento- 
mologist, he found one of these shells. In Mr. R. Ball's collection 
are specimens which were obtained in Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 
Dublin, but here they might have been introduced with plants from 
England ; in the cabinet of Mr. O' Kelly of that city are two speci- 
mens found by himself at Portmarnock ; by Mr. S. Wright of Cork, 
I was shown a similar number, said to have been procured at 
Youghal f. Notwithstanding this, I am not altogether satisfied 
that the C. elegans is an indigenous species — it has on different oc- 
casions been introduced to the country in the present century J, but 
whether to any of the places mentioned previous to the specimens 
being found there I am uninformed — the fact of only one or two in- 
dividuals occurring anywhere looks suspicious. 

Dr. Turton states that he found a single shell of the Cyclostoma 
productum near the sea-coast in the west of Ireland. Manual, p. 94. 

[To be continued.] 

XVII. — On early Contributions to the Flora of Ireland; with 
Remarks on Mr. Mackay^s Flora Hibernica, By the Rev. T. 
D. Hincks, LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

[Continued from p. 12.] 


Mr. Mack ay has adopted the natural arrangement in pre- 
ference to the Linnaean, and in doing this has probably also 
adopted that system preferred by the Dublin professor. This 
may have its use, but it seems a strange thing that no two 
botanists seem to be satisfied with the same arrangement, 
which is an inconvenience to those who wish to compare the 
Floras of different countries. It fortunately happens, how- 
ever, that the variations in the plants contained, occur chiefly 
in those orders w^hich contain few genera, for it is with re- 
spect to genera that the difference is most troublesome. I 
shall now proceed to offer some remarks upon the Avork. 

p. 5. Ranunculace^e. — Thalictrum Alpinum seems con- 
fined to Connaught. Dr. Wade found it in 1801 at Lettery 

f Capt. Brown inadvertently notices this Cyclostoma as from " Portrush, 
in the cabinet of Dr. M'Donnell, Belfast." Irish Test. p. 522. The speci- 
mens thus alluded to have been shown me by Dr. M'Donnell, and are En- 
glish — the species is unknown to him as Irish. 

X Many years ago the C. elegans, brought alive from France, was turned 
out in the neighbourhood of Belfast. Here also, in 1835, a few individuals 
were introduced, as well as at Killiney-hill near Dublin, and in a garden 
within that city ; and more lately at Summer-hill near Limerick — I am not 
aware of their having increased in any of these places. 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 127 

Mountain, Balllnahinch, county Galway. This gentleman was 
supposed not to have always given due acknowledgement to 
his fellow-labourers, and was therefore regarded with some 
jealousy ; but this is no reason for suppressing his name, when 
he was early in his notice of a plant. 

Thalictrum minus is found in all the four provinces of Ire- 
land ; it was found at Newcastle, county Down, by Mr. 
Templeton, in 1793. Smith mentions T, majus as found by 
him near Mallow, county Cork. 

p. 6. Anemone Apennina, Mr. Mackay gives Underwood's 
authority for its having been found above thirty years ago 
growing in shady spots near the ground now occupied by 
the Glasnevin garden. Now Mr. Underwood furnished a 
catalogue of plants, which was published in the Dublin 
Society Transactions in 1803-4, in which he inserted this 
plant as found wild in Ireland. Mr. Templeton sent him 
queries respecting this and other plants in that catalogue, 
and I lately read Mr. Underwood's reply, in which he says 
that he had never seen it wild, but had inserted it on Dr. 
Wade's authority. Dr. W. has it in his Plantse Rariores, but 
adds that he cannot take upon him to say that it is truly in- 
digenous. It grows freely in gardens near Glasnevin. 

p. 8. Ranunculus arvensis, Mr. M. inserts this plant as found 
in corn-fields near the Man-of-War, county Dublin. Mr. Tem- 
pleton found it at Agnew's hill, and in Mr. Barklie's shrubbery 
at Inver near Larne, but thought it probable that it might 
have been from seed mixed wath corn. It is the R. arvorum, 
arvensis, echinatus of Threlkeld, who gives between Raheny 
and Kilsaughan, county Dublin, as a habitat, flowering 
amongst corn. It is also mentioned in Underwood's cata- 
logue as a native of Ireland. I am not sure whether these 
notices are to be considered as additional authority for its 
being native, or as confirming Mr. Templeton's suspicion. 

p. y. Caltha palustris var, /S. radicans, Mr. Templeton 
brought this variety into his garden, where it soon lost its 
peculiarities in a different situation. This confirms the pro- 
priety of not making it a species. 

p. 10. Helleborusviridis, The specimen referred to in the her- 
barium of the Cork Institution, which was collected and pre- 
sented by the late Mrs. Hincks, is there marked as from the 
Botanic Garden, and I never heard of its being found wild 
by Mr. Drummond. Smith, however, states it as found 
wild at Tallagh, county Waterford, and Doneraile, county 
Cork. Dr. Wade says he found it near Dundrum ; but Mr. 
Underwood says that he never saw it wild, so that it i§ not 
unlikely it was an escape from a garden and soon eradicated. 

128 The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland* 

as the place has been visited by many botanists. Helleborus 
fcetidus {Hellehor aster maximus, &c. of old writers) is men- 
tioned by both Threlkeld and K^Eogh, the latter of whom 
gives the Sliebh Baughta mountains, between the counties of 
Clare and Galway, and Drumcallagher, county Limerick, 
as habitats. It is marked as a doubtful native in Great 

Mr. Mackay has 8 genera and 24 species of this order. 
Of these the old botanists had 6 genera and 14 species ; Mr. 
Templeton, 6 genera and 18 species. Those in which Mr. 
Templeton was deficient, were Clematis vitalba and Helleborus 
viridis, both questionable; Thalictrum alpinurriy Ranunculm 
hirsutus and parviflorus, and arvensis, which last he regarded 
as doubtful. At the end I will give a comparative table of the 
genera and species in each natural order. 

p. 17. Matthiola sinuata. Mr. Mackay gives one of the isles 
of Arran as a habitat. Would it not have been well to have 
added, that Smith says he found it at Beal Castle, near the 
mouth of the Shannon, in nearly the same longitude, not 
much to the south, and near the sea ? 

p. 22. Threlkeld inserts Nasturtium petrceum foliis bursa 
pastoris, which is Teesdalia nudicaulis, Hooker, and not a rare 
plant in England. It would be well to have some notice of 
plants said to have been found, but wanting confirmation. 

p. 30. Subularia aquatica, "said to have been found in Lough 
Neagh by Sherard.^^ This is language which seems to im- 
ply a doubt of that eminent botanist having found it there. 
Now we know that Sherard was in that neighbourhood, pro- 
bably in 1696. Ray mentions it on his authority; so do 
Threlkeld and Molyneux, the former of whom gives it the 
name of juncifolia. Mr. Templeton found it in Lough Neagh 
before 1794, as I find from letters to Dr. Martyn, Editor of 
the Gardener's Dictionary, and to Mr. Dickson, of Covent 
Garden ; so that there can be no reasonable doubt of the 
fact. I think I have heard that it has been seen in Sherard^s 
specimens, preserved at Oxford, but I do not recollect my 

p. 3 1 . Viola hirta. My name is mentioned as authority for 
this plant being found at Blarney. I have it in a marked cata- 
logue as found by Mr. Drummond. I am obliged by the 
notice of me, as kindly meant, but I wish it clearly \mder- 
stood that I do not consider myself as a competent judge. 
In the present instance there is no reason to doubt the plant 
having been found. 

p. 38. Hypericum calycinum, though I think Mr. Mackay 
right respecting this plant ; yet perhaps it should have been 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 129 

mentioned that Smith states it as found wild at Ballymaloe, 
county Cork. 

p. 39. Hypericum elegantissimum non ramosum of Threlkeld, 
is given by Sir J. E. Smith as a synonym of Hypericum man- 
tanum, I find J. White, a gardener of the D. S., quoted as 
having found this last on mountains in the county Louth. 
Underwood, in his catalogue,, 1804, says it is found in 

p. 49. I consulted the Herbarium of the Cork Institution in 
1839, and found there the Cerastium aquaticum as gathered 
by Mr. Drummond on the banks of the Lee. 

p. 76. Astragalus hypoglottis. The largest of the south isles 
of Arran is quoted for this plant as found by Messrs. Ball 
and Thompson in 1834, as it should be, instead of 1804. 
Smith says that he found it in the mountains about Kil- 
larney, county Kerry. 

p. 79. Trifolium procumbens, jS. Hooker, campestre, found 
by Mr. Templeton at Blackhead and Dunluce Castle, county 

p. 85, Hedysarum OnobrycMs, or Onobrychis satwa,l^ook&r. 
This plant is stated to have been found by J. White, and was 
admitted as Irish in Underwood's catalogue. Mr. Templeton 
has recorded that he saw it among Mr. Molden's specimens, 
gathered betw^een the Black Rock and Malpas's Monument, 
on a calcareous soil. I am sure, however, that it was in Mr. 
Templeton's list of introduced plants, which included many 
that have been inserted. 

p. 86. Bpir(jea filipendula is in Molyneux's list, sent to 
Threlkeld. Was it on this authority that Underwood inserted 
it as Irish ? I observe Mr. Mackay has not inserted it. 

p. 110. Epilobium roseum. I was surprised to find this 
wanting in the list. The entry in Mr. Templeton's hand- 
writing is, '' E. rosewn^ E. Bot. 693, found and determined in 
the Orchard, Aug. 13, 1820." When we consider how par- 
ticular Mr. Templeton was about admitting doubtful plants, 
and that he was a remarkably close and accurate observer, 
this plant has more claim to admission than many which 
have been inserted on a single authority. 

p. 116. Peucedanum Ostruthium, a habitat in the county 
Down, is given on Mr. Campbell's authority, but no more said. 
Threlkeld has Peucedanum, Hogs' Fennel, ditches near the 
sea, which is a likely habitat. K'Eogh mentions it, and 
Smith, both in his ^Waterford' and ^ Kerry,' stating S.E. 
of Passage in the former county as a habitat. Dr. Barker 
wrote to Mr. T. that he had found a Peucedanum in the 
county Waterford, but the species is not mentioned. 

Ann. ^ Mag, Nat, Hist, Oc/. 1840. k 

130 The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 


p. 1 1 8. Meum Athamanta, Mr. T. has the following entry : 
Athamanta Meum, E. B. 2249^ found plentifully among the 
grass in the lawn at Maryville, Malone ; but as I have not 
found it elsewhere^ it is probably lately introduced, 1818.^' 
Such caution gives more weight to Mr. T.'s authority when 
he does admit a plant. 

p. 135. Hedera Helix, Mr. T. observed that ^^ Ivy growing 
against rocks produces gum.^^ I have not seen this noted. 

p. 144. Smith, in his ^ Kerry/ mentions Cineraria palustris 
and integrifolia, the latter on Knockanore mountains. Have 
botanists looked for these plants ? The same author mentions 
Diotis maritima as found on Ballyheigh Strand. Dr. Barker, 
in 1800, mentioned Cineraria palustris as very common in 
the county Waterford ; and in one of his letters to Prof. 
Marty n or Mr. Dickson, Mr. Templeton mentions a plant 
resembling a Cineraria, respecting which I do not know that 
he satisfied himself. 

p. 148. Senecio. Mr.T. has ^Hividus, E.B. 2515, found about 
lakes and bogs in the neighbourhood of Ballinahinch, Aug. 
14, 1810.^^ As he was evidently familiar with Sylvaticus, he 
could not have confounded them, if, as Sir W. Hooker thinks, 
the plant in E. B. was not distinct from it. 

p. 164. Hieraciumumbellatum, Mr. Templeton found a Hiera- 
cium at TuUamore, under the Mourne mountains, which he 
could not assign to any species he knew. This was in 1793, 
and he sent specimens to Prof. Martyn, and it was referred 
to in different letters of that period. The Professor, after 
some time, answered, " that after examining it with Dr. 
Smith (Sir J. E.) and Mr. Dickson (Covent Garden), they 
all thought it umbellatum'^ Mr. Templeton cultivated it in 
his garden, and was at one time inclined to think it might be 
a variety of H. subaudum, but seems to have been at last 
satisfied that it was umbellatum, J. White, employed by the 
Dublin Society, said that he found this plant in the Mourne 
mountains about 1803, ten years later. Mr. Mackay speaks 
of it as found in the county Wicklow; and by Mr. D. 
Moore in the county Derry. Both these must have been 
at a much later period. 

p. 216. Betonica officinalis. This plant is stated in Smith's 
^ Waterford ' to have been found near Cappoquin, and Mr. 
Templeton marked it as found in the county Waterford, 1801, 
on Dr. Barker's authority. Mr. Mackay has southern habi- 
tats near Killarney, noticed, I presume, by himself, and he 
adds, '' Shane's Castle woods, Mr. Templeton." In Mr. T.'s 
own Flora he does not say that he had seen it wild, but 
quotes ^ Plantse Rariores' for Shane's Castle. There must have 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland. 131 

been an error in transcribing the list sent to Mr. Mackay, for 
Mr. Templeton was not a man who would give his authority 
for what he did not know^ nor would any of his family contri- 
bute intentionally to an error, however trifling. The north- 
ern habitat therefore rests on the authority of Wade's ^Plantae 

p. 219. Mr. Tighe, in the statistical account of Kilkenny, 
mentions Thymus Acinos, wild basil, as found there. It had 
been previously mentioned by K'Eogh and Threlkeld. There 
can scarcely be a doubt that it was an introduced plant ; but 
Sir W. J. Hooker has it as found in cultivated fields, though 
rare in Scotland ; and why not admit it on such combined 
authority into the Irish Flora ? It is now called Acinos vul- 
garis. The hedge hyssop [Gratiola) was said by K'Eogh to 
be wild on the Burren mountains, county Clare; but the 
notice is confined to him. Has this district been thoroughly 
examined by any competent botanist ? It is, I think, lime- 
stone, and chiefly retained as sheep-walk, so as to have been 
less cultivated than other parts; it might therefore be ex- 
pected to have some rare plants, especially as Connemara, 
the Arran Isles, Kerry, &c., lying near the Atlantic, have been 
so productive of them. Gratiola officinalis is found in moist 
places in several parts of Europe, as far north as Denmark ; 
and G. linifolia, a native of Portugal, differs little from G. 
officinalis, except in being smaller, and its leaves linear and 
entire. Portugal is nearly in the same longitude, and has 
the same exposure to the Atlantic as the west of Ireland. 

p. 231. ScLERANTHEiE or Paronyche^. — Dr. Smith, in 
his ^ Kerry,' mentions Her niaria glabra as found at Lamb's 
Head, mouth of Kenmare river. Mr. Mackay has borne testi- 
mony to the correctness of this author in instances which came 
under his notice ; it is probable, therefore, that he was correct 
in this, as neither the place nor the character of the plant 
would lead us to think it introduced or confounded with 
another. Tw^o species of Herniaria have been established by 
Mr. Babington, and admitted by Sir W. J. Hooker: H. glabra, 
found in Jersey and Guernsey ; H. ciliata (separated from the 
other), found near the Lij^ard Point, Cornwall. This species 
might be the one found near the mouth of Kenmare river. 

p. 240. Ceratophyllum demersum. The northern habitats 
for this plant in Mr. M.'s Flora are " Near Killaleagh, Isle of 
Rathlin and Lough Neagh — Mr. Templeton." There has 
been some mistake, originating perhaps in the substitution of 
N for L. It should be, " Isle of Rathlin, and Lough Leagh, 
near Killaleagh." Mr. Templeton, on whose authority the habi- 
tats are given, found it at Rathlin, 1 795, and at L. Leagh, 1804. 


132 The Rev. Dr. HIncks on the Flora of Ireland. 

p. 243. By some mistake, originating perhaps in the list sent 
to Mr. Mackay, the habitats for purpurea and rubra are the 
same, so far as Mr, Templeton is concerned. These habitats 
are more correctly given under purpurea^ but they really 
belong to rubra, as it was ascertained to be the rubra of 
Hudson, from his herbarium in Mr. Lambert's possession. 
Mr. T. does not appear to have met with purpurea, though 
he might have called his plant so, till he had the opportunity 
of comparing it. 

p. 245. ^. amygdalina, stated to be found " by the side of the 
Bann, at Fairhead, among rocks,'' Mr. Templeton. The 
notice belonged to pentandra, and has been transferred (by a 
mistake, pardonable enough amidst various communications) 
to amygdalina, which Mr. T. appears not to have found, 
though he had it in his garden. The above appears as one 
habitat, but is really two ; " by the side of the Bann, and at 
Fairhead, among rocks," the places being at a considerable 
distance. Mr. T. found it in three places — 1st, in 1793, 
near Ballycastle, but then considered it as introduced ; 2nd, 
apparently wild, near the Bann ; and, at a still later time, 
among the rocks at Fairhead. 

p. 248. Mr. Templeton early proposed the union of several 
of the species combined by Sir W. Hooker under fusca. In 
1793 he wrote to Professor Martyn, that a willow he called ros- 
marinifolia, fusca and repens, were only varieties ; but in 1794, 
having got a plant of S, rosmarinifolia from London, he told 
Mr. Dickson that he saw that he had been mistaken respect- 
ing it. He included B. prostrata and ascendens as other 
varieties, which he mentioned to Dr. Taylor in a letter in 
1814, so that he anticipated the union of these species made 
by Sir W. J. Hooker, and adopted by Mr. Mackay. 

p. 285. AspHODELE^.. — Dr. Smith, in his ^Waterford,^ 
states that Asparagus sylvestris is w ild on the sea-coast at Tra- 
more. Threlkeld and K'Eogh had both previously stated it to 
be wild on the sea-coasts, and I think it is in Mr. Tighe's ca- 
talogue of maritime plants, but I have not the list to refer to. 
It is found on the opposite coasts of England and Wales, 
and it is reasonable to think that tjie gentlemen mentioned 
either found it or some plant mistaken for it. The Juniperus 
Sabina, which is mentioned by Threlkeld, Smith, and others, 
Mr. Templeton conceived to have originated in Lycopodium 
alpinum, which is found on the mountains, referred to as ha- 
bitats of savin. They might have been indifferent botanists, but 
we have no ground for suspecting them of wilful falsehood. 

Remarks of the preceding kind might perhaps be increased, 
but these are what occurred to me, and they may be thought 
by some of little use. In communicating them, I comply with 

The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland. 133 

the wish of others, and I trust have said nothing v^^hich can 
be offensive to any ; but I shall be particularly happy if I 
can contribute in the least degree to the due estimation of a 
departed friend, who is, and ought to be, the pride of the 
North of Ireland, the late John Templeton, to whom 
Belfast, in particular, owes much of that high character which 
she has attained amongst the cultivators of Natural History 
in all its branches. 

Comparative Summary of the Plants noticed by Botanists be- 
fore 1760 j of those noticed by Mr. Templeton and his 
coadjutors before 1804 ; and of those noticed by Mr. 
Mackay in his ^ Flora Hibernica/ according to the Na- 
tural Orders adopted by him. 












1. Ranunculacese 







2, Berberidese . 



3. Nymphaeacese 







4. Papaveracese . 







5. Fumariacese . 







6. Cruciferae . . . 

.. 20 






7. Violacese . . , 







8. Cistineae . . . 





9. Droseraceae . 







10. Poly galeae. . . 







1 1 . Malvaceae . . . 







12. Hypericineae . . 







13. Caryophylleae 

.. 10 






14. Lineae 







15. Tiliaceae ., . 







16. Acerineae . . . 







17. Geraniaceae . 







18. Oxalideaa . . . 







19. Portulaceae . 





20. Crassulaceae . 







21. Saxifrageae . 







22. Salicariae , . . 







23. Rhamneae . . . 







24. Ilicineae 







25. Celestrineae . . 







26. Leguminosae . . 

.. 12 






27. Rosaceae . . . . 







28. Pomaceae 







29. Grossulaceae . 





30. Onagrariae . . 







31. Circaeaceae. . . . 







32. Halorageae . 





33. Umbelliferae . 

. .. 25 






34. Stellat£fi . . . , 







134 The Rev Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 

. B. 










35. CaprifoliaceEe . . 







36. Vacciniese 







37. Campanulacese . 







38. Lobeliaceae .... 







39. Valerianeae .... 







40. Dipsaceaa 







4 1 . Compositse , . . . 







42. Boraginese .... 







43. Convolvulaceae . . 







44. Plantaginese .... 







45. Polemoniacese . . 







46. Plumbaginese . . 







47. Oleineae 







48. Ericese 







49. Pyrolacese 







50. Apocynese 





51. Gentianese .... 







52. Solanese 







53. Primulacese .... 







54. Lentibularise .... 







55. Scropliularinese, . 







56. Orobancheae .... 







57. Melampyracese . . 







58. Verbenacese .... 







59. Labiatse 







60. Polygonese .... 







61. Chenopodese . . . . 







62. Schleran these , . 





63. Urticese 







64. Resedacese 







65. Euphorbiacese . . 







QQ. Empetrese 







67. Callitrichmeae . . 





QS. Ceratophyllese . . 





69. Ulmaceae 







70. Amentacese .... 







7 1 . Myricese 







72. Coniferse 







73. Aroideae 







74. Typhacese 







75. Fluviales 







76. Pistiaceae 







77. Juncaginese .... 





78. Alismacese 







79. Hydrocharidese . . 





80. Iridese 







81. Orchideae 







82. Melanthaceae. . . . 





83. Amaryllideae . . . . 







The Rev. Dr. Hincks on the Flora of Ireland, 135 

O. B. T. M. 

Orders. G. Sp. G. Sp. G. Sp. 

84. Aspliodelese 3 5 3 4 3 6 

85. Smilaceae 2 2 00 2 2 

86. Butomese 11 11 11 

87. Restiacese 1 1 

88. Junce^ 2 5 3 14 3 16 

89. Graminese 9 10 27 73 30 80 

90. Cyperacese 3 5 8 56 8 66 

91. Filices 13 18 13 25 15 32 

92. Lycopodiaceae ..12 14 14 

93. Marsiliate^ .... 11 22 

94. Equisetaceae .... 14 16 18 

95. Characese 1 2 1 5 1 7 

In the preceding list Mr. Mackay^s Flora is taken as the 
basis, and no plant is admitted in any order which he has 
not inserted ; of course additions might have been made of 
plants recorded as found by the older botanists ; and while a 
very few are omitted in Mr. M.'s work, which Mr. T. con- 
sidered as natives, many were passed over by him which he 
did not recognise as native, and did not insert in his list. 
Again, a few were omitted which he had entered on the au- 
thority of Plantce Rariores, or other authorities, but had not 
verified. On the other hand, a few may have been reckoned 
which he did not find till after 1804 ; but, on the whole, I 
believe the first list contains a fair statement of what was 
known of the botany of Ireland previous to 1780, including 
the discoveries of Smith and others ; the second, a fair state- 
ment of what was known to Mr. Templeton and his corre- 
spondents previous to 1804, when Mr. Mackay came to Ire- 
land ; and the third, the number of plants in each natural 
order contained in Mr. Mackay^s work, without including a 
few additions that have been since made*. It will appear that 
the old botanists were peculiarly deficient in water-plants, 
and in the grass, and grass-like tribes, whilst the late discri- 
mination, and consequent increase of species, must tend to 
swell the apparent difference. Many plants may still be 
added, but the fact that the Flora of Ireland was not so neg- 
lected as some imagined, will, I trust, be made evident by 
the statements in the preceding paper and lists. 

I have now, gentlemen, with best wishes for the success 
of your useful publication, to subscribe myself your obedient 
servant, Thomas D. Hincks. 

Belfast, May 6, 1840. Cor. Sec. Belfast Botanical Society. 

• The list of course includes all discovered after 1 804, which are con- 
tained in Mr. M.'s work, whether discovered by Mr. M. himself, Mr. Tem- 
pleton, Mr. Drummond of Cork, Mr. Moore, or others to whom Mr. M. 
has assigned them. 

136 Dr. Meyen's Researches in Physiological Botany, 

XVIII. — Report of the Results of Researches in Physiological 
Botany made in the year 1839. By F. J. Me yen, M.D., 
Professor of Botany in the University of Berlin*. 

On the Nutrition and Growth of Plants. 

M. LAMPADiusf has instituted some new experiments on the 
vegetation of wheat in different soils, and on the quantity of 
earthy matters contained in the wheat plants so cultivated ; 
from which he arrives at the conclusion that the quantity of 
earthy matter in the plants produced on the different soils 
(viz. those rich in alumina, silicic acid, lime or magnesia) re- 
mains always the same, and that these substances are not 
taken up mechanically by the roots, but are selected by the 
Vegetative Power by means of the roots, and are then depo- 
sited in different combinations in the plants for the formation 
of their several parts. 

The facts from which these conclusions were drawn were 
the following : A piece of field was divided into 5 beds, each 
20 Prussian feet square. Each bed received first of all 5 lbs. 
of manure (a mixture of cow- and horse-dung), then on the 
1st bed were strewn 5 lbs. of finely powdered quartz, on the 
2nd the same quantity of alumina, on the 3rd the same of 
chalk, and on the 4th 5 lbs of carbonate of magnesia ; the 5th 
was left without any mineral manure at all. On each bed were 
sown 2 Pruss. cubic inches of wheat, about 675 grains. The 
next summer the vegetation appeared most vigorous on the 
bed strewn with alumina, and the produce of grains of wheat 
on the 5 beds, was, according to weight, as follows : — 


Bed oz. dr. 

1 24 2 

2 28 6 

3 2Q 2 

4 21 4 

5 20 

After incineration it appeared that the grains which had been 
produced from the different beds contained almost equal 

* Translated from the German, under the direction of the Author, by 
Henry Croft, Esq. 

On commencing the publication of Professor Meyen's Report for 1839, it 
is with much concern that we have at the same time to record the death 
of the author, whereby Natural History sustains a heavy loss. Translations 
of his valuable Reports for the years 1835 and 1837, by Mr. W. Francis, 
have been published ; the former in the Lond. and Edinb. Philosophical 
Magazine, vol. xi. pp. 381, 435, 524 ; xii. 53 ; the latter in a separate vo- 
lume. — See Annals Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 211, and Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. 
p. 408. 

t Eidmann'a uud Marchand's Journal fiir practischc Chemie, Bd. xviii. 
p. 257— 2G9. 

Dr. Meyen's Researches in Physiological Botany. 137 

quantities of inorganic matters, and the same result was ob- 
tained on incinerating the chaff, the straw, and the roots ; and 
it moreover appeared that the roots and chaff were the richest 
in inorganic substances. The entire plants contained by 
weight from 3*7 to 4*08 per cent. The quantitative exami- 
nation of the ashes show^ed that the quantities of silicic acid, 
lime, magnesia and alumina were nearly the same in the plants 
gro^vn on all the different soils. 

The conclusions which M. Lampadius has drawn from these 
analyses appear certainly quite evident ; but at the same time 
I may be allowed to remark, that the results would have 
turned out quite differently if he had chosen some more easily 
soluble salts as manure, instead of chalk, silicic acid, &c., and 
that the above experiments would have been much more va- 
luable if he had before given the analysis of the soil with the 
manure used ; and therefore I believe that the question as to 
whether the roots are able to select this or that substance, re- 
mains completely unanswered by this in other respects highly 
interesting research. 

M. Boussingault has continued his chemical researches on 
vegetation*, and has this time chosen as his subject the im- 
poverishment of the soil and the study of the benefits of ^^ alter- 
nation (wechselwirthschaft — assolemens t) •'' In the researches 
of M. Boussingault alluded to in last year's Report, it was 
shown that plants receive a part of their nourishment from 
the air; and in the present memoir M. B. endeavours to 
show that the most fruitful '^ alternation" (!) is that by which 
the greatest quantity of elementary bodies is absorbed from 
the atmosphere. Now it is highly important to know the 
exact quantities derived from the air, in order to be able to 
compare the merits of different methods of cultivation. On 
an estate, with the products of which M. B. was well ac- 
quainted, it was found, that the manure which was used for 
one hectare of land contained 2793 kilogrammes carbon. The 
produce from this piece of land contained on the other hand 
8383 kilogr. carbon, and from thisM. B. concludes, that the car- 
bon derived by the plants from the air was at least 5400 kilogr. 
The given quantity of manure for one hectare of land contained 
157 kilogr. nitrogen, while the produce contained 251, and 
therefore the atmosphere must have yielded the excess of 94 

* "De la discussion de la valeur relative des assolemens par I'analyse el6- 
mentaire," — Ann. des Sciences Naturelles, Part. Bo tan. 1839, t. xi. pp. 31 — 

t Wechselwirthschaft. DiflPerent kinds of corn or other plants are culti- 
vated on a piece of ground in a certain succession for three or more years; the 
land is then allowed to lie fallow for a certain time, and then the same suc- 
cession or alternation is proceeded with. 

138 Dr. Meyen's Researches in Physiological Botany, 

kilogr. In another very productive alternation (?) which was 
however abandoned on account of the chmate^ the quantities 
of matters taken from the atmosphere appeared to be much 
greater. The produce contained 7600 kilogr. carbon, and 160 
nitrogen more than the manure employed ; by a three years' 
alternation, the fourth year the ground being manured and 
lying fallow, the quantity of carbon absorbed from the air was 
only 4358, and of nitrogen 17 kilogr. 

According to M. B.^s researches, of all our common culti- 
vated plants, Helianthus tuberosus takes up most from the at- 
mosphere, and therefore this is the plant with which the small- 
est quantity of manure produces the largest quantity of nutri- 
tious matter. The chemical composition of the several pro- 
ducts have been placed together in a table : in it we find the 
ultimate analyses of wheat, rye, barley, wheat-, rye-, and barley- 
straw, potatoes, beetroot, turnips, Helianthus tuberosus and of 
its stalks, yellow peas, pea-straw, red sorrel, and of manure. 
M. Boussingault remarks, that most of these nutritive sub- 
stances have different tastes, but at the same time almost the 
same ultimate constitution. It cannot be said that these bo- 
dies consist of carbon and water, for in almost every instance 
there was a small excess of hydrogen ; and from this it follows 
that during vegetation water is decomposed, as MM. Edwards 
and Colin (Report for 1838, p. 7) are said to have proved. 

A very advantageous report of the above research was given 
to the Academy on the 14th of January, 1839, in the name of 
the Commission, by M. Dumas. 

M. Unger, in a treatise, entitled ^Die Antritz quelle bei 
Gratz in Bezug auf ihre Vegetation*,' the contents of which 
are principally of a physical nature, has made known a num- 
ber of observations, from which he arrives at the conclusion, 
that the free carbonic acid in springs has no influence in pro- 
moting vegetation, that it nevertheless causes the appearance 
of some plants, and must therefore be ranked among those 
causes which influence the quality of the vegetation. 

M. Nietner, court-gardener in Schonhausen, near Berlin, 
has explained his views with regard to the necessity of vary- 
ing plants, in order to arrive at successful results in their cul- 
tivation f. The theory, he states, is on the whole as follows : 
" The spongioles being the only parts of the subterraneous 
part of the plant which imbibe nourishment, give off certain 
substances, which for succeeding plants, if they be of the same 

* Linneea of 1 839, pp. 339—356. 

t Kiirzer Umriss der Rotation oder des Wechsels der Pflanzen, Verhand- 
lungen des Vereins zur Befiirderung des Gartenbaues in den Preussischen 
Staaten, xiv. 1839, pp. 158—162. 

Dr. Meyen's Researches in Physiological Botany, 139 

species, are injurious ; but if of a different genus, are, if not ex- 
actly favourable to their growth, still certainly not hurtful, as 
in the former case/^ This theory is to be found, it is true, in 
the most celebrated botanical works, but in the newer phy- 
siological ones it is circumstantially enough proved, that this 
theory is nothing better than an hypothesis, for the known 
experiments on which it has been founded have been shown 
to be incorrect ; and therefore I cannot agree with those views 
according to which the advantageous influence of the chan- 
ging plants is explained by M. Nietner. The several instances 
which are adduced as proving the correctness of the above 
theory, can be explained in a different manner ; particularly 
the luxuriant growth of rye after three years' cultivation of 
sorrel, in which case the soil requires no manure. I do not 
suppose it is necessary to assume here an excretion from the 
sorrel roots which is beneficial to the rye, which moreover has 
by no means been proved ; but one must look for this excel- 
lent manure in the roots and stubble of the sorrel plants. 

Moreover, M. Nietner remarks, that carrots, parsnips? 
(weisse Riiben), and other bulbous plants acquire a bitter un- 
pleasant taste, and become scarcely edible when cultivated on 
a soil which in the previous year has borne tobacco. This 
may however be explained by the great mass of the tobacco 
plants which always remains on such a field ; these masses, 
abounding in alkaloids and still imperfectly decomposed ex- 
tractive matters, pass over more or less into those plants w^hich 
follow next. 

It has at length been acknowledged in France that the 
results of the experiments of Macaire on the excretions of 
the apices of the roots of plants, on which so important 
theories have been founded, cannot be correct. M. H. Bra- 
connot of Nancy has opposed the conclusion drawn by Ma- 
caire from his experiments. M. Braconnot* planted a large 
specimen of Nerium grandijlorum in a pot which had no open- 
ing at the bottom, and let it grow therein for three years, and 
when the earth was examined at the expiration of that time, 
it was found that there was nothing therein beyond the usual 
salts, and none of that peculiar poisonous sharp principle pe- 
culiar to Nerium. In the same manner the root-excretions of 
Inula Helenium, Scabiosa arvensis, Carduus arvensis, and of se- 
veral EuphorbiacecB and Cichoriacece were examined, but with- 
out satisfactory results. Hereupon some of Macaire's own 
experiments were repeated ; but instead of Chondrilla muralis 

* " Recherches sur I'lnfliience des Plantes sur le Sol." — Annales de 
Chemie et de Physi<jue, Septembre, 1839, pp.27 — 40. 

140 Dr. Meyen's Researches in Physiological Botany, 

common lettuce was taken and placed with its roots in water. 
The result of this experiment agreed with Macaire^s^ i. e. a por- 
tion of the lacteous sap was found in the water, the appearance 
of which however M.Braconnot correctly refers to the tearing of 
the fine rootlets. Some plants oi Euphorbia Peplus which grew 
in water, imparted to it no taste, and it remained colourless : 
moreover the soluble substances in moulds in which Euphor- 
bia Brioni, Asclepias incarnata, and Papaver somniferum had 
been grown, were examined, but the results were not favour- 
able to Macaire's conclusions. Finally, Macaire's experiment 
with ^' Mercurialis annua^' was repeated. One half of the 
roots of this plant was placed in a weak solution of acetate of 
lead, and the other half in pure water. In the end, the water 
contained some of the lead salt which had been given to the 
roots in the other vessel. This is, however, explained by Bra- 
connot as the simple effect of capillary attraction in the roots, 
an explanation to which I cannot assent ; it is by no means 
necessary to seek for such a one, for we can explain the phe- 
nomenon much more simply without having recourse to Ma- 
caire's views, according to which plants have the power of 
excreting substances injurious to them by means of their 

In last year's Report notice was taken of M. Pay en's re- 
searches on the chemical composition of the woody substances; 
but they were only published with additions in the begin- 
ning of the present year*. M. Dumas gave an excessively 
favourable report of this research to the Academy f ; however, 
many of the discoveries contained therein had already been 
published in Germany, &c., as was shown in the former Re- 

It is now several years since the newer microscopes have 
shown that the original stratum or layer of cellular membrane 
exhibits characters different from those of the secondary lay- 
ers : indeed the chemical difference of these parts was proved 
by the observations of Schleiden, and this fact has been con- 
firmed and extended by M. Payen. The first series of ulti- 
mate analyses was made with quite tender cellular tissue, 
which was viewed as the primitive layers of the woody cells ; 
for this purpose were used the ova of almonds, cucumber sap, 
the tender cellular tissue of cucumbers, pith of elder, pith of 
^schynomene paludosa, cotton and ^^ root-spongioles,^' [Wur- 
zelschw'dmmchen) : by this is probably meant the small extre- 
mities of roots ; for I have long since proved that these " spon- 

* Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 1839. Part. Botan. i. pp. 21 — 31. 
t Ibid, pp.28— 31. 

Dr. Meyen's Researches in Physiological Botany, 141 

gioles^^ do not exist. All the analyses show that one may as- 
sume the proportion of oxygen to hydrogen to be as in water, 
and that these substances are isomeric (perhaps polymeric, 
H. C.) with starch, for the small differences found may be 
considered as faults in the analyses. With regard to these 
analyses it may be remarked, that however correct they may 
be, they by no means show us the correct composition of the 
primitive membrane ; for in the cells of the youngest ova, as 
well as in those of the cucumber, elder pith, and principally 
of the root-extremities, indeed, even in the fibres of cotton, 
there is contained a great quantity of organic substances 
which cannot be separated without destroying the tender tis- 
sue, and the presence of these matters renders the analyses of 
the membrane unsatisfactory. However, we may assume, that 
by far the greater portion of these substances have an isomeric 
constitution with starch. Moreover several kinds of wood 
were analysed in order to show the difference of composition 
of the primitive membranes of their cells. 

Oak. Box. Aspen. 

i ^ , ( -^ . i ^ i 

In its na. Treated with Natural Treated with Treated once Treated twice 
tural state. carb. ofsoda. state. carb. soda, with carb. sod. with carb. sod. 

C ... 54-44 49-68 54-35 49*40 48-00 47-71 

H... 6-24 602 6-25 6-13 6-40 6-42 

O ... 39-32 44-30 39*50 44-47 45-56 45-87 

From these analyses it certainly appears that in the ligneous 
substance, besides carbon and water, moreover free hydrogen 
must be present ; but here it must also be remarked, that it is 
almost impossible to separate the membrane of the woody 
cells from their contents, and the microscope shows that va- 
rious and perhaps resinous substances are contained in them. 
In a note sent into the Academy on the 24th of December, 
1838, M. Payen states, that by means of nitric acid he has ex- 
tracted the incrusting matter of the ligneous cells from the 
primitive membranes : for this purpose finely rasped oak and 
box wood were used. The incrusting substance (by which is 
meant the inner layers of the cellular membrane) dissolved in 
nitric acid, and was thus separated from the residual tissue, 
which, after repeated purification, was dried and analysed. 
The composition was found to be 

C 43-85 

H ..... . 5-86 

O 50-28 

whilst the above analyses gave quite a different result. Ac- 
cording to this then the secondary layers of the cellular mem- 
brane must exhibit a striking difference in constitution ; but 

142 Dr. Meyen*s Researches in Physiological Botany. 

this is very improbable ; for it was shown at length in the 
former Report^ that it is exactly these secondary layers, which 
by boiling with an alkali, he, are converted into a starch-like 
substance ; besides, the microscope should have been used be- 
fore those analyses were made, but such observations are not 

In the meeting of the Parisian Academy on the 14th of Ja- 
nuary, M. Payen read a paper, entitled ^^ Memoire sur les ap- 
plications theoretiques et pratiques des proprietes du tissu 
elementaire des Vegetaux*,^^ the contents of which are of con- 
siderable interest, but would here lead us too far into the pro- 
vince of Chemistry. 

On the 4th of February, 1839, new researches were made 
public by M. Payen; he gave the composition of the incrust- 
ing matter of wood as C^^ H^'^ 0'°, while the formula for the 
primitive cellular membrane is C^^ H^o 0^° or C^^ H'^ O^ 
+ H- O. In the sitting of the Academy of the 30th of July, 
a new treatise by M. Payen was read, "On the tissue of 
Plants and on the incrusting substance of Woodf/^ an extract 
from which has been published by the author. M. Payen re- 
marks, that he had already made known to the Academy his 
researches, according to which all young parts of plants con- 
tain a considerable portion of substances containing nitrogen ; 
that moreover the pecuhar substance of the membranes in 
different plants has always the same composition ; and that in 
those parts which are grown woody by age, there are con- 
tained two chemically different substances, viz. the primitive 
membrane and the hard incrustation. 

" Many tissues,^^ observes M. Payen, " acquire a high degree 
of hardness without possessing large quantities of incrusting 
matter.^^ (In the same manner we may bring forward cases 
where many cells with thickened sides have no hardness, and 
it is evident from this that the hardness of the vegetable sub- 
stance does not depend solely on the thickening of the walls 
of the cells, but on the chemical change in the layers of cel- 
lular membrane, M.) The latest analyses and microscopical 
observations of M. Payen have led him to conclude that wood 
consists of not less than four different substances, viz. the pri- 
mitive cellular membrane, and the sclerogene, which again is 
said to consist of three peculiar matters ; the one insoluble in 
water, alcohol, and aether, the other soluble in alcohol, and 
the third in all three solvents. The ultimate composition of 
these four substances in the above order is as follows : — 

* Comptes RencTus de 14 Janv. 1839, p. 59. 
t Ibid. 20 Juill.1839, p. 149. 

Dr. Meyen's Researches in Physiological Botany. 143 

c .... 

44-8 ... 


... 48- ... 
... 6- ... 
... 46- ... 


... 62-8 ... 
... 5-9 ... 
... 31-3 ... 


... 68-53 

H .... 

6-2 ... 

49-0 ... 

... 7-04 
... 24-43 

By the action of concentrated sulphuric acid the primitive 
membrane was converted into dextrin and sugar, and in this 
manner the sclerogene was separated. 

Finally, M. Payen has published a treatise on the different 
states of aggregation of vegetable tissues*. The substance 
which forms the cellular membrane is said to be in a pure state, 
but in a less firm state of aggregation, in starch. He has ex- 
amined the membranes of several of the lower plants, which 
are nearly allied to the above-mentioned substance in their 
chemical and physical properties. The first comes to the con- 
sideration of the appearance of starch in lichens, and arrives 
at the same results as have already been made known in a 
former Report, viz. that the cellular membranes of lichens are 
coloured blue by iodine, and that in such plants it is these 
which dissolve to a jelly. On this occasion M. Payen remarks 
that he has analysed the spiral vessels of Musa, and has 
found their composition similar to that of other membranes f. 
Moreover he analysed the purified membranes of the threads 
of Rivularia which support the spores, and found it of the 
same constitution as starch. In the same way the tissue of 
mushrooms was analysed, after careful purification, and found 
to be a substance isomeric with the membranes of other plants ; 
the same w^as found with the membrane of Chara. Finally, 
M. Payen directs attention to the fact, that the vegetable cel- 
lular membrane is only a ternary compound, Avhile the qua- 
ternary organic compounds are found among the animal tis- 
sues ; and although many parts of plants abound in nitrogen, 
still this body is only found in the contents of the cells. 

M. Payen has also made known his views concerning the 
Nutrition of plants J. The cambium appears at first as agra- 
nular contractile substance, containing nitrogen. This sub- 

* " Memoire sur les etats difFerens d'aggr6gation du tissu des V^getaux." 
— Comptes Rendus de 26 Aout, 1 839, p. 296. 

t " An ultimate analysis of the spiral fibres of Musa paradisiaca was made 
in the year 1838, by Prof. Mitscherlich and myself, (vide Meyen's Pflanzen 
Physiologic, ii. p. 551, and EngHsh translation of Meyen's Report for 1837, 
p. 26) which, however, gave quite a different result : microscopical observa- 
tions show that these spiral fibres may be compared with the secondary cel- 
lular membranes, and therefore they must have a similar composition to 
that of Payen's sclerogene, if indeed his apparently so correct analyses may 
be fully trusted." — Meyen. 

I " Memoire sur la nutrition des Plantes." — Comptes Rendus, de 21 Oct. 
p. 509. 

144 Mr. Couches Account o/" Orthagoriscus Oblongus. 

stance is gradually developed and becomes enclosed in cells 
whose sides consist solely of carbon and the elements of 

Afterwards a substance is formed rich in carbon and con- 
taining three times more hydrogen than if it consisted of 
carbon and water. From this it appears to him that the ne- 
cessity of an excess of hydrogen in vegetation may be proved. 
The substance containing so much hydrogen is said to be a 
thick fluid, &c. 

[To be continued.] 

XIX. — Account of a Specimen of the Oblong Bunfish, Ortha- 
goriscus Oblongus, taken at Par in Cornwall, and preserved 
in the Museum of the Royal Institution of Cornwall at 
Truro, By Jonathan Couch, F.L.S., M.R.G.S. of Corn- 

Notwithstanding that the figures and description of the 
Oblong or Longer Sunfish, as published by Borlase, Montagu, 
Donovan and Mr. Yarrell, would seem sufficient to remove all 
doubt of the specific character of this fish, and the great dif- 
ference between it and the more common species, O. Mola ; 
yet even now this conclusion does not seem universally as- 
sented to. It is with great pleasure, therefore, that I am able, 
from examination of a specimen, to add my testimony to that 
of the above-named distinguished naturalists. The specimen 
had wandered into the lock of the new-made canal at a short 
distance west of Fowey; and being deemed extraordinary, 
though without a full knowledge of the interest attached to 
it, it was carefully skinned and preserved, to be presented to 
the Royal Cornwall Museum. The length is 22 inches ; depth, 
measured on the round, from back to belly, W^', from snout 
to the eye, 2f ; to the origin of the pectoral fin, ^^ ; length of 
this fin, 4;^; caudal fin 1^ inch wide, or more properly, long; 
anal fin 6 inches — as I suppose is the dorsal, but the latter is 
a little injured. The number of fin rays is here given : 

P. 15, D. 18, A. 17, C. 18. 

The figure of this fish, which is here forwarded, is so little dif- 
ferent from that given by Mr. Yarrell (^ British Fishes,' vol. ii. 
p. 354.), as scarcely to require remark ; I would therefore only 
point out, that in this skin there appears a plait bound over 
the upper lip, and that the rays of the dorsal and anal fins are 
bent into a curve at their termination ; neither of which cir- 
cumstances are marked in Mr. YarrelPs figure ; probably be- 

Bibliographical Notices. 145 

Cause they were not conspicuous in the recent specimen ori- 
ginally examined by Donovan. 

Mr. YarrelFs figure of the Shorter Sunfish is taken from a 
young specimen^ and therefore but inadequately represents 
that species in its mature growth. The many opportunities, 
however, which I have had of examining this fish, and some- 
times of large size, will allow of no doubt of its being distinctly 
separate from its far more rare congener, the Oblong Sunfish. 
The fin rays wdll probably be found to differ in the different 
specimens of both these species ; but together with the length- 
ened form of the body, and shape of the mouth, the different 
shape of the pectoral fin will be sufficient to prevent all 
further hesitation on the subject. 

Polperro, September 1, 1840. 


Icones Fungorum, 8fC. Tomus 3. J. C. Corda. Pragse, 1839. 

We have already twice noticed this valuable work, which is con- 
tributing greatly to our knowledge of Fungi. Our especial object, 
however, in again adverting to it, is to direct attention to the con- 
firmation it affords of Ldveille's new views of the structure and na- 
ture of Entophytous Fungi, of which an account is given in the 11th 
volume of the New Series of Annales des Sciences Naturelles. M. 
Corda's observations are perfectly independent of those of the 
French mycologist ; and both the learned authors, whose discoveries 
were published in the same year, appear entitled almost equally to 
the credit attached to them, though M. Leveille has followed out 
the subject more completely. Indeed, Corda's observations are con- 
fined to a single species. The facts made known are very import- 
ant, and are scarcely second in interest to those which have been ac- 
cumulated lately regarding the Hymenomycetes. 

It is well known that various opinions have prevailed as to the 
nature of Entophyta, and that M. Unger has lately paid much atten- 
tion to the subject, and has arrived at the conclusion satisfactory to 
himself, but not equally so to all mycologists, that they are mere 
exanthemata analogous to cutaneous eruptions in mammalia. M. 
Leveille, how^ever, not contented with this notion, has examined 
them still more recently, and has discovered that in those species in 
which the cuticle of the matrix is most easily removed, there is im- 
mediately beneath it a true mycelium, from which the fungus is ulti- 
mately developed : and Corda, who has given most beautiful figures, 
though he appears not to have paid particular attention to the more 
early stages of growth, has shown that this mycelium penetrates the 
cells and interstices which are beneath the sori. This we have our- 
selves observed in jEcidium Euphorbice, the only species we have at 
present examined. lieveille has also shown that this structure prevails 

Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Oct. 1840. l 

146 Bibliographical Notices. 

in the group, though some points of especial difficulty will probably 
still occupy his attention. Corda's observations as to the origination 
of the spores from sporophores and their moniliform arrangement, 
though something of the kind was figured by Unger, deserve further 
attention. The fact, then, that the Entophyta are true Fungi is com- 
pletely set at rest, though at present we do not think that their affi- 
nities are clear. 

Next in point of interest are the observations on Stilbospora, Me- 
lanconium, &c., in which the spores are shown to spring from sporo- 
phores. This is easily seen in Stilbospora pyriformis, a generally 
distributed species. A similar structure prevails in the analogous 
genus Diplodia. When these observations are more extended we 
trust that some light will be thrown on many Fungi now arranged 
in Sphceria, but differing materially in structure. Acrospermum, again, 
appears to be very near to Sphisronema, an affinity which could 
scarcely be suspected from the place long assigned to the genus in 
the neighbourhood of Sclera Hum. The last three plates are devoted 
to the structure of Hymenomycetes ; and though there is little novelty, 
they are not without interest. We would again express an anxious 
hope that the work may meet with due encouragement. 

Plant es Crypt og antes de France. Fasc. 21. Par J. B. H. J. Des- 


This beautiful work, too, we have already noticed, but the present 
Number is so peculiar, as exhibiting nearly a monograph of Cera- 
miacece, of which it contains fifty species, and is so admirably got up, 
that we should deem it unpardonable not to call the attention of our 
readers to it. The specimens have been collected in great part by 
Messrs. Crouan, who have so diligently investigated the Hydrophytes 
of Brest, and they have been conjoined with M. Desmazieres in the 
digestion of the materials. 

No pains have been spared in ascertaining the synonyms and re- 
conciling the species of Agardh and Duby, who have considered the 
subject as if the memoir of Bonnemaison on the articulated Hydro- 
phytes had not existed. The learned authors are most anxious to 
have the most perfect materials possible, with a view still more ac- 
curately to reconcile all differences, and would, we know, feel highly 
obliged to any British Algologist who would send them specimens of 
British. jCeramiacecd, especially of such species as are described in the 
English Flora, but have not hitherto been figured. 

Monographia Tuberacearum, Auctore Carolo Vittadini. Mediolani, 


To those who are acquainted only with the species of Tuber and 
its allied genera, as described by Fries in the * Systema Mycologicum/ 
the present work will afford no little surprise and pleasure. It is, 
indeed, quite extraordinary to see the number of well-defined species 
and genera which are here characterized ; some of which present a 

Bibliographical Notices, 147 

structure as curious as unexpected. A few will require to be re- 
moved to the Hymenomycetous group, where one of these subter- 
ranean genera, closely connected with Clavaria through Sparassis, ex- 
hibits most beautifully the change which takes place in consequence 
of a change of habit. Others, again, will fill up blanks among the 
Ly coper donacece, and possibly amongst the PhalloidetB also. The af- 
finity of these two groups has been shown in this Journal, and the 
circumstance of the ultimate condition of the fructifying mass when 
mature being so different in the two groups, was considered as com- 
paratively of slight importance. This is completely confirmed by the 
genus Elaphomyces, which, though its contents are at length quite 
dry and dusty, and intermixed with flocci, as in true Ly coper dons, is 
nevertheless a certain ally of Tuber. An opportunity of examining 
both our British species together in the spring, before we had seen 
the work of Vittadini, had convinced us of this fact, and our views 
are fully confirmed by the Italian mycologist. The spores are, in 
fact, not born on sporophores, as in Lycoperdonacece, but are contained 
in globose asci or sporangia, as in Tuber, It is to be regretted that 
M. Vittadini does not appear to have been well supplied with authentic 
specimens of the more northern mycologists, and in consequence 
there is some difficulty in ascertaining the synonyms. Our two 
species of Elaphomyces are, however, clearly recognizable in Elapho- 
myces variegatus, Vitt., which is our E. muricatus ; and E. asperulus, 
Vitt., which is E. granulatus. Vittadini appears to have been the 
first person who ascertained the true structure of the Lycoperdona- 
ceous group in Bovista, though he was scarcely aware of the great 
importance of the fact before him, which arose partly perhaps from 
misapprehension, in common with all mycologists at the time, of the 
structure of the hymenium in Hymenomycetes. Klotzsch, indeed, has 
thrown fresh light in Dietrich's * Flora Regni Borussici' upon the Hy- 
menomycetous genera of the monograph. We most cordially recom- 
mend it to the notice of British mycologists, and hope that it may 
be the means of bringing to light some of the hidden treasures of 
our woods and plains. 

Linncea, ein Journal fur die Botanik, &c. Vol. XIII. Part 3 — 6. 

[Continued from vol. iv. p. 46.] 

Part III. 

On the development of the Sporidia in Anthoceros Icevis ; by Prof. 
Mohl. — Appendix to the observations on the Air- cell- hairs in Lim- 
nanthemum and Villarsia; by Dr. S. F. Hoffman. — Observations on 
American Bauhinics; by Dr. Vogel. — Synopsis of Scandinavian 
Drabce ; by A. E. Lindblom, — Notice of Hampe's Cellular Plants of 

Part IV. 

On a new species of Waldsteinia ; by Dr. Koch. — On the V^egeta- 
tion of the source of the Antritz near Gratz ; by Dr. Unger. — On 
Saracha and Physalis ; by Prof. Bernhardi. — Supplement to Account 

L 2 

148 Botanical Society of London, 

of the Flora of Hercynia; by E. Hampe. — Vegetation of the Brocken ; 
by E. Hampe. — On the genus Grubhia, Endl. ; by Klotzsch. — On 
Monstrosities of Plants ; by Schlechtendal. — Prodromus of a mono- 
graph of Lemnacece ; by Dr. Schleiden. — On two remarkable trans- 
formations of Plants ; by Weinmann. — Request to German botanists 
to supply desiderata in the genus Artemisia ; by W. D. Besser. — On 
Mexican Plants collected by Schiede and others ; by D. F. L. De 
Schlechten. — On the irregular form of Papilionaceous Flowers; by 
A. Walpers. 

Part V. 

Critical Remarks on Cape Leguminosce ; by G. W. Walpers. — On 
some phsenomena in the growth of Dicotyledonous Plants ; by Dr. 
Becks. — On Mexican QalphimicE ; by F. T. Bartling. — On Pinus Pu~ 
milio ; by H. R. Goppert. 

Part VI. 

On the family of Piperacea ; by C. Kunth. 



March 20. — Daniel Cooper, Esq., Curator, in the Chair. 

A paper was read by Dr. W. H. Willshire, " On the nature of 
some of the lowest Organized Beings." The intention of the paper 
was to bring before the Society the views lately advanced by Ehren- 
berg, in his great work concerning the organization and relative 
place in the scale of animated nature of many of the tribe Bacillaria, 
Closferina, &c. It was endeavoured to be proved that a great many 
members of the family Bacillaria, the genus Closferina, and several 
others, must be considered as of a vegetable nature, and not of an ani- 
mal, as Ehrenberg supposes, and that it is a matter of some doubt how 
far the members ranking under his sub-division Naviculacea may be 
considered as of an animal organization either. It was shown by 
Dr. Willshire that the phsenomenon of self-division is not peculiar to 
the animal kingdom, but that it likewise occurs in that of the vege- 
table ; that the whorled ramuli of Chara can increase both by trans- 
verse and longitudinal self-division ; that the formation of spores in 
Marchantia, Jungermannia, and some other plants, takes place from 
self-division of the original cellule ; and that the increase of Conferva 
glomerata, &c. is also known to ensue by the same means ; and that 
therefore the mere fact of this mode of propagation in such struc- 
tures as Diatoma, Fragillaria, Desmidium and others, is not a suffi- 
cient proof of their animal condition. It was stated likewise that 
granular matter, seen within many of these lower beings, and which 
is regarded by Ehrenberg in many cases as the ova granules or eggs 
of these creatures, cannot be such ; for according to other observers, 
they become blue on the addition of the tincture of iodine, a further 
proof of their vegetable nature, and a fact particularly noticed by 

Botanical Society of London. 149 

Meyen in respect to Euastrum and Closterium ; that the mere dis- 
solution from some of these lower beings of moving sporules, or at 
least mobile portions capable of increase of form and size, is not a 
proof of the animal condition of the parent bearing them, because from 
the observations of Vaucher, Lamoureux, Montaigne, and especially 
the younger Agardh, vre may safely conclude that the sporules of a 
very great many Algce, when ripe, are endowed with the faculty of 
locomotion ; and that this not only takes place when such portions 
become freed from the mother plant, but in some cases also whilst 
they are within the interior of the cellules ; also, that the fact of lo- 
comotion is not a proof at this low extremity of the scale of animal 
conditions, as we know that it takes place in structures allowed by 
Ehrenberg himself to be of vegetable nature, such as the Oscillatorias 
and Zygnemas ; and that Ehrenberg's opinion, that the motion seen 
taking place in Oscillatoria is caused by rapid growth of the fila- 
ments, formation of gemmae, and stimulus of light, is ably and suffi- 
ciently disproved by the experiments of Capt. Carmichael ; and also, 
that as we cannot in the present state of our knowledge say that the 
attainment of a particular result from the occurrence of motion, as 
more apparently ensues in the Naviculas than in the Oscillatorias, is 
indicative of animal conditions, because result or purpose attained is 
equally observable in the movements of Zygnema or even in Vallis- 
neria, and the motions of many irritable stamens ; it seems to be 
highly probable, that many of these almost invisible organisms 
hitherto freely yielded up by the botanist to the zoologist, must not 
be considered as indisputable claims for such distinction, although 
they may not appear at once so decidedly vegetable as do Diatoma, 
Fragillaria, Desmidium, Closterium and others. 

The paper was concluded with some remarks on the genus Navu 
cula, and illustrated with specimens under the microscope of the va- 
rious genera, together with a series of diagrams. 

April 3. — J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., &c.. President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary announced a donation of a very extensive collec- 
tion of Foreign Plants, presented by Mr. Emerson through Mr. John 
Morris. A paper was read from Mr. Riley of Papplewick, Notts, 
being introductory to a series, which will form a popular '* Mono- 
graph on Ferns." 

June 5th.— D. C. Macreight, M.D., V.P., in the Chair. 
A donation of American Plants from Dr. Gavin Watson of Phila- 
delphia, U. S. was announced. Mr. Tatham, of Settle, Yorkshire, 
presented specimens of Dryas Octopetala obtained from the hills in 
that neighbourhood. Mr. H. M. Holman, of Reigate, Surrey, for- 
warded living specimens for distribution of the rarer plants of that 
locality, comprising Acer as anthropophora, Ophrys muscifera, Os- 
munda regalis, &c. &c, A paper was read, being Part 3. of a Mono- 
graph of Ferns. It comprised a description of the British species 
individually; the remarks being the result of many years personal 
experience, the author having cultivated every British species side 

150 Zoological Society, 

by side, and watched their specific differences with great care and 
attention. Mr. Thomas Sansom exhibited a proliferous specimen of 
Polytrichum commune, in which a second stem was developed in the 
place of the stalk bearing the fructification. 


Feb. 11, 1840.— The Rev. J. Barlow in the Chair. 

Mr. G. T. Lay read the following account of the habits of a Bird 
of Paradise, Paradisea apoda, Linn. : — 

" This bird has been in the possession of Mr. Beale upwards of 
fourteen years, and seemed when I left China at the commencement 
of the past year to be in full health and vigour. It is fed mainly 
upon boiled rice, with a few grasshoppers, as meat with its vege- 
tables. These it eats whole when small, but pulls oflf the legs and 
wings when large. The tip of the abdomen, with the lower intes- 
tine, are rejected, while the rest of the viscera are devoured as a sort 
of choice morsel. It seizes the insect near its head with so firm a 
gripe, that life is soon extinct, which answers the double purpose of 
securing its prey and of shortening the dying throes of the poor vic- 
tim. It is very careful to cleanse its bill after every such operation, 
^viping it upon the perch, and shaking it with a peculiar jerk. I 
have heard one remark that it is not a clean feeder, but this is true 
only of the mode of eating, which is gross and eager, as the largeness 
of the mouthful is incompatible with much grace or nicety in con- 
veying the food to the place of its destination. 

" The voice is loud and sonorous when he calls in a rapid suc- 
cession of notes. This is probably the strain in which he answers 
his fellows in the wild state, and may be heard, from its clearness, a 
great distance, where walls and dwellings do not interfere with the 
pulsations. When you approach his cage he often treats you with 
a ditty, which I have called in my memorandum ' the song of solici- 
tation.' It is short, but very pleasing, and not a little curious, for 
the notes are repeated in harmonic progression. 

" The Serenade of Beale' s bird. 



• -^ -^ -e>- 

" The first four notes are very exactly intonated, very clear, and 
very sweet. The three last are repeated in a kind of caw, a very 
high refinement of the voices of a daw or a crow, yet possessing a 
striking resemblance. And this suggests a lively aflftnity between the 
crows and the paradise birds. While this serenade is uttered, the 
black pupil, encircled by a golden iris, waxes or wanes, as the crea- 
ture wishes to contemplate more distant or nearer objects. The bill 
snaps as the prelude of a meal and the token of a])petite, while the 
body is conveyed from side to side by the highest and most easy 
springs. The crow and its congeners love to range upon the ground. 

Zoological Society, 151 

as having feet formed for walking, but the Paradise Bird shuns the 
bottom of the cage, as if afraid of soiling its delicate plumage ; for 
I must observe, that it is always as clean and wemless as it is gay 
and splendid. The Creator, who has poured so much beauty upon 
it, has also endowed it with an instinct to delight in these charms, 
and with wisdom to preserve them in their fullest integrity. In the 
wild state it is not unlikely that they catch their prey upon the wing, 
either by taking it in flight, like the swallow, or by darting upon it, 
like the Drongo Shrike, as it passes by the seat of its pursuer. 

" The form and disposition of the pennons afford it the power of 
floating gracefully upon the breeze, not of cutting the air in rapid 
flight. The ease with which it glides upon the aurse must be in- 
creased by the hypochondrial feathers, which are lifted up and dis- 
played in the act of flying. The hypochondrial feathers are yellow 
at the base, whitening towards the end, with brown shafts. The 
shortness of the vanes makes them resemble the teeth of a saw near 
the end. The tail-coverts with long toothed shafts. The feet and 
legs are of a dark leaden blue. They are strong, and grasp the perch 
with great ease and firmness." 

Mr. Fraser pointed out the characters of several new species of 
Humming-birds, which had been placed in his hands by the Earl of 
Derby for that purpose, and that they might be exhibited at one of 
the Society's scientific meetings. These birds were obtained at S** 
Fe de Bogota, and the collection contained eighteen species, a great 
portion of which being undescribed, were thus characterized .- — 

Trochilus exortis. T. rostro quvim caput paululum longiore ; 
caudd nigrescente, latissimd, subfurcatd ; colore viridi ; pectore 
cceruleo enitente ; maculd frontali splendid^ viridi ; lacinid gulari 
purpurascenti-rubrd nitore cceruleo ; mentiplumis cosruleis ; crisso 

Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, | ; alee, 2^ ; cauda, 2^. 

Hah. Guaduas, Columbia. 

This species is of moderate size ; the general colour of its plumage 
is deep rich green, with bronze reflections ; the wings are dusky, 
with the upper and under coverts of the same green tint as the body : 
the two central tail-feathers are tinted with bronze, both above and 
beneath ; the remaining tail-feathers, which are broad, are black, but 
in certain lights a very obscure purplish- green hue is observable ; 
the feathers on the forehead are more compact than the remaining 
feathers of the head ; in some lights they appear to be of a black 
colour, edged with green ; in others they exhibit a most brilliant 
green lustre. 

Trochilus cupreo-ventris. T. rostro quam caput paululum lon- 
giore ; caudd brevi, subfurcata : femoribus albis ; colore splendid^ 
viridi, aureo et cupreo enitente ; crisso purpurascenti-coeruleo ;pri- 
mariis nigrescentibus ; caudd nigrd, purpureo tinctd. 

Long, tot. 4^ unc. ; rostri, 1 ; alee, 2| ; caudce, 1|. 

This species is remarkable for the richness of its colouring ; in 

152 Zoological Society. 

certain lights it appears as if it were powdered with gold and copper- 
coloured particles ; the coppery hue prevails most on the belly ; and 
the upper tail- coverts are of a purer green than other parts. 

Another blue-vented and white-thighed Humming-bird was de- 
scribed under the name of 

Trochilus uropygialis. T. rostro quam caput long tor e ; caudd 
mediocri, furcatd : colore corporis intense viridi, aureo relucente ; 
rectricihus caudcd fulgide aureo-viridibus ; guld crissoque ex pur- 
pureo splendide cceruleis ; abdomine nitide viridi ; alis nigrescenii- 
bus ; caudd ex purpurea atrd ; plumis femoralibus albis, laxis. 

In the female the throat and chest are somewhat rusty, with green 
spots, and the feathers on the belly are variegated with whitish. 

This species is about the same size, and in many respects resem- 
bles the T. cupreo-ventris, but differs in having the general colour 
less brilliant, whilst the feathers of the belly and the upper tail- 
coverts are more brilliant, and present that compact striated appear- 
ance which is always observable in those feathers which give that 
extreme brilliancy to different parts of these birds : it differs, more- 
over, in having a blue throat, and the belly, instead of being cupre- 
ous, is bluish-green. The upper tail-coverts in T. cupreo-ventris are 
of the same loose character as those on the back. 

Trochilus coruscus. T. rostro brevi ; caudd latissimd, subfur- 
catd, ex a^neo fused : corpore supra, capiteque viridibus nitore au- 
reo ; tectricibus caud(B cupreis ; primariis purpurascentibus ; cor- 
pore subtus viridescente,fuscescenti-ochreo,pri£sertim ad crissu7n, 
tincto ; lined gulari, ad pectus tendente nitide viridi, apice purpu- 

Long. tot. 5;! unc. ; rostri, | ; ala, 2J ; caudce, 2^. 

Beak about equal to the head in length ; tail slightly forked, the 
feathers verg broad ; general colour of upper parts green, with 
golden reflections, upper tail-coverts coppery; under parts dull 
brownish-green ; tail-feathers above and beneath rich bronze, with 
golden brown reflections ; primaries dusky, with purple reflections : 
a stripe, extending from the chin to the chest, is composed of com- 
pact brilliant feathers ; those on the chin and throat are green, and 
those beyond are purplish-red, exhibiting bluish reflections ; under 
tail-coverts brownish-yellow ; some of the feathers are whitish ; the 
feathers on the edge of the shoulders are varied with brownish- 

The female is deficient of the flame-like mark on the throat. 

Trochilus brachyrhynchus. T. rostro qudm caput breviore ; 
caudd brevi, nigro, cupreo et ceneo subnitente ; rectricibus utrinque 
duabus externis ccBteris paululiim preestantibus, et ad apicem albis: 
corpore suprd, ex aureo viridi, corpore subtds albo (interdiim jia- 
vido lavato), maculis ex aureo viridibus ornato ; primariis purpu- 
Long. tot. 3y% unc. ; rostri, ^; alee, IJ; caud<E, ly^g- 
In one specimen there is a rufous tint on the upper tail-coverts ; 

Zoological Society. 153 

in another there are several purple feathers irregularly scattered 
with the ordinary golden green ones on the back ; perhaps in the 
adult bird this purple is the prevailing colour of the back. 

This small-sized species is remarkable for the shortness of its beak, 
which is acutely pointed, and a little dilated in the middle. 

Trochilus Derbianus. T. rostro recurvo, quoad longitudinem, 
corpus cum capite ccquiparante ; caudd mediocri,paululumfurcatd: 
colore viridi, corpora subtus alhido variegato ; guld nigrescente. 
^ Long. tot. 8 unc. ; rostri, 3§ ; alee, 3 ; cauda, 2^. 
? '4 > 2j ; — , 3 ; , 2. 

Bill immensely long, and somewhat recurved, equal in length to 
the head and body ; tail moderate, slightly forked ; head and upper 
parts of body green, with golden and bronze reflections ; wings pur- 
plish-black ; tail blackish, tinted with bronze, the central feathers 
being the richest ; chin and throat dusky, each feather very obscurely 
tinted with bronze in the middle, and edged with ashy-white ; belly 
and vent green ; the feathers edged with white, or in parts greyish, 
those on the chest are whitish, with a large green spot near the apex ; 
under wing-coverts green. 

The female has a shorter beak ; and there is more white on the 
under parts of the body ; the feathers on the throat and chin are 
somewhat variegated with yellowish. 

Trochilus aurogaster, Loddiges' MSS. T. rostro fer'k duplo 
quiim caput longiore ; caudd mediocriter laid et furcatd ; plumis 
corporis permagnis, et suprd, et subtils : colore splendide viridi ; 
tectricibus caudcB plumisque abdominis nitide aureo relucentibus ; 
notd gulari purpureo-coeruled, necnon apud frontem notd, luce 
favente, gramineo-viridi ; crissi plumis aureo-viridibus, ferrugineo 
marginatis ; alarum primariis fuscescenti-nigris non sine ceneo ni- 
tore ; caudd ex-aureo-ceneo-viridi. 

In the female the throat is of a rusty 3'^ellow tint, and is sparingly 
spotted with green ; the belly and vent are of an ochreous colour, 
with heart-shaped green spots ; on the former the green predomi- 
nates, and on the under tail-coverts the yellowish tint prevails. 

This species is of moderate size ; that portion of the under man- 
dible which shuts into the upper one is white. 

Trochilus fuscicaudatus. T. rostro quam caput longiore ; caudd 
subrotundatd : colore ex aureo viridi ; plumis gulce, pectoris, et 
abdominis, albido marginatis ; plumis analibus albis ; crisso fusco, 
rectricibus caudcB submetallice castaneis, nigrescente marginatis j 
remigibus alarum nigrescentibus, purpureo paululum relucentibus ; 
mandibuld inferior e {apice excepto), necnon superioris bast, pal- 

Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, | ; ala, 2 ; cauda, 1|. 

Hab. Chachapayas, Peru. 

Trochilus cyanopterus, Loddiges* MSS. Tr. rostro quam caput 
multo longiore ; caudd latissimd et leviter furcatd : colore intenst 
viridi, ad nigrum hie atque illic vergente, prasertim apud caput ; 

154 Zoological Society, 

primariis tectricihusque alarum metallice cceruleis, illis ad apices 
marginesque nigrescentibus j caudd nigrescente, viridi tinctd ; alls 
subtus cmrulescentibus. 

This is a very large species, being nearly equal in size to the T. 
gigas ; its deep green colouring and blue wings render it easily di- 
stinguished ; the female differs considerably from the male, inasmuch 
as nearly the whole of the under parts of the body are of a rust-like 
tint ; the two outer tail-feathers are of a blackish colour, but have a 
white shaft ; the outer web is grayish- white, excepting at the margin 
and at the apex of the feather ; the outer edge of the first primary is 

Trochilus Gibsoni, Loddiges' MSS. T. rostro quam caput lon- 
giore ; caudd mediocri, rotundatd : corpore supra, sic et rectricibus 
caudce duabus intermediis aureo-viridibus ; corpore subtHs albo ; 
plumis gularibus magnis, strophium efficientibus, purpurea relucen- 
tibus ; rectricibus caudle utrinque tribus, exterioribus, ad basin ci' 
nerascentibus, apicibus albis. 

Long. tot. 2|^ unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 1|; caudce, i^. 

Hab. ? 

The green on the upper parts of the body of this little species is 
rather paler, and has a greater admixture of the golden lustre, than 
usual : words can convey no idea of the brilliancy of the large ruff 
on the throat ; in some lights it assumes a deep blood- red hue ; in 
others there is a slight admixture of purple observable ; in others, 
again, they put on a brilliant cupreous-red tint, as we observe in the 
copper ore. 

Trochilus angustipennis. T. rostro quam caput paululiim lon^ 
giore ; caudd leviter furcatd, hvjus rectricibus, necnon remigibus 
alarum, vald'b arctis : capite corporeque suprd, intense ceneo-viri- 
dibus ; guld et corpore subtils, plumis albis analibus exceptis, aureo- 
viridi metallice relucentibus ; alis cauddque intense purpureis. 

Long. tot. 3^ unc. ; rostri, j ; ala, 1 j ; caudce, 1|. 

This small-sized species has the wing and tail-feathers narrower 
than usual. 

Trochilus parvirostris. T. rostro parviusculo, acuto, quam ca- 
put breviore ; caudd leviter furcatd, mediocri, rectricibus sub-latis : 
capite corporeque suprd aureo-viridibus, in obscurum transeuntibus ^ 
frontis plumis ochreo pallida lavatis ; corpore subtits flavescenti- 
albo ; gulce plumis singulis maculd obscurd ; abdomine sordid"^ 
ochreo, plmnis singulis maculd magnd, obscure viridi; plumis 
analibus albis ; crissi plumis obscuris, apicibus albis ; caudce rec- 
tricibus, ceneo-viridibus suprd, subtils aureo-ceneis, scapis albis ; 
rectricum tribus utrinque externis, lined centrali albd, in externd 
utrinque hdc lined extensd, fere ad marginem ; alis obscuris, pur- 
purea subtiis, paululilm relucentibus. 

Long. tot. 4^ unc. ; rostri, i ; alee, 2J ; caudce, 2. 

lliis is in all probability a young bird, or perhaps a female of some 
species, the male of which remains to be discovered ; the yellow 

Miscellaneous* 155 

■white, or cream-colour of the lower part of the throat extends in a 
narrow line across the back of the neck. 

Trochilus flavicaudatus. T. rostro quam caput duplh longiore 
et arcuato ; caudd mediocri : capitis vertice obscure fusco ; corpore 
suprd, aureo-viridi, corpore subtus ochreo ; gulce plumis punctis 
aureis et cupreis ; pectoris lateribus maculis aureo-viridibus, or- 
natis ; crisso pallide ochreo ; rectricibus caudce duabus intermediis 
aureo-viridibus, reliquis ochreis, apicibus viridibus ; remigibus 
alarum obscuris, purpurea relucentibus ; rostro nigro ; pedibus su- 
pra nigrescentibus, subtus pallidis. 

Long. tot. 4| unc. ; rostri, 1^ ; alee, 2\ ; caudce, 1|. 

Trochilus melanogenys. T, rostro quam caput vix longiore ; 
caudd sub-brevi, rectricibus mediocriter latis, et acutis : capite et 
corpore suprd, aureo-viridibus ; corpore subtils ex-ochreo-albo ; 
abdominis lateribus rufo lavatis ; genis nigris ; lined flavescenti- 
albd pone oculos ; plumis gulcc singulis notd ad apicem nigrd, 
notis tineas longitudinales efficientibus ; abdomine, obscure, aureo- 
viridi guttato ; caudd suprd, nigrescente, ceneo tinctd, apicem ver- 
sus nigrd purpureo relucente, et rectricibus Jlavescenti-albo, dua- 
bus intermediis exceptis, terminatis ; alis obscuris, violaceo relu- 
centibus ; mandibulcB inferioris basi, pedibusque Jlavis, 

Long. tot. 3j unc. ; rostri, | ; alee, 3|; caudae. If. 

Tbochilus tyrianthinus, Loddiges' MSS. T. rostro acuto, caput 
longitudine cequante ; caudd mediocri, vix furcatd ; rectricibus la- 
tissimis : capite, corporeque suprd, aureo-viridibus ; sic et corpore 
subths, at ochreo variegato ; guld nitente, et intense viridi ; rec- 
tricibus caudce suprd ceneo -viridibus, ex-aureo, et cupreo relucen- 
tibus, subtus, cupreis, aureo nitentibus ; alis obscuris ; rostro pe- 
dibusque nigris. 

Foem : guld e castaneo flavd ; abdomine albo, ochreo lavato ; singulis 
plumis notd aureo-viridi. 

Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, J ; alee, 2J ; cauda, If. 



Amongst the new specimens of British birds which have been 
lately presented to the British ^Museum by Mr. J. Baker, was one 
that was considered a Reed Wren (Sylvia arundinacea) , but on com- 
paring it with other specimens it was at once suspected to be a di- 
stinct bird ; and further, it agreed with none of those at present re- 
corded as being found in this country. On investigation it proved 
to be a rare species even in the south of Europe, and one that was 
first noticed by Savi in the * Nuovo Giomale de Letterai,' Num. XIV. 
1824 ; and again in his * Ornitologia Toscana,' tom. i. p. 270, under 
the name of " Sylvia luscinioides." It is figured by Savigny in the 
' Description de I'Egypte,' pi. 13. f. 3, and by Gould in his * Birds of 
Europe.' The specimen was obtained, with a second, by the above- 

156 Miscellaneous, 

mentioned person last spring in the fens of Cambridgeshire ; these 
were all that were procured. 

The following is a short specific description : — 

Sylvia luscinioides, Savi (Pseudoluscinia Savi, Bonap.). 

General colour above castaneous brown, with the tail very incon- 
spicuously barred with darker ; line over the eyes, breast, sides and 
under tail-coverts paler than the upper parts ; throat and middle of 
the abdomen albescent, the former slightly spotted triangularly with 
darker. The first quill very short, and the second longest of all. 
Upper mandible brown, lower and feet yellowish brown. 

Total length, 5^; bill, -^j; wings, 2 J ; tail, 2^; tarsi, ^%. 

George Robert Gray. 


Mr. Milne Edwards believes that these are not single animals, 
but the aggregation of a great number of individuals growing by 
buds, and living united together like the compound Polypes^ — Ed- 
wards, Ann. Sc. Nat. 1840. 


Mr. M. Edwards and Dr. Peters have discovered that the Echinida 
are of separate sexes : the testicles differ little from the ovaries, but 
they contain a white milky fluid, while that of the ovaries is orange. 
-^Edwards, Ann.Sc. Nat. 1840, p. 196. 


According to Mr. Edwards, the nervous system is much more 
complicated than in any other Gasteropodes ; besides the labial gan- 
glions, the cerebral, and the suboesophageal, there are a pair of optic 
ganglions, a pair of ophthalmic, a pair of hepatic and a subanal gan- 
glion. Lastly, they have stomato- gastric nerves analogous to those 
which have been observed in Crustacea, and in many other inverte- 
brated animals. — Ann. Sc. Nat. 1840, p. 196. 


M. De Blainville has lately published some extracts from M. Dufo's 
observations on the habits of mollusca ; in which he remarks that 
this gentleman has observed that the eggs of Achatina Mauritiana 
are disposed in the form of a column, forming a more or less length- 
ened series ; that Helix unidentata and H. Studmanni are ovoviviparous ; 
that some species of Calyptrtea are provided with a support distinct 
from the rock on which they are placed ; that Hipponyx sometimes 
hollows out the surface of the bodies to which it is attached ; and 
that the Byssiferous bivalves sometimes detach their byssus thread by 
thread. These remarks with regard to the Calyptnea are very inter- 
esting, as showing the affinity of the animal to the Hipponyces, which 
have been proposed to be placed with the bivalves. The observa- 
tions with respect to ovoviviparousness of some Helices and the habits 
of the Hipponyces are not new to English malacologists. — J, E. Gray. 

Miscellaneous, 157 


In the Philosophical Transactions for 1833, p. 78, I stated that I 
believed that this genus had been established on specimens of Capuli 
that had been affixed to radiated shells. M. Philippi, in his excellent 
work on Sicilian Shells, observes, " Non in testa plicata difFerentiam 
genericam qusesivit cl. Bronn, sed in sinu laterali, et Brocchia eodem 
charactere a Capulis quo Siphonaria a Patellis differt," p. 119. On 
re-examination of the species 1 find nothing to distinguish it from 
Capulus but the lateral notch, which varies greatly in size in the dif- 
ferent specimens, and appears to be formed by attachment to some 
extraneous body. M. Philippi however copies Professor Bronn's 
character without discovering that it contains two very obvious in- 
accuracies, which, if they were true, would at once separate the ge- 
nus from Capulus and all the other known Molluscous genera : for 
he says, ** Impressio muscularis elongata arcuata transversa intus 
ad limbum anticum." Now I know no univalve shell that has the 
muscular scar on the front of the mouth ! The fact is, that the Pro- 
fessor has mistaken the front of the shell for the back, and this has 
led to the other mistake ; for he describes the mouth thus, " apertura 
subrotunda, margo sinister sinu amplo excisus," whereas the nick is 
not on the left but always on the right side of the shell when present. 
I may further observe, that the right limb of the muscular impression 
behind the neck is much shorter than the left ; or rather, the apex of 
the shell, which in Pileopsis hungaricus is nearly in the centre of 
the back of the shell, is in P. sinuosa on the right side of the back. 
The shell is dextral, though it has at first sight the appearance of be- 
ing sinistral. — J. E. Gray, 


In the last Number (p. 70.) Dr. Wagner refers to the fact of the 
Patella being unisexual as a discovery of his own. It will be found 
stated with more detail in the first volume of the Annals, p. 482. — 
J. E. Gray. 


In the Royal Museum of Vienna, where they have the best-pre- 
served and exhibited collection of fishes that I have ever seen in any 
public Museum, the specimens are kept in shallow cases about six 
or eight inches deep, and are suspended by a wire loop which is in- 
serted into the back of the specimens just before the front of the 
dorsal fin. If the specimen is long and heavier behind, so that it will 
not keep its position, there is driven in a small pin just beneath the 
lower side of the base of the tail to support it. In this manner the 
fishes appear in the attitude of swimming, and their names are easily 
attached to the back of the case beneath them ; they are also easily 
taken off the pin to which the loop is suspended, if necessary for 
examination. — J. E. Gray. 

158 Miscellaneous, 


The specimens of fish in the Museum of Vienna which are kept in 
spirits are inclosed in glass jars covered with a flat glass disc ; these 
discs are made at the same time as the bottles and sent in with them 
from the Bohemian glass-houses. They and the surface of the lips of 
the jars are ground together so as exactly to fit each other, and 
they have an oblique edge shelving towards the inner side, so that 
when they are placed on the top of the jar there is a small triangular 
space all round between the upper edge of the disk and the upper 
outer edge of the lip of the jar, which is left to hold a quantity of 
the composition by which they are luted. This composition con- 
sists of six ounces of white wax and three drachms each of sper- 
maceti and hog's lard mixed together; and Mr. Heckl, who has made 
many experiments, assured me, that if it was well applied between 
the two surfaces and filled into the triangular space above referred 
to, not the least evaporation was observable in bottles that had been 
set aside for the purpose for more than two years, though some 
of them had been set upside down to bring the spirit in connexion 
with the mixture. Indeed so much confidence has Mr. Heckl in the 
method, that he has had the disk pierced with a small central slit to 
enable him to support his specimens with silk, only having a small 
concavity ground out of the upper surface of the disk round the hole, 
which he fills with this composition. There is a specimen jar of the 
kind in the British Museum. — J. E. Gray. 


In the Vienna Museum the newer specimens of Birds and the 
smaller mammalia are placed on stands with oval bases ; this is far 
superior to the round or square bases which are usually adopted in 
English and French collections, as it gives a larger space for the 
label without occupying more room, which is often much wanted, 
and at the same time prevents the birds being knocked against each 
other by accident. — J. E. Gray. 


The body which I described under this head in Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society, is evidently only the basal joint of the body of 
the English species of Comatula, the impressed dots on the convex 
part being the scars left by the dorsal claspers; and the single open- 
ing and the cavity in the flat part are doubtless analogous to the 
roundish or five-rayed cavity in the joints of the stem of the Enir- 
mitis. This fact I have verified by comparing the specimens I de- 
scribed with one of those joints separated from a complete speci- 
men, but it is curious how the two specimens which were described 
should have been found so completely isolated in the sand ; for I had 
great difficulty, even after soaking the specimen in water for some days. 

Meteorological Observations. 159 

to separate this joint from the rest of the body, and at last could 
not do it without breaking part of its edge and some of the other 
pieces. I have no doubt, after examining the specimens of Dr. Gold- 
fuss's genera Goniotremites in the Museum at the University of Bonn, 
that they also equal the basal part of the body of some fossil Ecri- 
mites as M. Agassiz has already suspected, the five holes round the 
mouth being similar to the five rays sometimes found in the stem of 
some species of Crinoidea. — J. E. Gray. 


The Epiphragma of the larger species of Achatimi (as A. Mauri- 
tiana) is thin, hard and calcareous, and marked with a long linear 
impression near the outer hinder angle of the aperture over the re- 
spiratory hole of the animaL — J. E. Gray. 


A fine specimen of the Hoopoe {Upupa epops, Linn.) was shot on 
Skeicoat Moor, near this town, on the 3rd instant, and is now in 
my possession. — R. Leyland. 

Hahfax, Sept. 16, 1840. 


Chiswick. — Aug. 1, 2. Very fine. S — 9. Hot and dry. 10. Very fine. 11. 
Showery. 12. Cloudy: rain. 13. Cloudy. 14. Rain. 15. Very fine : show- 
ery. 16. Fine. 17. Boisterous with heavy rain. 18. Cloudy. 19. Heavy 
rain: cloudy and fine. 20. Fine. 21. Foggy: very fine. 22. Foggy. 25 — 
26. Very fine. 27. Foggy: fine. 28. Slight fog : rain. 29. Foggy. 30,31. 
(^loudy and fine. The mean temperature of the month was nearly 2° above the 

Boston.— Aug. 1—3. Fine. 4. Cloudy. 5—10. Fine. 11. Rain. 12, 13. 
Fine. 14. Cloudy. 15. Stormy : rain p.m. 16. Fine. 17. Stormy : rain early 
A.M.: rain with thunder and lightning p.m. 18. Stormy, 19, 20. Cloudy. 
21. Fine: quarter past three p.m. thermometer 80°. 22. Cloudy: rain p.m.: 
lightning at night. 23,24. Fine. 25. Fine: rain p.m. 26,27. Cloudy. 28. 
Fine. 29. Cloudy. 30. Fine: rain p.m. 31. Cloudy: rain a.m. 

N.B. The warmest August since 1826. 

Ajyplegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Aug. 1,2. Very fine. 3. Mild: show- 
ery a.m. 4. Fine. 5. Sultry. 6. Sultry : heat oppressive. 7—9. Sultry. 10. 
Wet and boisterous P.M. 11. Showery. 12— 14. Occasional showers. 15. Fair 
throughout. 16. Much rain p.m. 17. Heavy rain : thunder: high flood. 18. 
Fine drying day. 19. Fine, with one slight shower. 20. Drizzling all day. 
21. Fine: rain P.M. 22,23. Fine and fair all day. 24,25. Showery. 26. Fair 
all day and clear sky. 27. Wet p.m. 28. Fair all day. 29. Drizzling all day. 
30. Fine and fair all day. 31. Remarkably fine harvest day. 
Sun shone out 27 days. Rain fell 15 days. Thunder 1 day. 
Wind north-west 5 days. East-south-east 1 day. South-east 4 ^ days. South 
7 days. South- south-west 4 days. South-west 8f days. Variable 1 day. 
Calm 12 days. Moderate 11 days. Brisk 5 days. Boisterous 3 days. 

Mean temperature of the month 57°'60 

Mean temperature of August, ] 839 55*70 

Mean temperature of spring water 52 "33 

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XX. — On the Stinging property of the Lesser Weever-fish 
(Trachinus Vipera.). By George James Allman, Esq. 
In a Letter to Wm. Thompson, Esq., Vice-Pres. Natural 
History Society of Belfast. 

Bandon, August 20, 1840. 
My Dear Sir, 
I HAVE lately had an opportunity of making some observa- 
tions on the reputed stinging power of the Lesser Weever 
{Trachinus Vipera), and the result, I think, may tend to clear 
up a point with respect to which much difference has pre- 
vailed among naturalists. The older naturalists seem almost 
universally to coincide with the popular opinion entertained 
respecting this little fish, and to agree in ascribing venomous 
properties to the wounds inflicted with its spines. There can 
be Uttle doubt that the fishes to which the ancients gave the 
names Araneus, Draco, Dracunculus, and probably some 
others, were the Greater and Lesser Weevers of our coasts ; 
and to those they invariably attribute poisonous properties. 
Pliny accuses the Araneus of inflicting dangerous wounds with 
the spines of its back. After speaking of a poisonous fish 
which he calls Lepus, he says, "JEque pestiferum animal 
araneus, spinas in dorso aculeo noxius*.'^ In another place, 
speaking of Dracunculus, he tells us that it inflicts poisoned 
wounds with the spines of the opercula : " Aculeos in branchiis 
habet ad caudam spectantes, sic ut scorpio laedit dum manu 
tollitur f.^^ Similar properties are attributed to the dorsal spines 
of these fishes by AUan and Oppian. In the following pas- 
sage from the Halieutics several spinous fishes are grouped 
together, all of which are described by the poet as inflicting 
poisoned wounds, though some of them are undoubtedly in- 
nocuous, and classed here with venomous fishes, for the same 
reason which induces our own fishermen to attribute to the 

* Hist. Naturalis, ix. 72. t I^'if^- xxxii. 53. 

Ann. §• Mag. Nat. Hist. Nov. 1840. m 

162 Mr. G. J. Allman on the Sting 

different species of Cottus, and other spiny fishes, poisonous 
properties. For directing my attention to the passage, as well 
as for the accompanying translation, I am indebted to the Rev. 
W. Hamilton Drummond, D.D., to whom much is due for in- 
troducing this curious poet to the English reader*. 

Kevrpa Be TvevKYjevTa fxer lyQvaiv lOTrXiaravrOt 
Kw/3ios, OS ypajjiadoLffi /cat o$ Trerprfcri yeyqde, 
S(COj07r(os, wKctai re ^eX<Bores, rj^e ^pciKovres 
Kat Kvves, o'l KeyrpoKrip e-niovvfxoi apyaXeoiaC 
Jlavres araprrjpois vwo vvyfxnaLV wv lei^Tes. 

Hal ii. 457. 
" Cruel spines 
Defend some fishes, as the Goby, fond 
Of sands and rocks, the Scorpion, Swallows fleet. 
Dragons and Dog-fish, from their prickly mail 
Well named the spinous. These, in punctures sharp, 
A fatal poison from their spines inject." 

None of the older naturalists, indeed, ever think of denying 
venomous properties to the Weever ; it is the dorsal spines, 
however, which are almost constantly spoken of as the seat of 
the virus. Willughby says the six dorsal spines are consi- 
dered venomous, and therefore the fishermen cut them off on 
taking a fish. He does not, however, think it proved that the 
poison is confined to these spines. 

Universal as was the belief among the ancients of the ve- 
nomous character of the Weever, the idea seems to be now 
almost as universally abandoned, and modern naturalists agree 
almost to a man in considering it a vulgar error, fit only to be 
placed among the rubbish which recent investigations have 
been so rapidly clearing away from the science of nature. 
Cuvier treats it altogether as an error, and even denies the 
possibility of the Weever inflicting poisoned wounds. Speak- 
ing of its spine, he says, " N'ayant aucun canal, ni communi- 
quant avec aucune glande, elles ne peuvent verser dans les 
plaies un venin proprement ditf.^^ 

Powerful as is this authority, and that of many other of the 
moderns, I have been notwithstanding induced to come to 
quite a different conclusion, and to agree w ith the ancients in 
ascribing venomous properties to the Weever. 

On the 9th of August, 1839, I was wounded near the top 
of the thumb by a Trachinus Vipera, which had just been taken 
in a seine with herrings, sand-eels, &c. The wound w as in- 

* See Essay on the Life and Writings of Oppian, by W. H. Urummond, 
D.D., M.R.I. A., pubhshed in Trnnsactions of Royal Irish Academy for 
3 820. 

f Hist. Nat. des Poiss. t. iii. p. 184. 

of the Lesser Weever-fish. 163 

flicted by the spine attached to the gill-covers, during my at- 
tempt to seize the fish. A peculiar stinging pain occurred a 
few seconds after the wound, and this gradually increased du- 
ring a period of about fifteen minutes. The pain had now be- 
come most intolerable, extending along the back of the thumb 
towards the wrist ; it was of a burning character, resembling 
the pain produced by the sting of a wasp, but much more in- 
tense. The thumb now began to swell, and exhibited an in- 
flammatory blush, extending upwards to the wrist. The pain 
was now distinctly throbbing and very excruciating. In this 
state it continued for about an hour, when the pain began 
somewhat to subside, the swelling and redness still continuing. 
In about an hour and a half the pain was nearly gone. Next 
morning the swelling of the thumb had but slightly diminish, ed, 
and was in some degree diffused over the back of the hand ; 
the thumb continued red and hot, and painful on pressure 
over the metacarpal bone. In a few days the swelling had 
completely subsided, but the pain on pressure continued for 
more than a week. No treatment was adopted. 

It is here to be remarked, that the wound, of which the 
above phaenomena were the result, was inflicted by the spine 
of the gill-cover, and not by those belonging to the dorsal fin. 
Whether, indeed, these latter spines possess any poisonous 
properties, I have not as yet been able decidedly to determine, 
though their threatening aspect when erected, and black mem- 
brane, present an appearance so formidable, as at once to lead 
an inexperienced observer to refer to them any stinging power 
which the little animal may be supposed to possess. 

Though I have had no opportunity of making further per- 
sonal observations on the effects of wounds inflicted by the 
Weever, facts which fully bear out the conclusions to which 
my own experience had enabled me to come, have been re- 
lated to me by witnesses, in whom I can place all possible 
reliance. A friend informed me that last autumn he saw a 
woman stung in the hand by one of these fishes ; the poor 
woman immediately uttered loud cries and seemed to suffer 
great agony, while in an incredibly short time after the wound 
the hand had become enormously swollen, and exhibited con- 
siderable inflammatory redness. No observations w^ere made 
on the progress of the case. 

The spines of the opercula will be found on examination to 
be deeply grooved along the edges (a, a, a', «'), each groove 
terminating at the base of the spine in a conical cavity [b, b') 
excavated in the posterior edge of the bony part of the oper- 
culum. In the sides of these excavations the edges of the 
grooves lose themselves, so that there is a perfect continuity 
between each groove and the corresponding cavity. 



Mr. G. J. AUman on the Sting 

From the posterior edge of the operculum the integument 
is continued over the spine to within a very short distance of 

the point ; by which means the spine is inclosed in a com- 
plete sheath for nearly its entire lengthy and the groove at 
each side is converted into a perfect tube, extending from the 
conical cavity at the base almost to the point of the spine. 

The result of this arrangement, is a structure beautifully 
adapted for the conveyance of a fluid from the base to the 
apex of the spine. 

The spines of the dorsal fin are also grooved, but the grooves 
disappear towards the base, after becoming superficial, and do 
not terminate in cavities similar to those at the bases of the 
spines of the opercula. 

I have not as yet been able to detect any specific gland 
connected with this apparatus. There is, indeed, in the bottom 
of each of the conical cavities above-mentioned, a small pulpy 
mass, which may possibly be of a glandular nature ; but in 
ascribing to it the property of secreting the virus, I do nothing 
more than hazard a distant conjecture. It seems, indeed, to be 
chiefly composed of fatty matter ; and on puncturing my hand 
with a lancet and introducing a little of this substance taken 
from a fish which had been about twenty-four hours dead, no 
phaenomena of any interest were the result, there being merely 
a slight smarting produced, such as might be expected from 
the introduction of any such extraneous matter into a recent 
wound, and very different indeed from the intense pain pro- 
duced by the sting of the living fish. The property of secre- 
ting the virus may probably with more truth be ascribed to 

of the Lesser Weever-Jish, 165 

the pulpy sheath of the spine ; but this^ too, is nothing more 
than conjecture. 

This Httle fish is much dreaded by the fishermen on the 
southern coast of Ireland ; and an opinion prevails among 
them^ that the pain of its sting will last until the tide has 
again arrived at the height at which it stood when the wound 
was inflicted. This opinion, which is altogether incorrect, is 
universally believed by the fishermen of the south of Ireland ; 
and I was surprised to find, from the following passage in 
Willughby's ^ Fishes,^ that it is neither confined to any parti- 
* cular district, nor of modern origin : " Dolor ab ictu excitatus 
(ut nobis retulere piscatores) per duodecem horas durat ad- 
modum vehemens, hoc est donee mare novo accessu recessuve 
ad eundem altitudinis modum seu terminum redeat, deinde 
paulatim remittit.^^ 

Though the Weever is held in particularly bad repute by 
the fishermen, their terror is by no means confined to it, as- 
the different species of Cottus, and some other spiny fishes, 
are not exempted from the imputation of inflicting poisoned 
wounds ; and many of them are confounded under a common 
unpronounceable Irish name, which may, I believe, be trans- 
lated ^^ Sting Devil.^^ These fishes, however, though furnished 
with formidable spines, appear altogether destitute of any 
poisonous qualities. I have frequently, indeed, allowed the 
Cottus Bubalis to inflict deep punctures on my fingers without 
experiencing the slightest unpleasant consequences, beyond 
those of an ordinary puncture ; and it must also be remarked, 
that the spines of Cottus, and of other fishes which I have ex- 
amined, and which are commonly supposed to be venomous, 
are of altogether a different structure from those of Trachinus, 
and not at all adapted for the introduction of virus into the 
wound inflicted by them. 

Believe me, dear Sir, very faithfully yours, 

Geo. Jas. Allman. 

William Thompson, Esq,, ^c, Belfast. 


Right opercular spine of Trachinus Vipera, with the sheath removed, 
viewed upon the external surface, and magnified about six times in linear 

a, a, a', a'. The grooves in the edges of the spine. 

b, b'. The conical cavities in which the grooves terminate. 

c, c'. The external walls of the cavities. 

d, dK The internal walls. 

The parietes of the cavities being transparent, d' is represented as visible 
through the external wall. 

166 Mr. A. H. Hassall's Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. 

XXI. — Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. By Arthur Hill. 
Hassall^ Esq., M.R.C.S.L. With 3 Plates. 

^' It is delightful to see by these miniature existences^ small 
almost to invisibility, and by their careful organization as 
finely contrived as in the grandest creature, that greatness 
and littleness make no difference to Him in His Creation or 
in His Providence. They reveal to us that magnitude is nothing 
in His sight ; that He is pleased to frame and to regard the 
small and weak as benignly and as attentively as the mighty 
and the massive. We are high and low, great and small, as 
to each other, but not to Him.^^ — Sharon Turner's Sacred 

In no part of the animal kingdom is the truth of the above 
remarks more pleasingly or more beautifully manifested than 
in the present order ; in no other department do we meet with, 
to an equal extent at least, the same diversity and elegance of 
form so illustrative of the fertility of invention and beauty of 
conception of the Divine Mind. The heart must be cold and 
insensate indeed, that, on beholding these interesting " minims 
of creation ^^ is not tempted to exclaim with the Psalmist, "in 
wisdom,^^ beneficent, infinite wisdom, " hast thou made them 

The whole of the zoophytes enumerated in the following 
Catalogue, with two exceptions, were found in the bays of 
Dublin and Killiney during the winter of 1838 and spring of 
1839. The extent of coast embraced by these bays is about 
sixteen miles, abounding more in marine productions than any 
other known locality of similar dimensions. 

The distribution of zoophytes is often extremely local, in 
many cases a species being restricted to one particular spot 
of perhaps not more than half a mile or a mile in extent ; it 
is, on this account, that I have given the habitat of each sepa- 

The law of the spiral development of similar parts, so evi- 
dent in the vegetable kingdom, is here also very generally ma- 
nifested both in the form of the polypes as well as in that of 
the polypidoms — this is particularly remarkable in Antennu- 
laria antennina, Thuiaria thuja, Campanularia verticellata, 
and Vesicularia spinosa ; and traces of this arrangement may 
be detected in some part or other of the structure of the ma- 
jority of zoophytes. 

In this catalogue the term Zoophyte is used in the ex- 
tended signification in which it was employed by Ellis, who 
embraced in his work the Articulated Corallines and Sponges, 
denying, however, the existence of polypes in the latter, and 

Mr. A. H. Hassall's Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. 167 

believing in their animal nature from their structure and che- 
mical composition. 

I have here to acknowledge the obhgation I am under to 
Dr. Johnston* of Berwick, who kindly afforded me the benefit 
of his experience wherever I entertained doubts as to the iden- 
tity of any of the species mentioned, and from whose assist- 
ance, in this particular, I am enabled to present this Catalogue 
with the greater confidence. 



Tuhularia indivisa. — Dublin bay ; not common. 

T. ramea. This is one of the most delicate and arborescent of the 
corallines, exactly resembling a miniature tree. The ultimate tubes 
have four or five distinct rings at their base. Polypidom about six 
inches in height. 

On shells from deep water ; rare. Blackrock, Dublin bay. 


Thoa halicina. A variety of T. halicina is frequently met with, 
distinguished from the ordinary specimen by its irregular mode of 

Dublin bay ; common. 

T. Beanii. Of this extremely elegant zoophyte I have met with 
several specimens, averaging from four to six inches in height. There 
is a great resemblance between Thoa Beanii and the preceding, with 
the variety of which it may be readily confounded, particularly when 
deprived of its very characteristic vesicles. It may, however, be 
known from it by the branches passing from the main stems nearly 
at right angles, but at unequal intervals, and by its being irregu- 
larly ringed, having also a joint between each cell, in which re- 
spect it agrees with T. halicina. 

Sertularia polyzonias. Between this and the one following there 
is a manifest relation. They are both usually found upon Flustra 
foliacea, though not confined to it. 
Killiney bay; not common. 
S. rugosa. — Kingstown ; not common. 

S. rosacea. Usually found as a parasite on S. cupressina and S. 
Tamarisca, particularly on the former. 
Dublin bay ; abundant. 

* I have followed the Arrangement and Nomenclature given in Dr. J.'s 
admirable work on British Zoophytes. 

168 Mr. A. H. Hassall's Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes, 

S. pumila. On Fucus serratus, which it thickly covers, near low 
water mark. 

Booterstown. — Dublin bay ; not rare. 

S. Tamarisca. An inhabitant of deep water, on shells ; rather rare. 
Blackrock, Dublin bay. 

S. abietina. Frequently covered with small and elegant tufts of 
C. eburnea, which give to the polypidom a very beautiful appearance ; 
it is sometimes found a foot in height, and of a bright pink colour, 
which it retains on drying. All the Sertularice are occasionally 
found coloured in this way. 
Dublin bay ; very abundant. 
S. Filicula. — Dublin bay ; rare. 

(S. operculata. Of this common species a very delicate variety is 
occasionally met with, attaining a much greater height than the ordi- 
nary kind, and having the shoots waved or zigzag. 
Dublin and Killiney bays, on shells and fuci. 
S. argentea. Independently of the differences to be observed in 
the form of the cells and vesicles, which are generally pretty con- 
stant, between this and the following species, there are many others 
pertaining to their general habit and appearances. The polypidoms 
of this species are frequently met with growing in closely aggrega- 
ted clusters, and are sometimes even branched, a condition in which 
I have never found the other ; it is also of a darker colour and more 
rigid texture, and never attains the same height. The polypiers also 
do not end in the beautiful spire so remarkable in S. cupressina, but 
terminate much more abruptly. The branches too are usually shorter, 
broader, and not arched as in the other species. 
Dublin bay ; abundant. 

S. cupressina. This species sometimes attains an elevation of 
more than two feet. The polypidom is occasionally denuded of its 
branches for a short distance up the stem, but this is by no means a 
constant occurrence, as in some others. 
Dublin bay ; abundant. 


Antennularia antennina. The stems of this coralline sometimes 
exceed a foot in height, and are frequently clustered together to the 
number of thirty or forty. The number of branchlets in each whorl 
varies from five to nine, and in the same specimen the number 
usually remains the same throughout. I have a specimen in my pos- 
session from Brighton arising by a single trunk, which afterwards 
breaks up into eight or ten branches, these again subdividing ; it 
well deserves, from its appearance, the appellation oiramosa. There 
is also in it an absence of the small tubular cells placed between the 
larger ones met with in A. antennina. See Plate V. From an exami- 
nation of this specimen I am inclined to think that it is what Lamarck 
has described under the name of Antennularia ramosa, and that it is 
really and specifically distinct from the other species. I am far, 
however, from considering every branched specimen of Antennularia 
as the true A. ramosa. 

Dublin bay ; common. 

Mr. A. H. Hassall's Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes, 169 


Plumularia falcata. This common species is sometimes found 
branched, and attains a foot in height. The vesicles appear in spring. 

On stones and shells in deep water. Dublin bay ; abundant. 

P. cristata. On Fucus siliquosus ; rather common. Dublin and 
Killiney bays. 

P. pinnata. — Dublin bay ; not common. 


Laomedea dichotoma. Polypidom usually from eight to ten inches 
in height, but often more. 

Blackrock ; rather common. 

L. geniculata. Parasitic on sea- weeds, particularly on Laminaria 
digitata and F. siliquosus. Dublin and Killiney bays ; common. 

L. gelatinosa. — Blackrock ; not common. The stem of this spe- 
cies is ringed above and below the origin of each footstalk. 


Campanularia voluhilis. This elegant microscopic species is fur- 
nished with a delicate joint or hinge, situated at the base of each 
little cup. This beautiful contrivance is designed, I imagine, to 
enable this frail zoophyte the better to elude the rude contact of the 
element by which it is surrounded, by permitting it to bend to a force 
which it cannot resist. 

Dublin bay ; not common. 

C. Syringa. Parasitic, as in also the preceding, on other corallines, 
particularly on S. abietina. It is worthy of remark, that the more 
delicate species of zoophytes affix themselves either to sea- weeds or 
to others of a more robust nature. By so doing they receive the 
shock communicated by the motion of the surrounding water, as it 
were, second-hand — the force being first felt by, and partly expended 
on, the objects to which they are attached before reaching them. 
By this means also, a much wider range of motion is affbrded them 
for the capture of their prey, than they could possibly enjoy were 
they rooted by their short pedicles to some fixed and unyielding sup- 

C. verticillata. — Blackrock ; not very frequent. 

C ? dumosa. This is now ascertained to be the Cornularia rugosa 
of Cavolini, a figure of which is given in Dr. Johnston's ' British 
Zoophytes.' Vignette 27. p. 187. 

Blackrock, on P. falcata, for which it manifests a decided pre- 
ference ; not common. 




Alcyonium digitatum, — On old shells, very common ; Dublin and 
Killiney bays. 

170 Mr. A. H. HassalPs Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes, 



An undescribed zoophyte, belonging to this family, is occasionally 
found in Dublin bay, investing Fucus senatus. Dr. Johnston consi- 
ders it to be new both in species and genus. As specimens of it are 
in Dr. Johnston's possession, I refrain from giving any detailed de- 
scription ; I may, however, remark, that the animal, which I suc- 
ceeded in detecting in a specimen preserved in spirits, is apparently 
similar to that of Flustra, being doubled up in the cell in the same 
manner,"and having the head encircled with about twenty tentacula. 

Vesicularia spinosa. — Dublin bay; common. 

Serialaria lendigera. — Dublin and Killiney bays ; not common. 

Valkeria uva. — On Fucus siliquosus, rare ; Blackrock. 


Crisia cornuta. — On sponges, and various corallines; common in 
Dublin and Killiney bays. 

C. chelata.- — Blackrock; rare. 

C. eburnea. Parasitic on sea-weeds and zoophytes, particularly 
on S. abietina. 

Killiney and Dublin bays ; common. 

C. luxata. — Killiney and Dublin bays ; frequent. 

C. aculeata. Cells disposed in a double series, armed with a long 
spinous process ; joints of an amber colour. — A. H. 

Polypidom erect, bushy, about an inch in height, and beautifully 
posted ; branches alternate ; jointed at irregular intervals ; inter- 
nodes narrow at their commencement ; cells subalternate, tubular, 
the majority being furnished with a long spine, which arises from 
the outer side. Vesicles much resembling a fig in shape, and dotted. 
See Plate VII. fig. 3, 4. 

Brighton ; not unfrequent. 


Notamla loriculata. The polypidom of this species sometimes 
attains a height of eight or nine inches. 
Dublin and Killiney bays ; common. 


Hippothoa catenularia. — Dublin bay ; rare. 


Tubulipora patina. The Discopora verrucaria of Fleming. 

Mr. A. H. HasssiWs Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. 17I 

On shells and corallines, particularly on N. loriculata. 

T. verrucaria. The Tupulipora verrucaria of Milne-Edwards has 
not been described as British ; it is however of common occurrence 
in Dublin bay, adhering usually to <S. abietina. It differs from T. 
patina in the cells not being placed in a cup, and from T. serpens in 
their not being arranged in transverse rows. The tubes are some* 
times separate and sometimes united. In this latter state it bears a 
great resemblance to Discopora hispida, but may be known from it 
by the apertures of the tubes being plain. See Plate VI. fig. 3, 4. 
Is it not the small purple Eschara of Ellis ? 

T. serpens. — Not unfrequent; Dublin and Killiney bays. 


Discopora hispida. — From shells and corallines from deep water; 
not common ; Dublin bay. 



Cellepora pumicosa. — Dublin and Killiney bays ; very common. 

Lepralia. Johnston. 

Berenicea hyalina. — Dublin bay ; rare ; on shells. 

Lepralia variolosa. — Dublin bay ; rare. 

L. ciliata. Cells ovato-globose ; aperture circular with a small 
excavation in its lower margin ; spines from 5 to 7, not immediately 
surrounding the orifice of the cell, differing in this respect from L. 
immersa, in which the spines arise directly from the margin. By 
means of the indentation referred to, this species may always be 
distinguished from others, even in the absence of the spines. 

On shells and fuci; not uncommon; Dublin and Killiney bays. 

" Lepralia A-dentata, Johnston's Manuscript." Cells immersed, ar- 
ranged alternately ; apertures quadrangular, and furnished with four 
short teeth, placed near each angle. — A. H. 

This species was sent to Dr. Johnston some time ago by Mr. 
Forbes, and subsequently by myself as a new species. See Plate 
VI. fig. 5. 


Memhranipora pilosa. — On shells, fuci, and corallines ; very com- 
mon; Dublin and Killiney bays. 
Var. dent at a. Not common. 


Flustra foliacea. The varieties of this species are very numerous. 

Dublin and Killiney bays ; very common. 

F. chartacea. This is the F. papyracea of Ellis, which for a long 
time has been lost sight of. His description, however, is inaccurate, 
inasmuch as he makes no mention of the spines, one of which is 
placed at each distal angle of every cell. It is one of the most 
beautiful of the Flustrce, growing in bushy hemispherical tufts of 

172 Mr. A. H. HassalPs Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. 

about an inch and a half in height ; each tuft is composed of nume- 
rous separate polypidoms, closely interwoven with each other, and 
dichotomously branched. The cells are of an oblong square form, 
slightly enlarged distally, and furnished with a globular operculum 
somewhat similar to that of F. avicularis. 

F. avicularis. This species has four spines at the top of each cell. 

Parasitic on other corallines ; rare ; Dublin bay. 

F. memhranacea. On the frond of Laminaria digitata ; very 
abundant ; common. 

F. Hihernica. Polypidom encrusting calcareous, white ; cells 
hexagonal, excavated, dotted on the inside. — A. H. 

The only specimens I have obtained of this are parasitic on an 
Ascidia ; I have little doubt, however, of its being a new species. 
The Flustra to which it bears the closest resemblance is perhaps 
F. carbasea, but I have never met with it on this part of the Irish 
coast. See Plate VII. fig. 1. 


Cellular ia ciliata. — Dublin bay ; rare. 

C. scruposa. On the roots of most corallines and old shells; 
abundant ; Dublin and Killiney bays. 

C. reptans. Everywhere very common. 

C. Avicularia. This species is, I think, misplaced ; it ought ra- 
ther to be associated with Flustra than Cellularia. 

Dublin bay ; rare. 


Acamarchis plumosa. — Dublin bay; rare. 


Farcimia salicornia. " Articulations cylindrical; cells rhomboidal, 

Farcimia sinuosa. Cells rounded above, excavated below for the 
reception of the head of the succeeding cell ; aperture semicircular, 
situated in the upper third of each cell. — A. H. 

I have but little hesitation in pronouncing this to be a new spe- 
cies*. It differs from the ordinary species in the greater size of the 
cylinders, in the shape of the cells (too material to be the result of 
any accidental circumstances), and above all, in the position of the 
aperture, which in this is placed in the upper part of each cell, while 
in F. salicornia it is exactly central. This last I consider to be the 
most important distinction of all. The number of the cells on each 
cylinder is also much greater than in the preceding species. See 
Plate VI. fig. 1. 2. 

* Among several specimens of salicornia^ collected by Mrs. Alder and 
Miss Amelia Hunter, at Blackrock, Dublin bay, I observed some of Farci- 
mia sinuosa, agreeing in every particular with my own previously obtained 
at Menion, about two miles from the former place. The authority for this 
new species does not now, therefore, rest upon the examination of a single 

Mr. A. H. Hassall's Catalogue of Irish Zoophytes. 173 

Dr. Johnston, to whom I wrote respecting this zoophyte, refers 
me to a figure in which the cells are shaped as in mine, given in 
Ellis's work (Plate xxiii. fig. D.), and suggests the possibility of 
Ellis having found the two forms of cells, viz. the rhomboidal and 
the rounded, upon one and the same species. This communication 
led me to make a careful examination of numerous specimens of F. 
salicornia, the results of which has been such as I had anticipated. 
In no one instance have I ever detected the two forms of cells upon 
one and the same portion, but have alwaj''s found the differences 
which I have pointed out to be constant between specimens. Ellis's 
figure proves that he had seen my species ; but it is also evident that 
he overlooked the material points of difference between it and the 
ordinary kind, an unusual error for him to commit, I acknowledge ; 
but nevertheless possible. The circumstance of his having given 
two separate figures of Farcimia is in favour of my opinion of their 
distinctness as species. 

There is one general and undeviating principle presiding over the 
form and arrangement of the cells of all cellular zoophytes, and ope- 
rating with such mathematical precision as to give to each species a 
certain type or character by which it may be distinguished from all 
others, each having cells of but one shape, and arranged in a uniform 
and determined order. To imagine, therefore, the existence of two 
forms of cells so distinct in their character, upon one and the same 
species, and constituting a part of it, is to suppose an anomaly, of 
which I believe the whole range of zoophytical productions does not 
furnish a single example. The differences between the two species 
are not such as can be explained by a reference to any adventitious 
causes, such as exposure, the mode of drying, &c. ; they are not those 
arising from mere magnitude ; in a word, they are structural. 

Alcyonidium hirsutum. — Dublin bay ; not common. 
A. echinatum. — Dublin and Killiney bays ; common. 
A. parasiticum. — Dublin and Killiney bays; frequent. 


Melohesia elegans. This beautiful microscopic object, which re- 
ceived its name from Mr. Bean, is not more than the sixteenth of 
an inch in diameter. It is composed of numerous plates of irregular 
form and dimensions ; these plates are inserted into a raised margin 
or framework, and each is perforated with minute tubular apertures. 
Whether it is furnished with polypi or not, I believe, is not deter- 
mined. See Plate VII. fig. 2. 

On Fuci ; Dublin bay. 


Halichondria papillaris, Fleming. Spongiaureus, Solander. 

Common, encrusting fuci ; Dublin and Killiney bays. 

H. palmata. — Dublin bay ; not common. 

* For an account of this genus, see Fleming's 'British Animals.' 

174 Mi*. A. H. Hassall's Catalogue of Irish Zooj)hytes. 


Grantia compressa ! G. foUacea of Montagu. 

Adhering to the under side of rocks above low- water mark ; Monks - 

G, Coronata. — Monkstown : same as the preceding. 


Millepora polymorpha, Linn. 

Millepora informis, Lamarck. — Dublin bay ; not common. 

Millepora lichenoides. " This Millepora has slender semicircular 
plates which constantly grow horizontally." Lamouroux makes this 
a Melobesia under the name Melobesia pustulosa. It ought, I think, 
to be considered a Madrephyllia, under which head Dr. Johnston has 
placed it. M. byssoides, Lamarck. 


Corallina officinalis. There are several well-marked varieties of 
this Corallina cylindrica. 

" Corallina rubens sive muscus marinus." — Park, 

" This coralline, when magnified, appears to grow in branches, al- 
ways dividing into two parts, consisting of long cylindrical joints 
connected by small tubuli." — Ellis. 

C. rubens, var. spenophecos. 

The above four corallines are found attached to rocks at Bray 
Head, near Dublin. 

It is only by an extensive examination of catalogues similar 
to the foregoing, that we shall be able to arrive at any certain 
conclusions regarding the geographical distribution of zoo- 
phytes, and the changes in the growth and habits occasioned 
by the different localities in which they are met with. On 
reference to the preceding list, it will appear that many spe- 
cies common in the North of England and Scotland are either 
not to be found at all on this coast, or are so sparingly ; and 
on the other hand, many that are rare on the English coast are 
abundant on the Irish. Thus, Thuiaria thuja, common in 
the North of England, has never, I believe, been noticed on 
any part of the coast of Ireland, and certainly not on that 
embraced in the present catalogue. 

Again, I have never met with F. truncata and F, carbasea, 
both very common on the coasts of Northumberland and Dur- 
ham, and also occasionally found upon some parts of the Irish 
coast. Many species of Flumularia, and two or three of Ser- 
tularia, are wanting in these bays ; and the genus Eschara ap- 
pears to be absent not only from this part but from the coast 
of Ireland generally ; while Thoa Beanii, Discopora hispida, 

* See Grant in 2nd vol. of Edin. New Phil. Journ. 

Mr. J. E. Gray on Starfish. 1}5 

and Alcyonidium parasiticum, all more or less rare on the 
English coast, are tolerably abundant in these situations. I 
might enlarge upon this subject, but the data are at present 
too few to admit of our doing so with certainty. 

Many species appear to attain a much greater height in 
Ireland than in England, as will be evident on a comparison 
of the sizes given in Dr. Johnston^s elegant work and in this 
Catalogue : this is probably attributable to the mildness of 
the climate. 


Plate V. Fig. 1. Antennularia ramosa. 

Fig. 2. A portion of the same magnified. 

Fig. 3. A portion of A. antennina magnified, showing the small tu- 
bular cells placed between the larger ones, and which are absent 
in A, ramosa. 

Plate VL Fig. 1. A specimen of Farcimia simiosa, of the natural size. 
Fig. 2. A portion of the same magnified. 

Fig. 3. and 4. Specimens of TubuUpora verrticaria; in the one the 
tubes are separate, in the other united. 

Fig. 5. Lepralia ^-dentata. 
Plate VII. Fig. 1. Flustra Ilihernica. This is a very imperfect represen- 
tation of the original, the exact appearance of which it is very 
difficult to represent in a drawing. 

Fig 2. Melohesia elegans of Mr. Bean, magnified. 

Fig. 3. and 4. Crisia aculeata, a new species. 

XXII. — 'A Synopsis of the Genera and Species of the Class 
Hypostoma (Asterias, Linnceus) . By John Edward Gray, 
Esq., F.R.S., Keeper of the Zoological Collection in the 
British Museum. 

My intention in sending this paper to the press is not only to bring 
before the public a number of new genera and species which have 
been for several years in the collection of the British Museum, but 
also to attempt to divide what has hitherto been considered an in- 
tricate Class into natural groups, to subdivide these groups and the 
genera they contain into smaller sections, so as to facilitate the de- 
termination of the species, and at the same time to assist in making 
out the natural affinities of this much -neglected group of animals. 

Hitherto very few persons have attempted to divide the Starfishes 
(Asterias, Linn.) into natural groups, and it is but recently that 
Nardo, and subsequently M, Agassiz, have paid any attention to the 
good groups pointed out by the first author of anything like a Mono- 
graph of these animals, I mean of Henry Linck, who published a se- 
parate work on the subject in folio, which he dedicated to Sir Hans 
Sloane and the members of the Royal Society. Nardo has done 
little more, as I shall presently show, than rename Linck's divisions ; 
and M. Agassiz has followed in Nardo's footsteps, adding one or 

17^ Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

two fossil genera which did not come within Linck's or Nardo's ob- 
ject. Mr. Edward Forbes has lately published a description of some 
Manx species, in which he has divided the Stellonia of Nardo into 
two genera, and added a genus which he calls Luidia for a species not 
known to Linck : he has also used the number of series of suckers 
(a character noticed by Miiller and others) as a generic one. 

Linck divides the Starfishes (Asterias, Linn.) into two great groups 
by the presence or absence of the ambulacra on the lower side of the 
arms, calling the first, which exactly agrees with the Asterias of 
Lamarck, the Asteriada of this paper, " stellis fissis," and the 
second " stellis integris." The latter group he divides into three 
classes : viz. 

1. Stellis vermiformibus = the OpMura of Lamarck. 

2. Stellis crinitis } = the Comatula of the same author. 

3. Astrophyton, which is the Euryale of the same. Thus we 
see, that he distinguished all the natural groups, which were after- 
wards thrown together into a single genus to be artificially divided 
into sections by Linnaeus and his followers. Linck's groups were not 
again recognized until nearly half a century after the publication 
of his valuable work. 

In dividing the fissured Starfishes, or Asteriadce as we call them in 
modern nomenclature, into genera, Linck began badly by paying too 
much attention to the number of the rays, though it is evident, by 
the names he has given to the diflferent species in his genera, that he 
was aware that some which he separated on this account were very 
nearly allied to each other. Overlooking the genera which are formed 
solely on this character, such as Trisactis, Tetractis, Hexactis and He- 
ptactis, which are all formed on varieties or distortions of other spe- 
cies, we shall find that the others noticed by him are excellent ge- 
nera, and such as are now acknowledged. His 

1. Pentanogaster = Goniaster (*) ^^a55Z2r. Scutasteries, .6/a/«i>. 

2. Pentaceros = Goniaster (**) Agassiz. Asterina, Nardo. Pla- 
tasteries, Blainv. 

3. Astropecten = Stellaria, Nardo. Asterias, Agassiz. 

4. Palmipes = Anseropoda, Nardo. Palmasteries, Blainv. 

5. Stella coriacea = Stellonia, Forbes. Stellonia, part, Nardo. 
Pentasteries and Solasteries, Blainv. 

6. FentSidRctjlosdiSteT = Crihella., Agassiz not Edwards. Linckia, 
Nardo not Agassiz. 

7. Octactis, ") 

q T) f' ' I =^ Solaster, Forbes. Stellonia, part, iVarc^o 

lo! Dodecaciis, t ^^^^9cissiz. 

11. Triskaidecactis, J 

Nardo, in the Naturforscher for 1833, and in the Isis for 1834, p. 
716, gives the following arrangement of the European species, which 
he divides into five genera : — 

1. Stellaria= Astropecten, Linck. 

2. Stellonia = Stella coriacea, Linck, and his other genera above 

the Genera and Species of Starfish, 177 

3. Asterina : Linck only knew one species which he put at the end 
of his Pentaceros. 

4. Anseropoda = Palmipes, Linck. 

5. Linckia = Pentadactylosaster, Linck. 

M. Agassiz, in the Memoirs of the Neufchatel Society, published a 
new arrangement of the Echinodermata, which has been abridged into 
the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, and from thence translated into 
the Annals of Natural History, i. 440, in which he has changed the 
names of some of Nardo's genera, and added some others for extra- 
European and fossil species, as follows : — 

1. Asterias = Astropecten, Lf^icA'. = Stellaria, Nardo. 

2. Coelaster, fossil. 

3. Goniaster = Pentagonaster and Pentaceros, Linck. 

4. Ophidiaster, a new species. 

5. Linckia = Cribella — Pentadactylosaster, Linck. 

6. Stellonia, Nardo = Stella coriacea, Linck, &c., as above. 

7. Asterina, Nardo. 

8. Palmipes, Linck. = Anseropoda, Nardo. 

9. Culcita, Agassiz, for Ast. discoidea. Lam. 

M. Agassiz generally quotes for the type of his European genera 
the same species as those cited by Nardo. 

Class HYPOSTOMA, Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 

Having a bag-like stomach, with a single opening serving as 
mouth and vent. The ovarial pores are placed round the mouth. 
The body is inclosed in a hard skin and supported by variously 
shaped calcareous pieces. 

It should be remarked, that the hard parts of these animals, whe- 
ther they are in the form of tessera, as in the Echinida, or of ossi- 
cula, as in the Hypostomata, or in that of spines, as in either, are 
evidently the hardening of certain parts of the cellular substance 
or skin, and these hard parts retain their organization and vitality 
during the life of the animal ; consequently they are not inorganic 
secretions, like the shells of moUusca, as they have generally been 
considered, but have far more relation to bones and coral, and like 
them form a peculiar kind of body intermediate between shells and 
the skeletons of vertebrata. " These pieces," as I have observed in 
the Synopsis of the British Museum, " are formed by the earthy par- 
ticles being deposited round certain definite spots in the skin, and 
as they are developed they assume a definite arrangement into cer- 
tain distinct shapes peculiar to the different kinds : although these 
are strongly united together by the skin, and have a kind of organiza- 
tion during the life of the animal, they may easily be separated from 
each other after death, and then appear like separate bones. This 
structure allows the animal to increase both the size and the num- 
ber of the pieces that compose its protecting case as the body grows, 
and also to repair, by the deposition of fresh calcareous particles on 
the skin of the healed part, any injury which the animal may have 
received from external accidents during its life." 

This structure is not so easily demonstrated in the internal bones 
Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Nov. 1840. n 

1 78 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

of the Starfishes as it is in the external tesserse of the Sea Eggs, and 
in the spines of both these kinds of animals, as they are often to be 
found broken and repaired during their growth, and this repair does 
not take place by any secretion applied to their surface, but by a 
healing of the part, which leaves a scar on the surface. Neverthe- 
less, the entire similarity which exists between the external spines and 
the internal tubercles at once shows that they are of the same struc- 
ture ; and this is further proved by the examination of the tubercles 
of those kinds which are in great part exposed on the surface, as is 
the case with the different kinds oiPentaceros,vfhere the development 
of these hard parts can often be observed during the process of re- 
producing an arm that has been accidentally injured or destroyed. 

The specimens described in this synopsis are either in the collec- 
tion of the British Museum or in that of the Zoological Society, 
which includes the specimens discovered by Mr. Cuming during his 
residence in South America, and presented by him to the Society. 

Order 1. Asteroida. 

Body free, star-shaped, with distinct small ambulacra (or walks) 
of double pores on the oral surface, from the mouth to the ends of 
the rays ; dorsal wart distinct. 

These animals have the faculty of reproducing the arms or such 
parts as may be accidentally broken off; and if an entire arm be 
separated, provided part of the body be attached to it, other arms 
are reproduced, and a fresh perfect animal formed. 

Sect. 1. The Ambulacra with four rows of feet ; dorsal wart sim- 

Family 1. Asteriadje, Gray, Syn. Brit.Mus. 62. 


Skeleton netted with a single mobile spine at each anastomosis of 
the ossicula ; body covered with more or less prominent elongated mo- 
bile spines*. 

a. Rays 12 or 13, slender, tapering, with small elongated spines. 

1. Asterias Aster, Gray. Rays 3 times as long as the diameter 
of the body ; back with 7 series of spines, the labial spine at the an- 
gles of the arms very long. 

Inhab. . Brit. Mus. 

* Some continental zoologists have objected to the shortness of my ge- 
neric and specific characters ; and I therefore think it right to observe, that 
it does not seem to me either necessary or desirable to give more than the 
essential distinguishing marks, in a monograph founded on the complete 
analysis of a large collection of species. On the other hand, it appears to 
me to be quite right, in the publication of a single supposed new genus or 
species, or of a limited number of them, where the author either wants the 
materials or the time for a rigid examination of the entire group, to give all 
the assistance that can be derived from a detailed description. No natu- 
ralist will doubt which is the easier process ; and few, I think, will hesitate 
as to which is the most advantageous to science. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish. 17^ 

b. Rays 6 or 8 cylindrical. 

2. Asterias calamaria, Gray. Arms four times as long as the 
diameter of the body, with 7 ridges of spines ; the 5 dorsal ridges 

Inhab. Isle of France, New Holland. Brit. Mus. 

c. Rays 5 — 8, elongated, sub cylindrical, with 5 or 7 series of 
spines, the 2 lower series close together and near the ambulacra. 

3. Asterias glacialis, lAnck, t.S8,S9. A. spinosa,Fennmit. Rays 
4 or 5 times as long as the diameter of the body ; spines acute. Var. 1. 
8-rayed ; var. 2. shorter rayed ; Madeira. 

Inhab. English coast, Mediterranean. 

4. Asterias rustica, Gray. Rays 6, flat, broad ; spines short, thick, 

Inhab. Valparaiso, in sandy mud, H. Cuming, Esq. This species 
has a series of small triangular plates, pierced with a central trian- 
gular hole, within the marginal ambulacral spines. 

5. Asterias echinata. Gray. Rays 8, twice as long as the width 
of the body, five-sided ; central ridge of spines interrupted. 

Valparaiso, on mud, about 4 to 6 fathoms. H. Cuming, Esq. 

d. Rays 5, tapering ; the ambulacral series of spines crowded, as if 

2 or S-rowed ; back netted with a ridge of two or three rows of spines 
next the ambulacral series, and then a single series of spines. 

6. Asterias Holsatica, Retz. Ast. 22. & 26. Asterias violacea, 
Miiller, Z. D. ii. t. 46. A. glacialis, John. Rays tapering, nearly 

3 times as long as the width of the body. 

Inhab. Northern Europe. Colour very variable. 

7. Asterias rubens, Linn. Rays broad, more than twice as long as 
the width of the body, with scattered blunt spines, spinulose at the 

Inhab. European ocean. Is not this only the female with eggs of 
the former ? 

8. Asterias Katherince, Gray. Rays 6 or rarely 5, nearly 3 times 
as long as the width of the body ; back with scattered and crowded 
blunt rough-tipped spines. 

Inhab. North America, mouth of the Columbia river. Lady Ka- 
therine Douglas. 

9 Asterias Wilkinsonii, Gray. Rays 5, nearly three times as long 
as the width of the body ; back with about 7 irregular interrupted 
series of rather blunt rough spines, 

Inhab. Northern Africa. Sir J. G. Wilkinson. 

See also Ast. tenuispinosa. Lam. ; Ast. hispida, Penn. ; Ast. Sa- 
varesi, Chiaje. t. 18. f. 6; and Ast. spongiosa. Fab. 

e. Body discoidal, divided at the edge into numerous short tapering 
rays ; the series of spines near the ambulacral series rather crowded, 
large and elongated. Heliaster, Gray. 

10. Asterias Helianthus, Lam. 20. E. Meth. t. 108. 109. Arms 

N 2 

180 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

33 or 34, about | the length of the width of the body, with three 
equidistant series of short blunt spines. 

Inhab. Guasco, Chili, Say. Valparaiso, H. Cuming, Esq. 

11. Asterias Cumingii, Gray. Arms 30 or 31, very short, not 
-^ as long as the diameter of the body, conical, with blunt spines. 

Inhab. Hood's Island, on rocks at spring tide. H. Cuming, Esq. 

12. Asterias multiradiata. Gray. Arms 22 or 24, cylindrical, 
elongated, tapering at the ends, J longer than the diameter of the 
body ; the dorsal series of spines rather longer and more compressed. 

Inhab. Hood's Island. H. Cuming, Esq. 

2. ToNiA, Gray. 
Skeleton netted with a series of crowded small blunt mobile spines 
on the sides of each ossiculum ; ambulacra bordered with a crowded 
series of subulate spines, and without any triangular pierced pieces 
within them. 

1. Tonia atlantica. Gray. Rays 5, more than twice as long as 
the width of the body; back with 9 series of cross bands. 
Inhab. Valparaiso, on rocks at low water. H. Cuming, Esq. 

Sect. 2. The ambulacra with only two rows of feet. 


Back flattish, netted with numerous tubercles, crowned with ra- 
diating spines at the tip, called Paxilli. 

A. The margin of the rays ciliated with a series of simple elongated 
spines, the paxilli or crowned tubercles regularly radiating, 

a. The rays edged with a series of large regular tubercles, which in- 
crease in number as the animal grows. 

1. Nauricia, Gray. 

The ambulacral spines broad and ciliated ; 2 series of tesserae be- 
tween the angles of the arms and the mouth beneath. Asiatic. 

1. Nauricia pulchella, Gray. Seba, iii. t. 8. f. 7. a. b. not good. 
Rays 5, half as long as the width of the body, gradually tapering, 
lower series of marginal tubercles with a series of broad flat spines 
on the upper margin of each. 

Inhab. China ? Japan ? 

2. AsTROPECTEN, Liuck. Fringed Star Fish. 
Ambulacral spines simple, linear, without any tesserae between 
the marginal tubercles near the mouth and angles of the arms. 
1. Body pentagonal ; rays short. 

1. Astropecten corniculatus, Linck. t. 27. &t. 36. f. 63. 
Inhab. . Perhaps a variety of the next. 

2. Astropecten polaris = Asterias polaris. Sabine, Append. Parry's 
Voy. 223. t. 1. f. 2, 3. 

Inhab. North Sea. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish. 181 

2. Body 5-rayed, arms depressed ; the upper series of marginal 
tubercles broad, rounded or shelving towards the edge. 

a. The dorsal tubercles between the angles of the arms on the centre 
of the back and on the lines down the centre of the arms the largest. 

3. Astropecten stellaris, 

Inhab. . 

b. The dorsal tubercles subequal, with fasciculated spines. 

\ The oral series of marginal tubercles produced beyond the dorsal 

* The upper marginal tubercles with a single series of spines at the 
angle of the base of the rays, and with another series at the end of the 
rays, which together make a double series near the base of the rays. 

4. Astropecten duplicatus, Gray. Rays three times as long as the 
diameter of the body, slender ; marginal spines elongated, depressed, 

Inhab. St. Vincent's. Rev. L. Guilding. 

5. Astropecten auraniiacus. Asterias aurantiaca, Z//««. Rays three 
times as long as the diameter of the body, slender ; marginal spines 
subulate, elongated. 

Inhab. Mediterranean. 

6. Astropecten stellatus, Gray. Rays more than twice as long as the 
■width of the body. The central area of the arms is about as wide 
as one series of the marginal tubercles. -. 

Inhab. Coast of South America ? 

** The upper series of marginal tubercles with a continued single 
series of spines on the angle of the arms. 

7. Astropecten armatus, Gray. Rays elongate, regularly tapering ; 
upper marginal tubercles narrow, with a continued series of erect, 
elongated, subulate spines. Var. 2. Pulcher, the under series of 
marginal tubercles not produced, and the spines more slender. 

Inhab. Puerto Portrero, South America, on sandy bottoms, 9 fa- 
thoms. H, Cuming, Esq. Var. 2. 

8. Astropecten echinatus, Linck, 29. t. 8. f. 12. 12. Rays rather 
more than twice as long as the width of the body ; upper series of 
spines large, lower series depressed, acute. 

See also Astropecten bispinosa = Asterias bispinosa. Otto. 
*** The upper series of marginal tubercles spineless, the lower se- 
ries much produced. 

9. Astropecten marginatus. Gray. Rays nearly three times as long 
as the width of the body ; lower marginal tubercles linear, depressed. 

Astropecten fimbriatus, Linck, is probably this species with the 
marginal spines lost. 

10. Astropecten regalis, Gray. Rays one-fourth longer than the 
diameter of the body, broad, tapering ; spines broad, blunt, depressed. 

Inhab. St. Bias. H. Cuming, Esq. 

Like A, marginatus, but the arms are shorter and broader. 

182 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

**** The upper series of marginal tubercles with 2 series of spines 
at the base and 1 along the edge of the arms. 

1 1 . Astropecten erinaceus. Gray. Arms gradually tapering, twice 
as long as the width of the body ; upper marginal tubercles rather 
narrow, with a series of small short spines, and a series of 6 or 8 
larger ones. 

•* St. Elena, sandy mud, 6 fathoms." H. Cuming, Esq. 
ft The under or oral series of marginal tubercles rounded and not 
produced beyond the dorsal ones. 

* The upper series with a series of short spines. 

12. Astropecten Mauriiianus, Gray. Rays broad; lower spines 
broad, strap-shaped. 

Inhab. Isle of France. 
** Upper series spineless. 

13. Astropecten mesodiscus, Linck, 29. t. 4. f. 16. Rays elongate, 
slender, tapering ; upper marginal tubercles narrow, with 2 series of 
short small tubercles like granules, one on each of the margins ; 
lower spines broad, elongate. 

Inhab. . 

14. Astropecten gracilis. Gray. Rays elongate, slender, gradually 
tapering ; upper marginal plates rather broad, granular with fine 
spines on the suture between them ; lower spines small, blunt, de- 

Inhab. . Like the former, but arms narrower. 

15. Astropecten irregularis, Linck, 27. t. 6. f. 13. A. aurantiaca, 
Muller, Z. D. t. 83. A. Johnstoni, Chiaje ? Rays rather broad, 
tapering ; the upper tubercles rather broad, with a series of 1 or 2 
scattered tubercular spines near the tip ; lower spines depressed, 

Inhab. Pembrokeshire, Linck. 

16. Astropecten dubius. Rays broad, tapering; upper marginal 
tubercles rather broad, granular, spineless ? lower spines broad, de- 

Inhab. West Indies. 

*** Upper and lower margin spineless, serrated ? 

17. Astropecten regularis, Linck, 26. t. 8. f. 11. Asterias petalo- 
dea, Retz, Aster. 16. n. 14 ? 

Inhab. . I have never seen this species. 

3. Body b-rayed, the arms high, narrow ; upper marginal tubercles 
very narrow and erect ; the line of dorsal tubercles down the centre of 
the arms the largest. Astropus, Gray. 

18. Astropecten longipes, Gray. Rays long and narrow; the up- 
per marginal tubercles minutely granular, and 1 or 2 of them often 
furnished with a short broad conical spine ; lower with a broad de- 
pressed blunt erect adpressed spine ; monstrosity 4-rayed. 

Inhab. "Isle of France," Leach. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish. 183 

See also Ast. pentacantha, Ast. spinulosa, Ast. platycantha, Ast. 
subinermis, Philippi, (but this author considers the number of the 
marginal tubercles, which increase with the age of the specimen, as a 
specific character,) and Asterias calcitrapa. Lam. 

b. The rays without any large tubercles on the margin. 

3. LuiDiA, Forbes. 

Margin of the 5 flat rays erect; the dorsal surface crowded with 
regular paxilli. 

1. Luidia fragilissima, Forbes in Wern. Trans. 1839, 14. — Aste- 
rias rubens, Johnston in Mag. H. N. 144. f. 20. 

Inhab. North Sea. 

2. Luidia Savignii, Gray. Ast. Savignii, Audouin in Savigny, 
Egypt, Echinod. t. 3. 

Inhab. Red Sea. 

3. Luidia} ciliaris. Asterias ciliaris, Philippi in Wiegm. Arch. 
1837, 19. 

Inhab. Sicily. . _, _, 

4. Fetalaster, Cxray. 

Margin of the rays shelving ; the dorsal surface with equal paxilli 
placed in longitudinal and cross series. Asiatic. 

1 . Petalaster Hardwickii, Gray. Rays elongated, rather slender, 
tapering at the end ; the dorsal tubercles with small truncated spines, 
and a distinct series of rudimentary spines. 

Indian Ocean. 

2. Petalaster Columbia. Rays elongated, slender, gradually taper- 
ing; tubercles short, with crowded groups of rather large acute 
spines, and a fringe of very fine radiating ones. 

Inhab. St. Bias. H. Cuming, Esq. 

B. The margin of the rays not edged with large tubercles, simple, or 
ciliated with short broad spines bearing tubercles. 

5. Sol ASTER, Forbes. 

The rays many, with 2 series of broad spines bearing tubercles 
near the ambulacra. 

a. Body 8 or 9 -rayed, closely reticulated, rays rounded, ventricose 
below, tapering at the tip, with a second row of compressed tubercles 
on the under side of the arms near the ambulacral series. Endeca, Gray. 

1 . Solaster Endeca, Forbes. Asterias Endeca, Linn. Ast. aspersa, 

Inhab. European Ocean. 

b. Body 10 or l^-rayed, loosely reticulated ; the rays depressed, 
with a series of large compressed tubercles crowned vjith a bunch of 
spines edging the oral ridge. Polyaster, Gray. 

2. Solaster papposa, Forhes. Asterias papposa, Lf«». Ast. stel- 
lata, Retz. 

Inhab. European Ocean. 

184 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Natural System 

6. Henricia, Gray. Linckia, Forbes not Nardo. 

The rays 5, rounded, tapering, with rounded tubercles near the 
ambulacra ; the dorsal wart obscure, few rayed, often hidden with 
small spines. 

1. Henricia oculata, Gray. Asterias oculata, Penn. Asterias 
seposita, Penn. ? Rays 5, closely reticulated with small spines. 

Inhab. European Ocean. 

[To be continued.] 

XXIII. — On the true Method of discovering the Natural System 
in Zoology and Botany. By Hugh E. Strickland, M.A., 
F.G.S., &c.* 

It is probable that most naturalists at the present day have an 
instinctive belief in the existence of a natural system in Zoo- 
logy and Botany, but there are very few who if questioned on 
the subject could give any clear explanation of the grounds of 
their belief, of the nature of that system, or of the mode by 
which a knowledge of it may be attained. The uncertainty 
which hangs over the subject is doubtless owing to the ob- 
scure and metaphysical nature of some of the principles in- 
volved, and still more to the vague conceptions and crude 
theories which have been promulgated on the subject. 

This essay is contributed in the hope that, even if its own 
arguments are of little value, it may, at least, induce others to 
investigate the subject on more correct principles than have 
hitherto been followed. 

The postulate with which I commence the inquiry is, to let 
it be granted that there are such things as species, distinct in 
their characters and permanent in their duration. This being 
admitted, we define the natural system to be the arrangement 
of species according to the degree oj' resemblance in their essen- 
tial characters. In other words, the natural system is that ar- 
rangement in which the distance from each species to every 
other is in exact proportion to the degree in which the essential 
characters of the respective species agree. Hence it follows that 
the whole difficulty of discovering the natural system consists 
in forming a right estimate of these degrees of resemblance. 
For the degree in which one species resembles another must 
not be estimated merely by the conspicuousness or numerical 
amount of the points of agreement, but also by the physiolo- 
gical importance of these characters to the existence of the spe- 
cies. On this point no certain rules have yet been laid down ; 
for though naturahsts in general admit, for instance, that the 

* Read before the Zoological Section at Glasgow, Sept. 21, 1840, 

in Zoology and Botany. 185 

nervous system is superior in importance to the circulatory, 
and the latter superior to the digestive system, yet this subject 
is still in a very indeterminate state, and until our knowledge 
of physiology is much further advanced, disputes will always 
arise respecting the true position of certain species in the na- 
tural classification. Such differences of opinion, however, will 
continually diminish as our knowledge increases, and they are 
even now very few in comparison with the numerous facts in 
classification on which all naturalists are agreed. Much may 
be effected by education and habit, which impart to the natu- 
ralist a peculiar faculty (termed by Linnaeus a " latent in- 
stinct^') for appreciating the relative importance of physiolo- 
gical characters to the satisfaction of himself and others, even 
in cases where he is unable to explain the principles which 
determine his decision. 

Granting, then, that by combining the number of points in 
which any two species agree, with an estimate of the physio- 
logical importance of those several points of agreement, the 
naturalist may, in practice, form a tolerably exact conception 
of the degree of resemblance between them ; he will proceed in 
his construction of the natural system to place these species 
at greater or less distance from each other, in proportion to 
that degree of resemblance. If we suppose that by a repeti- 
tion of this process every species is placed in its true position, 
we obtain a definition of those much-disputed terms, affinity 
and analogy^ — the former of which consists in those essential 
and important resemblances which determine the place of a 
species in the natural system, while the latter term (analogy) 
expresses those unessential and (so to speak) accidental re- 
semblances which sometimes occur between distantly allied 
species without influencing their position in the system. 
With analogy, therefore, we have no further concern in the 
present discourse, as it is a principle in no way involved in 
the natural system. Affinity, on the contrary, forms the 
chief element in this inquiry; and to place species in the 
order of their affinities is to construct the natural system *. 

It appears from the above views that the natural system 
is an accumulation of facts which are to be arrived at onlv bv 
a slow inductive process, similar to that by which a country 
is geographically surveyed. If this be true, it is evident how 

* I am aware tliat by many naturalists analogy is considered to be as im- 
portant an element in tiie natural system as affinity is. As the disciission 
of this question would lead us away from the present object, I will not enter 
upon it now, especially as my views respecting it are stated moi'e at large 
in the Mag. of Nat. Hist, for May last, p. 222 et seq. 

186 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Natural System 

erroneous must be all those methods which commence by as- 
suming an a priori system, and then attempt to classify all 
created organisms in conformity with that system. This, 
nevertheless, is a defect which exists more or less in many 
modern methods of classification. The greater part of these 
arrangements are based on an assumption that organic beings 
have been created on a regular and symmetrical plan, to 
which all true classifications must conform. Some natural- 
ists have attempted to place all animal species in a straight 
line, descending from man to a monad. This theory assumes 
that each species (excepting the two extremes) has two and 
only two direct affinities; one, namely, with the species which 
precedes, and the other with that whichfollows it. Others, per- 
ceiving the existence in many cases of more than two direct 
affinities, have compared the natural system to a series of 
circles, or to the reticulations of network. Many authors 
have assigned the most mathematical symmetry to the dif- 
ferent parts of the system by maintaining the prevalence 
throughout of a constant number, such as 2, 3, 4, 5, or 7. In 
applying these views to facts, they have of course found nu- 
merous exceptions to the regularity of their assumed formulas; 
but by adducing the extermination of some species, and our 
ignorance of the existence of others, and by applying a Pro- 
crustean process to those groups which were either larger or 
smaller than the regulation standard, they have removed the 
most glaring objections to their theory, and have with won- 
derful ingenuity given their systems an appearance of truth*. 
But when the unprejudiced naturalist attempts to apply any 
one of these systems to Nature, he soon perceives their inef- 
ficiency in expressing the real order of affinities. The fact 
is, that they all labour under the vital error of assuming that 
to be symmetrical, which is in an eminent degree irregular 
and devoid of symmetry. I will now proceed to give my 
reasons for taking this view of the subject. 

1 . A priori considerations, so far from leading us to assume 
a regular geometrical pattern, or numerical property in the 

* As these remarks may appear somewhat severe, it is right to substan- 
tiate them by a few examples. So long as these systems are admitted by 
their authors to be artificial, it would be as unjust to object to them, as to 
complain of the alphabetical arrangement of an encyclopaedia, that it broke 
the connection of the subjects. The reply would of course be, that an en- 
cyclopaedia does not profess to arrange subjects in their natural order, but 
merely aims at convenience of reference. The remarks in the text, there- 
fore, merely apply to those symmetrical methods which profess to exhibit 
The Natural System. The examples are seleected from Mr. Swainson's 
' Classification of Birds,' in which work the reality of the quinary system is 
insisted on throughout. See Appendix. 

in Zoology and Botany. 18? 

groups of organized beings, appear to indicate the direct con- 
trary ; for the analogies of external nature all indicate the 
utmost variety and irregularity. Beautiful as are the exam- 
ples of creative design exhibited in the universe, and admi- 
rable as are the adaptations of one part of nature to another, 
there is no department of the creation which is tied down to 
mathematical laws and numerical properties further than is 
sufficient for the due performance of its destined functions. 
There are indeed certain mathematical laws which regulate 
the motions of bodies and their chemical combinations, but 
these do not give to the face of nature that symmetrical and 
artificial appearance which is aimed at by the zoological sy- 
stems above-mentioned. For example, the relative distances 
of the planets, their magnitudes, and the number of their 
satellites conform to no known numerical law. The fixed 
stars exhibit no regular arrangement, either in their magni- 
tudes, distances, or positions, but appear scattered at random 
across the sky. To descend to our own earth, no symmetry 
is traceable in the forms of islands or continents, the courses 
of rivers, or the directions of mountain-chains. Organic life 
exhibits the same irregularity, — no two plants, and no two 
leaves of the same plant were ever perfectly identical in size, 
shape, colour, and position. In the "human face divine,^^ 
portrait-painters affirm that the two sides never correspond ; 
and even when the external form of an animal exhibits an ap- 
pearance of bilateral or radiate symmetry, nature departs from 
it in her arrangement of the internal structure. In short, 
variety is a great and a most beautiful law of Nature ; it is 
that which distinguishes her productions from those of art, 
and it is that which man often exerts his highest efforts in 
vain to imitate. When, therefore, we find a system of classi- 
fication proposed as the natural one which departs from this 
universal law of variety, and fetters the organic creation down 
to one unalterable geometrical figure or arithmetical number, 
there is, I think, a strong a priori presumption that such a 
system is the work not of nature but of art. 

2. It follows from the irregularity of external nature, as 
seen on the surface of the earth, that the groups of organized 
beings must be irregular also, both in their magnitudes and 
in their affinities. In proof of this it must be granted that 
the final cause of the creation of every animal and plant is 
the discharge of a certain definite function in nature, and not 
the mere occupation of a certain post in the classification : 
in short, that the design of creation was to form not a cabinet 
of curiosities, but a living world. Few, I trust, would hesi- 
tate to admit this proposition. If, then, the different modifi- 

188 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Natural System 

cations of structure which constitute the characters of groups 
were given solely with reference to the external circumstances 
in which the creature is destined to live^ it follows that the 
irregularities of the external world must be impressed upon 
the groups of animals and of plants which inhabit it. The 
supply of organic beings is exactly proportioned to the de- 
mand ; and Nature does not^ for the sake of producing a re- 
gular classification^ go out of her way to create beings where 
they are not wanted^ or where they could not subsist. Thus, 
for instance, the warm climate and varied soil of the tropics 
admits of the growth of a vast variety of flowers and fruits. 
The group of Humming-birds which feed on the former, and 
of Parrots which feed on the latter, are accordingly found to 
be developed in a vast variety of generic and specific forms ; 
while the family of Gulls which seek their food in the mono- 
tonous and thinly inhabited regions of the north, are few in 
species and still fewer in genera. Again, the variety of plants 
in the tropics admits the existence of a great variety of in- 
sects, and the family of Woodpeckers is proportionately nu- 
merous; while the Oxpecker [Buphaga), which seems to form 
a group fully equivalent in value to the Woodpeckers, is 
limited to but one or two species, because its food is confined 
to a few species of insects which only infest the backs of 

It follows, then, that the groups of organized beings will be 
great or small, and the series of affinities will be broken or 
coQtinuous, solely as the variations of external circumstances 
admit of their existence, and not according to any rule of 
classification. If, indeed, we were to imagine a world laid 
out with the regularity of a Chinese garden, in which a cer- 
tain number of islands agreeing in size, shape, soil, and form 
of surface, were placed at exactly equal distances on both 
sides of the equator, we might then conceive the possibility 
of a perfect symmetry in the groups of beings which inhabit 
them ; but without some such supposition, I do not see how 
a class of animals or plants can be symmetrical in themselves, 
and yet be expressly adapted for conditions of existence which 
are eminently irregular. 

3. To pass from syllogism to induction, it is most certainly 
not the case that any definite number or geometrical property 
runs through the animal or vegetable kingdom. I do not 
wish on the present occasion to enter on any criticism of in- 
dividual systems, but it would be easy to show that no sym- 
metrical system yet proposed is a true picture of the real 
series of affinities. Without referring to the numerous gaps 
in these systems which are referred by their authors to species 

in Zoology and Botany. 189 

being extinct or unknown, I could point out numerous ex- 
amples in which natural affinities are violated, insignificant 
groups promoted, or important ones reduced to the ranks, in 
the vain endeavour to drill the irregular troops of Nature into 
the square, the column, and the phalanx*. And although in 
some cases w^e do find examples of the recuiTcnce of a certain 
number in the subdivisions of natural groups, yet when we 
remember the ease with which groups may be extended or 
curtailed to support a theory, the numerous exceptions which 
occur to these numbers, and the variety of numerical theories 
which have been maintained with equal firmness by different 
authors, we cannot, I think, regard these occasional coinci- 
dences of number as otherwise than accidental. 

If, then, the diversities of organic structure, being adapted 
to the varying conditions of the earth^s surface, are, Hke them, 
full of irregularity and variety, it is plain that we can no more 
speculate theoretically as to what groups are likely to remain 
undiscovered, than we can predict the discovery of rivers, 
lakes or islands in any unexplored portion of the earth^s sur- 
face. Both inquiries must be pursued in the same way, viz. 
by a careful induction of facts ; and it will be found that 
there is much analogy between the process here recommended 
and that of a geographical survey. The plan proposed is to 
take any species. A, and ask the question. What are its near- 
est affinities ? If, after an examination of its points of resem- 
blance to all other know n species, it should appear that there 
are two other species, B and C, which closely approach it in 
structure, and that A is intermediate between them, the ques- 
tion is answered, and the formula BAG would express a por- 
tion of the natural system, the survey of which is so far com- 
pleted. Then take C, and ask the same question. One of 
its affinities, that of C to A, is already determined ; and we 
will suppose that D is found to form its nearest affinity on 
the other side. Then B A C D will represent four species, 
the relative affinities of which are determined. By a repeti- 
tion of this process, supposing our knowledge of the structure 
of each species to be complete, and our rules for determining 
the degrees of affinity correct, the whole organized creation 
might be ultimately arranged in the order of its affinities, and 
our survey of the natural system would then be finally ef- 
fected. Now, if each species never had more than two affi- 
nities, and those in opposite directions, as in the above exam- 
ple, the natural system would form a straight line, as some 
authors have assumed it to be. But we shall often find, in 

* See Appendix. 

190 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Natural System 

fact, that a species has only one direct affinity, and in other 
cases that it has three or more, showing the existence of late- 
ral ramifications instead of a simple Hne ; as shown in this 
example, where C, besides its affinity to A and D, has an af- 
finity to a third species, E, which therefore forms a lateral 




It was the observation of this fact which led some natural- 
ists to adopt the circular instead of the linear theory, still ad- 
hering to the assumption of a symmetrical figure, but chan- 
ging their notions of its form. Now although we find occa- 
sional ramifications in the affinities, and although these rami- 
fications may occasionally anastomose and form a circle, yet 
it has been shown that the doctrine of a regular figure cannot 
be sustained, and therefore if even it be permitted to man to 
discover what the true figure is which will express all the af- 
finities of organic bodies, it can only be effected by construct- 
ing it piecemeal in the way above proposed. AH that we 
can say at present is, that ramifications of affinities exist ; 
but whether they are so simple as to admit of being correctly 
depicted on a plane surface, or whether, as is more probable, 
they assume the form of an irregular solid, it is premature to 
decide. They may even be of so complicated a nature that 
they cannot be correctly expressed by terms of space, but are 
like those algebraical formulae which are beyond the powers 
of the geometrician to depict. Without, however, going 
deeper into this obscure question, let us hope that the affini- 
ties of the natural system will not be of a higher order than 
can be expressed by a solid figure ; in which case they may 
be shown with tolerable accuracy on a plain surface ; just as 
the surface of the earth, though an irregular spheroid, can be 
protracted on a map. The natural system may, perhaps, be 
most truly compared to an irregularly branching tree, or 
rather to an assemblage of detached trees and shrubs of vari- 
ous sizes and modes of growth*. And as we show the form 
of a tree by sketching it on paper, or by drawing its indivi- 
dual branches and leaves, so may the natural system be drawn 
on a map, and its several parts shown in greater detail on a 
series of maps. 

* If this illustration should prove to be a just one, the order of affinities 
might he shown in museums in a pleasing manner by constructing an arti- 
ficial tree, whose ramifications should correspond with those of any given 
family of birds, and by then placing on its branches a stuffed specimen of 
each genus in their true order. 

in Zoology and Botany. 191 

111 order to show that the views here maintained are not 
chimerical^ I will here present one or two ^^e^c^-maps of dif- 
ferent families of birds, though I am well aware that our 
knowledge of natural history is as yet far too imperfect to 
pretend to accuracy*. Such sketches as these can be com- 
pared only to the rude efforts at map-making made by the 
ancients^ of which the Peutinger Table is an example ; and it 
is probably reserved for a distant age to introduce that degree 
of exactness into natural history which in modern geography 
is attained by a trigonometrical survey. For the sake of sim- 
plicity, in making these sketches I have omitted the consi- 
deration of species, but assuming that the genera of modern 
authors consist solely of closely allied species, I have proceeded 
to group them in what appeared to be their true position in 
respect of their affinities. In order to place these groups at 
their true distances, it is necessary to form a scale of degrees 
of affinity, to which the intervals between each genus shall 
correspond. I am aware that this scale must be, in some mea- 
sure, arbitrary ; but for this there is no remedy. The division 
of the fixed stars into seven magnitudes is arbitrary also, yet 
it is found in practice to answer the purpose. It is evident, 
from the complex ramifications assumed by the natural system, 
that it is impossible, in a zoological work, to describe each 
genus or species in the exact order of their affinities, but that 
leaps must often be made from one part of the system to an- 
other, just as in a geographical work we cannot describe the 
counties of Great Britain in their exact order of position, but 
must continually make lateral digressions, and then return to 
the main line of our route. So in anatomy, we not only can- 
not study or describe the several parts in the order in which 
they join each other in the human body, but each part must 
even be dissected out from the rest, and removed from its na- 
tural position, before we can comprehend its characters and 
functions. This is an inconvenience inseparable from the na- 
ture of the case, and it is therefore no just complaint to make 
against a systematic work, that it frequently makes diversions 
which break the order of affinities. We are therefore at liberty 
to consult our own convenience, and consequently, whatever 
may be the form which the natural system, on further survey, 
may assume, there will be no reason for departing widely from 
the usual custom of commencing with Mammalia, and pro- 
ceeding through Birds, Reptiles, and Fish, to the MoUusca, 
Annulosa, Radiata, &c. Let it not then be objected to the 

* See Plate VIII., which exhibits one of these attempts at zoological 

192 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Natural System 

method here proposed, that it is subversive of the arrange- 
ments now in use. No linear arrangement, whether adopted 
in a museum, a catalogue, or a descriptive work, ever can ex- 
press the true succession of affinities : such an arrangement, 
therefore, is necessarily in great measure artificial, and, if 
sanctioned by custom, may still be adhered to. The true or- 
der of affinities can only be exhibited (if at all) by a pictorial 
representation on a surface, and the time may come when our 
works on natural history may all be illustrated by a series of 
maps on the plan of those rude sketches which are here ex- 

Those symmetrical systems which are here combated are 
the natural result of that instinctive love of order which is in- 
nate in man, and which produces all the noblest works of art. 
It would doubtless have been more convenient for the arrange- 
ment of our m.useums, and more agreeable to our love of or- 
der, if the groups of organized beings had resolved themselves 
into a symmetrical plan ; but if such is not the case, we must 
not sacrifice truth to convenience. M}^ object in communi- 
cating these remarks will be gained if they induce naturalists 
to study Nature simply as she exists, — to follow her through 
the wild luxuriance of her ramifications, instead of pruning 
and distorting the tree of organic affinities into the formal 
symmetry of a clipped yew-tree. 

It is needless to observe, that although the above remarks 
have been applied chiefly to the animal kingdom, yet that the 
principles here announced, if true at all, may be applied with 
equal correctness to botanical as to zoological systems. 


In Mr. Swainson's ^ Classification of Birds,' the Procrus- 
tean process is effected in five different ways. 1. By trans- 
ferring the members of redundant groups to fill the blanks in 
those which are deficient. Examples : Haliaetus is transferred 
from Aquilinse, and made a subgenus ofAstur; Myophonus is 
transferred from Merulinae to Myotherinae ; Cinclosoma from 
Turdidae, and made a subgenus of Grallina ; Irena from Di- 
crurinae, and made a subgenus of Oriolus; Querulinae from 
Ampelidae to Muscicapidae ; Coracinae from Ampelidae to Cor- 
vidae ; Carduelis and Linaria are transferred from Fringillinoe 
to Coccothraustinae ; Scythrops from Cuculidae to Rhamphas- 
tidae ; Tichodroma from Sittinae to Troglodytinas ; Orthonyx 
from Crateropodinae (where it comes next Fsophodes) to Bu- 
phaginae ; H(smatopus from Charadriadae to Ardeadae ; Enry- 
pyga from Ardeadae to Scolopacidae ; Phaeton from Pelecanidai 
to Laridae ; and Dromas from Charadriadae to Laridae. 

in Zoology and Botany. 1 93 

2. By uniting together groups which are naturally distinct. 
Examples : Harpyia is united with Morphnus ; Ibycter with 
Daptrius', Corvinella, Less. {Latiius Jlavirostris, Sw.) with 
Lanius ; Cyclai^his with Falcunculus ; Psophodes, Sphenura, and 
Dasyornis with Timalia; Mecistura and CalamopMlus with 
Parus. The lodinae are united with Muscicapinae ; Corydon, 
Less. (Cor acias sumatr anus, RafF.) with Eurylaimus ; Cissopis 
with Pitylus ; the Furnarinae with Certhianae ; the Phoenico- 
phainag with Crotophaginae ; Dacnis with Nectarinia ; the Ta- 
matiadae with the Halcyonidae ; Syrrhaptes with Pt erodes ; the 
ChionidiE with the Columbidae ; the Cracinae and Psophinae 
with Megapodinae ; Gallinula (G. chloropus) with Fulica ; Mer- 
gidus and tltamania with Mormon ; and Puffinus with Thalas^ 

3. By dividing groups which are naturally united. Exam- 
ples : the Philomelinae are divided from the Sylvianae, and the 
Agelainae from the Icterinae. 

4. By raising subordinate groups above their natural sta- 
tion. Examples : Budytes, a subgenus of Motacilla, is made 
a genus equivalent to Lessonia, Enicurus, and Anthus ; Lep- 
tonyx and Plectrophanes, subgenera of Emberiza, are made of 
equal value with the genus Fringilla ; Nyctiornis, a subgenus 
of Merops, is put on a par with Coracias ; Lamprotila, a sub- 
genus of Galbula, is made a genus. 

5. By degrading important groups below their natural sta- 
tion. Examples : Circa'etus is made a subgenus of Gypogera- 
nus ; Cossypha of Orpheus ; Pomatorhinus and Timalia of /»/«- 
lacocercus ; Securus of Accentor ; and Blechropus of Fluvicola : 
Rhamphojns is made a subgenus of Tanagra ; Euphonia of 
Aglaia; Crithagra and Spjermophila of Pyrrhula; Gymno- 
phrys of Manorhina ; Pterocles of Teirao ; Apteryx of >S^^r2<- 
//iio ; Alechthelia of Gallinula ; Phalaropus of Scolopax ; i?e- 
curvirostra and Totanus of Himantopus ; Tachydromus of G/a- 
reo/« ; and Phaeton and Rhynchops of Sterna. 

Without pretending to assert that in all the above instances 
my views of the affinities are right and Mr. Swainson's 
wrong, I will only ask any unbiassed naturalist to examine 
the objects themselves, without reference to books, and then 
say whether, in the majority of the above examples, the true 
order of affinities has not been violated for the sake of sup- 
porting a preconceived theory. 

It may be added, that after all these efforts, the system of 
ornithology proposed by Mr. Swainson is very far from being 
a quinary one. Without referring to the very numerous in- 
stances in which his subdivisions fall short of the number 
five, there are several cases in which that number is exceeded, 

Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Nov. 1840. o 

194 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

Thus the group FringiUinae has sios subdivisions ; Pyrrhuhnae 
has six ; Meliphagidae nine ; Tetraonidae six ; Ardeadae six, or 
including Grus (which is apparently omitted through inad- 
vertence), seven ; and Alcadae has six. 

I feel bound to state, that, notwithstanding these objections, 
the ^ Classification of Birds ' is an exceedingly useful manual 
of ornithology, and it must be regretted that the mass of ori- 
ginal observations which it contains is intermixed with so 
much that is of a visionary nature. 

Note. — The questions which are the subject of the above paper were dis- 
cussed at much length in the Philosophical Magazine, in 1823 and 1825. 
The reader is referred to vol. Ixii. p. 192, 255, 274; vol. Ixv. p. 105, 183, 
372, 428; vol. Ixvi. p. 172: also to Phil. Mag. and Annals, New Series, 
1830, vol. vii. p. 431 ; vol. viii. p. 52, 134, and 200.— Ed. 

XXIV. — Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater MoUusca of 
Ireland, By Wm. Thompson, Vice-President of the Na- 
tural History Society of Belfast. 

[Continued from p. 126.] 


Fam. 1. Cyclad^. 

Gen. 1. Cyclas, Lam. 

1. C. corneal Lam. Gray, Man. p. 280. pi. 1. f. 2 ; Turt. Man. p. 

13. pi. l.f. 2. 
C. rivalis. Drop. p. 129. pi. 10. f. 4, 5. 
Cardium corneum, Mont. p. 86. 
Commonly distributed over the island, occurring in small ponds, 
&c., as well as lakes and rivers — the var. /3. of Jenyns and other va- 
rieties not unfrequent. In summer I find the C. cornea of all sizes 
abundant in masses of Conferva, floating on the surface of the water. 

2. Cyclas lacustris, Turt. Gray, Man. p. 281. pi. 1. f. 3. 

C. calyculata, Drap. p. 130. pi. 10. f. 13, 14 ; Turt. Man. p. 14. 

f. 3. 
Cardium lacustre, Mont. p. 89. 

. Is rare and local in Ireland — occurs in the east and south. I'o 
Mr. R. Ball of Dublin, I am indebted for specimens which were taken 
by him many years ago in a pond at Tallaght, a few miles from the 
metropolis ; he has also procured some at Youghed — in Mr. Hynd- 
man's cabinet is a specimen from another locality in the south. By 
Mr. T. W. Warren of Dublin, this Cyclas has been obtained in a 
pond in the Phoenix Park, and in the Grand Canal near that city, 
and by Dr. Coulter in Lord Roden's demesne, Dundalk. Mr. Hincks 
has lately procured it near Cork. As the C. lacustris is local in En- 

\ Mr. Gray*s observation on the local distribution of Cyclas rivicola 
(Man. p. 34.) induces me to mention that I have obtained it in the canals 
about Leamington, Warwickshire. I have not seen any specimens that could 
properly be authenticated as Irish. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 195 

gland likewise, the additional habitat of Stow Pool, Lichfield, may 
be given, where I procured it in July, 1836. 

Gen. 2. Pisidium, PfeiiFer. 

1. P. obtusale\, Pfeiffer } Jenyns, Monog. p. 13. pi. 20. f. 1 — 3 ; 

Gray, Man. p. 282. pi. 12. f. 149. 
This, with the exception of P. Henslowianum, would seem to be 
the rarest of the Pisidia in Ireland. In two localities in the county 
of Down it has occurred to me — in a drain cut through clay soil in 
a brickfield near Bangor, and in a pond at Portavo, the seat of D. 
Ker, Esq. M.P. A single specimen has been taken at Finnoe (county 
Tipperary) by Edw. Waller, Esq. 

2. Pisidium nitidum, Jenyns, Monog. p. 16. pi. 20. f. 7, 8 ; Gray, 

Man. p. 283. pi. 12. f. 150. 
Is somewhat generally distributed in Ireland. It is abundant in 
a cold turfy deposit conveyed by a mountain stream to a pond at 
Wolf hill J near Belfast; and on the Utricularia vulgaris growing in 
stagnant pools, excavated in brick-making close to the town — these 
places are of a very different nature, the pond at the former being 
supplied with clear spring water, and at an elevation of nearly 600 
feet above the sea, the latter but a few feet above it, and supplied 
only with rain water. In the west, I have obtained this species in 
Lough Gill, county Sligo. From about Portarlington it has been 
sent me by the Rev. B. J. Clarke, and from Finnoe by Edw. Wal- 
ler, Esq. 

3. Pisidium pusillum, Jenyns, Monog. p. 14. pi. 20. f. 4 — 6 ; Gray, 

Man. p. l.f. 7. 
Is the most common of the genus in Ireland, and universally dis- 
tributed. It is generally to be met with in ponds, drains, &c. ; but 
in marshy spots, both in this country and in Scotland, I have found 
it in company with, and adhering to, the same stones as land Mol- 
lusca which inhabit such places, as Vertigo palustris, &c. In the 
north and south of Ireland I have procured it among moss, which 
was kept moist only by the spray of the waterfall. 

4. Pisidium pulchellum, Jenyns, Monog. p. 18. pi. 21. f. 1 — 5§ ; Gray, 

Man. p. 284. pi. 12. f. 151. 
This handsome and well-marked species is generally distributed 
over the island. It inhabits stagnant and running water of the least 
as well as greatest extent, and at the same time and place may be 
found on various subaquatic plants, and buried in the mud — the 
largest and finest specimens I have procured were from the gently 
flowing river Main, near its junction with Lough Neagh. 

t All the Pisidia about to be noticed, have been determined from compa- 
rison with English specimens favoured me by the Rev. L. Jenyns and Mr. 

X A minute leech preys much on the P. nitidum and P. pusillum, which 
are found here in company. 

§ All the varieties are found in Ireland — of var. S, a single specimen 
has been obtained by the Rev. B. J. Clarke near Portarlington. Mr. Jenyns 
is now inclined to consider this a distinct species. See Gray, Man. p. 285. 


196 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

5. Pisidlum Henslowianum, Jenyns, Monog. p. 20. pi. 21. f. 6, 7 ; 

Gray, Man. p. 285. pi. 1. f. 6. 

Cyclas appendiculata, Turt. Man. p. 15. f. 6. 

The addition of this species to our fauna is due to Edw. Waller, 
Esq., who has favoured me with the inspection of a few specimens 
which he procured at Finnoe, county Tipperary, 

6. Pisidium amnicum, Jenyns, Monog. p. 21. pi. 19. f . 2 ; Gray, 

Man. p. 285. pi. 1. f.5. 

Cyclas amnica, Turt. Man. p. 15. f. 5. 

Cardium amnicum, Mont. p. 86. 

Cyclas palustris, Drap. p. 131. pi. 10. f. 15, 16. 
Although not very common, is widely distributed over the island, 
and is known to me as occurring in every portion except the extreme 
south. Capt. Brown noticed as localities — " in a stream near Clo- 
nooney ; in the Grand Canal, and in the Liffey, plentiful," p. 508, — 
in this river it attains a very large size. In the river Main, near its 
junction with Lough Neagh ; in the rejectamenta of this lake near 
Toome ; and in that of the river Lagan near Belfast, I have found 
the P. amnicum. Ballitore (county Kildare), Limerick, and Miltown 
Malbay are noticed by Mr. W. H. Harvey as localities — from the 
river Barrow near Portarlington, the species has been sent me by 
the Rev. B. J. Clarke. 

7. Pisidium cinereum. Alder, Supp. to Catal. in Newc. Trans. ; Gray, 

Man. p. 286. 
Is not common, but is widely distributed in Ireland, being found 
in the north, east, west, and south. In Sept. 1833, I first met with 
it in a moist spot in the wood at Holywood House, county Down, and 
have since obtained a very few specimens in different parts of this 
county, and of Antrim. Among Pisidia collected at Youngrove near 
Middleton (county Cork), by Miss M. Ball ; at Killereran (county 
Galway) and Portarlington, by the Rev. B. J. Clarke ; and in the 
neighbourhood of Dublin by T. W. Warren, Esq., is the P. cinereum. 

Fam. 2. Unionidje, Gray, Man. 
Gen. 1. Anodon, Oken. 

A. cygneus, Turton, Man. p. 17. f. 8 ; Gray, Man. p. 289. pi. 1. f. 8. 

Anodonta cygnea and A. anatina, Drap. p. 133, 134. pi. 12. f. 

Mytilus cygneus, Mont. p. 170. 
The Anodon is known to me as found in suitable localities all over 
the island, except in the extreme south. The Anodonta intermedia, 
Pfeiffer, 1. 113. t. 6. f. 3, I have obtained in the rejectamenta of the 
Xiagan Canal near Belfast. Specimens from the Grand Canal near 
Dublin, favoured me by Mr. R. Ball, are the A. cygnea, Pfeiffer, 1. 
111. t. 6. f> 4 ; and Rossmassler, fig. 342; and in Mr. Hyndman's 
collection is a very fine specimen 3^: inches long and 6| broad from 

Freshwater MoUusca of Ireland, 19? 

the Moyntaghs, county Armagh. From the Grand Canal also and 
the river Shannon I possess specimens of the A. anatina, Pfeiffer, 1. 
112. t. 6. f. 2 ; and from this last locality likewise I have the A. 
cellensis, Pfeiffer, 1. 110. t. 6. f. 1, and Rossmassler, fig. 280. — of 
this last I have had the advantage of a comparison with English 
specimens kindly sent me by Mr. Alder, and named "A. cellensis, 
Pf." From the Anodon, varying so much, not only according to lo- 
cality, but in the same waters, I cannot coincide with the authors 
who make so many species. The four forms here noticed, I venture 
with Mr. Gray to consider but one species — of the Irish specimens 
which I have critically compared, none exactly agree with the A. ven- 
tricosa or A. ponderosa of Pfeiffer. W. R. Wilde, Esq. of Dublin, 
informs me that Anodons are thrown up in quantities on the shores of 
Lough Schur, county Leitrim, where they are eaten by the peasantry 
— Sliggaun is the common name applied to the Anodon in the north 
of Ireland f. 

Gen. 2. Alasmodon, Say. 
A. margaritiferus. Gray, Man. p. 293. pi. 2. f. 9. 
Unio margaritiferus, Turt. Man. p. 19. f. 9. 

Unio margaritifera, Drap. p. 132. pi. 10. f. 17 — 19. and pi. 11. 

Mya margaritifera, Mont. p. 33. 
This has for a long period been on record as an Irish shell ; from 
papers jjublished on the subject in the Philosophical Transactions, 
&c.. Pennant drew the information which appears in his ' British 
Zoology.' It is indigenous to several of the northern counties, and 
to the south. By Capt. Brown it is noticed as found " in the river 
Slaney, Enniscorthy," p. 505. In the cabinet of Mr. Hyndman of 
Belfast, are specimens from the river Bann and from the county of 
Donegal. This species inhabits some of the tributary streams of 
Lough Neagh, and is plentiful in the neighbourhood of Omagh, 
county Tyrone, where I have been informed it was taken in such 
quantity in 1839, that the prisoners in the jail were employed in 
breaking the shells for manure. Mr. Humphreys of Cork, notes it as 
abundant at Inchigeela, and as inhabiting the small rivers which run 
through Blarney and Glanmire (county Cork) — at Curraghmore 

f The following note on the species of Anodon and Unio, which in the 
course of a forenoon in July, 1836, I obtained aHve in the river Avon near 
Leamington, Warwickshire, may not be out of place here. 

Anodon. A fine series of specimens, from nine lines in length to full 
size, does not agree exactly with any species as represented by Pfeiffer (3 
Parts) or Rossmassler (10 Parts) — according to the views of these authors 
they would constitute two or three species. They do not coi'respond with 
any of my Irish specimens. 

Unio pictorum, identical with specimens from the neigbourhood of Lon- 
don, presented by Mr. Alder. 

" Unio tianidus, Pfeiffer," agreeing with shells from Belgium, so named, 
which I owe to the kindness of M. Michaud. 

" Uriio rostrata, Lam. Mich.," according to examples from the north of 
France, sent me under this name with the last. The number of species (so 
called) in the genus Unio is surely, like that in Anodon, quite too great. 

198 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

(county Waterford), it is stated by Mr. R. Ball to be found'. The 
form to which M. Michaud has applied the name of Unio Roissyi is 
common to several localities in Ireland. 

The following Catalogue at the same time exhibits the number of 
British species which Ireland possesses, and according to the pre- 
sent state of our information, those likewise in which the country 
is deficient. In the Table, the columns headed *' elsewhere in 
north," &c. are used only with reference to species not enumerated 
in the preceding column or columns, and to show that geogra- 
phical position is not the cause of absence ; thus, for instance. 
Helix virgata is not found about Belfast, but occurs in the north 
of the county of Antrim. The genera Avion and Limax were al- 
together omitted in most of the Catalogues supplied me. The 
Catalogue for Belfast^ is on my own authority : Dublin, various ; 
Limerick and Miltown Malbay, William Henry Harvey, Esq. ; 
Cork, Mr. John Humphreys (1834) and the Rev. Thomas Hincks 
(1840) — the species added by the latter gentleman are marked 
thusf; Youghal (county Cork), Miss Mary Ball ; LaBergerie near 
Portarlington (Queen's county). Rev. Benjamin J. Clarke; Fin- 
noe near Burrisakane (Tipperary), Edward Waller, Esq.^ 




•C est 



~ 73 

-a a 



Central ? 

H 60 
















Neritina fluviatilis 
Assiminea Grayana 
Paludina vivipara . 

— tentaciilata(P.impura) 3 

— ventricosa 

Valvata piscinalis 4 

— cristata (V. spirorbis) 5 
Arion ater 

— hortensis 

Limax maximus 

— flavus (L. variegatus) 

— carinatus 

— agrestis 

— brunneus 








^ Unio pictorum is noticed by Dr. Turton, in his ' Catalogue of Irish 
Shells,' as found in " rivers about Cork." The species is not known as na- 
tive to my correspondents in the south, and I am disposed to believe was er- 
roneously inserted in the catalogue. 

^ All the species marked with an asterisk in the column headed " Bel- 
fast" have been obtained within four miles of the town. 

^ The prevailing geological features of the neighbourhood of Belfast are 
trap, chalk, greensand formation, variegated marl formation and grauwacke ; 
of Dublin, mountain and calp limestone, granite and quartz-rock ; of Li- 
merick, Cork, and Youghal, " limestone and old red sandstone" (Griffith) ; 
of Miltown Malbay, " coal-shale and sandstone" (Griffith) ; of La Bergerie 
^rid Finnoe, mountain limestone. 

Freshwater MoUusca of Ireland. 







































Vitrina pellucida 

Testacella haliotidea 

Helix aperta 

















lamellata (H. Scar- 
biirgensis, Bean.) . . , 


















• lucida 

• excavata 


Succinea putris 

Bulimus Laekamensis 




Azeca tridens 
Achatina acicula 
Pupa umbilicata 

Anglica ... 


Vertigo edentula. 


i pygmaea.... 











a> *3 




,2 c 











O) /J 

^ c 


Central ? 





200 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 



Vertigo alpestris 

substriata , 

palustris . . . , 

pusilla , 


Balaca perversa 
Clausilia bidens 





Carychium minimum .. 

Acme fusca 

Limnaeus auricularius.. 

— pereger , 

— stagnalis , 

— palnstris , 

— truncatulus , 

— glaber , 

— involutus 

Amphipeplea glutinosa 

Ancylus fluviatilis 


Physa fontinalis 

Planorbis corneus 


laevis , 

imbricatus , 


umbilicatus (P. mar- 

ginatus, Drap.) .., 

vortex , 

spirorbis^ , 

nitidus , 


Segmentina lineata 

Cyclostoma elegans 

Cyclas rivicola 



Pisidium obtusale ... 

— nitidum 

— pusillum 

— pulchellum ..., 

— Henslowianum 

— amnicum , 

— cinereum , 

Anodon cygneus , 

Alasmodon elongatus. 
Unio pictorum 

— tumidus 

— ovalis 

— Batavus 


















Central ? 

M bo 

^ For reasons stated in the text, p. 124, (No. XXV.) P. vortex and P. spi- 
rorbis are not marked separately in the catalogue. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 201 

Those acquainted with Mr. Gray's catalogue, will perceive that 
four of the species it contains are omitted, — the three Conovuli and 
Dreissena polymorpha, which is an introduced and not an indigenous 
species. Of the twenty-eight species which Great Britain and her 
islands would thus seem to possess over Ireland, it must be stated 
that Turton has enumerated four as Irish, viz. Helix lapicida, H. 
Cantiana, Limneus glutinosus, and Unio pictorum ; but as he some- 
times introduced species without sufficient reason, and as these are 
unknown to my correspondents and to myself, they are omitted — 
if correctly placed in our fauna by that author they will in all pro- 
bability yet be found. Paludina achatina is included by Mr. Gray 
(Man. p. 34), but on what authority he could not recollect when I 
lately saw him at the British Museum. I have been told of the 
occurrence of a few species, which, in the absence of sufficient proof, 
are not included in the catalogue. Two of the Helices, — H. aperta 
and H. revelata, — have been introduced to the British list from 

It appears from the foregoing catalogue, that four generic forms 
indigenous to England have not been found in Ireland, Assiminea, 
Azeca, Segmentina, and Unio ; these comprise seven species, if four 
Unios be admitted as distinct. 

It may be desirable to dwell for a moment on the distribution of 
those species in Great Britain which have not been found in Ireland. 
Of these, Assiminea Grayana is confined to the south-east of Eng- 
land, and is '* seldom found out of the reach of brackish water." 
Paludina achatina and P. ventricosa are not generally distributed in 
Eno-land, and are unknown in Scotland*. Limax brunneus has been 
observed only at Newcastle and Berwick. Helix aperta (H. nati- 
coides, Drap.) and H. revelata have not been found in Great Britain, 
but only in the island of Guernsey. H. ohvoluta would seem to be 
confined to Hampshire, as H. limbata is to one quarter of the neigh- 
bourhood of London. H. Pomatia is found chiefly in the chalk di- 
stricts of the south of England. H. Cantiana now occurs from the 
south to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, but is believed to have been intro- 
duced to this northern locality with ballast. H. Carthusiana (H. 
Carthusia?iella, Drap.), is confined to the south-east ; H. lapicida 
prevails in the south, and along the eastern portion of England — 
not one of the above Helices is found in Scotland. Succinea oblonga 
has been obtained only in three localities. North Devon, and in the 
neighbourhood of Swansea and Glasgow. Bulimus Lackamensis is 
a south of England species — to Scotland it is unknown. Azeca 
tridens is widely distributed over England, and is also indigenous to 
the south of Scotland. Pupa Juniperi would appear to be chiefly 
confined to the south of England and South Wales. Vertigo cylin- 
drica is very rare, and has been found but in three British localities — 
the neighbourhood of Bristol, of Edinburgh, and in the isle of Skye. 
Vertigo alpestris has been procured only in two stations — in Lanca- 

* A manuscript catalogue of the land and freshwater mollusca of Scot- 
land, favoured me by my friend Edward P'orbes, Esq. is my authority. 

202 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

shire and Northumberland. Clausilia hiplicata is confined to the 
south of England ; C, Rolphii to one or two localities in the south- 
east; C.'dubia is, I believe, as yet known only to the north of England. 
Limneus glutinosus, Cyclostoma elegans, and Cyclas rivicola, are some- 
what widely diffused in England, but are unknown to Scotland. 
Segmentina Uneata is noticed by Mr. Gray as a south of England 
species, but is included in Mr. Forbes's list of Scottish mollusca. 
The genus Unio, as now restricted, becomes rare towards the north 
of England, and is not found in Scotland. The species of land and 
freshwater mollusca indigenous to Ireland, assimilate with those of 
Scotland much more nearly than those of England. About one- 
half of the species in which Ireland is deficient prevail chiefly in the 
portion of England which lies to the south of Ireland. 

I should, perhaps, in conclusion, have ventured to oflPer some re- 
marks on the causes which appear to influence the distribution of 
our Irish species, but the views put forward in my friend Mr. Forbes's 
excellent * Report of the Distribution of Pulmoniferous Mollusca in 
the British Isles,' published in the volume for 1839 of the Report 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, renders 
unnecessary anything I could say upon the subject. 


My notice of the genera Arion and Limax at the beginning of this 
article is so scanty, that I here avail myself of very full and inter- 
esting observations on the species appertaining to them, since fa- 
voured me by Mr. Clarke, who much more than any one in this 
country has bestowed attention on the subject. 

Arion ater. 

A. Empiricorum, Ferus., t. 2. 

La Bergerie, Queen's county ; county Galway. Too abundant in 
both places, varying from the light yellow-coloured variety through 
all the shades of brown or ochre to deep black. The brown variety 
seems to predominate in Killereran (county Galway) meadows and 
woods, but I have repeatedly observed the two colours indiscrimi- 
nately mixed together in precisely the same localities, both in fields 
and gardens. The yellow, which I have never taken of the full 
size, is mostly confined to the decaying pieces of wood found among 
damp moss. I have not noticed the variety with the scarlet foot, as 
in fig. 2. t. 2. Fer. I have seen two individuals busily engaged de- 
vouring a snail (i/. aspersa), both their heads being introduced 
within the shell : the snail appeared to be fresh killed. 

Arion hortensis. 

A. des Jardin, Ferus., t. 2. f. 4 — 6. 
Var. a. f. 6. Fer. 
Var. 13. PfeiflFer. 

La Bergerie and county Galway. By no means scarce. Ferussac's 
figures agree accurately with mine, but are represented of larger 
dimensions than any I have seen. I have taken the young of a 
very minute size with the orange foot, and the colours equally as 

Freshwater MoUusca of Ireland, 203 

deep as in adult individuals. Var. a. f. 6. Fdrus., is not more 
abundant here than the orange-footed one, which I have never suc- 
ceeded in finding at Killereran, where the variety is common in 
violet beds. The following from Fenissac agrees curiously with 
my habitat : " Elle se cache le jour sous les tiges de violettes de 
fraisiers et des autres plantes toufFues." Mr. Alder remarks of the 
variety, ** The variety only, if such it be, has yet been noticed in 
this country." I have never discovered even the rudiment of a shell 
in any of them. 

N.B. I have before me at present an Avion, found along with 
A. hortensis, var. j3. PfeiiF. The only character it possesses in 
common with it, is in the position of a yellow- coloured fascia run- 
ning round the body, which is of a dusky brown, the sides greenish- 
yellow, the fascia becoming indistinct on the shield. It differs 
materially in colour from any variety of the A. ater I have met 
with ; and what might characterize it as belonging to this species, 
is the shape and colour of the tentacles and head, the former being 
much more elongated than in A. hortensis, and of a shining black 
colour. The edge or side of the foot is likewise similar to A. ater, 
being greenish-yellow, marked with the peculiar transverse black 
lines. Its mucus is yellow-coloured, whereas that of A. ater is 
whitish, or colourless. Since writing the above, I have obtained a 
second specimen, similar in every respect to the former, except the 
fascia, which is not so distinct. 

Limax maximus. 

L. antiquorum, F^rus., t. 4. 

La Bergerie. Killereran and Monivea, county Gal way. I have 
taken in each locality mentioned, one of the three varieties of F€« 
russac, t. 4. Fig. 1. var /3. (var. a. Drap.), among violets, Killere- 
ran; his figure is good, " sans tache distinctes," &c. Fig. 7. var. v. 
Ferus., is the La B. variety. Fig. 8. var. ^. Ferus., closely resem- 
bles [^specimens taken in Monivea churchyard, beautifully and di- 
stinctly spotted, the ground colour not so light as in Ferussac's 

Limax agrestis. 

Limas agreste, Ferus., t. 5. f. 7 — 8. 
L. filans, Young, var. v. F^r. 

Queen's county, and county Galway. Common, of all shades and 
degrees of colour and markings, from the pale yellowish-white of 
L. filans to the darkest variety of reddish-brown. L. filans is equally 
abundant. Yesterday, July 21st, I had the gratification of seeing 
them repeatedly let themselves drop down to the table from the lid 

* I have recently met with a very remarkable variety of this species in 
the Spire hill, Queen's county, and which I do not find described ; it is as 
follows : — The entire animal of a deep shining black, with the exception of 
the keel and central band of the foot, which are white. A casual glance at 
this variety would scarcely suffice to recognise it ; but the shape of the ani- 
mal, the shell, and the keel, at once determine it as L. maximus. In one 
individual there were a few indistinct blotches of a lighter colour on the 

204 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of the Land and 

of a tin box, where, for the purpose of taking some drawings of the 
different varieties, they were held. A similar feat was performed by 
the full-grown and dark varieties, which were on the same box with 
L. filans, but they did not appear to possess the same facility, and 
were more reluctant in resorting to this expedient for escaping from 
the confined space on which they were placed. Turton, in his de- 
scription of the shell of this species, makes no mention of the mem- 
branaceous margin. I have now eight specimens before me, taken 
from the animals this morning ; the following is an attempt at their 
description : shell rather variable, in shape usually oblong oval, 
somewhat larger than those found in L. Sowerbii, but much thinner, 
and without the same abrupt thickening in the centre, with a mem- 
branaceous edge, all of them concave, as much so in proportion to 
size as in Z/. parma. 

I have not been able to recognise the Limax hrunneus of Drap., 
in either county, or elsewhere. 

Limax variegatus ? 

L. flavescens, var. v. Fer., t. 5. f. 3. ? 

La Bergerie; Monivea; county Galway. Common on beech and 
other trees in moist woods ; they somewhat resemble in colour var. v. 
f. 3. Z/. flavescens, Ferus. All the Queen's county and Galway 
specimens have the yellowish dorsal streak, both in young and adults. 
I have not as yet found it in such a locality as is ascribed to it by 
Ferussac : he observes, " EUe infeste les caves ou elle se tient ordi- 
nairement contre les murailles." I have never taken it elsewhere 
than on the trunks of trees (particularly beech), in the crevices and 
under the moss. The remarkable transparency of this species does 
not appear to be noticed as a specific character. After rain, I have 
seen them in numbers gliding down the smooth bark of the beech 
from feeding on the higher foliage, their bodies appearing between 
the light like pellucid jelly, through which their internal organiza- 
tion can be indistinctly traced. 

While these notes on the Limacidce were passing through the 
press, I felt desirous of consulting M. Bouchard's memoir ; and no 
sooner was this communicated to Mr. Gray (by Mr. Thompson), 
than he with great kindness forwarded his copy of it to Ireland for 
that purpose. I suspected that the Limax, here doubtfully intro- 
duced as " L. flavescens, var. v. Fer.," might perhaps be referred 
to L. arhorum, on account of its possessing certain characters and 
habits differing from what is contained in any description of L. va- 
riegatus and its varieties. I consequently have compared my speci- 
mens carefully with M. Bouchard's description of L, arborum, and 
was much gratified to find a perfect agreement in the specific di- 
stinctions, as well as in the peculiar habits of the animal. This 
Limax is so well marked as to leave no doubt on my mind of its 
identity with that species. I have recently obtained unquestionable 
specimens of L. variegatus in La Bergerie garden, which are refer- 
able to " L. variegatus, Fer., var. a. t. 5. f. 1. Luteus aut succi- 
neus." They are precisely similar to sjjccimens taken by R. Ball, 
Esq., in a garden at Youghal, and now in his collection. In spirits 
the yellow colour disappears. 

Freshwater Mollusca of Ireland. 205 

Limax carinatvs. 
Limax Sowerbii, Ferus. ? 

La Bergerie ; Mohivea ; county Galway, under stones in fields, and 
in tufted plants in gardens. There is not any figure in Ferussac to 
which I could refer the La B. varieties (if they are varieties). Nor 
does Mr. Gray's description agree well with them ; the word " tes- 
selated " does not accurately describe the distribution of their co- 
lours. Their head and tentacles are never " black," but always 
gray, or blueish-gray. The usual colour is yellowish-brown, often 
approaching to dusky, sides pale, gray clouded with light yellow, 
head and tentacles blueish-gray. 

Variety. Deep dusky or nearly black, sides pale gray, head and 
tentacles blueish-gray. 

The young have the keel yellow-coloured, which in adults is 
generally the same colour as the back. The extreme dark colour 
of the variety led me at first to confound it with the L. gagates of 
Ferus. He remarks of one of the varieties of L. gagates, " EUe est 

d'un gris bluatre ou nouratre plus pale lateralement." I have 

seen but a single individual in Monivea ; it was identical with the 

The internal shells are a size smaller than those of L. agrestis ; 
they have no membrane on the edge, are opake, much thicker, and 
not concave ; the peculiar thickening process in the centre gives 
them the appearance of having a marginal zone, or as if a smaller 
sized shell were placed on the top and centre of the larger, leaving 
a rather broad margin, which is usually of a rufous colour towards 
the top. 

I find that this species is capable of forming a slimy thread in 
the same manner as L.Jilans. Having placed one on a laurel, I 
was surprised by seeing it forthwith make use of this means for 
conveying itself in safety to the ground. I have since succeeded in 
making other individuals act in a similar way. I'he spinning li- 
maces may be easily forced to do so by leaving them on an ever- 
green or other tree which may not be congenial to their tastes, when 
they will speedily effect their escape in this manner. 

[Mr. Clarke has favoured me with living specimens of this Limax, 
from La Bergerie, and judging from descriptions and figures, I should 
not hesitate to consider it L. Sowerbii. A species, similarly keeled 
from the shield to the tail, and of which a very few specimens were 
obtained near Clifden, Connemara, during a tour made to the west 
of Ireland, in July 1840, by Mr. R.Bali, Mr. E. Forbes, and my- 
self, corresponds more nearly with the L. gagates, as described and 
figured by Draparnaud, than with the British descriptions of L. 
Sowerbii. They are from half an inch to an inch in length, the 
head, back and sides blackish, the foot pale gray ; in one individual 
the dorsal keel was narrowly margined with yellow. They were all 
found under stones in wet places. — W. T.] 

Note. — On looking over the Appendix to Mr. Gray's edition of 
Turton, I find he quotes M. Bouchard Chantreux, in observing, 
that " the young of Avion ater is dull brown, with yellowish sides." 

206 Mr. W. Thompson's Catalogue of Irish Mollusca. 

The Arion described above may probably be only such ; but the 
youngest specimens I have ever taken of A. ater (and I have ob- 
tained them very young), were, entirely of a light yellow, or green- 
ish-yellow colour, in one or two instances having very obscure and 
similarly placed dusky fascise on the shield only. M. Bouchard sup- 
poses the L. filans of Hoy to be the young of his L. arbor eus ; from 
my experience, I feel assured of its being the young of L. agrestis, 
as I have almost always found it under stones, generally accom- 
panying the full-grown L. agrestis, and very rarely '* on trees." 

Benjamin J. Clarke. 
La Bergerie, Aug. 5, 1840. 

Additional localities may here be given for the following species ; 
Helix lamellata (H. Scarburgensis). Wood near the bridge of 
Errif, county Mayo, between Westport and Killery harbour. — W. T. 
Helix radiatula. With last. 
Helix lucida, Drap. Near Clifden, Connemara. — W. T. 

Helix virgata. 

When the first part of the paper was printed, I was unable to give 
a western locality for this species, but specimens collected within a 
few miles of Roundstone, on the coast of Galway, have since been 
sent me by Mr. William McCalla, of that place. 

Helix hybrida. 

The examples of this Helix, before alluded to in the present paper 
(p. 22), differed only from the ordinary H. nemoralis in having the 
lip of a rose colour or brown, and in its being margined with a white 
line. By R. Leyland, Esq., of Halifax (Yorkshire), I have lately 
been favoured with a number of specimens of H. hybrida, which bear 
much the same relation to H. hortensis that the former do to H. 
nemoralis. They are all yellowish-brown, with the lip varying from 
a rose colour to white. Mr. Leyland remarks, in reference to them, 
'• The situation in which this Helix is met with, is on the banks of 
the canal between Keighly and Bingley, and about two miles from 
each place. The extent to which it is confined is not more than 
thirty paces in length, beyond which only an occasional straggler 
could be met with, and even then at no great distance from the 
principal station. H. hortensis and H. nemoralis are both found in 
the same place as H. hybrida, but are common along the whole line 
of the canal so far as I have examined, while the last seems confined 
to the small space before -mentioned, and is there rather numerous. 
The vegetation of this spot consists of the common grasses, Rubi, a 
few of the most common Umbelliferce and nettles ; upon the last of 
these a majority of the specimens were found." 

In the south islands of Arran, situated near the entrance to Gal- 
way bay, the few following species were, in June, 1834, obtained by 
Mr. R. Ball and myself : Helix nemoralis (extremely large), H. 
cellaria, H. crystallina, H. umbilicata, H. ericetorum (one pure 
white), H. hispida, Mull. ; Clausilia nigricans (rugosa), one of 
crystalline transparency, as were nearly all of Pupa umbilicata, 
which is here abundant. 

On Natural Terraces on the Eildon Hills. 207 

XXV. — On some Objections to the Theory of attributing the 
Natural Terraces on the Eildon Hills to the action of water. 
By J. E. Bowman, F.L.S. ^ F.G.S. 

My attention having been directed, during the late meet- 
ing of the British Association at Glasgow, to an account of a 
series of very interesting natural Terraces on the hills round 
Galashiels in Selkirkshire, in a late Number of Chambers's 
Edinburgh Journal *, I took the opportunity of returning 
through that district to ascertain, by personal inspection, 
how far they agreed with the description. As my time was 
limited, I did not attempt a detailed examination, and was 
unprovided with any instruments for verifying the relative 
heights and levels of the terraces, so circumstantially given 
in the above article. As that valuable publication is in every 
one's hands, I shall at once refer to the article in question, 
merely saying, that my own observations will be much better 
understood if the reader will previously consult it ; that the 
number of the terraces is sixteen, and that they run along 
the sides of many of the hills round Galashiels, Melrose, 
Abbotsford, &c., in perfectly horizontal lines, and parallel to 
each other ; and are, in the opinion of their discoverer, so 
many different ancient beaches or land-levels, at which the 
sea must successively have stood for long periods. The 
staple of the article is from Mr. Kemp's own notes ; and I 
am satisfied, from the opinion I formed of his ability, geolo- 
gical knowledge, love of truth and unpretending diffidence, 
that full reliance may be placed upon what he has so care- 
fully and perseveringly worked out. I regret that I could 
not altogether agree with his conclusions ; and I offer the fol- 
lowing observations with considerable diffidence, because I 
had only a single opportunity, and that a hurried one, of 
seeing a small part of the appearances he has so repeatedly 
and attentively studied. Having seen the Parallel Roads of 
Glen Roy some years ago, I was naturally led, from the de- 
scription of these terraces, to expect something of the same 
appearance and character; though a moment's reflection 
would have convinced me, that had this been the case, they 
would long ago have attracted general notice, and could not 
have escaped the searching eye of Sir Walter Scott, from 
whose windows at Abbotsford, the Eildon hills, on which 
some of the clearest examples occur, form a prominent fea- 
ture of the scenery f. The fact is, that neither when viewed 

* No. 444, for 1st August, 1840. 

t Not wishing to trust to my own recollections, I wrote to an old and 
talented friend, (J. F. M. Dovaston, Esq. M.A., West Felton, Shropshire,) 
whose intimate acquaintance with, and enthusiastic admiration of the 

208 Mr. Bowman on the Natural Terraces 

from a distant point, nor when standing upon or near them, 
do they anywhere exhibit to the eye the continuity, the pa- 
rallehsm, or the perfect horizontaUty, either of level or of sur- 
face, so strikingly displayed in those of Glen Roy. Indeed, 
they are for the most part so broken and interrupted, and 
the detached portions often so obviously deflected from the 
liorizontal plane, notwithstanding a general parallelism, that it 
is difficult to conceive them to have been formed by water. I 
think that most geologists would pass through the district, 
and even walk over them, without being aware of anything 
peculiar, unless their attention were specially directed towards 
them. This obscurity naturally led me to a more close ex- 
amination of the limited portions I had the opportunity of 
visiting ; and as some of the appearances did not strike me 
as being the result of tidal action, I have thought that in the 
present state of our knowledge of them, the cause of truth 
might be advanced by directing the attention of geologists 
towards those points which seem to be still obscure, notwith- 
standing the conclusion at which we must arrive from the 
general coincidence of the levels across intervening valleys. 

I first ascended the northern flank of the Eildon hills from 
the valley of the Tweed at Melrose, passing from the old red 
sandstone, which forms the general surface of the district, to 
the greywacke, and from it again to the red compact felspar, 
which has burst through both, and forms the greater portion 

writings of Sir W. Scott, are surpassed by none, to ask if he could point 
out any passage showing that he was aware of the existence of these 
terraces. I quote a portion of his reply : — " I believe I can answer you 
with positive certainty, and, as you sa}^ * at once,^ (for my memory, as 
honest Parson Evans says, was always pretty ' sprag,') that though he very 
frequently, up and down, makes particular and fond mention of the Eildon 
hills, and places about Melrose, I am very sure he never notices any par- 
ticular geological formation in those mountains, or surely it would have 
struck me, especially when similar to the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy, 
which I viewed with such intense interest in your society. In the ' Monas- 
tery ' he gives a very minute and beautiful description, at some length, of 
a narrow valley above Melrose, there called Kennaquhair, down which a 
small river falls into the Tweed ; but not one word of stone-ology, or any 
part of natural history, in which poets in general are miserably ignorant. 
Erom this censure, I must, however, except our matchless Shakspere, and 
old father Chaucer," &c. &c. 

Had Sir W. Scott been aware of these terraces, he would surely have 
interwoven some notice of them with the story of Mary Avenel. How much 
to be regretted that his fine spirit should have passed away in ignorance of 
the most interesting natural feature of a district he has so well immortalized ! 
But "wow omnes omnia possumus ; " and to use his own nervous language 
in another place, " they have a' their different turns, and some can clink 
verses, — and some rin up hill and down dale, knapping the chucky stanes 
to pieces wi' hammers, like sae mony I'oadmakers run daft, — they say it is 
to see how the warld was made !" 

on the Eildon Hills, 209 

of the whole group. The eastern hill is for the most part 
covered with sward to the summit; so is the lower half of the 
middle one, the upper portion being nearly all naked rock. 
On the ascent to the uneven plain, or shoulder that connects 
the eastern with the middle hill, above mid- height, I per- 
ceived two or three of the terraces* upon the face of a great 
spur that shoots out from the latter above the beautiful ruin 
of Melrose Abbey. They seemed to range at about equal 
distances from each other, and to be from 80 to 100 yards 
wide; the upper being about three-fourths of a mile long, 
and nearly of equal width throughout. As I successively 
reached the level of each, I found the surface to be covered 
with vegetation, and to be far too uneven to have been formed 
or modelled by water. On attaining the plain or connecting 
shoulder just alluded to (which I took to be No. 10 of Mr. 
Kemp^s series), I found the same inequality of surface, and 
also an evident general slope, not outwards from the hill to- 
wards the valley, but at right angles to that direction, and 
from a horizontal line that would have formed the beach when 
the water stood at that level. 

On ascending the eastern hill the terraces between it and 
the middle hill were so obscure and broken up, and the inter- 
mediate slopes so irregular, that I could not trace them for 
any distance, or even in some places satisfy myself that they 
existed at all. It appeared (admitting they had once been 
there) that portions of them had subsequently slipped down, 
dividing horizontally into two or three, and then had rested 
in irregular and slanting positions on the intermediate spaces. 
The average slope of the hill here was 30 to 35 degrees, and 
the average deviation of the surfaces of these detached por- 
tions from the horizontal line, about 5 degrees ; but this de- 
viation was sometimes in one direction and sometimes in 
another; so that supposing a person were to walk along 
them, he would sometimes ascend, and sometimes descend. 
The diameter of the surface was also uneven, generally 
sloping outwards, but in one place inwards, the width being 
various, mostly from ten to twenty yards. In no one spot is 
the surface horizontal ; yet, at the same time, it is necessary 
to say that, viewing them as a whole, they seem too uniform 
and regular to be accidental slips of detritus from above, and 
at first sight appear more like the remains of rude earthen 
entrenchments than the effect of any great natural cause. It 

* I adopt this word for the whole series, though some of them are more 
properly shelves, or slight projections ; and are so obscure, that Mr. Kemp 
told me he only discovered one half of them by turning the spirit level to 
those places on the opposite hills where he expected to find them. 

Ann. ^ Mag, Nat. Hist, Nov. 1 840. p 

210 Mr. Bowman on the Natural Terraces 

would not affect the general truth of the formation of ter- 
races by tidal action, to find occasional and slight inequalities 
of level ; even if originally horizontal, such inequaUties might 
be easily produced in the process of upheaving ; and the real 
ground of surprise is that they should retain the uniform and 
perfect parallelism they do, as those of Glen Roy. But the 
deflections and discrepancies I now^ speak of are relative to 
the general surface of the terraces, and to each other, on the 
detached portions where they occur ; and therefore, admitting 
them to have been sea-beaches, they must be occasioned by 
slips from increase of gravity of the mass, when raised out of 
the water. 

On reaching the summit of the hill, the terrace No. 1 seems 
best developed on the S.S.E. side, and is extended into an 
irregular shaped plateau, whose surface, though approaching 
to a rude horizontality, is far too rounded and uneven to 
have been formed by the action of water. In one place, 
where the terrace can scarcely be traced, and where the defi- 
ciency might be attributed to a subsequent slip, there is no 
apparent accumulation below ; but, on the contrary, a hollow 
or depression in the surface. On looking downwards on the 
S.E. side of the hill, I could see no other terrace below it. 

The upper terraces of the middle hill may be comprehended 
in the above general description ; their surfaces have many 
elevations and depressions, and for the most part slope out- 
wards from the mountain. On both the hills, all that I ex- 
amined consist of the same material, viz. a mass of angular 
fragments of the red compact felspar rock from above, the 
only difference being, that on the eastern hill they are mixed 
with a stiff red clay and covered with vegetable sward, while 
the upper ones of the middle hill have no such covering. I 
looked carefully on both, wherever I had the opportunity, 
for rounded pebbles, gravel, sand, or other drift, but with- 
out seeing a vestige of either. In the sequel I shall again 
allude to this peculiarity. 

Looking back upon the group of the Eildons from the road 
between Melrose and Abbotsford, and all the way to Gala- 
shiels, several of the terraces on their northern face, which 
rises above Melrose and the broad valley of the Tweed, may 
be seen stretching in true horizontal lines of considerable 
length, the minor inequalities of level being lost in the gene- 
ral effect. This is an important fact in favour of their origin 
from w^ater. I looked in vain for similar appearances on the 
opposite or north bank of the Tw^ed, on Cowden Knows, 
and up the valley of the Leader, in all which places the hills 
are lower and smoother, and for the most part covered with 

on the Eildon Hills. 2 1 1 

diluvium containing angular fragments of greywacke and trap 

In the afternoon, Mr. Kemp kindly accompanied me on a 
hasty visit from Galashiels to Williamlaw. My time being 
limited and the evening advancing, he selected this hill as 
offering the best example of the terraces in the neighbour- 
hood, for he had traced, more or less distinctly, detached 
portions of no less than eight of the whole series, between the 
summit and the base. Two or three of the lowest of these 
(7, 8, and 9 of his series,) are the broadest and most continu- 
ous, averaging 100, 120, and 130 feet wide respectively about 
the middle, where they appear to be swollen out, narrowing 
irregularly on each side till they are lost in the general slope 
of the hill. These occur on the south side of the hill, and 
front the valley of the Gala. On one of them the surface is 
raised in the middle or widest part, and declines each way 
towards the narrower extremities at an angle of 3 to 6 degrees, 
a vertical longitudinal section having this form : — 

At first sight it appeared that both the greater width and the 
raised surface of the middle portion, might be caused by an 
accumulation of detritus from above ; but on examination it 
was composed of the solid rock. On another, the central 
accumulation is so situated under a projecting rock, that it 
could not have found a lodgement there in falling from above ; 
nor was there any trace of a furrow or ancient water-course 
which might have brought down diluvium, when this spot 
marked the level of the water. The natural slope of the hill 
in the neighbourhood of these lower terraces, forms an angle 
varying from 30 to 40 degrees. 

A little to the westward of these, and higher up the hill, the 
series of inclined projecting ridges of hard greywacke rock, 
which are named in the article referred to as apparently con- 
tradictory, but are really confirmatory of the theory advanced, 
may be seen to greater advantage than either nearer the sum- 
mit or the base. Regarding these, or rather the protuberances 
and intermediate indentations by which they are stated to be 
marked, as the experimPMtum crucis of the whole theory, I 
was anxious to satisfy myself of the coincidence of level be- 
tween these points and the horizontal terraces ; but after the 
best attention I was able to give, I regret to say, that whether 
from the unfavourable point from which I viewed them, with 
regard to perspective, or from the general ruggedness of the 

p 2 


Mr. Bowman on the Natural Terraces 

outlines^ and unaided by any instrument, my eye failed to re- 
cognize the points of intersection. The ridges themselv/es 
follow the slope of the hill to the west, and have an apparent 
dip of about six or eight degrees ; but as the true dip of the 
beds composing them averages from 50 lo 60 N.N.W., it is 
evident that their superficial outline has been determined by 
the slope of the hill, which intersects the beds diagonally and 
exposes their basset edges. In some parts they are very 
rugged and uneven, and project considerably above the ge- 
neral face of the hill ; while the intervening spaces, which are 
so many sunken furrows, have a smooth covering of diluvium 
and sward, and an uniform and gradual slope corresponding 
with that of the ridges. As it is not easy by description alone 
to convey a correct idea of their combined form and character, 
I have constructed the following diagram of the appearance 
they should exhibit in perspective, according to the theory ; 
but it shows them much more regular and uniform than they 
exist in nature, and marks the protuberances which Mr. 
Kemp says ^^ range horizontally across them, and correspond 
in their respective levels with the terraces on the neighbour- 
ing hills.^^ The shaded diagonal rows are the sloping ridges 
which rise out of the hollows, their curved tops showing the 
protuberances, and the dotted horizontal lines mark the 
supposed levels of the terraces ; which, however, it must be 
remarked, do not appear here, but at corresponding heights 
in other places, and are only introduced to show the horizon- 
tal strike of the protuberances and intermediate indentations. 
This arrangement, as I have already observed, I failed to re- 

cognize ; and I must confess that both the protuberances and 
depressions appeared to me far too irregular and obscure to 

on the Eildon Hills. 213 

support the opinion of their having been caused by the action 
of water^ unless corroborated by being at corresponding levels 
with the terraces. I assume^ however, on Mr. Kemp's au- 
thonty, that such is the case. But as the terraces are believed 
to have been formed by tidal action, that cause, if it produced 
any effect at all upon the hard greywacke ridges, must have 
cut away those parts which appear as indentations (see the 
diagram), and which must therefore be considered as success- 
ively the actual lines of beach; whereas Mr. Kemp states, '^that 
the protuberances correspond in their respective levels with 
the terraces on the neighbouring hills.'' Again, the broad 
inclined slopes between the elevated ridges, are covered with 
green sward, and form inclined planes with pretty uniform 
surfaces. Though I could nowhere cut through the sward 
to the rock below, I think it probable that these inclined 
hollows do '^ indicate the situation of softer intermediate beds 
which the action of the sea has washed away, leaving the 
harder beds comparatively bold and prominent*." But here 
another difficulty meets us : if the tidal action was sufficient 
to produce so marked an effect upon the projecting hard 
greywacke ridges, the softer intermediate beds must have 
been washed away to a much greater extent than they have 
been, and would have shown greater inequalities of surface ; 
whereas they are generally smooth and uniform, and but a 
few feet below the ridges. 

Again, wherever, either on the terraces or the intermediate 
slopes, fragments of the rock were exposed, they were angular 
and rough, with sharp edges, and did not show the least ap- 
pearance of having been rounded or acted on by water. I 
could not find on Williamlaw, or on either of the Eildons, a 
single pebble, or gravel, or sand of any kind, indicative of the 
former presence of water. All were sharp angular pieces of 
the same rock as that of the hills respectively, to the exclu- 
sion of all foreign material. Now, if the water remained long 
enough at any single level to have left manifest and perma- 
nent indentations upon the hard ridges, it must have had 
ample time to convert the loose angular fragments which 

* In a little quarry above the road, at the foot of these inclined hollows, 
the hard greywacke is divided in different directions by a system of joints, 
one set of which inclines from 6 to 8 degrees to W.S.W., coinciding with 
the dip and direction of the hollows. This made me think at first that their 
surfaces might have been modelled by these joints ; but they are too uniform 
and continuous, and other appearances do not support this view. In an- 
other adjoining quarry the dip is 80 N.N.W., with a W.S.W. and E.N.E. 
strike, which nearly coincides with that of the inclined hollows. This can 
only be seen in one spot, where a few thin beds of soft shale intervene, the 
bulk of the rock being a coarse greywacke without bedding or cleavage, but 
with strong joints, and assuming here and there a rude columnar structure. 

214 Natural Terraces on the Eildon Hills, 

would be ground against each other by every tide, into 
smooth pebbles and shingle. Nor is it easy to conceive how- 
terraces of 100 or 120 yards broad, as on the Eildons, formed 
of angular stones detached and precipitated from above, could 
have been made to assume by the action of water, even the 
irregular horizontality they do actually possess, when falling 
upon a slope having an angle of thirty or forty degrees ; and 
this, without the stones show ing any marks of attrition. On 
a gently inclined beach, where the tidal wave is ever and 
anon rolling such fragments over a considerable area, they 
w^ould soon be converted into rounded pebbles; but on a 
steep rocky shore they would fall at once into deep water and 
assume the shape of a conical talus or ^^ scree,^^ w^here the 
tide would have comparatively little effect upon them. Their 
rough angular surfaces w^ould lock into each other, and pre- 
vent them from being scattered over so broad a space as we 
see them on the Middle Eildon. It must also be borne in 
mind, in reference to the terraces on the eastern hill, which 
appear to have slipped down from their original situation, that 
the probability of their having done so is much weakened by 
their being composed of angular stones. 

It struck me as singular, that all the terraces I examined, 
should be found on the sides of the respective hills most ex- 
posed to the strong currents that may be assumed to have 
been then in action ; those on the north side of the Eildons, 
facing the great valley of the Tweed; those on William- 
law, overhanging the more circuitous one of Gala water. Of 
course I conclude they do exist on the retired sides of some 
of the hills. One should have supposed, a priori, that the 
currents would have swept away the fragments of rock as 
they fell from above, and w ould have prevented them from 
accumulating into projecting shelves. Indeed, several of the 
best developed are widest precisely at the point w^here they 
project into the valley, and would come in contact with the 
current. I was also surprised to find no trace of terraces in 
other situations, apparently more favourable to their produc- 
tion. Immediately to the west of Williamlaw, and seen to 
advantage from its summit, is a wide and deep circular am- 
phitheatre, formed by the smooth grassy sides of several 
neighbouring hills which environ it with very uniform slopes, 
except on the side that connects it w ith the valley of the Gala 
water. If the sea ever occupied the latter, it must also have 
filled this hollow, and converted it into a spacious, though 
sheltered and tranquil bay, round w^hose encircling sides, wefl- 
developed terraces might be expected to be found. Their 
total absence, therefore, from so favourable a locahty, leaves 
room to inquire whether those which occur in more equi- 

Bibliographical Notices, 215 

vocal situations do really indicate the lines of ancient 

On the north or highest of the two points of Williamlaw, 
and near the summit, are two broad indistinct terraces, whose 
surfaces slope considerably towards the southern or lowest 
point, and also to the west. The crest between the two points 
is a succession of low eminences and intermediate furrows, 
which have no connexion with any of the terraces, but are 
formed of the basset edges of the harder beds. As the dip 
and strike of these correspond in the main with those of the 
slanting ridges below, and as they are separated by similar 
smooth grassy hollows, there can be no doubt but the cause 
assigned by Mr. Kemp for the latter, is the true one. 

At the south foot of Williamlaw, on the opposite bank of 
the Gala, is a broad level grassy plain, formed of diluvium at 
the time the whole valley was under water, and subsequently 
cut through by the existing stream. It reminded me strongly 
of the true terraces near the head of Glen Roy. 

Having now stated, as clearly as I can, the observations that 
occurred to me on a hasty view of these terraces, I have only 
to express a hope that more competent geologists may be in- 
duced to examine them in greater detail. Whether the theory 
proposed by Mr. Kemp be the true one or not, the merit of 
having first discovered, and then worked them out with such 
ability and perseverance, will ever be his own. No one will 
rejoice more than myself to see my objections answered, and 
a cause assigned that shall explain the difficulties and harmo- 
nize with all existing appearances. Nor is this all ; the com- 
plete explanation of any set of natural phaenomena, lessens 
the difficulty of comprehending others, still obscure, to which 
they are allied ; and is another step in advance towards the 
future solution of the grand problem, the aggregate causes 
that have produced the existing state of things upon our 

J. E. Bowman. 

Manchester, October 10, 1840. 


The Flora of Yorkshire. By Henry Baines, Sub-curator to the York- 
shire Philosophical Society. 8vo. pp. 160. London, Longman 
and Co. ; Leyland and Son, Halifax. 

We have here a very interesting work — the Flora of an important 
district, carefully investigated by an industrious and intelligent prac- 
tical botanist, who has been enabled, by peculiar circumstances, to 
combine with his own the valuable labours of others to a very 
unusual extent. A preliminary essay, by Professor Phillips, on the 
Physical Geography of Yorkshire, in relation to the distribution of 

216 Bibliographical Notices, 

plants, adds much to the value of the book. Mr. Baines's list of 
species, and of the stations of the rarer ones, is no doubt still imper- 
fect ; but its publication, such as it is, will be a great help to the 
cultivators of botany within the district, and not less important to 
those in other parts who want to know where the rarer species may 
be procured, or who study the geographical distribution of plants 
over the country, and the connexion of particular species with par- 
ticular rocks, soils, or local circumstances. 

On these points the information given is no doubt accurate ; but 
conclusions drawn from the mere circumstance of species not having 
been noticed in particular districts are seldom to be relied upon until 
the statements have been some time before the public without being 
called in question. For example, Rosa rubiginosa is quoted by Pro- 
fessor Phillips in the introductory essay as confined in Yorkshire to 
the north-eastern or oolitic hills, but a supplement to the work re- 
turns it as occurring at Conisbro' in the south-western district, and 
we have ourselves found it truly wild within a few miles of York, 
in the great central vale. Speaking of this latter district. Professor 
Phillips remarks, *' that receiving from numerous streams the de- 
tritus of the uplands lying east and west, the vale of York is full of 
plants which seem derived from these districts, as well as others more 
commonly found in lower ground. Its flora is consequently very 
rich, and plants supposed to characterize different soils grow here 
near together." It is, indeed, very striking to see in low moist fields 
over this plain plants usually stated to be peculiar to limestone or 
chalk, and to see them here attaining a magnitude and luxuriance, 
which they seldom approach in their more appropriate stations ; but 
the soil will be found everywhere to abound with lime, so that the 
fact confirms the opinion (could it be supposed to need any confir- 
mation) that certain plants require the presence of this substance for 
their healthful growth. Campanula glomerata, Orchis ustulata, 
which attains to remarkable size and beauty, and Poterium Sangui- 
sorba, here growing abundantly in moist fields subject to frequent 
overflows, (though only mentioned by Mr. Baines as appearing on 
limestone rocks and the chalk wolds) are instances of proper lime- 
stone plants which abound in this district. 

When Professor Phillips speaks in his essay of Dryas octopetala 
as peculiar to Yorkshire, he, of course, means in England, which 
should have been expressed, as most floras include plants of Scot- 
land and Ireland, and the Dryas occurs in both countries. Even 
with respect to England, the statement is not strictly accurate, as 
Mr. Harriman found it in Durham. 

Arabis hispida (petraa of DeCandoUe) can only be said to be pe- 
culiar to Yorkshire, speaking of England, exclusively of Wales as 
well as Scotland, and Juncus polycephalus belongs to the highlands 
of Scotland. The presence of these plants shows that Yorkshire has 
a more alpine character than any other district of England, not even 
excepting the Cumberland and Westmoreland mountains. 

Among the plants which attain their southern limit in Yorkshire 
is mentioned Saxifraga umbrosa. This plant, in fact, is hardly found 
in England, except in Yorkshire ; but it is not a northern plant, the 

Bibliographical Notices, 217 

Scotch stations, near Edinburgh and Glasgow, being suspected by 
Sir W. Hooker to be escapes from cultivation ; whilst the species is 
exceedingly abundant in the west and south-west of Ireland in as 
mild a climate as any part of the British Islands affords. 

Among the plants added on the authority of Mr. Gibson of Heb- 
denbridge, we observe Stipa pennata, the feather-grass, said to be 
found on Rumbald's Moor. We are not aware that this plant has 
been found wild in Britain, since its alleged discovery in Long Slea- 
dale, Westmoreland, by Dr. Richardson, published by Dillenius ; and 
as nobody has met with it since, though it is so remarkable and con- 
spicuous, either in the station given or elsewhere (and we have our- 
selves, like many other botanists, searched Long Sleadale with 
great care expressly with this object in view), it has generally been 
concluded that Dr. Richardson fell into a mistake. The present dis- 
covery is very interesting, if liable to no doubt, but it requires to be 
supported by good evidence. Not inferior to this in interest is the 
addition of Cinclidium Stygium, a moss previously known as a native 
of the north of Europe and America, and very lately announced as 
British, which here, we believe, for the first time takes its place in 
a native flora. 

Mr. Baines has arranged the plants according to the Natural Or- 
der, adding an alphabetical and a Linnsean index. The stations 
given of the rarer species are often very numerous, and with the as- 
sistance of Professor Phillips's admirable sketch of the physical geo- 
graphy of Yorkshire, will furnish interesting data to inquirers into 
the distribution of our flora. Remarks are often added respecting 
the insects that feed on particular plants. 

On the whole, the volume, which is very neatly printed by Mr. 
Leyland of Halifax, himself well known as an intelligent and zealous 
naturalist, and furnished with two illustrative maps, will be found a 
useful and pleasing addition to the Botanical library, and does much 
credit to the worthy author, in whose diligence, accuracy, and fide- 
lity all who know him will confide. 

A Flora of Shropshire. By W. A. Leighton, Esq., B.A., &c. 1 vol. 
8vo. 1840. Shrewsbur5^ 

We look upon the appearance of this work (which is now com- 
pleted by the publication of the 3rd part) as being a great step in 
advance in the progress of British indigenous botany ; for although 
it is professedly confined to the description of the plants of a single 
county, yet as clearly showing the incorrectness of the idea " that a 
new Flora in the true sense of the term has become impossible," it is 
indispensable to every botanist who desires to obtain a thorough 
knowledge of our native plants. Since the publication of the ' En- 
glish Flora' no work has appeared in which all the species are care- 
fully and originally described ; nor does any British book exist in 
which the descriptions are sufficiently detailed for the present wants 
of systematic botany ; for in this latter respect, the celebrated work 
of Sir J. E. Smith is (from the date of its publication) necessarily 

218 Bibliographical Notices. 

In the work before us, Mr. Leighton has accurately, and in raost 
cases very fully, described the plants of his county ; and from having 
used several of the continental Floras, in conjunction with that of 
Smith, he has in numerous cases introduced the description of parts 
which that excellent author has overlooked : we would particularly 
mention the seeds, a minute attention to which was not requisite 
when botanists almost entirely confined themselves to the elucidation 
of the Linnsean system alone, but which are now considered of great 
value in determining the natural affinities of plants, as well as in 
certain tribes affording excellent specific characters. 

The book under our notice is arranged according to the Linnsean 
system, but care appears to have been taken that the generic and 
specific characters should be such as will serve for any classification. 
In some of the more difficult genera outline sketches are given of 
those parts from which the characters have been derived, and these, 
although deficient in artistical beauty, are deserving of the highest 
praise for clearness and accuracy of detail : they include a com- 
plete series of drawings for the Cyperacece:, Potamogeton, Valerianella, 
Rumex, &c. 

In looking through the volume, we observe that the account of 
the Cyperacece is so full as almost to constitute a monograph of the 
British species ; Viola is very fully illustrated by new observations ; 
Chenopodium acutifolium and polyspermum are proved to form only 
one species. In the genus Rubus, we have a series of very valuable 
observations from the pens of Nees ab Essenbech, Borrer, andLindley, 
causing the introduction of the names of several new forms (we will 
not venture to call them species) into the British lists ; in the genus 
Carex valuable characters, illustrated by a complete series of figures, 
have been drawn from the form of the ripe nut ; and as the author's 
observations are manifestly original, he is no doubt ignorant of (or 
perhaps been unable to obtain) the rare work of Schkuhr upon this 
genus, in which a similar, though to our mind, less satisfactory 
series of figures of nuts is given. The species of oak are illustrated 
by the valuable notes of Professors Graham and Don, three forms 
being distinguished ; we must, however, confess, that our own opi- 
nion is against there being really more than one species in Britain, 
although three varieties maybe easily pointed out. We are acquainted 
with no permanent character by which the oaks can be specifically 
distinguished from each other ; for although in their extreme forms 
they abundantly differ, yet the intermediate forms, both in shape of 
leaf and length of peduncle, do not appear to allow of any marked 
line of separation being drawn. 

The following plants appear for the first time as English plants in 
the present work : — 

Atriplex deltoidea, Bab. 
Ballotta ruderalis, Fries. 
Callitriche platycarpa, Kiitz. 
Cardamine sylvatica. Link. 
Cerasus austera, height. 
Dianthus plumarius, Linn. 

Myriophyllum alterniflorum,Z)C. 
Quercus intermedia, Don. 
Scrophularia Ehrharti, Stev. 
Senecio erraticus, Bert. 
Spergula vulgaris, Bnng. 

Zoological Society, 219 

In conclusion, we must observe, that the specific characters are 
often far longer than is desirable ; that in making alterations in the 
nomenclature, the author has in some cases not sufficiently pointed 
out the reasons which have induced him to adopt different names 
from those employed by Smith and Hooker ; we must, however, add, 
that in most instances we are acquainted with causes fully author- 
izing the change. A more frequent reference to foreign authors 
would also have added much to the value of the book. 

We must again express a hope that this work will soon be in the 
hands of all British botanists. 

Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologic ; edited by 
Professors Van der Hoeven and de Vriese ; Vol. VI., Part IV. 
Leyden, 1839. 

Bulla alhocincta, N. Sp. described by Dr. Van der Hoeven ; with 
a plate. The following is the Spec. Char. " B. testa ovato-subglo- 
bosa tenui, pallide brunnea, spira, fasciis tribus et apertura albis ; 
spira retusa." From China*. — Contribution to the Natural History 
of Man : By Dr. Van der Hoeven. — Additional remarks upon the 
Negro race ; two plates. — Botanical Communications : By Dr. 
J. F. Hoffmann, of Breslau. — On the Nerves of Sensation and the 
Connexion between the Nerves of Sensation and of Motion : By 
J. Van Deen. — Prodromus of the Fauna of Homer and Hesiod ; By 
G. P. F. Groshans. — Remarks on a noxious Insect on Pinus Larix, in 
a letter from A. Brants. — Reviews and Literary Notices, and Trans- 
lations. — On the Lepidosiren. — Notices of the following works : — 
Treviranus, Beobachtungen aus der Zootomie und Physiologic. 
Kroijer's Natur-historisk Tidskrift. Hueck, De Craniis Esthonum. 
H. ScHLEGEL, Ab])ildungen neuer oder unvoUstandig bekannter 
Amphibien. Horticulteur universel. Lemaire, Flore des Sen'es et 
Jardins d'Angleterre. Endlicher, Grundziige einer neuen Theorie 
der Pflanzenzeugung. Link, Ausgewahlte anatomisch-botanische 
Abbildungen. Link, Icones Plantarum rariorum Horti Berolinensis. 



January 14, 1840. — William Yarrell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. Ogilby exhibited the skull of the Mangabay Monkey (Cerco- 
pithecus ^thiops, Auct.), and called the attention of the members 
present to the fact that this species, like the C.fuliginosus, differs 
from other Cercopitheci in possessing a fifth tubercle to the last 
molar of the lower jaw. 

A variety of the common Hare (Lepus timidus, Auct.), shot in 
Sussex, and presented to the Society by Augustus E. Fuller, Esq., 

* [The Bulla here described is only a variety of Bulla Felum, which often 
has one, two, or three white bands. — J. E. Gray.] 

220 Zoological Society. 

was exhibited : it differs chiefly in being of a smaller size, and in having 
the fur somewhat mottled with whitish and in parts rust colour. 

Mr. Waterhouse exhibited a new species of Rodent from the river 
Gambia, constituting a most interesting link between the genera 
Mus and Cricetns : like the first of these genera, it has a long scaly 
tail, but it resembles the Hamsters in possessing large cheek- 
pouches. In the number of its molar teeth and the form of the skull 
it presents all the most common characters of the Muridce, as defined 
by Mr. Waterhouse in the ' Magazine of Natural History*/ 

The skull compared with that of the Common Rat (Mus decuma" 
nns, Auct.) diflfers chiefly in having the nasal portion more elongated : 
the anterior root of the zygoma, as in that animal, is in the form of 
a thin plate, but this plate is less extended in its antero-posterior 
direction, is directed obliquely outM^ards and upwards, and leaves a 
tolerably large and nearly round ant-orbital opening, thus difl^ering 
from the Common Rat, in which the lower portion of this opening 
is in the form of a vertical slit : the zygomatic arch is less extended 
in the longitudinal direction, the incisive foramina are much smaller, 
and the auditory bullae are rather smaller in proportion. The molar 
teeth are rooted ; the foremost of these teeth in either jaw is the 
largest, and the posterior one the smallest : in the upper ja\\% as in 
Mus, the molars present a central row of larger, and two lateral rows 
of smaller tubercles ; and the molars of the lower jaw have two prin- 
cipal rows of tubercles ; there are however some slight modifications 
in the structure of these teeth, which should be noticed. The front 
molar of the upper jaw has three central tubercles, three smaller ones 
on the outer side and two on the inner side, and besides these there 
is a small ninth tubercle on the posterior part of the tooth, which is 
not observed in the Black and Common Rats ; the second molar has 
two small extra tubercles, one in front and one behind ; the crown 
of this tooth therefore presents eight instead of six tubercles, as in 
Mus proper, and the last molar possesses one extra small tubercle, 
which is placed on the anterior and outer part of the tooth. The 
molars of the lower jaw very closely resemble those of Mus decumanus. 

In the form of the lower jaw the present animal diff'ers from that 
last mentioned, chiefly in the greater breadth of the descending ra- 
mus or angle, which is moreover somewhat raised, and so far ap- 
proaches the Hamsters. 

The name Cricetomys was proposed for this new subgenus, and 
that of Gambianus to distinguish the species, and to indicate the lo- 
cality in which it was first discovered. The principal characters 
may be thus expressed : — 

Subgenus ad genera Cricetus et Mus dicta aflEine, et inter hsec me- 
dium locum tenens. Criceto simile quoad saccos buccales, Muri 
simile quoad formam corporis et caudse ; hac perlonga et pilis brevibus 
vestita, inter quos squamae in more annulorum positae videntur. Pe- 
des ut in Mure. 

Dentes fere ut in Mure. Incisores compressi ; molares radicati, 


3 — 3* 

* Vol. iii. p. 275. 

Zoological Society, 221 

Cricetomys Gambianus. Cri. magnitudine corporis dvplo, vel 
plus, majore quam in Mure decumano .- colore fer^ eodem : auri- 
bus mediocribus , pilis minutis vestitis ; caudd corpus cum capite 
cequante ; pedibus mediocre parvis ; vellere hrevi, adpresso, et sub- 
rigido ; colore cinerescenti-fusco ; pedibus partibusque inferioribus 
sordide albis ; caudd ad basin, pilis intense fuscis, ad apicem, albis, 

UMc. lin. 

Longitude ab apice rostri ad caudse basin , 16 

basin auris 2 9 

tarsi digitorumque 2 6 

auris 11 

caudde 15 

The Gambia Pouched- Rat is about double the size of the common 
Rat {Mus decumanus) ; in its colouring and proportions it greatly 
resembles that animal ; the fur is rather harsher, and more scanty : 
the general colour of the upper parts of the body is a trifle paler 
than in Mus decumanus. The head is tolerably long, and pointed ; 
the ears are of moderate size and rounded form ; the feet are of mo- 
derate size ; the tail is nearly equal to the head and body in length, 
thick at the base, covered with small adpressed harsh hairs ; but these 
are not sufficiently numerous to hide the scales ; about one third of the 
tail at the base is of a deep brown colour, the hairs covering the re- 
maining portion are pure white, and the skin itself has evidently 
been of a paler hue than on the basal part of the tail. The far on 
the body is somewhat adpressed, and the hairs are glossy on the back ; 
they are of an ashy-gray colour at the base ; the apical half of each 
is brownish-yellow, but at the points many of them are brownish ; 
many longer hairs intermixed with the ordinary fur of the back are 
almost entirely of a brownish-black colour. The whole of the under 
parts of the head and body and inner side of the limbs are white ; 
the hairs on the belly are rather scanty, and of an uniform colour to 
the root : the fore feet are whitish, and the tarsi are white, but 
clouded with brown in the middle. The ears are but sparingly 
clothed with short hairs, which on the inner side are whitish, and on 
the outer brown. 

January 14 and 28th, 1840. — William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-Presi- 
dent, in the Chair. 
Mr. Ogilby read his paper entitled * A Monograph of the Hollow- 
horned Ruminants,' of which the following is an abstract : — 

** In revising the history of the Ruminantia," says Mr. Ogilby, 
" the zoologist who, like myself, has made a special study of these 
animals, must be forcibly struck with the confusion of synonyms, the 
carelessness and inaccuracy of description, the vague and indefinite 
limits of the generic and subgeneric groups, the trivial and confess- 
edly empirical principles of classification, and, as a consequence, the 
great number of nominal species, and the general disorder which 
still prevail in this department of Mammalogy." He proceeds to 
show that the views of the modern writers on this subject are no 

222 Zoological Society, 

more philosophical than those of their predecessors, and that as re- 
gards their generic distribution, the Ruminantia remain at present 
in very nearly the same state as that in which Ray left them a hun- 
dred and fifty years back. 

The history of the classification of this group next comes under 
the consideration of the author, and the views of the various writers 
are given and commented upon, commencing with the publication of 
the * Synopsis Methodica' of Ray, published in 1693. The genera 
Ovinum, Bovinum, and Caprinum, established by that author, Mr. 
Ogilby regards as strictly natural groups, but the characters by which 
they are distinguished, derived principally from the curvature of the 
horns, the existence of a beard or dewlap, the number of teats, and 
the woolly or hairy nature of the covering, he considers trivial, arbi- 
trary, and uninfluentiaL 

The ' Systema Naturae' is next considered ; and although arbitrary 
and empirical, the generic definitions of Linnseus (the author of the 
paper states,) possess all the logical correctness and simplicity which 
so peculiarly characterize the genius of that great man. Though 
neither natural nor scientific, his distribution was, at all events, ex- 
clusive and diagnostic, in reference to the small number of Rumi- 
nants then known. But whilst the zoology of the Ruminantia re- 
mained thus almost stationary in the hands of Linnaeus, it was 
making rapid and brilliant progress under the auspices of his great 
rival and cotemporary, BufFon : even as early as the year 1764, two 
years before the publication of the 12th edition of the * Systema Na- 
turae,' the French philosopher had described new forms, and indicated 
important relations among the hollow-horned Ruminants. The ar- 
ticle * Gazelles,' contained in the 12th volume of his great work, was 
the most important addition which had been made to the generic 
distribution of the Ruminants since the time of Ray, and must be 
considered as the first monograph of the genus two years afterwards 
founded upon it, and more formally proposed by Pallas under the 
name of Ant Hope. 

The works of Pallas, Pennant, AUaman, Gmelin, Erxleben, Shaw, 
lUiger, Lichtenstein, De Blainville, and Col. Hamilton Smith, next 
pass under the notice of the author. 

The consideration of the muzzle and lachrymal sinus was first 
introduced by lUiger, and his principles were quickly adopted, in 
successive monographs by Lichtenstein, De Blainville, and Hamilton 
Smith, to subdivide the Antelopes into something more nearly ap- 
proaching natural groups than the old principles admitted. The 
publication of lUiger's * Prodromus ' may be considered therefore as 
an epoch in the history of these animals. 

The monograph of Dr. Lichtenstein contains descriptions of 
twenty- nine species, and these are distributed into four groups, cha- 
racterized by the presence or absence of horns in the females, and of 
lachrymal sinuses, the existence or non-existence of dewlap, and the 
comparative length of the tail. But the author was in many cases 
ignorant of the specific characters of the animals, and the compo- 
sition of his groups is consequently faulty in proportion. The di- 

Zoological Society, 223 

visions, however, are exceedingly well imagined, and less encumbered 
with trivial characters than those of De Blainville and Hamilton 

M, De Blainville, whose monograph of the genus Antilope was 
published in 1816, contented himself with separating from the main 
group successive detachments of what he conceives to be the most 
anomalous species, afterwards elaborating the characters of the sub- 
genera thus formed from those of their component species. By this 
means he has unquestionably succeeded in forming a few natural 
groups, to which no other objection can be made than that they are 
considered as subdivisions of a primary group which is not itself a 
natural genus. 

To the eight genera established by De Blainville, Desmarest ad- 
ded three others, two of which, viz. the separation of the Antelopes 
proper from the Koodoo and Boshbok, and of the Oryxes, were de- 
cided improvements. 

The principal merit of Col. Hamilton Smith's monograph, pub- 
lished in Griffith's translation of the ' Regne Animal,' consists in the 
resolution of the residual group of De Blainville and Desmarest, 
which he subdivides into eight minor groups, in all respects more 
definite and natural than the original. 

The next section of the paper is devoted to the consideration of 
the characters hitherto employed in the generic distribution of these 

The genera Bos, Ovis, and Capra, represented by famihar and 
well-known types, observes Mr. Ogilby, carried with them clear 
and definite ideas, and represented to the mind of the naturalist di- 
stinct and determined forms ; but the genus Antilope not being ex- 
emplified by any common domestic species familiar to the observa- 
tion of the student, every thing connected with the genus was vague 
and indeterminate ; the only conception it enabled him to form was, 
that the animal, whatever else it might be, was neither an ox, a 
sheep, nor a goat. The characters, moreover, upon which this genus 
is established, are in reality so many negative traits, and merely 
served to distinguish all other hollow-horned Ruminants from the 
oxen, sheep, and the goats respectively, but they limit no positive 
group, and consequently cannot be received as the definition of a 
natural genus. The genus Antilope in a short time became an 
asylum for the reception of all hollow-horned Ruminants that 
could not be associated with the known genera Bos, Ovis, and Capra ; 
and consequently the most incongruous forms and opposite charac- 
ters were associated in the same genus ; till, independently of its un- 
philosophical structure, and total want of character whether natural 
or artificial, the practical inconvenience arising from its undue ex- 
tension forced zoologists to devise the partial remedies detailed 
above, and which all proceeded upon one common principle, that, 
namely, of dividing the genus Antilope into such subordinate groups 
as were conceived best calculated to obviate the inconsistencies, and 
approximate those species which most nearly resembled one an- 
other in habit and conformation. In thus subdividing the genus Ari' 

224 Zoological Society, 

tilope it is assumed by every writer on the subject to be a natural 
group, even w^hilst they confess that it has not a single character 
either exclusively appropriate to it or even common to the generality 
of its component species : far, therefore, from being a natural, it is 
not even entitled to be considered an artificial group. The diagnosis 
proposed by M. GeofFroy St. Hilaire regarding the nature of the core 
of the horns, and that broached at a meeting of the Zoological So- 
ciety b}" M. Agassiz, to the effect that these animals are distinguished 
from Bos, Ovis, and Capra, by having a spiral twist of the horns 
turning from left to right, instead of the opposite direction, are 
founded upon hasty generalizations, inapplicable to at least three- 
fourths of the species. 

The form or curvature of the horns, the beard, the devi^lap, the 
scopaj, the number of teats, and other such diagnoses hitherto em- 
ployed to define the genera of Ruminants, according to the views of 
Mr. Ogilby, are purely trivial and accidental characters, which not 
only exercise no assignable influence on the habits or economy of 
the animals, but which may be modified to any extent, or even 
destroyed altogether, without in the slightest degree changing the 
generic relations. 

Having demonstrated the imperfections of the actual distribution 
of hollow-horned Ruminants, Mr. Ogilby proceeds to the exposition 
of the principles which he proposes to make use of for that purpose, 
and to explain the nature and extent of his own researches. He in- 
sists upon the law of classification, that no generic characters should 
be admitted but such as are founded upon the necessary relations 
that subsist between the organic structure of animals and their 
habits and economy. 

The next section of the monograph is devoted to the consideration 
of the horns of the Ruminantia. Under this head the author first 
treats of their substance ; 2ndly, their permanent or deciduous cha- 
racter ; 3rdly, their presence or absence in different genera and sexes ; 
and 4thly, their number, forms, and flexures. 

The distinctions between the horns of the stag tribe generally, 
and those of the hollow-horned Ruminants, are pointed out, and in 
the next place the various modifications observable in the horns 
and their core of the latter group. " In some cases the substance 
of this bony core is solid, or at least penetrated only by minute 
pores ; in others, and they are by far the greater number, it is par- 
tially hollow, or filled with large cancelli, which communicate with 
the frontal sinuses. These variations are not confined to any par- 
ticular groups, but are equally common to solid and hollow-horned 
genera. The giraffe, for instance, has very extensive cancelli ; so 
likewise have the oxen, sheep, goats, and all the larger species 
hitherto classed among the antelopes : nor have I found the solid 
core, so much insisted on by MM. Cuvier and GeofFroy St. Hilaire, 
in any of these animals, except the A. Cervicap?'a, the Dorcas, and 
their allied species." 

Speaking of the raised ridges and annuli on the horns, Mr. Ogilby 
states that the number of these added in a given time appears to be 

Zooloytcal Society. 225 

very variable. " The common cow is generally suj)posed to acquire 
one ring on the horn every year after the third, but this is far from 
being a general law. Between the 20th of July and the 31st of 
October, 1833, the horns of a j'^oung Indian Antelope {A. Cervicapra), 
which I had marked for the purpose in the gardens of the Society, 
acquired an addition of no fewer than three rings, and an increase 
of length of a full inch and a half; and I have observed a similar 
phsenomenon in other species." 

The permanent or deciduous character of the horns is said to de- 
pend upon their hollowness or solidity; and the author, moreover, 
states that it is not correct to suppose that hollow horns are, strictly 
speaking, permanent ; the hollow horn is shed, as well as the solid, 
but in a different sense. " Buffon has been much ridiculed for as- 
serting this fact with regard to the domestic ox, but BufFon was a 
much better observer than his critics ; and I have myself verified his 
observations on many other Ruminants. If the horns of any young 
animal be examined, it will be found that they are of a coarse, sca- 
brous, spongy texture, very thick and blunt in proportion to their 
length, and hollow nearly to the point : let the same individual be 
examined when it arrives at maturity ; the horns, especially towards 
the extremity, have a close, compact, and polished surface ; they are 
much attenuated, end in a very fine point, and have the terminal 
third perfectly solid. These changes do not arise from the mere 
rubbing and polishing of the horn, as is commonly supposed. That 
hypothesis does not account for the difference of texture and solidity 
which distinguish the old and young horns ; but the truth is that, as 
in the case of the second dentition, the permanent organ is developed 
under, or rather within the other, and by its growth gradually car- 
ries it upwards, and supports it like a sheath or scabbard. The 
young horn thus severed from the vessels which formerly supplied 
it with nutriment, dries up, bursts from the expansion of the perma- 
nent horn within it, and exfoliates in large irregular stripes, leaving 
the latter with the finely polished surface, and solid, sharp, attenu- 
ated points which distinguish them. As far as my observations en- 
able me to judge, this exfoliation takes place only once during the 
life of the animal, and that at the period of adolescence, immediately 
before the appearance of the first annulus. Though it does not take 
place all at once, nor absolutely deprive the animal of horns for a 
certain period, it is nevertheless a true and actual shedding of these 
organs, and accounts satisfactorily for many phsenomena which I 
found inexplicable before making these observations. The horns of 
the Oryxes, for instance, w^hich in the adult state are remarkable for 
their straightness and extreme sharpness, have the points very blunt, 
and bent backwards, almost at a right angle, in the young animal : 
and the Koba, or Sing-Sing, whose permanent horns are partially 
lyrated, has the young organs nearly straight, as may be observed in 
the specimen now in the Society's museum. It is only necessary 
to observe further, that the young horn, which afterwards exfoliates, 
appears to be entirely the growth of the first year, though it gene- 
rally remains a much longer time before being cast. A young Z,c«- 

Ann. ^ Mag, Nat. Hist, Nov, 1810. q 

226 Zoological Society, 

coryx in the museum at Frankfort, with horn? eighteen or twenty 
inches long, has the points still blunt, exactly as in another speci- 
men, where they are only two inches long." " Now this permanence 
or deciduousness of the horns — for in a general sense, and especially 
as contrasted with the solid organs of the deer kind, the hollow horn 
may be considered as permanent — is a constant and invariable cha- 
racter, which has a direct and powerful influence upon the habits 
and oeconomy of the animals. The deer kind invariably affect par- 
ticular localities at the period of casting and renewing their horns ; 
their manners then undergo a complete change ; from bold and da- 
ring, they become irresolute ; they lose their flesh, abandon the open 
hills and upland plains for the thick cover of the forests, and foregoing 
their gregarious habits, desert their companions, and pass the period 
of weakness in solitude and seclusion. As soon, however, as the 
new horn acquires strength and solidity, the stag resumes his usual 
habits, and regains his former confidence. Hollow-horned Rumi- 
nants present no such phsenomena ; the habits and manners of the 
same"species are similar at all seasons, and the difl'erences which we 
observe in different species depend upon other causes, which shall 
be developed in the sequel. The modifications of organic structure 
whicii produce these different effects are too permanent and influen- 
tial to be neglected among the characters of a natural classification 
of the Ruminants. Nor have they been overlooked by zoologists ; 
it may be said, indeed, with truth, that they constitute the only 
really important characters hitherto employed to distinguish the ge- 
nera of these animals." 

The presence or absence of horns in species or sexes has been 
partially employed by naturalists for the distinction of genera ; the 
importance of this character, however, in the opinion of the author, 
has not been duly appreciated. Its effects on the habits and oeco- 
nomy of the species of Ruminants is pointed out. The gentleness 
and timidity of those species which have hornless females, their being 
either perfectly monogamous, or residing in small detached families, 
composed of a single adult male and variable number of females, and 
the circumstance of the males adhering throughout life to the same 
female, are all phsenomena which are traceable to the defenceless 
condition of the females. These phsenomena are contrasted witli 
those exhibited by Ruminants, in which there are horns in both sexes ; 
they are said to be extremely bold, to reside generally in large herds, 
and to have a community of sexual intercourse, and rarely attach 
themselves to particular individuals. 

The number, form, and peculiar curvatures of the horns are next 
considered ; and the author arrives at the conclusion, that all the va- 
rious flexures of the horns, as well as their number, form, and direc- 
tion, have no assignable relation to the habits and oeconomy of animal 
life ; they should not therefore be selected for generic diagnoses. 
On the other hand, the form of the upper lip, as well as its hairy or 
naked character, having a very decided influence on the habits and 
oeconomy of ruminating animals, ought by no means to be neglected 
in the classification of this group. Other important characters may 

Zoological Society, 22? 

be derived from the crumens and other glands, or certain pits or 
sinuses which open externally, especially in different parts of the 
head in ruminating animals. The most remarkable, as well as the 
most common of these are the suborbital, sometimes called the la- 
chrymal sinuses, or tear-pits, but which Mr. Ogilby distinguishes by 
the name of crumens, a term applied to them by Dr. Flemming. 
These are situated at a short distance below the inner canthus of the 
eye, and received into a cavity of the lachrymal bone ; at their bot- 
tom is a gland, opening into the crumen by a number of small aper- 
tures, and secreting a viscous substance, of the consistence of ear-wax. 
The various modifications of the form of these crumens in different 
Ruminants being pointed out in the paper, the author proceeds to 
the consideration of their functions and uses : he observed that the 
Gazelles and Antelopes in the Society's menagerie frequently pro- 
truded this crumen, and rubbed its inner surface against the rails of 
the compartments in which they were confined, seeming to take a 
pleasure in smelling and licking it afterwards. A male and female 
Gazelle, occupying contiguous compartments, were changed, and 
it was found that they immediately discovered the viscous deposit, 
and became restless and agitated ; the male Gazelle was some days 
after made to change places with an Indian Antelope, but neither 
animal appeared to take the slightest notice, or to be aware of the 
presence of its predecessor. " This, to be sure," says Mr. Ogilby, 
** is but a single experiment, but it countenances the idea, highly pro- 
bable in itself, that the deposit which the animals leave behind them 
by rubbing the crumens against the shrubs or stones of their desert 
and mountain habitats, (for it is only the inhabitants of such locali- 
ties that are furnished with these organs, at least among the hollow- 
horned family,) may serve to direct them in their wanderings and 
migrations, when the storms and fogs incident to such places obscure 
all visible landmarks. But whatever it may be, the principles of 
sound philosophy and the great doctrine of design forbid us to en- 
tertain the notion that so remarkable an organ has been formed with 
out some special and appropriate function in animal oeconomy." 

A superficial slit, situated in a depression of the maxillary bone, 
on either side, called by the author the maxillary sinus, is found in 
certain Ruminants hitherto classed among the Antelopes ; its secre- 
tion is of a thin watery consistence, and thus differs from the secre- 
tion of the crumens. The situation of these glands, and their pecu- 
liar secretion, induces the author to regard them as distinct organs, 
and he doubts their coexistence with the crumens, though M. F. 
Cuvier and Colonel Smith have reported such sometimes to be the 

The membranous sac which opens behind the ear of the Chamois, 
and the large gland which Mr. Hodgson describes in the nose of the 
Chiru, are of too partial occurrence to be made available in generic 
characters ; there are, however, two large and deep sacs, situated 
one on each side of the udder, which are of pretty general occurrence, 
but their function does not appear to exercise sufficient influence 
over the animal oeconomy to entitle them to be considered among the 

Q 2 

228 Linncean Society. 

generic characters. *• The same observation may be applied to the 
odoriferous bags attached to the prepuce of the Musk and Antilope 
gutturosa ; so that, upon the whole, the crumens, maxillary and fa- 
cial glands, are the only organs of this nature which appear entitled 
to the rank of generic characters." 

The modifications of the feet are considered as scarcely definite 
enough to be employed for generic definitions : " the glands or pores 
which open between the toes of many Ruminants afford much better 
characters for this purpose, and bear a very evident relation to the 
habits and geographical distribution of the animals. These glands 
are of greater or lesser extent in different genera, according to the 
nature of the localities which they frequent ; in the Gazelles, Ante- 
lopes, Bubals, and Oryxes, which inhabit the burning deserts of 
Africa and central Asia, they are extremely large, and frequently 
occupy the whole interspace between the first and second phalanges ; 
in the Sheep, Capricorns, and Tragelaphs again, which live on the open 
grassy downs and mountains of a less arid nature, they are of a much 
smaller size ; whilst in the Oxen, Calliopes, &c., which inhabit the 
moist forests and swamps of tropical regions, or grassy meadows of 
temperate climates, they are altogether wanting. 

After describing the uses of these digital pores, and pointing out 
the great influence they have on the ceconomy and manners of the 
animals, the author observes that he is not aware of their having 
been noticed by any previous zoologists, and concludes by expressing 
the hope that the employment of this and other influential characters, 
which it is the object of this first part of his monograph to explain, 
will be found to establish a logical, scientific, and natural arrange- 
ment among the Ruminantia, instead of the prevailing arbitrary and 
artificial system. 


April 7th. — Mr. Forster, V.P.,inthe Chair. 

Dr. Farre, F.L.S., exhibited specimens of a singular form of gall 
on the leaves of a species of oak from Mexico. The gall consisted 
of an aggregation of hollow cylindrical tubes, nearly an inch in 
length, and furnished with a fringed orifice. The tubes were 
remarkable for their elegance and uniformity ; their colour was 
white, suffused with red, especially towards the apex. 

Mr. Yarrell, F.L.S., exhibited a specimen of a satin-like mass of 
Conferva jiuviatilis, which grew in a water meadow near Totness. 
A spring, which flows only in winter, rises in the meadow, and this 
substance is taken from narrow gutters, from one of which, twelve 
inches wide, a piece was taken up which measured seventy-nine feet 
in length, so firm and tough was its consistence ; and another piece 
broke off at thirty-nine feet. In consistence and appearance it bore 
considerable resemblance to a piece of cotton wadding, but of a 
firmer texture. A portion was carefully examined under the micro- 
scope, and found to consist entirely of an interwoven mass of filaments 
of Conferva fluviatilis. The plant was compared with the authentic 

Linncean Society, ^29 

specimen of that species preserved in the Linnsean Herbarium, and 
was seen to differ only in the greater length of the articulations. 
The under surface of the mass was of a bright green colour, but the 
upper surface was white from the effects of direct exposure to the 
air and light, which had caused the death of the plant at that part. 
Read, a continuation of Mr. Smith's "Arrangement of the Genera 
of Ferns." 

April 21. — The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Read, a paper by John Blackwall, Esq., F.L.S., entitled " The 
Difference in the Number of Eyes with which Spiders are provided, 
proposed as the Basis of their distribution into Tribes ; with the 
characters of a new Family and three new Genera of Spiders." 

Mr. Blackwall begins by stating his objections to the bases of ar- 
rangement adopted by MM. Walckenaer and Dufour in the subdi- 
vision of the order Araneidea, and proceeds to give his reasons for 
preferring a division founded on the number of eyes ; in conformity 
with which he proposes three tribes, viz. 1. Octonoculata; 2. Senocu- 
lina ; 3. Binoculina. 

In the first tribe he proposes three new genera, two of them be- 
longing to a family which he characterizes under the name of Cini- 
Jlorida ; these genera he also characterizes under the names of Ciniflo, 
founded on the Clubiona atrox of Latreille, and Operaria, compri- 
sing the Theridion benignum, Walck., Drassus exlguus, Blackw., and 
jDrassus viridissimus, Walck. The third genus characterized by Mr. 
Blackwall, is referred by him to the family of Agelenid(£, under the 
name of Cavator : it is founded on the Clubiona saxatilis, Blackw. 

May 5. — The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Read, ** Additional Observations on some Plants allied to the 
natural order Burmanniaceae." By John Miers, Esq., F.L.S. 

These observations have reference chiefly to the relative position 
of the parts of the flower in the tribe of plants above-mentioned. 
The author remarks, that the stamina, placentae, and stigmata in 
these plants, are disposed in the same line, and opposite the inner 
series of the perianthium. The placentae are always invariably 
double ; and the stigmata in such cases as the present are to be re- 
garded as being made up of the confluent margins of the two ad- 
joining carpel-leaves, as suggested by Mr. Brown in his learned 
Memoir on Cyrtandrcce lately published. 

May 25. — The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

This day, the Anniversary of the birth-day of Linnaeus, and that 
appointed in the Charter for the election of Council and Officers ; 
the President opened the business of the meeting, and in stating the 
number of Members whom the Society had lost during the past 
year, gave the following notices of some of them : — 

George, Duke of Marlborough, one of the Honorary Members, was 
distinguished for his botanical taste, and for his zeal in the cultiva- 
tion of exotic plants ; and the magnificent collection formed by him 
at White Knights was long one of the finest in this country, both in 

230 Linncean Society, 

regard to its extent, and the rarity and beauty of the specimens. 
His taste for Botany continued unabated to the last, and the col- 
lection established afterwards at Blenheim was chiefly cultivated 
under his own immediate superintendence. 
John Bartlet, Esq. 

John, Duke of Bedford, K.G. — This amiable and accomplished 
nobleman was a most munificent patron of the arts and sciences in 
general, and especially of Botany, in the cultivation of which he 
took great delight. We are indebted to him for several splendidly 
illustrated works, abounding in valuable practical remarks, on par- 
ticular tribes of plants, of which he had formed extensive collections 
at his magnificent seat of Woburn Abbey. 
William Beet ham, Esq. 

William Christy, Jun., Esq. — Few persons cultivated Botany and 
Entomology with more ardour than Mr. Christy, who, to the regret 
of his friends, and to the loss of science, was cut off at an early age. 
His zeal and success in the pursuit of science were only equalled by 
his readiness and liberality to impart to others a portion of the 
stores which he had collected. He had formed an extensive Her- 
barium of British and Foreign Plants, and for that purpose had 
made several extensive tours in the British Isles, and had also vi- 
sited Madeira and Norway. His collection of dried plants, and 
books on Botany, he gave to the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 
of which he was one of the institutors. 
Lord Charles Spencer Churchill. 
Richard Cotton, Esq. 

Allan Cunningham, Esq. — This eminent botanist and traveller was 
born in the beginning of the year 1791, at Wimbledon, where his 
father (who was a native of Ayrshire) held the situation of gardener. 
His father took great pains with his education, and placed him, 
along with his younger brother, Richard, at an excellent academy at 
Putney, then conducted by the Rev. Mr. Adams. About the year 
1808 both brothers were engaged in the office of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens at Kew, at the period when the second edition of the 'Hor- 
tus Kewensis ' was passing through the press. In the autumn of 
1814, having been appointed a Botanical Collector for the Royal 
Gardens, he left England, in company with Mr. James Bowie (who 
had also received a similar appointment), for the Brazils, where they 
remained two years, and among many other plants transmitted by 
them, were Gloxinia speciosa, Cereus speciosissimus, Jacaranda mi- 
mosifolia, and Calathea zebrina, then new to the Gardens. The two 
companions now separated, Mr. Bowie having received instructions 
to proceed to the Cape of Good Hope, and Mr. Cunningham to 
New South Wales, where he arrived in 1817, and shortly after 
joined the expedition into the interior of that colony, under Mr. 
Oxley, the Surveyor- General. On his return to Sydney he em- 
barked as botanist in the voyage of survey under the command of 
Lieutenant, now Captain Philip Parker King, of the Royal Navy. 
The survey continued four years, and during that period they cir- 
cumnavigated Australia several times, and visited Van Diemen' 

Linruean Society. 231 

Land, Timor, and the Mauritius, at all of which places Mr. Cun- 
ningham formed extensive collections. After the conclusion of these 
voyages, Mr. Cunningham made several journeys into the interior 
of New South Wales, and subsequently visited Norfolk Island and 
New Zealand, where he remained several months. The fruits of 
his researches in the latter country are given in the * Companion to 
the Botanical Magazine,' and ' Annals of Natural History.' After 
an absence of seventeen years, Mr. Cunningham returned to his 
native country, and continued to reside in the vicinity of Kew, until 
the melancholy tidings arrived of the death of his brother Richard, 
whom he was appointed to succeed in the quality of Colonial 
Botanist in New South Wales, where he again arrived in February 
1837. In the following year he revisited New Zealand, and re- 
mained there during the whole of the rainy season, which produced 
serious effects upon a constitution already greatly debilitated, and 
on his return to Sydney his health visibly declined until the period 
of his death, which took place on the 27th of June last, at the age 
of 48. He was distinguished for his moral worth, singleness of 
heart, and enthusiastic zeal in the pursuit of science. 

Davies Gilbert, Esq., F.R.S. — Mr. Davies Gilbert was distin- 
guished by his high attainments in science and literature, his simple 
and gentle manners, and his amiable purity of heart. He was the 
son of the Rev. Edward Giddy, and was born on the 6th of March, 
1767, at St. Erth, in Cornwall. 

Davies Giddy was a child of early intellectual promise, but his 
health was feeble, and he received not only the rudiments but al- 
most the whole of his education under the paternal roof, guided and 
assisted by a father whose classical learning was of a high order. 
For about a twelvemonth he was placed under the tuition of the Rev. 
James Parken, Master of the Grammar School at Penzance, to which 
tOTvn his family removed for that purpose ; but he soon returned 
to Tredrea, which was long afterwards his favourite abode, to pursue 
his studies in a manner more congenial to his feelings. He had by 
this time formed a taste for mathematical investigations, in which 
he was aided by the knowledge, freely and kindly imparted, of the 
Rev. Malachi Hitchins of St. Hilary, a man whose name is well 
known and respected by practical astronomers. In the year 1782 
he removed with his family to Bristol, and continued to cultivate the 
severer sciences with undiminished ardour. On the 12th of April, 
1785, he entered as a Gentleman Commoner of Pembroke College 
in the University of Oxford, and soon attracted the notice of many 
of its Professors and Senior Residents. He resided pretty constantly 
there from his matriculation, except during the long vacations, till 
the year 1789, when he became an Honorary Master of Arts, but still 
continued to make long visits to his old College. 

In November, 1791, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and formed a connexion with Dr. Maskelyne, Sir Joseph Banks, 
Mr. Cavendish, and other eminent members of that body, which 
terminated only with their lives. Though the sciences dependent 
on and connected wdth mathematics were the chief objects of his 

232 Linncea7i Society, 

early studies, he was far from inattentive to the claims of Natural 
History on a portion of his leisure. He cultivated chiefly that 
branch of it which emhraces the vegetable kingdom ; and an ac- 
quaintance formed in Cornwall with Dr. Withering, as well as his 
friendship with Dr. Beddoes and Dr. Sibthorp at Oxford, contri- 
buted to the same end. He became a Fellow of the Linnsean So- 
ciety in 1792, in which year he also served the office of Sheriff for 
his native county. In the year 1804 he was chosen one of the re- 
presentatives of the borough of Helston, and in 1806 was returned 
in a new Parliament for that of Bodmin. In this seat he continued 
till the year 1832, when he ceased to be a member of the legislature. 
During the whole time of his continuance in Parliament, he was the 
encourager and indefatigal)le supporter of every measure connected 
with the advancement of science ; and by his representations and 
exertions many services were rendered to various scientific societies 
and institutions, in promoting whose prosperity and usefulness he 
was incessantly and zealously occupied. He took a prominent part 
in the inquiry relating to the currency, and published in 1811 a 
plain statement of the bullion question ; and he was also very 
active both in the House of Commons and out of it in the arrange- 
ment of the standard of weights and measures. 

In 1806 he married Mary Anne Gilbert, and in 1817 he assumed 
the name of her family, in pursuance of the injunction contained in 
a will of her uncle, Charles Gilbert, Esq., of Eastbourne, in Sussex. 
By this marriage he had seven children, of whom only four sur- 
vived him ; John Davies Gilbert, Esq., the present Sheriff of Sussex, 
and three daughters. 

He became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1820, and 
was likewise Fellow of the Astronomical and Geological Societies. 
He continued to perform the oflfice of Treasurer of the Royal So- 
ciety, till in 1827 he became President of that distinguished body. 
In the year 1831 he retired from the chair, and was succeeded by His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. In 1832 he received from the 
University of Oxford the Degree of Doctor of Laws, by Diploma. 

His last visit to his native county took place in 1839. On lea- 
ving Cornwall he came through Exeter and Oxford to London, and 
returned after a few days to Oxford. This last journey, which was 
attended by some untoward circumstances, was too much for his 
sinking strength. On his return to London he fell into a state of 
lethargy, from which, though he was enabled to reach his home, he 
never fully recovered, but after lingering in this state for some time 
he expired, on the 24th of December, 1839, and in the 73rd year 
of his age. 

The Rev. Joseph Goodall, D.D., Provost of Eton College. — Dr. 
Goodall was ardently devoted to the study of Natural History, but 
more especially to Conchology, with which science he was tho- 
roughly acquainted, and his collection in that department was re- 
garded as one of the most valuable in this country. He was ever a 
warm and zealous friend of this Society. 

The Reverend Patrick Keith. — Mr. Keith long and successfully 

Linn(Ban Society. 233 

cultivated the interesting department of Vegetable Physiology, 
to which he published an Introduction in 1816, under the title of 
' System of Physiological Botany,* in two volumes, 8vo. The 
work contained the fullest and best account of the subject at that 
time in the English language, and was, moreover, enriched by nu- 
merous original remarks. Mr. Keith was likewise the author of a 
Botanical Lexicon, published in 1837, and three separate Memoirs, 
printed in the 11th, 12th and 16th volumes of the Society's Trans- 
actions ; the first on the Formation of the Vegetable Epidermis, the 
second on the Development of the Seminal Germ, and the third 
on the Origin of Buds. Several papers on botanical subjects, from 
the pen of Mr. Keith, occur also in the Philosophical Magazine and 
Annals of Natural History. 

Mr. Keith had long been suffering from severe illness, which ter- 
minated in his death on the 2oth of January last, at the age of 71, 
at the parsonage of Stalisfield, in Kent, of which parish he had been 
for many years vicar. He was a native of Scotland, and received 
his education at the University of Glasgow. 

William Kent, Esq. — Mr. Kent was a zealous botanist and hor- 
ticulturist, and formerly possessed an extensive garden at Clapton, 
where, among many other choice plants, he successfully cultivated 
the beautiful Nelumhlum speciosum, and other tender aquatics, of 
which he was a liberal distributor to his friends. His health obli- 
ging him to retire to Bath, he lost the means of indulging his inclina- 
tion to horticulture on so large a scale ; but of his garden on Bath- 
wdck Hill, it might truly be said that there never perhaps were so 
many rare plants cultivated together in so small a space. Notwith- 
standing he laboured under a painful complaint, he was also happily 
able to amuse himself by landscape painting ; and at the same time 
he was ever active in promoting useful institutions, moral, scientific 
or literary. 

Don Mariano Lagasca, Professor of Botany, and Director of the 
Royal Botanic Garden at Madrid, was a native of the province of 
Arragon, where his father followed the occupation of a farmer. He 
was sent at an early age to the Gymnasium of Tarragona, and after 
pursuing the course of study prescribed at that institution, he re- 
paired to Madrid to complete himself for the medical profession, for 
which he had evinced a predilection. At Madrid he had the good 
fortune to attend the lectures, and to acquire the friendship, of the 
celebrated Cavanilles, at that time Professor of Botany in the 
Spanish capital, and these circumstances laid the foundation of 
the eminence to which he afterwards attained. In 1822, on the 
assembling of the Cortes, he was returned Deputy for his native 
province, and on the overthrow of the constitutional form of go- 
vernment in November of the following year, he was obliged to 
consult his safety by flight, first to Gibraltar, and afterwards to 
this country, where his high moral character, amiable disposition, 
and eminent talents, gained him universal esteem and respect. 

Spain, long famed as the granary of ancient Rome, is known to 
surpass all other countries in the great variety of those grasses 
which are cultivated for human food, such as wheat, barley, rye and 

234 Linncean Society. 

oats : and many of those whom I am now addressing may remem- 
ber the extensive and interesting collection of Spanish Cerealia cul- 
tivated by Professor Lagasca in the garden belonging to the Society 
of Apothecaries at Chelsea. The publication of a ' Ceres and Flora 
Hispanica ' had long been a favourite object with him, but which he 
did not live to accomplish. He departed this life in the 58th yeaj- 
of his age, on the 23rd of June last, at the palace of his early friend 
and school associate, the present Bishop of Barcelona, who hearing 
of his infirm state of health, had invited him to partake of his 
hospitality and kindness, in the hope that the milder air of Cata- 
lonia might be the means of restoring him. His remains were ho- 
noured with a public funeral, and an oration was pronounced over 
him by his friend Don Augustin Yanez, Professor of Natural History 
at Barcelona. 

It was in Systematic Botany that Professor Lagasca had more 
particularly distinguished himself, and he has added greatly to our 
knowledge of various families of plants, such as UmbelUferce, Dip- 
sacecB and Composite, of one of the groups of which, the Labiatijlora, 
he may be regarded as the founder. 

James Dottin Maycock, M.D. — Dr. Maycock is deserving of no- 
tice as the author of a Flora of Barbadoes, in which island he had 
long resided. The work forms a catalogue of the indigenous as well 
as cultivated plants of that island, and contains besides a number 
of interesting notices on their oeconomical uses. The author has fully 
established the identity of the species which affords the Barbadoes 
aloes, with the Aloe vulgaris, accurately figured in the * Flora Grseca.' 
William Mills, Esq. 

Sir John St. Auhyn, Bart., F.R.S. — A distinguished cultivator of 
the science of Mineralogy, and who possessed one of the most ex- 
tensive and valuable collections in that department of Natural His- 
tory ever formed in this country. 
James Sharpe, Esq. 
The Rev. Thomas, Lord Walsingham. 
Amongst the Foreign Members occur — 

John Frederick Blumenbach, M.D., Professor of Medicine in the 
University of Gottingen, Foreign Member of the Royal Society of 
London, and Associate of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the 
French Institute, was pre-eminently distinguished by his important 
researches in General Anatomy and Physiology, which he continued 
to prosecute during a long life ardently devoted to the advancement of 
science. He was equally remarkable for the extent and variety of his 
knowledge and the philosophical sagacity of his views. Professor 
Blumenbach died on the 22nd of January last, at the advanced age 
of 88. 

Joseph Francis, Baron Jacquin, Professor of Botany and Che- 
mistry, and Director of the Imperial Gardens at Schcenbrunn, near 
Vienna, to which appointments he succeeded on the resignation of 
his father, the celebrated traveller and botanist. He was author 
of Eclogce Plantarum, a folio work, containing descriptions and co- 
loured figures of the new and rare plants which flowered in the 
gardens under his care, and also of a valuable work on birds. 

Linncean Society, 235 

Baron Jacquin possessed an amiable and obliging disposition, 
and was distinguished for his urbanity and kindness, especially to 
strangers ; and few cultivators of science visited the Austrian capi- 
tal without partaking of his good offices and hospitality. He died 
at Vienna, on the 10th of December, in the 74th year of his age. 
. The President also announced that seventeen Fellows and four 
Associates had been elected since the last Anniversary. 

It was then moved by the President, and unanimously agreed to 
by the meeting. That the cordial thanks of the Society be given to 
Dr. Boott on his retirement from the office of Secretary, for the in. 
cessant attention which he has shown to the duties of that office, and 
the ability, zeal, and urbanity with which he has discharged those 

At the election, which subsequently took place, the Lord Bishop 
of Norwich was re-elected President ; Edward Forster, Esq., Trea- 
surer ; John Joseph Bennett, Esq., Secretary ; and Richard Taylor, 
Esq., Under-Secretary. The following five Fellows were elected 
into the Council in the room of others going out; viz. Thomas Bell, 
Esq., George Loddiges, Esq., Gideon Mantell, Esq., LL.D., Richard 
Horsman Solly, Esq., and Sir George Thomas Staunton, Bart. 

June 2. — Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. George Francis, F.L.S., exhibited a portion of the trunk of 
the Lepurandra saccidora (Graham Cat. Bomb. PI. p. 193.), from 
Western India, of the bark of which sacks and bags are made. 

Mr. Ranch exhibited a specimen of the fruit of Salisburia adianti- 
folia, which ripened last year in the Imperial Gardens at Schoen- 
brunn, near Vienna. 

Read, " On the reproductive Organs of Equisetum." By Mr. 
Joseph Henderson, Gardener to Earl Fitzwilliam, at Milton Park, 
communicated by the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, P\L.S. Mr. Hender- 
son's observations were made on Equisetum hyemale and other spe- 
cies, and embrace the entire period of development of the sporae and 
of the thecae containing them. The theca is in the first instance 
filled with cells of extreme tenuity, in the interior of which the 
sporae afterwards take their origin. After the appearance of the 
sporae the containing cells gradually become thickened, and sepa- 
rate from each other; and at a still later period their walls are 
marked by spiral sutures, by means of which they are subdivided 
into two narrow bands with broad and rounded ends. As the sporae 
approach maturity these bands separate at the sutures, and the con- 
taining cell is thus resolved into its component parts, the supposed 
filaments and antherae of Hedwig. The sporae, when ripe, have a 
double membrane, which is rendered evident by the addition of 
tincture of iodine. In the immature state of the thecae, up to the 
time when the spiral lines become distinctly marked on the integu- 
ment of the sporae, they form transparent membranous reticulated 
bags, the meshes of which have different directions in different 
parts. When the sporae have attained their full size, a new deposit 
of vegetable matter is added, and spiral vessels are formed within 
the flattened cells of which the membrane is composed, and the 

236 Miscellaneous, 

outlines of which are indicated by the meshes on the surface. In 
some situations these vessels are true spirals, in others they partake 
more of the character of the annular. 

While making these observations, Mr. Henderson was not aware 
that he had been in part anticipated by Treviranus, BischofF and 
Meyen. They differ, however, in some particulars from the obser- 
vations of those physiologists, who also differ from each other. 



The following corrections upon the above communication, in our 
present Number, have been received from Mr. Hassall. 

P. 169. " It is stated, that Campanularia dumosa is now ascertained 
to be the Cornularia rugosa of Cavolini — an opinion formerly held 
by Dr. Johnston and Mr. Gray. I have just been informed by the 
former that he is now assured it is not so." 

P. 174. "Dr. Johnston considers Me/o6e5mjow5^M/a^a of Lamouroux, 
which is given, p. 174, as a synonym of M. lichenoides, to be this spe- 
cies in a young state; Millepora lichenoides Dr. J. also considers to 
be a condition of Millepora polymorpha, and that this again is nothing 
but the calcareous base of Corallina officinalis. To this I may further 
observe, that M. lichenoides is often found in situations in which the 
latter is, I believe, never met with ; the one being usually adhe- 
rent to fuci, the other always growing on rocks." — A. H. H. 


We have the painful duty of recording the decease, during the 
past month, of N. A. Vigors, Esq., M.P., F.L.S., &c., whose ex- 
ertions in the department of Zoology are well known ;— and of 
Dr. A. F. A. Wiegmann, Professor in the University of Berlin, 
which sustains a heavy loss by his death. Our readers are aware 
of the great value of the ' Archiv f iir Naturgeschichte ' conducted by 
him, of the contents of which we have often availed ourselves. 


We learn from Mr. J. H. Gurney that a specimen of the Red- 
breasted Snipe was killed near Yarmouth, early in October. Our 
informant adds, that it was a male, and had nearly completed its 
change from the summer to the winter plumage. 


No. 7, Somerset Place, Stoke. 

To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 
Gentlemen,— The following interesting facts are, I think, worthy 
of record in your Annals. 

A very fine specimen of the Hoopoe was shot at Swansea the 
latter end of May last, and another specimen the latter end of last 
month ; and yesterday, Sept. 7th, I was out shooting with a gentle- 
man of this neighbourhood (the Rev. J. Hoar), when we suc- 
ceeded in shooting no less than ten of the Tringa minuta, or Little 

Miscellaneous. 23? 

Stint ; seeing a vast number more, which we were unable to get 
at, and invariably in company with the Dunlin or Purre. So many 
having been seen of this hitherto considered rare bird, is, I think, 
too interesting a fact not to be placed on record. — J. U. G. Gutch. 


In a description of a Fossil Dragon Fly from the lias of War- 
wickshire, in the Magazine of Nat. Hist, for June last, p. 301, I 
stated that one of the fossil fish, found in the same locality, " ap- 
pears to be a Cycloid, and furnishes an exception to the general- 
ization of M. Agassiz, that no cycloidian fish occurs below the 
chalk." I have since had an opportunity of showing this fish to 
M. Agassiz, who proved to me, that although the scales of this 
fish bear much resemblance at first sight to those of a Cycloid, yet 
that it is in fact a Ganoid of the genus Pholidophorus . The above 
generalization of M. Agassiz, therefore, remains as yet without an 
exception. — H. E. Strickland. 


The deception which is sometimes practised on naturalists by con- 
tinental preparers of objects of natural history, is well exemplified 
by a specimen of a Kingfisher which was purchased in Paris, and is 
now before me. The specimen decidedly belongs to the genus Tu- 
ny sipter a, of which there is but one species hitherto described, the 
Tanysiptera Dea, a bird rarely seen in collections, though the British 
Museum contains two good specimens. That to which I now wish 
to call the attention of ornithologists, diff'ers much from the Tany- 
siptera Dea, both by the shortness of the central tail-feathers and by 
the richness of the several colours with which it is ornamented ; and 
from these differences it was concluded to be a beautiful new spe- 
cies. But on examining the specimen carefully, some doubt arose 
as to the fact, whether it had not been, in part, at least, artfully 
dressed in its present showy plumage, from observing that the struc- 
ture of some of the feathers was of a more downy nature, especially 
on the urop3'^gium and beneath the body, than those usually cover- 
ing the body of Kingfishers. This idea was rendered certain by the 
discovery that the wings were decidedly those of an Alcedo Senega- 
lensis. The addition of wings and feet is not, however, uncommon 
in stuffed specimens of birds which come from New Guiana, as the 
natives prepare the skins without those parts, for use as ornaments, 
and from them the skins are procured and brought to Europe. A 
further examination proved that the downy feathers (which are of a 
rich salmon colour) of the uropygium, and most of those beneath 
the body, had been taken from a specimen of Trogon Duvaucelii ; 
while on the sides these latter feathers are mixed with others from 
the neck of a young bird of Alcedo leucocephala, probably thus 
placed in order to diminish the probability of determining their 
identity. Having thus shown that all the under part is decep- 
tively put together, it may reasonably be concluded that the feet 

238 Miscellaneous. 

by which the specimen is attached to its perch, have also been 
added to complete it. 

1'hus far 1 have referred to the defective portions, which must be 
decidedly considered as made up from the plumage of various birds, 
artificially intermingled, to give the appearance of a perfect speci- 
men. I will now pass to the more pleasing task of noticing the 
parts which I think are those belonging to a distinct species. I 
will first, however, mention, that on comparing the feathers of these 
parts, as far as regards their structure, with those of the same parts 
of a well-authenticated specimen of Tanysiptera Dea, one is readily 
satisfied with their identity of character and disposition. But the 
difi^erences of colouring between those portions which are left of the 
original bird and the same parts in the old species, will be better 
explained by the following description. 

The tips of the feathers that compose the crest, as well as the 
elongated central tail-feathers, are ultramarine in this bird ; while 
in the Tanysiptera Dea these parts are of a rich cobalt ; in both, 
however, the tail-feathers are tipped with white. 

The back is deep shining black in the present bird ; but in the 
T. Dea that part is of a dull black, with each feather margined with 
deep blue. 

The outer tail-feathers have the inner webs brownish black, and 
the exterior webs ultramarine ; while in the T. Dea they are white, 
margined narrowly on the exterior edges with cobalt. 

The central tail-feathers are much shorter than those of the T.Dea^ 
though the size of the bird is nearly the same. 

From these diflferences I may venture to give the following short 
specific characters of the bird before me, under the name of Tany- 
siptera Nympha : — 

Deep black above, margined with deep blue ; the occipital crest 
and central tail-feathers ultramarine, the latter tipped with 
white ; the lateral tail-feathers brownish black, with the outer 
webs ultramarine : beneath, &c. } 

I have two reasons for bringing this partly artificial bird before 
naturalists ; — first, to call the attention of ornithologists to the fact 
that some of the continental preparers of objects of Natural History 
still continue the shameful practice of endeavouring to deceive the 
zealous collector by false means, as in bygone days, when several 
such were published in splendid works, that have since been dis- 
covered to be manufactured for the purpose of obtaining large suras 
of money from amateurs who were struck by their magnificent 
appearance : secondly, to point out, as far as such a specimen will 
admit, the existence, without doubt, of a second species of an ex- 
tremely rare genus, and thus endeavour to lead to its further eluci- 
dation, in the hope of establishing the fact of the existence of more 
than one species. In further proof of the latter assertion, I may 
add, that 1 have seen another specimen, which differs in several 
respects from both those now mentioned, and may be an inter- 
mediate species between them, and which wHl be soon described by 
M. La Fresnage, of Paris. — George Kobekt Gray. 

Meteorological Observations. 239 


I have found that the fountain inkstand, sold for Stephens's ink 
(but those sold by Mordan are probably as good), are the best 
vessels to keep gum-water in for common daily use. The fluid part 
of the gum-water being considerably above the level of the surface 
of the gum which is exposed for use, prevents it from becoming dry, 
as is so constantly the case in other kinds of vessels. — J. E. Gray. 


Three specimens of this very rare shell have lately been brought to 
this country by Mr. Reeve, who purchased them at a sale in Holland. 
The shell of the unhatched animal (as is shown by the shell re- 
maining on the apex of one of the specimens) is smooth, polished, 
nearly discoidal, and formed of several (three or four) slowly en- 
larging whorls, so as exactly to resemble the shell of the Helix 
lucida in form and appearance. When the animal is hatched, it 
suddenly enlarges its shell, and changes its form. The keel is 
formed of two distinct laminae, one belonging to each side of the 
shell. In both these particulars, which I believe have not been 
noticed before, it exactly agrees with the more common Carinaria 
Mediterranea. — J. E. Gray. 


Chiswick. — Sept. 1, 2. Fine. 3. Rain. 4. Cloudy : rain. 5, 6. Fine. 7, 8. 
Very fine. 9. Hazy. 10 — 13. Very fine. 14. Hazy: heavy rain. 15. Cloudy: 
rain at night. 16. Rain, with brisk S.W. wind: barometer exceedingly low. 
17. Very fine: frosty at night. 18. Frosty haze : very fine. 19. Cloudy and 
cool. 20. Fine. 21. Fine : rain. 22. Heavy rain. 23. Rain : clear and fine 
at night. 24. Heavy showers. 25. Cold and wet. 26. Overcast : rain. 27. 
Cloudy and fine. 28. Heavy rain. 29, 30. Clear and fine. 

Boston. — Sept. 1. Cloudy. 2. Fine. 3. Rain: rain early a.m. 4 — 6. Fine. 
7. Cloudy. 8. Fine. 9. Cloudy: rain early a.m. 10. Fine : rain early a.m. 
II, 12. Fine. 13. Fine: rain p.m. 14. Cloudy. 15. Fine. 16. Fine: rain 
early A.M. : rain p.m. 17. Cloudy: rain early a.m. 18. Fine: rain p.m. 19, 
20. Cloudy. 21. Cloudy: rain p.m. 22. Stormy and rain: rain a.m. 23. 
Rain : rain early a.m. 24. Fine: rain early a.m. 25. Rain: rain early a.m. : 
rain A.M. 26. Fine: rain p.m. 27. Fine. 28. Cloudy. 29. Fine: rain p.m. 
30. Fine. 

Applegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Sept. 1. Fine harvest day: air electric. 
2. Rain from midday. 3, 4. Showery, 5. Fine and clear. 6. Fine but cloudy. 
7. Fine : a few drops of rain. 8. Cloudy a.m. : rain p.m. 9. Wet : cleared up : 
wet again. 10,11. Occasional heavy showers. 12. Moist, but moderate. 13. 
The same : one shower. 14. Fine and clear. 15. Cold and showery. 16. Rain 
A.M. 17,18. Very fine. 19. Fine a.m. : moist p.m. 20. Fine a-m. 21. Fine 
A.M. : showery. 22. Fine and dry : thunder a.m. 23. Rain. 24. Fine and 
fair. 25—27. Very wet. 28, 29. Moist. 30. Showery. 

Sun shone out 28 days. Rain fell 21 days. Thunder 1 day. 

Wind north by east 1 day. North-east 3 days. East-north-east 3 days. East 
3 days. South-east § day. South 5 days. South-south-west 1 day. South- 
west 9idays. West-south-west 2 days. West 1 day. North-west 1 day. 

Calm 6 days. Moderate 1 1 days. Brisk 5 days. Strong breeze 5 days. 
Boisterous 2 days. Variable 1 day. 

Mean temperature of the month 50°*30 

Mean temperature of September, 1839 ... 52 '12 
Mean temperature of spring water 50 '90 

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XXVI. — Zoo-Geological Considerations on the Freshioater 
Mollusca. By Edward Forbes, Esq., M.W.S., For. Sec. 
B.S., &c. 

The Mollusca inhabiting fresh water are all testaceous ; such 
as are univalve are either pulmoniferous or pectinibranchous 
Gasteropoda ; such as are bivalve are Acephala Lamelli- 
branchia. The consideration of the effect of climatal influence 
on their generic and specific variations of form, and of the 
comparative geographical distribution of the existing species, 
leads to some conclusions which appear to bear importantly 
on certain points in geology. 

The genera of Freshwater Pulmonifera exhibit few subge- 
neric groupings of species, and those few are not climatally 
centralized. Thus, the forms of Limneus are common to the 
whole world, and the distribution of species is proportionably 
extensive. The species of Limneus present near resemblances 
whether gathered in England, in India, in Australia or in 
America — they are often even specifically identical. Plariorbis 
presents the same phaenomena, and the variations of form in 
Physa can scarcely be regarded as exceptional. So also An- 
cylus. Nor are the two characters most subject to the climatal 
influence, those of size and colour, much affected by it, either 
as regards the species of the genera or the individuals of the 
species. Some of the largest forms of Limneus and Planorbis 
are northern, and in them colour never varies climatally. The 
negative influences which appear to affect the number of spe- 
cies as we go northwards are rather structural than climatal. 

Not so however with the pectinibranchous Gasteropoda 
inhabiting fresh water. Among them we find the number of 
genera and of species increasing as we go south, and peculiar 
forms characterizing warm countries. A Paludina or Mela- 
nia from the warmer regions of our earth has an eye-character 

Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Dec. 1840. R 

242 Mr. E. Forbes on Freshwater Mollusca, 

which enables us at once to name its fatherland. American 
forms and Asiatic forms differ ; we find the minor groups cen- 
tralized, and we might colour our maps variously, according 
to the centralization of those groups. Their colouring varies 
with the climate, and specimens of the same species from dif- 
ferent localities may be distinguished by variation of size. 

In the lacustrine and fluviatile genera of Acephala we see a 
similar influence of climate at work. The groups of Naiades 
and of Cyclades are concentrated in certain geographical lo- 
calities, and the southern species are often more splendid in 
form and colouring than the northern. The old and new con- 
tinents have few or no species in common, and the freshwater 
Acephala of the east and west are in most cases very differ- 

These facts may be stated generally in the form of two pro- 
bable laws : — 

1st. The variations of form, specific and generic, are not 
so dependent on climate in the freshwater pulmoniferous 
Gasteropoda as in the freshwater pectinibranchous Gastero- 
poda and Acephala. 

2nd. In a genus independent of climatal influence the ex- 
tension of distribution is correspondent with the non -variation 
of form, and vice versa in a genus subject to the climatal in- 

The following inferences applicable to geology may be 
drawn from these considerations : — 

1st. If these views be correct, and if the great differences 
between the animals of the primaeval world and those of the 
present depend on climatal conditions as is usually admitted, 
the difference between the generic and subgeneric forms of the 
pulmoniferous MoUusca in the ancient strata and those now 
living, should not be nearly so great as that between the an- 
cient and existing marine fauna. And so we find it. When 
we look over a collection of fossil freshwater Pulmonifera we 
are at once struck by the circumstance of the absence of ex- 
tinct genera and of the near alliance between the fossil and 
extinct forms. 

2nd. But there should be a difference either as to the dis- 
tribution or as to the character and number of species be- 
tween the pectinibranchous Gasteropoda and Acephala of the 
present and of the fossiliferous past. Thus, as climatal 
causes affect the distribution of their genera and species, if 
Britain had a warmer climate in the early ages of the world, 
these tribes should evidence it. And such is the case. Me- 
lania and Melanopsis and Ampullaria counted numerous sub- 
jects at one time in our lakes and rivers ; Paludince were once 

Mr. S. V. Wood^s Catalogue of Shells from the Crag, 243 

far more abundant than they are now ; Cyrena has disap- 
peared, and Cyclas has dwindled into insignificance ; nor does 
our weather hold out any prospect of bettering itself so as to 
induce a return of the analogues of our ancient visitants. 

3rd. In a fossiliferous bed formed during a period when 
the temperature of Britain did not exceed that of the warmer 
regions of our world at present, there ought not to be the 
same difference in the comparative number of species, extinct 
and existing, in the marine and freshwater faunas, and scarcely 
any in the case of the freshwater Pulmonifera. In such a 
bed the freshwater Mollusks should either be nearly allied 
to, or identical with, existing species of warmer climates. I 
would refer to this rule the phaenomena of the shell-bed at 
Grays, Essex, described by Mr. Morris, in which we find the 
pectinibranchous Gasteropoda and the Acephala presenting 
thermal characters, while the Pulmonifera are identical with 
the existing British species. These phaenomena should lead 
us to consider that bed as of pleiocene and not of pleistocene 

4th. When there is no positive but an evident negative 
difference from the existing fauna in a tertiary or post-tertiary 
freshwater deposit, our conclusions as to the climate of the 
period in which it was formed must mainly depend on the 
consideration whether the negation is of Pulmonifera or of 
Pectinibranchia and Acephala ; for in the former case it pro- 
bably depends on the action of secondary influences, and in 
the latter it possibly may be owing to the same cause. 

5th. If in calculating percentages we deduce them from 
lists including both freshwater and marine species, we draw 
false inferences as regards the genera in the older rocks and 
the species in the pleiocene and pleistocene beds. To correct 
this error we should in the former case calculate separate 
percentages for the marine and freshwater species, and in the 
latter consider the freshwater Pulmonifera by themselves. 

XXVII. — A Catalogue of Shells from the Crag, By S. V. 

Wood, Esq., F.G.S. 

To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 


The following is part of a Catalogue of the fossil contents of 
the Crag Formation, including the Conchifera of Lamarck. I 
have endeavoured to make it as concise as possible, in order 
(should you think it worth publication) not to trespass too 

R 2 

244 Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag, 

largely upon the valuable space in your Journal ; I have there- 
fore introduced no more synonyma than I found absolutely 
necessary to make it intelligible. References are given where 
the species have been verified, and the new names are merely 
provisional, as they are affixed to specimens in my Cabinet : 
as it is my intention at some future period to give full de- 
scriptions of these, I shall defer my copious remarks till that 
time. Sutton (near Woodbridge in Suffolk) is given as the 
locality to the greater number of species, though many of them 
are not restricted to that parish ; but as quarries of the red and 
coralline crag are there numerous and very rich in organic 
remains, a repetition of places is needless; where others are spe- 
cified, they denote the species to have been there more pecu- 
liarly located ; those for the mammaliferous crag I have taken 
from Woodward, with a few additional new discoveries given 
me by Capt. Alexander. The localities for the red and coral- 
line shells I will guarantee, having myself found every species 
enumerated in this catalogue, with the single exception of the 
Cyrena at Gedgrave. The classification is according to La- 
marck, and as it is the best known is best adapted to my 
purpose, the shells having been long thus arranged in my 
cabinet. Upon looking over the catalogue, it will be observed 
that several of the shells now living in the present seas are 
quoted as found fossil in the coralline crag, while they appear 
to be wanting in the red or newer formation ; but in most of 
the instances the specimens are rare even in that deposit, 
which was formed either in deeper or more tranquil water 
than we have every reason to believe was the case with the 
gravelly covering that in some places rests upon it ; but even 
where they are found in numbers their fragility might have 
been unable to withstand the agitation of a littoral deposit ; 
they, of course, must have existed through the more modern 
period. The Tellina donacina^ a shell whose solidity we might 
have imagined to have been a sufficient protection, has not 
hitherto been found in the red crag, though one of the most 
abundant in the coralline ; yet its presence there is, as far 
as I know, confined to one spot, thus appearing to have been 
a very local species ; further search, particularly in newly dis- 
covered localities, will probably bring to light many of these 

Yours, &c. 

S. V. Wood. 

13, Bernard Street, Russell Square. 
Oct. 15, 1840. 

Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag. 245 

















Teredo navalis, Linn. Syst. Nat. 







(tubes of.) 
Walton Naze. 

Walton Naze. 
Walton Naze. 

Post wick, 
[n' Norwich 




Gastrochaena pholadia, Turt. Bri- 
tish Bivalves, t. 2. f. 8, 9... 

Pholas latus, List. pi. 279 f 

P. crispata, Mo7it. T. B. p. 23. 

cylindrica, Min. Con, t. 148. 

papyracea? Turt. (fragments 

onl V ) 

Candida? (dorsal valve only.; 

Pholadomya candidoides, n. s. ... 

Solen siliqua §, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 


ensiformis, n. s 

Cultellus cultellatus, n. s 

Panopeea Norvegica, Min. Con. t. 


Walton Naze. 
Walton Naze. 


Alderton, neai 


Ipsviciensis, Min. Con. t. 611. 

gentilis ||, Min. Con. t. 610.. 


Glycimeris vagina, n. s 

Mya truncata, Linn. Syst. p. 1112. 

arenaria, Liwra. Syst. p. 1112. 

lata, Min. Con. t. 81 



ovalis, Turt. Brit. Biv. t. 3. 

f. 1, 2 

Butley, near 

Walton Naze. 

t xM. Pullus, Min. Con. t. 531 . 
Sphenia Binghami? Turt. 1. 19. f.3. 
cylindrica**, n. s. « ,, 





angulata, n. s 

Anatina pretenera, n. s 

Thracia pubescens 

Mva pubescens, Mont. T. B. 
p. 40. 
convexa'f'f? • 

* The river Deben separates this parish from Woodbridge, but the quarries 
from which the greater part of the shells were obtained are situated at the di- 
stance of two miles from that town. 

t Hist. Conch., fol. Lond. 1687. Lib. iii. 

X Ramsholt is on the banks of the Deben, about four miles from Woodbridge. 

§ 1 presume this to differ from Solen gefiuis, Nyst, in not being cylindrical : 
our shell is broader on the posterior than on the anterior side, a character not 
given in his description. 

!| Until more specimens be found I think there is a doubt about this species. 

^ These Myce present a variety of distorted forms, but all that are in my ca- 
binet, and all that I have seen from the crag, may be referred to the above species. 

** This is identical with a recent British shell not figured that I am aware of. 

tt My specimens are compressed and broken ; too imperfect for identification. 

246 Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag. 



















Thracia tiuncata, n. s 

Lutraria elliptica, Turt. Brit. Biv. 
p. 65 


Sutton ......... 




near South- 

South wold. 


Mactra lutraria, Linn. Syst. 
Nat. -p. 1126. 
■ Listeri ••• 

Mactra Listeri, Gmelhiy Syst. 

p. 3261. 
Tellina lata alba, Lister, t. 253. 
Mactra arcuata, Min. Con. t. 1 60. 

solida, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 






M. dubia et M. ovalis, Min, 
Con. t. 160. 
glauca, Gmel. Syst. p. 3260 . 

stultorum, Linn. Syst. Nat. 

p. 1126 


M. magna, Woodward^ Geol. of 
Norf. i. 2. f. 8. 

subtruncata,Mow^. 7'.^.p.93. 

M. cuneata, Woodward^ t. 2. 
f. 10. 





-deaurata? Turt 

Amphidesma album, Fleming, Brit. 
Ani. p. 432 




Mactra alba. Wood, Linn. 
Trans, vi. 174. 

prismaticum, Turt. Brit. Biv. 

t. 5. f. 3 

obovale, n. s 

Lepton squamosum?!, Turt 

■ - nitidum'^'f Turt ...... 

Sutton ....... 

Corbula striata, i^^e?w 

Cardium striatum. Walker, 

Test, minuta, rar. 
Corbula nucleus, Turt. 

rotundata, Min. Con. t. 


complanata, Min.Con. t. 362. 

subrostrata, n. s. 




? granulata X, Nyst, Bull, de 

V Acad, Roy. de Bruxelles, 
1839,pt. 2. 3. 

? sulcata §, n. s 

* Only one worn specimen, which is therefore doubtful. 

■f I have only two or three specimens, and those are not in good condition. 

X Half a dozen specimens that I possess are unfortunately all the right valve, 
and I suspect it does not strictly belong to this genus. 

§ An equivalved shell, somewhat resembling C. striatella, Deshayes, Coq. foss. 
des Env. de Paris, PI. 8. f. 15. 

Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag. 247 







Pandora margaritacea, Turt 

Tellina insequivalvis, Linn. 
Syst. Nat. 
Saxicava rugosa, Min. Con. var. ct. 

t. 466 

Saxicava pholadis,7Mr^. var. /3. 

t. 2. f. 11 

Hiatella minuta, Turt. var. y. 

t. 2. f. 12 

oblonga, Turt, var. B. t. 2. 


Saxicava rugosa, subequilate- 

ralis, mihif var, g 

Agina purpurea? Turton * 

Montacuta substriata, Turt. Brit. 

Biv. t. 11. f. 9, 10 

Ligula substriata, Mont. T. B 
Sicp. p. 25. 


Tellemya o vata, Brown's Conch 
Illust.^X. 14.f. 20, 21. 

truncata, n. s 

pumila, n. s 

? donacina, n. s 

? cylindrica, n. s 

Kellia suborbicularis, Turt. Brit. 

Biv.t. 11. f. 5, 6 

Mya suborbicularis, Mont. T. 

Amphidesma physoides,iam/i; 
V. p. 493. 


Psammotea dubia, Desk. Coq. 

foss. des Env. de Paris, pi. 
10. f. 13, 14. 
Kellia coarctata, n. s 

transversa, n. s 

? deltoidea, n. s 

— — ? orbicularis, n. s 

? flexuosa, n. s 

? cycladia, n. s 

Cryptodon bisinuatus, n. s 

rotundatus, n. s 

? Verticordia, n. s. 








Sutton . 





Sutton . 







Walton Naze. 





Walton Naze. 



Loripesundularia, n. s.f Sutton Rramerton. 

* Only one specimen. 

'f This is one of those shells covered externally with undulating or divaricating 
lines, but differs from all the numerous Zwciwa? with those peculiar markings that 
I have seen, inasmuch as it has a semi-internal ligament, and may, perhaps, have 
had an inhabitant similar to that of Lucina lactea, which, on account of its pe- 
culiar foot, has been named Loripes by Poli. I have therefore placed it in that 

248 Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag. 




Lucina radula, Turt. Brit. Biv. p. 


Tellina radula, Mont. T. B. 

p. 68. 


Tellina digitaria, Turt. edit, of 

Linn. p. 196. 
rotundata, Turt. Brit. Biv. p. 



Diplodonta dilatata, Philippi, 

Eniim. Moll. SicilicBy t.4. f. 7. 

gyrata, n. s 

crenulata, n . s 

costaria, n. s 

Fellina crassa 

Pectunculus planus crassus, 

List. t. 136. 
Tellina obtusa, Min. Con. t. 

179. f. 4. 

obliqua, Min. Con. t. 161. f. 1. 

ovata, Min. Con. 1. 161. f. 2... 

praetenuis. Woodward, Geol. 

ofNorf.t. 2. f. 12 

fabula, Mont. T. B. ip. 6i. ... 

donacina*, Li?in. Syst. Nat. 

p. 1118. .., 
■ ■ donacella, n. s 

ovaloides, n. s 

— •- Benedenii, Nijst. Bull, de 

VAcad. Roy. de Bruxelles, 

1839, pt. 2. p. 399. f . 5 



Sutton . 

Psammobia vespertina, Turt. Brit 

Biv. t. 6. f. 10 

Solen vespertinus, Gmelin,Syst 
p. 3228. 

Ferroensis, Turt. t. 8. f. 1.... 

scopula, Turt, t. 6. f. 11, 12 

florida, Turt. t. 6. f. 9 

solidula, Turt. t. 8. f. 2 

' laininosa 

Petricola laminosa, Min. Con. 
t. 573. 
Donax trunculus, Linn. Syst. Nat 

p. 1227 

truncata, n. s 

■ glabra, n. s 

Astarte borealis 

Astarte plana, Mi?i. Con. 1. 179 
f. 2. 



Sutton . 

















South wold. 

Bramerton . 

Br am er ton. 



* Although exceedingly abundant I have not yet found it in the red crag. 

Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag. 249 








Astarte obliquata, Min.Con. t. 179. 

f. 3 

bipartita,-Mi«. Cow. t. 521. f. 3. 

nitida, Min, Con. t. 521. f. 2. 

nitidula, n. s 

mutabile, n. s 

s\\\cdilaL,Fle'm.Brit. Ani.^A^9. 

Venus sulcata, Mont. T. B. 

p. 131. 
compressa, Flem. Brit. Am. 

p. 440 

pisiform is, Ti. s. 

gracilis, Goldf. Petrefact. t. 

135. f. 4 

parva, n. s 

parvula, n. s , 

pygmsea, Goldf. Pet. t. 135 
f. 5, 6 

subtrigona, n. s 

Goodallia ? crenatula, n. s. 


Sutton .... 



pygmaea^ n. s. 

Cyrena trigonula, Wood 

Cytherea Chione, Turt. Brit. Biv. 

t. 8. f. 11 

Venus Chione, Linn. Syst. Nat. 
p. 1131. 

filosa, n. s 

lenticula, n. s 

Cyprina maxima J. 





Gedgrave f, 






Sutton ... 





Walton Naze. 
Walton Naze. 


• The two shells placed in this genus by Dr. Turton will, I think, be found 
to belong to the genus Astarte and the minutissima, probably the immature shell 
of the triangularis. 

f This is stated, upon the authority of Capt. Alexander, to have been found in 
the coralline crag, but from the appearance of the locality I think there is at 
present a doubt of its belonging to that formation : I found at the same place 
Cyclostoma elegans, and Pupa marginata. Capt. A. kindly sent me a specimen, 
which, by comparison, appears identical with that which is found so abundantly 
in the lacustrine deposit at Stutton, on the banks of the river Stour, seven miles 
south of Ipswich : whether this be the same as the common species from the Nile, 
Cyrena consobrina, I will leave others to determine ; but there is one character in 
the fossil in which it appears to differ from the recent, although amongst some 
hundreds of specimens that I have procured, there is of course a great variety ; 
the posterior side is always more angular than that of the recent, which in all 
those that I have seen is truncated. Our shell appears to agree with Cyrena 
Gemmellarii, Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicihae, t. 4. f. 3. 

X The umbo of this, from the coralline crag, is a little more produced, and ap- 
pears to have been rather a thicker shell than the recent, which is the only dif- 
ference that I can detect, while the specimens from the red crag preserve a 
sort of intermediate character in that respect. 

250 Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag, 







Pec tun cuius maximus, List. t. 

108 A. 
Venus islandica, Linn. Syst, 

Nat. p. 1131. 
Venus equalis, Min.Con. t. 21. 


Venus rustica,il/m. Cow. 1. 196. 
Coralliophaga cyprinides, n. s. ... 
Venerirupis Irus, Flem. Brit. Ani. 

p. 451 

Donax Irus, Linn. Syst. Nat. 
p. 1128. 

Pullastra virginea 

Venus virginea, Linn. Syst. 
Nat. p. 1136. 

— — perovalis, n. s 

Venus ovata, Mont. T. B. p. 1 20. 

Dosina turgida 

Venus turgida, Min, Con. t, 

Cytherea sulcata, Nyst. Bull. 

de VAcad. Roy. de Bru- 
xelles, 1839, pt. 2. p. 401, 
pi. 1. f. 9. 

fasciata .. 

Venus fasciata, Turt. Brit. 
Biv. t. 8. f. 9. 


Astarte imbricata, Min. Con. 

t. 521. f. 1 

Mysia ornata*, n. s 

Artemis lentiformis 

Venus lentiformis, Min. Con. 
t. 203. 

sinuata, Turt. Brit. Biv. t. 10. 

f. 10, 11 



Sutton ..... 




Walton Naze. 



Venericardia senilis, Min. Con. t, 

chamseformis, Min. Cow. t.490, 

f. 1 

orbicularis, Min. Con. t. 490 

f. 2 

scalaris,il/iw. Con. t. 490. f. 3 

anceps, n. s 




Sutton . 
Sutton . 
Sutton . 


Walton Naze. 

Walton Naze. 




Walton Naze. 



* This is the name of a genus intended to have been established by Dr. Leach 
for the reception of such shells as Venus undata, Mont. Our shell corresponds 
both in its dentition and deep pallial scar, but differs in its exterior ornament and 
other specific characters. 

Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag, 251 





















Cardita corbis, Phil. Enum. 
Sici. t. 4. f. 19. 
Isocardia Cor., Min.Co7i. t. 516. f. 2. 
Cardiuni Pavkinsoni,il/iw. Cow. t.49. 


Walton Naze. 












edule, Linn. Syst. Nat. p.l 124. 

C. obliquum, var. Woodward, 
Geol. ofNorf.i. 2. f. 19. 

edulinum, Min. Con. t. 283. 

f. 3 


angustatum, Min. Con. t. 283. 

f. 2 

elongatum, Turt. Brit. Biv. 

t. 13. f. 8 

Groenlandicum, Turt. edit, of 

Linn. p. 205 


decorticatum, n. s 





nodosulum, n. s 

Pleurodon miliaris, Wood, lllust. 
Mag . of Nat. Hist. May 1 840, 
p. 231. pi. 13. f. 1. ilf. ... 

Area Noae, Linn 

lactanea, Woody Lllust. Mag. 

Nat, Hist 

raridentata, Wood, lllust. Mag. 

Nat. Hist 

Pectunculus pilosus 

Area pilosa, Linn. 

subobliquus, Wood, Lllust. 

Mag. Nat. Hist 

Walton Naze. 


pygmaeus, Phil 


sublaevigatus ? 

Trigonocaelia sublaevigata, 

Nyst. Bull, de I'yicad. Roy. 
de Bruxelles, 1839, p. 404. 
f. 15t. 

Nucula oblonga, Min. Con. 

Cobboldiae, Min. Con...,,..... 


Walton Naze. 




minuta, Mont 

nueleus, Wood, Lllust. of the 

Mag. Nat. Hist 


Area nucleus, Linn, 

tenera, Wood, Lllust. Mag. of 

Nat. Hist 

oblongoides, Wood, Lllust. 

Mag. of Nat. Hist 

• The spines of this appear to be s6t on angulated ribs, in which it differs from 
the recent, but I have unfortunately only two or three specimens. 
t Our shell has obsolete longitudinal striae. 

252 Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag, 











Nucula pygmaea, Goldf. 

trigonula, Wood, Illust. Mag. 

Nat. Hist 

semistriata, Wood, Illust. Mag. 

Nat. Hist 

Dreissina? * 

Mytilus antiquorum, Min. Con. t. 


edulis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ip.ll57 . 

densatiis, n. s. ? 

Modiola modiolus ? (specimens im- 

discors, Turt. Brit. Biv. 1. 15. 


hyalina, n. s 

cylindroides, n. s 

asperula, n. s, 

Chama gryphina ? Lam. 

Pinna ingens? Mont, (fragments 


Avicula (fragments only) 

Lima fragilis, Wood,Mag. Nat.Hist 
Pecten fragilis, Mont. T. B. 

Sup. p. 62 

exilis, Wood, Mag. Nat. Hist. 

oblonga, Wood,Mag. Nat. Hist 

plicatula, Wood,3Iag. Nat.Hist. 

Lima limatula ovata, Wood, Mag 

Nat. Hist , 

limatula subauriculata, Wood, 

Mag. Nat. Hist 


Sutton . 


[n' Orford. 


Sutton . 






Walton Naze. 




(cast of.) 

Walton Naze. 
Walton Naze. 

Walton Naze. 

Pecten subauriculata, Mont. 
T. B. Sup. p. 63. 

1. Pecten grandis, Min. Con. t. 585. . Ramsholt... Sutton. 

2. complanatustjMiw. Con. t. 586. Aldbro. 

3. maximusPJ Aldbro 

4. Princeps, Min. Con. t. 542... Ramsholt. 

5. opercularis §, Linn. Syst. p. 

1146 Ramsholt... Sutton Southwold, 

P. plebeius, Min. Con. t. 393 

f. 1. 
P. reconditus, Min. Con. t. 575 

f. 5, 6. 

* Only one fragment. 

f I have not seen the lower valve of this species. 

+ Only one specimen, and that doubtful, perhaps the lower valve of compla- 

§ This differs from the generality of the recent British specimens only in the 
rays being more imbricated, but Mr. G. B. Sowerby has furnished me some 
from the Mediterranean, in which they there correspond. 


Mr. S. V. Wood's Catalogue of Shells from the Crag, 253 










Pecten striatus, Min. Con. t. 394. f. 


Pecten limatus, Goldf. Pet. p. 

59. t. 94. f. 6. 

gracilis, Min. Con. t. 393. f. 2. 

obsoletus, Min. Con. t. 541... 

Pecten obsoletus, Mont. T. B. 

p. 149. 
tumidus, Turt. Brit. Biv. t. 

17. f. 3 

subdiaphanus, n. s 

scabrotus, n. s.? 

tumescens, n. s 

pictatus, n. s 

tetramerus, n. s «... 

sti-iaturus, n. s 

exoletus, n. s. ?* 

Hinnus Dubuissoni, Mm. Cow. t. 601 . 

Ostrea edulis, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 


spectra, n. s. Leathes MS.... 

Anomia ephippium 



Discina Norvegica? J, Lamk.Syst. 
Terebratula variabilis, Miji. Con. t. 

Gervillii? Woodward 

cistellula, n. s 

Psittacea, Turt. Brit. Biv. p. 




Lingula fusca, n. s. 










Sutton .... 
Sutton .. . 














* This may be only a giant monstrosity of the obsoletus. I have only one 

t These, like our recent British species, are not well defined; no dependence 
can be placed upon them. 

X Only one valve, and that imperfect. 

§ This is variable in shape, thin, often compressed and broken ; my specimens 
vary in size from four inches longitudinal diameter to young ones of less than a 
line. Von Buch, in his Monograph of Terebratula, published in the Geol. 
Trans, of France, part 3, has at p. 222 given as syn. to T. gigantea, Schlott., 
T. hisinuata,T)e^\\., Coq. foss. des Env. de Paris, t. 65, f. 1, T. variabilis, Sow., 
Min. Con., t. 576, but 1 believe. these two last to be different shells ; reasons for 
thinking so shall be given in my general descriptions. 

254 Mr. Waterhouse on Carabideous Insects, 

XXVIII. — Carabideous Insects collected by Mr. Darwin 
during the Voyage of Her Majesty's Ship Beagle. By 
G. R. Waterhouse, Esq. 

[Continued from vol. iv. p. 362 of the Magazine of Natural History*.'] 

Genus Cascellius. 

Mr. Curtis founds this genus upon two species brought by Capt. 
P. P. King, one from Chile, and the other from Port St. Elena, and 
described in the Linnzean Transactions, vol. xviii. part 2. 

Sp. 1. Cascellius Kingii, Curtis, Linn. Trans., vol. xviii. p. 183. 

Mr. Darwin's collection contains four specimens of this species, 
three of which are from E. Chiloe, and the remaining one is from 
Yuche Island, Chonos Archipelago. They vary but slightly in co- 
louring, being of a green hue, more or less brilliant, and faintly 
tinted with brass colour ; the legs are sometimes of an uniform pitchy 
red tint, but more commonly, it would appear, the thighs are of a 
darker colour than the tibiae : in three of Mr. Darwin's specimens 
they are pitchy black, obscurely tinted with reddish at the base. The 
antennae being imperfect in Mr. Curtis's specimen, I may mention that 
they are short and rather thick ; if bent backwards they would about 
reach to the base of the thorax ; the basal joint is testaceous red, 
the three cr four following joints are more or less suffused with 
brown, and the apical joints are pale testaceous in all the specimens. 

Sp. 2. Feronia (Creobius) Eydouxii. — This insect, described by 
M. Guerin-Meneville in the ' Magazin de 2,oologie' for 1838, p. 4. 
of Class IX., no doubt belongs to the genus Cascellius, and is closely 
allied to the C. Kingii; but from the figure and description, it would 
appear that it may be distinguished by its larger size, and the uni- 
form deep colouring of the legs and antennae. It is found in Peru, 
near Lima. 

M. Guerin-Meneville observes that his Feronia Eydouxii "a beau- 
coup d'afiinites avec le Carabus suturalis," &c., " mais, suivant M. 
Chevrolat, qui a vu le C. suturalis de la collection de Banks citee 
par Fabricius, notre insect en est fort different;" he might have 

* At the end of this paper I intend giving a list of the species mentioned, 
with references to the pages in which they are to be found, for the conve- 
nience of those who may wish to refer to them ; I shall then also correct 
any mistakes I may fall into, — provided I discover them. In the mean 
time I may remark, that the generic name Odontoscelis, proposed by Mr. 
Curtis and used by me in the first portion of this paper, had been previously 
employed by Germar for a genus of Hemipterous insects ; I hope, there- 
fore, Mr. Curtis will suggest some other name. I am informed that 
Mr. Curtis's generic name Cardiophthalmus has also been previously used, 
but cannot ascertain where. I find I had accidentally overlooked a speci- 
men of the Cardiophthalmus Clivino'ides, Curtis, in Mr. Darwin's collection. 
This specimen was " found dead in the sea, 40 miles off the Straits of Ma- 
gellan." — Mr. Darwin's Notes. 

Mr. Waterhouse on Carabideous Insects. 255 

added, that the insect last mentioned is a true Carahus, closely allied 
to the Carahus Chilensis of Eschscholtz. 

Sp. 3. Cascellius Gravesii, Curtis, Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. xviii. 
p. 183. 

In Mr. Darwin's collection are two specimens of this species, 
both of which were found in Yuche Island, Chonos Archipelago ; 
they are both of a brassy black colour, and have a slight coppery 
hue : the basal joint of the antennae is red, and the remaining joints 
are pitchy ; the thighs are also pitchy, but slightly tinted with red, 
especially at the base, and the tibiae and tarsi are pitchy red. The 
larger of the two specimens measures 5|- lines in length. 

Sp. 4. Cascellius nitidus. — New species. 

C viridis, nitore splendide aeneo vel cupreo ; corpore subtus, fe- 
moribusque piceis ; antennis, palpis, tibiis tarsisque e piceo 
rubris ; thorace longiore plusqukm lato, subcylindrico, antic^ 
latiore, postice angustato, sulco dorsali mediocriter distincto, 
nee non, et ante et post foveam transversa notato ; elytris, ex 
elongato ovatis, postice latioribus, ad apicem rotundatis, me- 
diocriter convexis, substriatis, striis impunctatis. 

Habitat apud Tierra del Fuego. 

This species is rather smaller than the C. Gravesii ; the thorax 
and elytra are rather less convex than in that insect; the antennae 
are rather shorter and less stout, and the striae of the elytra are more 

The upper parts of the body are sometimes of a brilliant green 
colour, and sometimes brassy with cupreous refections ; the under 
parts are pitchy black ; the mandibles and labrum are pitchy, and 
the palpi, as well as the legs, are either pitchy red or pitch-coloured ; 
the tibiae are usually rather paler than the thighs and tarsi. The 
head is rather narrower than the thorax, the eyes but moderately 
prominent : the thorax is rather longer than broad, moderately con- 
vex, broadest near the front and atttnuated behind, and has the 
sides slightly rounded ; the dorsal channel is moderately distinct, 
and does not extend either to the anterior or posterior margins ; 
a transverse impression is observable near the anterior margin, and 
there is a faint trace of a similar impression on the hinder part of 
the thorax : there are no posterior foveae, but the channels of the 
lateral margins become rather more deeply impressed in the poste- 
rior angles. The elytra are moderately convex, elongate-ovate 
(their length being about once and a half their breadth), and smooth ; 
the striae are rather indistinct, and do not extend to the apex of the 
elytra ; those nearest the suture are the longest, and on the outer 
margins they are obliterated ; they are impunctate and interrupted 
in parts : on the apical portion of each elytron are two or three 
large punctures. Length, from 4|- to 5 lines ; width, not quite 2 

Four specimens of this species were brought from Tierra del Fue- 
go by Mr. Darwin^ 

256 Mr. Waterhouse on Carabideous Insects. 

Sp. 5. Cascellius ceneo-niger. — New species. 

C niger, supra indistinct^ seneo splendens ; thorace perlongo 
(elytrorum dimidiam longitudine eequante) supra paululum con- 
vexo, antic^ latiore, postic^ angustato ; sulco dorsali mediocri- 
t^r impresso ; elytris elongato-ovatis, distincte striatis ; tibiis 
femoribusque piceo-nigris ; tarsis palpisque e piceo rubris ; an- 
tennis, articulo basali e piceo rubro, articulis duobus vel tribus 
proximis, piceo lavatis, reliquis fusco-testaceis. 

Hab. apud Valdivia. 

This species is about the same size as the last, but has the thorax 
more elongated, the elytra more distinctly striated, and the strise, 
although deeper in some parts than others, are not interrupted : in 
C. nitidus but five strise are visible, v^^hereas in the present insect 
there are six or seven distinct strise, and these extend almost to the 
apex of the elytra : on the sides of the elytra the strise are not com- 
pletely obliterated : the colouring, moreover, is different, being al- 
most destitute of any metallic hue. 

The head is elongated and narrower than the thorax, distinctly 
constricted, and has a puncture in the centre, a little behind the 
eyes ; between the eyes are two shallow fovese ; the labrum and 
mandibles are black ; the palpi are pitchy red ; the basal joint of 
the antennae is red, the two or three following joints somewhat 
pitchy, and the remaining joints brownish testaceous ; the thorax is 
decidedly longer than broad ; broadest in front, attenuated and cy- 
lindrical behind ; its upper surface is moderately convex ; the dor- 
sal channel is tolerably distinct, and extends very nearly to the an- 
terior and posterior margins (in one specimen the dorsal channel is 
interrupted on the fore part of the thorax and forms a series of punc- 
tures) ; the anterior and posterior transverse impressions can scarcely 
be traced, and the outer margins beneath are somewhat pitchy. The 
elytra are of an elongate- ovate form, distinctly striated, and the 
strise, in parts, exhibit indistinct punctures ; those nearest the su- 
ture extend almost to the apex of the elytra ; near the outer mar- 
gins of the elytra the strise are indistinct : the interspaces of the 
other strise are slightly convex ; the apical portions of the elytra are 
pitchy at the margin, and have each three, more or less distinct 
punctures, two of which are placed near each other, and the third, 
which is most remote from the tip of the elytron, is widely separated 
from the other two. The legs are black or pitchy black, and the 
tarsi are pitchy red ; the body beneath is black ; the upper surface 
of the insect is black, but has an indistinct seneous gloss. Length, 
5 lines ; width, 1|- line. 

The two specimens from which the foregoing description is drawn 
up, are one from Valdivia, and the other from Cape Tres Montes. 
Two other specimens in the collection from Hardy Peninsula, Tierra 
del Fuego, differ in having the antennse, palpi, and tarsi darker. 

Genus Baripus, Dejean. 
Baripus speciosus (Klug), Dejean. Species general des Coleo- 
pt^res, vol. v. p. 703. 

Excerpt a Botanica. 257 

Two specimens of this beautiful insect were brought from Monte 
Video by Mr. Darwin. 

Baripus rivalis {Molops rivalis^ Germar), Dejean. Species Gen. 
des Col., vol. iii. p. 25. 

Two specimens of this species from Monte Video, and one speci- 
men from Maldonado La Plata, occur in the collection. 

XXIX. — Excerpta Botanica, or abridged Extracts translated 
from the Foreign Journals, illustrative of, or connected with, 
the Botany of Great Britain. By W. A. Leighton, Esq., 
B.A., F.B.S.E., &c. 

No. 3. On the Structure of the Hairs on the Pericarp of cer- 
tain Plants, By M. Decaisne. (Ann. des Sc. Nat. n. s. 
xii. p. 251.) 

One of the characters of the genus Ruckeria is, that of 
having the pericarp covered with papillae. These papillae, 
when attentively examined in a dry state, are found to be of 
a club-shaped form, of a pearly appearance, and with a lon- 
gitudinal line dividing them into two equal portions. Their 
base is dilated or curved, in the different species, so as to rest 
upon one of the cellules of the epidermis, in the organisation 
of which there is nothing unusual. On placing some of these 
papillae or hairs in a drop of water, we immediately see them 
separate at the apex into tw o lips, and thence emit two tubes 
{boyaux) of a mucilaginous substance, which issues forth 
like wires spirally unrolling themselves, twisting about on 
themselves many times, and finally greatly exceeding in 
length the hairs into which they w^ere apparently thrust. 

These tubes are apparently formed by a very considerable 
number of filaments, united and placed one upon the other, 
in the manner of a skein of thread, of which the pieces adhered 
together by means of some gummy substance. When these 
hairs are moistened, we distinguish through their parietes in 
each of the two lateral moieties, tw^o bodies more opake, at- 
tenuated at both ends, and exhibiting striae arranged in a 
regular series, but changing their direction at certain intervals. 

If the hair, instead of adhering to the pericarp, as in the 
preceding example, is broken off at the base, the emission of 
the tubes takes place at that extremity, and the two are then 
seen to descend slowly, and to proceed parallel to each other 
for a short time in unrolling themselves, but afterwards to 
curve and twist one around the other in an irregular manner. 

Sometimes when the hair is not broken off, the tube issues 
forth from the side, and almost constantly about the middle, 

Ann. &; Mag. Nat. Hist. Dec. 1 840. s 

258 Excerpta Botanica. 

the internal substance presses against some point of the wall, 
rends it, and issues forth bent and folded upon itself. In this 
case, the emission of one of the tubes is frequently inde- 
pendent of that of the other. 

The same phaenomenon may be observed in Trichocline, 
Euryops lateriflorus, and Mesogramma, In this latter plant, 
the central line of each division of the corolla (considered as 
a nervure by DeCandolle), is formed by a series of utricules 
enclosing a red resinous substance, which is also found in the 
leaflets of the involucrum. 

In Doria cluytiaefolia the pericarp is covered with extremely 
fine, subulate, silvery-white hairs, w^hich, when examined 
under the microscope, exactly resemble a thread of silk from 
the cocoon, viz. two tubes united to each other and curved 
upon themselves by desiccation. When moistened, they 
project outwards, as in the preceding case, two very fine tubes, 
which exhibit similar characters to those mentioned above. 
As these hairs are of considerable length, it is not difficult to 
cut them into pieces, and thus see the internal substance 
escape at the two extremities in opposite directions. These 
hairs are formed by tw^o navicular valves applied together by 
their edges like those of a shell, and are destitute of a parti- 
tion, as is ascertained by the examination of the transverse 
section, or by observing the hairs of Oligothrix gracilis, 
D.C. or those oi Mesogramma, which occupy the angles of the 
fruit, and are of the form of small clubs. When moistened, 
they instantaneously open, not only at their upper extremity, 
but by separating throughout their whole length into two 
transparent colourless valves which continue united at the 
base, and eject two oblong, free, mucilaginous, striated bodies, 
w^hicli subsequently elongate, and sometimes present in the 
course of their spiral certain irregular, linear, yellowish trans- 
parent fragments, which however do not turn blue on the 
application of iodine, as has been likewise remarked of similar 
ones which escape from the utricules of the pericarp of Dra^ 
cocephalum Moldavica. 

In order to ascertain the structure of these hairs, it is ex- 
pedient to examine them when the fruit is almost perfectly 

These hairs, in certain species, occupy a determinate situa- 
tion, and those of the pappus to which they approximate do 
not participate in their characters, nor do the cellules of the 
epidermis itself, contiguous to those which produce these 
hairs, offer anything analogous in their organisation. 

The two tribes of Composites in which these hairs have been 
hitherto observed are the Ladiatijlorce and the Senecionidece, 

Excerpt a Botcmica. 259 

Note. — With a view of connecting the above with British 
Botany, it may be proper to remark, that I have observed a 
phaenomenon similar to that described above as existing in 
the genus Ruckeria, in the hairs which clothe the achenia of 
the common Groundsel (Se/fceczo i/'M/^am^Linn.)*. Theachenia 
should be collected on a dry day, when fully matured^ and 
before they have been wetted either by dew or rain. On 
placing them under the microscope, the silky hairs will be 
found to be very much adpressed and scarcely conspicuous. 
Immediately, however, on the application of a drop of water, 
the hairs become prominent and erecto-patulous, and will be 
perceived to be in form linear, emarginate or notched at the 
apex, having a darker longitudinal line communicating with 
the notched apex, and thus as it were dividing the hair into 
two cylindrical but attached tubes. On the continued ap- 
plication of the water for a short time, a spiral coil encircling 
a mucilaginous substance issues from each of the segments of 
the apex, and after twisting upon itself several times, becomes 
at length quiescent, extended in a nearly straight direction, 
and considerably longer than the hair from which it pro- 
ceeded. — W. A. L. 

Shrewsbury, Oct. 16, 1840, 

No. 4. Conspectus of the Genera and Species of the Lem- 
naceae. By M.J. Schleiden. (Linnaea, 1839, iv. p. 385.) 

ScHLEiDEN purposes to publish a Monograph of the Lent- 
nacece, founded on the results of a continued study of the 
plants during five years, aided by the experience of his uncle 
Horkel, a very skilful investigator of the tribe. In the mean 
time he presents the following as a Prodromus of his intended 

According to his observations these plants do not flower 
seldomer than other proliferous Phanerogama; the rarity of 
their detection in that state is consequently owing to our re- 
searches being conducted unadvisedly or at an unseasonable 
period. He has frequently examined in a complete state Lemna 
minor, t?'isutca, and gibba through all the stages of the deve- 
lopment of their flowers, fruits, and germination. 

In the arrangement of the genera, he has generally followed 
the principles so successfully applied by Schott, and later by 

* [The structure and property of the hairs on the achenia of this plant 
have been previously observed by Mr. Brown. — Ed.] 

S 2 

260 Excerpt a Botanica, 

Blume, to the inflorescence of the Aroidea, of which the Lem- 
nacem are a tribe. 

If it be at all proper to establish a genus on characters de- 
rived from the vegetation, he feels himself justified in the 
adoption of his genus Spirodela. For, if the whole of the Lem~ 
nacecB be carefully examined, they will be found to constitute 
the lowest group of the Aroideae, and a very slight sagacity 
will detect in them a series of well-defined developments pro- 
ceeding from Wolffia (which is probably the simplest phane- 
rogamic plant) up to Spirodela, which presents the highest 
state of organization, and is evidently the connecting link 
with Pistia. The sudden appearance of two stipular leaves 
which must be regarded as typical of the stipular sheath of 
Pistia, the surprising development of spiral vessels, with- 
out any visible change in the exterior form of the plant and 
of the axis which is easily distinguishable as a node with 
many roots, furnish in these simple plants characters suffi- 
ciently important to justify the establishment of a particular 
genus ; and probably a more attentive examination of the fe- 
male organs and of the fruit may elucidate other characters 
confirmatory of this genus on the above grounds, however ar- 
bitrary its adoption may at present appear. 

Trib. Lemnace^, DC. 

Herhula liberse, natantes vel submersse, arrhizae, vel 1 -poly-rhizas, 
radicibus calyptra* terminatis. Vasa'spiralia rudimentaria trans- 
itoria (in pistillo) vel conspicua (in tota planta). Axis ad 
punctum reductus, cum foliis in frondem confluens. Frons : 
singula planta completa, ex rima una basilari, vel duabus late- 
ralibus prolifera, prole nuda, vel stipulis duabus membranaceis 
aucta. Hibernaculum : bulbillus f autumno fundum aquae, vera 
superficiem petens. Infiorescentia : spadix ob axim suppressum 
fere nuUus ; spatha urceolata, membranacea : staminum evolu- 
tione irregulariter fissa. Flares monoici. Masc. 1 — 2, mon- 

* The calyptra is not a loose portion of the epidermis, nor a distorted form 
of the radical spongiole, but is a proper and peculiar organ, which surrounds 
the apex of the root even whilst it lies concealed in the plant, although per- 
fectly free and distinct both from that and from the parenchyma. 

t Definition of a bulbillus : an axillary bud, the parts of which are more 
fleshy than usual, and connate, and which separates spontaneously from 
the parent plant for the purpose of propagating the species. A more 
fleshy frond, therefore, without roots, engendered in the autumn by plants 
of the Lemnacea, and on the death of the parent plant separating from it 
and seeking the bottom of the pit, the parent plant remaining on the sur- 
face of the water (as in Lemna polyrhiza) ; or becoming buried in the 
bottom of the water with its dead parent plant, and rising again in spring 
(as in the rest of the Lemnacea:) ; — is truly denominated a Bulbillus. 

Excerpt a Botanica, 261 

andri. Filamenta filiformia. AnthertE biloculares, loculis sub- 
globosis, apice contiguis, basi remotissimis, bilocellatis, rima 
longitudinal! laterali dehiscenlibus. Pollen globosum, murica- 
tum, rima unica (?) donatum. Fam. 1. Ovarium uniloculare, 
uni- multi- (septem- in L. gihha) ovulatum. Ovulum anatro- 
pum vel hemianatropum vel atropum, in tegumentis binis. Sty- 
lus continuus ; stigma expanso-infundibuliforme. Fructus : utri- 
culus mono-polyspermus, indehiscens vel capsula circumscissa. 
Semen in tegumentis binis, externo coriaceo-carnoso, interno 
membranaceo ; endostomio indurato (operculo) in germinatione 
embryostega. Embryo in axi albuminis carnosi rectus, mono- 
cotyledoneus, gemmula seorsim (radiculam) spectans in rima 
laterali, radicula supera, infera vel vaga*. 

t Vasa spiralia transitoria, vel nulla. Plantce novellcB nudce. 

A. Frondes rima una hasilari hiantes. Flores in pagina frondis superiore 


I. WoLFFiA, Horkel MSS. {Horkelia, Reich, non Schlechtend.) 

Flos masculus unicus. Filamentum breve, crassiusculum. Flosfoemi- 
neus unicus. Ovarium uniloculare, uniovulatum, ovulo uno 
recto, anatropo ; stylus brevis ; fructus utriculus monospermus ; 
semen erectum ; embryo turbinatus ; radicula supera. 

1. W. Delilii. Frondes ovales, tenuissimse, geminatim oppositse, 
arrhizse ; labium inferius rimse basilaris productum, appensum, 
hyalinum. Lemna hyalina, Del. Lemna e Rosetta, Herb. Willd. 
no. 17144. L. arhiza. Herb. Willd. 17141. 

The author is indebted to Dr. Ehrenberg for specimens of Wolffia 
in flower brought from Egypt ; and he detected in Willdenow's her- 
barium specimens of the same plant in fruit, under the name of 
Lemna, from Rosetta. 

B. Frondes rimis binis hasilarihus hiantes. Flores e rima lateraliter pro' 


II. Lemna. 

Flores masculi, altero in evolutione praecociori. Filamenta filiformia, 
recurva ; ovarium uniloculare, uniovulatum, ovulo erecto, hori- 
zontali, hemianatropo ; stylus elongatus, recurvus ; fructus 
utriculus monospermus indehiscens ; semen in fundo affixum , 
horizontale ; embryo conicus ; radicula vaga. 

1. L. minor, Linn. Frondes obovato-subrotundse, crassiusculae, 
ternatim quaternatimque, rarius plures cohserentes, monorrhizae ; 
stipite frondis novellas discreto fragili. L. cyclostasa, Ell. L. 
minuta, Kunth. L. minima, Chev. L. conjugata, Willd. Herb. 

* Brongniart's description of the embryo in ' Archives de Botanique ' is 
very far from being accordant with nature, nor can I possibly imagine what 
could lead him to the supposition of a canal pervading the upper portion of 
the embryo and nourishing a cordate plumule at its base. 

262 Excerpt a Botanica. 

I first collected L. minor in flower and fruit at Berlin in 1835, 
and since that time I have each year detected it again in the same 
state whenever I searched with care. 

2. L. trisulca, Linn. Frondes lanceolatse, apice repando-dentatae, 
tenues, in stipitem elongatum persistentem attenuatee, ideoque 
multifariam aggregatse, exclusis floriferis submersse. Stavroge- 
ton, Reich, L. intermedia, Ruthe. L. cruciata, Roxb. 
In 1836 I found L. trisulca in flower, and have since regularly 
detected the flowers wherever I encountered this species. The 
reason why this species has been so rarely found in flower, is that 
the search has been made at too late a period, as it generally flowers 
abundantly in April and the beginning of May. The flowers will 
be seen on those plants which are submerged near the surface ; 
after flowering they multiply themselves laterally and are then sub- 

III. Thelmatophace. 

Spadix brevissimus, sed discernendus. Flores masculi duo. Fila- 
menta recurva, medio dilatata ; ovarium uniloculare, bi-multi- 
ovulatum, ovulis erectis anatropis ; stylus elongatus, recurvus ; 
fructus : capsula membranacea, dehiscentia circumscissa, di- 
polysperma ; semina erecta ; albumen paucissimum ; embryo 
ovatus ; plumula maxima ; radicula infera. 

1. T. gibba. Frondes obovatse vel suborbiculatse, adultse inferne 
vesiculoso-convexje ; stipite frondis novellae discreto, fragillimo, 
ideoque frondibus adultis subsolitariis. Lemna gibba, Linn. 

/3. trichorhiza, fronde superne rubente, radice longissima. Lemna 
trichorhiza, Thuill. 

In 1837 I first observed T. gibba in flower, and since frequently. 
It is the rarest species at Berlin. 

't"t' Vasis spiralibus in tola plant a conspicuis ; fronde novella stipulis binis 
iinferiori et superiori) membranaceis aucta, polyrJiiza. 

IV. Spirodela. 

Flores masculi duo ; filamentis inferne angustatis. Flores fceminei. 

Ovarium biovulatum, ovulis erectis anatropis ; stylus ; 

stigma ; fructus 

1. S. polyrhiza. Frons planiuscula, nervis palmatis, polymorpha, 

orbiculari-ovata ; apice obtuso vel acuto. Lemna polyrhiza, 

Linn. L. bannatica. Kit. L. orbicularis. Kit. L. thermalis, P. 

Beauv. L. orbiculata, Roxb. 
Notwithstanding the most careful search I did not detect S. 
polyrhiza in flower until 1839, when I found at Werningerode the 
male flowers, or those in which the pistil is imperfectly developed. 
The only previous notice of the flowers of this species is in Wiggers 
Prim. Fl. Holsat. 


Lemna arhiza, Mich, according to the observations of Hofiinann 
i« a good species, but, as the flowers and fruit are still wanting, 

H. Rathke on the Metamorphosis of the Crustacea. 263 

is doubtful to what genus it should be referred ; most probably to 
my genus Thelmatophace. 

In Steudel's Nomenclat. Bot. there is a plant Lemna punctata, 
Meyer, of which I am ignorant. 

Lemna ohcordata, P. Beauv. and Vahl. as well as Lemna dimidiata, 
Rafin., are erroneously enumerated amongst the Lemnacece, since an 
inspection of authentic specimens from the authors themselves proves 
them to be species of Riccia. 

XXX. — Contributions to the History of the Development of 
the Decapod Crustacea, By Heinrich Rathke*. 

One of the objects which I had proposed to myself for my 
tour through Scandinavia and Denmark^ was an investigation 
of the Crustacea as regarded their development. Of Deca- 
pods which might serve as subjects for this investigation^ se- 
veral, it is true, fell in my way ; fewer, however, by far than 
I had expected : these were Astacus marinus, Fagurus Bern- 
hardus, Galathcea rugosa, and a crab, which I consider to be 
Hyas Araneus. The details respecting these I design to make 
know n, together with the results of the examination of various 
other animals, in a separate work ; as, however, some time 
may elapse before its publication, I will here communicate the 
most essential particulars of what I have learned respecting the 
development of the above-mentioned Crustacea, in order, as 
soon as possible, to record a testimony to the correctness of 
Thompson's discovery, that even the Decapods, after they 
have already quitted the egg, undergo a very considerable 

1. Astacus marinus. — Embryos just on the point of hatch- 
ing, possess already five pairs of feet, and these are similar in 
form to those of the full-grown specimens. But to the coxae 
of each is attached a part representing a narrow and long ap- 
pendage of the leg, proceeding down it on its outer side, little 
inferior to it in length, and composed of two larger members, 
of which the inferior one again consists of ten smaller articu- 
lations, and carries a number of long bristles. The same also 
is the case with the foot-jaws (Kieferfussen) of the second and 
third pair, of which, moreover, the hindermost is even at this 
period the largest of all, and it is evident from this that the 
above appendix represents the subsequent palpus Jlagelliformis, 
The four posterior foot-jaws and the ambulatory legs have 
also in general a resemblance to the legs of the Schizopoda, 
especially to those of Mysis. But this similarity afterwards 

* From Wiegmann's Archiv. (Part III. 1840.) — Translated and com- 
mmiieated by Mr. W. Francis. 

264 H. Rathke on the Metamorphosis of the Crustacea, 

disappears in the ambulatory feet, the appendage which they 
bear subsequently falling off. The foot-jaws of the anterior 
pair are already like those of full-grow n specimens. Branchiae 
are already present on the legs and behind the foot-jaws, but 
they are still very small, and at the utmost merely provided 
with small low warts on their surface. The tail or abdomen 
possesses as yet no false feet, and the fan consists merely of a 
single almost triangular lamina of considerable size, the pos- 
terior margin of which has a slight incisure (ausschnitt), and 
w^hose lateral halves are so applied together inferiorly,that they, 
for the most part, touch each other. The front antenna con- 
sists, it is true, of several articulations, but is not yet sepa- 
rated into two branches. The posterior antenna is not much 
longer, but consists of two branches nearly equal in length, 
of which the one represents a pretty broad lamina (appendix), 
the other a cylinder (walze). In front a simple nearly subu- 
late snout proceeds from the cephalothorax, w^hich is, at least, 
as long as the front or smaller antenna, and curves betw^een 
the eyes dowaiwards. 

2. Pagurus Bernhardus. — Embryos about to escape, have 
only three pairs of members that can serve for locomotion. 
The front pair is the longest, the central somewhat shorter, 
the hinder about half as long as the central. This hinder 
member consists of three articulations unequal in size, but is 
otherwise simple. On the other hand, each of the four other 
members consists of a rather long and thickish stem, and of 
two branches of nearly equal length, which originate near one 
another at the lower end of the stem, and one of which is 
situated exteriorly to the other ; the outer one is (flat) com- 
pressed, and is composed of two articulations, the inner one is 
cylindrical and composed of five articulations. All these six 
members are not, as might be expected, true feet in a lower 
stage of development, but, as will appear hereafter, the foot- 
jaws ; and indeed their maxillae and mandibulae are apparent, 
but they offer nothing particularly remarkable. Of true legs, 
and also of branchiae, there does not yet exist a trace. The 
antennae are similarly constituted to those in the mature em- 
bryos of the Lobster. In front a thin and moderately long 
snout proceeds from the cephalothorax. The tail is long, thin, 
and distinctly articulated. False feet are not yet observable. 
Only the central lamina of the fan is present, and represents 
a simple lamina narrow^ in front, posteriorly considerably 
broad, the tw^o hind corners of which are somewhat rounded, 
and the posterior margin furnished with a slight incisure. 
In young, which are l^lin. in length, and considerably larger 
than the mature embryos, the four anterior foot-jaws were of 

H. Rathke on the Metamorphosis of the Crustacea. 265 

the same form as in these, only their stem had become rela- 
tively much broader ; but on the two posterior ones, which 
likewise had become relatively longer, an inner branch had 
already begun to form, but was not yet articulated. Close 
behind these organs appeared on the inferior side of the ce- 
phalothorax two to three pairs of very short but very thick 
cylindrical and uncinate (hakenformig) much incurved (zu- 
sammengekriimmt) members, of which those of the front pair 
were slightly swelled at their extremity, and were there pro- 
vided with a scarcely perceptible incisure ; the others, how- 
ever, appeared quite simple and obtusely rounded at their 
extremity. These minute organs were the first indications of 
true legs. There was no sign of branchiae. The posterior 
antennae had not changed considerably in form, they also were 
still but of slight length ; but on the front ones a small rami- 
fication had already been developed, so that each terminated in 
two short branches, unequal in length. The snout was about 
as long as the antennae, of considerable length therefore, and 
terminated very acutely. The tail had become thicker in com- 
parison to its length. The lamina of the fan already present 
in the embryos was of considerable size, but represented an 
irregular square, w hich was somewhat broader behind than in 
front, and had a moderately deep incisure on its hinder margin. 
Near to the front end of this, a very small lamina, in compa- 
rison to the above plate, was moveably connected with the 
sixth joint of the tail on each side ; it was divided by a deep 
narrow incision into two flaps of unequal size, but not jointed 
off from each other. These two small plates were the first 
traces of the lateral laminae of the fan. There were still no 
false feet on the other joints of the tail. 

In young, which were somewhat above two lines in length, 
five pairs of true feet already occurred. Although all these 
were still very small in comparison to the foot -jaws, yet a 
faintly indicated articulation may be recognized on them, espe- 
cially on those of the three front pairs ; moreover, the claws 
(chelae) were already distinctly imprinted on those of the 
most anterior pair, and these pincers were even larger on the 
one than on the other. On the other hand, no branchiae were 
yet decidedly evident. On the fan of the tail the side plates 
had become larger in proportion to the central plate, and the 
two unequally sized flaps of each were jointed off (abgeglied- 
ert). Only slight traces of false feet were perceptible. As to 
the rest, the organization of these young resembled that of 
those above-described. 

In still older young, which however were not much longer 
than the preceding, several organs had already undergone 

266 H. Rathke on the Metamorphosis of the CruMacea. 

considerable changes_, so that these specimens now exhibited 
great similarity with full-grown specimens. The legs, with 
respect to form, were perfectly developed : indeed the six 
front ones had already attained such a size that they exceeded 
the cephalothorax in length. Also that portion of the cephalo- 
thorax to which the legs were attached, had acquired, in re- 
spect to length, the ascendency over that with which the 
foot-jaws and cibarian apparatus are connected. The foot- 
jaws were very much compressed, and possessed but a slight 
magnitude in comparison to the legs; they were, however, 
with respect to form, already similar to those of the full- 
grown specimens. Those of the front pair, which previously 
were the largest, appeared at present the smallest; and in- 
deed they had lost in circumference, their two branches had 
shortened perceptibly, and on the inner ramification even the 
articulation was missing, w hile the stem was further developed. 
The outer branch (the palpus) on the central and posterior 
foot-jaws was the longest, consisting of three articulations, 
and had therefore acquired a joint more (the newly added joint, 
w^hich was now the terminal one, subsequently separates into 
several.). The inner branch had become shorter on the central 
foot-jaws, longer on the contrary on the posterior ones, so 
that it now appeared altogether greater on the latter. Bran- 
chiae were already present on the legs and posterior foot-jaws. 
The antennae were of the same form as in full-grown spe- 
cimens, yet the long flagellum of the posterior or outer 
antennae only consisted of fifteen articulations. The eyes 
also were already formed as in mature specimens, and directed 
anteriorly. The snout had entirely disappeared. The tail, 
it is true, had become broader, but not thicker in the same 
degree, and appeared therefore rather flattened ; its joints 
were still more sharply separated from each other ; no lateral 
curvature was yet perceptible on it. The central lamina of 
the fan appeared like an oval cut from off the thinner extre- 
mity, and held together with the sixth joint of the tail by this 
truncated end ; it had therefore quite a different form from 
that in the less developed young. The lateral plates of the fan 
had likewise, it is true, a resemblance to those of full-grown 
individuals, but were still quite flat and thin; moreover, those 
of the right and left half were still equal to each other in 

3. Galathcea rugosa, — Mature embryos of this crab have a 
structure and form similar to those of Pagurus, They like- 
wise, therefore, have only three pair of locomotive organs, and 
in all probability these are subsequently developed into foot- 
jaws. They only differ from those of Paguru^, in the two 

H. Rathke on the Metamorphosis of the Crustacea. 267 

branches at the two front pairs being somewhat longer in 
proportion to the stem. On the fan of the tail Ukewise, con- 
sisting of only one plate, the incisure is very deep, so that this 
part is more distinctly divided into two flaps than in the 
mature embryo of Pagurus. 

4. Hyas Araneus. — I obtained from Professor and Councillor 
of State Reinhardt of Copenhagen, to whom I am likewise 
indebted for the above-described young of Pagurus, several 
specimens of a crab-like animal, which had been caught by 
one of its possessors who had found a great swarm of them 
in the North Sea : they were probably the young of Hyas 
Araneus in two different periods of development. 

The smallest were, without their snout, 1^ lin. in length, 
and were very similar to those Crustacea which Thompson 
has already described as the young of a short-tailed crab. 
The dorsal shield was moderately compressed from the 
sides, and had in its hinder half a considerable height 
in comparison to the breadth, so that it might in some 
measure be compared to the shield of Daphnia. From the 
upper side of it proceeded a thin appendage directed upwards 
and backwards, which was about the same length as the 
dorsal shield; but forwards and downwards proceeded a 
simple and thin snout of about the same length. Of members 
which might serve for swimming three pairs occurred ; and 
of these, as in the above-described smallest larva or young of 
Pagurus, the front pair was the largest, the hinder, entirely 
covered by the dorsal shield, the smallest. Each of these 
organs again consisted of a stem and two ramifications of 
which the inner was almost cylindrical and composed of five 
articulations, the outer one very compressed, and consisting 
only of two articulations. Behind them were likewise five 
pairs of legs, of which the front or largest was already pro- 
vided with pretty far ^[developed pincers. Yet all the legs 
were, in comparison to the two front pairs of joints for swim- 
ming, exhibiting themselves as foot-jaws in a lower stage of 
development, very small, and lay still completely hidden 
under the dorsal shield. Not a trace of branchiae seemed as 
yet to exist. The small maxillae and mandibulae were similar 
in form to grown specimens of Hyas : the mandibulae, for in- 
stance, had already a very long palpus. On the other hand, 
the antennae had a form entirely different from those of full- 
grown specimens; however, it would lead me too far were I to 
describe these more minutely. The eyes were, in proportion 
to the whole body, enormously great, and directed sidewards. 
The tail was much longer than the cephalothorax, the snout 
being left out of consideration, but was very narrow, and 

268 H. Rathke on the Metamorphosis of the Crustacea. 

nearly as thick as broad. At its extremity there was a large 
irregular triangular plate, which had at its posterior broad 
margin, or base, a moderately deep but long incisure, and at 
w^hose two posteriorly directed corners two long, thick spines 
directed backw^ards were inserted (articulated). False legs 
were already present, not yet divided into two branches, 
but nearly cylindrical. Two simple appendages, like the false 
feet, but of smaller size, were inserted on both sides of the 
lamina, representing the fan, at (into) the hinder extremity of 
the sixth joint of the tail. 

Together with the above-described larvae were likewise 
captured some others which had swum deeper. Now these 
were very much further developed, and already possessed a 
considerable resemblance to full-grown specimens of Hyas 
Araneus : for instance, the antennae, foot-jaws and legs were of 
similar form and relative dimensions as in these ; this was like- 
wise the case with respect to the dorsal shield, only that this 
shield terminated in front in three rather long, thick spines, 
lying nearly in one and the same horizontal plane, of which 
the central one was larger than the two others. The tail, on 
the contrary, was proportionately much longer than in full- 
grown specimens, and w^as likewise of a moderate breadth and 
pretty thick. The false feet were very long in comparison to 
the tail, and were already provided with two branches unequal 
in size, and furnished with very long bristles. The fan con- 
sisted of a broad, moderately long, and posteriorly rounded 
plate, and of two minute and simple longish-oval laminae, 
likewise inserted on both its sides at the sixth joint of the tail ; 
these laminae were only about half as long as the false feet of 
the fifth joint of the tail. ^__^ 

From the notices which I have here briefly communicated 
respecting the development of some Decapods, it therefore 
results that several of these animals, as first discovered and 
described by Thompson, undergo a very considerable and 
highly remarkable metamorphosis, after having thrown off 
their egg-shells. I therefore confess that I have done Thomp- 
son injustice in not putting faith in that discovery, relying on 
the history of the development of the Cray-fish, and trusting 
too much to analogies in the structure of full-grown Decapods ; 
perhaps likewise led into error by the examination of very 
small embryos of Eriphia spinifrons and of Palamon Squilla. 
It results, however, from the above communication, and 
from the history which I have given of the Cray-fish (and 
which I intend next spring partially to subject to a revision), 
that different Decapods quit their eggs in a different stage of 

Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany, 269 

development. Pagurus, Galathaea, and Hyas come out in a 
less developed state, since at the time of quitting the egg they 
do not even possess a trace of legs or branchiae. Astacus ma- 
rinus, on the contrary, and Astacus jluviatilis are at that 
time already provided with all the legs and branchiae belong- 
ing to their organization. Other parts with which all Deca- 
pods appear to be then already furnished are in some at that 
time only slightly, in others, on the contrary, exceedingly far 
developed with respect to size. This relates especially to the 
antennae. On the other hand, some possess in the com- 
mencement parts which are subsequently entirely lost ; as, 
for instance, in Astacus marinus appendages on the legs for 
swimming, and in Hyas Araneus a considerably long spine 
on the upper side of its dorsal shield, while in other Decapods 
such parts never occur. Or, in some, parts vanish, which in 
others are permanent, as the snout in the Paguri, and the 
lateral laminae of the fan in Hyas ; and other parts again 
undergo such considerable changes in their form, that it 
becomes quite different, as, for instance, central lamina 
of the fan, the foot-jaws, and the antennae of several spe- 
cies. One of the most remarkable phaenomena is, however, 
this ; — that in Decapods which inhabit the sea the members 
they employ for locomotion are in the commencement so or- 
ganized that they can solely or principally be used for swim- 
ming (as appears to be the case with the Lobster) ; in the 
freshwater Crab, on the other hand, when it leaves the egg 
those apparatus have such a structure that they can only be 
employed for walking. 

In conclusion, 1 would still direct attention to the circum- 
stance, that although several Decapods, perhaps even the 
greater number of them, have in the commencement with re- 
spect to the form of their members great similarity with the 
Schizopoda, and especially with species of My sis, yet the de- 
velopment of the two tribes of animals is very different in se- 
veral other respects. 

XXXI. — Report of the Results of Researches in Physiological 
Botany made in the year 1839. By F. J. Me yen, M.D., 
Professor of Botany in the University of Berlin. 
[Continued from p. 144.] 

From C. Sprengel, the writer on Rural CEconomy, we have re- 
ceived a work on Manures*, which is not only of high jorac- 

* Die Lehre vom Diinger, oder Beschreibung aller bei der Landvvirthschaft 
gebrauchlicher vegetabilischer, animalischer und mineraliscber Diingernia- 
terialien, nebst Erklamng ihrer Wirkungsart, Leipzig, 1839, 8. 456 Seilen. 

270 Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany, 

tical value, but also contains additions to our science. In 
the introduction we first obtain a view of the theory which 
was followed by the author in the compilation of his work. 
Under manure, he understands everything which belongs 
either to the means of nourishment of plants or to their 
chemical composition. Besides carbon, oxygen, and hydro- 
gen, the author mentions eleven others, viz. lime, magne- 
sia, soda, potash, alumina, silicic acid, iron, manganese, chlo- 
rine, phosphoric acid, and sulphuric acid, which are also to be 
considered as manures, because they are found more or less 
in all plants ; and indeed, says the author, " they are really 
manures ; for if we strew a boggy or marshy soil with quartz 
sand, we soon see that plants, particularly grasses, grow better 
there ! The manures are divided into such as merely nourish 

and strengthen the plants, as gypsum, salt, copperas (Fe S), 
&c., and such as not only nourish but also act as solvents on 
several of the constituents of the soil, which are thereby con- 
verted into substances suitable for the nourishment of the 
plants ; and to this group are reckoned dung, ashes, marl, &c. 
The generally received opinion, that minerals, as gypsum, 
nitre, copperas, &c. act as stimulants on the growth of plants, 
is considered by the author to be perfectly incorrect; as 
proof, he mentions that the completely putrified urine of 
horned cattle consists solely of mineral substances, dissolved 
in from 90 to 92 per cent, water, and that this is nevertheless 
one of the most excellent manures. Moreover, the manuring 
with saltpetre is adduced by the author, as a proof that mi- 
neral substances are to be considered as true manures, of 
which often only minute quantities are necessary in order to 
promote to an extraordinary degree the growth of plants. 
The author has here adduced two examples, which certainly 
appear very striking ; but he has forgotten to add that the 
carbonate of ammonia in the urine is a substance which is 
completely decomposed in the interior of plants, and that its 
constituent elements belong to the principal components, or 
rather to the most excellent kinds of food of plants, and by 
this the principal argument which he brings forward in sup- 
port of his theory is done away with. As far as concerns 
the manuring with nitre, it appears to me as if we were still in 
perfect darkness as to the explanation of the phaenomenon, 
and that this cannot, at any rate, be used as a proof in favour 
of the author's theory. We know indeed that nitre may 
be contained in plants, but we do not know either how much 
of the nitre taken up from the soil is decomposed into its ele- 
ments, or how much remains undecomposed ; the acid of the 
nitre is probably again resolved into its elements, as in the 

Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany. 271 

case of ammonia, and hence it is quite comprehensible why- 
nitre mixed with the soil in proper quantities is so highly 
advantageous. The idea of the most celebrated chemists, that 
most vegetable substances require only carbon, hydrogen, and 
oxygen to their formation, and that beside these nitrogen is 
only necessary for some certain classes of bodies, is held by 
the author to be erroneous ; for he assumes that gluten, legu- 
min, &c. contain lime, phosphoric acid, sulphur, &c., besides 
their usual ultimate constituents, and that these substances 
(gluten, &c.) cannot make their appearance in the plants un- 
less the above-mentioned inorganic bodies are combined with 
them. Sprengel assumes also, that the woody fibres are the 

skeleton of the plant, and consist of Si, Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, C, 
H, O, &c. ; the chemists' idea that the fibres consist of the 
three last-mentioned bodies alone, is in his opinion quite false ; 
for, says he, if one burns the purest possible fibres, there al- 
ways remains a small residue of ashes consisting of the above- 
mentioned substances. It is a pity that the author has not 
stated more plainly what he means by ^^ fibres ;" vegetable 
anatomy teaches us the infinitely great variety in the physical 
properties of the membranes which form the cells, and he who 
has attentively followed with the microscope the formation of 
the deposits of new membranes, w ill plainly see that all those 
inorganic matters, or a great part of them, which are con- 
tained in solution in the sap, out of which the formation of 
the membranes proceeds, must exist either in the substance 
of the hardened membrane or in fine layers between the strata. 
Here, probably, are all the inorganic substances which acci- 
dentally enter into the sap, in larger or smaller quantity. The 
small quantity of ashes found in starch can only be exj^lained 
in this manner. Perhaps, therefore, the author is in error 
when he compares the appearance of the above-mentioned 
matters in the cellular membrane of plants, with the deposi- 
tion of phosphate of lime in the bones of animals, and I have 
already (in the former Reports) drawn attention to the insur- 
mountable difficulties in the way of the experiment, or of a per- 
fect purification of the cells. 

The author considers dung, it is true, as the universal ma- 
nure, but says, that sometimes even this is not sufficient, be- 
cause it contains too little mineral matter. According to his 
ideas, therefore, the plants in such cases were in want of the 
true mineral manures, while, as is well known, this phae- 
nomenon is explained by others in a totally different 

The author also states very positively that the soil can then 
only produce good crops, when it is provided with the neces- 

272 Meyen^s Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany, 

sary substances ; it will always be the better if all that which 
it produced is left to it, for it is then manured not only by the 
vegetable matter produced, but also by the substances con- 
tained in the atmosphere, which mix with it in the form of 
dust dissolved as it were in the rain. After the introduction, 
the author treats largely of the external and internal structure 
of plants, or of the organs by which they exert their functions 
and procure nourishment, but this se^en must be desig- 
nated as altogether unsatisfactory, which, however, has no 
further influence on the practical value of the work ; it would, 
however, have been better if this part had also agreed with 
the present state of the science, for Vegetable Physiology has 
advanced so much in the last ten years, that it might have 
been presented in such a form as to have appeared both inter- 
esting and instructive, even to the practical agriculturist. The 
author has formed this section principally from the old 
(1827 — 1830) writings of DeCandolle, and now teaches some 
points which certainly DeCandolle himself has long since ac- 
knowledged to be erroneous; for instance, the root-spongioles, 
the ascent of sap in the intercellular passages, the excretions 
of the extremities of roots, by which plants are said to pre- 
pare their food, to kill others, &c. &c. The new experiments 
(former Report, p. 2) which have been instituted to ascertain 
the origin of nitrogen in plants, are looked upon by Spren- 
gel as quite conclusive, and he correctly remarks, that we can 
never hope to obtain a clear idea of the nutrition of plants, 
unless we call in the asistance of chemistry. The author 
observed, that plants growing on a soil containing much 
chloride of sodium, evolved, beside oxygen, also much chlo- 
rine, which seems to me to prove that the nitrates also are 
decomposed when in the plants, and that the manuring pro- 
perties of such substances may be explained in this manner, 
as has been already stated. To the functions of the leaves 
Sprengel reckons the following : — that they draw off from the 
other parts of the plants, particularly the young shoots, 
branches, and stem, the excess of fixed matters, on which ac- 
count they often contain ten times as much of these bodies as 
other parts ; however, this phaenomenon has been explained 
by later physiologists in quite a different manner ; moreover, 
there are a great number of plants in which the bark of the 
stem contains most mineral matters. 

In another section Sprengel attempts to prove that a cer- 
tain quantity of mineral matter is necessary for the growth 
of plants ; the physiologists do not doubt this, but they ex- 
plain it differently. The reason why bulbs which are grown 
in water do not last two years, is, according to the author, be- 
cause the first time they are deprived of so much mineral 

Meyen^s Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany. 273 

matter, that the quantity necessary for their second budding 
is wanting. The physiologists have until now explained this 
well-known phaenomenon quite diiferently, and had the 
author examined accurately with the microscope such bulbs 
as have once flowered, he would have noticed in them a great 
loss of starch and gum, and in their stead a large quantity of 
crystals. Indeed the growth of many plants which hang in 
the free air, e. g. the ^I'idece, Sedum Telephium, &c., is said 
according to the author's view to be caused by mineral sub- 
stances, which are deposited on the leaves as dust, partly dis- 
solved by means of carbonic acid in the moisture of the room, 
and are then absorbed by the leaves. But here it is not dif- 
ficult to see that he applies everything to defend his hypo- 
thesis, which goes through the whole of this, in other respects, 
valuable work ; indeed, in some cases, where it is not at all 
necessary, e. g. in the last-mentioned ; for we know already 
for certain, that such plants as grow in the air or in distilled 
water, consume their own reserves of nourishment, which are 
often very considerable. 

We consider also not only as a perfectly improved hypo- 
thesis, that which the author says concerning the formation 
of organic bodies in plants, but we believe that in the present 
state of Vegetable Chemistry we dare not propose such views. 
Plants, namely, are said to form their organic bodies out of 
the inorganic matters which they receive from the soil or the 
atmosphere by the assistance of hght, heat, electricity and 
water, in a manner which remains to us for ever incompre- 
hensible. Such general doctrines as, " Plants organize inor- 
ganic matters, and animals vitalize the already organized vege- 
table matters,'' are mdeed very attractive, but, as I believe, 
perfectly undemonstrated. Physiology teaches us that plants 
absorb all substances which are offered to them in a suffi- 
ciently fluid state, and if these substances act as poisons the 
plants die ; but the author inculcates in this respect the 
following, quite improved, doctrine. Minerals, as lead, arsenic, 
copper, selenium, &c., are without exception hurtful to plants, 
they injure however one more and the other less ; which is ex- 
phcable by the fact, that the one plant more than the other, has 
the power of rejecting matters not belonging to its chemical 
composition, or if it has already taken them up, of ejecting 
them again, and this excretion takes place not only by means 
of the roots but also by means of the leaves, and these latter 
die partly thereby generally at the extremities. As an ex- 
ample to prove the latter statement very clearly, Sprengel 
states, that when a plant of barley a foot high is watered 
with a small quantity of a solution of a lead or copper salt, the 

Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Dec. 1840. t 

274 Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany. 

whole plant lives but several leaves die. This fact is certainly 
quite true, but we must explain it otherwise. If only a small 
quantity of a poison in a dissolved state is offered to a plant, 
and this poison is not one of the very strongest, like hydro- 
cyanic acid, it is carried up (like all other dissolved sub- 
stances) with the water through the stem into the leaves, 
where the process of digestion takes place ; here, therefore, 
the poison collects and kills, but the whole plant does not die 
from its effects, because the quantity was too small to poison 
the large number of cells with their contained sap. 

The practical part of the work begins, properly speaking, 
at page 80, and this section treats most circumstantially of all 
the different substances which have been recommended for 
manuring the soil, and, indeed, as fully as any agriculturist 
can wish ; hundreds of analyses of the manures accompany 
the doctrines which the author brings forward concerning 
their application. This is clearly not the place to give a spe- 
cial account of what service has been done in this purely prac- 
tical part of the work ; we will only mention here observations 
and theories with which the author makes us acquainted in 
order to explain the action of this or that kind of manure, be- 
cause this is in close connection with the study of the nutri- 
tion of plants. 

It appears, from all observations, that food in the bodies of 
animals is not enriched with, but rather exhausted of matters 
fit for manuring, because the noiu-ishing parts are extracted 
and retained by the animals ; if however we see sometimes 
that animal excrements produced from a certain quantity of 
food, manure more powerfully than the food itself, it is only 
to be explained either by the quantity of mineral substances 
which are mixed with excrement, or we deceive ourselves in 
as much as the dung acts powerfully at first but does not exert 
this action for a long time, while the food manures at first 
feebly but afterwards lastingly. The dung of animals will, 
however, always be the worse, the poorer their food is, and in 
proportion as it is better digested and extracted by the ani- 
mal. In speaking of the animal manures, the author al- 
ways draws attention to the development of carbonate of am- 
monia, which is a substance so exceedingly nutritive for plants, 
and states that in the treatment of the dung the principal 
object to be held in view is to retain that ammonia, which may 
be done by solution in water, or still better by combining it 
with humic acid, which is contained in sufficient quantity in 
mould. With regard to the celebrated manuring with bones 
which has been tried with such great success in England, 
the author says he has convinced himself that nothing but 

Mr. J. E. Gray on Starfish, 275 

the bone earth (phosphate of lime Ca^ F^) is the manure, and 
that this substance only does good in such a soil as is poor in 
it, which is said not to be the case in Mecklenburg and north- 
ern Germany, on which account no such astonishing success 
has been seen to result from manuring with bones. On the 
contrary, the English soil is said to have been exhausted of 
its phosphate of lime by the repeated cultivation of wheat, so 
that in it this manure is very successful. We have shown in 
the commencement the views which the author takes of the 
action of mineral substances as manures, and, according to it, 
the action of several, as lime, marl, gypsum, &c., are explained; 
if these substances are not present, or are in only small quan- 
tities in the soil, then they must be added, and in order to 
ascertain this it is absolutely necessary to examine the soil 
chemically. If one wishes to manure with marl, both the 
marl and the soil must be first examined, for marls are very 
variable in their composition, and it is not every one of them 
which will suit one particular soil. 

From M. Pabst we have received another very important 
work on Agricultural (Economy*, which treats of the cultiva- 
tion of plants agriculturally, but it is quite practical. He who 
wishes for any information concerning the cultivation of those 
domestic plants which can be produced in our country, will 
find in this work sufficient instruction. 

[To be continued.] 

XXXII. — A Synopsis of the Genera and Species of the Class 
Hypostoma (Asterias, Linncsus), By John Edward Gray, 
Esq., F.R.S., Keeper of the Zoological Collection in the 
British Museum. 

[Continued from p. 184.] 

Fam. 3. Pentacerotid^, Gray, Si/n. Brit. Mus. 

The body supported by roundish or elongated pieces, covered with 
a smooth or granular skin, pierced with minute pores between the 

A. Pentacerotina. Body pentagonal or suhorhicular , rays short, 
dorsal wart single, the ambulacra edged with a series of small spines 
divided into rounded groups. 

a. The ambulacra with a single series of large spines near the edge. 

* Body suborbicular, convex above and below ; covered above and 
below with granules, and scattered conical tubercles. 

* Lehrbuch der Landwirthschaft. Zweiten Bandes. l** Abtheilung Spe- 
cielle Productionslehre. Darmstadt, 1839. 

T 2 

-76 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

1. CuLciTA, Agassiz. 
Culcita Schmideliana. Asterias Schmideliana, Retz. Naturforscher, 
xvi. t. 1. Ast. placenta. Ast. discoidea. Lam. 

Inhab. Lord Hood's Island, on reefs. H. Cuming, Esq. 
Bright orange when alive, when in the water very convex. 

** Body pentagonal, formed of variously shaped, regularly arranged, 
externally granular ossicula. 

2. Pentaceros. 

Body convex above, margin with 2 rows of large spine -bearing 

a. Back formed of irregular elongated ossicula, apparently reticu- 
lated ; the spines with enlarged bases, interspaces closely punctured. 

1. Pentaceros grandis, Seba, t. 8. f. 1. Arms very broad, as wide 
as long at the base, only half as long as the width of the body. 

Diam. 17". 
Inhab. . 

2. Pentaceros reticulatus. Asterias reticulata, Linn. Arms rather 
broad, nearly as long as the width of the body ; back convex. Mon- 
strosity 4-lobed, Rumph. Mus. t, 15. f. D. 

Inhab. West Indies, Barbadoes. Ralph Green, Esq. 

3. Pentaceros gibbus, Linck, t. 23. f. 36. Seba, iii. t. 7. f. 1. Arms 
rather shorter than the width of the body, back depressed. 

Inhab. West Indies and St. Vincent's. Rev. L. Guilding. 

See also Pentaceros lentiginosus, Linck, 25. t. 41, 42. f. 72. Ast. 
pentacyphus, Retz., with smaller spines and a nearly spineless mar- 
gin ; and 2. Pentaceros horridus, Linck, t. 25. f. 40. 

4. Pentaceros Cumingii, Gray. The arms rather narrow, nearly as 
long as the diameter of the body ; marginal spines few, small ; back 
rather depressed, with conical protuberances, bearing small spines. 

Diam. 12". 

Inhab. Punta Santa Elena. Rocky ground 12 or 18 fathoms. 
H. Cuming, Esq. 

Perhaps the young of a much larger species. 

5. Pentaceros hiuculus, Linck, t. 26. f. 41. Ast. nodosa, a. Lamk. 
Arms rather narrow, nearly as long as the width of the body, with 
a single series of blunt tubercles ; back rather depressed, with a 
central large tubercle, on each angle of the centre. 

Inhab. Isle of France. Dr. W. E. Leach. 

In Linck's figure the spines are rather larger than in our speci- 
mens, of nearly the same size. 

6. Pentaceros Chinensis. Rays elongated, nearly as long as the 
width of the body, with small blunt marginal tubercles ; back high, 
with 4 or 5 small central tubercles, and a very large blunt tubercle at 
each angle. 

Inhab. China. /. Reeves, Esq. 

The central dorsal series of tesserae are not armed with sj)ines ; are 
they so in larger specimens ? 

the Genera and Species of Starfish. 277 

7. Pentaceros Franklinii. Rays elongate, as long as the width of 
the body, with a dorsal series of broad blunt tubercles ; back high, 
with very large spines at each angle, margin not armed. 

Var. 1. With one or two conical tubercles on each side of the tu- 
bercles, near the one at the angle of the central dorsal disk. 

Inhab. Coast of New Holland. G. Bennett, Esq. 

See also Pentaceros turritus, Linck, t. 22. 23. f. 3. Like the 
former, but the back is more spinose, and the spines are not so large. 

8. Pentaceros muricatus, Linck, t. 7. f. 8. Ast. Linckii, Blainv. A. 
nodosa. Lam. Seba, iii. t. 7. f. 3. Arms elongated, nearly as long as 
the width of the body, with a dorsal series of large, and with 2 or 
3 large conical spines near the tips ; back rather high, spinose. 

Inhab. . Brit. Mus. 

b? Back formed of irregular flat-topped ossicula, placed in rows so 
as to appear nearly tessellated ; arms elongated^ rather narrow. 

9. Pentaceros nodosa. Asterias nodosa, Gmelin (part), Seba, iii. 
t. 8. f. 11, 12. (t. 5. f. 11, 12. without spines on the margin ?) Arms 
with a double series of hemispherical tubercles ; back rather depressed ; 
marginal ossicula unequal, lower one with small blunt conical spines. 

Inhab. Isle of France. TV. E. Leach, M.D. 

c. Back formed of regular rounded ossicula, placed in rows; back 
rather low. 

10. Pentaceros aculeatus, Seba, iii. t. 5. f. 5. 6. With 3 ridges of 
small spine-bearing tubercles ; back rather depressed, with three 
small spines at the angles ; marginal ossicules rounded, with conical 

Var. } or younger ? Spine-bearing ossicula further apart, with the 
skin and granulations worn off and bleached, Seba, iii. t. 7. f. 1. 

Inhab. West Indies, St. Vincent's. Rev. L. Guilding. 

See also Pentaceros spinosa. Ast. nodosa (part), Gmel. Seba, iii, 
t. 5. f. 7, 8., and var. Seba, iii. t. 7. f. 1, 2. Ossicula oblong, with 
2 or 3 small conical tubercles. 

d. Back regularly convex, formed of flat granular ossicula with a 
blunt mobile spine on the centre of each ossicule below ; arms short, 
broad. Nidorellia. 

1 1 . Pentaceros armatus, Gray. Arms short, broad, the lower mar- 
ginal and the 3 last upper marginal plates at the top with short 
blunt spines ; back convex, with central and lateral groups and a se- 
ries of spines down each arm. Young more convex ; spines shorter, 
blunter and fewer. Younger not so convex, without any marginal 
spines, and only indications of them on the back. 

Inhab. Punta Santa Elena. Rock ground, 12 to 15 fathoms. 
H. Cuming, Esq. 

3. Stellaster. Gray. 

Body depressed, covered with large flat regular six-sided plates, 
margin with 2 rows of large tesserae ; the lower rows with a series 
of compressed mobile spines. 

278 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

1 . Stellaster Childreni. Back convex, with 1 or 2 blunt tubercles 
on the angles of the centre, arms three quarters the length of the 
width of the body, narrow, attenuated to a blunt recurved tip. 
Young, back without any tubercles. 

Inhab. China or Japan } 

4. CoMPTONiA, Gray. 
Body depressed, spinose .'* dorsal and oral disk covered with very 
small flat plates, marginal ossicula large, without any mobile spines. 

1. Comptonia elegans, Gray. Fossil. Black Down. 

The fossil genus Ccelaster, Agassiz, from Maestricht, appears to be 
most nearly allied to this genus, but the plates of the oral disk 
(which alone are known) appear to be linear longitudinal. 

*** Body pentagonal, formed of variously shaped rather rough os- 
sicula sunk into a naked skin, with a single series of spine-bearing tu- 

5. Gymnasteria, Gray. 

1. Gymnasteria spinosa. Rays triangular, tapering, about one 
quarter longer than the width of the body, with a dorsal series of 
conical cylindrical tubercles. Young with a few spines on the mar- 
gin and l3ack of the arms. Allied to Porania. 

Inhab. Panama, fine sand, 16 fathoms. H. Cuming, Esq. 

2. Gymnasteria inermis. Rays rapidly tapering, convex above 
without any spines. 

Inhab. Panama, fine sand, 10 fathoms. Half the size of the young, 
spined specimens of the former species. 

b. The ambulacra with 2 series of larger spines near the edge ; 
body depressed } back flat. 

* The ossicula granulated, sunk in the skin, often spine -bearing. 

6. Paulia, Gray. 

Body 5-rayed, formed of flat granulated spine-bearing irregular 
ossicula on the disk and margin without any 2 -lipped pores. 

Paulia horrida. Chestnut brown ; spines acute. 

Var. Smaller, arms as long as the width of the body, rather ta- 
pering, spines smaller, blunt, rounded at the tip ; back more closely 

Inhab. Punta Santa Elena. Rocky ground, 12 to 18 fathoms. 
H, Cuming. Esq. 

7. Randasia, Gray. 

Body pentagonal, with a tubercular skin above, and large granu- 
lar plates beneath and on the margin, without any 2-lipped slits, but 
with one or two small pores near the oral angle beneath, where the 
tubercles are rubbed off. Allied to Culcita. 

1. Randasia Luzonica. Thick, brown, the tubercles of the under 
side unequal, the larger ones flat-topped : sides straight. 

Inhab. Island of Lu9on, in the Port of Sual. H. Cuming, Esq. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish, 2?^ 

8. Anthenea, Gray. 
Body 5 -rayed, chaify, with immersed elongated tubercle-bear- 
ing ossicula ; margin with regular rows of large tesserae ; both sur- 
faces (especially the under) scattered with large 2-lipped pores. 

1 . Anthenea chinensis, Gray. Asterias chinensis, Gray, Brit. Mus. 
Back obscurely netted, rather chaffy, with scattered truncated tu- 
bercles in rather diverging lines ; marginal plates not tubercled ; rays 
broad, half the length of the width of the body. 

Inhab. China, Japan. /. Reeves, Esq, 

See also Seba, iii. t. 6. f. 5, 6. (Ast. tessellata, var. A. Lam.). Si- 
milar, but the dorsal tubercles are larger and angular. 

9. HosiA, Gray. 

Body 5 -rayed, formed of distinct, hexangular, nearly equal, slightly 
tubercular ossicula ; back with small and beneath with larger 2-lipped 

Hosia flavescens. Arms two-thirds the length of the^width of the 

Inhab. Perhaps young. 

See also Asterias granularis, Retz. in Muller Zool. Dan. t. 92. f. 1. 
4. From the North Sea. Gmelin referred to Linck, t. 13. f. 22. t. 23. 
f. 37 ? — t. 24. f. 39. and t. 27. f. 45. all Goniaster tessellatus, for this 
species ? as he also has done to Ast. equestris. 

** The ossicula of the upper and lower surface and the margin 
smooth, with a single continued series of uniform granules round each 
of their edges. 

10. HipPASTERiA, Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 

Body 4 or 5 -sided, formed of roundish ossicula, with a large trun- 
cated central tubercle ; upper and lower surface with 2-lipped pores. 

1. Hippasteria Europaa. Asterias equestris, Penn. B.Z. iv. 130. 
Sow. Brit. Mis. f. 3. not Muller nor Lamk. Rays 5, broad, nearly 
half as long as the width of the body, marginal ossicula with three 
blunt tubercles placed in a central cross series. 

European Ocean. 

2. Hippasteria Johnstoni. Asterias Johnstoni, Gray, Johnst. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 1836. vi. f. 21. not Chiaje. Rays 4, elongated, slightly 
tapering, back spinulose with short truncated spines, margin with 3 
or 4 series of elongated tapering spines. 

North of England. 

See also Hip. plana. Pentaceros planus, Linck, 21. t. 12. f. 21. 
(Ast. equestris, Gmelin and Lam.^, which chiefly differs in the arms 
appearing longer. 2. H. cornuta, Pent, longiorum cornuum, Linck, 
43. t. 33. f. 53, with the arms still longer and more slender at the 
end. All four are perhaps varieties of one ; Gmelin refers for this 
species to Linck, t. 5. f. 13 ; an Astropecten, t. 13. f. 22. t. 23. f. 37. 
t. 24. f, 39. and t. 27. f. 45. all Goniaster tessellatus. 

280 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

11. Calliaster, Gray. 

Body 5-rayed, with flat immersed ossicula armed with flat-based 
deciduous conical spines, and withont any 2-lipped slits on either 

1. Calliaster Childreni, Gray. Gray, back slightly convex, with a 
centre, a ring and 5 radiating lines of small spines ; rays slender, 
tapering, as long as the width of the body ; each of the marginal 
pieces with a central series of 3 distant spines. 

Inhab. . 

c. Ambulacra with 3 or 4 series of equal close larger spines near the 
edge ; body depressed, flat ; marginal ossicula large, smooth, 2-rowed, 
with only a single series of granules on each of their edges. 


Ossicula flat, the dorsal ossicula granulated and armed with deci- 
duous flat-based spines ; both surfaces destitute of any 2-lipped slits. 

In the younger specimens only the middle of the back and the cen- 
tral dorsal lines of the rays are spine-bearing, but as the animal en- 
larges the other tessera? on the sides become covered, and at length 
they are separated into groups by the groove extending from the 
centre to the angle of the margin between the rays. The tubercles 
easily fall off" in the dry specimens, leaving a smooth distinct flat 

1. Goniaster cuspidatus. Pentagonaster semilunatus cuspidatus, 
Linck, 21. t. 23. f. 37. perfect; t. 22. f. 3.9. imperfect; and Seba, iii. 
t. 6. f. 9. perfect. Ast. tessellatus, D and C. Lam. Body 5-angu- 
lar, sides curved, arms broad, triangular, rather more than half as 
long as the width of the body. 

Inhab. . 

2. Goniaster Sebce, Seba, iii. t. 8. f. 2. diff'ers in the sides of the 
rays being angularly inflexed. 

3. Goniaster regularis, Seba, iii. t, 8. f. 4, copied for Pentagonaster 
regularis, Linck, 20. t. 13. f. 22 Body with five nearly straight 

13. Pentagonaster, Gray. 

Body formed of convex, smooth, and spineless ossicula ; the os- 
sicula of the under side with a central sunk line with a central per- 
foration and a small pit at each end. The marginal ossicula near 
the tips of the rays very large and swollen. 

1. Pentagonaster pulchellus. Asterias pulchella. Gray, Encycl.Me- 
trop. t. . f . . Body with 5 deeply concave sides, with 4 oval 
convex tubercles on each side, and a small one interposed between 
the angles of each of them. 

Inhab. China. 

When the large apical tubercles have been injured it becomes 
divided into small unequal ones. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish. 281 

14. TosiA, Gray. 

The body formed of smooth and spineless ossicula, rather convex ; 
the dorsal and ventral ossicula entire, without any impressed line, 
subequal ; the marginal ossicula 2-rowed, with a small intermediate 
one near each tip ; dorsal wart triangular. 

1 . Tosia australis. Body flat, with 5 slightly inflexed sides, the 
central interradial dorsal ossicule largest, marginal 6 above and 
below, with a small intermediate ossicule at the top of each side, 
the lower gradually diminishing in size towards the top. 

Inhdb. Swan River, Port Lincoln, and Van Diemen's Land. 

The granules between the ossicula are deficient in the dead and 
washed specimens. There are 3 or 4 fossil species in the chalk. 

B. Echinasterina. The body discoidal, many-rayed, skeleton netted 
with numerous elongated doubly mobile articulated spines on mammil- 
lary tubercles ; dorsal warts numerous. 

15. EcHiNASTER, Gray, Syn. Brit. Mus. 62. 
Body star-like, granulated, depressed ; back rather convex, with 
a circle of 10 — 15 conical dorsal warts! Ambulacral spines small, 
placed in groups with a single continuous row of large slender 
spines near them. The spines are very long and covered with a gra- 
nular skin, and have generally a second articulation about one-third 
the length from the base. 

1 . Echinaster Ellisii, Gray. Asterias Echinus, Solander and Ellis, 
t. 60, 61, 62. Asterias Echinites, Lam. Dorsal warts 15 ; rays 11, 
or 12; spines large, thick. 

Inhab. South America. H. Cuming, Esq. 

2. Echinaster Solaris. Asterias Solaris, Naturforscher, xxviii. t. 1, 
2. Rays 21 ; spines small; dorsal warts 10. 

Inhab. . 

C. Cribellina. The body divided into cylindrical, elongated rays ; 
dorsal wart single. 

a. Ambulacra with a single series of crowded filiform spines, some- 
times united by a membrane at their base. 

f. Smooth, the rays netted, with mobile spines, with impressed dots 
between the net work ; dorsal wart convex, fiat-topped, with a few ra- 
diating grooves. 

* Spine single, large, on the junction of the ossicula, placed in equi- 
distant series. 

16. Othilia, Gray. 

Skin smooth, polished ; ambulacra with two very close series of 
filiform spines. 

1. Othilia spinosa. Asterias spinosa, Retz. Pentadactylosaster 
spinosus, Linck, t. 4. f. 17. Asterias Echinophora, Lam. n. 25. not 
Chiaje. Rays rather more than twice the length of the width of the 

Inhab. North America, Virginia. 

282 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

2. Othilia aculeata. Rays cylindrical, more than 3 or 4 times 
as long as the breadth of the body, with 7 rows of acute spines. 
Young (or Var.) arms with only five series of similar spines. 

Inhab. Guacomayo, Central America, fine sand, 13 fathoms. H. 
Cuming, Esq. 

3. Othilia multispina. Rays short, depressed, broad, rather more 
than twice as long as the width of the body, blunt at the end, with 
11 rows of acute distant spines. 

Inhab. . 

4. Othilia purpurea. Purplish, rays cylindrical, nearly three times 
as long as the width of the body, with numerous short, rather blunt 
spines ; under side with cross wrinkles, and 2 or 3 series of pores 
parallel to the ambulacra. Monstrosity 4-rayed. 

Inhab. " Isle of France." W. E. Leach, M.D. 

5. Othilia Luzonica. Reddish brown, rays 5 or 6, elongates 4 times 
as long as the width of the body, with many blunt spines. 

Inhab. Isle of Luzon. H. Cuming, Esq. 

17. Metrodira, Gray. 

Slightly granular ; rays slender, with large single pores and small 
scattered spines on the back ; smooth, and formed of regular flat 
ossicula on the sides. 

1. Metrodira subulata. Yellow brown ; rays elongated, slender, 

Inhab. Migupou. H. Cuming, Esq. 

** Spines small, crowded, scattered on the sides and at the junctions 
of the slender ossicula. 

18. Rhopia, Gray. Stellonia ^^xt, Agassiz. 

Ambulacral spines long, with several series of larger spines near 

1 . Rhopia seposita. Asterias seposita, Betz. Nov. Ac. 1783. 229 ; 
Gmel. 3182; Lam. n. 30; Seba, iii. t. 7. f. 5. Pentadactylosaster 
reticulatus, Linck, t. 4. f. 5. Stellonia seposita, Agassiz. 

2. Rhopia Mediterranea. Yellow, rays 6, tapering, nearly three 
times as long as the width of the body ; spines short, cylindrical. 
Var. ? Rays 7, unequal ; spines shorter. 

Inhab. Marseilles. 

ft Granulated, the rays above largely tubercular, not spinose, with 
minute dots between the tubercles, beneath uniform ; dorsal wart tri- 
angular, irregularly punctate and contorted. 

19. Ferdina, Gray. 
Body flat ; rays broad, convex and warty above, flat and uniform 
beneath ; ambulacral spines short, united at the base. 

1. Ferdina flavescens. Yellow, brown varied ; rays near half as 
long again as the width of the body, uniformly tubercular, blunt. 
Inhab. Isle of France. W. E. Leach, M.D. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish. 283 

2. Ferdina Cumingii. Yellow or brown ; rays rather longer than 
the width of the body, with a central and a marginal row of larger 
rounded tubercles and some scattered smaller ones ; the larger tuber- 
cles on the sides are red when the granules are rubbed off, which 
they often are. 

Inhab. West Coast of Columbia. H. Cuming, Esq. 

b. The ambulacra with a series of very small short filiform spires 
(placed in pairs) with a parallel series of spines near them ; the rays 
formed of longitudinal series of tubercles united by transverse ossicula ; 
dorsal wart intricate. 

* Spines near the ambulacra larger than the ambulacral ones. 

20. Dactylosaster, Gray. 

Rays cylindrical, nearly smooth, formed of regular oblong ossi- 
cula, each furnished with a central group of unequal short mobile 
tubercles ; dorsal wart 1 . 

1. Dactylosaster cylindricus. Asterias cylindrica. Lam. Gray, 
Ency. Metrop. t. . f. . Reddish, brown marbled, rays elongated, 
cylindrical, blunt, with 8 rows of groups of spinose tubercles, 3 times 
as long as the width of the body. 

Inhab. " Isle of France." W. E. Leach, M.D. 

2. Dactylosaster gracilis. Reddish, brown marbled, rays slender, 
four times as long as the width of the body, with 7 rows of groups 
of small spines. 

Inhab. West Coast of Columbia. H. Cuming, Esq. 

21. Tamaria, Gray. 

Rays cylindrical, formed of 7 series of granular convex roundish 
ossicula, each of the upper ones with 3 or 4 unequal and the lower 
ones with a central short blunt spine. 

1. Tamaria fusca. Brown; rays rather tapering. 
Inhab. Migupou. H. Cuming, Esq. 

22. CisTiNA, Gray. 

Rays cylindrical, nearly smooth, formed of rows of 3-lobed flat os- 
sicula, each furnished with a central mobile spine ; dorsal warts (1 
or 2) oblong. 

1 . Cistina Columbia. Yellow, arms rather more than 4 times as 
long as the width of the body, with 7 rows of spines. 

Inhab. West Coast of Columbia. H. Cuming, Esq. 

The larger specimen has two very distinct dorsal warts, but I 
can only see one very obscure one in the smaller specimen. It may 
be a monstrosity in the large specimen. 

23. Ophidiaster, Agassiz. 

Rays cylindrical, elongate, imiformly granular all over, without 
any spines ; back with a small central group of larger tubercles ; 
dorsal wart .concave with radiating or twisting grooves. 

284 . Mr. J. E. Gray^s Synopsis of 

t Rays cylindrical, blunt. 

1 Ophidiaster aurantius. Orange, rays with 7 rows of rounded 
tubercles, about 4 times as long as the width of the body ; spines 
near the ambulacra short, ovate, club-shaped. 

Inhab. Madeira, rocks on Porto Santo Lauren9o. Rev. R. T. 

2. Ophidiaster Leachii. Rays elongate (smooth ?) with 8 or 9 
irregular rows of unequal tubercles. The spines near the ambulacra 
club-shaped, rather dilated and more compressed at the tip. 

Inhab. " Isle of France." Dr. W. E. Leach. 

3. Ophidiaster Guildingii, Gray. Pale brown (dry), rays cylin- 
drical, 4 times as long as the width of the body, wdth 7 series of 
moderate tubercles ; the spines near the ambulacra compressed, 
thin ovate. Var.l. female? Rays thick, spaces between the tuber- 
cles large, with numerous dots. Var. 2. male } Rays thin, spaces 
between the tubercles small, with 4 or 6 dots. 

ft Rays round, tapering, acute. Hacelia. 

4. Ophidiaster attenuatus. Rays rounded, elongate, nearly 4 times 
as long as the width of the depressed body, broad at the base and 
tapering, with 9 rows of triangular tubercles ; spines near the ambu- 
lacra large, ovate, blunt. 

Inhab. . Brit. Mus. 

ftt Rays triangular, tapering, with 3 interrupted bands of pores on 
each side. Pharia. 

5. Ophidiaster pyramidatus. Rays subangular, elongate, nearly 4 
times as long as the width of the pyramidical body, with 7 rows of 
tubercles ; the central dorsal series much the largest ; spines near 
the ambulacra ovate, subacute. 

Inhab. Bay of Caraccas, West Colombia, on the rocks. H. Cu- 
ming, Esq. 

** Series of spines near the ambulacra nearly of the same size as 
the ambulacral ones. 

24. LiNCKiA (not Micheli), Linkia, Nardo and Agassiz, not Per- 
soon nor Cav. 

f Rays 5, cylindrical, with the groups of pores scattered on the 
whole surface. 

1. Linckia Typus, Nardo. Pentadactylosaster miliaris, Linck, t.28. 
f. 47. Ast. laevigata, Linn., Lam. 39. Pale yellow (dry), rays cy- 
lindrical, elongate, rather tapering at the end, nearly 7 times as 
long as the width of the body ; back and sides with equal-sized tu- 
bercles, and moderate sized dotted interspaces on the sides ; apical 
tubercles moderate. Distorted; Aster'ms cometa, Blainville. 

Inhab. Mediterranean, Linn. Egypt, Sir J. G. Wilkinson. 
See also Linckia franciscus, Nardo, and Asterias multiforas. Lam. 
n. 37. 

2. Linckia crassa. Rays elongate, thick, cylindrical, blunt at the 

the Genera and Species of Starfish, 285 

ends, nearly 3 times as long as the width of the body ; apical tuberr 
cle indistinct. 
Inhab. ? 

3. Linckia Brownii, Rumph. Amb. t. 13. f. E ? Seba, Mus. iii. t. 6. 
f. 13, 14. Grew, Mus. t. 8. f. 1,2 .^ Rays elongate, cylindrical, rather 
tapering at the end, 4 times as long as the width of the body ; back 
of the arms with 3 or 4 rows of small tubercles ; sides with 4 rows 
of large pierced spots ; apical tubercle moderate. 

Inhab. New Holland. Rob. Brown, Esq. 

4. Linckia Leachii. Rays elongate, slender, cylindrical, rather 
tapering ; sides with 3 or 4 rows of rather convex tubercles ; apical 
tubercle indistinct } 

Inhab. " Isle of France.'"' Dr. W. E, Leach. 

Very like L. Typus. Our specimens, which are almost all young of 
the Comet variety, are only to be distinguished from that species by 
the arras being slenderer. The adult may differ more. 

5. Linckia Guildingii. Brown, olive varied; rays slender, elongate, 
cylindrical, nearly equal, largely granular; back and sides with 
groups of 3 or 4 holes between the interspaces of the tubercles, api- 
cal tubercles large and convex. Monstrosity 6-rayed. 

Inhab. St. Vincent's. Rev. L. Guilding. 

Differs from L. Typus principally in being much smaller and slen- 

6. Linckia pacifica. Rays elongate, cylindrical, rather tapering 
at the end, 6 times as long as the width of the body, with close 
oblong convex ossicula, apical tubercle indistinct ; the series of spines 
near the ambulacra crowded together with them. 

Inhab. Tahiti on the reefs. H. Cuming, Esq. 

7. Linckia Columbia. Rays elongate, cylindrical, rather tapering 
at the end, covered with large coarse granulations ; series of spines 
very close to the ambulacral spines, oblong and truncated. Mon- 
strosity, with 1 of the rays long, rest small, reproduced. 

Inhab. West coast of Columbia. H. Cuming, Esq. 

f-f Rays 5, rather trigonal, with 1 or 2 continued bands of pores 
without any intervening tubercles on each side. Phataria. 

8. Linckia unifascialis. Rays trigonal, tapering ; back with 3 
rows of flat ossicula ; sides with a single broad band of pores ; 
rather more than 3 times as long as broad. 

Inhab. Bay of Caraccas, West Columbia, on the rocks at low water. 
H. Cuming, Esq. 

9. Linckia bifascialis. Rays trigonal ; back with 4 or 5 rows of 
irregular convex ossicula at the base, and many at the end of the 
ray, sides of the ray with 2 broad bands of pores at the base and 1 
at the end. 

ttf Rays depressed, with a single pore between each dorsal ossicule, 
and a narrow band of a few pores along each side of the arm. Acalia. 

10. Linckia pulchella. Brown, rays flat, nearly 3 times as long 

286 Mr. J. E. Gray's Synopsis of 

as the width of the body ; the spines near the ambulacra oblong, 
compressed, truncated. 
Inhab. . 

11. Lin ckia intermedia. Rays elongate, cylindrical, rather taper- 
ing at the end, formed of oblong convex ossicula ; pore on the back 
single, on the sides in 2 rows of groups of 3 or 4, the series of spines 
on the side of the ambulacra separate from it and from one an- 

Inhab. . 

12. Linckia Erythreea. Rays elongate, cylindrical; the row of 
small spines near the ambulacra double in some part of its length. 

Inhab. Red Sea. James Burton, Esq. 

c. Ambulacra ivith a series of short filamentous spines, placed in 
groups of 4 or 5 (1 group on each ossicule) ; rays formed of series of 
tubercles with (1 or 2) small holes between them, and covered with 

* Rays with only 1 {or 2) series of small blunt spines on the side 
of the ambulacral spines. 

25. Fromia, Gray. 

Rays 5 — 8, flat, triangular, formed of flat-topped granular tuber- 

1. Fromia milleporella. Asterias Sebae, Blainv., Seba, Thesaur, 
t. 8. f. a. b. Asterias Millepora, Lam. Rays flat, pale yellow (dry.). 

Var. 1. Rays 6, rather slender; Var. 2. rays 7, slenderer; Var. 3. 
larger, 5 or 6-rayed. 

Inhab. Isle of France, Dr. W. E. Leach. Indian Ocean, Gen. 
Hardwicke. Red Sea. James Burton, Esq. 

26. GoMOPHiA, Gray. 

Rays elongate, cylindrical, tapering, with a terminal tubercle ; back 
with large rounded tubercles ; back of the rays with series of large 
conical convex tubercular spines ; the spines near the ambulacra 
small, crowded. 

1. Gomophia Egyptiaca. Rays tapering, acute, 4 times as long as 
the width of the body, with 5 irregular rows of conical acute tu- 

Inhab. Egypt. Sir J. G. Wilkinson. 

** Rays with the series of spines on the side of the ambulacra gra- 
dually passing into the granulations which crowd on them. 

27. Nardoa, Gray. 

Rays cylindrical, spineless, formed of large granular convex ossi- 

1. Nardoa variolata. Asterias variolatus. Lam. 36; Oudart, t. . 
f. . Pentadactylosaster variolatus, Linck, t. 8. f. 10. Linckia va- 
riolosa, Nardo. 

Inhab. Mediterranean Sea. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish. 287 

2. Nardoa Agassizii, Gray. Rays cylindrical, tubercles subequal. 
Var. 1. 4-rayed, Linck, t. 1. f. 1 ; Var. 2. 6-rayed. Monstrosity 1, 

7 -rayed. Monstrosity 2, 3 -rayed, with 2 short rays on the opposite 
side. Monstrosity 3, with 1 ray bifid, Linck, t. 14. f. 2. 4. 
Inhab. Isle of France. Dr. W. E. Leach. 

3. Nardoa tuberculata, Gray. Rays cylindrical, with scattered 
hemispherical larger tubercles. 

Inhab. Island of Luzan, Port of Sual. H. Cuming, Esq. 

28. Narcissia, Gray. 

Body pyramidical, thin, coriaceous, uniformly granular ; rays 
tapering, elongate, triangular on the base, formed of thin flattened 

1 . Narcissia Teneriffoi. Rays tapering, elongate, acute, more than 
4 times as long as the width of the body. 
Inhab. Teneriffe. Brit. Mus. 

29. Nectria, Gray. 

Body rather pyramidical, coriaceous, scattered with truncated 
warts, granular at the top ; rays roundish, produced, edged with 2 
series of fiat granular warts on each side, beneath largely granular. 

1. Nectria oculifera. Asterias oculifera. Lam. n. 5 ; Oudart, t. . 
f. . 

Inhab. . Brit. Mus. 

30. Nepanthia, Gray. 

Body small, flat ; rays very long, cylindrical, tapering, not mar- 
gined, formed, above and below, of many regular longitudinal and 
transverse series of flat-topped tubercles, furnished at the top with a 
series of elongate spine-like granulations. 

Intermediate between AstropectinidcB and Cribellince, but the rays 
are not margined, and the spines at the top of the tubercles are 
not regularly radiately disposed. 

1. Nepanthia tessellata. Brown ; rays elongate, slender, tapering, 
with series of square warts. 

Inhab. . Brit. Mus. 

2. Nepanthia maculata. Gray with black spots ; rays rather de- 
pressed, blunt, middle of the back with oblong transverse, and the 
sides with squarish, warts. 

Inhab. Migupou. H. Cuming, Esq. 

d. Ambulacra with very fine long hair-like spines placed in rounded 
groups, with a series of large spines near them. 

31. MiTHRODiA, Gray. 

The rays cylindrical, elongate, spinulose ; the skeleton netted with 
scattered small rugose spines, and series of large clavate spinulose 
spines regularly articulated to a broad expanded base on the sides of 
the arms. 

288 Mr. J. E. Gray^s Synopsis of 

1. Mithrodia spinulosa. Asterias clavigera, Lam. n. 29 ? Penta- 
dactylosaster reticulatus, Linck, t. 6. and 10. f. 16 ? Asterias reti- 
culata, Blainv. Man. ? not Linn, nor Lam. Arms 5 times as long as 
the width of the body, with a series of large spines on each side. 

The series of spines next to those on the edge of the ambulacra 
are sometimes hatchet-shaped. 

e. The ambulacra with 2 or 3 series of equal equidistant filiform 
blunt spines on each side. 

32. Uniophora, Gray. 

Body rather depressed ; rays broad, blunt ; skeleton formed of 
series of transverse oblong ossicula, each bearing a large unequal 
sized subglobular articulated spine placed in longitudinal series ; 
dorsal wart convex, complicated. 

1. Uniophora globif era. Rays short, broad, rounded with glo- 
bular tubercles. 

Inhab. Van Diemen's Land. Ronald Gunn, Esq. 
See also Asterias granifera. Lam. n. 24. 

Fam. 4. Asterinid^e, Gray, Syn. Mus. 62. 

Body discoidal or pyramidical, sharp-edged ; skeleton formed of 
flattish imbricate plates ; dorsal wart single, rarely double. 

1. Palmipes, Linck. 

Body fiat, thin, nearly membranaceous ; margin radiately striated ; 
the dorsal ossicula with a radiating tuft, and the oral ones with a 
transverse line of many thin mobile spines ; ambulacral spines in ob- 
lique rounded groups. 

1. Palmipes membranaceus, Linck, t. 1. f. 2. 2. Ast. membranacea, 
Retz. and Lam. Ast. placenta, Pennant. Ast. cartilaginea, Fleming. 
Ast. rosacea. Lam. a broken specimen } — Rays 5 broad. 

Inhab. British Ocean, Plymouth Sound. Mediterranean } 

2. Palmipes Stokesii. Rays 15, acute. Mus. Mr. Stokes. 

See also Asterias pulvillus, Muller, Zool. Dan. t. 19. f. 1, 2 ; Ast. 
equestris and Ast. militaris, Muller, of the North Sea ; and Ast. 
Luna, Linnaeus, from India. All species I have not been able to see. 

2. PoRANiA, Gray. 

Body pyramidical, thick, five-rayed, skin above and below var- 
nished, spineless; dorsal ossicula irregular ; the margin with 2 series 
of large ossicula, the lower ones produced sharp-edged, and each fur- 
nished on the edge with a series of mobile spines ; the ambulacra 
with 2 series of mobile spines, each pair on a separate ossicule ; the 
upper marginal ossicula trigonal, imbricate ; the dorsal ones un- 
equal, irregular, the central of the lower marginal ossicula with 4 
and the apical ones with a pair of spines. — Allied to Gymnasteria. 

Porania gibbosa. Asterias gibbosus. Leach, Brit. Mus. 1817. 

the Genera and Species of Starfish, 289 

Ast. Equestris? Thompson, Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 237. Goniaster 
Templetoni, Forbes, Wern. Trans. 1839. 6. 

Inhab. Isle of Arran and Plymouth Sound, Dr. W. E. Leach, 1817. 
Isle of Man, Douglas Bay, /. R. Wallace, Esq. 

2. AsTERiNA, Nardo. 
Body rather pyramidical, 5 -rayed ; the back convex ; the oral sur- 
face flat ; the ossicula of each surface furnished with 1 or more mo- 
bile tapering spines ; the margin sharp-edged, each of the ossicula 
with a marginal series of spines ; ambulacral spines placed in groups 
of 4 or 5. 

1. Asterina gihbosa, Forbes. Asterias gibbosa. Pennant, B. Z. iv. 
121. n. 6; Flem. B. A. 486. Pentaceros plicatus et concavus, 
Linck, 25. t. 3. f. 20. Asteriscus exigua. Pet. Gaz. t. 16. f. 8. 
Ast. minuta, Linn. ? Ast. stellata obtusa ciliata, Linn. F. Suec. 
2112. Asterina minuta, Agassiz } Asterias pulchella, Blainv.} 
Faun. Franc, t. : Man. Malac. t. 22. f. 8. 

Each of the ossicula of the oral surface with a central pair of mo- 
bile tapering spines. Each of the marginal ossicula of the dorsal 
surface with a pair of spines, of the discal one with many crowded 
pairs ; back with series of distinct pores. 

Inhab. Plymouth Sound, Dr. W. E. Leach. Ireland, Linck. 
Marseilles, Dr. W. E. Leach. Sicily, W. Swainson, Esq. Ma- 
deira, Rev. — Bulwer. 

2. Asterina Burtonii. Rays elongate, convex, blunt at the end; 
each of the ossicula of the oral surface with a central group of 3 
crowded mobile tapering spines, of the dorsal surface with a crowded 
group of short tubercles. 

Inhab. Red Sea. James Burton, Esq. 

3. Asterina minuta. Asterias minuta, Linn., Gmelin ? Asterias 
exigua. Lam. n. 43 ; Seha, iii. t. 5. f. 15. 15. 

Each of the ossicula of the oral surface with a single spine or a 
central group of 3 crowded mobile spines ; of the dorsal surface gra- 
nular, with a few very small spicula on the upper edge, and of the 
margin with a spreading tuft of spines. 

Var. 1. Larger, each of the ossicula of the oral surface with 3 
spines ; Var. 2. smaller, each of the ossicula with one and rarely 2 
spines. Monstrosity 1, rays 4 ; and 2, rays 6. 

Inhab. America, Linn. West Indies, St. Vincent's, Rev. L. Guild- 

The specimens of the two varieties exactly resemble each other, 
except in the characters mentioned, and they appear to have been 
taken at the same time. 

4. Asterina Krausii, Gray. Olive-green; the centre ossicula of the 
oral surface spineless, those near the margin with a single central 
triangular spine ; the dorsal ossicula with a series of minute, very 
short blunt spines. 

Inhab. Cape of Good Hope. Dr. Kraus. 

5. Asterina Gunnii, Gray. The central ossicula of the oral surface 
Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Dec. 1840. u 

290 Mr. T. C. Eyton on the British Species 

with 1 and the marginal ones with a pair of cylindrical blunt spines ; 
the dorsal ossicula with radiating groups of short cylindrical spinu- 
lose spines ; body with 6 slightly concave sides. 

Var. Body 5 -sided. Var. or Monstrosity with 2 dorsal warts. 

Inhab. Van Diemen's Land. Ronald Gunn, Esq. 

6. Asterina Calcar. Asterias Calcar, Xam. 17; Oudart, t. . f . . 
All the ossicula of the lower surface with a single central cylindrical 
blunt spine ; the dorsal ones with numerous short tapering spinulose 
spines ; body convex, with 8 rather elongate blunt rays. 

Inhab. Van Diemen's Land. Dr. Lhotsky, and Mr, G. B. Sowerby. 

3. Patiria. 

The body pyramidical, coriaceous, with five rays ; the ossicula of 
the oral surface with uniform radiating groups of small spines ; of the 
dorsal surface of two kinds, the one crescent-shaped with series of 
small bundles of spines, the others bearing irregular round bun- 
dles of spines between them. 

Patiria coccinea. Scarlet, the body 5-rayed, sides concave, the 
end of the rays rather slender, blunt. 
Inhab. Cape of Good Hope. 

4. SocoMiA, Gray. 

The body depressed ; rays elongate, formed of imbricate plates ; the 
margins broad, the upper and lower series of ossicules being sepa- 
rated by a groove. 

Socomia paradowa. Yellow. 
Inhab. } 

XXXIII. — Some Remarks on the British Species of the Genus 
Martes. By T. C. Eyton, Esq., F.L.S. 

It has been long, and is now, I believe, a disputed point between the 
writers on British Mammalia, whether or not two species of Marten 
exist in the British Isles ; thus, Mr. Bell in his excellent ' History of 
British Quadrupeds' gives tliem distinct; while, on the other hand, 
Mr. MacGillivray in the ' Naturalists' Library' is of the opposite 
opinion. With a view of doing something towards setting this 
question at rest, I requested several persons living in neighbour- 
hoods where Martens are found to obtain some for me ; within a 
short period I have received four specimens, one of which ex- 
ternally presented all the characteristics of the true Pine Marten, 
having the bright yellow breast of that species ; another agreed 
with the descriptions of the Common Marten, was larger than the 
last, and had a white breast. Both of these I had made into ske- 
letons. The other two specimens presented an intermediate cha- 
racter, having the breast slightly tinged with yellowish : I have 
merely kept the cranium of one of these. I have no hesitation in 

of the Genus Martes. 291 

saying, from an examination of the above specimens, that the yellow- 
breasted specimen is merely the young of the other ; and that the Com- 
mon Marten retains a yellow tinge on that part until after the first, 
or perhaps until after the second winter. My yellow-breasted speci- 
men had been obtained in September, and was not, I should think, 
from the state of ossification, an animal born during the foregoing 
summer ; the other specimens were all procured during winter, are 
all larger, and have the colouring on the breast not nearly so deep 
as in the one just mentioned. Had I not, however, seen a cranium 
in an intermediate state, I should certainly have supposed that the 
skeletons were those of two distinct species. 

I do not, however, by any means intend to affirm that no second 
species exists in the British Isles, as my specimens were all obtained 
from a limited district in North Wales, but nevertheless presenting 
all the characteristics of the supposed British species. 

The numbering of the vertebrae and ribs in both skeletons are the 
same ; but I give them here for the sake of offering other persons the 
opportunity of comparing them with any skeletons that they may have 
belonging to the genus. 

Cer. 7, dor. 14, lum. 6, lac. 7, caud. 15, ribs 14 pair. 

The form of the different bones, with the exception of some of 
those composing the crania, do not present any remarkable differ- 
ences ; those, however, of the smaller skeleton present many marks 
of immaturity. The following admeasurements will show the dis- 
parity in size. 

Larger skeleton, Smaller skeleton, 

or adult. or young. 

Inches. Inches. 

Length of tibia 3y q 3 

of femur 3^ 2^ 

humerus 2^ 2 

_ L 

10 ^2 

ulna 2j% 2^% 

scapula 1^^ 1^ 

Breadth of ditto 1^^ 1^% 

Length of cranium 3-j^ 3 

Breadth of ditto 2 1^ 

Length of pelvis 2^^ ^yq 

Breadth of ditto, at acetabular cavity 1 ^^ \^ 

In the cranium of the younger specimen, the tuberose process to 
which the ligamentum nuchse is attached appears the most promi- 
nent, and the crest over the vertex, on which the temporal muscles 
arise, is narrower than in the adult. The greater degree of promi- 
nence in the tuberose process in the young, may be explained by 
the crest running from it over the vertex as it becomes broader, 
filling up the indentation on each side ; thus this apparently greater 
degree of prominence merely proceeds from an incomplete state 
of ossification in the surrounding parts. 

The next most striking point of difference in the cranium, is that 

u 2 

292 Mr. Lyell on Shells of the Genus 

the bones composing the zygomatic arch are broader in the young 
than in the adult : how to account for this I do not otherwise know, 
than that it is a contrivance of nature to give greater strength to 
the jaw in the young, before the remainder of the cranium is suffi- 
ciently ossified to bear the strain of the large temporal muscles 
without such support ; but on referring to the skeletons of the 
young and old otter, I find the same difference to exist as regards 
the posterior portion of the arch. This, therefore, does not appear 
to be a character of any value. 

The dentition in all the specimens is the same, and agrees with 
that assigned to the genus; the canines in the adult are, however, 
slightly larger than in the younger one. No other points, through- 
out the whole skeleton, of sufficient importance to call for observa- 
tion, present themselves. I think, however, that my readers, from 
what I have said, will agree with me in saying, that it is at least 
most probable that the young of the Common Marten has been mis- 
taken for a distinct species, and that no such animal as the Pine 
Marten exists in the British Isles. 

It may, perhaps, while on the subject of British animals, not be 
out of place here to advert to a short account of the Irish Hare, 
published by me in vol. ii. p, 283, of the Magazine of Zoology and 
Botany, (1837) since which period another paper on the same 
subject has been published in one of the Irish Transactions, by Mr. 
Thompson of Belfast, to whom I take this opportunity of returning 
my thanks for it. He adverts in it to some disparity between his 
measurements and mine. 

On the receipt of his paper I immediately referred again to my 
skeletons, and found the measurements to agree perfectly with those 
I had already published ; but having obtained another Irish Hare 
and another English one, I found that I could compare them 
either so as nearly to agree with his measurements or my own : 
thus a comparison between the second specimens obtained, agreed 
very nearly with Mr. Thompson's, and the original specimens with 
my own ; but a comparison between one of the last with one of the 
first diflfered from either. 

This, I think, proves the necessity of being very careful in the 
admission of measurements as distinctive marks of species, unless 
the limit of variation in each species is to a certain extent ascer- 

XXXIV. — On the Occurrence of two Species of Shells of the 
Genus Conus in the Lias, or Inferior Oolite, near Caen in 
Normandy. By C. Lyell, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 

The discovery by MM. Deslongchamps and Tesson of fossil 
shells of the genus Conus, in the lias of Normandy, in 1837, 
has by no means attracted the attention it deserves, either in 

Conns in the Lias of Normandy. 293 

France or in this country. The fact, indeed, has remained 
almost unknown, a brief notice of the fossils, unaccompanied 
by figures or a specific description, having alone appeared in 
a report of a meeting held in 1837, by the Linnsean Society of 

Although fossil shells belonging to Lamarck's family of the 
Enroules are sufficiently abundant in the tertiary strata, a 
very few examples have yet been recorded of the occurrence 
of any of these shells in any of the more ancient fossilife- 
rous rocks. The Enroules of Lamarck comprise the genera 
Ovula, Cypi'cea, Terebellum, Ancillaria, Oliva, and Conus. Of 
these, the only examples known to me in secondary forma- 
tions, are a species of Cyprcea, which I have mentioned and 
figured in the Geol. Trans. (2nd Series, vol. v. p. 243.) as oc- 
curring in the upper chalk of Faxoe in Denmark, and a Cone 
called C. tuber culatus, of which a single specimen was found 
by M. Dujardin in the chalk near Tours, of which he has 
given a figure in les Mem. de la Soc. Geol. de France, tom. ii. 
deuxieme partie, 1837. Plate 17. p. 232. 

I was greatly surprised, therefore, during my late visit to 
Caen (June, 1840) to see in the cabinets both of Prof. Des- 
longchamps and M. Tesson, several specimens of Cones which 
they told me had been discovered in the lias of La Fontaine- 
Etoupe-four, about six miles south of Caen. We find it stated 
in the report before alluded to, that M. Deslongchamps had 
found in the Commune of Bretteville sur Laize, three species 
of Cones in the lias, and that M. Tesson had afterwards found 
a fourth and more perfect individual of the same genus in the 
quarries of Fontaine-Etoupe-four not far from the locality be- 
fore-mentioned. In both these places the lias is described as 
resting on the quartzose sandstone of the transition formation 
(terrain intermediaire). Tw^o of these specimens only re- 
tained the shell itself, the others were casts. (See Figures.) 

In order to satisfy myself of the correctness of the alleged 
geological position of these Cones, I visited in June, 1840, 
Fontaine-Etoupe-four in company wdth M. Deslongchamps, 
and ascertained to my full satisfaction that the rock from 
which the Cones had been extracted was full of Ammonites, 
Pleurotomaria, and other fossils, which must belong either to 
some member of the inferior oolite or upper lias. 

The fundamental rock consists of highly inclined vertical, 
and in some places curved, beds of reddish and white quart- 
zite, alternating with greenish talcose schists. Upon these an- 
cient rocks the brown fossiliferous limestone rests unconform- 
ably and in horizontal stratification. At many points are seen 
at the contact deep rents traversing the inferior quartzose 

294 Mr. Lyell on Shells of the Genus 

rock, which have been filled from above with rubbish, con- 
sisting of angular fragments of quartzite, pieces of limestone, 
and numerous fossil shells, the whole imbedded in a calcareous 
matrix resembling that of the incumbent strata. The most 
perfect fossils, together with the greater part of the Cones, 
have been all found in this breccia filling the rents, and the 
upper parts of the breccia unite with the lowest strata of 
fossiliferous limestone in such a manner as to make it clear 
that the fissures were filled before or at the time of the depo- 
sition of the lowest strata of the limestone. The quarries in 
which these sections are exposed have been opened, not for 
the sake of the limestone but for the subjacent quartzite which 
is used for making roads, and which at some points comes up 
nearly to the surface. This quartzite, however, and the ac- 
companying transition schist, are only found at a moderate 
depth along a certain line from N.N.W. to S.S.E., in which 
direction they form an underground ridge stretching for many 
leagues beneath the platform of limestone. At the distance 
of a few yards either east or west of this narrow ridge the 
incumbent oolite or lias is of such thickness that the quartzose 
stone cannot be worked with profit. 

Among the Ammonites which I collected myself in the rent 
or in the bed immediately covering it, or which were given 
me from this locality by M. Deslongchamps, were the follow- 
ing, which have been examined by my friend Mr. Lonsdale, 
of the Geological Society : — 

1. Ammonites Walcottii, Alum shale. Phillips, Geol. Yorkshire, p. 
164 ; Hunton, Geol. Trans., vol. v. part 1, p. 220 ; Williamson, 
ibid., p. 242 ; Cheltenham, Murchison, Geol. Cheltenham, p. 

2. A. corrugatus, Inferior oolite. Dundry, M. C. tab. 451 ; 
Gloucester, Lonsdale, M.S. 

3. A. Stokesii, Inferior oolite? Bridport, M. C. tab. 191. Marl- 
stone, coast of Yorkshire, Williamson, Geol. Trans., vol. v. part 
1, p. 242. 

Among many others which were shown me at Caen and 
named by M. Deslongchamps, were Ammonites planicosta and 
A, Bucklandii, which occur in the lias in England, A.falcifer, 
found in the alum shale near Cheltenham, and A, Strang- 
waysii and A. Murchisonae, both from the inferior oolite of 
England. Associated with these I saw a Belemnite, several 
species of Pleurotomaria, fragments of a Pent acrinite and other 
fossils, which in the opinion of M. Deslongchamps indicates 
that the formation constitutes either the upper member of the 
lias, or is intermediate between the lias and the inferior oolite. 

Conus in the Lias of Normandy. 295 

Since my return from Caen I have seen M. Alcide D'Orbigny, 
who has also visited lately the quarries of Fontaine-Etoupe- 
four. A consideration of the numerous fossils obtained by 
him from the rock in which the Cones occur leads him to 
the opinion that the breccia filling the rents is of the age 
of the upper lias. Among other liassic species he pointed 
out to me the Pentacrinus cingulatus. These and other 
well-known species were accompanied by many others new to 
the oolite, of the genera Nucula, Area, Delphinula, Trochus, 
Cirrus, and several more, for which new genera must be 

It may be objected that the mineral character and colour 
both of the breccia filling the rent and of the overlying beds 
differ totally from those of ordinary lias, for the rock is a pale 
brown ferruginous limestone. But Mr. Lonsdale informs me 
that near Radstock the great deposit of blue lias is repre- 
sented by only a few feet of a pale brown granular rock, so 
like inferior oolite that the quarry men apply the same name 
to it. But this gritty lias is clearly not inferior oolite, being 
separated from that rock by blue clay from 100 to 200 feet 
thick. (See Lonsdale, Geol. Trans., vol. iii. 2nd series, p. 245.) 
The ^^ corn-grit^^ above-mentioned is a granular light brown 
limestone, but of a closer and finer grain than the gritty lias. 
Yet Radstock is only seven miles S.W. from Bath, where the 
lias is well-developed, with its usual characters. 

In proceeding from Caen to Fontaine-Etoupe-four the ge- 
ologist obtains no sections which display the superposition of 
the different members of the ooHtic series, but he finds the 
white oolite of Caen give place to the ferruginous oolite of 
Eterville, which resembles in appearance the oolite of Dundry. 
Travelling still further south he meets with the beds of Fon- 
taine-Etoupe-four already described. As all these formations 
appear to be everywhere horizontal, and the surface of the 
country, following the direction above-described, is constantly 
attaining a higher level, w^e might naturally have expected to 
reach newer instead of older beds. But it must be remem- 
bered, that a slight dip, and one quite inappreciable in the 
space of a quarry, as for example, an angle of five degrees, 
might in a distance of six miles cause a difference of level of 
more than 800 feet, so as to allow beds which may be con- 
cealed beneath the oolite building-stone at Caen to crop out 
in a high platform at Fontaine-Etoupe-four. 

Having offered these remarks on the position and age of 
the containing rock, I shall now describe the Cones themselves, 
in which task I have had the assistance of Mr, George Sow- 
erby, who examined the original specimens at my request 
during a late visit to Normandy. 


Shells of the Genus Conus in the Lias. 

I am indebted to the liberality of M. Deslongchamps for 
the principal drawings. 

Conus cadoneTisis, Shell smooth^ slender, with six or seven 
volutions and an acuminated spire, posterior edge of each vo- 
lution carinated, and slightly crenulated. Posterior part of 
each volution rather concave, and very finely longitudinally 

Fig. 1. 
a h 


Fig. 1. a. represents an internal cast of a variety with a shorter spire. 
This cast is still imbedded in the limestone in which it was found. It 
is regarded as a mere variety of h, because it is well known that in this 
genus the height of the spire differs greatly in the same species, as for 
example, in Conus antediluvianus, to which C. cadonensis approaches 
most nearly. 

Fig. \. h. A perfect specimen of Conus cadonensis, in the possession of 
M. Tesson, in which the entire shell is extant. 

Fig. I.e. A magnified representation of a part of the crenulated poste- 
rior edge of one volution of C. cadonensis, 

Conus concavus. Shell smooth, conical, contracted near the 
middle, with a concave depressed spire, consisting of nine 
volutions, each volution carinated at the external edge, and 
very slightly longitudinally striated. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 2. a. A perfect specimen of Conus concavus in the possession of M. 

Tesson, from a drawing by M. Deslongchamps. In this specimen the 

shell itself is extant. r 

Fig. 2. b. represents the concave spire of the same. 
Fig. 2. c. is a section of the spire, showing the depth of the concavity. 
Ftg. 2. d. A magnified section of a portion of the same, showing the form 

of the volutions. 

Linncean Society, 297 



June 16. — The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Read, " Description of a new species of the Coleopterous genus 
Cerapterus, from South America." By J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S. 

In the present paper the author enumerates eight species of this 
interesting genus of the family of Paussidce, which he distributes 
into six subgenera. The following are the characters of the new 
species : — 

1. C. Horsfieldii, piceus; thorace antice emarginato, elytris macula apicali 

flavescente hand rotundatd literam y quodammodo simulante, palpo- 
rum labiahum articulo ultimo securiformi. 

2. C. quadrinotatus, piceo-niger, nitidissimus ; thorace (antice viso) sub- 

emarginato, maculis duabus magnis ovalibus prope scutellum, alterisque 
duabus apicem versus majoribus anticfe et postice lobatis rufo-fulvis. 
Long. Corp. Hn. lat. lin. 

3. C. piceus, nitidus; antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis, punctis irregula- 

ribus minutissimis. 

4. C. brasiliensis, fulvo-rufescens ; oculis albidis tenuissime punctatis, ver- 

tice depresso, thorace intra angulos posticos utrinque foveolato. 
Long. Corp. lin. lat. lin. 

This remarkable species was discovered by Mr. Miers in the vi- 
cinity of Rio de Janeiro, and a drawing of the insect accompanies 
the present paper. Mr. Westwood regards it as the type of a new 
subgenus, which he names Homopterus. 

5. C. Westermanni, rufo-piceus, baud nitidus ; elytris nigris postice cruce 

rufescente notatis basi bicostatis discoque longitudinaliter subimpressis, 
apice rufescente. 
Long. Corp. lin. lat. lin. 

Read also the conclusion of a paper, entitled ** Arrangement and 
Definition of the Genera of Ferns, founded upon their venation, 
with examples of the species, and observations on the affinities of 
each genus." By Mr. John Smith, A.L.S. 

The principles of the author's arrangement are similar to those 
proposed by Presl in his Tentamen Pteridographice, published at 
Prague in 1836, in which the venation of the frond (a character the 
importance of which was first pointed out by Mr. Brown) is adopted 
as the basis of generic division. It is but justice, however, to Mr. 
Smith, to state that his arrangement was completed before the work 
of Professor Presl had reached this country, and the coincidence of 
their views affords presumptive evidence in favour of the accuracy 
of the principles upon which their distribution of the species is 
founded. This extensive family, or rather class, was divided by 
Mr. Brown into four very natural subfamilies. It is only with the 
first of these {Polypodiacece) that Mr. Smith has more particu- 
larly occupied himself in the present paper. The following are the 
names and characters of the tribes into which he has distributed the 

298 Linn(Ban Society. 

Subfam. I. POLYPODIACE^, R. Br. 

Sporangia globose, or oval, transparent, unilocular, pedicellate, or rarely 
sessile, opening transversely by the elastic property of a vertical, rarely 
oblique, articulated ring. 

Tribe I. PoLYPODiEiE. Sori punctiform or elongated, destitute of a spe- 
cial indusium. 
Examples. — Polypodium, Sw. Grammitis, Sw. Hemionitis, L. 

Tribe II. AcRosTicHiEiE. Sori amorphous, destitute of a special indusium. 
Example. — Acrostichum, L. 

Tribe III. Pteride^. Sori punctiform, or elongated transversely. In- 
dusium lateral, attached exteriorly. 
Examples. — Pteris, L. Adiantum, L. 

Tribe IV. Asplenie^. Sori elongated, obhque. Indusium lateral, linear. 
Examples. — Asplenium, L. Diplazium, Sw. 

Tribe V. Aspidie^. Sori punctiform, intramarginal. Indusium orbicu- 
lar and central, or reniform and lateral, and attached interiorly. 
Examples. — Aspidium, Sw. Nephrodium, Mich. R. Br. 
Tribe VI. Dicksonie^. Sori marginal. Indusium lateral, attached in- 
teriorly, its free margin conniving with the indusiform margin of the 
frond, forming a calyciform bilabiate cyst. 
Examples. — Lindsaea, Dry. Davallia, Sm. Dicksonia, UHerit. Tricho- 
manes, L. Hymenophyllum, Sm. 

Tribe VII. Cy Athene. Sori punctiform, intramarginal. Indusium caly- 
ciform, or wanting. Receptacle elevated. 

Examples. — Cyathea, Sm. Hemitelia, R. Br. Alsophila, R. Br. 

These tribes are again subdivided into minor groups, founded upon cha- 
racters derived from the venation of the frond, the position of the sori, and 
the form of the indusium. Notholcpna and Ceratopteris are referred to 
the first, Ceterach to the fourth, and Onoclea to the fifth tribes. 

Nov. 3. — Mr. Forster, V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. William Taylor, F.L.S., exhibited a sample of the oil obtained 
from the fruit of Madia sativa, grown at Aspall Stoneham, near 

Read, " A Note on the Bokhara Clover." By William Taylor, 
Esq., F.L.S. 

Mr. Taylor obtained from Mr. Loudon a small parcel of seeds of the 
Bokhara Clover (Melilotus arborea), which was sown early in April, 
1839. The plant proved to be biennial, and stood the winter well. 
On the 28th of April following, a part of the crop was cut down, the 
stems measuring 15 inches in height ; and on the 28th of May, from 
the same piece of ground, a second, crop was obtained, which had 
reached the height of 16 inches; a third on the 28th of June, 17 
inches ; a fourth in July, 16 inches ; a fifth in August, 15 inches ; 
and a sixth in September, measuring 14 inches. According to Mr. 
Taylor's calculation, the Bokhara Clover would yield from 20 to 30 
tons of green herbage per acre, and from 2 to 3 tons of strong fibre, 
which appears capable of being manufactured into cordage. 

The flowers are white and very fragrant, and the plant does not 
appear to differ specifically from the Melilotus leucantha, although 
regarded by DeCandoUe as a distinct species. 

lAmKBan Society, 299 

There was also read, " Descriptions of some new Insects collected 
in Assam, by William Griffith, Esq., Assistant Surgeon in the Madras 
Medical Establishment." By the Rev. F. W. Hope, M.A., F.R.S., 
and L.S. 

This paper contains a further selection of new insects from Mr. 
Griffith's Assam collection in the possession of Mr. Solly, an account 
of part of which has been already noticed at p. 42, and has since 
appeared in the Society's Transactions. The descriptions are ac- 
companied by coloured figures. The species described belong chiefly 
to the group of Lucanidce, and are as follows : — » 


1. L. Forsteri. 

Long. unc. 2, lin. 11 ; lat. elytr. lin. 10. 

Nigro-piceus ; mandibulis valde exsertis interne multidentatis ad basin 
dente valido supvk et infra armatis, apicibus furcatis. 

This splendid species has been named in compliment to Edward 
Forster, Esq., Treas. and V.P.L.S. 

2. L. Rafflesii. 

Long. unc. 2, lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 8. 

Niger, nitidus ; mandibulis valde exsertis ante apicem unidentatis, apici- 
bus obtusis et oblique truncatis. 

This species is nearly related to L. nepalensis, but is of larger di- 
mensions, and is extensively diffused over the eastern part of the 
Indian continent, occurring in Nepal, Bengal, and Assam. 

3. L. Spencei. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 9 ; lat. lin. 6. 

Ater ; mandibulis exsertis basi robustis et unidentatis, apicibus furcatis. 

4. L. curvidens. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 9 ; lat. lin. 6^. 

Niger ; mandibulis exsertis intus dente curvato valido fere ad basin po* 

5. L. hidhosus. 

Long, unci, lin. 6; lat. lin. 6. 

Nigro-castaneus ; mandibulis exsertis dentibus bulbosis armatis, apicibus 

6. L. astacoides. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 3; lat. lin. 4. 

Castaneus ; mandibidis exsertis intus ad basin denticulatis denticulis ni- 
gricantibus, apicibus acutis. 

7. L.foveatus. 

Long. unc. 2 ; lat. lin. 6. 

Castaneus; mandibulis vald^ exsertis, apicibus acutis, dente fere medio 
fortiori, aliisque 4 aequalibus ante apicem positis. 

8. L. omissus. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 9 ; lat. lin. 6. 

Castaneus ; mandibulis valde exsertis, apicibus acutis, dentibus 2 nigris 
subbasalibus, aliisque 4 subapicalibus. 

9. L. serricollis. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 3 ; lat. lin. 6. 

Ater, politus ; mandibulis parum exsertis sinuatis et punctatis. 

300 Linncsan Society. 

10. L. punctiger. 

Long. lin. 9^ ; lat. lin. 4. 

Ater, corpore punctato nitido, thoracis marginibus externis serratis, 
elytris sutura parum elevata glabra insignitis, tibiis 4 posticis uniden- 


Corpus oblongo-ovatum, crassum. AntenncB 10-articuIatae. Thorax ely- 
tris antice angustior, lateribus subrotundis, valde serrulatis. Elytra 
thorace latiora. Pedes robusti, armati, antice longiores ; tibiis extern^ 
irregulariter dentatis : tarsis elongatis, articulis apice spin^ brevi ar- 
matis, unguibus bidentatis. TibicB 4 posticcs seriebus spinarum irre- 
gularibus armatae. 

1. C. MacLeayii. 

Long. lin. 23 ; lat. lin. 13. 

iEneo-viridis ; thorace lateribus externe serrulatis et varioloso-punctatis, 
sulco longitudinali in medio dorso fortiter impresso, elytris nigro-aeneis 
maculisque croceis insignitis. 

This splendid insect, which forms the type of the above new ge- 
nus, has been named in compliment to that learned, and philoso- 
phic entomologist, Mr. W. S. MacLeay. It forms, along with Eu- 
cheirus of Kirby, and Propomacrus of Newman, a small natural fa- 
mily, which has been termed by the author Eucheirida, and regarded 
by him as related to the Dynastidce, and constituting a link of con- 
nexion with the GoliathidcB, 

1. L. Swainsoni. 

Long. unc. 1, lin. 4; lat. lin. 6. 

Brunnea; thorace utrinque spinoso, dorso convex© in medio bulboso, 
elytris concoloribus albo-variegatis et ad basin nigro-tuberculatis. 

This species, which has been named after Mr. Swainson, appears 
to constitute a subgenus related to Euoplia, described in the first 
part of the account of Assam Insects at p. 42. 

1. M. heryllinus. 

Long. lin. 8 ; lat. lin. 3. 

Cceruleo-beryllinus ; antennis griseis, thorace utrinque spiuoso elytrisque 


Corpus saperdaeforme, crassum, robustum. Caput latum, antice fer^ 
quadratum, postice convexum. Antennce cov^oxe breviores, 11-articu- 
latse. Thorax robustus, nodosus, inermis. Elytra lata, thorace vix 
triple longiora, apicibus abrupte truncatis, lateribus elevatis. Pedes 
femoribus incrassatis, tibiis robustis. 

1. S. tetraspilota. 

Long. lin. 10; lat. hn. 3^. 

Aurantio-rubra ; antennis oculisque nigris, thorace nodoso, elytris conco- 
loribus, macula magna ovali nigra ad humeros posits, apicibus nigris. 

2. S. trilineata. 

Long. lin. 9 ; lat. lin. 3. 

Pallide castanea; antennis albo-cinctis, thorace nodoso utrinque denticu- 

Zoological Society, 301 

lato, elytris lineis 3 nigris insignitis, sutura latiori, lateribus punctatis, 
punctis duplici serie ad disci medium fortissime insculptis. 

A new genus belonging to the Saperdiidce, to which family the 
Lamia nigricornis is also referrible, besides several other types of 
undescribed genera. 


February 11, 1840.— The Rev. J. Barlow in the Chair. 

A letter addressed to the Secretary by Sir John McNeill, and dated 
January 31, 1840, was read. It related to the two Persian Deer 
presented by that gentleman to the Society's menagerie, and con- 
tained an answer to some inquiries from the Secretary respecting 

The letter states that this species of Deer is called by the Persians, 
Maral, or Gevezu, or Goo Koohee, and is frequently noticed in their 
literature. It is found in all the wooded mountainous districts of Per- 
sia, but apparently does not occur in the central parts of the country. 

The Persian Deer " rarely descend into the plains. During the 
summer they are found in the highest wooded parts of the mountains, 
and during the winter in the lower ravines near their bases, where 
they are frequently tracked in the snow. 

** The horns of the adult male closely resemble those of the Red 
Deer of this country, insomuch that I doubt whether an unscientific 
observer could distinguish them, unless by the superior size of those 
of the Maral." 

Mr. Yarrell communicated to the meeting, on the part of R. H. 
Sweeting, Esq., some facts relating to a female Rorqual Whale {Ba- 
Icenoptera hoops of authors), which was stranded neiir high- water- 
mark at Charmouth, Dorsetshire, early in the morning of Wednesday, 
February 5th, 1840. 

The whole length was 44 feet. 

Girth 21 — 

Breadth of tail .... 9 — 

Probable weight from twenty to twenty- five tons. 

The jaws long and slender, but not sharp, the tip obtuse and con- 
vex ; the upper jaw the shortest, and received, when the mouth is 
closed, within the lower jaw, which projected nine inches beyond it. 
The plates of whalebone amount to upwards of 250 on each side of 
the jaw ; the palate and tongue of a pale pink colour ; no warts about 
the lips. The back black ; the under surface of the body white ; the 
throat plicated. The nostrils or blow-holes are two longitudinal 
fissures, the anterior points nearly touching, but diverging posteri- 
orly to a distance of three inches, and separated by a furrow. The 
opening of the eye six inches in length, from canthus to angle ; the 
bony socket from anterior to posterior margin is eight inches ; eye- 
ball seven inches ; the pupil oval ; the irides hazel. There was not 
the slightest appearance of eyelashes, which some authors state 
whales possess. 

302 Zoological Society, 

The distance from the end of the under jaw to the origin of the 
pectoral fin ten feet nine inches ; the length of the fin five feet six 
inches ; the breadth eighteen inches. The dorsal fin small, of car- 
tilage only, conical, the basal length eighteen inches, the elevation 
twelve inches ; placed eleven feet in advance of the tail. 

The subcutaneous layer of fat varied in thickness from three to 
five inches. 

The figure at the bottom of page 521 in Mr. Bell's History of 
British Mammalia and Cetacea, was referred to as a very good re- 

The dimensions of the skeleton are as follows : — 

Whole length 40 feet. 

Head 10 — 

The vertebrae are sixty in number ; viz. seven cervical, fifteen dor- 
sal, sixteen lumbar, fifteen caudal, and seven caudal bones. Of ribs 
there are fourteen, the first of which is double-headed, and is at- 
tached to the two first dorsal vertebrse ; each of the other ribs is at- 
tached to a single vertebra, and has a single head ; the dorsal ver- 
tebrae, therefore, exceed the ribs in number by one. 

The rest of the details of the bony fabric, as regards the pectoral 
fins, &c., correspond precisely with Dewhurst's plate and description 
of the Ostend specimen, allowing of course for the inferior size of 
the present animal. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited, at the request of G. T. Fox, Esq., of Dur- 
ham, a specimen of a beautiful spiny Lizard, from Texas, — the 
Agama cornuta of Harlan, Phrynosuma Bufonium and Phrynocephalus 
Bufonius of other modern authors. The specimen on which Dr. 
Harlan drew up his description was from the west of the Rocky 
Mountain Range. 

A paper was then read, by Mr. Blyth, entitled " A Summary 
Monograph of the species of the genus Ovis," in which the author 
recognized nine species, besides indicating others as more or less 

The Argalis of Asia and America were provisionally considered as 
the same, under the appellation of Ovis ammon, as also the Kam- 
tschatka sheep of M. Eschscholtz, which Mr. Blyth suspected to be 
only an individual slight variety ; and accordingly, he traced the 
geographic range of this animal from Asia through Kamtschatka and 
the Aleutian Isles to the Rocky Mountains of North America, and 
southward upon that continent to California, where there was reason 
to believe it occurred, together with the true Californian species de- 
scribed by Mr. Douglas. In Asia he followed it southward to the 
Himalayas, but suspected that the Ovis ammon mentioned by dif- 
ferent authors as inhabiting the Caucasus and Taurus, referred to a 
distinct species which he had to describe. The Ovis Californiana 
was next noticed ; and then a superb new species, believed to be from 
Mount Taurus, the horns of which were suggested to bear every ap- 
pearance of having supplied the model which ancient sculptors follow- 
ed in their representations of Jupiter Ammon, and which therefore it 

Zoological Society. 303 

was proposed to designate 0. sculptorum. Mr. Blyth then proceeded 
to distinguish two Himalayan species, which presented a somewhat 
different form of horn from the rest of the genus ; one, the Ovis Na- 
hoor, Hodgson, of superior size, and general pale colour, which he 
believed did not inhabit so high ; the other he termed O. Burrhel, 
which was of a very dark colour, and presented numerous other spe- 
cific distinctions, being an inhabitant also of more elevated regions. 
The Ovis aries he considered a species per se, and not descended 
from the Moufflon ; and the 0. musimon was treated of in detail under 
its two alleged varieties, specimens of which, however, had never 
been compared together. The Ixalus prohaton, Ogilby, was deemed 
to belong strictly to the genus Ovis, and Mr. Blyth suggested, that 
as the abnormal growth of its hoof indicated that it had long lived 
in captivity, it was not unlikely that castration at an early age may 
have obstructed the developement of its horns, the rudiments of 
which exactly resembled those found upon many breeds of true 
sheep, and upon the lambs of all horned breeds of a certain age. 
The last animal included was the Ovis tragelaphus, Auctorum, of 
which the O. ornata, GeofFroy, appeared to be merely a dwarfish in- 
dividual : the characters of this species were treated of at consider- 
able length, and it was proposed to elevate it to the rank of a sub- 
genus of Ovis, for which the name Ammotragiis was suggested. 
The paper was illustrated by numerous elaborate drawings of the 
horns, &c., and by a pictorial group, containing the principal species, 
the relative sizes of which were thus rendered obvious to the eye. 

February 25, 1840. — Prof. Rymer Jones, in the Chair. 

Mr. Ogilby drew attention to a prepared specimen and skull 
of a Gibbon, which had recently died at the Society's menagerie. 
The precise locality from which this animal was procured had not 
been ascertained; it was presented by John Abel Smith, Esq., and 
after living some months in the menagerie, fell a victim to the same 
complaint which carried off so many of the Quadrumana during the 
past winter. 

The whole body is of an uniform deep black colour, except the 
throat and cheeks, which are covered with long white hair, forming 
a broad band which extends from eai' to ear. This circumstance 
induced Mr. Ogilby to propose the name of Hylobates leucogenys for 
this species. There is no white mark over the eyes, as in the Hoo- 
lock, and the chin and under jaw are black, like the rest of the body. 
The head is remarkable for its pyramidal elevation, as contrasted 
with the flattened form of the same part in the Hoolock. Mr. 
Ogilby stated, that the only doubt he had with respect to the spe - 
cific distinction of this animal, is the probability of its being the 
male of that described by Dr. Harlan under the name of H. niger. 
The hair of the forehead and head in general is directed backwards, 
towards the neck : that on the crown of the head is very long, and 
gives to the head that pyramidal or conical form before mentioned. 

The skeleton and dentition show it to have been a young animal ; 
the permanent teeth had not yet protruded from the alveoli. The 

304 Zoological Society. 

total length of the skull (from the intermaxillaries to the occiput) is 
4 inches ; its greatest width is 2 inches 7f lines ; width between the 
outer boundaries of the orbits, 2 inches ; from base of nasal bones to 
apex of intermaxillaries, 1 inch 1§ line. The length of the hume- 
rus is 7 inches 2 lines ; of the ulna, 8 inches ; radius, 7 inches 7 lines ; 
femur, 6 inches ; tibia, 5 inches 3 lines ; fibula, 5 inches 1 line. 

The principal external characters of this animal may be thus ex- 
pressed : — 

Hylobates leucogenys. Hyl. niger ; pilis ad latera faciei et ad 

gulam albis ; pilis verticis longis et semi-erectis. 
Mr. Waterhouse exhibited a new species of Squirrel from the So- 
ciety's collection, and pointed out its distinguishing characters, which 
are as follows : — 

SciuRUs DiMiDiATUS. Sci. supvci gviseus fulvo lavatus, subtus jla- 
vus ; capite, corpore ad latera pedihusque rufescentibus ; caudd 
fere corporis longitudinem cEquante, indutd pilis nigris,flavis atque 
fulvis commixtis. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin 10 

Cauda, fere 7 6 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris 1 11 

tarsi digitorumque 2 3 

auris 8 

Hab. South America .'' 

This curiously- coloured species of Squirrel was purchased at a 
sale, and in the same lot were specimens of Sciurus cestuans and Sc. 
Langsdorffii, well-known South American species ; it is probable, 
therefore, it may be an inhabitant of the same country. Its fur is 
very short for a Squirrel, rather harsh, and less loose than in the 
generality of Squirrels : the back is gray, or what might be termed an 
iron- gray, having a rusty hue ; on the upper part of the head the 
rust-like tint prevails, and the muzzle is almost entirely of a rich 
rust colour ; the sides of the head and neck are of a golden-yellow 
tint, and the under parts of the body are yellow : a bright rust- 
coloured line runs along each side of the body, and separates the 
yellow colouring of the under parts from the iron -gray of the upper : 
on the outer sides of the limbs, and on the feet, a rich deep golden- 
yellow hue prevails. The tail is apparently cylindrical, and not 
bushy ; the prevailing hue of the hairs is deep rust colour, but they 
are for the most part more or less broadly annulated with black in 
the middle. The ears are slightly pointed, and well clothed with 
golden-yellow hairs ; those on the outer side are of a bright rust 
colour ; they have no pencil of hairs at the tip. The hairs of the 
moustaches are numerous, long, and of a black colour. The incisors 
of both upper and under jaws are deep orange. 

Mr. Fraser read his descriptions of, and observations upon, some 
new species of Insessorial Birds, belonging to the genus Agrilorhinus. 

" In the northern parts of South America and in Mexico," Mr. 
Fraser observed, " are certain small birds, resembling the Warblers 

Zoological Society, 305 

in size, and in having a slender beak ; they differ, however, in having 
the beak stronger and compressed ; the upper mandible straight, or 
even slightly recurved ; its apical portion strongly hooked, and di- 
stinctly notched ; its cutting edges are curved inwards, so as to in- 
close the corresponding edges of the under mandible. But the most 
remarkable character consists in the existence of three or four small 
notches in the edge of the upper mandible, on either side, and behind 
the ordinary notch which characterizes the Dentirostres. 

" The Prince of Musignano first noticed these peculiarities in a 
bird from Mexico, aud described them in the ' Nuovi Annali delle 
Scienze Naturali/ where he used the name Agrilorhinus to distin- 
guish generically the bird in question. 

" I have now the honour of laying before the meeting four new 
species of this interesting genus ; three from a collection belonging 
to the Earl of Derby, which I am informed was made at S** Fe de 
Bogota, and one from the Society's museum, the precise habitat of 
which is not known ; there are reasons, however, for believing it to 
be a Mexican bird. 

" The Prince of Musignano is of opinion that the genus Agrilo- 
rhinus has affinities both with the Sittince and Sylvicolina. The 
strong notch in the upper mandible, its distinctly curved point, and 
the compressed form of the beak, combined with the well-developed 
vibrissec, lead me to believe that this genus ought rather to be re- 
garded as a somewhat aberrant form of Laniadts. 

Agrilorhinus Bonapartei. Agr. in toto niger, humeris exceptis, 

his coerulescenti-cinereis. 
Long. tot. 6f unc. ; rostri, | ; alcB, 3 ; caudtB, 3 ; tarsi, |, 
Hah. S*^ Fe de Bogota. 
Agrilorhinus humeralis. Agr. in toto niger, humeris exceptis, 

his coerulescenti-cinereis. 
Long. tot. 5 unc. ; rostri, 7 lin. ; al(je, 2j ; caudce, 2 J ; tarsi, |. 
Hab. S^ Fe de Bogota. 

This bird only differs from the preceding species in its smaller 

Agrilorhinus olivaceus. Agr. olivaceus, corpore subtus pallia- 

diore, et jlavido tincto. 
Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, \ ; alcB, 2 ; caudce, 2 ; tarsi, f. 
Hab. Mexico? 
This specimen is probably a female. 

Agrilorhinus personatus. Agr. coeruleus ; fronte, spatio circa 
oculos, rostro pedibusque nigris ; remigibus rectricibusque interne 
Foem. plumbea. 
(^ Long. tot. 6^ unc. ; rostri, ^ ; al(B, 3 ; caudce, 2^ ; tarsi, ^. 

? ^4 ; > f > > 2|- ; , 2| ; , ^. 

Hab. S*^ Fe de Bogota. 

" This bird is about the size of the Blue Bird {Sialia Wilsoni) of 
North America ; its blue colouring is much darker, and less brilliant. 
The bill is strong, long, and compressed, and suddenly bent down- 
Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Vol. vi. T>ec. 1840. ' x 

306 Zoological Society, 

wards at the apex ; the lower edge of the upper mandible is curved 
inwards and encloses the cutting edges of the lower one, but it is 
not notched as in the more typical species of Agrilorhinus. The 
forehead, a broad space around the eye, and the ear-coverts, are 
black : the chin is blackish. The feathers of the wing are blackish, 
but externally edged with blue ; and so are the tail-feathers." 

March 10, 1840. — Professor Owen in the Chair. 
A paper by Dr. Richardson, on a collection of Fishes, was read : 
The proceedings of the Society for June 25, 1839, contain the 
first part of the description of this collection, which was made at Port 
Arthur in Van Diemen's Land, by Deputy- Assistant-Commissary- 
General Lempriere, pursuant to the directions of His Excellency Sir 
John Franklin, K.C.B. &c., Lieutenant-Governor of the colony. 
The subject is resumed in this paper, and the author describes a 
Dajao, which differs from the three known mullets of Australia in 
many particulars, and from all the MugiloidecE described in the Histoire 
des Poissons, in the greater number of rays of the anal fin, as well as 
in the combinations of other characters. The only Dajao mentioned 
in the work referred to, is an inhabitant of the mountain streams of 
the Caribbee Islands ; while the Van Diemen's Land one has been 
found only in the sea ; but perhaps both are anadromous. The rough 
plates on the palate and vomer of some acknowledged typical mullets 
assimilate their dentition greatly to that of the Dajaos ; and the pre- 
sent species approaches the ordinary mullets in the form of the orifice 
of the mouth, while its palatine and vomerine teeth are nearly as 
large as those on the jaws. It is prized as an article of food. 

Dajaus Diemensis (Richardson). Tasmanian Dajao. 

Dajaus, 7^ost?'ofere truncato, vix prominente. 

Radii:— Br, 6-6; P. 15 ; D. 4-1 [ 9 ; A. 3 [ 12 ; V. 1 | 5 ; C. 

The author next remarks that of four Lahri in the collection, two 
species, comparatively little ornamented, are furnished with six gill 
rays, while the other two, more gaily coloured, and one of them in- 
deed brilliantly striped, have only five rays in the branchiostegous 
membrane. They are all true labri, but the scales which protect their 
opercula, though in fact much larger than those of Lahrus bergylta, 
are so deeply imbedded in mucous skin, that in a recent state these 
fish might pass for examples of the genus Tautoga, which they further 
resemble in possessing a tolerably regular inner row of minute teeth. 
They are without scales on the interoperculum, and the small scales 
on their cheeks being variously distributed, furnish specific charac- 
ters. All four have canine teeth at the corners of the mouth, and, 
contrary to the prevailing character of the Labri, the soft rays of the 
dorsal exceed the spinous ones in number, resembling in this re- 
spect the Lahrus poscilopleura of New Zealand. 

Labrus tetricus. Lah., squamis minutis in ordinibus duobus ad 
marginem anteriorem superiorem preoperculi instructis ; operculo 
squamis majoribus in seriebus ternis quaternisve dispositis 

Zoological Society. -507 

Radii..—B.G-e; P. 13; D. 9 | 11; V. 1 | 5; A.3 | 10; C. 14. 
Labrus fucicola. Lab., sguamis parvis inter oculum et prceoper- 

culum in seriebus quatuor instructis ; sqitamis opercularibus ma- 

Radii:— B. 6-6; P. 13 ; D. 9 | 11 ; V. 1 | 5 ; A. 3 | 10. C. 14. 

Labrus psittaculus. Lab., squamis gencB in ordinibus quatuor 
prceoperculo approximatis , oculoqiie remotiusculis ; corpore ovali; 
pinnd caudae superne apiculatd. 

Radii:— B. 5-5; P. 13 ; D. 9 | 11 ; V. 1 | 5 ; A. 3 | 10 ; C. 14. 

Labrus laticlavius. Lab., smaragdinns, fas ciis puniceis purpurea 
marginatis, binis lateralibiis postice in U7iam. coalescentibus inque 
pinrid caiidce productis ; pinnd dorsi basi viridi : in medid late 
purpured : superne aurantiacd, purpurea guttatd, inque margine 
extremo coeruled ; pinnd ani basi aurantiacd, dein primvlaceo- 
flavd coeruleo cinctd, exinde purpured cceruleis guttis, denique in 
margine extremo cneruled"^. 

Radii:— Br. 5-5; P. 12 ; V. 1 | 5 ; D. 9 | 11 ; A.3 I 10; C. 14. 

Then follows the descrijDtion of a small Odax, known at Port 
Arthur by the name of " Kelp fish." It agrees with Odax scmifas- 
ciatus of the Histoire des Poissons in many of its details, but on a 
minute comparison with the description of that species it appears to 
be distinct. 

Odax algensis. Od. capite longiusculo ; prceoperculo denticulato ; 
facie utrinque sex-striatd. 

Radii:— Bv. 5-5; P. 14; D. 17 | 12 ; A. 2 [ 12 ; V. 1 | 4. 
C. 12f. 

Another species of kelp- fish common at Port Arthur, and of which 
a specimen was sent by Mr. Lempriere, but too much decayed for 
identification, is described by that gentleman as being marked with 
a dark stripe. It is probably the Odax bulteatus of the Histoire des 
Poissons which was discovered by Peron. 

The author then describes a new scaroid fish which did not form 
part of Mr. Lempriere's collection, but which there is reason to be- 
lieve was taken either at Hobart Town or Sydney. It was presented 
to the Museum of Haslar by Mr. Conway, formerly medical super- 
intendent of a convict ship, and since deceased. The specimen 
being a mounted one, no details of internal structure can be given, 
and in so far the characters of the genus or sub -genus are incom- 
plete ; but it differs from the ordinary Labri in the scaliness of the 
vertical fins, and from Scarus in external aspect, the form of the fins, 
the smallness of the scales, especially at the base of the caudal fin, 
and in the manner in which the lips cover and move with the jaws. 
It differs from Odax in the teeth and ventral fins. 

Oplegnathus, genus novum. 
Corpus ellipticum, crassum, squamis parvis oblongis tectum. Man- 
dibulce modo Scarorum dentes incorporatos gerentes. Labium 

* The character of this species being rendered obscure in the abstract of 
the former paper by the omission of a word in printing, is here repeated. 

X 2 

308 Zoological Society, 

superius basi profundi sulcatum, intermaxillas fere tegens, et cum 
illis movens. Operculum osseum alt^ sinuatum, hinc bilobatum, 
cum gena squamis parvis tectum. Dorsum monopterygium. Costse 
branchiostegse quinque. PinncB ventrales pone pectorales sitae, 
radiis quinque ramosis et uno aculeato sustentatse. Radii aculeati 
pinnarum dorsi anique fortes. Fascice squamosse inter radios ar- 
ticulatos pinnarum verticalium decurrentes. 
Op. Conwaii, species unica cognita. 
Radii:— Qr. 5—5; P. 18; V. 1 |5; D. 12 | 12; A. 3 | 12; 

In Mr. Lempriere's collection there are three specimens of Ostra- 
eion which the author considers as examples of the Auritus of Shaw, 
of different ages, and one which he characterizes as a new species, 
also belonging to Mr. Gray's sub- genus Aracana. They are known 
at Port Arthur by the name of " Pig-fish." 

OsTRACioN spiLOGASTEK. Ostr. (Arucuna) , ventre maculato ; la^ 
teribus dorsoque fasciis interruptis ornatis, quarum quatuor sub 
oculo numerandis, tribus in basibus pinnarum dorsi anique et 
tribus prope finem pinnte eaudce anustomosantibus . 
Radii:—?. 11; D. 11; A. 11 ; C. 11. 

The three following species are also from Van Diemen's Land,, 
though not now characterized for the first time. 

OsTRACioN AURITUS (Shaw). Ostr. {Aracana), ventre pallenti 
unicolore ; lateribus dorsoque lineis saturatis rectis curvisque 
ornatis, quarum quinque sub oculo numerandis, et tribus inpropriis 
basibus pinnarum dorsi, ani, caudcsque. 
Radii:— F. 11 ; D. 11 ; A. 11 ; C. 11. 

OsTRACioN FLAviGASTER (Gray). Ostr. (Aracana), ventre pallida 
unicolore, lateribus dorsoque lineis saturatis percursis, quarum oct(* 
sub oculo numerandis, totidemque lineis pallidis interjacentibus ; 
in basi pinna caudle lineis quinque pallidis et tribus in basibus- 
pinnarum dorsi caudceque. 
OsTRAcioN oRNATus (Gray). Ostr. (Aracana), lateribus dorso- 
que albo tessellatis ; facie ventreque lineis purpureis, fuscis, et 
albidis numerosis, percursis ; fasciis sex obscuris in pinnd eaudce^ 
sub finem anastomosantibus. 
MoNACANTHUS RUDis. (Nob.) Grey Monacanthus. Mon. (nee pa^ 
leari extensivo, nee caudd setosd, nee corpore papilloso vel pent- 
celligero prceditus •) retro-scaber ; colore {murino ?) immaculato ; 
rostro mediocri ; dentibus latis in serie duplici dispositis, decern 
superioribus sex inferioribus ; aculeo dorsali subulato, spinifero ; 
pinnd cauda rotundatd. 
Radii:—?. 14. D. 2 | 35 ; A. 34 ; C. 12. 

This Monacanthus known at Port Arthur (as well as the Aleuteres 
described below,) by the name of " Leather Jacket," attains the 
length of a foot or more, and is considered to be a good fish for the 
table, the skin being removed before it is cooked. After long ma- 
ceration in spirits it has a dull greyish-brown hue, without any 
traces of spots or other configurations of colour, and the species also 

Zoological Society. 309 

wants the extensible dewlap, the bristly tail, pedunculated warts or 
branching cirri, which characterize other groups of Monacanthi. 
Aleuteres maculosus (Nob.). Speckled Leather Jacket. AL re- 
tro-scahevy sub-ovaiis, ventre promimdo ; ungulis quatuor aculei 
dorsalis spiniferis j pinnd caudce rotundatd, sub finem nigrofasci- 
atd ; corpore colore murino ? nebuloso-guttato. 
Radii:— P, 11, aut 12; D. 2-34; A. 32; C. 12. 
This is a small Aleuteres, seldom exceeding five inches in length, 
Taiid having a sub-oval form, the back being less arched than the 
belly. The dorsal and anal fins are arched, the curvature being 
more abrupt anteriorly. The dorsal spine is four-sided, with rows 
of prickles pointing downwards on each of the angles. The minute 
second spine is very slender. As has been remarked by Salvian, this 
small spine aids like a trigger in fixing the large one in any required 
position. The colour of the fish after being kept in spirits is dull 
olive-brown or mouse-colour, with scattered clusters of small dark 
spots. The subterminal black band on the caudal fin is very faint. 
Aleuteres paragaudatus (Nob.). Trim Leather Jacket. Al.., 
retro-scaher ; dorso depresso ex ore usque ad pinnam secundam 
fere recto ; ventre regulariter arcuato ; pinnd caudce rotundatd, 
sub finem nigro-fasciatd ; colore corporis murino ; fascid pallidd 
(flavd^ e mento per pinnam pectoralem medio in latere tractd, sub 
qud lined coeruled ; lined alterd cceruled ^ mento per oculum et ul- 
tra extensd ; corpore subtUs et postice cceruleis guttis pulchre in- 
ter stincto. 
Radii:— "P. 12 ; D. 2-34 ; A. 32; C. 12. 

This handsome Aleuteres is named in allusion to the striped upper 
vestments of the Roman ladies. Like the preceding, it is a small- 
sized fish. One of our specimens had the gut and the whole abdo- 
men distended by a large Idotea, full of roe, not at all crushed, and 
apparently little digested : a portion of its tail fin protruded at the 
anus of the Aleuteres. 

The Aleuteres Ayraud of Shark Bay (Quoy et Gaimard) differs 
from this and the preceding species in the dorsal spine having only 
two rows of prickles, and in the dorsal fin having a concave outline, 
and reaching to the caudal fin. It is also differently striped, and no 
spots are mentioned. The Aleuteres spilomelanurus taken by the 
same naturalists at Port Jackson resembles the Port Arthur fish in the 
form of the dorsal spine and shape of the three vertical fins, but the 
numbers of the rays in the dorsal and anal are different ; there are 
no spots on the body, and merely a single dark line extending from 
the angle of the mouth along the higher part of the sides. In both 
the Port Arthur Aleuteres the minute prickles of the skin, when ex- 
amined by a good microscope, appear to be solitary, and to spring 
from a globular base. 

Callorh^xnchus Tasmanius (Nob.). Tasmanian Callorhynchus. 

Call., pinnis pectoralibus ad ventrales haud attingentibus ; pinnd 

dorsi secundd pone ventrales incipienti, ante lobum anteriorem in- 

feriorem pinnae caudce desinenti. 

This species agrees with the Callorhynchus Smythi of Benne 

310 Zoological Society. 

figured in Beechey's Zoological Appendix, in the distance between 
the pectorals and ventrals, but is so unlike that figure in other re- 
spects that it is impossible to assign it to that species. Call. An- 
tarcticus has large pectorals whose tips overlie the base of the 

Narcine Tasmaniensis, (Nob.). Tasmanian Narcine. 

This species has not yet been compared with Narcine capensis, 
but it is most probably distinct. A full description is given in the 
paper, to enable authors who have the opportunity of seeing figures 
or recent specimens of Narcine capensis, to point out the differences. 
It is named " Ground Shark" at Port Arthur and Hobart Town. 

Syngnathus ARGUS (Nob.). Ocellated Pipe-Fish. Syng.,depressus, 
latus, pinnis pectoralihus dorsique prcBditus -, ventralibus caudceque 
orbatis ; dorso maculis aculeis ornato ; maculis albis und serie in 
margine ventris dispositis. 

This very handsome pipe-fish diff^ers from all the grbups of species 
indicated in the Regne Animal, in having pectoral fins, while the 
caudal and ventrals are wanting. It did not form part of Mr. Lem- 
pri^re's collection, but is said to have been presented to the Haslar 
Museum by the surgeon of a convict ship ; its exact habitat being 

It was mentioned in the former paper that labels of many of the 
specimens were detached, so that correct references could not be 
made to Mr. Lempriere's list. In this predicament is the ' Saw-fish' 
or ' Bugler,' which attains the weight of sixteen pounds, but the 
example sent was below the usual size. Also one of the ' Parrot 
Fish,' known locally as the ' Blue-head.' The Thyrsites altivelis is 
named the ' Baracoota,' and Mr, Lempriere says that there is a se- 
cond species taken at Port Arthur, which has much lower dorsal 
spines, but is more esteemed as an article of diet. This is probably 
the Thyrsites utun of the Histoire des Poissons. The most choice 
fish in the colony is called the ' Trumpeter', and weighs, when full- 
sized, eight or nine pounds. A single specimen of this was sent, 
and is doubtless described in this or the former part of the paper. 

There are also in the collection several specimens of a Hemiram- 
phus, which is known locally by the name of * Guard Fish.' They are 
only half the full size, which is said to be fifteen inches. Several 
specimens of a Diodon have all the characters ascribed to D. nycthe- 
merus in Cuvier's monograph {Mem. du Mus., iv.). Two species of 
Hippocampi are probably those described by White and Shaw as in- 
habitants of Port Jackson. A * Rock Cod' taken in the sea was too 
much decayed for examination, the skull being all that could be 
preserved ; and several examples of a small freshwater fish were also 
very much injured. The species bears the local name of * Trout,' 
is said to have an olive colour, with small red spots, and to weigh 
when full-grown about nine ounces. It is perhaps the Galoxias 
truttaceus of Cuvier, or an allied species. A ' Sea Cow' mentioned 
in the list may be the Callorhynchus Tasmanius. A Solea of a sub- 
orbicular form, and having a small square spot on each scale, and a 
freshwater Anguilla, remain undescribed. 

Microscopical Society. 311 


Oct. 21, 1840. — Richard Owen, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

A communication from the Rev. C. G. Vernon Harcourt to Mr. 
Owen was read, in which the author relates his observations made 
upon some microscopic animalcules found in a pond at Nuneham. 

The author's attention was attracted to the subject by observing 
the brilliant masses of red which appeared in the pond in the morn- 
ing, and seemed to disappear in the evening. Portions of this were 
collected and submitted to the microscope. It vras found to consist 
of a number of small particles adhering together so as to form a con- 
tinuous film, which floated upon the surface of the water in the 
glass in which it was kept, but after a few hours resolved itself into 
its component particles, which sunk to the bottom. 

When the films were observed in the pond they were found to be 
of a green colour until six o'clock in the morning, at which hour 
they begin to change from green to red. The red colour continues 
until four o'clock in the afternoon, at which hour the films, after 
passing through shades of brownish purple, again return to the 
green state, and so continue until the following morning, when the 
same phaenomena are repeated. 

It was found very difficult to keep the animals in their green 
state, and the only good opportunity of examining them in that con- 
dition was found to be by the side of the pond. When carried home 
in a wine-glass they quickly became red. Some, however, were col- 
lected, with great care not to disturb them, in a wash-hand basin, 
which was left in the open air. The films remained united and went 
through their regular changes for three days, after which the crea- 
tures fell to the bottom, remained red, and appeared dead. 

The change of colour from green to red, and vice versd, appears 
to depend on certain alterations taking place in the interior of the 
animal. Although the mass of united animals looks green, yet there 
may always be discovered with the microscope, in each individual, a 
red spot, which when the mass becomes red dilates, the animal 
being stretciied out at full length, with the mouth and vent open. 
The green colour is reproduced by the red interior contracting to- 
wards a vent near the tail. The process by which these changes 
are eiFected was repeatedly observed. 

The animals were never observed to feed, nor was anything ejected 
from the vent. They are very sluggish, and when separated were 
never seen to reunite. In a cloudy morning they are of a purplish 
brown colour, the dilatation of the red interior not being completed, 
and when it rains they sink to the bottom. 

The author refers to the figure in Shaw's Miscellany of Cercaria 
mutabilis (muiabilis, from change of shape, not of colour) as furnishino* 
a correct representation of most of the appearances which the ani- 
malcule assumes in its red state, and offers some conjectures as to 
the possibility of Shaw having mistaken the different appearance of 
the animal at different times as indicative of a difference in species. 

312 Microscopical Society. 

The colour, he observes, does not depend altogether upon light and 
heat, as in that case it would probably change earlier than six o'clock 
in the morning in the middle of summer, and at all events would not 
return to the green state as soon as four o'clock ; neither would it, 
upon being disturbed, resume the red colour in the dark. The green 
colour could not be preserved by sudden emersion in spirits of wine, 
which dissolved out the red colour and gave a brown solution. 

Mr. Varley stated his own observations on similar animalcules, 
which he was disposed to refer to the genus Euglena of Ehrenberg, 
and endeavoured to explain the change of colour by reference to op- 
tical phsenomena. 

A paper was read by Mr. Bowerbank, " On a new variety of Vas- 
cular Tissue found in a Fossil Wood from the London Clay." 

The singular variety of vessel, which is the subject of this paper, 
occurs in a fossil dicotyledonous wood from the London clay of Heme 
Bay, in Kent. The texture of the mass is very similar to Bovey coal, 
but more carbonaceous. It is in the possession of Mr. Samuel the 

With a low power the wood bears a close resemblance to the 
structure of beech. A thin section, when viewed as a transparent 
object with a power of 100 linear, exhibits numerous large vessels, 
the greater part of which are of that variety of annular vessel which 
has tha annulations very much interrupted, and divided into nume- 
rous portions of various sizes. 

Occasionally large vessels are seen thickly covered with minute 
dots having a dark line passing through the centre of each at right 
angles to the axis of the vessel. The true nature of this singular ap- 
pendage is best seen by a power of 800 or 1000 linear, which exhi- 
bits the transverse line as consisting of two lines, separated from 
each other at their centres, but united together at either extremity. 
In most cases these lines do not extend over the surface of more 
than one dot, and their united ends project slightly beyond its mar- 
gin ; but a few instances may be seen of their extending over two, 
three, and even four dots, and then the lines are observed to expand 
to the greatest degree over the centre of each of the dots, and to ap- 
proach each other slightly in the spaces between them. An almost 
precisely similar structure had been pointed to the author by Mr. 
Edwin Quekett in the recent wood of Piper nigrum. 

Another remarkable appearance observed in the same fossil wood, 
consists in certain of the vessels being occupied by numerous vesi- 
cular globules, which appeared to have been freely floating within 
their parietes. When not in contact with each other they are per- 
fectly spherical and uncompressed, and in some cases are so nu- 
merous as to fill nearly the whole diameter of the vessel. These 
globules are very variable in size, and the author considers that 
the whole of them may be attributed to a more than ordinary deve- 
lopment of globules of circulation analogous to that observed in 
Valisneria and other plants. No analogous structure to this is 
observable in the recent wood of Piper. 

There was a large attendance of Members and visitors. 

Miscellaneous. 313 


Flora comitatus Pesthinensis in uno volumine compressa. Auctore 
Jos. Sadler, ed. secunda. Pesth, 1840. 

We have now again the pleasure of introducing to the notice of 
our readers one of the valuable local floras of the continent, most of 
■which are so full of valuable notes upon the distinction of species, 
and without which it is quite in vain for us to endeavour to identify 
our native plants with those of the other European countries. The 
work before us, containing 1429 species of flowering plants, is oc- 
cupied with the description of the plants growing wild in the county 
of Pesth in Hungary, and presents a flora, as might be expected, in 
many points difl^ering materially from that of our own country, 
although singularly resembling it in others. Containing as it does so 
large a portion of the Hungarian Flora, this book cannot but be in- 
teresting to such of our botanists as extend their researches upon 
European plants to so distant a country, and to all such we can 
strongly recommend it. 

Supplement to English Botany. No. 51, October, 1840. 

We have just received this new Number of Mr. Sowerby's excel- 
lent and beautiful Supplement to English Botany, which contains 
plates and descriptions of Achnanthes brevipes, Odontella aurita, 
Erucastrum incanum, Arthrolohium ebracteatum, Laminaria Fascia, 
and Asperococcus compressus. We trust that Mr. Sowerby is now 
about to continue this work at more regular intervals, for the long 
interval which has elapsed since the appearance of No. 50, appears 
to us to be quite unaccountable, since we are well aware that defi- 
ciency of matter is not the cause. 

In the Press. 

A History of British Algae (Sea- weed), by the Hon. W. H. Harvey, 
in 8vo. 

A Journal of a Winter at the Azores and a Summer at the Baths 
of the Furnas, by Henry BuUar, Esq., and Dr. Joseph BuUar, ii^ 
2 vols. 8vo. 

A Grammar of Entomology, by Edward Newman, a new edition, 
almost entirely re-written, 8vo. 



In the ' Flora Hibernica' (p. 40.), Mr. Mackay introduces this plant 
as a native of Ireland, from two stations near to Cork, on the au- 
thority of Mr. J. Drummond, and refers to a specimen in the herba-^ 
rium of the late James Brodie, Esq., now in the possession of David 
Steuart, Esq., of Edinburgh. Through the kindness of that gen- 

314 Miscellaneous, 

tleman I have recently had an opportunity of examining that speci- 
men, and find that it is not D. plumarius but D. superbus, which is 
so frequent an inhabitant of gardens that I think it certainly cannot 
be considered as an indigenous plant without further proof than we 
as yet possess. Mr. Mackay's description appears to have been 
drawn from the true D. plumarius. 

In Mr. Leighton's 'Flora of Shropshire' (p. 188.), D. plumarius is 
introduced upon the authority of specimens gathered upon the walls 
of Ludlow Castle and Haughmond Abbey, in both which places it 
is very plentiful, as I know from personal observation, and has quite 
as good a claim to be included in our lists as D. Caryophyllus, the 
only certain stations for which are the walls of the Kentish Castles. 
— Charles C. Babington. 

SiNAPis Cheiranthus, Kock. — S))ecimens of a plant from near 
Penard Castle, Swansey, have been distributed by myself and others 
under this name, which turn out, upon more careful examination, 
to be only S. Monensis. — See Prim. Fl. Sam., p. xiii. The Jersey 
plant is the true *§. Cheiranthus, which has not yet, I believe, been 
found in England. — Charles C. Babington. 


Brislington, near Bristol, Nov. 24, 1840. 

Sir. — It is stated in the Review of Mr. Baines's Flora of Yorkshire 
(Ann. Nat. Hist, for Nov. p. 216.), that Saxifraga umbrosa is "not a 
northern plant," but that it is found " in the west and south-west 
of Ireland, in as mild a climate as any part of the British islands 
affords." It may be worth mentioning that it was brought to me 
some years since from Clovelly, when I doubted its being truly wild. 
I this year have had an opportunity of verifying the locality myself, 
and from the circumstances of its being a mile distant from any gar- 
di^n, and that no other cultivated plants are to be found in the course 
of the road near which it grows, I am much inclined to admit the 
station as a true one. I found it on the left-hand side of the Hobby 
approaching Clovelly near a little bridge. 

I am, Sir, obediently yours, 

Richard Taylor, Esq. F. Russell, 


This beautiful flower has always been referred to Pentandria Mo- 
nogynia, but on examining several plants I was struck with observing 
that the terminal flower of four out of eight specimens had six equal 
perfectly formed stamens. This fact does not appear to have been 
observed, as I do not find any reference in the Synoptic Tables to 
plants under Hexandria Monogynia. It is also remarkable that the 
terminal flowers should have the anomalous number ; as in general 
the student is directed, if he is under any difliculty on account of 
the difference in the number of stamens in the flowers of the same 
plant, to be guided by the number of the terminal flowers. 

The corolla is six-lobed, or rather formed of six petals soldered 
together, as they separate very easily one from the other, and the 
calyx is six-leaved, with a small scale at the centre of the base of the 

Miscellaneous. 315 

alternate leaflets, wliich are only found on the apical flower ; but in 
their pkice in the other there are sometimes three bractese, placed 
far from each other on the peduncle, the larger one (which alone is 
constantly found) being placed at the base, where it springs from 
the scape. The flower opens regularly from the bottom upwards till 
within a few of the top ; then the top one opens, and after that the 
remaining ones which surround its base. 


-Correction of a mistake relating to the River-Sponge Insect, and to 
the Freshwater Sponge. By John Hogg, Esq.. M.A., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., &c. 

To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, — Having forgotten to correct an error into which 
the able Entomologist, who contributed the description of the ano- 
malous Insect discovered by myself inhabiting the Spongilla fluviatilis, 
to the ' Magazine of Natural History,' had inadvertently fallen, in 
making me conclude that the motions of that Insect were mistaken 
by some French naturalists for the movements of the Freshwater 
Sponge itself, and having lately read the same error inserted in the 
• Annales des Sciences Naturelles,' I think it incumbent on me no 
longer to delay sending you the following correction, which I hope 
you will favour me with publishing in an early Number of your ' An- 
nals and Magazine of Natural History.' 

The mistake, which I here point out, is contained in this para- 
graph, taken from p. 200 of the * Magazine of Natural History,' 
vol. iii. New Series; — "Mr. Hogg, F.L.S., by whom these insects 
were discovered, during a series of minute investigations upon the 
Spongilla, has arrived at the conclusion that the motions of these in- 
sects, and the undulations which they produce in the water, have 
been mistaken by Laurenti and others for movements of the Sponge 
itself, and which they have accordingly regarded as affbrding jiroofs 
of the animality of that substance." 

Again, I find the same translated into p. 380 of the ' Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles,' Seconde Serie, torn. xi. Zoologie, in the fol- 
lowing words : — " M. Hogg, qui a decouvert ces insectes pendant 
une serie d'observations delicates, qu'il avait entreprises sur la Spon- 
gille, est arrive a conclure que ce sont les mouvemens de ces insectes 
et les ondulations qu'ils produisent dans les eaux, qui ont et6 pris 
par Laurenti et autres pour les mouvemens de la Spongille elle- 
meme, et regardees comme des preuves de I'animalite de cette sub- 

Now, as well from this paragraph, as from its translation, \t must 
not only be inferred, that the same remarkable insects were actually 
present in those specimens of the Spongilla, whilst M. Laurent and 
others were witnessing the movements described by them, and that 
they had not noticed the insects themselves ; but also, that the un- 
dulations in the water or currents were produced by the respiratory 
motions of these identical insects alone, and of no other parasitical 

316 Miscellaneous, 

animals ; or, in a word, that there is a necessary connexion be- 
tween the River-Sponge Insect and every species of the Freshwater 
Sponge -wherem such movements and currents are perceptible. This, 
however, is incorrect ; and for the erroneous paragraph before given, 
I beg to substitute the following correction : — 

Mr. J. Hogg, F.L.S., by whom these insects were discovered, du- 
ring a series of minute investigations, by which he has become con- 
vinced of the vegetable nature of the Spongilla fluviatilis, has arrived 
at the conclusion, that the currents observable entering into and re- 
turning out of the Spongilla, and which have been erroneously ac" 
counted by some naturalists as proofs decisive of the animality of 
that substance, are caused by the function of respiration being ef- 
fected by this insect by means of its rapidly vibrating its abdominal 
filaments, or gill-like organs, within the pores or canals of the 
Sponge, and thereby producing streams in the water ; for he has 
never witnessed the like currents to occur in any part of that Sponge 
which has been entirely free from that parasite. Mr. J. Hogg, 
therefore, considers, that the process of respiration being carried on 
by that or some other aquatic or marine insect, or molluscous, or 
crustaceous, animal, &c. parasitically inhabiting and almost con- 
stantly discoverable lurking within every specimen of all kinds of 
Sponge, is the principal — if not the sole — cause of the currents of 
water taking place in those most singular productions. 

I will here only remark, that this subject is fully investigated in 
my ' Observations on the Sponges,' published in part 3. vol. xviii. 
of the Linnaean Transactions ; and that circumstances have as yet 
prevented me from procuring more of these anomalous insects, so 
as to determine whether they be only Larva, or insects having as- 
sumed their perfect form ; but, I may add, that I am still most in- 
clined to the latter opinion. 

I remain, Gentlemen, yours very truly, 

John Hogg. 

London, Nov. 16, 1840. 


The mantle lobes of the species of this genus, brought from British 
Guiana by Mr. Schomburgk, are united together behind, and fur- 
nished with two short separate contractile siphons, like the animals 
of Iridina and Leila, though the submarginal impression of the shell 
does not show indications of any inflection behind. — J. E. Gray. 


I this summer examined many living specimens of my Patella 
pulchella, and found the animal a true Lottia, thereby confirming 
its distinctness from Patella tessulata, from small specimens of which 
the shell can scarcely be distinguished. On examining microscopi- 
cally the Lottia testudinalis , I found the mantle as well as the gill 
to be covered with vibratile cilia. — Edward Forbes. 

Miscellaneous, 31? 


Euplocamus of Philippi (Triopa of Johnston) is not, as has been 
hitherto supposed, a genus of Nudibranchia, uniting the characters 
of Doris and Tritonia, the dorsal branchiae of the one with the lateral 
branchiae of the other. The lateral appendages of Euplocamvs I find 
to be processes of the mantle, unfitted for the respiratory office, not 
being provided with vibratile cilia, which are seen only on the plu- 
mose dorsal branchiae and on the laminated dorsal tentacula. The 
lateral appendages of Tritonia are, however, true ciliated branchiae, 
as are also those of Eolida and its allies. The gill-lids or branchial 
appendages of Polycera are not ciliated. — Edward Forbes. 


Helix Bushyii, Gray. Shell depressed, subdiscoidal, largely umbi- 
licated, opake white, covered with a very thick dark green smooth 
periostraca, which is inflexed over the lips. The spire flattened, ra- 
ther rugose ; outer whorl smooth, depressed, rounded ; the mouth 
large, bent down towards the axis. Inhab. New Zealand. 

This curious species was discovered by Mr. Busby, to whose exertions 
in natural history we are indebted for many specimens belonging to 
the natural productions of these interesting islands, after whom I have 
great pleasure in naming it. It is much like H. Cunninghamii of New 
Holland in form and size, but is very peculiar on account of the 
thickness and colour of the periostraca, which is unlike any other 
Helix we are at present acquainted with. 

Helix Dunnice. Shell depressed, large, umbilicated, pale brown ; 
outer whorl rather angular, smooth. Inhab. New Zealand. Mr. 

Specimens of both these species have been presented to the British 
Museum by Mrs. Dunn, who received them from Mr. Busby. — 
J. E. Gray. 


The beautiful colours of the Nudibranchous MoUusca are in many 
species, though not in all, owing to the colour of their blood. Thus 
in certain species of Montagna the blood is green, in several of the 
Eolida: red, in others brown. The analogy between the Nudi- 
branchia and the Annelides is thus curiously supported by the varia- 
tions of colour of the blood. The globules of the blood in most 
species are very large. The blood oi Polycera quadrilineata is white, 
and its heart beats one hundred and thirteen in a minute. — Ed- 
ward Forbes. 


The red colour of these marshes, often of a very deep tint, has 
been for a long period attributed to the presence of a minute crus- 
taceous animal, Artemia Salina, Leach. Mons. Joly has last year 
attended to this subject, and has come to the conclusion that the 

* See Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 88, v. p. 91. 

318 Miscellaneous. 

colour is produced not by the Artemia, but by a minute animalcule 
occurring in incalculable numbers, and to which he has given the 
name of Monas Dunalii. This is fed ujion by the Artemia, to which 
it communicates its brilliant red colour, and whence has arisen the 
error which M. Joly now considers he has corrected. — See an inter- 
esting paper on Artemia Salina, Annales des Sc. Nat. xiii. p. 225. 
1839, 1840.— See Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 357. 


Mons. Lund, in a late communication to the Editor of the Annales 
des Sciences Naturelles, dated Lagoa Santa, 1st April, 1840, enu- 
merates an increased list of fossil mammalia amounting to 101 spe- 
cies. Among what he considers as the more interesting of his dis- 
coveries is the metatarsal bone of a Horse, larger and of a more 
flattened form than the corresponding bones in the living species. 
This he has named Equus neogceus. Numerous remains of birds 
have also been met with, among which are thoee of two species of 
Rhea, one of them of a size much exceeding that of the existing R. 
Americana. — Annales des Sc. Nat. for May, 1840. 


This enterprising traveller is again about to leave Europe to survey 
and make further researches in Guiana, for which purpose his ser- 
vices have been secured by Government. The information which 
that gentleman has added to our knowledge of the physical geogra- 
phy and productions of Guiana have been already great, and we have 
little doubt that the experience of former years and a liberal support 
will enable him now to fill up what is wanting. To those unac- 
quainted with his researches ; we would recommend a perusal of the 
journals of his various expeditions to the interior of the country, 
printed in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, by which 
body he was originally patronized ; and an idea of its magnificent 
scenery will be obtained from the series of beautiful views, litho- 
graphed from original drawings, which are just ready for publication 
by Messrs. Ackerman and Co. It is gratifying also to be able to 
add that Mr. Schomburgk's exertions in the cause of science have 
been appreciated by other governments as well as our own ; the 
King of Prussia has granted to him the order of the Red Eagle, 
while the Queen of Prussia and King of Saxony have each presented 
him with handsome presents. 


It gives us pleasure to be able to state that the British Associa- 
tion, at its last meeting at Glasgow, granted the sum of fifty pounds 
sterling to assist in the publication of Mr. Denny's valuable Mono- 
graph on the Anopleura, and appointed Sir W. Jardine, Mr. Selby, 
Mr. Yarrell, and Dr. Lankester to be a committee to superintend 
the application of the sum above mentioned. Notwithstanding, 
however, this liberal grant, we know that the great expense attend- 
ing the carefully and minutely engraving and colouring of the 

Meteorological Observations. 319 

plates will be scarcely covered ; and we would request our zoologi- 
cal and ornithological, as well as entomological readers, to come 
forward with their subscriptions ; the ornithologist in particular does 
not look at the work with sufficient interest. The parasites appear 
to run generically, and in many instances specifically, and may be 
taken as a mean to assist in distinguishing closely allied species from 
each other. The price of the work complete is 1/. \s., and the num- 
ber of the plates coloured will be from twenty to thirty. 


The zoological collection of the British Museum has lately received 
some very interesting Mammalia from Siberia, viz. Antelope siaga. 
Ant. suhgutturosa, and some small quadrupeds described by Pallas, 
which have not before been seen in Western Europe. Capt. George 
Gray has presented to it some very interesting specimens which he 
collected during his travels in New Holland, and Mrs. Dunn has 
sent a series of shell and radiated animals from New Zealand, which 
she had received from Mr. Busby. These, with the shells which the 
Museum received some time ago from the Rev. Mr. Yates, show 
the great riches we are to expect from these islands when they are 
properly explored. 


The eastern gallery of the British Museum, which was formerly 
occupied by the collections of minerals, having undergone a complete 
repair, has been lately re-opened to the public, with the collections 
of birds and shells. The passerines, gallinaceous, and wading birds 
are as yet only arranged, but the remainder will be exhibited in the 
course of the spring, when this room, which is 300 feet long and 50 
wide, will contain one of the richest ornithological collections in Eu- 
rope. The cases are all glazed with large panes of plate-glass, with 
very narrow brass bars ; and the smaller birds are arranged on a new 
plan, on box shelves, each bird having a back ground close behind it, 
so as to show its outline distinctly and relieve its colours, and the 
shells, which will occupy forty table cases, are exhibited on black 
velvet, which gives them admirable relief. 


Chiswick. — October 1. Overcast. 2,3. Very fine. 4. Rain. 5. Fine: rain. 
6. Fine. 7. Frosty and foggy. 8. Very fine. 9. Hazy. 10. Dense fog : very 
fine. H. Hazy. 12 — 15. Foggy in the mornings: fine. 16. Overcast. 18. 
Cioudy : rain. 19. Cloudy. 20. Clear. 21. Fine. 22. Hazy: rain. 23. 
Overcast: rain. 24. Overcast. 25. Vey fine. 26. Overcast. 27. Heavy 
rain: clear. 28. Fine. 29. Foggy: rain: dense fog at night. 30. Cloudy 
and fine: clear. 31. Foggy: clear at night. 

Boston. — Oct. 1, 2. Cloudy. 3. Fine. 4. Cloudy. 5. Cloudy: rain early 
A.M. 6, 7. Fine. 8. Fine: rime frost this morning. 9. Cloudy. 10, II. Fine. 
12 — 14. Foggy. 15. Fine. 16. Cloudy. 17. Rain: rain early a.m. 18. 
Cloudy: rain p.m. 19. Stormy. 20. Fine. 21. Cloudy. 22. Cloudy: rain 
early a.m. 23. Fine: rain p.m. 24. Fine. 25. Fine: rain early a.m. 26. Fine. 
27. Cloudy: rain early a.m. 28. Foggy. 29. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 
30, 31. Foggy. 

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for October, have not yet been received. 





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No. 38. JANUARY 1841. 

XXXV. — Horae Zoologicce, By Sir W. Jardine, Bart., 
F.R.S.E. & F.L.S., &c. 

No. III. On the History oMd Habits of the Birds composing 
the Genus Prionites of Illiger, 

The genus Prionites, or the Motmots of British writers, is a 
small group of beautiful birds peculiar to the New World. 
They are all very closely allied by their habits, and have the 
colours of the plumage and the distribution of its markings 
assimilating so remarkably with each other, that some confu- 
sion still exists in the distinction of the species ; and there 
is also much difficulty in always recognising with certainty 
that to which the observations of travellers relate. In our 
latest ornithological system by Mr. Swainson, two species 
have been separated from Prionites, under the subgeneric 
title of Crypticus^, characterized by the great dilatation of the 
bill ; while in the old form, as now restricted, we appear at pre- 
sent to know six distinct birds f* 

The P. Brasiliensis is the species from which the genus 
was originally established, and it is the only one regarding 
the habits of which we have hitherto had any authentic re- 
cord. The notes of both Azara and Waterton refer to it{, 

* C. <platyrhynchus and superciUaris. — Orn. Illust. pi. 106. and pi. 1&^ 
N. S. 

t P. BrasilieyiHis ; ruficapillus ; Bahamensis, Sw. ; Mexicanus ; Martii;, 
and coeruleoceplialiis. — Orn. illust, pi. 42. N. S. 

X Of this species, described by Azara, two specimens were procured alive, 
and were kept in confinement for five months. " It is a rare, strong, bold^ 
mistrusting and observing bfrd ; it ate small pieces of bread, or more readily 
of raw meat, which before swallowing it struck several times against the 
ground, as if, believing them alive, it wished to kill them. Sometimes 1 
saw them eat water-melons and oranges ; but they never drank or took any 
notice of maize, either whole or pounded, nor did they use their feet to hold 
with. ]f the piece was large they left it; but what they liked best were 
small birds, which I let loose into the room, and they followed them obsti- 
A7m. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Vol. vi. Y 

322 Sir W. Jardine on the Habits of Prionites. 

and from the other scattered information which we possess, the 
favourite haunts of the Motmots are known to be the depths 
of retired forests generally near the vicinity of water ; they 
are solitary, or live in pairs only, utter a monotonous often re- 
peated note, breed in holes in the banks of ravines or in hol- 
low trees, and live upon insects, reptiles, small or young birds, 
and fruits or berries ; and as we learn from the notes of our 
correspondent, they occasionally also search for their food 
upon the ground. 

The Motmots seem to be confined chiefly to the northern 
half of the southern continent of America, one at least, as its 
name implies, extending into the Mexican provinces ; it is 
probable also that the different species are local or restricted 

nately for a long time, till they tired them, caught them and killed them 
with strokes as they treated the meat. They continued this even after the 
birds were dead, till they had completely swallowed them, beginning at the 
head, and not hesitating at the feathers ; they did the same with mice, but 
did not care for rather larger birds, which they could not swallow ; whence 
it may be inferred that they would do as much damage to nests as the Tou- 
cans, which they resemble in other points." — jipuntamieiitos de Azara, 
tom. i. 243. Num. LI I. Del Tutu. 

" The Houtou shuns the society of man. The plantations and cultivated 
parts are too much disturbed to engage it to settle there ; the thick and 
gloomy forests are the places preferred by the solitary Houtou. In those 
far-extending wilds, about day-break, you hear him articulate in a distinct 
and mournful tone, * Houtou, Houtou.' Move cautiously to where the sound 
proceeds from, and you will see him sitting in the underwood, about a 
couple of yards from the ground, his tail moving up and down every time 
he articulates ' Houtou.' He lives on insects and the berries amongst the 
underwood, and very rarely is seen in the lofty trees, except the bastard 
Liloabali tree ; the fruit of which is grateful to him. He makes no nest, 
but rears his young in a hole in the sand, generally on the side of a hill." — 
Watertons Wanderings, p. 127. 

"The Motmots, so named from their monotonous note, live only in the 
tropical forests of the New World, preferring those deep recesses of per- 
petual shade, where a high canopy of matted foliage nearly excludes the rays 
of a vertical sun. They appear even more solitary in their disposition than 
the Trogons ; their note may be heard morning and evening, from the 
depths of the forests, but the bird is never seen, unless the hunter comes 
unexpectedly upon its retreat. 'I his we have generally found to be a low 
withered branch, completely shaded, and just at the edge of such paths as 
are made by the Cavies or the Indians. The Jacamas and the Trogons both 
love these shady nooks, where they sit motionless, watching for passing in- 
sects, on which they dart. Such is no doubt the manner in which the Mot- 
mot feeds, but his strong conformation enables him to capture larger game.'* 
— Sivains. Zool. lllust. 2nd Series, descrip. of P. Martti. 

'* The Motmot is solitary, hiding in the deep shades of the forest, and, 
like other air-feeding birds, is always found sitting nearly motionless." — 
" While its fissirostral habit of catching its food upon the wing, and the 
discovery of the broad-billed species (P. platyrliynchns), seem to us a con- 
clusive argument for placing this genus iu the Fissirostral order." — Sivains. 
Nat. Hist, and Classif cation of Birds, ii. p. 141. 

Sir W. Jardine on the Habits o/'Prionites. 323 

in their distribution ; that which we have now under consider- 
ation, we do not know as inhabiting the continent at all. 
Mr. Swainson gives the Bahama isles generally as its native 
country ; and in the locality of the specimens before us we 
have it stretching to the very south-eastern extremity of the 
West Indian islands, but we do not know if the species occurs 
also in Cuba, St. Domingo, &c., or continuously along the 
group; on the continent the first species which occurs in 
Guiana* and the Brazils is the old P. Brasiliensis. 

Our active correspondent in Tobago has procured and for- 
warded to us skins and specimens in spirits of what we con- 
sider to be the P. Bahamensis of Swainson f^ which have en- 
abled us partially to examine its internal structure ; but be- 
fore noticing this or making any remarks upon the place the 
group should occupy in our system, we shall transcribe Mr. 
Kirk^s observations upon their habits, which may be usefully 
compared with the notes from various authors which w^e have 
given beneath. 

^^This beautiful species, with his hair-like plumage and 
spatulated tail-feathers, is a very common and obtrusive bird 
in this island ; and it may be fairly said that if they are passed 
unobserved it will be no fault of their own, for they will sit 
and look stupidly down upon any intruder until he comes 
within a few yards, when they generally accost him with their 
usual low hollow-sounded note. Who, Who, which with very 
little ingenuity may be converted into Who are you ? and, in- 
deed, reports are current of instances of their having been 
answered, in the belief that the question was put by a human 
being ; and when the Prionites demanded over and over again 
^ Who are you ?' in a dark and solitary grove, it is not a mat- 
ter of surprise that a poor ignorant African (as the story goes) 
should, after giving an explanation which proved unsatisfac- 
tory, take to his heels and leave the ^ king ^ in the undisputed 
possession of his forest. 

^^ The Prionites of Tobago builds a nest, or rather occupies 
the cavity of some deserted yellow ant^s nest, or other hole, 
generally in the bank of a road or gully, or scaur by the side 
of some rivulet, though it does not follow that it should al- 
ways be near water. The entrance is generally very small, 
from two to two inches and a half in diameter, and the hole 
is pierced from three to nine feet into the bank, sometimes 
directly in, at other times along the bank, parallel, and at no 

* The specimens brought home by Mr. Schomburgk from Guiana were 
all P. Brasiliensis. 

t Two centenaries and a quarter. — Lard. Cyclop., Animals in Mena- 
geries, p. 332. 

Y 2 

324 Sir W. Jardine on the Habits of Prionites. 

great depth ; but the aperture widens as it proceeds^ espe- 
cially where there is a turning or angle, otherwise it would be 
impossible to save the two centre feathers of the tail ; at the 
extremity it is widened to about two feet in diameter, where 
about the month of May, without the slightest preparation, 
they deposit three or four dusky cream-coloured eggs, about 
the size of those of a pigeon. 

" When the young have been hatched they remain in the 
nest until able to fly; they are supported by the parents, and 
are fed upon snakes, beetles, berries, &c., and in every nest 
which I have found there was below the young thousands of 
large maggots, bred and fed there I suppose by the nauseous 
fragments of insects left by the young birds. The young are 
easily tamed, and will eat mutton cut into small pieces, lizards, 
cock-roaches, &c. The sun appears oppressive to them, and 
when driven out of doors they strove always to regain the 
house, where with unerring aim they would dart upon the 
smallest insect moving upon the ceiling. They are exceedingly 
acute in sight, nothing that moved passing their observation. 
They do not assist with the feet in destroying life, but will 
hold a snake of two or three feet long in their saw-like bill, 
and continue to strike him against the ground until life is ex- 
tinct, when they begin at one end and swallow him whole. I 
have also seen one with a very large lizard swallowed to the 
head and arms, which apparently could not be then got fur- 

In reply to some additional queries, our correspondent 
again writes on the 22nd of March : " The Prionites never 
catch their prey upon the wing like the Flycatchers ; they 
frequent dark solitary groves, and are fond of being in the vi- 
cinity of marshy gullies or rivulets ; in such places I have often 
surprised them, sometimes singly and sometimes in pairs, with 
the bill and breast dirty as if they had been searching the 
earth for insects, the moist spots around bearing evident 
symptoms of having been so examined. When they seize a 
snake they never let go their hold, as if to renew it more se- 
curely, but turning the head to the right and to the left keep 
striking the snake sharply against the branch on which they 
are perched, for they, in a wild state, never remained on the 
ground a moment after 1 saw them catch their food. In 
speaking of the seizing of cock-roaches on the roof, I must be 
understood to refer to the young which I had domesticated ; 
and in such cases the cock-roaches were not flying, but were 
running along the ceiling; when seized, the Priom^e^ invariably 
alighted upon the floor, against which it would repeatedly 
strike the insect before swallowing. The domesticated PWowi/e* 

8ir W. Jardine on the Habits of Prionites. 325 

used at times to sit in our portico, from whence it ^YOuld dart 
down into the flower-garden, seizing the hzards indiscrimi- 
nately without regard to size ; when hungry I have seen them 
kill and attempt to swallow one ten inches long ; I have often 
extracted the lizard in such instances when the tail protruded 
from four to six inches out of the bird's mouth ; at other times, 
when it had succeeded as far as the hind legs, and the bird 
appeared in a state of suffocation. They feed also on soft 
fruits ; I took several large seeds from the stomach of one a 
few days since. The two spatulate tail-feathers are entire at 
the first moult, but when or how they become spatulate, I am 
sure no one in Tobago knows. The birds have always been 
reported to assist it with their bill, hence my anxiety to do- 
mesticate them for the purpose of ascertaining the fact ; but 
in this I have always failed, for the tail had no sooner ex- 
tended four or five inches than it was broken ofi' by the cage 
or floor. One thing is certain, that at this season, viz. from 
October until May or June, we may search in vain for a spe- 
cimen without the spatulate tail, while bet\Yixt June and Oc- 
tober they may be met with in abundance ; this leads me to 
the conclusion that it is natural, and that they assume the 
spatulate appearance with the first moult and unassisted.'' 

The specimens of the Tobago Motmot which we have re- 
ceived, vary in length from seventeen to fourteen and a half 
inches ; when compared with P. Brasiliensis, the blue colour 
encircling the crown covers less space on the occiput, the 
feathers are not so elongated, and the tint is pale or greenish 
at their base, and not of the deep and uniform cobalt of the 
Brazilian bird ; the upper part of the plumage is nearly simi- 
lar in tint, but the whole of the lower parts and under wing- 
covers are of a deep and uniform brownish-orange, relieved 
only by the black elongated feathers, which appear through 
nearly the whole group in a similar situation. 

From the specimens in spirits* being rather soft and tend- 
ing to decay, the examination of the soft structures could not 
be made satisfactorily. The whole muscular system exhibited 
little strong development ; indeed the outward form of the bird 
(confirmed by our knowledge of its habits) shows no provi- 

* In sending home specimens in spirits care should be taken not to place 
too many in the same jar or barrel ; a certain quantity of spirits will only 
preserve a certain portion of animal matter, and the desire to fill the vessel 
often proves destructive to the whole. It should also be noticed, that par- 
tial putridity or decay has not commenced; and if the vessel has remained 
for some time in a warm climate, it will tend nuich to the preservation of 
the specimens to renew the spirits before they are despatched, taking out at 
the same time any which may seem to be soft or not keeping. 

326 Sir W. Jardine on the Habits q/* Prionites. 

sions for exertion or rapid flight ; the skeleton, with the ex- 
ception of the bones of the head and neck, is likewise as 
weakly formed. The stomach is small and oval; the pro- 
ventriculus gradually narrowing into the oesophagus, which 
is wide and dilated; when distended the stomach appears 
muscular without, but the walls when cut through show a 
moderate thickness only. The inner coating is rather co- 
riaceous, and separates easily and cleanly from that next to it. 
The intestinal canal is narrow, but was too much spoiled to 
be distinctly made out. The cseca appeared long, and to be 
given off nearly at the extreme end, and the cloaca is very 
large. The tongue is lengthened, bifid for half an inch, and is 
slightly feathered on the sides ; the muscles of the inferior 
larynx, so far as observed, resemble in number and position 
those of the Corvidae. 

In placing Prionites among the Fissirostres and near to the 
Rollers, we believe that Mr. Swainson will ultimately be found 
to be correct ; their weak formation and the internal structure, 
the wide gape and partially bristled rictus, together with their 
habits, all tend to this place ; at the same time their analogies 
towards the Crows are extremely strong. The elongated form 
and short wings of Pica and Crypsirina remind us of Prionites, 
and it is remarkable that in both of these there is a narrowing 
of the centre tail-feathers, where they are spatulate in the last. 
In the typical crows the bill is often ragged on the edges ; 
they are carnivorous and insectivorous, and many feed eagerly 
on fruits and grain, while reptiles are often seized by the 
stronger species ; the tongue is slightly bifid, and is fim- 
briated on its edges, — the commencement of that pencilled 
or feathered form which more particularly belongs to those 
species which live much on sweet or pulpy fruits. One other 
remarkable analogy we would notice, and one perhaps by 
which it has not yet struck ornithologists to trace the alliance 
between the various groups. The birds in spirits afforded 

Sir W. Jardine on the Habits of Prionites. 32? 

Docophorus Prionltis, from 
P. Bahamensis. 

numerous specimens of Nirmi, some of which were sent to 
Mr. Denny, who is now engaged on a monograph of the 
British species of this very curious race of insects. That 
gentleman obhgingly furnished the drawing for the an- 
nexed wood-cut, and the following 
remarks : ^^ It belongs to one of the 
genera most numerous in species ; 
the most striking character is the 
great size of the trabeculae or move- 
able organs before the antennae ; I 
know of no species in which they 
are so large or thick; the nearest 
approach is in those species infest- 
ing the Crow family ; you will see 
these organs thick and strong in the 
Nirmi from the Jay, Raven, Carrion 
Crow, Rook, and Jackdaw." 

The spatulate form of the tail- 
feathers is another part of the struc- 
ture of this group which seems to 
have attracted general observation. 
It is the popular notion in their 
native country that the bare portions of the tail-feathers are 
cut by the bird itself*, which, for this purpose, has been pro- 
vided with a serrated bill. The observations of Mr. Kirk all 
tend to disprove this, and we would certainly consider it as 
merely a state of adult plumage, and when we look around to 
other groups we see corresponding structures to be far from 
uncommon. The utility or design of it is not at first appa- 
rent, except as an indication of maturity. It is common to 
both sexes, and does not appear before the second moult ; pre- 
viously the feathers are entire, but there is a narrowing of the 
web where it becomes afterwards stripped off, and in one or 
two examples we have seen a lateral feather stripped in the 
same manner with those in the centre. The bill may be used 
to dress the feathers, but the serratures on its edges are at 
once explained by Mr. Kirk^s notes, and must prove eminently 
useful in holding fast the reptiles which constitute a great 

* " This bird seems to suppose that its beauty can be increased by trim- 
ming the tail, which undergoes the same operation as our hair in a barber's 
shop, only with this difference, that it uses its own beak, which is serrated, 
in lieu of a pair of scissors ; as soon as his tail is full-grown, he begins about 
an inch from the extremity of the two longest feathers in it, and cuts away 
the web on both sides of the shaft, making a gap about an inch long ; both 
male and female adonize their tails in this manner, which gives them a re- 
markable appearance among all other birds." — Waterton's IVanderifigs, 
p. 127. 

328 Mr, Babino-ton on recent Additions 


portion of their food ; in different species the serratures vary- 
in their development, being in some irregularly broken, while 
in others they are regularly serrated. In Crypticus they are 
very minute, and with the dilated form of the bill may be 
adapted for seeking a peculiar kind of food. 

XXXVI. — On the recent Additions to the Flora of Ireland, 
By Charles C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

Believing that a catalogue of the additions to the Flora of 
Ireland, made since the publication of Mr. Mackay^s work, 
would be an interesting Supplement to the paper by Dr. 
Hincks, on ^ The Early Contributions to the Flora of Ire- 
land,^ contained in recent Numbers of the Annals, I have, as 
far as lies in my power, collected together the scattered no- 
tices of newly-discovered plants, natives of that country, and 
now present them in a connected form. 

1. Cerastimn atrovirens. Common on the sea-coasts, C C. B. 

2. Elatine Hydropiper. Near Newry, Mr. Thompson, of Belfast ; 

and at the Lagan Canal, where it enters Lough Neagh, Mr. 
D. Moore, Hook. Br. Fl. 166. 

3. Rubus carpinifolius. At Ma'am in Cunnamara, Galway, in Aug. 

1835, C. C. B., Mag. of Nat. Hist. ix. 129. 

4. R' Koehleri (j./usco-ater. At the same place and time as the 

last, C. C. B. 

5. Callitriche pedunculata a. vera. The Mullet, Mayo, July, 1836, 

C. C. B., Mag. of Zool. and Bot. ii. 124. 

6. C. pedunculata /3. sessilis. Newport, Mayo, Aug. 1840, C. C. B. 

7. €. platycarpa. Newport and Achil Isle, Mayo ; and near Sligo, 

Aug. 1840, C. C. B. 

8. Fedia auricula. Oughterard, Galway, Aug. 1835, C C. B., Mag. 

Nat. Hist. ix. 129. 

9. Anthemis maritima. Bear Haven in S.W. of Ireland, Hooker, 'Qi. 

Fl. 308. 

10. Leontodon (Apargia) alpinus (Jacq.). Mr. J. Ball found a single 

specimen which appeared to agree with the description of this 
plant better than with that of any other species on the moun- 
tains south of Glen Cree, in Wicklow, in 1837, Annals of Nat, 
Hist. ii. 29. 

1 1 . Erica vagans. Islet on the coast of Waterford, near Tramore, 
Dr. Burkett, Hook. Br. Fl. 159. 

12. Cuscuta epilinum. Near Newport, Mayo, Aug. 1840, C. C. B, 

to the Flora of Ireland. 329 

Mr. Mackay informs me that this is identical with his C. euro- 

13. Myosotis repens. Cunnamara, Galway, Westport and the Mullet, 

Mayo, July, 1836, C. C. B., Mag. Zool. andBot. ii. 124. Glen 
Cree, Wicklow, 1837, Mr. J. Ball, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 29. 

14. Orohanche harhata. On the roots of ivy in many places, C. C. B. 
I learn from Mr. Mackay that the true O. minora which is para- 
sitical upon clover, has not been found in Ireland, and that 
therefore the O. minor of the Fl. Hibern. is this plant. 

15. Lamium intermedium. Near to the foot of Ben Bulben, Sligo, 

1837, Mr. J. Ball, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 34. 

16. Atriplex erecta. In fields in many places, C. C. B. 

17. A. rosea. On the sea-shore, not uncommon, C. C. B. 

18. Polygonum viviparum. Ben Bulben, Sligo, 1837, Mr. J. Ball, 

Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 34. I am informed that a notice of its dis- 
covery in this place by Mr. Murphy exists in the Mag. of Nat. 
Hist., but I have been unable to find it, and the plant is omitted 
in the Flora Hibernica. 

19. Euphorbia Peplis. Garreries Cove, near Tramore, Waterford, 

1836, Miss Trench, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 124. 

20. Salix amhigua. TuUy, Cunnamara, Galway, Aug. 1835, C. C. B., 

Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 129. 

21. Juncus nigritellus. Bogs between Sligo and Ballina, 1837, Mr. 

J. Ball, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. 34. 

22. Potamogeton oblongus. Common, C. C. B. 

23. P. longifolius. In the narrow part of Lough Corrib, between 
Ma'am and Cong, Galway, Mr. J. Ball, Supp. to Eng. Botany, 

f. 2847. 

24. Carex canescens. On the shores of Lough Neagh, 1836, Mr. 
D. Moore, Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 307. Under the name of C. Bux- 

25. Calamagrostis lapponica. Lough Neagh, 1836, Mr. D. Moore, 
Comp. Bot. Mag. ii. 191. 

26. Kceleria valesiaca. Ben Bulben, Sligo, 1837, Mr. J. Ball, Ann. 
Nat. Hist. ii. 34. Having myself gathered this plant on Ben 
Bulben during the last summer, I have come to the conclusion 
that it is not K. valesiaca, but only a remarkable alpine form 
of K. cristata. It has a much denser spike than is usual in K. 
cristata, an elongated ascending stem thickly clothed with the 
dead leaves of the preceding year, and glabrous leaves which 
are sometimes ciliated. 

330 Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany, 

XXXVII. — Report of the Results of Researches in Physiolo- 
gical Botany made in the year 1839. By F. J. Me yen, 
M.D., Professor of Botany in the University of Berlin*. 

[Continued from p. 275.] 

M. MiRBELf has given us some very interesting researches 
on the "Generative sap^^ of the roots of the Date-palm [Phoenix 
dactylifera) ; this sap he calls " Cambium.^^ The cambium 
deposits itself in layers in the stems and boughs of the mono- 
and di-cotyledons, partly in the large interstices which remain 
between the utriculi or cells (schlauche), and partly in the cavi- 
ties of the cells and tubes. From it proceeds the organization ; 
and the principal object of this treatise is to follow, by a series of 
observations, the transition of the cambium from an amorphous 
state into that of continuous cellular tissue and of independent 
utriculi. The aim of the observations is no less than the pro- 
foundest study of the formation of all the tissues of which the 
different vegetative organs are composed. On examination of 
the roots of the date-tree, there are seen in transverse sections 
masses of cambium with a granular surface, at least it appears 
so, and this is seen w ith all possible distinctness. It is certain 
the appearance of the granulations (mamelons) precedes that 
of the cells ; often in sections from a root of determinate age 
(viz. very young) in the centre of each granulation a dark spot 
is visible, and this is an unequivocal sign of the formation of 
the cavity of a cell ; a larger spot shows the increase of the cell. 
In this latter case there w^as nothing granular to be seen, and 
the undivided partitions which bounded the neighbouring 
cells were thinner, in proportion as the cavities of the cells 
had increased in size. Frequent comparisons showed that 
this metamorphosis takes place without increase of substance. 
The cells do not remain long in this state ; their sides extend, 
and become covered with minute papillae, which are arranged 
like the squares of a chess-board, and which, although of 
firmer consistence than at first, still contain much moisture. 
Shortly afterwards these cells, which until then had had 
no determinate form, assume the shape of more or less re- 
gular hexagons (on transverse sections), their sides ex- 
tend, become thin, dry, and stronger; the papillae vanish, 
and there appear in their place horizontal, parallel, fine 

* Translated from the German, under the direction of the Author, and 
communicated by Henry Croft, Esq. 

f Nouvelles notes sur le Cambium, extraites d'un travail sur la Racine 
du Uattier.— Compt. Rend. 29 Avril, 1839. Ann. des Sci. Nat., Part. Bot. 
1839, I. 321. PI. 11 — 15. With larger plates in the Archive du Museum 
d'Hist. Nat. I. p. 305. 

Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany. 331 

close-pressed lines, like streaks. It is now thirty years, says 
M. Mirbel, since I first observed these streaks. On lon- 
gitudinal sections these streaks appear vertical, and never 
cross each other at right angles. Some years ago M. Mirbel 
described an analogous case, namely, in the milk-vessels of 
Nerium Oleander — [these vessels are the cells of the liber, and 
in the Apocynece there is found in company with these another 
quite independent vascular system which constitutes the true 
milk-vessels! — Meyen], but the cause of the difference ap- 
peared to him to be evident. Very fine granules, placed like 
the squares on a chess-board, have the appearance of hori- 
zontal, vertical, or even diagonal lines, according to the point 
from which they are viewed. 

In other vessels M. Mirbel could not see these points, but 
is inclined to believe, until a better explanation be given, that 
these horizontal, vertical, and diagonal lines on the cells and 
on the long and short utriculi, as well as in other vessels, are 
caused by a quantity of undistinguishable papillae placed like 
chess-board squares. [This preferable explanation, I beheve, 
w^as given by myself several years ago. — M.] 

From the hollow granulations up to the cells with thin, dry, 
and striated sides, the vegetable matter forms one and the same 
completely continuous cellular tissue, the contents of which 
are modified by the advances of vegetation. The two states, 
one of which M. Mirbel designates as that of continuous cel- 
lular tissue, the other as a collection of distinct cells which 
are either separated or combined solely by juxtaposition, de- 
termine or fix two periods of utricular formation which may 
be exactly distinguished. 

The root of the date-palm exhibits three clearly distinct or- 
ganic regions, a peripherical, a medial, and a central. 

In the above-mentioned early stages of vegetation there is a 
layer of cambium lying between the peripherical and the me- 
dial part, as also between the medial and the central ; more- 
over, there are in each region certain parts destined for the 
formation of cells. 

The peripherical part being exposed to external injuries 
would soon be destroyed if new cells were not added from 
the neighbouring layer of cambium ; this addition is the 
more necessary, as the above-mentioned spots destined for 
utricular formation are here wanting, and when the layer of 
cambium is wanting this part of the root is reduced to two 
or three layers of torn and lifeless cells. The medial re- 
gion exhibits in its centre the oldest cells; the younger 
they are the nearer they lie to the cambium of the outer or 
inner region. Even if it should at first sight appear as if 

332 Meyen^s Report for 1839 07i Physiological Botany. 

both streams, acting in opposition to each other, must neces- 
sarily pass into each other and, as it were, meet together ; still 
closer observation shows that only one single centrifugal and 
irresistible force draws along with it the layers of cambium 
and all the utriculi or cells. Here, where the cells formed 
from the cambium have so much the upper hand, there are a 
quantity of peculiar smaller deposits of this substance, which 
are destined for very different purposes ; some fill the cells, 
while others fill the intercellular passages. 

The cambium in the interior of the cells is only visible 
when it has the form of a gummy tissue ; frequently it disap- 
pears directly after its appearance, and leaves no trace of its 
ephemeral existence behind. At another time these cells se- 
parate into granular spheroids, which also only exist a short 
time ; another time one of the cells alone increases, and appears 
destined to acquire double the size of that which contains it, 
but suddenly arrested in its development it sinks again, and 
mixing with the cambium fbrms an amorphous ferruginous 
mass, which exists some time and then vanishes. 

The cambium in the intercellular passages is not less 
abundant ; it either separates into small masses or else forms 
long threads. In the first case, the organizing substance 
passes so quickly into the utricular state, that it is often im- 
possible to follow its changes. The new cells are easily di- 
stinguished from the old ones ; they are smaller, and their walls 
appear as a gelatinous tender layer. Afterwards they become 
stronger, larger, press themselves between the others, and 
grow together with them. In the second case, when the cam- 
bium passes through the intercellular passages in the form 
of long threads, the changes can be clearly followed nearly 
from beginning to end. After a granular cambium appear — 
gelatinous cellular tissue ; a cellular tissue whose sides are 
covered with papillae ; tissue with dry, thin, and finely striated 
walls ; a tissue of long distinctly bounded utriculi, which are 
connected with each other ; new cells press themselves in be- 
tween these, which are thereby increased two, three, four, or 
five-fold ; at last openings in the partitions establish an in- 
ternal communication between the utriculi. 

The outer layer of cambium exists only for a short time, 
and in roots which possess some consistency it is not to be 
found. Between the cells of the first and second region there 
appear here and there new ones, which, by increasing, com- 
bine with each other and inclose the central region as in a 
sheath. They are tubular, cylindrical, and their ends fit ex- 
actly on to each other. They are at first simple, but become 
compound by the addition of new tubes which are formed in 

Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany. 333 

the interior, and between which a communication is esta- 
bUshed by means of openings. 

The central region of the root derives its utriculi from the 
inner layer of cambium, as do also the inner parts of the me- 
dial region. Here also the oldest cells lie in the middle, but 
are cylindrical, they are connected only in some points, and 
are in full vegetation. They soon, however, pass into the 
compound state. The youngest exterior cells are, as it were, 
only cellular cambium ; at this age the central region can be 
clearly distinguished from the medial. Afterwards there is 
formed between them a plate or stratum of the thickness 
of a single layer, the cells of which assume a determinate 
form, either tetrahedral or in form of a parallelogram ; they are 
equal and closely connected together in concentric rows, while 
the tubes of the medial part have no fixed form. At a later 
period the cells of this zone become filled with cambium, 
which soon forms irregular tissue. They increase in size, al- 
ways retaining their concentric arrangement, and each is de- 
veloped in the form of a semicircle whose diameter lies on the 
medial region. In the centre of each of these semicircles there 
is a small cell analogous to the large containing cell. From 
its external surface proceed vertical partitions in different 
directions like ravs, which are attached to the inner surface of 
the large cell. The metamorphosis proceeds rapidly, and can- 
not be followed by the most attentive observation. 

The increase of the central region by the insinuation of new 
cells begins at a slight distance from the centre, and becomes 
continually greater till it reaches the above-mentioned zone. 
This phaenomenon (one of the most curious in the whole 
formation of vegetable organs) takes place in every cell 
by means of successive deposits of cambium, which ex- 
ists but a short time itself, but before it disappears produces 
a quantity of small cells which are often destined to live for 
centuries. Vessels of all sizes pass lengthwise through the 
central region ; the larger lie towards the centre, the smaller 
near the periphery ; all are polyhedral tubes, whose sides are 
penetrated by transverse clefts (or at least apparently so), and 
have more or less the appearance of small ladders, and hence 
the name '^ Vasa scalariformia'^ (Treppengefasse) . In a note 
M. Mirbel adds, that he has found in the root of the date- 
palm that that which appears to be an opening is probably 
in most cases only a spot where the side of the cell is thin ; 
but a thinning of the membrane is not very far from an 
opening, and every opening in a tube commences by it*. 

* The opinions concerning the pores which occur so frequently on the sides 
of cells havebeen very various. Their discoverers, Moldenhawer the elder, and 

334 Meyen^s Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany, 

Between the vessels there are compact masses of cells, 
w hich also reach as far as the zone ; these separate, and a new 
cellular tissue, whose sides are covered with papillae, insinuates 
itself betw een them. It extends itself in the form of an irre- 
gular layer, in the same direction as the compound vessels, 
viz. towards the centre. 

M. Mirbel does not agree wdth those physiologists who hold 
these cellular layers to consist of laticiferous vessels, but con- 
siders them as lengthened cells destitute of coloured sap ; and 
he thinks he has observed the gradual metamorphosis of the 
utriculi into variously sized scalariform vessels. Each new layer, 
in lengthening, separates the mass of tubes in the centre. 

In the mean time a new layer of cambium is formed in 
each half, which is soon converted into a layer of cells and 
then into vessels. These formations continue so long as cam- 
bium is produced. 

The metamorphosis of cells and vessels from simple ones 
into compound, takes place in the same manner as was stated 
above, by means of the development of other cells in their 

I have given the contents of this very excellent work with- 
out any remarks ; but I must add that I by no means agree 
with all the results contained in it ; for on an examination 
of the young roots of the date-palm I took quite a different 
view of several of the above observations. I cannot, how- 
ever, here enter further into the subject. 

M. Mirbel, considered them as small holes, and the latter seemed to assume 
the presence of such holes in the membrane of cells as a general occurrence. 
The Germans, in general, disputed the existence of these holes, but after- 
wards acknowledged their error, and held these formations as true holes. 
At a later period it was found that these pores were only thinner portions of 
the membrane, which could be clearly seen with a good instrument. M. Mohl 
described them as such. These differences of opinion arose solely from the 
imperfections of microscopes ; but now we can always determine whether 
at any spot there are holes or only thinner parts, and we must therefore mo- 
dify our opinions on this subject. The small pores appear very generally as 
transparent dots ; but we may easily convince ourselves that actual holes do 
occur in the membrane of the parenchymatous cells of most herbaceous and 
succulent plants when they are old, for then the original or primitive mem- 
brane which closed the transparent spot is absorbed ; this may easily be 
seen in autumn, when succulent plants are killed by the first frost. Even in 
the membrane of the parenchymatous cells of the Tradescantia I found 
holes at this season, although in summer not even transparent spots were 
to be seen. It is just the same with the large transparent spots on the 
sides of the parenchymatous cells in the leaves and leaf-stalks of the Cycadea', 
in the ferns, the palms, in short, in every case, where at an earlier period 
there are only transparent spots, these pores may make their appearance, 
but one is soon convinced that in the interior of such porous cells no circu- 
lation of the sap and no new production can take place. These formations 
might therefore reassume their old name of pores, if, indeed, it were any 

Meyen's Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany. 335 

The delineations which accompany this treatise, are among 
the most beautiful and correct which have ever been published ; 
especially those in the ^Annalesdes Sciences Naturelles.' They 
are not so good in the ^Archives du Museum.' 

By new observations I have confirmed the statement, that 
the bark of trees is not reproduced* ; in a series of cases I had 
covered barked twigs and young stems with glass tubes which 
fitted air-tight, and thereby prevented the injurious influence 
caused by evaporation and the consequent desiccation of the 
wounded surface. The substance which, under certain circum- 
stances, is formed on the decorticated wood, and which has 
been considered as bark, consists simply of a loose parenchy- 
matous tissue, and is formed out of a gum-like sap exuded from 
the medullary rays which open upon the decorticated surface. 
This sap exudes in the form of transparent drops, which, when 
protected from evaporation, metamorphose themselves into a 
colourless cellular tissue, which increases more or less accord- 
ing to the quantity of forming sap exuded by the medullary 
rays ; sometimes a surface of a square inch or more is co- 
vered with this bark-like tissue, w^hich proceeds from one 
point ; and if this formation commences at several neighbour- 
ing spots at the same time, the masses at length join toge- 
ther and cover the decorticated wood for a considerable space. 
This new tissue is, however, not bark, and produces no new 
wood, and therefore cannot prevent the final death of a tree 
when it has been barked all round ; but in case of partial de- 
cortication only its rapid production is much to be desired. 

On some specimens I could see that the new layer of wood, 
with its medullary rays, &c. was formed only on the inner 
surface of the bark, for the bark which had been separated 
from the wood before the formation of ligneous matter pro- 
duced a new ring; in some places, indeed, a quantity of this 
bark-like tissue had been deposited between the new-formed 
ring and the surface of the wood. 

Moreover, I remarked that in eight cases the thick glass 
tubes which were fastened over the decorticated surfaces were 
three times broken, and indeed suddenly, and into small 
pieces, which cannot well be explained by an evolution of va- 

Dr. Becks t has published a treatise ^ On some Phaenomena 
in the growth of Dicotyledonous Trees,' in which he explains 
the formation of those raised signs and figures which one 
sometimes finds on the stems of trees, when in a former pe- 
riod they had been imprinted on the wood, as, for instance, in 

* Berichte iiber die Setzung des Vereins zur Beforderung' des Garten- 
baues in der Preussischen Staaten, vom 27 October, \S'69. 
t Linnaea, von 1889, 544. 

336 Meyen^s Report for 1839 on Physiological Botany. 

the case of marks made on those trees in forests which are 
destined to be sold. 

M. C. van Hall* has laid before the Academy of Sciences of 
Amsterdam a series of observations on the increase of trees in 
thickness, by which it is clearly shown which trees thicken 
slower or faster, and what is the proportion of increase in 
different ages, different years, and even in the several months. 
An oak stem which in 1826 had a circumference of 140 mil- 
limetresf, during ten years increased yearly on the average 
37 mill, in circumference ; an oak of 555 mill, increased during 
ten years 307 mill., or yearly 30y^Q mill. ; and another of 1 792 
mill, in circumference increased yearly only 12| mill. An elm 
of 170 mill, increased yearly on the average ^Q^q mill.; an- 
other of 190 mill. 32^^ ; and one of 1155 mill, only 20| mill. 
A willow [Salios alba) of a circumference of 191 mill, increased 
47^ mill., and one of 1130 nearly as much. The Canadian 
poplar (Populus monilifera), in circumference 620 mill., in- 
creased yearly as much as 81 mill.; and one of 1645 mill, 
even 91y mill. Birch and maple, on the contrary, increased 
even when young only about 10 or 12 mill. Pinus Abies, Tilia 
europcea, Juglans regia, and JEsculus Hippocastanum were 
measured in the same manner. Moreover, seven different 
kinds of trees were measured for five years during the 
summer monthly, and these measurements in particular 
have given good results. It appears, first of all, that the 
increase in the five years w^as not always the same, and that 
no determinate increase or decrease therein, according to the 
age, could be observed. The increase of the circumference 
varied very much in the different months of the several years, 
which is evidently to be referred to the weather. We will here 
give only one of the tables in order to prove the above state- 
ments. A stem of Ulmus campestris measured in February 
1834 265 millimetres, and increased in millimetres 

May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Total. 

1834 13 21. 17 15 2 H (iH 

1835 10 12 10 16 1 1 50 

1836 8 17 6 15 7 53 

1837 5 7 17 15 2 46 

1838 6 15 16 12 4i 1 54^ 

M. van Hall remarks, that by the observations, the opinion 
of Agardh, that trees increase in length in the first part of 
the summer and in breadth in the latter part, is proved to be 
unfounded ; and that they also show that the circumference 
of stems is not altered during the six winter months. 

[To be continued.] 

* Waarnemingen over de Toeneming der Boomen in Dikte. — Tijdschrift 
voor Natuurl. Geschied. en Phys. 1839, vi. p. 207. 
t The nnllimetre is -03937 of an English inch. 

Mr. Alder on the Genus Polycera. 337- 

XXXy III,— Observations on the Genus Polycera of Cuvler, 
with Descriptions of two new British Species. By Joshua 
Alder, Esq. 

[With a Plate.] 

In consequence of the small number and rarity of the species 
constituting the genus Polycera of Cuvier, its characters and 
limits are at present very imperfectly understood. I shall, 
therefore, make no apology in bringing under the notice of 
naturalists two or three species belonging or allied to this 
pretty genus, which have lately occurred to me on the coast 
of Northumberland, near Tynemouth and CuUercoates, in the 
hope that the more detailed descriptions and figures which I 
shall be able to give, from having examined the animals in a 
living state, may furnish materials for estimating the value of 
those characters on which a generic distinction ought to be 

Cuvier describes the genus as having the branchial plumes 
accompanied by a pair of membranous lamellae capable of 
covering and defending the branchiae in cases of danger*. 
Though the number of these appendages is stated by Cuvier 
to be two, it seems doubtful whether the character of the ge- 
nus should be thus limited. Rang, who had the opportunity 
of examining some exotic species, does not confine his generic 
character to that number, but merely says in his description of 
the branchiae, that " quelques appendices membraneux les en- 
vironnent.^^ Without giving any opinion in this matter, it 
will suit my convenience on the present occasion to adopt the 
latter and more enlarged view of the characters of the genus, 
for the purpose of including in it two new species about to 
be described, which, though they diflfer in some other respects 
from the typical form, I feel reluctant in the present imper- 
fect state of our knowledge to raise to the rank of genera. 
They constitute, however, two very marked divisions, the 
characters of which may probably afterwards be found of suf- 
ficient value to constitute generic distinctions. Until lately 
the only known British species of this genus was the Doris 
flava of Montagu, to which Dr. Fleming has added, with some 
doubt, the anomalous Doris pennigera of the same author. 
Neither of these species appear to have been recognized by 
later observers. Very recently the indefatigable researches of 
Mr. Thompson of Belfast have brought to light two other 
British species of this genus, (if, indeed, one of them be not 

* The use here attrihuted to these appendages appears to be in part, at 
least, imaginary. Such an use is not and cannot be made of them by some 
of the species; tlieir position and small degree of motion preventing their 
being so applied. 

Ann. if Mag. N. Hist. Vol. vi. z 

338 Mr. Alder on the Genus Polycera. 

identical with the Doris flava of Montagu,) which have been 
described in a preceding Number of this Journal*. Of the three 
species which I have met with on our coast, one is probably 
the same with D. quad7'ilineata, Mull., and D. flava. Mont.; 
the varieties I have met with inducing me to bring these two 
together. A detailed description may enable others to judge 
w^hether or not I am right in this view of the subject. 


Fam. DORID^, Johnston. 
Gen. Polycera, Cuv. 
a. With two branchial appendages, body without spiculce. 
P. quadrilineata, Plate IX. fig. 1. to 6. 

Doris quadrilineata, Mull. Zool. Dan. t. 17t; Prod. 2771. 
Doris jiava, Mont. Linn. Trans, vii. 79. t. 7. f. 6. 
P. White, with 5 rows of orange tubercles, 4 to 6 tentacular fila- 
ments, 7 to 9 branchial plumes, and 2 branchial appendages. 

Variety, marbled with dark brown and orange, with 4 dark lines 
along the sides, uniting the orange tubercles. 

Body nearly half an inch long, limaciform, prismatic, tapering to 
a point behind, smooth, white, semi-transparent ; with two mode- 
rately sized clavate and strongly lamellated tentacula, mucronated at 
top, tipped with orange, non-retractile ; at a little distance behind 
which are two very small black eyes. The anterior portion of the 
body is produced into a kind of veil, the margin of which is adorned 
with four, or sometimes six, linear tentacular filaments tipped with 
bright orange. The sides of the mouth are produced into two angular 
points, but not tentacular. Seven, or rarely nine, phimose branchiae 
are situated about two-thirds along the centre of the back. They 
are white tipped with orange ; the three anterior ones largest, the 
others very small, surrounding the vent in an incomplete circle. At 
the sides of these, and slightly posterior, are two plain, linear, 
branchial lobes, about three times the length of the longest plumes, 
abruptly tapering to an obtuse point, tipped with orange. Two 
rows of orange or golden yellow tubercles, extending from the mar- 
gin of the veil, form an elevated ridge on each side of the back to 
the branchial lobes, beyond which they unite and form a central 
carina to the fail. Another row of orange tubercles, not always 
regular, occupies the centre of the back, and two others adorn the 
sides between those first mentioned and the foot. Foot linear, very 
narrow, truncated in front, where it forms two sharp angles, and 
ending in a point behind. There is a strong groove down the centre, 
and the margins can be brought together like the leaves of a book. 
No cloak. The skin smooth and without any spiculae. Aperture of 
the sexual organs on the right side, as in Eolidia, 

* Annals, vol. v. p. 92. 

t For the quotation from Muller I am indebted to my friend Mr. E. 

Mr. Alder o?i the Genus Polycera. 339 

Variety, white, beautifully marbled with dnrk reddish-brown and 
orange. Two bands of dark chocolate-brown extend along each 
side of the back, connecting the orange tubercles, and interrupted 
by them. Branchial plumes speckled with brown and yellow. 

On first discovering this elegant variety I took it to be a di- 
stinct species, especially as the tentacular filaments amounted 
to six, while in the ordinary forms before examined they never 
exceeded four. Further investigation, however, brought in- 
termediate stages to my notice, and also taught me that the 
number of tentacular filaments was extremely variable. The 
veil, in fact, is surrounded by six prominent points, any num- 
ber of which may be elongated into filaments, the rest re- 
maining merely tubercles. Thus I have found individuals with 
only one, two, or three of these elongated. Usually, however, 
the four anterior ones become tentacular, the tw'o lateral ones 
very rarely so. The other appendages of these animals are 
equally liable to variation. Specimens have occurred with 
only one branchial lobe, and others without any, though no 
appearance could be found indicating that they had been de- 
prived of them by accident. 

The excellent description of Muller agrees perfectly wdth 
this, excepting in the number of branchial plumes. These 
have already been seen to be irregular, but I am inclined to 
think the discrepancy to have arisen from his observing the 
larger ones only and overlooking the smaller. No individual 
coming under my observation has had fewer than seven 

Several specimens of this pretty little mollusk have oc- 
curred to me on small sea-weeds at low-water mark betw^een 
Tynemouth and CuUercoates, and also on the roots of Lami- 
naria digitata thrown up by the tide. When kept in a glass 
of sea water they are very active, but usually prefer swim- 
ming at the top in an inverted position. I have never ob- 
served them suspend themselves by threads, but they are very 
fond of making a cup or sucker wdth the hinder part of the 
foot, and suspending themselves by that means either from 
the surface of the water, or by adhering to any foreign sub- 
stance. The spaw n I have found associated wdth them is in 
the form of a short, broad riband, with a slight curvature, 
and glued by one of its edges to sea-w eeds. 

The pulsations of the heart observed at various times and 
in different individuals, were from ninety to one hundred in 
a minute*. 

* The question of the connexion between quick pulsation and rapidity 
of movement in animals, is worthy of more careful investigation. I have 
found some of the molluscous animals, whose motions are proverbially slow, 

z 2 

340 Mr. Alder on the Genus Polycera. 

b. With 4 branchial appendages, body with spicultB. 
P. citrina, n. s. Plate IX. fig. 7 — 9. 

P. minute, lemon-yellow, with 5 rows of tubercles down the back. 
Veil surrounded with numerous small tubercles, 5 branchial plumes, 
and 2 pair of short branchial lobes. 

Body limaciform, prismatic, about 2 lines long, rounded in front, 
taperin£^ to a point behind, pale lemon yellow, studded with five 
rows of tubercles of a deeper shade of the same colour. Tentacula 
two, short, broad, and strongly imbricated, behind which are two 
very minute eyes. Veil strongly sinuated in front, and rounded at 
the sides, the margin divided into 12 or 14 short tubercular expan- 
sions ; from the sides of the veil an elevated ridge, studded with 
tubercles and capable of a slight expansion, runs along each side of 
the back, uniting behind the branchial lobes and extending in a 
strongly tuberculated keel to the tail. Branchial plumes about five, 
transparent, forming a semicircle in front of the vent, a little behind 
which are four short, opake, rounded branchial lobes, two on each 
side. Mouth without tentacula. Foot linear, a little expanded and 
angulated in front. Body containing imbedded spiculse. 

A single specimen was found on a coralline from deep water 
in a fishing boat at Cullercoates. 

When put into a watch-glass of sea water, so fond was this 
little creature of swimming inverted on the surface (a treat 
which one would think it could scarcely have in its natural 
place of abode), that it could with difficulty be made to remain 
at the bottom a sufficient time to allow of a drawing being 
made of it. 

The Triopa Nothus of Johnston is probably a Polycera of 
this division. 

c. With 10 branchial appendages, without veil or spicules. 

P. cristata, n. s. Plate IX. fig. 10, 11. 

P. smooth, white, without veil, with 2 pair of tentacular filaments, 
3 plumose branchise, and 10 branchial appendages. 

Body nearly half an inch long, limaciform, of a transparent watery 
white, smooth. Tentacula two, large, club-shaped, pale yellow, not 
retractile, strongly imbricated on the upper part and terminated by 
a mucro ; from the bases of these spring two pair of simple, linear, 
tentacular filaments ti])ped with bright orange, and also non-retract- 
ile ; two inferior tentacular processes are situated at the sides of the 
mouth, capable of considerable extension and contraction. No eyes ? 
The vent is in the centre of the back rather nearer the posterior end, 
and is surrounded by three beautifully plumose, transparent white 

to have a quickness of pulsation quite unexpected. In Vitrina pelhicAda, 
for instance, 1 have found the heart to beat so many as 120 times in a mi- 
nute, while in other states of the same animal the pulsations have been 
very slow, and sometimes suspended for several seconds. 

Mr. Alder on the Genus Polycera. 341 

branchiae of about five pectinated branches each, the points of which 
are tipped with pale yellow. The anterior plume is longest, the 
two side ones shorter, and all having a graceful curve inwards. Sur- 
rounding these are ten linear, subclaviform, branchial appendages ; 
generally arranged five on each side, and tipped with orange or pale 
yellow. The hinder part of the body tapers to an obtuse point, is 
slightly keeled, and sometimes marked with an orange central line. 
The viscera are seen in a brown or pinkish mass through the trans- 
parent skin. There is no cloak, nor are the sides of the body angu- 
lated as in the other Polycera, but gradually rounded oiF to the foot. 
Foot linear, narrow, grooved down the centre, and cloven at the 
hinder extremity. No spiculse. The orifice of the sexual organs on 
the right side. 

A few specimens of this elegant and graceful little animal 
were found in pools among the rocks near low-water mark at 

Occasionally this species is entirely white^ the body being 
semi-transparent and the tips of the appendages opake. The 
number of branchial appendages varies, one or two of them 
being sometimes rudimentary or entirely deficient. One in- 
dividual spawned w hile confined in a glass of salt water. The 
spawn was deposited in a single broad gelatinous band form- 
ing a semicircle^ and strongly glued to the side of the glass*. 

The pulsations of the heart varied from 45 to 'J 5. 

The first of the species here described may be considered 
the type of the genus Polycera, 

The second agrees with it in the prismatic form of the 
body, and longitudinal ro^^s of tubercles ; in the presence of a 
veil and of eyes ; but differs in the number and form of the 
branchial lobes, and in having imbedded spiculae. 

The third has much fewer points of resemblance ; it agrees 
with the former in general contour, in the presence of tenta- 
cular filaments and of branchial lobes ; but the prismatic form 
of the body and the lines of tubercles are no longer seen. 
The frontal veil and eyes t are also absent, and the branchial 
lobes, becoming greatly more numerous, completely encircle 
the plumes J. Taken collectively, these variations from the 

* A specimen of Eolidia rujibranchialis, contained in the same glass, de- 
posited its spawn in a narrow waved thread, many times convoluted, and 
forming a pattern something like a true lover's knot. This was in the 
month of July. 

t In none of the individuals I examined did I observe any appearance 
of eyes. Since the above was written, however, my friend Dr. Johnston 
had kindly favoured me with a drawing and description of a very similar 
mollusk discovered by him at Holy Island, in which he observed two 
*' very minute eyes." I must therefore admit the possibility of my having 
overlooked these obscure organs. 

X The whole three species af.n-ee in all the characters of the genus given 
by Rang, with the exception of the tentacula being " contractiles dans une 
cavite ;" a character not to be found in any of the British species. 

342 Mr. Alder on the Genus Polycera. 

typical form might perhaps be considered sufficient to war- 
rant the establishment of a new genus. Mr. Forbes has stated 
that the absence or presence of eyes is generic in this group. 
I am by no means confident of this. In groups where these 
organs are fully developed^ the function performed by them is 
of sufficient importance to give them a primary character ; 
but where these or any other organs are reduced to their mi- 
nimum of development, so as, in fact, to become merely rudi- 
mentary, their absenae then becomes of little importance. In 
the present case we are unable to prove that these minute 
black spots perform any of the purposes of vision : why then 
may they not be mere indications of organs which are to re- 
ceive a further development in other forms of the same group? 
Such rudimentary organs, incapable of performing any real 
function, are not unknown in other departments of zoology, 
and form a beautiful illustration of the very minute gradations 
through which the development of organs is carried in the 
whole range of animated nature. 

The number of parts in this class of animals is not to be 
depended upon in estimating generic distinctions, and, as 
shown above, cannot even be taken as specific ; but at the 
same time there is always a number so far predominant in 
each species as to be characteristic of it, though, like the num- 
ber of arms in Starfish and the leaves of some plants, occa- 
sionally varying within certain limits. In the Nudibranchia 
this variation is most frequently attributable to imperfect de- 

Through the whole of this genus the orange colour is pre- 
dominant ; generally adorning the prominent parts in each 
species. This colour, however (passing on the one side into 
yellow and into scarlet on the other), is more or less prevalent 
throughout the family. Colour is sometimes characteristic of 
species in this group, but cannot always be relied upon. In- 
tensity of colour I take to be of no value. 


Fig. 1, 2, 3. Polycera quadrilineata, in different positions. 
Fig. 4, 5, 6. Variety of the same. 
Fig. 7, 8, 9. Polycera citrina. 
Fig. 10, 11. Polycera oris fata. 
Fig. 12. A branchial phime of the same. 

The whole of them are magnified; the lines opposite each indicating the 
natural size. 

M. Agassiz on Shells from the Crag, 


XXXIX. — Additions to Mr. Wood's Catalogue of Crag Ra- 
diaria*. By M. Agassiz. 

To the Editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 


MoNS. Agassiz a few hours previous to his departure for the 
continent paid me a very short visit, and was able to deter- 
mine among my crag Radiaria the following genera, which I 
am desirous should be made known (having his permission), 
as there are some among them that w^ould scarcely be looked 
for in that deposit. The list comprises all that M. Agassiz 
had seen from the crag during his sojourn in this country. 

Yours, &c. 

December 8, 1840. 





Coralline Crag. 

Red Crag. 










I ken. 






















Fibulari a 




Near Orford. 




* See above, p. 245. 

344 Prof. Morren on Infusoria in Plants, 

XL. — On the Existence of Infusoria in Plants. By Charles 
Morren, M.D., Professor of Botany in the University of 

The perusal of the account of Professor Keeper's Researches 
respecting the cells oi Sphagnum dindi their pores t:> brought to 
my recollection some facts which I ^Yitnessed while studying 
the natural history of our indigenous Algae, and which I think 
it useful to make known at present, as they may clear up some 
doubts which still exist in science. 

The labours of Roeper, to which I have just referred, show 
that the cells of Sphagnum are sometimes furnished with 
openings, which place their interior cavity in communication 
with the air or water in which they are immersed. This 
skilful observer satisfied himself, that when circumstances 
are favourable, the Rotifer vulgaris, one of the Infusoria 
whose organization has been explained by the researches of 
Ehrenberg, exists in the cells of the Sphagnum obtusifolium. 
This grew in the air in the middle of a turf-pit, but Roeper 
observed its leaves in water; he does not mention whether the 
infusorial animal came from thence, or whether it was pre- 
viously contained in the cavities of the cells. The general 
purport of the paper seems to imply that these Rotiferi exist 
in the cells of that part of the plant which was exposed to 
the air ; and in this case, the presence of an animal so com- 
plicated, living as a parasite in the cells of an utricular aerial 
tissue, is a phaenomenon of the most curious kind in the phy- 
siology of plants, and the more so as this animal is an aquatic 

I recollected that the last year of my residence in Flanders, 
I found at Everghem, near Ghent, the Vaucheria clavata, in 
which I observed something similar. M. Unger had already 
published the following details respecting this plant in 1828 : 
'' Beneath the emptied tubercules and at several points of the 
principal stalk, at different angles, rather narrower branches are 
produced ; these branches are generally very long, and greatly 
exceed the principal stalk in length. At the end of ten or 
twelve days after their development, there are seen, towards 
one or other of their extremities, here and there, at differ- 
ent distances from the summit, protuberances of a clavate 
form, more or less regular, straight or slightly bent back ; 
and others on the sides of the stalk, which have the form 

* From the Bulletin of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Brussels, vol. 
vi. No. 4. 

t Annales des Sciences Naturelles, torn, x., November 1836, p. 314; 
Flora, 1838, p. 17. 

Prof. Morren on Infusoria in Plants, S45 

of a capsule or vesicle. These vesicles are at first of a 
uniform bright green colour, and without increase of size, 
which exceeds several times that of the branches, they always 
become of a blackish-green colour, darker towards the base, 
and then one or two globules of a reddish-brown may be 
clearly distinguished there, often surrounded by smaller gra- 
nules, evidently destitute of motion, whilst the great ones 
move spontaneously and slowly here and there in the interior 
of the capsule, by unequal contractions and dilatations, whence 
arise remarkable changes of form. I saw these globules, at 
the end of eight or ten days after their appearance, still in- 
closed in the capsule, moving more and more slowly, recei- 
ving no very decided increase, whilst the base of the capsule 
became more transparent ; at last I observed that, instead of 
their expulsion, which I was watching for, the extremity of 
the capsule, at the end of some days, took an angular form, 
and subsequently gave birth to two expansions in the form of 
horns ; it remained in this state and became more and more 
pale, whilst the animalcule became darker and died, and after- 
wards it ended by perishing at the same time as the other 
parts of the conferva*." 

Subsequent researches have not succeeded in informing us 
w^hat this animal might be of which Unger spoke. As this 
author drew so much attention to the spontaneous move- 
ments of the propagula of the Vaucheriae, and as he admitted 
the passage from vegetable life, characterized, according to 
him, by immobility, to animal life, the principal criterion of 
which was motion, his animalcule was confounded with the 
propagula, and no one, so far as I know, has returned to this 
very interesting subject. 

When, therefore, I found the Vaucheria clavata at Everg- 
hem, I was as much surprised as pleased to see the mobile 
body noticed by Unger better than he did. With the aid 
of a higher magnifying power, I found it easy to ascertain the 
true nature of the animal, for it was not a propagulum, but 
a real animal, the Rotifer vulgaris, with its cilia imitating 
the wheel, its tail, &c. 

The first protuberances or vesicles which I saw containing 
this animal, inclosed but one of them ; afterwards they laid 
eggs and multiplied ; but it seems that then they descend the 
tubes of the Vaucheria and lodge themselves in new protu- 
berances, whose development they may possibly stimulate, as 
the galls and oak-apples are organic transformations attribu- 
table to the influence of parasitic beings. 

* Annales des Sciences Natiirelles, ancieiine serie, t. xiii. 1828, p. 438. 

346 Mr. Bowman on Natural Terraces 

The Rotifer vulgaris travels quite at his ease in these pro- 
tuberances; he traverses the partitions^ displaces the chromule 
and pushes it to the two extremities of the vesicle, so that 
this appears darker at these parts. One day I opened a pro- 
tuberance gently : I waited to see the Rotifer spring out and 
enjoy the liberty so dear to all creatures, even to infusorial 
animals ; but no — he preferred to bury himself in his prison, 
descending into the tubes of the plant, and to nestle himself in 
the middle of a mass of green matter rather than swim about 
freely in the neighbourhood of his dwelling. 

Some of these protuberances had greenish threads appended 
to their free end, and others had none : I thought at first that 
these threads were some mucus from within, escaped through 
some opening which might have served the Rotifer as an en- 
trance ; but an attentive and lengthened observation convinced 
me that in this there was no solution of continuity, and that 
the arrival of the Rotiferi in the Vaucheriae was not at all to 
be explained in this way. How" are these parasitic animalcules 
generated within them ? This is what further research has 
some day to show. Meanwhile, I have thought that it should 
be made known, that the animalcule found in the Vaucheriae 
by Unger w^as the Rotifer vulgaris of zoologists. 

XLI. — On the Natural Terraces on* the Eildon Hills being 
formed by the Action of Ancient Glaciers, By J. E. Bow- 
man, Esq., F.L.S. & F.G.S. 

Scarcely could my communication on these terraces in the 
last Number of the Annals have been set in type, when I saw 
the first announcement, by Prof. Agassiz, of the evidences he 
had seen of the former existence of Glaciers in Scotland. A 
little reflection, aided by my ow^n recollections of the Swiss 
glaciers, and of the general views so ably given by him at 
the late meeting at Glasgow, soon satisfied me that his theory 
would meet all the difficulties that had so much perplexed me, 
and explain the actual appearances exhibited on the hills in 
the neighbourhood of Galashiels. I regret that I was not 
aware of his discovery when I wrote my remarks ; though it 
must be allowed that my ignorance of it has saved me from 
the imputation of any bias in applying it to the phasnomena 
in question. 

As the fact of the former existence of glaciers in Scotland 
is now exciting general attention, and will soon, I doubt not, 
be firmly estabhshed, I might have silently left it to others to 
consider them as the true cause of these terraces, had not a 

formed by Ancient Glaciers, 34? 

recent visit from Prof. Agassiz afforded me an opportunity of 
giving him the details of my own observations, and of hear- 
ing from himself that the appearances I described have often 
been seen by him on the sides of existing glaciers. I trust, 
therefore, the subject may be thought of sufficient interest to 
w^arrant a second communication. 

It would be difficult, as I know from experience, to make 
intelligible to readers who have not visited Switzerland, the 
real nature and appearance of a glacier. For years I had read 
and thought much about them, and fancied I understood 
them ; but, until I actually saw^ and traversed them. I had no 
correct idea of their real structure and appearance, and little 
anticipated the powerful impression they are capable of 
making upon the mind, when first examined under favour- 
able circumstances. Saussure and other Alpine travellers have 
given very lively descriptions of their w'onderful appearance, 
but the laws by which many of their phaenomena are pro- 
duced and regulated, were never satisfactorily understood 
until Prof. Agassiz undertook their examination. The result 
of five years^ arduous and patient investigation by this illus- 
trious savant will be found in papers read before the Geolo- 
gical Society of France, and more at large in his ^ Etudes sur 
les Glaciers de la Suisse,^ now just published. His discovery 
also, since the meeting of the British Association at Glasgow, 
of the traces of ancient glaciers in Scotland, Ireland, and the 
North of England has been announced to the Geological So- 
ciety of London, and is expected to appear in detail in the 
forthcoming Number of the ' Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal.' It would, therefore, be extremely arrogant in me 
to attempt to anticipate that communication ; but, as I have 
already raised objections to the received theory from my ob- 
servations on the Eildon Hills, it seems but fair, now that I 
am enabled, from the familiar explanations of my distinguished 
friend, to support as well as answer them by referring the 
appearances to a more rational cause, that I should be allowed 
to do so. 

As Prof. Agassiz entertains no doubt, from a perusal of the 
article in Chambers's Edinb. Journal, and of my paper, that 
most of the terraces on the hills in the neighbourhood of the 
Tweed, are the morains of ancient glaciers, I shall confine 
myself to a few particulars connected with their origin and 
mode of formation. 

Glaciers occupy the gullies and lateral indentations of high 
mountain chains ; and consist of immense accumulations of 
spongy porous ice, or half-melted snow again solidified by 
frost. Tlieir texture near the apex or upper extremity, ap- 

3.48 Mr. Bowman on Natural Terraces 

proaches the nearest to snow, and the opposite or low^er end, 
to ice, the change being gradual and the consequence of the 
alternate melting and freezing of the surface. Above the 
height of about 7000 feet^ the temperature of the air is seldom 
high enough to melt the snow ; and as all ice has previously 
been water, it is clear there can be but little of it in a solid 
state at still greater elevations. The blocks and fragments of 
rock that are detached from the surrounding precipices, ac- 
cordingly sink through the mass to the bottom of the snow. 
At less elevations, where during summer the melting process 
is more active on the surface of the glacier, the water perco- 
lates between the particles of the porous mass, till it reaches 
the rocks on which it rests. Here, the temperature being 
lower, it is reconverted into ice, which cements together the 
stones and gravel, and by its expansive property in passing 
into the solid state, has a tendency to detach them from the 
bottom. Thus a new layer or skin of ice is continually ac- 
cumulating between the lower surface of the glacier and the 
face of its rocky bed, which, as it thickens, acts a wedge and 
imperceptibly keeps forcing up the whole superincumbent 
mass, and with it the stones and gravel which it had en- 
tangled at the bottom. But the cooperation of another agent 
is necessary to bring them to the surface. This is the heat of 
the sun, which during summer, especially in the day time, 
melts the upper laj^ers of the ice, and consequently diminishes 
its thickness ; till at length, by this double action, the stones 
which lay upon the bottom are lifted up till they lie exposed 
upon the surface of the glacier. So that here, a kind of cir- 
culation or interchange of particles takes place, as in a lake, 
modified by circumstances ; their ascent being retarded while 
in a state of congelation, and their descent accelerated by the 
perpendicular cracks and fissures which everywhere intersect 
the mass. 

This expansion from below is going on at the same time in 
the direction of both the longitudinal and transverse axes of 
the glacier; and as the whole mass lies in a hollow or inclined 
trough, the power of gravity prevents it from moving in any 
other direction than downwards. But the motion is not uni- 
form ; the sides advance with greater rapidity than the mid- 
dle ; so that if a row of stones were placed at equal distances 
in a straight line across the glacier, they would soon arrange 
themselves into a curve or arch ; those at each side being car- 
ried down more rapidly, would form the base ; while those in 
the middle having comparatively little motion, would be left 
behind and form the highest part of the arch. This is owing 
to the following cause : a slight elevation of temperature in 

formed by Ancient Glaciers. 349 

the air near the lateral edges of the glacier, caused by radia- 
tion from the neighbouring rocks, occasions a more copious 
melting of the ice and snow in those parts, and consequently 
a greater quantity of water is introduced into what remains 
unmelted. This water being refrozen at night, produces a 
greater expansion near the edges than in the central portions 
of the glacier; and this excess accelerates the motion of the 
sides downwards. It must be recollected that a glacier is not 
one solid piece of ice, but is broken up and intersected by 
many chasms or fissures of greater or less width and depth, 
which allow an independent motion of its different parts. 
This greater expansion has a tendency also to divert the de- 
scending stones from a rectilinear course, and to carry them 
toward the point of least resistance, in other words, nearer 
to the sides ; so that a large portion of them, instead of reach- 
ing the foot of the glacier, are deposited in longitudinal or 
irregularly curved lines on the inclined slopes of the contigu- 
ous rocks, their peculiar form being modified by local circum- 
stances. It is also evident that the greatest accumulations of 
these lateral shelves, or tnorains, will be found near and upon 
the most prominent slopes of rock, especially on the side next 
to the head of the glacier; because these projections not only 
arrest the stones in their downward course, but by their 
agency in causing more radiation, melting and freezing, at- 
tract, if I may so say, a greater quantity of surface wreck. 
Again, as the opposite sides of a glacier at any given point 
have a geneial coincidence of level, these morains will often 
be found to coiTcspond in horizontal position ; though, for 
obvious reasons, not so precisely as the opposite shores of a 
bay or lake. They must also be formed solely of fragments 
from the higher surrounding rocks, not rounded into pebbles, 
but more or less angular, or mixed with clay or earth, in pro- 
portion to the nature and hardness of the material. Neither 
sea nor freshwater shells will be found among them. Other 
7norains are formed at the foot of the glacier, and often pre- 
sent very different appearances ; but as it is to the lateral 
ones that most of the terraces on the Galashiels hills are to be 
referred, I shall not pursue the explanation further. 

I think a careful perusal of the details given in my former 
paper will show that a large portion of these terraces, or 
rather shelves, correspond with the morains whose origin I 
have just been tracing. Their broken and interrupted cha- 
racter on the Eastern Eildon and on Williamlaw ; their irre- 
gular width and rude horizontality of surface, combined with 
a general coincidence of level ; their angular stones and the 
total absence of gravel, sand or shells, are precisely such as 

350 Mr. Bowman on Terraces formed by Glaciers. 

the causes now explained would produce, and are at this day- 
producing in Switzerland. Their occurrence also on the spur 
of Williamlaw, which projects into the valley of the Gala, and 
on the Eildons facing the great valley of the Tweed, which I 
attempted to show was incompatible with the laws of tidal 
action, are thus satisfactorily explained ; and I feel persuaded 
that the theory of their formation by water must be aban- 
doned, and that they must be considered to be the true mo- 
rains of ancient glaciers. 

But all the terraces on the hills round Galashiels cannot 
be exclusively attributed to the cause already assigned. Some 
of them, it will be recollected, are stated by Mr. Kemp to be 
as much as 300 feet wide. On requesting from Prof. Agassiz 
an explanation of these broad terraces, he stated that, as far 
as he could judge from my description, they probably Mere 
not true morains, but had been formed by the combined ac- 
tion of a glacier and a lake dammed up by ice, such as once 
formed the barrier of Glen Roy, and in our own day blocked 
up the stream at the foot of the glacier of Getroz, which 
finally burst and devastated the valley. I confess that the 
height at which these broad terraces occur on the Eildons, 
appears to me incompatible with such a view, and that if 
Agassiz himself were to visit the locality, he would find it 
necessary to modify this explanation. I also pointed out to 
him Mr. Kemp's description of the indentations on the in- 
clined projecting slopes of Williamlaw ; and he replied that 
he had seen something similar in the cliffs in Glen Roy, 
which he attributed to the friction of floating ice and blocks 
of stone. 

In conclusion, Prof. Agassiz informed me that in his late 
travels he had traced repeated instances of the various descrip- 
tions of morains in different parts of Scotland ; in Murray- 
shire he counted a series of nine terraces similar to those in 
Selkirkshire. He had also seen them in Ireland, and between 
Shap and Kendal, in Westmoreland; and he does not doubt 
they will be recognized, now that attention is directed to the 
subject, in North Wales, in the Pyrenees, the Apennines, and 
other high mountain chains. Indeed he believes, from strong 
evidences scattered over different countries, that at a recent 
geological period, and not long before the creation of the 
human race, the whole of Europe, and those parts of Asia and 
America which lie north of the parallel of the Mediterranean 
and Caspian seas, were enveloped in snow and ice ; in short, 
consisted of a series of immense glaciers, above which only 
the highest hills appeared as islands ; presenting a character 
of scenery only to be found in our day in Greenland or Ice- 

Mr. Waterhouse on Carabideous Insects. 351 

land. This view, bold as it is, is strikingly supported by the 
fact ascertained by Mr. Kemp, that the terraces encircle the 
highest hills in the neighbourhood of Galashiels, almost to 
their summits. But as my object in this paper was merely 
to explain the difficulties suggested by my former one, I shall 
not anticipate the more able communications about to appear 
on this important and absorbing subject, or the pleasure to 
be derived from the " Etudes sur les Glaciers de la Suisse '' 
of Prof. Agassiz himself. J. E. Bowman. 

Manchester, Nov. 16th, 1840. 

XLII. — Carabideous Insects collected by Charles Darwin, 
Esq., during the Voyage of Her Majesty's Ship Beagle* By 
G. R. Waterhouse, Esq. 

[Continued from p. 257.] 

All the species noticed in this communication are from Mal- 
donado. La Plata. 

Genus Brachinus. 

Sp. 1. Brachinus maculipes . 

B. niger ; capita, thorace, pedibus, pectoreque ferruglneis ; genu- 
bus nigris ; antennis fuscescentibus ; articuHs primo et secundo 
ferrugineis, tertio quartoque nigris : elytris subcostatis. 

B. crepitanti fere similis, at duplo major. 

Long 61 lin. ; lat. 2;| lin. 

In form and appearance this species greatly resembles the Bra- 
chinus crepitans, but its size is much larger; the eyes are rather 
more prominent, the elytra are black, and in the specimen before 
me, destitute of the blue or green tint usually observable in that 
species, and the striae are a trifle more distinct ; it moreover differs 
in having the apical portion of all the femora black. Like B. cre- 
pitans, the third and fourth joints of the antennae are black, but the 
following joints are pitchy-black, and thus differ from the corre- 
sponding joints in that species : the abdomen is black beneath, but 
the chest is pitchy-red. 

But one specimen of this species was brought home by Mr. Dar- 
win : it is readily distinguished from Brachinus Platensis by its larger 
size, the black third and fourth joints of the antennae, the black tip 
to the femora, and the darker colour of the elytra. 

Sp. 2. Brachinus Platensis. 

B. ferrugineus ; elytris fuscescenti-nigris, subcostatis ; abdoraine 
ad apicem nigricante. 

B. crepitanti simillimus, sed paul6 major. 
Long 41 — 5 lin. ; lat. 2 — 2^ lin. 

352 Mr. Waterhouse on Carabideous Insects, 

This species greatly resembles B. crepitans : its average size is 
rather greater — the smaller specimens being about equal in size to 
the larger- sized individuals of B. crepitans — it differs moreover in 
having the third and fourth joints of the antennae red instead of 
black ; the thorax is longer and less dilated in front ; the elytra are 
rather wider, have a slight pitchy hue, their elevated ridges are 
more distinct, and there is scarcely any trace of punctures in the 
interstices. The body beneath is pitchy-red, the red colour most 
distinct on the chest, and on the apical portion of the abdomen the 
pitch colour prevails ; the four basal joints of the antennee are pale 
testaceous, and the remaining joints are brownish ; the legs are pale 
testaceous ; the thorax and hinder portion of the head are very de- 
licately punctured. 

In Mr. Darwin's collection are five specimens agreeing with the 
above description, and a sixth specimen, which differs only in being 
considerably larger — its length is 6 lines, and width 2f lines. 

Besides these there is a Brachinus which in some respects resem- 
bles the B. Platensis, but is probably a distinct species ; as I do not 
however like to found a species upon a single specimen, unless that 
specimen possess well-marked characters, 1 will merely call atten- 
tion to its peculiarities. 

The four basal joints of the antennae, the head, thorax, legs and 
chest are red, the elytra are dull black, with an indistinct pitchy 
hue, and the abdomen is pitchy, and an indistinct pitchy spot is ob- 
servable on the tip of the femora. The head and thorax, as well as 
the elytra, are impunctate, and the latter are furnished with slightly 
elevated ridges. Length 41 lines. 

This insect differs from B. Platensis, in having the head and thorax 
impunctate, the thorax shorter, the femora tipped with pitchy, and 
the elevated striae of the elytra less distinct. From B. crepitans 
(which it greatly resembles) it maybe distinguished by the impunc- 
tate upper surface of the head, thorax, and elytra, the want of black 
on the third and fourth joints of the antennae and the dusky tip to 
the femora ; to which may be added the dull black colour of the 
elytra. For the present it may be called B. Platensis, var. ? 

Sp. 3. Brachinus nigripes. 

B. niger ; pectore, coxis, capite, thoraceque ferrugineis ; antennis 
fuscescentibus, ad basin nigrescentibus ; articulis basalibus fer- 
rugineo pictis ; elytris subcostatis. 

B, crepitante paulo minor. 

Long. 3— 2f lin. ; lat 1^—1^ lin. 

This species is a trifle smaller than B, crepitans, the head and 
thorax are proportionately rather smaller, the elytra shorter and 
broader, and the antennae longer ; the eyes are more prominent, and 
the head is more attenuated behind. 

The head and thorax are red, impunctate ; the latter with rather 
a deep dorsal channel, and two somewhat shallow posterior foveae ; 
palpi black, the extremities of the joints reddish ; antennae with the 

Mr. Waterhouse on Carabideous Insects, 353 

basal joint black, tinted with red at the base, the second, third, and 
fourth joints black, and the following joints pitchy ; legs black, the 
coxee red, and the tarsi pitchy ; chest reddish in the middle, the rest 
of the body beneath, as well as the elytra, black ; the ridges on the 
elytra are well marked, and their interstices are impunctate. 
The collection contains four specimens of this species. 

Genus CnLiENius. 

Sp. 1. Chlanius violaceus. 

C. niger, suprk violaceus ; capite inter oculos punctato ; thorace 
punctato, postic^ paulo angustato, foveis duabus impress^o ; 
elytris profundi striatis, interstitiis subpunctulatis et paul6 

Long. 71 ; lat. 3^. 

This species is very nearly equal in size to the Ch. velutiims of 
Europe, which it also somewhat resembles in form. The eyes are 
a trifle more prominent ; in the form of the thorax as well as in the 
sculpturing these two insects very nearly agree, but the dorsal 
channel is rather more distinct in Ch. violaceus. The elytra in tlie 
present species are smaller in proportion to the head and thorax, 
rather more convex, the strioe are deeper, and the interstices are 
more convex, than in Ch. velutinus : the puncturing in the inter- 
spaces of the striae is moreover rather more distinct, and the punc- 
tures are far less numerous