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Full text of "Annals and magazine of natural history : including zoology, botany and geology"

J, /tri>/U^ 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OP NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(being a continuation of the 'magazine of botany and zoology, and of 

LOUDON and CHARLESWORTH's 'MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

P . J. SELBY, Esq., F.L.S., GEORGE JOHNSTON, M.D., 
CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh, 

AND 

RICHARD TAYL^Ete*Ji.S., F.G.S. 




VOL. VIL— SECOND SERIES. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY RICHARD TAYLOR. 

SOLD BY S. HIGHLEY; SIMPKIN and MARSHALL; SHERWOOD AND CO.; W. WOOD, 

TAVISTOCK STREET ; BAILLlilRE, REGENT STREET, AND PARIS : 

LIZARS, AND MACLACHLAN AND STEWART, EDINBURGH : 

CURRY, DUBLIN : AND A3HER, BERLIN. 

1851. 



" Omnes res creatse sunt divinae sapientiae et potentis testes, divitiae felicitatis 
humanae: — ex harum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; 
ex oecononiia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibirelictis semper sestimata; k vexh eruditis 
et sapientibus semper exculta ; malfi doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit." — 

LlNN^US. 

" Quelque soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'onvrir les yeux pour voir 
qu'elle est le chef-d'oeuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rapportent 
toutes ses operations." — Bkuckner, Theorie du Systime Animal, Leyden, 1767. 

The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smootli face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles. 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818. 



FLAMMAM. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. VII. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



NUMBER XXXVII. 

Vage 

I. Notes on the Diatomacece ; with descriptions of British species 

included in the genera Campylodiscus, Surlrella and Cymatopleura. 
By the Rev. William Smith, F.L.S. (With three Plates.) 1 

II. A Stratigraphical Account of the Section from Round Tower 
Point to Alum Bay, on the North-west Coast of the Isle of Wight. By 
Thomas Wright, M.D 14 

III. Note on the Chemnitzia GulsoncB of Clark. By J. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S 27 

IV. Descriptions of some new species of Exotic Hymenoptera in 
the British Museum and other Collections. By Frederick Smith, 
Assistant in the Zoological Department of the British Museum 28 

V. A few remarks on the Menispermacea. By John Miebs, Esq., 
F.R.S., F.L.S 33 

VI. On some new Silurian Mollusca. By Frederick M'Coy, 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's College, Belfast ... 45 

VII. On two new genera of Mollusca. By Henry and Arthur 
Adams, Esqrs 63 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Edin- 

hurgh 64—74 

Resuscitation of Frozen Fish ; Notice respecting the Moa ; Notice of 

Trilobites; Meteorological Observations and Table 7G — 80 

NUMBER XXXVIII. 

VIII. Notices of three undescribed species of Polysoa. By George 
Busk, F.R.S. (With two Plates.) 81 

IX. Remarks on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera. By Wil- 
liam Thomson, King's College, London. (With a Plate.) 86 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

X. Notices of British Fungi. By the R«v. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., 
F.L.S., and C. E. Broome, Esq. (With three Plates.) 95 

XI. Descriptions of five new species of Heliic from the Cape of Good 
Hope, with remarks on the known South African species, and a notice 

of several Cape Limaces. By W. H. Benson, Esq 10^^ 

. Xll. On the Muricidce. By William Clark, Esq 108 

XIII. Descriptions of some new p;enera and species of Spatangida 
in the British Museum. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., P.B.S. &c. ... 130 

New Books —The Dynamical Theory of the Earth, by Archibald 

Tucker Ritchie l^"* 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Societji of Edin- 

biu-gh 138— 15G 

Thalassema Neptuni ; Victoria Regia ; List of Spiders captured by 
F. Walker, Esq. ; On the Circulation and Digestion in the lower 
Animals, by Prof. Agassiz; Meteorological Observations and 
Table 156-lfiO 



NUMBER XXXIX. 

XIV. Note on some Bones and Eggs found at Madagascar, in recent 
Alluvia, belonging to a gigantic Bird. By M. Isidore Geoffroy- 
Saint-Hilaire 161 

XV. Descriptions of some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. By 
Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Geology and Miueralogy in Queen's 
College, Belfast 167 

XVI. Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
M.A., F.L.S., and C. E. Broome, Esq. (With three Plates.) 176 

XVII. On Dr. Nardo's Classification of the Spongite, and further 
notices of the Spongilla fiuviatilis. By John Hogg, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. &c 190 

XVIII. On the genus Je^7-ey«a. By Joshua Alder, Esq 193 

XIX. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
MiERS, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 196 

XX. Descriptions of some new sj)ecies of Exotic Homopterous In- 
sects. By J. O. Wkstwood, F.L.S. &c 207 

XXI. Notes on Chalcidites, and descriptions of various new species. 

By Francis Walker, F.L.S 210 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
New Books .■ — An latioduction to Conchology, or Elements of the 
Natural History of Molluscous Animals, by George Johnston, 
M.D., LL.D 217 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Royal Institution 218 — 235 

Larus tridactylus ; Descriptions of new Entophyta growing within 
Animals, by Joseph Leidy, M.D. ; On Fossil Rain Drops ; On the 
Occurrence of Crystalline Bodies in Animal Tissues ; Meteorolo- 
gical Observations and Table 235—240 



NUMBER XL. 

XXII. On the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi, a genus of 
terrestrial MoUusca, and on the modification of theu- Shell to the local 
physical conditions in which the species occur. By Lovell Reeve, 
F.L.S. &c. (With a Map.) 241 

XXIII. A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, (Economy, and Systematic Arrangement. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 256 

XXIV. Descriptions of new Land Shells from St. Helena, Ceylon, 
and China. By W. H. Benson, Esq 262 

XXV. On the Composition of the Ash of Armeria maritima, grow- 
ing in different localities, with remarks on the geographical distribution 
of that Plant, and on the presence of Fluorine in Plants. By Dr. A. 
VoELCKER, Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Agricultural College, 
Cirencester 266 

XXVI. Notices of Australian Fish. By Sir John Richardson, 
M.D., F.R.S 273 

XXVII. On the Chemnitzia opalina and C. diapkana. By William 
Clark, Esq 292 

XXVIII. Notes on Crustacea. By C. Spence Bate. (With a 
Plate.) 297 

XXIX. On Lastrea uliginosa, 'Nevim. By Thomas Moore, Esq., 
F.L.S., Chelsea Botanic Garden 3q1 

XXX. Zoological Notes and Obsei-vations made on board H.M.S. 
Rattlesnake during the years 1846-50. — On the Auditory Organs in 
the Crustacea. By Thomas H. Huxley, Assistant Surgeon R.N. 
(With a Plate.) 304 

XXXI. Contributions to the Palaeontology of Gloucestershire : — On 
the Strombida of the Oolites. By Thomas Wright, M.D. With 
the description of a new and remarkable P/eroceras. By John Ly- 
cett, Esq. (With a Plate.) ^Of; 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

XXXI I. Notes on the British species of Curculionida belonging to 
the genera Dorytomus and Elleschm. By John Walton, F.L.S. ... 310 

XXXIII. On a new genus and several new species of British Crus- 
tacea. By C. Si'KNCE Bate. (With a Plate.) 318 

New Books .■ — Observations in Natural History, by the Rev. Leonard 

Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S. &c 321 

Proceedings of the Linnaean Society; Zoological Society; Botanical 

Society of Edinburgh 323 — 346 

Athanas nitescens, by William Thompson ; Description of a new spe- 
cies of Mole {Talpa leucura, Blyth), by Ed. Blyth, Esq. ; On the 
Analogy between the mode of Reproduction in Plants and the 
"Alternation of Generations" observed in some Radiata, by 
James D. Dana ; Note on Callichthys and Anableps, by J. P. G. 
Smith, Esq. ; Botanical Travellers ; Meteorological Observations 
and Table 346—352 



NUMBER XLI. 

XXXIV. Contributions to the Natural History of the Shark. By 
Richard Hill, Corr. Mem. Zool. Soc. Lond., and M.C. Roy. Agr. 
Soc. Jam 363 

XXXV. Zoological Notes and Observations made on board H.M.S. 
Rattlesnake during the years 1846-50. — On the Anatomy of the genus 
Tethija. By Thomas H. Huxley, Assistant Smgeon R.N. (With 

a Plate.) 370 

XXXVI. On a supposed new species of Rubus. By Fenton J. 

A. HoRT, B.A 374 

XXXVII. Characters of Tomichia, a new palustriue testaceous Mol- 
lusk from Southern Africa, heretofore referred to the genus Truncatella. 

By W. H. Benson, Esq 377 

XXXVIII. On the Chemnitsite. By William Clark, Esq 380 

XXXIX. On some new Protozoic Annulata. By Frederick 
M'CoY, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's College, 
Belfast 394 

XL. A Catalogue of British Spiders, incluiUng remarks on their 
Structure, Functions, CEconomy, and Systematic Arrangement. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 396 

XLI. On the Progress of Natural History in Ceylon : in a Letter 
from Edg.\r L. Layard, Esq., to R. TEMrLETON, Esq 402 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 
New Books : — The Geological Observer, by Sir H. T. De la Beche, 
C.B., F.R.S. &e., Director-General of the Geological Survey of 
the United Kingdom 409 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Linnsean Society; Botanical 

Society of Edinburgh 412—426 

An account of three new species of Animalcules, by Joshua Alder, Esq. ; 
Note on the Bird-devoui*ing habit of a species of Spider, by Capt. 
W. S. Sherwill ; On the Conjugation of Diplozoon paradoxum, by 
Prof. Th. von Siebold ; On a Leech new to the British Fauna, 
by J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. ; Government Manufacture and Pub- 
lication of School-books and Elementary Works of Science ; Cen- 
trolophus pompilus or Black-fish ; Description of a new Crusta- 
cean, by W. Baird, M.D., F.L.S. &c. ; Meteorological Observa- 
tions and Table 426—432 



NUMBER XLII. 

XLII. A Stratigi'aphical Account of the Section of Hordwell, 
Beacon, and Barton Clifi's, on the coast of Hampshire. By Thomas 
Wright, M.D. &c 433 

XLIII. A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on their 
Structm-e, Functions, (Economy and Systematic Arrangement. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S 446 

XLFV. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
MiERS, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 452 

XLV. On the distinctive characters of Jeffreysia and Chemnitzia. 
By Joshua Alder, Esq 460 

XL VI. On Chemnitzia and other MoUusca, in answer to Mr. Clark. 
By J. GwYN Jeffreys. (With a Plate.) 465 

XLVIL On the Classification of the British Marine Testaceous 
MoUusca. By William Clark, Esq 469 

XLVIII. On the Tetrasporic Fruit of the genus Stenogramme. In 
a letter from Dr. C. Montagne to the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., 
F.L.S 481 

XLIX. On some British species of Chemnitzia. By George Bar- 
lee, Esq 482 

New Books: — A Geological Inquiry respecting the Water-bearing 
Strata of the country around London, with reference especially to 
the Water-Supply of the MetropoUs, by J. Prestwich, Jun., F.G.S. 
— Drops of Water : their marvellous and beautiful Inhabitants 
displayed by the Microscope, by Agnes Catlow 486 — 488 



Vm CONTENTS, 

Page 
Proceedings of the Linnsean Society; Zoological Society; Botanical 

Society of Edinburgh '. 488—500 

Gonoplax angulata ; The Kestril in pursuit of prey ; Additions to the 
Fauna of Ireland, by William Thomjjson, Esq., of Belfast ; Bo- 
tanical Information ; Visit to the Cave of the Edible Bird's 
Nest, bv Edgar Layard, Esq. ; Meteorological Observations and 
Table..". 500—506 

Index 507 



i 



PLATES IN VOL. VII. 

Plate I. "1 

II. y British Diatomacese. 

m.J 

IV. Dentition of British Pulmonifera. 

V.-| 

VI. } British Fungi. 
VII. J 

jY (-New species of Polyzoa. 

X. Development of the Shell of Crabs ; — Pagurus Dillwynii ; — 

Amphitoe Moggridgii. 
XI. Bellia arenaria ; — Portunus Dalyellii. 
XII. Map of the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 

XIII. Pteroceras Wrightii. 

XIV. Auditory Organs of Crustacea ; Anatomy of Tethya. 
XV. British Chemnitziae. 



ERRATUM. 
Pages 211 & 212, for Chceiostricha read ChtBtosticha. 



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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



" perlitora spargite museum, 

Naiades, et circdm vitreos considite foutes : 
PoUice virgineo teneros h\c carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, divae, replete canistrum. 
At vos, Nymphs Craterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, Dese pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N. Partheiiii Giannettasit Eel. 1. 



No. 37. JANUARY 1851. 



I. — Notes on the Diatomacefe ; with descriptions of British species 
included in the genera Campylodiscus, Surirella and Cymato- 
pleura. By the Rev. William Smith, F.L.S. 

[With three Plates.] 

Having devoted some attention to the examination of our 
native Diatomacea, I have thought it might interest others engaged 
in similar inquiries, if I made a record in the pages of the 'Annals' 
of the species which have fallen under my notice, many of which 
have not hitherto been described as British, nor been included 
in any foreign work which I have had the opportunity of con- 
sulting. 

A complete monograph of the family similar in extent and ex- 
ecution to the admirable volume on the ' British Desmidiese ' is 
much required, and it is to be hoped that his late sojourn on the 
continent may have so far recruited the feeble health of Mr. Ralfs, 
as to enable him at no distant day to undertake a work for which 
he is so eminently qualified. In the mean time the following 
notices may be acceptable, and serve to direct increased attention 
to a class of objects which have hitherto received from the 
English naturalist a much less careful examination than their 
beauty and variety would seem to challenge from the amateur, 

Jnn. ^- Ma^. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. y 1 



2 The llev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 

and the important questions involved in their nature and func- 
tions demand from the physiologist. 

Without attempting authoritatively to deterniine these ques- 
tions, 1 shall accompany the descriptions I shall give with such 
notes on the structure, mode of growth, and general physiology 
of these minute oi-ganisms, as have been suggested by the re- 
peated and careful examinations to which I have submitted them, 
and may seem to have a bearing on the discussions respecting 
their nature, as belonging to the animal or vegetable kingdoms. 

This latter point is still a subject of controversy with the most 
distinguished writers upon the subject, and it is therefore im- 
portant that the facts noted by independent observers should be 
carefully recorded, as it is only from the study and comparison 
of these facts that a theoiy can be established which shall meet 
the varied conditions in the life of these singular and beautiful 
structures, and secure the general assent of naturalists familiar 
with their forms. 

The discoveries of Mr. Thwaites respecting the conjugation of 
the Diatomacece, as recorded in the ' Annals of Natural History ' 
(vol. XX. pp. 9 & 343, also Second Series, vol. i. p. 16), seem to 
place the vegetable nature of these forms almost beyond a doubt. 
The process detailed and figured by Mr. Thwaites is perfectly 
analogous to the formation of the sporangium in the Desmidiece 
and many of the filamentous Algae, and may be considered as 
essentially the same as that which takes place in the higher 
ti'ibes of plants, the contents of the pollen-tube conjugating with 
the contents of the ovule to form the embryo of the future seed. 

It is of importance that the facts noticed by ]\Ir. Thwaites 
should be shown to be of general occurrence, and that their 
existence be borne out by the concurrent experience of other 
observers. I have great pleasure in confirming nearly all the 
instances of conjugation in the Diatomacece mentioned by my 
acute friend, and shall have the opportunity in the course of these 
papers of recording several additional cases of the same process. 

It is well known to the student of the Diatomaceee, that in- 
crease by fissiparous or self-division is uaiversal in the tribe. 
This mode of growth — for such a method of increase is strictly 
an extension of the individual and not a reproduction of the spe- 
cies — has also an important bearing on the question of the ani- 
mal or vegetable nature of these organisms. 

It seems to be a law of vegetable growth, that all increase in 
the plant, from the multiplication of the separated cells of the 
PalmellecE and Desmidiece, through the cells of the filamentous 
Algse adherent only at their exti'emities, to the complex cellular 
and vascular tissues of the higher tribes, shall take place by a 
method analogous to fissiparous division, that is, shall com- 



The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomaceae. 3 

mence at a single parent cell, and go on by successive self-divi- 
sion of the cells formed from it. The invariable occm-rence of 
this mode of growth in a tribe so extensive as the Diatomacece 
and embracing forms so varied, is surely a presumptive proof 
that these organisms belong rather to the vegetable than the 
animal kingdom. 

The process of fissiparous or self-division in the Diatomacece 
is far more frequently to be seen than that of conjugation, and 
may indeed be detected on almost every occasion that these 
forms present themselves to our notice. Besides its bearing 
upon the question above alluded to, a clear understanding of this 
process is important as making us in some degree acquainted 
with the internal structure of the Diatomaceous frustule, and 
supplying an easy mode of distinguishing its diflfei-ent portions 
and aspects. I shall therefore give a concise description of the 
process of self-division, as it has appeared to me to take place in 
every instance which has fallen under my notice. This descrip- 
tion will in some respects differ from that given by other ob- 
servers, and involve views of the structure of these organisms not 
hitherto maintained ; it is therefore right that I should state that 
its authority rests solely on personal observation. 

A Diatomaceous frustule consists of a cell, the membrane of 
whose wall possesses the vital power of secreting an external coat- 
ing of silex ; this silex being deposited in two plates or valves, of 
varied form in the different species, and decorated with the most 
beautiful and diversified sculpturing, produced by the arrange- 
ment and relative position of series of lines, dots, depressions, 
furrows or ribs. 

In stating that the siliceous valves are deposited exterior to 
a cell-membrane, I am at variance with the opinion held by most 
wiiters upon the subject, the general idea being, that the silex of 
the Diatomacece exists in intimate union with the membrane of 
the cell, whose wall is believed to consist of " cellulose penetrated 
with silica." Such is the view advocated by Meneghini in his 
treatise ' Sulla Animalita della Diatomee,' p. 20, a translation of 
which has been kindly furnished to me by Chr. Johnson, Esq., 
of Lancaster. In the same passage Meneghini alludes to the 
views of Nageli, who, he alleges, contends that the silex is depo- 
sited exterior to an organic membrane. I have no means of 
ascertaining on what grounds Nageli rests his opinion, which 
seems to coincide with the view I have adopted ; but I am able 
to supply one important fact in its support, having in my pos- 
session numerous specimens of a Stauroneis (probably the S. as- 
pera, Kiitz.), in which the valves, after a slight maceration of the 
frustules in acid, have in part or wholly become detached from 
the cell -membrane, leaving a scar on its walls bearing the distinct 

1* 



4 The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 

impression of the numerous and prominent valvular markings of 
this beautiful species. 

But to proceed with the process of self-division. At first the 
siliceous valves are in close contact at their suture, as may 
be seen in PI. II. fig. 1 h, and PI. III. fig. 3 c, but their adhei'ence 
is speedily disturbed by the dividing process which these minute 
organisms are constantly undergoing. The first step in this 
process is the gradual separation of the valves, an effect ap- 
parently produced by the expansion of the internal membrane. 
Pari passu with the retrocession of the valves, the cell- wall 
exposed between their edges is being covered with a deposit of 
silex, and the frustule now consists of two symmetrical valves, 
united by a plate of silex (PI. II. fig. 1 o), which either forms a 
continuous ring (PL II. fig. 1/) or consists of two portions united 
at the extremities of the valves. This plate with the underlying 
cell-wall, may for the sake of distinctness and future reference 
be termed the connecting membrane. 

When the connecting membrane has been formed of sufficient 
width, the original cell, probably by the doubling in of its wall, 
becomes divided into two, and immediately seci'etes, at the line 
of division, two new siliceous valves, symmetrical with and closely 
applied by theii* edges to the original halves, and thus the self- 
division is complete, and two perfect frustules have been the 
result (PI. II. fig. 1 h, & PI. III. fig. 2 c). 

In some cases, by the new or rather semi-new frustules imme- 
diately proceeding to repeat the process, the connecting mem- 
brane is thrown ofi" and disappears ; in others it remains for some 
time linking the frustules in pairs, as in Melosira and Odontella ; 
and sometimes it is only partially torn away or absorbed, and 
unites the frustules successively formed in a zigzag chain by por- 
tions remaining attached to their angles, examples of which we 
find in Diatoma and Isthmia, &c. 

Late wi'iters have found in the process of self-division circum- 
stances to fix the terminology applied to the Diatomaceous frus- 
tule, and use the words " primaiy sides " when speaking of 
those portions where the interposition of the new half-frustules 
occui's ; the term " secondaiy sides " being applied to the ge- 
neral surfaces of the valves : others employ the words " front " 
and " lateral view " in corresponding senses. I shall adopt the 
latter tenns, as more generally applicable ; the " primaiy side," 
as employed by the writers alluded to, frequently including 
portions of the frustule which belong to the secondaiy sm*- 
faces, brought into view by the convexity of the valves. In 
truth, it is difiicult to fix upon terms always applicable to 
foi-ms so varied ; T tnist however ambiguity will be avoided by 
my adopting in the following descriptions the language hitherto 



The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 5 

employed by Mr. Ralfs and other English writers, and using the 
term " front \iew " to denote the aspect of the frustule when the 
connecting membrane and valvular suture are turned towards the 
observer, the words " lateral " or " side view " being employed 
when the general surface of one of the valves is directed to the eye. 

I. have employed in my investigations a microscope constructed 
by Messrs. Smith and Beck, with a ;^-inch object-glass, and eye- 
piece, giving together a power of 400 diameters. In some cases I 
have availed myself of an excellent ^th object-glass manufactured 
by Mr. A. Ross, giving with the above eye-piece a power of 
880 diameters ; and I have latterly employed Wenham's Parabolic 
Reflector, a new and ingenious instrument for seeming a very 
oblique illumination of the object, supplied by Messrs. Smith and 
Beck, and which has revealed markings and aided in the deter- 
mination of forms respecting which I should otherwise have felt 
a doubt ; but when I have employed either of the latter means of 
investigation I have not failed to mention the fact, and the de- 
scriptions are otherAvise to be regarded as depending upon a 
power of 400 diameters, the figures given being all drawn to this 
scale. 

The frustules examined have been prepared either by exposure 
to a strong heat on talc, or by maceration in nitric acid. It is 
only after such preparation that the form and markings of the 
siliceous valves can be accurately determined, or the frustules 
satisfactoi'ily mounted in Canada balsam for permanent observa- 
tion. I have however noted by the letters v. v. appended to the 
specific descriptions, the circumstance of my having examined 
the frustules in a living state, and by v. s. when I have seen 
only the desiccated or prepared valves. 

The fii'st genus, the British species of which I proceed to de- 
scribe, may be defined as follows : — 

Campylodiscus, Ehr. 

Valves equidistant (not concave). Frustules free, solitary, or 
when undergoing self-division, in pairs, disciform, saddle- 
shaped. 

The species included under this genus may all be recognized 
by the characteristic bend or contortion of their surfaces, which 
gives to the frustule under certain aspects the semblance of a 
miniature saddle. Kiitzing has indeed removed from Campylo- 
discus and placed in Surirella, several species possessing this cha- 
racter, apparently for no other reasons than that the striae or costae 
are confined to the margins of the valves and are parallel, not 
radiate. When we consider that the strise are often exceedingly 
difiicult of detection, and that their direction merely cannot be 



6 The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 

regarded as necessarily implying an important difference in in- 
ternal structure, the circumstances alluded to do not seem a 
sufficient ground of exclusion, and it would perhaps be as well to 
allow Campylodiscwi to include all those species with equidistant 
valves to which its veiy significant name can with propriety be 
applied. • 

Campylodiscus costatus, mihi. Valves orbicular, costse distinct, 
radiate, about 44, centre of the disc smooth or minutely punc- 
tate. Average diameter of valve -^j-^ of an inch {v. v.). 

A freshwater species. Living : river Froome near Dorchester, 
]\Iay 28, 1849. Bramley springnear Guildford, J. R. Capron, Esq. ! 
Fossil, in deposit from Lough Mourne, co. Antrim, Ireland, described 
in 'Ann. Nat. Hist.' for February 18.50. In deposit at Peterhead, 
Aberdeenshire, described by Dr. Dickie in 'Ann. Nat. Hist.' for 
August 1848 ! 

This species approaches C. radiosus, Ehr., figured by Kiitzing 
in his "^ Bacillarien,' tab. 28. fig. 12, but differs from it in the 
number of its costse, which in C. radiosus reach seventy. The 
costse in the latter are also, according to Kiitzing's figure, much 
shorter than in the present species. 

In my paper on the Lough Moui-ne deposit I have named this 
species C. noricus, Ehr., and it may possibly be identical with 
that species ; but in the absence of any figure I am unwilling to 
decide positively, and shall on this and other occasions prefer 
giving a new specific name rather than run the risk of creating 
confusion by trusting to a verbal description merely. 

Plate I. fig. 1 a. C. costatus with the disc of valve turned towards the 
eye ; b, view showing the edge of frustule and connecting membrane. 

Campylodiscus spiralis, mihi. Valves elliptical. Frustule twisted 
so as to present a spiral outline ; costse distinct, about sixty, 
parallel or slightly radiate ; centre of the disc smooth or mi- 
nutely punctate. Average length of valve ^fo ^^ ^^ inch, 
average breadth of ditto ^^^ {v. v.). 

SurireUa S2nralis, Kiitz. ? Bacill. p. 60. tab. 3. fig. 64 ; Species Al- 
garum, p. 34. 

In a spring near Bramley, Guildford, mixed with Navicula attenuata 
and other Diatomacese, J. R. Capron, Esq. ! 

This beautiful species so closely resembles the figure of Suri- 
reUa spiralis given by Kiitzing, that I have ventured to adopt 
his specific name. The frustule ordinarily presents an outline 
exactly resembling the figure 8 with flattened ends ; this arises 
from the twist or contortion of the valves being so considerable 
that the edge of the frustule is found on the widest part, and is 



The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 7 

therefore by gravity directed towards the surface of the glass and 
the eye of the observer. When the connection of the parts is 
dissolved by an acid, a single valve may often be detected with 
its disc uppermost, when the character of the cost^ and the 
smooth portion in the centre of the valve may be readily de- 
tected. I am indebted to the discoverer of this species m this 
country for numerous specimens gathered by him m l«4a, ana 
again in 1850. 
Plate I. fig. 2 a. C. spiralis in its ordinary position; b, a detached valve. 

CampyMiscus cribrosus, mihi. Valves orbicular; disc marked 

^vith radiating lines of minute perforations, crowded towards 

the margin. Average diameter of valve ^io ^^ ^n inch {v. v.). 

In brackish water, shores of Poole Bay, 1848. 

This is probably identical with C. Echeneis, Ehr., but I am 

without a figure to assist in its identification ; and the words of 

the 'Species Alganim,' " disco medio Isevi sohdo," do not apply to 

the present species, the perforations in ours extending over the 

entire surface, though more distant and somewhat scattered in 

the middle. 

Plate I. fig. 3. C. cribrosus : a, surface of valve ; b, view showing con- 
necting membrane. 
Campylodiscus parmlus, mihi. Valves orbicular; disc traversed 
by two parallel ridges ; strise about twelve, nearly parallel. 
Average diameter j^q of an inch {v. v.). 
Poole Bay, 1848. 

This species is readily distinguished by its minute size and 
the ridges on its valves, which are very prominent in certain 
positions of the frustule. It does not appear to have been noticed 
either by Kiitzing or Ehrenberg. 

Plate I. fig. 4. C.parvulus: a, disc of valve; b, view presenting the 
connecting membrane and valvular ridges. 

SURIRELLA, Turp. 

Valves concave, with a longitudinal central line and margins 
produced beyond the suture (winged). Erustules free, solitary, 
or when undergoing self- division, in pairs. 
The concavity of the valves, their winged margins, and the 
longitudinal central line, which wants the central depression so 
conspicuous in the Naviculece, are characters which sufficiently 
distinguish Surirella from all other genera. I believe a careiul 
examination of the lories, when deprived of their coloured con- 
tents, would detect the presence of al« in all the species. 1 
have certainly recognized them in six, viz. S. hismata splen- 
dida, striahda, gemma, fastuosa and a'attcula, and 1 thmk there 



8 The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 

are indications in the front view of the other three species I 
have figured to warrant the conclusion that these valvular ap- 
pendages are more or less perfectly developed in their cases, 
though the minuteness of their frustules prevents their certain 
recognition. It is only on an end view of the valve that the alee 
can be clearly seen ; this is not often obtained ; but I have several 
specimens of S. hisei'iata mounted in balsam showing the end 
view as figured in PI. II. fig. 1 d, where these remarkable pro- 
longations of the valves are singiilarly conspicuous. The section 
given in same plate, fig. 1 e, shows that the position of the wings 
is such, that they cannot be detected on a lateral view, as they 
stand up nearly at right angles to the plane of the valve. 

The costje so conspicuous in several species, as well as in Cam- 
jiylodiscus costaius and sjnralis, appear to be caused by canals or 
tubes passing between the siliceous valves and the inner mem- 
brane of the cell ; these canals communicate with the exterior by 
a series of perforations (PI. II. fig. 1^) along the suture or line 
where the connecting membrane unites with the valves. Accept- 
ing the Diatom as a vegetable organism, these tubes will be re- 
garded as analogous to the intercellular passages, and the exterior 
])erforations will perform the office of the stomates of the leaf. 
In S. biseriata and splendida the costse or undulations caused by 
these tubes are continued to the margins of the alje, and give a 
singularly beautiful appearance to the front view of the frustule, 
as seen in PL II. fig. 1 6 & fig. 3 b. 

Surirella biseriata, De Breb. Frustule on fi-ont view linear ob- 
long, extremities rounded ; on side view elliptico-lanceolate, 
extremities acute ; alse large, costse conspicuous. Average 
length of valve y j^ of an inch, greatest breadth of ditto ^^^ of 
an inch {v. v.). 

Naricula hifrons, Ehr. Infus. 1838. Surirella hifrons, Ehr. 1843; 
Kiitz. Bacill. p. 61. tab. 7. %. 10, tab. 28. fig. 29; Phy. Ger. 
p. 71. Surirella biseriata, De Breb. Alg. Falaise, 1835 ; Hassall, 
Brit. Freshwater Algse, p. 438. pi. 102. fig. 1 ; Kutz. Sp. Alg. p. 37. 

Freshwater. Living: Wareham, 1847. Lewes, 1850. Fossil: 
Lough Mourne deposit, described in 'Ann. Nat. Hist.' Feb. 1850. 
Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, described by Br. Dickie, ' Ann. Nat. Hist.' 
August 1848 ! In earth from Dolgelly, N.W., sent me by Chr. John- 
son, Esq. ! 

This species is frequently to be met with in ditches and ponds 
mixed with Oscillatoriea, &c. ; when occurring alone it forms 
a brown stratum at the bottom of boggy pools. It is one of 
the most beautiful of the Diatomacea. Its elaborate form 
would seem to imply a structure more complex than that of a 
single cell, yet its mode of self-division is })erfectly similar to 
that of the simplest of the tribe. In living specimens I have 



The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 9 

also noticed a cii'culation of the granular contents analogous to 
that which is seen in many of the Desmidiece, and in the cells of 
the higher orders of water-plants, a further proof that it is a 
single cell, and a presumptive evidence of its vegetable nature. 
With the aid of the parabolic reflector^ faint strise may be de- 
tected on the surface of the valves. 

Plate II. fig. 1. S. biseriata: a, side view of frustule; b, front view of 
ditto ; c, connecting membrane ; d, end view of frustule a ; e, transverse 
section of empty frustule ; /, silex of connecting membrane after mace- 
ration in acid ; g, apertures of costal canals seen in front ; h, view of the 
ftustules on the completion of self-division. 

Surirella splendida, Kiitz. Frustule on front view oblong-ovate 
with rounded ends ; side view ovate, with one end rounded and 
the other somewhat acute ; alse large, costse distinct. Average 
length of valve y^^ of an inch, greatest breadth of ditto ^^^ 
of an inch {v. v.). 

Navicula splendida, Ehr. Infus. tab. 14. fig. 1. Surirella splendida, 
Kutz. Bacill. p. 62. tab. 7. fig. 9 ; Phy. Ger. p. 72 ; Sp. Alg. p. 39. 
Freshwater. Living. " Brooks " near Lewes ; Ashdown Forest, 

Sussex. Fossil : Lough Mourne deposit, very abundant ; Dolgelly 

earth, plentiful. 

Neai'ly the same in size as S. biseriata, but easily distinguished 
from that species by its ovate form both on the front and lateral 
view. The specimens from the Lough Mourne and Dolgelly 
deposits are so much larger that they might be taken for a dif- 
ferent species, but intermediate forms are so often found, that I 
conclude the larger frustules are merely older and more developed 
examples ; it is remarkable that in many of these latter the costal 
canals do not appear to reach the central line. 

Plate II. fig. 2. S. splendida : a. lateral view of frustule ; b, front view of 
ditto ; fig. 3. valve from Lough Momne deposit*. 

* Since this article has been in the printers' hands^ I have met with the 
following species which appears to be undescribed : — 

Surirella constricta, mihi. Frustule on front view oblong with rounded 
ends; outline on side view elliptico-lanceolate, each margin having a 
central sinus ; alae distinct ; costae numerous, delicate ; medial fine inflated 
in the centre. Average length of valve ^^ of an inch, breadth at con- 
striction about f ^(f of an inch {v. v.). 

In brackish water neai* Lewes, 1850. 

The front view of this species bears a close resemblance to the same 
aspect in S. biseriata, differing only in the appearance of the costse, which 
in the present assume the character of stria: rather than ribs. On the side 
view the constriction of the margins, the inflation of the central furrow, and 
line-hke appearance of the costae, afibrd sufficiently distinctive characters. 
The supei-ficial obsei-ver, regarding the side view only, might indeed con- 
found this species with immature specimens of Cymatopleura solea, but a 
slight examination shows that the resemblance is one of outhne merely. 



10 The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 

Swirella striutula, Turp. Frustule on front view wedge-shaped 
with rounded extremities ; side view broadly ovate ; alte small ; 
costEe few, about fourteen, conspicuous. Average length of 
valve giy of an inch, greatest breadth of ditto ^^^ of an inch 

{v. v.). 

Navicula striatula, Ehr. Infus. tab. 21. fig. 15. Sitrirella striatula, 
Kiitz. Bacill. p. 62. tab. 7. fig. 6 ; Phy. Ger. p. 72 ; Sp. Alg. p. 39. 
In the sea or brackish ditches. Poole Bay, 1848 ; near Pevensey, 

Sussex ; near Hull, Mr. R. Harrison ! Rye, Mr. Jenner ! 

I have not been able to insert a front view of this species 
without excluding from the plate other more important figures ; 
this aspect of the present species however presents no feature of 
importance, and the lateral view is sufficient to distinguish it 
from our other native forms. 

Plate III. fig. 1. S. striatula, lateral aspect of the valve. 

Surirella craticula, Ehr. Frustule on front view oblong with 
centre slightly inflated ; side view lanceolate with acute ends ; 
alse large ; costse few, distinct, divergent. Average length of 
valve 2^0 ^^ *^ inch, greatest breadth of ditto -^j^ of an inch 
{v. s.). 

Kiitz. Bacill. p. 61 . tab. 28. fig. 22 ; Phy. Ger. p. 71; Sp. Alg. p. 35. 

Freshwater. Bramley near Guildford, J. R. Capron, Esq. ! In a 
slide labelled " River Bann, Ireland," sent me by Mr. Cocken ! 

Approaches S. biseriata in its lateral aspect, and the regular 
development of its connecting membrane, but well distinguished 
fi'om that species by its smaller size, fewer costse, about twenty 
on each side of the central line, and by the absence of these from 
the middle part of the valve. The divergence of the costse is also 
a peculiarity not found in the former species. 

Plate III. fig. 4. /S. craticula : a, front view of the frustule ; h, side view 
of ditto. 

Surirella fastuosa, Ehr. Frustule on front view slightly wedge- 
shaped with rounded ends ; side view ovate ; al?e small ; costse 
few, apertures of the costal tubes large ; medial line inflated 
in the centre. Average length of valve ^^^ of an inch, greatest 
breadth of ditto gi^ of an inch {v. v.). 

Kiitz. Bacill. p. 62. tab. 28. fig. 19 ; Sp. Alg. p. 38. 
Poole Bay, 1848. Coast of Sussex, 1850. 
The large round openings of the costal canals, and the smooth 

central portion of the valve, give to this little species a peculiar 

and beautiful appearance. The valves are deeply concave. 

Plate III. fig. 3. S.fastuosa : a, lateral view of the frustule ; b, front view 
of ditto. 



The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 11 

Surirella gemma, Ehr. Frustule on front view wedge-shaped 
with rounded ends ; side view ovato-elliptical ; alse large ; costse 
small, unequally distant ; surface of valve distinctly striated. 
Average length of valve g^^ of an inch, greatest breadth of 
ditto ^^0 of an inch {v. v.). 

Kiitz. Bacill. p. 62. tab. 7. fig. 9 ; Phy. Ger. p. 72 ; Sp. Alg. p. 38. 

Common on the mud of tidal harbours, &c. Poole Bay, 1847. 
Belfast Bay, 1849. Shoreham, Seaford, and other places on the 
Sussex coast, 1850. ^ye,Mr.Jenner\ Shirehampton, near Bristol, 
Mr. Thwaites ! Hull, Mr. R. Harrison ! 

The costse, which in this species assume the appearance of 
lines, at once distinguish it from those preceding ; the greater size 
of the frustule, the irregular disposition of the costse, and their 
reaching to the central line, separate it from those which follow. 
The striae may be made out without difficulty on the dry valve 
after bvirning or maceration in acid : with the parabolic reflector 
they are very conspicuous, and add much to the beauty of the 
object. 

It was in connection with this species that Ehrenberg records 
the presence of cilia, extending from the apertures of the costse, 
vibrating with rapidity and being extended or retracted at inter- 
vals ! The presence of delicate hairs, apparently on all parts of 
the frustule, may often be detected, and I have noticed them on 
nearly every occasion when I have gathered this species, but in 
no case have I been able to perceive any motion in such hairs, 
and concluded, before meeting with Ehrenberg's remark, that 
they were merely a parasitic growth, the mycelium of some other 
Algae. I have noticed similar appendages to other Diatomacecp, 
but in every case devoid of motion. 

Plate III. fig. 2. S. gemma : a, front view of the frustule ; b, side view 
of ditto ; c, frustules in which self-division is just completed. 

Surirella ovalis, DeBreb. Frustule on front view oblong, some- 
what cuneate, with truncated extremities ; side view ovate, 
slightly attenuated at the ends ; alae obsolete or very minute ; 
costse only visible at the margin of the valves. Average length 
of valve g ^y of an inch, greatest breadth of ditto y gVo ^^ ^^^ 
inch {v. v.). 

Kutz. Bacill. p. 64. tab. 30. fig. 64 ; Sp. Alg. p. 38. 

A freshwater species. 'Nea.rBnstol,G. K. Thwaites, Esq. \ "Brooks" 
near Lewes, 1850. 

Surirella minuta, De Breb. Frustule on fi'ont view wedge-shaped 
on side view elliptical or slightly ovate, with ends more or less 



12 The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 

rounded ; costse marginal. Average length of valve xroo ^^ 
an inch, greatest breadth of ditto 2 j^o of an inch {v. v.). 
S. ovata, Kiitz. Bacill. p. 62. tab, 7. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

In streams. Near Corfe Castle, Dec. 1849. Lewes, 1850. 

Swirella salina, mihi. Frustule on front view wedge-shaped, on 
side view ovate ; the larger end rounded and the smaller more 
or less pointed ; costse marginal. Average length of valve ^^q 
of an inch, greatest breadth of ditto -yt^-qq of an inch [v. v.). 
In salt-water ditches. Poole Bay, 1847. 

The three preceding species are closely allied, and have little 
to distinguish them except their size and habitats. The first two 
are found in fresh water, and of these S. ovalis is much the 
larger, has the extremities of the valves less distinctly rounded, 
and presents a stouter and more oblong aspect on the front view. 
The last, S. salina, is a salt-water species, in form closely resem- 
bling S. minuta, but usually larger, more distinctly ovate, and 
with the smaller extremity of the valve in most of the frustules 
somewhat attenuated. 

Plate III. fig. 5. Front and lateral view of S. minuta ; fig. 6. front and 
lateral view of S. salina ; fig. 7. front and lateral view of S. ovalis. 

Cymatopleura (nov. gen.), mihi. 

Valves undulated, margins not produced into alse. Frustules free, 
solitary, or when undergoing self- division, in pairs. 

I find it impossible to refer the species I am about to describe 
to Surirella, with which genus the two first have been united by 
Kiitzing and others. The undulated surface of the valves seems 
to indicate a peculiarity of structure sufficient to constitute a 
generic difiierence, and the absence of alge and costse implies a 
further diversity in the internal character which cannot be re- 
garded as unimportant. I should have been glad to have adopted 
Mr. Hassall's genus " Sphinctocystis," but as this term refers 
merely to a peculiarity in the external form of one of the species, 
I am obliged to reject it also. 

Cymatopleura solea, mihi. Frustule on front view oblong, linear ; 
side view fiddle-shaped, symmetrically divided by a central 
sinus on each margin ; surface of the valve with about six un- 
dulations, striated, with a smooth central line. Length of 
valve from ji^ to yi^ of an inch, breadth of valve in older 
specimens about y^^th of the length [v. v). 

Navicula librilis, Ehr. Surirella solea, Kiitz. Bacill. p. 60. tab. 3. 
fig. 61 ; Phy. Ger. p. 71 ; Sp. Alg. p. 34. Sphinctocystis librilis, 
Hassall, Brit. Freshwater Algse, p. 436. pi. 102. fig. 3. 
Common in ditches and ponds generally mixed with Oscillatoriece. 



The Rev. W. Smith on the Diatomacese. 13 

This species varies veiy much in size, and in the form of the 
extremities of the valves, which are either attenuated, rounded 
and obtuse, or furnished with apiculi, as in PI. III. fig. 8 ; the 
latter appendages however generally occur in the younger or at 
least smaller specimens. 

Platk III. fig. 9. C solea, front and lateral view of a mature frustule ; 
fig. 8. front and lateral view of a young (?) frustule. 

Cymatopleura elliptica, mihi. Frustule on front view oblong, 
linear, on side view broadly elliptical ; svu'face of the valve 
with about four undulations, obscurely striated. Length of 
valve from 3 j^ to ^^0 ^^ ^^ inch, breadth of ditto about half 
the length [v. v.) . 

Surirella elliptica, Kutz. Bacill. p. 61. tab. 28. fig. 28 ; Sp. Alg. 
p. 37. 

Widely but sparingly distributed in slow streams or ponds mixed 
with Oscillatorieee. Living: river Froome near Dorchester. "Brooks" 
near Lewes. Bramley near Guildford, J. R. Capron, Esq. ! Fossil : 
in Peterhead deposit, Dr. Dickie ! Lough Mourne deposit ; Dolgelly 
earth ! 

Very variable in size, the fossil specimens being usually twice 
as large as the recent frustules, but intermediate forms fre- 
quently occur. In Kiitzing's description and figure of S. elliptica, 
one extremity is represented as larger and rounder than the other ; 
I have not been able to verify this peculiarity, but observe in 
the larger forms, and occasionally in the smaller, that both extre- 
mities of the valves are somewhat pointed. 

Plate III. figs. 10 & 11. C. elliptica, front and lateral views of fossil and 
recent frustules. 

Cymatopleura Hibernica, mihi. Frustule on side view orbicular, 
with prominent, somewhat pointed extremities ; surface of the 
valve with about three undulations, obscui-ely striated. Length 
of valve from yf^ to -^^-^ of an inch, breadth about |rds of the 
length {v. s.). 

In a slide labelled " River Bann, Ireland," from Mr. Cocken of 
Brighton ! 

Unfortunately none of the frustules occm-ring in the slide 
above mentioned present a front view of this interesting species. 
The single valves, which are numerous, are however so distinctly 
allied to the last species, that I do not hesitate to place them 
under the present genus. 
Plate III. fig. 12. C. Hibernica, side view of a valve. 

The above must not be regarded as a complete monograph of 
the British species of the genera described, but be taken as a 



14 Dr. Wright on the Geology of the 

record of individual research merely. If these impei'fect notices 
should serve to draw the attention of microscopists to the study 
of the objects I have described, many additional species would 
no doubt be speedily added to the list. 

Lewes, November 1850. 



II. — A Stratigraphical Account of the Section from Round Tower 
Point to Alum Bay, on the North-west coast of the Isle of Wight. 
By Thomas Wright, M.D.* 

The publication of Cuvier and Brongniart's celebrated 'Descrip- 
tion Geologique des Environs de Paris' formed an important 
epoch in the history of geology in general, and of the tertiary 
system of the Isle of Wight in particular. The appearance of 
this work induced the late Mr. Thomas Webster, Secretary to the 
Geological Society of London, to make in 1813 a minute exami- 
nation of the structure of the island, with the view of comparing 
the beds at Headon Hill with those described by the French 
naturalists in the environs of Paris. He adopted the classifica- 
tion of these authors, and divided the coast section at Alum Bay 
in a descending order into — 

5. Upper freshwater formation. 

4. Upper marine formation. 

3. Lower freshwater formation. 

2. London clay. 

1. Sands and plastic clay. 

In 1816 Sir Henry Englefield published his splendid work on 
the Isle of Wight, which contains numerous coast sections most 
accurately drawn by Mr. Webster, together with a series of letters 
by the same accurate observer written from the island whilst 
on a tour made expressly for collecting materials for Sir Henry's 
work. 

In 1821 Mr. G. B. Sowerby visited Headon Hill, to collect 
fossil freshwater shells for the illustration of Ferussac's great 
work on ' Land and Freshwater Mollusca,' and to obtain a re- 
gular sei'ies of the sti'ata above the chalk. He published a cri- 
ticism f on Mr. Webster's paper, in which he dissented from many 
of that author's descriptions, but especially from that part which 
related to the upper marine formation. He described what he 
supposed to be a mixture of shells belonging to freshwater and 
marine genera in this bed, and inferred therefrom its estuary 
and not its marine origin as stated by Webster. He pointed out 

* Read to the Cotswold Naturalists' Club, Sept. 17, 1850. 
t Annals of Philosophy, vol. ii. 1821, p. 216. 



North-west Coast of the Isle of Wight. 15 

the existence of fossil shells and Septaria in the brown clay be- 
neath the coloured strata. 

In 1823 Prof. Sedgwick published* a paper on the geology 
of the Isle of Wight, in which he confirmed the general correct- 
ness of Mr. Webster's descriptions. He noticed that the fossils 
in the brown clay differed from those figured in Brander's ' Fos- 
silia Hantoniensia.' He described the tertiary strata on the north 
side of the island, which he stated belonged to the lower fresh- 
water formation, and gave a sketch of the beds from Studland 
Bay to Hordle on the coast of Hampshire, which he compared 
with beds in the Isle of Wight. 

In 1838 Mr. Bowerbank published a paper t on the section at 
Alum and White Cliff Bays, and gave measurements of the dif- 
ferent beds exposed in these coast sections. He likewise showed 
that the rich shelly sands of Bracklesham Bay had their equiva- 
lents in the White Cliff Bay section. 

In 1846 Mr. Prestwich published J his valuable paper on the 
tertiary formations of the Isle of Wight, in which he drew a com- 
parison between the beds at White Cliff and Alum Bays, and 
compared the relative ages of the English beds with those of the 
French tertiary system. 

None of the works above cited contain an account of the sec- 
tion which forms the subject of our paper. This appears to be 
the more remarkable, as the analysis of the different beds com- 
posing it affords the best key to a knowledge of the true relations 
of the lacustrine series with the intercalated fossiliferous zones of 
estuary and marine shells. Indeed I cannot understand how a 
correct knowledge of these beds can be obtained in any other 
way. The fact that they have hitherto been studied at Headon 
Hill alone, is to my mind a sufficient reason why such a variety 
of opinions prevail regarding them. 

With the view of settling to my own satisfaction the question 
"whether an upper marine formation actually existed," as the 
fact appeared doubtful from the way in which it had been alluded 
to by previous observers, I determined to study the beautiful 
coast section from Round Tower Point to Alum Bay, and take 
each bed in succession as it rose from the shore, measure its 
thickness and note its contents. By this means I hoped to 
ascertain the genera of shells that were naturally associated 
together in each of the beds, and thereby to arrive at a true so- 
lution of the problem. In this investigation I experienced much 
difficulty, from the extensive founders (or falls) that have taken 
place in different parts of the section, as well as from the varia- 

* Annals of Philosophy, vol. iii. 1822, p. 329. 

t Trans, of the Geol. Soc. Lond. vol. vi. Second Series, p. 169. 

X Quart. Journ. of Geol. Soc. vol. ii. p. 223. 



16 Dr. Wi'ight on the Geology of the 

tions in the thickness of the beds in different parts of their course. 
This fact of local activity during the deposition of these strata 
forms an interesting feature of our English tertiary system. 

It admits of demonstration in several of the minor groups, but 
becomes strikingly evident when we compare the section at White 
Cliff with tiiat at Alum Bay, where the difference in thickness 
amounts to upwards of 300 feet in the entire series. This fact 
accounts for the difficulty experienced in making measurements 
of the same beds tally at different points, and therefore our 
figures must be received only as approximations to the truth. 
During the accumulation of these strata, irregular local action 
was going on at very short distances apart, as proved by the di- 
versity which exists between our section and the equivalent beds 
in the Hampshire basin, and shows how necessary it is, in the 
study of our tertiary system, to multiply observations upon the 
individual beds in different parts of their course, and not to 
confine our observations to one section alone. 

The beds may be classified into — 

1. Lacustrine. 

a. Upper freshwater. 

b. Lower freshwater. 

2. Estuary. 

Intercalated with the above. 

3. Upper marine. 

4. Lower marine, divisible into — 

a. Barton series. 

b. Coloured sands and clays. 

c. Bognor series. 

The lacustrine strata contain the genera Paludina, Lymnaa, 
Planorhis, Melania, Melanopsis, Cyclas, Potamomya, Unio. 

The estuary strata contain Potamides, Melanopsis, Melania, 
Natica, Nerita, Neritina, Cyrena, Mytilus, Ostrea, and Sei-pulce. 

The marine strata contain Ancillaria*, Voluta*, Natica, Bulla*, 
Murex*, Cancellaria*, Rostellaria* , Fusus, Cytheraa*, Psammo- 
bia*, Mactra*, Mytilus, Ostrea, Balanus*, Serpulee*. 

I rarely found estuary shells mixed with the true lacustrine 
genera, but occasionally a few Lymncece or Paludince were found 
in an estuary bed. Cyrena and Potamides seem to have been 
common to beds of estuary and marine origin ; the true marine 
genera marked (*) are limited to the marine formations. 

If the premises upon which the argument is based be correct, 
it follows that many changes of condition took place during the 
deposition of the lacustrine series, as there are several interca- 
lations of estuary genera between the true lacustrine beds both 
in the upper and lower formations. 



^ 



Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 17 

The transition from the lower freshwater to the ".PP"' marine 
is made bv a series of beds contammg estuary species and the 
«e from the marine to the upper freshwater is m hke man- 
Te Se by several zones of estuary shells Tji-ss-aU^^^^^^ 
the eenera in the manner described is very decided. 1 leel satis- 
fied that the contrary opinion has arisen from observers having 
collected specimens from the foundered beds on the shore mstead 

of from the strata in situ. . i o +n fi° 

The beds rise very uniformly at angles varying fiom 1 to & 
to the ho'Son, and incline to the east. Their continuity is mter- 
runted by four chines and one ravine : commencing from the 
noS and proceeding southwards are the followmg chmes Lyn- 
Chen Brainble, Colwell, and Weston. The ravine separates the 

ti series at Alum Bay from the lowex;^-^-*- ^ ^J shT 
this o-orge a pathway leads from the rabbit warren to the shoie. 
Thelfnes L forLd by streamlets whose Yf!Ve\ScT 
course to the sea have cut down the clays and marls to the beach. 

The observer is supposed to walk from Sconce to ColweU and 
ToUands Bays along the shore, thence round Headon Hill to 
Sum Bay? and to study the beds as they rise from the shore and 

^Th^rtlXF^taining to the upper freshwater formatK>n 
around Sconce Point have experienced much disturbance and aie 
Ta Ite of ruin. The hill forms an uneven « Y'ri^Hts 
rent by the breaking up of the clays and marls of which it is 
composed; it is covered with grass and foliage almost to the 

""trom some blocks of hmestone near the shore I obtained Bu- 
limus ellivticus, Paludina angulosa, and Planorbis. 

Thes fossils are denuded of their shell. The clays and mar s 
that form the upper part of the hill above he Coast-guard sta- 
tion Ssconce pLt contain freshwater shells m a fragmentary 

'^n';. 1. The first bed in situ is a band of blue clay which rises 
on the shore at a point nearly opposite to Hurst Castle and 
where Worsley's Tower formerly stood. It exhibits many shelly 
lamina. Potamomya plana is in great profusion in this bed. 
It rests upon slate-brown, rusty, and variously coloured days 
in which Paludina, Cyclas, Potamomya lie m zones It ^^ "^clmed 
at an angle of about 3°, and measures about 15 feet. The ine 
of elevation has been much disturbed, and the angles which the 
bed makes are various at different points; it disappears south ot 

^^No"^2^'l regard as a brackish water series. It consists of 
Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Scr. 3. Vol. vu. ^ 



18 Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 

bands of bluish or slate-coloured clays with zones of Cyrena ob- 
ovata of large size ; C cycladiformis, Potamides margaritaceus in 
great profusion and perfection. It rises on the shore north of 
cuff End, at a short distance from No. 1 ; its line of demarcation 
from that bed is well defined by the thick fossiliferous band of 
Cyrena obovata. I observed in this bed a few Cytherea incrassata. 
It ascends at angles from 5° to 10°, and runs out on the cliff 
north of Lynchen Chine ; it measures upwards of 21 feet, 
and contains Melanopsis fusiformis, small Serpulce, and a small- 
ribbed Modiola of the same species as that found at Hordle. 

No. 3. Lymn?ean limestone (No. 1) ; this rock contains bard 
nodules which fall out on the shore, and much oxide of iron. It 
is full of Lymnaa and Planorbis. 

A ledge formed of this bed stretches across the Solent towards 
Hurst Castle. It rises on the shore at Cliff End, and blocks of 
it are seen along the strand, from which good specimens with 
their shells may be obtained. It measures about 3 feet, and is 
interstratified with bands of blue clay. 

No. 4. Yellow sand rises at the south of Cliff End : its ori- 
gin is concealed by the debris of the brackish series above. This 
bed is well seen in the cliff between Lynchen and Bramble Chines, 
and again at Warden Point. 

It contains few shells, and measures under Long's House 
24 feet. It attains its greatest development at Headon Hill, 
where it passes into a light-coloured calcareous rock, richly fos- 
siliferous, with Lijmncea and Planorbis above, and small imivalves 
and Melania below. 

No. 5. Laminated sandy clays, with sandy seams between the 
layers of a slate coloui', and containing much iron which stains 
the surface of the bed. They rise to the south of Lynchen Chine 
and pass out beyond Warden Point, underlying the yellow sand, 
and contain several fossiliferous seams. The following section is 
taken at Warden Point : — 

Gray clay striped with fawn and red 4 feet. 

Gray sand 1 foot. 

Sand striped gray, blue and red 4 feet. 

Slate-coloured clay, with a band of Cyrena obovata . 6 inches. 

Potamomya plana is found in great abundance and perfection 
in this bed. The fossiliferous seams are confined to the upper 
and lower laminae. The lower strata contain many shells, and 
form a well-marked band between this bed and No. 6. As it 
passes through the cliff between Lynchen and Bramble Chines, 
it inclines at an angle of 1°. Between Bramble and Warden Point 
the angle increases to about 3". 



Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 19 

At Headon Hill this bed is very fossiliferous, and contains 
there Cyrena ohovata in great profusion in a black clayey matrix 
with lignite and much vegetable debris. 

From the sandy seams at Bramble Chine I collected many 
hazel-nuts in a good state of preservation. 

No. 6. Underlying the Potamomya bed is a band of firm 
bluish green sand, tolerably compact. This appears to form the 
transition bed to the estuary series below it. It rises on the 
shore 1620 feet north of Bramble Chine, forms a prominent belt 
in the cliff, and in some places a ledge, by the foundering of the 
superincumbent clays and sands : measures about 3 feet, and 
is overlaid by laminated clay rich in Potamomya. 

No. 7. Blue clay with few fossils, 3 feet. 

No. 8. Bands of nodular ironstone resting on blue sandy clays ; 
rises 55 paces south of No. 6, and runs out at Warden Point. 
Beautiful slabs of this bed from 4 to 5 inches thick lie along the 
shore, and in most of the cottages household specimens may be 
seen. The clays and nodules contain Cyrena obovata, C. cycla- 
diformis, Poiamides margaritaceus, P. ductus, Cytherea incras- 
sata ; Melanopsis, Nematura, as in the Neritina bed. This fer- 
ruginous bed measures about 20 inches. 

No. 9. Gi*ay mottled sands, without shells, 18 inches. 

No. 10. Dark stiflF tenacious clay. This is a very rich bed, 
and many of the shells which are of estuary origin are beautifully 
preserved. 

It rises on the shore about 100 paces to the north of Lynchen 
Chine, is nearly horizontal for a considerable distance, and is 
much covered by debris, bait is seen in situ beyond Bramble Chine. 
It is lost at Colwell and reappears in the cliff at Warden Point, 
passing out a short distance beyond. 

I collected from this bed Cyrena obovata, C. cycladiformis; My- 
tilus affinis, in great abundance ; Ostrea, two species ; Cytherea in- 
crassata, Potamides margaritaceus, Melania muricata, M. fasciata, 
M. costata, Melanopsis fusiformis, Fusus labiatus, Nerita aperta, 
very few of Neritina concava, and Natica depressa. It measures 
about 3 feet. 

No. 11. A dark-coloured stiff clay, without shells; measures 
18 inches, with a shelly band of blue clay 6 inches in thickness, 
containing the same genera and species as No. 10, with nodules 
of ironstone in some parts of its course. These two beds indi- 
cate an estuary condition during the period of their deposition. 

No. 12. " The Ostrea bed " rises on the shore at the south 
side of Lynchen Chine, is much foundered at its origin, but is 
well seen in situ in the walls of Bramble Chine, in the escarp- 
ment south of that gorge, in the cliff at Warden Point, and at 
Alum Bay, high up on Headon Hill.. 

2* 



20 Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 

In Colwell Bay the founderiug of this bed has produced three 
great masses of oyster-shells which project from the side of the 
cliff. At first sight they give the observer the idea that they 
were oyster beds wedged in between the Venus bed which they 
entirely obscure ; but it is not so ; they are in fact produced by 
the falling of the oyster band over the inclined face of the lower 
beds ; the sandy matrix with the oyster-shells having fallen over 
in a semifluid state. The Ostrea bed measures from 18 inches to 
2 feet in thickness. The shells are so closely packed together 
that perfect specimens are obtained with much difficulty. 

Besides Ostrece of two new species in great abundance, I col- 
lected here Mytilus affinis, Potamides margaritaceus, P. cinctus, 
Fusus labiatus, Balanus, and Serpulee. 

No. 13. Laminated blue clay mottled with red, non-fossilife- 
roxis : 18 inches. 

No. 14. "The Venus bed" rises on the shore 484 feet south 
of Lynchen Chine, and runs out on the cliff at ToUands Bay near 
the Coast-guard station. Between Weston Chine and the lower 
flank of the north side of Headon Hill, there has been extensive 
denudation. The Lymnsean limestone and the upper marine 
have been entirely removed. These beds reappear in Headon, 
and the Lymnsean limestone with its underlying beds form a fine 
bold mural wall, which stands out from amongst the ruins of the 
softer strata on the north side of that hill. The Venus bed re- 
appears near the summit of the south-western escarpment of 
Headon Hill. 

This interesting bed ought to be studied in Colwell Bay, where 
it is best developed, and from whence the finest specimens of its 
beautiful fossils are obtained. At the base of the Venus bed is 
a thin band of clay, containing Psammohia compressa in great per- 
fection. The finest specimens are obtained at low-water mark, 
when a ground sea has removed the sand. Here likewise we find 
Ostrea, two species undescribed, in considerable abundance. 
Above the clay-band is the true upper marine or Venus bed ; it 
consists of a slate-coloured siliceous sand mixed with clay. The 
shells, which are very abundant, lie for the most part on their 
sides, but I have found them inclined in all directions. This bed 
appears to have been a slow and tranquil deposit from sea water 
along a sandy shore. The shells are as perfect in all their parts 
as recent specimens, and the peculiar nature of the matrix has 
so preserved their colours, that one almost doubts the fact of 
their being fossil shells. 

I collected from this bed the following shells : — 

Aetseon. Balanus reflexus. Sow. 

Ancillaria subulata. Lam. unguiformis, Sow. 

Buccinum desertum, Brand, Cancellaria muricata. Wood. 



Di*. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 21 



Cancellaria elongata, Wood. 

Cerithium . 

Corbula cuspidata. Sow. 
Cyrena cycladiformis. Desk. 

obovata. Sow. 

Cytlierea incrassata. Desk. 

obliqua. Desk. 

Fusus labiatus. Sow. 

Liicina . 

Mactra, new species. 
Melania fasciata. 



muncata. 



Melanopsis ancillaroides. 

• fusiformis. 

Mya angustata. Sow. 
Natica depressa, Sow. 

epiglottina, Lam. 

labellata. Lam. 

Nucula similis. Sow. 



Nucula, new species. 
Oliva, new species. 
Ostrea, two new species. 
Panopsea corrugata, Edwards. 
Pleurotoma semicolon. Sow. 

, two new species. 

Psammobia compressji. Sow. 

solida. 

Serpula corrugata. Sow. 

, new species. 

Rostellaria rimosa. Brand. 
Voluta spinosa ? Sow. 

■ , new species, like V. harpa. 

Desk. 

Pisces. 

Teeth of Squalus. 
Teeth of MyUobatis. 



The Venus bed measures from 7 to 8 feet iu thickness : the 
lower half is a slate-coloured sand ; the upper half in some parts 
of its course is ferruginous. It is from the lower zone that all 
the fine shells are obtained ; those found in the upper zone are 
brittle and colourless. 

The term " upper marme formation " is only strictly applicable 
to the oyster and Venus beds with the intercalated band of non- 
fossiliferous clay. 

No. 15. The next series of beds are of estuary origin. They 
consist of alternations of sand and clay, with seams of Potamides, 
Neritina, Melanopsis, Natica, Cyrena, Mytilus and Ostrea. The 
following section gives the order of these deposits, which are well 
exposed in a break in the cliff beyond Long's Cottage : — Pea-green 
colou.red sands with a thin band of Cyrena obovata, about 3 ft. 
Shelly band in a dark clayey matrix, containing Cyrena obovata, 
Potamides margaritaceus, Melania muricata, and M. fasciata, 
4 inches. Gray, green, and yellow sands, no shells, 3 feet 4 inches. 
Shelly band in a dark clay containing Cyrena obovata, Potamides 
and Ostrea, 4 inches. Sandy clay striped gray, green and ochre, 
no shells, 2 feet 9 inches. Shelly band with a seam of lignite at 
the base and Cyrena obovata piled upon each other, 6 inches. 

The origin of these beds on the shore is seen south of Bramble 
Chine, but it is much concealed by the ruin which has fallen upon 
them. The upper marine in Colwell Bay forms an undercliff, 
the wall of which is the Venus and oyster bed and upper estuary 
series, and its terrace, the ledge of Lymnfean limestone hereafter 
to be described. These fossiliferous bands have foundered much 
at Warden Cliff, where they run out. They reappear in situ iu 
Headon Hill, and pass round into Alum Bay. I traced them 
into the western escarpment of Ileadon; the beds here arc 



22 Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 

very fossillferous, and contain immense numbers of Potamides 
ventricosus and Cyrena obovata. 

The shelly blocks on the shore containing these elegant shells 
are derived from the debris of these beds. 

No. 16. "The Neritina bed." The origin of tbis bed on the 
sbore is concealed by debris ; it is seen however at low-water 
mark below Bramble Chine when a ground sea has cleared away 
the sand. 

This bed is seen well in situ beneath tbe flagstaff at Cliff Cot- 
tage reposing upon the fossiliferous bands of No. 15, It inclines 
at an angle of about 2°. Here it is a rich fossiliferous seam about 
18 inches in thickness, divisible into three sbelly zones. The 
inferior zone contains Potamides margaritaceus, P. cinctus, Me- 
lania muricata, Melanopsis minuta, M. fusiformis, and myriads of 
Nematura of a new species. 

The middle zone contains Neritina concava in great abundance, 
and in a high state of preservation, with all their delicate- 
coloured pencillings, like recent shells : along with these which 
characterize the bed, are, Potamides margaritaceus, P. cinctus; 
Nematura ; Melanopsis fusiformis, Serpula tenuis, Cijrena cycladi- 
formis ; vegetable impressions and seeds of Chara medicaginula, 
and C. tuber culata [Gijrogonites) . 

The upper zone contains Natica depressa, Mytilus affinis, Os- 
trea, new species, and a profusion of Cyrena obovata. 

The Neritina bed at Headon Hill is charged with lignite, black 
clay and vegetable remains, but I collected its characteristic 
fossils at the western escarpment. 

No. 17. Blue sandy clay measm-ing from 4 to 9 feet ? in thick- 
ness in different parts of its course, and containing fossiliferous 
seams in its upper and lower laminae ? 

The upper shelly band contains Cyrena obovata and Potamides 
margaritaceus. In the lower layers, hymncea longiscata was ob- 
served to occur in a crushed state sparingly. 

No. 18. Lymnsean limestone (No. 2) forms a conspicuous bed 
in this section. It rises on the shore about 390 feet north of 
Colwell Chine, and inclines at an angle of about 3°. It runs out 
on the cliff near the flagstaff of the Coast-guard station beyond 
Warden Point. It has been denuded from the cliff in the centre 
of Tollands Bay. It appears in situ at the north side of Headon, 
and with the underlying clays and sands forms the promi- 
nent mural band which runs nearly horizontal through the 
northern slope of that hill. At its southern escarpment, where 
it overlooks Alum Bay, it forms a well-defined bed. Its inclina- 
tion here increases, and it is suddenly curved up together with 
the under- and the overlying beds to an angle of 20°, and soon 
after abruptly ceases. 



Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 23 

This limestone band is not uniform in structure throughout 
its course. It is of a pale yellow cream colour in some places, 
dense and compact or light and porous in others. It varies in 
thickness from 3 to 6 feet, and its compact varieties are used for 
building purposes. 

How Ledge is formed by this bed stretching under the Solent ; 
and the rocks at Warden and Alum Point are foundered blocks 
of Lymnsean limestone. It is very fossiliferous throughout its 
entire course. The shells are beautifully preserved : as they 
drop out of the rock they leave cellular cavities ; the interior of 
the shell being filled for the most part with a more spongy 
material than that which connects the individual fossils with one 
another. 

It is impossible to describe the beauty of some of the rocks 
lying at Warden Point, which a})pear to be httle else than a mass 
of freshwater shells cemented together by a calcareous matrix. 

The elegant forms of the snow-white shells make a chaste 
contrast with the yellow rock in which they are imbedded. With 
a chisel and a light hammer the following specimens may be ob- 
tained in great perfection : — 

Lymnsea longiscata. Planorbis euomphalus. 

fusiformis. lens. 

columellaris. rotundatus. 

pyramidalis. obtusus. 

minima. Bulimus ellipticus. 

maxima. 

I regard this bed as the uppermost of the lower freshwater 
formation. 

No. 19. Fawn-coloured sandy clay, with bands of Paludina 
unicolor in the upper layers ; the lower layers are not so fos- 
siliferous : measures 6 feet. 

No. 20. Bluish gray sands, no fossils : measures 3 ft. 6 inches. 

No. 21. Blue clay with several seams of shells. Paludince and 
Melaniee are very abundant, and fine specimens of Unio Solandri 
are obtained in good preservation, together with bones of Palceo- 
therium and Trionyx, and a profusion of small black seeds, Car- 
polithes ovulum, Brong., C. thalictroides, Brong. It rises south 
of Colwell Chine. A good section of the bed may be seen at 
Warden Point : measures 2 feet 6 inches. 

No. 22. Striped clays, gray and bluish, with rich seams of 
shells, in which Paludina and Melania are most abundant : mea- 
sures from 6 to 8 feet. 

No. 23. Grayish white sand rises on the shore near Warden 
Point, passes through the upper part of Weston Chine, and is seen 
capping the hill south of that gorge ; it reappears again beneath 
the Lymnsean limestone on the north side of Headou ; here it 



24 Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 

passes into a firm rock, and is seen in situ in the southern 
escarpment. It preserves the same angle of incHnation as the 
Lymnsean limestone. 

At its origin, the first 8 feet of this bed is a pure sand rock 
with thin seams of freshwater shells {Paludina, Lrjmnaa, Cyclas). 
Below this the bed contains large oblong nodules, chiefly com- 
posed of shells, mostly in a fragmentary state; from these I col- 
lected — 

Paludina lenta. Planorbis rotundatus. 

Lymnsea longiscata. Melanopsis fusiformis. 

pyramidalis. Cyclas exigua. 

Planorbis euomphalus. 

The lower laminje of this bed contain greenish-coloured sands 
full of Paludma. This bed changes its physical character in dif- 
ferent parts of its course. In Headon Hill it is calcareous, and 
contains a few angular pebbles with two layers of hard siliceous 
nodules, one in the middle and the other at the bottom of the 
bed. It is here likewise distinguished by the same group of 
fossils. As it stretches across the Solent it forms that dangerous 
reef called Warden Ledge, over which a buoy is anchored : it 
measures about 20 feet. In Headon Hill escarpment this bed 
admits of several subdivisions. 

No. 24. Olive-green clay, stiff and tenacious, with numerous 
layers of Potamomya plana and Melania. It rises on the shore 
to the north of Weston Chine, and can be traced in situ to a con- 
siderable distance : measures 1 foot, and rests upon a band of 
lignite, in which the vegetable structure is well preserved ; mea- 
sures 6 inches. 

No. 25. Bluish sandy clay with few fossils in its upper part, 
but full of Potamomya plana, Paludina and Lymncea below : mea- 
sures 2 feet 6 inches. 

No. 26. Lymnsean limestone, No. 3, rises on the shore a few 
paces north of Weston, forms a thin ledge at its origin, and con- 
tains X7/mw«« and Planorbis in abundance: measures from 10 to 
18 inches. 

No. 27. Dark olive-green, marly clay, rises below the prece- 
ding Lymnsean limestone ; it contains seams of Lymncea, Palu- 
dina, and Potamomya, which prevail most in the lower layers : 
measures about 10 feet ? 

No. 28. Light-coloured calcareous marl. It caps No. 29, and 
forms a ledge over which the water falls in Weston Chine; con- 
tains Lymncea and Planorbis, and measures 9 inches. 

No. 29. Fine gray sand, rises on the shore about 120 paces 
north of the boat-houses by Weston Chine. This bed is well 
exposed in that ravine : measures 2 feet 4 inches, and is under- 
laid by a band of lignite about 7 inches thick. 



Dr. Wright on the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 25 

No. 30. Dark olive-green clay, with a band of I/ymncea and 
Planorbis in its upper part, and masses of nodular ironstone be- 
low. Several of these have rolled out of the bed and lie on the 
shore at Tollands Bay : measures 4 feet 6 inches. 

No. 31. Grayish white sand, rises on the north side of Weston 
Chine ; is exposed at the base of that ravine, is covered up with 
grass in the remainder of its course through Tollands Bay, and 
concealed by debris on the north side of Headon. It is seen 
however in situ on the southern escarpment of that hill. The 
anticlinal axis figured by Webster in his coast section of Tol- 
lands Bay is very well seen from the water. No. 23 of our sec- 
tion is the bed which appears to droop most. The angle of de- 
clension is not more than 2° : upwards of 20 feet ? 

The remaining beds of the lower freshwater series are not seen 
where they rise from the shore in consequence of the debris, 
which has fallen and covered them up at their origin and through 
the greater part of their course. Beyond Alum Point several of 
the lower beds are seen in situ, but they are best exposed in the 
sand-pit at present worked. The following section gives an ac- 
curate measurement of the 26 feet of sands and marls that repose 
upon the pure white sand. The angle of inclination is about 1°. 

ft. in. 

32. Light gray sand with few freshwater shells 2 4 

33. Compact gray marl full of compressed Lymnsei, &c. ... 9 
o^ / Greenish stiff clay 5 9 

■ \ Seam of hgnite, vegetable structure shown 3 

OK r Greenish clay, very tough and tenacious 6 

■ L Seam of hgnite, about 3 

0-- / Gray sand 2 4 

■ \ Seam of lignite 5 

37. Yellow clay, ochre-coloured 4 9 

38. YeUowsand 4 4 

This forms the floor of the section. 

39. Fine white sand. The uppermost bed is a very fine pure 
white sand dug for making glass, and is largely exported for that 
purpose. It has proved a California to the proprietor, as it is 
sold for about 14*. a ton. The white bed passes into one of a 
pale ochre colour, and then into another of a deeper tint striped 
with yellow bands. The thickness of the sands at Headon Hill 
is unknown, as the bed dips beneath the sea. The equivalent bed 
at White Cliff Bay measures 200 feet in thickness. No fossils 
have been found in this bed. I observed only fragments of 
shells, too minute and water- worn to ascertain to what genus 
they belonged. 

Barton Clay Group. 

No. 40. A great bed of brownish clay which consists of several 
subordinate beds. It forms " stratum B " of Webster's sec- 



26 Dr. Wright oti the Geology of the Isle of Wight. 

tion. It is traversed by seams of small flint pebbles and by six 
or seven layers of septaria. At the mouth of the ravine is a 
hard brown clay, the equivalent of the brown clay which rises 
near Beacon Bunny in the Hordle section. It contains the same 
shells, but they are at Alum Bay in the form of casts. I observed 
in one block, Nucula, Venericardia, Oliva and Plevrotoma. It 
contains much iron and three layers of septaria. The next por- 
tion is the true representative of the Barton clay. It is very 
fossiliferous, but the shells are much crushed and fragile. It 
is traversed by a layer of septaria and seams of small black peb- 
bles 3 then follows a thick bed of green sand with few shells, 
which passes into a stiff brown clay containing vast quantities of 
Nummularia elegans. Tlien succeed beds of green sand with 
few shells, and six or seven layers of septaria. This bed mea- 
sures about 300 feet. 

In the following list I have given the Barton shells that are 
most abundant, but not all the genera and species contained 
therein : — 



Ampullaria acuta. 


Nucula similis- 


patula. 


minima. 


Actaeon simulatus. 


Nummulites Isevigatus. 


Ancillaria canalifera. 


elegaus. 


Area elegaus. 


Ostrea flabellum. 


Buccinum junceum. 


Oliva Branderi. 


labiatum. 


Pecten reconditus. 


desertum. 


Pectunculus deletus. 


Cancellaria evulsa. 


Pleurotoma colon. 


Calyptraea trochiformis. 


comma. 


Chama squamosa. 


prisca. 


Conus dormitor. 


Pyrula nexilis. 


serobiculus. 


Rostellaria rimosa. 


Corbula pisum. 


Sanguiiiolaria Hollo\va)'sii 


globosa. 


Psammobia compressa. 


revoluta. 


Triton argutus. 


Crassatella sulcata. 


Tiochus mouilifcr. 


Fusus acuminatus. 


Tiuritella imbricataria. 


bulbiformis. 


Typhis fistulosus. 


longsevus. 


pungens. 


errans. 


Venericardia globosa. 


minax. 


Voluta luctator. 


liUcina mitis. 


lima. 


Mitra scabra. 


spinosa. 


Murex asper. 


Teeth of Squalus. 


Natica ambulacrum. 


Teeth of MyUobatis. 



In reviewing the facts disclosed by the study of the preceding 
section, the following consequences may be logically deduced 
therefrom : — 

1st. That during the deposition of the series of beds comprised 
between the upper lacustrine and Barton groups, many alterna- 



Mr. J. G. Jeffreys on Chemnitzia Gulsonse. 27 

tions of physical conditions from river or lake to estuary and sea 
prevailed. 

2nd. That the upper lacustrine strata exhibit such alternations, 
is shown by bed No. 2, but still more clearly by the section at 
Hampstead Cliff, which belongs to this group. The consider- 
ation of its beds does not fall within the limits of our section, 
belonging as they do to a higher zone in the upper lacustrine 
seiies. The lower lacustrine beds present similar phsenomena. 

3rd. That the estuaiy conditions more especially prevailed 
before and after the deposition of the intercalated marine bed. 

4th. That the upper marine indicates a period in the struggle 
between sea and lake, when the former obtained for a time the 
supremacy : the marine shells and sharks' teeth it contains prove 
this condition. 

5th. The white and yellow sands at Alum Bay immediately 
overlying the Barton group were probably of estuary origin. The 
absence of organic remains leaves a doubt upon the subject. The 
equivalent bed however at Beacon Cliff on the Hampshire coast, 
which I shall more particularly describe in a future communi- 
cation, contains a large quantity of estuaiy shells mixed with 
true marine genera, together with the bones of turtles and 
the teeth of sharks. Guided by these facts, we infer that the 
white and yellow sands of Headon Hill were the great estuary 
deposit which introduced the lacustrine conditions under which 
the lower freshwater group, with the other intercalated estuary 
beds, were de])Osited. 



III. — Note on the Chemnitzia Gulsonse of Clark. 
By J. GwYN Jeffreys, Esq., F.E-.S. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, 

While thus publicly expressing the thanks which, in common 
with I believe all others who take an interest in the study of 
the British Mollusca, I owe to my old and esteemed friend Mr. 
Clark, for his valuable papers which have lately appeared in the 
'Annals of Natural History,' I cannot forbear also expressing 
my opinion that the shell which he has described and named in 
the last number as Chemnitzia Gulsonee, does not belong to the 
genus Chemnitzia. ]\Iy specimens do not show the slightest 
inversion of the apical whorls ; nor does that character appear 
to exist in Jeffreysia diaphana, of which I have purposely exa- 
mined about a hundred specimens, any more than in the Rissoee. 
The peristome too is continuous in adult specimens of both those 
shells, which is not the case in Chemnitzia or Odostomia. To the 



28 Mr. F. Smith on some new species of Exotic Hymenoptera. 

locality mentioned by Mr. Clark, I may add Sandwich and Wey- 
mouth ; and Mr. Barlee has also found it on the west coasts of 
Scotland and Ireland. It is however a very rare and well-marked 
shell. 

I amj Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

J. GwYN Jeffreys. 
Norton near Swansea, Dee. 8, 1850. 



IV. — Descriptions of some new species of Exotic Hymenoptera 
in the British Museum and other Collections. By Frederick 
Smith, Assistant in the Zoological Department of the Bri- 
tish Museum. 

Genus Trigonalys, "Westw. 

T. bipustulafa, n. sp. 

Male (length 7 lines) black : head as wide as the thorax, 
quadrate, smooth and shining, covered with a thin short black 
pubescence, the clypeus emarginate in front; antennte seta- 
ceous, 20-jointed, the apical eight joints gradually attenuated to 
a point ; thorax closely and deeply punctured, the punctures 
confluent ; the metathorax has a deep longitudinal channel 
in the centre, and its apex is clothed with pale pubescence ; the 
tibiae and tarsi very dark ferruginous, the legs are entirely clothed 
with short fuscous pubescence ; wings hyaline, the anterior 
margin of the superior wings has a dark fuscous longitudinal 
cloud, covering the externo- and interno-medial, the first dis- 
coidal, the marginal, and the first, second and third submarginal 
cells; the posterior wings are also clouded at their anterior 
margin which gradually shades ofi" towards that of the posterior ; 
abdomen very closely punctured — the basal segment above has 
two pale yellow lateral spots, between which is a deep broad 
groove from the base to the apex ; beneath, the basal segment 
is pale yellow, except a small portion at its base. 

Hab. Brazil. 

This species is in the collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq., and 
is the largest which I have yet seen of this rare genus. 

Note. — The neuration of the wings in this species differs con- 
siderably from that of the type of the genus, T. melanolcuca, the 
second submarginal cell is more elongate, and the third instead 
of being quadrate is oblong. 

T. maculata, n. sp. 

Male (length 4i lines) black : the head quadrate, closely and 
rather deeply punctured, the clypeus transverse, emarginate in 
the centre of its anterior margin ; it is yellow and has a black 



Mr. F. Smith on some new species of Exotic Hymenopte^'a. 29 

stripe equal to one-third of its width down the centre ; the 
orbit of the eyes yellow, inteiTupted at their vertex : two minute 
yellow spots in front of the anterior stemma, and two very mi- 
nute ones placed obliquely beyond them j the posterior pair of 
stemmata are placed in a line with the vertex of the eyes; a 
yellow line traverses the hinder margin of the vertex curving 
inwards at a central interruption ; the mandibles are quadrate, 
yellow, and tridentate, the apical tooth largest ; the teeth and 
the extreme base ferruginous ; the antennae 19-jointed, the fii'st 
joint at its base and apex and the seven following joints entirely 
ferruginous ; thorax roughly punctured ; a line in front of the 
tegulse, the tubercles, a minute spot beneath the wings, two in 
front of the prothorax, two on each side of the scutellum and 
one on each side of the postscutellum yellow ; the tegulse tes- 
taceous, the nervures of the wings dark piceous; the anterior 
margin has a fuscous cloud extending from the base to the apex, 
where it is broadest; the legs ferruginous, their trochanters 
yellow, the intermediate pair have a stain beneath ; the anterior 
tibiae in front, and the intermediate and posterior pairs at their 
base yellow; all the femora beneath are darkest towards their 
base, the claws . black ; abdomen subpetiolate, incurved at the 
apex, the second segment beneath has an obtuse tooth on its 
apical margin. Above, the margins of the first, second and 
fourth segments, and the whole of the fifth and sixth yellow ; 
the two latter have an undefined black line down their centre ; 
beneath, the first, second and third segments have their apical 
margins yellow. 

Hab. Moreton Bay, New South Wales. 

I have only seen the single specimen in the British Museum ; 
Mr. Westwood informed me he had also one. 

Genus Micropteryx, St. Farg. 

Pompilus, Fab. 

M. bicolor, n. sp. 

Female (length 10 lines) black : head shining, very minutely 
punctured, the mandibles slightly ferruginous on their outer 
margin ; the prothorax and a smooth triangular space on the 
mesothorax ferruginous, as is also the scutellum, which is smooth, 
shining, and very finely punctured ; the metathorax ferruginous 
and rugose ; wings black, the length of the thorax ; legs and ab- 
domen also black, the latter clothed with short black pubescence. 

This species resembles the brevipennis of Fabricius, but is 
distinguished by its broader head, and by having the metathorax 
entirely rugose, whereas in brevipennis it is finely crenulated 
towards the base ; and the abdomen is spotless. 

Hab. Port Natal. 



30 Mr. F. Smith on some new species of Exotic Hymenoptera. 

In the cabinet of the British Museum, and also in that of 
W. W. Saunders, Esq. 

M.fasciata, n. sp. 

Female (length 6 lines) black : head smooth and shining ; the 
thorax entirely red ; anterior wings dark fuscous, the posterior 
pair subhyaline; a white fascia on the anterior pair, crossing 
from the first submarginal cell and being of the same width. 
On the apical margin of the first and third segments of the ab- 
domen is a broad golden band, which is deeply emarginate in 
the centre ; a marginal band on the fifth, and the sixth segment 
entirely clothed with golden pile; beneath clothed with short 
silvery pubescence. 

Note. — The second segment of the abdomen has an impressed 
line down the centre, and its margin is notched to the depth of 
half its width. 

Although after a careful examination I consider this peculiar 
conformation to be natural, and not an accidental deformity; 
still, in the absence of other specimens, I place it in a note, which 
may serve to call particular attention to such a remarkable for- 
mation. 

I have only seen the single specimen in the British Museum. 

Genus Larraxena, n. gen. 

Head a little wider than the thorax, depressed in front, the 
anterior stemma situated in a frontal depression, the posterior 
pair obsolete ; eyes lateral, slightly approximating at their ver- 
tex; antennae filiform, the basal joint very much incrassated, 
inserted at the base of the clypeus which is transverse, the man- 
dibles arcuate ; thorax ovate, the metathorax elongate, truncated 
posteriorly ; the anterior wings with one marginal cell, appendi- 
eulated, and three submarginal cells ; the second triangular and 
petiolated, receiving the two recurrent nervures; the first sub- 
marginal cell equal to the second and third united, the third 
narrow and oblique, the legs moderate in length, all the tibiae 
and tarsi strongly spinose, the tarsi longer than the tibiae ; ab- 
domen elongate-ovate. 

L. princeps. 

Female (length 8 lines) black : the head deeply and closely 
punctured, the face and cheeks covered with a silvery pubescence, 
the mandibles ferruginous, black at their base and apex ; the pro- 
and meso-thorax shining and closely punctured; the metathorax 
opake, finely granulated ; down the centre a slight depression, 
which has a central carina reaching nearly to the apex ; wings 
dark fuscous, their tegulae piceous, the tarsal claws ferruginous. 



Mr. F. Smith on some new species of Exotic Hymenoptera. 31 

the thorax above and on the sides covered with a fine silvery 
pile, most sparing on its disc ; abdomen red, smooth and shmmg ; 
a few long pale hairs on the apical segment. 

Hab. Brazil. ••+!,„ 

Of this species I have only seen the two specimens in the 

British Museum. 

Genus Trigonopsis, Perty. 
T. affinis, n. sp. 
Female (length 7^ lines) black : head smooth and shining, 
the clypeus reddish yellow, armed with five teeth, the two 
lateral ones much stouter than the other three; the mandibles 
and two basal joints of the antennje reddish yellow, the former 
black at their tips; the palpi yellow, the basal margin of the 
neck and also that of the metathorax frmged with golden 
pubescence, which is also scattered on its sides; there is also a 
patch of the same beneath the wings and on the hinder margin 
of the tubercles ; the metathorax above has a broad elongate 
furrow, is transversely striated, and rugose at the sides and 
apex ; the tegulse and nervures of the wings are pale ferrugmous ; 
a dark cloud crosses the wing from the marginal cell to the 
apex of the third discoidal cell, and also tips the posterior wmgs ; 
a second cloud traverses the transverse portion of the externo- 
medial nervure; the apical half of the anterior femora, the 
tibise and tarsi, and also the intermediate tibise, ferrugmous; 
abdomen ferruginous, its petiole black. 

Hab. Brazil. . „ ^, ,,^ ,, , 

This species is from the collections of Messrs. Wallace and 
Bates, and was captured at Para. In my own, and also in the 
collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq. 

T. violaceus, n. sp. 

Male (length 7| lines) : head violet, smooth and shining, the 
clypeus produced in front; the mandibles dark ferruginous; the 
deep lateral depressions on the face clothed with silvery pile ; 
antennse black ; thorax black, the neck, pro- and meso-thorax, 
the scutellum, and a space on each side of the deep longitudinal 
channel of the metathorax very smooth and shining ; the channel 
transversely sulcate, the sides and apex of the metathorax rugose ; 
at its base and also under the wings a patch of silvery pile ; the 
legs deep violet, the abdomen bright violet ; the wmgs marked 
as in the preceding species, but rather darker. 

Hab. Brazil. 

Captured also by Messrs. Wallace and Bates. One specimen 

in the British Museum. 



32 Mr. F. Smith on some new species of Exotic Hymenoptera. 

Genus Chlorion, Latr. 

Chlorion splendidum, Fab. Syst. Piez. 218. .5. 

Pronceus Campbellii, Saund. Trans. Ent. Soc. vol. iii. 58. pi. 5. f. 1. 

C. splendidum. 

Male (length 8 lines) : head ferruginous, the tips of the man- 
dibles, the four apical joints of the antennae, and a patch above 
their insertion enclosing the stemmata, black ; thorax black ; 
the collar, mesothorax, scutellum, tegulre, a spot under the wings, 
the breast and legs ferruginous ; a longitudinal patch, and small 
spot beyond, situated outside the enclosed portion of the meta- 
thorax, ferruginous; the metathorax transversely striated, the 
wings yellow, the nervm*es pale ferruginous, their apex having 
a dark cloud; abdomen dark purple-violet. 

Hab. India. 

This sex was not previously known ; it is from the collection 
of Capt. Boys. In the cabinet of W. W. Saunders, Esq., and 
my own. 

Genus GoRYTES, Latr. 

G. scutellaris, n. sp. 

Female (length 4^ lines) black ; covered with a fine golden 
changeable pile, in some lights having a silvery hue ; it clothes 
the whole insect except the disc of the thorax and abdomen ; the 
head smooth and shining ; the prothorax has two approximating 
parallel lines running from the centre of the collar to the disc ; 
the scutellum and a patch before, blood- red; the metathorax 
has a triangular enclosed space at its base which has eight lon- 
gitudinal carinse ; the base is coarsely rugose and clothed with a 
dense silvery pile ; the wings hyaline, dark fuscous at their base, 
and crossed by a fascia of the same colour as broad as the fii-st 
and second submarginal cells ; the basal, fourth and fifth 
segments of the abdomen are covered with a fine silvery pile ; 
the second segment has an ovate cream-colom-ed macula situated 
laterally at its apical margin ; the mai'gins of the third, fourth 
and fifth segments have a narrow cream-coloured fascia. 

The male is rather smaller and has no red patch before the 
scutellum ; in other respects it exactly corresponds with the 
female. 

Hab. Brazil. 

This very beautiful species was captured by Messrs. Wallace 
and Bates, and is I believe unique in my collection. 

Genus Sericophorus, Shuck. 
S. chalybeus, n. sp. 
Female (length 5 lines) : head of a bluish green ; the clypeus 



Mr. J. Miers on the Menispermacese. 33 

armed on its anterior margin laterally with tln-ee teeth, the 
margin waved ; the first and second joint of the antennae black, 
the remaining joints red; the face and cheeks clothed with 
silvery pile; thorax metallic blue; the metathorax has in the 
centre a deep incisure, widening to the base ; the apex roughly 
transversely strigose ; wings hyahne ; legs red, their coxse, tro- 
chanters, and base of the femora of a metallic blue, the pulvilli 
black ; abdomen chalybeous, covered with a delicate silvery pile, 
most dense at the lateral margins of the segments. 

Hub. New Holland. 

This extremely beautiful species is unique in the collection of 
the British Museum. 

j^ote. — The insects belonging to this genus have very much 
the appearance of those of the genus Oxijbelus ; they are however 
very distinct, as also from those belonging to the genus Palarus ; 
towards the latter they closely approach in the neuration of the 
wings. I am not aware that Mr. Shuckard has published the 
characters of the genus; I therefore subjoin its prominent cha- 
racters : — 

Head transverse, as wide as the thorax; eyes oval, the 
stemmata placed in a triangle on the vertex, the posterior pair 
a little before the hinder margin of the eyes ; antennse short, 
gradually increasing in thickness towards the apex, inserted at 
the base of the clypeus, but not approximate; thorax ovate, 
truncated posteriorly, the collar and scutellum transverse ; the 
metathorax having a cruciform incisure, the transverse one curving 
upwards ; the superior wings with one marginal cell, and three 
gubmarginal; the second submarginal triangular, the third 
elongate transversely, and of equal width throughout ; the first 
and second submarginal cells each receiving a recurrent nervure 
near their apex ; the legs of moderate length, and stout ; the 
intermediate and posterior tibise strongly spinose; the clawa 
have within their fork a large pulvillus ; abdomen ovato-conic, 
the apical segment acute. 



V. — A few remarks on the Menispermacese. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

It is now upwards of three years since I completed, as far as 
the materials at my command allowed me, an investigation of the 
very interesting and little understood order of the Menispermacea. 
This I had arranged in the form of a monograph of some con- 
siderable extent, illustrated by numerous drawings of species 
and analytical details of each genus ; but it has not yet been 
Ann. 6f Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 3 



34 Mr. J. INIiers on the Menisperraacese. 

published, because I have been awaiting the chance of obtaining 
better materials for determining the characters of a few genera, 
and also because I have been led away by my inquiries into the 
Solanacea and some other families, to which my attention has 
been called in this interval. The investigation of the Menisper- 
macetE, on account of the minuteness of their Howers, has required 
much patient examination, and several hundred analyses have 
been repeated many times, and their details registered, in order 
to ensure the utmost amount of truth. Still, I feel that the 
inquiry is yet incomplete, and with the view of obtaining the 
desiderata required, I will endeavour here, in as short a space as 
possible, to give an outline of what I have already done, and what 
still remains to be ascertained. With this view, I now present 
a sketch of the principal features, that may serve to mark the 
distribution of this family into distinct tribes, arranged in a 
tabular view, and assisted by a short distinctive character of 
each genus. 1 will not endeavour to explain my views, in re- 
gard to the true affinities of this order, until I am better enabled 
to exhibit at full length the numerous facts I have collected 
together : this will be reserved for a more fitting opportunity ; 
but I will now merely observe, that after a very careful inquiry 
into the subject, I cannot accord with the original views of 
Prof. Lhidley, who diflPers from all other botanists in regard to 
the position of this order in the system. In his ' Introduction 
to Botany,^ 2nd edit. p. 314, he points out its resemblance with 
the Smilacea, and places it in his class of Imperfecta, near Poly- 
gonacece. Subsequently in his 'Vegetable Kingdom,' p. 307, 
renouncing this view, he arranges the Menispermacece among his 
" Diclinous Exogens," near the Mi/risticacecB and Monimiacece, 
far distant from the position assigned to it by all preceding 
systematists. I feel quite assured, that if this distinguished 
botanist had been better acquainted with the structure of this 
order, he would have come to a very different conclusion. My 
own observations lead me to concur generally with the views of 
the late Prof. DeCandolle, who in his ' Systema Vegetabilium ' 
and his excellent ' Prodromus,' placed this family near the Ano- 
nacece, among the hypogynous polypetalous orders (the Hypo- 
petalecB of Jussieu), a position confirmed by Endlicher, Meissner, 
and other eminent systematic botanists. It is hardly necessary 
to remark, that both the Sclmandraceee and Lardizabalacece must 
remain in juxtaposition with the Menispermacece. 

There is probably no family in the whole vegetable kingdom 
so completely heteromorphous as the Menispermacea, or that 
presents such extreme and aberrant features at variance with its 
normal structure. These extremes are found in the habit of the 



Mr. J. Miers on the Menispermacese. 35 

plants, ill the texture and form of the leaves, in the various 
modes of inflorescence, in the number, arrangement and manner 
of aestivation of the floral envelopes, in the form and position of 
the stamens, as well as in the structure of the anthers, and their 
mode of dehiscence, in the presence or absence of a distinct 
gynophorus, in the variable character of the style and stigma, 
in the extent of development of the ovule, in the form of the 
nut, in the seed, sometimes exalbuminous, at others with albu- 
men highly developed, which is often fleshy and homogeneous, 
copious or sparse in quantity, and in other cases, singularly con- 
structed of ruminated lamellar plates, and finally, in the varia- 
tion of the form and development of the embryo, whose coty- 
ledons are sometimes large, fleshy, and adpressed, or they are 
slender and seraiterete, but are often broad, foliaceous, thin in 
texture, divaricate, and placed in separate cells in the albumen. 
Such extreme differences of structural arrangement would in 
many cases induce a division of the family into distinct orders, 
but the Menispermacea possess altogether so many features in 
common, and are so very distinct from any other class of plants, 
that their integrity as one whole group is both desirable and 
natural. It is however essential to divide them into distinct 
tribes, and these again into sections and genera, somewhat after 
the following manner. 

MeNISPERMACEARUM DiSTRIBUTlO. 

Tribus 1. Heterocline^. Embryo homotropus, 
cotyledonibus foliaceis, lateraliter divaricatis, et 
intra laminas 2 albuminis in locellis distinctis sin- 
gulatim inclusis (lamina dorsali simplici, ventrali 
crassiori, sfepissime profunde ruminata, rai-issime 
simplici) radicula brevi, tereti, supera. 

Cotyledonibus foliaceis, foraminibus plurimis 

perforatis? 1. Coscinium. 

Cotyledonibus foliaceis, simplicibus, viz. 

Stamina plurima, receptaculo globoso sessili 

adnata 2. Anamirta. 

Stamina 12 omnia libera -3. Calycocarpum. 

Stamina 10, i. e. 5 libera, et 5 monadelpha ... 4. Odontocarya. 
Stamina 6 libera; antherae immersse, longi- 

tudinaliter dehiscentes 5. Tinospora. 

Stamina 6 libera; antberse adnatse, 4-lob8e, 

transversim dehiscentes 6. Jateorhiza. 

Stamina 6 libera ; filamenta brevia incrassata, 

antherae longit. dehiscentes 7- Burasaia. 

Stamina 6 libera ; filamenta dilatata membra- 

nacea 8. Chasmanthera. 

Stamina 6 libera ; filamenta petaUs involutis 

adnata 9. Fibraurea. 

Stamen 1, filamentum gi-aeile; antherae 6, 

bilobse, in capitem aggregatae 10. Parabana. 

3* 



36 



Mr. J.Miers on the Menispermacese. 



Tribus 2. Anomosperme^. Embryo heterotro- 
pus, teres, intra albumen copiosum ruminatum 
inclusus, cotyledonibus aceumbentibus curvatis, 
raclicula recta, stylo excentrico spectante*. Se- 
pala sestivatione imbrieata. 

Petala 6 eamosa 11. Anomospermiim. 

Tribus 3. Tiliacore^. Embryo hippoerepice 
campylotropus, cotyledonibus foliaceis, incum- 
bentibus, intra albumen ruminatum copiosum, 
radicula centripeta supera : sepala sestivatione 
valvata. 

Petala 6. Ovaiium glabrum 12. Tiliacora. 

Petala 0. Ovarium tomentosum 13. Abutal 

Tribus 4. Leptogone^. Embryo bippocrepice 
campylotropus, cotyledonibus teretibus subincum- 
bentibus, intra albumen simplex parcum inclusis, 
radicula centripeta supera : sepala sestivatione 
imbrieata. 

§ EleutharrhenecB. Stamina distincta. Ova- 
ria 3. Sepala 6. 

<? Pet. 0. Stam. 12-18 libera, ? Pet. 6 .... 14. Menispermum. 
S Pet. 6. Stam. 6 libera. 9 Pet. 6 cuneato- 

auriculata 15. Pericampylus. 

S Pet. 6. Stam. 6-9 libera. ? Pet. 6 cuneato- 

auriculata 16. Hyj)serj)a. 

$ Pet. 6. Stam. 6 basi monadelpha. $ ignota. 17. Pselium. 

§ Cissampelidece. Stamina in unicum coalita. 
Ovarium unicum. 

J ignota. $ Pet. 3 18. Ileocarpus. 

$ ignota. 9 Pet. 4 19. Homocnemia. 

J Sepala 6. Pet. 3. Antberae lobae 6 peltatim 

affixae. 9 Pet. 3 20. Stephania. 

Sepala 4. Pet. 4 connata. Antherse lobae 

2 peltatim affixae. 9 ignota 21. Clypea. 

S Sepala 8. Pet. 4 connata. Antberae lobae 4 

conglobatae. 9 22. Cyclea. 

(J Sepala 4. Pet. 1 poculiforme. Antberae lobae 

4-12 peltatim affixae. 9 Petalum 1 23. Cissampelos. 

3 Sepala 4. Pet. 1 poculiforme. Antberae 

lobae 4 peltatim affixae. 9 Pet. 2 24. Antizoma. 

,? Sepalum 1. Pet. 1 globosum. Antberae lobae 

6 peltatim affixae. 9 Petalum 1 26. Rhaptomeris. 



* In this, as in all the following tribes, the radicle, in reality, always 
points towards the true apex of the fruit, although in some cases, from 
the very excentric growth of the latter, it seems, at first sight, to be directed 
towards its base : in this last-mentioned manner it is indeed described by 
most botanists, but it is manifestly an error. In another place I have 
fully discussed this point of structure, and it appears to me that my view 
is supported by unquestionable evidence. 



Mr. J. Miers on the Meni sperm ace8e. 37 

Tribus 5. Platygone^. Embryo hippocrepiee 
campylotropus, cotyledonibus foliaceis incumben- 
tibus intra albumen simplex parcum inclusis, 
radicula centripeta supera. 

Pet. 6 emarginata imo involuta. Nux condylo 

2-camerato utrinque perforato 26. Cocculus. 

Pet. 6 bifida lobis acutis. Nux condylo 2-came- 
rato utrinque perforato 27. Nephroica. 

Pet. 6 bifida lobis obtusis. Nux condylo 2-ca- 
merato foraminibus 3 perforato 28. Holopeira. 

Pet. G cuneata auriculata apice dentata. Nux 
condylo septiformi hippocrepiee 2-marsu- 
piata 29. Diploclisia. 

Tribus 6. PachygonejE. Embryo omnino ex- 
albuminosus, hippocrepiee vel fere annulari-cam- 
pylotropus, cotyledonibus magnis crassis, radicula 
parva, centripeta, supera. 

(J Pet. 0. 5 Ovaria 3, cotyledonibus crassis 

hippocrepicis 30. Anelasma. 

S Pet. 0. $ Ovaria ignota 31. Limacia. 

<? Pet. 6. 9 Ovaria 6, cotyledonibus crassis 

cyclicis 32. Pleogyne. 

S Pet. 6. $ Ovaria 6, cotyledonibus crassis 

hippocrepicis 33. Botryopsis. 

<? Pet. 6. 9 Ovaria 3, cotyledonibus crassis 

cyclicis : floribus racemosis 34 . Pachygone. 

(? ignota. 2 Ovaria 3, cotyledonibus crassis 
cyclicis: floribus umbellatis 35. Sciadotenia. 

Genera dubise sectionis, embryonis forma ignota. 

36. Chondodendron ad Platygoneas ? vel potius ad Heteroclineas. 

37. Hyperbcena ad Platygoneasl 

38. Tinomiscium ad Heteroclineas ? 

39. Pycnarrhena ? 

40. Antitaxis ? 

Genera dubia vel ab ordine repellenda. 

Spirospermum, Thouars (Endl. Gen. no. 4690) : genus in ordinem dubium 
propter embryonem exalbuminosum longissimum spiraliter tortum. 

Agdestis, Moc. Sess. (idem, no. 4684) : genus valde dubium propter ovai-ia 
coalita et flores hermaphroditos. 

lodes, Blume (idem, no. 4689) : genus sine dubio ad Phytocreneas re- 
ferendum. 

Meniscosta, Blume (idem, no. 4688) est certissime Sabia, Coleb. genus 
anomalum dubife sedis. 

1 . Coscinium, Coleb., comprises four species from Ceylon and 
India: — 1. C.fenestratum,Co\eh. 2. C. JViffktianum {CoW.Wight, 
no. 2469). 3. C. Wallichianum (Wall. Cat. n. 4971 in partem). 
4. C. Blumeanum (Wall. Cat. n. 4971 in partem). The three 
last species are in the Wallichian herbarium under the name of 
Cocculus Blumeanus, Wall. The structure of the seed, as figured 
by Gaertner, well corresponds with that of the other genera of 
this tribe, but the fenestrated appearance of the cotyledons re- 



38 Mr. J. Mieis on the Menispermacese. 

quires to be confirmed by more recent observation. I have not 
been able to meet with the seed. 

2. Anamirta, Coleb. has four species, the type of which is the 
Cocculus suberosus, DC. : of this genus I have a very complete 
analysis. Here also belongs the Cocculus populif alius, DC. 

3. Cali/cocarpum, Nutt. consists of a single species, the Meni- 
spermumLyoni, DC. : its details are very faithfully given in Gray's 
Gen. PI. Un. St. Am. i. p. 75. tab. 30. 

4. Odontocarya comprises three species from Brazil ; the type, 
which I found in the Organ Mountains, and which I examined 
in the living state, has aflfbrded complete analytical details. The 
Cissanipelos Vitis, Flor. Flum. tab. 137, and Cissampelos Her- 
nandia, idem, tab. 136, evidently belong to this genus. 

5. Tinospora contains eleven species, most of which are already 
known : it is a well-marked genus, and I have complete details 
of its structure : the following may be referred to it : Cocculus 
co7-difolius, DC. ; C. convolvulaceus, DC. (Wall. Cat. no. 4955 B 
and 4966 C) ; C. crispus, DC. (Wall. Cat. 4966 A, 4966 B) ; 
C. Malabaricus, DC. (Wall. Cat. 4969) ; C. lacunosus, DC. ; C. 
tomentosus, Coleb. (Wall. Cat. 4956 A) ; C. glaucus, DC. ; C. fla- 
vescens, DC. ; C. Bakis, A. Rich. 

6. Jateorhiza is a very distinct genus, consisting of three 
species: — 1. /, palmata [Cocculus pahnatus, DC. Hook. Bot. 
Mag. tab. 2970). 2. /. Columba (Wall. Cat. n. 4953). 3. /. 
strigosa, from Fernando Po (Flora Nigritiana, p. 213, tab. 18). 

7. Burasaia, Thouars, a genus consisting of three species from 
i\ladagascar, has been well described by Prof. Decaisne in his 
admirable memoir on the Lardizabalece, and I am indebted to 
his kindness for an opportunity of examining its male flowers, 
the characters of which certainly agree with the Menisjjermaceie, 
and these, as well as the structure of the ovarium, as described 
by M. Decaisne, conform well with the Heteroclinea. It is due 
to the very distinguished botanist just mentioned, to state, that in 
referring this genus to the LardizabaletJE, he did this with much 
hesitation ; the true features of the Menispermucece had not then 
been elaborated, and it must be confessed that its 3- foliate leaves 
and the nucleus being invested by a pulpy arillus indicate a strong 
tendency towards the Lardizabalacece, but its distinct ovaria with 
solitary ovules fix it beyond doubt among the Menisjyermaceae. 

8. Clutsmanthera, Hochst. Of this genus I have very com- 
plete details of the male flowers, and of the seed, but the female 
flowers remain to be examined. The characters of this genus, 
given by Prof. Hochstedter (as quoted in Walpers Hep. v. p. 18), 
are far from correct or intelligible : only one species is recorded. 

9. Fibraurea, Lour. This genus has been here restored upon 
very efficient data, but I have only seen the male flowers, and 



Mr, J. Miers on tlie Menispermacese. 39 

nuts containing imperfect seeds. Loureiro's typical specimen 
from Cocliin-China exists in the herbarium of the British Mu- 
seum ; this I have examined, together with three other species 
from Malacca, which I have found in the herbaria of Sir William 
Hooker and Dr. Lemann. 

10. Parahana, a genus of which I possess complete details; 
the typical species is identical with the Cissampelos oleracea, 
Wall. Cat. no. 4984 : the other species are : 2. P. sagittata 
{Cissampelos sagittata, Wall. Cat. 4983) ; 3. P. heterophylla, from 
Assam, in the collections of the late Mr. Griffiths [p.. 355) ; 4. 
P.ferruginea (idem, no. 74). 

11. Anomospermum. This genus comprises three species 
from Brazil and Guiana : the typical one was found by me in 
the Organ Mountains, when I made a very complete analysis 
from living specimens. 1. A. nitidum. 2. A. Schomburgkii 
(Schomburgk's Guiana Collection, no. 833). 3. A. Hostmanni 
(Hostmann^s Surinam Collection, no. ). 

12. Tiliacora, Coleb., an Indian genus consisting of several 
species, the type of which is T. acuminata {T. racemosa, Coleb. ; 
Cocculus acuminatus, DC, Deless. Icon. i. tab. 95, Wall. Cat. 
no. 4958). I have obtained complete details of the structure of 
the male flowers and of the seed, but the female flowers are yet 
wanting. One species from Ceylon presents a circumstance of 
rare occurrence in this order, perfectly hermaphrodite flowers ; 
but whether this be a constant character, or only a casual occur- 
rence, can only be ascertained by future observations with com- 
petent specimens. Bisexual flowers are also met with in other 
genera, although very rarely. 

13. Abuta. I have restored this genus of Aublet upon a 
distinct group of plants from Brazil and Guiana. Nine species 
may be referred here, including among them the Batschia ra- 
cemosa and the B. conferta of Thunberg (the genus Trichoa of 
Persoon), which I have had no opportunity of examining. 1 met 
with a single species in the neighbourhood of Bio de Janeiro, 
which offered male flowers only, but Martin's specimens from 
Cayenne have afforded ample details of the structure of the 
female flowers. Cunningham's collection exhibits specimens in 
fruit, but unfortunately not sufficiently matured to enable me 
to determine the form of the embryo. In the structure of the 
nut, and the form of the nucleus, it approaches Tiliacora, and 
the nucleus appears lamellated when cut transversely, as if it 
were ruminated albumen, but this point could not be determined 
with any degree of certainty from the imperfect state of the 
specimens in question ; its position among the Tiliacorea cannot 
therefore be yet affirmed with confidence. The typical species 
is \h.e-Abuta rufescens, Aubl. (PI. Guy. tab. 250), with which the 



40 Mr. J. Miers on the Menispermacese. 

Cocculus macrophyllus, St. Hil. and Tul., aud the Cissampelos 
Abutua, Flor. rium. tab. 140, may be considered as identical. 
To this genus are likewise referrible the Cissampelos convexa 
(Flor. rium. tab. 141), the Cissampelos uvata (idem, tab. 141), 
the Cocculus tomentosus, Mart. (Flor. Fluui. tab. 143), and the 
Cocculus Martii, St. Hil. and Tul. 

14. Menispermum now only comprises three of the species 
enumerated by DeCandoUe, viz. M. Canadense, M. Dahuricum, 
and M. smilaciniim : specimens of the former have furnished com- 
plete details of its characters, of the second I have seen only 
male flowers, and the last has not come under my observation. 

15. Pericampylus, a new genus, comprising an Indian group 
of plants, of which the Cocculus incanus, DC. is the type. The 
Cissampelos Mauritiana (Wall. Cat. n. 4980) ; C. discolor (Wall. 
Cat. 4982 in partem) ; Menispermum villosum, Roxb. (who has 
a Cijclea under the same name in his herbarium) ; Cissampelos 
convolvulacea, DC, Wall. Cat. n. 4980 in partem, and Cocculus 
corymbosus, Bl., all belong here. 

16. Hypserpa, an East Indian group of plants, of which the 
Cocculus cuspidatus, Wall., may be considered as the type. Of 
this genus complete characters have been obtained. 

17. Pselium, Loureiro, has been restored upon the evidence 
furnished by his original typical specimen preserved in the 
Britisb Museum. Of this genus characters have been obtained 
of its male flowei's only. 

18. Ileocarpus, a new genus proposed for the Menispermum 
{Cocculus) Schimperi, Hochst., from Abyssinia; of this I have 
only obtained a sight of the female flowers and of the seed. 

19. Homocnemia, a new genus founded upon a South African 
plant of Drege's collection, the Cissampelos umbellata, E. Mey. ; 
the specimen I have seen presents only female flowers ; the male 
flowers and the seed are therefore wanting to complete its full 
generic characters. 

20. Stephania, Lour, (non Willd.), comprises a group of East 
Indian plants, the typical species of which is from Japan. Its 
characters are well-marked, but there has been a strange con- 
fusion in regard to the names of the species. It comprises Cis- 
sampelos hexandra, Roxb. {Cocculus Roxburghianus, DC, Wall. 
Cat. n. 4972 in partem) ; Cissampelos hernandtfolia, Willd. ; C. 
discolor, DC. ; C. convolvulacea, DC; C. fflaber, Wght.; C. au- 
stralis, A. Cunn. ; Clypea venosa, Bl. (Cuming, n. 1160). 

21. Clypea. This genus of Blume was made to include most 
of the species of Stephania, but as Lourciro's name claims the 
priority, I have restored Clypea for two of Blume's species that 
diff'er in their structure from Stephania : these are, Clypea acumi- 
nalissima, Bl., and CI. capilata, Bl. I have seen only male 



Mr. J. Miers on the Menisperraacese. 41 

flowers ; the female flowers and the seed are therefore wanting 
to complete its generic features. 

22. Cyclea. The characters of this genus have heen com- 
pleted from my observations upon some Indian plants, which 
appear to correspond with the Cocculus Burmanni, a species to 
which Dr. Wight cursorily refers (111. Ind. Bot. i. p. 23), as 
being distinct from Clypea, and for which, although he offers 
no generic character, he suggests the title of Cyclea : I therefore 
willingly adopt his name. Here also belong Cissampelos discolor, 
Wall. (Cat. n. 4982, non DC.) ; C. barbata, Wall. Cat. n. 4978; 
Menispermum villosum, Roxb. 

23. Cissampelos, Linn. A great many heterogeneous plants 
have been referred to this genus, and it is impossible to determine 
many of the species that really belong to it, from the mere laconic 
descriptions by which they have been particularized. I have 
been able to examine many, and to refer them to their proper 
places, but several yet remain to be inspected ; I have also deter- 
mined a number of new species yet undescribed. As the habit 
and floral structure of this genus are so peculiar, there can be 
little hesitation in referring here by far the greater number of 
the recorded species, notwithstanding the imperfect descriptions 
given with them. There are however several among them that 
do not conform to this test, and others of which no sufficient 
character is registered. Among these two classes of doubtful 
species are C psilophylla, Presl ; C. triloba, Spr. ; C. acuminata, 
DC. ; C. laurifolia, Poir. ; C. ebracteata, St. Hil. ; C. australis, 
St. Hil.; C monoica, St. Hil.; C. gracilis, St. Hil.; C. Haenkeana, 
Presl; C. hirsutissima, Presl; C. Kohautiana, Presl; C. cordi- 
folia, Boj. ; C. apiculata, Hochst. ; C. glabra, Roxb. ; C. ovata, 
Poir. 

24. Antizoma, a new genus founded upon the Cissampelos 
calcarifera and the C. angustifolia of Burchell, to which I have 
added three other species, all from the interior of South Africa. 
I have seen only male flowers, so that its entire generic character 
remains yet imperfect. 

25. Rhaptomeris, a genus founded upon the imusual circum- 
stance in this family of its calycine segments being united into 
a campanular gamophyllous tube, and its petals being connate 
in form of a globular cup. It consists of two species, both from 
Ceylon, one being the Cocculus Burmanni, DC. (non W. and A.). 
The female flowers and fruit are as yet unknown. 

26. Cocculus, Bauh. This genus has served to receive Me- 
nispermaceous plants of every denomination, so that very few of 
the numerous species enumerated by difierent authors can now 
be referred here with certainty. As at present defined, Cocculus 
Carolinianus, DC, may be considered its type. I have deter- 



42 Mr. J. Miers un the Menispermacese. 

mined from authenticated specimens the Cocculus Cebathi, DC, 
C. Leaba, DC, C. Epibaterium, DC, Epibaterium pendulum, 
Forst., and Cocculus ellipticus, DC, all to be one species, which 
will henceforward bear the former name. These, together with 
the C. oblongifolius, DC, are the only three that I have been 
able to establish, as appertaining to this genus, out of the forty- 
six species enumerated in the ' Prodromus ' of DeCandolle : all 
the others belong to other genera, to which I have referx'ed them, 
excepting the eight following, whose place must remain doubtful 
until they can be more carefully examined : viz. Cocculus Forsteri, 
DC ; C. rotundifolius, DC. ; C. aristolocMm, DC ; C. hastatus, 
DC ; C. Thunbei'gii, DC. ; C. cotoneaster, DC. ; C. multiflora, 
DC; aud C. gomphioides, DC. The following twenty-two 
additional species, collated in Walpers^s ' Repertorium,^ remain in 
like manner doubtful, in regard to the genus to which they are 
strictly referrible, viz. Cocculus corymbosus, Bl. ; C. lanuginosus, 
Bl. ; C. rimosus, Bl. ; C. glaucescens, Bl. ; C. ovalifolius, Bl. (uon 
DC.) ; C. banistericpf alius, Rich. ; C. oblongifolius, Mart, (uon 
DC) ; C. filipendula, Mart. ; C. paniculiget-us, Mart. ; C. Japu- 
rensis, ]\Iart. ; C. reticulatus. Mart. ; C. Imene, INIart. ; C. Icevi- 
gatus, Mart. ; C urophyllus, INIart. ; C. Pa/mi, Mart. ; C. dichrous, 
Mart. ; C. angustifolius, Heskrl. ; C. cinerascens, St. Hil. ; C. 
macrojihyllus, St. Hil., and C. Martii, St. Hil. ; most of the last- 
mentioned species, from the descriptions given, probably belong 
to Abuta or Botryopsis. 

27. Nephroica. This genus I have proposed for a very distinct 
group of plants, mostly natives of India, the type of which is the 
Cocculus Nephroia, DC, the Nephroia sarmentosa. Lour. : its 
characters are well-marked and complete. Here must be re- 
ferred the Cocculus diontherus, Hook. ; C. ovalifolius, DC. ; C. 
trilobus, DC ; C. cynanchoides, Presl ; C. Bantamensis, Bl. ; C. 
Ferrandianus, Presl ; C. laicrif alius, DC. (Wall. Cat. 4965) ; C. 
mollis, Wall. (Cat. 4973); Menispermum hexagonum, Roxb. (Wall. 
Cat. 4968) ; M. parabolicum, Roxb. &c. 

28. Holopeira is a genus comprising several plants of East 
Indian and African origin, differing from Nephroica in the shape 
of its petals and the peculiar structure of its nut ; its type is the 
Cocculus villosus, DC, and its characters have been completely 
determined. 

29. Diplaclisia represents another group of East Indian and 
Australasian plants, of which the Cocculus macrocarpus, W. and 
Arn., is the type. They are readily distinguished by the extreme 
length of their racemes, the structure of their nut, and the form 
of the seed. 

30. Anelasma has been formed for a series of South American 
plants, one of which has been figured by Poppig, Nov. Gen. 



Mr. J. Miers on the Menisperraacese. 43 

tab. 188, under the name of Abuta concolor. The type is A. 
Gardnerianum from Brazil (Gard. n. 3567) ; another species is 
A. Gnianense (Schorab. n. 440). The Cocailus Domingensis, 
DC. (DeLess. Icon. Sel. tab. 96), also belongs here. It bears 
much similarity in the form of its flowers to Abuta. I have 
seen only the male flowers and seed ; the female flowers are 
wanting to complete its generic characters. 

31. Limacia, Lour. This forms another of Loureiro's genera 
which I have restored upon very sufficient data : it represents a 
very distinct group of plants of East Indian growth, which I 
have been able to compare wdth the typical species L. scandens, 
Lour., still existing in the British Museum, and which bears a 
close analogy to Anelasma, their analogue of the other hemisphere. 
Here belong the Cocculus velutinus, Wall. (Cat. n. 4970, a : 
Cuming, n. 3403) ; and Cocculus ohlongus, Wall. (Cat. n. 4963). 
I have formed a subgenus under the name of Stereoclea for two 
species, which differ only in having three, instead of six stamens ; 
one is the Menispermum triandrum, Roxb. (Wall. Cat. n. 4963) ; 
the other also exists in the Wallichian herbarium (Wall. Cat. 
n. 4953 in partem). 

33. Pleogyne is a genus proposed for an Australasian plant 
of Cunningham's collection, distinguished by the unusual number 
of its ovaria. I have seen only the female flowers and the fruit ; 
the male flowers are therefore wanting to complete its generic 
character. 

33. Botryopsis was constituted many years ago, upon a plant 
which I examined in the Organ Mountains of Brazil. I met 
with its male flowers and fruit, but its female flowers are yet 
wanting. Its species bear much external resemblance to those 
of Abuta, and they are only to be distinguished by an examina- 
tion of their flowers, which are very distinct in structure. I have 
ascertained that the Cocculus platyphyllus, St. Hil., belongs to 
this genus, and hence also C. Ildefonsianus, St. Hil. and TuL, 
which is said to be only a variety of the same. It is probable 
that the Cocculus cinerascens, St. Hil., is also referrible here. 

34. Pachygone will represent a group of East Indian plants, 
distinguished also for their exalbuminous seeds, and of which the 
Cocculus Plukenettii, DC, may be considered the type. Its cha- 
racters have been fully determined. Here may be referred the 
Cocculus Wightianus, Wall. (Cat. 4959), C. brachystachys, DC, 
judging from the structure of its fruit, and probably also C. lep- 
tostachys, DC. 

35. Sciadotenia is a new genus, proposed for a plant of Mar- 
tin's collection from Cayenne, with a decidedly umbellate in- 
florescence, and a very distinct habit. Both its male and female 
flowers arc unknown, but its seed is of peculiar structure. 



44 Mr. J. Miers on the Menispermacese. 

36. Chondodendron, K. and P. I have restored this genus of 
the Flora Peruviana, upon a very distinct group of plants, all of 
South American origin, and of which the type is the Chondo- 
dendron tomentosum, R. and P. [Cocailus Chondodendron, DC). 
Another species is figured by Poppig (Nov. Gen. tab. 190), under 
the name of Chondodendron convolvulaceum. I have seen only 
the male and female flowers, but not the fruit : from his figure 
of the seed, we might conclude it must belong to the Hetero- 
cliniea, but as he describes the embryo to be perispherical, and 
does not state whether or not it be albuminous, it remains un- 
certain to which tribe this genus can be referred ; in habit, all 
the species bear a remarkable resemblance to Tinospora. Coc- 
culus tamoides, DC, is referrible here. I have determined eight 
species altogether, among which are two plants collected by 
Gardner in Piauhy, which I have named C. hederifolium (Gardn. 
n. 2009) and C. scabrum (Gardn. n. 2473). 

37. Hrjperbcena is a genus comprising a group of South 
American and Mexican plants, the type of which, H. nemoralis, 
I found in the forests of the Corcovado, near Rio de Janeiro. 
The characters of both the male and female flowers are deter- 
mined, but the fruit is wanting to fix the tribe to which it 
belongs. I have met with five species, viz. the above-mentioned ; 
H. Moricandii from Ilheos (Moric. n. 2346) ; H. Hostmanni from 
Sui'inam (Hostm. n. 1050) ; H. Mexicana from Mexico (Jun- 
gensen, n. 91) ; H. Tweedii from Rio Grande do Sul (Tweedie). 
They bear much the habit of some species of Anelasma. 

38. Tinomiscium is constituted for thi-ee plants of peculiar 
habit: the Cocculus peiiolaris, Wall. (Cat. n. 4964), Cocculics 
coriaceus, Hook., both from Penang; and a species from Java 
(Zollinger, n. 745). All these species present only male flowers, 
so that it is yet uncertain to which tribe they can be referred ; 
but from their peculiar habit and the larger size and structure 
of their flowers, they more I'esemble the Heterocliniece. 

39. Prjcnarrhena is proposed for a plant from Sylhet, of a very 
distinct appearance and habit, approching Anamirta in having 
more than the usual number of stamens, aggregated in a central 
globular mass. This plant is the Cocculus planifoliiis, Wall. 
Cat. no. 4961) : it has only male flowers, so that it cannot yet 
be referred with certainty to any particular tribe. 

40. Antifaxis is founded upon a plant from Malacca, collected 
by the late Mr. Griffiths; it bears much analogy in habit to 
Pycnarrhena, but is very different in the structure of its flower; 
its floral envelopes are decussately arranged in opposite pairs, 
there being only two petals and four stamens ; it has only male 
flowers, hence its true position cannot yet be determined. 

The above brief remarks will afford some general notion of the 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 45 

extent to which this inquiry has been carried, and what still 
remains to be done in order to complete the investigation of this 
interesting family. Having pointed out the desiderata wanting 
for this purpose, I shall feel greatly obliged to botanists for any 
assistance they can contribute towards its attainment. 



VI. — On some new Silurian Mollusca. By Frederick M'Coy, 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's College, 
Belfast. 

Potei-ioceras ellipticum (M'Coy). 

Syn. and Ref. Orthoceras pyriforme (Sow.), pars Sil. Syst. 
t. 8. f. 19 (lower and not upper figure). 

Sp. Char. Elliptical, last chamber conoidal; greatest width at 
last septum, from whence the chambered and unchambered 
portions taper elliptically to the contracted mouth and atte- 
nuated extremity ; septa nearly horizontal, the last three or 
four about 2| lines apart : greatest width of last chamber (at 
septum) 2 inches 3 lines ; length of last chamber 2 inches 4i 
lines. 

There are clearly two species confounded by Sowerby in the 
' Silurian System ' under the name Orthoceras pyriforme ; the 
diflference in forai he supposed to be produced by the direction 
of pressure, but I find it to be constant in perfectly vmcrushed 
specimens. To that represented by his upper figure I would 
restrict his specific name pyriforme, its characteristic pear-shaped 
form being mainly owing to the greatest width being in the 
middle of the last chamber, or midway between the last septum 
and the mouth ; the upper half of the last chamber being abruptly 
rounded, while the other portion of the shell tapers gradually. 
In the other species the greatest width is at about the last one 
or two septa, from whence the last chamber tapers gradually to 
the mouth with about the same curve that the chambered portion 
tapers towards the apex, giving a very different regularly elliptical 
figure to the present species, which I have named accordingly. 

Common in the Lower Ludlow rock near Aymestry. 

{Col. University of Cambridge, &c.) 

Phragmoceras intermedium (M'Coy). 

Syn. and Ref. P. arcuatum (Sow.), pars Sil. Syst. t. 11. f. 1. 

(not t. 10. f. 1^). 

Sp. Char. Slightly arched, tapering at the rate of 4 Unes in 1 
inch ; section ovate, sides gently convex, outer and inner faces 
rounded : a specimen (not quite perfect) 2 inches 5 lines long 



46 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Molhisca. 

has the long (antero-postcrior) diameter at the large end 1 mch 
4 hues, at the small end 9 lines ; short (lateral) diameter at 
large end 10 lines; length of last chamber 1 inch 1 line; the 
last five or six septa 1^ line apart in the middle of the side. 

1 have not clearly seen the siphon of this species, which is 
about as thick and slightly arched as the P. arcuahim (of which 
it is figured as a separate variety by Sovverby), but tapers much 
more slowly as in the P. conipressum. 

Not uncommon in the green mudstoue (Lower Ludlow rock) 
of Green quarry, Leintwardine. 

{Col. University of Cambridge, &c.) 

Cycloceras tenui-annulatum (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Nearly cylindrical (tapering half a line in 2 inches at 
a diameter of 6 lines) ; rings narrow, sharply defined, half a line 
wide, slightly oblique, six in half an inch at the above dimen- 
sions ; surface with very minute, longitudinal, equal strise, 
twelve or fourteen in a space of 1 line; towards the small 
end a few circular striae on each ring decussating the longitu- 
dinal lines. 

This species differs constantly from the Orthoceras {Cycloceras) 
Ibex by the narrower and more sharply defined rings, and their 
considerably greater number in a given space in specimens of the- 
same size ; the longitudinal striation is even finer than in that 
species. 

Not uncommon in the green Lower Ludlow mudstone of Green 
quarry, Leintwardine, and near Aymestry ; rare in the Upper 
Ludlow quartzite of Brigsteer, Kendal. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Oi'tkoceras politum (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Veiy elongate, conic, regularly tapering at the rate of 
half a line in 1 inch, from a diameter of 7 lines ; from which 
size to 5 lines, the septa have a uniform distance of 3 lines 
apart ; they are slightly oblique, convex, with even edges ; 
siphon moderate, excentric, its own diameter from the centre ; 
surface smooth. 

One specimen with a glossy, horn-like external surface, slightly 
imperfect at each end, measures 1 inch 4 lines in diameter at the 
mouth, is 1 foot 8 inches long, and measures 2 lines in diameter 
at the smaller end, where the septa are slightly oblique, and 
1^ line apart. 

Not uncommon in the impure calcareous concretions of Glen- 
quapple, Scotland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 47 

Bellerophon subdecussatus (M'Coy). 
Sv Char. Globose, of one and a half or two very rapidly en- 
\vZ^ whorls, ubcompressed towards the very obtusely an- 
lukr 01 rounded eircLference ; sides gibbous; umbdicus 
S, deep, partially exposmg the whor s ; ^^^1 '' 
in pi^portion to diameter, width -f-J^, ength of mouth -,^^, 
IZL of umbihcus ,Vn; surface with « -Jg^ ^-ns^e^^e 
ridges arching backward from the umbilicus to the undehned 
band formini a wide V-shaped sinus; about four or five of 
these transveSe ridges m the space of 1 line -ar die m^^^^^^^ 
thev are crossed by much finer spiral stri^, about the san^e 
dSnce apart, from one to three of which are usually stronger 
than the rest near the band. 

This species is extremely like the carboniferous B. decussatus 
(Flem.), but has the transverse strise much stronger than the 

'^ Rarer'the schists of Llanrwst and fine Caradoc sandstone of 
Mulock, Dalquorhan, Ayrshire. 
[Col University of Cambridge.) 

Holopella (M'Coy), n. g. 
Gen. Char. Shell spiral, elongate slender of numeiws gra- 
dually increasing whorls, generally crossed by slightly arched 
stri^ ■ mouth circular, with the peritreme entire ; base rounded, 
with or without a minute umbihcus. 

These shells have hitherto been confounded with the recent 
^enus Turritella, from which they differ completely m the entire 
peritreme and definite round margin to the mouth, thus approach- 
ing much nearer to Scalaria. From Chemmtziat\^Y^ diff-er in 
the smaller size of the body-whorl, and m neither it nor the 
mouth being produced anteally. 

Holopella gracilior (M'Coy). 
8r) Char. Very slender, spiral angle 15°, whorls smooth (num- 
ber unknown), slightly and evenly convex, suture deep, simple 
sutural angle 95° ; width at base 5 Imes, length of last whorl 
3 lines. 

This is distinguished from the/f. ohsoleta by its more slender 
spire (as indicated by the difference in their spiral angles), less 
convex whorls, &c. 

Schists of Dinas Bran, Llangollen. 
{Col University of Cambridge.) 

Holopella intermedia (M'Coy). 
I provisionally give this name to a species agreeing exactly. 



48 Prof. P. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 

so far as I can see, with the H. obsoleta (Sow. sp.), but having an 
apical angle of 30^, being thus exactly intermediate between it and 
the H. conica (Sow. sp.)^ striking the eye as manifestly shorter 
than the former, and more slender than the latter. Length 
about 7 lines, width 3 lines, length of last whorl 2i lines. 

Not uncommon in the state of casts in the Upper Ludlow rock 
of High Thorns Underbarrow, Kendal, Westmoreland. 
[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Holopella monile (M'Coy). ■• 

Sp. Char. Very slender, apical angle about 10°, spire of about 
nine whorls (six preserved), each turn a little wider than long, 
exceedingly convex, sutures deep, simple. Length 3^ lines, 
width 1 line, length of last turn slightly less than 1 line. 

The small size, exti*emely slender form, and very convex whorls, 
render it impossible to confound this with any other species. 
Rare in the schists of Selottyn Road. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Littorina undifera (j\I'Coy). 

/Sp. Char. Turreted, broad, ovate ; spire pointed, about three- 
fourths the length of the body- whorl ; apical angle about 80° ; 
sutures channeled, having a little below them a thick spiral 
ridge undulated by about eight vertical depressions, which 
cross the whorls of the spire and upper part of the body-whorl ; 
below this ridge is a wide concave space bounded by a second 
thick undulating ridge, forming the most prominent part of the 
whorl ; beneath this second ridge on the body-whorl are about 
ten very delicate, subequal, spiral threads distinctly separated 
by concave spaces, about two of which only are visible on the 
turn of the spire ; entire surface crossed by very close, minute, 
direct lines of growth. Length 3 lines, length of body-whorl 
2 lines, width slightly more than 2 lines. 

This resembles some of the small oolitic PleurotomaricE, but 
there is clearly no sinus in the lip, as indicated by the direct 
lines of growth, and the shell is no doubt congeneric with the 
L. carinata, from the young of which the undulations, &c. distin- 
guish it. 

In the Aymestry limestone of Mortimer's Cross, Aymestry. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Loxonema elegans (M''Coy). 

/Sp. Char. Spire very slender, elongate-conic, apical angle about 
20° ; of about six elongate evenly convex volutions, crossed by 
thread-like striae, arching forward at their ends, and with a 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 49 

broad backward wave in the middle (about three in the space 
of 1 hne) ; sutures deep, simple, sutural angle 100°. Length 

1 inch 11 lines, length of last whorl 9 lines, width 7| lines. 
The greater length and slenderness of the whorls and the 

broader and more shallow wave in the striae separate it from the 
so-called Terebra sinuosa (Sow.). 

In the gray flags of Pont y Meibion ; slates of Llansantfraid, 
Glyn Ceiriog. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Turbo crebristria (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Ovate, of three to four very rapidly enlarging volu- 
tions ; spire small, apical angle about 90°, whorls convex, with 
an obtusely bounded narrow concave space at the sutures above, 
back broad, gently convex ; umbilicus narrow, deep, eifuse at 
the edge, mouth very large, obscurely angulatcd retrally ; shell 
thick, surface girt with sharj) spiral thread-like ridges, nearly 
twice their thickness apart, about four in the space of I line 
on the penultimate whorl, with an occasional finer one between 
a regular pair, all crossed obliquely by very fine, regular, sharp 
lines of growth. Length (of small perfect specimen) 1 inch, 
width 1 inch, length of body-whorl 8 lines (gi'ows to nearly 

2 inches in diameter). 

The large casts of this species are smooth, and resemble Sow- 
erby's figure and description of T. Pricece, except that the back 
is broad and rather flattened, or slightly convex instead of being 
angular in the middle as that species is defined to be. The sub- 
stance of the shell is thick, and its mode of striation resembles 
that of the so- called Pleurotomaria Ulix of Conrad as figured by 
Hall (Palaeontology of New York), which is however distin- 
guished by its smaller size, longer spire and want of an umbi- 
licus. 

Common, of large size, in the calcareous schists of Gellifine ; 
in the fine sandy schists of Mandinam, Llandovery ; in the fine 
Caradoc sandstone of Alt yr Anker, Meifod, Montgomeryshire ; 
in the schists of Gelli Grin, Bala, Merionethshire ; and in the 
limestone of Mynydd Fron Frys, five miles west of Chirk, Glyn 
Ceiriog. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Ti-ochus ccelahts (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Conical, apical angle 80° ; spire of three and a half 
flattened volutions, having a thick rounded keel forming the 
circumference of the basal whorl, and close to the suture on 
the spii'al whorls ; base flattened ; surface marked with oblique 

Ann. ^' Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii 4 



50 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 

scaly ridges. Length 2^ lines, width 4 lines, length of last 
whorl 1 line. 

Owing to the scaly nature of the ornament on the rather wide 
oblique ridges of the surface, they usually adhere to the matrix, 
and breaking off from the shell leave it nearly smooth. 

Very rare in the limestone of Old Radnor, Presteign, Radnor- 
shire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Trochus constrictus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Conical, apical angle about 70°, of four or five gi-a- 
dually increasing whorls, each with a shallow concavity or con- 
striction below the suture, the lower portion strongly rounded, 
base flattened, circumference obtusely rounded ; surface ob- 
liquely crossed by fine, unequal, often obscurely fasciculate 
lines of growth ; mouth transverse, obliquely ovate. Length 
8 Unes, width 7^ hnes, length of mouth 3i lines, width of 
mouth 4 lines. 

This seems allied to the Holopea symmetrica (Hall) of the 
Trenton limestone, but the spire is not so elevated, the base is 
more flattened, and the mouth is stated to be almost circular in 
that species, which besides has the whorls regularly convex from 
the simple suture. 

In the schists on the Bala limestone, Bryn Melyn quarry near 
Bala; Cymmerig, Bala, Mei'ionethshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Trochus Moorei (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Acutely conical, apical angle 50°, of about five (four 
preserved) flattened, gradually increasing whorls ; mouth trans- 
versely subquadrate ; base flattened, moderately convex ; um- 
bilicus deep, narrow ; surface unknown. Length about 8 lines, 
width 6 lines, length of mouth 3 lines, width of mouth 3|- lines. 

I dedicate this very distinct species to J. Carrick Moore, Esq. 
(Secretary of the Geological Society), who has devoted much 
labour to the elucidation of the old fossiliferous rocks of Scot- 
land. 

In the fine Caradoc sandstone of Dalquorhan near Girvan, 
Ayrshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Cucullella (M'Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Subrhomboidal, inequilateral, subequivalve, margins 
even ; hinge-line entirely crenulated ; muscular impressions 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 51 

two, with a simple pallial scar between theni ; a strong internal 
septum extends from before the beaks to the posterior margin 
of the anterior adductor, forming a deep slit in the casts. Sur- 
face generally smooth or nearly so. 

These palaeozoic shells have been confounded with Nucula (by 
Sow., Phill., &c.), from which they differ in wanting the hood- 
like plate of the posterior adductor, and having the septum in 
the anterior end, and with Clidophorus (in Geol. Surv. of Great 
Brit. vol. ii. pt. 2), from which they differ in having the hinge 
crenulated as in Area. 

Tellinites affinis (M^Coy). 
Sp. Char. Elliptical, moderately convex ; beaks small, about one- 
third the length from the anterior end, which is elliptically 
rounded, and with an undefined obtuse cardinal slope ; ventral 
margin nearly straight, with a faint, shallow sinus in the mid- 
dle ; posterior like the anterior end, rounded elliptically, with 
sometimes an almost imperceptible flexure (as in Tellina) ex- 
tending as a hollow in the left valve towards the beak from a 
small sinus in the margin beneath the posterior end ; surface 
smooth, or veith a few obtuse marks of growth. Length 1 inch 
4i lines, width (from beak to opposite margin) -^^q, length of 
anterior end -^^^, depth of valve ~^-q. 

This has almost exactly the shape of our recent Tellina radiata, 
but the minute flexure above alluded to is in the longer end (which 
in that species is the anterior). The species is most allied to the 
Tellina obliqua (Gold,) from the grauwacke of Ems, from which it 
differs in being less transverse, in the beaks not being mesial, 
and in the less angularity of the posterior slope; its greater 
length, less central beaks, and concave ventral margin distin- 
guish it from the Nuculites subemarginata (Conrad). 

Rare in the Upper Ludlow rock of Benson Knot, Kendal, 
Westmoreland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Area [Byssoarca) subcequalis (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. (Cast.) Oblong, eqnivalve, nearly equilateral, ends sub- 
truncate, rounded, very gibbous in the middle, about twice as 
long as wide ; depth of both valves equal to the width ; beaks 
veiy large, obtuse, tumid, marked on the sides with four or 
five large wrinkles ; a shallow sinus for the byssus in the ven- 
tral margin a little nearer the antei'ior than the posterior end, 
and slightly obliterating the simple pallial scar ; adductor im- 
pressions deep, rounded; hinge-teeth very numerous, small, 
equal, at right angles to the hinge-line. Width 10 lines, 
length 1 inch 8 lines. 

4* 



52 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Molltisca. 

In t. 20. f. 1. of the ' Siluriau System/ Mr. Sowerby seems 
to have united two distinct fossils (the diiferences between which 
have been noticed by various writers) under the one name, Area 
Eastnori ; the fig. 1 a. from Eastnor Park should, from the name, 
be considered the type of the species, and is a regular, subcom- 
presscd, oval shell without ventral sinus, while the other, fig. 1 b, 
— of which Mr. Sowerby says, " If it be not an old shell grown 
very thick, it may be a different species," — may I think possibly 
be referred to the present fossil. 

In the gray micaceous sandstone of Llechdawdd, Myddfai. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Area Edmondiaformis (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Oblong, obtusely subquadrate, very gibbous; beaks 
very large, tumid, about one-fourth of the length from the 
anterior end, which is obtusely rounded ; ventral margin 
slightly sinuate in the middle ; posterior end very slightly ob- 
lique, obtusely rounded ; hinge-line nearly straight, as long as 
the shell, with numerous minute teeth inclining shghtly to- 
wards the beak ; surface smooth or with minute wrinkles of 
growth. Width 5 lines, length 7^ lines, greatest depth of one 
valve (at middle) 2| lines. 

This species resembles a small Modiolopsis or Edmondia in 
form, but in some of the specimens the hinge-teeth are seen as 
in Area, except that they incline slightly towards the beak in- 
stead of from it. 

In the fine sandy beds near Llangynyw Rectory, Montgomery- 
shire ; Caradoc sandstone of Alt y Gader ; in the Upper Ludlow 
Rock of Benson Knot, Kendal, Westmoreland; Moel Seisiog, 
Llanrwst ; Bala, Merionethshire ; and Ab Hirnant. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Dolabra elliptiea (IM'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Elongate, elliptical, length slightly more than twice 
the width ; beaks obtuse, moderate, one-sixth of the length 
from the anterior end ; anterior end small, elliptically rounded ; 
ventral margin slightly convex ; hinge-line slightly elevated ; 
posterior end obliquely rounded ; valves moderately convex ; 
diagonal ridge very obtusely rounded, posterior slope steep, 
but not abruptly flattened ; surface appai'ently marked with 
fine lines of growth. Length 1 inch 6 lines, width from beak 
to opposite margin 8 lines, width from ventral margin to end 
of hinge-line about the same, depth of one valve 3 lines. 

The specimen described shows that in the left valve there were 
no other teeth but the thick elongate postei'ior one or ligamen- 



Prof. P. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 53 

tary ridge, which is about a line below the hinge-margin. This 
differs from the D. obtusa (M'Coy) in its narrow, elongate ellip- 
tical figure and less gibbosity. 

Tilestone of Storm Hill, Llandeilo. 

{Col, University of Cambridge.) 

Dolabra obtusa (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Obliquely ovate, width about three-fifths of the 
length, gibbous ; beaks large, obtuse, nearly in the centre of 
the hinge-line, and one- fourth of the length from the anterior 
end; anterior end small, gradually curving into the ventral 
margin, which is only slightly convex, oblique to the hinge- 
line ; posterior end obliquely subtruncate, the inferior angle 
obtusely rounded; posterior slope abrupt, inclined, the dia- 
gonal ridge obtusely rounded ; surface nearly smooth. Width 
10 lines, length 1 inch 5 lines, greatest depth of one valve 
(half-way between the beak and posterior angle) 4 lines. 

This species is more obtusely rhomboidal, and is more obtusely 
keeled, has a longer hinge, and is much less elongate than the 
Cucullcea amygdalina (Phill.), which is only a common variety of 
the C. unilateralis (Sow.), from which this differs by its thick 
posterior tooth, &c. The thick, elongate posterior tooth in the 
right valve is simple, and about two-thirds the length of that 
part of the hinge-line from which it declines ; in some parts the 
hinge-line shows obscure traces of serrature, which may be owing 
to the roughness of the matrix. 

Tilestone of Storm Hill, Llandeilo. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Anodontopsis (M'Coy), n. g. 
■=Microdont Conrad (not Agassiz nor Meigen). 
Gen. Char. Equi valve, inequilateral, compressed; general form 
rotundato-quadrate or subti-igonal ; posterior side wide, round 
or obliquely subtruncate, anterior end slightly contracted in 
front of the beak ; beaks small, prominent, nearer to the an- 
terior than the posterior end ; hinge-line shorter than the 
shell, with a posterior, long, slender lateral tooth or cartilage 
plate extending just below it (double in the right valve), and 
another similar but shorter one in front of the beaks ; anterior 
muscular impression simple, ovate, longer and stronger than 
the posterior ; occasionally a slight clavicular extends from in 
front of the beak behind the anterior adductor impression 
leaving a furrow in the cast ; pallial impression entire (occa- 
sionally one small cardinal tooth beneath the beak) ; surface 
smooth or concentrically lined. 

Except in their small size and marine habits, these little fossils 



54 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian MoUusca. 

resemble the recent Anodons, from which there being but two 
simple adductor impressions separates them. They differ from 
Modiolopsis (or Cypricardites) in their rotundato-quadrate com- 
pressed form, and the posterior adductor impression like the an- 
terior one, and they have no trace of the byssiferous sinus so 
common in that group between the body of the shell and the 
anterior side : from Schizodus {Myaphoria), with which Prof. King 
seems to have blended them, they are distinguished by the long, 
slender, posterior cartilage plate or lateral tooth a little below the 
hinge-line. Except in form they are identical with Clidophorus, 
and should be considered but as a subgenus thereof, distinguished 
fi-om those long narrow types by their broad rounded or oblique 
axe-like form, more prominent beaks, and less marked clavicular 
ridge. From the figure of Microdon bellastria (Conrad) I should 
have imagined it belonged to the present genus, but his descrip- 
tion of the hinge renders it probable that this genns is different, 
and I accordingly give a description of my own clear types, be- 
sides which the name Miaodon was applied long previously to a 
genus of fish and one of insects. 

Anodontopsis angustifrons (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Longitudinally subtrigonal, compressed (depth of both 
valves half the width), diagonally subcarinate from the beaks 
to the respiratory angle ; beaks small but prominent, rather 
more than one-fourth of the length from the anterior end, 
which is much narrowed and abruptly compressed beneath the 
beaks, produced, rounded, not separated fi'om the body of the 
shell by any sinus ; ventral margin nearly straight ; hinge- 
line short, slightly elevated, forming a wide compressed pos- 
terior slope, the margin of which is almost uniformly arched 
from the beaks to the respiratory angle, which is obtusely 
pointed; surface nearly smooth, a few obscure concentric 
wrinkles of growth near the margin. Width from beak to ven- 
tral margin 6 lines, length 1 inch 2 lines, width from middle 
of dorsal to opposite ventral mai-gin -^£^, length of anterior 
end j^^^. Pallial and muscular impressions as in the generic 
characters. 

The more arched and elevated hinge-line and nan-ow anterior 
side separate this from the Pullastra Icevis (Sow.), which seems 
to belong to the same genus ; and the contracted anterior end 
and greater length separate it from the A. quadratus (M'Coy). 
The posterior lateral tooth or plate extends almost to the end of 
the hinge-line and close to it. 

Common at Benson Knot, Kendal, Westmoreland, and Kirkby 
Moor, Kendal, Westmoreland. 

{Cnl. University of Cambridge.) 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 55 

Anodontopsis quadratus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Rotundato-quadrate, slightly oblique^ with about three- 
fourths of the length compressed, slightly and evenly convex, 
the posterior ridge obtuse, and posterior slope obscurely 
marked ; beaks very small, subcentral ; anterior and posterior 
sides of nearly equal width, the former broadly rounded, the 
latter with an obscure, slightly oblique truncation; dorsal 
margin slightly arched, ventral margin nearly straight, slightly 
convex. Width 9|^ lines, length 1 inch. 

The peculiar figure produced by the shortness of the posterior 
side and less convexity easily distinguish this from the A. Icevis 
(Sow. sp.) Casts show the anterior ovate adductor, a faint cla- 
vicular ridge extending from in front of the beak to its upper 
posterior edge ; a short cardinal tooth under the beak, and the 
slender anterior and posterior lateral teeth close under the mar- 
gin, the latter extending almost to the end of the hinge-line. 

Common in the tilestone of Storm Hill, Llandeilo. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Anodontopsis securiformis (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Subrhomboidal, compressed, sides evenly convex; 
diagonal ridge angular, sharply defined towards the beak; 
slightly concave towards the posterior slope, which is flattened 
and steep ; beaks small, prominent, about one-fourth of the 
length from the anterior end, which is semicircularly rounded ; 
ventral margin regularly convex ; posterior end narrowed, ob- 
liquely truncated, with a straight edge ; hinge-line straight, 
as long as the truncated posterior edge, internal posterior car- 
dinal ridge very delicate, close under the hinge-line ; anterior 
adductor small, oval, with a short slender ridge from the beak 
to its posterior edge. Length 10 lines, proportional width -^-^q, 
length of anterior end ^sq, length of anal edge -^q^^, depth of 
one valve j-^^. 

There is some slight variation in the proportional width of this 
species, the shortest varieties of which are however much larger 
and with a more acutely truncated posterior end than the Cypri- 
cardia deltoidea or Isocardia axiniformis (Phill.) of the carboni- 
ferous and (?) Upper Devonian (of S. Petherwin rocks), to which 
the species is most allied. 

Common in the green micaceous quartzite (Upper Ludlow of 
Benson Knot, Kendal, Westmoreland). 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Clidophonts ovalis (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Oval, width two-thirds the length ; anterior and pos- 



56 Prof. F. M'Coy on sums new Silurian Mollmca. 

tcrior ends almost equal, elliptically rounded, ventral margin 
gently convex ; valves slightly and evenly convex, the posterior 
slope very slightly compressed ; surface apparently smooth ; 
clavicular ridge strong, reaching rather more than half-way 
from the beak to the ventral margin. Width 3^ lines, length 
5 lines. 
This is distinguished from the C. plunulatus (Conrad) by its 

regular oval form, larger and more oblique clavicular ridge and 

less elongation, and from the Cucidlcea {CucuUella) antiqua (Sow.) 

by the flatness and oval outline of the valves. 

Plas Madoc, N. of Llanrwst; abundant in the schists, Dolydd 

Ceriog Waterfall, E. of the Berwyn Mountains. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Tellinomya lingula-comes (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Obovate, slightly and evenly convex; beaks small, 
compressed, not prominent, close to the anterior end, which is 
broadly rounded ; dorsal and ventral margins slightly convex, 
converging towards the narrow posterior end, which is trun- 
cated more or less obliquely, about two- thirds the width of the 
shell under the beaks, and has an almost imperceptible sinus 
between its inferior angle and the ventral margin ; surface 
with fine irregular imbricating plicae of growth. Vv'idth 6 lines, 
length i inch 1 line. 

This is much allied to the T. nasuta (Hall) of his Trenton 
group, but is smaller, shorter and more regularly ovate. It has 
somewhat the form of Cardinia with the delicate shell and eden- 
tulous hinge oi Anodon. 1 believe this is about the oldest known 
Lamellibranch, occurring in considerable abundance among the 
Linguhe in the slates near Tremadoc, and from being about the 
same size and texture may be confounded easily with them when 
crushed. 

Slates, Penmoifa. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Sanguinvlites anguliferus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Oblong, length three times the width ; beaks small, 
half the width from the anterior end, which is subquadrate, 
rounded ; posterior end subtruncate, not oblique, scarcely 
wider than the width of the shell from the beak to the ventral 
margin ; dorsal and ventral margins straight, almost parallel ; 
a strong diagonal ridge runs from the beak to the inferior pos- 
terior angle, immediately in front of which is the deepest part 
of each valve ; from the beak to the anterior end is marked by 
eight or ten narrow rounded ridges running obliquely down- 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 57 

wai'ds and backwards towards the middle of the ventral mar- 
gins ; a few of them meet at an acute angle, about the middle 
of the shell, with a few, more nearly vertical ridges proceeding 
from the great diagonal ridge ; most of both sets of ridges go 
towards the ventral margin ; they are separated by flat sjiaces 
wider than their own diameter ; the posterior slope is divided 
into three broad, rounded radiations by three shallow im- 
pressed lines, crossed by irregular wrinkles parallel with the 
posterior margin, all the ridges are slightly undulated by the 
faint plicae of growth ; posterior dorsal lunette very narrow, 
concave, horizontal (or perpendicular to the plane of the valves) . 
Length 3 lines, width I inch 4 lines. 

A specimen of the right valve shows rather more of the an- 
gular ridges, though a smaller individual than one of the left. 
Rare in the tilestone of Benson Knot, Kendal, Westmoreland. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Lejitodomus glohulosus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Globose, subtrigonal, width three-fourths of the length; 
beaks very large, a little nearer the anterior than the posterior 
end ; sides evenly tumid, most so in the middle ; posterior 
slope undefined, but very steeply sloped ; anterior and poste- 
rior ends subequal, slightly contracted, rounded, ventral mar- 
gin convex ; hinge-line a little shorter than the shell, not ele- 
vated, inflected portion narrow ; surface with a few concentric 
lines of growth. Length 7^ lines, width 6 lines, depth of one 
valve 2 lines. 

This departs so widely from either the shortest or most gib- 
bous varieties of theZ,. amygdalina (Sow. sp.), that It seems desi- 
rable to give it a distinctive name ; there is no other closely allied 
form. The general appearance approaches that of the Niicula 
ovalis of the same group, but in the latter the diagonal posterior 
ridge is more angular, and T have ascertained that it I'eally pos- 
sesses teeth as in Nucula. 

Hard green micaceous Upper Ludlow rocks of Tenterfell, 
Kirkby Moor and Benson Knot, Kendal, Westmoreland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Leptodomus truncatus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Oblong or subtrigonal, compressed ; beaks very large, 
gibbous, prominent, terminal, the anterior end being almost 
vertically subtruncate under it, width of the anterior end 
(where it is greatest) nearly two-thirds the length of the 
shell ; posterior end obliquely subtruncate or rounded ; ventral 
margin gently convex, with a scarcely perceptible sinus a little 



58 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 

behiud the vertical line of the beaks ; surface rugged, with 
strong, thick, irregular wrinkles from the anterior end, be- 
coming obsolete on the posterior slope. Width from beak to 
ventral margin 1 inch, length 1 inch 5 lines, depth of one 
valve about one-third of the width. 

This is somewhat allied to the Cypricardia retusa (Sow.), but 
has the anterior end even more vertically truncate ; it is more 
elongate (although in this point it varies considerably) ; but it is 
most obviously distinguished by the sti'ong wrinkling of the sur- 
face, parallel with the ventral edges, by which latter, as well as 
the great depth of the truncated anterior end, it also differs from 
the C. impressa (Sow.). 

Upper Ludlow rock, Benson Knot, Westmoreland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Modiolopsis infiata (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Longitudinally oblong, very gibbous ; beaks obtuse, 
incurved, large, close to the anterior end, which is large and 
obtusely rounded ; an obtuse sigmoidal ridge extends from the 
beak to the posterior inferior end, which is elliptically rounded 
to the very obtuse cardinal angle, which is slightly elevated ; 
hinge-line little more than half the length of the shell, with a 
slender cartilage ridge just below it ; ventral margin veiy 
slightly concave in front of the diagonal gibbosity. Width 
94^ lines, length 1 inch 6 lines, greatest depth of one valve 
(about one-third the length from the beak) 4 lines. Surface 
with minute irregular plications and lines of growth. 

Pen Cerrig Sei-th (very common). 

Distinguished from all the varieties of the M. modiolaris by its 
greater gibbosity, shorter hinge-line, and broader anterior end. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Modiolopsis (? Orthonota) postlineata (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Oblong, twice as long as wide, shell thin, moderately 
convex ; beaks small, near the anterior end, which is obtusely 
rounded; no byssal sinus; posterior end obtuse, obhquely 
rounded ; dorsal and ventral margins nearly parallel, straight ; 
hinge-hne two-thirds the length of the shell, with a nearly 
parallel delicate hinge-plate running beneath it and nearly 
parallel with the erect dorsal margins; surface with minute 
obsolete transverse wrinkles of growth, except of the flattened 
posterior slope, which is radiated with fine close equal striae 
from the beak. Width from the beak to the ventral margin 
5 lines, length 1 inch. 

Sonic specimens bear a rough general resemblance to the Nu- 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 59 

culites poststriata (Emmons), but they are distinguished by the 
parallelism of the dorsal and ventral margins, smaller beaks, 
greater transverse diameters, &c. It also closely resembles the 
Cypricm-dites sectifrons of Conrad, but that is figured with radia- 
ting lines on the sides as well as the posterior slope ; the anterior 
part of our specimen is unfortunately imperfect. 

Alt yr Anker, Meifod, Montgomeryshire. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Ambonychia ? acuticostata (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Ovate, moderately and evenly convex, most so towards 
the beak ; surface radiated with numerous angular ridges, only 
separated by the angular sulcus formed by the meeting of the 
steep sides of the ridges (about six ridges in one-fourth of an 
inch of the margin at half an inch from the beak) . 

In form and number of the ridges A is resembles the small 
specimen of A. carinata (Gold, sp.) figured in Hall's ' Palseon- 
tology ' (pi. 80. f. 5), but it is distinguished by its ribs being an- 
gular and close together— they being rounded and separated by 
flat interspaces in the American form. Only one imperfect spe- 
cimen, measuring 7 lines from beak to ventral margin. 

In the green schists of Dinas Bran, Llangollen. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Aviculat Danbyi (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Obliquely ovate, anterior end broadly rounded, pos- 
terior end more or less narrowed, rounded, ventral margin 
evenly convex ; hinge-line rather less than half the width of 
the shell, posterior wing scarcely twice the length of the an- 
terior, both wings nearly rectangular with slightly concave 
margins ; left valve gently convex, most gibbous near the 
beaks, marked with minute concentric, irregular, interrupted 
strise and wrinkles, crossed by a variable number of obtuse 
ridges radiating from the beak, and generally becoming obso- 
lete towards the margin ; right valve flat, with slight irregular 
concentric wrinkles and strise of growth, without radiating 
ridges. 

This species varies much in the amount of its obliquity and 
transverse elongation, and the number of radiations on the 
left valve ; these latter resemble the radiation of Pholadomya, for 
which that valve might be taken when the ears are concealed. 
Traces of a subcentral muscular impression occasionally visible. 
Some of the varieties are so slightly oblique as to assume a ro- 
tundato-quadrate form. Average length 1 inch 5 lines, width 
% inches 3 lines, length of hinge-line 1 inch. 



60 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 

Traces of two fine internal ridges diverging from the beak of 
the flat valve where the wings join the body of the shell (resem- 
bling those of Pecten). The specific name was suggested by 
]\Ir. Salter for this species, if it should prove new, in honour of 
one who has diligently collected these remarkable fossils, and the 
others occurring near Kendal. 

Very abundant in the greenish quartzite (Upper Ludlow rock) 
of Benson Knot, Kendal, Westmoreland. 

{CoL University of Cambridge.) 

Pterinea aspei-ula (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Obliquely ovate, body of the shell evenly convex, 
abruptly defined from the anterior and posterior sides ; beak 
gibbous ; anterior wing rounded, less than half the length of 
the posterior wing, which is flat, acutely pointed and extending 
a little beyond the shell, its posterior margin concave ; pos- 
terior end of the shell broadly rounded; entire surface 
radiated with nearly equal rough (obscurely tuberculated) 
ridges separated by flat spaces rather greater than their dia- 
meter in width (six ridges in one line at margin) ; these ridges 
are crossed on the body of the shell by fine wrinkles of growth 
which on the wing and towards the beak become sharp defi- 
nite striae parallel with the margin j width from beak to mar- 
gin 2 J lines, length from beak to posterior end 3g^ lines, width 
of posterior wing from angle to side of shell 1^ line. 

Common in the black shale of Builth Bridge, Radnorshire. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Pterinea Mans (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Rotundato-quadrate, slightly oblique, moderately gib- 
bous, most so one-third the length from the beaks, which are 
one-third the length of the hinge-line from the anterior end ; 
anterior side large, defined by a deep hollow extending nearly 
at right angles with the hinge-line from before the beak to 
the ventral margin, in which it produces a slight sinus; in 
front of this it is convex, and then nearer the slightly acute 
cardinal angle another smaller shallow sinus extends from the 
margin towards the beak ; posterior wing broad, compressed, 
not abruptly defined from the body of the shell, slightly acute, 
and scarcely extending beyond the posterior end of the body 
of the shell which is obtusely rounded ; ventral margin nearly 
horizontal, slightly convex; surface with close fine equal thread- 
like radiations, interrupted by slightly irregular concentric 
imbrications about half a line apart. Width from beak to 
middle of ventral margin 6i lines, length of hingc-linc 9 lines. 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 61 

This differs from the Avicula emarciata (Conrad) by the large 
gaping anterior side with its double sinus ; the same separates it 
from a small variety of the A. Boydii (Conrad) ; it is also more 
square and less oblique than either of these species. The large 
size of the anterior lobe also separates it from the Avicula qua- 
di-ula (Conrad). 

From the Aymestry limestone of Mortimer's Cross, Aymestry. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Pterinea megaloba (M'Coy). 

Sj}. Char. Obliquely subtrigonal, diagonally tumid from the beak 
to the posterior end (the curve amounting nearly to a semi- 
circle in old specimens) ; hinge-line elevated into a compressed, 
nearly rectangular, broad wing, the angle rather nearer to the 
beak than to the posterior ventral end, which is obtusely 
rounded, and to which the margin is nearly straight ; anterior 
end short, forming a very large rounded lobe ; a shallow con- 
cavity which defines it from the body of the shell extends from 
the beak to a little in front of the middle of the ventral margin, 
where it forms a small sinus ; beaks narrow, prominent, in- 
curved; anterior muscular impression very strong in the casts ; 
no teeth. Width from beak to opposite ventral margin 7 lines, 
length from anterior to postei'ior ends 1 inch 1 line, width of 
posterior end 11 lines, depth of left valve 5 lines. Surface 
apparently smooth, or marked with fine concentric striae. 

The great size of the anterior lobe is the most remarkable 
character, and is produced by the byssiferous sinus extending 
backwards at an acute angle to the hinge-line (about 75°), unlike 
any other species T know. If it was not for the left valve being 
so much more convex than the right, the species might have 
been placed in Cypricardites ; the general form is exactly that of 
the Pterinea rectangularis (Sow. sp.) Sil. Syst. t. 3. f. 2, from 
which it seems to differ (nine specimens examined) in the want 
of the diverging cardinal teeth. 

Not uncommon in the tilestone of Storm Hill, Llandeilo. 

{Col, University of Cambridge.) 

Pterinea Sowerbii (M'Coy). 

Avicula reticulata (Sow.), S. S. t. 6. f. 3 (not of Hisinger nor Gold- 
fuss) . 

Sp. Char. Obliquely ovate, depressed, slightly convex, greatest 
length along the posterior slope, which is straight and defined ; 
posterior wing gently arched, scarcely extending beyond the 
shell, its posterior edge slightly and uniformly concave ; sur- 
face radiated by slightly irregular obtuse ridges, about their 



63 Prof. F. APCoy on some new Silurian Mollusca. 

thickness apart, (five in 2 lines about the iniclclle, at an inch from 
the beak,) partially interrupted by thin concentric imbrications 
from 1 to 2 lines wide, having the I'adiatiug ridges obsolete 
or nearly so on their half ; radiating ridges of the wing rather 
larger, strongly marked only about the middle. Length from 
beak to respiratory* angle 2 inches 6 lines, length of posterior 
wing 1 inch 6 lines, width of ditto 1 inch 1 line, width from 
middle of hinge-liue to ventral margin 2 inches 5 lines, depth 
of one valve 3 lines. 

This fine species diff'ers from the Pterinea reticulata of the 
original continental authors, in its more elongate form, smaller 
posterior wing, with its gently concave posterior edge, and the 
comparatively few, broad, thin imbrications interrupting the 
I'adiating ridges. 

Aymestry limestone, Leintwardine. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Pterinea tenuistriata (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Subquadrate, rounded, shghtly oblique, evenly gib- 
bous, left valve most so ; width only slightly exceeding the 
length ; beaks large, tumid ; anterior wing half the length of 
posterior one, abruptly compressed, rounded ; ventral margin 
and posterior end broadly rounded, posterior margin slightly 
concave towards the cardinal angle of the posterior wing, which 
is gradually compressed and scarcely extends beyond the shell ; 
surface with irregular concentric wrinkles of growth crossed 
by very fine equal or subalternate radiating strise from the 
beak, strongest in the middle, about six in 1 line, less than 
their diameter apart ; posterior lateral tooth or hinge-plate as 
long as the hinge-line, and close beneath it, a thick internal 
ridge (often leaving a sulcus in casts) curves from behind the 
beak towards the ventral margin at an angle of about 50° to 
60° from the hinge-line; hinge- line crenulated, forming Area- 
like transverse teeth in front of the beak. Width from beak 
to opposite ventral margin 4 lines, length 4i lines. 

This little species is much less transverse, and has a more ob- 
tuse posterior wing than the Avicula insueta (Conrad), which it 
otherwise much resembles. The abrupt bending-down of the 
curved internal ridge, like a lateral tooth, into the body of the 
shell, is a cui'ious character, in which, as well as general form, it 

* As the term anal angle is commonly used in speaking of the angle 
between the end of the hinge-line and the posterior margin, I propose 
using the term respiratory angle in the description for the angle between 
the posterior and ventral margins — the exci-etory or anal siphon being next 
the former, and the inhaling or respiratory siphon next the latter. 



Messrs. H. and A. Adams on two new genera of Mollusca, 63 

agrees with the P. sublcevis (M'Coy) of the Irish Silurian rocks, 
but from which it is distinguished by its fine clo««.^t"f]^«°- . , 
Common in the Ui)per Ludlow shale of Cwm Craig Ddu ; Mid- 
dleton Park near Sedburgh; Erw Gnifach and m the Ludlow 
schists above Parklane; Upper Ludlow rock of Benson Knot, 
Kendal, Westmoreland ; also in the sandy schists of Pont-ar-y- 



Uechan. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 



VIL — On two new genera of Mollusca. 
By Henry and Arthur Adams, Esqrs. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

19 Hanover Villas, Kensington Park, 
Gentlemen, Dec. 17, 1850. 

Should vou consider the following notice of two apparently new 
genera of Mollusca worthy of insertion in the ' Annals, you wdl 
obliare us by its publication. , -,. , 

We remain. Gentlemen, your very obedient servants, 

H. & A. Adams. 

Genus Paxillus, nobis. 
Gen Char. Shell pupiform, rimate; spire acuminated ; aper- 
ture semiovate, ascending on the body-whorl; inner lip adnate, 
spreading, flexuous; columella with a single promment tooth- 
like plait • outer lip with a double peritreme, emarginate ante- 
riorly; umbilical region with a spiral, elevated ridge, terminating 
in a notch at the fore part of the aperture. 

Paxillus adversus, nobis. 
P testa ovato-acuminata, sinistrali, rimata, spira acuminata, cor- 

neo-fusca, semipellucida, longitudinaliter substriata. 

Hab. Singapore, on mud-banks, in company with Truncatella 
and Melampus. Dr. Livesay. 

Obs This curious little genus, lately brought to this country 
by Dr Livesay, Surgeon of H.M.S. Albatross, seems to approx- 
imate to Diplommatina of Benson, which, having sessile eyes on 
the base of the tentacles, and an operculum, belongs to the 
family Truncatellidce. There is, however, no indication of oper- 
culum in Paxillus, and the plait on the columella would render 
it referable to the family Auriculidce, with which group we place 
it until, at least, more information is obtained concerning it. 



64 Zoological Society. 

Genus LiMNERiA; nobis. 

Gen. Char. Shell solid, semiglobose, subspiral ; aperture wide, 
expanded, extending posteriorly beyond the apex, rounded ante- 
riorly ; inner lip oblique, reflexed posteriorly, straight and acute 
anteriorly. 

Limneria Caspiensis, nobis. 

L. testa alba, subpellucida, transversim striata, dorso convexa, 
gibbosa; spira depressiuscula, involuta; apertura ampla,patula, 
labio postice reflexa, antice recta, acuta. 

Hab. Caspian Sea. 

Obs. We have ventured, with the kind permission of Mr. Sovv- 
erby, sen., to characterize this interesting shell as a genus, 
although at present we are unacquainted with the animal which 
constructs it. It seems to be closely allied to the Lymnrndce , 
with which family we propose to associate it. The only species 
at present known is our L. Casjnensis. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

December 11, 1849. -R. C. Griffith, Esq., in tlie Chair, 
1. Description of a new genus and several new species of 

TERRESTRIAL, FLUVIATILE AND MARINE MOLLUSCOUS AnI- 
MALS INHABITING NeW ZeALAND. Bv J. E. GrAY, EsQ., 

F.R.S., President of the Botanical Society, etc. 

Major Greenwood has most kindly transmitted to me, for the Mu- 
seum Collection, a number of small species of terrestrial and fluviatile 
Mollusca which he had collected near Auckland in New Zealand. 

I hasten to lay before the Society a description of those which were 
not noticed in the Faunula attached to Dr. Dieffeubach's Travels. 



1. Ar^onid^e. I,/ 



1. Nanina? Kivi, Gray, Fauna N. Z. 262. n. 220. 
Hah. Auckland ; Major Greenwood. 

2. Nanina Mari.e, Gray, Fauna N. Z. 2G2. n. 221. 
Hab. Auckland ; Major Greenwood. 

These species were each described from a single specimen ; Major 
Greenwood has sent one of the former and several of the latter, of 
different ages, and they prove very distinct and well-marked species. 

3. Nanina? Celinde. 

Shell rather depressed, pale brown ; spire subconic ; whorls five, 
rather closely adpressed, with transverse membranaceous ridges, the 
last slightly keeled, convex in front ; axis with a narrow deep perfo- 



Zoological Society. 65 

ration ; peristome with a very slightly tliickened interaal siihmarginal 
rib. Diam. 2 lines. 
Hab. Auckland. 

4. Nanina Erigone. , 

Shell trochiform, pellucid, brown-spotted ; spire conical, as high as 
broad, apex blunt ; whorls rather convex, very slightly concentrically 
wrinkled, brown, cross-banded, last rounded, evenly convex m front, 
axis with a narrow deep perforation ; peristome rather reflexed near 
the axis. Diam. ^Vth of an inch. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand ; Major Greenwood. 

5. Nanina Tullia, . i • i i 
Shell depressed, pellucid, whitish ; spire scarcely raised, with close- 
pressed, rather convex, transversely-grooved whorls, crossed with pale 
brown streaks ; the last whorl rounded, convex in front, and crossed 
with brown lines and distinct cross-grooves ; axis imperforated. Diam. 
•ith of an inch. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand. 

2. LimaciDjE. 

1. Helix Dunni.«, Graxj, Ann. Nat. Hist. v. 317, 1841 ; Fau- 
nula N. Z. 247. n. 143. Named in honour of Mrs. Dunn, a relative 
of Mr. Joshua Alder, from whom I received the first land-shell from 
New Zealand. 

2. Helix Greenwoodii. 

Shell rather depressed, largely umbilicated, pale brown, thin, pel- 
lucid, rugose ; spire sHghtly raised, outer whorl rounded, with three 
or four rather oblique ridges directed towards the front ; umbilicus 
very large, conical, wide, deep, the pillar side of the outer hp straight 
and high. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand ; Major Greenwood. 

This species is very like Helix Bunnice in size, colour and form, 
but the outer whorl is rounded, and with some very pecuhar obhque 
ridges on the outer periphery ; the umbihcus is much larger ; the 
pillar-Up, as high as the confines of the umbilicus, is straight, and 
not arched, as in that species. 

• I have great pleasure in dedicating it to Major Greenwood, who has 
so kindly enabled me to add the above genus, and this and the follow- 
ing species, to the New Zealand Fauna. 

3. Helix (Carocolla) Zelandije, Gray, Faun. N. Z. 247. 
n. 144 and 262. 

Hab. Auckland. 

4. Helix Portia. 

Shell rather depressed ; spire convex, rounded, pale brown ; whorls 
five or six, rather close-pressed, rather convex, crossed with close con- 
centric laminal ridges, edged with elongated hairs, and marked with 
rather dark brown cross-bands ; last whorl rounded, convex in front ; 

Ann. Sj- Mag. N. Hist. Sev. 3. Vol. vii. 5 



66 Zoological Society. 

axis with a rather uarrow deep umbilicus ; muutli rather wiLle, peri- 
stome thin, slightly reflexed near the axis, aud rather sinuous near 
the suture of the spire. Diana, ^rd of an inch. 

Hah. Auckland; Major Greenwood and Dr. Sinclair. 

5. Helix Ide. 

Shell depressed, pellucid, whitish, brown rayed ; spire flat or rather 
sunk in the middle whorl, close-pressed, convex, with rather distant 
very slight spiral membranaceous ridges, and larger and more distinct 
membranaceous cross-ridges, fringed on the edge with hair-like elonga- 
tions ; last whorl rounded externally in front, slightly flattened near 
the axis ; axis large, umbilicated, showing the volutions. Diam. \ of 
an inch. 

Hab. Auckland. 

6. Helix (Zonitks) coma. Gray, Fauna N. Z. 263. n. 224. 
Hab. Auckland (abundant) ; Major Greenwood. 

7 . Helix Egesta. 

Shell depressed, dark brown ; spire scarcely raised, at length irre- 
gular and rather distorted ; whorls subcylindrical, regularly and closely 
spirally grooved, with rather distant, thick, broad, membranous cross- 
ridges ; last whorl subcylindrical, often twisted rather in front of the 
regular course, rounded externally and in front, and closely spirally 
grooved in front ; axis widely umbilicated, showing all the whorls. 
Diam. ^th of an inch. 

Hab. Auckland ; Dr. Sinclair and Major Greemcood. 

8. ZoNiTES Chiron. 

Shell depressed, dark olive-green, covered with a thick, polished 
periostraca, and crossed with rather sinuous, concentric, membranous 
ridges ; spire rather convex, rounded ; whorls rather convex, last 
spread out, rounded on the edge and convex in front ; axis widely 
umbilicated, sho^^ing the lower whorls ; mouth roundish, sublunate ; 
peristome thin, outer lip rather expanded behind, and separated 
from the penultimate whorl by a slight notch. Diam. \ of an inch. 

Hab. Auckland ; Major Ch-eenwood. 

The upper surface resembles a miniature Helix Busbyi, but the 
under surface is very different. 

9. ZONITES? CORESIA. 

Shell depressed, dark ohve-green, with brown cross-bands covered 
with a thick, smooth, polished periostraca ; spire scarcely raised, 
rather convex ; whorls convex, last expanded, rounded on the edge 
and in front ; axis broadly umbilicated, showing all the whorls ; mouth 
roundish, sublunate ; jieristome thin, with the periostraca inflexed 
when dry. Diam. ^th of an inch. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand. 

This shell is exactly like a very minute specimen of Helix Busbyi. 
It differs from the former, Z. Chiron, in being smaller, more depressed, 
and in the umbilicus being much wider, showing the front side of the 
upper whorls, which appear rather transverse. 



Zoological Society. 67 

10. BuLiMus? (Laoma) Leimonias. 

Shell trochiforni, polished, brown-spotted; spire coiiical, rather 
higher than broad, apex obtuse ; whorls very slightly convex, polished, 
with one or two slightly sunk lines on the front half ; last whorl with 
a distinct rib-like keel on the front edge ; two spiral grooves on front 
half outer side ; the side flattened with several small concentric grooves ; 
axis minutely and deeply perforated ; mouth square ; peristome simple, 
slightly reflexed near the axis ; the throat with three equal, well- 
marked spiral ridges, one on the outer side of the posterior, and an- 
other opposite to it on the outer side of the front lip, and one on the 
middle of the right side or outer edge of the last whorl. Diam. yV*^ 
of an inch. 

Hab. Auckland ; Major Greenwood. 

I am inclined to regard this shell as the type of a particular sub- 
genus of shell which may be characterized by the simple peristome, 
the perforated axis, the square mouth, and the spiral ridges in the 
throat ; but 1 have only seen a single specimen, and it may be, though 
I regard it as very improbable, the young state of a Pupa or Vertigo. 
If it prove distinct, it may be called Laoma. 

AuRICULID^? 

Elasmatina Recltjsiana, Petit, Proc. Zool. Soc. 184 . 
Hah. Auckland, New Zealand; Major Greenwood. 
M. Petit described this specimen from the island of Opai'a in the 
South Seas. 

CyCLOSTOMIDjE. 

Realia Egea. 

Shell ovate, pale brown, covered with a dull brown periostraca 
marked with elevated, transverse, membranaceous ridges rather 
fringed on the edge ; apex rounded ; whorls convex, rounded in front, 
and with a deep brown band round the axis ; axis scarcely perforated ; 
mouth ovate ; peristome reflexed, sharp-edged, with a thui, sharp- 
edged, slightly-raised internal peristome. Length 2^ lines. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand. 

Cyclophorus Cytora. 

Shell minute, trochiforni, brown, closely and imiformly spiralh' 
striated and slightly concentrically wrinkled ; apex subacute ; spire 
conical, nearly as high as broad ; whorls convex, the last rounded 
and convex in front ; axis perforated ; mouth subcircular ; peristome 
scarcely reflexed, thickened internally ; ? operculum homy, of a few 
rapidly enlarging whorls. Diam. y^th of an inch. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand; Major Greenwood. 

Lymnead^. 
Planorbis Corinna. 

Shell depressed, white, above flat, beneath rather concave ; whorls 
convex, rounded. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand. 

5* 



68 Zoological SocieOj. 

This species is very like the European P. alius, but not spirally 
striated. 

The most interesting of these shells is a new genus, which appears 
to belong to the family LymneadcB, and allied to the genus Ancylus, 
but to be immediately distinguished from it by the shell possessing a 
thin lamina on the hinder edge of the cavity, most probably extended 
between the upper part of the body and the upper edg^' of the foot, 
as is the case in Crepidula. It is easily to be distinguished from the 
latter genus by the posterior plate having its edge bent suddenly down 
towards the base of the aperture and enlarged at the front part of the 
right side, and produced into a lobe having a groove between it and 
the inner surface of the right side of the shell. This character also 
separates it from Navicella. 

The genus may be thus characterized : — 

Latia. 

Shell half ovate, spiral, of one or two very rapidly enlarging whorls ; 
spire very short, placed nearly in the centre rather on the left of the 
hinder edge ; aperture very large, nearly occupying the whole of the 
shell, oblong, rather oblique ; cavity simple, hinder edge with a thin, 
narrow, flat, horizontal lamina occupying the hinder and nearly half 
the length of the left side of the cavity ; the left and hinder edge 
suddenly bent down towards the base of the shell, and produced into 
a rather broad expansion at the right side, leaving a rather broad 
space between it and the inner part of the right side of the aperture ; 
periostraca thin, pale brown, spirally striated. 

Animal. — Head with a short broad snout, rounded in front ; ten- 
tacula two, short, triangular, the eyes on the outer side of their base ; 
body subspiral ; mantle submarginal, continued all round ; edge simple ; 
aperture of the respiratory cavity on the hinder part of the right side, 
protected on the inner side by the process of the lamina ; upper part 
of the body subspiral, separate from the back of the foot and fitting 
into the upper cavity of the shell above the posterior plate ; abductor 
muscle submarginal, horse-shoe-shaped ? ; foot oblong, rounded at 
each end. 

The description of the animal is imperfect, being taken from a dried 
specimen softened by being soaked in a weak solution of caustic pot- 
ash, and then placed in weak spirits. 

This genus is evidently allied to Ancylus, but differs in the shell 
being more Nerite-like, aiid in the aperture of respiration being placed 
on the right side. 

Latia neritoidks. 

Pale brown, spirally striated, internal lamina white, transparent. 

Hab. Auckland, New Zealand. 

Dr. Sinclair sent some specimens of this shell to the British Mu- 
seum, with animals dried in them, in 18-17, and Major Greenwood 
has kiiidly sent two additional specimens. 



Zoological Society. 60 

LlTTORINID^. 

Amnlcola? antipodarum, Gray, Fauna New Zeal. 241. n. 101. 
Auckland, New Zealand ; Major Greemvood. 
Amnicola? Zelandise, Gray, Fauna New Zeal. 241. n. 102. 
Auckland, New Zealand ; Major Greenwood. 

Amnicola ? u. sp. 

A single specimen, not in a good state. 

Auckland, New Zealand ; Major Greenwood. 

Majoi" Greenwood also sent two specimens of a marine shell. He 
observes, that it was " entirely enveloped by the animal when alive." 
It proved a new species of Lamellaria. 

Lamellaria Ophione. 

Shell oblong, elongate, pellucid, white ; spire very short, conical ; 
whorls convex, last whorl very large, convex, rather iridescent ; aper- 
ture ovate ; pillar-lip curved, slightly reflexed. 

Auckland, New Zealand. 

2. Descriptions of new species of Shells from the Cu- 

MINGIAN CoLLECTIOlJf. By ArTHUR AdAMS, F.L.S. 

i, Tellina sauAMULOSA. T. testd transversa, cequilaterali, 
alba, concentrice in medio plicatd, plicis anyulatis subdisfan- 
tibus, interstitiis longitudinaliter striatis ; regionibus latera- 
libus squamulis spinosis, regione ventrali squamulis verrucosis 
obsitd ; latere antico rotundato, postico subfiexuoso rostrato ; 
area sulco impressd ; margine ventrali convexo, postici subjlex- 
uoso. 

Hab. Cape York, North Australia ; collected by J. B. Jukes, Esq. 

2. Sangtjinolaria tellinoides. jS. testd transversd, incequi- 
laterali, ufrinque hiante, rubiginosd, tenui, Icevi, striis trans- 
versis concentricis radiatim lineolatd ; latere antico latiore, 
rotundato; postico angustiore, rotundato, subrostrato ; ared 
laterali lined laid impressd ; margine ventrali convexo, postich 
valde sinuato. 

Hab. Gulf of California. 

3. Panop.ea Japonica, A. Adams. Pan. testd cequivalvi, trans- 
versd, lateribus incequaliter hiante, incequilaterali, utrinque ro- 
tundatd, albd, tenui, fragili, transversim concentrice plicatd, 
plicis subdistantibus rotundatis ; latere antico breviore, pos- 
tico duplo fere anticum superante ; margine ventrali arcuato, 
integro. 

Hab. Japan. 

January 8, 1850. — ^Wm. Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

1. Contributions to the knowledge of the animal of 
Nautilus Pompilius. By J. Van der Hoeven. 

[This paper, which would be unintelligible without the plates, will 
be published in vol. iv. of the Society's 'Transactions.' — Ed. Ann. 
Nat. Hist.] 



70 Zoological Society. 

2. Description of a new genus of Batrachians from Swan 
River. By Dr. H. Schlegel, Curator of the Royal 
Zoological Museum, Leyden. (Extracted from a Let- 
ter to J. E. Gray, Esq.) 

" The following notice I hope is sufficient to give an idea of a new 
Toad which was discovered at Swan River by Dr. Pries : — 

" Myobatrachus, n. g. 

" Tongue small ; no teeth except two small horizontal fangs in the 
intermaxillary bone ; eustachian tubes separated, opening behind the 
eyes. Legs short, enveloped at the base in a duplicature of the skin 
of the sides of the body. Fingers 4, the second longest ; toes 5, cy- 
lindrical, tapering, not armed. Eyes lateral, middle-sized. 

" Myobatrachus paradoxus. 
Above brownish grey, beneath greyish. 
Hub. Australia; Swan River. Mus. Leyden. 
The Prince of Canino has made for this animal a family, which he 
has named Myob.\trachid.e." 



Mr. Gray observed, that a toad which he described and figured in 
Capt. Grey's Travels in iVustralia, under the name of Breviceps 
Goiildii, agrees with the animal described by Dr. Schlegel in all par- 
ticulars, and especiallj' in possessing the two horizontal horny appen- 
dages on the intermaxillary, which Dr. Schlegel described as hori- 
zontal fangs ; they are partly sunk into the integument of the palate. 
Admitting the propriety of the proposed generic distinction, the 
animal will therefore now stand in the catalogues as jSli/ohairachus 
Gov Ida. 

The presence of the teeth in the intermaxillary separates this animal 
from the Breviceps of South Africa. 

3. Descriptions of some apparently new species of Longi- 

CORN COLEOPTERA IN THE COLLECTION OF THE BrITISH 

Museum. By Adam White, F.L.S., Assistant in the 
ZooL. Dept. Brit. Mus. 

Prionacalus Atys. 

In the 'Annals and Magazhie of Natural History,' vol. xv. p. 108, 
I have described under the name oi Prionacalus Cacicits, a curious 
genus from Mexico, allied to Bsaiiflofjnathvs, G. R. Gray. I re- 
garded the two specimens as male and female of the same species, 
but it would seem that they are both males, and as they are con- 
siderably different, must be different species ; what -was deemed the 
male may retain the name Prionacalus Cacicus ; it is figured on 
PI. Vin. fig. 1. of the above volume. The other sj)ecimen may be 
named Prionacalus Ip/iis ; it is figured on PI. VIII. f. 2. Since the 
above we have received a third species from the Andes of Pern, where 
it was found by Prof. Jameson of Quito ; the following short specific 
characters may distinguish the three : — 

P. Cacicus. 

Head behind the eyes witliout a prominent spine, the lateral mar- 



Zoological Society. 71 

gin behind, produced into a slight process directed backwards ; a 
strong crested ridge over each eye, at the end directed outwards ; 
antennae, palpi and legs rufous, antennae blackish at the base ; jaws, 
excepting at the end and on the edges (where they are smooth) roughly 
punctured : head, thorax and elytra, at the base, somewhat roughly 
punctured, the elytra more dehcately pimctured towards the end. 
Hab. Mexico. 

P. Atys. 

Head midway between the eyes and the hind margin, with a small 
wide spine ; a slight, crested, straight ridge over each eye, the space 
between slightly grooved ; antennae thickish. In colour it is of a 
dark pitchy brown ; the apex of the elytra somewhat ferruginous ; 
legs pitchy brown ; tarsi and tips of tibiae ferruginous ; palpi of a 
clear ferruginous : sculpture much as in last. 

Hab. Andes of Peru. 

P. Iphis. 

Deep black, coarsely punctured and rugose ; antennae at the end?, 
palpi, tibiae at apex and tarsi reddish ; head midway between the eyes 
and hind margin, with a strong wide spine on each side ; head with 
the two keels over the eyes short and straight, the space between 
them deeply grooved. 

Hab. Mexico. 

Calocomus morosus. 

Antennae ferruginous, black at the base ; 13-jointed, very strongly 
serrated on the outside, the terminal joint deeply notched, nine at 
least of the terminal joints with the outer edge elongated at the tip : 
head, thorax, scutellum, abdomen and legs pitchy black ; head, tho- 
rax and scutellum thickly punctured ; elytra thickly and finely y)unc- 
tured, the punctures of the base coarser ; elytra wide, shorter than 
the abdomen, ferruginous, in some places darkish brown. 

Hah. Bolivia. From the Collection of Mr. Bridges. 

This makes the fourth species of Calocomus, a genus which seems, 
Uke some of the other Prionidce, to be very variable in the number of 
joints in the antennae ; the type C. Besmarestii has eleven joints ; this 
species has thirteen ; while the Calocomus Lycius, and C. Kreuckelyi, 
described by M. Buquet, have no less than twenty-two. 

Pyrodes tenuicornis. 

Head and thorax deeply, coarsely and irregularly punctured, washed 
with golden green, in some lights tinged with a deep purplish rufous ; 
jaws golden green, tips and edges pitchy ; antennae with the first joint 
flattened above, golden green except at the end, which is bluish 
green ; third joint much elongated, as long as the fourth and fifth 
taken together ; the first six joints punctured, base of the seventh 
punctured, tip of the seventh joint and the whole surface of the ter- 
minal four grooved. Elytra varied with green and purplish red, 
much depressed, the margin and shoulders lively green ; scutelhini 
notched at the end, slightly grooved down the middle, and with a 



72 Zoolur/ical Societij, 

patch of coarse pni\cUi;-es on each side of the groove. Under parts 
green Avith ajiieous reflections. 

Femora green and covered with minute crowded warts ; tibiae and 
tarsi hght rnfous, the tibiae with elongated papillje and short hairs. 

Hub. Mexico. 

Of this species there are two examples in the Museum ; in the one 
a purplish red tint pervades all the joints of the antennse but the 
first, and extends over the whole elytra excepting on the basal mar- 
gin and the extreme edge, which are green. 

Tliis species seems to link the three genera Pyrodes, Mallaspis, 
and Solenoptera ; it agrees in most particulars wth Pyrodes. 

Pyrodes Smithianus. 

Scutellum considerably elongated at the point and notched at the 
base, the shoulder and the elytra close to the scutellum are produced, 
and near the shoulder there is a deep groove. The head and thorax 
are rather smooth and closely jninctured ; the front margin of the 
thorax is slightly notched in the middle ; the scutellum is qiute smooth 
on the edges, down the middle, and at the tip ; the elytra are roughly 
punctured, the punctures often running together and forming cha- 
racters like letters ; there are four longitudinal ribs down each, which 
are branched at the end. 

This Pyrodes is of a bronzy copper colour, the tibiae and most of 
the joints of the antennse being tinged mth purple. 

Hub. Brazil. 

A specimen was found by J. P. George Smith, Esq., of Liverpool, 
on Caripi, an island thirty miles from Para : be presented it, with 
numerous other fine insects, to the British Museum. 

Calloctenus, n. g. 

Body small, the elytra extending over its side and considerably be- 
yond its extremity. Head much excavated in front. Eyes large and 
prominent. Thorax with a distinct tooth on the sides a little beyond 
the middle. Scutellum of an elongated triangular form, pointed at 
the end. Elytra spined at the suture and at the end of the lateral 
margin. 

Antennse in the male pectinated from the fourth joint, in the fe- 
male serrated from the fifth : in the male the first joint is of the same 
length as the fourth exclusive of the appendage ; the third is consi- 
derably elongated and with a protuberance at the end ; from the 
fourth to the eighth the end is furnished with a compressed appen- 
dage narrow at the base, dilated afterwards and blunt at the tip (the 
ninth and other joints broken off). Antennse in the female with the 
terminal joints depressed, oblique at the end, so that the inner edge is 
serrated. Legs moderate, simple, without serratures. Elytra spined 
at the suture and at the end of the lateral margin. 

This genus comes between Pceci/osoma and Anacolus. 

Calloctenus pulcher. 

Ilab. Venezuela. 

Head, thorax, scutellum and imder side of body of a dark coppery 



Zoological Society. ^'3 

green, the head and thorax rather thickly covered with soft grej-ish 
vello^v hairs ; elytra mth three longitudinal, considerably raised keels, 
between each of which is a slighter keel ; in the male these lat er are 
abbre^-iated, between the keels the elytra are closely punctured; the 
elytra in the male are of a brownish yellow, the punctured parts, ex- 
cept at the base, being darker in colour ; m the female the elytra are 
of a clear ochre yellow ; in the male the antennse are of a dull ferru- 
ginous, the base of the joints paler ; the legs are lerrugmous m the 
male, while in the female they are of the same dark coppery green as 

the head and thorax. , , v i.i,„ 

In a female specimen the elytra are of a very dark olive-green ; the 

specimen is rather larger than the other. 

Sent from Venezuela by Ur. David Dyson of Manchester. 

BiMiA, n. g. 

Head as wide as the thorax in front, somewhat narrowed behind, 
in front square and nearly perpendicular grooved down the middle; 
jaws short and strong; eyes deeply notched for the insertion of the 
antenna;, the hinder margin widely smuated. - , . . , ,.^ 

Antenna 11-jomted, shorter than the body ; first joint clavate, 
cylindrical, slightly longer than the third; second jomt small moni- 
hform ; third, fourth and fifth joints straight, compressed, and nearly 
of the same length ; the sixth shghtly bent and compressed ; the five 
last joints compressed and gradually smaller, the last blunt a the tip. 
Thorax wider than long, with a strong spme on each side about the 
middle, its disc depressed and slightly unequal. Scutellum largeish, 
hollowed slightly in the middle. Elytra rather narrow, not so long as 
the abdomen, soft, not meeting except at the base ; the stouldeis 
prominent, the sides nearly parallel, the ends slightly pomted ; the 
^ngs large, and extending beyond the elytra and abdomen. Legs 
strong, slightly compressed; femora somewhat thickened ; hmd legs, 
if extended, would reach a little beyond the abdomen. Tarsi scarce y 
wider than the tibiae ; penultimate joint deeply cut ; soles densely 

covered with short hairs. nr / j, „,,^ 

This genus would seem to be placed not far from Molorchus, and 
may be allied to Jffapete, Newman, Zoologist iii. p. 1017 : it is not 
unlikely that the other sex is very different in form and colour ; there 
is only one specimen in the Museum. 

BiMIA BICOLOR. 

Hab. Austraha (Perth). From theCollection of Mr. George Clifton. 

The body is of a very deep shming black, closely punctured, and 
furnished with short hairs ; head below and in front yellow, the yel- 
low colour extending triangularly between the antennae ; eyes, an- 
tenuEe, cheeks and vertex black; thorax yellow, with a black band 
down the middle, contracted behind ; scutellum black ; legs of same 
deep black as the abdomen, a wide yeUow rnig on the front tibiae 
near the top ; elvtra pale ochre yellow, with three or four longitu- 
dinal veins which branch towards the tip ; wings long and black. 



74 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Lamia (Cerosterna) trifas«cieli>a. 

Densely covered with short yellow and black hairs ; head yellow, 
an impressed line along the middle free from hairs ; anteinise with 
the two first and four last joints black, the other joints yellow at the 
base and black at the tip ; thorax yellow ; spines and a band connect- 
ing them black, the band crenated in front ; legs yellow, joints, tarsi 
and posterior side of second and third pairs of femora black ; scutel- 
lum at the end covered with yellow hairs ; elytra of a clear ochre 
yellow, the base from the shoulder to the suture edged narrowly with 
black ; a transverse black band before the middle, nearly but not 
quite touching the edge and the suture, widest toward the suture ; 
another transverse black band just behind the middle, and neither 
touching the edge nor the suture, narrower than the first band, and, 
like it, waved both in front and behind. 

Hab. China (Hong Kong). John Bowring, Esq. 

This seems allied to the L. Assamensis, Hope. In the present 
unsettled state of the Longicorn Coleoptera it would be rash to found 
genera on mere isolated species ; but it is difficult to refer the pre- 
sent to any of the modern genera ; it comes perhaps nearest to Cero- 
sterna. 



botanical society of EDINBURGH. 

Thursday, Nov. 14, 1850. — Professor Fleming, President, iu the Chair. 

The Curator gave a report on the state of the Herbarium, noticing 
that considerable progress had recently been made in the arrange- 
ment of the collections. Several important additions of foreign plants 
were noticed. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "On the British species of Carex" by John M'Laren. The 
author stated that the substance of this paper was contained in an 
essay written for Dr. Balfour's class. He had smce re-examined all 
the species, with the view of improving the descriptions, and was 
happy to acknowledge his obligations to Dr. Arnott's edition of the 
' British Flora,' for some important particulars which he had not 
previously observed. The author stated, that in the present state of 
the science, unanimity could hardly be expected among naturalists 
with regard to the true limits of species ; but, as it was necessary, in 
describing the Carices, to adopt an opinion on this subject, he thought 
it better to lean to the side of simplicity, and rather to unite two 
plants whose identity might be doubtful, than to retain them as am- 
biguous and ill-defined species. The result of these alterations is, 
that about ten of the species described in recent botanical works are 
considered as varieties. 

While agreeing with Reichenbach in dividing this large and natural 
family, the subgenera have not been made to depend on the number 
of stigmas, because, by that arrangement, C. ccespitosa, C. saxatilis, 
&c., are placed along with the species which have compound andro- 
gynous spikes, and C. imvclfora and C. nipesfris are likewise sepa- 
rated from the species with simple solitary spikes. In the general 



Botanical Society of Edinbunjh. 75 

classification, the system of Fnes has therefore been foUmv^d ; but iu 
the arrangement of the species some aUerations have been made 1 he 
usual mode of arranging the British species with g abrous fmit and 

terminal barren spike° appeared to the -f^^^^^^'^^^^l^Z^-^ 
Uable to many exceptions on account of the difference ui the num- 
ber form, and direction of the spikes, even m the same species He 
has'tirefore rearranged them According to the nature ot the bracts 
and fruit, as will be seen from the subjoined table :— 

Subgenus Vignea; spikes simple solitary, or compound androgy- 



A Spikes simple, solitary; Mowo^^ac^*, IT. 

B Spikes compound, androgynous ; if o»H05^acAy«,y. 

I. Bracts not foliaceous, spikelets fertile below ; Hyparrhence. 

1 . Root creeping. 

2. Root fibrous. 

II. Bracts long and foliaceous ; Bracteosce. 
Ill Bracts not foliaceous, spikelets fertile above ; Acroarrhenre 
Subgenus Carex {Heterostachyce, Fr.) ; spikes simple distmct, the 

terminal ones barren or androgynous, the rest fertile. 

I. Spikes unisexual, achenes biconvex, stigmas 2 ; Bistigma- 

II. Terminal spike androgynous, fertile above, stigmas 3 ; Tn- 
stigmaticce MesoarrhencB. o ^ • ^• 

III. Spikes unisexual, achenes trigonous, stigmas 3 ; Irtstigma- 
ticcB AcroarrhencB. 

1. Fruit smooth bifid, bracts without sheaths. 

2. Fruit smooth entire, bracts sheathmg. 

3. Fruit smooth bifid, bracts sheathing. 

4. Fruit pilose, deeply bifid. 

5. Fruit pilose entire or nearly so, bracts foliaceous. 
c' Fruit pilose entire, bracts membranous sheathing. 

Mr M'Lareu then proceeded to give descriptions of the various 
British species and varieties, and iUustrated the paper by specimens 

and dissections. _,g, 

2 « Notes of a Botanical Trip to England," by John T. Syme. 
We are not aware that he detected any species previously unknown 
to Enghsh botanists in the several places which he visited. 

3 " Notice of the discovery of Saxifraga Hirculus, m Boovland 
Moss,Walston, Lanarkshire, in September last," by George J.Blackie. 
The following are the Scottish stations in which this plant has been 

found : — 

1. Langton, Berwickshire. „ „ , , , 

2. Source of the Medwyn, Pentland Hills : first found there by 
Dr. A. Hunter, September 11, 1836. ,. , . ^yr 

3. Jacksbarns, or Jackston, Glenbervie, Kmcardmeshire. Mr. 
James Rae, 29th June, 1839. 

4. Between Fala and Stowe. 

.5. On the northern side of the Ochills, not far from Dollar. Mr. 
■\Vvville Thomson. 

■fi. Near Walston, Lanarkshire. Mr. Blackie. 



76 Miscellaneous. 

Dr. Balfour mentioned the discovery by IMrs. Balfour, ia August 
last, of Ginannia furcellata of Turner, in Lamlash Bay, Arran. This 
is the first Scottish station for the plant. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited a recently invented apparatus for drying 
plants, which has been fully described in the * Botanical Gazette.' 

INIr. Charles Lawson exhibited a large plant of Tussac Grass, grown 
in Orkney. Some recently received tufts of this grass, when fresh, 
weighed about one cwt. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited specimens illustrating the production of 
Vinegar. 

1. The so-called Vinegar-plant, with vinegar produced by it. 

2. Syrup into which the plant had not been introduced, but which 
had been left for four months undisturbed. In it a peculiar fungus- 
like growth similar to the vinegar-plant was foimd, and the fluid had 
become vinegar. 

3. A specimen of vinegar produced by the Vinegar-plant which 
had been filtered, and then allowed to stand for several months, and 
in which a fungus similar to that called the Vinegar-plant had been 
formed. 

Dr. Balfour thought the so-called Vinegar-plant must be considered 
the mycelium of some fungus produced in a peculiar fluid, and which 
acted as a ferment. The addition of any ferment would probably 
cause a similai production of vinegar. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

RESUSCITATION OF FROZEN FISH. 

To the Editors of the Annuls of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, 5 Barge Yard, City, Nov. 15, 1850. 

In the last number of your excellent Magazine there is a short no- 
tice by Prof. O. P. Hubbard on the resuscitation of frozen fish, and 
as he invites the record of facts, probably the fact recorded by Sir 
John Franklin in his first overland expedition to the Polar Sea may 
not have come under his observation, and I therefore append it : — 

" It may be worthy of notice here (he says) that the fish froze as 
they were taken out of the nets, and in a short time became a solid 
mass of ice ; and by a blow or two of the hatchet were easily spUt 
open, when the intestines might be removed in one lump. If in this 
completely frozen state they were thawed before the fire, they reco- 
vered their animation. This was particularly the case with the carp ; 
and we had occasion to observe it repeatedly, as Dr. Richardson oc- 
cupied himself in examining the structure of the different species of 
fish, and was always, in the winter, under the necessity of thawing 
them before he could cut them. We have seen a carp recover so far 
as to leap about wdth much vigour after it had been frozen for thirty- 
six hours." —First Overland Journey to the Polar Seas, vol. ii. 
J). 234. 

Mr. Hearne, Mr. Ellis, and other travellers in the icy regions, also 



Miscellaneous. 77 

mention the power of many of the lower animals to endure intense 
cold, musquitoes and others of the insect tribe being frequently frozen 
into one black solid mass, which, when thawed, renewed all their 
energies. Spiders frozen so hard as to bound from the floor like a 
pea were revived by the fire ; so were frozen leeches, frogs and snails. 

I also avail myself of the opportunity to forward you for publication 
in your widely-diffused journal some notices of the Moa, which I find 
in the report of a scientific meeting at Sydney, recorded in the ' Syd- 
ney Morning Herald,' and in an article in the second number of a 
very interesting colonial periodical, the ' New Zealand Magazine.' 

Your obedient servant, 

P. L. SiMMONDS. 
THE MOA. 

" Dr. Nicholson then drew the attention of the meeting to a fossil 
bone of the Moa, which he had recently received from a friend who 
had arrived from New Zealand, and which he begged the Society to 
place in its museum. It was known to all of them that the discovery 
of the fossil bones of the Moa had excited considerable attention in 
the scientific world, and Professor Owen, the highest authority on 
comparative anatomy, had pronounced them to be the bones of a 
bird of from sixteen to twenty feet high, and of the same type as 
the Apteryx, which is now in existence in New Zealand. It was 
supposed that there was a probability of the Moa not being extinct ; 
and a son of Archdeacon "Williams, and some American sailors, said 
that they saw one when travelling in the interior; but he (Dr. N.) 
doubted the fact. It would be seen, however, that this bone was not 
much fossilized ; that it bore very little of a mineral character ; and it 
was probable, therefore, that within a comparatively recent period the 
Moa was in existence. The disappearance of particular species of 
animals was by no means uncommon. There was the well-known 
case of the Dodo, which existed in large numbers when the island of 
Mauritius was first discovered, but is now extinct, and he believed 
that there is not even a perfect skeleton of it in existence. 

" Within a very short distance of Norfolk Island there is a small islet 
called Philip Island, which was formerly inhabited by a large num- 
ber of a peculiar description of Parrot, called, as we believe, the Lei- 
cester Parrot : that Parrot is now extinct. Mr. Holroyd thought 
there was great reason to beUeve that the Moa would be fonnd alive. 
The bones were found in large quantities on the Southern Island, 
which is very thinly populated by natives, and a very large portion 
of which has never been seen by a white man ; besides which, the 
natives profess to have seen the Moa within twenty-five years." 

In the second number of the ' New Zealand Magazine,' in a paper 
by the Rev. R. Taylor, on the Geology of New Zealand, I find the 
foUovping : — 

" Mr. Memaul, employed by the Government as native interpreter, 
stated to me, that in the latter end of 1 832 he saw the flesh of the 
Moa in Molyneux harbour ; since that period he has seen feathery oi' 



78 Mixcellaneotis. 

tlie same kind in the natives' hair ; they were of a black or dark co- 
lour with a purple edge, having quills like those of the albatros in 
size, but much coarser ; he saw a Moa bone which reached four inches 
above his hip from the ground, and as thick as his knee, with flesh 
and sinews upon it. The flesh looked like bull-beef. The slaves 
who were from the interior said it was still to be found in the island. 
The natives told him the one whose flesh he had seen was a dead 
one which they had found accidentally ; that thej' had often endea- 
voured to snare them, but without success. A man named George 
Pauley, now living in Foveaux Strait, told him he had seen the Moa, 
which he described as being an immense monster, standing about 
twenty feet high. He saw it near a lake in the interior. It ran from 
him, and he also ran from it. He saw its foot-marks before he came 
to the river Tairi and the mountains. Thomas Chassland, the man 
who interpreted for Memaul, was well acquainted with the Maori 
language. He also saw the flesh, and at first they thought it was 
human. 



Believing that any information upon the subject of Trilobites is at 
all times acceptable to the scientific world, I venture to tell you of a 
remarkable portion of one found a few days past by me. It is an 
" Isoteliis megistos" and I think presents the most remarkable evi- 
dence of their gigantic size of any specimen now extant. It was found 
in our blue limestone strata, and presents the tail or " post abdomen," 
and seven of the segments across the back nearly entire. Its width 
\s 9\ inches, and its length a little exceeds this. Thus you perceive, 
that if we had the other segment and the head, we should have one 
entire that would measure at least 1 8^ inches in length and 9^ in 
breadth. 

I see that M. Barrande of Prague is of the opinion that trilobites 
change greatly according to age. Of the correctness of that opinion 
I should have some doubts, as I have a variety of the Isotelus me- 
gistos from half an inch up to the gigantic one above mentioned, and 
I find no difference in them either in proportions or segments, each 
having eight, and each portion being equal in length. I have also 
numerous specimens of the Culymene senaria from the size of the 
smallest pea up to the size of 1 inch in width, and in them I find no 
difference. And of several other varieties, I have many portions of 
different ages, all of which have exact resemblance. Of the Cahjmene 
Blumenhachii I have them from 1 inch to 3i in length, more or less 
perfect, and in them I find no change in appearance. Thus it would 
appear that in our varieties, at least, we have no metamorphosis of the 
earliest of the moving animals. However, I have not seen his work, 
and the notice of it may be too short to give a correct idea of what he 
means. 

Carrolton, Montgomery Co., Ohio, April 18, 1850. 



* In a letter addressed by Dr. Taylor to the Editors of Silliraan's Ame- 
rican JoiUTlfll. 



Meteorological Observations. 79 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR NOV. 1850. 

Cliiswick. — November 1. Rain: fine. 2, ;5. Fine. 4. Boisterous, with rain : 
fine : clear. 5. Cloudy. 6. Very fine. 7. Hazy : very fine. 8. Rain. 9. Very 
fine. 10. Fine: cloudy. 11. Very fine. 12. Uniformly overcast : very fine : 
clear. 13. Foggy : overcast : cloudy. 14. Clear and fine : frosty. 15. Frosty: 
overcast. 16. Drizzly; hazy: rain. 17. Fine. 18. Rain. 19. Low clouds: 
very fine : rain. 20. Fine: rain. 21. Cloudy : fine : overcast. 22. Overcast: 
slight rain. 23. Kain : clear at night. 24. Boisterous, with rain. 25. Clear : 
cloudy : rain. 26. Hazy clouds : overcast: cloudy. 27. Cloudy: rain: clear 
and frosty. 29. Frosty : fine : slight rain. 30. Frosty : overcast. 

Mean temperature of the month 45°"49 

Mean temperature of Nov. 1849 41 -99 

Mean temperature of Nov. for the last twenty-four years . 43 '41 
Average amount of rain in Nov 238 inches. 

Boston. — Nov. 1. Rain : rain A.M. 2. Cloudy. 3. Fine. 4. Cloudy ; stormy : 
rain a.m. 5, 6. Fine. 7. Cloudy. 8. Fine. 9. Cloudy : rain p.m. 10. Fine. 
11. Cloudy: rain early a.m. 12 — 14. Fine. 15. Cloudy: rain p.m. 16. Cloudy: 
rain a.m. and p.m. 17. Fine. 18. Cloudy: rain p.m. 19. Fine : rain a.m. 20. 
Rain: rain a.m. and p.m. 21, Cloudy. 22. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 23, 24. 
Rain : rain a.m. and p.m. 25. Cloudy. 26. Fine. 27. Rain : rain a.m. 28. 
Fine. 29, 30. Cloudy. 

Sandwich Manse, Orkney. — Nov. 1. Rain. 2. Bright: showers. 3. Showers: 
thunder. 4. Sleet-showers: showers: sleet: thunder. 5. Cloudy: showers: sleet. 
6. Bright: clear: aurora. 7. Rain: showers: thunder and lightning. 8. Showers. 
9. Cloudy: rain. 10. Bright: cloudy: aurora. 11. Showers: aurora. 12. 
Drizzle : showers. 13. Hail-showers : clear : frost. 1 4. Clear : frost. 15. Clear: 
frost. 16. Sleet-showers. 17. Showers. 18. Showers: clear: lunar halo. 
19. Rain. 20. Showers: clear. 21. Bright: clear: frost. 22. Cloudy : rain. 
23. Cloudy. 24. Cloudy : clear *. 25. Showers. 26. Bright: sleet-showers. 
27. Snow: clear: frost. 28. Bright: cloudy. 29. Showers: bright: cloudy. 
30. Bright : clear. 

Applegarlk Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Nov. 1. Soft rain and brisk wind all day. 
2. Wet A.M.: cleared and was fine. 3. Frequent showers. 4. Heavy rain : 
hail : stormy blasts. 5. Heavy showers : hail : hurricane. 6. Moist, but rain 
not heavy. 7. Rain very heavy, especially p.m. 8. Slight showers. 9. Gloomy 
November day : wet p.m. 10. Fair, but dull. 11. Rain early a.m.: damp 
evening. 12. Fair and fine. 13. Raw: frost: cloudy p.m. 14. Frost hard. 
15. Thick fog; raw and chilly. 16. Thick fog: cleared p.m. 17. Showery: 
cleared p.m. 18. Rain during night: showers: high wind. 19. Rain very 
heavy : flood : mercury very low. 20. Rain, not so heavy : mercury rose quickly. 
21. Slight frost, rime: clear and fine p.m. 22. Raw and damp: showers p.m. 
23. Rain during night : flood. 24. Rain heavy and very high wind. 25. Rain 
during night: showers all day. 26. Slight frost a.m. : raw: showers. 27. Frost 
very keen all day. 28. Frost still keen : clear and sunny. 29. Frost milder. 
30. Frost keen again. 

Mean temperature of the month 43°'l 

Mean temperature of Nov. 1849 42 '0 

Mean temperature of Nov. for the last twenty-eight years ... 40 '6 
Average rain in Nov. for twenty-three years 3*60 inches. 



• Great fall of barometer, but no stormy weather in Orkney. I have subse- 
(juently heard of the storm which caused such dreadful wrecks on the west coast 
of Ireland a few days earlier, and the fall of the barometer here is probably the 
effect of the same atmospheric wave. 



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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 38. FEBRUARY 1851. 



VIII. — Notices of three undesci'ibed species of Polyzoa. 
By George Busk, F.R.S. 

[With two Plates.] 



At the late meeting of the Britisli Association in Edinburgh, 
Mr. Peach brought fonrard specimens and drawings of what he 
regarded as a new species of Cellularia, and of which he was good 
enough to give me a specimen for the purpose of examination 
and comparison. The result has convinced me that Mr. Peach 
was right in his conjecture, and that the species then produced, 
though not first collected or noticed by him, is fully entitled to 
a distinct specific place in the British faima. 

In Dr. Johnston's collection of Zoophytes now in the British 
Museum, there are, included in the same sheet of paper with 
the typical form of Cellularia neritina, or that from which the 
figure, if not the description, in the ' British Zoophytes ' is taken 
(pi. 60. figs. 3, 4), two or three specimens of a form, termed in 
the Catalogue, a " slender transparent variety," I presume on 
Dr. Johnston's authority, although this variety is not referred 
to in the same terms in his work. This form, however, and 
Mr. Peach's new species are identical, and it is so very dissimilar 
in every respect to the C. neritina figured in pi. 60. fig. 3, 4 of 
' British Zoophytes,' and in pi. 19 of EUis's ' Corallines,' that I 
think it is impossible to regard it merely as a variety of that 
species. With respect to the latter, it may be remarked, that 
eventually it may perhaps turn out to be but a doubtful native ; 
for although it is very generally distributed throughout the globe, 
it would appear to be more especially a southern form. It is 
stated by Lamouroux to occur in the Mediterranean, and is found 
in the Red Sea near Suez; it is also met with at Rio de Janeiro, 
the Falkland Islands, Australia, New Zealand, the Auckland 
Islands, and still further south, whence I have seen specimens in 

Ann. ^ Ma^f. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol.vn. 6 



83 Mr. G. Busk on three new species of Polyzoa. 

Dr. Hooker's collection. Aud it should be remembered that the 
figure (pi. 19) in Ellis's ' Coi'allines ' was taken from a specimen 
sent to his friend Mr. Peter CoUiuson from America. I would 
further advert to the circumstance, that from one of the localities 
enumerated by Dr. Johnston as affording C. neritina, viz. Co- 
pinstra, I have, thi'ough the kindness of Lieut. W. L. Thomas, 
received specimens of Mr. Peach's species, but none of the true 
C. neritina of Ellis and Lamouroux. It may also be noticed, that 
although Dr. Johnston's figure and references, as well as the 
authentic specimen in the British Museum, are plainly assignable 
to one and the same form, viz. to that figured in Ellis's ' Coral- 
lines,' pi. 19, and to that only, yet the description in ' British 
Zoophytes ' (vol. i. p. 340) is not exactly applicable to that form, 
but more correctly so to Mr. Peach's. 

As it is evident the name C. neritina must be retained for the 
form hitherto understood under it, the new species, now for the 
first time distinguished from it, will demand a distinctive appel- 
lation. Perhaps no better can be found than in the name of the 
worthy and zealous observer, to whose discrimination the British 
fauna may in fact be considered as indebted for this addition. 

In the present not very satisfactory state of nomenclature with 
respect to the various species of Cellularia, I have thought it 
better to retain that more general term than to adopt any of the 
divisional ones more recently employed. 

Genus Cellularia, Pallas. 

Sp. Cellularia Peackii (Busk). 

Cellularia neritina, var. Johnston. 

Buffula neritina, var. Gray, List of British Radiata, p. 114. 

C. cellulis subelongatis, deorsum attenuatis, supra truncatis, sub- 
rotundatis, spinam parvulum erectam externe gerentibus; 
postice foraminibus 3-5 seriatim dispositis, perforatis. Ore 
ovali regulari amplo, margine subincrassata minute verrucosa. 
Ovariis rotundatis superficie tessellatis. 

Hab. Boddom, Buchanness; Peterhead, Tynemouth, Copinstra. 

Mr. Peach remarks that the species is bushy, erect, attached 
to stones, old shells, and to other zoophytes from deep water, 
brought up by the fisherman's lines off Peterhead, &c., and that 
it is not plentiful. According to the British Museum list it also 
occurs at Tynemouth ; and I have received it from Copinstra by 
Lieut. W. ii. Thomas, R.N. 

It is white and of a delicate shining aspect when dry j the 
branches long, slender and straggling. The inferior end of the 
cell as seen behind much contracted ; the mouth regularly oval and 



Mr. G. Busk on three new species of Polyzoa. 83 

surrounded with a somewhat thickened margin, beset with minute 
verrucosities. There is a row of from three to five small openings 
towards the outer border of the cell on the back, and the upper 
and outer angle in front supports a minute upright spine, which 
is however not unfrequently wholly wanting. There are no 
moveable appendages. The ovarian cells are rounded and affixed 
above the cell to which they belong, and immediately behind the 
upper margin of the mouth, which in that case is slightly de- 
pressed. Their external surface is marked by lines crossing each 
other obliquely and giving it a tessellated aspect. The mouth of 
the cell is filled up by a delicate transparent membrane (more or 
less calcareous ?), in the upper part of which is situated the 
small crescentic orifice, protected below by a projecting and pro- 
bably moveable labium as in others of this class. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII. 

Fig. 1. Front view of a portion of a branch of C. Peachii. 

Pig. 2. Ditto to show an ovai-ian cell (a). 

Fig. 3. Back view of a portion of a branch : a, a, a, a, the series of holes. 

Fig. 4. Side view of the mouth of a cell. 

For the sake of comparison I have added some figures of the true C. ne- 
ritina, and drawn to the same scale as the others, in order more distinctly 
and briefly to show the difference between it and the new species. 

Fig. 5. Front view of a portion of a branch of C neritina {Acamarchis tie- 

ritina, Lamx.). 
Fig. 6. a, an ovarian cell. 
Fig. 7- Back view of a portion of a branch. 

II. 

For the following species, which I believe to be also new to 
the British fauna and hitherto altogether unnoticed, I am in- 
debted to Prof. E. Forbes. It was dredged on the coast in the 
neighbourhood of Dartmouth. It also occurs among some zo- 
ophytes collected on the coast of Spain, or in the Mediterranean, 
by Mr. M' Andrew in the course of last year. 

Its very close resemblance to Scrupocellaria scruposa may have 
caused it to be overlooked, and it may therefore be more gene- 
rally distributed than at present appears. 

Genus Scrupocellaria. 
Sp. S. scrupea (Busk). 
S. cellulis rhomboideis; supra infraque truncatis; postice sinuatis. 
Ore subovali margine paullulum incrassato ; spinis 4 vel 5 
superne armato. Operculo pedunculato reniformi obtecto. 
Ovariis cucuUatis subappressis, Isevibus. 

Hab. Dartmouth. Mare Mediterraneum. 

In stating the form of the cells in this genus, it is more con- 

6* 



84 Mr. G. Busk on three new species of Polyzoa. 

venient usually to refer to the back view of them, as I have done 
in this case. 

In habit this species bears so close a resemblance to Scrupocel- 
laria scruposa, that to the naked eye there is veiy little difference 
between them . The branches are a little broader, and perhaps more 
regularly and more closely disposed. The cells are wider in pro- 
portion to their length than in that species, and their sides, 
especially the upper one, more square and straight. The prin- 
cipal difference in the form of the cell consists in the existence 
in S. scrupea of a rather deep depression or sinus on the back 
of the cell and towards the outer margin, in which sinus is lodged 
the vibraculum*. This organ is placed considerably more behind 
the cell than it is in /S. scruposa, and differs somewhat in shape 
from the same organ in that species. It is wider, flatter, and as 
it were, more of a spatulate form. The avicularium occupies the 
same position or neai'ly so as in that species, or perhaps is also 
placed a little more posteriorly. An important difference how- 
ever between these very similar species consists in the reniform 
pedunculate operculum, which projects in front of the mouth of 
the cell. Although this organ exists in a great variety of forms 
in many species of Cellulariadae, and is particidarly well developed 
in the common Scnipocellaria reptans, I am not aware that it has 
hitherto received the attention it would seem to deserve in the 
distinction of species : that its presence or absence could scarcely 
be regarded with safety as a generic character, the present in- 
stance might perhaps suffice to show, as it does not exist in S. 
scruposa ; but of its specific importance I am convinced, from the 
examination of many foreign species. Several species furnished 
with this appendage and in various forms are figured by Savigny 
in the great work on Egypt, but no allusion is made to it by 
Audouin in the meagre text relating to those figures. 

This process does not arise from the edge of the cell (at least 
not generally), but from the wall of the cell a little beyond the 
margin, and it usually appears to be tubular at its origin. It 
assumes various forms, some very fantastic, and increases in size 
as the cell becomes older, so that in the older cells at the bottom 
of the branches it almost entirely covers the mouth. 

In the case oiSa'upocellaria scruposa,th.e want of this operculum 
appears to be compensated for by the greater thickness of the 
velum, and which in that species, in the older cells, becomes the 
seat of an increased deposition of calcareous matter. When in 
this state, the cells anteriorly very much i-esemble those of certain 
species of Catenicella. 

I have subjoined a figm*e of this operculum as it occurs in 

* I employ this term to signify the organs furnished with a moveable or 
vibratile seta, as distinguished from the prehensile avicularia. 



A 



Mr. G. Busk on three new species of Polyzoa. 85 

Scrupocellaria reptans, in which the peculiar structure of this ap- 
pendage is well seen. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 
Scrupocellaria scruposa. 
Fig. 8. Front view of a portion of a branch of S-Jcruposa 

^ by deposition of calcareous matter m the velum. 

Scrupocellaria scrupea. 
Fig. 11. Front view ofaportionofabranch: «,«,«, ovarian cells; b,b,b,b,b,b, 

mn 12 Back view of the same: a, a, avicularia; 6, b, vibracula. 

% 1 A morThVly magnified view of the operculum m S. reptans. 

III. 

The species of Anqumaria about to be described was given to 
me by Mr j! Quekett of the College of Surgeons, who beheves 
that it came from Torres Straits. ■ e 

It diS so evidently from the hitherto only known species of 
J^Ma, that there'can be no doubt of t^- specxfic dist^^^^^ 
tion but at the same time the distinctive character ot the new 
spec'ies requires but a very short definition. 

Genus Anguinaria, Lamk. 

Sp. Anguinaria dilatata (Busk). 

A. cellulis apice cyathiformibus, ore magno dilatato suborbicu- 

lari. 

Hah. Torres Strait ? 

In habit this species is rather more robust but m other re- 
spects veiy nearly corresponds with A. spatulata^^f ^^ m tha 
pedes, the cells arise from a creepmg, branched, decumbent 
pKoarium, which is adnate on fucus ; m this case a specie of 
SS«m. It is rather remarkable that Angmnariaspatulata 
sWd oc m- in Bass Straits and other parts of the Australian 
seas and m the South of Africa, as well as m Europe, whilst the 
presen^species would seem to be much more limited m its range ; 
the one perhaps requiring a temperate and the other a tropical 
climate. 

Plate IX. fig. 14. Anguinaria dilatata. 



80 Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera. 

IX. — Remarks on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera*. 
By Mr. William Thomson, King's College, London. 

[With a Plate.] 

In venturing to offer a few remarks upon the Dentition of the 
Puliuonobrauchiate Mollusca, 1 do so with much ditfidence, 
partly on account of the paucity of species to be met with in the 
British Islands, and the absence of those connecting links with- 
out which no satisfactory conclusions can confidently be arrived 
at ; but mainly from the conviction that those who first make 
observations upon a subject, which had previously been almost, 
or altogether, neglected, are much more liable to the commis- 
sion of errors, alike in their microscopical examinations and in 
their physiological deductions, than those who have a foundation 
to work upon, be the works of their predecessors ever so erro- 
neous. It is more, therefore, with the desire of calling attention 
to the subject, than with the intention of entering minutely into 
the form, structure and composition of these teeth, that I am 
induced to make some brief and general remarks upon them ; — 
as foundation-stones, the friability or dui'ability of which must 
be tested by future uialacologists. 

I am not aware of any papers having been published in 
England upon a detailed examination of the teeth of Mollusca, 
and but very few have appeared upon the continent. Prof. 
Loven of Stockholm has the credit of first px'oposing to employ 
this portion of their oeconomy as a basis of classification, and 
his excellent paper on the subject may be found in the ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Swedish Academyf.' His observations 
are however chiefly upon the Marine Gasteropoda. 

HeiT Troschel has published some valuable remarks upon the 
dentition of some species amongst the Pulmonobranchiata ; but 
(with the exception of some brief notices of the forms of a few 
unconnected species by different authors) I know of no other 
papers of importance in connection with this subject. 

The tongue of the Pulmonobranchiata generally is a thin ex- 
pansible membrane, two-thirds or three-fourths of which is rolled 
into a tube (PI. IV. fig. 3 c) ; the posterior end of this tube ia 
closed, while at its anterior extremity the remaining portion of 
the membrane is expanded into a flattened or spoon-shaped form, 
which plays against the edge of the horny upper jaw (fig. 2 a), 
thus acting more in the capacity of an under jaw than a true 
tongue. It is enclosed in the muscular head of the animal, and 
is connected with the oesophagus (fig. 2 b) at the anterior end of 
the tube, the extended upper portion of the oesophagus forming 

* Read at the Meeting of the British Association in August 1850. 
t Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Forhandlingar, June 
1847. 



Ann.k Mag.Nab.Eist. S. 2. VoL 7. PiM 





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12 



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J.Ba.s-cre sc. 




.^» 



Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of Bi-itish Pulmonifeva. 87 

the roof of the mouth, while the expanded surface of the tougue 
covers the lower part of the mouth. The head is usually globular 
or nearly so, sometimes slightly attenuated backwards. From 
the junction of the tubes of the oesophagus and tongue, the 
former passes backwards through the head and leaves it at its 
upper part behind (sometimes coming out almost at the top of 
the head), while the tongue takes at once a downward and back- 
ward direction, and protrudes its closed end distinctly at the 
lower part of the head. 

If the tubular part of the tongue be laid open and expanded 
(when it always proves of the same width as the naturally 
expanded portion), it will be found to be covered on its upper 
surface with a vast number of plates, each carrying one or more 
tubercles, which do not stand perpendicularly to the surface of 
the plates, but are abruptly curved posteriorly, so that the apices 
of these projections invariably point towards the closed end of 
the tongue (PL IV. figs. 3 & 4). 

These teeth are distributed in rows all over the membrane, and 
are closely packed together. The longitudinal rows always 
consist of straight lines, but the transverse rows are variously 
curved, often bow- shaped, sometimes angular, rarely straight 
(figs. 12-19). 

The degree of curvature of the transverse row, and the varia- 
tions which the curves show (being sometimes composed of arcs 
of circles, while at other times they are made up of short straight 
lines lying in dififerent directions), appear to depend on the form 
of the teeth. I shall allude to this again, after having described 
the teeth. 

The number of teeth in a row does not seem to be always the 
same in individuals of the same species, though it may be pro- 
nounced as constant within certain limits. In different species, 
however, it is exceedingly variable : as a rule, there are more 
teeth in a longitudinal than in a transverse row, usually one- 
third or one-fourth moi*e, though in Helix Pomatia the number 
in the transverse row exceeds that of the other, while in Lim- 
neetis stagnalis there are 110 in each direction. 

Of the rows, taken longitudinally, I need not say much, it 
being more easy to explain the variations in the teeth, when the 
rows are regarded transversely. Suffice it to mention, that in 
the centre of the membrane there is a longitudinal row of teeth 
of different form to any of the rest. 

It is to the form of the central tooth of the transverse row 
(the series of which constitutes the central longitudinal row just 
referred to) that I would wish to draw more particular attention ; 
as I hope to show presently that all the other teeth partake more 
or less of the form of this tooth. 



88 Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of British Pulmoiiifera. 

But before proceeding to its description, it will be well to 
explain the precise meaning of the terms I purpose using. From 
reference to an ideal vertical longitudinal section of a plate with 
its tubercle (PI. IV. fig. 3), it will be evident that on viewing 
the whole vertically (PI. IV. fig. 4) through the microscope (the 
object being almost transparent), three outlines will generally 
be seen, that of the plate, that of the attachment of the tubercle 
to the plate, which I shall refer to as the base, and that of the 
free point of the tubercle, which I shall speak of as the apex : the 
tooth will therefore be regarded as the plate and tubercle com- 
bined. 

The central plate and its tubercle differ from all the others 
on the membrane in being symmetrical. The plate is of a sub- 
quadrangular form, often somewhat longer than broad, having 
its sides slightly hollowed out and its ends nearly straight 
{Limax) (PI. IV. fig. 5 a), or with its anterior end (that nearest 
the base of the tubercle) somewhat bow-shaped, in which cases 
this part overlaps the posterior straight edge of the plate in 
front of it {Zonites radiatulus) (fig. la). In some it is nearly 
square {Zonites), while in others it presents the form of an in- 
verted tapering triangle with a rounded apex {Amphipeplea). 

Tlie form of the tubercle on the central plate is subject to 
much greater variation than its plate. Sometimes the tubercle 
is very large and attached to nearly the whole surface of the 
plate, leaving but a small free apex {Limax) (PI. IV. fig. 5 a) : 
in other species the tubercle is small and attached by its base 
to the anterior portion of the plate {Zua) (fig. 8 a) . In another 
genus {Planorbis) we find that the tubercle is small and has two 
apices (fig. 9 a). The apex in some few instances projects beyond 
the edge of the plate, and consequently lies above the base of 
the tooth next behind it ; but in the majority of cases, the apex 
of the central tubercle does not project over the edge of its 
plate. 

The lateral plates not only differ from the central one in form, 
but also from each other as they approach the edge of the mem- 
brane. The general form is subquadrilateral, the anterior and 
posterior edges being subject to the same variations as those 
described with reference to the central plate, while the inner 
edge is always more or less convex and the outer edge concave. 
In those species where the curve of the horizontal row is con- 
siderable, the plates as they approach the edge get narrower, and 
in these it is not unusual for them also to assume somewhat an 
S-form on the one side and its reverse on the other. In others, 
however, the lateral plates become gradually broader, and 
eventually twice as broad as the primary lateral plates. 

I come now to speak of the lateral tubercles ; but as they vary 



Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera. 89 

nearly as much in the same individual as they do in different 
species, it would be an almost endless task to describe all the 
forms they assume. A careful examination of them generally 
shows, I think, clearly, that the following rule may be laid down 
regarding their form. 

If an ideal line be drawn longitudinally through the central 
tubercle, so as to divide it equally, it will be found that the two 
halves are precisely similar (PI. IV. fig. 4) ; but such is not the 
case with any of the lateral tubercles. We find, too, that those 
lateral tubercles which are nearest to the central tubercle are 
always more similar to it in general form than those at the 
edge ; indeed, that the tubercles become more unlike the central 
tubercle as their position is nearer to the edge of the membrane. 
Hence I deduce the following rule : viz. that the lateral tubercles 
are merely modifications of the form of the central tubercle ; and 
that these modifications are effected by the suppression of the 
prominences on the inner side of each lateral tubercle, and the 
simultaneous increase of the corresponding parts on the outer 
side. By the "inner" and "outer" sides, I mean the side 
nearest to, or farthest from, the central tooth. 

In Limax carinatus and some allied species we have this rule 
clearly exemplified, the change from the typical form into that 
at the edge being very gradual, and showing every possible 
connecting link (PI. IV. figs. 5, 6, 7). But this gradual pro- 
gression is far from being the case in all species : the sudden and 
abrupt change in form which is seen in the fourth lateral tuber- 
cle of Zonites radiatulus (fig. 1 c) might at first sight seem to 
overthrow this rule ; but on comparing this tongue with others, 
where the central tooth is somewhat similar and the modification 
of the lateral tubercles more gradual, it will be at once perceived 
that this sudden change of form is owing to the absence of the 
connecting links, which a reference to the progressive alteration 
in other species will readily supply, if not actually, at any rate 
to the imagination ; and it will be found that an application of 
the rule I have laid down, to the third lateral of Zonites radia- 
tulus, would eventually bring out the form of the fourth lateral, 
though the connection would, I grant, require several plates to 
complete it. I would now be permitted again to refer to the 
directions assumed by the horizontal rows, which (as I previously 
mentioned) depend upon the form of the teeth. Wherever a 
straight line is observable in the arrangement of the lateral teeth, 
it will be found that all the teeth in that line are similarly 
formed, whether the right and left laterals are in the same line 
as in Planorbis contortus (fig. 12), or divaricate from each other 
at the central tooth, upwards as in Achatina aciada (fig. 15), or 
downwards as in Ancijlus fluviatilis (fig. 13) . Wherever the 



90 Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera. 

curve presents great angularity (as in Zonites radiatulus) (fig. 14), 
there we find a sudden change in the form of the teeth, while 
in hke manner a gradual curve is the result of a gradually pro- 
gressive change in the form of the teeth, the degree of deviation 
from a straight line being exactly in proportion to the amount 
of change which takes place between the form of the central and 
edge-teeth. 

It may perhaps seem that I have dwelt at greater length on 
this point than was necessary ; but as there are many species of 
Pulmonobranchiata so small as to render it difficult with the best 
glasses to determine the form of the plate and often of the 
tubercle, the attachment of the tubercle to the plate being the 
only part clearly visible, it appears to me desirable that the fol- 
lowing rules should be laid down with reference to the form of 
the lateral teeth, in connection with the horizontal rows. 

A straight line indicates similarity in the teeth ; a curve in- 
dicates a GRADUAL change in their form, and an angularity in 
the row indicates a sudden change. 

Having stated in general terms what are the usual charac- 
teristics of the teeth amongst the Pulmonobranchiata, I purpose 
now to offer a few observations upon those variations in them 
which seem to be characteristic of certain genera and families ; 
prefacing these remarks with a list of the species I have had an 
opportunity of examining. 

Arion ater. Bulimus obscurus. 

Limax maximus. acutus. 

carinatus. Zua lubrica. 



Vitrina pellucida. Achatina acicula". 

Helix aspersa. Pupa marginata. 

hortensis. jiiniperi. 

nemoralis. Vei-tigo edentiila. 



Pomatia. pygmaea. 

arbustorum. Balsea pen'ersa. 

obvoluta. Clausilia bideus. 

lapicida. nigricans. 

pulchella. Carjchium minimum. 

Cantiana. Limnaeus pereger. 

Cai-thusiana. stagnalis. 

fulva. palustris. 



concinna. Amphipeplea glutinosa. 

. Pisana. Ancylus lluviatilis. 

virgata. Velletia lacustris. 

caperata. Physa fontinalis. 

ericetomm. Planorbis corneus. 

Zonites rotundatus. albus. 

alliarius. carinatus. 

cellarius. marginatus. 

nitiduUis. nitidus. 



radiatulus. contortus. 

Succinea putris. Segmentina lineata. 

Bulimus Lackamcusis. Cyclostoma elegans. 



Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera. 91 

Since this list comprises httle more than half our British 
species, it would be hazardous to attempt to deduce any positive 
theories as to the constancy of form in any particular groups. 
Indeed, it would not be safe to lay down any rules even from 
an examination of all the British species, since many in the 
same genus present such marked differences, alike in external 
form and in the conformation of their teeth, that it would be 
impossible to arrive at any satisfactory deductions, without the 
opportunity of examining the connecting links which foreign 
species will supply. 

In the list I have given, the names and arrangement are 
those used in the last edition of Turton's ' Manual,' and on the 
whole, the form of the teeth is confirmatory of this classification. 
The Arionidce and Limacidce are much alike, and differ from the 
Helicidce in having a long projecting single apex to the edge- 
teeth. The Helicidce, on the other hand, show a marked dispo- 
sition to increase the number of apices by bifurcation as they 
approach the edge. 

Arion ater. 
Limax maximus. 
carinatus. 



Yitrina pellucida. 
Zonites alliarius. 

cellarius. 

■ nitidulus. 

■ radiatulus. 

Helix fulva. 



> Edge-teeth aculeate. 



aspersa. 

Pomatia. )> Edge-teeth serrate. 



Zonites rotundatus. 
&c, &c. 



Vitrina evidently belongs more to the Limacidee than the 
Helicidce, as is shown by the single prolonged apex to the edge- 
teeth. From the very similar character of the edge-teeth in 
Zonites alliarius, ccllarms, nitidulus and radiatulus (whose tongues 
greatly resemble each other), I am induced to believe that they 
should come in between Vitrina and the true Helices, for while 
their edge-teeth show no appearance of bifurcation, the heel to 
the apex may possibly be looked upon as an approach towards 
it. Their sagittate central tubercle corresponds with that of 
Vitrina, and a similarly-shaped central tubercle in Helix fulva 
connects them with the true Helices, which have a simple aculeate 
tubercle. Zonites radiatus (or rotundatus) is a true Helix. 

Succinea putris, from its partiality for the leaves of plants 
growing in the water and for other very wet places, might 
possibly be expected to show some change towards the form 
of a Limnceus in its teeth, whereas on the contrary they are 



92 Mv. W. Thomson on the Dentition of Britinh Pulmouifera. 

truly Helicine in their conformation. So also are the teeth of 
all the other Helicidee that I have examined, though they of 
course present specific characters more or less conspicuous. I 
imagine however that it will be more difficult to fix upon good 
generic characters in the teeth of the HelicidcB, than any other 
family. Zua and Achatina should perhaps come at the end 
of the list, as their very small central tubercle corresponds with 
that in the genus Limnceus. The genera Pupa and Vertigo 
present no apparent difference, and have their central tubercle 
much of the same form as Zua and Achatina, but in these it is 
as large as the primary lateral tubercles. 

The character of Limnceus appears to be, to have one small 
central tubercle, as it were " squeezed up " between two very 
large lateral ones, each primary lateral having a very large apex 
internally with a small external one, while at the edge they have 
altered to one thick prolonged apex projecting inwards and 
irregularly lobed on its upper edge. Much the same arrange- 
ment prevails in Amphipeplea, where however the tubercle of the 
lateral teeth is even still larger, in proportion to its plate. 

Ancylus and Velletia present widely distinct characters, clearly 
showing that they do not belong to one genus. In Ancylus 
there are thirty similar lateral teeth in a straight line on each 
side of the central tooth, and then there is a slight curve through 
a series of six more teeth where a trifling change in their form 
occurs. In Velletia, on the contrary, no part of the horizontal 
row is straight; its central part is much arched, and is com- 
posed of the central tooth and twelve lateral teeth on each side 
which do not alter much in form. Then comes one tooth of a 
different form, and lastly six more on each side, which latter are 
in a slight curve. 

Physa, again, exhibits a multitude of teeth of a similar form, 
though different to any that I have seen in other genera ; but 
unfortunately, owing to the delicacy of the tongue-membrane, 
I have failed in ascertaining either the form of the central tooth, 
or the curve of the horizontal row. 

Planorbis appears to be governed (as botanists would say) by 
the number three. Its primary lateral tubercles have three 
apices, and the central tubercle, generally in the genus, has two 
apices placed far apart from each other (PI. IV. fig. 9 a) : this 
appears to be merely the result of the suppression of the third 
intermediate apex, a view in which I am borne out by a speci- 
men of P. marginatus, in which there is only one side apex to 
the central tooth, the central apex and that on the other side 
being both suppressed. 

Of Segmentina and a few others I will not now speak, having 
failed in meeting with glasses good enough to bring out their 



Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera. 93 

forms clearly. The last species on my list is Cyclostoma ; but as 
this belongs to a section of the Pulmonobranchiata differing so 
widely from that to which the subjects of my preceding remarks 
belong, I. will not describe it, but merely call attention to the 
general aspect of its tongue, which much resembles that of some 
of the fluviatile Pectinibranchiates ; to these species the Cyclo- 
stoma presents some analogy, in being unisexual, and operculated, 
in having but two tentacles, with its eyes placed at their base on 
their outer sides, and in being a vegetable feeder. 

It will be desirable, perhaps, before I conclude this paper, 
that I should give some idea of the number of teeth in a trans- 
verse or horizontal row in a few species, together with the number 
of those rows upon the tongue, and the whole number of teeth 
on that organ. And to this I propose to add also, the actual 
size of the individual teeth of one or two species, to show their 
minuteness. 



Arion ater 

Limax maximus. 
carinatus . 



Vitrina pellucida 

Helix aspersa 

nemoralis .. 

Pomatia 

obvoluta .. 

lapicida 

pulchella . . 

Cantiana .. 

fulva 



concmna .. 

Pisana 

caperata . 

ericetorum 

Zonites alliarius . 

cellarius . 

nitidulus . 



Succinea putris . . . 
Bulimus obseurus 
acutus 



Zua lubrica . . . , 
Pupa juniperi 
Balsea perversa . 
Clausilia bidens . 
nigricans 



Limnaeus stagnalis. 
Ancylus fluviatilis . 
Velletia lacustris . 



Number of 


Number of 


transverse 


teeth in 


rows. 


row. 


160 


110 


160 


180 


80 


100 


100 


75 


135 


105 


135 


100 


140 


150 


170 


90 


160 


80 


65 


30 


125 


80 


70 


45 


100 


50 


120 


70 


100 


45 


115 


60 


45 


25 


35 


27 


55 


65 


50 


65 


120 


55 


100 


37 


80 


40 


100 


40 


130 


40 


120 


50 


90 


40 


110 


110 


120 


75 


75 


40 



Number of 
teeth oa 
tongue. 



17,600 

26,800 

8,000 

7,500 

14,175 

13,500 

21,000 

15,300 

12,000 

1,950 

10,000 

3,150 

5,000 

8,400 

4,500 

6,900 

1,125 

945 

3,575 

3,250 

6,600 

3,700 

3,200 

4,000 

5,200 

6,000 

3,600 

12,100 

9,000 

3,000 



It will I think be readily conceded, from a glance at this table, 



94 Mr. W. Thomson on the Dentition of British Pulmonifera. 

that the number of teeth upon a tongue is never likely to be of 
more than specific value as a characteristic feature, since there 
appears to be no general number, or even approximate number, 
which can be said to belong to any genus. Since Limax maxi- 
mus heads the list with 27,000, and Helix Pomatia follows with 
21,000, it might be conjectured, perhaps, that size had some in- 
fluence in the matter ; but then we find Helix aspersa and nemo- 
ralis possessing nearly the same number, while Helix obvoluta, 
a shell very little, if at all, larger than Zonites cellarius, possesses 
more than fifteen times the number of teeth. 

With reference to the actual size of some of the teeth, it will 
be most convenient to take the 10,000th of an inch as the 
measuring standard; and therefore the numbers that I shall 
now use, in giving the dimensions of the teeth, are to be regarded 
as so many 10,000ths of an inch. 

In Avion ater, the central and neighbouring plates are 25 long 
by 15 wide. In Limax maximus they are 20 long and 11^ wide. 
In Bulimus obscurus the length of the plates is 7, while the 
average breadth of all in the row is 4|. In Zua lubrica the 
length is 5i and the average breadth 4^. In Clausilia nigricans 
the length is 4^ and the average breadth 3|. The primary 
lateral plates of Limnaus stagnalis are 22 long by 14^ wide. In 
Amphipeplea glutinosa, the corresponding plates are 11 A long 
and 10 mde, which happens to be precisely the size of the 
primary lateral plates in Planorbis corneus. 

King's College, July 1850. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. Central portion of transverse row o{ Zonites radiatulus: a, central 
tooth ; b, first lateral ; c, fourth lateral tooth. 

— 2. Head of a Snail : a, horny tooth ; b, oesophagus ; c, tongue. 

— 3. Diagram of a vertical section of a tooth. 

— 4. Ditto central tooth. 

— 5. Limax carinatus : a, central tooth ; b, first lateral. 

— 6. Ditto an intermediate lateral tooth. 

— 7- Ditto edge-tooth. 

— 8. Zua lubrica (a, b, as above). 

— 9. Planorbis carinatus (a, b, as above). 

— 10. Ditto an intermechate lateral tooth. 

— 11. Ditto edge-tooth. 

— 12-19. Direction of transverse rows : — 

— 12. Planorbis contortus. Fig. 16. Zua lubrica. 

— 13. Ancylus fluviatilis. — 17- Vitrina pellucida. 

— 14. Zonites radiatulus. — 18. Limax carinatus. 

— 15. Achatina acicula. — 19. Helix obvoluta. 



A-nn.clMaq.^at.Eist. 5.2. Vol.7. I'l.V. 




a f: i>^ 



/l,v''M.J.J:f-rici:Uv .Itl. 



J./kl' Sovt^rfir Ml 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 95 

X. — Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
M.A., F.L.S., and C. E. Broome, Esq. 

[Continued from vol. v. p. 466.] 

[With three Plates.] 

502. Hendersonia Stephensii, n. s. Peritheciis irregularibus 
seriatis sub epidermidem fuscescentem linea ruptam latitantibus ; 
sporis maximis ovatis reticulato-cellulosis. On dead stems of 
Pteris aquilina, Bristol, H. O. Stephens, Esq. 

Perithecia membranaceous, oblong, irregular, arranged in a 
single row beneath the cuticle, which exhibits little lanceolate 
brown spots above them with a fissure down their centre. Spores 
large, ovate, with about three transverse septa, each division 
being again traversed by several vertical and transverse or some- 
times oblique partitions. 

A very beautiful species, which probably exists in collections 
confounded with Sph. filicina and Leptostroma filicinum. The 
perithecia and spores are very remarkable. The latter are much 
like those of Sporidesmium cellulosum, Fr. 

PiGGOTIA, n. g. 

Perithecia irregularia tenuissima subtus obsoleta in maculam 
rugulosam confluentia, fissui'a lacerata rumpentia. Sporophorse 
breves (demum tomiparse, Mont.) ; sporse majusculse obovatse 
versus basim subconstrictse. 

503. P. astroidea Dothidea astroidea, Eng. Fl. vol. v. 

P. 2. p. 287. Asteroma Ulmi, Grev. Fl. Ed. p. 368 ; Fr. El. ii. 
p. ] 52. On green leaves of elm, Springfield near Chelmsford, 
H. Piggot, Esq. 

Jet-black, forming irregular roundish granulated or wrinkled 
patches on the upper surface of the leaf, sometimes seated on 
a yellow spot, but frequently without any discoloured border. 
Perithecia suborbicular where solitary, but soon confluent, though 
not making a uniform stratum, obsolete below, thin and shining 
above, bursting irregularly by a jagged orifice ; spores oozing 
from the ruptures and forming roundish discs, which at first 
look like the hymenium of some Pesizce, broadly ovate, slightly 
constricted towards the obtuse base. Sporophores short, at length, 
as observed by Dr. Montague, tomiparous, as in Oidium. 

This has exactly the habit of Melasmia, and bears precisely the 
same relation to Dothidea Ulmi that Melasmia does to Rhy- 
tisma acerinum. It has some resemblance to Phoma, but is essen- 
tially distinct in the very irregular mode of rupture, the tomi- 
parous sporophores, as well as in habit. The perithecia are far 



96 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

less regular than in Sphceropsis, with which genus it has in some 
respects a close affinity. Discella again is closely allied, but the 
perithecium in the present instance, growing between the true 
cuticle and the cuticular cells, is quite distinct from the subjacent 
tissues, not to mention the mode of dehiscence and the obovate 
spores. 

A recent inspection of Dr. Greville's specimens, which are 
however very young and imperfect and mixed with Asteroma 
Ulmi, Chev., shows that Mr. Piggot's plant is just the same. 
We have great pleasure in dedicating the new genus, which we 
have been compelled to propose, to the intelligent observer to 
whom we are indebted for this and many other valuable species. 
Dr. Montague, to whom specimens have been submitted, and 
who has sent a sketch of the sporophores, which appears in our 
plate, agrees with us in the propriety of placing it in a new ge- 
nus. We have not however been able to confirm his observations 
as to the sporophores, though we observe the spores on the field 
of the microscope frequently disposed in rows, as if just sepa- 
rated. The stability of the genus does not however rest upon 
this character alone, but on the flaccid irregularly ruptured peri- 
thecia, which at first sight resemble the cups of a Phacidium. 

Plate V. fig. 1. a. Portion of the perithecium magnified, with some 
of the sporophores (as observed by ourselves) and spores appearmg at the 
edge. In this state the sporophores are simple, b. Sporophores separated, 
and showing the tomiparous origin of the spores, from a sketch by Dr. Mon- 
tagne ; c. spores more highly magnified. 

504. Rhopalomyces pallidus, n. s. Pallide cervinus, floccis fer- 
tilibus furcatis flexuosis, sporis minutis ellipticis. On decayed 
Russian matting, King's Clifie, Feb. 10, 1848. 

Creeping widely over the matrix, on which it forms a mealy 
pale fawn-coloured ragged stratum. Hyphasma delicate, con- 
sisting of very fine threads, which produce little branches swell- 
ing out suddenly, and rising at once, or creeping along and 
giving ofi" fertile flocci. These are rather thick, irregular in out- 
line, once or twice forked. Heads globose or nearly so, beau- 
tifully areolate ; each areola producing in its centre a short deli- 
cate spicule surmounted with a minute elliptic spore. 

One of the most beautiful Mucedines, distinguished from 
Aspergillus by its areolate head and single stratum of spores. 

Plate V. fig. 2. a. Mycelium and fertile threads magnified ; b. surface 
of head showing the reticulated structure ; c. spicules and spores verj* highly 
magnified. 

505. R. candidus, n. s. Candidus ; hyphasmate parcissimo, 
floccis fertilibus rectis simplicibus ; capitulis subglobosis, sporis 
minutis ellipticis. On a mixture of dung, earth and hops. With 
the foregoing. 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 97 

Extremely minute and delicate pure white. Hyphasma creep- 
ing, but very sparing. Fertile flocci erect, even. Heads glo- 
bose or somewhat obovate, beautifully areolate. Spores minute 
elliptic. 

Differing from the last in colour and the simple straight fer- 
tile flocci : the heads are somewhat larger. 

Plate V. fig. 3. a. Fertile threads magnified, springing from the de- 
cumbent mycelium ; b. fertile head more highly magnified, to exhibit the 
reticulated structure. The thread in this case shows a tendency to become 
proliferous, c. S])ores. 

BoLACOTRICHA, U. g. 

Fills simplicibus apice cirrhiformibus articulatis ; sporis magnis 
globosis brevissime pedicellatis conglomeratis, endochroniate di- 
stinctissime granulato. 

506. B. grisea. On dead cabbago stalks, old mats made of 
Typha, &c.. King's Cliffe, 1839, 1841. 

Tufts resembling strongly those of Myxotriclium cliartarum, 
but rather larger, forming large effused gray patches. Threads 
thicker at the base, flexuous, pale purple under the microscope, 
strongly curved at the tips like little tendrils, sparingly articu- 
late at irregular distances or perfectly continuous. Spores con- 
glomerate, large, 5-8 times as broad as the threads, globose ; 
episporium thin ; endochrome strongly granulated. 

This fine species has exactly the habit of Myxotriclium, but is 
very different in its simple threads and large spores. It does 
not accord with the characters of any known genus. The spores 
are not concatenated as in Sporodum, nor minute and linear as 
in Tricholeconium. We place it for the present near Myxotrichum, 
though not quite sure of its nearest affinities. 

Plate V. fig. 4. a. Tuft magnified; b. thread and spores highly mag- 
nified. 

507. Helminthosporium Srnithii, n. s. Csespitibus spongiosis; 
fills simplicibus flexuosis ; sporis longissimis, endochromatibus 
diametro subfequalibus episporio communi crasso. On holly bark 
and wood, Wareham, Rev. W. Smith. 

Tufts effused when growing on the wood, linear, and often 
forming somewhat reticulate erumpent patches when produced 
on the bark, rather spongy, coarsely velvety. Threads simple, 
flexuous, articulated ; articulations irregular, several times as long 
as broad. Spores terminal, extremely long, linear, multiarticu- 
lated, sometimes bent or flexuous. General episporium double, 
the outer coat thin, the inner extremely thick. Endochromes 
united, about as long as broad, sometimes moniliform or very 
irregular, here and there surrounded by a broad cavity, which 
appears granular under the microscope. 

Ann. S^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 7 



98 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

This is the prince of the genus, resembling somewhat H. folli- 
culatum, but with spores exceeding the threads in length, and 
the common episporium extremely thick instead of being narrow 
as in that species. 

Plate V. fig. 5. a. Flocci magnified; b. tip of young thread; c. ma- 
tiu-e spore. 

508. H. tiirbinahim, n. s. Fills tenuibus simplicibus; sporis 
elongato-turbinatis truncato-apiculatis 4-7-articidatis opacis. On 
dead wood, Speke Hall^ Lancashire, July 1840. 

Patches thin, effused, finely velvety ; threads short, linear, 
slender, obscurely articulated even when most transparent ; 
spores of a deep rich brown, varying greatly in size and length, 
but always more or less turbinate, attenuated greatly below, 
obtuse above, with a sudden more or less truncate apiculus, 
which often seems as if a joint had separated from it. 

Distinguished from all described species by the peculiar shape 
and character of its spores. 

Plate V. fig. 6. Spore highly magnified. 

508*. H. Rousselianum, Mont. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. ser. 3. Nov. 
1849, p. 300. With Sporoschisma mh-abile, B. & B. 

509. Triposporium elegans, Corda, Ic. Fasc. 1. fig. 220. On 
decorticated oak, Brockley Combe, Somersets., &c., Feb. 1845. 

The spores in this species vary considerably in length and in 
the number of articulations. We have also a Triposporium from 
Mr. Stephens on a leaf mixed with Fumago, but there is too little 
of it to say anything very positive about it. 

510. Helicoma Millleri, Cord. Ic. Fasc. 1. tab. 4. fig. 219. On 
dead wood. Rev. T. Salwey. Without any specific locality. 

There is some difficulty in referring the specimen to Corda's 
species in consequence of the spire of the spores being in general 
open. It is sometimes however quite closed up, so that the 
distinction between Helicosporium and Helicoma is scarcely te- 
nable. The threads also vary much. In specimens from Low^er 
Carolina the spores are precisely those of Corda's species, but the 
threads very differently articulated. Helicosporium obscurum is 
represented by Corda as having much more slender spores, atte- 
nuated threads and very close articulations, which does not agree 
with our plant. On the whole, we think the best course is to 
regard it as a variety of H. Mulleri. 

511. Cladotrichum triseptatum, n. s. Furcato-ramosissimum 
totum articulatum ; articulis superioribus inflatis ; sporis oblongis 
obtusissimis medio constrictis triseptatis. On a dead stump, 
King's Cliffe, July 1848. 

Widely effused, forming a thin black powdery stratum ; flocci 
forked and branched, septate from the base, upper articulations 



Rev. M.J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 99 

swollen in the centre or above. Spores oblong, extremely obtuse, 
constricted in the centre, triseptate, the central septum answer- 
ing to the line of constriction. 

A most beautiful species, well distinguished from the others 
by the triseptate spores. The notion of the genus must be taken 
from the figures in the ' Pracht-Flora,' and not from those in 
Sturm or Corda's ' Icones,' which are extremely defective, and 
convey anything but a correct idea of a very curious production. 

Plate V. iig. 7. a. Flocei and spores magnified ; b. spore highly mag- 
nified. 

513. Cladosporium dendriticum, Wallr. Comp. Fl. Germ. 2. 
p. 169. Cladosjwrium pyrorum, Berk, in Gard. Chron. 1848, 
p. 398. Hehninthosporium pi/roru7n,'L\h. no.lSS; Desm. no. 1051. 
Abundant on leaves of pear-trees in autumn. 

The spores in Madame Libert's plant are uniseptate and 
broader at one end ; in ours and Desmazieres' in general almost 
fusiform and simple, though sometimes clavate. 

513. C. orbiculatum, Desm. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. ser. 3. Mai 1849, 
p. 275 ; Exs. no. 1843. On the leaves of Cratacjus Pyracantha, 
gardens of Horticultural Society, Chiswick. 

Closely resembling the last, but differing in its shorter pyri- 
form spores. Some observations on this species will be found in 
'Gard. Chron.' 1848, p. 716, where however it was not consi- 
dered as specifically different from C. dendriticum *. 

514. C. depi-essum, n. s. Maculseforme depressum; sporis 
elongatis uniseptatis fioccos brevissimos fequantibus. On the 
under surface of the living leaves oi Angelica sylvestris : common. 
Mr. Ualfs has sent it from Dolgelley. 

Spots minute, scattered, olive-green, depressed. Flocei short, 
straight, or flexuous, sometimes quite even, sometimes waved or 
nodulose. Spores much elongated, as long as the threads, ter- 
minal, uniseptate. Sometimes they are constricted and the ar- 
ticulations much swollen. They often germinate in situ, giving 
out a delicate waved thread from the centre of the articulations. 

This species is clearly allied to the foregoing, but has far 
longer spores. A very similar species occurs in the Canaries on 
some Umbellifer. 

Plate V. fig. 8, a, b. Two different forms of flocei with their spores 

magnified. 

515. C. brachormium, n. s. Effusum griseum ; floccis erectis 

* In a letter just received from M. Desmazieres, he informs me that he 
is now convinced that the two supposed species are mere varieties, and that 
he will make a statement to this effect in a forthcoming number of his 
'Exsiccata.'— M. J. B. 

7* 



100 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

flexuosis nodulosis sursum sporis oblongis breviter concatenatis 
terminatis. On leaves of Fumaria officinalis, King's Cliffe. 

Gray, forming a thin stratum ; flocci erect, flexuous, somewhat 
nodulose, terminated by one or more short rows of elliptic-oblong 
spores. 

Nearly allied to C. rectum, Preuss, but distinguished by its 
less rigid habit and more flexuous paler stems. It approaches 
the genus Dendryphium. 

516. C. lignicolum, Corda, Ease. 1. tab. 3. fig. 206. On dead 
wood, Apethorpe, Norths. 

The spores in this species are very opake. Our plant seems 
exactly that of Corda, but it is a doubtful Cladosporium. 

517. C. nodulosum, Cord. Ic. Fasc. 1. tab. 4. fig. 212. On the 
stem of some herbaceous plant, Wraxall, Som., Feb. 14, 1845, 
C. E. Broome. 

Remarkable for the alternate projections on which the spoi'es 
are seated. 

518. Camptoum curvatum, Lk. Sp. 1. p. 44; Berk. no. 310. 
Spye Park, Wilts, on Scirpus sylvaticus. 

519. Gonatosporium Puccinioides, Corda, Fasc. 3. p. 8. tab. 1. 
fig. 18. On various Carices, Wiltshire and Somersetshire, as at 
Spye Park and Batheaston. 

This must not be confounded with Arthrinium Sporophleu7n, 
which has been published by Desmazieres at no. 602, under the 
name of ^. Puccinioides, and is No. 311 of the 'British Fungi.' 

520. Aspergillus dubius, Corda, Ic. Fasc. 2. tab. 11. fig. 77. 
On rabbits' dung, King's Cliffe, Nov. 16, 1842. 

In this very curious species the head is covered with linear 
processes, each of which is surmounted by four sterigmata, on 
which are developed the chains of spores. Corda does not seem 
to have observed the quaternate processes. 

521. Botrytis infestans, Mont. Vlnstitut, 1845, Tp.SlS. Abun- 
dant on the under side of the leaves of potatoes since 1845, pre- 
vious to which it had not been observed in this country. It has 
occurred also on Solanum Dulcamara, Anthocercis viscosa, and on 
Tomatoes. 

It is unnecessary to enter into the question how far this mould 
is the cause of the potato murrain. The subject is discussed at 
length in the first number of the Journal of the London Horti- 
cultural Society. 

522. B. UrticcB, Libert MSS. On leaves of the common 
nettle, Tansor, Norths. 

Patches small, orbicular, grayish lilac, flocci loosely divided 
above, branches forming an acute angle, extreme ramuli simple 
or forked, sometimes curved, very rarely inflated. Spores large, 
ovate, apex papilla^form. Allied to the last, but distinct. When 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 101 

the flocci are ruptured, the inner membrane sometimes protrudes, 
as in the asci of Sjihcerice. 

523. B. Arenariee, Berk, in Journ. Hort. Soc. vol. i. p. 31. 
On leaves of Arenaria trinervis, King's ClifFe, June. 

524. B. VicicE, Berk. /. c. Extremely common on the leaves 
of peas and tares. 

525. B. arborescens, Berk. /. c. On Papaver Rhceas; very 
common. 

526. B. ganglioniformis, Berk. /. c. Bremia lactucte, Reg. Bot. 
Zeit. 1843, t, 3 B. Botrytis geminata, linger, Bot. Zeit. 1847, 
tab. 6. fig. 9. Very common on lettuce leaves in spring. 

527. B. macrospora, Unger, Exanth. t. 2. fig. 14. On leaves 
of parsnips ; very common. Also on Angelica sylvestris and other 
Umbellifers. The roots of the plants which are infested with 
this mould are generally diseased, like the tubers of potatoes 
attacked by Botrytis infestans, 

528. B. grisea = Peronospora grisea, Unger, Bot. Zeit. 1847, 
p. 315. On leaves of Veronica Beccabunga, Baldovan, May 1846, 
Gardiner, 

529. B. Tilletei, Desm. Exs. no. 926. Not uncommon on 
moss and various leaves, as at King's Cliffe. 

One of the most splendid species of the genus, remarkable 
for its highly branched threads and verticillate ramuli. The 
colour of the whole plant is pale tawny or fawn. 

530. Menispora lucida, Corda, Ic. Ease. 1. tab. 4. fig. 233. 
On decayed wood, Lambley, Notts, Jan. 1841. 

531. Verticillium apicale, n. s. Effusum olivaceo-nigrum ; 
floccis rectis; ramulis apicalibus brevissimis basi incrassatis; 
sporis globosis. On decorticated oak branches, Wraxall, Som., 
Feb. 1845. 

Effused, forming small dark thin patches. Flocci erect, rather 
closely articulate, bearing at the apex a coronet of very short 
branches which are swollen at the base and strongly attenuated 
upwards. Spores globose. There is sometimes the rudiment 
of a lower whorl of branchlets. 

Nearly allied to V. tenuissimum, Corda, but differing in its 
globose spores and terminal branchlets which are not didymous. 

Plate VII. fig. 17. a. Threads with spores magnified; b. tip of thread 
with its ramuli and spores highly magnified. 

532. V. nanum, n. s. Minutum album, floccis vage ramosis, 
ramulis oppositis ; sporis ellipticis. On pears with Cladosporium 
dendriticum, Wallr., Cranford Bridge, F. J. Graham, Esq. Very 
minute, white ; flocci loosely branched ; ramuli elongated, oppo- 
site ; spores elhptic. 

An obscure species, in which the whorl of ramuli is reduced 



102 Rev. M. J. Berkeley arid Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

to two, by which character it is distinguished and by its elhptic 
spores. 

Plate VII. fig. 18. a. Tuft of flocci magnified; b. spores more highly 
magnified. 

533. V. epirnyces, n. s. Effusum albo-carneum ; fihs trifidis, 
ramulis subternis elongatis ; sporis oblongis. On decayed Ela- 
phomyces, Rudloe, Wilts, Oct. 13, 1843. 

White with a flesh-coloured tinge, forming thin, effused 
patches which appear compact and not the least byssoid. 
Threads once or twice trifid, rarely bifid, ultimate ramuli tcrnate 
or binate, slightly swollen below, attenuated upwards. Spores 
terminal, at first globose, then elongated, when perfect 4-5 times 
as long as broad. 

A very distinct and well marked species, remarkable for its 
close mode of growth and elongated spores. It approaches very 
near to Fusarium, with which it agrees in habit. 

Plate VII. fig. 15. Upper part of a portion of one of the plants mag- 
nified. 

534. V. distans, n. s. Sparsum niveum, floccis tenuibus ; 
ramis alternatis, ramulis longiusculis regulariter atteuuatis ; 
sporis oblongis, endochromate bipartito. On stems of herbaceous 
plants, Cranford Bridge, F. J. Graham, Esq. 

Scattered, snow-white, threads short, slender, branched alter- 
nately ; ramuli 4-6 in a whorl, rather long, regularly attenuated ; 
whorls distant ; spores oblong ; endochrome bipartite. 

Plate VII. fig. 16. Portion of plant with spores magnified. 

535. Penicillium roseum, Lk. Muc. 1. p. 69. On box leaves, 
Spye Park, Wilts; on Musa Sapientium,Q\i'aX^\sovi\i, Mr. R. Scott. 

Flocci delicately septate, branched above ; spores oblong, sub- 
fusiform. 

536. Dactylium tenellum, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. iii. p. 413. On 
moss, Dundee, Mr. Gardiner, March 1848. 

537. D. tenuissimum, Berk, in Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. vol. i. 
p. 33. tab. 4. fig. 20, 21. 

A question has arisen whether this may not be a young state 
of Fusarium Solani Tuberosi, Desm. We are inclined to think 
that such is the case, and therefore, unless future obsei'vations 
throw any clearer light upon the svibject, the species must be 
erased from the British Flora. Certain it is that specimens of 
the potato Fusarium vary extremely. Figures of several moulds 
growing on diseased potatoes, but for the most pai't imperfectly 
named, will be found in a paper by Fresenius in the 1st volume 
of the ' Flora' for 1847. Amongst the individuals figured are 
several forms of the Fusarium. 

[To be continued.] 



Mr. W. H. Benson on some new species of Helix. 103 

XI. — Descriptions of five new species of Helix fTom the Cape of 
Good Hope, with remarks on the known South-African species, 
and a notice of several Cape Limaces. By W. H. Benson, 
Esq. 

1. Helix bisculpta, nobis, n. s. 

Testa perforata, orbiculato-depressa, translucente, parum nitida, subtus 
cornea, supra rufescente, utrinque eleganter confertissime striato- 
plicata, plicarum verticalium interstitiis longitudinaliter striatis- 
simis, striisque spiralibus decussatis ; spira depresso-convexa ; 
sutura profunda ; apice Isevi, obtuso ; anfractibus 4\ convexis, 
lente crescentibus, ultimo rotundato, subtus convexiori ; apertura 
verticali, lunata, peristomate simplici, acuto ; columella arcuata ; 
margine columellari crassiusculo, supra breviter late reflexo, lami- 
nam triangularem efformante. 

Diam. major 7, minor 6, axis 4|- mill. 

Hab. sub lapidibus ad Camp's Bay, P. B. S. 

The interstices of the plicse have a somewhat similar sculpture 
to that of Krauss' H. Loveni from Natal, but the two shells differ 
altogether in form and other characters. It is more depressed, 
and the whorls are more closely wound than those of H. eenea, 
Krauss, which is also a Natal shell. 

Helix bisculpta inhabits the declivity of the rocky terrace which 
intervenes between the western face of Table Mountain and the 
Southern Atlantic Ocean. Seven specimens occurred, in April 
and May 1846, at the same spot where I had the good fortune 
to capture a specimen of Paussus Burmeisteri, harbouring under 
loose stones. This station, in common with all the localities of 
my new Cape species, was explored on crutches ; but from the 
frequent excursions made, it is probable that little was left to be 
gleaned in the immediate vicinity of Cape Town, in places ap- 
proachable by a wheeled conveyance. However, it is not unlikely 
that on the summit and sides of Table jMountaln, more especially 
in the lofty umbrageous nooks at the base of its mural face on 
the eastern side, towards the Teufelberg, which are occupied by 
indigenous arboreal vegetation, a conchologist enjoying unfettered 
action might meet with novel forms. Those friends who had 
power to scale these points, and who received instructions how 
to search for shells, returned empty-handed ; but their want of 
acquaintance with the aspect of these creatures in their haunts, 
and deficiency in the particular zeal necessary for the pursuit, 
sufficiently accounted for their failure. In connexion with this 
remark, it may be observed, that a small brown solid, exumbi- 
licate, and smooth Helix, marked " from Table Mountain,^' is to 
be seen in the British Museum. Specimens presented by the 
Earl of Derby, as well as by Mr. M'^Gillivray, were observed; 



104 Mr. W. H. Benson on some new species of Helix. 

but they had no specific name attached, and none of Pfeiffer's 
descriptions appear applicable to them. Circumstances however 
favour the supposition that they may be Bradybcena monticola of 
Beck, whose name was published in his Synopsis unaccompanied 
by any description, and must necessarily be altered with reference 
to the Himalayan shell with that designation published by 
Hutton. 

The leaves and stems of the Palmiet, which choke the stagnant 
waters of Hout Bay valley and parts of the Erste Rivier, the 
exploration of which was equally impossible with that of the 
mountain and of the precipice, may likewise nourish species as 
yet unknown to science. 

Helix bisculpta, H. vorticialis and rariplicata of former papers 
in this Journal, H. rivularis, cenea, &c. of Krauss, and the three 
species next to be described, present, in their sculpture, a 
peculiar feature which seems to pervade a large proportion of 
the Helices of South Africa, giving a character to the species of 
that region from which the locality of a specimen may generally 
be recognized. In like manner other distinguishing traits, run- 
ning through various modifications of form, have been noticed 
in several local groups, for instance in those of Madeira, and of 
the Philippines. 

2. Helix perplicata, nobis, n. s. 

Testa umbilicata, globoso-depressa, tenui, cornea, subdiaphana, utrin- 
que oblique plicata, plicis subdistantibus, interstitiis longitudinaliter 
striatis ; spira elevatiuscula, subconoidea ; sutura impressa ; apice 
Isevi, obtuso, lutescente ; anfractibus 5-54^, convexiusculis, lente 
crescentibus, ultimo leviter depresso, subtus convexiori ; apertura 
rotundato-lunata, vix obliqua, peristomate simplici acute, margine 
columellari tenui, superne breviter reflexo. 

Diam. major 7, minor 6, axis 4^ mill. 

Hab. in sylvis humidis, in stirpibus arborum fungisque putridis 
prope Newlands, ad basin mentis Teufelberg, P. B. S. 

The obliquity and mode of sculpture, form, ratio of whorls, 
and characters of the aperture, independently of other differences, 
sufficiently distinguish this shell from the preceding, as well as 
from //. (inea, Kr., which more nearly approaches it in figure. 

I found a single live specimen of this shell, in June 1846, 
imbedded in an offensively scented fungus growing in the damp 
woods between Newlands and the Devil's Mountain where it 
adjoins the eastern face of Table Mountain. Dead specimen.s 
(only one of which was perfect) occurred in the hollow stump of 
a decayed tree at the same place. The living specimen was 
broken soon after its capture in consequence of its extreme fra- 
gility. A lengthened slender Limnx was abundant, feeding on 



A 



Mr. W. H. Benson on some new species of Helix. 105 

the same fungus, and creeping actively over the surrounding 
moist rocks. 

3. Helix petrohia, nobis, n. s. 

Testa umbilicata, depressa, pallida cornea, diaphana, minime nitida, 
utriuque oblique plicata, plicis subdistantibus, iuaequalibus, iu- 
terstitiis sub lente argute longitudinaliter striatis ; spira vix elevata, 
sutura leviter impressa ; anfractibus 4^-5, superne convexiusculis, 
lente crescentibus, ultimo supra obtuse angulato, subtus couvexiori, 
circa umbilicum angulato-compresso ; apertura compresso-lunata, 
altiori quam lata, infra subangulata, obliqua ; peristomate simplici 
acuto, niargine dextro superne arcuato, columellari tenui, verticali, 
breviter reflexo. 

Diam. major oj-, minor A\, axis 3 mill. 

Hab. sub lapidibus, prope High Coustantia, P. B. S. 

More widely umbilicate than the preceding species, and with 
equally oblique plicje, but differing altogether from it, and the 
other described South-African species, in form, ratio of the 
whorls, and in the configuration of the aperture. I got a single 
specimen alive, in December, under a stone at the side of the 
road leading from High Constantia towards the gorge by which 
access is gained to Hout Bay valley. 

4. Helix Sabuletorum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa sub-late umbilicata, orbiculato-depressa, utrinque confertissime 
striata, plicisque arcuatis distantioribus omata, non nitente, pallide 
cornea ; spira convexiuscula, sutura profunda, apice obtuso ; an- 
fractibus 4\-5 lente crescentibus, convexis, ultimo rotundato, 
subtus valde conrexo ; umbilico latiusculo, interdum oranes an- 
fractus exhibente, profundo ; apertura lunato-rotundata vix obliqua ; 
peristomate simplici, marginibus conniventibus, columellari bre- 
viter subreflexo. 

Diam. major A\, minor 4, axis 2 mill. 

Hab. ad Hout Bay ; Strand non procul ab vico Somerset ; et ad Kalk 
Bay, P. B. S., in arenosis, prope littora maris. 

This shell might, on account of its similar size, and the more 
prominent features of its sculpture, easily be mistaken for H. 
rariplicata, nobis, by a cursory observer. It differs in its more 
depressed spii-e^ wider umbilicus, more closely wound whorls, 
which are in greater number, and in the delicate striae between 
the plicse, which are more regular and distant, and never deficient 
in the last whorl. In some specimens the umbilicus is wider 
than in others, plainly revealing the whole of the whorls in its 
interior. It appears to approach H. rivularis, Krauss, in some 
respects, but is more widely umbilicate, has a greater number of 
whorls, with a deeper suture, and differs in its mode of sculp- 
ture. 



106 Mr. W. H. Benson on some new species of Helix. 

5. Helix dumeticola, nobis, n. s. 

Testa sub-late umbilicata, depressa, supevne plane costulato-striata, 
subtus liKviori, teuui, cornea, epidermide lutea caduca, quasi 
lubrica, induta ; spira convexiuscula, apice obtuse, sutura impressa ; 
anfractibus 3^, convexiusculis, ultimo rapide accrescente, subde- 
presso, basi valde convexa ; umbilico' latiusculo, profuudo ; aper- 
tura magna, vix obliqua, subcirculari ; peristomate tenui simplici, 
acuto, marginibus subapproximatis, columellari expausiusculo, vix 
reflexo. 

Diam. major 1 1 mill., minor 9, alt. 4^. 

Hab. rarior derelicta ad Green Point, P. B. S., frequentior in duraetis 
littoralibus prope Simon's Town et Strand, ad littora Sinus Falsi. 

This shell has some characters in common with the Natal shell, 
H. vernicosa, Krauss, but is at once to be distinguished by the 
form of the aperture, its more flattened spire, and wider um- 
bilicus. In the sculpture, and depression of the last whorl, it 
bears some resemblance to one of the largest South-African 
species, H. Caffra, Fer., which is not known to me as occurring 
nearer to Cape Town than Algoa Bajr in the eastern part of the 
colony, where it probably inhabits, in like manner, with this 
species, thickets among sandy dunes near the shore. 

On a review of the South-African Helices described in this 
and previous numbers of the 'Annals,' it will be found that, 
besides H. Trotteriana, from the eastern part of the colony, ten 
species, previously undescribed, have been added to the list. 
When we consider how small a district was explored, viz. the 
Cape Peninsula and the sandy isthmus adjoining it, as far as its 
boundary mountains, it may well be concluded that much re- 
mains to be done in the extensive tract embraced by the British 
possessions in that quarter. 

H. Capensis, the most abundant species at the Cape, was only 
described by Pfeiffer in 1841, and H. Menkeana in 1842. Of 
the Helices inhabiting the environs of the chief town in the 
colony, H. globulus (which is conspicuous from its size) alone 
appears to have attracted the attention of earlier observers. In 
Krauss' ' Sud Afrikanischen Mollusken ' will be found, in addi- 
tion to his new species, the most complete catalogue of Helices 
previously described from that region. An enumeration of 
other scattered species attributed to it may form a desirable 
supplement. 

H. Bulbus, Menke, was added by Pfeiffer in the ' Malak. 
Zeitschrift' for 1848. In the absence of descriptions it is im- 
possible to say what Helicella comatulu and sectilis, Helicostyla 
connexiva and dolosa of Ferussac's ' Prodromus,' or Theba Eklo- 



Mr. W. H. Benson on some new species of Helix. 107 

niana of Beck's ' Synopsis/ may be. Thie Cape is assigned as 
their habitat, but whether they belong to its neighbourhood, or 
to distant districts, cannot be readily ascertained. An attempt 
to identify Bradi/bana monticola of Beck, has been made above, 
Albers, in his ' Heliceen ' published in the present year, considers 
it likely that H. argillacea is a South- African species, because his 
specimens, received from Eklon, came with the allied H. Lucana 
to Europe ; but the Cape is a point to which shells coming from 
the East are likely to be brought, and, in the absence of certain 
information regarding their South -African origin, there appears 
no sufficient reason for doubting that Timor, the received habitat, 
is other than the correct one ; more particularly as some nearly 
related Helices inhabit the neighbouring north coast of New 
Holland. 

Albers also, on the authority of specimens in the Berlin Mu- 
seum derived from Lamare Picquot, cites the Cape as the home 
of the Boiu'bon species H. detecta, Fer. It appears from a notice 
in page 181, that Lamare Picquot also collected in the sister 
island of Mauritius ; and examples are not rare, in either English 
or continental museums, of glaring errors in assigned habitats, 
such as to render it desirable to suspend judgement, in the ab- 
sence of direct evidence concerning the actual locality from the 
collector himself, who, moreover, may not have been sufficiently 
careful in the separation and ticketing of specimens obtained in 
different coimtries. 

Krauss attributes only two species of naked Limacidee to 
Southern Africa. Near the Cape, four, if not five distinct species 
were met with. These were, 1st, a large black slug which abounds 
on oaks at Newlands and llondebosch ; 2nd, a small keeled slug 
frequent under stones at the latter place, probably Krauss' gar- 
den Arion; 3rd, the elongated keelless species accompanying 
Helix perplicata ; 4th, a variegated slug, brown and yellowish, 
marked with a white line running from the shield to the tail, 
inhabiting stony places on the skirts of Table Mountain behind 
Cape Town, and near the sea at Three-anchor Bay ; and lastly, a 
fine variegated slug which seemed to differ fi-om the last-men- 
tioned species, and which was creeping about in great abundance, 
at midday, just before a smart vernal thunderstorm, in a stony 
tract between Stellenbosch and the mountain range of Simona- 
berg. 

Aix la Chapelle, Dec. 23r(], 1850. 



108 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 

XII. — On the Muriciclse. By William Clark, Esq. 
To the Editors 0/ the Annals of Natural History, 

Gentlemen, Norfolk Crescent, Bath, December 1, 1850. 

Some of your readers may feel an interest in the following 
malacological notes on the British Muricidce, which are now 
distributed in Murex, Buccinum, Fusus, Pleurotoma, Purpura, 
Nassa, Tr-ichotropin and Cerithinpsis ; these genera form a part of 
Lamarck's Canalifera and Purpurifera. This family is of enor- 
mous extent, and has its origin in the Linnsean genera Murex 
and Buccinum, which, though sepai-ated by Liunjeus on artificial 
grounds, have their animals identical in all essential points ; and 
it can scarcely be doubted, with the views held by that great na- 
turalist, that if he had been aware of their similar malacological 
structure, he would have merged the Buccina in Murex, or vice 
versa : we shall therefore consider them synonymous ; they have 
been split by the moderns into numerous genera on pure con- 
chological bases. Many causes have concurred to produce this 
artificial arrangement — amongst them, the multitude of species, 
the dissimilarity of the hard parts, which malacologists failed to 
see in their true light as the indices of species, but chose to con- 
sider the variable forms to proceed from generic animal distinc- 
tion. We will examine these points, and endeavour to reduce 
them to their proper value. 

The principal distinctions between this division and the Holo- 
stomata are, that the periphery of the aperture of the shells of the 
Canalifera is broken into branchial canals and more marked and 
extensive depuratory sinuses, and in the soft parts having the 
invariable presence of a retractile proboscis, with some other 
variations that will be mentioned. The shells are of elegant 
structure, and the animals of great beauty, but the latter resemble 
each other so much as to set generic distinction out of question, 
and even to render specific characters difficult without the aid of 
the hard parts, on which account I am obliged to enter into 
greater minutiis than perhaps may be thought necessary. It will 
also be shown that the anatomy as well as the hard and soft parts, 
with the general characters of the coloration, especially in the 
minor Murices, are all but identical. 

There is a singular coherence in the specific descriptions ; this 
arises from the similarity of the objects ; but if, to relieve the 
tsedium of the "iterumque, iterumque," I had attempted a ge- 
neralization beyond what has been admitted, confusion would have 
resulted from the destruction of the individuality of the objects 
by amalgamated descriptive characters ; the account would rather 
be that of a compound than of an individual animal, and the 



Mr. W. Clark 07i the Muricidse. 109 

more delicate features so essential for specific comparison lost. 
If animals are to be described correctly, conciseness must give 
way to particular description ; indeed in zoological matters the 
term is little better than to express omissions often of very 
essential features : but if it be insisted on, we must rest content 
with rough sketches instead of finished portraitures. 

The general distribution of the Muricidce, according to my 
method, includes Lamarck's Purpurifera, which have, as I think, 
been separated from his Canalifera on very slight malacological 
grounds ; — so much so, that though the commentators in the last 
edition of his ' Animaux sans Vertebres,' state the Purpurce are 
sufficiently distinguished from the Murices, I must dissent from 
that opinion, and challenge the production of even one essentially 
distinct generic character between the two families. There are 
about twenty- two genera which have sprung from Murex and 
Buccinum, whereof six or seven embrace British species, and 
fourteen or fifteen the exotic. 

The present arrangement of the moderns appears to rest al- 
together on artificial generic characters extracted solely from the 
hard pax-ts of the animal. Conchologists have thought, that be- 
cause the muricidal animal, as I designate the Buccinum of authors, 
has a short emarginate canal, and those named Fusus and Murex 
have more extended ones, some of them being smooth and others 
varicose, they must be generically distinct animals : this is a 
great mistake. We are enabled to say, from a sedulous examina- 
tion of the animals of all the genera, including the greater part 
of the British species except the larger and deep-sea Murices 
termed Fusi, that they are identical in organic structure, and 
diflFer from each other in colour and slight specialties of the soft 
and hard points no more than may be observed in the different 
varieties of the human race : for the short man with the short 
neck and inflated trunk, in comparison with the tall, thin, slender 
individual, does not constitute a different genus; neither is the 
tumid Buccinum or Dolium with the short canal generically di- 
stinct from the more spindle-shaped IMurices, the Fusi of authors. 
For these reasons we are bound to consult nature in preference 
to artificial considerations. 

The animals of all the modern genera of the Canalifera and 
Purpurifera, the proceeds of the dismemberment of the genus 
Murex and Buccinum, are zoophagous, and have the fiat probos- 
cidal head, which is rarely produced so as to intercept the basal 
coalition of the tentacula that carry eyes externally at diff"erent 
portions of their lengths ; the buccal fissure is at the centre of 
the tentacular veil or head, placed somewhat inferiorly, from 
whence a long retractile proboscis is exserted, armed mth hard 
parts of variable lengths for boiing and sucking their prey ; they 



110 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 

all have the double branchial plume, mucous fillets, and more or 
less long branchial fold ; the stomach, liver, heart, auricles, ova- 
rium, testis, andorgane geuerateur, nervous ganglia; in short, the 
entire internal anatomy scarcely differs. The variations are spe- 
cialties of small value, as of the size and outline of the foot and 
its operculum where it exists, the different distances of the pedi- 
culated eyes from the base of the tentacula, and the variations 
in the external markings and contour of the hard parts ; with re- 
spect to which we observe, that they arise solely from the vary- 
ing disposition of the mucous glands of the mantle, combined 
with the variety of food and habitat : but we think such variations 
do not constitute generic distinction. 

Conchologists will ask, if the present numerous genera of 
this family are merged in the single one of Murex, how are they 
to distribute the multitudinous species? The only answer is, 
not by dividing the simple genus into twenty others of similar 
characters. If the genera of these gentlemen only meant aids for 
the arrangement of vast numbers of species, such symbols can 
be acccjitcd, though objectionable as to appellation, because with- 
out explanation they would convey ideas of generic distinction 
rather than of divisional assistance ; it is therefore better to con- 
sider the variations of form and markings as simple sectional 
guides to reduce an enormous family to comparatively easy iden- 
tification of its species. It is a very illogical position, that because 
a genus happens to have a thousand species or more instead of 
ten, it is on that account to be cut up into numerous genera, 
which are absolutely misnomers, being without generic distinc- 
tion. For these reasons I shall consider all the British Cana- 
lifera, and such of Lamarck's Purpurifera that comprise any of 
our indigena, as represented on malacological grounds by the 
animal of the ancient genus Murex, dividing the species into spe- 
cific groups by the marked variations of the forms and sculptm-e 
of the shells and by sectional indices and definitions. 

If however malacologists will not dispense with the old names 
Buccinum, Fusus, Purpura, Nassa, &c., they must follow the bent 
of their inclination ; it is hard to cast oft' old habits, however 
much better ones may present themselves, " meliora probo, de- 
teriora sequor :" but in our method they will bear in mind that 
these words have the precise value of our sectional definitions ; 
they are mere signs and mementos representing objects with 
certain outward characters, but without the slightest generic pre- 
tension. 

It may be objected that our sections and definitions are the 
mere equivalents of the old Buccinum, Fusus, &c. : this is not so ; 
these terras pretend to represent what does not exist — generic 
distinction; but the sections merely point out variations of ex- 



I 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. Ill 

ternal aspect to assist arranj;ement ; the first stalk abroad under 
false colours, the others are clothed in simple integrity, casting 
off the garb of phrases which imply fictitious values. 

The generic synonymy appended to the sections will enable 
the collector to arrange his objects, either in the groups of the 
Linn^an Murex, or in the pseudo-genera of the moderns. The 
following seven sections will suffice for our Muricidal indigena. 
The exotic objects will require a few others. 

Murex et Buccinum, Linnaeus. 

Sectio I. 

Testa conica, subinflata, varicosa, efFasa, spiraliter striata. 
Apertura ovalis. Columella aspera. Operculum corneum. 

Murex erinaceus, Linnaeus, Lamarck, et auctorum. 

Animal spiral, yellowish white ; mantle very thin ; the branchial 
fold extends veiy little beyond the canal of the shell. The head 
is small and compressed ; from its angles the moderately long 
tentacula spring, and almost coalesce at their bases, from which 
they run tumid to some distance, accompanied by offsets of more 
than half their length, on which the eyes are placed externally ; 
from thence the tentacula taper conically to their extremities. 
The mouth is a vertical fissure beneath the tentacular veil, and 
emits the characteristic proboscis. The foot when quiescent is 
nearly oval, but on the march is truncate in front, throwing off 
on the right and left small auricular points; it is gently con- 
stricted medially, and has a blunt rounded termination, canying 
on the posterior upper surface an elongated red-brown corneous 
unguiculated operculum. 

Lamarck's commentators say, that between the genera Murex 
and Purpura there are sufficient marks of distinction, and in 
support of this opinion they adduce the truncature of the ten- 
tacula at their offsets in Purpura, which they state is more appa- 
rent than in Murex. We dissent from these views, and think the 
distinction is purely ideal — at least it is so in the species of each 
genus we have examined : the fact is, that when the tentacula are 
collapsed, the basal two-thirds appear very tumid and broad at 
the termini of the offsets, but in fully extended action the trun- 
cature nearly or altogether vanishes and no peculiarity is appa- 
rent at these points. 

It will be observed below, that the external organs of Murex 
lapillus, the Purpura of authors, are nearly identical with those 
of M. erinaceus, and the internal organs of the two are so 
similar that it would be a repetition to describe them ; the cor- 
neous opercula scarcely show distinction ; that of this species may 



1 1 2 Mr. W. Clark on the JMuricidse. 

generally be of a deeper red, somewhat rounder, though the arches 
of the stria? are no less elliptical. The gland producing the pur- 
ple dye is as conspicuous as in M. lapillus ; indeed this gland 
may be traced in all the Canalifera, though its secretion varies 
in colour ; there may also be a slight difference in the lingual 
riband, which is here rather longer and more coiled than in its 
congener, and the cerebral ganglions smaller, but these varia- 
tions are of little value. The different hues of brown in Murex 
erinaceus form the ground colour, but are invariably mixed with 
white or flaky yellow markings on the upper part of the foot 
and on the tumid portion of the tentacula, the conically pointed 
upper parts being of a uniform colour ; the under part of the 
foot is bordered by a narrow band of flake-wbite transverse fila- 
ments : these distinctions in the coloration are constant. 

This species inhabits the littoral, laminarian, and coralline 
zones in abundance at Exmouth. It may be asked, what are the 
causes that animals of such decidedly similar organs, as the 
Muricidce, should produce shells so entirely dissimilar ? The 
answer is, that there are certain variations in the form and dis- 
position of the vessels of the mantle for the secretion of the cal- 
careous and colouring matters which are inappreciable, and are 
the agents that effect the diversity of structure, sculpture and 
variation of the markings. 

Murex muricatus, Montagu et nobis. 

Animal of seven or eight spiral volutions, of a pure white 
ground interspersed sparingly in some specimens with intenser 
minute white flakes ; the mantle is even with the aperture, ex- 
cept that it is prolonged into a branchial fold, often extending 
beyond the canal of the shell ; there is no emargiuation in the 
upper part of the outer lip of the shell, but only a small inci- 
pient duct, which is lined by a corresponding extension of the 
mantle. The head is the usual flat, little-produced characteristic 
organ of the tribe ; the mouth is a central vertical fissure that 
exserts the usual proboscis ; the tentacula are pointed and rather 
long in propoi'tion to the minute size of the animal, with eyes on 
external offsets at about half their length. The foot is of mode- 
rate length, a little curved anteally, forming at its right and left 
points minute auricles, and tapers gradually to an obtusely 
pointed termination, on which, at the upper surface, is a light 
hoi'uy suboval and subunguiculated operculum. 

This beautiful species is taken abundantly alive at Exmouth in 
the deepest waters of the coralline zone ; it is almost always en- 
veloped in an orange-red spongy mass, which doubtless serves as 
a mantle of concealment and protection in like manner as the 
earthy coating of the land Bulimus obscurus. 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 113 

Murex septangularis, Montagu et nobis. 

Animal with eight spiral turns, white in all parts, powdered 
with in tenser minute flake-white points ; mantle rather thick at 
the edges, and produced into a fleshy branchial fold that extends 
beyond the short canal of the shell ; the head is compressed, 
narrow, with a vertical fissure below it, from which a retractile 
proboscis issues ; the coalition of the tentacula at their bases is 
not in the least impeded by any projection of the head ; the ten- 
tacula are short, setose, with the eyes on attached thick offsets 
at the external points, at about two-thirds of their length ; the 
remaining portion is very short. Foot rather narrow, slightly 
auricled, truncate in front, moderately long, with the termination 
nearly as broad behind as in front, without a trace of a distinct 
point, though it is often more or less emarginate ; it carries on 
the upper part a strong, very elongated, oval, pale corneous oper- 
culum formed of unguiculated segments. The sinus or emargi- 
nation at the upper part of the aperture is very slight. 

This species is not often obtained alive at Exmouth ; its range 
of habitat is from the littoral to the coralline zone. It has by 
some authors been deposited in Pleurotoma, on what grounds 
can scarcely be satisfactorily explained; as the pleurotomic emar- 
gination is almost obsolete, or less conspicuou.s than in any other 
of the minor so-called Pleurotomata ; besides, as has been stated, 
the head is perfectly flat, without a trace of projection to inter- 
cept the coalition of the tentacula. We consider it in every re- 
spect a varicose Murex. 

Besides the three species above described, this section com- 
prises the M. turricula, M. coralUnus, M.Barvicensis, M.Bamffius, 
M. rufus, M. minimus ?, and perhaps one or two others of the 
minor Murices. 

Murex et Buccinum, Linnaeus. 

Sectio II. 

Testa inflata, Isevis, effusa, spiraliter striata. Apertura ovaHs. 
Columella mutica, rariiis subaspera, aut fastigiata. Operculum 
corneum. 

Murex, nobis. 

Fusus, Lamarck et auctorum. 

The Murices of this section are the Fusi of authors, most of 
which are deep-sea species, as the M. antiquus, M. Turtoai, M. 
Norvegicus, M. Berniciensis, M. Islandicus, &c., and the M. tri- 
chotropis ? None of these, except the M. Islandicus, occur on 
the southern coasts, and that we have had no opportunity of ex- 
amining for several years ; but for the type of the animal of the 
enumerated species, we refer with perfect confidence to either of 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 8 



114 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 

our descriptions of the M. efinaceus, M. lapillus, M. undatus, or 
any other in our list, which will furnish every essential generic 
character ; aiid I fully expect to have it in my powei", by the exa- 
mination of live M. Islandicus, to show the correctness of their 
assigned position as members of the genus Murex. I can say 
nothing of the animal of M. trichotropis, which is admitted here 
as probably belonging to this section. 

Murex et Buccinum, Linnseus. 
Sectio III. 
Testa inflata, varicosa, vel Isevis, ssepe spiraliter granoso-un- 
dato-striata. Canalis brevis. Apertura ovalis. Columella fas- 
tigiata. Operculum corneum. 

Murex undatus, nobis. 
Buccinum undatum, Linnaeus et auctorum. 
Animal with eight s])iral turns, of a pale yellow ground colour 
in all parts, sparingly interspersed with irregular dark blotches on 
the upper part of the foot, the tentacula, and branchial fold ; the 
mantle is of thin texture, and no portion of it extends beyond 
the shell, except the branchial fold, which floats when in action 
far beyond the emargination of the shell, for only slight traces 
of a canal remains; the head is small, compressed, not at all 
produced, and does not in the least interfere with the coalition 
of the tentacula at their bases ; they are long and flattish, broad 
at their origins as far as the eyes, which are placed on shortish 
external offsets, and the remaining portion terminates in rounded 
but not pointed extremities ; the mouth is a vertical central 
fissure rather below the surface of the head, and from it a very 
long and powerful pi-oboscis is exserted, armed with the usual 
spinous tongue. The foot is large, broad, and about as long as 
the shell, slightly auricled and curved in front, and rounded pos- 
teriorly to an obtuse point ; on its upper part it carries a com- 
paratively small, but strong, light corneous suboval operculum, 
having the striae of increment of the same form, with the nucleus 
about the middle of its outer edge. There are two branchial 
plumes, one very large and pale brown, the other small, linear, 
of a still darker brown. We say nothing of the internal organs, 
as it has already been stated that they are identical throughout 
the Muricidal tribe. We refer those who are desirous to see a 
full account of the internal structure of this animal to Baron 
Cuvier's anatomies, where they will find an elaborate account 
and delineation of it. This celebrated animal may be looked on 
with perfect confidence as a faithful type of the entire Muricidal 
division ; our descrii^tive notes of the various animals will fully 
confirm this view. 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 115 

Having taken the bold step to merge one of the classic 
genera of Linnaeus and authors in the genus Murex, I must 
say a few words by way of justification^ in addition to what 
I have advanced on this point in the former part of the present 
memoir. I am prepared to have much obloquy heaped on 
me for my presumption ; I shall enter on no defence beyond 
the present observations, but will leave to the unerring critic 
Time to pass sentence on the step I have taken. I will now 
only observe, that I have as much right to suppress, on what 
I consider to be just grounds, a Linnsean genus, as others 
have to split one into twenty genera; and I am confident 
that if the great and candid Linnaeus had known as much of the 
animals of the Murices and Buccina as the progress of science 
has made known, he would have merged one or the other of 
these genera : no conscientious naturalist can support both with 
identical animals as regards all essentials. I have preferred to 
retain Murex as the representative of the most extensive group, 
and by far the elder genus. The British Murices of this group 
are very few ; we have only examined the M. undatus : the animal 
of M. ovum, if indigenous, has not occurred, nor that of the 
Buccinum acuminatum of authors. 

Murex et Buccinum, Linnaeus et nobis. 
Sectio IV. 

Testa tumida, Isevis, ssepe spiraliter substriata. Canalis ob- 
liquo-dorsali-brevissimus. Apertura ovalis. Columella dorso- 
fastigiata. Operculum corneum. 

Murex lapillus, nonnuU et nobis. 

Buccinum lapillus, Montagu. 
Purpura lapillus, Lamarck et aliorum. 

Animal spiral, of a uniform pure white or pale yellow, without 
the intermixture of other colours and markings, except a single 
superficial fine longitudinal line of intenser hue which divides 
the under part of the foot in two portions ; the mantle is of very 
thin texture, lining the shell only to the margin, except the part 
constituting the branchial fold, which is carried occasionally in 
marching a little beyond the short canal. The head is very small, 
slender and flat, from which spring the moderately long ten- 
tacula that are tumid and rounded from their bases, accompanied 
for two-thirds of the length by offsets on which the eyes are 
placed externally, and from thence they run conically to not 
very pointed terminations ; the mouth and its vertical fissure is 
beneath, from which a short proboscis is very rarely seen pro- 
truded. The foot at rest is nearly an oval, but in action is trun- 

8* 



116 Mr. W, Clark on <Ae Muricidse. 

cate and aui-icled in front, somewhat attenuated in the middle, 
and has a rounded termination, with, on its posterior upper sur- 
face, an irregular oblong, red-bro^vn, corneous, subunguiculated 
operculum, having the lines of increment raised on the inner 
surface. The buccal mass, as in all the Murices, hes within 
the proboscis, which itself is inclosed in a case, and consists of 
two pale fleshy lobes, supported by very thin corneous plates, 
between which the tongue is fixed, and after passing the extent 
of the proboscidal tube it forms a coil of four or five turns imme- 
diately behind its posterior part ; it is narrow, white and spiny, 
and about half an inch long ; under the coil is the cerebral cor- 
don embracing the oesophagus, fonned of about eight suboval 
yellow ganglions. There are two branchial plumes, one large 
and pale brown, the other minute, linear, and of a much darker 
hue ; they have the arterial vein in the centre, and are fixed as in 
its congeners ; then are seen the mucous fillets which furnish the 
material for the capsules of the ova ; the rectum and ovarium, 
with the canal of the \dscous sac, debouche on the right side. 
The stomach is enormous, and always found filled with a tena- 
cious mass of pulp ; the ovarium is yellowish white, mixed up with 
the liver, which is of a dark brown green, occupying with either 
the ovarium or testis the posterior whorls of the shell to the apex. 
The sexes are distinct j the male organe generateur differs from 
the ridged, grooved, spatulate and double-pointed appendages of 
some of the Murices, in being smaller, flatter, less pointed and 
more strap-shaped. This detailed account of these organs will 
not be repeated, as they are essentially the same in all the 
Murices. 

This section I believe contains only the British species now 
described. It is common everywhere, and rarely extends its 
habitat beyond the littoral zone. 

Miirex et Buccinum, Linnaeus. 

Sectio V. 
Testa tumida, granuloso-plicata, vel Isevis. Canalis obliquo- 
dorsali-brevissimus. Apertura ovalis. Columella striata, in pli- 
cam iutorta. Operculum corneum. 

Murex reticulatus, nobis. 
Buccinum reticulatum, Montagu. 
Kassa reticulata, Lamarck et auctorum. 

Animal spiral ; mantle of very thin texture, not extending be- 
yond the aperture, except that portion of it styled the branchial 
fold, which in adult specimens is often exserted an inch beyond 
the emargination of the shell ; it floats free, as there is no canal 
for its support ; it is also evidently a tentacular aid. 



Mr. W. Clark ow the Muricid^. 117 

The colour of the upper part of the foot, of the tentacula as far 
as the eyes, and of the branchial fold is a light brown ground, 
so thickly studded with yellow flakes and minute dark points and 
blotches as to give the animal a dark pepper-and-salt aspect ; the 
under part of the foot is yellowish brown, aspersed with very 
minute dark points. The head is small and flat, with two long 
tentacula bearing eyes externally on ofi"sets about a quarter 
of an inch from the bases, where they are wide, but from thence 
to their termination they become slender and pointed. The foot 
is very large, long and broad, extending when in full march more 
than the length of the shell; it is bevelled to a fine edge, gently 
rounded, indented in the centre in front, and has slightly curved 
rather long auricles ; it then gradually declines to an elongated 
lanceolate termination, which is emarginate and sends forth from 
each fillet of the fork a pointed filament ; close and anterior to 
the caudal cmargination is a brown, corneous, suboval, subun- 
guiculated operculum. I have thought that the cmargination 
might be the seat of a gland, as that part is constantly covered 
with mucus, which, when removed, recurs ; but as I could trace 
no distinct duct, I presume the exudation is of porous origin. 
The mouth is a vertical fissure under the head, from which a 
very long proboscis is protruded, the architecture whereof is in 
all respects similar to that of Murex undatus, mihi (the Bucci- 
nutn undatum, auctorum), as are the cerebral ganglia, the salivary 
glands, the double branchial plumes, the mucous fillets, and the 
heart and auricle ; all these organs I have dissected and compared 
with the same parts of that species, and I found no essential 
differences. 

It appears from these notes that the principal variations of 
this section of the Muricidal group from its fellow-species con- 
sist in the large size and somewhat varied outline of the foot 
with its caudal filaments ; but surely no malacologist will contend 
that these are generic distinctions : the whole of the animal must 
be taken into view, which will undoubtedly, with all disinterested 
naturalists, stamp it as a true member of the genus Murex. This 
animal is lively, active, not at all shy, and marches with rapidity ; 
it inhabits in great abundance the littoral and laminarian zones. 
It must be regarded as the type of the British species of this 
section ; it has the most intimate and congeneric alliances with 
the animals of the third and fourth sections. 

Murex incrassatus, nobis. 
Buceinum macula, Montagu. 
Nassa incrassata, auctorum. 

Animal spiral, throughout of a pale dirty yellow, marked irre- 
gularly on all its organs with small dark lead-coloured or brown 



118 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 

dots, lines or blotches. The branchial fold of the mantle extends 
far beyond the short canal, and though cloven, forms apparently 
an entire cylindrical tube, which is constantly in motion and used 
as a tentacular organ. The head is pale red with a vertical 
fissure, from which a long proboscidal trunk issues; the tenta- 
cula are not long, but thickened from their bases to half the 
length, at Avhich point the eyes are fixed at the internal angles, 
from whence they terminate in slender conical points. The foot 
anteriorly is truncate, indented in the centre in front, and curves 
right and left into pointed auricles ; when extended it is longer 
than the shell, and tapers posteriorly to a flat bevelled emai'gi- 
nate terminus with scarcely a trace of caudal filament; the oper- 
culum is corneous, of suboval shape, and shows the subungui- 
culated stri« of increment. There are two semilunar branchial 
leaves, one much larger than the other, with dark brown trans- 
verse vessels, and connected with the mantle and neck in the 
usual manner ; the heart is a pale, minute, subcircular inflation, 
situate immediately behind the branchiae. The male has on the 
right side the ordinary spatulate organe generateur, and the testis, 
which is paler than the ovarimn, is substituted for that organ ; in 
the female the ovariunr is large, of a deep marone red, mixed up 
with the pale brown liver, and fills the three terminal volutions. 
The animal displays very energetic locomotion ; it inhabits at 
Exmouth abundantly all the sea zones. 

Murex varicoms, nobis. 
Nassa varicosa, auctorum. 

This species has been considered a variety of the preceding ; 
it is closely allied to it, but the animal and shell sufficiently in- 
dicate specific distinction. To describe it in the entirety would be 
a useless repetition, I therefore only note the deviations from its 
congener : the animal is more slender and invariably of much 
lighter colour, and in addition to the simple emarginate termi- 
nation of the foot in the M. incrassatus, there are here two long, 
pointed, apparently tentacular filaments issuing from the fillets 
of the caudal fork ; these are the only two material difierences. 
But in this case the shells of the two present so distinctive a con- 
tour as to corroborate the malacological variations ; that of the 
M. varicosus is of much more elegant form, being more produced, 
the volutions rounder, with additional cancellated ribs, which are 
not undated, and display the white varices, from two to five, of 
former apertures, which in this species, in fine fresh specimens, 
are of puqile colour ; but in the M. incrassatus the apertures are 
rufous brown. This animal, at Exmouth, only inhabits the coral 
zone, and is rarer by ten to one than the M. incrassatus ; it is 
very lively and submits to the closest examination ; we have kept 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidae. 119 

for days separate assemblages of the two species ; we believe they 
are distinct. 

Murex, auctorum. 

Cerithium, nonnuU. 
Cerithio^sis, Forbes. 

Sectio VI. 

Testa conica, elongata, gracilis, turrita, granuloso-plicata. Ca- 
nalis obliquus, brevis. Columella recta et Isevis. Operculum 
corneum. 

Murex tuber cularis, Montagu et nobis. 

Animal inhabiting a spiral shell of 10-15 volutions, flake- 
white, except some sulphur-colour points behind each eye; 
and behind them, on each side the neck, is a longitudinal 
band composed of minute brown points ; and anterior to the 
operculum are two sulphur-colour patches, one on each side. The 
head is small, compressed ; mouth a vertical fissure in the centre 
of the fork between the tentacula, from whence, as in the Cana- 
lifera, a retractile proboscis is exserted. The tentacula are short, 
inflated, subrotund, slightly triangular at the bases, and for the 
terminal part flat and more slender, blunt or very little clavate 
at the tips ; they are frosted hyaline, and edged throughout all 
the margins with hair-like lines of intenser white, giving them a 
very elegant appearance ; the foot is also bordered in like man- 
ner. The mantle forms a branchial fold, which does not float 
beyond the canal of the shell, and it also lines the slight sinus at 
the upper angle of the aperture ; the eyes are comparatively close 
together, rather large, immersed exactly in the centre of gently 
raised subrotund inflations. The foot in front is scarcely auricled 
at the external angles, square, with a shallow groove dividing the 
sole in front from the upper lamina, and forming slight labia; 
it is gradually constricted in the middle, tapering to a mode- 
rately pointed termination, with a very deep central longitudinal 
groove in the posterior half of the foot, terminating at its centre 
in a minute deep cavity, which undoubtedly pierces the integu- 
ments, and appears to communicate with the interior of the foot 
at the junction with the body. 

This decided cavity and the very deep scission are in some 
measure new features ; they are either to act as aquiferous canals, 
or to allow the posterior half of the foot to fold, and to assist its 
doubling at right angles ; the foot is usually carried in advance 
of about half the length of the tentacula, but in great exertion is 
sometimes produced to their tips. Though medial grooves in 
the foot of the Gasteropoda are not unusual, I have never met 
with one like this. There is a distinct margined operculigerous 



120 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 

lobe without wings or caudal api)endages, on which is fixed an 
exceeding light horn-coloured, subrotuud, corneous operculum at 
some little distance from the termination of the pedal disk, and 
is marked with the usual characteristic strige of increment of the 
muricidal opercula. I can say nothing of the branchial plume 
and reproductive organs, being unwilling to make perhaps a 
useless attempt to see them by the destruction of the beautiful 
specimens. 

This very elegant creature inhabits the middle levels of the 
littoral zone at Exmouth, in quiet sheltered pools amongst the 
minor Algse, in company with the Cerithium reticulatum, which 
outnumbers it by fifty to one. With it is also rarely found 
the Murex adversus of authors, which we believe will turn 
out, when the animal is seen, congeneric with the present spe- 
cies. When our present animal is just captured it is veiy lively, 
and creeps up a glass quickly. There can scarcely be a greater 
contrast than between this animal and that of the Cerithium reti- 
culatum, with which it has hitherto been confounded, and which 
has the entire aspect of an elongated Rissoa, to which I think it 
is even more closely allied than to Turritella and Aporrhais, 
whereas our Murex tuhercularis is an undoubted Canalifer, though 
it has evident relations with Euliina and Chemnitzia by the posi- 
tion of the eyes and shape of the tentacula ; still the balance of 
characters is greatly in favour of the present position. I believe 
Mr. Alder and myself are the first and nearly contemporaneous 
observers of this species. 

Murex et Buccimim, Linnaeus. 

Sectio YII. 

Testa gracilis, fusiformis, plicata, efi"usa, spiraliter striata, labio 
externo y)lus minusve emarginato. Apertura subovalis. Colu- 
mella planato-substriata. Operculum nullum. 

Murex gracilis, Montagu et auctorum, et nobis. 

Plenrotoma, Murex, Fusus, nonnull; Clavatula, Lamarck; Befrancia, 
Millet ; Man ff ilia. Leach. 

Animal spiral ; ground colour white, aspersed throughout all 
the organs with intense white flakes, mixed nearly equally with 
pink lines, points and blotches ; these are minute, though varying 
iu size and irregularly distributed. Mantle rather thick, not ex- 
tending beyond the margm of the aperture, except the branchial 
fold, which is often carried considerably beyond the canal of the 
shell ; it also forms in the outer lip at the upper part a small, 
open, slightly produced conduit that lines a deep scission in that 



Mr. W, Clark on the Muricidse. 121 

part of the shell. This species is one of the most typical of the 
Pleurotomata of British authors, but its distinguishing feature, 
the sinus, is not sufficiently stable in the British species to give 
them the impress of generic distinction. 

The head appears to be a very short protrusion of the red ver- 
tically cloven proboscis, which can be exserted to a great length ; 
it contains the usual short spiny tongue and other organs of the 
buccal apparatus, consequently in this species the tentacula do 
not completely coalesce basally. The want of conjunction of the 
tentacula at their bases is the character principally relied on by 
those malacologists who contend for a generic distinction be- 
tween the so-called Fusiis and Pleurotoma, but the character 
as regards the British Pleurotomata is very variable and cannot 
be depended on, as some decided ones, as to the shell, have not a 
trace of an exserted head or veil, and whose tentacula at their 
bases are conjunctive, with only the separation of the proboscidal 
fissure; and in their genus Fusus the same discrepancies occur, 
as in some of the minor species the tentacula coalesce, whilst in 
others the conjunction is slightly intercepted by the scarcely 
appreciable appearance of a head or head veil. The tentacula in 
the present animal are short, with eyes on the external extre- 
mities of offsets which extend within a very short distance of 
their points. The foot at rest is beautifully puckered ; when in 
action it is truncate in front with small auricles, flat, long, acu- 
minated behind, and extending to the fourth volution from the 
base. There is not a trace of operculum : it is difficult to account 
for the absence of this appendage ; it may be surmised that the 
apertures of these shells are so narrow as not to require such a 
protection ; but this argument cannot be relied on, as we see the 
Aporrhais pes pelecani that has a corneous operculum with a still 
narrower aperture. The branchiae are semilunar, one large, one 
smaller, of a dark brown colour ; immediately above the larger 
one are the coarse pale yellow mucous filaments, which are edged 
with a dark border. The organe generateur wMe is a very long, 
narrow, pale yellow, white, strap-shaped appendage, pointed at 
the end, springing under the right tentaculum, and lies doubled 
up and reflected back in the branchial cavity. The ovarium and 
liver occupy all the posterior volutions, and run mixed together 
to near the pylorus ; the two organs are easily distinguished, the 
ovarium being pale yellow, and the liver red-brown. In the male 
the testis replaces the ovarium. I have a little exceeded the 
limits of ordinary description on account of this animal being 
the type of the section. 

This elegant species is sufficiently abundant in the coralline 
zone at Exmouth. 



122 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 

Murex Ginannianus, nobis. 

Pleurotoma Ginannianum, Philippi. 
Fusus XJlidianns*, nonnuU. 

Animal spii-al, ground colour white or pale yellow; mantle 
plain, even, except the branchial fold, which, when the animal is 
in motion, floats free beyond the canal, and from its constant 
movement appears to act as a feeler ; the mantle also at the up- 
per part of the outer lip lines a very inconspicuous emargination 
of the shell, forming a minute anal conduit. The head is small, 
white, compressed, and does not at all interfere with the basal 
conjunction of the tentacula ; the proboscidal fissure, as in Murex 
undatus, is below the coalescing membrane ; the tentacula are 
short, flake-white, with eyes at the terminal surface of external 
offsets nearly extending to their points. The foot when fully 
extended reaches to the third or fourth posterior volution ; it is 
pale yellow below, with marginal transverse white markings, and 
on the upper surface sprinkled with intense flake-white spots ; it 
is subrotund in front, scarcely auricled, narrow, gradually taper- 
ing to a blunt slightly emarginate point. There is no opei-culum, 
and in this respect and in all the other organs it agrees with 
Murex gracilis. 

I might have generalized in this species, but I am obliged to 
give a somewhat more detailed account of it than usual, as it is 
to be the standard of comparison with the two next species, with 
which it has been considered identical by some conchologists. 

I have personally dredged this species in the laminarian zone 
off Budleigh Salterton. A larger variety is taken occasionally in 
the deeper waters of the coralline zone, which I am inclined to 
think may turn out a distinct species. The organe geuerateur 
is precisely similar to that of Murex gracilis. 

Murex nebula, Montagu et nobis. 

This animal has the closest alliance with M. Ginannianus, 
therefore only the very doubtful and almost inappreciable varia- 
tions will be mentioned. In this species the eyes appear larger 
and the tentacula proportionately shorter than in M. Ginannianus. 
The general aspect of the shells of the two species appears to afford 
even better specific distinctions than the animals. In August 
1849 I dredged in Littleham Cove near Exmouth, in the lami- 
narian zone, several specimens both of the M. Ginannianus and 
M. nebula in company, and at the same haul; they proved 
lively and afforded a good examination for some hours ; and the 
differences between them with respect to the shells are, that the 
M. Ginannianus is less slender, the aperture more patulous, and 

* For Ulidianus, see ' Annals,' vol. xv. p. 316. 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidae. 123 

the colour of a uniform yellow, whilst that of M. nebula is much 
darker, and shows a still darker spiral band in the sutures. The 
animals also differ : the M. Ginannianus has the ground colour of 
a very pale yellow brown, suffused with a tinge of light red, and 
the flakes with which the whole body is aspersed have a light 
sulphur tinge ; whereas in M. nebula the ground colour is pale 
yellowish white shot with slight hues of red, and the flakes are 
snow-white : these differences are certainly not very important, 
but they do not appear to depend on differences of food and 
habitat, and they are constant in the two species ; I am therefore 
rather inclined to think that there may be sufficient grounds for 
specific distinction. There is no trace of operculum, and in other 
respects they closely agree with the type, except that here the 
pleurotomic sinus is very inconsiderable. 

Murex brachystoma, nobis. 
Pleurotoma hrachystomum, Philippi. 

The P. brachystomum of Philippi, recorded in the 2nd vol. 
p. 169 of the ' Enumeratio Moll. Sicilise,' appears to be distinct 
from M. Ginannianus, judging from the characters of the shells, 
which exhibit greater distinctive marks than the animals ; we 
have examined the two alive, and the only perceptible difference 
is in the colour, which in this species is pm-e hyaline, without 
the least effusion of the pale red or yellow brown which is appa- 
rent in M. Ginannianus, and the snow-white flakes on the upper 
part of the foot are veiy distinct, and do not run into each other 
as in its congener. In all other respects the two are identical as 
regards the markings and coloration of the organs that have 
not been mentioned, and in the shape of the foot and tentacula, 
and position of the eyes. 

At Exmouth the two are taken together in the coralline zone. 
The M. Ginannianus also occurs commonly in the laminarian 
zone in company with M. nebula, but in that habitat we never 
met with the M. brachystoma. It must be admitted that the 
specific distinctions between these species are even less import- 
ant than those between M. Ginannianus and M. nebula ; the 
shells exhibit some distinctive characters, the animals nearly 
identical ones, consequently we are bound to consider the ani- 
mal diagnoses of preponderating value, and pronounce the two 
to be varieties of the same species. 

Murex linearis, Montagu et nobis. 
Pleurotoma aut Fusus, auctorum. 
Animal spiral ; the colour throughout is of a uniform brilliant 
frosted white, occasionally suffused with snow-white opake mat- 



124 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 

ter. The mantle is simple^ being only produced into a simple 
bi'anchial duplicature lining the canal of the shell, and as in its 
congeners is often extended beyond it. The head is very short, 
flat, forming a sort of head-veil, under which the usually armed 
pi'oboscis issues ; consequently the tcntacula do not form a com- 
pletely conjunctive angle at their bases. 

I should have been glad to have seized and admitted such a 
character as generic in default of a better to separate the Pleu- 
rotoma and Fusus of authors, but I found the character not con- 
stant, and that some of the more decided Pleurotomata have the 
complete conjunctive tentacula, and not a trace of head or head- 
veil, but merely the intervention of the usual vertical buccal oii- 
fice. I am therefore compelled to relieve the genus Murex of 
these modern dismembennents. I feel confident that none of 
the so-called British Pleurotomata or Fusi differ generically from 
Murex. Some of the exotic species may perhaps afford better 
distinctive generic indices. 

The tentacula are long and taper to a fine point, having the 
eyes at the external angles of pedicles of not half their length. 
The foot in front is subtruncate, acutely auricled and labiated ; 
when in action it is sinuated, long, narrow, tapering to a fine 
point, and when fully extended reaches beyond the posterior end 
of the spire ; it is the only species J know of, except the M. cos- 
tatus, that shows this peculiarity : there is no vestige of an oper- 
culum, and the lateral scission is rather more apparent than in 
the two preceding species. The branchial plumes and all the 
other organs are in exact accordance with the type, M. gracilis. 

The shells exhibit two well-marked varieties ; the one the ty- 
pical M. linearis, with more regular subdued spiral strise ; the 
other is more scabrous. The smoother variety is sparingly found 
in the coralline zone, the scabrous shells in the same zone at 
Exmouth are abundant. I have only examined the animal of 
the latter; it is possible the former maybe distinct. Exmouth, 
3rd August 1850. — Since writing the above I have met with a 
fine live specimen of the smoother variety, and I am unable to 
detect a sensible variation in them. 

Murex attenuatus, Montagu et nobis. 
Pleurotoma aut Fusus, auctorum. 
This beautiful species is in most respects so similar to the 
Murex gracilis, the type of this section, that to describe it would 
be nearly a literal repetition of the account of that animal, ex- 
cept that the emargination of the outer lip, which scarcely merits 
that term, is rather a minute hollow shoot than a scission ; there 
is no operculum. This is a rare animal, but I have examined 
several from the coralline zone at Exmouth. 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 125 

Another variation from the M. gracilis is, that the foot when 
fully extended is as long as the shell ; it is bordered with flake- 
white spots ; but no pink marks are mixed up with it either be- 
low or above, as in M. gracilis. In this species the only pink or 
red spots are on the termination of the branchial fold. The 
organe generateur is of a pea-green coloux', and in other respects 
is precisely similar to that of the type. 

Murex costatus, IMontagu et nobis. 
Pleurotoma costatum, auctorum. 

Animal spiral, of seven or eight turns, nearly throughout of 
a pale hyaline ethereal blue, shaded with the most delicate 
white ; the mantle is of the general ground colour, and even with 
the shell, except the slight depm-atoiy fold which lies in the 
minute canal at the upper angle of the outer lip, and the 
branchial fold that lines the basal canal and floats far beyond it : 
we have omitted to state that the prevailing ground colour is 
sprinkled with minute sulphur-yellow flakes. The head is small, 
compressed, almost obsolete, and from the vertical fissure under 
it the usual anned proboscis is exserted. The tentacula are mode- 
rately long, with eyes placed externally on ofi^sets half their length; 
the terminal portions are slender, setose and slightly clavate at 
the tips. The branchiae and other organs offer no variations. 
The foot is pale ethereal blue, with a transparently white nar- 
row border, in front truncate, slightly indented, and gently 
curves at the right and left angles into small auricles, narrow, 
and tapers to a point which extends beyond the spire. 

This minute species displays, in its splendid coloration of 
azui'e shot with brilliant snow-white streams, and in the propor- 
tions of its organs, more deviation than is usually exhibited in 
this beautiful group, but these elegant distinctions are only spe- 
cialties. Its habitat extends throughout all the zones. I have 
had only one opportunity of examining this beautiful minute 
creature, which being lively, degage, and free from shyness, gave 
me every assistance, and the mate of this lovely Venus may truly 
apply to it the O vidian phrase, " non rustica conjux." The 
Scotch specimens are of larger growth than those of more south- 
ern climes. — Exmouth, 20th August 1850. I have just met in 
the littoral zone with sevei'al live animals, and I find that in the 
males the organ of reproduction is exactly the same as in the 
type. 

Murex purpureus, Mont, et nobis. 

Pleurotoma purpureum, auctorum. 

I can only from recollection speak of this species ; I examined 
several of the animals many years ago, but I have not the notes 



126 Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidte. 

thereon ; it is as large or a larger animal than the M. gracilis, 
and if my memoiy is correct, it bears a close resemblance to it ; I 
am certain it has no operculum, and that the emargination in 
the outer lip is as conspicuous as in M. gracilis and M. teres. 
Full-grown specimens are rare at Exmouth ; I have not obtained 
one during the last two summers. It inhabits the coralline zone. 

Murex Smithii, nobis. 
Plew'otoma Smithii, auctorum. 

Animal spiral ; ground colour white throughout, thickly mixed 
with opake intense snow-white flakes, and on the siphon with 
eight or nine bright pink spots, inhabiting a yellowish brown 
plicated shell of nine volutions. The mantle is rather tumid at 
the margin of the aperture, and is produced into a short, fleshy, 
rather open or scoop-shaped branchial fold, which on the march 
is carried somewhat beyond the termination of the canal ; it also 
lines the anal sinus at the upper angle of the outer lip, which 
some authors term a pleurotomic scission. The head is the usual 
flat muricidal one, having at its centre the vertical Assure from 
which the ordinary armed proboscis is emitted. The tentacula 
are short, and the portions as far as the oft'sets, on which the 
large black eyes are fixed externally, are thick and strong, but 
the continuations are exceedingly short fine filaments. 

I consider the present, of all the species I have examined, as 
that which has the eyes nearest the points. The foot is exactly 
truncate in front, and scarcely eared at the external angles ; in 
repose it is puckered and rounded posteally, but on the march 
it extends to a sufficient lanceolate termination. There is no 
longitudinal line on the sole, nor trace of an operculum ; it is 
bevelled from the long pedicled base by which it is fixed to the 
body laterally, and also slopes from the anteal truncature to a 
sharp edge. 

The animal is rare at Exmouth, and inhabits the coralline zone ; 
it is extremely free, and gives every facility for examination ; it 
scarcely difiers from M. attenuatus, or the type, M. gracilis. 

It appears that the Murices of this section, none of which much 
exceed an inch in length, are all without opercula, and have er- 
roneously been considered the Pleurotomata of Lamarck, who 
constituted the genus Clavatula for some of the species, but 
afterwards abandoned it. The true Pleurotomata have all a deep 
sinus or emargination in the upper angle of the outer lip of the 
shell, and a corresponding scission in the mantle of the animal, 
and the foot is invariably accompanied by an operculum. We 
have shown that the British Pleurotomata are almost always 
without opercula ; the genus has scarcely a malacological sup- 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidse. 127 

port ; it rests solely on the emargination in the upper part of the 
outer lip and the corresponding sinus of the mantle, which in 
the British species is not cloven as in the true exotic Pleuroto- 
mata. These slight characters, whether of the shell or the animal, 
so far from being essential permanent ones, are most variable and 
uncertain, shadowing in the numerous species, from the deep 
pleurotomic scission into the simple, scarcely perceptible canal of 
the Murices of our second section, the Fusi of authors. No one 
can define the boundary of this arbitrary generic index, which 
does not in many species even indicate specific variation. 

M. Philippi states that the great differences in the pleuro- 
tomic sinuses and other organs of the minor Murices of the 
Mediterranean, many of which are amongst our indigena, from 
the generic characters of the trne Pleuroto7nata, induced M. Mil- 
let to found the genus Defrancia as a depository for these aber- 
rant species. Dr. Leach placed them in his genus Mangilia, but 
I can see nothing in those I have described to justify the crea- 
tion of a genus for their animals distinct from Murex. I new 
them as Murices in which the opercnla have vanished or become 
obsolete ; I have therefore on that account placed them as the 
last section of the genus Murex, considering them as on the con- 
fines of the family, and forming the passage to the exotic genera 
Cancellaria, Dolium, Harpa, Mitra, Valuta and Conus, all of 
which except Conus, that has a minute operculum, are without 
that appendage ; and though these families are not the typical 
Canalifera, still it is clear that the Columellariadte and Convolu- 
tidce have very many points of connection with the Muricida. In 
this section there are two or three British species, the animals of 
which have not occurred to us ; amongst them, the Pleurotoma 
teres, nonnull., which is placed here provisionally, being the only 
British species without longitudinal ribs ; the animal may be the 
true exotic Pleurotoma with an operculum ; the character of the 
scission is peculiar, and more in accordance with that genus ; its 
position must remain in doubt until the soft parts have been 
examined. 

I have to say a few words on the gland which is seen in many 
species of the Muricidce, and is conspicuous in the Murex lapillus, 
Purpura of authors, and which has been considered by naturalists 
to be the organ that produced the ancient far-famed Tyrian pur- 
ple dye. The gland is of a white or green colour ; it lies between 
the mucous fillets and the ovarium on the right side of the ani- 
mal ; it is of linear form, and though in some species it appears 
of a dark green colour, the juice or secretion, when extracted and 
exposed to the air and sun, assumes the purple hue. It is 
doubtful from what species this famous dye was obtained ; it can 



128 Mr. W. Clark on tlie Muricidse. 

scarcely have been from the Murex lapillus, the Purpura of au- 
thoi's, as Lamarck's commentators say that that species does not 
inhabit the Mediterranean — 

" Tyrioque ardebat Murice laena." 

"te bis Afro 

Murice tinctae 

Vestiunt lanae " 

" Vestes Gifitulo miirice tiuctas." 

From these quotations it appears that the costly purple dye was 
an African production, and not obtained from the European coasts 
of the Mediterranean. Horace mentions the Murex of the Italian 
shores — 

" Murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris." 

This Murex of the Baire may be our M. erinaceus, the M. un- 
datus, Buccinum undatum, auctorum, or any other species ; it is 
not spoken of in connection with a dye, but as an edible shell- 
fish, inferior to the Peloris of the Lucrine lake : what this may 
be is quite conjectural. 

It must have been observed that the descriptions of the nume- 
rous Muricidal species are so similar as to give the idea of ringing 
the changes on the various organs, and it would appear that we 
have only exhibited the portraiture of a single similar animal in- 
habiting all the species that have been mentioned. If this view 
is acquiesced in, I shall have accomplished the object of my preli- 
minary proposition, that the Linnajan genera Murex and Bucci- 
num have been dismembered to an extent far beyond the require- 
ments of the progress of science. 

I conclude by observing that it may be objected, that I have 
dispensed with all considerations of the figure and markings of 
the shell as contributing to generic distinction. I admit this posi- 
tion, as I am of opinion that when the animals of a group are iden- 
tical in essentials, the greater or less tumidity and the smooth or 
varicose aspect of the external hard parts are only specific indices 
arising from the various dispositions of the mucous glands of the 
mantle. I consider the causes I have mentioned of the different 
aspects of the shells inhabited by similar animals, in no other 
light than the different aspects of the organs of the human race, 
which arise from similar agents, as the ever-varying disposition 
of the superficial veins, of the pores, absorbents and other emunc- 
tories, combined with climate, food, and peculiar habits. 

With regard to malacology, I am strongly supported in these 
opinions by having in my cabinet a large series of all the varie- 
ties of the Murex undatus, Buccinum undatum, auctorum, in which 
we see the smooth, thin, fragile, slender and fusiform varieties 
shadowing gradually to their various forms, from the thick, 



Mr. W. Clark on the Muricidae. 129 

heavy, strong, ridged, undated varicose typical Murex undatus. 
The series I speak of are the identical shells of Professor William 
King vs^hich have passed into my hands, and were the illustra- 
tions of his valuable malacological paper in the 18th volume, 
p. 248, of the ' Annals of Natural History,' the perusal of which 
1 earnestly recommend to naturalists, as he has therein de- 
monstrated that in this species the singular and great de\dations 
of form, as the slenderness, tumidity, markings, &c., do not arise 
from generic distinction, but from the influences of climate, ha- 
bitat, food, and bathymetrical considerations. 

If these views are valid, they explode the long-held opinions 
that external form and markings ought to be regarded as uner- 
ring elements of generic distinction ; and our observations appear 
sufficiently to prove that this doctrine has too long been insisted 
on, even in animals of essentially similar structure, both of the 
external soft parts and internal anatomy. 

I am. Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 

On a new species of Chemnitzia. 

Bath, l/th January 1851. 

Postscript. — My friend Mr. Barlee, whose persevering labours 
in this branch of zoology have often been very favourably men- 
tioned in our ' Annals,' presented me some time ago with a mi- 
nute shell, which he considered an unpublished Rissoa, but on 
examination I found it had all the conchological characters of a 
Chemnitzia. Mr. Barlee obtained it in the Shetland Islands. 
That the honours due to him may not be taken up by some 
Bathyllus, I send the specific characters, and request the favour 
of their insertion in the ' Annals.' 

Chemnitzia Barleei (n. s.). 

C. testa gracili, alba, costis circa duodecim subrectis instructa ; 
anfractibus quatuor rotundatis, quorum primus, in sequentem 
reflexus, alter, duabus, tertius, et ultimus, striis tribus spiraliter 
cincti. Apertura subovalis, baud continua, labium columuare 
plica obsoleta, vel penitus abdita, latus externum, sine callo. 
Sutura linearis, distincta. Umbilicus vix notatus. Axis -^-^, 
diameter -^^ uncise. 

Hab. ad insulas Zetlandicas. 

These characters indicate, as far as conchological ones can, that 
[.the animal when observed will prove a Chemnitzia. The outer lip 
is without the callus of most of the Rissoce ; the apex is undoubt- 
edly reflexed, a character which is generally the concomitant of 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol.V\\. 9 



130 Mr. J. E. Gray on new genera and species of Spatangidae. 

the ChemnitsicB. I believe no example of a Rissoa with a similar 
apical structure is known ; we may say that there is not a single 
essential character of the Rissoa in this species. It is a congener 
of Chemniizia excavata ; at one time I thought it a variety of that 
species, but the dififerent disposition of the spiral strise, the more 
oblique ribs and hollowed-out volutions in the C. excavata, point 
out that the C. Barleei is probably distinct, though most closely 
allied to it. The apex of C. excavata is precisely reflexed as in 
this species : this character with me, as regards the Chemnitzia, 
is of great value ; the exceptions to it are few ; in that tribe the 
decided reflexed apex, or the sunken subreflexed one, I never 
found absent, or present in a true Rissoa. But the examples 
must be fresh and perfect — not the usual cabinet ones ground to 
button-like apices by attrition ; but even in these the practised 
eye will detect the true character. The fold on the pillar-lip of 
the C. excavata is sometimes present, and at others absent. I 
believe this remark holds good in this species, but in my speci- 
mens from Mr. Barlee it is distinctly visible, though very small, 
and far retired within the aperture. — W. C. 



XIII. — Descriptions of some new genera and species of Spatangidse 
in the British Museum. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., P.B.S. 

&c. 

The following genera and species do not appear to be included 
in M. Agassiz and Desor's ' Catalogue Raisonne.' They wUl be 
figured in the Catalogue of the Echinida in the British Mu- 
seum : — 

Spatangus Regince. Purple ? subcordate ; back convex, larger 
dorsal tubercles few and far apart, scattered, ambulacra! petals 
broad. 

Hab. Malta. 

This species is very like S. purpureas, but the back is higher, 
more convex, and there are not half the number of dorsal tu- 
bercles found in that species. It was collected by Miss^'Emilie 
AttersoU, who formed part of the suite of H.M. Queen Adelaide 
during her visit to Malta. 

Eupatagus similis. Ovate, depressed, with only two or three 
rather larger tubercles near the peripetalous fasciole. 

Hab. Australia, Flinders' Island. 

This species differs from E. Valenciennesii of Agassiz, t. 15. 
f. 3, in not having nearly so many tubercles on the back. Several 
specimens of it were sent to the Museum by Joseph Millington, 
Esq. 



Mr. J. E. Gray on new genera and species of Spatangidse. 131 

Lovenia elongata. Spatangus elongatus, Gray, in Eyre's Discov. 
Central Australia, i. 436. t. 6. f. 2. Ovate, rather elongate, de- 
pressed ; back with many sunken tubercles on the sides. 

Hob. Port Essington, Mr. Jukes. 

Lovenia subcarinata. Shell elongate, narrow, the lower an- 
terior edge keeled, the lower part of the upper side with six or 
eight large tubercles placed in two series on each side at the end 
of the anterior lateral ambulacra. 

Hah.- Philippines, Isle of Luzon, H. Cuming, Esq. 

EcHiNOCARDiuM. This genus may be divided into the fol- 
lowing sections : 

* Anterior odd ambulacral groove deep, hinder end perpendicular, 
lowei' part blunt. 

Echinocardium cordatum, &c. To this section also belong — 
Echinocardiuin australe. Very like E. cordatum, but the hinder 

end is erect and the lower edge rather acute. 

Hab. Australia, Port Jackson, J. B. Jukes, Esq. ; Van Diemen's 

Land, Ronald Gunn, Esq., and Dr. A. Sinclair. 

Echinocardium zealandicum. Very like the former, but plas- 
tron lanceolate elongate, and the body more ovate and elongate. 
Hab. New Zealand, Dr. Andrew Sinclair : several specimens. 

** Anterior odd ambxdacral groove shallow, lower part of hinder 
end produced, acute, E. gibbosum. 

Breynia Australasice. Spatangus Australasia, Leach, Zool. 
Misc. ii. t. 82. 1825. S. Crux Andrece, Lamk. Hist. ; Agassiz, 
Ann. Sci. Nat. vi. t. 16. f. 14. Large tubercles on sides of lateral 
ambulacra few, internal fasciole short, broad. 

Hab. Port Jackson. 

Dr. Leach's specimen exactly agrees with ]M. Agassiz' figure. 

Breynia Desorii. Sunken tubercles on the lateral and poste- 
rior interambulacral area numerous (about thirty), the internal 
fasciole elongate, narrow. 

Hab. Swan River. 

Several specimens, all differing in the abo\'e characters from 
the former. 

Meoma. Shell subcordate, vertex subcentral ; ambulacra 
sunken, lateral paii's equal, odd anterior one entirely oblite- 
rated, marked by a shallow groove, surrounded by a very sinu- 
ous pei'ipetalous fasciole, without any lateral fasciole; subanal 
fasciole incomplete, edging the under side of the indistinct sub- 
anal disk, and only extending up to the level of the lower edge of 
the vent and with the subanal pores in the fasciole. 

9* 



/ 



132 Mr. J. E. Gray on new genera and species of Spatangidse, 

This genus differs from Brissus in the incompleteness of the 
subanal fasciole^ the indistinctness of the subanal disk, and in 
the entire absence of the anterior ambulacral pores. It differs 
from Faorina in wanting the lateral fascicle. Dorsal tubercles 
small, equal. 

c/ (Zq,cu^^^t/t^ Meoma grandis. Subcordate, rather convex. 
UOa,. Hab. Australia, Capt. Sir Edward Belcher, K.C.B., R.N. 
^,^c/'>" 

/ .3sx} , Faorina. Shell ovate, subcordate, ventricose; vertex central, 

hinder end truncated, without any distinct subanal disk ; am- 
bulacra sunken, the lateral ones regularly diverging, anterior 
longest, anterior odd one obliterated, marked by a deep groove, 
all surrounded by a rather sinuous peripetalous fasciole without 
any lateral or subanal fasciole or anal plate ; ovarial pores two, 
three or four. 

Faorina chinensis. Purple, with a smooth band between the 
upper anterior tesserse, and a smooth vertical band over the su- 
ture from the end of the anterior lateral ambulacra to the front 
of the mouth. 

Hab. China, J. R. Reeve, Esq. 

Faorina antarctica. Subcordate, rather depressed ; lateral am- 
bulacra ovate, longitudinal, very deep, forming a very distinct 
rib on the inner side of the shell ; peripetalous fasciole broad, 
sinuous. 

Hab. South Polar Seas, Capt. Sir James Ross's expedition. 

This species differs from Faorina cavernosa (Erichson, Arch. 
1845, t. 11. f. 2) in the ambulacra being less broad, and in the 
fasciole being much broader and more distinct. 

Tripylus Philippii. Cordate, rather depressed; lateral ambu- 
lacra oblong, linear, the hinder pair not half the length of the 
anterior one, the sides of the hinder part of the peripetalous 
fasciole parallel. 

Hab. . 

The genus Tripylus of Philippi differs from Desoria and Schi- 
zaster in the regular cordate form and central vertex, and differs 
from Brissiopsis, with which M. Agassiz confounded it, in the 
absence of the subanal fasciole. 

Desoria. Shell ovate, convex, vertex subanterior ; ambu- 
lacra narrow, sunken, like Brissus, the anterior odd one formed 
of a series of small double pores, all surrounded by a very sinuous 
peripetalous fasciole giving off a lateral fasciole, which extends to 
the vent without any distinct subanal fasciole or subanal disk. 

Very like Brissus, but dstinguished by the presence of the 
lateral fasciole and the absence of the subanal one and disk. 



Mr. J. E. Gray on new genera and species of Spatangidae. 133 

Desoria Australis. Ovate, purplish white. 
Var. 1 . Brown, each of the tesserae with a broad pale edge. 
Uab. Australia, Flinders^ Island, Joseph Millingen, Esq. 
Several specimens. 

Schizaster ventricosus. Very like S. canaliferus, but the hinder 
part of the body is very high, the hinder end nearly vertical, 
ventricose, and regularly rounded above the vent, the hinder part 
of the peripetalous fascicle straight between the two lateral am- 
bulacra. 

Hab, Australia ? ? 

Schizaster Jukesii. Like former, but vertex nearly central ; 
crown strongly keeled between the two hinder ambulacra; the 
part of the peripetalous fasciole between the anterior and poste- 
rior ambulacra regularly bent up nearly to the vertex, the hinder 
end vertical, regularly rounded above the vent. 

Hab. North Austraha, J. B. Jukes, Esq. 

Kleinia. Shell ovate, elongate, ventricose, subcordate, ver- 
tex subcentral ; centre of back with rather larger perforated tu- 
bercles ; lateral ambulacra sunken, ovate, linear, confluent near 
the vertex, where the inner series of twin pores are nearly obli- 
terated, the anterior pair diverging, the hinder pair nearly par- 
allel, diverging at the end, the anterior odd one in a rather 
deep groove with only rudimentary pores ; all surrounded by a 
broad, rather sinuous peripetalous fasciole; subanal fasciole sur- 
rounding the oblong subanal plate, which is covered with radiating 
series of tubercles, and transversely divided in half by a subcen- 
tral fasciole ; ovarial pores four, hinder largest ; mouth anterior, 
vent in the upper part of the high hinder extremity covered with 
small irregular plates ; spines of the crown elongate subulate, of 
the plastron and subanal plate longer, stronger, rather dilated 
at the end. 

This genus differs from Brissus in the peculiar form of the 
ambulacra, and in the larger size of the dorsal spines and tuber- 
cles, and from Plaffionotus in the form of the subanal plate and 
ambulacra. 

Kleinia Luzonica. Shell ovate, ventricose; ambulacra con- 
fluent near the vertex, inner series of pores nearly obliterated ; 
lateral ambulacra ovate, petaloid, the hinder pair shorter, nearly 
parallel, anterior pair divergent; vent in the upper part of the 
high hinder extremity. 

Hab. Philippines, Isle of Luzon. 

Agassizia subrotunda. Ovate, subglobose, regular, even, with- 
out aay tubercles on the side or round the vent, the odd ante- 
rior groove with two lines of minute tubercles. 

Hab. Australia, Capt. Sir Edward Belcher. 



134 Bibliographical Notices. 

Leskia. Shell ovate, siibglobose, thin, vertex central ; lateral 
ambulacra broad, petaloid, rather sunken and separate from each 
other, the hinder lateral pair father the shortest, the odd anterior 
ambulacra in a rather broad sunken groove, rudimentary, with 
only a single series of pores on each side; all sun*ounded by a broad 
rather sinuous peripetalous fascicle ; lateral and subanal fasciole 
none ; mouth anterior, round, on a level with the rounded under 
surface, and covered with five triangular converging valves ; 
plastron and subanal plate not distinctly defined ; anus round, in 
the upper part of the rounded posterior end, and covered with 
five triangular converging valves forming a cone, with some small 
spicula in the centre ; ovarian pores two, very large j spines and 
tubercles subequal, subulate, those of the back being rather the 
largest. 

This genus agrees with Brissus in the form of the peripetalous 
fasciole, but difi'ers from it and all the other Spatangid<E in the 
form of the mouth and vent. 

1. Leskia mirabilis. Shell ovate, subglobose. 
Hab. Isle of Luzon. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

The Dynamical Theory of the Earth. By Archibald Tucker 
Ritchie. Longmans, London, 1850. Vol. i. pp. 562 ; vol. ii. 
pp. 664. 

Cosmogonies seem to have shared the fate of the philosopher's 
stone, the perpetual motion, and such other dreams. Given up by 
the true philosopher, such projects have become at once the glory 
and the stumbling-block of those who with much learning and little 
knowledge seek at the well of truth, diligently indeed, but who, like 
scientific Danaiides, seem condemned to draw the living waters with 
a sieve. 

The many-sided man of science, skilled at once in books and things, 
whose wide ken scans the whole field of human knowledge, modestly 
confesses a cosmology to be beyond his powers, and contents himself 
with a mere " Cosmos," — a statement of what the world is, not how it 
came to be : and where Humboldt feared to tread, the author of the 
' Vestiges of the Creation,' and Mr. Ritcliie in the present work have 
rushed in. 

We have mentioned these two works together, but we would not 
do the ' Vestiges ' the wrong to say, that it is from any similarity 
between them : truth to say, their relation is one of antithesis, not of 
resemblance. 

The style of the ' Vestiges ' is alwaj's grammatical and eminently 
perspicuous, sometimes indeed rising to eloquence. The style of the 
' Dynamical Theory ' is frequently ungrammatical, rarely perspicuous, 
and often descends to twaddle. 



Bibliographical Notices. 135 

In the ' Vestiges ' the premises may be false, but the reasoning is 
clear and logical : in the ' Dynamical Theory ' premises, reasoning 
and conclusions seem equally drawn from cloud-land. 

In the • Vestiges ' the whole spirit of the work is religious and 
truth-seeking : in the ' Dynamical Theory ' it is imbued with a sui- 
cidal theological prejudice. 

The author of the ' Vestiges ' trusts wholly in human reason, and 
sometimes in human unreason, to discover the origin of things. 

Mr. Ritchie, on the other hand, would have us take our modem 
understanding of the first chapter of Genesis (more especially as set 
forth by the Very Rev. F. Scio de San Miguel) as the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth (p. 6. vol. i.) ; and tells us with a 
degree of mediaeval moral courage (worthy of a better cause), that 
where science and our interpretation of Scripture differ, the former 
must at once yield (p. 81. vol. i.). 

But enough of such contrasts. It is more instructive to observe in 
how strange a manner the two works are related — related by antago- 
nism indeed, but as opposite phases of the same character of mind 
and quality of mental accomplishment. 

This character of mind is acuteness without depth : this quality of 
mental accomplishment is copious information as to results, without 
the required severe critical check, of a practical knowledge as to how 
these results are obtained. There is much reading and no research ; 
and to grapple with the grand problem of science on such a basis as 
this, is as if a man should attempt to play the fiddle on the strength 
of having heard a great deal of music. 

Our fathers sought knowledge painfully, and with prayer and fast- 
ing. They wrestled with nature for her secrets. We modems, in these 
days of the " diffusion of useful knowledge," attend hour-long popular 
lectures, see charming experiments, inspect particoloured geological 
diagrams, and learn that the Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus might, had 
he been so inclined, have devoiued the Clupea sprattiformis — and 
then, thanking God for these times of illumination, go home and de- 
vise a cosmology. Or perhaps, if some juster notion of the mode of 
discovering truth enter the luckless speculator's head, he goes a step 
further, lays violent hands upon scientific treatises of all sorts (as 
may be imagined, however, chiefly of the popular description), reads 
and makes extracts, and then builds up the infinite Universe as a 
child puts together its puzzle : — if the fragments fit, then plainly, 
the puzzle is rightly put together. 

In more than one sense, Mr. Ritchie's book is a Mosaic of this de- 
scription. 

As for the ' Vestiges ' it has been judged elsewhere ; but who that 
has had his reason stolen away by that delightful scientific romance 
(and there be many who must plead guilty to such lese-majest^ 
against truth) will not confess that his ultimate verdict upon the 
book might be expressed in somewhat similar terms ? 

The ' Dynamical Theory ' and the ' Vestiges ' are as necessarily 
connected to one another as reaction to action — as the tyranny of des- 



136 Bibliographical Notices. 

potism to the license of revolution. Let us hope, that now the cycle 
of superficiality is complete — that the disease has run its course, and 
that we are in a manner vaccinated for cosmogonies ; and having once 
for all put in our most decided protest against both the spirit and the 
substance of the work under consideration, we proceed to perform 
our remaining duty to the reader, namely ; to set before him without 
malice or extenuation, ' The Dynamical Theory of the Formation of 
the Earth.' And first let the author speak his own estimate of his 
work : " AVe finally beheve that scientific research has attained a state 
of perfection sufiicient to enable us, by judiciously blending its truths 
with those of revelation, to produce such a system of cosmogancy 
(cosmogony ?) as shall entirely satisfy the human mind, as shall 
meet all its requirements, by convincing the understanding while it 
invigorates our faith in the word of God." These are large promises. 
Let the reader judge by what follows whether they be fulfilled or not. 

Mr. Ritchie's theory is to the following effect : — 

In the period indicated by the Mosaic expression, " In the begin- 
ning," the earth moved in its orbit round the sun, but was without 
diurnal rotation, vdthout atmosphere and without light ; its surface 
was everywhere a plain, and deeply covered by the waters of an ocean 
composed of water containing " silex, alumina, hme, magnesia, ba- 
rytes, strontites, zirconia, glucina, potash, soda, and ammonia — 
oxides of various metals, especially iron and manganese, carbonic 
and fluoric acids, hydrogen and oxygen, with muriatic, sulphuric, 
and most probably nitric acid" (p. 452. vol. i.) "in chemical combi- 
nation." 

Notwithstanding all these ingredients, this ocean "possessed all 
the characters of fresh water as far as the nourishment of its vegeta- 
tion was concerned ;" and covering its bottom there was a luxuriant 
growth of those plants which now constitute the coal, and these, ac- 
cording to our author, were all acotyledonous. 

There were no land animals, nor indeed any which breathed and 
had the faculty of locomotion in its proper sense (none " moving by 
aeriated blood" is our author's favourite expression). 

Now the plants continually decomposed carbonic acid, and set free 
oxygen into the water of the primaeval ocean. The animals conti- 
nually separated carbonate of lime from the same menstruum. As they 
died and putrefied, they gave forth ammonia. What became of the 
ammonia and oxygen is not stated ; they must have existed in some 
marvellous chemical state not at present understood. 

Will it be believed that the origin of all these extraordinary and 
baseless assumptions lies in the first chapter of Genesis 1 thus : — 

" Darkness was upon the face of the deep." " And the spirit of God 
moved upon the surface of the waters :" therefore the earth was dark 
and covered with water : 

" And God said. Let there be a finnanent in the midst of the waters, 
and let it divide the waters from the waters." 

But as the firmament was not made till after the period called " In 
the beginning," there could then have been no atmosphere : 



Bibliographical Notices. 137 

" Let the earth bring forth "...." the herb yielding seed," &c. 
As herbs yielding seed were created on the third day, they did not 
exist before ; therefore the plants of the primaeval ocean were acoty- 
ledonous : 

" Let the waters bring forth the moving creature that hath life " 
— dependent upon light and air, adds Mr. Ritchie somewhat gra- 
tuitously. But as this did not happen till the fifth day, those ani- 
mals which existed in the " period of non-rotation " were iiadependent 
of light and air. 

If the astronomer, the chemist, the zoologist, the anatomist, the 
botanist, the geologist cry out that no man in his senses could make 
assertions so utterly at variance with all the fundamental truths of 
their respective sciences, we only beg to refer them to Mr. Ritchie's 

book ; and, by way of commentary, to Mr. Tristram Shandy's 

chapter on Hobby-horses. 

But more surprising propositions are to come : darkness is not a 
mere subjective matter ; — it is an entity (so that perhaps after all Peter 
Schlemihl really did sell his shadow), and is identical with attrac- 
tion. Light on the other hand is expansion, and when it was first 
created was not " separated from the darkness," but existed mixed 
up with it. There must have been a sort of general Oxford-gray tinge 
about the universe. 

When the light was "divided from the darkness," the ether, of 
which it is composed, made a general rush, and impinging on the 
earth at some oblique angle, set it twirling. Then came a general 
bouleversement ; the waters of the primaeval ocean rushed centrifugally 
to the equatorial regions, carrying with them the great fragments of 
rock which now exist in the boulder formation. The denser, 
deeper, strata of the earth broke centrifugally through the upper 
crust, and grinding and rubbing as they made "their way, generated 
heat enough to produce all the present signs of igneous fusion. Mud 
and sand covered in the ocean plants, and prevented their being de- 
composed by the heat, and all the animal inhabitants of the globe 
were entombed in the debris. So arose at once the whole thickness 
of the different formations, and the varied surface of the earth as it 
now is. 

At the same time the light, as principle of expansion, combined 
with the gases in the primaeval ocean, and extricating them (how, is 
not explained) as nitrogen and oxygen, they formed our present 
atmosphere. 

So that we owe this air we breathe to plants, which without the 
assistance of light evolved oxygen, and to the putrefactive decom- 
position of animals. Surely the reader has had enough of all this (as 
Mr. Dennis the critic, with more pith than politeness, used to call it) 
" clotted nonsense." If he have not, we must refer him to the work 
itself, for reviewers after all are but men, and have only a limited 
faculty of endurance ; and if he will not take our word for their ex- 
istence, to the same source he must go for an inexhaustible supply of 
errors — errors in orthography, errors in grammar, errors in fact, with 
a whole army of sophisms of all sorts and sizes. 



138 JZoological Society. 

He will see at page 39, vol. i. seven authorities given for the fact, 
that a saline solution may be evaporated to dryness ; and at page 1 1 , 
vol. i., Blair's Chronological Tables quoted as " confirmation strong " 
of a statement made in the book of Genesis. 

And, lastly, if he be still bent on reading the book, we will hint to 
him a method, by which he may read almost the whole, and yet de- 
rive much edification. Our secret is, to read only the extracts from 
other authors. Mr. Ritchie has copiously employed the scissors, 
and his work is the reverse of amber, being chiefly valuable for the 
fragments which it contains. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

January 22, 1850.— Matthew Truman, Esq., M.D., in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Description of a new species of Chrysodomus, 

from the mouth of the mackenzie river. 

By J. E. Gray, Esa., F.R.S. etc 

Sir John Richardson, M.D., on his return from the Arctic search- 
ing expedition, kindly presented to the Museum a series of shells 
which he had collected between the mouth of the Mackenzie River 
and Cape Parry : several of them were broken by the extreme cold 
during the wintering of the expedition at Great Bear Lake. 

The collections consisted of the new Chrysodomus here described, 
and the following species, which are exactly similar to the species 
brought home by Ross, Parry, and the other arctic voyagers from 
Baffin's Bay, and are interesting as showing that these species are 
found more than half-way towards the Northern Pacific Ocean ; viz. 

Saxicava arctica. Very like S. rugosa, but larger. 

Hiatella arctica. Very large size, with the hinge-teeth almost 
entirely obliterated. 

Mya truncata. 

Glycimeris siliqua. All young. 

Cardium Groenlandicum. On the shores. 

Crassina semisulcata, Leach, not Miiller. In the mouth of the 
river : eaten by the birds. 

Buccinum glaciate. 

The egg of a large species oi Natica was abundant on the sands, 
probably N. ampullaria, Lamk.? 

Chrysodomus Heros. 

Shell elongate ; spire conical, longer than the mouth ; whorls con- 
vex, two or three upper with a strong central keel, rest with irregularly 
placed distant rounder tubercles, the last rounded, not keeled ; throat 
white. 

Var. 1 . Whorls as with a strong, central, continuous keel ; the last 
slightly nodulose. 



( 



Zoological Society. 139 

Egg-cases ovate-oblong, erect, on an expanded base, contracted 
beneath ; surface deeply punctated, granular. 

Inhab. Arctic Ocean. 

This shell is very like Chrysodomus despectus, but differs from 
that species in the form and surface of the egg-cases, as well as by 
the greater convexity of the whorls, and the strength and angularity 
of the keel on the upper whorls. 

Like the other species of the genus, the white, opake, outer coat 
of the shell is very much inclined to separate from the inner or cen- 
tral coat, which presents, where the outer coat is removed, a smooth 
surface of yellowish or brown colour. 

Dr. Richardson observed several specimens of this shell in the 
sand-hills which edge the coast, some distance from the sea. 

I have named this species Heros, as being the finest of the genus, 
ajid in commemoration of the enterprise and heroic conduct under 
great hardship of its discoverer. 

2. "Remarks on the Morphology of the Vertebrate 
Skeleton. By Edward Fry. 

The objects of the present paper are, — 1st, the brief statement of 
the probability that there are laws which govern animal form, in ad- 
dition to the law of final causes ; and 2nd, the a priori discussion of 
certain propositions about the vertebrate skeleton ; being an attempt 
to illustrate the vertebrate by some invertebrate forms, and thus to 
show their unity of plan. 

Section I. 

The existence of laws governing animal form is rendered probable 
by the discovery of such laws as regards the forms of plants, all 
whose parts may be referred to a leaf as the fundamental archetype, 
as is shown not only by the correspondency in many normal condi- 
tions, but also by the transmutations of parts, and the monstrosities 
to which the petals, sepals, stamens, &c. are Uable. Though the 
greater simpUcity of plants, and the more numerous monstrosities to 
which they are Uable by nature or art, render the existence of laws 
of the kind spoken of more readily apparent in them than in animals, 
the nature of the proofs and of the conclusions are alike in both 
cases. 

It may, secondly, be remarked, by way of showing a general pro- 
bability for such a scheme, that there exist unities of structure both 
in different animals and in different stages of development of the 
same animal, which are independent, so far as we know, of unity of 
end ; or, in other words, that final causes do not explain all the affi- 
nities and resemblances which we are able to trace*. 

And again, it must be observed, that those remarkable likenesses, 
which are observable in many or all animals, between their various 
forms and conditions up to maturity, on the one side, and the various 

* This part of the subject has been fully illustrated by Prof. Owen in his 
various writings. 



140 Zoological Society. 

members of the animal kingdom up to their own position in the 
scale, on the other hand (so that, for instance, man passes through 
forms resembling, but not identical with, those of many animals from 
the lowest monad up to his own position in the scale), are inexpli- 
cable on the theory that the forms of animals are regulated by final 
causes only ; but are in perfect accordance with that other which 
holds that there is expressed in the structure of animals some abstract 
idea, which running through all the frame, and modified to all pur- 
poses of need, and manifested in all variety of conditions, is yet one 
and the same. 

It must be admitted that the force of these arguments may, to 
some extent, be barred by an assertion which it is difficult fully to 
answer, viz. that our ignorance of final causes is so great as to allow 
us no room to argue on the existence of other causes from their ap- 
parent inadequacy ; nevertheless as the other supposition seems to 
have in it no improbability, but as I think the contrary, it may be 
admitted as at least what best suits our present knowledge. 

The belief in the existence of other laws of organization besides 
that of final causes does in no wise lessen or obscure the argument of 
natural religion derived from it, which was advanced with great per- 
tinency by the ancient Stoical philosophers, and has been amphfied 
by Derham, Paley and others in our own country. 

I now proceed to the second portion of my paper. 

Section II. 

There are reasons derived from the structure of animals below 
the Vertebrata which might induce us to expect that the vertebrate 
skeleton should be composed of elements of a common character. 

1 . So soon as the nervous system assumes the form of a line or 
chain down the body of the animal, the whole structure puts on a 
segmental or annular arrangement. Thus in the Annelida the body 
consists of numerous segments, similar one to the other, with the 
exception of the anterior one or head, which is sometimes slightly 
different in form, but in other instances only distinguishable by the 
presence of a mouth. Each segment has its proper nervous gangUon, 
connected by two fibrous commissures with those of the neighbouring 
division. 

2. But these segments are subject to change. Thus the Poly- 
desmidce, a family of the Myriapoda, exhibit the posterior part of 
the body composed of segments similar to those above described, 
whilst in the anterior part each segment is the result of the coales- 
cence of two original ones. In the Chilipoda, the same process has 
gone on further ; so that all the apparent segments are thus com- 
posed by the anchylosis of two original ones at an early period of 
growth, as proved by the two pair of legs which each one bears, and 
the double nervous ganglia which they contain, the nervous centres 
of the original elements ha\dng approximated to one another without 
coalescence (Newport on Myriapoda, Phil. Trans. 1843). 

3. But not only does the progression from lower to higher forms 
in the scale of the animal kingdom teach us how segments of the 



Zoological Society. 141 

body originally similar may be changed — the progression of indivi- 
duals does the same thing. The larval condition of insects undoubt- 
edly corresponds very nearly with the Annehda ; the arrangement of 
the body and the relation of each segment to the nervons system "are 
similar. But the perfect state shovFS a very great modification in the 
form ; many segments have disappeared by coalescence, vs^hilst the 
equality of size originally existing betvreen them has been lost by 
reason of the centralization of functions ; the nervous centres have 
often been removed from their respective segments, yet the number 
remains the same ; for although only nine centres appear in the abdo- 
men (Blanchard sur les Coleopteres, Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
1846, part i.), yet the last has been shown in the Lepidoptera (New- 
port on Sphinx, Phil. Trans. 1832) to consist of two which have 
united. 

4. The same segmental arrangement of the body, and the same 
ganglionic condition of the nervous centres in accordance with the 
rings of the body, obtain throughout many members of the class of 
the Articulata. 

We now descend to two more particular propositions, resulting 
from and embraced in the foregoing, but which we nevertheless pre- 
fer to illustrate separately. 

There are reasons to expect that the head of the Vertebrata should 
be composed of segments similar to those of the body. 

1. "We have already noticed the close resemblance between the 
anterior segment or head and the following ones in the Polydesmidce. 

2. In the larval insects the similarity is great ; but in the perfect 
one a number of the other segments become anchylosed, and enter 
into the composition of the head, in accordance withthe law, that the 
more perfect an animal is, the more complex and individualized are 
its parts, and consequently the more is its abstract nature hidden 
under its teleological manifestation. The divisions between the seg- 
ments entering into the composition of the head sometimes remain 
permanently recognizable in the external skeleton. The number of 
these segments has been a much-vexed question among entomolo- 
gists, the numbers advocated by different naturalists having been two, 
three, four, five and seven. I am inclined to believe the real number 
of these segments to be four : — 1st, because of the very slight evidence 
for the presence of any other, the fifth segment being considered as 
entirely atrophied, and no corresponding manducatory organ ap- 
pearing ; 2nd, from four being the only number at all discoverable in 
some insects, as in the Hydrous piceus (see Newport on Insecta in 
Todd's Cyclopaedia) ; 3rd, because the brain (i. e. the coalesced 
ganglia of the cranial segments) of the Necrophlagceophus longicornis 
has been discovered by Newport, at the period of its bursting its 
shell, to consist of four double ganglia (Newport in Phil. Trans. 
1843). 

We next consider the reasons for supposing that the organs com- 
posing the mouth of the Vertebrata should be the homologues of 
those of locomotion. It must be remarked, that everything now to 
be said assists most strictly in support of the preceding proposition, 



142 Zoological Society. 

and would have been introduced under that head but for the sake of 
convenieucy in illustrating the vertebrate skeleton. 

1 . In the Crustaceans the jaws differ in scarcely any other cha- 
racter than size from the true legs used in locomotion. 

2. In the Myriapoda the members of the basilar segments of the 
head are jointed and retain the form of true legs, but are used for 
prehension (Newport in Todd's Cyclopaedia). 

3. In Insects the tarsal joints of the cranial legs are undeveloped ; 
the femur and coxa are small or confluent with the under side of the 
segment, whilst the tibiae are alone enormously enlarged, and thus 
become elements in the complex mouth of Insects ; their muscles, 
however, being attached to the basilar and posterior lateral parts of 
the head, just as if they still subserved the purposes of locomotion 
(idem) . 

4. All the parts of the complex mouth of Insects are thus referable 
to the segments of the head. In the Great Water Beetle this is 
clearly shown ; the manducatory organs visibly resemble the proper 
organs of locomotion, and are articulated to the distinct segments 
(idem) . 

5. We must remark intermediate normal conditions between the 
true locomotive and manducatory form of leg ; as in the genus Onitis, 
where the prothoracic legs are without tarsi, and the tibiae are termi- 
nated by sharp hooks ; and in the Bubos bison, a species of a neigh- 
bouring genus, where the tibiae strongly approach in form the proper 
mandibles of the head : also, 

6. A monstrous condition in a specimen of Geotrupes stercora- 
rius, where the prothoracic legs were arrested in development and the 
tarsi were absent, so that they very closely resembled the form of the 
mandibles (idem). 

Section III. 

The spinal cord of the Vertebrata is homologous with the gan- 
glionic cord of the Articulata. 

1. The elements of the systems are alike, being in both cases 
cellular nervous matter and commissural fibres. 

2. The experiments and investigations of recent physiologists have 
proved the real independence of the segments of the cord contained 
in each vertebra, insomuch as each performs separately from the 
others its own reflex actions, just as is the case in the ganglionic cord 
of the Articulata ; so that, as far as its reflex actions are concerned, 
the cellular or dynamic element of the spuial cord is not one organ 
or centre, but a series of independent organs or centres, as is seen in 
the Insects, the external longitudinal fibres servuig only as commis- 
sural or communicating portions. 

3. Those ganglia of the Insects which are perfectly separate in the 
larval condition often exhibit a tendency to fusion in the perfect con- 
tUtion (Blanchard iit anted). Thus in the Coleoptera the last abdo- 
minal ganglion is always formed by a fusion of several original ones ; 
the first and second abdominal often form a single mass with the 
metathoracic, whilst in the Chafer this last is united wdth the meso- 
thoracic (idem). In like manner the fourth and fifth segments in 



Zoological Society. 143 

the perfect insect are fused together. In the Polydesmid(e, the two 
first segments which bear legs unite their nervous centres with the 
first suboesophageal, so as to form a short cord similar to that of the 
Ostracion and some other fish (Newport on Myriapoda, Phil. Trans. 
1843). In the Scorpion the fusion has gone so far as to form a sort 
of medulla oblongata, giving rise to eight pairs of nerves {idem). In 
Nitidula cenea all the abdominal ganglia have united to form a short 
cord (Blanchard ut antea, plates) ; and in Calandra palmarum the 
ganglia of the whole body have approximated so as to form a conti- 
nuous moniliform cord (so far ganglionic in appearance as that the 
distinction between the segments has not been obliterated), which is 
placed in the anterior portion of the body {idem, plates) . 

4. The ganglionic cord of Insects undergoes the same alteration at 
its posterior extremity that the spinal cord of the Vertebrata does by 
its withdrawal from the caudal vertebrae and the formation of a cauda 
equina, as may be clearly seen in Blanchard's plates {ut antea, e.g. 
in the Nitidula cenea, the Calandra •palmarum, and the Byticus mar- 
ginalis) . 

5. In the Chilognatha, or higher order of the Myriapoda, the 
gangha coalesce so as to form a uniform spinal cord, the commissural 
fibres no longer occupying intervening spaces as in the Chilipoda, 
hut forming the external layer of the nervous cord (Newport on My- 
riapoda, Phil. Trans. 1843): 

6. Whilst the true vertebrate fish Orthagoriscus mola exhibits 
exactly an opposite character in the ganglionic condition of its myelon 
(Owen's Lectures, ii. 173, on the authority of Arsaki). 

Section IV. 

A vertebra is the correlative in the osseous of a centre in the 
nervous system. 

This appears to me to be the most general possible definition of 
a vertebra, and therefore the most philosophical. The general idea 
of the relation of the osseous and nervous centres involved in it, 
though not the relation of the segments of each one to the other, 
was thus expressed by Oken: "Bones are the earthy, hardened, 
nervous system ; nerves are the spiritual, soft, osseous system — Con- 
tinens et contentum" (quoted by Owen, Rep. Brit. Assoc, p. 242). 

1. The number of vertebrae constituting the spinal cord always 
corresponds with the number of segments in the cord as indicated by 
the number of pairs of nerves given ofi". When more than one pair 
perforate one piece of bone, it results from an anchylosis of several 
vertebrae, as in the sacrum ; and the coccygeal vertebrae, which ap- 
pear to be an exception to the definition, are not so in reality, the 
spinal cord passing into them in the foetal condition, and being gra- 
dually withdrawn just in the same manner as is the case in some of 
the Coleoptera. As is clearly seen in them, too, the cauda equina 
represents the nerves of the vertebrae from which the cord has been 
withdrawn. Some Vertebrata, as e. g. the Python, retain the original 
relation of the vertebrae and centres throughout the whole of the 
spinal cord (Owen, Report ut antea, 221). 



144 Zoological Society. 

2. The same dependence of the vertebrae on the nervous centres 
is shown by the fact, that the tail which is reproduced by Lizards, 
in the case of the loss of that member, is a single bone, because 
although bone may be reproduced, the spinal cord cannot be (Owen 
ut antea, 254). 

3. In accordance with this definition may also be cited the very 
long vertebra which is formed on that part of the spinal cord of the 
Anourous Batrachians which does not give off nerves, and which is 
not the result of anchylosis of several elements, but arises from one 
point of ossification (Martin St. Ange, Recherches anatomiques et 
physiologiques sur les Organes transitoires et la Metamorphose des 
Batraciens, Ann. des Sci. Nat. No. xviii. p. 401) ; and also the 
invariableness of the number of the vertebrae in the Mammalian's 
neck, resulting from the presence of the same number of nerves, and 
irrespective of the length of the vertebrae. 

Section V. 

A segment is the representative in the Articulate of a vertebra in 
the Vertebrata. 

This view has been advocated by Geoffroy St. Hilaire, both in his 
" Memoire sur la Vertebre," in the ninth volume of the ' Memoires du 
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,' and previously in a memoir read by 
him before the Academy in 1820. Nevertheless, the argument on 
which I would mainly rest it, is not yet universally admitted, for we 
find M. Emile Blanchard very recently asserting that nothing really 
indicates the analogy between the spinal cord of the Vertebrata and 
the ganglia of the Articulata. 

1 . We have seen what a close relation of correspondence exists in 
the Articulata between the segments and the ganglionic nervous 
centres ; and we have endeavoured to prove that in the Vertebrata a 
vertebra is the correlative of one of the spinal nervous centres ; and 
also that the spinal cord of the one class is the representative of the 
ganglionic cord of the other ; whence it appears, that a segment of 
the Articulata and a vertebra of the Vertebrata must be homologous. 

2. The ossification of the centrum of a true vertebra is first peri- 
pheral, and subsequently fills up the interior with osseous matter 
(Owen ut antea, 256). Thus if we suppose a vertebra stopped in 
the first stage, and forming the external instead of the mternal sup- 
port of the body, we have a segment of an articulate creature, with 
only an histiological difference, which must by no means be allowed 
to conceal from us the true nature of a part (Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 
Sur la Vertebre, ut antea, p. 92). 

3. If to this view it should be objected, that the including in the 
one case what is excluded in the other dispels all semblance of homo- 
logy, it must be answered — 

«. That notwithstanding this difficulty, the general homology of 
the vertebrate and articulate skeletons as wholes has long been ad- 
mitted, though this more particular one of their parts has not been. 

/3. That the haemal arch of the Vertebrata, whose normal office it 
is to enclose the main blood-vessels of the body, and which office it 



I 



Zoological Society. 145 

exclusively performs in many cases, is yet in others so developed as 
to enclose a mass of viscera, viz. in the thorax. 

y. In the Testudiua we have an example of those vertebral ele- 
ments which are usually internal, becoming external, and including 
not only all the viscera, hut having the whole muscular systeni at- 
tached internally, as in the Articulata, and even the limbs arising 
from the inside instead of the outside of the thorax. 

4. It presents no difficulty that the segments of the Articulata 
have no superior or inferior arches like vertebrae, because both the 
spinal cord and circulatory organs which those arches are respectively 
designed to protect are included within the body (St. Hilaire) . 

5. To the order of development of a vertebra in the lateral pro- 
cesses for locomotion being produced subsequently to the body, we 
have an analogous case in that the Myriapoda are at birth and for 
some time afterwards apodal, and subsequently acquire their nume- 
rous legs (Newport on Myriapoda, Phil. Trans." 1841). This is also 
the case with some other articulate animals. 

Section VI. 

The brain of the Fertelrata is a modification of a series of four 
ganglia homologous with those of the spinal cord. 

1 . In the Amphioxus that part of the cord which must be regarded 
as the homologue of the brain, because it gives off five pair of ce- 
phalic nerves, is only distinguished from the other part of the cord 
by its pointed anterior extremity, its posterior part being entirely 
like the other ganglia; even its greatest vertical diameter is not 
greater (De Quatrefages on Amphioxus, Annales des Scien. Nat., 
third series, vol. iv.). 

2. We have already noticed that the two large cephalic gangha of 
the Centipede are the result of the coalescence of a series of four 
ganglia, as they appear in the foetal condition, each of these nervous 
centres supplying nerves to the senses. Closely corresponding with 
this arrangement is that displayed by many of the fish, as e. g. the 
Eel, where the brain is only a series of four closely arranged ganglia. 
And this same original scheme seems to me traceable throughout all 
the Vertebrata to man himself. There are, however, as the great 
centraHzation and individuality of the organ would lead us to expect, 
many variations and modifications, which tend at first sight to con- 
ceal its real nature, as e. g. the removal of the olfactory ganglia to a 
great distance from the other elements of the brain, with which they 
onlv maintain their connexion by means of fihform crura, as in the 
Whiting and many fish ; the amphfication of the segments of the 
encephalon by the addition of supplementary ganglia, as the hypo- 
aria, hypophysis, &c. as they occur in many fish, and some of which 
are retained in the higher orders, or the cerebrum in the cartilagi- 
nous fishes, and in all animals upwards to man, and which compara- 
tive anatomy teaches us is only to be considered as a special appen- 
dage to or "development of the prosencephahc ganglia ; or the ex- 
treme development of one pair of ganglia so as to obscure the others, 

Ann. S)' Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 10 



146 Zoological Society. 

as the cerebellum in the Sharks, Sawfish, &c. (Owen's Lectures, ii. 
1 75) ; or the very diminutive size of a segment, as the cerebellum in 
many reptiles ; or the coalescence of the pair, and consequent obli- 
teration of the mesial division, just as is equally the case between the 
two halves of the spinal cord, as in the cerebellum. 

3. Embryonic anatomy, too, comes in to strengthen the conclusion 
of comparative anatomy, that a series of four ganglia is the essential 
element of the brain, and that all the other parts of which it consists 
in adult life of the higher Vertebrata, including of course the cere- 
brum, are superadded. 

The argument of the preceding sections, exclusive of Section I., and 
the conclusion to which it is intended to lead, may thus be stated : — 

Considering that the head of the Insecta, Myriapoda, &c. is com- 
posed of a series of segments serially homologous with those of the 
body, as its brain is of ganglia serially homologous with those of the 
cord ; that a vertebra is the general homologue of a segment as the 
spinal cord is of the ganglionic cord ; and that the brain of the Ver- 
tebrata consists of a series of four segments ; there appears a strong 
probability that its head in like manner shall consist of a series of 
four vertebrae. 

3. Monograph of the species of Myochama, including 

THE descriptions OF TWO NEW SPECIES FROM THE COL- 
LECTION OF H. Cuming, Esq. By Arthur Adams, R.N., 

F.L.S. ETC. 

Myochama, Stutchbury. 

Testa ineequivahis, adhcerens ; vaha affixa dentibus diiobus mar- 
ginalibus, divaricatis, ad umbonem disjunctis, foveold trigond 
intermedid alteram testacece appendicis extremitatem, cartila- 
yine carried connexam, excipiente ; valva libera dentibus duobus 
incequalibus, parvis, divaricatis, alterd appendicis extremitate 
foveolce intermediee insertd ; umbones valves liberce internh, alte- 
rius externe, recurvi ; impressiones muscidares duee orhicidares, 
distantes, laterales; impressio mttscularis pallii sinu brevi lata, 
ligamentum tenue externum. 

Myochama anomioides, Stutchbury. M. testa rosed, tenia, 
fragili, costis prominentibus radiantibus dicTiotomis ; valvd li- 
berd valde convexd ; umbone extra apicem valcce alterius pro- 
diicto ; epidermide tenui pellucidd. 
Long. W ; lat. ^ ; alt. ^. 
Hab. 

This species is always regularly radiately ribbed, but when found 
attached to smooth shells the ribs are smooth, but if fixed to Trigo- 
nia pectinata they are crossed by tubercles. 

Myochama transversa, A. Adams. M. testd incequilaterali 
transversa fused, subquadratd, antich longiore postice breviore 
subtruncatd, radiatim costatd, costis subnodosis interdum di- 



Zoological Society. 147 

chotomis, concentrice minutissime striatd, valvd liberd suhcon- 
vexd, umbone extra apicem valvce alterius producto. 
Hah. Cape Upstart, 8 fathoms ; Mr. Jukes. (Mus. Cuming.) 
Myochama Strangei, a. Adams. M. testd luted, tenui, fragili, 
corrugatd, costis nodosis, nan distinctis, concentrice striatd, 
lineis radiantibiis asperis ad marginem ventralem distinctiori- 
bus ; valvd liberd depressd umbone piano cinerascente non extra 
apicem valvce alterius producto. 
Hab. Port Jackson ; Mr. Strange. (Mus. Cuming.) 

4. Description of new species of the genus Cumingia, 

WITH some additional GENERIC CHARACTERS. 

By Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S. etc. 
Cumingia, G. B. Sowerby, 

Testa bivalvis, incequilateralis, cequivalvis, latere antico rotundato, 
postico hiante subacuminato ; dentibm, cardinali, in utrdque 
valvd unico, parvo antico, lateralibus in alterd valvd ad utrmn- 
que latus una, valido, in alterd nullo ; ligamento interno foveolm 
subcochleariformi affixo ; impressionibus muscularibus duabus 
lateralibus disfantibus, anticd irregulari oblongd, posticd sub- 
rotundatd ; impressione musculari pallii sinu maximo. 
All the species of this genus gape more or less posteriorly, are 
more or less laraellose, and the cavity for the cartilage is spoon- 
shaped and projects into the cavity of the valves, differing in this re- 
epect from Amphidesma or Semele. 

Cumingia similis, A. Adams. C. testd subtrigonali-ovatd dc" 
cussate striatd, lineis transversis concentricis, lamelld unicd 
prope marginem ventralem antice latiore rotundato supra angu- 
lato postice angustiore subrostratd, ared posticd clausd, lunuld 
lanceolato-ovatd, margine ventrali postice coarctatd. 
Hab. N.W. coast of America. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Cumingia Clerii, A. Adams. C. testd ovatd compressd subce- 
quilaterali, albd, opacd, subleevi, nitidd, striis transversis con- 
centricis alveolisque irregularibus, latere antico angustiore ro- 
tundato, postico latiore, margine ventrali integro arcuato. 

Hab. Found at Talcuhano, Chili, by Capt. Clery, French Marine, 
attached to fuci in shallow water. (Mus. Cum.) 

Cumingia antillarum, A. Adams. C. testd ovato-trigonali, 
concentrice lamellosd ; lamellis suhdistantibus, interstitiis vald^ 
longitudinaliter striatis, latere antico breviore latiore rotun- 
dato, postico longiore, angustiore subrostrato, valde hiante, 
margine ventrali postice subsinuato. 

Hab. West Indies. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Cumingia fragilis, A. Adams. C. testd transversd ovali albd 
fragili subpellucidd concentric^ lamellosd ; lamellis elevatiuscu- 
lis, subdistantibus, interstitiis tenuissime longitudinaliter stria- 
tis, latere antico latiore margine sinuato, postico angustiore ro- 
tundato subjlexuoso, margine ventrali integro arcuato. 

Hab. Guadaloupe; Governor Admiral Tovrbey re. (Mus. Cuming.) 

10* 



148 Zoological Society. 

CuMiNGiA STRIATA, A. Adams. C. testd ovato-trigonali suh- 
ventricosd albd tenui fragili ; siriis transversis concentricis ele- 
vatis confertis, interstitiis longitudinaliter striatis, latere an- 
tico latiore rotundato, postico subacunmiato, margine ventrali 
postice coarctato. 
Hab. Conception ; seven fathoms, sandy mud ; H. C. (Mus. Cu- 
ming.) 

CuMiNGiA siNUOSA, A. Adams. C. testd subtrigonali albd semi- 
pellucidd subaquilaterali concentrice lamellosd, insterstitiis lon- 
gitudinaliter substriatis, latere antico sublatiore rotundatu, 
postico angustiore, margine ventrali postice valdh sinuato. 

Hab. West Indies. (Mus. Cuming.) 

February 12. — William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 
1. On the Trichoglossine genus of Parrots, Eos, with 

THE description OF TWO NEW SPECIES. By ChARLES 

LuciAN, Prince Bonaparte, Member of the principal 

ACADEMIES OF EUROPE AND AMERICA. 

The genus Eos is, like Eclectus, a new instance of the impropriety 
of that middling course (as disgusting in science as it is in politics), 
of uniting together by two and two, four and four, &c., small 
groups (or States), which, natural by themselves, have no stronger 
relation to each other than to any other member of their family. 
Take for example (comparing them to Naples and Sicily !) Spiza and 
Paroaria, Bon., united by G. R. Gray under his Spisa ! amongst the 
Fringillida, and amongst the Parrots Psittacodis* and Eclectus 
confounded together by the same process ! 

The genus Eos is intermediate between the two subfamilies T7-i- 
choglossince and Loriince. Although it may astonish some natural- 
ists that I do not consider it as one of the latter, still, on account of 
its tail, its anatomy and its habits, I keep it within the boundaries 
of the former, in close relation with my new genus Chalcopsitta f, 

* Since I speak of Psittacodis (the only green Genus of Lorine Parrots, which 
forms the same beautiful passage from Loriinoe to Psittacinee that Eos does from 
Trichoglossin(B to LoriincB), let me submit to the Society the phrases of two new 
species that make the whole number hitherto known five : they come as near 
Psittacodis magnus or sinensis (with which I for that reason compare them) as 
the three Eclecti do to each other : — 

1. PsiTTACUS MAGNUS et SINENSIS, Gm. {vtridts, Lath.; lateralis, Shaw; 
Mascarinus prasinus, Less. ; Psittacodis magnus, Viag].; Eclectus.' pobjchlo- 
ros! Or. ex Scopoli) PI. Enl. 514 ; Edw. B. t. 231 ; Lev. Perr. 1. 132. 

Major : iliis rubris : margine alarum cyaneo : cauda apice subconcolori. 

2. Psittacodis intermedius, Bp. Mus. Lugd. 

Minor : iliis rubris : margine alarum rubro : cauda apice subconcolori. 

3. PsiTrAcoDis Westermanni, Bp. Zool. Soc. Amst. 

Minor : iliis concoloribus : margine alarum ccernleo : cauda apice subconcolori. 
Dedicated to the able and modest Director of the Zoological Society of Am- 
sterdam, where this nevf Parrot is living. 

t This new genus of mine, though composed of decided Trichoglossine Parrots, 



Zoological Society. 149 

which connects it with Trichoglossus, the type and centre of the sub- 
family ; as on the other side Lathamus and Charinosina connect the 
same Trichoglossus through Coriphilus (and especially by means of 
Lathamus) with the subfamily Platycercince. 

It may be characterized by its elegant form, small stature, com- 
pact, red plumage with more or less blue ; compressed, moderate, 
red bill, with the cere apparent (not concealed as in Eclectus) ; short 
feet, with robust toes and powerful, arched, very acute nails ; and 
longish, not \erj broad, wedged tail. 

It is composed, to my knowledge, of only seven species ; — five 
already described (and some of them too many times) in the systems, 
and two new ones, which form the subject of the present paper. And 
when I say that only five are the hitherto knowii species of Eos, it 
is because I do not count Eos variegata and Eos Isidorii of Wagler, 
since, the first is evidently nothing but a variegated or pied bird, 
and the other, named, described and figured by Swainson, appears 
identical with Eos riciniata, for which the false name of cochinchi- 
nensis cannot be retained. Of the other three (out of the ten ad- 
mitted by our friend G. R. Gray, in his ' Genera of Birds'), E. scin- 
tillata is a Chalcopsitta, and E. cervicalis and ornata are Tricho- 
glossi ! 

1 . Eos CYANOGENIA, Bp. 

E. rubra; maculd magnd periophthalmicd cyaned: humeris ex toto, 
remigibus elongatis rectricibusque magnd ex parte nigris. 

Long. 9 poll. ; alee, 6| poll. ; caudse, 4 poll. 

Close to Eos indica or coccinea, but ha\'ing no blue on the head, 
back or breast ; and instead, a large blue patch, including the eye and 
covering the cheek, which Eos indica has red ; the black also is more 
predominant on the wings, and the red tinge duller. 

I found the specimen upon which I did not hesitate to estabhsh 
my species among the endless treasures of the Leyden Museum. 

2. Eos SEMILARVATA, Bp. 

E. coccinea ; vittd a guld ultra oculos, maculd utrinque scapu- 
lari, crissoque, cyaneis : remigibus brevibus rectricibusque apice 
tantum nigris. 

Long. 9 poll. ; alse, 5| poll. ; cauda, 4 poll. 

Resembhng Eos rubra, but much smaller and half-masked ! 

shows a strong affinity, not only to the Lorine but also to the Platycercine. It is 
composed in fact of 

\. Platycercus XTt.Vi,Gt.{Psiltacus novcB guinea,Gm.; Ch, nova guine<e,Bp.) ; 
and of 

2. Eos sciNTiLLATA, Gr. (Psiifacus iiciniillatus,Temm.; Ch.scintillans,Bp.); 
to which I have added a third new species, also from the Moluccas : — 

3. Chalcopsitta rubiginosa, Bp. Mus. Lugd. ex Ins. Barabay et Guebe. 

E. purpureo-badia, capite obscuriore ; subtus fasciolata, plumis singulis lunuld 
medianu et apicali nigricante : remigibus rectricibusque virescentibus caicdd ; 
apicem versus gradatim lutescente. 

Rostrum rubrum : pedes nigri : irides albte. Magnittid. Turdi. 



150 Zoological Society. 

1 picked up this beautiful species in the rising Museum annexed 
to the Zoological Gardens of Amsterdam ; and as soon as he became 
aware of the value of his bird, Mr. Westermann, as a compliment to 
Dr. Sehlegel and myself, with a liberality of which few men even of 
science are capable, made a present of it to the Leyden Museum ; 
where, duly greeted by Mr. Temminck, the typical specimen is safely 
deposited. 

To complete the monography of the genus, I add the comparative 
phrases of the five other species, all of which have several beautiful 
representatives m the Leyden Museum. 

1. Eos iNDiCA, Wagl. 

E. coccinea ; fascia verticis latissimd, cervice, dorso, pectore, ti- 
biisque, eyaneis : tectricibua alarum internis et remigibus apice 
nigris. 

Synonyms. 

Psittacus indicus, Gm. 

Psittacus variegatus, Gm., Lath, ex Buff. PL Eiil. 143. 

Psittacus coccineus, Lath. 

Eos indica, Gr. 

Eos variegata, Gr. 

Perruche des Indes orientales. Buff. PL Enl. 143, accidental var. ! 

Le Lori-Perruche violet et rouge, LevailL Perr. t. 53. 

Hab. In Insuhs Moluccis. 

2. Eos RUBRA, Wagl. 

E. rubra ; crisso, scapularihusque cyaneis ; tectricum majorum 
margine ajjicali, remigibusque primariis externe nigris. 

Synonyms. 
Psittacus ruber, Gm. 
Psittacus borneus ? Gm., Lath. juu. 
Psittacus cseruleatus, Shaw. 
Psittacus cyanonotus, VieilL 
Eos rubra, Gr. 

Lory de la Chine, Buff. PL EnL 519. 
Le Peiroquet Lori a franges bleues, LevailL Perr. t. 93. 
La Perruche ccarlate, Lev. Perr. t. 44. 
Hab. In Insulis Moluccis ; Amboina. 

3. Eos GUEBIENSIS, Wagl. 

E. coccinea, scepius tamquam squumata ; plumis pilei, colli, pec- 
toris et laterum margine nigro-virescentibus : alarum fascia du- 
plici remigibusque apice nigris. 

Synonyms. 
Psittacus guebiensis, Auct. 
Psittacus squameus, Shaw. 
Eos squamata, Gr. ex Scopoli. 
Lory de Gueby, Biiff. PL Enl. 684. 
Le Lori e'caille, LevailL Perr. t. 51. 
Hab. \\\ Insulis Guebv, Buron et Ceram. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 151 

4. Eos RICINIATA, Bp. 

E. rubra; vertice, colic et tnaculd abdominali magnd, cyaneis : 
tectricibus alarum remiglbusque ad ajncein late nigris. 

Synonyms. 
Psittacus cochinchinensis, Lath. 
Psittacus riciniatus, Bechst. 
Psittacus cucuUatus, Shaw. 
Lorius Isidorii, Sw. Zool. III. n. s. t. 
Lorius riciniatus, Miill. 
Eos cochinchinensis, Wagl., Gr. 
Perruche a chaperon bleu, Levaill. Perr. t. 54. 
Hab. In InsuUs Moluccis, Gilolo et Ternate, Forsten, Miiller j 
nee in Cochinchina ! 

5. Eos CYANOSTRIATA, Gr. 

E. rubra, alis cauddque, nigro variis ; macidd postoculari nigro- 
ccBruled : dorso striis cceruleis. 

Synonyms. 

Lorius bomeus! Less. Traite d'Orn. p. 192, nee Lath. 
Eos cyanostriata. Gray and Mitchell, Gen. of Birds, t. 103. 
Hab. In Insuhs Moluccis, minime in Borneo ! 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

Dec. 12, 1850. — Professor Fleming, President, in the Chair. 

The following were appointed office-bearers for the year : — 

President. — Professor Balfour. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Seller; Professor Fleming; Dr. Pamell; Dr. 
Cleghom. 

Secretary. — Dr. Greville. 

Treasurer. — Mr. Evans. 

Curator of Museum. — Mr. J. T. Syme. 

Assistant Secretary and Curator. — Mr. G. Lawson. 

A letter from the Rev. W. A. Leighton was read, requesting spe- 
cimens of Lichens belonging to the genera Endocarpon, Verrucaria, 
Sagedia, Collema, Opegrapha, and Calicium, in order to aid him in 
a work on the Angiocarpous Lichens of Great Britain. Any member 
who could aid him vrith specimens was requested to communicate 
through Dr. Balfour, or direct to him at Shrewsbury. 

The following commimications were made : — 

1 . Dr. Balfour, " An Accoimt of a Botanical excursion to Ben 
Chonzie and other mountains near Crieff, in October 1850." He 
remarked that the mountains had been neglected by botanists, but 
were very productive. Among the plants gathered were : — Sa.xi- 
fraga oppositifolia, stellaris and nivalis, Potentilla alpestris, Sib- 
baldia proeumbens, Gnaphalium supinum, Polystichum Lonchitis, 
IVoodsia ilvensis, Asplenium viride, Poa Balfonrii, Silene acaulis, 



152 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Thalictrum alpinum, Draba incana, Carex capillaris, Hieruciuni aU 
pinum, Lastrea Filix-mas var. erosa, and L. dilatata var. montatia. 
At the upper part of Gleu Turrit, Dr. Balfour remarked the occur- 
rence of numerous mounds resemblmg moraines. 

2. Mr. Charles Lavvson, jun., " On the growth of the Tussac Grass 
{Dactylis ccesj>itosa) in Orkney." ^Ir. Lawson remarks : — 

Mr. Traill of Woodwick, in Orkney, has been the most successful 
cultivator, and from a letter written by him, I give the following 
particulars regarding his method of culture : — Previous to June, some 
pasture ground is selected and trenched. Dmiug the first week of 
that month turnip seed is sown in drills 4 feet apart. So soon after 
as wet weather sets m, Tussac grass plants are dibbled in between the 
rows of turnips, at a distance of 3 feet apart. After the turnips are 
removed for use, manure is wheeled in and potatoes set on the same 
ground. By adopting this method of culture, the Tussac is cultivated 
with no expense beyond the outlay for the plants and the labour of 
chbbling. The work requisite for the two intervening crops is found 
to be qmte sufficient to keep the Tussac plants clear, after which they 
need no further care, and speedily close up the rows. Where prac- 
ticable, however, it would be much better to commence ^^ith a field 
previously manured for turnips, by which a savmg of the ground in 
wheehng manure during winter would be effected. 

Mr. Traill thus sums up the advantages of the Tussac : — 1 . The 
enormous produce of a highly nutritive food for cattle. 2, Having 
this food every day in the year equally plentiful. 3. The conver- 
sion of a poor unproductive field into the most ])roductive of the 
whole farai in two years, without outlay beyond the plants themselves. 

4. The ease with which it can be cut and carried off in snowy weather, 
and the certamty ^A^th which a farmer can count his supply of fodder. 

5. When cut down for use, it recovers its bulk in two months in 
winter, and in about five weeks in the summer. 

During the four years over which Mr. Traill's experiments extend, 
the plants have been steadily increasing in height, and at the present 
time the oldest ones have attained 7 feet. When not cut, Mr. Traill 
notices that the leaves continually augment in number, length and 
breadth, whilst about a fourth of the older leaves gradually turn 
yellow and dry up, become brittle, and fall to the ground. It is 
somewhat remarkable, that this decay does not take place at particular 
seasons, but is progressively developed throughout the year. January 
is the time of flowermg, but the flower spikes are fully formed in 
December, generally during the first week. 

While the necessity of procuring strong and healthy plants will 
naturally suggest itself to all, the cultivator must bear in mind, that 
it is necessary to the vitahty of the plant that it be kept free of weeds 
for at least two years. This, Mr. Traill very satisfactorily proved 
last year by selecting twelve fine healthy plants, and sowing ryegrass 
around them. As the ryegrass got up, one half of the Tussac was 
completely killed, and of the remainder scarcely a single plant can 
be discerned. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 153 

As to the soil in which the plant is grown, Mr. Traill gives the 
following, progressing from the best to the worst : — 



1. 


Dry sandy peat. 


8. 


Any wet peat and earth 


2. 


Wet do. 


9. 


Dry peat and clay. 


3. 


Any dry sandy soil. 


10. 


Wet do. 


4. 


„ wet do. 


11. 


Dry friable clay. 


5. 


„ dry peat do. 


12. 


Wet do. 


6, 


„ wet do. 


13. 


Dry stiff retentive clay. 


7. 


„ dry peat and earth. 


U. 


Wet do. do. 



Mr. Traill's soil, generally speaking, is of the very worst kind ; but 
he overcomes this disadvantage by mixing sand, peat, and retentive 
clay. The principal objection to this soil is, that the plants, perhaps 
a tenth, die out the first year, and sometimes a few in the second. 
If they sur^^ve this period, they thrive quite as well as those grown 
in the better soils. 

Mr. Horsburgh of Tongue, one of the factors of the Duke of 
Sutherland, has, at the request of his Grace, also instituted a series 
of experiments with the Tussac, which, however, in their results, are 
somewhat different from those of Mr. Traill, Mr. jNIatheson, or the 
Messrs. Lawson. Mr. Horsburgh obtained in 1846 two plants of 
the grass, which " tillered out," to use his own words, '•beautifully." 
In the following year, by a division of the roots sixty plants were 
obtained, which were planted in his garden at Tongue. In 1848 the 
plants were again divided, and a portion of them dibbled into mossy 
ground, exposed to the influence of the sea spray. In the year fol- 
lowing (1849), all the plants, wdth few exceptions, flowered and pro- 
duced abundance of apparently good seed, which was sown in August 
of the same year, but did not vegetate. In December, the plants in 
the garden were cut, and the grass given to cattle, who devoured it « 
greedily. In the spring of 1850 a number of the plants which had 
been cut, withered away and completely " died out." A few of the 
healthy plants were again divided, and set in a patch of sandy ground 
near the Ferry at Tongue (west coast of Sutherland), and at the 
present date are reported to be healthy and thiiving. Very few of 
the plants in Mr. Horsburgh' s garden bore seed this year. A portion 
of last year's seed, which was saved for further experiment, was sown 
in June of the present year and vegetated freely ; but in consequence 
of being hoed up by an ignorant lad, the result of this experiment 
cannot be known. Mr. Horsbiu-gh states as the result of his obser- 
vation, that the Tussac thrives best in rich garden soil, where its 
growth is very luxuriant, while on poor mossy land the plants thrive 
very indifferently. The greatest length of blade of Mr. Horsburgh' s 
specimens was 6 feet; but the average was only between 4 and 5. 
All the plants stand the winter very well. Mr. Horsburgh' s gardener 
is inclined to attribute the decay of the cut plants to the nibbling of 
mice, which little animals not only lived upon them, but constructed 
their nests at the base of the thick bushy tufts. 

Mr. Matheson's experiments, as to the growth of the Tussac grass 



154 Botanical Society of Edinbwgh. 

in the Lewes, are contained in the Journal of tlie Royal Agricultural 
Society of England. The results of Messrs. Lawson's experiments 
will be found in the last edition of their Treatise on the (/ultivated 
Grasses. 

3. Mr. James Backhouse, jun., " An account of the rare Alpine 
plants picked by him in the Clora, Glen Isla, and Braemar districts, 
in Aug. 1850." The following are the plants noticed, with his re- 
marks upon them : — 

Hieracium cerinthoides (Fries). On the mica rocks, in the gorge 
of the Eannach, near Loch Lee ; also at the head of Glen Fiadh, and 
in the ravme of the White Water. Found originally by the late Mr. 
G. Don. 

H. Oreades (Fries). Ravine of the White Water ; Cairntoul. No 
British station previously known ? 

H. sj). nova 1 Resembles //. melanocephalum of Fries, but has 
large broadly obovate bluntish leaves, forked panicles, and enormously 
large shaggy heads. Two specimens gathered in a vertical fissure 
(almost inaccessible) on the great crag of Lochnagar. 

H. ccesium (Fries). Canlochen Glen. White Water, &c. &c. 

H. rupestre (Allioni, Koch and Fries). A new and interesting 
species, which seems to be unquestionably the above-mentioned plant. 
Cairntoul. 

H. atratum (Fries). Maintains the same distinct character, on 
Loch Esk Craig, Clova, Lochnagar, Canlochen, Garachary and Ben- 
na-bourd. 

H. pallidum (Fries) var. ? Near to H. persicifolium (Fries) : a 
curious and interesting plant, 

n. alpinum, typical. On Lochnagar and Ben-na-bourd ? Exactly 
the same as the plant from Glara-mara (Cumberland) . It is covered 
all over with long shaggy white silk, and has broad-based short in- 
volucral scales. Its ligules are strongly ciliated. Under cultivation 
this plant becomes still less like //. melanocephalum. 

H. sp.l Allied to H. alpinum, but differs in several respects, and 
seems to keep its characters. Ben-na-bourd and ravine of the Gara- 
chary. 

H. nigrescens. On granite rocks almost exclusively. 

Poa casia. Very abundant and fine in a ravine in Canlochen Glen. 

P. Balfowiil Along with the previous one. I have not the 
slightest hesitation in pronouncing my P. Bal/ourii 1 specifically 
distinct from P. ceesia, with which it grows, but retains a perfectly 
different character. The two species may be described as follows : — 

P. ccesia. Plant 4 to 6, (sometimes) 8 inches high, erect, rigid, 
bluish green, or slightly tinged with purple in the florets. Branch- 
lets of the panicle spreading rigidly at right angles when growing. 
Florets acute ; free. Leaves broad and short ; joints covered and 
confined to the lower fourth of the stem. Ligules very long. (P. 
ccesia loses its character by pressing.) 

P. Balfouriil Plant 6 to 9 inches high, erect, rather slender, 
purplish green (not at all csesious), spike often rather lax, branchlets 
spreading, but not at all rigid. Florets ovate, slightly webbed. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 155 

Uppermost joint one-third from base ; occasionally all the joints con- 
cealed. Leaves narrower than in the former species. Ligules very 
long. 

Both the species appear to form tufts in the same way. In exa- 
mining the latter I never thought of its being P. Balfourii, from the 
root of that species being described as creeping, and the ligules similar 
to those of P. montana, whereas they are as dissimilar as those of P. 
annua and P. nemoralis. P. ceesia has not the remotest connection 
with P. nemoralis. My impression is that P. montana and P. Par- 
nellii are both varieties of P. nemoralis. 

P. nemoralis. Alpine form. Canlochen Glen. 

P. montana. Sparingly in Canlochen Glen, and near Loch Esk, 
Clova. 

P. laxa (vivipara) . Abundant in and below the ravine on Loch- 
nagar, intermixed with 

P. minor and Aira alpina {vivipara) . 

P. alpina {vivipara) ? Strange diminished form. Ravine of the 
Garachary and on Cainitoul. The true and evident P. alpina vivi- 
para grows there also, but looks very different. P. laxa is there 
likewise, I suspect. 

Carex leporina. In two stations above the corrie of Loch-nan-ean 
(Lochnagar) , In two new stations in the great ravine of the Garachary 
north of Caimtoul, and spread over a locality half a mile long ! in 
the corrie of Lochan-nain, Cairn toul. One specimen nearly a foot 
high. Five stations in all. 

C saxatilis {pulld). Locality half a mile long! in the corrie of 
Lochan-nain, Caimtoul. 

Cerastium latifolium. A very beautiful object by the margins of 
rivulets on Caimtoul, and in the ra\'ine of the Garachary. 

Stellaria cerastoides. Caimtoul, Ben-na-muic-dhui, and Ben-na 
bourd. 

Arabis petrcea. At the same places. 

Crepis succiscefolia. Canlochen Glen. 

Saxifraga rivularis. In " the ravine " on Lochnagar ; in two 
stations above the corrie of Lochnan-ean. In a corrie on the south 
side of Caimtoul. Abundant in the corrie of Loch-an-nain, north 
side of Caimtoul. Also on the eastern cliffs of Ben-na-bourd ! 

Mr. Backhouse failed in obtaining Carex Grahami and Saxi-- 
fraga ccespitosa. He found Woodsia ilvensis in great abundance. 

4. Mr. Thomas Anderson, "A short account of the Flora of the 
district around Clonmel, including parts of the counties of Tipperary 
and Waterford." On Galtymore, a mountain rising to the altitude 
of 3000 feet, and lying about seventeen miles west from Clonmel, 
which is composed of a coarse conglomerated sandstone, resting on 
the limestone of the surrounding district, he found on the banks of 
a rill near the summit, Saxifraga hirta associated with iS. stellaris. 
At Glendiue, near Youghal, he gathered Trichomanes brevisetum. 
Near Clonmel, Bromus maximus was discovered, the only previous 
station known for it being Jersey, where it was found by Mr. Ba- 
bington. 

The season having arrived for noting the flowering of plants in the 



156 Miscellaneous. 

Botanic Garden, Mr. M'Nab stated, that the Helleborus niffer was 
in full flower on 2nd December, 

Dr. Balfour exhibited from Dr. Jameson of Saharunpore, specimens 
of Daphne Cannabina, and samples of the paper prepared from it ; 
and gave an account of the mode in which the paper is manufactured. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

THALASSEMA NEPTUNI *. 

Searching for Venei-upis irus in limestone thrown on the beach 
(at Clonea, near Dungarvan) I split a lump into two, which presented 
the appearance of a honey-comb, being perforated by holes, and in 
each what appeared to be a large maggot. However, on examining 
them I foimd them to be the veritable spoon-worm. On carefully 
removing them I found that the perforations in the stone were per- 
fectly circular, and which the animal accurately filled, so that its 
power of locomotion, if any, in this position must be very circum- 
scribed. However, when placed in the finger-glass it exhibited some 
indication of locomotion ; but the tube was the organ over which the 
animal appeared to have the greatest power, in some instances ex- 
tending it to four times its own length — in fact, making it appear like 
a filament, but even here flattening it out in some portion of its 
length, and then changing it suddenly to another ; but in all cases the 
tube presented a patulous opening. I obtained specimens of Gastro- 
chcBua pholadia in the same stone. 

VICTORIA REGIA. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History, 

Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, Jan. 24, 1851. 
Gentlemen, — In your Number for October last, p. 310, you 
have done me the honour to insert my observations on the names of 
the Victoria, in which I stated that " the specific name Amazonica 
ought to be retained, or rather it ought never to have been altered," 
There has since appeared in Mr. Paxton's ' Flower Garden ' for Ja- 
nuary a copy of Mr. Gray's paper on the same subject with notes by 
the editor, and concluding with the following paragraph : — " So much 
for Mr. John Edward Gray. Another proposal made by Mr. Sowerby 
to change the name of Victoria regia to that of V. amazonica, be- 
cause it now appears that the plant was originally called Eurijale ama- 
zonica, we do not think worth serious consideration." This passage 
will of course be taken for no more than it is worth by those natu- 
ralists who value the estabhshed rules of nomenclature ; nevertheless 
I feel called upon to trouble your readers with a notice of it, because, 
as the pre\ious observations are in defence of the name Regia, it must 
be intended to reject Amazonica, although it offers no argument 
against the latter name, but, on the contrary, it admits the right of 
priority. The only remaining plea for rejecting Poppig's original 

* Extract of a letter from Dr. Farran to Prof. E. Forbes. 



Miscellaneous, 157 

name is, that the name Regia is contained in a letter from Sir H. W. 
Wheatley to the President of the Royal Geographical Society (Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist. December 1850) conveying the Queen's plea- 
sure that the plant in question should be dedicated to Her Majesty ; 
but it appears by a letter from Capt. Washington (Secretary to the 
Society) to Dr. Lindley (Aunals, Dec. 1850, p. 493), that the Queen 
had very properly accepted the dedication conditionally. That Her 
Majesty should be graciously pleased to accept the dedication of the 
plant is indeed an honour to the science of botany, and the reserve 
expressed respecting the genus shows a just anxiety to support the 
established rules which must apply also to the name of the species. 
No reason therefore remains for retaining the name Regia : but it is 
much to be regretted that it was so hastily adAased. 

I have lately been shown that I am not the first to suggest that 
Victoria amasonica would be the proper name. The editor of the 
'Magazine of Science' (vol. i. p. 22. for 1840) has stated in a note, 
that " the new name then, unless retained by the consent of Dr. Pop- 
pig, must be given up." Yom-s, &c., 

J. De C. Sowerby. 

List of Spiders captured by F. Walker, Esq. 

For the names of the spiders in the following list I am indebted to 
the kindness of Mr. Blackwall, who has also specified the sex and the 
epoch of growth of each spider. The localities of a few are mentioned ; 
all the rest were found near Southgate. 

Segestria senoculata, November 1847. Immature, June, July 
1849. Under fallen pales near woods, and in crevices of the bark of 
plane-trees. 

Lycosa (agretycaV). Immature, May 1848. 

Salticus coronatus. Male adult. May 1848. 

cupreiis. Male adult. May 1848. 

Cluhiona accentuata. Immature, May, June 1848, July 1849. 

{amaranthal). Male adult, May, June 1848, June 1849 ; 

male immature, April 1848, November 1847 ; female immature, No- 
vember 1847- Under fallen pales on the borders of woods. When 
young on the beech in May, feeding on Aphis Fagi. 

Clubiona (corticalisl). Male immature, November 1847- 

Pachygnatha Clerckii. Male adult, August 1849; female adult 
and immature, August 1849. 

Pachygnatha Begeeri. Male. adult, May 1848, August 1849; 
female, August 1849. Female, September, Broadstairs, 1848. 

Hecaerge spinimana. Female adult, July 1849. 

Thomisus cristatus. Male immature. May, June 1848, August 
1849 ; September, Broadstairs, 1848: male adult. May, June 1849, 
May, Birchwood, 1847. On the juniper. — Female immature, Juue 
1848, 1849. The young of a species of this genus dwell in moss 
during the winter. 

Thomisus citreus. Male adult. May 1848. 

Dolomedes {rnirabilisl). Female immature, July 1849. 

Philodromus aureolus. Immature, November 1847, May 1848 ; 



158 Miscellaneous. 

male immature?, May 1818 ; adult, June 1849 ; female adult, June 
1848, July 1849. Abdomeu of the male bright purple. 

Epeira diadema. Female immature. May 1848. 

conica. Male immature, March 1848, October 1847 ; female 

immature, March, April 1848. 

Epeira cucurbit ina. INIale adult. May, June 1848, June 1849 ; 
female immature, May, June 1848 ; female adult, June 1848. 

Epeira {i7i(dinata1). Male adult, June, August 1849; female 
adult, July 1849. 

Epeira {Solersi). Female, September, Broadstairs, 1848. 

bicornis. Male adult, June 1848. 

Tetragnatha extensa. Immature, April, May, September (Broad- 
stairs), October 184/. On the spruce fir. — Male immature, March, 
May 1848; male adult, August 1849; female adult, September 
(Broadstairs) ; female immature, June, August, October. 

Linyphia trianr/ularis. Male adult, August 1849; September, 
Broadstairs, 1848: female? immature, July 1849. 

Linyphia {montanaX). Male immature, August 1849 ; female, Au- 
gust 1849. 

Linyphia {rubra'!). Male adult, April, May 1848. 

cautal Male immature, July 1849. 

OoHops pulcher. Female, November 1847. 

Theridion lineatum ; var. formerly known as T. redimitum. Male 
immature. May, June 1848, June 1849 ; male adult, June 1848, July 
1849 ; female adult, June, July 1848, 1849 ; female immature, June 
1849. 

Theridion Sisyphus. Female immature, August 1849. 

nervosum. Male adult. May, June 1848, June 1849 ; female 

adult, June 1848. 

Theridion pulchellum. Male adult. May, June 1848, June 1849 ; 
female adult. May 1848 ; September, Broadstairs, 1848. 

Theridion deniiculatum 1 Male immature. Under bark of plane- 
trees, December 1847. 

Theridion puUensI Female adult, May 1848. 

On the Circidation and Digestion in the lower Animals. 
By Prof. Agassiz*. 

Prof. Agassiz read a paper on the circulation and digestion in the 
lower animals, showing that the circulation in the Invertebrata cannot 
be compared to that of the Vertebrata. 

Instead of the three conditions of chyme, chyle, and blood, which 
the circulating fluid of the Vertebrata undergoes, the blood of that 
class of the Invertebrata which he had particularly studied, the 
Annelida, is, according to Wagner, simple chyle, coloured chyle ; the 
receptacles of chyle in different parts of the body are true lymphatic 
hearts like those found in the Vertebrata : this kind of circulation is 
found in the Articulata and MoUusks with few exceptions, some 
Echinoderms, &c. In the IMedusse and Polyps, instead of chyle, 
chyme mixed with water is circulated : this circulation is found in 

* Proc. Best. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1850, p. 20fi. 



Meteorological Observations. 159 

some Mollusks and intestinal worms ; it may be seen plainly in Beroe. 
Prof. Agassiz thinks that the embryological development of the higher 
animals shows a similar succession in the circulating function. He 
also examined the connection of respiration with the circulation : in 
Vertebrata, the gills are found between branches of the blood system ; 
in Invertebrata, the chyhferous system is acted on by the respiration ; 
the gills of fishes, then, cannot be compared to the gills of Crustacea, 
Artieulata and Mollusks. No gills are connected mth the chymi- 
ferous circulation ; animals having this circulation have no true respi- 
ration ; they have only tubes to distribute freely aerated water to the 
different parts of the body. — SillimarCs American Journal for July 

1850. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR DEC. 1850. 
Chiswick. — December 1. Slight haze: overcast: drizzly rain. 2,3. Overcast. 
4—6. Foggy. 7. FofTgy : fine : dense fog. 8. Foggy. 9. Foggy : slight fog 
at night. 10. Foggy. II. Foggy: overcast. 12. Rain: cloudy and fine: 
foggy. 13. Very dense fog : cloudy and fine, 14. Clear: boisterous, with rain. 
15. Overcast . slight rain : warmer at night than at noon. 16. Clear : overcast . 
squally. 17. Clear : rain. ] 8. Frosty : fine : rain. 1 9. Foggy : overcast : clear. 
20. Frosty : fine : frosty. 21. Frosty and foggy : slightrain at night. 22. Frosty : 
fine : foggy. 23. Frosty and foggy : hazy : foggy. 24. Hazy : foggy : overcast. 
25. Clear and very fine. 26. Hazy. 27. Overcast : exceedingly fine : overcast. 
28. Clear: very fine. 29. Fine. 30. Fine: cloudy: overcast. 31. Overcast: 
rain : drizzly. 

Mean temperature of the month 38''*47 

Mean temperature of Dec. 1849 37 '17 

Mean temperature of Dec. for the last twenty-four years ... 39 -85 

Average amount of rain in Dec 1'58 inch. 

Boston. — Dec. 1. Fine. 2,3. Cloudy. 4. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 5. 
Cloudy. 6. Fine. 7.8. Cloudy. 9. Foggy. 10—12. Cloudy. 13. Foggy. 
14. Fine : rain and hail P.M. 15. Cloudy : rain p.m. 16,17. Fine: rain p.m. 
18. Fine. 19. Rain : rain a.m. 20—23. Fine. 24. Cloudy. 25. Fine. 26. 
Cloudy : rain a.m. and P..1I. 27 — 31. Cloudy. 

Apptegarlk Manse, Dumfries-shire, — Dec. 1. Frost, hard : cloudy p.m. 2. Rain 
and high winds all (lay. 3. Dull and moist: rain preceding night. 4. Mild: 
rain heavy a.m. : fog. 5. Wet, though not heavily, all day. 6. Fair .and fine : 
moist P.M. 7. Frost A.M. : fog p.m. 8. Frost : fog all day. 9. Frost, hard : 
clear and sharp. 10. Frost hard: barometer falling. 11. Fair a.m. : rain at 
noon. 12. Fair and clear. 13. Heavy rain and high wind. 14. Heavy rain : 
boisterous. 15. Fair, but cloudy and threatening. 16. Occasional dropping. 
17. Moist : snow on the hills. 18. Frost keen : snow on the hills. 19, 20. Frost 
hard. 21. Rain for twelve hours : cleared p.m. 22. Frost, raw : cloudy. 23. 
Fair, but cloudy : shower p.m. 24. Rain : high wind p.m. 25. Fair and tem- 
perate : wind strong. 26. Fair: preceding night wet. 27. Fair a.m. : shower p.m. 
28. Fair and drying. 29. Drizzling all day. 30. Rain very heavy. 31. Con- 
tinued rain and high wind. 

Mean temperature of the month S9°'5 

Mean temperature of Dec. 1849 37 -1 

Mean temperature of Dec. for twenty-eight years 38 "3 

Rain in Dec. 1849 4-20 inches. 

Sandwich Manse, Orhnei/. — Dec. 1. Clear: hazy. 2. Rain: clear: aurora, 
3, 4. Clear. 5. Cloudy : rain. 6. Cloudy : clear : aurora. 7. Fine. 8. Fine : 
hoar-frost: fine: aurora. 9. Fog: clear. 10. Bright: drops. 11. Cloudy: 
drops. 12. Bright: showers. 13. Cloudy: clear. 14. Clear: cloudy. 15. 
Bright : showers. 16. Showers: clear. 17. Sleet-showers. 18. Frost: clear: 
frost. 19. Showers : clear : frost. 20. Frost : rain. 21. Showers. 22. Hazy. 
23. Hazy: damp. 24. Cloudy: fine: showers. 25. Showers : cloudy. 26. 
Drizzle. 27, 28. Sleet-showers. 29. Cloudy : damp. 30. Showers : clear : 
showers. 31. Cloudv : showers. 









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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 39. MARCH 1851. 



XIY.—Note on some Bones and Eggs found at Madagascar, in 
recent Alluvia, belonging to a gigantic Bird. By M. Isidorb: 
Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire*. 

We received the day before yesterday from M. Malavois, a 
planter in the Island of Reunion f, some objects of such great in- 
terest, that we deem it a duty to submit them immediately to the 
attention of the Academy. They prove the existence at Mada- 
gascar, geologically recent, of a bird of gigantic size, new to sci- 
ence, but with regard to which there existed, as will presently be 
seen, some indications. 

The discovery of these objects was made, in 1850, by M. Aba- 
die, captain of a merchantman. During a stay at Madagascar J, 
M. Abadie one day observed, in the hands of a Madagascan, a 
gigantic e^^, which the natives had perforated at one of its ex- 
tremities, and which they employed for various domestic pur- 
poses. The accounts which M. Abadie received from the Mada- 
gascans soon led to the discovery of a second egg, of nearly the 
same size, which was found, perfectly entire, in the bed of a tor- 
rent, amongst the debris of a land-slip which had taken place a 
short time previously. Not long afterwards was discovered, in 
alluvia of recent formation, a third egg, and some bones, no less 
gigantic, which were rightly considered as fossil, or rather, ac- 
cording to an expression now generally adopted, as subfossil. All 
these objects were immediately forwarded, unfortunately without 
the necessary precautions, from Madagascar to the He de la 
Reunion, and thence to Paris : one of the eggs arrived broken 
into a multitude of fragments, but it can be restored ; the two 
others are in a perfect state of preservation, 

* Translated from the Comptes Rendus for Jan. 27, 1851. 

t Commonly called Bourbon. — H. E. S. 

X On the south-west coast of the island, according to M. Malavois. It 
will be seen hereafter that another egg has been discovered at the north- 
west extremity of the island. 

Ann. Sf Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 11 



162 M. Geoffroy Saint- Hilalre on some Bones and Eggs 

The objects which I have the honour to place before the Aca- 
demy, are the two entire eggs, a piece of the shell of the broken 
egg, and some osseous fragments, one of which especially, as will 
be seen, is of great interest to science. 

The two eggs which are now before the Academy differ little 
in size, but much in form. One of them has the two ends very 
unequally convex ; the other represents almost exactly an ellipsoid 
of revolution. The following are the dimensions : — 

Ovoidal egg. Ellipsoid egg. 
metre. metre. 

Long diameter 0-34* 032 

Transverse diameter 0225 0'23 

Large circumference 085 084 

Small circumference 0"71 072 

e. m. 

Size „ 0008887 

The thickness of the shell is about 3 millimetres. 

We shall give comparatively the principal measures, taken or 
calculated in the same manner, with the Ostrich and the other 
large birds of the same group, and with the Hen : — 

Ostrich. Rhea. Casowary. Emu. Hen. 

m. m. m. m. m. 

Large circumference 046 035 0365 0335 01 6 

Small circumference 0-425 030 029 027 0-14 

cm. cm. cm. cm. cm. 

Size 0001527 0000735 0000532 000526 0000060 

The thickness of the shell, larger in proportion, is in that of 
the Ostrich 2 millimetres. It is 1 millimetre with the Casowary, 
and less with the other birds. 

According to the preceding measures, it appears that the ca- 
pacity of the egg of the large bird of Madagascar is about 8| litresf, 
and that, to represent its size, it woidd requ.ire nearly 6 eggs of 
the Ostrich, 12 of the American Ostrich or Rhea, \Q~ of the 
Casowary, 17 of the Emu, and 148 of the Hen. We may add, 
contrasting with each other the two extremes of the series, that 
this same bulk is equal to that of 50,000 eggs of the Humming- 
bird. 

Are the eggs which have just come to us from Madagascar, 
those of an immense reptile or of a gigantic bird ? This was the 
first question which suggested itself on their discovery. The 
examination of their shells, the stracture of which is similar to 
that which is observed in those of the large birds with rudimen- 
tary wings, and particularly of the Emu, would have sufficed 
for the solution of this question ; but it is given much more di- 
rectly and completely by the bony fragments which have come 

* In English measm-e the ovoidal egg is about 13| inches by 8| inches. 
— H. E. S. 

t A litre is =61-028 English cubic inches.— H. E. S. 



of a Gigantic Bird from Madagascar. 163 

with the eggs. One of them is the lower extremity of the large 
metatarsal bone of the left side : it has the three trochlear apo- 
physes ; two of them are even almost untouched. It is enough 
to cast a glance upon this eminently characteristic piece to re- 
cognise that it belongs to a bird. Moreover, on examining it 
with some attention, we soon arrive at the following conclusions. 
The gi-eat bird of Madagascar differs considerably from the Dodo ; 
it wanted that greatly developed thumb, by which the large bird 
of the Mauritius differed from the Struthionians and the Caso- 
warians ; this we are authorized to conclude from the non-exist- 
ence, at the bottom of the large metatarsal bone, of the inden- 
tion which corresponds with the insertion of the thumb in the 
Dodo and the other birds whose foot presents the same confor- 
mation. In this point of view, the Madagascar bird approaches 
the Dinornis ; but it differs from it, as well as from the other 
allied genera recently discovered in New Zealand, in the very 
dilated and depressed form of the lower portion (and probably 
of the greater part) of the metatarsal bone*. 

As for the Ornithichnites, on the one part, and the Ostrich and 
other allied genera, no one would assuredly be induced to assi- 
milate them to the gigantic bird of Madagascar, which hence- 
forth should become the type of a new genus in the group of the 
Rudipens or Brevipens. We shall give to this genus the name 
of ^pyornisf, and to our species the epithet of maximus. 

The consideration of the other osseous fragments will confirm, 
we may already assert, the inductions to which we have just been 
led by the examination of the great metatarsal — the portion to 
which we have first directed our attention, as eminently proper 
to characterize not only the class and order, but even the genus 
to which the precious fragments transmitted by M. Malavois are 
to be referred. Such a study will doubtless enable us to discuss 
(that which we could not as yet do with, advantage) the value of 
the affinities which connect the ./Epyornis with the various ge- 
nera of the same group, and to determine with some accui'acy 
the dimensions of this ornithological giant. Meanwhile, and 
with a view to answer the questions which have been addressed 
to us from all quarters, we shall restrict ourselves, on this last 
point, to some remarks, intended especially to prevent the exag- 
gerations in which some might be apt to indulge. 

The long diameters, in the eggs of ^pijornis and Ostrich 
which we have compared, are, in the one case, 33 centimetres, 

* Immediately above the trochlear apophyses, this bone is near 1 deci- 
metre across, and its thickness scarcely exceeds 3 centimetres A deci- 
metre higher up, we find 007 metre again for the transversal diameter, 
and only 00375 for the antero-posterior diameter. 

t Alta or magna avis. From atirvs, tall, large • and opvis. 

11* 



]64 M. Geoflroy Saint-Hilalre on some Bones and Eggs 

and, in the other, 16; they are therefore to one another as : ; 2 : 1. 
With respect to their bulk, it has been seen above that these eggs 
are nearly : ; 6 : 1. Are we to suppose that the two birds have 
the same proportions as their eggs ? The Ostrich being 2 metres 
high, the height of the ^pyornis would then reach 4 metres. 
We think that it would be erroneous to admit this proportion. 
If we possessed no other elements of determination than the eggs 
of the ^pijornis, we should have to recollect that, even amongst 
birds very nearly allied, the dimensions of the eggs are far from 
being exactly proportional to the size of the species which pro- 
duce them : the estimate therefore which we have mentioned, 
would for this reason alone be very doubtful. But we can go 
still further : we think that even at present we are warranted 
in reducing this estimate*. According to the comparison of the 
osseous parts, the jEpyomis must be a less slender bird and with 
legs proportionally shorter than the Ostrich. Possibly its size 
was, with relation to that of the latter bird, almost in the pro- 
portion of 6 to 1 ; but its body was not supported on limbs quite 
double the height. 

The estimate of the stature of the u^pyornis, as founded on a 
comparison of that bird with other Rudipens than the Ostrich, 
with the Emu, for example, confirms this inference. Calcu- 
lated according to the long diameters of the eggs, it would give, 
for the JEpyomis, no longer 4 metres, but only about 3-8 metres, 
the Emu being 1*50 metre high, and its egg 0'125 metre 
long. From the comparison of the terminal portion of the me- 
tatarsal in the Emu, and the corresponding part in the JEpy- 
omis, the one measuring 5 centimetres, and the other 12 centi- 
metres, we should deduce a result which agrees very well with 
the preceding : the height of the ^pyomis would be about 
3'6 metres. 

We thus arrive, in various ways, at this conclusion, that the 
Btature of the yEpyornis would be comprised between 3 and 4 
metres, and consequently greater than that of the Dinornis gigan- 
teus itself; since the stature attributed to this last by Prof. 
Owent is a little less than 3 metres. We must remark, that 
the comparison of the extremity of the metatarsal of our yEpy- 
omis with the same part in the Dinornis, gives, in fact, a dif- 

* And it would even be reduced, by a comparison of the eggs, made, not 
according to the long diameters, but after the transverse, or from the cir- 
cumferences. The egg of the ^pyornis is proportionally a little more 
elongated and less arched than that of the Ostrich. 

t On Dinornis, in the ' Transact, of the Zool. Society of London.' The 
last of the plates of this remarkable memoir (pi. 30), Scale of altitude, 
gives the Dinornis giganteus a height of 9^ feet (English), that is to say, 
2 9 metres. This estimate is, however, lower than that which other authors 
admit. 



of a Gigantic Bird from Madagascar. 165 

ference of dimension in favour of the first ; but this difFerence is 
very slight, and might be explained as well by the diversities of 
proportion as by an inequality of height. 

Can so gigantic a species, which has lived without doubt in 
times not far remote from our own, and of which it cannot 
even be asserted that it has entirely disappeared from the surface 
of the globe*, have remained so long, to the present day, without 
anything having revealed its existence to the naturalists of 
Europe ? We could not postpone, until the appearance of the 
memoir which we intend to publish on the JEpyornis, adverting 
to some indications relative to this bu-d which science already 
possesses. 

Shall we place Flacourt amongst the number of the authors 
who have known, at least by hearsay, the gigantic bird of Ma- 
dagascar ? Is it the jEpyornis which that celebrated traveller 
mentioned, two centuries ago, under the name of Vouron-Patra ? 
"It is," he sayst, "a large bird which haunts the Ampatres, 
and lays eggs like an Ostrich ; it is a species of Ostrich. Those 
of the said places are not able to take it : it seeks the most de- 
sert places." It is hardly necessary to add, that a passage so 
vague may quite as well, and better, apply to a bird of a high 
stature, but nevertheless lower than that of the Ostrich, as to a 
species so gigantic as the ^pyornis. 

If Flacourt did not know the JEpyornis, there is at all events 
another French traveller, who unquestionably heard speak of 
it, and who even saw one of its eggs, very similar to those which 
we have described above. In one of the additions which Mr. 
Strickland has recently made J to his remarkable work on the 
Dodo§, is found a document formerly considered as fabulous, 
but whose scientific interest is now placed beyond a doubt. 
Under the title " Supposed existence of a gigantic bird at Ma- 
dagascar," Mr. Strickland has given a curious relation, made in 
1848, by a French merchant, M. Dumarele, to Mr. Joliffe, Sur- 
geon of the Geyser, and which the latter extracted from his 
private journal : M. Dumarele stated that at Port-Leven, on the 
north-west end of the Isle of Madagascar, he saw a gigantic egg, 
the shell of which was as thick as a Spanish dollar, and which 
held "the almost incredible quantity of thirteen wine quart 
bottles of fluid." M. Dumarele offered to purchase the egg 
and send it to Europe ; but the natives declined seUing it, as it 

* The Notornis, at first known by subfossil debris, and regarded as an 
extinct species, has lately been found alive in New Zealand. See Ann. Nat. 
Hist, for November 1850, p. 398. 

t Histoire de la grande He de Madagascar, edit, of 1768, p. 165. 

+ The Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist. No. 23 (November 1849), p. 338. 

§ The Dodo and its Kindred, London, 1848. 



166 On some Bones and Eggs of a Gigantic Bird. 

belonged to their chief, and on account of its extreme rarity. 
Thus M. Dumarele was unable to produce any proof in support 
of his statement, and, without casting any suspicion on his vera- 
city, it was thought that he might have been imposed upon by 
the natives. 

According to these natives, who were of the race of Sakalavas, 
the gigantic bird of Madagascar still existed, but was extremely 
rare. In other parts of the island, on the contrary, its present 
existence is not credited ; but at least a very ancient tradition is 
met with, relative to a bird, of colossal size, which threw down 
an ox and devovired it ; it is to this bird that the Madagascans 
attribute the gigantic eggs which are occasionally found in their 
island. We take this statement from an interesting letter, in 
which M. Lepervanche Meziere, a well-informed naturalist of 
the Isle of Reunion, kindly informed the Museum of Natui-al 
History of the discovery of the eggs of jEpyomis, immediately 
on its having been made*. 

It is scarcely necessary to add, that the tradition which we have 
just mentioned would attribute to the jEptjornis habits which are 
far from having belonged to it : it is a fable quite similar to that 
which exists in New Zealand, on the subject of the Moa, and 
which has no more serious foundation. The ^pgornis, like the 
Dinornis, was a Rudipen, and that species, of which popular 
belief has made a gigantic and terrible bird of prey, like to the 
Roc or Rue of the Eastern tales f, had neither talons, nor wings 
adapted for flying, and must have fed peaceably on vegetable 
substances. 

* This new letter informs us, positively, that one of the eggs at least 
comes from the same bed as the osseous fragments. 

f The fables respecting the Roc may not indeed be unconnected with 
these discoveries of gigantic eggs, made no doubt from time to time in the 
island of Madagascar, and with the belief to which they have given rise 
among the natives. But it would be going too far to make of the Roc, 
with Mr. Strickland, a Madagascan bird, which we might then be induced 
to refer completely to the yEpyornis. Mr. Stiickland has misunderstood 
Marco Polo, the only authority whom he has here cited. Marco Polo, in 
his celebrated account (book iii. chap. 40), speaks of the Roc immediately 
after ha\-ing treated of Madagascar, but not as belonging to that island. 
Quite the contrary, he makes it an inhabitant of quelques autres isles oultre 
Madagascar sur la coste du Midy (French edit, of 1556, p. 115); aliarum 
insularum ultra Madaigascar (Latin edit, of 1671, p. 157). 

[I can only say that in Marsden's edition of Marco Polo (4to, London, 
1818, p. 707), I read as follows : — " The people of the island (viz. Mada- 
gascar) report that at a certain season of the year, an extraordinary' kind of 
bird, which they call a rukh, makes its appearance from the southern 
region ; " &c. Polo stfites that the " other numerous islands lying further 
south " were unfrequented by ships, and his account of the Roc unques- 
tionably refers to Madagascar. — H. E. Strickland.] 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 167 

XV. — Descriptions of some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. By 
JFrederick M'Coy, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in 
Queen's College, Belfast. 

Cyathopsist e/'uca (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum very small, subcylindrical after a diameter 
of 3 lines, which it reaches at 6 lines from the apex, slightly 
curved ; length of large example 1 inch 2 lines, diameter 3^^ 
lines ; surface marked with coarse, longitudinal, obtuse lamellar 
striae, three in the space of 1 line; radiating lamellae strong, 
slightly irregular, connected by several curved thick transverse 
vesicular plates in the horizontal section, one of the lamellae 
stronger than the rest, and extending through the centre, 
where it is either thickened or confounded with a slight 
mesial boss of one of the transverse septa : vertical section, 
middle third traversed by thick, subregular, transverse dia- 
phragms, convex upwardly, three interdiaphragmatal spaces 
in 1 line; outer third on each side formed of one or two 
rows of irregular large cells, formed by the junction and occa- 
sional duplicature of the deflected edges of the diaphragms. 

This so exactly resembles the Cyathaoconia cornu in size, shape 
and general external appearance, that it might be very easily 
confounded with it; even externally, however, it might be di- 
stinguished by the smaller number in a given space of its much 
coarser lamellar vertical sti'iae ; internally it is easily distinguished 
by wanting the solid styliform axis, by the distinct transverse 
vesicular plates between the lamellae in the horizontal section, 
and the transverse septation, &c. of the vertical section. 

Very common in the black carboniferous limestone and shale 
of Beith, Ayrshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Caninia subibicina (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum much curved, increasing, when young, at 
the rate of 6 lines in 1 inch to a diameter of 1 inch 3 lines, 
after which it remains nearly cylindrical for 3 or 3 inches 
more ; surface with a thin, nearly smooth epitheca, marked 
with obsolete transverse undulations of growth ; when the 
epitheca is removed, the very fine, equal, costal striae are 
brought into view, five in 3 lines at a diameter of 1 inch 3 
lines ; the o\iter, small, vesicular area is rather more than a 
line wide, within which the sixty-five thick primary radiating 
lamellae extend, about 4 lines towards the centre, leaving the 
broad, flat, smooth, slightly undulated central portion of the 
diaphragms about 6 lines in diameter in parts of the circum- 



168 Prof. F. IM'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 

ference ; short secondary lamellae appear one between each of 
the primary; lateral siphonal depressions strongly marked: 
vertical section shows the outer vesicula. area (at about the 
above diameter) li line wide, composed of about four very 
oblique rows of small rounded cells, extending upwards and 
outwards, from the broad deflected edges of the diaphragms, 
which latter are thick, tolerably regular, neai'ly horizontal in 
the middle, about three interdiaphragmatal spaces in 2 lines. 
This species is most nearly like Fischer de Waldheim's figure 
of his Turbinolia (Caninia) ibicina, from which it differs in the 
greater number of the lamellse, &c. It differs from the C. giyan- 
tea in its smaller size, slender form, more regular and smoother 
surface, much finer cells of the narrow outer area. I suspect 
this may be the coral quoted occasionally by authors from moun- 
tain limestone, under the name of the Devonian Cyathophyllum 
flexuosum, to the figures of which it bears some resemblance in 
external form, but from which it differs in its greater size, coarser 
lamellar striae, deflected edges to the diaphragms, &c. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Kendal, 
Westmoreland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Diphyphyllum gracile (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Corallum forming large masses of cylindrical tubes 
2 lines in diameter, dichotomously branching and occasionally 
coalescing laterally; surface marked with sharp longitudinal 
lamellar strise, about four in 1 line : vertical section shows 
transverse, very slightly convex, thick, smooth, regular dia- 
phragms reaching nearly across the tube, two interdiaphrag- 
matal spaces in 1 line, bent downwards at the circumference ; 
lateral vesicular area extremely narrow (less than one-fourth the 
diameter), of about one layer of cells : horizontal section, primary 
radiating lamellae thick, equal, extending less than halfway to 
the centre, leaving the broad smooth diaphragms or clear 
space in the middle nearly two-thirds the diameter ; between 
each pair of primary in some specimens is an extremely mi- 
nute marginal lamella. 

The small diameter of the tubes distinguishes this species 
easily from any other Diphyphyllum I know, and gives the whole 
much the appearance of Siphonodendron aggregatum (M'Coy), but 
the lamellae do not extend nearly to the centre ; there is no axis, 
and the dichotomous fission of the star and tubes may be di- 
stinctly observed. 

Not uncommon in the impure limestone of Lowick, Northum- 
berland. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 169 

Clisiophyllum turbinatum (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum simple, turbinate, very rapidly enlarging, 
attaining the adult diameter of about 1| inch at 2 inches from 
the point of attachment ; surface of the strong external wall or 
epitheca marked by coarse, numerous, imbricating transverse 
striae, and a few larger inequalities of growth (no distinct lon- 
gitudinal striae except when abraded) : horizontal section, cen- 
tral area or axis nearly equalling one-half the diameter of the 
coral, composed of a close crumpling of fine vesicular plates, 
crossed by a few radiating irregular extensions of every fourth 
or fifth of the radiating lameUse, one of which, stronger than 
the rest, is usually seen to cross the middle (forming a thick 
mesial line in the vertical section, and a prominent crest in the 
cup) ; lamelliferous axis rather less than one-third of the whole 
diameter, radiated by about fifty-four strong, equal lamellae 
(at a diameter of 1 inch), connected by numerous delicate 
transverse vesicular plates; four laniellge in the space of 2 lines 
near the margin ; outer or perithecal area less than one-foui'th 
the width of the lamelhferous zone, from which it is separated 
by a thin definite boundary ; it is composed of about two ob- 
scure rows of small, compressed cells, more or less crossed by 
costal extensions of the lamellae : vertical section shows a strong, 
solid line down the middle of the axis or middle area, a thinner 
soHd line defining the axis on each side, and a similar one be- 
tween the middle and external areas ; external area very nar- 
row, of about two rows of minute cells ; middle of about three 
rows of large rhomboidal cells formed of thin, moderately 
curved vesicular plates converging upwards and inwards at a 
low angle ; inner area composed on each side of about three 
rows of cells, converging upwards to the mesial line, much 
smaller and more compressed than those of the middle area : 
terminal cup of moderate depth, lined by the thick, equal, ra- 
diating lamellae, the axis forming a moderately prominent boss 
in the bottom, crossed by a small prominent crestiform plate. 

This is easily distinguished from the other known species 
by its short, rapidly expanding turbinate form; it resembles 
the C. bipartitum in the crest-like median plate on the boss or 
central area (axis), but differs in having the axis much smaller, 
the middle area much larger, the perithecal area smaller, and the 
fewer lamellae, besides the difference in shape. The C. Keyser- 
lingi, like the last species, has short secondary lamellae between 
the longer ones ; it also differs from this in its very slender form, 
and wants the crest across the axial boss in the cup, but is other- 
wise nearly allied, although very distinct as a species. 



170 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Beith, Ayrshire ; 
rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Pteronites persulcatus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Transversely trigonal, right valve gently convex, left 
valve diagonally tumid, posterior end broad, rounded, flattened 
anterior end and beaks forming a small, convex, obtusely 
pointed extremity ; a small space of the anterior extremity 
smooth, all the rest of the shell covered with small, coarse, 
rugged, flexuous, irregular ridges, for the most part alternately 
larger and smaller, and less than their thickness apart, those 
of the posterior wing nearly straight, radiating, those of the 
body arching downwards towards the ventral margin. Length 
of hinge 10 lines, greatest depth at right angles to the hinge 
5i lines. 

This species is distinguished from the P. sulcatus (M'Coy) and 
the P. semisulcatus (M'Coy) (of which latter it has the exact 
form) by having all the posterior part of the shell striated ; in its 
ridging it agrees with the Lanistes rugosus (M'Coy, Synop. Carb. 
Foss. Ireland, t. 10. f. 8), but the above form, and broad beak 
and anterior end seem to separate the latter. It grows larger 
than the above measure. 

Not uncommon both in the main limestone of Derbyshire and 
the black limestone resting on it : of large size in the impure 
limestone of Lowick, Northumberland. 
[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Streblopteria (M'Coy), n. g. 
Etym. (TTpe^Xo<i, perversus, and Trrepov, ala. 

Gen. Char. Ovate or rounded, obliquely extended towards the 
anterior side; posterior wing broad, undefined, nearly rec- 
tangular, extending nearly as far as the posterior margin of 
the shell ; anterior ear small, deeply defined ; surface smooth 
or radiatingly ridged; one large, faintly marked muscular im- 
pression a little -behind the middle ; one short, narrow tooth 
slightly diverging from the hinge-line on the posterior sides 
of the beaks ; ligament confined to a narrow simple facet on 
the hinge-margin. 

These shells differ from some of the short-winged group of 
Avicula (or Pteria), to which they are most allied, by the obli- 
quity of the body of the shell being towards the anterior instead 
of the posterior side — the reverse, in fact, of what occurs in nearly 
all shells except the Limce. There are many species in the car- 
boniferous limestone, to which formation the genus seems at pre- 




Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 171 

sent confined, unless the Pterinea posidoniaformis (M'Coy), (Syn. 
Sil. Foss. of Ireland, t. 2. f. 10) of the Upper Silurian strata 
belongs to it. 

AvicuLOPECTEN (M'Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Inequivalve, more or less inequilateral, straight, or 
slightly extended ob- 
liquely towards the pos- 
terior side ; anterior ear 
flattened, smaller than 
the posterior, shai'ply 
and deeply defined, with 
a deep notch in the right 
valve between it and the 
body of the shell for the 
passage of the byssus ; 
posterior ear slightly 
pointed, extending about 
as far as the margin of 
the shell, defined or not j 
ligament and cartilage Internal cast of ^t^icwZopec^era. 

confined to a narrow facet along the hinge-margin, no medial 
cartilage-pit ; muscular impression and paUial scar as in Pecten. 

It was only on seeing the fine suite of fossils from the dark 
limestone of liowick, Northumberland, recently presented by the 
Rev. Mr. Jenkins to Prof. Sedgwick, and now in the collection 
of the University of Cambridge, that I recognized the characters 
by which the great bulk of the so-called Pectens of the middle 
and upper palaeozoic rocks are distinguished from the true Pectens 
of the more recent formation and present sea. In the present 
fossils the posterior ear is largest, thus difi'ering in an external 
character from Pecten and approaching Avicula, an affinity greatly 
increased by the internal structure exposed by the Lowick (and 
some Irish) specimens, showing that there is no mesial ligamen- 
tary pit beneath the beak as in the former genus, but, as in the 
latter, the ligament is confined to the hinge-margin, while in 
general form and little or no obliquity of the shell the resem- 
blance of the species to Pecten is so very striking that most 
writers agree in placing them in that genus. The discovery of 
this character fixes the zoological place of numerous carboniferous 
shells constantly varying hitherto in the systems between Pecten^ 
Avicula and Meleagrina. 

Aviculopecten plano-radiatus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Ovate, apical angle 80° in young specimens, 95° in 
adults from an upward curve of the anterior side, length and 



172 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 

width nearly equal, gently convex ; beaks small, prominent ; 
ears very deeply defined from the body of the shell by a narrow 
very steeply inclined plane, left anterior one rotundato-qua- 
drate, obscurely radiated, posterior ones longer, falcately 
pointed, radiated by a few slender ridges crossed by the lines 
of growth ; surface radiated with numerous ribs (thirty to 
forty at 1^ inch from beak) which are smooth, broad, flat, more 
or less irregular in width, and separated by a very narrow im- 
pressed line towards the margin and body of the shell, but 
nearer the beak they are sharp, narrow and alternately larger 
and smaller ; the ears are sharply striated, parallel with the 
margin, and have a few narrow distinct radiating ridges. 
Width from l^^ to nearly 4 inches. 

The radiations vary from 1^ line to |^ a line wide in different 
specimens at the margin. This species differs from the P. pla- 
nicostatus (M'Coy) in its being oblique and the much greater 
number of its ribs. 

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Aviculopecten Ruthveni (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Suborbicular ; apical angle about 110° in the adult, 
from the upward curve of the sides, only 85° in the young ; 
length slightly exceeding the width, tumid ; surface radiated 
by about fifteen thick, rugged ridges, between each pair of 
which are usually three smaller ridges, each pair separated by 
a concave space about equal to the thickness of the ridges ; 
ears large, the posterior one broad, extending as far as the 
margin of the shell, with three or four distant radiating ridges 
crossed by coarse lines parallel with the concave extremity; 
anterior ear similar, but slightly smaller, both defined. Width 
from beak to opposite margin about 2 inches, length (at right 
angles to the width) about the same. 

Fragments of this species bear some resemblance to portions 
of the Pecten ? quinquelineatus (M'Coy), but it is distinguished 
by the much less number of the ridges, &c. I have dedicated it 
to Mr. John Ruthven of Kendal, the well-known enthusiastic col- 
lector of palseozoic fossils. 

Rare in the impure carboniferous limestone of Dent, and one 
small specimen from the similar limestone of Lowick, Northum- 
berland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Sanguinolites clava (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Elongate, claviform, three times longer than wide, 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 173 

anterior end large^ obtusely rounded, dorsal and ventral mar- 
gin with a slight upward curvature, no byssal furrow ; poste- 
rior end slightly narrowed, subtruncate, rounded ; beaks large, 
obtuse, a broad ovate striated lunette beneath them on the 
anterior side ; posterior lunette, the largest of the hinge-hne, 
wide, hollow, bounded by the obtuse ridges of the dorsal mar- 
gins; valves very convex in front, their depth beneath the 
beaks five-sixths of the width from them to the ventral margin, 
gradually becoming more compressed towards the posterior 
end, where the depth is only half the width ; posterior slope 
gently convex, undefined, diagonal ridge not marked ; surface 
covered with thick, rugged, subequal ridges, arising a little 
behind the anterior lunette, and slightly thickening towards 
the posterior slope, which is defined by their termination, and 
only marked by fine strise of growth parallel with the end ; 
anterior lunette and a small portion of the anterior extremity 
also nearly smooth ; the ridges, where the outer surfaqe is pre- 
served, are covered with a minute irregular striation approxi- 
mately parallel with the margin. Length from anterior to 
posterior end about 5 inches 2 lines, width from beak to oppo- 
site ventral margin 1 inch 11 lines, depth of both valves 1 inch 
9 or 10 lines. 

This fine species is remarkable for the clavate form produced 
by the gibbosity of the valves near the anterior end and the 
tapering towards the posterior extremity. Of the internal im- 
pressions I have only seen the anterior adductor, which is broad, 
rounded, and shallow. The only approximation to this species 
published that I know is an imperfect fragment of one end of a 
shell called S. maxima by Portlock, Geol. Rep. t. 36. f. 1, which 
is flatter with smaller beaks, a more truncate anterior end, &c. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone near Llangollen, 
North Wales. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Sanguinolites subcarinatus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Elongate oblong, tumid; beaks very large, obtuse, 
near the small, rounded, anterior end, in which there is an 
abruptly hollowed space beneath the beaks; posterior end 
narrow, square, truncated; diagonal ridge angular, slightly 
sigmoid, strongly defined fi-om the beak to the respiratory 
angle ; posterior slope smooth, slightly concave ; sides slightly 
flattened, with coarse irregular striae and irregularities of 
growth parallel with the margin; ventral margin nearly 
straight ; hinge-line as long as the shell, its inflected margins 
broad, slightly concave, nearly at right angles to the plane of 



174 Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 

the margin of the valves ; cardinal ridge thick, obtuse, diver- 
ging nearly half the width of the posterior slope from the hinge- 
line. Length 1 inch 4 lines, proportional width from beak yYo> 
width at posterior end y^'^y, length of anterior end y^g, depth 
of one valve (greatest about the middle of the diagonal ridge) 

Too* 

This rare species is remarkable for its narrow square posterior 
end and strong angular diagonal ridge. It is proportionally 
shorter and less regularly ridged than the S. angtistatus (Phill.). 
Goldfuss's figure under this latter name nearly agrees with our 
shell and is no doubt identical. 

In the impure carboniferous limestone of Lowick, Northum- 
berland. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Sanguinolites variabilis (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Oblong, tumid, nearly closed at the ends ; averaging 
twice as long as wide (sometimes a little more, sometimes a 
little less) ; beaks large, tumid, oblique, close to the anterior 
end, which varies from one-ninth in large, to one-seventh of 
the length in smaller specimens ; anterior lunette large, smooth, 
oval, contracting the round anterior end; ventral margin nearly 
straight, or commonly with a wide shallow sinus, very rarely 
with a slight convexity ; valves evenly tumid or with a slight 
broad mesial concavity or flattening ; posterior slope flattened, 
smooth, defined by a diagonal slightly sigmoid ridge, sharp 
and angulated near the beak, gradually becoming rounded 
and obscure towards the inferior posterior (respiratory) angle 
in old specimens ; greatest depth of the valves along this line 
and about half-way from the beak ; hinge-line with a slight up- 
ward curvature, posterior lunette very wide, concave, nearly 
horizontal ; surface marked by concentric wi'inkles, variable in 
size and strength, usually thickening slightly on reaching the 
diagonal posterior ridge, almost always undulated and irre- 
gularly interrupted about the middle and anterior third of the 
sides (averaging five or six in the space of 3 lines from the 
beak, about the middle of the shell) ; periostraca sharply marked 
with close interrupted strise and a few minute scattered points, 
very rarely falling into close regular radiating lines ; usual 
width 9 lines, length 1 inch 3 lines, greatest depth (a little 
behind the middle) 7 hnes (occasionally 3 inches long). 

The irregular interruption and undulation of the concentric 
wrinkles in front of the middle of the sides is often very striking 
and beautiful and is always recognizable. It is very variable in 
the thickness and regularity of the ridges ; it most nearly ap- 
proaches the S. regularis (King sp.), from which it difiers in the 



Prof. F. M'Coy on some new Mountain Limestone Fossils. 175 

uadulatory interruption of the ridges at the place mentioned, 
and in being shorter, and the greatest gibbosity of the shell 
being along the anterior boundary of the posterior slope — it 
being much nearer the anterior end, and the posterior portion 
being compressed in that species, in which also the greatest gib- 
bosity is nearer to the dorsal margin, giving a much less tumid 
character to the lower part of the valves. From the S. sulcatus 
it diflFers in the wrinkles not uniting into few large wrinkles in 
passing to the posterior slope, &c. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of the Isle of Man ; not 
uncommon at Lowick, Northumberland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Leptodomus costellatus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Oblong, very tumid, width three-fifths of the length, 
depth of both valves about equal to the width ; anterior and 
posterior lunettes large, defined ; beaks large, tumid, incurved, 
terminal, anterior side obtuse, subtruncate, slightly oblique be- 
neath them ; a small sinus in the ventral margin close to the 
anterior end, from which a narrow concavity extends nearly 
to the beaks close to the anterior edge; hinge-line nearly as 
long as the shell, with a slight upward curvature ; posterior end 
wide, slightly oblique, subtruncate, rounded j ventral margin 
strongly convex behind the sinus; posterior slope abruptly 
compressed, smooth, or with a few lines of growth parallel 
with the margin, divided nearly in the middle by a small fur- 
row from behind the beaks; sides marked with numerous 
small, regular, close, narrow, rounded ribs parallel with the 
margin (about four in the space of 2 lines) ; these abruptly 
disappear on reaching the edge of the posterior slope, and 
unite on the anterior edge in front of the sinus in parcels of 
two or three to form a row of short thick wrinkles on that 
part. Length 1 inch 4 lines, width 10 lines, depth 10 lines, 
width of posterior lunette li line. 

I long imagined this to be the Hiatella sulcata of Fleming, 
but it seems Dr. Fleming agrees with Prof. Phillips as to that 
being identical with the Sanguinolaria sulcata of the latter. The 
present species differs from the Sanguinolites sulcatus (PhUl. sp.) 
in its thin shell, short inflated form, want of the thick internal 
cardinal ridges, the more regular sharp ribs on the sides, and 
their uniting into large wrinkles on the anterior instead of the 
posterior end. 

Common in the carboniferous shales of Craige near Kilmai'- 
nock ; carboniferous shales near Glasgow ; in the shaly beds of 
Lowick, Northumberland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 



176 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

XVI. — Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
M.A., F.L.S., and C. E. Broome, Esq. 

[Continued from p. 102.] 
[With three Plates.] 

538. Dendryphium curtum, n. s. Effusum tenue ; floccis erectis, 
sursum in ramulos breves fureatos divisis ; sporis curvulis 3-7- 
scptatis articulis constrictis. On dead stems of nettles, Dundee, 
W. :M. OgiMe, Esq. 

Black, forming very thin effused patches. Fertile flocci spring- 
ing from creeping filaments, erect, straight, septate, divided above 
into a few short furcate or trifid ramuli, which are surmounted 
by curved 3-7-septate spores, whose articulations are strongly 
constricted. 

A small but neat species, remarkable for the short forked ra- 
muli. The tips of these are often greatly constricted at the arti- 
culations when the spores begin to grow. D. ati~um is far more 
loosely branched, though its spores resemble greatly those of our 
species. D. comosum is evidently a far less delicate species. 

Plate VI. fig. 9. a. Flocci magnified; h. tips of ditto more highly vas^- 
nified ; c. spores. 

539. D. laxum, n. s. Stipitibus brevibus sursum laxe ramosis ; 
sporis elongatis subllexuosis 7-11-septatis. On dead stems of 
Inula viscosa, King's Cliffe. 

Patches effused, black. Flocci short, erect, articulated, send- 
ing off loose branches, which either spring at once from them or 
are replaced by a few swollen joints. Spores linear, curved, or 
somewhat flexuous, multiseptate, springing often from the forked 
tips ; articulations slightly constricted ; endochrome frequently 
containing a nucleus. 

This agrees in some points with Dendryphium comosum as 
figured by Corda, but less so with Wallroth's description. The 
spores are more frequently septate, and the branches are even 
less completely disposed in a head than in Corda's figure. 

The spores in this genus sometimes form moniliform threads, 
and sometimes exhibit the more usual mode of growth in Sep- 
tonema. In the present case we have not seen them very clearly 
spring from one another, but the whole structure is that of Den- 
dryphium, and indeed in certain states of the described species 
of the genus they are not proliferous, or only become so at a more 
advanced period of growth. Dactylium atrum belongs apparently 
to the same genus. 

Plate VI. fig. 10. a, a. Flocci magnified : in one thread the spicules 
are apparent to which the spores are at first attached ; 6. tip of fertile 
thread ; c. tip of another thread highly magnified ; d. spores. 



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Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 177 

540. D. grisewn, n. s. Griseum ; floccis parce ramosis ; spo- 
risque cylindricis concatenatis, demum uniseptatis hyaliiiis. On 
dead nettle stems, King's Cliffe, March 1850. 

Bluish gray, forming little patches ; flocci sparingly branched 
almost from the base, as far as we have seen inarticulate ; spores 
cylindrical, apiculate at either end, elongated, arranged in dicho 
tomous chains, at length divided by a central septum. 

This is not like the other species, dark and opake. The line 
of demarcation between the chains of spores and threads is 
strongly marked. 

Plate YI. fig. 11. a. Flocci magnified j b. one of the spores to show 
the mode of attachment ; c. perfect spores less highly raagnitied. 

541. Rliinotrichnm Bloxami, n. s. Sparsum candidum ; floccis 
fertilibus sursum clavatis; sporis candidis subellipticis. On dead 
wood, Rev. A. Bloxam, Twycross. We ha\e either this or a very 
closely allied species from South Carolina. 

Patches irregularly effused, seldom continuous, white or cream- 
coloured. Mycelium decumbent, white, septate. Fertile flocci 
erect, sometimes very sparingly divided ; tips clavate, bearing 
scattered spicules surmounted by subelliptic or slightly obovatc 
spores, which are sometimes obtuse, sometimes apiculate. Occa- 
sionally the ultimate articulations of the fertile threads are mo - 
niliform and present the characters of Oidiiim. Very rarely the 
penultimate joint has one or two spicules. 

This species comes near to R. repens, Preuss, but differs in 
the white, not cinereous mycelium, and subcllijjtic, smooth, white,- 
not bi'oadly obovate, wrinkled cinereous spoi-es. 

Plate VII. fig. 19. a. Flocci iu various states springing from mycelium ; 
b. ditto, mycehum and spores move highly magnified. 

542. R. Thwaitesii, n. s. Epigseum flavum eflPusum ; hy- 
phasmate contexto, floccis fertilibus adscendentibus dichotomis 
apicibus leviter inci'assatis ; sporis globosis echinulatis. On the 
bare soil, Leigh Woods, Bristol, Aug. 2, 1848. 

Patches suborbicular or confluent, Thelephoroid, yellow with a 
pale margin. Hyphasma consisting of closely packed decumbent 
articulate threads, the ends of which rise np and are branched 
dichotoniously, their apices swelling slightly and clothed with 
globose echinulate shortly pedicellate spores. 

This beautiful fungus raises the genus Rhinotrichum almost to 
an equality with Aspergillus, some of whose species it closely re- 
sembles, diSering in fact principally in the spores being single 
and not arranged in moniliform threads. 

Plate VI. fig. 12. a. Fertile flocci from a sketch by Mr. Thwaites; 
b. tip of thread with spores highly magnified. 

543. Sporodum Conopleoides, Covd. = Deinatium hispididum, Fr. 
Ann. ^,- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. ni. 12 



178 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

544. Oidium Tuckeri, Berk, in Gard. Chron. 1847, p. 779 
cum ic. On the leaves, young branches, and fruit of vines. 
Extremely common and destructive. 

A form or species with still larger spores occurs on Chrysan- 
themujn Indicum. 

545. O. abortifaciens, Lk. On the spikes of grasses, causing 
the diseased state of the ovule known under the name of Ergot. 
The production has been referred to a new genus Ergotetia, but 
not, we think, with sufficient reason. 

546. 0.j[)orn^mw, Mont. MSS.; Robin, tab. 4. fig. 10. On 
the scales of Porrigo lupinosa, Bristol, H. 0. Stephens. 

547. O. concentricum, nob. = Cylindros])oriwn concentricum, 
Unger, Exanth. tab. 3. fig. 9 =-Fusispoi-ium Urticce, Desm. no. 930. 
On leaves of various plants : common. 

A variety of forms, as Fusisporium calceum, Desm., on ground 
ivy, F. UrtictB, Desm., on nettles, another on violets, primroses, 
lettuces, docks, Trientalis, Helleborus, Ranunculus, &c. occur, 
scarcely differing from one another. These are what Unger 
considered as Cylindrosporium concentricum, Grev. That is how- 
ever a very different thing. 

Should it be found that the various forms present really distinct 
characters, the species may be separated. At present however it 
appears best to include all in one comprehensive name. In all 
the forms we believe that the threads protrude through the sto- 
niata. Amongst the spores, some occur which are larger and uni- 
septate. It is possible that after the spores fall they may increase 
in size, as is, we believe, the case in many fungi, as in the genera 
Cladosporium, Fusisporium, &c., and as is ascertained to be the 
case in Elaphomyces. 

548. Fusisporium bacilligerum, n. s. Griseo-album, hyphasmate 
obsoleto, sporis longissimis 5-7-septatis deorsum attenuatis apice 
subclavatis. On leaves of Alaternus, West of England. 

Occupying the centre of little brown spots. Hyphasma obso- 
lete; spores very long, hyaline, 5-7-septate, strongly attenuated 
below, obtuse and slightly clavaeform above, somewhat curved. 

A very distinct species, remarkable for its spores, which I'c- 
semble in fonn those of Hymenopodium sarcopodioides, Corda. 

549. F. roseolum, Steph. MSS. sub Fusidio. Roseohmi, floccis 
brevibus ; sporis curvis elongatis 3-6-septatis. On decayed po- 
tatoes, Bristol, H. O. Stephens. 

Of a delicate rose-red, forming thin floccose patches ; fertile 
threads short. Spores curved, elongated, slightly obtuse, 3-6- 
septate, often slightly projecting at each dissepiment. 

This approaches Dactylium, especially in the rosy tint which 
is so common in that genus. The spores however are those of a 
Fusiroorium, 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 179 

550. F. foeni, n. s. Hypliasmate parco floccis fertilibus bre- 
vissimis sporis oblongis rectis obtusis 1-2-septatis. On the cut 
surface of a hay stalky Apethope, Norths., Dec. 1848. 

Orange-red, spreading in wide patches many feet in width. 
Hyphasma creeping, sparingly articulate. Fertile flocci very 
short. Spores oblong, obtuse at either extremity, 1-2-septate. 

Agreeing in habit with F. avenaceum, but differing from all 
other species in the straight obtuse oblong spores. 

*551. Psilonia Arundinis, Desm. Exs. no. 460 = Psilonia Fes- 
tucce, Jjihevt = Chloridiiim Festucce, Corda. Spye Park, on Carex 
paniculata, Feb. 1850. It is not uncommon on Ai^undo Phrag- 
mites. 

We can see no difference between the plant of M. Desmazieres 
and that of Madame Libert, except that the spores in the latter 
are rather longer and more curved. The colour and general ap- 
pearance are exactly the same. 

552. Helvella Ej}hippium,Jjev. Ann. d. Sc. ser.2. vol. xvi. p. 240; 
Desm. Exs. no. 1414. On the ground in woods and groves, spring 
and autumn : common. 

This species is very near to H. elastica, and differs principally 
in its dwarf size and decidedly velvety coat. Schseff. tab. 321 is 
evidently the same thing. This figure does not seem to be quoted 
by Fries. 

553. Morchella esculenta, h. conica, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 7. 
Woods at Westbury near Bristol. 

This is considered as a distinct species by Persoon and other 
authors, but it seems to us nothing more than a well-marked 
variety. 

554. Peziza Babingtonii, n. s. Minor; supra con vexamm-ino- 
fusca margine affixa, subtus concava pallide aquosa rugosiuscula 
fibrillis obsoletis. On rotten wood, Grace Dieu Wood, Leicester- 
shire, Rev. C. Babington. 

Cup half an inch or more broad, contracting greatly in drying, 
irregular in outline, convex above, mouse-brown, concave be- 
neath and slightly wrinkled, pale watery brown, fixed by the 
border. Asci linear, spores broadly elliptic. Paraphyses linear, 
their apices clavate. 

This curious production has occurred only once, and resembles 
a Rhizina more than any Peziza, but it has not_ the peculiar 
roots of that genus. We are unwilling to pass it by altogether, 
hoping that some one may meet with it and give more perfect 
information. It should be observed that the spores in B. Icevi- 
gata are naviculaeform. 

555. P. viridaria, n. s. Media mycelio expanso lanoso albo; 
cupulis primum globosis demum hemisphsericis sero expansis 
aquose cinereis. On damp walls of a greenhouse. King's Cliffe, 

12* 



180 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

Nov., Dec. 1845. Apparently the same species occurs on damp 
wood, on water-buts, &c. 

Cups at first globose, tlien hemispherical, at length expanded, 
\-^ an inch broad, pale watery brown or cinereous, sessile, 
springing from a white cottony effused stratum. Asci linear; 
sporidia widely elliptic, eudochrome uniform, without any distinct 
nucleus. 

This resembles somewhat Peziza muralis, but it has no stem. 

556. P. luteo-nitens, n. s. Conferta, luteo-nitens, cupulis con- 
cavis subregularibus demum flexuosis. On the bare ground. 
King's Chffe. 

Bright orange-yellow, when very young globose, then concave, 
gradually becoming irregular, and at length flexuous, smooth 
externally, \-^ inch broad. Asci linear, sporidia elliptic with two 
nuclei. Paraphyses filiform ; apices slightly clavate. 

Resembling at first sight stunted specimens of Pez. aurantia, 
but essentially different, not only as proved by the habit, but the 
smooth, not echinulate or pointed spores. We cannot find any 
description of this species. 

557. P. hirta, Schum, Ssell. p. 422. On the ground, Wim- 
bledon Common; South Wales, C. E. Broome; AVareham, Rev. 
W. Smith. 

Differing from P. trechispora in its smooth elliptic sporidia. 
P. umbrosa, Rab. no. 101 1, appears to be the same species. We 
have a similar species from South Carolina with globose smooth 
spores which has been named P. sphcEroplea. Whatever Schra- 
der's species may be, it cannot be the species of Rabenhorst, 
which certainly belongs to a different section. 

558. P.Iivida, Schum, Fl. Stell. vol. ii. p. 422; El. Dan. 
tab. 1915. fig. 3. On fir chips, Lockerbie, Sir W. Jardine, 1834. 

A beautiful species with the habit of P. scutellata, but with a 
livid disc and more convex. 

559. P. ciliaris, Schrad. Journ. 1799, vol.ii. p. 63; Fr. Syst. 
Myc. vol. ii. p. 89. On dead oak-leaves. King's Cliffe, &c. 

560. P. albo-testacea, Desm. Exs. no. 1415. On dead stems of 
grass, July 1840, King's Cliffe. 

561. P. apala, n. s. Minuta sparsa vel conferta, cupulis cum 
stipite obconicis extus furfuraceo-villosis cervinis ; hymenio piano 
obscuriore ; ascis clavatis, sporidiis elongatis filiformibus flexu- 
osis. On dead rushes, Spye Park, Batheaston, Feb. 1850 : 
abundant. 

Minute, scattered or crowded ; stem not very distinct, conflu- 
ent, with the cup obconical or subcylindrical, shaggy with flex- 
uous hairs, as is the cup, pale fawn-coloured. Hymenium flat, 
darker. Asci clavate, sporidia filiform, flexuous, almost as long 
as the asci. 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 181 

Externally closely resembling P. diminuta, Rob., in Desm. Exs. 
no. 1538, but more shaggy, of a less vinous tint, and with a plane, 
not concave, hymeniura. The asci are larger, and the sporidia, 
like those of many Hysteria, filiform, and not merely oblong aa 
in the P. diminuta. The hairs too in that species are strongly 
pointed, whereas in the present they are obtuse. 

562. P. corticalis, Pers. Obs. 1. p. 28, et add. p. 112. On bark, 
Rudloe, Wilts, C. E. Broome. 

563. P. Clavariarum, Desm. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. ser. 3. vol. viii. 
p. 8. tab. 3. fig. 1. P. nigra, Sow. tab. 307. On decayed Cla- 
varia, Rudloe, Oct. 1841. 

This species was omitted in the * English Flora ' from want of 
specimens and sufficient information. It is now inserted with 
the name given to it by M. Desmazieres. 

564. P. mutabilis, n. s. E macula minuta fusca villosa erum- 
pens ; primum hemisphserica extus fusca, demum expansa con- 
cava pallide albida glabrescens ; sporidiis elongatis curvulis. On 
leaves of Aira caspitosa, Derry Hill, Wilts, Feb. 1850. 

Minute, at fiii'st presenting little brown villous specks, from 
which the cups burst forth. Cups scattered, brown externally, 
hemispherical, villous, as they increase in size becoming smooth 
and changing to a dirty white. Sporidia minute, elongated, 
somewhat curved, containing two nuclei. Endochrome sometimes 
retracted to either extremity. 

We have not placed this curious species amongst the Tapesice, 
as the cups are essentially solitary. When old it bears some re- 
semblance to pale forms of P. atrata or P. palustris. 

565. P. Chavetice, Libert, no. 26. " Gregaria sessihs, cupulis 
minutis membranaceis hemisphsericis concavis tomentosis albis 
basi pilis longis in subiculum instar tel?e aranese intertextis con- 
coloribus ; disco subtremelloso fusco-nigresceute ; sporidiis gl > 
bosis.^^ On oak chips, Rockingham Forest. 

This species resembles P. ccesia, but is known at once byt.'ie 
yellowish or tawny tint which it assumes in drying. 

566. P. Bloxami, n. s. Dense aggregata, mycelio niveo ins'- 
dens ; cupulis concavis pallide cervinis extus farinaceis, dis< o 
concolore. On fallen branches, Tw}'cross, Rev. A. Bloxam. 

Very densely crowded so as nearly to conceal the white cottor y 
mycelium, in which the cups are half immersed. At first globos , 
white and densely pruinose, acquiring as they expand a pa !e 
fawn colour and gradually becoming nearly smooth. Disc fawn- 
coloured. In dry specimens bundles of the cup are collected n 
.little patches so as to expose the white mycelium between then. 

This species has much resemblance to P. pruinata, Schweip., 
but the cups are not black. It cannot be confounded with any 
other species. We have it from South Carolina. 



183 Rev. ]\1. J. Eeikeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on Biitish Fungi. 

567. P. echinophiUi, Bull. tab. 500. fig. 1. On fallen invo- 
lucres of the common eatable cliestnut, King's ClifFe : abundant. 

568. P. striata, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 133. On dead stems 
of herbaceous plants : not uncommon. 

569. P. Cacuim, Pers. Myc. Eur. vol. i. p. 385. On seed- 
vessels of Cheirunthus incana, Guernsey, Rev. T. Salwey. 

570. P. nitiduhr, n. s. Firmula, minuta ; aquose pallida sti- 
])ite brevi ?equali, cupixla subhemisphserica irregiilari farinaceo- 
nitidula. On dead loaves oiAira ccespitosa, Batheaston, Jan. 1850. 

Scattered pale watery tan, firm, minute ; stem short, equal ; 
cup slightly concave, at first subhemispherical, then nearly plane, 
often irregular, covered with glistening mealy particles. Asci 
filiform j spores minute, cymbiform ; endochrome sometimes 
reti'acted to either extremity. 

Allied to P. clavellata, striata, Cacalia, &c., but distinguished 
by its uniformly mealy surface, irregular shape, and depressed, 
not elavate, cup. 

571. P. Straminum, n. s. Cupula hemisphjerica sessili con- 
cava, margine incurvo, extus pallida farinacea, intus carneo-lutea. 
On the dead sheaths of wheat and other Graminece, Fothering- 
hay, King's ClifFe, Norths. ; Rudloe, Wilts ; on Juncus, Oxton, 
Notts. 

Minute, not exceeding i of a line in diameter ; cups hemi- 
spherical, concave, sessile or at length expanded, margin in- 
curved; externally densely farinaceous, pale ; internally of a pink- 
ish yellow or flesh colour. 

A very pretty species, which is distinguished from several 
allied Peziza on Juncus and Graminece by its farinaceous, not 
hairy, coat. 

573. P. caucus, Reb. Neom. p. 386. tab. 4. fig. 17. P. amen- 
talis, Fl. Dan. tab. 3084. fig. 3. On fallen catkins. King's 
Cliffe. 

Our specimens agree exactly with the figure in Pers. Myc. Eur. 
vol. iii. tab. 30. fig. 3, to which we can find no reference. Peziza 
amentacea, Balb. in Act. Taur. vol. ii. tab. 2 ; Rab. Exs, no. 1019, 
is probably the same thing, and Peziza sclerotiorum, Libert, ap- 
pears scarcely to differ. 

573. P. helotioides, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 135 ; Fl, Dan. 
t. 1855. fig. 3. On a dead branch, King's Cliffe, Oct. 1837. 

Our plant agrees very nearly with that of Schumacher, who 
has alone described and figured the species. It is however of a 
dull ochre rather than umber; the stem is vei-y thick, obcouical, 
afld merely a prolongation of the pileus ; the hymenium con- 
vex, the asci elavate, and the sporidia oblong, sublanceolate, 
with two or more nuclei. If it be not the same with that of 
Schumacher, it is certainly undescribed. 



Rev, M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. JBroome on British Fungi. 183 

573*. P. salicella, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 133. On willow 
twigs, King's Cliffe, 1840. 

574. P. rudis, Berk, in Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Berwick, p. 190. 
Fasciculata turbinato-stipitata hymenio piano hie illic depresso 
rugoso flavo-fusco subvinoso ; externe subtiliter fibrilloso-striata ; 
stipite elongate lacunoso vel striato. On shallow gravel and peat. 
Pease Bridge Dean, with Polytrichum abides, Dr. Johnston, June 
1846. A full description will be found in the place quoted 
above. 

Plate VI. fig. 13. a. Plants of the nat. size; b. asci and sporidia mag- 
nified. 

575. P. Clavus, A. & S. p. 306. Apethorpe, April 1841 ; 
Hartham, March 1843. 

Sporidia regularly oblong, elliptic, with a sporidiolum at either 
extremity. 

576. P. testacea, Moug. Fr. El. 2. p. 11. On an old nail-bag, 
King's Cliffe. Twycross, Rev. A. Bloxam. 

577. P. &pJmrioides, Pers. Myc. Eur. \ Desm. Exs. no. 174. On 
stems of Lychnis dioica : vei'y common. 

578. P. cornea, n. s. Minima gregaria sessilis primum glo- 
bosa flavo-cornea demum breviter obconica aurantio-fusca. On 
dead stalks of Carex paniculata, Spye Park, March 1850. 

Extremely minute, gregarious ; at first globose, yellow horn- 
coloured, then somewhat obconic or turbinate, becoming of a rich 
orange-brown, sometimes slightly hollow, but more generally 
flat and granulated ; margin rather jagged ; sporidia fusiform, 
slightly curved. 

An extremely pretty though minute species, which is, we be- 
lieve, undescribed, and quite different from anything pubhshed 
by Desmazieres. 

579. P. Ugnyota, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 150. On dead wood, 
Wraxall, Som., Feb. 1845. 

Sporidia somewhat resembling those of a Diplodia. 

580. Tuber macrosporum,Yiii. Batheaston and Munro'sWood, 
near Bristol. 

581. T. bituminatum, n. s. Uterus niger, globoso-ovatus, re- 
gularis, verrucis minoribus polyedi'is muricatus, basi in foveam 
excavatus. Venae leviter cohserentes plerumque e fovea basilari 
in carnem immissse. Sporangia ovalia, longe pedicellata. Sporidia 
fusca, ovata, laxe cellulosa. Odor bituminis et Cochlearice ar- 
moracice fortissimus. 

Closely allied to Tuber cestivum, Vitt., but easily distinguished 
by the odour ; it differs also in the general form, being much 
more regular and the warts smaller, and in the existence of a 
basal cavity prolonged into the substance of the fungus, which is 



184 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

tluis very light compared with T. astivum, Vitt. The veins co- 
here very loosely, so that it is difficult to cut the plant in half 
without breaking it into frustules, which is not the case in 
T. cestivum, Vitt. It shrinks very much in drying : some speci- 
mens were attacked by worms, and the flesh of these became 
quite black when dry. The sporangia have much longer stalks 
than those of Tuber cesticum, Vitt. The sporidia closely resemble 
those of that species, but are slightly longer compared with their 
width, and have somewhat shallower cells. It ranges from the 
size of a walnut to that of a hen's egg. 

In deep sand, Bowood, Wilts, Oct. 1847. 

58.2. T. sclcroneuron, n. s. Uterus rubro-fuscus, cartilagineus, 
globoso-lobatus, minute verrucosus etiam subl?evis, rimis strictis 
exaratus ; venje irregulares, pr?eruptae, e rimis et variis peridii 
puncti exortpe, centrum versus cinerefc, superficie tamen a spo- 
ridiis maturis rubro-fusca^. Odor debilis subaromaticus. Spo- 
ridia rubro-fusca ovata minute celiulosa. 

This species differs from Tuber rufuiii, Vitt., in its firmer car- 
tilaginous texture, deep red-brown colour, in the form of its spo- 
ridia, which are ovate, not elliptic-elongate, and in its faint aro- 
matic odour. The venation also is more broken and interrupted. 
Tuber rufum, Vitt., appears to be its nearest ally. When dried, 
Tuber sclcroneuron becomes as hard as a piece of wood. 

Bowood, Wilts, Oct. 1847. 

Onijgena apiis,r\. s. reridium album, sessile, globosum, my- 
celio teiiui candido insidens, extus tomentosum, gleba matura 
rubro-fusca. On decaying bones under dead leaves and moss, 
Bristol, Nov. 1847. 

Peridia globose, white, sessile, seated on a delicate white my>- 
celium, about the size of rape-seeds, under a lens tomentose, but 
even, not rugose ; sporidia ovate-elliptic, containing one or two 
granules colouring the internal mass of a dark chocolate. 

O ay genu corvina, Alb. & Schwein., an analysis of which is 
given in the ' Annales des Sciences' for June 1844, closely re- 
sembles this species in structure. The only differences apparent 
are the absence of a stipes, and of the outer stratum of globose 
cells, as also of the asperities of the surface in that plant. 

583. Patellaria citrina, n. s. Cupulis plaiiis extus pallidis, 
hymenio citrino ; sporidiis filiformibus. Ascobolus citrinus, Chev. 
Fung. 111. Fasc. 1. tab. 31. On rose-twigs lying in a running 
stream, Pcnllergare near Swansea, M. Moggridge, Esq., April 
1847. 

Our plant answers exactly in outer appearance to that of 
Chcvallicr, having a broad flat yellow hymeninm with a pale 
border. The asci are clavate and contain long filiform sporidia. 
Wc suspect that these are what M, Chevallier calls asci, consi- 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 185 

dering the, inckicled granules as sporidia, exactly as Madame Li- 
bert has done in Stictis Seslerice. 

We have another pezizseform fungus from Mr. Moggridge also 
found in water, with no definite margin, of a grayish tint, spark- 
ling from the prominent asci, which contain elliptic sporidia. 
This curious plant belongs apparently to the genus Psilopezia. 

584. Tympanis saligna, Tode, Fung. Meek. tab. 4. fig. 37. On 
twigs of privet, Lucknam, Wilts. 

A very curious circumstance has occurred in this species, which 
we presume from Tode^s figure to be identical with his plant. In 
the same hymenium the fruit of a Diplodia and that of a Tym- 
panis were present. This is somewhat analogous to the occur- 
rence of more than one species or genus in the same spot of 
Uredo, and Fries informs us that he has observed a similar fact 
in Hendersonia SyringtB. 

585. Cenangium RibiSj'Fi'. Sc. Suec. no. 131. On dead branches 
of currant-trees, Thame, Dr. Ayres. 

586. Phacidium Rubi, Fr. Scler. Suec. no. 56. On dead bram- 
ble stems, Twycross, Wanvickshire, Rev. A. Bloxam. 

The asci, paraphyses and sporidia are just the same as in P. 
coronatum. 

587. Hysterium curvatum, Fr. H. elongatum var. /3., Fr. El. ii. 
p. 138. On dead rose and bramble stems, Shrewsbury, Rev. W. 
A. Leightou. 

Certainly distinct from H. elongatum in its longer, more deli- 
cate spores, in addition to other more obvious characters. 

588. H. commxine, Fr. Syst. Myc vol. ii. p. 589. On dead 
stems of herbaceous plants, Bristol, H. 0. Stephens. 

589. H. typhinum, Fr. /. c. vol. ii. p. 590. On Typha latifolia, 
Oswestry, Rev. T. Salwey, 

OOMYCES, n. g. 

Perithecia erecta in sacculo polito sursum libero recepta ; os- 
tiola punctiformia. Asci lineares ; sporidia filiformia longissima. 
Fungus Iseticolor graminicola insectorum ova referens. 

590. Oomyces carneo-alhus = Bph. cameo-alba, Libert, Fasc. 3. 
no. 241. On leaves of Aira ctespitosa, Spye Park, Wilts. 

Scattered, shining, pale flesh-coloured, conical, truncate above, 
and marked with the ostiola, f line high. Perithecia 3-7, ver- 
tical, closely packed in the common tougb receptacle. Asci elon- 
gated, cylindrical. Sporidia filiform, extremely long, flexuous. 

A very pretty production, which can scarcely be forced into 
the genus Bphceria. It resembles greatly an Aa-ospei-mum, though 
differing completely in structure, and like that genus might 
easily be mistaken for the egg of some insect, such as Crioce^is. 
The structure is not visible until a section be made, except so far 



186 Rev. yi. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

as the peritliecia ai'e indicated by the Httle dimples in the trun- 
cate apex. 

591. Hypocrea myrmecophila, Cesati, Rab. Exa. no. 1033. 
" Ochroleuca, stipite filiformi tenacello ; clavula ovoidea ad 
basin sterili, superue costata acutiuscula e peritheciorum summo 
ostiolo gibberulosa." Leigh Wood, Somerset, INIay, on some 
species of Ichneumon. 

A single specimen only of this pretty species occurred at Leigh 
Wood, exactly according with the individuals published by Raben- 
horst and others gathered at Breschia by Cesati, communicated 
by De Notaris. 

592. H. farinosa, n. s. Late expansa Candida, peritheciis con- 
fertis hyalinis farinosis. On fallen branches, Milton, Norths., Mr. 
Henderson ; King's Cliffe. A more downy form occurred at B&ch 
Hall, Chester, on decayed Stereum, July 1848. 

Spi'eading for some inches over decayed wood, on which it 
forms a thin white coat. Peritliecia minute, subglobose, hyaline, 
nearly collapsed in the centre when dry, growing from a white 
mealy subiculum ; at tirst delicately cottony. Asci filiform, con- 
taining sixteen elliptic sporidia. 

A very pretty little species resembling H. hyalina, but far less 
compact. The older individuals acquire a dull yellowish tinge. 

593. H.floccosa, Fr. Summa, p. 564. On. Agaricus torminosus, 
King's Cliffe. 

594. H. luteovirens, Fr. /. c. On Boletus edulis, Laxton, 
Norths. 

595. Sphceria marginata, Schwein. Joum. of Ac. tab. 3. fig. 8. 
On wood in the great stove at Chatsworth, Mr. R. Scott. 

The wood on which this species was developed had merely 
been placed in the stove, and was not of foreign growth. The 
perithecia agree precisely with those of the American species, 
except that they are somewhat smaller, as are also the sporidia. 
We have however no doubt about the species, which is veiy va- 
riable, and the sporidia are known to vary in different indivi- 
duals of Sphceria which have been grown under different cir- 
cumstances. The sporidia are sometimes separated by a globose 
cell like the connecting cells in Anabaina. This structure occurs 
in other species occasionally. 

596. Sph. coprophila, Fr. in Kz. Myc. Heft 2. p. 38. S. incana, 
Stephens in Ann. of Nat. Hist. Ser.l.vol.iv. p.252. On cow-dung 
in dense patches, Stapleton Wood, Bristol, H. 0. Stephens, Esq. 

A very pretty species, much smaller, but resembling S. con- 
fluens, Tode. Asci clavate ; sporidia filiform, flexuous, containing 
a row of nuclei. 

597. S. confluens, Tode, Fung. Meek. t. 10. fig. 87. On 
decayed wood, as oak, willow, &c., near Bristol. 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 187 

*598. S. irregularis, Sow. = /S. gastrina, Fr. 

599. S. Ulicis, Fr. in Linn. v. 5. p. 544. On dead branches of 
Ulex Eu7'opcea, Penzance, J. Ualfs, Esq. 

600. S.podoides, Pers. Syn. p. 22; Moug. & Nest. no. 1074. 
On dead branches, Bristol, H. 0. Stephens, Esq., Jan. 1845. 

Sporidia large, elongated, curved, 6-7-septate. 

601. S. Kunzei, Fr. in Kze. Myc. Heft 2. p. 45. On fallen 
branches of larch, Whittering, Norths., March 1850. 

602. S. controversa, Desra. Ann. d. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. vol. xvii. 
p. 102 ; Exs. no. 1255. On dead twigs of ash, Soplwra Japonica, 
stems of herbaceous plants, &c. : not uncommon. 

Varying somewhat in external appearance on different plants, 
a greater or less number of perithecia being collected together, 
and the spots are of a more or less deep black. All however 
agree in the fructification. 

*603. S. arundinacea, Sow. t. 336. 

An examination of the authentic figured specimen shows it 
to be identical with S. Godini, Desm. no. 439. Unfortunately 
our specimen of S. arundinacea, Desm. no. 438, contains no 
fructification. It clearly belongs, according to the character 
given in 'Ann. des Sc. Nat.' ser. 3, Jan. 1846, to the genus 
Hendersonia. The species, however, published under the name 
as a variety on Triticum, no. 1262, contains distinct asci and long 
curved septate sporidia. 

604. S. caricis, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 435. On leaves of 
Varices, West Water, Forfarshire, Mr. W. Gardiner. 

*605. S. phaostroma, D. R. & M. Fl. Alg. t. 26. i.2 = S. 
tristis ^, Berk. Eng. Fl. 

606. -Sf. exilis, A. & S. t. 9. f. 4. On pine twigs, Wraxall, 
Som. 

607. B. ochraceo-pallida, n. s. Peritheciis ochraceo-pallidis 
ovatis obtusis, ostiolo minuto papillseformi, ascis clavatis, spo- 
ridiis elongatis subfusiformibus triseptatis. On elm branches, 
Rockingham Forest. Gregarious, scattered or crowded; peri- 
thecia pale ochre, ovate, obtuse, with a minute papillseform ori- 
fice, more or less collapsed when dry. Asci clavate; sporidia 
elongated, fusiform when seen from behind, subcymbiform when 
seen laterally, triseptate. 

This was formerly considered as a state of Sph(eriasanguinea, 
but the clavate asci and longer sporidia clearly distinguish it. 
We do not find any tangible distinction in the fructification of 
S. coccinea and sanguinea : in both the asci are linear, and the 
sporidia elliptic and uniseptate. They vary indeed a little in 
breadth and length, and perhaps more so in S. coccinea, but we 
have had more specimens to examine of that species. S. epi- 
spkaria agrees with them in fructification, as does S. Pesisa. We 



188 Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 

take this opportunity of stating that Mr. Thwaites has found 
both Stigonema atrovirens and mamillosum in fruity and in both 
instances perfect asci and sporidia exist. The genus then does 
not belong to Alga, but to Collemals. It appears that Sp. affinis 
is nothing more than the fruit of the Stigonema. 

608. S. muscivora, \\. s. Mycelio eftuso niveo lanoso peri- 
theciis congestis aurantiis semi-immersis ovatis ; ostiolo papillse- 
formi ascis clavatis ; sporidiis breviter fusiformibus. On mosses 
upon the miid tops of walls in winter. King's CliiFe. 

Mycelium forming white lanose patches 3 inches or more in 
diameter, and rapidly destroying the moss on which it grows. 
Perithecia collected iu little groups more or less connate, half 
immersed in the mycelium, bright orange, ovate, sometimes col- 
lapsing laterally, orifice papillceform. Asci clavate; sporidia 
elliptic, pointed at either end, with a central septum, and the 
endochrome in either ai'ticulation bipartite, so that there are 
probably three septa when the sporidia are quite mature. 

Readily distinguished by its peculiar habit. The spores differ 
from those of S. Peziza, which collapses more and more regularly. 
We have this species from South Carolina on Jungermannice. 

*609. S. cucurbitula, Tode. 

This is easily distinguished from all similarly coloured species 
by its asci being filled with numerous minute curved sporidia. 
In our copy of ' Scler. Suec' no. 183, it is substituted for Sph. 
coccinea. 

610. S. flavida, Corda, Fasc. iv. t. 8. f. 117. Nedria flavida, 
Fr. Summa, p. 388. On the decayed trunk of a tree, Leigh Wood, 
Bristol. 

The sporidia of this are totally different from those of Hypocrea 
farinosa, which it resembles much in outward appearance. In 
the latter they are minute and elliptic, in the present species 
elongated, fusiform and curved. 

611. S. funicola, n. s. Peritheciis sparsis aurantiis ovatis sur- 
sum attenuatis pilis sparsis brevibus obtusis vestitis ; ascis clavatis, 
sporidiis oblongo-ellipticis triseptatis. On decayed rope, King's 
Cliffe, Oct. 1841. 

Minute, scattered ; perithecia ovate, attenuated above, clothed 
with short obtuse colourless hairs ; orifice obtuse, without any 
distinct papilla. Asci clavate ; sporidia oblong-elliptic when seen 
from the back, subcymbiform when seen laterally. The endo- 
chrome is more or less perfectly divided by septa into four parts. 

612. S. papaverea, n.s. Conferta ; peritheciis globosis excepto 
ostiolo maximo piano orbiculari radiato-sulcato albo velatis 
areolatis; ore rotundo. On rotten stumps, Batheaston, March 
1850. 

Widely effused, crowded, springing from a brown mycelium ; 



Rev. M. J. Berkeley and Mr. C. E. Broome on British Fungi. 1 89 

perithecia globose, black, finely areolated, covered, with the ex- 
ception of the orbicular, multisulcate ostiolum, with a white filmy 
veil. Asci linear ; sporidia elliptic, subnavicular, brown. 

Of this most beautiful species we can find no trace. Its ostiolum, 
which resembles the stigma of a poppy, being separated by an 
abrupt line from the perithecium, is much like that of S. decipiens, 
Dec, though less deeply umbilicated ; but the perithecia, though 
crowded, do not form a confluent mass, but are distinct, not rigid, 
and far more delicate, not to mention other obvious points of 
distinction. Its external resemblance to S. pulvis pyrius is 
rather apparent than real ; the sporidia in that species are trisep- 
tate. This species appears more naturally associated with the 
DenudatcE, though there is certainly some brown byssoid matter 
from which the perithecia grow. 

Plate VII. fig. 14. a. Plant nat. size; b. perithecia as seen from above 
and laterally magnified ; c. asci and sporidia highly magnified. 

613. S. appendiculosa, n. s. Peritheciis sparsis globosis sub 
epidermide nigrefacta polita maculis minoribus orbiculatis centro 
pertusis nidulantibus ; sporidiis ovato-lanceolatis appendiculosis. 
On dead twigs of bramble. 

Perithecia globose, scattered, nestling under small orbicular 
black shining specks, and penetrating them by the ostiolum, 
round which there is often a little white meal. Sporidia ovato- 
lanceolate, at first hyaline with an apiculate process, which gra- 
dually separates by a constriction and ultimately falls ofi^. 

Resembling closely S. tomicum, Lev., but diftering materially 
in the much larger and more highly developed sporidia. S. cly- 
peata, Nees, again is externally very close, but the sporidia are 
triseptate, the endochromes being all drawn from the concave to 
the convex side. /S. chjpeiformis, De Not., is the same thing. 
S. clypeata, Fries, no. 398, is very diiferent in habit, being much 
smaller and confluent, with torulose triseptate sporidia. We have 
also an unpublished sjiecies from Dr. Montague, in which the 
perithecia are strongly collapsed. 

Plate VII. fig. 20. Asci and sporidia of Spharia appendiculosa highly 
magnified. 

614. S. culmifraga, Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 510. 

Two very distinct varieties of this species are published by Des- 
mazieres. A third has occurred at Rudloe more highly developed, 
the perithecia crowded and slightly hispid, and the acute ostiola 
elevating the cuticle. We have seen foreign specimens marked 
S. trichostoma, with the description of which, however, our plant 
does not agree. In all the three varieties the sporidia are curved, 
fusiform, and multiseptate, one of the articulations sometimes 
projecting beyond the rest, like the band on the body of the 
common earth-worm. 



190 Mr. J. Hogg on Dr. Nardo's Classification of the Spongire, 

XVII. — On Dr. Nardo's Classification of the Spongife, and further 
notices of the Spongilla fluviatilis. By John Hogg, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. &c. 

My attention having been lately called to the October Number, 
1849, of the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' 1 read 
at p. 242, that Dr. Nardo had proposed, at the Scientific Congress 
held at Lucca in 1843, a new classification of the Spongia, divi- 
ding them into five families, as follows : — 

Family I. Corneo-sponffia. 
Family II. Silico-spongia. 
Family III. Calci-spongia. 
Family IV. Corneo-silici-sj)ongia. 
Family V. Corneo-calci-spongia. 

By comparing these with my " proposed divisions of the order 
Spongice," published two years before, at pp. 5 and 6 of the Sep- 
tember Number, 1841, of the 'Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist.,' it 
will be seen that Dr. Nardo's classification is in most essentials 
much the same as mine ; the only new part appearing to me to 
be his last or fifth family, which I suppose comprises those spe- 
cies wherein horny fibres combined with calcareous spicula may 
have been detected ; and which, at the time of my writing the 
communication above referred to, were not known to exist, as I 
have stated at p. 3, from M. Milne-Edwards's observation, and 
again at p. 6 of the same September Number of the ' Annals.' 

On a recent perusal of Mr. Carter's papers on the Freshwater 
Sponges of Bombay, as reprinted and published in the 'Annals 
and Mag. Nat. Hist.,' April Number 1848 and August Number 
1 849, I found that his descriptions are not very clear, but con- 
tain some ambiguity and difficulty ; and that the author had, 
during the progress of his examination, changed (as other authors 
had previously done, when engaged upon the same remarkable 
and puzzling substances) his opinion respecting their nature. I 
was however happy in noticing that he had confirmed my ac- 
counts in several important particulars, especially with regard to 
the sporidia or seed-like bodies of the spongilla, to the modes of 
development and growth from them, and to the power of the sun 
in tui'ning the yellow sponges green when exposed to his rays. 

Following some of the French naturalists, Mr. Carter con- 
siders, with them, that the freshwater sponges consist of a con- 
geries of animals identical with the infusorian Proteus (April 
Number 1848, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. p. 310), which is the 
Amceba of Ehrenberg. Now, as I have before remarked (Linn. 
Trans, vol. xviii. p. 397) that this Proteus, or Amceba, is an ani- 
malcule of complex organization, possessing, according to that 



and further notices of the Spongilla fluviatilis. 191 

distinguished German zoologist, with other true organs of ani- 
mals, several stomachs or gastric sacs ; so then, before these na- 
turalists shall have decided that the animal-like pieces or frag- 
ments of the sponge are in reality infusorian animalcules, it is 
necessary to prove that these pieces or fragments are such orga- 
nized beings, and that they are in fact furnished with one or 
more gastric sacs : — for it is not sufficient to state that they 
resemble the infusorian Aincebce. 

Every known animal is possessed of a stomach, or stomachical, 
or gastric sac, and therefore the sponge, or spongilla, if an ani- 
mal, must of necessity be endued with, at least, one of such 
sacs, — otherwise it cannot possibly be esteemed as belonging to 
the animal kingdom. If unfurnished with that organ, it can only 
be strictly considered as an animal-like being, — i. e. one bearing 
greatly the resemblance of a lower or infusorian animal. Con- 
sequently those who assert the affirmative of this question, viz. 
that sponges are animals, are bound to prove that they are so ; 
for, according to the general rule, the affirmative is alone capable 
of proof. 

Mr. Carter, indeed, having first written (p. 306, April Num- 
ber 1848, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.), that " as to the animality 
of the freshwater sponge I think there can be no doubt what- 
ever ;" at a later period says (in a subsequent Number, August 
1849, p. 98), "Respecting the position yfhich Spongilla holds 
among organized bodies, I feel incompetent to offer an opinion." 
But he has previously (in the same paper and Number, p. 82) 
asserted — " The time appears to have arrived for abandoning the 
question of the animality or vegetability of Spongilla, for the 
more philosophical consideration of the position it holds in that 
transitionary part of the scale of organized bodies which unites 
the animal and vegetable kingdoms." From this view of the 
subject I must totally differ, for there surely can be no true phi- 
losophy in considering these, or any other like natural bodies, as 
partaking of both animal and vegetable natures, — that is to say, 
not strictly pertaining either to the animal or to the vegetable 
kingdom — yet uniting both, or in a state of transition between 
the two, or in what may be termed, an animal-vegetable province. 

If such philosophy be admissible, we may then expect to hear 
of some natural substances being considered as partaking of, and 
so uniting, the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms ; as for 
instance, what were formei'ly named Lithophyta, or more fully, 
Lithophytozoa, and therefore to be classed in a new division — 
the Animal-vegetable-mineral province. Thus, instead of three 
kingdoms in Nature, we should have five ; or possibly as some 
might prefer to style them — three kingdoms and two subking- 
doms or two provinces. 



193 Mr. J. Hogg on Dr. Nardo's Classification of the Spongiae. 

Wishing to re]jeat some of my former experiments on the 
Spongilla jiuviatilis, I this summer procured a fine piece grow- 
ing upon a brick, and kept it in fresh water from July 13 to 
July 25. Obtaining from it many of the locomotive sporules, I 
placed some of them whilst they were fresh and in full activity 
in a little water under the highest power of my microscope ; but 
I could not say positively that their motions were effected by 
means of cilia. I now, however, strongly lean to that opinion ; 
for I fancied that I could at times, in a strong light, discern 
some ciha. My microscope is an old one (by Jones), and not 
having sufficient magnifying power I could not satisfy myself of 
the presence of cilia : indeed the sporules themselves are so small 
and delicate that they require much skill in observing, a great 
light and a powerful microscope to enlarge sufficiently such ex- 
ceedingly minute organs as cilia, and especially when continuing 
in rapid motion. So also, the existence of the same organs in 
other parts of the sponges may probably hereafter be ascertained 
by the assistance of a microscope of a recent and improved con- 
struction. 

I have lately been enabled to witness through the microscope 
the curiously formed spicula much resembling cotton-reels, which 
were taken from the spicular crust of the sporidium or seed-like 
body of our freshwater sponge. See Mr. Carter's PI. III. fig. 6/ 
and d, August Number 1849, ' Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.' 

On again submitting this summer a living mass of the Spon- 
gilla, placed in fresh water, to the direct and full influence of the 
sun, I found the same results, which I have before detailed, to 
occur with regard to the development of the green colour. The 
same mass, which, as far as I could perceive, was entirely devoid 
of any Confervee, or other minute plants growing upon it, like- 
wise gave out in the sun's rays numerous bubbles of gas : many 
of these I collected with care and put them into a little phial ; I 
then inserted a small lighted taper, which I observed to burn with 
increased clearness and beauty when it came in contact with the 
gas derived from those bubbles within the phial; thus showing, 
as it appeared to me, that the gas so evolved was oxygen. 

I may, moreover, mention that the same Spongilla was inha- 
bited by a great many of the remarkable green sponge-insects 
which have been previously described by ]Mr.>\'estwood, and which 
I have usually noticed as accompanying that living substance. 

Communications have not long ago been made relative to the 
powers of " certain sponges " in excavating holes in the valves of 
shells, which are highly interesting ; yet they appear to me to 
require much further investigation. Can these holes and perfo- 
rations be chiefly caused by the "sponges," or rather CUoike 
secreting or giving out a strong acid, which, acting on the lime 



Mr. J. Alder on the genus Jeffreysia. 193 

6f valves of the Mollusca, would readily create, or materially 
assist in creating, such excavations ? But I must note, these 
perforating " sponges " do not seem to be true sponges — merely 
species of Cliona — a genus, according to the accurate accounts of 
Dr. Grant, Dr. Johnston, De Blainville, &c., belonging to the 
class Zoophytes, and which is described by them as a polype fur- 
nished with about eight short tentacula. 

Postscript. — In addition to the green insects above men- 
tioned, I observed in July last, numerous other insects, or rather 
larvae or Caddises, enveloped in cases made of the Spongilla 
itself, and living parasitically on that substance, but which I do 
not remember to have seen before in any other mass of the 
Spongilla. I preserved several of these in spirits, and recently 
forwarded them for examination to Mr. Westwood. In a letter, 
dated February 5, 1851, this gentleman has informed me, that 
" the second kind is truly a Caddis, and will turn to a species of 
Phryganea or Mystacida. It is quite certain that it has no sort 
of relationship with the former green insects. It would be very 
interesting if you could observe the Spongilla now and at a later 
period, so as to determine i\\t pupa state of these insects, and if 
possible, to rear them to the perfect state. I have looked care- 
fully over Pictet's ' Researches on the Phi-yganida ' without being 
able to find any larvse precisely agreeing with yours — which are 
not very remarkable, seeing the peculiar nature of their habitat." 

XVIII. — On the genus Jeffreysia. By Joshua Alder, Esq. 
To Richard Taylor, Esq. 
Dear Sir, Newcastle, February 13, 1851. 

It is with great reluctance that I again trouble you with any 
observations of a controversial nature, but in justice to others as 
well as to myself, I think it necessary to say a few words in de- 
fence of a genus of mollusks described by me in Forbes and 
Hanley's ' British MoUusca ' under the name of Jeffreysia. An 
account of the animal on which it is founded was published in 
the 'Annals of Natural History' for May 1844, when I pointed 
out the propriety of raising it to the rank of a genus. The same 
view was taken by Professor E. Forbes, and at his request I drew 
up the generic characters inserted in the ' British Mollusca' ; the 
privilege of naming it being politely conceded to me as the dis- 
coverer. More recently Mr. Clark, in a late Number of the 
' Annals,' has redescribed the same animal, and has placed it in 
his genus Chemnitsia * (including the Chemnitzia, Odostomia, 

* To avoid circumlocution I shall here use the name Chemnitzia in the 
sense that Mr. Clark takes it, though I do not agree in the propriet^' of 
adopting this name for the whole group. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii.. 13 



194 Mr. J. Alder on the genus Jeffreysia. 

and Eulimella of Forbes and Hanley), stating that he can see in 
it no deviation from the generic characters of that tribe, but 
" only the specialties of individual animals/' and he considers that 
" the soft parts give such decisive proofs of identity with the genus 
us to leave no alternative." Occasion is hence taken to censure 
those naturalists who make new genera out of species that have 
already provided for them " suitable and characteristic generic 
receptacles." It may therefore be necessary to examine more 
carefully into the suitableness of Chemnitzia as a generic recep- 
tacle for the species in question, especially as, so far from con- 
sidering it so, I had ^Jreviously no idea that any naturalist, who 
had examined the two, v/ould have placed it even in the same 
family with that genus. 

With respect to the shell, Mr. Clark says, that " the reflection 
of the apical turn alone would almost have determined him" to 
allocate it in C/iemnitzia." I agree with Mr. Clark in the value 
of this character in determining the geniis (or rather family) to 
which a species belongs. But the question is, has the shell of 
Jeffreysia this character ? According to my observations, it has 
not : and I am supported on this point by the testimony of 
Mr. Jeffreys, who has stated in the 'Annals' for January las<^, 
that he has examined about a hundred specimens without finding 
such a character in any of them . 

We now come to the operculum, which, as 1 have stated in 
the description of the genus, is very peculiar. Mr. Clark says 
that this species has " the usual coi-neous operculum " of Chem- 
nitzia ; but what that gentleman considers the usual form we 
have some diflSculty in making out from his imperfect descriptions 
of this part. It may be as well, therefore, to state what the real 
character of the operculum in Chemnitzia is. There are two prin- 
cipal types of form in this part — the spiral and the annular : to 
these may be added the unguicular, which perhaps may generally 
be I'educed to a rudimentary or abnormal form of one of the 
others. The operculum of Chemnitzia is formed on the spiral 
type ; that of Jeffreijsia on the annular. These differences will 
be better understood by giving a figure of 
each, which I the more willingly do as the 
operculum of Chemnitzia (or Odostomia) is 
not figured in any British work. The spiral 

form in most of the species is incomplete, ^ „. ., , ,. . 

• .• p , ,11,., 1 ii C. Jitssotiles, J.diaphana. 

consistmg ot about halt a turn, and the nu- 
cleus is terminal • in those species where there is a complete vo- 
lution the nuelv'us is brought a little nearer the centre, but is 
never central. The striae of growth run across the opercular 
disc, and there is an impressed line down the centre *. Very 

* I have fignred the operculum of Chem. Rissnides, because Mr. Clark, 
in describing that species, compares it to the operculum of Jeffreysia dia- 





Mr. J. Alder on the genus JefFreysia. 195 

different from this is the operculum of Jeffreysia. The nucleus 
is central, or equally distant from both ends, and placed close to 
the inner margin; and from it concentric lines of growth are 
seen to emanate. On the side next the pillar there is a strong 
rib, from which a process rises at right angles to the opercular 
disc, projecting internally. It is thus noticed by Mr. Clark : 
" It (the operculum) has marked strise of increment proceeding 
from a minute apophysis, which is the nucleus." In what position 
is not mentioned. That the apophysis or process, which is large 
in proportion to the disc, is not the nucleus of the operculum, T 
think any one may satisfy himself by a careful inspection. The 
nucleus is the point on the side of the disc from which the con- 
centric lines of growth oi*iginate. The lines of growth on the 
apophysis inci'ease in an opposite direction. 

We now come to the soft jjarts of the animal, which, accord- 
ing to Mr. Clark's views, can alone furnish generic characters. 
The head of Jeffreysia is elongated into a kind of muzzle, which 
is cleft in front and produced into two tentacular processes ; the 
mouth has a pair of denticulated jaws, and a spinous tongue, 
similar to what is seen in Rissoa and other phytophagous gaste- 
ropods, to which tribe it belongs. The head of Chemnitzia is 
very short, without muzzle or additional tentacular processes; 
the mouth has no jaws, but is furnished with a long, retractile 
proboscis, as in thg zoophagous gasteropods ; and there are no 
spines on the tongue, or at least none have ever been detected. 
The true tentacles in Jeffreysia are linear and a little flattened : 
those of Chemnitzia are ear-shaped or longitudinally folded ; a 
peculiarity confined to this group among the testaceous moUusca. 
The eyes in the latter are sunk in the head at the inner angles of 
the tentacles, appearing externally as black spots : the eyes in 
Jeffreysia are largely developed, raised on slight bulgings, and 
placed on the back a considerable distance behind the tentacles. 
The foot in Chemnitzia is furnished with a conspicuous fold on 
the upper anterior surface, generally bilobed, forming what 
M. Loven calls the mentum. The use of this organ is not un- 
derstood, but in some genera it shows a folliculated structure 
internally. The mentum is absent in Jeffreysia. Mr. Clark, in 
all his descriptions of the animals of Chemnitzia, has made the 
mistake of taking this organ for the muzzle, and hence his com- 

phana, " the nucleus," he says, " being at the centre of the pillar edge." This 
is not the case in my specimens. Again, in describing another Chemnitzia, 
which he supposes to be my Odost. nitida (Brit. Moll. vol. ii. p. 282), Mr. 
Clark says, the structure of the operculum is nltogether similar to that of 
Jeffreysia diaphana. The other part of the description, however, seems to 
contradict this, as it is stated that " the strise of increment radiate conspi^ 
cuouslv to the outer margin." 

13* 



196 Mr. J. Miera on the genus Coleophora. 

parison of it with the elongated muzzle of Jeffreysia is quite 
erroneous. 

From this review it would appear that almost every external 
organ is dissimilar in the two animals : Jeffreysia in fact belongs 
to the family of Littorinida among the phytophagous gastero- 
pods, Chemnitzia to the Pyramidellidce among the zoophagous 
tribes. 

In conclusion I wouW ask, who is most open to censure in 
this case ? The authors of the ' British Mollusca ' and myself 
for having introduced a genus on what Mr. Clark thinks insuf- 
ficient characters, or that gentleman himself for confusedly mix- 
ing up characters essentially distinct ? 

I am, dear Sir, yours very truly, 

Joshua xA.li>er. 



XIX. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Coleophora. 

This is a new genus evidently belonging to Thymeleacece, which 
I established a few years ago, upon some very singular floriferous 
buds sent to me from Rio de Janeiro by my son, who found them 
growing upon the trunk of a large and lofty tree in the dense 
forest that covers the ascent of the Serra d'Estrella, above 
Iguassu, that being a continuation of the celebrated Organ 
Mountain range, and not far from Mandioca, a place well known 
to all botanical travellers as the residence of Baron Langsdoi-ff. 
Owing to the extreme height of the trunk, its branches were far 
beyond reach, so that it was impossible to procure a single leaf- 
bearing specimen. We can hardly imagine that the buds here 
described form a distinct plant, parasitic upon the lofty tree 
alluded to, as we have no instance of any such parasiticism in 
that family ; on the contrary, it consists mostly of large trees, 
and we may conclude from analogy, that these are floriferous 
buds, emanating from the parent trunk : this is the more pro- 
bable, from the structure of the involucrating bracts that consti- 
tute the buds, which are imbricate upon one another, broad, con- 
cave, 4-lobed, destitute of any midrib or nervure, and marked by 
numerous parallel or radiating veins, somewhat like those seen 
in the fronds of Adiantum ; from this, they would seem to par- 
take more of the nature of involucrating bracts than of leaves. 
The chief peculiarities in its floral structure are the long filiform 
support of the ovarium, which is inclosed in a tubular petaloid 
hypogynous nectarium, whence its generic name, from Ko\eo<;j 
vagina, and (\>opia>, fero. The only instance I can find of any 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Tessarandra. 197 

similar vaginiform tube in this family is in the genus Erioselena 
of Blume. 

CoLEOPHORA, gen. nov. — Flores hermaphroditi. Perigonium 
coloratum, infundibuliforme, tubulosum, imo usque ad me- 
dium coarctatum, illic intus hirsutum, fauce extusque omnino 
glabrum, limbo 4- rarius 5-fido, laciniis acutis, reflexis^ mar- 
gine ciliato-fimbriatis, apice inflexis, per sestivationem alter- 
natim imbricatis. Stamina 8-10, exserta, biseriata, 4-5 ad 
faucem corollae laciniis opposita, 4-5 paullo inferiora in sinu- 
bus cum laciniis alterna ; filamenta brevia, subincurva, inflexa ; 
antherce ovato-rotundatse, introrsse, subversatiles, 2-loculares, 
loculis connective crasso dorsali affixis et longitudinaliter de- 
hiscentibus. Pollen globosum, reticulatum. Nectarium infun- 
dibuliforme, coloratum, glabrum, ovarium stipitatum cingens, 
perigonio dimidio brevius, imo e toro glauduloso parvo basi 
perigonii adnato ortum, ore 4-fissum, laciniis insequalibus, 
linearibus, erectis : stipes filiformis, glaber. Ovarium ob- 
longum, gibbosum, utrinque attenuatum, pilosum, 1-loculare, 
1-ovulatum, ovulo anatropo ex apice appenso. Stylus erectus, 
filiformisj ovario sequilongus, glaber. Stigma capitatum, in- 
clusum. Fructus i^noivL^. — Kxhon: Br asiliensis, procer a; i6\i\% 
ignotis, trunco gemmulifero : gemmae aggregatee, globosce, e brac- 
teis complwimis imbricatim convolutis : racemus glaber, sesqui- 
uncialis, plurijlorus. 

1 . Coleophora gemmiftora ; — gemmis involucratis, pisi magnitu- 
dine, conglobatis, e cortice ortis, bracteis concavis, suborbi- 
culatis, 4-lobatis, lobis rotundatis, crenato-incisis, 2 inferio- 
ribus minoribus, pilosis, fusco-rubris, margine ciliis albidis 
longis fimbriatis, rachi venisque destitutis, venis creberrimis, 
. e basi subparallelis ; racemo sesquiunciali, erecto, glabro, plu- 
riflori ; pedicellis alternis, nudis, cum flore articulatis ; peri- 
gonio aurantiaco ; vagina flava. — In sylvis primsevis procul 
Iguassu, Prov. Rio de Janeii'o*. 

Tessarandra. 

With the exception of a single instance, recorded by Aublet, 
all the plants belonging to the family of the Oleaceee, including 
the FraxinecE, possess unsymmetrical flowers, i. e. a small 4-par- 
tite calyx, a corolla cleft to the base into four divisions, and only 
two stamens : it will not therefore excite surprise, if we find a 
plant offering the normal number of stamens. This indeed 
occurs in the case of a very pretty shrub that I found near Rio 

* A di-awing of this plant, with full generic details, will be given in th^ 
' Illustrations of South Amer. Plants,' vol. ii. plate 61. 



198 Mv. J. Micts on (he genus Tcssarandra. 

de Janeiro^ for which some years ago I proposed a new genus 
under the name of Tessarcmdra, from reaaapa, quatuor, avtjp, 
stamen. Aublet describes his Mayepea as having the calyx and 
corolla of a Chionanthiis, with four stamens opposite to the petals, 
an arrangement quite contrary to their usual position, which is 
alternate with them. In Aublet^s figure the stamens are shown 
to possess a distinct connective, both longer and bi'oader than 
the anther-cells, a character at variance with the usual struc- 
ture of the order. This also partly occurs in Tessarandra, where 
the filaments temiinate in a fleshy connective exceeding the length 
of the anthers which are affixed to it on its external face, thus 
offering another anomaly in their extrorse aspect and dehiscence. 
It also differs from other Oleaceous genera in its ovarium being 
seated and partly immersed in a fleshy disc which is adnata upon 
the torus. In all other essential respects, more particularly in 
the structure of the ovarium and of the fruit, Tessarandra re- 
sembles Chionanthiis, so that it belongs evidently to Oleacece, and 
to the tribe Chionanthece. 

The following is an outline of its generic features : — 

Tessakandra (gen. nov.). — Calyx parvus, urceolatus, 4-fidus, 
dentibus obtusiusculis, persistens. Petala 4, hypogyna, sequa- 
lia, liuearia, apice obtusa. Stainina 4, sequalia ; filamenta bre- 
vissima, dilatata, extus carinata, petalis alterna et iis basi sub- 
concreta; antJierce extrorsse, 2-locularcs, loculis oblongis, ap- 
positis, parallelis, ad connectivimi crassiusculum angustiorem 
filamento continuum et ultra eos pi'oductum dorso affixis, extus 
longitudinalitcr dehiscentibus. Ovarium oblongum, subco- 
nicum, toro carnoso imo subimmersum, 2-lociilare, 4-ovu- 
latum, ovulis gemiuis, coUateralibus, infra apicem dissepiment! 
utrinque suspensis. Stylus brevis. Stigma 2-lobum, lobis 
crassis, divaricatis. Drupa baccata, abortu 1-locularis, 1-2- 
sperma, putamine chartaceo, venoso-striato, endopleura tenui, 
chalaza apicali incrassata. Scmina solitaria, rarius gemina, 
loculo conformia, exalbuminosa, cotyledonibus magnis, carnosis, 
piano- convexis, radicula minima, discoidea, iis immersa, supera. 
— Arbuscula Brasiliensis, glaherrima : folia opposita, adpressoy 
sessilia, integerrima, ovata ; paniculaj axillares et Jerre terminales, 
laxe brachiatte, pedicellis imo bracteatis. 

1. Tessarandra Fluminensis ; — foliis sessilibus, ovatis, subcor- 
datis, apice obtusis et emarginatis, decussatis, erecto-adpressis, 
coriaceis, venis prominentibus, subtus glaucis, ad axillas ve- 
narum barbatis, rachi prominente basi nodoso-incrassato ; ca- 
lyce extus pubescente, dentibus ciliatis, intus neiTO promi- 
nente pilosulo ; petalis lutco-viridescentibus ; bacca majuscula, 
violacea. — Rio de Janeiro, r, v. 



Mr. J. Micrs on the genus Tessarandra. 199 

This is a small tree with dense opake foliage, which I found 
growing upon the Morro Flamengo, a hill at the point of Bota- 
fogo Bay, near Rio de Janeiro. Its opposite leaves are erect, 
almost adpressed to the stems, sessile, ovate, somewhat cordate 
at base, rounded, with a small emarginature at the summit ; they 
are 2 to 2i inches long, and li to 2 inches broad, with inter- 
nodes distant ^ to | of an inch ; they are thick and coriaceous, 
the Tipper surface dark green, ratber polished, with raised vena- 
tions, and a minute pubescence scarcely visible by the naked eye ; 
beneath they are of a pale glaucous green, tbe midrib being thick 
and prominent, and tumid at base ; a tuft of hairs adjoins the 
midrib at the base of each nei^e. The inflorescence is generally 
terminal in the brancblets, in the axils of the young leaves, 
iu slender panicles about 2 inches long, with oppositely divari- 
cating bracteated brancblets ; the pedicels being very short and 
square, with a small oblong, concave, reflected bract at base, with 
ciliated margins. The persistent calyx, scarcely a line in length, 
has a short cup-shaped tube, rising from a small fleshy torus, 
with its border divided into four unequal, rather obtuse, erect 
segments, the two lateral ones being somewhat broader ; these 
have on the inner face a very prominent midrib, which, as well 
as the margin, is beset with white ciliate hairs. The corolla con- 
sists of four alternate equal, linear, white, revolute petals, with a 
rounded apex and an inflected margin, about half an inch long 
and 1 line broad. The stamens are very small, barely a line iu 
length ; the filaments being very short, broad, fleshy, expanding 
at the base, and though free, form a sort of hypogynous tube 
around the ovarium and within the base of the petals, with which 
they alternate ; they terminate in a fleshy connective that exceeds 
the anthers, forming an obtuse appendage at their summit ; the 
anthers are coriaceous, oblong, with two distinct parallel cells fixed 
at the back of the connective, the dehiscence being thus extrorse, 
by a longitudinal fissure in each cell ; the pollen is minute, yel- 
low, gramdar, and marked with rounded prominences at trian- 
gular distances. The ovarium is oblong, 2-grooved, 2-celled, 
the cells being lateral and opposite the broader segments of the 
calyx, each containing two ovules, suspended collaterally on the 
dissepiment a little below its summit. The style is very short 
and thick, terminated by a stigma, with two fleshy, obtuse, diva- 
ricate lobes. The berry is dark purple, oval, about f of an inch 
long and | of an inch in diameter, with little pulp, inclosing a 
single coriaceous putamen, marked outside by several reticulated 
venous threads, branching from the base ; it contains two seeds, 
which are often unequal in size, without any intervening disse- 
piment, or sometimes only one by abortion ; the testa is thin, 
brow^^, with a slender adhering integument, and marked with a 



200 Mr. J. Miers on tJie genus Aptandra. 

small chalaza on the apex over the i*adicle ; the cotyledons are 
large and fleshy, filling the entire cavity of the testa, flat within 
and convex without ; the radicle is superior, very short and small, 
and appears like an umbilicate disk. The plant in Gardner's 
Brazilian collection, no. 760, is identical with the above*. 

Aptandra. 

The last collection of Mr. Spruce from the neighbourhood of 
Obidos, on the river Amazon, contains among many very inter- 
esting plants one of very singular and anomalous structure. It 
is arborescent, with slender, smooth branchlets and somewhat 
copious foliage, its leaves being alternate, smooth and petioled, 
but without stipules. Its inflorescence is axillary, in long slender 
branching panicles, the flowers numerous and minute, each being 
supported upon a long filiform ebracteated pedicel. The calyx 
is a short fleshy cup, quite free, with four short teeth, and hence 
almost quadi'ate. The corolla consists of four fleshy, linear pe- 
tals many times longer than the calyx, with their apex enlarged 
by a concave pointed expansion, valvate in aestivation, forming in 
bud a clavate head, surmounting a terete cylinder ; this at fu-st 
opens like four reflexed valves, showing the anthers, but they 
gradually separate to the base, becoming coiled and revolute, 
like the corolla of a Hamamelis or a Chionanthus. The stamens 
consist of a thick, fleshy, cylindrical tube, nearly the length of 
the corolla, which has a clavate globular head, exhibiting the 
anthers, arranged externally upon this, almost solid, fleshy, 
globular connective; this has a very narrow orifice, and is 
perforated down the middle for the style and stigma, which are 
closely embraced by it. The anther-cells, eight in number, and 
equal in size, are imbedded upon the external face of this con- 
nective, forming an annular ring, each cell opening extrorsely, by 
the separation of its external membranaceous valve, which re- 
maining hinged at its base opens from top to bottom, and thus 
all become alike permanently reflected. The pollen is composed 
of white farinaceous granules, somewhat aggregated, and inclosed 
in the inner imbedded valves of the anther-cells ; examined under 
a microscope every granule is singularly cruciform, each arm 
being terminated by a small rounded extremity, with a similar 
globular elevation in the centre. Four small, fleshy, very distinct 
and free hypogynous scales invest the base of the staminal tube, 
and intervene between it and the petals, with which they alter- 
nate ; they have a rounded and subemarginated summit, are 
striately grooved and marked on both sides with lines of inter- 

* A figure of this species, with geneiie details, will be shown in the 
' Illustrations of South Amer. Plants,' vol. ii. plate 62. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Aptandra. 201 

mingling red spots. The ovarium is oblong, seated on a short 
stipitate support, is somewhat conical and compressed, with a 
groove along each flattened side, the style being continuous with 
its apex, and surmounted by a compressed, obtuse, oblong stigma, 
which is closely invested by the globular connective, so that it is 
diflScult to extract it without breaking the style. The ovarium is 
unilocular at its summit and bilocular at the base, the incom- 
plete dissepiment corresponding with the grooves ; a single ovule 
is suspended in each cell from the summit of the flattened axile 
placenta, which is an extension of the half-dissepiment, and each 
ovide appears enveloped by a distinct membrane, which is marked 
on its dorsal face below the middle with short parallel lines of 
reddish dots ; the lower part of the style, for the third of its 
length, is hollow, this vacuity being an extension of the unilo. 
"cular space in the summit of the ovarium, showing distinctly that 
there exists no direct communication between the placenta and 
the style. The fruit is yet unknown, but the calyx evidently 
enlarges considerably, and the pedicel lengthens with the growth 
of the ovarium, as in Heisteria. These characters, of which the 
following is a diagnosis, evidently belong to no known genus : I 
therefore propose for it the name oi Aptandra, from aiTTw, nedo, 
and avrjp, mas, on account of the very curious union of the 
stamens into a single organ. 

Aptandra (gen. nov.). — Calyx brevissimus, patelliformis, 4-sul- 
catus,4-dentatus,carnosus,fructu augescens. Pe^«/a 4, sequalia, 
calycis lobis alterna, carnosula, lineari-lingulseformia, summo 
latiori concava, apiculo inflexo, sestivatione valvata, demum spi- 
raliter reflexa. Squamis petaloidecE 4, liberse, crassse, rotun- 
datse, petalis alternse, inter eadem et tubum staminalem sitse. 
Stamen integrum (forsan e quatuor staminibus coalitis, petalis 
exterioribus oppositis compositum), cyiindraceum, longitudine 
corollse, tubo tereti, carnoso, pistillum presse cingente; antherce 
ex loculis 8, oblongis, sequalibus, arete in annulum exfcrorsim 
dispositis et in connectivum fere globularem crasso-carnosum, 
summo pervium immersis, singulatim valvula exteriori mem- 
branacea ab apice ad basin valvatim soluta, et hinc diutine 
omnino reflexa. Pollen subfarinaceum, cruciformi-lobatum, 
granulis amplis. Ovarium conico-oblongum, subcompressum, 
2-sulcatum, imo biloculare, summo uniloculare, loculo cum 
cavo styli longe continuo ; ovula in loculis solitaria, anatropa, 
obovata, apice placentae centralis liberse dissepimento adnatse 
utrinque suspensa. Stylus filiformis, erectus, longitudine fere 
staminis, imo conicus et cavus. Stigma oblongum, compressum, 
obtusum, inclusum. Frwc^iw ignotus. — Arhov biorgyalis, Ama- 
zonicus, glaber ; folia atterna, elliptica, penninervia, reticulata, 



202 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Aptaudra. 

petiolata, exstipulata ; inflorescentia dichotome paniculata, ax- 
illans, multiflora ; pedicelli jiliformes, subumbeUatim aggregati, 
uniflori ; flores minimi. 

1. Aptandra Spruceana ; — foliis ellipticis, subveflexis, apice su- 
bito attenuatis, utrinque glabris, subtus punctis minutissimis 
lentiginosis et pellucidis notatis, raclii nervisque rubentibus ; 
paniculis folio 3-plo brevioribus, pedicellis gracilibus, subfas- 
ciciilatis, in fructu valde elongatis et crassioribus ; bracteis 
linearibus e dichotomiis minutis et caducis. — Fluv. Amazo- 
nicus circa Obidos (Spruce)*. 

I have little to add to the previous description, except that 
the leaves are about li inch apart, 4^ inches long, 2\ inches 
broad, on a reflexed petiole of \ inch in length ; they are thin in 
texture, with the margin turned back, especially toward the 
base, somewhat polished above, dull and pale beneath. The in- 
florescence, about 2 inches long, throws out four or five lateral 
branches, which are again dichotomously divided, each branchlet 
having a number of very fine filiform pedicels almost umbellately 
fasciculated, about 3 or 4 lines long, which subsequently grow 
to the length of an inch, and probably much longer when the 
fruit is matured ; the flowers are \^ to 2 lines long, and ^^ of a 
line in diameter before opening. I may here add an observation 
relative to the stamen, which has eight equal anther-cells : now 
as the calyx, corolla and petaloid scales are all 4-merous, it is to 
be presumed that this staminal organ is composed of four united 
stamens, each with two anther-cells, placed opposite to the pe- 
tals, and alternate with the intervening petaloid scales and the 
teeth of the calyx ; and this is further proved by the fact, that 
no one anther-cell is exactly opposite to or alternate with the 
petals, but two cells are situated before each petal. 

From the foregoing details it will be seen that the exact posi- 
tion of Aptaudra in the system is not easily determinable. At 
fii'st view, from the very peculiar structure of the stamens, it 
seems to approach Cissampelos, but independently of other cir- 
cumstances, one fact, that of a simple biovular ovarium, at once 
excludes it from the Menispermacea. 

The several families included in the Columniferce of Endlicher, 
viz. StercuUacece, Bllttneriace^, &c., present the analogy of their 
filaments being more or less coherent at base into a hypogynous 
tube ; but there, a portion of the filaments is always free, as are 
also the anthers, which are very difierently constructed, besides 
which, the ovarium consists of numerous carpels, united round 

* A representation of this plant, mth generic details, will be given in the 
'Contributions to Botany, Iconographic and Descri|)tive,' vol. i. plate 1. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Aptandra. 203 

a central axis, upon which ovules more or less nuuaerous are 
attached by their ventral face ; there also, for the most part, the 
corolla has a torsive or imbricated aestivation, and in their general 
habit they do not agree. 

In like manner, the Meliacece present stamens, formed of a 
cylindrical tube, but this is many-toothed at its apex, and the 
2-celled anthers, double the number of the petals, are quite di- 
stinct, affixed within the mouth of the tube, and burst introrsely 
by longitudinal fissures. They have also a free calyx, but its 
segments are distinct and imbricated. The corolla consists of 
four or five petals, sometimes valvate in sestivation, though often 
imbricated, but they have no indication of any such petaloid 
scales as are seen in Aptandra. The ovarium is frequently sti- 
pitate, but most generally is imbedded at base in a fleshy cup ; 
it is plurilocular, with two or more ovules in each cell. The 
style is simple and the stigma clavate. Here are therefore some 
few points of resemblance, while others are again at vai'iance 
with Aptandra, the general habit of which does not at all con- 
form with the Meliacea, which, for the most part, have pinnated 
or bipinnated, and often dentated leaves. 

In the Humiriacece we do not find any satisfactory analogies, 
for although the stamens there are partly monadelphous, or 
rather polyadelphous at base, and the anthers have a large fleshy 
connective, there is nothing approximative in the structure of 
these organs to what we find in Aptandra. The calyx consists 
of distinct sepals, which are decidedly imbricate, and the petals 
have a twisted, imbricated, and almost convolute aestivation : 
the nectary is tubular, investing the base of the ovarium, is thin 
and membranaceous, and is interior with respect to the staminal 
tube, and bears no analogy with the petaloid scales of the genus 
under consideration. The ovarium is 5-celled, with two super- 
imposed ovules in each cell, attached to a central pomt of an 
axile column, which point enlarges to form a transverse spurious 
dissepiment across each ceU ; and finally, their leaves are very 
thick and coriaceous. 

The Hamamelidacea offer several strong points of resemblance, 
more especially in having four linear petals, which, when ex- 
panded, are in like manner s})irally revolute ; the anthers some- 
times open by deciduous valves, they have an ovarium with two 
suspended ovules, and they possess also four hypogynous scales. 
But the ovarium is bilocular, and is decidedly adnate to the tube 
of the calyx, so that it is two-thirds inferior ; the calycine seg- 
ments are large in proportion ; the aestivation of the corolla is 
torsively imbricate ; the ovules are in most cases several in each 
cell, although only one is generally matured, or when single they 
are suspended from the apex: there are two distinct styles; the 



204 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Aptandra. 

hypogynous scales are not exterior to the stamens, but alternate 
with them, forming one common whorl ; the anthers are introrse 
and somewhat 4-celled, and their mode of dehiscence, although 
sometimes valvular, is very different, and finally the leaves are 
furnished with stipules. 

In Bruniacece we meet mth extrorse stamens, but they offer few 
other points of analogy ; the ovarium is there inferior, and they 
have quite a different habit. 

The AlangiacecB present some few points of resemblance, in 
the form and aestivation of their corolla, in the union of the an- 
thers into a tube, and in their ovarium with two suspended ovules; 
but the calyx is wholly adnate with the ovarium, the filaments 
are free, the introrse anthers burst by longitudinal slits, and the 
ovarium is distinctly bilocular. 

The OleacecB, especially Chionanfhus, Linociera, and Tessa- 
randra, offer some degree of similitude, in the form of the calyx 
and corolla, but their ovarium is bilocular, the ovules are placed 
collaterally in pairs in each cell, the stamens are few and free, 
they want the petaloid scales, and finally they have opposite 
leaves. 

Leonia presents stamens with the filaments united at base, but 
the tube thus formed is adnate upon a gamopetalous corolla, and 
the structure of the anthers is wholly different. 

The same objections may be offered to the Styracece, although 
they have often extrorse stamens. 

The anomalous genus DicUdanthera has its anthers furnished 
with reflexed valves, M'hich, as in Aptandra, open from the top to 
the bottom ; but they are introrse, and by the adhesion of the 
filaments to the petals, appear sessile in the mouth of a gamo- 
petalous corolla, and it offers otherwise few analogies. 

There are some points of accordance in the Sauvagesiacece, in 
their internal row of petaloid scales, sometimes combined into a 
tube, and in having the stamens opposite to the petals. The 
anthers are extrorse, and even confluent into an incomplete tube 
in Luxembergia ; there exists also some analogy in their ovarium 
being 3-celled at base and unilocular at summit, but they differ 
in their imbricated calyx and corolla, distinct stamens, the pa- 
rietal placentation of the ovarium, and their remarkably stipulate 
leaves. Luxembergia however is placed by M. Planchon, with 
much reason, among the Ochnacece. 

The OlacacecB present many strong points of resemblance, for 
we have there, as in the genus under consideration, a small calyx 
with minute teeth, equal in number to the petals, which are ge- 
nerally four in number, often linear, of thickened texture, and 
valvate in aestivation ; they have also free appendages of various 
forms alternating with the stamens ; these last-mentioned organs 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Aptandra. 205 

are frequently monadelphous at base ; they have an ovarium 
wholly superior in regard to the external calyx, often stipitate, 
and sometimes presenting two suspended ovules ; the inflores- 
cence accords, and the pedicels have deciduous bracts at their 
base ; and the leaves are alternate with similar venation. Added 
to these, it appears that in Aptandra the pedicel lengthens and 
the calyx enlarges with the growth of the ovarium after impreg- 
nation, as in Heisteria, and the resemblance in size and shape of 
its flowers to those of Gomphandra is very remarkable. , But on 
the other hand, in Olacacea, the appendages are evidently sterile 
stamens, and in no degree partake of the nature and position of 
the petaloid scales of Aptandra ; the stamens are very differently 
constructed, the filaments are always separated from each other, 
often indeed more or less slightly agglutinated to the corolla, 
the bilobed anthers are distinct and introrse, and never open by 
reflected valves, and the structure of the pollen is very different ; 
the fully developed disk, that generally forms so striking a fea- 
ture in that family, is also wanting in Aptandra. In Olacacea 
we find the flowers generally issuing from bracteated, imbricated 
buds, but in Aptandra we see nothing of this kind. In the in- 
ternal structure of the ovarium of this genus a considerable dif- 
ference is there seen from that existing in most of the genera of 
the Olacace<2. In the former the pericarpial covering is so very 
thin and transparent, that by transmitted light its internal struc- 
ture may easily be distinguished, and the vacuity in the conical 
base of the style is thus seen to be continuous with the cell of 
the ovarium, in the upper part of which the apex of the placenta 
is there seen to be quite free. In most of the genera of the 
Olacaceee the ovarium is half enveloped by, and is partially 
adnate to a fleshy cup-shaped disk, which rises to half the height 
of the ovarium, and which supports the stamens and corolla, 
while the upper moiety of the ovarium is surmounted by a very 
thick fleshy gland, but no trace of any such hypogynous disk or 
epigynous gland is visible in Aptandra. In the internal struc- 
ture of the ovarium it presents however one of the strongest 
points of approach to the Olacacece, but it must be remembered 
that such a structure is not peculiar to that family, for it is 
found to exist equally in the Santalacece, Styracece (excluding of 
course Symplocacece) , Ebenacea, Myrsinaceae, and TheophrastacecB. 
We must therefore look to this general character of an unilocular 
ovarium, with a central placenta wholly distinct from the style, 
and more or less free or combined with spurious dissepiments, as 
belonging to a class composed of several orders, just as we unite 
into groups or classes, numerous other families, possessed of a 
bilocular or plurilocular ovarium, and others again that are uni- 
locular with parietal placentations ; and it does not follow, that 



206 Mr. J. IMiers on the genus Aptaiulra. 

we must associate otlier plants in Olacacea, merely because they 
have an ovarium constructed in a somewhat similar manner. 
The existence of an inner whorl of petals^ the union of the 
stamens into a thick columnar tube, the anthers imbedded ex- 
trorsely in an annular and almost globular fleshy connective, the 
peculiar mode of the dehiscence of the anther-valves, the curioiis 
structure of the pollen, the absence of the deep hypogynous disk 
and of the thick epigynous gland, are points quite at variance 
with all we find in the Olacacece, where we meet with nothing in 
the smallest degree analogous to the very peculiar featm'cs that 
mark Aptanclra. However striking its points of appi'oach, it is 
evident that this genus cannot be referred to that family, although 
its position in the system may be proximate. 

There is yet another group of plants offering some features of 
resemblance, to which it is worth while to direct our attention ; 
I mean the Cunellacea of Von Martins, the characters and real 
affinities of which are yet too imperfectly understood. It con- 
sists of three genera, all with their stamens united into a tube, 
as in Aptandra, and with extrorse anthers, although the cells are 
said to open longitudinally, but they vary greatly in their other 
characters, and evidently belong to three several families. Pla- 
tonia is clearly referable to the Guttif'erce, with which it agrees 
in having opposite leaves ; Canella probably has a considerable 
affinity with the Humiriacece ; and Cinnamodendron (the Canella 
axillaris, Mart, Nov. Act. 12. tab. 3) may perhaps be found to be 
allied to Aptandra, for besides its sjmantherous stamens, it has a 
similar whorl of petaloid scales intenening between the staminal 
tube and the petals. 

Hormhuckia has also a small truncated calyx, a corolla of six 
petals in two series, the inner smaller and carinated, extrorse 
stamens, and a 3-locular (?) ovarium, with a single ovule in each 
cell. 

Much will depend upon the structure of the fruit and seed be- 
fore any final decision can be made in regard to the nearest affi- 
nities oi Aptandra, but taking the above-mentioned facts into con- 
sideration, we may draw the legitimate inference, that if, from its 
indubitably peculiar characters, it be considered as the type of a 
yet unknown group of plants [Aptandraceee], it may probably 
find its station, in the arrangement of Endlicher, following the 
Berberidacece, taking its rank among that portion of the polype- 
talous ThalamiflorcB, with the segments of the corolla often in 
more than one series, and with an ovarium composed of two or 
more united carpels, and with one or few ovules attached to a 
placenta of somewhat gynophorous origin. It would thus stand at 
no great distance from the Menispennaceie, which it resembles in 
its synantherous stamens with extrorse anthers and scale-like 



On some new species of Exotic Homopterous Insects. 207 

inner row of petals ; not very far from the Anonacece, because of 
their 3-seried petals, with valvate aestivation and extrorse stamens ; 
and near the Berberidacece, on account of their corolla in two 
series, of the valve-like dehiscence of their anthers, which are 
also extrorse, their stipitate ovarium, entire style and stigma, and 
the structure of the seed and embryo. 

In this same projected division, it appears to me, some other 
groups will before long find their place, and will thus mark a 
better gradation, and form a more complete link between the 
PolycarpictB of Endlicher and those syncarpous orders with simple 
series of floral envelopes, which now exhibit too wide a space of 
transition between them. These will probably form a distinct 
class {Coniosperma from the development of the ovules on a cen- 
tral and more or less columnar placenta) intermediate between 
the Polycarpicce and Rhceades, and into it will enter more natu- 
rally the Berberidacea, which in truth are never polycarpic, for 
they have generally a solitary unilocular ovarium, with the pla- 
centae either central or by partial suppression, adhering parietally 
to the sides of the cell. We may consider this alliance as pre- 
senting a development of one or more carpellary leaves, with the 
sterile margins often somewhat partially introflexed, so as to 
form spurious dissepiments, and the ovuliferous placentfe ema- 
nating from their basal or hypothetically petiolar supports, and 
united in a basal or columnar trophosperm. In this respect, it 
will be seen to be an intermediate stage of development between 
the Polycarpica and the Rhceades, in which last class the mar- 
gins of the carpellary leaves are placentiferous, and there simply 
united together, and being elevated on their petiolar supports, 
thus form a distinct gynophorus : they offer some analogy with 
the Gynobasic classes, which at the same time exhibit a gyno- 
phorous origin, with the axile union of the introflexed placentary 
margins of the carpels. In the class I have here suggested, the 
OlacacecB, Styracea, Ebenacea, MyrsinacecB, &c. may probably 
find a better position than the stations assigned to them in most 
of the modern systems of arrangement, and I shall take an early 
opportunity of demonstrating the facts, and offering the reasons, 
upon which such an opinion is grounded, as I propose soon to 
publish the description of several curious genera belonging to 
the Glacaceee, Styracece, &c. 

XX. — Descriptions of some new species of Exotic Homopterotis 
Insects. By J. 0. Westwood, F.L.S. &c. 

The following descriptions were forwarded some months since 
by me to Dr. Schaum for his memoir on the family Fulgoridce 
in Ersch and Gruber's ' Encyclopadie.' As however that memoir 



208 Mr. J. 0. Westwood on some new species of 

was restricted by its authority to a summary of the ah-eady 
pubhshed species, I have thought it better to forward them to 
the ' Annals of Natural History ' than to allow them to remain 
any longer in my portfolio. 

Genus Cystosoma. 

Subgenus Chlorocysta, Amyot, MS. in Coll. Jard. des Plantes. 

Differt e Cystosoma typica (C Saundersii) cellulis alarum antica- 
rum minus numerosis, sell, serie unica eellularum 10 inter cellulaa 
magnas 5 basales et cellulas 13 longas apicales. Aliter simillima. 

Cystosoma [Chlorocysta) vitripennis, W, 

C. pallida flavescenti-virescens, alis omnibus pellucidis vitreis viridi 
tinctis, abdomine maximo iiiflato, tympanis transverse sulcatis. — 
Long. Corp. unc. \^. Expans. alar, autic. unc. 2i. 

Hab. in Nova HoUandia (M. Verreaux). In Mus. Jard. des Plantes, 
Paris. 

Aphana sanguinalis, W. 

A. sanguinea, capitis rostro filiformi recurvo supra protboracem re- 
cumbenti, nigro ; alis anticis nigro maculatissimis, costa maculis 
circiter 10 majoribiis quadratis, apicibus castaneis immaculatis ; 
alis posticis albo-farinosis, maculis apicibusque pallide albidis ; ab- 
domine supra dense albo farinoso, corpore toto subtus cum pro- 
muscide sanguineo ; tibiis tarsisque 4 anticis nigris. A. discolori 
Guer. proxima. Expans. alar, antic, unc. 2i. 

Hab. in insula Ceylon. D. Templeton. 

Aphana Madagascariensis, W. 

A. capite tboraceque fuscis ; abdomine lato sanguineo, capitis rostro 
tenui, oblique porrecto, apice acuto, capite fere duplo longiori ; alis 
anticis fulvo-fuscis maculis numerosis parvis nigris, singula punc- 
tum album iucludente, tertia parte apicali immacidata ; alis posticis 
rufo-fulvis, apice externo, limbo tenui maculisque tribus discoida- 
libus nigris. — Long. corp. cum rostro fere unc. 1. Expans. alar, 
antic, unc. 2^^. 

Hab. in insula Madagascar. In Mus. Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 

Eurybrachis crudelis, W. 

E. pallide fusco-albida, alis anticis dilatatis margine antico sinuato, 
venis obscurioribus, strigis punctisque numerosis minutissimis ni- 
gris ; alis posticis niveis, dimidio basali coccineo, maculisque tribus 
nigris rotundatis, prope marginem apicalem ; pedibus corpore con- 
coloribus, tibiis dilatatis, nigro parum irroratis, posticis interdum 
nigris ; promuscide ad pedes intermedios tantum extensa. E. insigni, 
Westw. (Hope, Linn. Trans.) proxima. Expans. alar, antic, unc. 2. 

Hab. in insula Ceylon. D. Templeton. 

Omalocephala morosa, W. 
O. capite et parte antica thoracis obscure luteis, hujus parte postica 



Exotic Homopterous Insects. 209 

et abdotnine nigris, segnientis sanguineo marginatis ; alis anticis 
sordide rufo-luteis, nigro irroratis, costa flavicauti, maculis 5 nigris ; 
alis posticis sanguineis apicibus nigris, pedibus obscure carneo-fuscis, 
abdomine subtus flavo, maculis lateralibus nigris.— Expans. alai-. 
antic, unc. 1^. 
Hab. apud Portum Natalensem Africae mend. Mus. Bnt. et West- 
wood. 

Derbe substrigilis, W. 

D. luteo-fulva, segmentis abdominis cameo marginatis, prothorace 
utrinque pone antennas macula sanguinea, mesonoto punctis duobus 
fuscis utrinque ad basin alarum ; alis flavescenti-albidis, costa anti- 
carum magis flavescenti, venis anticis sanguineis, reliquis castaneis, 
strigis nonnuUis tenuissimis fiiscis in cellulis basalibus et postcos- 
talibus alarum anticarum, alis posticis venis minus numerosis 
quam in D. semistriata et strigipenni ; cellula antica elongata venas 
duas simplices (anteriore baud fmcata) emittente ; cellula pos- 
tica etiam venas duas simplices ad apicem emittente ; pedibus gra- 
cillimis, pallide concoloribus. — Expans. alar, antic, unc. 1|. 

Hab. in Brasilia. Mus. D. W. W. Saunders. 

Derbe {Phenice) moesta, W. 

D. nigra albo-variegata, capitis carina angusta frontali antennis et pro- 
muscidis articulo penultimo albis ; mesonoti carinis tribus tenuis- 
simis margineque postico in medio latiori albis, pedibus albis, alis 
anticis nigris, costa dimidioque postico albo maculatis, posticis in- 
fumatis ; cercis analibus lateralibus mai-is rectis apicibus incurvis 
et acimiinatis. — Expans. alar, antic, lin. 6^. 

Hab. in India orientali (DD. Downes et Boys). Mus. Westwood, &c. 

Derbe {Phenice) tessellata, W. 

D. piceo-nigra albo-variegata, carina angusta faciei, antennis et pro- 
muscidis articulo penultimo longo albidis, mesonoto glabro carinis 
tribus gracillimis margineque postico albidis ; alis omnibus nigris 
albo valde tessellatis, anticis plaga magna communi triangulari alba 
versus basin marginis intemi ; cercis lateralibus analibus maris cur- 
vatis apice clavatis spinaque interna brevi termiuatis. — Expans. 
alar, antic, lin. 6^. 

Hab. in Sierra Leone. Mus. "Westwood. 

Derbe {Phenice ?) biclavata, W. 

D. luteo-albida, antennis brevibus, carina occipitali acute bifida, me- 
sonoti carina acuta media fuscescenti ; alis anticis luteo-hyalinis, 
costa tenuissime nigro-marginata, apiceque luteo parum tincto ; alis 
posticis byalinis fusco fasciatis, abdomine stylis duobus elongatis 
clavatis erectis terminato ; pedibus luteo-albidis ; femoribus nigro- 
striatis. — Expans. alar, antic, lin. 9. 

Hab. in Africa tropicali. Congo. Mus. Brit. 

Derbe {Phenice ?) dilatata, W. 
D. nigra, luteo-varia, antennis perbrevibus ; carina occipitali prono- 
Ann, i^ Mag, N, Hist. Ser. 3. Vol.Ya. 14 



210 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

toque tenmssime luteo-marginatis, mesonoto carinis tribus tenuis- 
simis luteis ; alis anticis subhyalinis basi fuscis striga prope costatn 
lutescente maculaque parva ovali prope basin hyalina, costa basi 
rotundato-dilatata, costa lutescenti guttis 13 raiuimis nigris margi- 
nalibus, nubila parva ante medium punctoque parvo iu loco stig- 
matis fuscis ; alis posticis subfalcatis nigris punctis duobus costa- 
libus hyalinis ; femoribus anticis luteis, tibiis tarsisque fuscis ; fe- 
moribus posticis basique tibiarum piceis, harum apicibus, tarsisque 
albidis, promuscide luteo, basi macula magna nigra. — Expans. alar, 
antic, lin. 6. 
Hab. in Sierra Leone. Rev. D. F. Morgan. Mus. Brit. 

Derbe {Phenice t) carnosa, W. 

D. tota luteo-camosa, tibiis 4 anticis fuscis, alis flavido-hyalinis mar- 
gine costali pone medium auticarum margineque externo postica- 
rum fuscis, liis pimcto medio nigro ; articulo apicali promuscidis 
nigro, cercis analibus maris elongatis curvatis forcipatis ; abdomine 
foeminse cornubus duobus porrectis tenninato. — Expans. alar, antic. 
Hn. 7. 

Hab. in India orientali (DD. Downes et Boys). Mus. Westwood, &c. 

Derbe [TTiracia) Essingtonii, W. 

D. luteo-fulva pronoti lateribus albo-granulatis, mesonoto carinis tribus 
angustis pallidis, scutello albido, abdominis segmentis iutermediis 
piceis albido-granulatis, pedibus albidis ; alis anticis fusco-albidis 
fusco-macidatis, costa alba puncto majori ante apicem, maculaque 
obliqua apicali fuscis, antemiis rufescenti-granulatis. — Long. corp. 
lin. 2. Expans. alar, antic, lin. 11. 

Hab. in Nova HoUaudia apud Portum Essingtonii. Mus. West- 
wood, &c. 

Derbe {Thracia) Pterophoroides, W. 

D. fusco-albida luteo-tincta, carina faciei et basi promuscidis fusco al- 
bidoque irroratis, antennis fusco-granulatis, prouoti lateribus deflexis, 
albido-granulatis, mesonoti carinis tribus fuscis albido irroratis 
fasciaque media transversa abbreviata albida, abdomine concolori 
albido-granulato ; pedibus, promuscide et alis anticis obscure albidis, 
his macidis fuscis minutissimis imdique variegatis strigaque obliqua 
majori apicis alteraque angustiori abbreviata obliqua in medio mar- 
giais intenii, nigricantibus. — Expans. alar, antic, lin. H^-. 

Hab. in Lisula Ceylon. D. Templeton. 



XXI. — Notes on Chalcidites, and Descriptions of various new 
species. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. v. p. 133.] 

Encyrtus Petitus, fern. Flavus, antennis apice fuscis, alis vix ullis. 

Body pale yellow : head and chest convex, dull, very finely sha- 
greened : head short, broad ; crown convex : feelers clavate, shorter 



Mr. F. Walker on some new species 0/ Chalcidites. 211 

than the body ; first joint long and slender ; second long cup-shaped ; 
third and following joints successively increasing in breadth ; club 
pale brown, elliptical, much broader than the ninth joint and more 
than twice its length : chest short, broad : abdomen nearly round, 
smooth, shining, depressed, rather shorter and narrower than the 
chest : legs pale yellow, of moderate length : wings rudimentary. 
Length of the body ^ line. 

Ireland. In Mr. Haliday's collection. 

Myina annulipes (Haliday MSS.), mas. Lutea, pedibus flavis, 
mesotibiis apice nigris, alis limpidis. 

Body luteous, linear : head and chest convex, slightly shining : 
head as broad as the chest : abdomen obconical, depressed, apparently 
quite sessile, a little shorter than the chest : eyes and eyelets pitch- 
colour : feelers luteous, filiform, a little longer than the body ; first 
joint yellow, long and slender; second short; third, fourth and fifth 
long ; sixth spindle-shaped, a little longer than the fifth : legs yellow ; 
tips of middle shanks black : wings colourless ; veins yellow. Length 
of the body ^ line ; of the wings i line. 

Found at Holywood. In Mr. Haliday's collection. 

Myina livens (Haliday MSS.), fem. Corpore antennisque lividis, 
pedibus flavis, alis sublimpidis. 

Body narrow, smooth, shining, pale tawny : head a little broader 
than the chest, prominent in front, marked above with brown : eyes 
dark red : feelers clavate, very pale tawny, rather longer than the 
chest ; first joint very pale yellow, long and slender ; second cup- 
shaped ; the three following joints forming a spindle-shaped club : 
chest linear, nearly flat, with a channel along the middle ; sutures of 
the segments indistinct: abdomen slightly increasing in breadth 
from the base till near the tip, depressed above, not keeled beneath, 
rather longer and broader than the chest to which it is closely applied : 
legs pale yellow : wings very narrow, nearly colourless ; veins pale 
tawny, not reaching the middle of the wing ; ulna hardly longer than 
the humerus ; radius none ; cubitus very short. Length of the body 
A line ; of the wings ^ line. 

Chsetostricha dimidiata (Haliday MSS.). Ferruginea, abdomine 
nigro, antennis pedibusque flavis, his fusco variis, alis basi/uscis. 

Ferruginous : head transverse, short, depressed in front : chest 
short : fore-chest extremely short : shield of the middle-chest broad ; 
scutcheon small : abdomen black, smooth, shining, obconic, sessile, 
hollow above, keeled beneath, a little broader and longer than the 
chest : legs yellow ; fore-thighs and middle-shanks brown at the 
base ; midlile- thighs, hind- thighs and hind-shanks brown, the latter 
yellow beneath and at the tips : feelers nearly spindle-shaped, yellow, 
about half the length of the body ; first joint long ; second long cup- 
shaped, brown at the base ; third broad ; fourth, fifth and sixth 
forming a spindle-shaped club ; sixth joint dart-shaped : fore-wings 
broad, brown from the base to beyond the middle ; veins brown, not 

14* 



212 I\Ir. F. Walker on some new species of Clialcidites. 

reaching beyond the middle of the wing ; humerus long ; ulna short ; 
radius very short ; cubitus rather short ; stigma large. Length of the 
body i line ; of the wings \ line. 

Found at Holywood. In Mr. Haliday's collection. 

Trichogramma vitripennis. Fulva.fusco varia, pedibus flavis, alls 
Utnpidis. 

Body tawny, linear, smooth, shining, paler and somewhat narrower 
than that of T. evanescens : head and chest convex, slightly varied 
with brown : abdomen obconical, depressed, apparently quite sessile, 
a little broader but not longer than the chest, slightly keeled beneath : 
feelers tawny, clavate, not half the length of the body ; the club is 
pointed: legs yellow: wings colourless; fore -wings very broad; veins 
tawny, not reaching beyond the middle of the wing ; humerus mode- 
rately long ; ulna very short ; radius none ; cubitus long ; stigma 
small. Length of the body ^ line ; of the wings 5 line. 

Holywood. In Mr. Haliday's collection. 

Oligosita coUina (Haliday MSS.), fern. Lntea, antennis pedibuS' 
gue flavis, alls limpidis. 

Body rather narrow, bright pale luteous : head hardly broader than 
the chest : eyes and eyelets piceous ; the former very large : feelers 
pale yellow, subclavate, brown towards the tips, much more than 
half the length of the body ; first joint very long ; second cup-shaped ; 
third and following forming a spindle-shaped club : chest short, 
nearly flat ; sutures of the segments indistinct : abdomen spindle- 
shaped, depressed above, hardly keeled beneath, nearly twice the 
length of the chest to which it is closely applied : legs yellow, slen- 
der ; four hinder feet pale yellow with brown tips : wings colourless, 
very narrow, deeply fringed ; veins yellow, reaching a little beyond 
the middle of the fore-wing ; ulna rather longer than the humerus ; 
cubitus a little longer than the radius, with which it forms a very 
acute angle ; wing-brand small, pale brown. Length of the body 
^line ; of the wings ^ line. 

On a mountain heath near Belfast. In Mr. Haliday's collection. 

Synopsis of the Trichogrammini. 

" Trib. Trichogrammini. Tarsi trimeri. Tibiae anticse calcari apice 
inciso. Antennae articulis 6, 3 extremis in clavam coarctatis (an 
semper ?) : abdomen subsessile : statura Aphelini (^Myinee) fere, et 
huic magis affines videntur quam Eulophinis ; Oligosita vere pedi- 
bus gracilibus, tarsis 2^ paris elongatis, alls longe fimbriatis Thy- 
sani speciem mentitur. 

" Generum conspectus. 

* Alae anticae seriatim pubescentes. 

f Vena costam sinu tantum attingens ad ortum radii. 1. Tricho- 
gramma, Westwood. 
ff Vena costam longius decurrens ante ortum radii. 2. Chaeto- 
stricha, n. g. 



Mv. F. Walker on some mw species of Chalcidites. 313 

** Alse vage pubescentes. 

"(• Alse auticse latse, margine subtiliter ciliatse. 3. Brachista, n. g. 
W Alse anticae angustse, longe fimbriatse (plumatse). 4. Oligosita, 
n. g."— Holiday MSS. 

Cea Irene, fem. jEnea, capita ccneo-viridi, scutello purpurea, abdo' 
mine violaceo cupreo, antennis pedibusque nigris, genubus tarsis- 
que bast piceis, alis fusco bifasciatis. 

Female. Body convex, smooth, shining : head coppery green, 
transverse, a little broader than the chest ; crown convex ; front im- 
pressed : eyes black, rather large : eyelets three, placed in a triangle 
on the crown : feelers nine-jointed, slender, nearly filiform, inserted 
near the mouth, a little shorter than the body ; first joint long and 
slender ; second rather long, slightly spindle-shaped ; third rather 
longer than the second; fourth and following joints of nearly equal 
length, each somewhat shorter than the third ; three terminal joints 
somewhat shorter than the preceding : chest coppery, spindle-shaped : 
fore- chest small, concave behind : shield of the middle-chest rather 
large ; sutures of the parapsides distinct ; scutcheon purple, obconi- 
cal, rather large : hind-chest large, declining, and narrower towards 
the tip : petiole very short : abdomen spindle-shaped, violet-copper, 
slightly compressed, keeled beneath, having a few bristles at the tip, 
narrower but not shorter than the chest ; first segment long ; second 
much shorter than the first; third and following segments still shorter: 
sheaths of the oviduct black, hairy : legs black, rather long and 
slender ; trochanters, laiees, and base of the first joint of the feet 
pitch-colour : wings narrow, somewhat dusky, deeply fringed like 
those of the Mymaridm ; each fore- wing traversed by two broad 
brown bands ; ulna a little shorter than the humerus ; radius much 
shorter than the ulna ; cubitus very short ; stigma small. Length of 
the body 1 line ; of the wings 1^ line. 

Allied to Gastrancistrus, and is perhaps one of the links that 
form a passage thence to the Mymarida. 

Found by Mr. Haliday, in September, on the sand-hills at Port- 
mamock near Dublin. 

Ipkitrachelus Lar, Haliday. — Female. Body black, convex, broad 
and short : head and chest dull : head broader than the chest ; front 
convex : feelers brown, stout, club-shaped, inserted near the mouth, 
shorter than the body ; first joint luteous, long and very robust ; second 
cup-shaped ; third and fourth elliptical, rather longer than the second ; 
fifth, sixth and seventh very small ; eighth, ninth and tenth soldered 
together, forming a spindle-shaped club without a trace of division : 
chest short and broad : fore-chest not visible above : shield large ; 
sutures of parapsides very distinct ; scutcheon small, obconical : hind- 
chest large, dark tawny, furrowed : abdomen elliptical, smooth, 
shining, shorter than the chest, and hardly more than half its breadth ; 
first segment very large, and occupying the whole back : legs tawny : 
wings slightly brown ; fore-wings very broad. Length of the body 
5 line ; of the wings f line. 

Found by Mr. Haliday near Belfast. 



314 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

Megastigmus Atedius, fem. Niger, antennis, abdomineque piceis, 
pedibus fulvis, femoribus piceo-vittatis, alis limpidis, oviductu 
corpora vix longiore. 

Head and chest black, convex : head slightly punctured, almost 
smooth, tawny about the mouth, nearly as broad as the chest : feelers 
piceous, slender, very slightly increasing in breadth towards the 
tips, rather shorter than the chest ; first joint long, slender, tawny ; 
second cup-shaped, tawny ; third and fourth yellow, very small ; the 
following joints from the fifth to the eleventh slightly increasing in 
breadth and decreasing in length ; club conical at the tip, more than 
twice the length of the tenth joint : chest very long, spindle-shaped, 
very finely shagreened ; it is also transversely rugulose, but the fur- 
rows are scarcely perceptible : fore-chest large, subquadrate, very 
slightly rounded and narrower in front, somewhat convex on each 
side ; its length nearly equal to its breadth : shield of the mid-chest 
very long with a scarcely perceptible ridge along the back ; sutures 
of the parapsides very distinct, converging together ; axillae parted 
by rather less than one-third of the breadth of the chest ; scutcheon 
long and narrow, irregularly elliptical, having an indistinct suture 
along the back and a distinct transverse suture near the tip which is 
almost smooth : hind-chest large, obconical, declining, dull, roughly 
punctured, with a slight ridge along the back : petiole very short : 
abdomen spindle-shaped, convex, smooth, shining, sHghtly com- 
pressed, dark piceous, somewhat tawny on each side, a little shorter 
and narrower than the chest ; metapodeon occupying about one-fourth 
of the back ; octoou short ; ennaton and following segments longer : 
oviduct tawny ; its sheaths black, pubescent, very little longer than 
the body : legs tawny ; a slender piceous streak along each thigh ; 
tips of feet piceous : wings colourless ; veins brown ; ulna nearly one- 
third of the length of the humerus ; radius much longer than the 
ulna ; cubitus very short, one-third of the length of the ulna ; brand 
small, emitting a short branch, and in conjunction with a large round 
dark piceous spot. Length of the body If line ; of the wings Si- 
lines. 

England. In the collection of Mr. Dale. 

Callimome Frontinus, fem. Viridis, abdomine cyaneo-pwrpttreo basi 
viridi, antennis nigris, pedibus viridibus, tarsis piceis basi flavis, 
alis limpidis, oviductu abdomine vix breviore. 

Body short, stout, compact, convex : head and chest green, finely 
shagreened : head as broad as the chest : eyes and eyelets red : feelers 
black, subclavate, rather stout and compact, shorter than the chest ; 
first joint green, long, slender ; the following joints with the usual 
proportions : chest elliptical, also with the usual proportions ; tip of 
the scutcheon purple : abdomen long-oval, smooth, shining, bright 
bluish purple, bright green at the base, shorter and rather narrower 
than the chest ; metapodeon occupying about one-third of the back, 
slightly concave at the base ; all the following segments are shorter : 
sheaths of the oviduct black, pubescent, very nearly as long as the 
abdomen : legs green ; trochanters, knees and fore-feet tawny ; four 



Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 215 

hinder feet tawny, pale yellow at the base, piceous at the tips : wings 
colourless ; veins tawny ; ulna full half the length of the humerus ; 
radius about one-third of the length of the ulna ; cubitus not half 
the length of the radius ; brand very small, paler than the veins. 
Length of the body 1^ line ; of the wings 2^ lines. 
England. In the collection of Mr. Dale, 

Entedon Syma. In two specimens of this species from the neigh- 
bourhood of Aix la Chapelle, and given to me by M. Foerster, the 
shanks are more or less brown. 

Encyrtus Antistius, mas. ^neo-viridis, abdomine purpurea -cupreo, 
basi apiceque viridi, antennis nigris, pedibus fulvis, metapedum 
femoribus viridibus tibiis piceis, mesopedum tibiis basi femoribus- 
quefuscis, alls limpidis. 

Head and chest convex : head green, very finely shagreened, con- 
vex in front, nearly as broad as the chest : feelers black, hairy, filiform, 
rather slender, nearly as long as the body ; first joint spindle-shaped, 
tawny, piceous above ; second cup-shaped ; third and following joints 
long, linear ; club slender, slightly pointed, much longer than the 
preceding joint : chest coppery green, very finely punctured : fore- 
chest short, distinct above, narrow and rounded in front, its length 
about half its breadth : shield of the mid-chest short, rather flat, with 
no appearance of the sutures of the parapsides ; axillae nearly meeting 
on the back ; scutcheon green, obconical, with a rim on each side to 
the tip : hind- chest coppery, shining, transverse, very short, nearly 
smooth, declining : petiole extremely short : abdomen oval, flat, 
smooth, shining, purplish bronze, bright green at the base, brassy 
green towards the tip, where it is thinly clothed with hairs, shorter 
than the chest and hardly equal to it in breadth : metapodeon occupying 
full one-fourth of the back ; octoon and following segments shorter : 
legs tawny ; tips of feet brown ; hips and hind-thighs green ; hind- 
shanks piceous ; middle legs dilated as usual, their thighs and the 
base of their shanks mostly brown : wings colourless ; veins brown ; 
ulna rather thick, somewhat less than one-fourth of the length of 
the humerus ; radius much shorter than the ulna ; cubitus very little 
shorter than the radius ; brand extremely small. Length of the body 
1 line ; of the wings 1| line. 

England. In the collection of Mr. Dale. 

Encyrtus Saccas, mas. Nigro-ceneus, abdomine cupreo-viridi, an- 
tennis fulvis, apice piceis, pedibus piceis, tarsis flavis, metatarsis 
fuscis, alis limpidis. — Fem. Abdomine purpurea basi apiceque cu- 
preo-viridi. 

Male. Head and chest convex, brassy black : head finely shagreened, 
convex in front, nearly as broad as the chest : eyes and eyelets 
piceous : feelers tawny, filiform, very hairy, tips piceous ; first joint 
spindle-shaped ; second cup-shaped ; third and following joints 
linear : chest rather long, nearly linear : fore-chest extremely short, 
hardly visible above : shield of the mid-chest long ; its length nearly 
equal to its breadth, with no appearance of the sutures of the par- 



216 Mv. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

apsides ; axillae just meeting on the back ; scutcheon large, obconical, 
green at the tip : hind-chest and petiole very short : abdomen 
obconical, smooth, shining, flat, coppery green, brighter at the base, 
hardly more than half the length of the chest ; metapodeon longer 
than the following segments : legs piceous ; knees and feet yellow ; 
tips of the latter piceous ; hind-knees tawny ; hind-feet brown : 
wings colourless; veins brown; ulna rather thick, not one-eighth of 
the length of the humerus ; radius full twice the length of the ulna ; 
cubitus shorter than the radius ; brand extremely small. 

Fern. Feelers clavate, tawny, shorter than the chest ; first joint 
spindle-shaped, green ; second cup-shaped, piceous ; the following 
joints from the third to the eighth successively increasing in breadth ; 
club piceous, short, flat, much broader than the eighth joint and 
more than twice its length: abdomen flat, nearly round, purple, 
bright coppery green at the base and at the tip, very much shorter 
and somewhat broader than the chest. Length of the body 1 line ; 
of the wings 2 lines. 

England. In the collection of Mr. Dale. 



'o' 



Entedon Philiscus, fem . Cyaneo-viridis, ahdomine cupreo-purpureo, 
basi apiceque viridi, antennis nigris, pedibus viridibus, genubus 
tarsisquefulvis, proalce cuique macula magna fusca. 

Head and chest convex, thickly and finely shagreened, dark 
greenish blue : head hardly broader than the chest : eyes and eyelets 
dark red : feelers black, clavate, much shorter than the chest ; first 
joint long, slender, green ; second cup-shaped ; the following joints 
successively decreasing in length ; club conical, much longer than 
the preceding joint : chest elliptical, rather short : fore-chest very 
short, but distinct; its length about one- sixth of its breadth : shield 
of the mid- chest short and broad ; its length about half its breadth ; 
sutures of the parapsides indistinct ; axillae parted by full one-third 
of the breadth of the chest ; scutcheon large, nearly short, oval : hind- 
chest declining, transverse, rather short, almost smooth, with a ridge 
along the middle and a rim on each side : petiole very short : abdo- 
men short-elliptical, smooth, shining and dark bronze-purple, green 
at the tip, bright green at the base, scarcely keeled beneath, hardly 
narrower but much shorter than the chest; metapodeon occupying 
rather less than one-third of the back ; octoon and all the following 
segments of moderate and nearly equal size : legs green ; knees and 
feet tawny ; tips of the latter and the whole of the fore-feet piceous : 
wings colourless, broad; a very large pale brown spot occupying 
nearly the whole of the disc of each fore-wing ; veins brown ; ulna 
longer than the humerus ; radius very short, not more than one-tenth 
of the length of the ulna ; cubitus also very short, but a little longer 
than the radius ; brand very small. Length of the body 1 line ; of 
the wings 2 lines. 

Var. /3. Chest coppery : hind- chest varied with green : abdomen 
bronze at the tip, varied with copper-colour at the base. 

England. In the collection of Mr. Dale. 



Bibliographical Notices. 317 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

An Introduction to Conchology, or Elements of the Natural History 
of Molluscous Animals. By George Johnston, M.D., LL.D. 
Van Voorst, 1850. 

Twenty years ago the author of this dehghtful volume commenced 
a series of letters with the view of converting the shell-collector into 
a man of science, and of rendering conchology more intellectually 
interesting by describing in readable language the relations of shells 
to the animals which make them, and the several matters of interest 
presented by the oeconomical, physiological, and systematical rela- 
tions of the Mollusca. He aspired to do the like service to mala- 
cology which Kirby and Spence did for entomology. These letters 
were published in that delightful mixture of science and gossip, Lou- 
don's ' Magazine of Natural History,' a publication which, by spread- 
mg the taste for natural-history pursuits, did much to bring about 
the love for and distinction in natural-history science, now so 
honourably distinguishing Great Britain among the nations of Europe. 
Those who were young and commencing their studies at the time the 
letters in question appeared remember well the interest they excited, 
alike from the excellence of their matter and the elegance of their 
style. 

Dr. Johnston has now carried out the idea he then projected, and 
a more charming volume has not been presented to naturalists for a 
very long time. Moreover it is so pleasantly written, so full of col- 
lateral information and literary illustration, that if put into the hands 
of a person unacquainted with science, it cannot fail to be read with 
delight, and to inspire a taste for the studies to which it is devoted. 

The discursive manner in which Dr. Johnston has treated his sub- 
ject is very favourable to a development of the interest appertaining 
to it. Conchology has got a bad name among the educated ignorant 
on the supposition that the study of shells is a mere trifling agreeable 
amusement, fitter for idlers than thinking persons. This notion is as 
false as unfair, and we are greatly mistaken if the volume before us 
does not go far to instil a better estimate of this pleasant branch 
of zoology ; not merely pleasant too, but important, for without a 
close study of it the palfeontologist cannot proceed with his investi- 
gations of extinct creatures, and, consequently, the geologist be se- 
riously thrown out in his comparisons of strata and determination of 
their relative age. In the end, the neglect of what the mass of the 
pubUc esteem trifling, may tell seriously on that most sensitive organ 
common to a large portion of civilized mankind, viz. the pocket, 
since a very slight geological mistake arising from an error in the 
determination of a few fossil shells, may involve the fortunes of thou- 
sands and plunge whole families from wealth into penury. But mere 
conchology, in the old sense of the term, could scarcely effect much 
good, and one great service done by Dr. Johnston in his " Introduc- 
tion " is the indissolubly hnking in the mind of the student the study 
of the shell and that of its animal constructor. In a few years there 
will be no mere conchologists — all will be malacologists. 



218 Zoological Society. 

An excellent feature of these chapters is an outline of the history 
of conchology, setting before us very clearly the progression of the 
ideas of the naturalists who hare devoted themselves to the working 
out of the systematic relations of the Mollusca. The details of a 
system of malacology cannot be said yet to have been attained, but 
every day fresh knowledge of molluscous animals is pouring in upon 
us, and in a few years there will be sufficient materials accumulated 
to enable the zoologist to attempt the construction of a natural ar- 
rangement of them. 

A work of this kind does not admit of extract within the limits of 
a brief notice, otherwise we could ornament our pages with many 
passages abounding in the finest eloquence, and warmed by that 
earnest and enthusiastic love of the beauties of creation, character- 
istic of one who has rendered so many and various services to British 
science. 

"We might, were we disposed to be hypercritical, indicate a few defi- 
ciencies, and venture on a few diiferences of opinion, but we have de- 
rived too much pleasure from the perusal of this ' Introduction to 
Conchology ' to suggest faults or make petty corrections. The volume 
is beautifully got up, and so far as external aspect and printing can 
go, is as well adapted for the drawing-room as for the study. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

February 12, 1850. — W. Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

An Arrangement of Stomatellid^, including the cha- 
racters OF A new genus, and OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. 

By Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S. etc. 
Stomatellid^. 

Head broad, proboscidiform ; tentacles subulate, with a fimbriated 
lobe at their mner bases ; eyes on peduncles at their outer bases ; 
mantle with the front edge entire ; muscle of attachment crescentic, 
open in front ; foot with a lateral membrane. Operculum rudimen- 
tary or none. Shell imperforate, with a crescentic muscular impres- 
sion, open in front. 

The family StomatelUdce differs from that of HaliotidcB in the 
mantle not being fissured anteriorly, in the muscle of attachment 
being in the form of a horseshoe round the sides and posterior part of 
the mantle, instead of being oval and central, and in the shell not 
being perforated. In their habits they are littoral, living on coral 
reefs and attached to stones near the shore. Some of the genera, as 
Gena, Stomatella and Stomatia, have considerable locomotive powers, 
and glide, especially Ge7ia, with some degree of celerity. The latter 
genus and Stomatia possess the faculty, common to some other kinds 
of mollusca, of spontaneously detaching a considerable portion of the 
hind part of the foot when disturbed or irritated. 



Zoological Society. 219 

Stomatella, Lamarck. 

Animal spiral, retractUe within the shell ; tentacular lobes trian- 
gular, with the front edge fringed ; foot small, not tubercular, not 
produced posteriorly, operculigerous, lateral membrane very wide, 
the circumference regularly fimbriated. Operculum orbicular, thm, 
homy, multispiral. Shell spiral, suborbicular, depressed, transversely 
ribbed or sulciferous ; spire more or less elevated, whork rounded ; 
aperture large, wider than long, pearly within. 

Stomatella imbricata, Lamarck. 

Hab. Torres Straits ; Jukes. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella imbricata, La7nk. Ency. M6th. p. 450. f. 2 ; Hist. Nat. 
An. s. Vert. vol. vi. p. 209. 

Stomatella cancellata, Krauss. 

Hab. Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella cancellata, Krauss, Sudafrican. Moll. tab. 5. fig. 26. 

Stomatella costellata, Adams. S. testd suborbiculatd, con- 
vexo-depressd, albidd, imperforatd, costellis transversis obtusis 
striisque elevatis longitudinalibus decussatd ; spird subpromi- 
nuld ; aperturd magnd, obliqud, oblongd. 

Eab. ? (Mus. Metcalf.) 

Stomatella articulata, Adams. S. testd suborbiculari, im- 
perforatd, convexd, tetmi, grised, costulis transversis nigro-arti- 
culatis, interstitiis lineis longitudinalibus elevatis ornatd ; spird 
prominuld, anfractibus rotundatis ; aperturd oblongo-ovali, Ion- 
giore quam latiore. 
Hab. Austraha; Lord Hood's Island, South Seas, on the pearl 
oyster ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 
Stomatella sulcifera, Lamarck. 

Hab. PhiUppines, Catbalonga ; island of Samar, under stones ; isle 
of Ticao, on the reefs, low water ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 
Stomatella sulcifera, Lamk. Hist. Nat. An. s. Vert. p. 210. 

Stomatella macxjlata, Quoy and Gaimard. 
Hab. Catanuan, province of Tayabas, island of Luzon, under stones, 
low water ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella monilifera, Adams. S. testd suborbiculari, con- 
vexo-depressd, imperforatd, albidd, rufo-punctatd, costellis moni- 
liferis confer tis transversis ornatd; aperturd obliqud, subcir- 
ajtlctvi 
Hab.—1 (Mus. Metcalf.) 

Stomatella decolorata, Gould. 

JT«6. Mangsi Island; Gould. 

Species unknown to me. "Allied to S. maculata, Quoy, but the 
spire is less elevated, aperture more round, and a plain white lunate 
area adjacent to the columella." 

Stomatella decolorata, Gould, Expedition, Shells, p. 51. 



220 Zoological Society. 

Stomatella papyracea, Chemnitz. 
Hab. China Sea and Sooloo Archipelago. (Mus. Cuming.) 
Turbo papyraceus, Chemnitz. Stomatella tumida, Gould, Expedi- 
tion, Shelh, p. .51. 

Stomatella malukana, Adams. S. testd suborbiculatd, con- 
vexd, imperforatd, transversim stdcatd, longitudinaliter striata, 
costulis transversis striatis cinctd, mustelind rufo-fusco varie- 
gatd, subtiis costis albo rufoqiie artieidatis ; spird proniinvM ; 
aperturd ovali, longiore qiiam latiore. 

Hab. Molluccas. 

Stomatella orbiculata, Adams. S. testd suborbiculari, con- 
vexd, virescenti, castaneo variegatd, transversim stdcatd, longi- 
tudinaliter striatd, costis confertis rotundatis ; spird promi- 
nuld, anfractibus rotundatis ; aperturd subcirculari, intus viri- 
descenti. 

Hab. Mosambique, under stones, low water ; Rev. W. V. Henner. 
(Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella japonica, Adams. S. testd suborbicidari, imper- 
foratd, convexd, fused, transversim costulatd, costulis confertis 
nodulosis, interstitiis tenuissime longitudinaliter striatis; spird 
prominuld, anfractibus costatis rotundatis ; aperturd subcircu- 
lari, intus margaritaced. 

Hab. Japan. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella haliotidea, Sowerby. 

Hab. Philippines, Oalaguete ; Loon, isle of Bohol, under stones, 
low water ; San Estevan, prov. South Ilocos ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella hahotidea, Sowerby, Genera. 

Stomatella fulgurans, Adams. S. testd suborbiculari, sub- 
perforatd, convexd ; spird acuminatd, apice acuto rosed, trans- 
versim sulcatd, carinulis transversis albo maculatis, longitudi- 
naliter striatis, striis subtus obsoleiis, albidd lineis fuscis undu- 
latis variegatd; aperturd ovali, obliqud, intus margaritaced, 
valde sulcosd. 

Hab. Bais, island of Negros, under stones, low water; H. C. (Mus. 
Cuming.) 

Stomatella sanguinea, Adams. iS. testd orbiculatd, depressd; 
spird prominuld, acutd, coccined, transversim tenuissi7ne sulcatd, 
longitudinaliter oblique striatd, carimdis transversis subdistan- 
tibus nodidosis ; aperturd ovali, obliqud ; columelld subcallosd, 
ared umbilicali albd, intus margaritaced sulcosd. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, under stones, low water ; H. C. (Mus. 
Cuming.) 

Stomatella speciosa, Adams. S. testd orbiculato-conicd, albd 
sanguineo maculatd, transversim carinatd, longitudinaliter vald^ 
striatd, carinis obtusis prominentibus carinulis intermediis ; 
spird prominuld, anfractibus tricarinatis ; aperturd ovali, intus 
margaritaced. 

Hab. Grimwood's Island ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 



Zoological Society. ~ 221 

Stomatella coccinea, Adams. S. testa orbiculato-conicil, 
subperforatd, coccined, maculis albis seriatim dispositis in an- 
fractii ultimo ornatd, transversim tenuiter sulcatd, anfractu 
ultimo subangulato; spird prominente, anfractibus bicarinatis; 
aperturd subcirculari, labia posfice reflexo, calloso. 

Hah. St. John's ; Mr. Hartiveg. 

Stomatella tigrina, Adams, fi. testd orbicuktto-conicd, per- 
foratd, albidd, fasciis rufis radiatim dispositis ornatd, bicari- 
natd, carinis elevatiusculis, obtusis, transversim striatd, striis 
regularibus ; spird prominente, anfractibus angulatis ; aperturd 
subcirculari, labio subreflexo, calloso ; umbilico distincto, sub- 
obtecto. 

Hab. ? 

Stomatella margaritana, Adams. S. testd turbinatd, spird 
elevatd, anfractibus rotundatis, rubra longitudinaliter sub- 
striatd, transversim costulatd, costulis subnodulosis incequali- 
bus ; aperturd suborbiculari, intus margaritaced, labro semicir- 
culari ; umbilico callo, obtecto. 

Hab. in littoribus Australise. (Mus. Cuming.) 

A small, red, transversely ribbed species, having very much the 
appearance of a Margarita. 

Stomatella biporcata, Adams. S. testd turbinatd, subde- 
pressd, rubrd, albo obscure variegatd, transversim sulcatd; spird 
acuminatd, anfractibus quatuor, anfractu ultitno porcis duabus 
prominentibus instructd ; aperturd subquadratd, intus marga- 
ritaced, labio subrecto, labro in medio biangulato, umbilico callo, 
obtecto. 

Hab. in littoribus Australise. (Mus. Cuming.) 

A small red species with two rounded ridges on the last whorl and 
a subquadrate aperture. 

Stomatia, Helbling. 

Animal spiral, too large to entirely enter the shell, tentacular lobes 
digitated. Foot large, tubercular, greatly produced behind ; lateral 
membrane fringed, ending anteriorly on the left side in a fimbriated 
crest under the eye-peduncle, and on the right iu a slightly projecting 
fold or gutter leading to the respiratory cavity. Operculum none. 
Shell subspiral, oblong, or suborbicular, carinated or tuberculated ; 
spire prominent ; aperture wider than long, pearlaceous within. 

Stomatia phymotis, Lamarck. 

Hab. Philippine Islands, Matnag, province of Albay, Luzon, on 
the reefs ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia axjstralis, Adams. S. testd haliotided, ovato-ob- 
longd, sublatd, olivaced, dorso leevigatd, transversim tenue stri- 
atd, carinis duabus rotundatis, inferiori tuberculatd ; aperturd 
antici dilatatd, labro supra ultimum anfractum ascendente. 

Hab. Darnley's Island, Torres Straits, under stones ; Jukes. 
(Mus. Cuming.) 



222 Zoological Society. 

Stomatia duplicata, Sowerby. 

Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, island of Mindanao, under 
stones, low water ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia angulata, Adams. (S. testa orbiculato-convexd, sub- 
depressd, viriduM, transversim valde costulatd, interstitiis lon- 
gitudinaJiter striatis, carinis duabits elevatis simplicibus angu- 
latis ; aperturd transversd, subcirculari, labro in medio biangu- 
lato. 
Hab. San Estevan, province of South Ilocos, island of Luzon and 
island of Ticao, under stones, low water ; H. C. (Mus. Ciiming.) 

Stomatia decussata, Adams. S. testd ovato-oblongd, longitu- 
dinaliter et transversim decussate striatd, carinis duabus sim- 
plicibus aut subtubercidatis angidatis p?'Oininentibus, paUidd 
maculis fuscis variegatd ; spird elevatd ; aperturd obliqud, feri 
orbiculari, labro biangidato in medio. 

Hab. Sorsogon, province of Albay, island of Luzon, on smooth 
stones, 6 fathoms ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia acuminata, Adams. S. testd haliotided, suborbicu- 
latdy subfuscd, cancellatd, transversim costatd, costis tribus pro- 
minentibus, medid valde promimdd tubercidatd, valde plicatd 
prope suturam, longitudinaliter elevate striatd; spird promi- 
nuld, acuminatd, anfractibus quatuor angulatis, labro in medio 
triangulato. 

Hab. Philippine Islands. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia lirata, Adams. S. testd orbiculato-convexd, liris trans- 
versis subcequalibvs elevatis vix nodulosis, interstitiis valdh lon- 
gitudinaliter striatis, prope suturam subplicatd, paUidd, fusco 
radiatim marmoratd ; sj)ird subprominuld, anfractibus rotunda- 
tis ; aperturd obliqud, oblongo-ovali, labro convexo, rotundato. 

Hab. 1 (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia rubra, Lamarck. 

Hab. Philippine and Corean Archipelago. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia notata, Adams. S. testd suborbicidari, depressd, 
pallide rosed, maculis purpureis valdh distinctis ornatd, trans- 
versim carinatd, carinis acutis j^rotninentibus subdistantioribus, 
longitudinaliter valdh obliquk striatd; spird subprominuld, an- 
fractibus carinatis, apice acuto ; aperturd subcirculari, intus 
margaritaced et transversim sidcatd. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia Candida, Adams. S. testd suborbiculatd, depressd, 
Candida, transversim totd carinatd, carimdis parvis confertis 
perimdtis elevatiusculis subnodulosis, interstitiis longitudinali- 
ter tenuissime striatd; spird depressiusculd, anfractibus rotun- 
datis ; aperturd obliqud, subcirculari, longiore quam latiore. 

Hab. Korean Archipelago, coral reefs ; A. H. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatia pallida, Adams. S. testd suborbiculari ; spird acu- 
minatd, albd, radiis palUdis longitudinalibus pictd, transversim 



Zoological Society. 223 

liratd, interstitiis decrissate striatis ; aperturd transversa, sub- 

ovali, intus porcelland, labia subrecto, calloso. 
Eab. ad Insulam Lord Hood, dedicav. (Mus. Cuming.) 
A species somewhat resembling in colouring the striped variety ot 
S. notata, but which differs materially in form and sculpture. 

Microtis, new genus. 

Animal as in Stomatia, but the foot with a deep anterior fissure 
for the head, and the front edge bilobed. Operculum none. Shell 
spiral, suborbicular, depressed, with two tuberculated ndges ; spire 
slightly prominent ; aperture very large, wider than long, pearly 
within, columellar margin spiral, visible as far as the apex of the 
spire. 

Microtis tuberculata, Adams. M. testd suborbiculari, halio- 
tided, valde depressd, viride variegatd, transversim striatd, bi- 
carinatd, carinis tuberculatis, prope suturam nodulosim plicatd; 
spird vix elevatd, anfractibus carinatis ; aperturd magnd, ovali, 
intu^ bisulcatd margaritaced. 
Eab. Island of Capul, on the sands, high water ; H. C. (Mus. 

Cuming.) 

Gena, Gray. 

Animal subspiral, oval, depressed, too large to enter the shell; 
tentacular lobes plumose. Foot very large, tubercular, posteriorly pro- 
duced ; lateral membrane not fimbriated, more or less extended, and 
covering the shell. Operculum none. Shell subspiral, oblong, ear- 
shaped, depressed, smooth or striated ; spire flattened, nearly obso- 
lete ; aperture large, pearly within. 

Gena planulata, Lamarck. 

Hab. Isle of Camaguin, under smooth stones, low water ; Gmdul- 
man, isle of Bohol, under stones ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella planulata, Lamarck, Hist. An. s. Vert. vol. vi. p. 210 ; 
Encyclop. M6th. pi. 40. f. 4 a, b. 

Gena auricula, Lamarck. 

Hab. Eastern Seas ; Red Sea ; Celebes. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella auricula, Lamk. Hist. An. s. Vert. vi. p. 210. Patella 
lutea, Linn. 

Gena nigra, Quoy and Gaimard. 

Hab. Eastern Seas. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Stomatella nigra, Quoy ^ Gaimard, Fay. de VAstr. v. 3. pi. && bis, 
fig. 10-12. 

Gena plumbea, Adams. G. testd haliotided, ovato-oblongd, 
dorso latere dextro gibbosd, sinistra planulatd, plumbed, decus- 
sate totd striatd i spird prominuld, anfractibus rotundatis, 
anfractu ultimo ad suturam gibboso ; aperturd postice subcana- 
liculatd, labro in medio flexuoso. 

Hab. Java. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Gena strigosa, Adams. G. testd haliotided, ovato-oblongd. 



224 Zoological Society . 

dorso subplanatd, totci striatd, striis irreffularibus snbconfertis, 
olivaced lilaceo alhoque varid, fasciis sitbfuscis, pallidis alter- 
nantibus longitudinaliter ornatd, labro hand sinuoso. 
Hab. ? (Mus. Cuming.) 

Gena striatula, Adams. G. testd haliotided, ovato-oblongd, 
dorso planiuscidd, totd striatd, striis profundis subdistantibus, 
rubrdyjlaveolo aurantiaco fuscoque variepictd ; spird prominuld, 
nunquam subdistortd ; labro valde flexiioso. 

Hab. Calapan, island of Mindoro, on small stones, 9 fathoms; H. C. 
Swan River, Lieut. Preston ; Australia. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Gena varia, Adams. G. testd haliotided, ovato-oblongd, politd, 
dorso cequaliter convexd, latere sinistra striatd; luteo, rubra 
alboque variegatd ; spird j)roini7udd, erectd, acuminatd. 
Hab. Calapan, island of Mindoro, on small stones, 9 fathoms; H. C. 
Acapulco, on the sands. Col. Moffat ; Australia. A pretty little spe- 
cies usually confounded with G. auricula. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Gena concinna, Gould. 
Hab. Sandy Island. 

Gena minima, Dufo. 

Hab. Seychelles, dredged from 6 fathoms ; Dufo. 
Stomatella minima, Dufo, Ann. Sc. Nat. Oct. 1840, p. 202. Spe- 
cies unknown to me. 

Gena irasata, Dufo. 
Hab. Seychelles. 

Stomatella irasata, Dufo, Ann. Sc. Nat. Oct. 1840. Species un- 
known to me. 

Gena pulchella, Adams. G. testd convexo-depressd, ovali, albd, 
rufo macidatd, dorso convexd, totd striatd ; spird prominuld, 
anfractibus rotundatis ; aperturd magnd, ovali, intus margari- 
taced, iridescente. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Metcalf.) 

Gena lintricula, Adams. 6?. testd haliotided, oblongd, dorso 
convexd, totd tenuissime striatd, tenui, fragili, carneold, rubra 
maculatd ; spird subterminali, minimd, ad latus decumbente ; 
aperturd apertd, valde elongatd. 

Hab. Calapan, island of Mindoro, on smooth stones, 9 fathoms ; 
H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Gena asperulata, Adams. G. testd haliotided, dorso convexd, 
rufo-fuscd cingidd albd latd longitudinali ornatd, lineis elevatis 
subconfertis, striisque longitudinalibus obliquis decussatd; spird 
posticd, subprominidd, albd ; aperturd elongatd, ovali. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Metcalf.) 

Gena nebulosa, Adams. G. testd haliotided, ovato-oblongd, 
dorso totd striatd, albd rufo-fusco nebtdosd ; spird prominuld, 
anfractibus angidatis ; aperturd elongatd, ovali; columella callo 
crasso rimam umbiliealem obtegente. 

Hab. Australia, (Mus. Cuming.) 



Zoological Society. 225 

Gena ornata, Adams. 6'. teatd subturbinaced, ovali, Itevi, pa- 
/ltd, dorso coneexd, Jusco-rubrd, lineis nigris nlho-articulatis 
longitmUnalibus ; spird prominuld, rosed ; aperturd ovali ; co- 
lumeUd curvatd, simplici ; labro reflexo, postice subjlexuoso. 

Hab. Island of Ticao, Philipjnnes, on the reefs, low water ; //. C. 
(Mas. Cuming.) 

Gena lineata, Adams. G. testd subturbinaced, solidd, Icevi, 
politd, convexd, ovali, carneold lineis rubris longitudinalibus 
ornatd ; spirdprominuld, anfractibus rotundatis ; aperturd sub- 
rotundatd ; columella plamdatd, callosd, labro simplice. 

Hab. ? (Mus. Cuming.) 

Broderipia, Gray. 

Animal unknown. Operculum ? Shell ancyliform, nonspiral, ob- 
long-ovate, flattened, apex posterior, involute ; aperture very large, 
ovate, pearlaceous internally. 

Scutella, Broderip (pars). 

Broderipia iridescens, Broderip, sp. 

Hab. Pacific Ocean, Grimwood's Island. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Scutella iridescens, Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc. June 1834. 

Broderipia rosea, Broderip, sp. 

Hab. Pacific Ocean, Grimwood's Island. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Scutella rosea, Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc. June 1834. 

Broderipia Cumingii, A. Adams. B. testd ovatd, depresso- 
convexd, subpellucidd, pallidd, radiis rubris pictd, concentricd 
corrugato-striatd, striis granulosis, vertice posfico excentrico- 
s%(bmarginali ; aperturd patuld, intus margaritaced, margine 
albo limbo maculis rujis picto ; margine columellari aciith angu- 
lato prominente, postich subrecto. 
Hab. in insulis Philippinis (Capul). (Mus. Cuming.) 
Distinguished from B. iridescens by its prominent angulated colu- 
mellar margin and granulato-corrugose surface. 

ScissuRELLA, D'Orbigny. 

Animal unknown. Operculum none. Shell very small or minute 
heliciform ; spire depressed ; aperture suborbicular, effuse ;_. outer lip 
with a narrow fissure or slit; umbilicus open. 

? Anatomus, Montfort. 

SciSSURELLA ANGUL.iTA, Loven. 

Hab. Scandinavia. 

Scissurella angulata, Loven, Index Moll. Scand. p. 20. 

SCISSURELLA PLICAXA, Philippi. 

Hab. Shores of the Peninsula of Thapsi. 

Scissurella plicata, Phil. En. Moll. Sicil. vol. i. p. 187, vol. ii. 
tab. 25. fig. 18. 

Scissurella d'Orbignyi, Scacchi. 

SCISSURELLLA STRIATULA, Philippi. 

Hab. Peninsula of Magnisi. 

Scissurella striatula, Phil. En. Moll. Sicil, vol. ii. p. 160. 
Ann.i^Mag.N.Hist.^tT.2. Vol.vn. 15 



226 Zoological Society. 

ScissuRELLA DECUSSATA, D'Otbigny. 

Scissurella decussata, D' 0;-6i^«y, M^m. Soc. (THiat. Nat. de Par. i. 
p. 340. 

Scissurella crispata, Fleming. 

Scissurella crispata, Fleming, Brit. An. p. 361-366. 

Monograph of the Genus Anatinella. 
By Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S. etc. 

Anatinella, Sowerby. 

Shell ovate equivalve, nearly equilateral, anterior side rounded, 
posterior slightly beaked and subtruncated. Ligament internal, fixed 
to a spoonshaped process in each valve, on the anterior side of which 
are placed two rather elongated cardinal teeth. Muscular impres- 
sions two, lateral, distant, the anterior oblong and irregular, the poste- 
rior nearly circular. Palleal impression entire, without any sinus. 
No testaceous appendage withm the hinge. 

Anatinella Sibbaldii, Sowerby. A. testd solicliori, subopacd, 
Icevi, valde concentrice corrugatd, longitudinaliter obsolete suh- 
striatd ; latere postico, acuminata, subtruncato ; margine dor- 
salt postice declivi ; processu cochleariformi crasso lato ; mar- 
gine ventrali valde arcuato. 

Hab. Ceylon, on the sands. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Anatinella dilatata, Adams. A. testd teniii, fragili, concen- 
trice corrugatd, longitudinaliter striata, latere postico dilatato, 
oblique valdk truncato, margine dorsali postice horizontali recto, 
pj'ocessu cochleariformi parvo tenui, dentibus cardinalibus valdi 
divergentibus ; margine ventrali arcuato. 

Hab. Puteao, Philippines, on sand-banks, at low water; H. C. 
(Mus. Cuming.) 

Anatinella ventricosa, Adams. A. testd tenui, ventricosd, 
semipellucidd, concentrice corrugatd, longitudinaliter conspicud 
striatd, striis elevatiuscidis, latere postico rotundato ; margine 
dorsali postice declivi ; processu cochleariformi tenui, angusto ; 
margine ventrali leviter arcuato. 
Hab. Puteao, Philippines, on sand-banks, at low water; U.C. 
(Mus. "Cuming.) 

February 26.— W. Spence, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The following paper was read : — 

Monographs of Cyclostrema, Marryat, and Separatista, 
Gray ; two genera of Gasteropodous Mollusks. By 
Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S. etc. 

Cyclostrema, Marryat. 

Animal ignotum. Operculum — — .'' Testa depressa, perspectivo- 
umbilicata ; apertura circularis. 

Cyclostrema cancellata, Marryat. C. testd albd, lineis lon- 
gitudinalibus et transrersis elevatis decussatitibus inde cancel- 



Zoological Society. 227 

laid; aperturd lahiis cancellatis ; cancellis transversim strt' 
atis. 

Hab. Baszay, island of Samar, 6 fathoms, coral sand ; H. C. 
(Mus. Cuming.) 

Cyclostrema cancellata, Marry at, Trans. Linn. Sac. 1818, vol. xu. 
p. 338. 

Cyclostrema nivea, Chemnitz. C. testd orbiadari, nived, pel- 
lucidd; spird depressd, anfractibus transversim costellatis, cos- 
tellis regularibus, superis distantioribus ; interstitiis leviter con- 
cavis ; suturis profundis suhcanaliculatis ; labro simplici ; um- 
bilico peramplo. 

Hab. Seas of India. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Turbo niveus, Chemnitz, Conch. Cab. vol. x. pi. 165. f. 1587 and 
1588. Delphinula nivea, jReere. Delphinula Isevis, Viewer. 

Cyclostrema Reeviana, Hinds. C. testd orbiculari, subdis- 
coided, muticd; spird depressiusculd, anfractibus convexis, lon- 
gitudinaliter carinulatis, carinulis numerosis, superis distanti- 
oribus ; interstitiis liris obliquis corrugato-clathratis ; labro 
simplici ; umbilico peramplo. 

Hab. Straits of Malacca, 17 fathoms. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Delphinula Reeviana, Hinds, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1843. 

Cyclostrema Cobijensis, Reeve. C. testd turbinatd, minutd, 
anfractibus convexis, carinulis transversis et longitudinalibus 
cequidistantibus regulariter clathratis; umbilico mediocri; labro 
simplici. 

Hab. Port of Cobija, Peru, under stones in rocky places, low water ; 
H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Delphinula Cobijensis, Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1843. 

Cyclostrema spirula, Adams. C. testd orbiculari, discoided, 
evolutd; spird depresso-concavd, a?fractibus rotundatis, primis 
contiguis, ultimd distinctd, transversim costulatis, costellis sub- 
confertis, cequidistantibus ; interstitiis tenuissime longitudina- 
lit'er striatd ; aperturd circ7ilari ; peritremate continuo. 

Hab. PhiUppine Islands. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Cyclostrema cingulifera, Adams. C. testd orbiculari, ni- 
tidd ; spird depressd, anfractibus rotundatis, carinulis trans- 
versis, acutis, (Equidistantibus ; interstitiis {sub lente) tenuis- 
simi longitudinaliter striatis ; aperturd subcirculari, supra 
subangulatd ; umbilico mediocri. 

Hab. Dumaguete, island of Zebu, 4 fathoms ; H. C. (Mus. 
Cuming.) 

Cyclostrema nitida, Adams. C. testd orbiculari, Icevi, tenui, 
nitidd ; spird elevatiuscidd, anfractibus prope suturam suban- 
gulatis ; suturis profundis, subcanaliculatis ; aperturd subcir- 
culari, supra angulatd ; umbilico magno, peromphalo angulato, 
acuto. 

Hab. Catanuan and Sual, island of Luzon, 1 fathoms, sandy mud ; 
H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

15* 



228 ZnoliKjical Suuirtrj. 

CvcLOSTREMA PLANORBULA, Adams. ('. ic'std orbiculari, plan- 
orMd; spird depressd, anfractibus l.^ilus, rotundas, su^ 
distinctis; aperturd subcirculari, supra angulatd ; umhdico 

//SrS>faud of Luzou, 10 fathoms, sandy xnud ; H. C. (Mus. 
Cuming.) 

Cyclostrem A PLANA, Adams. C. testd orbiculari, dorso plano- 
conZlTspM dep^essd, anfractibus pla.is, supra transvers^n^ 
sZlaZ infra iJbus ; aperturd subcirculan, supra angulatd ; 
umbilico peramplo, anfractibus ^"'"^^^''^i^'^"!^;^ runnns ^ 
Hab. Dumaguete, island of Negros ; H. C. (Mus. Cummg.) 
Cyclostrema micans, Adams. C. testd turbinatd, minutdalbd 
SSdl anfractibus conrexis, longitudinaliter obhque costeUatis, 
T^L-sL carinulatis, carim'Jis nodulos^s; umUhco med^ocr^; 
anerturd circuJari ; peristomate continuo tncrassato 
Hab Zt Lincoln ; Metcalf (Mus. Cummg and Metcalf.) 
Cyclostrema elegans, Adams. C. testd orbiculari, discorded, 

""t^u^^nupellucidd ; spird '^^pressd, afact^busr^u^^. 
transversim omnino striatis ; suturis distrnchs ; apertuid sub- 
circulari, supra angulatd ; vmbihco peramplo. . „ r 

M.Sibo^ga, island of Zebu, 10 fathoms, sandy mud, H. C. 

(Mus. Cuming.) , . ,. ■■, ^ 

Cyclostrema svlcata, Adams. C. testd orbindan, drsc^d^ 
spird planiusculd, anfractibus conm ^^'^^^^^ ^"^^^ 
confertis regularibus, interstitns profunda sulcom , sutuns 
'';$ldis cLuculatis ; umbilico patulo ; P^ron^ha^ /-- 

Sai. Tambav, island of Negros, coarse sand, 6 fathoms, U. C. 
(Mus. Cuming.) 

Cyclostrema angulata, Adams. C. testd orbiculari discorded ; 
sih-TlTessd, anfractibus transversim costellatis costells 
feldarZs, Jquidistantibus, interstitiis tenmssime strraUs; 
Zffatu ultimo biangnlato, supra costellato, in media piano, 
"i$a:osteZo; aperturd srlbangulatd ; peritremate rnter- 
ruvto ; umbilico per magno. ^„a . n C 

Hub Sibonga, island of Zebu, 10 fathoms, sandy mud; H. C. 

(Mus. Cuming.) 

Separatista, (jrra_\. 

.. ,. .„,„ nnpveulum ? Testa orbicularis, subdiscol- 

'^^:^::ibX^^^ontigu-, ultimo disfincto ; aperiurd 
paLld!effusd, angulis subcanaliculatis ; umUUcus magnus, m- 
fundibuliformis, usque ad apicem. vT„„.f„„t founded 

Th^e CorJoi Sejunnachev and th^^^ 

7^^'"'^:^ SSLh^ tSSm by theligure ,i..u in 
oS" ' sis' to b ".n Atlanta badly drawn in an inverted posjuon. 
?nd indeed is founded upon the "Come d'Ammon Yivant ot Le- 
sueur, Atlanta Peronii. 

Separatista, Gray (not described). 



Zoological Socieli/. 229 

Skparatista Gravii, Adams, S. testa sjjird di-prensd, anfrac- 
tibus carimdis quinque trcutscersis ; aperturd oblongo-trans- 
versd ; labia refiexo, antici rotundato. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Separatista Chemnitzii, Adams. S. testd spird elevatd, aii- 
fractibus carimdis tribus traiisversis ; aperturd subcirculari ; 
labia subrtjlexa, unticv pruducto, anffufato. 

Hab. Island of Bureas, Philippines-, //. C. (Mus. Cumiug.) 

Turbo separatista, Chemnitz. 

Professor Owen comnuuiicated a Memoir *, in continuation of his 
previous papers pubUshed in the Zool. Trans, (vol. iii. pp. 243, 307, 
345), on the Gigantic Wingless Birds of New Zealand. 

Having in the previous Memoirs determined and referred to their 
gencro and species the different bones of the leg, he made those of 
the foot the subject of the present connnuuication, which was iUus- 
trated by the exhibition of an extensive series of remains from both 
the North and South (or Middle) islands of New Zealand ; com- 
prising the entire series of phalanges of one and the same foot of the 
Palapteryx rabustus, a gigantic species from Waikawaite ; a similarly 
complete series of the Dinarnis rheides ; and series more or less in- 
complete of the phalanges of the Binonds yiyanteus, Palapterijx in- 
gens, and other genera and species of the shigular extinct wingless 
birds of New Zealand. The characteristics of the different phalanges 
were minutely detailed, and the different proportions of the toes cha- 
racteiistic of different species, especially of the two most gigantic, 
viz. the Binornis giganteus of the North i.sland, and the Palapte- 
ryx robustns of the turbary deposits of the Middle island. The 
adaptation of the claw-bones for scratching up the soil was obvious 
from their shape and strength. The generic distinction oi Palapteryx 
had previously been indicated by a slight depression on the metatar- 
sus, supposed'^by the author to be for the articulation of a small back- 
toe, as in the Apteryx ; and he had since received a specimen of the 
principal bone of that toe, which was exhibited and described. A 
nearly entire sternum, a portion of a minute humerus, and a cranium 
of one of the smaller species of Dinarnis, were also exhibited and 
described. 

This magnificent series of remains of great New Zealand birds had 
been collected chiefly by the late Colonel Wakefield, and had been 
transmitted to the author through the kind interest of J. R. Gowen, 
Esq., a Director of the New Zealand Company. 

March 12.— W\ Spence, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 
The following paper was read : — 

First Thoughts on a Physiological Arran(;emknt of 
Birds. By Edward Newman, F.L.S., F.Z.S. etc. 

The systematic arrangement of the Class A^es is more unsettled 
than that of any other portion of the animal kingdom, a circumstance 
* This paper will be printed in the Zool. Trans, vol. iv. Part 1. 



230 Zoological Society. 

that may fairly be attributed to our attaching too high a value to 
characters purely structural or admensural, while we neglect others 
more intimately connected with reproduction ; in a word, to the sub- 
stitution of physical for physiological characters. In mammals, rep- 
tiles and fishes, we have a primary division based entirely on physio- 
logj^ : thus mammals are placental or marsupial ; reptiles are o\'ipa- 
rous or spawning ; fishes are viviparous or spawning ; and this primary 
divnsion of these classes is admitted by all physiologists to be strictly 
natural. Notwithstanding, however, the purely physiological charac- 
ter, on which these primary divisions depend, it is found that physi- 
cal characters harmonise with physiological, and that intimate struc- 
ture in each instance bears out physiological difference. It were not 
wise altogether to discard structural differences even in the outset of 
an inquiry into system, but it is necessary to use them rather as cor- 
roborative than as indicative ; and above all to draw a distinct and 
permanent hue between such as are truly intimate and such as are 
purely adaptive. It has always appeared to me that one of the chief 
advantages of an extensive Vivarium like that possessed by our Society 
is the opportunity it affords for studying animated nature in an ani- 
mated state, for ascertaining physiological as well as physical charac- 
ters. If then we avail ourselves of the opportunities which are or 
ought to be thus afforded us, we shall find that in the very outset of 
life a physiological character of the most obvious kind will divide birds 
into groups as distinct as are the placental and marsupial mammals, 
or the cartilaginous and bony fishes. Prior to the extrusion of the 
egg, observed facts bearing on this subject are so few and so imcon- 
nected that they cannot be rendered available as affording evidence 
on the question to be considered ; it is therefore compulsory that our 
comparisons begin at that moment when the condition of the young 
becomes patent by the breaking of the shell. Commencing the inquiry 
at this point, which may safely be regarded as analogous to the birth 
of a placental animal, we have this obvious grand division of the 
class : — 

1 . Hesthogenous Birds. — In these, immediately the shell is broken 
the chick makes its appearance in a state of adolescence rather than 
infancy : it is completely clothed, not with such feathers as it after- 
wards wears, but still with a close, compact, and warm covering : it pos- 
sesses the senses of sight, hearing, smelling, &c. in perfection : it runs 
with ease and activity, moving from place to place at will : it perfectly 
understands the signals or sounds uttered by its parent, approacliing 
her with alacrity when invited to partake of food she has discovered, 
or hiding itself under bushes, grass, or stones, when warned of danger; 
in either case exhibiting a perfect and immediate appreciation of its 
parent's meaning ; it feeds itself, pecking its food from the surface of 
the earth or water, and not receiving it from the beak of its parent : 
although entering on life in this advanced state, it grows very slowly, 
and is long in arriving at maturity. When full-grown it uses its feet 
rather than its wings : it trusts much to its legs for means of escape : 
when it flies, it moves through the air by a series of rapid, powerful, 
laboured strokes of the wing, and invariably takes the earliest oppor- 



Zoological Society. 231 

tunity of settling on the land or water, not on trees ; it never takes 
wing for recreation or food, but simply as a means of moving from 
place to place : it is polygamous in its habits ; the number of females 
predominating over the males : the males are pugnacious, they accom- 
pany the females only until incubation has commenced, and abandon 
the duties of incubation and the care of the young solely to the 
females : the females make little or no nest, a depression scratched on 
the surface of the soil generally sufficing : the eggs are large in com- 
parison to the size of the bird : neither sex sings, or attempts to imi- 
tate the voice of men or animals. Birds included in this division 
approach more nearly to mammals than do those vrhich it excludes : 
for instance, the habitual use of land or water for progression, the 
swiftness of foot, the strength and muscular development of the legs, 
the polygamous habits, the want of the extraordinary instinct of nest- 
making, are characters which, while they seem to degrade these birds 
as birds, certainly raise them in the list of animals, because they are 
thus brought nearer those animals which suckle their young, and which 
are always placed at the head of the animal kingdom. In an econo- 
mical point of view, and considered in reference to man, the flesh of 
these birds is wholesome, nutritious, and is generally considered highly 
palatable. The division comprises the following orders, in each of 
which partial exceptions to one or other of these general characters 
occur : — 

1 . Gallinae, or the Poultry order. 

2. Brevipennes (Cuvier), or the Ostriches. 

3. Pressirostres (Cuvier), or the Plovers. 

4. Longirostres {Cuvier), or the Snipes. 

5. Macrodactyli (Cuvier), or the Rails. 

6. Plongeurs (Cuvier), or the Divers. 

7. Lamellirostres (Cuvier), or the Ducks. 

2. Gymnogenous Birds. — In these, when the shell is broken, the 
chick makes its appearance in a state of helpless infancy : it is naked, 
blind, and incapable of locomotion : it cannot distinguish its parent 
by means of its senses : it gapes for food, but does not distinguish 
between proper food offered by its parent, and a stick or a finger held 
over it : it cannot feed itself, and would die were not food placed in 
its mouth : it rapidly attains its full size, often before leaving the 
nest. When full-grown it uses its wings rather than its feet : it flies 
with a succession of deliberate and easy strokes : it takes wing for 
recreation and for food, and not merely for the purpose of moving 
from place to place : it is strictly monogamous ; the sexes being 
equal in number : males share with females the cares of incubation 
and feeding the young until these are able to shift for themselves. 
Birds possessing these characters build elaborate nests in trees, and 
perch in trees rather than on the ground : many of them sing melo- 
diously ; others imitate, with wonderful facility, the voice of man or 
of animals. As an economical character in connexion vrith man, their 
flesh is bitter and unpalatable, often offensive and disgusting ; hence 
man has never domesticated them for purposes of food. These are 



233 Royal Institution. 

birds par excellence : they possess in perfection the essential charac- 
ters of birds : in the habitual use of air for progression and of trees 
for resting, in the want of abihties for terrestrial progression, in 
strength and bulk of pectoral muscle, in monogamous habits, in the 
fabrication of nests, in power of song, they are raised as birds, but 
degraded as animals, since in all these characters they recede from 
those animals which suckle their young. The di\-ision comprises the 
following groups, in each of which exceptions to one or other of the 
general characters occur : — 

1. Totipalmes (Ciwier), or the Pelicans. 

2. Longipennes (Cuvier), or the Gulls. 

3. Accipitres, or the Birds of Prey. 

4. Cultrirostres (Cuvier), or the Herons. 

5. Passeres, or the Sparrow order. 

6. Grimpeurs {Citvier), or the Climbing birds ; and 

7. Columbse, or the Pigeons. 

KOYAL INSTITUTION. 

Feb. 14, 185 1 . — " On Recent Researches into the Natural History 
of the British Seas." By Professor Edward Forbes. 

The Natural History of the British Seas has for a long time been 
a favourite subject of investigation. Within the last fifteen years, 
however, fresh inquiries have been set on foot, and the details of their 
zoology and botany worked out to an extent beyond that to which 
the examination of any other marine province has been carried. Nu- 
merous and beautifully illustrated monographs, treating of their fishes, 
cetacea, portions of the articulata, the mollusca, radiaia, zoophytes, 
sponges, and algae, have been published, either at private cost, or by 
patriotic publishers, or by the Ray Society, such as the scientific 
literature of no other country can show. As these have all been the 
results of fresh and original research, they present a mass of valuable 
data sufficient to form a secure basis for important generalizations. 

From these materials, and from the results of the inquiries into the 
distribution of creatures in the depths of our seas, conducted by a 
committee of the British Association, a clear notion may be formed 
of the elements of which our submarine population is composed. 
Extensive tables exhibiting the sublittoral distribution of marine 
invertebrata, from the South of England along the western coasts of 
Great Britain to Zetland, mainly constructed from the joint observa- 
tions of Professor E. Forbes and* Mr. Mac Andrew, are now preparing 
for publication as a first part of a general report from the committee 
referred to. The data embodied in these tables are the produce of 
researches conducted during the last eleven years, and registered 
systematically at the time of observation. 

British marine animals and plants are distributed in depth (or 
bathymetrically) in a series of zones or regions which belt our shores 
from high-water mark down to the greatest depths explored. The 
uppermost of these is the tract between tide-marks ; this is the Lit- 
toral Zone. AVhatever be tlie extent of rise and fall of the tide. 



Royal Institution. 233 

this zone, wherever the ground is hard or rocky, thus affording secu- 
rity for the gi'owth of marine plants and animals, presents similar 
features and can be subdivided into a series of corresponding sub- 
regions ; through all of which the common limpet {Patella v\d(jatd) 
ranges, giving a character to the entire belt. Each of these sub- 
regions has its own characteristic animals and plants. Thus, the 
highest is constantly characterized by the presence of the periwinkle 
Littorina rudis (and on our western shores, Littorina neritoides) along 
with the sea-weed Fucus canaliculatus. The second subregion is 
marked by the sea-weed Lichina and the common mussel {Mytilus 
edulis). In common with the third subregion it almost always pre- 
sents rocks thickly encrusted with barnacles, so that where our shores 
are steep, a broad white band entirely composed of these shell-fish 
may be seen when the tide is out, marking the middle space so con- 
spicuously as to be visible from a great distance. In the third sub- 
region the commonest form of wrack or kelp {Fucus articulatus) 
prevails, and the large periwinkle {Littorina littorea) with Purpura 
Capillus are dominant and abundant. In the fourth and lowest sub- 
region the Fucus just mentioned gives way for another species, the 
Fucus serratus ; and in like manner the shells are replaced by a fresh 
Littorina {littoralis) and peculiar Trochi. 

Once below low-water mark the periwinkles become rare, or dis- 
appear, and the Fuci are replaced by the gigantic sea-weeds known 
popularly as tangles (species oi Laminaria, Alaria, &c.), among which 
live myriads of peculiar forms of animals and lesser plants. The ge- 
nus Lacuna among shell-fish is especially characteristic of this zone. 
In sandy places the Zostera or grass-wrack replaces the Laminaria. 
TheLAMiNARiAN ZoNE cxtends to a depth of about fifteen fathoms, 
but in its lowest part the greater sea-weeds are comparatively few, and 
more usually the prevailing plant is the curious coral-like vegetable 
called NulUpore. 

From 15 to 50 or more fathoms we find a zone prolific m pecuUar 
forms of animal life, but from which conspicuous vegetables seem 
almost entirely banished. The majority of its inhabitants are pre- 
dacious. Many of our larger fishes belong to this region, to which, 
on account of the plant-like zoophytes abounding in it, the name of 
Coralline Zone has been applied. The majority of the rarer shell- 
fish of our seas have been procured from this region. 

Below 50 fathoms is the Region of Deep-Sea Corals, so styled 
because hard and strong true corals of considerable dimensions are 
found in its depths. In the British seas it is to be looked for around 
the Zetlands and Hebrides, where many of our most curious animals, 
forms of zoophytes and Echinoderms, have been drawn up from the 
abysses of the ocean. Its deepest recesses have not as yet been ex- 
amined. Into this region we find that not a few species extend their 
range from the higher zones. When they do so they often change 
their aspect, especially so far as colour is corcerned, losing brightnesa 
of hue and becoming dull-coloured or even colourless. In the lower 
zones it is the association of species rather than the presence of pecu- 
liar forms which gives them a distinctive character. All recent re_ 



234 Royal Institution. 

searches, when scientifically conducted, have confirmed this classi- 
fication of provinces of depth. When we have an apparent exception, 
as in the case of the suhmarine ravine off the jMull of Galloway, 
dredged hy Captain Beechey and recorded hy Mr. Thompson, in 
which, though it is 150 fathoms deep, the fauna is that of the coral- 
line zone, we must seek for an explanation of the anomaly by in- 
quiring into the geological history of the area in question. In this 
particular instance there is every reason to believe that the ravine 
mentioned is of a very late date compared vyith the epoch of diffusion 
of the British Fauna. 

When we trace the horizontal distribution of creatures in the British 
seas, we find that though our area must be mainly or almost entirely 
referred to one of the great European marine provinces, that to which 
the lecturer has given the name of Celtic, yet there are subdivisions 
within itself marked out by the presence or absence of peculiar species. 
The marine fauna and flora of the Channel Isles present certain dif- 
ferences, not numerous, but not the less important, from that of the 
south-western shores of England, which in its turn differs from that 
of the Irish Sea, and it again from that of the Hebrides. The Cor- 
nish and Devon sea fauna and that of the Hebrides are marked by 
redundancies of species ; that of the eastern coasts of England, on the 
contrary, by deficiencies. Along the whole of our western coasts, 
whether of Great Britain or Ireland, we find certain creatures pre- 
vailing, not present on our eastern shores. In the depths off the 
south coast of Ireland we find an assemblage of creatures which do 
not strictly belong to that province, but are identical with similar iso- 
lated assemblages on the west coast of Scotland. In the west of Ire- 
land we find a district of shore distinguished from all other parts of 
our coast by the presence of a peculiar sea-urchin, to find the con- 
tinuation of whose range we must cross the Atlantic to Spain. In 
such phsenomena the lecturer sees endences of conformations of laud, 
of outhnes of coast, and connections of land with land under different 
climatal conditions than at present prevail within our area, for an ex- 
planation of which we must go back into the history of the geological 
past. If we do so, we can discover reasons for these anomalies, but 
not otherwise. 

The dredgmg researches about to be pubhshed go to show that 
among our sublittoral animals the northern element prevails over 
the southern, — a fact indicated by the number of peculiar northern 
species ; at the same time the southern forms appear to be diffusing 
themselves northwards more rapidly than the northern do south- 
wards. This diffusion is mainly maintained along our western shores, 
and appears to be in action, not only in the British seas, but also 
along the shores of Norway. AVe must attribute it to the influence 
of warm currents flowing northwards, originating probably in exten- 
sions of the Gulf-stream. The body of colder water in the depths of 
our seas preserves the original inhabitants of this area, remnants of 
the fauna of the glacial epoch, overlain and surrounded by a fauna 
of later migration, and adapted to a higher temperature. A curious 
fact respecting the marine creatures of the Arctic seas of Europe, viz. 



Miscellaneous. 235, 

that the littoral and lamiuarian forms are peculiarly arctic, whilst the 
deeper species are boreal or Celtic, may be explained also by the in- 
fluence of warm currents flowing northwards and diffusing the germs 
of species of more southern regions in the coralline and deep-sea-coral 
zones ; for in the arctic seas the temperature of the water is higher 
at some depth than near the surface. On the other hand, we find in 
a region farther to the south than Britain, an outlier of the Celtic 
fauna preserved in the bays of Asturias, where it was discovered in 
1849 by Mr. MacAndrew ; a very remarkable fact, and one appealed 
to by the lecturer as confirmatory of his theory of an ancient coast- 
extension between Ireland and Spain. 

There is still much to be done in the investigation of the natural 
history of our seas, and many districts remain for more minute explo- 
ration. It is chiefly among articulate animals, and especially among 
worms, that fresh discoveries may be looked for. Yet even now, new 
and remarkable forms of mollnsca may occasionally be procured, and 
during the autumn of last year, in a cruise with Mr. MacAndrew, 
no fewer than twenty additional mollusca and radiata were discovered 
in the Hebrides, and have just been described by the lecturer in con- 
junction with Professor Goodsir. Among these is one of the largest, 
if not the largest, compound Ascidians ever discovered. In our 
southernmost province fresh and valuable researches have been con- 
ducted during the past year by Professor Acland and Dr. Carus, who, 
selecting the Scilly Isles as a field for exploration, have filled up a 
blank in our fauna. 

The lecturer concluded by an expression of gratification at the 
spread and progress of natural-history studies in Great Britain among 
all ranks, and at the love of science manifested in the systematic 
manner in which our fauna and flora have been explored, and the 
beautiful works which have been produced in illustration of them. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

LARUS TRIDACTYLXJS. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, The Willows, Swansea, Feb. 16, 1851. 

On the 28th ult. I picked up on the sand-hills in Swansea Bay, far 
above high-water mark, " Larus tridactylus ; condition good ; no shot 
marks ; position natural ; dead, but not rigid." 

Upwards of a dozen were found within two miles, some still living, 
and others a considerable distance inland. 

In addition to these, many were washed up by the tide. 

I believe that all these birds were of the same species ; certainly all 
that came under my own observation were ; and I would therefore 
wish to ask, through the medium of your widely circulated Journal, 
whether a similar fact has been noticed at that time elsewhere ? for it 
appears strange that death should have overtaken this one species 



236 Miscellaneous. 

alone, and that suddenly, as shown by " condition good," in the ex- 
tract from my note-book. 

1 am. Sir, jonr obedient servant, 

Matthew Moggridge. 

Descriptions of new Entophyta groicing within Animals. 
By Joseph Leidy, M.U. 

EccRiNA. (Gen. nov.) Characters same as Enterobrus*, except 
that it divides into numerous cells at the free extremity. 

Eccrina longa. Filaments long and delicate, liyahne, or fanitly 
brownish, at first forming a shnple curve, or a single spiral turn, and 
then passing in a straight line to the free extremity. Teduncle very 
short. Frond cell usually filled with globules, and a few granules, 
except at free end, where it is usually filled with granules to the ex- 
clusion of the globules. End cells as many as thirty in number, at 
first consisting of elongated divisions of the frond cell contents, but 
becoming distinct elliptical cells, from two to three times longer than 
the breadth ; contents usually granular, occasionally with a few glo- 
bules. End cells finally separating from the parent. Length from 
three to seven hues, breadth 1 -2000th to the 1-5 17th in., not usually 
corresponding to the length. End cells 1-51 7th to the 1 -357th in. 
in length. 

Hob. Grows in very great profusion from the mucous membrane 
of the posterior part of the intestine o? Pofydesmus viryiniensis. 

[Dr. Leidy exhibited to the Academy a preserved fragment of mu- 
cous membrane, with filaments of this species six lines in length 

growing from it.] /. • 

Eccrina moniliformis. Filaments hyaline or yellowish, formmg a 
double or treble spiral. Peduncle short. Frond cell filled with glo- 
bules and granules, except towards its free extremity, where it is filled 
with granular matter divided into distinct and separate masses, usually 
a little shorter than broad, and containing each a globular nucleolated 
nucleus. Divisions progressively passing towards the end into globular 
cells with granular contents. Divisions and globular cells from twenty 
to fifty in immber. 

Length from 1 to 1^ line, breadth average 1-1 500th m. Divisions 
of frond cell contents and globular cells from l-1875th to l-1500th in. 
Nucleus of cells l-3750th in. 

Hab. Grows in moderate quantity from the mucous membrane of 
the intestine of 50 per cent, of Po/ydesmiis granulatus. 

Arthromitus nitidus. Filaments very long, hyaline, grow usually 
in twos or fours, pointed at the origin, rounded at the termination. 
Articuh very distinct, length eipial to the breadth of the filament. 
SporuU formed within the articuli, solitary, usually obUque, oval, 
amorphous. 

Length 1 line by l-5000th in. broad. Spores 1-7-11 1th m. long, 
by l-r2-500th in. "broad. 
" Hab. Grows in considerable quantity with a profusion of young of 

* Ann. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1850. 



Miscidlaneuiis. 237 

Enterobrus elegans, from the mucous membrane of the posterior 
portion of the rectum of Julus marginatus. 

Remarks. — Since I estabhshed the genus Arthromitus* I have 
obsers'ed the formation of its sporuli. These originate in the amor- 
phous matter of the articuh, apparently by a very gradual aggregation 
and condensation of the contents. They are always single, and 
usually lie oblique, and frequently alternate with each other in this 
position in the different articuh. When they first appear they are 
larger than when fully formed, are frequently bent, or clavate in 
form, and very indistinct ; but as they ripen, they become more regu- 
lar, oval, distinct, and quite refractile of light. Usually they are 
observed at the extremity of the filaments only, but frequently they 
are found existing in the whole length of the latter. 

A species oi Arthromitus, and also of Cladophytum, is found in the 
intestine of Polydesmus virginiensis. 

The Higrocrocis intestinalis found by Valentin in the Blatta ori- 
entalis, I could not find in our domestic cockroach, although I found 
numerous simple, phytoid, inarticulate filaments, growing from an 
Oxyuris infesting this animal. — Proceedings of the Academy of Na- 
tural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v. p. 35. 

ON FOSSIL RAIN DROPS. 

Mr. Desor communicated some observations made by Mr. Whitney 
and himself in reference to the probable origin of the so-called fossil 
rain drops, which in this country are found on slabs of new red sand- 
stone, as well as Potsdam sandstone. 

He said it had already been noticed by Mr. Teschemacher that these 
so-called rain drops, when closely examined, are found to differ in 
several respects from the impressions made by the rain on a beach, 
where each drop produces an impression surrounded by a rough crest, 
more or less elevated according to the force of the rain. The fossil 
impressions on sandstone, on the contrary, are generally flat and 
smooth. Besides, there is hardly a shower in which the rain drops 
are not numerous enough to cover the whole or nearly the whole 
ground, whereas the fossil impressions are generally scattered and 
so few in number that it seems almost impossible to ascribe them to 

rain. 

Mr. Desor said, that whilst encamped on the border of Lake Supe- 
rior, they had several opportunities of studying the action of the waves 
on the beach during a heavy surf, when they are driven beyond their 
usual range. It was noticed that when the waves retired from the 
higher part of the beach, where the slope was less steep, there could 
be seen several kinds of impressions in the act of forming, some large 
and flat, others small and deep, (like those which on the sea-shore 
are generally ascribed to worms or shrimps,) and others likewise deep, 
but surrounded by a sort of annular, smooth rim. These different 
kinds of impressions are all produced by the same cause, operating in 
the same way, namely air-bubbles, which are fonned in the waves of 
the surf, when rolling over the beach. If an air-bubble becomes 

* Ann. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1850. 



238 Miscellaneous. 

buried in the sand, so that in order to escape it has to make its way 
through the new-formed stratum of sand, it forms a deep and narrow 
hole. If the air, instead of escaping at once, bubbles up several times, 
then it raises around the hole a small and smooth rim, which may be 
compared to a miniature crater of a volcano. If, on the contrarj*, the 
air-bubble remains at the surface and bursts, then it causes a flat 
and rather large impression. According to Messrs. Whitney and 
Desor, these diiferent fonns of impression arising from air-bubbles 
are sufficient to account for most impressions which have hitherto 
been considered as the effect of rain. Such impressions of air-bubbles 
are most perfect where the slope of the beach is very gentle. Where 
the slope is more or less steep, the sand becomes too much hardened 
under the pressure of the waves to allow these delicate impressions to 
be produced. 

A sketch was exhibited, showing these different forms of impressions, 
and their striking contrast with impressions of rain drops from the 
same beach, mouth of Carp River, Lake Superior. 

Mr. Teschemacher said, that he had seen fossil rain drops, so-called, 
with an elevated ridge crossing them ; an appearance easily explained 
by Mr. Desor' s hypothesis, but incompatible with the supposition that 
they were caused by rain. 

Prof. Agassiz said, that on the mud flats at Cambridge, he had 
noticed impressions made in the way described by Mr. Desor at Lake 
Superior.— Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1850. p. 200. 

On the Occurrence of Crystalline Bodies in Animal Tissues. 

Dr. Leidy remarked that crystalline bodies had been detected in 
most of the tissues of many plants, but that their occurrence in 
animal tissues was much more rare. The deposit of earthy salts in 
many tissues, such as bone, enamel and shell, though analogous, was 
not homologous with crv'stallization. The earthy deposit in the shell 
of the egg of many animals is probably an instance of true crystalliza- 
tion within an animal tissue, for in those animals which have eggs with 
a semi-membranous shell, as many helices, &c., we can detect the car- 
bonate of lime deposited in the form of regular rhombohedrons. He 
stated that he lately met vrith a remarkable instance of ciystallization 
within animal organic cells. In examining the stomach of the larva of 
Arctia Isabella, a Lepidopterous insect, he found that the micleus of 
every epithelial cell contained an octohedral crystal, the axes of which 
measured about the l-3750th of an inch. The cells were colourless, 
(not white,) containing some faintly granular matter, which in many 
instances was collected into distinct rounded masses. The nuclei 
were round, elliptical, or lenticular, transparent, and measured the 
1-1 666th of an inch when round. The following day, upon exami- 
ning some of the cells, which had been preserved between two sUps of 
glass hermetically sealed, the crystals had disappeared, and the nuclei 
had become distinctly and opakely granular. Acetic acid rendered 
the granular matter more translucent, and brought into laew the 
nucleolus, which, not being visible the preceding day, probably served 
as the nucleus of the crystalline body. The animal, when examined, 
was in a state of hybernation, at which period organic activity is 



Meteorological Observations. 239 

reduced, which would predispose to the crystallization of any salt in 
solution in an organic cell ; for it appears that the frequency of the 
existence of crystalline bodies in the organic kingdom, is, to a con- 
siderable extent, dependent upon an inverse ratio of activity of life.— 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
vol. V. p. 32. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR JAN. 1851. 
Chiswick. — January 1. Densely clouded : boisterous, with slight rain. 2. Over- 
cast : cloudy : densely overcast. 3. Hazy : heavy rain : overcast. 4. Hazy : 
clear. 5. Very fine. 6. Dense fog. 7. Foggy : cloudy and fine. 8, 9. Very fine. 
10. Kain. II. Fine : drizzly. 12. Densely overcast : drizzly. 13. Densely 
clouded. 14, 15. Fine: cloudy. 16. Very fine. 17. Fine : heavy rain at night. 
18. Clear: very fine. 19. Fine: cloudy: overcast. 20. Densely overcast: 
boisterous, with rain. 21. Overcast : very fine : heavy rain at 8 p.m. 22. Clear: 
very fine. 23. Frosty: fine: clear and frosty. 24. Dense fog. 25. Cloudy: 
overcast. 26. Fine: overcast : rain. 27. Clear : very fine. 28. Very fine : rain. 
29. Overcast : boisterous, with rain at night. 30. Rain : fine : rain at night. 31. 
Sleet : rain. 

Mean temperature of the month 40°'40 

Mean temperature of Jan. 1850 33 "11 

Mean temperature of Jan. for the last twenty-five years . 36 -60 

Average amount of rain in Jan 1'60 inch. 

5os/oM.— Jan. 1. Cloudy: stormy p.m. 2. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 3. 
Cloudy: rain p.m. 4. Cloudy. 5. Cloudy: rain early a.m. 6,7. Foggy. 8. Fine: 
rain P.M. 9. Fine. 10. Rain : rain a.m. and p.m. 11 — 15. Cloudy. 16 — 19. 
Fine. 20. Fine: rain p.m. 21,22. Fine. 23,24. Cloudy. 25. Cloudy: 
rain p.m. 26. Fine. 27. 28. Fine : rain p.m. 29, 30. Cloudy : rain p.m. 
31. Fine. 

Applegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire.— Jan. 1. Boisterous day of darkness, 
veind and rain. 2. Fearful night of wind and rain : calm a.m. 3. Frost hard : 
thick fog all day. 4. Thaw : rain ; high wind p.m. 5. Wet all day. 6. Frost 
preceding night : moist. 7. Frost : thaw : rain p.m. 8. Snow-shower : rain again. 
9. Frost: clear: fine. 10. Rain: fog: continued drizzle. 11. Rain all day. 
12. Rain heavy during night: day fine. 13. Drizzle all day : wind high. 14. 
Rain heavy: drizzle : flood. 15. Rain a.m. : rain again p.m. 16. Rain and high 
wind. 17. Fair A.M. : rain and wind p.m. 18. Frost slight a.m. : fine day. 19. 
Showers: dull and cloudy. 20. Rain heavy all day : flood. 21. Rain during 
night: fine a.m. 22. Frost slight : occasional showers. 23. Fair and mild all 
day. 24. Fair A.M. : rain again P.M. 25. Rain heavy night and morning. 26. 
Rain during night : fair noon : wet p.m. 27. Fair : calm : high wind p.m. 28. 
Fair A.M. : rain and wind p.m. 29. Rain nearly all day : flood. 30. Fair a.m. : 
heavy snow p.m. 31. Frost: fog : snow lying : calm. ^ 

Mean temperature of the month 40 "4 

Mean temperature of Jan. 1850 30 '8 

Mean temperature of Jan. for the last twenty-nine years ... 34 "7 

Average rain in Jan. for twenty-four years 2-60 inches. 

Sandwich Manse, Orkney.— Jan. 1. Showers. 2. Showers : sleet : showers. 3. 
Showers : clear. 4. Frost : cloudy. 5. Showers : clear. 6. Fine : clear : showers, 
7. Fine : frost : cloudy. 8. Bright : showers. 9. Showers : large halo. 10. Rain. 
11 Cloudy. 12. Rain: clear. 13. Rain: cloudy : clear. 14. Cloudy : rain : 
cloudy. 15. Cloudy : drizzle. 16. Clear : rain. 1 7. Clear : large halo. 18. 
Clear : sleet-showers. 19. Cloudy : clear : aurora. 20. Cloudy : showers. 21, 
Bright : cloudy : showers. 22. Sleet-showers : showers : aurora. 23. Bright : 
cloudy : aurora. 24. Rain : cloudy. 25. Rain : cloudy. 26. Rain : clear : 
cloudy. 27—29. Rain : clear : aurora. 30. Showers : clear : hoar-frost. 31. 
Clear : frost : sleet-showers. 



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Ann KMig Mai. Hist a 2 v„i 7 p. 




THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 40. APRIL 1851. 



XXII. — On the Geographical Distribution of the Bulirai, a genus 
of terrestrial Mollusca, and on the modification of their Shell to 
the local physical conditions in which the species occur. By 
LovELL Reeve, F.L.S. &c. 

[With a Map.] 

The Bulimi are distributed over the equatorial, tropical and warm 
temperate regions of the globe in assemblages of species, limited 
in their range, and of very distinct typical character ; and being 
of sluggish habits with few means of transport, little migration 
occurs even where there are no such natural boundaries as seas, 
deserts, or mountain chains. Of the Bulimi known from all parts 
of the world, the localities of nearly 600 species are now well 
authenticated. They are all described and figured in the ' Con- 
chologia Iconica' ; most of them with the particular circumstances 
of habitation. Their area of geographical distribution lies be- 
tween 40° S. and 35° N. in the new world, and between 43° S. 
and 52° to 55° N. in the old world ; — that is, between the south- 
ern borders of Chili and Texas in the former, and between Van 
Diemen's Land and Germany, if not Sweden, in the latter. And 
there is no country within this area of which the genus of snails 
under consideration does not form part of the zoology. There 
is one abnormal species, B. lubricus, removed from the genus by 
British authors, which obtains a more northerly range and a 
greater elevation in both hemispheres. 

Regarding the differences of form, composition and disposition 
of colour in the shell, the Bulimi are distributed over this area 
in seven provinces, comprising about forty typical assemblages 
of species. Of these three-fifths inhabit the western hemisphere, 
principally Central America, and two-fifths have a wider range 
and greater local variety of character, in conformity with the 
more varied arrangement of the land, in the eastern. Taking 
the size and substance of the shell at different elevations and in 

Ann. £f Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. vii. 16 



243 Mr. L. Beeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bullmi. 

different degrees of temperature, it may be remarked tbat the 
calcifying energies of the Bulimi are most strongly exerted 
in thickly wooded districts, in the midst of plenty of decaying 
vegetable matter, close and humid, with a mean heat of from 
80° to 85°, among shady thickets or in ravines. Near the sea- 
level in thin calcareous soil, and in sandy plains, where the vege- 
tation is scanty and parched, and in grassy savannahs, the shell 
is thin and often vividly colom-ed. In those species whose habit 
it is to burrow in the ground, the shell is mostly small, pattern- 
less, and of glassy tenuity, even in localities remote from each 
other and differing materially in physical character. 

I. The Western Hemispheke. 

The Western Hemisphere comprises four grand provinces of 
distribution, the Venezuelan, the Brazilian, the Chilian, and the 
Bolivian, and from these may be further distinguished the di- 
stricts of the Gelepagos Islands and of the Great Antilles. The 
fii-st province includes the countries of New Granada and Ve- 
nezuela ; the second comprises the empire of Brazil and Buenos 
Ayres ; the third comprises Chili and West Peru ; and the fourth 
province includes Bolivia and the Argentine Republic. About 
three hundi-ed and fifty species are known. 

1. The Venezuelan Province. 

The highest condition of the genus is in intertropical America, 
which yields about one half of the number of species known from 
all parts of the world. In the luxuriant districts of New Gra- 
nada and Venezuela, watered by the tributaries of the Magdalena 
and Orinoco rivers, with a temperature varying from 70° to 100° 
in the shade, about sixty species have been collected at different 
altitudes. On the mountain sides near the sea, away from the 
land breezes, with little vegetation, where the thermometer never 
falls below 80°, are a few species, B. erectus, Cacticolus, &c., of 
which the shell is extremely thin and sombre from the want of 
moisture for the animal, which is curiously spotted and painted, 
and attaches in clusters to the parched Cacti, eating into their 
fleshy substance. The animals of the beautifully variegated 
shells of the Philippine Bulimi are of a uniform dull gray 
colour. These contrasts between animal and shell are worth 
noting. Higher up on the mountains of Venezuela for the space 
of about 2000 feet, the countiy being still of a sandy and stony 
nature, with little vegetation except Cacti and other dry prickly 
shrubs, and a few trees in the ravines, the Bulimi are still com- 
paratively small, but the shell is more brilliant in colour. B. Cu- 
rianensis, Knorri, and Studeri are beautiful examplesof this type, 



Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the B ulimi . 243 

of which the darker varieties inhabit the higher and woodier 
situations. They are rarely found at a greater elevation or in a 
lower temperature than about 76° within doors. Proceeding up- 
wards on the mountains of Venezuela, the plants are now thicker, 
and give place to large trees with underwood of broad green 
leaves, enveloped in clouds and mists which occasion considerable 
humidity. In these situations at an elevation of from 4000 to 
6000 feet are the richly-coloured B.fulminans and Blainvilleanus, 
and at a still greater altitude reaching to 8000 feet, with a pro- 
portionably lower temperature of from 65° to 70°, under decayed 
leaves in thick moist woods, in ravines and in crevices of the 
mountains, are the large stout dark-painted B. Moritzianus, as- 
trapoides, pardalis, Funckii, &c., representing the most highly 
calcified condition of the genus hitherto discovered. 

2. The Brazilian Province. 
Passing in a south-easterly direction into the great territory 
of Brazil, we have no information of the presence of any typical 
assemblages of Bulimi until reaching the countries of Bahia and 
Minas Geraes. It can hardly be doubted, however, that m Guay- 
ana, Para, and all that country constituting the great basin of 
the Amazon, many fine species occur, in addition to B. Bensom, 
which belongs to the widely spread B. zebra type, as well as m 
Piauhy, Goyaz, and the more sterile parts of Pernambuco. From 
Bahia southwards to Rio Janeiro, the genus is represented by 
about sixty species, in six characteristic typical groups, extremely 
local, and of which the shell differs remarkably in its plan of 
convolution. In no part of the American continent is the theory 
of specific centres of creation, advocated by Professor E. Forbes, so 
distinctly recognized as in this area of ten degrees. On the 
Corcovado and other lofty mountains in the vicinity of Rio, in 
dense woods at an elevation of 1000 to 1500 feet, is a singular 
group, B. Pantagruelinus, exesus, odontostoma, Pupoides, &c., of 
which the shell differs from all other types of the new world, in 
having a number of tooth-like processes developed within the aper- 
ture of the last whorl on arriving at maturity. The only country 
in which this character again appears is in the centre of the old 
world, among the smaller and more temperate species of Syria 
and Hindoostan. In this part of Brazil we have also another 
type, pecuhar to the locality, in which the last whorl is produced 
in front into a longitudinally angled channel, as in B. goniostoma, 
egregius, angulatus, fusiformis, &c. Upon the leaves of damp 
underwood, at an elevation of about 2000 feet, is another distinct 
and brilliantly coloured group, iJ. multicolor, Miersii, and the large 
B. ovatus, which inhabits also the neighbouring island of St. Ca- 
tharina. In the lower grounds upon orange-trees and in the 

16* 



244 Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 

coffee plantations about Tejuca at 1000 feet above the sea-level, 
the Bulimi, as in the lower parts of Venezuela, have their shells 
characteristic of less moisture and fewer opportunities of retire- 
ment. B. papyraceus may be quoted as an example. The more 
lofty and thickly wooded parts of Minas Geraes produce a type 
with shells of sohd growth and intertropical brilliancy of colour, 
represented by B. Milleri, bilabiatus, planidens, melanostoma , &c. 
In the vicinity of Bahia is a group with shells of totally different 
construction and of lighter substance, B. navicula, auris-leporis, 
Sec, in which the last whorl is peculiarly convoluted at a right 
angle with the axis of the spire. Lastly, at Caravelhas, below 
Bahia, and at the little island of Coxaprego, at the mouth of the 
Iguaripe river, is a remarkable type, represented by B. calcareus, 
obeliscus, syhaticus, &c., of which the shell, presenting a singular 
contrast with the preceding group, is composed of a large number 
of whorls, drawn out into the elongated form of a Turritella. 
This partial grouping of opposite forms, within a comparatively 
limited area having few natural boundaries, will doubtless become 
broken up to a certain extent with the advancement of human 
progress. Already have the climate and natural vegetation of 
Rio been modified by the clearing away of the neighbouring 
forests of the Corcovado range of hills, which tends to reduce 
the humidity and other circumstances that combine to favour the 
growth and calcification of the terrestrial moUusca. 

Owing probably to the recent geological disturbances that are 
supposed by Lyell, Darwin and others to have taken place in the 
southern extremity of the American continent, there are no ty- 
pical provinces o{ Bulimi below Rio. The genus is represented 
by one or two scattered species in Buenos Ayres extending in the 
widely distributed jB. sporadicus to the banks of the Rio Negro, 
but none are recorded from the sterile riverless plains of Pata- 
gonia. That the genus should be suddenly arrested at this point 
in a tropical condition, without any of the graduated states which 
abound in the north temperate countries of both hemispheres, 
is doubtless owing to the upraising of the land in this part of 
South America, which Mr. Darwin considers to have occurred 
within the period of the now-existing sea-shells. Mr. Cuming 
collected worn shells of Valuta Brasiliana (a species living on 
the shores of Buenos Ayres) in a bank of other dead shells fifty 
miles inland. The climate is many degrees warmer in Patagonia 
and Tierra del Puego than in the same latitude of the northern 
hemisphere. "Evergreen trees,'"' says Mr. Darwin, "flourish 
luxuriantly under it, humming-birds may be seen sucking the 
flowers, and parrots feeding on the seeds." Snails being of 
less fugitive character than birds, and offering fewer means of 
transport than plants, appear not to have migrated thither. The 



Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 245 

sea which washes the shores of Patagonia is peopled with a fauna 
of more tropical character than the land, owing to the warmth 
of the great equatorial current, which flows southward along 
the eastern coast of South America, and caiises a bend in the 
system of isothermal lines laid down by Humboldt of nearly 
ten degrees. A fine large richly painted Volute, V. Magellanica, 
in common use among the Patagonians as a drinking-cup, in- 
habits their shore abundantly. Yet the northern limit of this 
genus does not approach the Mediterranean nor any part of 
Europe. It is right however to add, that a species of Cymba, 
to which genus V. Magellanica is the nearest allied form of 
Volute, has been veiy recently dredged oflF Lisbon by Mr. 
M^Andrew. 

3. The Chilian Province. 

Crossing to the west side of the American continent and re- 
turning northward, we are impressed with the marked difference 
between those on the west and those on the east side of the 
mountain chain of the Andes. In the sandy plains of Chili, 
where there is little moisture beyond that arising from the dews, 
the Bulimi, about thirty-five in number, are mostly small, with 
thin, often transparent shells, having little of colour or marking. 
Towards the mountains at the roots of shrubs, on dead trunks of 
trees or under Cacti, are several species distributed somewhat 
miscellaneously in respect of form, as B. granulosus, erythrostoma, 
Pupiformis, &c. Near the sea-shore they assume a more distinct 
typical character, of which the shell, Succinea-Yike., is widely in- 
flated, and owing to the dry calcareous nature of the soil and 
absence of vegetation is extremely thin, brittle, and simply dark- 
speckled. The B. Broderipii, punctulifer, rupicolus, and reflexus 
are characteristic examples. Surrounded with few of the condi- 
tions which serve for the formation of shell, the calcifying func- 
tions of this group are but feebly exercised. They exist for many- 
months together in the crevices of rocks in a state of torpidity, 
and are only roused during the excessive dews. "Wait till the 
dews come," said a Chilian to Mr. Cuming, " and they will all 
come to life again." 

In the warmer, but still comparatively rainless district of Peru, 
the Bulimi have more brightly-coloured shells, with more variety 
of pattern. They are about as numerous in species as those of 
Chili, under as many types. In the more arid parts of Peru, 
upon the mountains, the shell is thin, as in B. varians, tigris, 
lenmiscatus, and tumidulus, compared with those inhabiting more 
woody districts on the eastern side of the Andes. They have, 
moreover, a colder aspect than those of the same latitude in Brazd, 
on account of the more scanty nature of the vegetation, the lesser 



246 Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 

humidity of the atmosphere, and the cold precipitated from the 
cold antarctic drift current which flows in a northerly direction 
along the western shores of South America neai'ly to the equator. 
The effect of moisture and consequent amount of decaying vege- 
table matter in promoting the formation of shell is curiously 
illustrated by the presence of a stout richly- coloured species of 
large size, B. phasianellus, on the rainy border of Peru, where 
they crawl up the stripped trees in great abundance ; and by the 
B. Tupacii, dwelling on bushes and garden walls on the Bolivian 
side of the Andes at an elevation of 9000 feet, which has a ro- 
bust dark-painted shell similar to those of the lofty Venezuelan 
type. B. rosaceus, which inhabits a wide range of country, ex- 
tending from the environs of Valparaiso, near the sea, to Coca- 
pata in Bolivia, crouches under stones in the sand in the first- 
named locality, and has a pale smooth calcareous shell. But in 
the woods of Cocapata, where it lives in more humid situations 
among the trunks of trees, the shell is larger, stouter, more richly 
coloui'ed, and with more of epidermis. Thus we have the change 
which characterizes different species, presented in the same spe- 
cies under different conditions. Another remarkable instance is 
pi'esented in B. zebra. This species inhabits an area of Central 
America enclosing Honduras, Nicaragua, the West Indies, and 
Pernambuco, reaching to the shores of Peru, and produces a shell 
varying so much in character according to the physical conditions 
under which it is formed, that it has been described as several 
species. The same has occurred with B. regina, which in its 
range from New Granada and Guayana to Bolivia and the in- 
terior of Peru, affects a condition partaking in each instance of 
the local conchological character of the country. 

4. The Bolivian Province. 

From Bolivia and the Argentine Republic about forty Bulimi 
are described, illustrative of six types. The large Brazilian 
B. ovatus, living near the coast, is here represented in the heart 
of the continent, at Santa Cruz, by the gigantic B. maccimus and 
Valenciennesii, inhabiting the dense forests of the Cordilleras with 
B. lacunosus and a few other allied forms. Another type with 
shells of stout growth is represented by B. Tujiacii, thamnoicus, 
and inca; and an extremely interesting form is presented in 
B. onca, found by M. D'Orbigny at the bottom of a deep ravine 
near Tutulima. A few species with delicately painted shells, 
constituting another group, inhabit the woods in the vicinity of 
Cochabamba, B. linostoma, xanthostoma, fusoides, &c. ; and a cha- 
racteristic group with shells of light structure, freely marked but 
not highly coloured, is typified by B. pcecilus, hygrohyl(eus, mar- 
marinas, orendes, &c. The ground-burrowing species, with ex- 



Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 247 

tremely thin shells devoid of colour or pattei'n^ consist of B. bac- 
terionides, lichnorum, turritella, &c. Two or three species have been 
collected ou the mountains surrounding the Lake of Titicaca, which 
is itself 14,000 feet above the level of the sea. Of these B. Pent- 
landi and Hamiltoni may be quoted as examples. In the high 
lands of the Cordillera range, commencing at the Lake of Titicaca, 
passing along the region of medicinal barks, as laid down by Wed- 
dell, to Cuzco, Chachapoyas, and the Andes of Caxamarca, and 
extending across the equator by Quito, Bogota, and Merida, 
nearly to Caraccas, many fine species have been collected, but of 
too miscellaneous a variety of form to show any typical assem- 
blages. From this extensive and little-explored region we have 
B. labeo, Adamsoni, Thompsoni, rhodolarynx, Hartwegii, Alto- 
Peruvianus, alutaceus, Taylorianus, murrinus, Lobbii, Clausili- 
oides, and columellaris, singularly different from each other, and 
differing altogether from the Bulimi of Bolivia and La Plata. 
There is, however, one well-defined group inhabiting the south- 
ern extremity of the Cordillera range at Merida and Bogota, of 
which B. Cathcartiae, Veranyi, Succinoides and quadncolor are 
characteristic examples. They have peculiarly inflated richly 
coloured shells, and ai'e covered with a delicate hydrophanous 
epidermis disposed in hieroglyphic patterns after the manner of 
the Philippine Bulimi. 

5. Central America. 

Of the remaining Bulimi of the American continent, about ten 
species inhabit the central neck of land which comprises the pro- 
vinces Veragua, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and 
Guatemala. Fourteen species have been collected in the hilly 
parts of Mexico ; and two or three species scattered in Cahfornia, 
Texas, and Alabama constitute the northern limit of the genus 
in the new world. The Bulimi of Central America are very 
distinct from those of which we have been speaking hitherto. 
B. Panamensis, vexillum, translucens and unicolor from Panama, 
B. corneus from Real Llejo, B. discrepans from Conchagua, and 
B. Hondurasanus and Dysoni from Hondui'as, are all characterized 
by a thin transparent horny shell of the same type. They have 
little pattern or variety of colour, and live upon the trunks of 
trees or under fallen leaves. None of the South American types 
have any representatives in Central America. There is, however, 
a single species in Honduras, B. Kieneri, belonging to a singular 
Cyclostoma-\ike type, which belongs evidently to Jamaica, where 
it is represented by B. Gossei, turricula, unicarinatus, cylindricus, 
and Gidldinffii. In ]\Iexico the Bulimi are more varied Five 
species, B. Mexicanus, serperastrus, livescois, Humboldtii and nite- 
linus, in which the shelly is of a Ught brittle structure, oblong 



248 Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 

form and simply dark-banded, belong to a type quite peculiar to 
tbis locality, extending in B. Californicus to the opposite penin- 
sula. At Vera Cruz, on the eastern side of Mexico, a Bolivian 
type appears in B. Lattrei, Jonasi andfenestratus. A very remai'k- 
able type is presented in the Mexican B. Dombeyamis, which is 
at present unique. B. lahiatus and Schiedianus, which are almost 
coloui'less, partake of the typical character of B. confinis and li- 
quabilis inhabiting Texas, and B. dealbattcs inhabiting Alabama, 
which is the northern limit of the genus in the new world. 

6. Islands of the Western Hemisphere. 

The terrestrial conchology of the islands of the western hemi- 
sphere is for the most part typically distinct from that of the con- 
tinent, and the more so in each particular group of islands in 
proportion to their distance from the main land. This receding 
gradation of types is distinctly shown in the Bulimi of the Great 
and Little Antilles. In the first group of islands this genus has 
but a meagre share in the conchology, which comprises more of 
Cyclostomata. In the latter group the Bulimi, passing south- 
ward, are gradually larger and more painted, and exhibit a rela- 
tionship with those of the neighbouring continent. Jamaica, 
Cuba, and Tortola yield a few species of the Cyclostoma type, B. 
Gossei, turricula, &c., just spoken of as appearing at Honduras in 
B. Kieneri; but there are more of the ground-burrowing Glandina 
type, such as B. subula, octonoides, Goodhalli, and pauperculus in- 
habiting the savannahs. B. immaculatus is a rather large species, 
and B. mirabilis, remarkable for its squamate growth, is quite 
unique as a type. In Guadaloupe and Martinique, connecting 
the Leeward and Windward of the West India Islands, a few spe- 
cies occur with shells of darker and more solid growth, as B. Gua- 
daloupensis, Martinicensis and chrysalis. In the principal islands 
of the Little Antilles approximating to the South American con- 
tinent, the Bulimi increase in size and colouring, gliding most 
distinctly into the types of the Venezuelan province. The richly 
painted B. fulminans and Blainvilleanus of Merida are represented 
in the island of St. Vincent by B. auris-Sileni; the delicate B. 
roseatus and xanthostoma of Bogota by B. stramineus and Vincen- 
tinus in the same island ; and B. glaber, a robust species of Tri- 
nidad, is represented in the nearest main land of Venezuela by 
B. distortus and euryomphalus, and in New Granada by B.perdix. 

The Gelepagos Islands contribute about ten species of Bulimus, 
small in size and of a dusky hue, agreeing in this respect with 
what has been observed by Mr. Darwin in reference to the dusky 
colour of the birds and insects. B. eschai-iferus and rugulosus 
from Chatham Island, B. ustulatus, nux, and wiifasciatus from 
Charles Island, B. Jacobi and rugiferus from Jacob Island, B. 



Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 249 

calvus from James Island, and B. Darwinii and sculpturatus, of 
which the particular island has not been noted, are all typically- 
distinct from the Bulimi of the neighbouring continent. A spe- 
cies has however been very recently discovered, B. achatellinus, 
partaking of the character oi Achatinella, an allied genus of snails 
confined to some of the Polynesian Islands. The Bulimi of 
the Gelepagos Islands seem, nevertheless, to be purely aboriginal, 
living among dried tufts of grass, upon comparatively leafless 
bushes, or under detached pieces of lava, and presenting indica- 
tions of the volcanic nature of the soil and desert character of 
the vegetation. 

The Polynesian Islands have no Bulimi except one or two small 
transparent ground-burrowing species, B. Antoni and Oparanus 
from the island of Opara, B. Tuckeri from Hardy's Island, and 
B. Sandwicensis from the Sandwich Islands. Their absence is, 
however, compensated by the presence of two other genera of 
land snails which are not found anywhere else. In the Society 
Islands the Bulimi are represented by the Partulce, and in the 
Marquesas, Friendly, Sandwich, and Navigators' Islands, by the 
Achatinellce. 

II. The Eastern Hemisphere. 

The Bulimi of the eastern hemisphere are more partial in their 
character and distribution than those of the western, owing to 
there being less explored land within the parallels of latitude in- 
closing the conditions most favourable to their existence. In 
West Africa they are replaced by a tribe of large Achatina. 
But in the localities which they inhabit within this intertropical 
area, comprising chiefly the islands of the Indian Archipelago, 
they are more numerous in species in proportion to the extent of 
land. The Bulimi of the old world have a wider range in the 
warm temperate regions, and the geographical position of the 
genus is more insular than continental. As many species have 
been collected in the Philippine Islands alone as in the whole 
extent of continent between Sweden and Cochin China. The 
eastern Bulimi, comprising about two hundred and fifty spe- 
cies, present three grand typical provinces of distribution, which 
may be termed the Caucasian, the Malayan, and the African. The 
limits of these provinces are well-marked, and they possess no 
species in common. The species are all distinct from those of 
the western hemisphere. 

] . T7ie Caucasian Province. 

The Caucasian province has its centre in Asia Minoi-, and oc- 
cupies an area extending west and east over the southern coun- 
tries of Europe and Asia to the opposite shores of North Africa. 



250 Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 

At the eastern limit of this province in the British Isles and at 
the western limit in the Meia-co-shimah Isles, the shell is of the 
same form, substance and colour. The shell of the Caucasian 
Bulimus is small, mostly white or dusky brown, sometimes con- 
voluted siuistrally, and partakes very much of the character of 
Pupa, which is the predominant genus of this district. At the 
north-western extremity of the Caucasian province the genus is 
represented in the British Isles, Germany, France, Spain, and 
Portugal by the small B. obscurus, montanus and acutus. The first 
of these extends to South Sweden, fifteen to twenty degrees nearer 
the Arctic Circle than in the new world, agreeably with the curve 
of Humboldt's isothermal lines in that direction, and confirms the 
warmer comparative temperature of this portion of the eastern 
hemisphere. In B. ventrosus and decollatus the genus obtains a 
more southern range, extending into Sicily and the Canary Islands. 
The Bulimi of the Canary Islands are, however, for the most part 
indigenous. Of the following species inhabiting this group, B. 
variatus, Moquinianus, obesatus, baticaius, Bertheloti, subdiapha- 
nus, only the last is found in any other locality, the Cape de Verd 
Islands. No Canary Island Bulimus has been collected in Por- 
tugal, Spain or Sicily, but a species has been found to range 
along with B. barbarus, rupestris, and Bergeri over Greece and 
the eastern islands of the Mediterranean to Algeria and the 
borders of Egypt. B. detritus, subtilis, and quinquedentatus may 
be noted as belonging more especially to Austria and Central 
Europe, and B. Varnensis, Frivaldshji, and Chersonesicus to 
Turkey and the Crimea. Towards the vicinity of the Caucasus 
the Bulimi are more numerous, of larger and more solid growth 
and more divided into groups. Owing to the dry juiceless thorny 
character of the vegetation, their habits difi^er from those of the 
humid and woody countries of intertropical America. Their 
shells are comparatively small with little colouring matter or 
epidermis, and they live under stones or blocks of wood, or 
suspended for a long season in a state of torpidity from the 
shrubs. The difference between the shell of the Caucasian and 
that of the Malayan or Venezuelan Bulimi is very characteristic 
of the physical conditions with which the animal is surrounded 
in each instance. B. labrosus, labiosus, Alepi, Syriacus, and 
Ehrenbergi are true Caucasian types. In B. Spraitii and Lycicus 
the shell has a light and ventricose growth, but in B. spoliatus, 
zebriolus, and Tournefortianus it has an elongated P«;j«-likc 
form. 

Passing the south-western countries of Asia we find no species 
of Bulimus recorded from any locality between Syria and Afghan- 
istan. Of the terrestrial conchology of Persia, Tartary and 
Beloochistan, nothing is at present known, and very little of that 



Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 251 

of China. South of Syria a natural boundary is imposed to the 
range of the genus in that direction by the rainless and riverless 
desei-ts of Arabia. A few species make their appearance in the 
more fertile parts near the Gulf of Bab-el-mandeb and the Indian 
Ocean. B. latirejlexus, a fine species inhabiting the vicinity of 
Muskat on the Gulf of Oman^ has a polished shell of solid stony 
composition^ without colour or marking, of precisely the same 
type as B. labiosus and labrosus of Asia Minor. B. fragosus and 
Forskalii inhabiting Yemen, also patternless, assimilate to the 
tumid tribe of Pupce of Asia Minor. Abyssinia and the neigh- 
bouring island of Socotra, marking the eastern boundary of the 
Caucasian province, contribute two species from each locality, 
one of which species in both instances belongs to an Indian type, 
the other being remote from it. B. Olivieri of Abyssinia has 
an inflated shell with a dark fibrous epidermis very distinct in 
character from any Asiatic or European species, while B. Abys- 
sinicus from the same locality has been collected also in Central 
India, north of the river Nerbudda. It is allied in form with 
B. Jerdoni from the hilly districts of the Deccan peninsula, and 
both species agree in typical character with i?./?-«^osws of Arabia. 
B, Socotrensis, inhabiting the island of Socotra, off Cape Gua- 
dafui, has a peculiar little solid pea-shaped shell unique as a 
type ; but associated with it in the same locality is an oblong cy- 
lindrical form, B. contiguus, belonging to a type of Hindoostan, 
represented by B. puUus inhabiting the environs of Delhi and 
Bundelkhund and extending into the Gangetic plains. 

In the south-western countries of Asia the genus is very mea- 
grely represented, but the species are peculiar in their circum- 
stances of habitation. Two of comparatively large size occur on 
the hills of Afghanistan, B. Griffithsii and eremita, with opake 
colourless shells partaking of the Syrian type. From the whole 
of Hindoostan, including the Himalaya range, the Punjab, Sciude, 
Nepaul, Bhotan, Assam, the Deccan and Carnatic, only five-and- 
twenty species have been collected, limited apparently in number 
of individuals. In the plains watered by the numerous branches 
of the Ganges, with a temperature varying in the season of the 
hot winds from 85° to 90° at night, to 130° or 140° in the sun, 
the Bulimi are scattered and of miscellaneous character. On the 
wooded hills rising into a moist and cooler atmosphere they are 
more abundant. B. rufistrigatus at an elevation of 4000 feet has 
a fulvous horny oblong shell. B. amopidus and tutulus inhabit- 
ing a lower level are minute delicate brown species, the latter 
being convoluted in the form of a rounded Cijclostoma. B.pul- 
lus is a light cylindrical form, B. cercus and gracilis are thin 
horny species, and B. punctatus, Bonfiae, and Bengalensis have 
light inflated shells of a type altogether diff"erent. The most 



252 Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 

characteristic Bulimi inhabiting this part of Asia arc those of the 
Himalaya range, B. Kunawwensis, pretiomis, vibex, nivicola, cce- 
lebs, and arcuatus. Their shells are of a fulvous brown colour, 
mostly streaked with opake white marks, all of one type, distinct 
from the Syrian, but sufficiently allied to come into the same 
province of distribution. Occupying a loftier situation than the 
species before mentioned, they have, as in Venezuela, stouter 
shells, but are still comparatively small and sombre. On the 
mountain slopes, where the flora, represented by the rhododen- 
dron and juniper, is of a subarctic character, the genus inhabits 
a much colder temperature in elevation than it reaches in either 
hemisphere in latitude. Two species, B. arcuatus and nivicola, 
are found in the Liti Pass at an elevation of 14,000 feet on ju- 
niper bushes among patches of snow at the hottest period of the 
year. This is the only locality in which the genus approaches 
the snow-line. The physical conditions of India below the Emodic 
or Alpine region of vegetation are not calculated to favour the 
growth of Bulimi. In the plains there is a scarcity of wood 
and forest, such as we have noticed to serve so materially for 
the production of these snails in South America ; and the burn- 
ing of the thickets in the hill countries for the pasturage of cattle, 
offers the same obstacles to their growth and increase as the 
clearing away of the virgin forests in Brazil. 

2. The Malayan Province. 

The Malayan province of the genus, which comprises the 
islands of the Indian Archipelago, commences on the south- 
western corner of the Asiatic continent, where it is represented 
at Burmah by B. Sylheticus and in Siam by B. atricallosus. 
These species are of a totally different type from any of the Bu- 
limi of Hindoostan, and agree precisely with that characteristic 
Malayan type which appears at Java, Timor, Celebes and Am- 
boyna in B. citrinus, Icevus, contusus, chloris and sinistralis, at 
Borneo in B. Adamsii, at Ceylon in B. Ceylanicus, and at Min- 
danao, the most southern of the Philippine Islands, in B. ma- 
culifer-us. B. fulguratus and malleatus, having an inflated shell 
with a winding plait upon the columella, represent a type pecu- 
liar to the Feejee Islands. B. miltocheilus, with a wax-like fusi- 
form shell and brilliant vermilion lip, from Christoval Island, one 
of the Solomon's Group, is unique as a type. B. fibratus and 
Caledonicus with large robust shells of dark chestnut-brown colour, 
red internally, represent another very distinct type in the island 
of New Caledonia, but this appears again twelve degrees further 
south at Auckland, North Island of New Zealand, in the only 
species inhabiting that group, B. Shongii. It is worthy of notice, 
that this large stout tropical-looking Bulimus is under the same 



Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 253 

latitude of the eastern hemisphere which is characterized in the 
western hemisphere by the delicate species of the dry sandy 
countries of Chili and Buenos Ayres. 

The Bulimi of the Philippine Islands^ which are very numerous 
and of large size, belong chiefly to one type, represented by B. 
pythogaster, bicoloratus, lignarius,fulgetrum, nimbosus, and others. 
The shell of this type is not so much distinguished by colour, as 
by the presence of a double membranous epidermis, to which the 
different species are indebted for their characteristic patterns. 
B. Cumingii, Leaii, and a few others belong to another type of 
which the shell is inflated, and mostly shining white with only a 
very slight single epidermis. About eighty species of Bulimus 
have been collected in the twenty-two islands of the Philippine 
group, all extremely local in their range of habitation. With 
the exception of about half a dozen out of eighty, each species 
is confined to its particular island. The equable climate of 
these islands, the excessive rains, and woody character of the 
vegetation combine materially to favour the growth of snails. 
They live some on the branches of the trees and in shady recesses, 
and others among light thickets on the outskirts of the woods. 
The large species are strictly arboreal, and deposit their eggs 
standing on end in parallel rows upon a leaf. The transparent 
horny ground-burrowing type which appears at Hindoostan in 
B. cereus and gracilis, and at Java in B. Achatinaceus, is here 
represented by B. elongatulus and Panayensis. 

The only species collected in China axeB. decorticatus belonging 
to the ground type, which is universal, and B. Cantori, from the 
environs of Nanking. They belong to the Caucasian type, which 
reaches the islands of Ty-pin-san and Koo-Kien-san of the Meia- 
co-shimah group of the Yellow Sea in B. Anglicoides found 
under decayed leaves among the loose stones which surround 
the tombs. 

Of the Bulimi of Australia little is at present known. One 
species, B. atomatus, with a large dark-coloured inflated shell, has 
been collected at Port Macquarrie, one small species, B. trili- 
neatus, at Port King George, and two, B. Kingii and inflatus, of 
which the precise locality is unknown. Two species with thin 
dusky shells, B. melo and Du/resnii, inhabiting Van Diemen's 
Land, constitute the southern limit of the genus in the eastern 
hemisphere. 

3. The African Province. 

The African province includes all that explored portion of the 
continent below Senegal on the west side, and Zanzibar, including 
the islands of Mam-itius and Madagascar, on the east. In the 
intertropical area along the west coast of Africa, extending from 
latitude 15° S. to 15° N., the Bulimi are replaced in great mea- 



254 Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 

sure by a group of large Achatina, which inhabit principally the 
hot and swampy districts on the banks of the Gambia, Nun, 
Gaboon and Niger rivers, and i-each in a modified fonn to the 
sandy plains of Loanda. The shells are large, inflated, and richly 
dark-painted, and the shells of the few Bulimi that are associated 
with them belong to the same characteristic type. The two ge- 
nera meet at this point. Bulimus torridus of Liberia and Acha- 
tina Saulcydi belong to the same natural type, notwithstanding 
that they are referred to different genera. B. Adansoni, Afri- 
camiSy tenebricus, turbinatus, flammeus, Numidicus, and inter- 
stinctus, belong also to the Achatina type. B. neuricus, Gui- 
neensis, and vivipara are thi'ee fragile species of different habits 
from the same country, and another type is presented in B. 
tumefadus and pemphigodes with peculiarly globose inflated 
shells. As an instance of the mingling of types on the confines 
of the great provinces of distribution which meet in North 
Africa, it may be remarked that B. Ruppellianus inhabiting the 
eastern confines belongs to this Achatina type, and B. reticulatus 
inhabiting the western belongs to the Syrian Bulimus type, which 
is exactly the reverse of the general typical character of the Bulimi 
in these localities. B. Doivnsii, found abundantly at Princes 
Island off the coast of Guinea, inhabits also the nearest main 
land. At St. Helena a small brown species is found, B. He- 
lena; and in the more elevated parts of the island, in an appa- 
rently semifossil state, the remains of an extinct type, B. auris- 
vulpincB, are found. Mr. Darwin, who observed this well-known 
species at St. Helena imbedded in the soil, attributes the extinc- 
tion of it to some recent geological disturbances, which caused 
the entire destruction of the woods and consequent loss of food 
and shelter to the snails. 

Nothing is known of the Bulimi of Africa, south of the tropics, 
excepting those described by Dr. Krauss from the neighbourhood 
of Natal. Eight species collected in this part are of very miscel- 
laneous character, but typically distinct from those of the west 
coast. B. Natalensis, comdus, and spadiceus are thin and glo- 
bosely convoluted, B. Burchellii and meridionalis are of light 
ovate form, and B. linearis and turrceformis are elongated. They 
are all small. A very remarkable species has, however, been dis- 
covered in this locality, B. Kraussii, nearly equal in size to the 
largest Bulimus of tropical America and as brilliant in colour. 
From Mozambique we have but one small light species, B. Mozam- 
bicensis. In Madagascar are two species of large size and elon- 
gated form, B. clavator and obtusatus, differing essentially from 
any of the continental types ; and in the Seychelle Islands are 
two, B.fulvicans and velutinus, partaking in some measure of the 
smaller Natal species. In Mauritius there is only one small 
ground species, B. clavulinus. 



Mr. L. Reeve on the Geographical Distribution of the Bulimi. 255 

Western Hemisphere. 



General Localities. 



Venezuela and New Granada 
Brazil and Buenos Ayres , 

Chili 

Peru 

Ecuador and Alto-Peru. . . 

Bolivia 

Central America 

Mexico 

Hondiu'as 

Texas and Alabama 

West Indies 

Gelepagos Islands 

Hardy and Ojjara Islands . 



a, u 



> 



62 



62 



» ;u 



70 



70 






19 
34 



53 






eap: 



42 



42 



26 

17 

17 

4 

4 

34 

10 

3 



115 



CJ .it. 



62 

70 

19 

34 

26 

42 

17 

17 

4 

4 

34 

10 

3 



342 



Eastern Hemisphere. 



General Localities. 



British Isles and Southern Eiu-ope 
Greece, Syria, and Asia Minor ... 
Sicily, Canary and De Verd Islands 

Arabia and Abyssinia 

Tartary and China 

Hindoostan 

Burmah and Siam 

Borneo, Java, and Molucca Islands 

Phihppine Islands 

North Africa 

West Africa 

East Africa and Madagascar .... 

St. Helena 

New Zealand 

New Caledonia 

Feejee Islands 

New Holland and Solomon's Group 
Van Diemen's Land 



g 03 

u > 

3 O 

to >- 



9 
32 
10 
10 

4 
30 



98 



2 
10 

83 



95 



17 
18 



35 



2 
1 
3 
2 
6 
2 

16 



pa H 



9 
32 
10 
10 

4 
30 

2 
10 
83 

3 

17 
18 
2 
1 
3 
2 
6 
2 

244 



256 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

XXIII. — A Catalogue of British Spiders, including remarks on 
their Structure, Functions, (Economy, and Systematic Arrange- 
ment. By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 

Since the publication of the excellent 'Tractatus de Araneis' of 
Dr. Lister, comprised in his ' Historia Animalium Anglise/ little 
has been effected by British naturalists to extend our acquaint- 
ance with the animals constituting the order Araneidea. In pal- 
liation of this negligence it may be urged that the subject is 
beset by numerous and great difficulties, and that such is the 
case cannot be denied ; but let it be borne in mind that formi- 
dable as these obstacles are, they have not deterred distinguished 
cultivators of natural science in France, Sweden, and Germany 
from bestowing much time and attention upon this highly inter- 
esting department of zoology, and that their arduous labom-s 
have been rewarded by well-merited success. 

Anxious to induce some of the zealous and intelligent investi- 
gators of nature among my countrymen to assist in removing 
this occasion of reproach, I have arranged all our indigenous 
spiders, hitherto recorded, in the form of a systematic catalogue, 
and have also cited the synonyma of several arachnologists of 
eminence, together with the titles of the works in which they 
occur. The utility of an undertaking of this kind mainly de- 
pends upon the accuracy of its details ; but when descriptions of 
species in different languages have to be consulted, and that, in 
numerous instances, without the aid to be derived from the in- 
spection of recent specimens or of carefully drawn and coloured 
figures, exemption from error is not to be expected. 

In drawing up the catalogue, which I now submit to the can- 
did consideration of zoologists, I have used my best endeavours 
to render it as complete as the limited means at my command 
would permit ; and I trust that it will be found to contribute in 
some measure to promote the knowledge and facilitate the study 
of our native spiders. 

Class ARACHNID A. Order ARANEIDEA. 

Tribe Octonoculina. 
Family Mygalidce. 
Genus Atypus, Latreille. 
1. Atypus Sulzeri. 
Atypus Sulzeri, Latreille, Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum, 
torn. i. p. 85. tab. 5. fig. 2 ; Hahn, Die Arachniden, Band i. 
p. 117. tab. 31. fig. 88. 
Oletera atypa, Walckenaer, Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Apteres, 
tome i. p. 243. pi. 1. fig. 5. 

picea, Koch, Uebersicht des Arachnidensystems, erstes Heft, 

p. 3.5. 



and Systematic Arrangement of British Spiders. 257 

Specimens of this remarkable spider, which is the only spe- 
cies belonging to the family Mygalidce at present known to be 
indigenous to Great Britain, have been captured by Dr. Leach 
in the vicinity of London and Exeter. See the Supplement to 
the 4th, 5th, and 6th editions of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
article Annulosa. 

Family Lycosidce. 

Genus Lycosa, Latr. 

2. Lycosa agretyca. 

Lycosa agretyca, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. torn. i. p. 308 ; 

Blackwall, Transactions of the Linusean Society, vol. xix. p. 1 18. 
— ^ ruricola, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Insect, torn. i. p. 120 ; Sundevall, 

Kongl. Vetenskaps-academiens Handlingar, for ar 1832, p. 192. 
Trochosa trabaUs, Koch, Die Arachn. (Fortsetzung des Hahn'schen 

Werkes), B. xiv. p. 141. tab. 492. fig. 1371-1374. 

Lycosa agretyca occurs in old pastures and on heaths in En- 
gland, Wales and Scotland. In the month of June the female 
excavates an elliptical cavity in the earth beneath stones, into 
which she retires with her cocoon, which is globular, composed 
of fine white silk of a compact texture, and is encircled by a nar- 
row zone of a slighter fabric; it measures |th of an inch in dia- 
meter, and contains about 110 spherical eggs of a pale yellow 
colour, not agglutinated together. The cocoon is attached to the 
spinners of the female by short lines of silk, and the young, when 
they quit it, mount upon her body, and so accompany her in all 
her movements. This species frequently passes the winter in a 
toi'pid or semitorpid state in the cavities which it forms in the 
eai-th under stones. 

An adult female Lycosa agretyca, taken in the spring of 1849, 
was destitute of the posterior eye on the right side. 

The genus Trochosa, which M. Koch has proposed to consti- 
tute with this and some other species of Lycosce, is based on spe- 
eific characters solely. 

3. Lycosa campestris. 

lycosa campestris, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 309. 
ruricola, Hahn, Die Arachn. Band i. p. 103. tab. 26. fig. 77 

(misnumbered 76 in the text) ; Koch, Uebersicht des Arachn. 

Syst. erstes Heft, p. 21. 
Trochosa ruricola, Koch, Die Arachn. Band xiv. p. 138. tab. 491. 

fig. 1369, 1370. 
Titulus 26, Lister, Historite Animalium Angliae tres Tractatus, De 

Araneis, p. 78. tab. 1 . fig. 26. 

Meadows and pastures in England and Wales are the favourite 
haunts of this species, which pairs in May. In June the female 
Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 17 



258 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Structure, Functions, (Economy, 

fabricates a splierical cocoon of compact white silk measuring 
yth of an inch in diameter ; it is encompassed by a narrow zone 
of a sHghter texture, and usually comprises about 115 spherical 
eggs of a pale yellow colour, not agglutinated together. This 
cocoon, which is connected with the spinners of the female, and 
is conveyed by her wherever she goes, has the appearance of 
being embossed in consequence of its close application to the 
eggs. On quitting it, the young mount upon the body of their 
parent. Both sexes sometimes excavate elliptical cavities in the 
ground, generally under stones, and remain concealed in them 
during the winter months. 

In the summer of 1836 an adult female was captured, which 
had a short but perfectly formed supernumerary tarsus connected 
with the base of the tarsal joint of the right posterior leg on its 
outer side. 

4. Lycosa andrenivora. 

Lycosa andrenivora, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 315 ; 
Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 118. 

This spider frequents commons and old pastures in various 
parts of England and Wales. The palpal, or sexual, organs of the 
male are fully developed in autumn. 

5. Lycosa rapax. 
Lycosa rapax, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 609. 

The customary haunts of this species are woods, pastures and 
commons ; but I have occasionally found it on the summits of 
Broad Crag, Helvellyn, Snowdon and Carnedd Llewelyn, the 
highest mountains in England and AYales. It pairs in May, and 
in June the female deposits sixty or seventy spherical eggs of a pale 
yellow colour, not agglutinated together, in a globular cocoon of 
pale yellomsh brown silk of a compact texture, measuring ^^ih.8 
of an inch in diameter. The cocoon is connected with the spin- 
ners by short lines of silk, and the young, when extricated from 
it, attach themselves to the body of their parent. 

M. AYalckenaer considers Lycosa rapax to be merely a variety 
of Lycosa vorax (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. torn. iv. p. 392) ; 
but, though nearly allied to that species, it differs from it in size, 
structure and colour. 

6. Lycosa allodroma. 

Lycosa allodroma, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. torn. i. p. 330 ; 
Koch, Die Arachn. Band v. p. 106. tab. 172. fig. 410, 411 ; 
Koch, Uebersicht des Arachn. Syst. erstes Heft, p. 22 ; Blackw. 
Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 118. 



and Systematic A>ran//einent of British Spiders. 259 

Lycosa ciiierea, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1832, p. 190. 

lynx, Hahn, Die Arachn. Band ii. p. 13. t. 42. fig. 104. 

leucophcea, Blackw. London and Edinburgh Philosophical 

Magazine, Third Series, vol. x. p. 104. 

Arctosa cinerea, Koch, Die Arachn. B. xiv. p. 123. tab. 488. fig. 1358. 

In the spring of 1836 I discovered a light-coloured variety 
of this fine spider among water -worn stones and fragments of 
rock on the banks of the river Llugwy, near Capel Curig, Caer- 
narvonshire ; and, supposing it to be unknown to arachnologists, 
I described it in the ' London and Edinburgh Philosophical Ma- 
gazine/ under the appellation of Lycosa leucophcea. 

The genus Arctosa, proposed by M. Koch for the reception of 
this and several other species of Lycosa, like his genus Trochosa, 
is founded solely on specific characters. 

7. Lycosa picta. 

Lycosa picta, Hahn, Die Arachn. Band i. p. 106. tab. 27. fig. 79 ; 

Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 119. 
Arctosa picta, Koch, Die Arachn. B. xiv. p. 130. tab. 489. fig. 1362, 

1363. 
M. Walckenaer, regarding this handsome spider as identical 
with Lycosa allodroma, has placed the name given to it by M. 
Hahn among the synonyma of that species (Hist. Nat. des Insect. 
Apt. tom. i. p. 330). Of the specific distinctness of Lycosa picta, 
however, no doubt can be entertained by those observers who 
have had an opportunity of inspecting adult individuals. It is 
found in Cheshire, Lancashire and Denbighshire, frequenting 
sandy districts on the sea-coast. 

8. Lycosa saccata. 

Lycosa saccata, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. tom. i. p. 326 ; 

Hahn, Die Arachn. Band i. p. 108. tab. 27. fig. 81 ; Latr. Gen. 

Crust, et Insect, tom. i. p. 120. 
(Pardosa) saccata, Koch, Die Arachn. Band xv. p. .5 1 . tab. 517. 

fig. 1451, 1452. 

amentata, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1832, p. 177. 

Titulus 25, Lister, Hist. Animal. Angl. De Aran. p. 77. tab. 1, 

fig. 25. 
In most parts of Great Britain this is a common species. It 
pairs in spring, and the female deposits about fifty spherical eggs 
of a pale yellow colour, not agglutinated together, in a lenticular 
cocoon of compact silk of a yellowish brown hue, which measures 
J-th of an inch in diameter, and is encircled by a light-coloured 
zone of a slight texture. The young, on leaving the cocoon, attach 
themselves to the body of their parent. 

17* 



260 Mr. J. Blackwall un the Structure, Functions, (Economij, 

9. Lycosa lugubris. 

Lycosa lugubris, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. torn. i. p. 329 ; 

Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 119. 

sylvicola, Sund. Vet. Acad. Handl. 1832, p. 176. 

sylvicuUrix,'K.oc\'D\eKx&c\\vi. B. iii. p. 25. tab. 82. fig.182,183. 

{Pardosd) alaeris, Koch, Die Arachn. Band xv. p. 39. tab. 514. 

fig. 1443, 1444. 

The description of Lycosa lugubris, given by M. Walckenaer, 
is applicable to the male only, which differs greatly from the 
female in size and colour. Among the synonyma of this species 
he has included the Lycosa nwidiana of M. Hahn (Die Arachn. 
Band i. p. 20. tab. 5. fig. 16), a spider decidedly superior in size 
and unlike it in colour, and has placed the Lycosa sylvicultrix of 
M. Koch, which is identical with Lycosa lugubris, among the sy- 
nonyma of Lycosa vorax (Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. t. i. p. 313). 

In the description given by M. Koch of the male oi Lycosa 
alaeris {Lycosa lugubris) the following passage occurs : — " Fress- 
zangen, Brust und Spiunwarzen sind schwavz, ebenso die Taster, 
vom auf dem Kiicken des Eudgliedes aber befindet sich ein 
schoner rother Fleck" (Die Arachn. Band xv. p. 41). Now, 
though I have seen several thousand males of this species, not 
one having a red spot on the digital joint of the palpi has ever 
come under my observation. 

Lycosa lugubris abounds in the woods of Denbighshire and 
Caernarvonshire. The sexes pair in April and May, and in the 
latter month the female deposits about fifty spherical eggs of a 
pale yellow colour, not agglutinated together, in a cocoon of a 
lenticular form and compact texture, composed of silk of a dull 
greenish or yellowish brown hue, and measuring yth of an inch 
in diameter ; it is encircled by a whitish zone of a slight texture, 
and is connected with the spinners by short silken lines. When 
the young desert the cocoon they climb upon the body of the 
female. 

10. Lycosa obscura. 

Lycosa obscura, Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 611. 

In autumn, females of this species may be seen among short 
grass and heath in pastures and on commons in various parts of 
England, Wales and Scotland, with their cocoons attached to their 
spinners. The cocoon is lenticular, and measures ith of an inch 
in diameter ; it is constructed of compact pale brown or duU 
greenish brown silk, is surrounded by a narrow whitish zone of 
a slight texture, and contains about twenty-five spherical eggs of 
a yellow colour, which are not agglutinated together. On aban- 
doning the cocoon the young distribute themselves upon the body 
of their parent. 



and Sijstematlc Arrangement of British Spiders. 261 

On the 12th of September 1838, a minute black insect of the 
family Ichneumonida came out of a cocoon belonging to this spe- 
cies, which 1 had placed in a phial. 

Differences in size, colour, habits and haunts serve to distin- 
guish Lycosa obscura from Lycosa paludicola, though their spe- 
cific identity is assumed by M. Walckenaer (Hist. Nat. des Insect. 
Apt. tom. iv. p. 396). 

11. Lycosa exigua. 

Lycosa exigxua, Blackw. Lend, and Edinb. Phil. Mag., Third Series, 
vol. viii. p. 490, 

Heaths and pastures are the localities most frequented by this 
spider, which is found in such situations in many parts of Great 
Britain. In June the female constructs a lenticular cocoon of 
compact yellowish or greenish brown silk, encircled by a whitish 
zone of a slighter texture ; it measures \ih. of an inch in diameter, 
and contains between fifty and sixty yellowish white eggs of a 
spherical figure, not agglutinated together. This cocoon is always 
connected with the spinners of the female, and the young on 
quitting it attach themselves to her body. 

Both immature and adult individuals of this species, which is 
nearly allied to the Lycosa {Pardosa) monticola of M. Koch (Die 
Arachn. Band xv. p. 42. tab. 515. fig. 1445-1447, and tab. 516. 
fig. 1448, 1449), employ their silken lines to effect aerial excur- 
sions, ascending currents of rarefied air frequently acting on the 
lines with sufficient force to raise the adventurous aeronauts into 
the atmosphere. Preparatory to making an ascent, the spinners 
are brought into close contact, and viscid matter is emitted from 
the papillae or spinning tubes ; they are then separated by a 
lateral motion, which extends the viscid matter into fine filaments 
connecting the papillae; against these filaments the ascending 
current of air impinges, drawing them out to a length which is 
regulated by the will of the animal ; and on the spinners being 
again brought together, the filaments coalesce and form a com- 
pound line. 

12. Lycosa pallida. 

Lycosa pallida, Walck. Hist. Nat. des Insect. Apt. tom. i. p. 334 ; 

Blackw. Linn. Trans, vol. xix. p. 119. 
Lycosa {Leimonia) Wagleri, Koch, Die Arachn. Band xv. p. 19. 

tab. 509. fig. 1427. 

This is a common spider on the banks of rivers in Denbigh- 
shire and Caernarvonshire. It pairs in May, and in June the 
. female deposits about sixty pale yellow eggs of a spherical figure, 
not agglutinated together, in a lenticular cocoon of dull green or 
yellowish brown silK of a compact texture, measuring ith of an 
inch in diameter, which is connected with her spinners ; the 



2i62 iMi'- ^V. II. Benson on new Land Shells from 

young, when extricated from it, attach themselves to the body of 
their parent. 

Like other species belonging to the same genus, Lycosa pal- 
lida, in constructing its cocoon, slightly connects the margins of 
the two compact portions, beneath which the thin fabric of the 
zone is folded. This simple contrivance affords an admirable 
provision for the development of the young in the foetal state by 
an increase in the capacity of the cocoon consequent on the mar- 
gins of the compact parts becoming detached by means of the 
expansive force within, the eventual liberation of the young 
being effected by the rupture of the zone, which is the weakest 
part. This interesting fact in the oeconomy of the Lycosce appears 
to have escaped the observation of arachnologists. 



XXIV. — Descriptions of new Land Shells from St. Helena, Ceylon, 
and China. By W. H. Benson, Esq. 

1. Succinea imperialis, nobis, n. s. 

Testa ovata, tenui, nigoso- striata et remote plicata, striis spiralibus ob- 
soletis et rugis nonnullis prope marginem anteriorem muuita, dia- 
jihana, nitidula, sub epidermide rubra, epidennide strigis virente- 
luteis et purpureo-fuscis alternautibus oruata ; spira brevissima, 
apice prominulo, obtuse, sntura impressa ; anfractibus 2 convexis, 
penultimo superne perconvexo, ultimo amplo, f longitudinis 
Eequante ; columella arcuata ; apertura amplissima, ovali, vix ob- 
liqua, intus aurantia, uitida ; peristomate simplici, acuto, basi 
leviter emarginata, marginibus callo angulum superiorem aperturse 
implente junctis, columellari filari, reflexiusculo, intrante. 

Long. 19, diam. 13 mill. ; long, apert. 15i lat. 11 mill. 

Hab. in insula St. Helenae. Lieut. Lefroy. 

I have ventured to describe this handsome shell as new, 
although a Succinea {Helisiga St. Helena') has been described by 
Lesson from the same place; but his short description* and the 
measurement differ so much from the characters above given, 
that, notwithstanding my not having seen his figure, I can 
hardly err in considering my species as new. 

2. Succinea orientalis, nobis, n. s. 

Testa ovato-conica, tenui, striata, nitidula, sordide cornea, apice rutilo, 
papillate, sutura distineta ; anfractibus 3i convexis, ultimo pone 
columellam nuUo modo attenuato, f longitudinis secpiantc; columella 
subcallosa ; apertura mediocri, ovab ; peristomate simplice, margini- 
bus callo tenui junctis, columellari subverticali. 

Long. 10, diara. 6 mill. ; long, apert. 6, lat. 4. 

Hab. ad Macao, Imperii Sinensis. Cantor. 

* " Helisif/a St. Helena;. T. glabenima anipla ovata, unispirata, fiisco- 
rubcUa, fragillima. Piam. 7, alt. 3 lin." — Lesson, Voy. Coquille, p. 3\(i, 
as quoted by L. PfoifFcr. Monogr. vol.. ii. 



St. Helena, Ceylon, and China. 263 

This shell, which exhibits in some degree the port of a Lymn<2a, 
is distinguished from any Succinea with which I am acquainted 
by the breadth of the body whorl behind the columella, a part 
which is generally attenuated in the genus, although the Indian 
species, S. crassiuscula, nobis, approaches it in this respect ; the 
vertical direction of the columellar lip is also peculiar. 

3. Helix remota, nobis, n. s. 

Testa subaperte umbihcata, depressa, glabra, transluceute, lutescente- 
coniea, fasciis tenuibus pallidis ra appareutibus circumdata ; spira 
subplanulata, sutura submargiuata ; anfractibus 4| convexiusculis, 
sensim accrescentibus, ultimo subtus convexo ; apertura vix obli- 
qua, nullo modo depressa, subrotundato-lunari ; peristomate recto, 
acute, simplice, superne arcuato, margine columellari non reflexo. 

Diam. major 7, minor 5^, axis 2\ mill. 

Hab. in insula St. Helense in locis elevatis. 

This shell belongs to the group which includes the European 
species Helix cellaria, alliaria, and nitida. The absence of any 
oblique depression of the mouth, and its colour, sufficiently serve 
to distinguish it from the two first ; while its colour, more de- 
pressed form, and the umbilicus, separate it fi-om the last. In 
1832 I took three specimens under moist stones, between Plan- 
tation House and Stitch's ridge, as well as in the mountain 
valley which then contained the Tomb of Napoleon. 

This may be the snail noticed in Cooke's fu-st Voyage as found 
on the top of the highest ridges at St. Helena, and which excited 
the wonder of the narrator " how it could find its way to a place 
so severed from the rest of the world by seas of immense extent." 
The only other land shell which occurred to me in a day's excur- 
sion over the island was a minute Pupa, in form resembling some 
of our smaller English species, which I unfortunately lost, owing 
to the efforts made by a Carabus, with golden puncta in the 
furrows of the elytra, to escape from imprisonment. This loss 
was the more vexatious, wdth reference to the scarcity of extra- 
European species, and more especially of that particular tj-pe. 

Bulimus Helena, Quoy, is another recent terrestrial species 
belonging to the island. It may be the shell referred to by 
Capt. Grey (Journal of two Expeditions in Australia) as lying 
on the sides of the hills, on the road from Flagstaff Hill to 
Jamestown. The shell described by Pfeiffer as this species is 
represented by Lovell Reeve, ' Conch. Icon.' fig. 308, as Bulimus 
digitalis, R., but Pfeiffer still holds to the opinion that he himself 
is correct in his reference. In this case, and if the shell figured 
by Reeve, No. 806, as B. Helena, be truly an inhabitant of the 
island, it will make the number of its known recent land shells 
amount to six. I have evidence that the shell, to which Pfeiffer 
refers Quoy's species, inhabits the assigned locality. 



264 Mr. W. H. Bcuson on nciv Land Shells from 

To these may be added the well-known subfossil Bulimus au- 
ris mlpina, besides Achatina exulata, nobis^ No. 77 of Reeve's 
' Monograpb/ figured as No. 572 in the 78th plate of Bulimus, 
and B. relegatus of the present paper. I have also inspected a 
subfossil Helix from the same deposit, which, though not in a 
sufficient state of preservation to admit of a diagnosis, exhibited 
tokens of relationship to a series of Madeiran and North African 
species typified by H. tediformis, Sowerby. We can scarcely 
hope, notwithstanding the hitherto imperfect exploration of the 
island, that living examples of the larger species should be dis- 
covered. However, a series of specimens in my possession of B. 
auris vulpina and B. Helena (as described by Pf'eiffer), showing 
great variation in the size and figure of the former, and consider- 
able thickening of the peristome, and angularity at its base, in 
the latter, tends to estabhsh a striking approximation between 
the two forms; and leads to the conclusion that the extinct 
species was the analogue of the recent shell during a former 
period, when the mountains were covered with an indigenous 
tree-fern forest, now restricted to the highest point. Capt. Grey 
mentions that bones, apparently of birds, are found in the thin 
seam of calcareous earth in which the shells occur. These bones 
are well deserving of examination in relation to the extinct or- 
nithology of the Mascarene Islands, and of New Zealand. The 
recent appointment, to the government of St. Helena, of a gen- 
tleman attached to the pursuit of natural history, especially of 
conchology, will, it is to be hoped, be productive of more extended 
information. 

4. Bulimus relegatus, nobis, n. s. 

Testa perforata, ovato-acuminata, longitudinaliter striata, striis trans- 
versis elevatis obsoletis decussata, albida; spira elongato-conica, 
apice obtuse, rutilo ; sutura impressiuscula ; anfractibus 54- con- 
vexiusculis, ultimo spira breviori, sensim descendente ; columella 
strictiuscula ; apertura ovali, peristomate simplici, marginibus sub- 
conniventihus, eallo junctis, margiue columellari expauso, appresso. 

Long. 30, diam. U mill. ; long, apert. \A\, lat. 9| mill. 

Hah. in uisula St. Heleiise, subfossilis. Lieut. Lefroy. 

5. Bulimus Sinensis, nobis, n. s. 

Testa perforata, sinistrorsa, ovato-coiiica, glabra, lutesceute, subtus 
pur])ureo-castaueo bifasciata ; spira conica, apice obtusiusculo ; an- 
fractibus .5| convexiusculis, ultimo spiram aequaute, fasciis sub- 
uiediani basalique intra aperturam prodiictis ; columella subtorta ; 
apertura obliqua, oblique ovata, peristomate planato-reflexo, livide 
purpureo, postice livide fusco, marginibus callo albido vix juuctis, 
columellari albido breviter superne dilatato. 

Long. .30, lat. IS mill. ; long, apert. 16, lat. 12 mill. 

Hab. in Lnperio Sinensi australi. Received by Dr. Cantor, to whom 
I am indebted for the specimen, from the south of China. 



St. Helena, Ceylon, and China. 265 

The obliquity and proportion of the aperture to the spire, iu 
dependently of the colouring, distinguish this species from Bu- 
limus lavus and its allies ; and the distinct perforation, and the 
convexity of the whorls, separate it from the smaller Javanese 
species B. Galericulum, Mousson, with which it has several cha- 
racters in common. 

6. Cyclustoma halophilum, nobis, n. s. 

Testa umbilicata, globoso-turbinata, glabra, obsolete longitudiualiter 
striata, cornea, translucente, fasciis 1-3 rufo-castaneis (submediana 
angusta semper existeute) ornata ; spira conica, apice exsertiuscula, 
sutura impressa ; anfractibus 4-4^ convexis, ultimo rotundato ; 
apertura circulari, superne leviter angulata, peristomate tenui, ex- 
pausiusculo, margine columellari leviter emarginato ; umbilico 
profundo. Operculo corneo, tenui, planato, multispirato. 

Diam. major 5, minor A\, axis 4} mill. 

Hab. ad Point de Galle, Ceylon. 

This pretty and distinct little species I found creeping among 
grass, and on the inner foot of the sea-wall of the Fort at Point 
de Galle, in April 1847. It was also lying concealed under 
stones, as well as the common Indian shells Bulimus gracilis and 
Pupa bicolor, Hutton. The situation is exposed and bare of 
trees, only a solitary palm crowning one of the isolated rocks 
which battle with the surge outside the rampart. On the other 
side of the harbour, in a mangoe grove beyond the hill of 
Bonavista, Cyclostoma Hoffmeisteri*, Troschel, with its curious 
operculum, and luiraerous examples of Cyclostoma Involvultis, 
Miiller (var. with a double peristome), crept among the fallen 
leaves on the moist ground ; among them were strewn perfect, 
but deserted shells of Bulimus trifasciatus, Bnig., and Achatina 
Ceylunica, Pfr. The surrounding trunks of the mangoe trees 
were literally incrusted with living specimens of Helix hama- 
stoma, with its gorgeous red peristome and chestnut and milk- 
white bands, the splendour of which was invariably con- 
cealed by a coating of green fsecula, which served in some 
measure to sci-een the shells (which would otherwise, by the 
contrast of colours, have been too conspicuous to their ene- 

* Then recently discovered by the Physician after whom it was named, 
who fell, soon after, in the deadly field of Ferozshehv. The characters are 
shortly given in the Zeitschr. fiiv Malak. for Feb. 1847, pp. 44, 45. 

Troschel makes it the tj-pe of his genns Aulopoma, with reference to the 
solute ajjertni-e, and to the operculum, which laps over the edge of the 
peristome, all round, and is incapable of being withdrawn into the shell, as 
in other Cyclostomata. I add the characters of the animal from my notes : 

Tentacula short, obtuse, and black. Eyes (at the base of the tentacula) 
prominent, and hemispherical, jet-black anteriorly, whitish posteriorly. 
Foot livid. 



2()G Dr. A. Voclcker on the Comjwsition of 

mies,) from observation. On a single tree I counted thirty 
specimens within reach. When I examined this neighbourhood 
early in the previous iMarch, the ground was dry, as well as the 
vegetation ; //. hcemastoma was only to be obtained by getting a 
Cingalese to climb trees in their search, and but a single flat 
slug (probably a Vaginulufs) was to be found under stones : before 
my second visit the sun had passed to the north of the island, 
aud the consequent showers had liberated the testaceous tribes 
from their hiding-places. With reluctance I quitted a field so 
imperfectly explored by conchologists, and where doubtless other 
new species remained to reward researches uninfluenced, as mine 
were, by the warning flag and rising smoke of the Suez steamer. 
One of the specimens of Helix hcemastoma laid a single egg 
while in my possession. In its calcareous covering and size*, it 
resembled that of a small bird. It formed a curious contrast 
with the numerous small ova, with a pergamenous integument, 
extruded, in a mass, by the large Mauritian Achatina Ftdica, a 
shell possessed of a much more extensive aperture. The name 
given to a shelled snail, by the Cingalese at Galle, is " Gombela." 

Aix la Chapelle, Feb. 22nd, 1851. 



XXV. — On the Composition of the Ash of xlrmeria maritima, 
growing in different localities, ivith remarks on the geographical 
distribution of that Plant ; and on the presence of Fluorine in 
Plants. By Dr. A. Voelcker, Professor of Chemistry in the 
Royal Agricultural College, Cirencesterf. 

The relation of the inorganic constituents of the soil to the 
plants is exhibited in a very distinct manner by those plants 
which are confined to perfectly distinct geognostic formations ; 
for it is evident that their growth is influenced in a great mea- 
sm'e by those inorganic matters found in their ashes, which form 
constituent parts of the soil upon which they grow. If we find, 
for instance, that a plant which requires a considerable quantity 
of common salt for its perfect development will not thrive in a 
soil destitute of common salt, or that plants the ashes of which 
have been found to contain invariably a certain amount of phos- 
phoric acid, do not grow vigorously on land which contains few 
traces of this acid ; further, if we find the condition of such 
plants greatly improved by the addition of common salt or phos- 
phoric acid to their respective soils, we cannot remain doubtful 
for a moment as to the cause of the failure in the first instance. 
There are however very few plants characterized by particular 

* Lciijrfh -rVi- <liaiii. 55 inch. 

t Road before tlic Botanical Society of Edinbiugb, Feb. 13, 1851. 



the Ash of Armeria maritima. 267 

inorganic constituents; in fact the only plants which arc so are 
the maritime plants ; in the ashes of which we invariably find 
iodine and bromine, two substances which are not generally met 
with in the ashes of other plants *. All other plants on burning 
leave ashes which contain almost always the same number of 
inorganic substances, but in different relative proportions. The 
complexity of the composition of the plant-ashes with which we 
have to deal in the investigation of the exact relations of the in- 
organic matters to the growing plant, is the chief cause of the 
great difficulty we experience in assigning to each of them its 
proper function in the vegetable organism. It appears to me 
that we cannot arrive at anything like a rational method of culti- 
vation until we shall have become acquainted with the functions 
of every one of the inorganic substances found in the ashes of 
plants, and until we shall have learned how far one substance is 
capable of replacing another in the vegetable organism; and 
lastly, how far a change in the chemical composition of a soil 
affects the natural habits of plants. I do not mean to say that 
these are the only points which require to be settled, but I 
consider them as questions, a satisfactory answer to which would 
prove useful to practical agriculturists. 

With regard to the second question we possess several analyses, 
which prove clearly that soda can be replaced by potash, and lime 
by magnesia to some extent, and vice versa ; and as it appeared 
to me useful to contribute a few facts towards our knowledge on 
this subject, I took advantage of Dr. G. Wilson's kindness, to 
whom my best thanks are due for the use of his laboratory, and 
made a few ash-analyses of Armeria maritima, which I trust will be 
found not without interest in several points of view. My atten- 
tion was first directed to this subject by a " notice of the presence 
of iodine in some plants growing near the sea," by l)r. Dickie of 
Aberdeen, now Professor of Natural History in Belfast. The 
author found by chemical examination of specimens of Armeria 
maritima from the sea-shore, and of others from inland and higher 
districts in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen, that the former only 
contained iodine ; and having taken the precaution to wasb the 
specimens previous to analysis, and having thus removed any 
objections which might have been made, namely that the iodine 
was derived from saline incrustations. Dr. Dickie has been led 
to conclude that marine Algse are not the only plants which pos- 

* M. Chatin and several other French chemists, as well as Prof. Marehand 
of Halle, have satisfactorily proved the existence of iodine in a great many 
inland plants. The ashes of inland plants, however, by no means univer- 
sally contain iodine ; those plants in which its existence has been proved, 
further contain but mere traces of iodine, whereas this clement invariably 
occurs in sea-weeds and other exclusively maritime plants, and always in 
notable quantities. 



268 Ur. A. Voelcker on the Composition of 

sess the power of separating from sea-water the compounds of 
iodine and condensing them in their tissue, without any detri- 
ment to their healthy function. In the same notice the author 
states that soda was more abundant in the specimens of Armeiia 
maritima grown on the sea-shore, and potash prevailed in those 
grown in the inland higher places of Aberdeenshire. 

The plants which I used for ash-analyses were grown in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and collected when in flower in 
the month of June ; roots, leaves, and flowers were burned 
together. 

No. 1. Ash of specimens grown close to the sea-shore and 
dui'ing high water exposed to the sea-spray. 

No. 2. Ash of specimens grown on an elevated, partially de- 
composed trap-rock opposite the former locality. 

No. 3. Ash of specimens grown in Mr. Lawson's nursery near 
Edinburgh, upon light sandy soil. 

No. 4. Ash of specimens grown in the Scottish Highlands. 

Dr. Dickie^s experiments I found peifectly confii'med by my 
own. With the exception of those specimens which wei'e exposed 
to the sea-spray, the examination for iodine of Armeria maritima 
grown in other localities, gave me negative results ; and a compa- 
rison of the composition of the ash of No. 1 and 2 likewise proves 
the correctness of Dr. Dickie's statement respecting the preva- 
lence of soda or potash. 

1 endeavoured to determine the quantity of iodine in the ash 
of specimens of Armeria grown near the sea-shore ; but though I 
used large quantities of ash, I had to give up the attempt on 
account of the minute quantity of iodine present in the ash. 

The iodine reaction made with large quantities of ash, com- 
pared with the much more intense blue colour which a much 
smaller quantity of the ash of sea-weed produces with starch, 
renders it evident, that the proportion of iodine in the ash of 
Armeria maritima amounts to mere traces ; and I am inclined 
therefore to difi^er from Dr. Dickie's conclusion in ascribing to 
this plant a power of separating from the sea-water iodine com- 
pounds and condensing them in its tissue — a power similar to that 
possessed by marine Algae. The power which marine Algae pos- 
sess of extracting iodine from sea-water appears to me altogether 
diff'erent : iodine is an essential element for the healthy condition 
of sea-weeds ; without it these plants cannot exist, and hence we 
can well imagine that their peculiar organism possesses a power 
of extracting iodine from sea-water, of assimilating the same, and 
perhaps of storing it up. Armeria maritima on the contrary does 
not require iodine as a necessary element, and grows equally well 
in a soil destitute of iodine as on the sea-shore. I am therefore 
inclined to ascribe the occasional presence of iodine in Armeiia 
maritima, not to a power similar to that possessed by marine 



the Ash of Armeria niaritima. 



269 



Algae, but to an endosmotic action of the roots of Armeria, by 
means of which small quantities of iodine-compounds present in 
the sea-water are taken up by the plant in the same manner in 
which any other soluble salt would be absorbed, when presented 
to the roots of this plant in a watery solution. 

Notwithstanding the repeated washings of the plants, a consi- 
derable quantity of fine sand remained concealed between the 
fibres and scales of the roots, as will be observed in the follow- 
ing analyses : — 

Ash Analyses. 

No. I. Ash of specimens of Armeria maritima grown close to 

the sea-shore in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh : — 

. ^ , ,^ After deduction of sand, carbonic 

Actual result. 

Potash . . . 
Soda .... 
Chloride of sodium 
Iodine . 
Lime .... 
Magnesia . . 
Oxide of iron . 
Alumina . 
Phosphoric acid 
Sulphuric acid . 



Carbonic acid 
Silicic acid 
Sand . 



6-73 

3-39 

18-22 

traces. 

10-24 

8-33 

6-01 

1-50 

4-27 

601 

1-73 

1106 

23-20 

100-69 



acid, and calculating for 100. 
8-86 
4-47 
24-03 

13-50 
10-98 

7-92 

1-97 

5-77 
7-92 



14-58 



100-00 



No. II. Ash of specimens grown on an elevated rock opposite 



the former locality : 

Actual result. 

Potash 

Chloride of potassium 
Chloride of sodium 
Lime 

Magnesia . 
Oxide of iron . 
Phosphoric acid 
Sulphuric acid 
Silicic acid . 
Carbonic acid . 



Sand 25-12 



6-32 
5-88 
13-19 
10-33 
8-55 
4-89 
8-40 
6-21 
7-76 
2-87 



Deducting sand, carbonic acul, 
and calculating for 100. 

8-85 

8-21 
18-44 
14-44 
11-95 

6-83 
11-75 

8-68 
10-84 



99-53 



100-00 



270 Dr. A. Voelcker on the Cvmposition of 

No. III. Ash of specimens grown in Mr. Lawson's nursery, 
near Edinburgh, upon sandy soil : — 



Actual result. 




Without sand, caibonic aei«l, 
caltulated for 100. 


Potash . . . . . 


9-29 




13-81 


Chloride of potassium 


17-94 




26-65 


Lime 


6-14 




912 


IVIagnesia .... 


2-88 




4-28 


Oxide of iron . . . 


4-46 




6-62 


Phosphoric acid . 


14-18 




21-07 


Sulphuric acid . . 


4-93 




7-33 


Silicic acid .... 


7-48 




1112 


Carbonic acid . . . 


2-37 






Sand 


30-90 







100-57 100-00 

Several observations are suggested by the inspection of the 
above analytical results : — 

1. The proportion of alkaline chlorides, as well as that of 
silica in all three ashes, is considerable. 

2. The quantity of soda is more abundant in the ash of spe- 
cimens grown near the sea-shore, whilst potash prevails in the 
ash of plants grown on the solid rock near the sea shore. 

3. Soda is entirely replaced by potash in the ash of Armeria 
grown in the nursery. 

4. The quantity of phosphoric acid in No. III. is considerable 
when compared with that in No. I. and No. II. 

5. The proportion of magnesia in the ashes of Armeria mari- 
tiina in its natural state is larger than in the ash of specimens 
grown in the nursery. 

I must observe, that the character of the specimens grown in 
the nursery was somewhat altered. The plants appeared a great 
deal more vigorous, their leaves were brighter green and broader 
than those of the wild-growing plants, and the specimens on the 
whole had lost much of the rigidity of the plants in their natural 
state. 

The above analytical results are well calculated to throw light 
on the causes which contribute to chain this plant to a particular 
well-defined geological formation. 

We are informed by Prof. Schleiden, in his beautiful work 
' Biography of a Plant,' that the Armeria maritima grows every- 
where upon the arid sand-dunes on the noi-thern coasts of Ger- 
many, and is universally distributed over the sandy plains of 
northern Germany, but that it is not met with on the granite. 



the Ash of Avmevia. mavit'mm. 271 

clay-slate, and gypsum of the Hartz Mountains, nor on the por- 
phyry and Muschelkalk of Thuringia, and is only found again 
when we arrive at the Keuper-sand plains on the further side of 
the Maine in the neighbourhood of Nuremberg. It extends 
further south through the Palatinate, till the Muschelkalk of the 
Swabian Alps again sets a limit to it. 

Neither on the Swabian Alps nor in the whole Alpine region is 
the sea-pink seen, but it appears at last again on the sandy soils 
of Northern Italy. Schleiden in the above-mentioned work, after 
having directed attention to some other plants, which are con- 
fined to well-defined geognostic formations, asks the questions : 
" How is it that these plants everywhere disdain the richest soils 
in their range of geographical distribution, and are confined to 
perfectly determinate geognostic formations? Must not the 
lime, the salt, the silica, have a most distinct influence in the 
matter ? " 

The above analytical results point out clearly that Armeria 
maritima requires not only a considerable amount of silicic acid, 
but also of alkaline chlorides for its healthy condition, and we 
can now conceive easily why this plant will refuse to grow on a 
soil which does not contain these substances in sufficient quan- 
tities. The fact that the sea-pink is not found on every sandy 
soil in Germany, would suggest the idea that those localities 
where it occurs are rich in salt, and that some of the observed 
places in all probability have been the beds of some ancient dried- 
up sea. 

In England and Scotland Armeria maritima is found univer- 
sally on the sea-shore, but, with a few exceptions, we do not find 
it to extend to any distance in the inner regions of the island *. 
As a most remarkable exception to this general rule of its geo- 
graphical distribution in England, we find the appearance of 
Armeria maritima on the summits of several inland mountains of 
the Scottish Highlands. Now, how does it happen that we do 
not meet with it in the Lowlands in localities much nearer to the 
sea- shore ? I was anxious to ascertain whether the composition 
of the ash of plants grown on Highland mountains showed any 
marked difference, and am much indebted to Professor Balfour 
for furnishing me with the material for analyses. The plants 
were collected by Professor Balfour himself on the top of Little 
Craigindal and other lofty mountains in the Braemar district. 
The analyses of the ash furnished the following results : — 

* Dr. W. Francis informs me that Armeria maritima occurs in profusion 
with Cochlearia officinalis at Nappa in Wensleydale, Yorkshire. 



272 On the Composition of the Ash of Xvmeria maritima. 
No. IV. Ash of Armerin maritima sri'own on Little Graisrindal 



in Braemav: — 




Deducting carbonic acid 
and sand. 


Chloride of sodium . 


2-64 


4-89 


Potash 


7-25 


13-44 


Lime 


22-29 


41-34 


Magnesia .... 


1-08 


2-01 


Oxide of iron and a" 


\ 2-46 


4-56 


little alumina . .^ 


1 




Phosphoric acid . . 


5-28 


9-79 


Sulphuric acid 


405 


7-51 


Silicic acid . . . 


8-87 


16-46 


Sand 


37-74 




Carb. acid and loss . 


8-34 





100-00 10000 

The composition of this ash differs from that of plants grown 
in other localities, particularly with respect to the lime, which 
appears to replace in part the alkaline salts. However, silica and 
chloride of sodium, two substances which are essential to the 
healthy growth of Armeria, are present in considerable quantity. 

The circumstances connected with the occurrence of Armeria 
maritima, Plantago maritima, Cochlearia officinalis, and some other 
marine plants in the Scottish Highlands, deserve to be well in- 
vestigated. Not having had an opportunity of examining myself 
the localities in which Armeria, Plantago, and other marine jilants 
ai'e found in the Highlands, it does not become me to offer an 
explanation of this curious fact. I may however be allowed to 
ui-ge those interested in this subject to pay attention to the me- 
teorological condition of those places in the Highlands where 
maritime plants are said to occur. It is a well-ascertained fact, 
that the spray of the sea is carried into the air to a considerable 
height, from which the salt in it is sent down again to the earth 
with the rain. The quantity of rain in mountainous districts 
being generally much greater than in the lowlands, it appears to 
me not unreasonable to suppose, that particularly those sides of 
elevated points in the Highlands which are exposed to frequent 
sea-winds will be pro\ided with a quantity of salt, sufficiently 
large to supply the wants of the sea-pink, which plant, as indi- 
cated above, always contains a notable quantity of common salt. 

In conclusion, I beg to offer a few observations respecting the 
occiu-rence of fluorine in plants. Dr. Will of Giessen has the * 
merit of having first discovered fluorine in plants. Comparatively 
few examinations of plants have been made in reference to the 
occm*rence of fluorine in them. Most examiners have confirmed 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 273 

WilPs observations^ and have found distinct traces of fluorine. 
Some however have denied its presence in plants. Amongst the 
former is Dr. Wilson, who, in an able paper read before the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh in 1846, " On the solubility of fluoride of 
calcium in water," states that he had detected distinct traces of 
fluorine in crude American potashes. Until lately, I must con- 
fess that I looked with suspicion on the statements referring to 
the occurrence of fluorine in plants ; but I have now had ample 
opportunity of convincing myself of the truth, that there are 
plants which contain fluorine. In my former investigations I 
failed in detecting fluorine, owing to the presence of silica ; for I 
find that this substance interferes with the usual method of test- 
ing for fluorine. 

The plan which I found to answer the purpose is one suggested 
by Dr. G. Wilson. He recommends to precipitate the hydro- 
chloric acid solution of the ash of a plant with ammonia, to col- 
lect the precipitate on a filter, and to add chloride of barium to 
the clear solution filtered from the ammonia precipitate. The two 
precipitates thus obtained are well dried, and separately exa- 
mined for fluorine in a platinum or leaden vessel in the usual 
manner. 

Following Dr. Wilson's plan of procedure, I was enabled to 
detect distinct traces of fluorine in the ash of specimens of Ar- 
meria maritima grown near the sea-shore, and also in the ash of 
the same plant grown in the nursery near Edinburgh. I like- 
wise found fluorine in Cochlearia officinalis and Plantago mari- 
tima, but was unable to detect it in Canaster tobacco. If we re- 
collect that tobacco leaves are soaked in a considerable quantity 
of water in the manufactories, and if we bear in mind that fluoride 
of calcium is soluble in water, as shown by Dr. Wilson, we can- 
not be surprised that no fluorine should be present in the ashes 
of Canaster. 



XXVI. — Notices of Australian Fish. By Sii' John Richardson, 

M.D.,r.R.S.* 

In the third volume of the 'Zoological Transactions;' the 'Annals 
and Magazine of Natiiral History,' vol. ix.; a report on the " Fish 
of New Zealand," made to the British Association in 1842; the 
Ichthyology of the Voyage of the Sulphur, and especially in the 
Ichthyology of the Antarctic Voyage of the Erebus and Terror, com- 
pleted ra February 1848, I have described various species of Austra- 
lian fish. Among other sources of information to which I had re- 
course, a collection cf drawings, made by Depiity Assistant Commis- 
sary General Neill, in 1841, at King George's Sound, is particularly 

* From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, April 9, 1850. 
Ann. <^- Maff. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 18 



274.' Sir J. Kichardson on Australian Fish. 

valuable on account of the notices it contains of tlie habits and qua- 
lities of the fish. The drawings are so characteristic, that most of 
the species are easily recognised, but some novel forms could not be 
systematically described without specimens, aiid the opportunity now 
afforded me by Mr. Gray of inspecting a number of dried skins pre- 
pared on the spot by Mr. Neill, has given occasion to the present 
paper. 

Apistes panduratus, Richardson. 

Radii.— 5. 7 ; D. i;|7 ; A. 3|6 ; C. 12f ; P. 14 ; V. 1|5, spec. 

Among the various forms that the genus Apistes presents, the 
present one is remarkable for the elevation of the orbit, which rises 
in a semicircular protuberance, so high above the occiput as to give 
the hinder part of the head a relative depression like a Turkish saddle, 
and to render the snout and forehead almost vertical. 

The mouth is terminal and small, and both jaws, with the chevron 
of the vomer and a round patch on each palatine bone, are furnished 
with minute, short villiform teeth. The intermaxillaries are mode- 
rately protractile, and the maxillary, whose dilated lower end drops 
below the corner of the mouth, has its posterior edge turned out- 
wards producing a ridge. The nasal spines are thick, but acute, and 
are bent to the curve of the forehead. There is a narrow deep groove 
between them. This groove widens on the top of the head, where it is 
bounded by smooth ridges continued from the nasal spines, and in con- 
junction with them the raised edges of the orbits form an exterior fur- 
row on each side. These four furrows and ridges end in obtuse emi- 
nences which cross from the superior-posterior angle of one orbit to the 
other. Behind them the skull sinks perpendicularly to the level of 
the nearly flat, depressed occiput, on which however the middle ridges 
are still visible. The preorbitar is small, very uneven, and emits a 
strong spine whose acute point reaches back to the middle of the orbit. 
The second suborbitar in crossing the cheek to the hollow of the 
preoperculum forms a stout ridge of oblique, somewhat twisted and 
striated eminences, none of them spinous. The preoperculum has a 
smooth vertical upper limb, which shows as a narrow, slightly ele- 
vated ridge. At its curve or angle there is a strong spine, longer 
than the preorbitar one, but not reaching quite to the gill-opening. 
A short thick spine is adnate to its base above, and a little way below 
it there is an acute sjnne half as long, which is followed by three 
other angular or spinous points on the lower limb of the bone. Two 
prominent but smooth ridges exist on the gill-plate without any spi- 
nous points. On the suprascapular region there are two ridges, the 
upper one having three thick, striated eminences with acute points, 
and the lower one has two such eminences, with two small points 
more posteriorly. 

There are no scales on any part of the head, and there is a smooth 
space along the base of the dorsal, which is widest towards the shoul- 
der ; the space between the ventrals and the breast anterior to them, 
with the base of the pectorals and their axils, are scaleless ; the rest 
of the body, including the belly and integuments adjoining the anal. 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 275 

is densely covered with small scales. The lateral line is marked by 
a series of small eminences and is straight. 

Judging from the numbers given in the ' Histoire des Poissons,' and 
also from the examination of several species not described in that 
work, the branchiostegous rays seem to vary in the Apistes from five 
to seven. In the species now under consideration there are seven 
rays, but the lowest one is very slender, and so closely applied to the 
following one that it can be detected only by dissection. 

The dorsal commences between the second points of the supra- 
scapular ridges and extends to near the caudal. Its spinous portion 
is much arched ; the spines are strong and acute, and the seventh one 
is the tallest, being equal to two-thirds of the greatest height of the 
body ; the other spines are slightly graduated, but the foremost three 
diminish more abruptly. The last spine is rather more than one-half 
as long as the soft rays or than the tallest spine. The last soft ray is 
bound at its base to the back by membrane, but this membrane does 
not reach to the base of the caudal. The anal terminates rather further 
from the latter fin, and has three strong spines, the second being the 
stoutest and as long as the third one ; the soft rays surpass them by 
about a fourth part. The pectorals are large and obliquely semi- 
oval, the lower rays being the shortest. Their rays are forked, which 
is a characteristic mark of the genus, and is not common in the Cot- 
toid family. The ventrals are also rather large, exceeding the anal a 
little in length and in spread. Their spine stands behind the pecto- 
ral axil and under the fourth dorsal spine. 

The length of the head exceeds the height of the body, and is 
contained thrice and one-half in the whole length of the fish, caudal 
included. Length of specimen 5^ inches. 

Aploactis MiLESii, Richardsou. 

Radii.— Qr. 5 ; D. 14|14 ; A. 12 ; C. 13 ; P. 11 ; V. 1|2, spec. 

This fish has the fins of a Synanceia with the lateral eyes and 
head of a Scorjjtena, but instead of the ridges of the cranium, face 
and gill-covers ending in spinous points, they produce only obtuse 
knobs. Its teeth in character and position resemble those of Pte- 
rois, and its dermal spine-like scales are similar to those of Centri- 
dermichthys (Zool. of Voy. of Sulphur, p. 73). I am not quite sure 
that it corresponds in all its general characters with the Aploactis 
aspera of the ' Fauna Japonica' (pi. 22), but it comes sufficiently 
near to be included in the same generic group. 

The form of the fish is rather elongated, the height of the body, 
which is a little less than the length of the head, being nearly one- 
fourth of the total length of the fish, caudal included. The com- 
pression of the head is moderate, its thickness being only one-third 
less than its height, and equal to about half its length. The mouth 
is terminal, cleft only a very short way backwards, but having a mo- 
derately large gape. The intermaxillaries are slightly protractile, 
and their edges and those of the mandible are covered with very 
short and minute, densely crowded teeth. The chevron of the vomer 
is similarly armed, but there are no teeth on the very narrow edo-es of 

18* 



276 Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 

the palate-bones, and the tongue, which is not in the least free at the 
tip, appears to be quite smooth. The premaxillaries are but slightly 
protractile, the tips of their pedicles when retracted not reaching half- 
way to the ej^e. The maxillaries have a protuberance in the centre 
of their lower dilated ends, and only their more slender upper halves 
glide under the preorbitar. When the head is viewed in front, two 
short parallel ridges are seen covering the pedicles of the premaxil- 
laries, above which, on the forehead, there is a deep oblong depression 
bounded by an elevated bony ridge, from which a side ridge formed 
by the prefrontals proceeds to each orbit. The margins of the orbits 
themselves are elevated and uneven, and there is a prominent bend 
upwards on the edge of each postfrontal bone ; the rest of the top of 
the head is occupied by the front rays of the dorsal fin. The preorbitar 
sends one obtuse ridge forwards over the middle of the maxillary, and 
another and a larger one backwards in the situation of the spine of an 
Apistes ; this one is knobbed at the end and curved upwards. The 
suborbitar chain is elevated and very uneven throughout, particularly 
the ridge which traverses the cheek to the hollow of the preopercu- 
lum. There is a blunt process from the angle of the latter bone, 
representing the spine common in this family, and three smaller 
knobs below it, the edge of the bone being also raised in a slighter 
degree. Two slightly diverging ridges, ending bluntly, cross the 
operculum ; there is a small blunt point on the interoperculum, and 
four obtuse eminences between the eye and shoulder, representing the 
two ridges shown in that part in the Scorpance. The parts between 
the bony eminences on the head are covered with small spines like 
those of the body, and the whole, in the recent state, seems to have 
been enveloped in soft skin, which in the dried specimen has left 
traces of a short skinny fringe on the lower jaw and of filamentous 
points elsewhere. There are several open pores on the limbs of the 
mandible. The gill-membrane is smooth and is sustained by five curved 
rays. The gill-openings are closed above the gill-plate, but extend 
from the point of the operculum downwards and forwards to opposite 
the articulation of the mandible, being sufficiently ample. 

The whole skin of the body and the lower parts of all the fins are 
studded with straight acute spines, each enveloped in a skinny sheath. 
The lateral line is nearly straight, having merely a slight rise over the 
pectoral. It is marked by a smooth furrow and a series of ten or 
twelve skinny processes. 

The dorsal extends from between the eyes the whole length of the 
back, but is not actually connected to the caudal fin. It is highest 
anteriorly, lowest over the pectoral, and of medium height and nearly 
even posteriorly, its end being rounded off. The second spine, which 
stands over the middle of the orbit, is the tallest, its height beuig but 
a little less than that of the head ; the first and third rays are only a 
little shorter, while the fifth and sixth are much lower, producing a 
deep notch in the fin. The eighth and following spines are very 
slightly graduated, and from thence to its rounded extremity the 
outline of the fin is even. The membrane is notched between the 
rays, and the tips of the jointed rays curve backwards. The first 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 277 

seven or eight spines are pungent, but the six following ones are 
less so, and are not easily distinguishable in the dried specimen from 
articulated rays in which the joints have become obsolete. The 
fore-part of the dorsal shows some small membranous points on the 
spines. The anal is similar to the soft dorsal, but terminates further 
from the caudal, and if it be furnished with a spine it is concealed at 
the base of the first soft ray, there being no appearance of one ex- 
ternally. The caudal when fully spread is almost circular in outline. 
Its rays are simple, with the tips projecting beyond the membrane, 
especially those of the extreme pairs above and below. The pectoral 
has the oblique semi-oval form of that fin in Synanceia, but is less 
adnate to the side. Its rays are simple, with projecting tips. The 
ventrals, formed of one spine and two unbranched rays, stand exactly 
under the base of the lowest pectoral rays, and are small. 

The only vestiges of colour remaining in the dried specimen are 
brown and purple bands and blotches on the dorsal, caudal and pec- 
torals, with one or two rows of white spots on the two latter fins. 

Cheilodactylus carponemus, Cuv. et Val. v. p. 362. pi. 128. 

• iJaJn— Br. 6; D. 17|31; A.3|19; C. 14f ; P. 8 et VII.; V. 1|.5, 
spec. 

This fish is the " Chettong," No. 39, of Neill's drawings, and the 
" Jew-fish" of the sealers who freqxient King George's Sound. Mr. 
Neill informs us that it is an inhabitant of rocky shores, and that 
individuals are often taken which weigh more than 16 lbs. It is 
readily captured by the hook. 

The specimen described and figured in the ' Histoire des Poissons' 
was obtained by Messrs. Quoy and Gaimard in the same locahty with 
Mr. Neill's, and the latter accords perfectly with it ; but I am per- 
suaded that the references in that work referring to Solander and For- 
ster's accounts of a New Zealand species ought to be struck out. 
Some notices of the discrepancies between the memoranda of these 
authors and the history of Ch. carponemus in the ' Histoire des Pois- 
sons' have been given in the 'Zoological Transactions,' vol. ii. p. 101, 
and since the date of that publication the examination of various 
Australian specimens has strengthened the reasons I had for coming 
to that conclusion. 

The Cheilodactyli do not accord well with the typical Scicmidcp, 
and the evidences of the ptenoid structure of their scales are often 
deficient, the teeth on the disks becommg perfectly obsolete, and none 
existing on the margins of the scales of any species we have exammed. 
In Mr. Neill's specimen the length of the head is contained four and 
a half times in the total length of the fish, in which the caudal is 
included. The height of the preorbitar equals the diameter of the , 
orbit ; and its length is considerably greater, being about equal to one- 
third of the length of the head. The teeth on the jaws are needle- 
shaped, small, and arranged in a narrow, not crowded band. The 
vomer is smooth. The dorsal fin is low, the sixth and tallest spine 
being only equal to a quarter of the height of the body, and the fifth 
and seventh spines are scarcely shorter. The spines lower a httle 



278 Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 

towards the soft rays, but there is no decided notch. None of the 
spines are stout. The second anal spine is as long as the third one 
and is thicker. The tenth or long pectoral ray reaches beyond tlie 
first third of the anal ; the caudal is deeply forked. The transverse 
diameter of the scales generally exceeds the longitudinal one. 

Mr. Neill's drawing represents five yellowish lines on each side of 
the face, reaching backwards to the occiput, the three lower ones 
crossing the upper part of the preorbitar and being interrupted by the 
eye. The under and fore edge of the preorbitar is marked by a blue 
line, which is prolonged to the temples, and there is also a short blue 
streak immediately under the orbit, the iris itself being likewise of 
that colour. Two blue lines traverse the summit of the back close 
to the dorsal, disappearing under the middle of the soft portion of 
that fin. The same colour exists on the membrane joining the first 
three dorsal spines, on the spines of the anal, the ventrals, the long 
pectoral ray, and the upper and under edges of the caudal, the tint 
in all these cases being a pure indigo. The rest of the fins are of a 
paler colour, approaching to mountain-blue. 

Cheilodactylus macropterus, Forster. 

Sciaenoides abdominalis, Solander MSS. Pisces Australice, p. II . 
Sciaena abdominalis. Idem, op.citat. p. 29 -ffg-pict. Parkins. 2-40. 
Scisena macroptera, Forster, Bescrip. Anim. p. 136. fig.- 206. 
Georgio Forsf. picta. 

Badii.— Br. 6 ; D. 17|26 ; A. 3ll4 ; C. 17 ; P. 15 ; V.l|5, Soland. 
Br.6; D.17126; A. 3il4 ; C. 30 ; P. 9etVI.; V.l|5,Forst. 

Of this species I have seen no example, and it is known to me only 
by the descriptions and figures above referred to. It inhabits the 
bays of the middle island of New Zealand, and was taken on Cook's 
first and second voyage in Queen Charlotte's Sound and Dusky Bay. 
At the latter place its native appellation was ascertained to be " Ta- 
raghee," but the seamen called it " Cole-fish." That it is chfferent 
from the Ch. carponeinus of the ' Histoire des Poissons' I am inclined 
to believe, from the dissimilarity of the figure in the latter work with 
those drawn by Parkinson and George Forster, and from the more 
notched dorsal and stouter dorsal and anal spines than we find in 
authentic specimens of Ch. carponemus from King George's Sound. 
These discrepancies, and the smaller number of dorsal and anal rays, 
authorise us to keep it distinct until an opportunity occurs of exami- 
ning the New Zealand fish. The broad black band which descends 
from the shoulder not quite as far as the pectoral is a good distinctive 
mark. The reader is referred to the ' Zoological Transactions,' vol. iii. 
p. 101, for extracts from Solander's notes, which may be compared 
with^Forster's description in the 'Ilistoria Animalium,' &c. p. 136. 

Some specimens of Cheilodactyli from Sydney which I have seen 
point at a species nearly allied to the two preceding ones as existing 
in that part of Australia, but the materials I possess are not suffi- 
cient for the elaboration of its distinctive characters. 



Sir J. R'chardson on Australian Fish. 279 

Cheilodactylus nigricans, Richardson. 

Radii.— Qv.—; D. 15126 ; A. 3|10 ; C. 15|; P. 9 et V. ; V. 1|5, 
spec. 

Toorjenung, NeiU's drawings, No. 42. 

This fish is the "Toorjenung" of the natives of King George's 
Sound, and the " Black Jew-fish " of the sealers, Mr. Neill says 
that it grows to a large size, feeds grossly, and that its flesh is dry 
and dark-coloured. It is much prized by the aborigines, and forms 
a principal article of food arnong the native families, who are expert 
in spearing fish. The head of a large fish is said to make good soup. 
It is an inhabitant of rocky points that project from sandy bays, and 
moves sluggishly along the bottom, ploughing the sand with its soft 
fleshy lips ; hence it falls a ready sacrifice to the native spear. 

In shape this fish approaches to carponemus, but is rather more 
elongated in the body, and has a more arched spinous dorsal. Its 
eye is more remote from the gill-opening, being nearer to the middle 
of the head, and the preorbitar is shorter, its length not exceeding 
the diameter of the orbit. The most striking dissimilarity to the 
preceding species is in the longest pectoral ray, which projects only 
about one-sixth of its length beyond the membrane. It is the upper- 
most of the simple rays, and the four others are graduated and also 
project beyond the membrane as far in proportion. The disk of the 
preoperculum is broad, that of the interoperculum fully equal to it, 
and both these bones and the cheek are scaleless in the specimen, 
which has sustained some damage in the head, but not apparently in 
these places. Ch. carponemus and aspersus have interopercular 
bones rather narrower than the disk of the preorbitar, and both these 
bones, with the cheek, are covered with small scales which do not 
extend to the preorbitar. In aspersus a small part of the cheek next 
the preorbitar is scaleless. In all these species the operculum and 
suboperculum are densely scaly. The integuments of the cheek of 
nigricans are full of pores, and the lips are large and fleshy. About 
forty-eight scales occur in a row between the gill-opening and caudal, 
with three or four rows in addition on the base of that fin. About 
seventeen compose a vertical row at the shoulder. The scales of the 
lateral line are, as in the other species, smaller than those above and 
below, which also overlap them. The exposed disk of a scale is rough, 
with minute points, but the exterior margin is thin and membranous. 
The base is faintly marked by a dozen or more slightly divergent fur- 
rows, which do not produce marginal crenatures. The sixth and 
tallest dorsal spine equals one-third of the height of the body and is 
higher than the soft rays, which rise considerably above the posterior 
spines. The third anal spine is more slender and considerably longer 
than the second one. None of thein are strong. The caudal is 
forked to half its depth, and has acute lobes. 

In Mr. NeiU's drawing this fish is represented as having a dark 
greyish-black colour on the back, head and fins, and as being pale on 
the belly. The lips are flesh-coloured. Length of the specimen 21 
inches. The drawing is two feet long. 



280 Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 

Cheilodactylus aspersits, Richardson. 

Cheilodactylus carponemus, Richardson, Zcol. Trans, vol. iii. p. 99, 
exelus. synon. 

Radii.— Br. 6; D. 17|27; A.3|ll; C. 13f ; P. SetVII.; A. 1,5, 
specimens. 

This fish frequents Port Arthur in "Van Diemen's Land, and Dr. 
Lhotzky says that it is never taken at Sydney. In the ' Zoological 
Transactions' for 1841 (vol. iii. p. 99) there is a notice of it, to which 
the reader is referred ; but it is necessary to state that the number 
of fin rays there given are those of Ch. carponemus, as expressed in 
the ' Histoire des Poissons.' I there pointed out some of the discre- 
pancies between the examples of this fish I had then before me and 
the description and figure of carponemus in the work just referred 
to ; but being at that time very imperfectly aware of the number and 
variety of the Cheilodactyli existing in the Australian seas, I did not 
venture to indicate it as a proper species. This I am now enabled to 
do, after a careful comparison of the specimens then commented upon 
with Mr. Neill's example of carponemus from King George's Sound, 
the exact locality of the specimen of the latter described by Cu™r 
and Valenciennes. 

Ch. aspersus is a higher fish than carponemus, the greatest height 
of the body being contained only three times and one-third in the 
total length, caudal included. It is much compressed, with an acute 
back and a deeply-forked caudal. The more arched form of the 
spinous part of the dorsal fin, and the much stouter dorsal and anal 
spines, afford a ready means of distinguishing the dried specimens. 
The different colours and markings of the recent fish are very appa- 
rent. The first and last dorsal spines are much shorter than the cor- 
responding ones of carponemus, and the notch of the fin is conspi- 
cuous from the greater height of the soft rays. The second anal 
spine is very stout, and it rather exceeds the third one in length. The 
preorbitar is smaller than in that species, and its length does not ex- 
ceed the diameter of the orbit. The face is therefore shorter, and the 
profile rises more steeply to the dorsal, owing to the greater height 
of the fish. The elongated pectoral ray, which is the tenth, reaches 
no farther back than the beginning of the anal. The scales are rather 
large and much tiled. About fifty-two exist on the lateral line, besides 
six or seven rows on the base of the caudal, and there are twenty- 
two rows in the height of the fish. 

Mr. Lempriere, from whom we had the specimens, says that the 
fish is known at Port Arthur under the name of "the Perch," and 
has a bright silvery hue with dark spots. The specimens still ex- 
hibit many dark brown spots scattered thickly on the back and more 
sparingly on the sides, most of them being rather smaller than the 
exposed disk of a scale. The vertical fins, particularly the caudal, 
are more minutely spotted. The top of the gill-cover is blackish, and 
there is a dark mark on the humeral bone. As is usual in the genus, 
the inside of the mouth and lining of the gill-opening are purplish- 
black. Length 12^: inches. Greatest height 3| inches. 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 281 

The Cheilodactylus carmichaelis (Hist, des Poiss. v. 360) {Chceto- 
don monodactylus, Carmichael, Linn. Trans, vol. xii. p. 500. pi. 24) 
approaches aspersus in shape, in the length of its long pectoral rays, 
and in the number of fin rays generally, but it is distinguished by 
six short, broad dark bars on the back. The formula of its rays is 
as follows ■.—Radii.— Br. 6 ; D, 17|24 ; A. 3|12 ; P. 9 et VI.j V. 1|5, 
Carmichael. 

The Cheilodactylus fasciatus (Cuv. et Val. v. 357) of the Cape is 
distinguished by four or five vertical dark bands and five transverse 
lines on each lobe of the caudal. Its rays are stated to be : — 

Radii.— Br. 5 ; D. 19|23; A. Sill ; C. 17; P. 10 et V.; V. 1|5. 
Hist, des Poiss. 

CHEiLODACTYLtrs GiBBOsus, Solandcr. (ChcEtodon.) 

Chsetodon gibbosus. Banks, Icon. Parkins, ined. t. 23. 

Cheilodactylus gibbosus, Richardson, Zool. Trans, vol. iii. p. 102. 

Radii.— B. 17136; A. 3|8 ; C. 14| ; P. 8 et VI.; V. 1|5, spec. 

This fish inhabits the seas of Van Diemen's Land and the east 
coast of New Holland, as well as King George's Sound. A full de- 
scription of it is coiitained in the ' Zoological Transactions ' quoted 
above. It has the highest spinous dorsal of any described species of 
Cheilodactylus, and in the distribution of its black bands it bears a 
considerable resemblance to Eques americanus. 

Mr. Neill gives a drawing of it (No. 24), and states that it is 
known to the aborigines of King George's Sound by the name of 
" Kuelvek." The natives spear it on sandy banks, but say that it is 
rare. Its scales are smooth, and the second and third anal spines are 
moderately long and equal to each other. The suboperculum is nar- 
row, and together with the other opercular bones and cheek is scaly. 

Cheilodactylus nigripes, Richardson. 

Radii.— Bx. 6; D. 18|26; A. 3]10; C. 13f ; P. 7 etV.j V. 1|5, 
spec. 

The aborigines of King George's Sound had no name for this spe- 
cies, and no drawing of it was made by Mr. Neill. The only speci- 
men of it obtained was speared by a native named Murrianne, and 
measures 13 inches in length. It has a conical eminence on the pre- 
frontal bone, Uke that existing in Ch. gibbosus ; its face is short, with 
the profile ascending almost as much as in the species just named. 
The length of the preorbitar is rather less than the diameter of the 
orbit, the eye is placed midway between the gill-opening and mouth, 
and the interoperculum is only about half as wide as the disk of the pre- 
operculum. The cheek and all the pieces of the gill-cover are densely 
scaly. The second of the simple pectoral rays is the longest and it 
falls short of the anus, while only about one-third of its length pro- 
jects beyond the membrane. The spinous part of the dorsal is arched 
anteriorly. Its fifth and longest spine rather exceeds one-third of 
the height of the body. The preceding ones are graduated to the 
first, whose height is only a fifth part of the fifth one, but the de- 



28.2 Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 

crease of the posterior spines is much less ra])icl, the last one having 
half the length of the fifth. The soft rays rise to nearly twice the 
height of the posterior spines, rendering the fin notched. The third 
anal spine is somewhat longer than the second one, which is stoiiter, 
but the spines generally are of moderate thickness, and are com- 
pressed. The caudal is forked to half its depth. The ventral spine 
is long and slender. The scales are without asperities, and the ex- 
posed part of their disk exhibits the concentric rings of structure 
distinctly. About sixty-one exist in a row between the gill-opening 
and caudal, exclusive of three or four on that fin. The teeth on the 
jaws are slender and closely set. 

In the dried specimen the ventrals are pitch-black, and the other 
fins are nearly equally dark. The body is also dark, but in the 
absence of drawings or descriptions of the recent fish we cannot state 
its proper tints. 

Cheilodactyltjs zonatus, Cuv. et Val. 

Cheilodactylus zonatus, Cuv. et Val. vol. v. p. 365 ; Ukh. Rep. 
Brit. Assoc. 1845, p. 239. 

Radii.— J). 17|31 ; A. 3|8 ; C. 14| ; P. 8 et VI. spec. 

This fish, which is common to the China and Australian seas, 
appears to be called the "Zebra-fish" by the sealers who frequent 
King George's Sound, though that name is most generally appro- 
priated by them to the Crenidens zebra. Its prefrontal bone pro- 
jects behind the nostril, but not so acutely as in Ch. nigripes or 
gibbosiis. There is however a difi'ereuce in this respect in different 
individuals. The width of the interoperculum is about half that of 
the preopercular disk, and these bones and the cheek are densely 
scaly. The scales of the cheek however are imbedded in spongy 
porous skin. The length of the preorbitar equals the diameter of 
the orbit. In the relative sizes of the opercular bones and preorbitar, 
and in the form of the dorsal, sonatns and nigripes closely resemble 
each other, but there is a difference in the anal spines, in the rays of 
the pectoral, in the shape of the caudals, that of zonatus being only 
sparingly excavated, and a striking one in the colours. 

The dried specimen of zonatus shows very distinctly eight dark 
obhque bars on the body, the first crossing the nape and the last the 
base of the caudal, the intermediate pale spaces being equal to the 
bars in breadth. The entire head, including the preorbitar, is thickly 
marked by romid dark spots of the size of duck shot. There are 
large spots on the caudal, which are so crowded on the margin of the 
fin as almost to form a continuous bar. Two or in some parts more 
rows traverse the dorsal, and there are dark marks on the tips of the 
anal and ventrals. The simple rays of the pectoral are orange. Mr. 
Reeves's drawing of the Chinese fish represents it as dressed in very 
lively colours during the breeding season. 

The dorsal is highest at the fifth spine, as in zonatus, and is in 
other respects similar in form ; but the anal spines are shorter, espe- 
cially the second, which is also stouter in proportion. Kather less 
than one-third of the longest pectoral ray projects beyond the mem- 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 283 

brane, and the membrane is less deeply notched between the other 
simple rays than in niyripes. The scales differ from those of the last- 
named species, being finely granulated on the disk, as in nigricans. 

The rays are somewhat differently enumerated in the * Histoire 
des Poissons,' from a Japanese specimen. Radii. — Br. 6; D. 17|29; 
A. 318; P. 9 et v.; V. 1|5, Cuv. et Valenc. 

The Cheilodactylus hrachydactylus (Hist, des Poiss. p. 361) of 
the Cape approaches more nearly to our examples of zonatus in the 
numbers of the rays, but it does not appear to possess the prefrontal 
prominence, and has no other markings than a triangular black mark 
behind the eye. Uadii.—^x.b; D. I7|31; A. 3|9; C. 17; P. 8 et V.; 
V. 1 15, Cuv. et Valenc. 

Cheilodactylus ciliaris, Richardson, Zool. of the Voy. of the Ere- 
bus and Terror, p. 37. pi. 26. fig. 6, 7 (Latris ; Scicena ciliaris, 
Forster, &c.), is a species which is allied to the following ones, in the 
shortness of its simple pectoral rays. 

Cheilodactylus hecateius, Richardson. 

Latris hecateia, Richardson, Zool. Trans, p. 106. tab. 6, f. 1. 

Radii.— Br. 6; D. 18136; A. 3|27; C. 16f; P.9etIX.; V. 1|5, 
spec. 

In the account of this species quoted above, I expressed doubts of 
the rank of Latris as a subdivision of the Cheilodactyli ; but now that 
I have had an opportunity of examining a more complete gradation 
of specific forms, I am not disposed to think that it merits to be con- 
sidered even a subgenus, though the non-prolongation of one of the 
pectoral rays (usually the tenth) makes it a convenient division of the 
Cheilodactyli, now known to be numerous. 

This species inhabits the seas of Van Diemen's Land. 

Cheilodactylus lineatus, Forster (Scicena). 

Cichla liueata, Schneider. 

Scisena lineata, T. R. Forsteri Descr. Anim. p. 134. An. 1844 ; 
Fig. pict. Georg. Forsteri in Bihl. Banks, servata. 

Radii.— Br.6; D. 18|36; A. Il26; C.30; P. 17; V. 1|5, Forst.l.c. 

This species agrees nearly with the preceding in the numbers of its 
fin rays, except that Forster says expressly that it has only one anal 
spine. It has also four dark dorsal stripes, with three intervening 
silvery ones ; but it differs from hecateius in the yellowish colour of 
its fins, and particularly of its caudal, which obtained for it the appel- 
lation of " Yellow-tail " from the sailors. It frequents, like the other 
Cheilodactyli, rocky places, w^as captured by Cook's sailors wdth the 
hook, and was much approved as an article of food. It is a native of 
the seas washing the southern island of New Zealand. Length of 
specimen described by Forster, 24 inches. 

Having seen no specimens we cannot institute a correct comparison 
with hecateius. 



284 Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 

Threpterius, Eichardson. 

(QpeTrri'ipios, ad alendum idoneus.) 

Genus piscium acanthopterygiorum Cheilodactylis aflSue. Corpus 
catheto-plateum, ovato-oblongum, squamosum. Caput aliquantulum 
parvum, cute porosa tectum, absque spinis, angulis vel aciebus ser- 
ratis osseis. Os ut in Cheilodactylis exteusibile. Dentes in pre- 
maxillaribus, mandibuia trigonioque vomeris unii serie instruct!, bre- 
vissimi, parvi, subconici. Ossa palatis laevia. Gense craniumque 
esquamosse. Os preorbitale angustum. Operculum subtriangulare 
squamis tectum. Membrana branchiostega radiis sex curvis, satis 
validis sustentata. Squamae laeves nee dentatae ; linea lateralis recta. 
Radii pinnarum pectoralium inferiores simplices. Pinna dorsi e 
nucha fere usque ad caudoe pinnam regnans, squamulis apud radios 
instructa, membrana inter spinas profunde emarginata ; lobulo tamen 
membranaceo e summis spinis pendente. Pinnae ventrales thoracicae 
sed a gula paulo remotae. 

The characters are deduced from dried specimens, and the pharyn- 
geal teeth and structure of the intestinal canal are unknown. The 
jaw teeth are not strictly disposed in a single row, since a few minute 
ones form a row behind the others in front of the premaxillaries ; 
but these can scarcely be ^^sible in the recent fish. The cherron of 
the vomer is acute and projects a little. The orifice of the mouth is 
rather larger than in the Cheilodaetyli, but the jaws are extensible in 
about the same degree. The maxillary bone wants the flat thin plate 
near its head which exists in the Cheilodaetyli and glides beneath 
the preorbitar. The latter bone is narrow, its width not being equal 
to one-third of the diameter of the orbit. The eye is comparatively 
large, three diameters and a half of the orbit being equal to the entire 
length of the head, and two of these diameters measure the distance 
between the hinder edge of the orbit and the tip of the gill-cover. 
The position of the eye is high enough to encroach upon the profile. 
The cheek equals the diameter of the orbit in breadth ; the disk of 
the preoperculum is also wide, and the interoperculum moderately so. 
The operculum and suboperculum conjointly have a triangular form ; 
the former is notched, and the latter is prolonged by a membranous 
tip, which forms the apex of the gill-cover. Both these bones are 
densely scaly ; there is also a row of scales on the interoperculum, 
partially overlaid by the thin edge of the preoperculum, and the tem- 
ples are also scaly. The rest of the head is without scales, but the 
mucous skin, full of canals and pores, which envelopes the head, pre- 
vents us from ascertaining the exact extent of the scales, at least in 
the dried specimens. The top of the head is destitute of scales to the 
occiput, but in the Cheilodaetyli, dense, small scales extend forward 
on the skull to before the eyes. In the absence of thick fleshy lips, 
the genus differs from Cheilodactylus. Tlie preorbitar is neither wide 
enough nor long enough to conceal the maxillary, which however 
enters partially beneath its edge. The thin crescentic border of the 
preoperculum is striated, but not crenated. The same kind of streaks 
or furrows may be discerned, though not so readily, in some Cheilo- 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 285 

dacfyH. The head forms a fourth of the total length. The height 
of the body is also equal to a fourth of the length of the fish caudal 
included. The belly is prominent, and the tail, posterior to the ver- 
tical fins, is slender. The lateral line is straight, and each of its scales 
is marked by a short straight tube, which is placed somewhat obhquely 
to the general direction of the hne. About fifty-two scales compose 
a row between the gill-opening and caudal, the base of whose rays are 
also scaly, and the lateral line is prolonged as far as the scales extend 

on that fin. 

The dorsal commences over the upper angle of the gdl-opemng and 
reaches to within an inch of the caudal. Its seventh spine, which is 
the tallest, is nearly equal to half the height of the body ; the others 
are graduated very shghtly posteriorly and more rapidly anteriorly. 
None of them are stout, and all of them are traversed on each side 
by a deep furrow. The membrane between thon is deeply notched, 
as in the genus Pelors, and a slender process running up the back of 
each spine surmounts it in form of a small free lobe. The soft rays 
surpass the tallest spine a httle, and are more than twice the height 
of the last one. The anal commences opposite to the beginning of 
the soft portion of the dorsal and ends beneath its tenth branched 
ray, or, in the specimens before us, about two inches and a half from 
the caudal. The spines are like the dorsal ones, grooved and slender, 
and the second one, which is scarcely shorter than the third, is not 
quite twice as long as the first one. The seven inferior simple rays 
of the pectoral have free tips, their membrane being deeply notched 
as in the dorsal. The ventrals are attached under the middle of the 
pectorals, or opposite to the sixth dorsal spme. Their spine is slen- 
der, and about two-thirds of the length of the soft rays. The caudal 
is rounded, with the tips of the rays projecting beyond the mem- 
brane. 

Threpteritjs maculosus, Richardson. 

This fish approaches the division Latris of the Cheilodactyli in the 
form of its pectoral fin and other characters, but differs so much in 
its o-eneral aspect, which reminds one of a cottoid fish, that it is well 
that we can find a structural diiference which enables us to place it 
in a separate genus. This exists in the vomerine teeth, the vomer 
being smooth in the Cheilodactyli, but in this fish it is armed like 
the jaws by a single row of teeth, which, instead of being setiform 
and crowded, as in the Cheilodactyli, are short, somewhat conical, 
and confined nearly to a single row on the jaws as well as on the 



vomer. 



The native name of the fish at King George's Sound is "Ciim- 
beiik," and it frequents rocky places, having apparently the same 
habits with the Cheilodactyli. The simple projecting rays of the 
pectoral would appear to perform the fnnctions of an organ of touch, 
and are furnished to many fish that, hke the Triglce, swim close to 
the sandy bottom, which they touch with these simple rays, whether 
they are wholly or partially free. The Cumbeuk is prized as an 
article of food, whence the generic name. 



286 Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 

Mr. Neill's figure represents the fish as having a pale l)rown colour, 
much lighter on the belly, and thickly studded with irregular dark 
liver-brown spots, most crowded along the back and becoming much 
smaller and more scattered on the belly. The fins are rather of a 
redder brown, and the soft dorsal, ventral and caudal are minutely 
spotted. Length !) inches. 

Tautoga parila, Richardson. 

Paril and " Common Rock-fish," NeiWs drawings, No. 9 ; Richard- 
son, Ichth. Erebus and Terror, p. 127, sub Labro fucicola. 

Radii.— ^r. 6 ; D. 9|11; A. 3|10; C. 13f ; P. 13; A^ 1|5, spe- 
cimens. 

This species of Labrus or Tautoga approaches Labrus tetricus 
(lohth. of Erebus and Terror, pi. 55. f. I) in general form, but there 
is only a single row of scales on the teni])les, and they do not descend 
lower than the middle of the upper limb of the preoperculum. The 
scales covering the operculum and suboperculum are, as in the allied 
species, large. The cheek, preoperculum and the broad thin iuter- 
operculum show no scales, but, in common with the top of the head, 
are covered with a thick skin full of mucous canals and open pores. 
The diameter of the orbit is less than the length of the preorbital, 
and is contained five times and a half in the length of the head when 
the jaws are retracted. The preorbitar lips are only slightly de- 
veloped, but the intermaxillary and mandibular ones are thick and 
plaited. Teeth arranged in each jaw in a series gradually decreasing 
towards the angle of the mouth, the anterior pair above and below 
being considerably larger and more curved. In the upper jaw there 
is a complete interior series of small rounded teeth which are on a 
level with the soft parts. On the mandible the interior row is con- 
fined to the fore-part of the jaw, and is less regular. The tubular 
ramifications on the scales of the lateral line are more numerous and 
crowded than in L. tetricus, or any of the other Australian species 
figured in the ' Ichth)' ology of the Erebus and Terror.' There are 
twenty-four scales on the lateral line having these clusters of tubes, 
and the clusters do not diminish in size towards the tail, though one 
or two less bushy occur under the soft dorsal. The line is as usual 
suddenly bent downwards under the end of that fin. 

In the dried skins dark brown lines radiate from the orbit over the 
temples, cheek, and preorbitar, and there are dark spots on the jaws, 
top of the head and gill-plates. There are also some white blotches 
and bars on the cheek, preoperculum, interoperculum and lower jaw. 
The body is variegated with brown spots, crowded along the back, 
more scattered on the sides, and mixed with small round dots of the 
same tint. The dark marks extend to all the vertical fins. These 
spots have an umber-brown colour in Mr. Neill's drawing. 

No. 37 of the same drawings represents the " Black-fish of the 
sealers" and the " Paril" or " Knhoul" of the natives, which is con- 
sidered to be a variety of the preceding. There is no specimen of it 
in the collection, but it has the back and upper part of the sides 
thickly sprinkled with reddish-brown dots without any larger spots. 
This variety or species is said to grow to the size of 15 or 20 lbs. 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 287 

CossYPHUs vuLPiNus, Ricliardsoii. 

Radii.— ^x. A; D. 12|11; A. 3|12; C. 14|; P. 16 ; V. 1|5, spec. 

The height of the body is one-fourth of the total length of the fish, 
caudal included, and is about equal to the length of the head. 

The profile rises in a slightly concave hue from the acute snout to 
opposite the back part of the orbit at an angle of 30°. From thence 
to the beginning of the dorsal, which stands as far back as the axil of 
the ventrals, the line is almost horizontal, and judging from the dried 
specimen the dorsal ridge there is acute. When the jaws are pro- 
tracted the face has a hollow profile, and the strong series of teeth 
give it a sinister look. There are two pairs of canines at the extre- 
mities of the upper and under jaws, the upper ones being inclined 
forwards, and also a canine at the corner of the mouth, which is bent 
outwards. The smaller teeth are rather widely set, and there are six 
of them on each maxillary and fourteen on each limb of the lower 
jaw ; and of the latter the middle ones are somewhat longer than those 
towards each end of the jaw. Within the front teeth on both jaws 
there is a flat naked surface of bone fitted for grinding or crushing, 
and more interiorlj'^ a few minute granular teeth scarcely protruding 
from the bone. The cleft of the mouth extends backwards to the 
front of the preorbitar bone, and is equal to the distance between the 
corner of the mouth and the eye. 

The preorbitar is covered with smooth skin, presenting an even 
surface in the recent fish, but in the skeleton it presents three deep 
notches anteriorly, separated by linear processes. The rest of the 
suborbitar chain is narrow. The upper limb of the preoperculum is 
finely serrated, the serratures disappearing on the rounded angle. 
The disk of that bone, the other opercular pieces, the cheeks, 
temjiles and suprascapulars are scaly, but there are no scales on the 
limbs of the lower jaw, in which respect the species differs from the 
Cossyphus maldat of the ' Histoire des Poissons,' to which it has 
some resemblance in general form. There are six rows of scales on 
the cheek and as many on the interoperculum ; the scales on the disk 
of the preoperculum are smaller than these, and those covering the 
operculum and suboperculum are considerably larger. The naked 
part of the scales exhibits little pits rather than granulations. There 
are thirty scales on the lateral line, each carrying a simple tube with 
its point turned upwards. The tube is more branched in C. maldat. 
There is no sudden bend in the lateral line, but it descends gradually 
under the soft dorsal rays to the middle height of the tail, on which 
there are eight rows of scales. 

The anal and dorsal fins move in scaly sheaths, which are broadest 
on the soft rays. The spinous rays are strong, tapering, and acute. 
The first dorsal spine stands over the axil of the ventrals ; and the 
ventral spine, which is as tall as the last and longest dorsal one, stands 
beneath the base of the lowest pectoral ray. The soft parts of the anal 
and dorsal are somewhat peaked, and rise above the spines. These two 
fins end exactly opposite to each other, and leave a considerable space 
of naked tail behind them. The angles of the caudal project a little 
beyond the straight intermediate border. The colours of the speci- 
men have faded. Length 1 6 inches. 



288 Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 

CossYPHus GOULDii, Ricliardsoii. 

Labrus gouldii, Rich. Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. xi. p. 353. 

Cossyphus, vel Lachnolaimus gouldii. Idem, Ichth. of Foy. of 
Erebus and Terror, p. 132. 

Radii.— D.n\\0 yd \\; A. 3|10 vel 11 ; C. 14f ; P.17vell6; 
V. 1|5, spec. 

Mr. Neill's collection contains a young specimen of this fish, which 
was previously known to me only by an example of considerably 
greater size, brought from Western Australia by ]SIr. Gould. Neither 
specimen retained the pharyngeal bones, and I still remain in doubt 
as to which of the dismemberments of the Linnaean genus Labrus it 
ought to be referred. 

It has the general form of Labrus, with the scaly dorsal and anal 
sheaths of Cossyphus, and a peculiarity in the verj' compressed form 
of the spinous rays which I have not as yet seen in any other La- 
broid. It has the four anterior canines in each jaw which exist in 
some Cossyphi, and on the mandibles these canines are inclined for- 
ward Uke the corresponding teeth in Anampses. There are no ca- 
nines at the angle of the mouth. The lateral teeth are incorporated 
with the bone, and are small and uniform, not decreasing in succes- 
sion, as in the Labri. In the young specimen the bone of both jaws 
is thin, and the forms of the lateral teeth are distinctly seen, cemented 
laterally to each other, with a few very minute granular teeth scattered 
on the interior surface of the bones ; but in the older specimen the 
premaxillaries have swollen behind the canines and acquired a smooth 
surface by friction, and the edges of the jaws having worn down the 
forms of the teeth composing them, are obscured — their rounded 
points alone being visible. On the other hand the granular teeth on 
the sides of the jaws have become more conspicuous in consequence 
of their growth. 

The cleft of the mouth is small, not exceeding the diameter of 
the eye. The length of the preorbitar is greater. The latter bone 
and the suborbitar chain, with the lower jaw and top of the head, 
are scaleless. The edge of the preoperculum is quite smooth, and its 
disk appears to be scaleless, but there are nine rows of small scales 
on the cheek, and the other gill-pieces are scaly, those on the oper- 
culum and suboperculum being larger than the rest. The uncovered 
disks of the scales of the body are rough, with small round points, 
the edges being thm, membranous, and striated or wrinkled. The 
descending curve of the lateral line under the soft dorsal is the gra- 
dual one of a Cossyphus, not the more sudden deflection of a Labrus. 
Each of the scales composing it has a loose arbuscle of sparingly 
branched tubes. 

The dorsal spines are strong and comparatively short, and the an- 
terior ones are compressed so as to render their front edges acute. 
The compression diminishes in the posterior spines, and the last and 
tallest one is subulate, grooved and pointed. The foremost two anal 
sj)ines are even more conspicuously compressed, and the third one is 
subulate. The ventrals are rounded, and have a compressed spine 
which stands under the second and third dorsal spines and base of the 
pectoral — being farther forward than in Cossyphus indpimis. 



Sir J. Richardson on Australian Fish. 289 

This fish is represented as having a dark purplish colour, and is 
said by Mr. Neill to bear the names of " Koojenuck," " Quejuinuck," 
or " Knowl," among the aborigines of King George's Sound. It 
attains the weight of 28 or 30 lbs. It is described more at length in 
the • Ichthyology of the Voyage of the Erebus and Terror,' quoted 
above. 

JuLis CYANOGRAMMA, Richardson. 

Radii.— D. 9|13 ; A. 3|13 ; C. 12J; P. 13 ; V. 1|5, spec. 

This species is the "Knelmick" or "Kielnmick" of the aborigines 
frequenting King George's Sound, and the " Common Rock-Cod" of 
the sealers. It is also an inhabitant of New South Wales, specimens 
of it having been sent to the Museum at Haslar by Mr. Miles. Its 
flesh is little prized. 

In the numbers of its fin rays it comes near Julis dussumieri, but 
diifers from it in having smaller scales, in form and in colours ; nor 
have I been able to refer it to any described species. Its body is 
elongated ; its height, which is not equal to the length of the head, 
being contained five times and a half in the total length of the fish, j 
caudal included. The compression of the head is considerable, its ' 
thickness not exceeding half its height, and the occiput and nape are 
acute. The length of the preorbitar is considerably greater than the i 
diameter of the eye, and the cheek and interoperculum are both high. ' 
There are no scales on the temples or any other part of the head. 
There are fifty scales on the lateral line, each marked by six or j 
seven short, simple, diverging tubes. The lateral line is bent down- 
wards under the ninth, tenth and eleventh soft rays of the dorsal ; it 
is otherwise straight, and runs near the back. The dorsal commences 
far forward, over the top of the gill-cover, and runs back wiXh. an even 
outline ; its tip, which is acute, though not prolonged, reaching, when 
laid back, to the base of the caudal. Its spines, as well as those of ; 
the anal and ventrals, are flexible and very slender. The pectorals 
are not large, and the ventrals have tapering, acute, but not filament- 
ous tips. They stand under the base of the lowest pectoral ray. 
The caudal is moderately rounded, and it is scaly between the rays i 
for more than on^third of its length. ' 

When the open mouth is viewed in front, its teeth form a rhomb ; 
the front pair of teeth above and below are comparatively large and 
are curved. There is also a small curved tooth standing forwards 
from the angle of the mouth. 

Mr. Neill's drawing represents this fish as having an aurora-red 
ground colour on the head, back, dorsal and anal fins, the fins being 
of the deepest tint. The head is ornamented by deep blue lines, 
which are distinctly visible on the dried specimen. These all form 
curves more or less bold, with the convexity forwards. The anterior 
one begins on the nose, runs forward to the lips, and inclines backwards 
again on the lower jaw ; the next descends from the nostrils over the 
disk of the maxillary and posterior part of the lower jaw. Two de- 
scend from the orbit over the interoperculum, and there are some 
finer intermediate ones which vanish on the cheek. There are also 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 19 



290 Sir J. Richardson on Atistralian Fish. 

about six slender lines on the gill-cover, which are thickened on the 
suprascapular region. The body is traversed by seven or eight rows 
of short blue lines, which on the tail are superseded in part by dots. 
The dorsal and anal have about three rows of these short lines, and 
the caudal, wliich is reddish-orange, is streaked longitudinally with 
blue. The pectoral and ventrals are flesh-coloured. 
Length of specimen 12^ inches. 

Olisthops, Richardson. 

{Olisthops, ex dXiirdqpus, lubricus, et w\\j, vultus.) 

Genus generis Odaeis affine. Caput totum cute lubrica, esqua- 
mosa tectum (squamulae quatuor tantum inconspicuis regioni supra- 
scapulari utrinque insidentes) . Labia simplicia cum cute faciei con- 
tinua, labia preorbitalia nulla. Dentes cum ossibus Imiatis pre- 
maxillaribus mandibulisque, modb Scarorum ferruminati. [Ossa pha- 
ryngea ab exemplaribus nostris excisa, hiuc nobis ignota.] Squamae 
cyloidese. Linea lateralis simplex, e tubulis rectis facta, continua ; 
antice arcuata, postice recta. Pinna dorsi unica, prope humerum 
incipiens, in parte spinosa, modo proprio, emarginata ; radiis spino- 
sis apicibus flexilibus. Pinnae ventrales sub axillis pectoralium po- 
sitse. Membrana branchiostega in gutture continua, utrinque radiis 
quatuor sustentata. 

The general form of this fish has been known to me for some years 
by the accurate drawing of Mr. Neill. It is an inhabitant of King 
George's Sound in Australia, where it is recognised by the natives 
\inder the name of " Toobitoet," or " Toobitooit," and it is said to 
inhabit rocky places and to be rarely captured. In the construction 
of its jaws and in general form it approacltes most nearly to Odax, 
but it differs from that genus, and still more from Scarus, in the want 
of scales on the head, the single lips, and in the unusual form of the 
dorsal. The subjoined description is drawn up from a specimen pre- 
pared by Mr. Neill, which I have lately had an opportunity of in- 
specting. 

In the shape of the jaws Olisthoj)s resembles several species of Odax 
which inhabit the Australian seas, but does not agree altogether with 
the account of the dentition of that genus as given in the ' Histoire 
des Poissons' (xiv. p. 299), nor with the drawing of the jaws of Odax 
pullus (op. cit. pi. 408. f. 2). 

The jaws of Odax, says M. Valenciennes, are composed, as in Sca- 
rus, of an assemblage of small teeth arranged in a quincuncial order 
and intimately soldered together, forming on each side a single body, 
whose cutting edge is crenulated ; but these jaws are neither so broad 
nor so convex as in Scarus, and are entirely covered by the lips. They 
differ from those of Scarus in that the teeth form two spoon-bowls at 
the end of the mouth in front of the spinous points which crown the 
teeth of the jaw. Olisthops and several Odaces want these poste- 
rior marginal toothlets, the spoon-shaped masses constituting the en- 
tire dental process of the jaw, and showing their origin merely by the 
reflections of the incorporated, minute pearly quincuncial teeth, so 



Sir J. Richardson un Australian Fish. 291 

densely crowded as to form nearly the whole of their smooth exterior 
surfaces. 

Olisthops cyanomelas, Richardson. 

Radii.— Br. A; D. 18|10; A. 3|10; C. 12|; V. \\5 ; P. 12. 
.' Form elongated, the greatest height of the body, which occurs just 
behind the ventrals, being contained iiA^e times and a half in the total 
length of the fish, caudal included. The bluffness of the head, pro- 
duced by the form of the jaws, is intermediate between that of Scarus 
and Odax, and the profile, from the nostrils to the dorsal, is mode- 
rately ascending and but slightly convex. The jaws have the usual 
structure of those of Scarus, being composed of a multitude of mi- 
nute teeth, arranged in a quincuncial order in many rows, and so in- 
corporated with the bone that they produce no inequality of surface, 
but reflect the light in certain positions so as to reveal their struc- 
ture. The two premaxillaries conjointly, and the two halves of the 
mandible, resemble half the bowl of a spoon with straight cutting edges, 
which under a lens appear to be striated and minutely crenulated. 
At the symphysis of the mandible, the cutting edge rises slightly, so 
as to seem very slightly peaked. The orifice of the mouth is com- 
paratively small, and the small maxillaries are concealed under the 
skin at its corners. Interiorly there is a conspicuous velum in both 
jaws. The small nostrils lie in a membranous space above the pre- 
orbitar. 

The entire head is covered with smooth integument, which has no 
inflexed folds at the edges of the opercular pieces or preorbitar, but 
is continuous with single lips, that are capable of covering the jaws. 
The gill-membrane is continuous with the edges of the interopercula, 
and passes over the isthmus to which it is partially adherent, leaving 
a small flap posteriorly. It is sustained by four flat thin rays on each 
side. In length the head is equal to five diameters and a half of the 
circular orbit, and the space between the eye and the tip of the gill- 
flap equals three of these diameters. The eye is near, but does not 
touch the upper profile of the head. A triangular preorbitar, having 
a length equal to the diameter of the orbit, is so concealed by the in- 
tegument that it is scarcely discernible in the recent fish, but in the 
dried specimen it shows a slightly raised disk bounded in a somewhat 
radiated manner by slightly prominent mucous canals. The rest of 
the suborbitar chain goes round more than half the orbit in form of 
a slender line of simple mucous tubes. The two limbs of the pre- 
opercidum, eqiial to each other in length, meet at a right angle and 
inclose a broad and perfectly smooth cheek. In the dried fish the 
disk of the bone appears raised, and is edged irregularly with mucous 
prominences, but the under border of the bone is thin, and is scarcely 
distinguishable from the very thin, flexible interoperculum. At the 
temporal angle of the gill-plate there originates a bushy cluster of 
prominent ramifications, which disappear about the middle of the 
disk, and are most probably not visible at all in the recent fish. The 
rather narrow, very thin suboperculum is lengthened into the tip of 
the gill-cover, in which the flexible bone is scarcely to be distinguished 
from the membrane. The gill-opening is restricted above, the whole 

19* 



293 Mr. W. Clark on the Chemnitzia opalina a»d C. diaphana. 

upper edge of the operculum being attached to the side of the head 
by membrane. Posteriorly and above the pectoral the gill-membrane 
is vertically truncated, and the gill-opening slopes from the level of 
the upper ray of that fin downwards and forwards till it terminates 
opposite to the angle of the preoperculum. A row of small scales 
exists on the suprascapular region, but there are no other scales, 
nor any bony or spinous points on the head. 

The scales are cycloid and of smaller size than those of Scarus, 
there being forty-eight in a longitudinal row between the gill-opening 
and caudal ; seven rows above the lateral line anteriorly, and fourteen 
below it. 

The scales are oblong, with parallel or converging sides, a truncated 
or rounded base and a rounded or conical free end. Fine strife, from 
twelve to twenty in number, diverge from the centre towards the base, 
but do not produce lobes or crenatures on the margin ; there are some 
fainter diverging striae anteriorly. The lateral line is arched over the 
pectoral, and afterwards descends gradually, till opposite the three 
last dorsal spines, from whence it holds a straight course dovra the 
middle of the tail and runs out to the middle of the caudal membrane. 
It is formed of a series of single straight tubes, and is nearly perfectly 
continuous, especially posteriorly. 

The dorsal spines are slender, and end in soft flexible tips. The 
first spine stands over the base of the lowest pectoral ray, and is the 
tallest ; the others gradually diminish in height to the penultimate 
one, which is a little shorter than the last one ; the soft rays are forked, 
and rise abruptly to nearly twice the height of the posterior spines. 
The anal, of similar height and shape to the soft dorsal, has its com- 
mencement and end a little posterior to those of the latter. The 
rather small ventrals are attached opposite to the third dorsal spine. 
The caudal is rather large, and is crescentic at the end with project- 
ing points, of which the upper one is the longest. 

In general colour the fish appears from Mr. Neill's figure to be 
blackish-green, deepening nearly to black on the back and dorsal fin. 
A deep prussian-blue streak covers the second pectoral ray, and there 
are two broader, interrupted ones on the caudal, viz. between the 
longest rays of the caudal above and below and the ray immediately 
interior to them. The iris is likewise blue, and there is a blue spot 
on the nostrils. These streaks are to be traced on the specimen, but 
have changed to green. The female differs in being much paler (a 
dull leek-green in the dried specimen), and in wanting the blue streaks. 
The lobes of its caudal also are less prolonged. 

XXVII. — On the Chemnitzia opalina and C. diaphana. 
By William Clark, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Norfolk Crescent, Bath, March 7, 1851. 

I HAVE much gratification in submitting observations on a great 

desideratum amongst malacologists. I have just received in a 

bottle of sea-water, from my friend Mr. Barlee at Falmouth, live 



Mr. W. Clark on the Chemuitzia opalina and C. diaphana. 293 

specimens of the beautiful Rissoa opalina. Though somewhat 
torpid, I have observed the organs, an account of which I am sure 
will gratify many of your readers. There is no recorded descrip- 
tion of the animal. This excellent discovery is due to the per- 
severance of George Barlee, Esq., whose laborious and painful 
journeyings — 

" per omnes 

Terrasque, tractusque maris," 

of the wilds of the Ultima Thule, and Hebridean seas, have en- 
riched science with so many rare and interesting objects ; the pre- 
sent one is invaluable, as it clears up several doubtful questions 
which might long have remained unexplained, if this curious 
animal had continued to escape observation. 

Rissoa opalina, auct. Chem. opalina, mihi. 

Animal inhabiting a spiral subglobose shell of three volutions. 
Mantle of the palest azure, slightly canaliculated, otherwise even 
with the shell. The head is a rounded, short, contractile pro- 
boscidiform muzzle, which is rarely carried beyond the foot and 
tentacula j it is vertically cloven at the terminus and under part, 
furnished with a pair of subcircular jaws and lingual riband, 
which in several of the examples I frequently saw protruded 
after the manner of the Rissoce ; the head and neck are brindled 
with fine dark lead-coloured lines. 

There are a pair of tentacula on each side the neck behind the 
muzzle, springing from a distinct common origin or pedicle, not 
formed by the fissure of any part of the head, divergent, very 
short, thick, very little flattened, of nearly the same size through- 
out, each pair connate with their respective stamens, very mode- 
rately setose, quite blunt at their terminations, beneath pale yel- 
low, above delicately aspersed towards the extremities with pale- 
coloured veiy minute points } the eyes are large, black, placed 
very far back on the neck, on, if at all, slight eminences, perhaps 
immersed in them, apparently in a line with the centre of each 
tentacular pedicle ; these parts were seen with great difficulty, 
and only came into view in two examples ; they however may be 
observed through the paler-coloured shells, but are not exserted 
on the march beyond the margin of the aperture. The foot is 
oval in quietude, showing a narrow lead-coloured margin, in 
action somewhat truncate anteriorly, with very small auricles, 
posteriorly forming a gradually attenuated termination, without 
cirrhi, but slightly emarginate in one or two specimens. The 
corneous operculum is suboval, marked with fine subannular 
striae, with a small central process, rib and groove, sometimes 
with two minute raised points or nuclei contiguous to each other ; 



294 Ml". W. Clark on the Clienmitzia opalhui (md C. diapliana. 

all these characters are occasionally subject to some modification. 
We have several in our cabinet which differ materially, the an- 
nular strise of increment being usually permanent ; the operculum 
is carried rather posteriorly, not on a developed operculigerous 
lobe ; the foot is not labiated so as to produce a meutum — at least 
I saw none. The foot is not so slender proportionately as in the 
typical Rissoa:, nor so long ; beneath it is pale yellow, showing a 
medial line on the posterior half; above, elegantly mottled or 
brindled with dark close-set lead-coloured lines, which are some- 
times waved ; the colours on all parts vary in intensity in the dif- 
ferent individuals. I could detect no head-lappets. These ani- 
mals float and creep like the Chemnitzice and JRissua. Habitat ? 
Mr. Barlee omitted to name it, but I presume it is in the lit- 
toral and lamiuarian zones ; he has since confirmed this view. 
Axis 2'oj diam. ^^ uncise. 

The muzzle of this animal allies it to Rissoa, and the peculiar 
position of the eyes to Ckemnitzia ; further investigation is re- 
quired to determine which is the most worthy character. I shall 
soon have a good opportunity of entering on the examination of 
these points. Notwithstanding the proboscidal muzzle not being 
a strictly retractile one, I think the balance of characters is in 
favour of this animal being a point of transition from the Litto- 
rinidcE, and that it may be considered an aberrant Chemnitzia. 

With respect to Mr. Alder's strictures in the March 'Annals' 
on my Chemnitzia diaphana, I am sorry that I cannot reply on 
every point as I could wish until my return fi"om the sea-side. At 
present I can only say, that the comparison of his so-called Jef- 
fi-eysia with Chemnitzia is incorrect in most points, as I will show 
hereafter. I think he will discover that he is in error respecting 
the proboscidal apparatus of the Chemnitzice ; at least he is, if any 
reliance can be placed on M. Philippics aiithorities. 

Mr. Alder has attached by far too great importance to the 
modification of the striular form in the operculum of Chemnitzia 
diapharui in comparison with those of the Chemnitziee, in which 
they are very variable — not two are alike. Let him examine those 
of the C. conoidea, C. pallida, and C. rufa ; indeed he will find 
throughout the tribe that these appendages are very dissimilar ; 
notwithstanding the variation in the shape of the opercular strise 
in C. diaphana, I consider the operculum of that species of de- 
cidedly Chemnitzian type, and that its characters ally it much 
closer to the Muricidte, particularly to Murex undatus, than to 
the Littorinida> — I mean, in the subannular form of the striae of 
increment. 

Since the above was written I have again examined the animal 
and shell of the Rissoa opalina, and I am bound to conclude, that 
it is an aberrant Chemnitzia. The position of the eyes, far back 



Ml'. W. Clark on the Chemnitzia opalina and C. diaphana. 295 

on the neck, at the bases of the tentacula in a line with them, 
sufficiently indicates its parentage, if all othex* characters were 
absent. I challenge the production of an animal of the Lit- 
torinidce with a spiral shell and operculum that has any ana- 
logy to this in respect of the eyes; but the position of these 
organs is one of the great distinctive characters of the Pyra- 
midellidce. I may just observe, that R. opalina has alliance 
with Truncatella by the muzzle and short tentacula. All my 
shells have the true button-shaped sunken subreflexed apex of 
that section of the Chemnitzm which is represented by the 
dwarf littoi'al Chem. rissoides, only it is somewhat more bent on 
the second volution than in that species : the pillar-lip, if care- 
fully examined, will show sometimes decided folds, but usually, as 
is often the case in Chem. obliqua, the " decorata " of Mr. Bean, 
they do not force themselves within the limits of visibility. I 
have dissected the columella of several examples of this species 
as well as of C. diaphana, and I find them with the lax elongated 
spiral wreath exactly as in C. obliqua, with which they are strictly 
congeneric in almost all points. The operculum, though modi- 
fied in the shape of the striae, is decidedly of Chemnitzian type ; 
that of the Littorinidce is usually spiral. The double tentacula 
of the Chem. opalina are only the broad longitudinally folded 
ones of some of the Chemnitzia qualified by scission. AH these 
circumstances satisfy me that this animal is a true Chemnitzia, 
and as it is congeneric with Chem. diaphana, mihi, Jeffreysia dia- 
phana, Alder, that disputed species will fall into the same cate- 
gory as this, I therefore again express an opinion that the so- 
called genus Jeffreysia is superfluous, inasmuch as an appropriate 
one is already formed for its species. 

I am now preparing for a lengthened absence from Bath at 
Exmouth ; in the autumn I hope to have it in my power to con- 
vince either Mr. Alder or myself of some important malacological 
facts. 

I am. Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 

Bath, March 16, 1851. 
Postscript. — I have ascertained that the opercula of probably 
all the Chemnitzia are undoubtedly characterized by an apophysis 
or process, with slight specialty modifications of shape and posi- 
tion, which has been considered a unique incident of the so- 
called genus Jeffreysia diaphana of Mr. Alder, — my Chemnitzia, — 
which in many species has nearly similar furrows and markings, 
both on the under and upper surface, and inflexion on the upper 
range next the pillar ; and it would be strange if it were not so, 
as I will prove that the Jeffreysia diaphana is a true Chemnitzia. 



296 Mr. W, Clark on the Chemnitzia opalina and C. diaphana. 

With respect to the variation of the shape of the strise of the 
operculum in Chem. diaphana, I may observe, it is not uncommon 
in the same genus in other families, and may be seen even in the 
same species ; I have Trochi with the apparently fine annular striae, 
and others with radiating lines, and as grossly spiral as in the 
Littorina Uttorea. I have already stated that the operculum in 
Chemnitzia shows much variation ; I adduce as an example, that 
in some specimens of the C. rufa, part of the area is coarsely sub- 
annular, with stripe on the other part, radiating from the elliptic 
curves. The fact of a process in the Chemnitzia is placed beyond 
doubt, as I have examined foui-teen species, having with great 
trouble cleansed the opercula of my dried specimens from every 
particle of animal matter ; a difficult task from their minuteness, 
but of the highest importance for correctly viewing the process 
and other characters. I have placed them all on tablets, and shall 
be glad to show them to any competent observer; they are 
interesting from the fact that Chemnitzia is the only marine 
gasteropodan genus which has these peculiar characters. The 
apophysis is nothing more than an extension, sometimes from 
the margin, but more usually from the under surface of the 
operculum, of one of the callosities with which it is generally 
studded, assuming the modifications of shape dependent on them ; 
it is usually situate opposite the nucleus, and is often connected 
with it ; the process in some species appears to be of a subtes- 
taceous character. 

We will now see what Mr. Alder says of this supposed peculiar 
process in his Jeffrerjsia diaphana ; I quote his words : " The oper- 
culum is very peculiar; the projecting internal plate I do not re- 
collect to have obsened in any other genxis, though the spine in 
Nerita approaches to it." (Alder in Brit. MoUusca, vol. iii. p. 152.) 
It is proper to observe, that no operculum of the Littorinida has 
the least similarity to the present one, conseqviently Jeffreysia, as 
Mr. Alder thinks, cannot belong to that family. 

Mr. Alder's figures of the opercula are very incon-ect, particu- 
larly that of the C. rissoides, in which \h.Q process and rough under 
sculpture are omitted. It is strange Mr. Alder has forgotten to 
mark the apophysis, which in Chem. rissoides is quite as apparent 
in proportion to its minor size as in C. diaphana — though not 
large, it is sufficiently visible : I have two dissected specimens. 

The apophysis is strikingly conspicuous in Chem. conoidea and 
Chem.plicata, much more so than in Chem. diaphana or its congener 
Chem. opalina ; in Chem. acuta it approaches nearly to the two 
latter species, but is not quite so marginal ; in C, spiralis, C. de- 
cussata and C. interstincta , its position and the rib are all but 
identical with C. diaphana and C. opalina. This fact of the es- 
sential identity of the operculum of Chemnitzia and the Jeffreysia, 



Mr. C. Spence Bate's Notes on Crustacea. 297 

I may say, from its peculiarity, is decisive, independent of the 
host of facts above mentioned, that Mr. Alder's genus is unte- 
nable, one of its species being, as I stated in a late paper on the 
PyramidellidcB, a decided Chemnitzia. As the discovery of the 
process in Chemnitzia has now irrevocably satisfied me that the 
genus Jeffreijsia is superfluous, I will not, as I have proposed in 
the autumn, trouble you in reference to Mr. Alder's memoir. I 
will in a subsequent paper oflfer a curious statement relative to 
the Chemnitzice, resulting from the present investigation. 



XXVIII. — Notes on Crustacea. By C. Spence Bate. 

[Continued from vol. vi. p. 111.] 

[With a Plate.] 

On the Fifth pair of Legs in the Anomoura. 

IV. The fifth pair of legs, which both in the Brachyura and 
Macroura are attached to the last thoracic ring, in the Ano- 
moura belong to the first abdominal ring. Like all the others 
they consist of not less than six joints, though sometimes the 
last is so short, that with a process of the penultimate it com- 
bines to form a didactyle claw having a prehensile power, similar 
to the more efficient forceps of the first paii-. 

Although they consist of a similar number of joints to the 
other pairs, and are in many instances nearly equal to them also 
in length, yet they are powerless and not at all adapted to assist 
in walking ; in fact, their common position is to be folded up 
and at rest upon the back. But though inefficient for the ordi- 
nary purposes of legs, they yet fulfill a successful part in the 
oeconomy of the creature, and are useful for many purposes. 

In each of the other tribes of the decapod crustaceans, the 
brauchise are supplied with organs especially adapted for the pur- 
pose of keeping them free from the lodgement of foreign particles, 
and also to excite currents over then- surfaces. These offices, which 
in the Brachyura and Macroura are performed by the flabellse, are 
in the Anomoura accomplished by the fifth pair of legs, which, 
when necessary, are inserted into the branchial chamber ; to faci- 
litate which, all this tribe have a peculiar articulation of the cara- 
pace which gives them the power of raising their shell. This 
power they avail themselves of in order to admit to the branchiae 
as large a body of aerating fluid as possible, when circulation of 
the blood has become impeded, as for instance when they have 
been for any length of time confined in a small quantity of water : 
a membrane connecting the carapace with the inner walls of the 



298 Mr. C. Speiice Bate's Notes on Crustacea. 

branchial chamber and extending along the anterior edge of the 
tirst abdominal ring, precludes the admission of water into the 
cavity occupied by the thoracic viscera. 

But the above is not the only purpose for which this imperfectly 
developed pair of legs are made available. The extremities besides 
being prehensile are more or less ciliated, forming a small brush : 
with these I have seen Pagurus Bernhardus, while lying upon its 
back half in and half out of its abode, mop and cleanse every 
joint in succession, stopping now and then to wipe the brush in 
the pedipalps with the greatest care. 

The absence of the Habellte from the branchial chamber is a 
feature peculiar to the Anomoura, a fact valuable as assisting to 
estabUsh the position of doubtful species, and which I would here 
draw attention to, together with the fifth pair of legs being at- 
tached to an annular segment distinct from the carapace, as 
strongly supporting the opinion of Prof. Bell, who, in his ' Hi- 
story of the British Crustacea,' places the Galatheans among the 
Anomoura, in which arrangement he differs from Prof. Milne- 
Edwards, who classes them among the Macroura. 

On the Development of the Shell of Crabs. 

V. From the period of leaving the ova to that of old age, 
crabs at certain periods throw off their skins : when in the larva 
state this is done every few days; as the animal grows older 
weeks intervene, and then months, until lastly the exuviae are 
cast but once a year, and probably when it is getting old they 
may not be shed so often. 

But whether it be during the larva state or that of the adult 
crab, the process of development under which the shell is pro- 
duced must be one and the same. Immediately above the heart, 
a pulp consisting of nucleated cells, areolar tissue (and blood- 
vessels ?), is formed, extending to the internal surface of the shell, 
from which it is separated by a layer of pigment which gives 
colour to the new formation. Towards the base, that is, imme- 
diately above the heart, the cells are uniformly large and distinct, 
as represented in PI. X. fig. 1, while an areolar tissue ramifies 
throughout the whole. As advance is made from the base, cells 
of less size mix with them, which increase in number as they di- 
minish in diameter until they approach the layer of pigment, 
immediately beneath which they adapt themselves by mutual 
pressure into a polygonal form. The pulp extends over the whole 
periphery of the crab immediately beneath the shell, the thick- 
ness of the pulp decreases with the distance from the centre, and 
the larger cells become fewer in number, the mass being chiefly 
made up of the smaller cells which become the secreting organs 



Mr. C. Spence Bate's Notes on Crustacea. 299 

of the future shell, which process commences previously, and is 
completed after the removal of the exuviae. 

Shedding the Eocuviae. 

VI. The manner in which the crab seems to free itself of its 
extraneous covering is by the internal growth of the animal : 
the increased bulk acting upon the principle of a lever, the 
transverse growth becomes compressed within the limits of the 
old carapace, which induces an increase of dimension in the 
contrary direction, and the first sign which I have noticed of 
the approaching change in the animal's oeconomy is an increase in 
its thickness, whereby the sections of the abdomen become more 
conspicuous from above * ; as this increases the crab wanders 
about in search of a retired spot, and often becomes very savage, 
darting at anything which approaches it, until at length the 
moment draws near, when it hitches the point of one of its claws 
in some crack or crevice, and withdraws itself from its old skin, 
escaping between the carapace and abdomen. The moment it 
becomes free, the full size to which it grows, until it again throws 
off the shell, is attained. 

I cannot help here remarking, in I'eference to a case mentioned 
by Reaumur, who watched the crayfish {Astacus fluviatilis) throw 
off its shell — he says the process was one of great labour and 
difficulty as well as of long duration — in all the cases which I 
have watched, the process was easily and quietly done, in a short 
period of time and without any struggle. One only exception 
have I to make, and that was in a crab which I frequently took 
into my hands, and cut away the carapace with a pair of scissors 
as it was loosened ; after the animal had freed itself from the 
exuviae it hung by the eye-stalks, nor could the animal be free of 
them without assistance, a circumstance which makes me imagine 
the anterior portion is removed by force applied to the carapace 
by the legs of the animal. 

They seem to have the power of retaining their shell at will, 
until suitable circumstances both as to time and place occur for 
casting it with security, for in many instances I have seen them 
both before and even after the process has commenced, and 
patiently watched for hours at a time without success, yet upon 
returning after a few minutes' absence I have found the exuviae 
shed. 

When they have thrown off the old skeleton they are very 
liable to become the prey of larger animals both of their own and 
other species, of which they themselves seem to be aware, and 

* These observations were made upon the common littoral crab, Carcinus 
Manas. 



300 Mr. C. Speuce Bate's Notes on Crustacea. 

being excited by fear are much more active and less easily caught 
than at any other period. 

On the Reproduction of Limbs. 

VII. When a limb is injured, all Crustacea have the power of 
rejecting it, except the wound be below the last joint * ; this is 
done by an apparently violent muscular contraction, finishing with 
a blow from another limb or against some foreign body : the am- 
putation is the work of a few seconds, except when they have but 
recently cast the exuviae, when, during the first few days (before 
the new skeleton is hardened), they have not that easy capability, 
and the wounded limb will sometimes remain for perhaps half an 
hour or longer before it is rejected. 

The new limb is formed within the old shell, and lies folded up 
until the exuviee are shed, when it appears as a part of the new 
skeleton, the sac-like membrane which protected it being cast with 
the annual moult, and is larger or smaller in accordance with 
the length of time which may exist between the period of the am- 
putation of the limb and the shedding of the skin. The condition 
in which the limb is then, remains, as the rest of the animal, 
stationary in growth, until the next period of shedding the ex- 
uviae, when the whole creature again advances in size, but the 
new limb more rapidly than the remainder of the animal, until 
it equals it in relative proportion. 

It is therefore dependent upon the length of time which occurs 
between the accident and the next succeeding moult, to allow the 
new limb to develope itself, that the variety of size depends, which 
has given rise to the prevailing idea of the limb itself continuing 
to enlarge constantly. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fig. 1. Nucleated cells from pulp of the new shell of Cancer Pagurus. 

Fig. 2. Areolar tissue from same. 

Fig. 3. Layer of pigment interspersed with small calcareous secreting cells 

and a few larger. 
Fig. 4. New shell, the exuviae being just shed. 
Fig. 5. Section of the slieU of Cancer Pagurus. 
Fig. 6. Ditto of Trilobite. 
Fig. 7. Diagram of the pulp as to structure. 
Fig. 8. Ditto as to form : A, shell ; B, pulp of new shell ; C C, branchial 

chambers; D, stomach; F, heart. 
Fig. 9. Leg from second pan of Pagurus Bernhardus, showing its folded 

position before the exuviae are shed. 



* I once cut the hand of a crab through the joint so as to remove only 
the thumb and finger. The limb was not rejected, and when the shell 
was cast, the hand continued maimed, and never was reproduced. 



Mr. T. Moore on Lastrea uliginosa. 301 

XXIX.— Om Lastrea uliginosa, Newvi. By Thomas Moore, 
Esq., F.L.S., Chelsea Botanic Garden*. 

Some discussion lias recently taken place respecting a fern be- 
longing to the "spinulose" group oi Lastrea, said to be new to 
England, which was found not long since by Mr. Lloyd, and 
which Mr. Newman has described under the name of X. uliginosa 
(Phytol. iii. 679). Having had ample opportunities of observing 
the plant both in a living and dried state, I venture to state to 
the Botanical Society the conclusions at which I have arrived 
respecting it. 

It is curious enough that six botanists " who had paid atten- 
tion to ferns," and who were consulted as to the name of this 
plant (which for the sake of distinction I will here call Lloyd's 
fern), should have recorded theii- opinions as follows: " 1. a form of 
Filix-mas ; 2. L. rigida ; 3. L. cristata ; 4. L. spinosa, strong var. ; 
5. L. dilatata, rigid var. ; 6. no way different from L. spinosa." 
It does not at all closely resemble Lastrea Filix-mas and L. rigida ; 
nor can it well be confounded with L. dilatata. The other opi- 
nions approach nearer the truth. 

Those botanists whose organs of concentrativeness hardly allow 
them to suffer the plants known as L. spinulosa, dilatata, and 
fcenisecii, to take rank as varieties, will of course at once bury 
L. uliginosa in some part of this accumulation of vegetable mat- 
ter ; but I would submit that at least with cultivators and fern- 
fanciers, a form recognisably distinct possesses sufficient interest 
to claim and ensure attention ; and Lloyd's fern is at least suffi- 
ciently distinct in the growing state to be selected by the eye 
without hesitation from among the allied species. 

Two questions however suggest themselves with respect to it : 
(1.) Is it really new to England, and (2.) specifically distinct? 
My own observations lead me to answer both questions nega- 
tively. We have however in this plant an apparent justification 
of those older botanists (Linuseus and others) who are charged 
with having confounded L. cristata and L. spinulosa, and even of 
including both in their idea of one species. The existence of a 
fern exactly intermediate between them, as Lloyd's is, and differing 
from both in no character whatever, seems to explain all the 
doubts and difficulties, the " great confusion " as Newman has 
it, respecting the crested fern. There are evident traces of the 
record of such a fern — intermediate between L. cristata and L. spi- 
nulosa— having been found formerly in this country ; and pro- 
bably like other doubtful questions, the determination of the 
plant has been postponed, until turning up again in a more con- 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, March 13, 1851. 



302 i\Ir. T. Moore on Lastrea uliarinosa. 



s' 



venieut season, it has been fortunate enough to obtain consider- 
ation. For these evidences I sliall merely quote Newman, who 
writing some years since of L. spinulosa, remai'ks : " it occurs 
frequently in marshes, and there mingling with cristata, so 
closely approaches it in appearance, that I have found the 
greatest difficulty in separating them ;" the puzzling form al- 
luded to being now identified by him as Lloyd's fern (Phytol. 
iii. 679). As this intermediate form is found widely distributed 
in England, occurring in Cheshire, in Nottinghamshire and in 
Norfolk, I assume that it probably exists also in Sweden, and if 
so, may have formed the stumbling-block of Linn?eus in his idea 
of the species " cristata," and in some measure justified him in 
uniting, or "confounding" as it is said, if he really did intend 
to unite, the ferns which we moderns call Lastrea cristata and 
^inulosa. 

As to whether Lloyd's fern is specifically distinct, different opi- 
nions will be held, no doubt. From the first it has appeared to 
me as being intermediate between the two species just named ; 
but before having seen the barren fronds, which the plant I be- 
lieve constantly produces, I was led to think it more closely 
allied to spinulosa than to cristata. I\Ir. Lloyd himself thinks it 
intermediate between these two kinds ; and Mr. Newman calls 
it " almost precisely intermediate," which, in I'act, it is. Its re- 
lationship thus seems clear enough ; but I do not agree in the 
conclusion which has been drawn, namely, that being thus inter- 
mediate, it cannot be referred to either species as a variety, and 
must either combine them into one, or itself be regarded as a 
species. 

Lastrea uliginosa is correctly said to differ from each one of its 
allies, in certain points in which it resembles the other. Thus 
the " more acuminate, more di\'ided, more serrated, more aristate 
pinnules," which separate it from cristata, unite it to spinulosa ; 
and the " adnate decurrent pinnules," together with the outline 
of the barren fronds which separate it from spinulosa, unite it to 
a-istata. The " erect rigid habit," the " obovate diaphanous con- 
colorous scales," and the " entire eglandulous " indusium, are 
characters common to both ; and it differs from both, as we are 
told, 07ily in the " more equal distribution of the clusters of cap- 
sules over all parts of the frond." This latter is however an un- 
sound character, for I have gathered specimens, undoubtedly 
L. spinulosa, in which every pinna is as thoroughly furnished 
with perfect sori, as is the case in Lloyd's fern. 

It thus appears that no tangible specific character has been 
pointed out by which to distinguish L. uliginosa (Newm.) as a 
species. I do not however fall back upon the alternative already 
mentioned — that of uniting cristata and spinulosa — though it is 



Mr. T. Moove on Lastrea uliginosa. 303 

possible that this may after all be the true solution of the question ; 
but looking upon it as a variety of one of these species, there 
appear to be points in its structm-al details which connect it more 
closely to one than to the other. • i j 

The characters of venation and vernation may be considered 
as of higher value than the mere form or incision, or mode of con- 
nection of the pinnules. Now it is in their form and mode of 
incision that Lloyd's fern most closely approaches spmulosa and 
diverges from cristata ; whilst in their vernation it exactly coin- 
cides with cristata, and absolutely differs from spinulosa. In the 
venation, too, it very nearly coincides with cristata, certainly re- 
sembling that species much more than it does spinulosa. I there- 
fore regard Lloyd's fern as more nearly related to cristata than to 
spinulosa— 2, conclusion different, it will be seen, from that drawn 
from the inspection of a single fertile frond, and arrived at by an 
examination of the entire growing plant, selecting those cha- 
racters which appear of the highest structural importance. I 
propose to rank it as a variety of L. cristata, and to define it 
thus : — 

Lastrea cristata. Fronds narrow linear-oblong sub-bipinnate : 
pinnffi elongate triangular, with oblong serrated decurrent 
pinnules, the lower crenately, often deeply lobed; lateral 
veins of the pinnules with several branches. 
^. uliginosa : (fertile fronds) pinnules oblong, pointed, deeply 
lobed, somewhat aristato-serrate, the lowest sometimes scarcely 
decurrent.— iv. uliginosa, Newm. (Phytol. iii. 679). 
It should be mentioned that the plant usually, if not con- 
stantly, produces dissimilar barren and fertile fronds. The 
former are not to be distinguished from barren fronds of true 
cristata ; and the latter alone are scarcely to be distinguished 
from specimens correspondent in size of the true spinulosa ; occa- 
sionally, the barren form of frond is more or less fertile. 

These conclusions, which have been some time formed, are 
somewhat at variance with the views embodied in the most recent 
authoritative book on British botany, namely Hooker and Ar- 
nott's ' British Flora,' in which Lastrea uliginosa is not allowed 
to take rank even as a variety ; they are however the result of 
careful observation, influenced no doubt by an impression that 
plants which are permanently different from others are deserving 
of record. Having mentioned the new edition of the ' British 
Flora,' I may just take the opportunity to remark, that an un- 
necessaiy change has been made of the name of the large variety 
of Lastrea Filicc-mas, from that of incisa proposed for it in 
'Phytol.' (1848) iii. 137. 



304 Mr. T. H. Huxley on the Auditory Organs in the Crustacea. 

XXX. — Zoological Notes and Observations made on board H.M.S. 
Rattlesnake during the 7/ears 1846-50. By Thomas H. Hux- 
LEYj Assistant Surgeon R.N. 

[With a Plate.] 

I. On the Auditory Organs in the Crustacea. 

Great discrepancy prevails among the various authorities as to 
the true nature and position of the auditory organs in the Crus- 
tacea. 

The older authors, Fabricius, Scarpa, Brandt, Treviranus, una- 
nimously confer the title of auditory organs upon certain sacs 
filled with lluid which are seated in the basal joint of the second 
or larger pair of antennae. 

j\I. Milne-Edwards, in his elaborate researches upon the Crus- 
tacea*, adheres to this determination, and describes a very ela- 
borate tympanic apparatus in the Brachyurous genus Maia. 

By the majority of the earlier writers no notice is taken of the 
sac existing in many genera in the bases of the first or smaller pair 
of antennae. Rosenthal t however describes this structure very 
carefully in Astacus jluviatilis and Astacus marinus. He con- 
siders it to be an olfactory organ, while he agrees with previous 
writers in considering the sac in the outer antennae as the audi- 
tory organ. 

Dr. Farre, in his admirable paper in the ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions ' for 1843, gives very good reasons for exactly reversing 
Rosenthal's denominations, and considering the sac in the first 
pair of antennae to be the auditory organ, while the sac in the 
second pair is the olfactory organ. Dr. Farre doubts the exist- 
ence of true auditory organs in the Bracliyura. 

Siebold in his Report upon the progress of the Anatomy of 
the Invertebrata for 1843-44 J, mentions Dr. Farre's views, but 
seems to doubt their correctness ; and they have had no better 
reception from Prof. Van der Hoeven§ and Erichson||. 

The matter stands thus at present then. It is universally 
acknowledged that in the Macroura there exists in the basal joint 
of both the first and second pair of antennae a sac containing a 
liquid, and that in the Brachyura such a sac exists at least in the 
second pair. According to the majority of authors the sac in the 
second pair is the auditory organ ; and according to Rosenthal 
the sac in the first pair is the olfactory organ. 

On the other hand, if we take Dr. Farre's interpretation, the 

* Hist. Nat. des Crustaces. Suites a Buffon. 

t Ueber die Geruchsorganen d. Insekten. ReU's Archiv, B. x. 1811. 
X Miiller's Ai-chiv, 1845. § Handbuch d. Zoologie, p. 59?. 

II Erichson's Archiv, 1844. 



Mr. T. H. Huxley on the Auditory Oryans in the Crustacea. 305 

sac in the first pair of antennae is the auditory organ, in the 
second the olfactory organ. 

Although the structure of the organ contained in the first pair 
of antennae in the Maa'oura departs somewhat from the ordinary 
construction of an acoustic apparatus in the Invertebrata^ yet the 
argument from structure to function, as enunciated in the paper 
referred to, seems almost irresistible. Still, as it has obviously 
not produced general conviction, I hope that the following evi- 
dence may be considered as finally conclusive. 

In a small transparent Crustacean (taken in the South Pacific) 
of the genus Palamon (fig. 2 a), the basal joint of the first pair of 
antennae is thick, and provided with a partially detached ciliated 
spine at the outer part of its base (fig. 3 a). Between this and 
the body of the joint there is a narrow fissure. The fissure leads 
into a pyriform cavity (fig. 3 b), contained within a membranous 
sac, which lies within the substance of the joint. The anterior 
extremity of the sac is enveloped in a mass of pigment-granules 
(c) : on that side of the sac which is opposite to the fissure, a 
series of hairs with bulbous bases are attached along a curved 
line {d) ; these are in contact with, and appear to support, a large 
ovoidal strongly refracting otolithe (e). 

The antennal nerve (/) passes internal to, and below the sac, 
and gives off branches which terminate at the curved line of the 
bases of the hairs. 

The sac is about y^gth of an inch in length ; the otolithe about 
jl^^th in diameter. 

This structure is obviously very similar to the ordinary form 
of auditory apparatus in the MoUusca, &c. In Lucifer typus 
however we have an absolute identity. 

In this singular crustacean (PI. XIV. fig. 1) the basal joint of the 
first or internal pair of antennae is much longer than the others, 
and is slightly enlarged at its base. The enlargement contains a 
clear vesicle (e), slightly enlarged anteriorly, but not communica- 
ting by any fissure with the exterior. It is about ^^^th of an inch 
in diameter. It contains a spherical strongly refracting otolithe 
about -j-g Vo*^ *^f ^'^ m(i}(i in diameter, which does not present any 
vibrating or rotating motion. We have here then Lucifer pre- 
senting an organ precisely similar to the auditory sacs of the 
Mollusca, while PaMmon offers a very interesting transition be- 
tween this and the ordinary crustacean form of acoustic organ as 
described by Farre, and there can I think be very little doubt 
that the determination of the latter (as regards the Macroura at 
least) was perfectly correct. 

. Since writing the above I find that the auditory organ in ha- 
cifer has been recognised by M. Souleyet. All that he says about 
Ann. if Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vii. 20 



306 Dr. T. Wright on the Strorabidae of the Oolites, and 

it is contained in the following lines : — " Bei einigen See-krus- 
tenthieren naraentlich bei der Gattung Lucifer (Thompson) babe 
ich ganz neuerdings an der Wurzel der innern Fiihler einen klei- 
nen runden glanzenden Korper entdeckt der mir dasselbe Organ 
(auditory organ) zu seyn scheint." — Froriep's Notizen, 1843, 
p. 83. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 1. The line indicates the natural size of the animal in this and the fol- 
lowing figure : a, internal antennse ; 6, external antennae ; c, basal 
lobe of external antennae ; d, eye ; e, otolithic sac. 

Fig. 2. Head of Palwmon. Letters as hi fig. 1. 

Fig. 3. Internal antennae of Palxmon enlarged : a, spine ; b, auditory sac ; 
c, pigment-granules ; d, curved line to which the hairs are at- 
tached ; e, otolithe ; /, antennal nerve. 

XXXI. — Contributions to the Paleontology of Gloucestershire : — 
On the Strombidae of the Oolites. By Thomas Wright, M.D. 
With the desmption of a new and remarkable Pteroceras. By 
John Lycetf, Esq.* 

[With a Plate.] 

Among the remarkable new forms of extinct gasteropodous 
mollusca which have from time to time been brought under the 
notice of the Members of this Society, there are none more in- 
teresting or more valuable as contributions to the oolitic fauna, 
than the winged shells belonging to the genera Pteroceras and 
Mostellaria. 

The Strombidce were first recognised as a distinct group of gas- 
teropoda by Lamarck, in which this learned zoologist assembled 
several forms having affinities with each other in the singular 
development of the outer lip of the shell ; with these he formed 
his family des Ailees, and which includes the genus Strombus of 
Linnaeus, and corresponds with the Strombidce of modern natu- 
ralists. 

This family is well characterized by the form of the shell and 
that of the animal. The shell in the young state is conical or 
spindle-shaped j after having grown in a regular manner for a 
longer or shorter period of time, its farther development is ar- 
rested, the outer lip becomes dilated, thickened and enlarged iu 
a very remarkable manner, and sends out often long digitatious ; 
the anterior part of the mouth terminates in a canal accompanied 
with a more or less distinct siuus. The animal has the foot di- 
vided into two parts, the one posterior cylindrical and obliquely 
truncated and supporting a horny operculum. The other part is 
flat, rounded before, and adapted for attaching the mollusk to 
solid bodies. The bead is large and thick, and is prolonged into 

♦ Read before the Cotswold Naturalists' Club. 



AmvkMa^J/atJ{vst.S.2Nc^V 7.1 




X. 



FterooeriLS ^ighZov f Lyc^u) 
Gr»at Odivte of Muvohmkaiicpicio 
NataraJy Size. 



./.Bcufhy Lith. 



:D 



^^^^iS^H^ 



Mr. J. Lycett on a new species of Pteroceras. 307 

a bifurcate extensible proboscis ; the tentacula are large and di- 
vergent, and carry the eyes at their extremities. In this family 
are grouped the genera Strombus, Pteroceras, Rostellaria, Apor- 
rhais, Chenopiis, and Pterodonta. 

The Strombidee are first recognised in a fossil state in the dif- 
ferent stages of the oolitic rocks. They are more numerous in 
the cretaceous and tertiary strata, and have attained their greatest 
development in the present creation. They are nearly all natives 
of tropical seas, and are most abundant in the neighbourhood 
of coral islands. 

Pteroceras, Rostellaria and Chenopus are the most ancient 
genera of this family ; they are still i-epresented by numerous 
species all different from those found in a fossil state. A few 
species of Strombus have been found in the chalk ; more have 
been met with in the different stages of the tertiary period ; but 
this genus has attained its full development in the seas of the 
wai*m regions of our time, where the species are remarkable for 
their gigantic size, singular forms, and rich and varied colour- 
ing, Pterodonta has been found only in the chalk. Soon after 
Lamarck had formed the new genera of his family des Ailees, 
De Montfort* proposed his genus Hippocrena for the species 
included by Lamarck in the genus Rostellaria which had the 
labrum simple and dilated, the columella callous and forming a 
channel conjointly with the labrum, which ascends close to the 
volutions of the spire almost to its apex, the external lip with a 
simple straight wing inflected towards the base, and with a short 
pointed canal. He cited Rostellaria rnacroptera from the Barton 
clay as the type of his new genus, which however has not been 
adopted. 

Philippif recognised anatomical differences between the ani- 
mal of Rostellaria curvirostris and that known as R. pes-pelicani ; 
the latter has the eyes situated sessile on the sides of the tenta- 
cula, while in the former they are terminal and retractile ; these 
with other zootomical characters induced him to propose the ge- 
nus Chenopus for R. pes-pelicani and other allied species : it is 
just to observe, however, that Aldrovandus in 1623 described this 
typical species under the generic name Aporrhais, which is now 
adopted by British naturalists. 

The living forms of Chenopus have the respiratory canal de- 
pressed and slightly channelled, and the labrum strongly digi- 
tated, whilst in Rostellaria the respiratory canal is much grooved 
and arched backwards, and the digitations when present are for 
the most part long, slender and flexuous. Many fossil shells 

* Conchyliologie Systematique, tome ii. p. 523. 
t Enumer. MoUuscarum Sicilise, 

20* 



308 Dr. T. Wright on the Strombidse of the Oolites, and 

from the ooUtic and cretaceous rocks appear to occupy a position 
intermediate between these genera, and ought probably to be 
separated into a distinct genus ; this in fact was suggested, and 
the genus Rosti'otrema proposed, by Mr. Lycett, in a paper which 
he read before our Society in August 1848, for the reasons that 
the winged shells of the Oolite called RosteUaria diflPer from that 
genus in " the absence of the upper or posterior siphon upon the 
spire, the outer lip not extending beyond the body-whorl, or but 
slightly upon the penultimate, and there being no corresponding 
thickening upon the inner lip to form a channel." 

Our esteemed associate informs me that he has now cancelled 
his former name and substituted Alaria for the reception of many 
of the winged shells of the Great Oolite hitherto described as 
RosteUaria. 

The winged shells discovered in the oolitic strata of Europe 
belong to the genera Pteroceras, RosteUaria, Chenopus, and it 
may not therefore be uninteresting to make a few remarks on 
the fossil species of these genera. Goldfuss t and Miinster 
figured and desci'ibed two species of Pteroceras, P. oceani and 
P. conica, from the Kimmeridge and Portland stages of Germany, 
and five species of RosteUaria, R. gracilis, R. subpunctata, R. se- 
micarinata, R. tenuistria, and R. nodosa, from the lias, and two 
species, R. bicarinata and R. spinosa, from the inferior oolite near 
Pappenheim. 

Roemer J figured and described two species of RosteUaria, R. 
costata and R. caudata, from the coral rag of Hanover. 

Koch and Dunker § described and figured one species of Che- 
nopus, C. Philippi, from the inferior oolite, and two species, C. cin- 
gulatus and C strombiformis, with RosteUaria nodifera, from the 
middle oolites of North Germany. 

Prof. Deslongchamps || figured and described ten species from 
the oolitic rocks of Calvados in Normandy, five of which, P. ves- 
pertilio, P. ponti, P. sexcostata, P. musca, and P. incerta, are from 
the Kimmeridge clay of Honfleur, and five, P. antractoides*, P. 
vespa, P. balanus, P. retusa, and P. paradoxal, were obtained from 
the great oolite of Ranville. This profound and accurate observer 
found five species of RosteUaria in the lias and oolites of the 
same region. R. trifida^ ranges from the upper lias to the Kim- 
meridge clay ; R. hamus* is common to the inferior and the great 
oolite ; R. myurus is found in the inferior, and R. hamulus^ and 
R. cirrtis'^ in the great oolite of Ranville. 

t Petrefact. Germanife, tab. 169 and 170. 

X Versteinerungen des Oolitlien-Gebirges. 

§ Versteineiimgen des Nord-deutschen Oolith-gebildes. 

II Memoires de la Soci^te Linneenne de Norraandie. 



Mr. J. Lycett on a new species q/*Pteroceras. 309 

Prof. Jolin Phillips t figured Rostellaria composita, R. bispi- 
nosa and R. ti-ifida^ from the oolitic rocks of Yorkshire. 

Mr. John Lycett described in a paper read before the Mem- 
bers of this Society and now published J, five species of Rostellaria 
from the inferior oolites of Gloucestershire, which he named 
R. unicornis, R. simplex, R. spinigera, R. solida, and R. gracilis, to 
which may be added three undescribed species from the shelly 
freestone and oolite marl of Leckhampton. 

Messrs. Morris and Lycett will figure and describe twelve spe- 
cies o{ Rostellaria (Alaria), and two species oi Pteroceras, from 
the great oolite of Minchinhampton, in their forthcoming mono- 
graph § on the fossil shells of that locality, some of which are 
identical with Deslongchamps' species from Normandy. Those 
species which have been identified in the oolitic fauna of Glou- 
cestershire are marked with an asterisk. 

The Pteroceras M'hich I have now the pleasure of exhibiting 
was discovered in the Great Oolite of Minchinhampton ; it is by 
far the largest and most remarkable form of that genus which 
has been obtained from the oolitic strata of any country; its 
finely pi'eserved spider-like digitations give the shell a most sin- 
gular appearance. I am indebted to my fi'iend Mr. T. A. Young 
of Dublin for the accurate drawing of the shell which accom- 
panies this paper. 

The following description is by my friend Mr. Lycett, whose 
extensive knowledge of fossil conchology well enables him to 
point out the afiinities of this new species. 

Pteroceras. 

Gen. Char. Shell oval-oblong, ventricose ; aperture oval, ter- 
minating in a lengthened canal at both extremities, the anterior 
in general bent outwards, the posterior taking the course of the 
spire; right border in the adult thickened and developed into 
a wing-shaped expansion, producing long digitate processes ; an 
anterior sinus with a toothed border distinct from the canal ; 
spire short, with the first digitation attached to it. 

Pteroceras Wrigktii. PL XIIL 

Shell fusiform, tumid ; volutions (six) convex and smooth, the last 
volution inflated, having three obtuse gibbosities placed oppo- 
site to the aperture, of which the first is the largest ; the outer 
lip is expanded and divided into four branches or digitations, 
which in the adult state are very long, flexuose, and nearly of 
equal size ; the first digitation is attached to the spire ; it ex, 

t Geology of Yorkshii-e, Part 1 . 

J Annals of Natural History, Second Series, vol. vi. p. 401. 

\ Palseontographical Society. 



310 Mr. J. Walton un the British species of 

tends more than an inch beyond the apex, whei*e it is broken 
off; the second curves outwards and shghtly backwards ; the 
third is broken off near to the wing, but a remaining fragment 
shows that it curved outwards and forwards ; the fourth first 
proceeds forwards and then suddenly curves outwards ; the 
canal is long and curved backwards. 

This fine species of Pteroceras appears to be nearly alone ; one 
specimen in the cabinet of the author, without any labial expansion 
and otherwise imperfect about the last volution, is the only other 
known example. P. VVrightii in its perfect state would seem to 
have had five encircling striae ; these are partially visible upon the 
inferior surface of our specimen, the coarseness of the oolitic de- 
posit in which they occur being unfavourable to the preservation 
of any delicate sculpture. The surface of the body-whorl near 
to the labial expansion is much covered up by adherent oysters, 
but it appears to have been destitute of any encircling carinse. 

The general figure has some resemblance to the Pteroceras 
ponti of D'Orbigny, but that species has upwards of six digita- 
tions and as many costse upon the body-whorl. The cast figured 
by Goldfuss under the name of Buccinum antiquorum from the 
dolomitic oolite of Bavaria, may possibly belong to our species, or 
otherwise to an allied form of the same genus. The remarkable 
specimen here described is in the collection of Dr. Wright of 
Cheltenham, to whom it is respectfully dedicated. 

Locality. Minchinhampton : common to the varied fossil fauna, 
to which it is an important addition. 



XXXII. — Notes on the British species 0/ Curculionidse belonging 
to the genera Dorytomixs and Elleschus. By John Walton, 
F.L.S. 

Genus Dorytomus, Germ., Latr., Steph., Dej. 
A. Femora dentate. 

1. Dorytomus vorax, Fab., Gyll., Steph., Schonh. 

— ventralis (var.), Steph. sec. ej. Man. 

— longimanus, ^ , Marsh, sec. Mus. Kirb. 

— TremultB, ? , Marsh, sec. Mus. Kirb. 

— cwvirostris, Kirb. MSS. 

The male of this species may be distinguished from the female 
by its having the anterior legs, together with the first and second 
joints of the tarsi, considerably elongated. 

Found rather plentifully on Lombardy poplars, near Edin- 
burgh, by Mr. R. N. Greville, and in Cambridgeshire and North- 
umberland by Mr. S. Stevens. 



Dorytomus and EUeschus. 311 

2. D. Tremula, Payk., Gyll., Steph., Schonh. 
— fumosus, Rossi, sec. Gyll. et Schonh. 
— vecors, ^, Schonh., Steph. Man. 

Described by Gyllenhal in his ' Insecta Suecica,' and by Ste. 
phens in his ' Illustrations.' The male differs from the female 
in having the rostrum distinctly ridged and deeply striated, the 
antennae inserted nearer the apex, and the anterior tibise dilated 
in the middle internally, the part dilated forming an obtuse tooth 
or tubercle. The female differs from that of D. vorax in having 
the rostrum shorter, smoothish, more shining, and in haying the 
elytra very faintly punctate-striate ; the thorax moreover is much 
broader than long, sometimes as broad or broader than the 
elytra, greatly dilated and rounded at the sides, and the legs are 
distinctly shorter and thicker. Eeadily distinguished from the 
large individuals of D. costirostris by the thorax being consider- 
ably broader— in other respects it resembles that insect. Length 

3 lines. . 

I forwarded to Schonherr two specimens of the present insect, 
marked as D. tremulce, with a note of doubt, and these were re- 
turned as " Erirhinus tremulce verus." Subsequently two other 
specimens of the same insect being forwarded by myself to 
Dr. Germar, that entomologist informed me that they agreed 
with specimens which he had received from Schonherr bearing 
the name E. vecors. Dr. Germar, moreover, upon returning my 
insects, kindly provided me with a foreign typical example of the 
so-called E. vecors— the whole are undoubtedly males of one and 
the same species. I may further observe that I possess two spe- 
cimens of this insect which were sent me by M. Chevrolat as the 
Er. tremulce of Schonherr. i t j- 

I believe this rare insect was unknown as British until 1 dis- 
covered it ; the females of the preceding, and the large specimens 
of the following, having previously been mistaken for it. 

Found on young aspens {Populus tremula) at Birch Wood, and 
likewise at Swanscomb Wood, near Gravesend, in the latter end 
of June. " On Lombardy poplars, Knaresborough, Yorkshire ; 
near Carlisle," T. C. Heysham, Esq. 

3. D. costirostris, Schonh. 

— Tremulce, Steph. sec. ej. INIus. 

— bituberculatvs, Zetterst., Schonh. 

Elongate, black, variegated with ferruginous, and clothed with 
cinereous pubescence. Head small, subglobose, piceous, punc- 
tulated, and densely pubescent between the eyes ; rostrum rather 
thick, curved, black, glossy, carinated, and profoundly sulcated 
from the base to the apex. Antennse ferruginous. Thorax 



312 Mr. J. Walton on the British species of 

broader than long, narrowed and impressed in front, greatly 
dilated and rounded at the sides, somewhat pulvinated above, 
thickly punctured towards the sides, and rather remotely punc- 
tured on the disk, entirely black or piceous, or with the base and 
apex ferruginous. Elytra oblong, the shoulders elevated, the 
sides straight, more than three times the length of the thorax, 
punctate-striate, more or less distinctly bituberculated poste- 
riorly, either totally fuscous-black or variegated with ferruginous ; 
unequally clothed with depressed cinereous hairs. Legs rather 
long, stout, ferruginous or obscure piceous ; femora robust, cla- 
vate and armed with a strong tooth within ; the joints fuscous- 
black, and the basal half of the tibiae occasionally piceous-black. 
Length 2|-3 lines. 

Extremely variable in size and colour; the major part of the 
specimens being much larger than any of the following species. 

I possess seven foreign specimens of D. costirostris from 
Schonherr, Gemiar and Chevrolat, and two of D. bituberculatus 
from the first-named author, all of which are specifically identical 
with my series of this insect. 

I have received many specimens of D. costirostris from the 
Kev. Wm. Little taken in Scotland, but not accompanied with 
any of D. maculatus; also from Mr. R. N. Greville, who found 
them rather abundantly on the Lombardy poplar near Edin- 
burgh. On young aspens [Populus tremula), Swanscomb Wood 
near Gravesend, Windsor Forest, and other places in June, but 
not found on willows. 

4. D. maculatus, Marsh, sec. Steph. 
— fumosus, Steph. 111. 
— Caprece, Chevr. in litt. 

Described by Mr. Stephens in his ' Illustrations ' under the 
name of D. fumosus of Rossi, which he refers to maculatus of 
Marsham ; he has however sunk it in his ' Manual ' as a variety of 
TremulcB ; it is however decidedly smaller than the two preceding 
insects, appears earlier in the spring, and is constantly found 
upon a different plant. Although small individuals of D. costi- 
rostris agree nearly in size with D. maculatus, yet the greater 
part of the former are much larger than the largest of the latter ; 
but I must state it is exceedingly difficult, between specimens of 
equal magnitude, to find satisfactory distinguishing characters, 
consequently I have separated them with some hesitation. Length 
l|-2l lines. 

M. Chevrolat sent me two insects under the name of Caprea, 
which he regards as a new species ; they are however the D. ma- 
culatus of Marsham. 

Common in the south of England on willows, appearing as 



Dorytomus and EUeschus. 313 

early as IMarch. " On the gray sallow {Salix cinerea), Wimbledon 
Common," Mr. S. Stevens. 

5. D. affinis, Pk., Gyll., Steph., Schonh. 

This may be known from the large specimens of D. costirostris 
by the rostrum being shorter, thicker, less curved, and pubescent ; 
the legs moreover are shorter and stouter, especially the tibiae. 
From maculatus the D. affinis is distniguished by its larger size 
and much broader form. Length 2| lines. 

There are two foreign specimens of Cure, affinis in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Kirby from Gyllenhal, and five Swedish examples in 
my possession from Schonherr and Chevrolat. 

The only British specimen that I have seen of this insect was 
found by the K,ev. H. Clark in the latter end of May, in an ex- 
cursion to Gamlingay, Cambridgeshire ; it occurs in Sweden on 
the trunks and leaves of Populus tremula. 

6. D. tceniatus, Fab., Gyll., Staph., Schouh. 

Very much like the small varieties of D. maculatus, but di- 
stinct ; its form is altogether more slender, and it is subject to 
vei'y little variation in size. It may be distinguished at once 
from its congeners by having the rostrum faintly carinated, and 
finely rugose- striate ; the elytra with scattered, short, suberect, 
black hairs towards the apex ; the legs comparatively short and 
slender, and the femora armed with a smaller tooth. Length 
If -2 lines. 

The late M. Schonherr supplied me with a foreign specimen 
of Z). tmiiatus, which agrees with my British specimens. 

First discovered as a British insect I believe by Mr. R. N. Gre- 
ville, who found a number of specimens in winter, under the 
loose bark of a willow-tree near Northampton, and subsequently 
many others, under firmer bark of the same tree, in the begin- 
ning of August ; he searched carefully for it on the leaves of that 
and other willow-trees in the neighbourhood, but without suc- 
cess ; since taken sparingly in the crevices of the sound bark by 
the Rev. H. Clark. 

7. D. Salicis, Walt. 

Oblong-ovate, rufo-ferruginous, v«th the head, rostrum, and 
breast black ; sparingly clothed with cinereous pubescence, and 
maculated on the elytra. Head small, subglobose, thickly punc- 
tulated, the frons channeled ; eyes oval, moderately prominent, 
black ; rostrum rather thick, as long as the head and thorax, ru- 
gulose-striate, pubescent, black, with the apex testaceous. An- 
tennae rufo-ferruginous, the clava black. Thorax short, as broad 
as long, dilated and equally rounded at the sides, a little convex 



314 ^Ir. J. Walton on the British species of 

above, closely puuctulatecl on the disk, rugulose-punctate towards 
the sides, and with a distinct, smooth, dorsal carina. Elytra 
long-ovate, the shoulders a little elevated, the sides dilated and 
rounded, punctate-striate, the punctures close and rather large. 
Legs shortish, entirely testaceous or rufous ; femora armed with 
a small tooth. Length 1| line. 

Very similar and closely allied to D. maculatus and D. tceniatus, 
principally differing in having the elytra shorter in proportion to 
the length, with the sides dilated and rounded, and in being a 
much smaller insect. 

Some years ago I took a single specimen ofif willows in York- 
shire; since which several specimens have been taken from the 
gray sallow [Salix cinefea) on Wimbledon Common, in June, by 
Mr. S. Stevens. 

8. D. Salicinus, Gyll., Schijnh. 

Elongate, narrow, piceous-black, variegated, and sparingly 
clothed with white pubescence. Head small, rounded, black, 
closely punctulated ; eyes rotundate, black ; rostrum longer than 
the head and thorax, rugose-striate, black, with the apex rufous. 
Antennae feiTuginous, the clava black. Thorax long, subde- 
pressed on the disk, slightly dilated and equally rounded at the 
sides, black, with the anterior and posterior margins rufous, 
thickly punctulated and sparingly pubescent. Elytra long, nar- 
row, not much broader than the thorax, the shoulders somewhat 
elevated, the sides straight, punctate-striate, nigro-piceous or 
fusco-ferruginous ; maculated with white pubescence ; the breast 
black, densely pubescent. Legs entirely testaceous or obscure 
ferruginous. Length l|-lf line. 

Extremely variable in colour ; the rostrum, thorax and elytra 
vary from piceous to testaceous, are either entirely of one colour 
or indefinitely variegated with different shades of both ; it may 
however be ilistiuguished by its narrow elongate form, its oblong 
thorax, and its small size. 

I possess six Swedish specimens from Schonherr. 

Found on willows in Scotland by the Rev. Wm. Little. " On 
willows, Horning Marshes, Norfolk, in July or the beginning of 
August," Mr. Curtis. 

9. D. majalis, Payk., Gyll., Steph., Schonh. 

There are two foreign specimens of this insect in Mr. Kirby's 
collection from Gyllenhal, and one in mine from Schonherr : in 
Sweden it inhabits the flowers of Salix cineren, in May and June. 

The smallest species of the genus (length I3-II line), and has 
not hitherto to my knowledge been found in tlie South of England; 
I have received many specimens from the Rev. Wm. Little, taken 
by him in Scotland. " Near Carlisle," T. C. Heysham, Esq. 



Dorytoraus and Elleschus. 315 

10. D.pectoralis, Pauz., Gyll., Steph., Schdnh. 

— melanophthalm%is (var.), Pk., Steph. Maa. 
— fructuum. Marsh., Kirb. MSS. 

— rubellus (var.), Marsh. 

One foreign specimen in Mr. Kirby's collection, and two in 
mine, the latter from Schonherr, identify, and conlirm the name 
of this insect. 

Generally distributed. Common on willows {Salix Caprece) 
from June to October. 

11. D. agnathus, Dahl., Schonh. 

— majalis, Steph. sec. ej. Mus. 

Oblong, rufo-testaceous, nigro-piceous beneath ; clothed with 
pale cinereous pubescence. Head rotundate, convex, thickly 
punctulated, rufo-piceous, densely pilose ; eyes moderately pro- 
minent and black; rostrum longer than the head and thorax, 
stout, curved, cylindrical, striated and punctulated, rufo-testa- 
ceous or piceous,and pubescent. Antennae slender, rufo-testaceous. 
Thorax rather broader than long, narrowed anteriorly, depressed 
within the apex, much dilated and rounded at the sides, a little 
convex above, thickly punctulated, rufo-ferruginous. Elytra ob- 
long, scarcely twice as broad as the base of the thorax, the 
shoulders rounded, slightly elevated, the sides inflexed, not di- 
lated, three times the length of the thorax, moderately convex 
above, finely punctate-striate, the interstices rather convex, very 
finely coriaceous, rufo-ferruginous ; each elytron with a broad 
piceous stripe down the middle, abbreviated posteriorly ; densely 
clothed with short pale pubescence. Legs moderate, rufo-testa- 
ceous, pubescent ; femora clavate, each armed with a large tooth. 
The male. Length 2-2^ lines. 

The female has the rostrum longer, shining, obsoletely stri- 
ated ; the elytra concolorous ; the femora acutely denticulated. 

Closely allied to D, pectoralis, from which it differs in being 
longer, proportiouably narrower and less convex; the rostrum 
longer and more curved. 

I possess a foreign male specimen from Schonherr. 

I first received specimens of this very distinct new British in- 
sect from the Rev. Wm. Little, who found them in Scotland; and 
subsequently from Mr. S. Stevens, taken by him ofi^ willows near 
Weybridge, in company with D, pectoralis. From the paucity of 
specimens in cabinets it appears to be local and rax*e. 

13. D. tortrix, (Mus.) Linn., Gyll., Steph., Schonh. 

— arcuatus (var.), Steph. sec. ej. Man. 

On willows, Swanscomb Wood near Gravesend, June and July. 
On Lombardy poplars near Edinburgh, Mr. R. N. Greville. 



316 Mr. J. Walton on the British species 0/ 

13. D. validirostris , Schouh. 

— Waltoni, Schonh. Supp. vii. p. 171. 

Oblong-ovate, black, variegated with pale cinereous hairs. 
Head subglobose, black, minutely punctured, the frons densely 
pubescent ; eyes rather large, round, and moderately prominent ; 
rostrum very short, thick, nearly straight, closely and finely 
punctured, black, sparingly pubescent. Antennae ferruginous, 
the clava black. Thorax transverse, abruptly narrowed in front, 
dilated and rounded at the sides, closely punctulated, black, 
densely clothed towards the sides with pale cinereous hairs. 
Elytra with the shoulders elevated, the sides straight, a little 
convex above, finely striated, the striae closely punctulated, pi- 
ceous-black, the suture, and a vitta towards each side of each ely- 
tron, pallid rufous; thickly pubescent, variegated on the back with 
unequal fuscous blotches, interspersed with whitish spots ; the 
outer margins, from the shoulders towards the apex, broadly 
edged with white. Legs short, robust, ferruginous, sometimes 
pallid rufous ; femora clavate, armed with a strong tooth. Length 
2-2 i lines. 

The form and sculpture of the rostrum, with the beautiful va- 
riation in the colour of the pubescence, distiiiguish this insect. 

I have six foreign specimens from Schonherr and Chevrolat. 

First discovered as a British insect by Mr. S. Stevens on the 
south side of the Thames near Hammersmith Bridge, and subse- 
quently under the bark of Populus nigra, in winter. I once 
found it in profusion, after a high wind, on the lower branches 
of the same kind of trees, and on the grass and shrubs beneath, 
in the same locality. 

B. Femora simple. 

14. D. pillumus (Sturm.), Schonh. 

Bagoiis pillumus, Sturm. Ins. Cat. 1826, p. 99. 
Rhynch. Chamomillce, Kock. in Utt. 
Bagoiis Beckwithii, Kirb. MSS. 

Oblong-ovate, piceous or rufous^brown, densely clothed with 
agglutinated cinereous scales, and sparingly with setiform, erect, 
white scales. Head short, depressed, the vertex convex, abruptly 
narrowed in front, punctulated, piceous-black ; eyes inferior, 
rather prominent, black; rostrum as long as the head and 
thorax, subdepressed, curved, stout, constricted at the base, ru- 
gulose and setose above, testaceous or sometimes rulbus. An- 
tennae rufous, pubescent. Thorax nearly as broad as long, con- 
stricted in front, the anterior margin elevated, lobed behind the 
eyes, moderately dilated at the sides, bisinuated at the base, a 
little convex above, piceous, closely and deeply punctured. Elytra 



Dorytomus a/t</ EUeschus. 317 

rounded at the base, the shoulders elevated and obtusely nar- 
rowed, the sides straight, convex above, rufous-brown, punctate- 
striate, the interstices alternately elevated ; clothed with agglu- 
tinated cinereous scales, and with scattered, erect, white setse. 
Legs shortish, stout, pale ferruginous and pubescent. Length 
1^-3 lines. 

Dr. Germar, to whom I sent a British specimen of this insect 
under the name of Bagoiis tibialis, first informed me that it was 
unknown to him, and that it appeared to belong to another ge- 
nus, ' Styphlus t' ; subsequently however he referred it to Erirhi- 
nus pillumus, of which he sent me foreign specimens : it is placed 
by Schiinherr in the first section {Notaris) of his genus Erirhinus ; 
it is here located in his second section {Dorytormis of authors) of 
that genus. 

Extremely local : I once found many specimens in the month 
of June on the wild cha&omile {Matricaria Chamomilla) on dry 
hedge-banks, on the road-sides leading to Low Layton, from 
Stratford in Essex. 

Genus Elleschus, Megerle, Schonh., Steph. — Hypera, Germ. 

1. Elleschus Scanicus, Pk., Gyll.. Schonh. Supp. vii. p. 187. 
Erirhinus pallidesignatus, Schonh. dim. 

Oblong, testaceous, unequally clothed with pale cinereous hairs. 
Head rotundate, nigro-piceous, thickly punctulated ; eyes black, 
depressed ; rostrum as long as the thorax, cylindrical, as thick as 
the same part in E. bipunctatus ; testaceous, shining, rather 
smooth, sometimes piceous at the base. Antennae entirely pale 
testaceous. Thorax narrowed anteriorly, a little dilated and 
rounded at the sides, subdepressed above, testaceous, thickly 
and minutely punctured. Elytra scarcely twice as broad as the 
base of the thorax, the shoulders nearly rectangular, the sides 
straight, four times the length of the thorax, convex above, 
deeply punctate-striate, the interstices plane, rather smooth ; 
rufo-testaceous with a large pitchy black patch at the base, 
sometimes however extending beyond the middle of the elytra, 
and sometimes partially broken up by the rufous ground colour, 
the outer margins piceous ; the suture densely, the base and disk 
sparingly, clothed with pale cinereous hairs ; the breast black, 
densely covered with white hairs. Legs rather short, stout, 
totally rufous, pubescent ; femora robust, veiy obsoletely denti- 
culated within. Length 2 lines. 

One insect with the name ' Scanicus ' in the collection of Kirby 
from Gyllenhal, and three others in my possession from Germar, 
specifically agree with an immature specimen found by Mr. Wol- 
laston in Lincolnshire ; in Sweden it is found on the aspen.^ 



318 Mr. C. Spence Bate on a new genus and some 

2. E. bipunctattis, Linn.j Gyll., Steph., Schonh. 

There are two foreign specimens in the collection of Kirby sent 
by Gyllenhal. 

Plentiful on the gray sallow {Salix cinei-ea), Bishop's Wood, 
Hampstead, in June. 



XXXIII. — On a new genus and several new species of British 
Ci-ustacea. By C. Spence Bate. 

[With a Plate.] 

Bellia arenaria. 

Gen. Char. Back broad, round and smooth. Upper antenna forked. 
Lower antenna ciUated, having the second joint flattened. 
First pair of feet simple : second and third pairs didactyle, 
remainder simple. The three anterior pairs of feet much 
smaller than the rest ; the lateral appendage to each annular 
segment, together with the joints of the three last pairs of 
feet, largely developed, so as to appear like scales. Natatory 
feet an-anged in double parallel pairs. 

This animal bears a nearer resemblance to the genus Talitra, of 
which it probably may be a subgenus, than to any other among 
the order of the Amphipoda, although I think it oiFers too many 
vei-y distinctive characters to admit of its being considered as a 
species of that genus. It is stouter in body and shorter in length 
than Talitra. The upper antenna is shorter than the lower and 
has two filaments ; the second joint of the lower antenna is large, 
flat and thin, a peculiarity which is extended to the first joint 
of the fourth and fifth pairs of legs, as well as the first, second 
and third joints of the sixth pair, whilst the third, fourth and 
fifth joints increase in diameter at their lower extremity. The 
fu'st pair is small and folded in as if attendant on the mouth; 
the second and third pairs are shorter and more slight than 
those posterior to them, and terminate in a didactyle claw of 
peculiar form ; its shape carrying out a character peculiar to 
this genus, and differing from that most general, wherein the 
finger of the forceps is sharp and pointed. We find that in this 
animal the joint from a narrow point increases in diameter 
towards the terminal extremity, upon being reflected back against 
the penultimate, where instead of impinging against a sharp pro- 
ees.s, as is usually the case, even where most rudimentaiy, it is 
here met by an obtuse but thin, flattened and ciliated edge. 

The peculiar habits of this genus exhibit the modification of 
its several parts to be adapted to required conditions. 



Ami . &Mi^. Wat-llMt. S. ?. Vol. 7. Tt.:n.. 



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J.Sojt're se.i 



new species of British Crustacea. 319 

This crustacean^ unlike the Talitra, Gammarus, and other allied 
genera, is remarkably sluggish in its habits, and lives almost 
wholly beneath the sand, into which it buiTows, and from which 
it appears only to come out just after the receding of the tide, 
when it gropes to a distance of about a foot, and again burrows 
beneath its surface. The legs, which by their formation are all 
lessened in their capability as members of perambulation, obtain, 
through the great expanse of surface which each joint displays, a 
paddle-like power, by which they are enabled to progress through 
the sand without resorting to leaps and bounds, the usual mode 
of passage among the Talitra, or by crawling whilst lying upon 
the side after the manner of Gammarus and other Amphipoda. 

I believe the manner in which the respiratory process is car- 
ried on in this order of Crustacea is supposed to be by a current 
excited through the agency of the natatory feet, passing con- 
tinually over the branchiae situated beneath the thorax ; but the 
peculiar habits of this animal, living as it does chiefly beneath the 
sand, must materially interfere with the passage of such a current. 
Then may we not presume, that the great extent of dermal sur- 
face, which is prolonged by large hair-like processes, may offer 
a medium through which the blood may be aerated, and so lessen 
the dependence of vital action upon the waters circulating freely 
over the branchial organ ? This seems to be supported by the 
fact, that blood-discs pass into the hair-like processes on the 
surface of the flabellse in the Brachyura. 

The eye is covered by the first ring, and is not distinguishable 
above except by the assistance of transmitted light. 

The colour of the animal is of a pale muddy gray. 

It lives in sandy bays between the tides. I have taken them in 
company with Messrs. Jeffreys and Moggridge, both in Oxwich 
and Rhosilly bays near Swansea. 

I have named the genus Bellia, in order as much as possible 
to identify Prof. Bell with the Crustacea, a class of animals to 
which he has given particular attention. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

Fig. 1. First pair of legs. Fig. 5. Fifth pair of legs. 

— 2. Second ditto. — 6. Sixth ditto. 

— 3. Third ditto. — 7- Natatory feet. 

— 4. Fourth ditto. — 8. Bellia arenaria, 

Amphitoe Moggridgei. PI. X. fig. 10. 

Back carinated, the three last rings of the thorax gradually 
increasing in length at the centre of the posterior margin into 
the form of a sharp tooth, which arrives at the greatest develop- 
ment in the two first rings of the abdomen, upon the centre of 



320 On a new genus and some new species of British Crustacea. 

each of which exists a notch or depression which is increased in 
the fourth and fifth abdominal rings, which do not terminate in 
a tooth-hke projection. 

There also exists a lateral ridge on both sides, which, com- 
mencing at the fifth thoracic ring, terminates with the fourth 
abdominal ring where it becomes confluent with the carinated 
edge. 

Lower and upper antennae short, equal in length, the peduncle 
of each consisting of thi'ee articulations. 

Taken in Langland Bay, Swansea, at low water mark. 

To designate this species, I have adopted the name of M. Mog- 
gridge, Esq., of Swansea, whose industry as an obsei'\er of na- 
ture is indefatigable. 

Pagurus Dillwynii. PI. X. fig. 11. 

Carapace smooth and polished. Colour bluish, marked with 
brown. 

First pair of feet unequal, the left being much longer than the 
right ; smooth to the naked eye, but under a lens perceived to 
be minutely granulated. The second and third joints are armed 
with teeth, which give to the limb an angular character. The 
right is very short and covered with hairs. 

The external antenna is about two-thirds the length of the 
longest of the first pair of feet,'and hairy ; its base as long as the 
eye- stalks, which are slender and long. The basal tooth with 
which the antenna of this species is generally armed, is wanting. 

The false feet in the female are long and feathery, and divide 
at the base. 

The most striking difference between this and other British 
species of the Paguridce is exhibited in the form of the first pair 
of feet and the length of the external antennae. 

Having met with only this solitary specimen, it is impos- 
sible to say but that the right foot of the first pair, which is 
usually the longer, may be in the process of being reproduced 
from loss ; although I am inclined, from its well-developed 
character, to believe that the left is in this species the more im- 
portant of the two. The false feet, which in the female are 
generally forked, are so in this specimen, but very much nearer 
to the base than in the common species. 

It burrows very rapidly in the sand. Taken near the Worms 
Head, Swansea. 

Mr. Couch has informed me, since this has been in the hands 
of the printer, that he has also found the species in Cornwall. 

The name applied to this species is one long known to science, 
and honoured as the stimulator of natural history in this locality 
in the person of L. W. Dillwyn, Esq., Sketty Hall. 



Bibliographical Notices. 321 

Portuntis Dalyellii. PL XI. fig. 9. 

The most remarkable points which distinguish this crab from 
any other species of the genus to which it belongs^ are to be 
found in the large development of the posterior marginal teeth 
of the carapace, the base of each of which continues prominent, 
so that a line or ridge extends quite across the centre of the 
back of the crab, which gives to the anterior half the appearance 
of being depressed forwards. It is this ridge, together with the 
two prominent teeth, by which the species may be most quickly 
recognized. 

The front of the carapace between the eyes is divided into 
three scarcely appreciable lobes, of which the centre one is de- 
pressed in the middle. 

The terminal joints of the fifth pair or swimming feet are 
scarcely so flat and oar-shaped as in most of the Portunida, there- 
fore this species approaches nearer the transition-type of the genua 
Carcinus, and its long and active-looking legs seem to corroborate 
the idea of its habits being mostly perambulatory. 

The first pair of feet unfortunately are missing from this the 
only specimen which I possess; it was brought me a few days 
since by Mr. Matthew Moggridge, who took it in Oxwich Bay 
near Swansea. 

The colour is a brilliant reddish brown with darker blotches 
of the same. I have taken upon myself to identify the species 
by the name of Sir James Dalyell, which has become distin- 
guished in natural history by his valuable researches. 

Upon forwarding a sketch of the sjjecies to Mr. Couch of 
Penzance, so well known as an observer in this department of 
science, he in reply informed me, that three years since he had 
mentioned to Prof. Bell that we had in Mount^s Bay a species of 
Portunus not described by authorities, and that in the year fol- 
lowing he had sent him an injured specimen taken there, but 
had not as yet received his opinion on the subject. Mr. Couch 
adds, " I recollect being convinced it was quite new ; and it is 
the species figured by you. Dalyell's name is worthy of all 
honour "" 



>} 



Mount's Bay, like the coast upon which the specimen figxired 
was taken, has a sandy bottom and beach. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Observations in Natural History. By the Rev. Leonard Jenyns, 
M.A., F.L.S. &c. London, John Van Voorst. 

The cultivators of a science have some points of analogy vrith the 
settlers in a new country ; of the latter some wander into the inte- 
Ann.^-Maff.N.Hist.SeT.2. Vol. yii. 21 



322 Bibliographical Notices. 

rior, and each, isolated, and careless of the rest, clears his little spot in 
the wilderness ; others remain at the port, gather from all sides the 
produce of their wandering brethren, and return to them the wares 
of other countries, or the value, in the current coin, of their own crude 
materials, which, isolated, had become but so much useless lumber. 
So it is in natural science : there are backwoodsmen in natural 
history, — men who furnish the raw material of science, as well as 
merchants, who convert that raw material into handy, available 
knowledge. And in the case of science as in that of ordinary Ufe, it 
is of importance that the capitalists and the productive classes should 
understand that their interests are common, and that each derives his 
importance from the other. 

We must have out-of-door naturalists before we have in-door natu- 
ralists, and any supercilious depreciation of one another cannot but 
remind a dispassionate observer of the old story of the belly and the 
members. 

The author of the present work has furnished us with a book of 
the backwoodsman class. Some books are said to " smell of the 
lamp," — this " babbles o' green fields." It is redolent of new hay and 
the hedge violet. Far away from the study of the anatomist, from the 
museum of the zoologist, it calls to mind nature in the concrete. We 
study analogies and affinities, beauties of adaptation and marvellous 
homologies, until we forget that after all, these creatures we dissect 
are not mere pieces of mechanism, but live and breathe, and have 
affections, and impulses, not absolutely dissimilar to our own. Such 
a book as this carries us from our skeletons and preparations, back to 
the recollection of the overflowing life of nature, to the trill of the 
skylark, and the caw of the rook busy overhead, what time we 
wandered not too scientifically thoughtful, nor yet without observa- 
tion, along some green lane, while the hare now and then crossed 
the path, and the partridge rose whirring from the cornfield. 

To those who take a scientific interest in nature without caring to 
penetrate into the hidden mysteries of organization, the Rev. Mr. 
Jenyns's work will be most acceptable. It will find a place on their 
shelves beside ' The Natural History of Selbourne.' It is full of 
curious information upon the habits of the denizens of our fields and 
woods, and some excellent remarks upon "Habits of observing" are 
prefixed. 

We cannot too heartily applaud the observations upon the import- 
ance and dignity of facts as such, and apart from any obvious imme- 
diate bearing (p. 13). Let those who would take the high a-priori 
road in science bethink them whether it may not be of more import- 
ance to establish even such a simple fact as that the field cricket 
" drops its dung on a little platform at the mouth of its hole," than 
to prop up with quite remarkable ingenuity the hypothesis that the 
said field cricket is a " mucus animal of the third power — ovum^ ! " 



Linnaan Society, 323 

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

LINN^AN SOCIETY. 
April 16, 1850. — Robert Brown, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Miers's memoir " On the family of 
Triuriacece." 

Mr. Miers commences his paper by a reference to his establish- 
ment of the genus Triuris in the 19 th volume of the Society's ' Trans- 
actions,' and to the subsequent publication in the same volume by 
the late Dr. Gardner of another nearly related genus under the name 
of Peltophyllum ; but the name of the latter having been derived from 
a leaf accompanying the specimen which Mr. Miers shows not to 
have belonged to it, but to be in all probability that of a seedling 
Cissampelos, he has found it necessary to substitute another generic 
name, and has redescribed it in the following terms : — 

Hexuris, Miers. — Peltophyllum, Gardn. 
Char. Gen. Flores dioici. Masc. ignoti. Fern. Periajithium profundi 
6-partitiiiTi, hyalinum, persistens ; laciniis obovatis, praefloratione val- 
vatis, singula infra apicem cornu subulato duplo longiore gyvato in- 
cliiso, denmm patentibus, marginibus reflexis. Ovaria indefinite nu- 
nierosa, minima, densissinie in gynaecium aggregata, sessilia, gibboso- 
ovata, 1-locularia, 1-ovulata. Stylus subulatus, ad faciem internam 
sublatevalis, apice pauliim incrassatus, oblique truncatus et stigmatosus. 
Fructus ignotus. — Planta pusilla, Bras'diensis, diaphana, albida ; rhizo- 
mnie fibrosa ; caule recto, simplici, v. suhramoso; foliis bracteiformibus, 
paucis, basilaribus, ovatis, aciUis, adpressis, hydlinis ; floribus solitariis 
V. subracemosis; pedunculis unifloris, basi bracteatis. 
Hexuris Gardner!, Miers. 

Peltophyllum luteum, Gardn. in Linn. Trans, xix. p. 157. t. 15. 
Uab. in arenosis humidis Prov. Goyaz Brasilia, Gardner, no. 3570. 
The author next refers to two Ceylonese plants described by 
Capt. Champion in the Calcutta Journal of Natural History for April 
1846, with a note by Dr. Gardner, who was at the time much struck 
by their resemblance to Triu7-is and his own Pelto-phyllum ; but both 
gentlemen recognizing the manifest affinity of the Ceylonese plant 
to Sciaphila of Blume, and misled by the position in Urticea assigned 
to that genus by Dr. Blume, concurred in placing them in one or 
other of the divisions of that great natural group. Of these two 
genera Mr. Miers adopts the one, Hyalisma, as sufficiently distinct ; 
but the second, Aphylleia, he refers without hesitation to Sciaphila, 
together with two undescribed plants from Sir W. J. Hooker's her- 
barium, found respectively by Cuming in the Philippine Islands, and 
by Purdie in Venezuela. He also corrects with much detail the de- 
scriptions of the embryo of the latter given by Mr. Champion and by 
Dr. Gardner. The following are his characters of Sciaphila and of 
Hyalisma, together with those of the known species : — 

Sciaphila, Blume. — Aphylleia, Champ. 
Char. Gen. Flores monoici, v. polygami. Perianthium in utroque 
sexu 6-pavtitum ; laciniis oblongis, acutis, reflexis, aestivatione valvatis, 

21* 



324 Linncean Society. 

persistentibus. Masc. Stamina 6, in herinaphroditis abortu 3-1, in 
andropborum carnosuni fere s,esi\\\a ; filamenta brevissinia ; antherce 
transversim oblongEe, 4-loculares, apice rima transversali 2-valvatiin 
hiantes. Fern. Ovaria plurima, in gynaecium carnosuni subglobosuni 
dense aggregate, obovata, sessilia, 1-Iocularia; ovulo solitario erecto. 
Stt/lus lateralis fere basalis, plus minusve papilloso-subciliatus. Stigma 
truncatum, papilloso-plumosum, raro simplex obtusutn. Carpidia plu- 
rima, densissime aggregata, obovata, styli basi persistente notata, mo- 
nosperma. Pericarpium utriculare, subtenue, papilloso-nigosum, su- 
tura dorsali hians. Caryopsis obovata, brevistipitata : endocarpium 
arilliforme, 8-10-costatum, costis basi apiceque confluentibus, trans- 
versim cancellatis, intei'stitiis membranaceis. Semen ovatum, basi 
apiceque endocarpio adbjerens : testa testacea, striis paucis longitudi- 
nalibus aliisque creberrimis transversis signata, apice saturatius colo- 
rata : integumentum externum pelliculare, reticulatum, testee adnatum ; 
integumentum internum tenuissinium, areolis hexagonoideis magnis ob- 
longis reticulatum, nucleum arete cingens. Nucleus (Embryo proto- 
blastus) indivisus, liomogeneu?, carnoso-cereus, opalinus, cellulosus ; 
cellulis parvis, subglobosis, materie grumosa succoque oleoso farctis. — 
Herbae piisilla, utriusque hemispheera indigence, hyalino! ; rhizomate 
Jibroso ; caule simplici, erecto vel suhramoso ; foliis paucis, bractei- 
formibus, alternis, ovatis, acutis, adpressis, venis destitutis, celluloso- 
rugosis ; floribus spicatis, monoids, superioribus $ , inferioribus $ ; pe- 
dunculis unijloris, basi bracteatis ; hracteis foliis conformibus. 

1. Sciaphila tenella, " tenuissima carnosa aphylla, scapo simplicissimo 
erecto, floribus nutantibus, perigonii laciniis reflexis apice villosiusculis, 
stigmate sessili punctiformi, baccis pluribus glandulis pellucidis tectis, 
semine subtriquetro, testa subcoriacea." 

Sciaphila tenella, Blume, Bijdr. p. 515. 

2. Sciaphila maculata, hyalina, caule simplici, foliis bracteiformibus ad- 
pressis lineis interruptis rubris maculatis, periantbii laciniis sublan- 
ceolatis reflexis apice intus barbatis alternis margine ciliatis, floribus 
inferioribus staminibus 3 cassis (?), carpellis densissime congestis, utri- 
culo biaiite. 

Hah. in Insulis Philippinis, Cuming, no. 2088. 

3. Sciaphila picta, hyalina, caule subramoso erecto flexuoso, foliis brac- 
teiformibus maculis longis rubris pictis, periantbii laciniis oblongis acutis 
patentibus rubro-maculatis apice intus barbatis alternis sublatioribus 
ciliatis; tubo laciniarumque basi lineis punctatis violaceis creberrimis 
ornatis, floribus (an semper ?) hermaphroditis, carpellis plurimis den- 
sissime supra discum carnosum congestis staminibus 2 v. 1 munitis. 

Hah. in Venezuela, ad fl. Apure, a cl. Purdielect. Octobr. 1845. (Herb. 
Hooker., exemplar unicum.) 

4. Sciaphila erubescens, byalina tenerrima, foliis bracteiformibus brac- 
teisque acutis rubro-pictis, floribus punctis rubris maculatis, periantbii 
laciniis aequalibus oblongis acutis glaberrimis reflexis, flor. superioribus 
(J inferioribus $ interdiim hermaphroditis, staminibus 3 cassis (?), utri- 
culo bivalvi. 

Apbylleia erubescens. Champ, in Calc. Journ. Nat, Hist. vii. p. 468. 
Hab. in Insult Ceylon, ad Narawalle, prope Galle, in sylvis umbrosis. 

Hyalisma, Champ. 
Char. Gen. Flares monoici, v. dioici. Perianlhium in utroque sexu 8- 
partitum ; laciniis lanceolatis, aequalibus, patentibus, celluloso-rugosis 
basi in urceolam coalitis, aestivatione valvatis, persistentibus. Masc. 



Linncean Society. 326 

Stamina 4, in androphorum carnosum prominulum feie sessilia, laciniis 
alternis opposita ; jilamenta brevissima ; anthera 4-loculares, peltatas, 
apice line& transversa bivalvatim hiantes ; pollen sphaericum simplex. 
PistiUi rudimentum nullum. Fern. Stamina nulla. Ovaria plurima, 
(50-60) densissime in gyneecium carnosum liberum aggregata, obovata, 
1-locularia ; ovulo unico erecto. Stylus fere basilaris, ovario 3-7-pl6 
longior, subulato-filiformis, celluloso-articulatus, apice subobtuso, stig- 
mate inconspicuo. Carpidia plurima, utricularia, obovata, breviter 
stipitata, structure omnino Sciaphilis. — Herba Ceijlonica, pusilla, hya- 
lina ; rhizomate fibrosa ; caule simplici, erecto ; tbliis brncteiformibus 
alternis, ovatis, acatis, venis destitutis, celluloso-rugosis , spica terminali ; 
floribus pedicellatis, scepissime dioicis, interdum monoids, et tunc supe- 
rioribus S inferioribus '^ ; pedicellis unifloris, basi bracteat/s. 

Hyalisma ianthina, Champ, in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vii. p. 466 cum 
icone. ^ 

Hab. in Insula Ceylon, props Galle, in sylvis humidis. 

To these plants Mr. Miersadds the following, described from spe- 
cimens recently sent from Park by Mr. Spruce. 

SoRiDiuM, Miers. 
Char. Gen. Flores monoici. Perianthium in utroquesexn 4-partitum ; 
laciniis ovatis, acutis, patentibus, celluloso-rugosis, sestivatione valvatis, 
persistentibus. Masc. Stamina 2, supra discum minimum inclusum 
Fere sessilia, laciniis alternis opposita ; _^/a?«e?i/a brevissima; anthercB 
transversim elongatse, compressse, 4-loculares, rima verticali longitudi- 
naliter 2-valvatim septicide hiantes; pollen globosum, irregulariter sub- 
trivalvatim rumpens. Ovaria plurima, in capitulum dense aggregata, 
obovata, sessilia, 1-locularia ; ovulo solitario erecto. 6'/^te« lateralis, 
fere basilaris, pilis longis clavatis plumosus. Stigma obconicum, trun- 
catum, piloso-plumosum. Carpidia plurima, baccata, radiatim aggre- 
gata, obovatn, stylo persistent! basilari notata, monosperma. Peri- 
carpium siccum, subcoriaceum. Semen ovale; testa colorata nucleoque 
omnino Sciaphila. — Herba Amazonica, in uliginosis umbrosis indigena, 
hyalina ; rhizomate substolonifero, radiculas hinc inde emitlente ; caule 
simplici erecto ; foliis paitcis, bracteiformibus, alternis, ovatis, acutis, 
venis destitutis, celluloso-rugosis ; floribus spicaiis, superioribus 3 , infe- 
rioribus^; pedunculis l-fioris, basi bracteatis. 

SoHiDiuM Spruceanum, Miers. 

Hab. prope Para Brasilise, ad Caripi, in sylvis umbrosis. 

Having concluded the description of these remarkable plants, 
which he gives in much detail, A'Ir. Miers proceeds to observe on 
their affinities. They evidently belong to one common group with 
Triuris, which the author originally suggested would form the type 
of a distinct order (Triuriacea), subsequently adopted by Dr. Gard- 
ner, under the name of Triuracece. He first dismisses without hesi- 
tation the- hypothesis that they have any relationship to Menisper- 
macea or Smilacea, as suggested by Dr. Gardner with reference to 
Hexuris ; or to any section of UrticecB, to which Sciaphila was re- 
ferred by Dr. Blume, and in which he was followed by Endlicher 
and Gardner. He commences his investigation by calling particular 
attention to their habit as plants destitute of real leaves ; composed 
of little more than cellular tissue ; void of green colour, of fibres and 
of ducts ; and furnished with a seed not merely acotyledonous, but 



326 ^ Linruean Society. 

without distinct embryo. He refers to Mr. Brown's memoirs on 
Rafflesia, and to Mr. Griffith's on the plants referred to Rkizanthece, 
for instances of inembr5'onal seeds ; and observes that we have no 
satisfactory evidence of the existence of an embryo, in the ordinary 
sense of the term, in BurmanniacecE. He notices also the imperfect 
condition of the embryo in Cuscuta, in Orobancheee and in Monotropa ; 
and the striking discrepancy between the well-developed cotyle- 
donous embryo of the leaf-bearing Cacteee and the solid and undi- 
vided embryo of the leafless genera of that family. Admitting then, 
in Triuriacece, Bunnanniacece, Balanophoreee, &c., the existence of an 
organ endowed with the function, but wanting the usual structure, 
of the embryo, he proposes for this organ the name of protoblastus, 
with the view of distinguishing between a protohlasteous and a coty- 
ledonous embryo. Modifications of the protohlasteous structure may 
occur ; and the author refers to Ceratophyllum and to several genera 
of Aroideee (especially Cryptocoryne) as furnishing instances of ano- 
malous forms of embryo, which are best explained by a reference to 
this view of the subject. He also notices some peculiarities in the 
structure of the seed of Pistia, which he regards as in some points 
analogous to that of Sciaphila, although widely different from it in 
others. 

Setting aside then the Acotyledonous embryo as a character of 
primary importance, and regarding it only as an imperfect condition 
• of development, common to all the great divisions of the vegetable 
kingdom, it is evidently among the Endogens that Triuriacece should 
take their place, and the author concludes that upon the whole the 
greatest amount of approximative characters leans towards Fluviales. 
He then gives the characters of the order and its subdivisions as 
follows : — 

Triuriace^, jl'/2ers(1841). Triuracese, Gor«f«. (1843). Triuridacese, Zinrf/. 
(184G). 

Char. Ord. Herhce parvulae, subhyalinse ; rhizomate fibrose, interdum 
substolonifero ; caule subsimplici, textura cellulosa, vasis deferentibus 
in axi centralibus ; /o/»"s alternis, bracteiformibus, sessilibus, nervis 
destitutis. Flores monoici, v. dioici, rariiis polygami, spicati ; pedi- 
cellis alternis, 1-floris, basi bracteatis. Perianthium in utroqiie sexu 
3-4-G-8-partitum, hyalinuni, textura celluloso-bullata, v. papilloso- 
rugosa ; laciniis ovatis, acutis, basi in tubum brevissimuni coalitis, 
apice inteidum processu elongate donatis, aestivatione valvatis. Sta- 
mina iiumero varia, pauca, in fundo periantbii fere sessilia, supra andro- 
pborum scepissime magnum carnosum inserta ; antherce 4-loculares, 
2-valves, rarius in lobos 2 sejunctse. Ovaria plurima, in gynaecium 
toro adnaluin densissime aggregata, 1-locularia; ovulo unico, e basi 
erecto. Stylus excentricus, intrbrsiim lateralis, saepissime fere basilaris, 
glaber aut plumoso-fimbriatus. Stigma obsoletuni, v. truncato-clavatuni. 
Carpidia plurima, baccata, excentrica, obovata, stylo persistente fere 
basilari notata, coriacea et indehiscentia, v. interdum utricularia dorso 
valvatim debiscentia ; caryopside obovata, tela arillfeformi donata ; 
tesid ovata, dura, testacea, coloratS, transversim scalariformi-striata. 
Nucleus (embryo protoblasteus) opalinus, integuniento areolis elongatis 
reticulate inclusus, textura mollis, cellulosus; cellulis materie oleosA 



Linneean Society. 327 

grumos^ farctis.— Triuriaceae in locis humidis umhrosis sylvarum infer- 
tropicarum Asiee et Americw epigea. 

1 TRiuRiEas. Perianthii laciniae appendice lineavi, aestivatione spiraliter 
"torta etinclusa, detnum exserta, munit^ Stylus cum pvanog.bboso 

lateraliter continuus. Antherarum lobi disjuncti, smguli 2-locellavi. 

Perianthii laciniffi 3. Stamina 3 1- Triuris. 

Perianthii lacinise 6. Stamina ignota 2. Hexuris. 

2 SciAPHiLE^E. Perianthii lacinias ecaudatse. Styhis fere basilaris. An- 
therarum lobi confluentes et inde 4-locellati, rim^ transversali v. ver- 
ticali bivalvatim hiantes. 

Perianthii lacinise 4. Stamina 2 3. Soridium. 

Perianthii lacini^ 6. Stamina 6 4. Sciaphila. 

Perianthii laciniae 8. Stamina 4 5. Hyahsma., 

May 7.— R. Brown, Esq., President, in the Chair. 
Read a letter, dated May 19. 1845, addressed by the President to 
Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, for communication to Baron Alexander 
von Humboldt, " On the Origin and Mode of Propagation of the 
Gulf- weed." The letter is as follows :— 
" Mv dear Captain Beaufort, 
" I am vexed to have kept Baron Humboldt's letter so long, and 
now in returning it, that it should be accompanied by so little satis- 
^acIJy informarion on the only one of its queries with which I could 
have been supposed to deal, namely that which relates to the origin 
and mode of propagation of the Gulf- weed. ,,,,.,.„ , 

.' Sn this subject it appears that M. de Humboldt (in his Personal 
Narrative) first supported the more ancient notion, that the plant 
orio-inally fixed, was brought with the stream from the Gulf of 
Florida and deposited in what Major Rennell calls the recipient of 
tha st/eam. More recently, however. Baron Humboldt has adopted 
Se opinion*, also held b/ several travellers, that the Gulf-weed 
orio-inates and propagates itself where it is now found. To the 
adoption of this view it appears that he has been led chiefly by the 
observations of the late Dr. Meyen, who in the year 1830 passed 
through a considerable portion of the great band of Gulf-weed, and 
who ascertained, as he states, from the examination of several thou- 
Tand specimens, that it was uniformly destitute both of root and 
fructification; he concludes, therefore, that the plant Fopagates 
itself solely by lateral branches : he at the same time demes that it 
is^rought from the Gulf of Florida, as. according to his own obser- 
vation, it hardly exists in that part of the ^l'^^"^ ^^^'^^Y'lf^ 
land, though found in extensive masses to the westward I have 
here to remlrk that, as far as relates to the absence of root and fruc- 
tification. Meyen has only confirmed by actual °Y^':tM7 Turner 
been previously stated by several authors, particularly by Mr- Turner 
(in h?s 'Historia Fucorim.' vol. i. p. 103. published in 1808), and 
Agardh (in his ' Species Algarum,' p. 6, published in 1820). But 
• Histoire de la Geographic du Nouveau Continent, vol. iii. p- 73, and 
Meyen, Reise, vol. i. p. 36-9. 



328 Linncean Society. 

Meyen materially weakens his own argument in stating that he con- 
siders the Gulf- weed {Sargassum bacciferum of Turner and Agardh), 
and the Sargassum natans, or vulgare, specifically distinguished from 
it by these authors, as one and the same species ; adding, that he 
has observed among the Gulf weed all the varieties of Sargassum 
vulgare described by Agardh ; and finally, that on the coast of Brazil 
he has found what he regards as the Gulf-weed in fructification. 
Now as Sargassum natans has been found fixed by a discoid base or 
root, in the same manner as the other species of the genus, and as 
according to Meyen the Gulf-weed has been found in fructification, 
the legitimate conclusion from his statements seems to be, that this 
plant is merely modified by the peculiar circumstances in which it 
has so long been placed. I am not, however, disposed to adopt 
Dr. Meyen's statement that he actually found the true Sargassum 
natans, much less all its supposed varieties, mixed with the Gulf- 
weed, having reason to believe that at the period of his voyage his 
practical knowledge of marine submersed Algae was not sufficient to 
enable him accurately to distinguish species in that tribe. It is not 
yet known what other species of Sargassum are mixed with the 
Gulf-weed, what proportion they form of the great band, nor in 
what state, with respect to root or fructification, they are found ; 
though, in reference to the questions under discussion, accurate in- 
formation on these points would be of considerable importance. 

" That some mixture of other species probably exists may be in- 
ferred even from Dr. Meyen's statement, and indirectly from that of 
Lieut. Evans, who, in his communication published in Major Ren- 
nell's invaluable work on the C'urrents of the Atlantic, asserts that 
he found the Gulf- weed in fructification, which he compares with 
that of Ferns, a statement which would seem to prove merely that 
he had found along with the Gulf-weed a species of Sargassu7n with 
dotted leaves, the real fructification of the genus bearing no resem- 
blance to that of Ferns, though to persons slightly acquainted with 
the subject the arranged dots on the leaves might readily suggest 
the comparison. 

" With regard to the non-existence of roots in the Gulf-weed as 
a proof of specific distinction, it is to be observed that the genus 
Sargassum, now consisting of about sixty species, is one of the most 
natural and most readily distinguished of the family Fucacea, and 
that there is no reason to believe that any other species of the genus, 
even those most nearly related to, and some of which have been 
confounded with it, are originally destitute of roots ; though some 
of them are not unfrequently found both in the fixed and in con- 
siderable masses in the floating state, retaining vitality and probably 
propagating themselves in the same manner (see Forskal, Fl. ^gypt.- 
Arab. p. 192, n. 52). It is true indeed that a Sargassum, in every 
other respect resembling Gulf- weed, has, I believe, not yet been found 
furnished either with roots or fructification, neither Sloane's nor 
Browne's evidence on this subject being satisfactory*. But the 

* See Sloane's Jam. i. p. 59. I have examined Sloane's spetiiiiens in 
his Herliaiium ; they belong to Gulf-weed in its ordinary form, and are alike 



Linncean Society. 329 

shores of the Gulf of Floiidii have not yet been sufficiently examined 
to enable us absolutely to decide that that is not the original source 
of the plant : and the differences between the Gulf- weed and some 
other Sargasso, especially S. nutans, are not such as to prove these 
two species to be permanently distinct. The most remarkable of 
these differences consists in the leaves of the Gulf- weed being uni- 
formly destitute of those dots or areolae so common in the genus 
Sargassum, and which are constantly present in S. natans. These 
dots, in their greatest degree of development, bear a striking resem- 
blance to the perforations or apertures of the imbedded fructification 
in the genus. But as the receptacles of the fructification, as well as 
the vesicles, are manifestly metamorphosed leaves ; and as the pro- 
duction of fructification is not adapted to the circumstances in which 
the Gulf-weed is placed, it is not wholly improbable, though this 
must be regarded as mere hypothesis, that the propagation by lateral 
branches, continued for ages, may be attended with the entire sup- 
pression of these dots. 

" That the Gulf-weed of the great band Is propagated solely by 
lateral or axillary ramification, and that in this way it may have 
extended over the immense space it now occupies, is highly probable, 
and perhaps may be affirmed absolutely without involving the ques- 
tion of origin, which I consider as still doubtful. 

" My conclusion, therefore, is somewhat different from that of 
Baron Humboldt, to whom I would beg of you to forward these 
observations, which will prove that I have not been inattentive to 
his wishes and to your own, though they will at the same time 
prove that I have had very little original information to communi- 
cate." 

Read also " Notes on the Dry-rot, as observed in the Church of 
King's Wear, Devonshire." By A. H. Holdsworth, Esq. Com- 
municated by the President. 

The church of King's Wear is Immediately opposite to Dartmouth, 
and stands about 100 feet above the harbour, on the north-west side 
of a very steep hill, which rises 200 feet above it. The walls of the 
old church having become unsafe, the whole of it was taken down 
except the tower at the north-west angle, to which a new church 
was attached, standing within the site of the old one, and the new 
building was completed about two years ago. From the north and 
south doors eastward the ground rises rapidly, and an area is formed 
round the church to preserve it from damp ; from the same doors to 
the westward the ground falls far below the level of the floor within. 
The floor and ground beneath the old church were removed and the 
graves filled up. The new seats, which were open, rested on oak- 
sleepers, supported by new dwarf walls, the floors of the seats being 
about sixteen inches above the ground ; but the earth on which the 
paving of the aisles or passages was laid was as high as, and rested 

destitute of root and fructification ; hence they are probably those gathered 
by him in the Atlantic, and not those which he says grew on the rocks 
on the shores of Jamaica. Browne's assertion to the same effect is probably 
merely adopted from Sloaiie. 



330 Linncean Society. 

against the sleepers on, the dwarf walls. The other parts of the 
seats were of Baltic deal. Good limestone masonry was used in the 
construction of the walls ; the pillars and windows were made of 
stone from France ; and the aisles were paved with closely- jointed 
fine black slate. 

Within a few months after the completion of the church a fungus 
was observed at the seat at the corner immediately behind the south 
door, and soon after decay appeared in other seats near it. Fresh 
passages for air were made through the walls running under the 
seats, but in a few months these were filled with a species of vege- 
table matter looking like fine mould. This was found to spread 
under the whole of the seats to the west of the south door, and suc- 
cessively affecting those to the eastward of the same door and those 
of the centre of the church, but always that part which adjoined the 
aisle or passage. A suspicion arose, from taking up some of the stones 
of the aisles, that there was a plant which had its origin near the south 
door, which crossed under the paving of the aisles, and travelled 
along the sleepers and framing of the seats, causing all the mischief; 
and a thorough investigation was determined on. On taking down 
some of the seats, a fungus was found having some of its branches 
as large as straws, and others as fine as horse-hair, spreading out 
under the floors of the seats in the very finest fibres, breaking into 
forms resembling the finest leather, and wherever it obtained a good 
supply of air by means of an air-channel, becoming half an inch 
thick, attached on one side to the dry floor, and having on the other 
side a spongy surface, fitted for the collection of moisture from the 
atmosphere ; for although the floor was perfectly dry, the fungus by 
which it was eaten out was as wet and cold as a sponge filled with 
water. The seat next the south door was removed ; its framing was 
entirely decayed, and beneath it was found a root-like portion of the 
fungus descending nearly perpendicularly to the depth of sixteen 
inches. In the north aisle the seats were not affected, and it was 
presumed that they had not been reached by the fungus ; but on 
taking up the paving-stones of that aisle, it was found to have ap- 
proached within a foot of the reading-desk, growing from the seats 
of the opposite side of the aisle in the form of a semicircle increasing 
gradually on all sides. 

Mr. Holdsworth is convinced that one plant, beginning near the 
south door, was the cause of all the mischief; when, however, the 
whole of the paving of the aisles was removed, other plants were 
found spreading in a fine film under it in a circular form, and six or 
eight inches in diameter ; and these, when carefully taken up, were 
seen to have a stem in the centre running two inches or more into 
the ground, and usually attached to a bit of decayed wood. Thus 
the habit of the plant appears to be to travel on through grooves or 
under pavements, and in other concealed places, where it can find 
wood on which to feed, and which it renders dry and of a character 
as if destroyed by fire. Mr. Holdsworth exhibited dried specimens 
of the fungus in various states, which he has presented to the British 
Museum. 



Zoological Society. 331 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

March 12, 1850.— W, Spence, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On a new species of Lymn^a from Thibet. 
By Lovell Reeve, F.L.S., F.Z.S. etc. 

Lymn^a Hookeri. Lijmn. testd ovatd, tenuiculd, conspicuh 
umhilicatd, anfractibus quatuor ad quinque, convexis, supernh 
depresso-rotundatis, suturis subimpressis, aperturd orbiculari' 
ovatd, marginibus lamind latiusculd subverticali conjunctis ; 
sordide olivaceo-fuscd. 
The above-described freshwater mollusk, collected by Dr. Hooker 
on the Thibetian or north side of Sikkim Himalaya, at 18,000 
feet elevation, belongs to the same type as our well-known Lymncea 
peregra, and affords an interesting addition to the evidence which 
has been in part collected touching the wide geographical distribu- 
tion of corresponding fonns of plants and animals over those parts of 
Europe and Asia where there are no extensive mountain-barriers. 
The European Lymncea stagnalis has been collected as far east as 
Affghanistan, and the typical form of Lymneea peregra is very cha- 
racteristic in this species from Thibet. A depression of the whorls 
next the sutures, which gives a more orbicular form to the aperture, 
and a conspicuous umbilicus, which is not in any degree covered by 
the columellar lamina, prove it to be specifically distinct from Z. 
peregra ; and these characters do not appear in the various modifica- 
tions of that species arising out of its more or less ventricose growth, 
or more or less attenuated convolution. South of the Himalaya 
range, where Dr. Hooker reckons the snow-line to be 5000 feet 
lower than on the north side, and 3000 feet lower than the locahty 
inhabited by this species, the LymncecE are of quite a different type, 
more especially in the plains of Bengal, where the shell, owing to its 
being formed in so much warmer a temperature, is of stouter growth, 
and characterized by some design of colouring. The European types 
of Lymncea, ranging over Russia and Siberia, appear abundantly in 
the stagnant waters of North America ; and some are identical in spe- 
cies. L. elodes of Say, inhabiting Pennsylvania, is doubtless the 
same species as the European L. palustris ; L. truncatula of the 
same author appears to be identical with L. desidiosa ; and the L. 
peregra, represented by L. Hookeri in Thibet, is represented in Penn- 
sylvania by Say's L. catascopiurn. The Lymncece of Australia are of 
a remarkable and very distinct type from either of those mentioned 
above. 

I have much pleasure in naming this Thibetian Lymncea after the 
indefatigable traveller, whose researches into the natural and phy- 
sical history of that remote country into which few have penetrated, 
are hkely to be attended with such important results. I have placed 
the specimens in the British Museum. 



382 Zoological Society. 

2. On the Animal of Liotia ; with descriptions of new 

SPECIES OF DeLPHINULA AND LlOTXA, FROM THE CuMING- 

lAN Collection. By Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S. etc. 

An examination of the animal of Liotia Peronii tends to confirm 
the generic importance of a small group hitherto confounded with 
Cyclostrema and Delphinula, but which had been justly recognised 
by Mr. Gray under the name of Liotia. The shell is known by its 
thickened peritreme ; the operculum is peculiar, and the habits are 
peculiar in living at considerable depths, while Delphinula proper are 
chiefly littoral. In Liotia the head is proboscidiform, the tentacles 
subulate, the eyes on conspicuous peduncles at their outer bases ; 
there are no intertentacular lobes, but a conical lobe on each side of 
the head external to the eye-peduncles ; the lateral membrane of the 
foot is undulated, and furnished posteriorly with three cirrhi. 

The operculum is arctispiral, the volutions being very narrow, nu- 
merous, and covered with a calcareous deposit, which is articulated 
at regular intervals, giving the upper surface of the operculum a tes- 
sellated appearance ; the periphery is ornamented with radiating, 
horny fibres. 

Liotia pulcherrima, Adams. L. testd subdiscoided; spird ele- 
vatiusculd, anfractihus rotundatis, liris transversis et longitu- 
dinalibus elegantissimh cancellatd, liris transversis muricatis ; 
labro expanse, duplicato, radiatim fimbriato ; umbilico per- 
amplo, crenulato. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Liotia affinis, Adams. L. testd globosd ; spird subprominuld, 
anfractihus rotundatis, transversim elevato-striatis, costis vari- 
ciformibus longitudinalibus, distantibus, angulatis, mucronatis ; 
anfractuum parte inferiori serie unicd foraminum ; labro ex- 
panso ; umbilico patulo, crenulato. 

Hab. Australia. (Mus. Cuming.) 

A species partaking of the characters of L. scalarioides and L. va- 
ricosa of Reeve, but which can be referred to neither. 

Liotia duplicata, Adams. L. testd orbiculari ; spird de- 
pressd, anfractihus transversim et longitudinaliter costatis ; 
costis transversis duabus, tuhercidatis ; anfractuum parte in- 
feriori pland ; umbilico amplo, perspective, cremdato. 

Hab. Cagayan, province of Misamis, Isle of Mindanao, Philip- 
pines. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Liotia nodulosa, A. Adams. L. testd orbiculato-depressd ; 
spird complanatd, transversim striatd, ultimo anfractu costis 
transversis duabus in medio pimcto sulcatis et nodulis magnis 
subdistantibus instructis, infra serie punctorum circa regionem 
umbilicalem; aperturd orbiculari, peristojnate reflexo puncto 
fimbriato, umbilico patulo margine crenulato. 

Hab. in insulis Philippinis. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Delphinula coronata, Adams. . D. testd subdiscoided, albd, 
nigro lineatd ; anfractihus rotundatis, supra, spinis squamae- 



Zoological Society. 333 

formibus suhramosis nigricantibus sursmn curvatis coronatd ; 
anfractuum parte alterd spinis brevioribus nigris in seriebus 
dispositis ; spird plano-convexd. 
Hob. Cape Upstart, North Australia, in crevices of rocks at low 
water; Jukes. (Mus. Cuming.) 

Dklphinula euracantha, Adams. D. testd subdiscoided, al- 
bidd fusco rubroque variegatd, anfractibus supra IcBvigatis, su- 
perne angulatis, angulo spinis squamceformibus grandibus latia 
decurvatis ornate ; anfractuum parte inferiori serie unicd spi- 
narum et squamarum in seriebus parallelis dispositis ornatd ; 
umbilico ample, squamis muricatis armato, peromphale nodose. 
Hab. Isle of Mindora, Philippine Islands; H. C. (Mus. Cum.) 
Like D. aculeata. Reeve ; but the spinose processes are broad and 
deflexed, and there is a single row of large spines on the under part. 

Delphinula calcar, Adams. D. testd. orbiculari, discoided ; 
spird depressd, albd, anfractibus angulatis acutis, peripherid 
serie unicd spinarum radiatim stellatd, spinis triangularibus 
compressis prominentibus ; anfractuum parte inferiore pland ; 
umbilico patulo, crenulato. 
Hab. Catanuan, province of Tayabas, island of Luzon, sandy mud, 
10 fathoms ; H. C. (Mus. Cuming.) 

A small species, partaking somewhat of the characters of Z). stella- 
ris, Adams and Reeve, but much more depressed, and the lower part 
of the whorls simple. 

March 26.— W. Yarrell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. On the species of Mollusca collected during the 
Surveying Voyages of the Herald and Pandora, by 
Capt. Kellett, R.N., C.B., and Lieut. Wood, R.N. By 
Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S. 

1. On the Land-Shells collected during the Expedition. 

Officers employed on a hydrographical survey have seldom time or 
opportunity for making an extensive collection of land-shells. In the 
assemblage of mollusks collected by Capt. Kellett and Lieut. Wood, 
there are twenty-eight species, of which eight are undescribed forms. 
These have been collected at various points between the coast of the 
Equador to the south and Vancouver Island to the north, the Gele- 
pagos Islands, Pitcairn's Island, and the Sandwich Isles. Unfortu- 
nately, in consequence of the mixing of milabeled specimens, the pre- 
cise locality of several of the species cannot now be determined. 

Of the genus Helix there are nine species. Of these, H. Towns- 
endiana, Nuttalliana and Columbiana are certainly from the neigh- 
bourhood of the Columbia river. Helix Kellettii and Pandorce, both 
new, are probably from the same country, though the box in which 
they were contained was marked " Santa Barbara." Helix areelata 
bears no indication of its locality. Helix labyrinthus, variety sipun- 
culata, is a very curious modification of H. labyrinthus, and, like its 



334 Zoological Society, 

known near relations, comes from Panama. Helix ornatella (known 
also as H. Adamsi) was collected in Pitcairn's Island, where it had 
originally heen observed. A single specimen of the common Euro- 
pean Helix aspersa is marked " Santa Baibara," and probably owed 
its presence, wherever it was found, to transport by Europeans. 

Of the genus Bulimus fourteen species were collected. Among the 
most interesting of these are seven species, two of them new, from 
Chatham Island, one of the Gelepagos group. Five, viz. mix, cal- 
vus, eschariferus, imifasciatus, and rugulosus, are described forms ; 
two, to which I have ajjplied the names chemnitzioides and acha- 
tellinus, are new, and very curious. Of these latter, the first is 
singularly isolated in many of its features, though bearing a resem- 
blance sufficient to indicate an affinity with certain elongated and 
turreted Bulimi, natives of South America. The other is equally 
distinct from any known members of this genus ; but, moreover, 
instead of linking, as the majority of the Gelepagos land-shells do, 
the fauna of those singular islands with the American continent, 
rather points, as it were, in the opposite direction, and distantly 
indicates affinity with the fauna of the Sandwich Isles. 

Unfortunately less certain as to exact locality, though contained 
in a box labeled " Panama," is a curious small elongated Bulimus, 
to which I have given the name fimhriatus. A form such as this, 
suggests, when we bear in mind the varied characters of its congeners, 
considerable doubts as to the value of the generic sections at present 
generally received among the Pulmoniferous Mollusca. We speak 
of Bulimus, Helix, Pupa, Achatina, and Balea, as if they were so 
many marked groups, the species in each assimilating to ideal generic 
types, whereas the difference between certain forms of so-called Bulimi 
and others placed under the same generic name is greater than be- 
tween many Bulimi and Helices or Pupce. "Without assenting to 
the views of Ferussac, which would have amalgamated the genera 
into one, on account of the similarity in external characters of the 
soft parts of the animal, and fully admitting that in certain tribes 
the shell alone may become a most important source of generic cha- 
racter — in other words, granting that in certain groups the sources 
of generic distinction may lie in the pneumo-skeleton — I do thmk 
that we have not yet attained a natural arrangement of the Pulmo- 
niferous Mollusks, and until we have solved that problem, we shall 
be seriously impeded in the study of the laws of their distribution 
as well as of their organization. 

Besides the Bulimi already named, there are specimens of Bulimus 
iostomus, B. Hartwegii, and a beautiful new species lately described 
and figured by Mr. Reeve under the name of Bidimus Kellettii, all 
probably from the Equador ; Bulimus alternatus, from Panama ; 
and Bulimus miltecheilus, marked from the Sandwich Islands, though 
this curious and beautiful shell is not known to inhabit that locality ; 
nor have we evidence sufficient that the specimen brought home by 
Lieut. Wood was gathered there. Hitherto it is only known from 
"San Christoval, south-eastern island of Solomon's Group, north- 
east coast of New Holland" (Reeve), from which locahty the sped- 



Zoological Society. 335 

mens in Mr. Cuming's collection were obtained, and the single ex- 
ample now referred to may have possibly been brought away from 
the same place. 

Of the curious genus Aehatinella, two species, livida and alba, are 
in the collection, both procured at the Sandwich Islands. 

Of Succinea there is a new species, marked from Mazatlan ; I 
have named it Succinea cinyulata. 

There are two species of Cyclostoma, the fine C. grande (no lo- 
cality is attached to it), and an equally beautiful one which I haye 
named C purum. 

The following diagnoses of the new species in the collection have 
been modeled on those of Dr. L. Pfeiffer, whose admirable ' Mono- 
graphia Heliceorum Viventium ' is one of the most valuable contri- 
butions to Malacology that have been published for many years. 

Helix Pandora. H. testd obtecte perforatd, depresso-globosd, 
tenui, rugulosd, concentrice minutissime striatd, anfructibus supra 
peripheriam fuscis, infra et prope peripheriam albidis fusco cin- 
gulatd, basi albidis ; aperturd rotundatd intus fused albido-fasci- 
atd, margine interna incrassuto albo ; peristomate reflexiusculo, 
extus albo-labiato, margine columellari dilatato, reflexo, umbili- 
cum occultante. 

Diam. max. 17, min. 16, alt. 14 mill. 

Collected near the Straits of Juan del Fuaco ; allied to the last 
species, but very distinct. 

Helix Kellettii. H. testd angusti umbilicatd, depresso-globosd, 
tenui, rugulosd, granulatd, fulvd, spird subturbinatd, sordid^ flavo 
conspersd, rvfo-unifasciatd, anf7-actibus 6, convexiusculis, ultimo 
ad peripheriam fascid pallidd cincto, basi subinflato ; aperturd 
lunato-rotundatd, intus pallide fused, unifasciatd ; peristomate 
reflexiusculo, margine columellari dilatato, reflexo, umbilicum oc- 
cultante. 
Diam. max. 22, min. 19, alt. 19 mill. 

This species is nearly allied to Helix Californiensis, Lea. It dif- 
fers in the more pyramidal contour of the spire, in the less tumid 
body-whorl, and consequently differently shaped, more lunate, slightly 
elongated mouth. The margin of the mouth is more reflected. 

Helix vellicata. H. testd aperte umbilicatd, tenui, convexo- 
depressd, subnitidd, sulcato-striatd, striis minutissimis spiralibus 
decussatd, Icete viridibus ; spird convexiusculd, anfructibus 6, ulti- 
mo rotundato magna, antice dilatato, subdescendente ; aperturd 
perabliqud, lunata-oblongd ; faux alba, peristomate margine sub- 
reflexo, superne deflexo-sinuato. 

Diam. max. 22, min. 18, alt. 8 mill. 

From Panama ? 

Distinguished from its near allies by the peculiar deflexion of the 
upper portion of the lip-margin. 

BuLiMUS CHEMNiTZioiDES. Bul. testd subpcrforatd, turrito- 
subulatd, regulariter costatd, castis numerosis, nitidulis, flaviduld. 



336 Zoological Society. 

fascid sjjirali fusco-purpured cinctd ; anfractibus 14, ultimo^ 
longitudinis subtequante, bast fusco-purpureo ; columelld subrectd, 
albidd ; peristoma simplex, acutum ; margine externa superni arcu- 
ate ; aperturd ovali-oblongd. 
Long. 19, diain. 4 mill. ; apert. 3 mill, longa, 2 lata. 
Chatham Island, Gelepagos. 

This beautiful species strikingly resembles a marine Cliemnitzia. 
It is very distinct from any known Bulimus, but has affinities with 
B. terebralis, B. colutnellaris, and B. clansilioides. 

Bulimus fimbriatus. Bui. testd imperforatd, subuliformi, tenui, 
costis longitudinalibus subarcuatis, lineis confertis parallelis in 
interstitiis costartim sculptd, rufo-fuscd, suturd impressd ; an- 
fractus 7-8, tumidi, ultimus ^ longitudinis vix superans, infra 
medium obsolete carinatus ; colmyiella subsimplex, ad basini aper- 
turee unguium formans ; apertura subovalis ; peristoma simplex. 

Long. 9, diam. 2 mill. ; apert. 2 mill, longa, 1 lata. 

In a box of shells labeled "Panama." The nearest ally of this 
very curious shell is the Bulimus gracillimus of Pfeiifer, from Cuba. 

Bulimus achatellinus. Bui. testd perforata, umbilico parvo, 
conicd, obsolete striatd, nitiduld, flavidd, fusco-fasciatd ; suturd 
cingulatd, crenulatd, albidd; anfractibus 7—8 convexiusculis, ulti- 
mo vix Y longitudinis eequante ; apertura semiovalis, peristoma 
rectum, simplex, acutum ; columella obsolete contorta, margine 
columellari reflexo, perforationem semitegente. 
Long. 19, diam. 10 mill. ; apert. 5 mill, longa, 4 lata. 
This shell is from Chatham Island, Gelepagos ; it is unlike any 
other known Bulimus, and its characters distinctly indicate affinity 
with the Achatinellince. 

SucciNEA cingulata. S. testd oblongo-ovatd, vix obliqud, soli- 
duld, striatd, nitiduld, fulvo-succined, sape spiraliter albo-Uneatd ; 
spird exsertd, obtusd ; anfractus 4, convexiusculi, ultimus § longi- 
tudinis aquans ; aperturd elongato-ovatd, superne acutd, basi ob- 
liqui pone axin recedente ; columelld arcuatd. 
Long. 12, lat. 6 mill. ; apert. 7 mill, longa, medio 3 lata. 
This Succinea is distinct from any recorded by Pfeiffer. It is said 
to come from Mazatlan. The very fine white spiral lines are not 
always clearly marked in colour ; they correspond with lines of deeper 
depression at intervals of the striae of growth. 

Cyclostoma purum. C. testd orbiculari, depressd, albd, niti- 
duld, spird elevatiusculd, luteold ; anfractibus sex, rotundatis, 
spiraliter sulcatis, sulcis numerosis, transverse striatis ; aper- 
turd subcirculari, obliqud, peritremate simplici ; umbilico maxima ; 
operculo ? 

Diam. 48, alt. 17 mill. 

Very near C. Cumingii, a species described by Mr. G. Sowerby 
from the island of Tumaco. 



Zoological Society. 337 

1. On the Characters of the Genera Pusionella and 
Clavatula. By J. E. Gray, F.R.S. etc. 

In the List of Genera of Mollusca published in the Proceedings for 
1848, I gave the name of Pusionella to a genus of shell, referring to 
the Nefal of Adanson and the Murex pusio of Bom as the type. 

This genus is easily characterized by the smooth thin periostraca, 
and the sharp-edged oblique plait which crosses the lower part of the 
canal. At the time I formed the genus, which contains several spe- 
cies in my collection, all coming from Africa, I was convinced that it 
was separate from the other zoophagous mollusca, from the characters 
assigned to it above, though I am aware that several zoologists were 
inclined to consider that they were scarcely sufficient for the forma- 
tion of a generic group. 

The examination of the operculum of the shells arranged in this 
group has shown that it affords a most excellent character, which 
separates it at once from all the other genera of the family. The 
operculum is formed of concentric laminae, with the nucleus or first- 
formed lamina placed on the straight front or inner side of the oper- 
culum, wliich is situated next to the pillar of the shell. With this 
peculiarity the genus must now be regarded as firmly established. 
This form of operculum had only before been observed in the genus 
Bezoardica. 

The discovery of this character in shells which had been regarded 
by most authors as Fusi, induced me to examine the opercula of 
some other allied genera, and I was rewarded by the discovery that 
Pleurotoma bicarinata, which is very nearly allied in form to P. coro- 
nata, the type of the genus Clavatula of Lamarck's ' System,' has 
the operculum of the same shape and formed nearly in the same man- 
ner as that of the genus Pusionella ; while Pleurotoma Babylonica, 
P. Virgo, and P. oxytrophis, which may be regarded as the typical 
PleurotomxB, have the ovate lanceolate operculum with the nucleus on 
the acute apex, like the typical Fusi. 

This being the case, it appears to me desirable that the genus Cla- 
vatula should be re-established, and restored to the species which has 
the operculum of this kind. Should it be considered necessary to 
separate from Pleurotoma the species which have a very short ante- 
rior canal, which have hitherto been regarded as Clavatulce, they may 
be called Brillife, as that was the name wliich was first applied to 
them before they were confounded with the true ClavatulcB. 

These observations show the importance of studjang the opercula 
of the different genera ; and I may add, that the attention which I 
have been able to bestow on the subject has convinced me that they 
form quite as important a character for the distinction of the genera, 
and the arrangement of the genera into natural groups, as the struc- 
ture and form of the shelly valve, or of the external form of the ani- 
mals themselves ; and this may well be believed, when we consider 
them, as I am inclined to do, as an imperfectly developed valve, and 
as homologous to the second valve of the bivalve shell. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol.\'\i. 22 



338 Zoological Society. 

April 9.— Prof. Owen, V.P., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Description of a new species of Monkey, recently 
LIVING in the Society's Menagerie. By John Edward 
Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 

Presbytis albigena. Grey-cheeked Presbytis. 

Black ; throat, sides of the neck and front of the chest greyish ; 
face black, nearly bald, with a few short, rigid, black hairs on the 
lips ; a tuft of elongated rigid hairs over each eye ; the cheeks are 
covered with short, adpressed, greyish hairs. Tlie hairs of the body 
are uniform black to the base, rather elongated and flaccid, forming 
a fringe along each side, and a compressed crest on the crown and 
nape. The hands and feet are short ; the fore-thumb is small, the 
hinder one rather large and broad. 

Hab. West Africa? 

This species is very like Presbytis obscurus, but it is blacker, and 
has no pale spot on the nape, and the hair of the body is much 
longer, more silky, and forms a compressed crest on the nape, which 
is quite wanting in P> obscurus. 

It is more like P. melalopJais, but differs from it in being black, 
and can scarcely be a black variety of that species. 

May 14.— William Yarrell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary stated that, through the liberality of Ronald Gunn, 
Esq., and Dr. Grant, of Launceston, the Menagerie had been en- 
riched by the safe arrival of two living specimens of Thylacinus cyno- 
cephalus. The author states in the letter which accompanied this 
most valuable and interesting gift, that — 

" An observation of mine, contained in a letter to Sir W. Hooker, 
and which was not meant for publication, has been misunderstood, 
and has led to the propagation of error — for which I am very sorry. 
In it I said the Thylacine's tail was not compressed — m reference to 
an observation of Mr. Swainson's in the ' Encyclopaedia of Geography' 
(then recently published), that the tail of the Thylacine was com- 
pressed, which suggested the supposition that it was used in swimming, 
&c. It was to the latter part of tliis observation that my remarks 
were particularly applied (vide Annals of Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 101-2), 
and 1 meant that the tail was not compressed to such an extent as to 
have justified the inference that it was useful in swimming ; and thus 
that the animal obtained its food principally from the sea, which the 
paragraph in the ' Encyclopaedia of Geography' implied. The tail is 
obviously shghtly compressed, but not, I think, more so than the 
tails of the DasjTires, to which aquatic habits are not attributed. In 
writing hurriedly — and not for publication — I did not express myself 
with the precision I ought to have done. I mainly wished to point 
out that the tail would not justify the inference of Mr. Swainson 
(which I thought very far strained), that the animal was aquatic in 
its habits and piscivorous." 



Zoological Society. 339 

The following paper was read : — 
1. Descriptions of new Birds. By J. Gould, F.R.S. &c. &c. 

It is no less interesting than true, that during the past two years we 
have had accessions in ornithology of no ordinary value ; comprising 
as they do additional species of several anomalous forms, of each of 
which only one was previously known ; for instance, we have a second 
species of the genera Apterxjx, Menura, and Ptiloris. On the present 
occasion I have the good fortune to offer to the notice of this Meet- 
ing new species of two forms, equal in interest to those above referred 
to, viz. that of Cephalopterus, a form known to all as being American, 
and of which the type is the remarkable species Cephalopterus orna- 
tus, commonly called the Umbrella Bird. The discovery of a second 
species of this form is due to the researches of M. Warzewickz, a 
gentleman who has just returned from Central America, after traver- 
sing parts of that country hitherto untrodden by Europeans : it was 
in the high Cordilliera of Chirique in Yeragua, at an elevation of 
8000 feet, that this bird was found, and of which the individual now 
exhibited was the only one procured. 

Cephalopterus glabricollis. 

This new species differs in many particulars from its congener, par- 
ticularly in its smaller size, in the lesser development of its umbrella- 
like hood, and in its denuded fore-neck and chest, and in the ab- 
sence of feathers on the base of the tab or appendage at the basal 
part of the neck. M. "Warzewickz describes the bare part of the 
neck to be reddish orange, and the bare base of the tab as bright red. 
This fine bird forms part of the collection of T. B. Wilson, Esq., of 
Philadelphia. 

Independently of the novelty just described, M. "Warzewickz brought 
me six species of Humming Birds entirely new to science ; these, with 
some other new species of the same group, I propose to characterize 
at a future meeting. 

By Lord Gifford, who has recently returned from a journey in 
Thibet, ornithology has been enriched by the discovery of a new 
species of Sijrrhaptes, a form as extraordinary in its way as that of 
any of those above noticed ; the new species is finer both in size and 
colouring than the Syrrhaptes paradoxus ; it was shot on the banka 
of the Stumerrerri Lake, where two examples were seen, but un- 
fortimately only one was procured ; it appears to be an adult male, 
for which I propose the name of 

Syrrhaptes tibetanus. 

Face hoary ; front and sides of the neck ochreous yellow ; feathers 
of the head and nape brown at the base, and alternately barred at 
the tip with black and white ; upper part of the back, front and 
sides of the breast buffy white, crossed by narrow irregular bars of 
blackish brown ; all the upper surface and wings buff, pencilled all 
over with dark brown, the pencillings being conspicuous on the back, 
and so minute on the wings as to be almost imperceptible ; scapularies 
largely blotched on their inner webs with black ; primaries and 

22* 



340 Zoological Society, 

secondaries slaty black, the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth 
primaries with an oblique mark of brownish white at the tip ; basal 
half of the two centre tail-feathers buff, pencilled with brown, their 
apical half narrow, filamentous and black ; lateral tail-feathers sandy 
red, crossed by three widely placed irregular bands of black, and 
tipped with huffy white ; under surface huffy white, minutely pen- 
cilled on the breast with brown ; legs of the same hue, but the 
feathers banded with faint bars of brown ; bill and nails black. 

Total length, 1 5^ inches ; bill, f ; wing, 1 ; tail, 7\ ; tarsi, 1 . 

Hub. Ladakh in Thibet. 

Remark. Distinguished from the S. paradoxus by its much larger 
size, by the primaries not being extended into the filamentous form 
so remarkable in that species, and by the absence of any black colour- 
ing on the breast. 

The only example which has come under my notice is in the posses- 
sion of the Rt. Hon. the Lord Gifford, to whom I am indebted for per- 
mission to include a figure of it in my work on the ' Birds of Asia.' 

Extraordinary as have been the new species discovered during the 
last few years, of that remarkable group the Ramphastidce, no one is 
more singular than the bird which I now submit to the notice of the 
Meeting ; it may be regarded as an evidence that all the members 
of the group are not yet known to us, and that the productions of 
the rich forests of the Cordillerian Andes appear to be inexhaustible. 
It had long been mj'^ intention to propose a generic name for the 
Andean group of Toucans, characterized by the dense villose clothing 
of the under surface, the colouring of which is of a uniform tint, in- 
stead of being crossed by bars of black, red and yellow as in the 
typical Pteroglossi ; and at no moment could such a step be more 
appropriately taken than at the present, when characterizing a new 
species of this section, for which, indicative of the couutry in which 
the members are found, I propose the generic term oi Andigena, and 
for the new species, A. laminirostris ; the other species pertaining to 
this genus are A. hypoglaucus, A. nigrirostris, A. cucullatus, and 
A. Bailloni. The new species A. laminirostris, which is distin- 
guished by the yellow laminae near the base of the upper mandible, 
is the property of Dr. T. B. Wilson of Philadelphia, to whom and to 
his brother, E. Wilson, Esq., I am indebted for permission to de- 
scribe this fine bird ; the native habitat of which is the forests at the 
base of Pichincha, a high mountain of Ecuador. 

Genus Andigena. 

Gen. Char. — Bill stout, swollen, and moderately large when com- 
pared vdth the bill of the true Pteroglossi ; wings and tail very 
similar to those of Aulacorhynchus. General plumage long, loose, 
and hair-like. 

The species belonging to this genus are — 

Andigena hypoglaucxis {Pteroglossus hypoglaucus, Gould). 

cucullatus {Pteroglossus cucullatus, Gould). 

nigrirostris {Pteroglossus nigrirostris, Waterh.). 

laminirostris, Gould. 

Bailloni {Pteroglossus Bailloni, Wagl.). 



Zoological Society. 341 

All are characterized by a uniforiu wash of colour on the under sur- 
face, in lieu of the bars of rich red and black so conspicuous in the 
true Pterofflossi. 

Andigena laminirostris. 

Crown of the head and back of the neck deep black ; upper sur- 
face golden brown ; primaries black ; rump pale sulphur-yellow ; 
upper tail-coverts very dark green ; tail dark slaty grey, four central 
feathers largely tipped with chestnut-red ; under surface ashy blue ; 
on either flank a large patch of rich yellow ; thighs deep chestnut ; 
under tail-coverts blood-red ; orbits apparently orange ; culmen and 
apical half of both mandibles black ; a broad band on the base of 
the upper mandible and the basal half of the lower mandible deep 
blood-red ; on either side of the upper mandible, immediately in front 
of the blood-red basal band, is a large buff-coloured plate or lamina, 
continuous with the structure of the bill at its base, but separate and 
detached in front, thin on its upper edge, but thicker and projecting 
beyond the edge of the mandible below ; feet slaty blue. 

Total length, 18 inches; bill, Sf; wing, 6f ; tail, 6f ; tarsi, \\. 

Hah. Neighbourhood of Quito. 

Remark. The only example I have seen belongs to the collection 
of T. B. Wilson, Esq., of Philadelphia, and which has been kindly 
lent to me by his brother Edward Wilson, Esq., to enrich my Mono- 
graph of the Ramphastidce. 

Equally inexhaustible appear to be the Odontophorinse or Par- 
tridges of America, for in the rich Museum of Ley den, I lately found 
a species which was previously unknown to me ; it pertains to the 
genus Odontophorus, and I propose for it the name of Odontophorus 
Columbianus. 

Odontophorus columbianus. 

Crown of the head brown, minutely freckled with black ; back of 
the neck washed with rufous ; over each eye an indistinct mottled 
stripe ; throat white, irregularly spotted, especially on the sides, with 
black ; upper surface brown, washed with grey on the centre of the 
feathers, each of which is delicately pencilled with black, and has a 
narrow stripe of buff, bounded on each side by a narrower one of 
black, down the centre ; those of the scapularies and vring-coverts 
have moreover a large patch of rich dark brown on the inner web 
near the tip, bounded above by two narrow lines, one of buff, the 
other of dark brown ; primaries brown ; secondaries brown, freckled 
and barred with dark brown, and washed with rufous ; tertiaries 
brown, washed with grey and rufous, freckled with black, having a 
broad V-shaped mark of black near the tip, and broadly margined 
and tipped internally with deep buff ; under surface reddish brown, 
each feather with a large irregularly-shaped mark of white margined 
with black near the tip ; under tail-coverts, and vent mottled reddish 
brown and sandy huff; bill black ; feet lead-colour. 

Total length, 1 1 inches ; bill, 1 ; wing, 5f ; tail, 2J ; tarsi, 2 ; 
middle toe and nail, 2\. 

Hah. Caraccas. 

Remark. — The fine specimen gracing the Museum at Leyden was 



342 Zoological Society. 

transmitted by M. Landsberger, Netherlands Consul at Caraccas. 
There is also another specimen, from, I beheve, the same locality, 
which differs i:i having the under sm-face of a nearly miiform greyish 
brown, with here and there a few of the white marks so conspicuous 
in the bird above described ; it is also of a somewhat smaller size, 
but notwithstanding these differences, the two birds appear to be one 
and the same species. 

The O. Columbianus has a stouter bill, and is of a larger size than 
O. dentatus, but is smaller than O. Balliciani, to which it is most 
nearly allied. 

Leaving America and India, and proceeding to Australia, I return 
to a country which has so long engaged my attention, to characterize 
a new genus of small creeping Insessorial Birds, nearly allied to the 
genera Hylacola and Dasijornis, under the name of Fycnoptilus, of 
which at present only a single specimen is known, and to which I 
beg to assign the specific name of Jloccosa ; it is from New South 
Wales and the country towards the river Darling. 

Genus Pvcnoptilus. 

Gen. Char. — Bill much shorter than the head ; gonys and cnlmen 
gradually descending ; upper mandible notched at the tip ; nostrils 
covered with a distinct operculum ; base of the bill beset with very 
fine feeble hairs ; wings veiy short, round and concave, the sixth 
primary the longest ; tail short, rounded, feathers very broad and of 
a soft texture ; tarsi strong, and somewhat lengthened compared with 
the size of the bird ; hind-toe strong, and armed with a rather long 
claw ; fore toes and nails rather feeble, the outer and inner toes of 
equal length ; plumage dense, lengthened and silky, especially on the 
flanks. 

Pycnoptilus floccosus. 

All the upper surface, wings and tail rich brown ; throat and 
breast sandy buff, the feathers of the latter with a crescent of brown 
near the tip ; remainder of the under surface brown, approaching to 
white on the centre of the abdomen ; under tail-coverts rusty red ; 
bill and feet dark brown. 

Total length, 6 J inches ; bill, f ; wing, 2f ; tail, 2f ; tarsi, 1^. 

Hab. New South Wales. 

Remark. — Received in a collection made on the upper part of the 
river Morumbidgee. 

This form is somewhat allied to Atrichia, Hylacola and JDasyornis, 
but differs from all those genera in several particulars. 

I cannot conclude this paper descriptive of several new and im- 
portant birds, without congratulating the Society upon the means 
they possess of making known to the scientific world through their 
Proceedings and Transactions, spread far and wide as they are, not 
only over our own country, but I may say over the world, the many 
interesting objects which from time to time are brought before their 
Meetings ; neither must I omit to bear testimony to the high estima- 
tion in which they are held by all the continental naturalists and 
every true lover of scientific research. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 343 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

Jan. 9, 1851. — Professor Balfour, President, in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. "Botanical Notes of a visit to Holstein, in August 1850," by 
Mr. W. Lauder Lindsay. The author, in the first place, gave a 
general view of the physical features of the country, alluding more 
particularly to the geological formations. The Duchy of Holstein 
may be divided into four great belts or zones, the most easterly being 
the boulder clay, the next the boulder sand, then the sand-heaths 
and sandy marshes, and the most westerly the marshes composed of 
the alluvium of the Elbe, the richest soil in Denmark. The boulder 
clay belt is characterized by the growth of the beech, which here 
forms magnificent forests. The ordinary meadow and pasture, field, 
forest, and hedge-plants grow here in profusion, and the cultivated 
grains are wheat, barley, rape, and peas. The boulder sand belt is 
characterized by the luxuriant growth of the oak and fir, but is not 
so fertile as the last. The sandy-heath belt is characterized by Cal- 
luna vulgaris. Erica cinerea and E. tetralix, and by the predomi- 
nance of moor, amphibious, and certain aquatic plants. Rye is the 
grain generally cultivated in this belt. The marsh-belt is the most 
prolific. It is characterized by the abundance of Gramineae, with a 
great number of aquatic and amphibious plants. The sea-coast and 
the sand-dunes have also their pecuhar marine and littoral vegetation 
— Psamma arenaria, Elymus arenarius and Carex arenaria being 
characteristic of the latter. During the author's residence in Holstein, 
his head-quarters were at Schneefeld, which is situated in the most 
sterile of the four great belts already spoken of, viz. the sandy heaths ; 
but within a circle of ten miles, he had types of all the chief forma- 
tions of Holstein. He had made a full list of all the plants, which 
was laid before the Society, along with numerous dried specimens ; 
he enumerated 1290 phanerogamous plants and ferns, of which 1062 
are found in Britain. 

2. "On the chemical composition of Cytisus Laburnum, Euphor- 
bia officinarum, Lunaria biennis and Bryum ligulatum," by Mr. R. 
Smith. 

3. "Biographical Notice of the Rev. Dr. Rottler," by Dr. Hugh 
F. C. Cleghorn, H.E.I.C.S. The author had looked in vain for any 
memoir of the venerable Rottler, Danish Missionary at Tranquebar, who 
formed one of the little knot of early botanists who searched the plains 
of Southern India, leaving comparatively little on the eastern coast 
for subsequent discovery, and he considered it a duty to draw atten- 
tion to some MSS. which had fallen into his possession, giving fuller 
particulars than had yet appeared of this amiable and illustrious man. 
He stated that Dr. Rottler had been engaged by the English Govern- 
ment in 1/96 to make a tour in Ceylon, his acquaintance with the 
native language and his knowledge of botany enabling him to collect 
much valuable information after the island was captured from the 
Dutch. This venerable man, after attaining the age of 87 years, 
which few reach in India, died at Madras in 1836, having devoted 
upwards of sixty years of his life to the work of a missionary. Dr. Cleg- 



344 Botanical Society of Edinhuryh. 

horn exhibited a drawing of the Ilottteria tinctoria, named by Rox- 
burgh in honour of his friend Rottler, and stated that he hoped to 
obtain sufficient information to draw up a short memoir of one who 
seems to have passed away with so shght a notice in the annals of 
botany. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited a specimen of peat from Canty re, received 
from His Grace the Duke of Argyll, which was composed of leaves of 
trees and shrubs in a good state of preservation. As the examination 
of the peat was not completed. Dr. Balfour deferred a notice of the 
plants composing it until next meeting. 

Feb. 13, 1851. — Professor Balfour, President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited a specimen of Polysiphonia subulifera, new 
to Scotland, gathered at Lamlash, Arran, in August 1850, by Mrs. 
Balfour. 

Dr. Balfour likewise exhibited, from the Palm House of the Royal 
Botanic Garden, a flowering specimen oi Livistona chinensis, taken 
from a plant 38 feet high (measuring from the floor to the extreme 
point of the centre leaf) . The lower portion of this palm is 5 feet 
8 inches in circumference. Above this point the stem is covered to 
the extent of 10 feet by the bases of the fallen leaves, above which 
54 large palmated fronds are fully expanded, besides numerous others 
in various stages of development, and so arranged as to give the head, 
which is 20 feet in diameter, a somewhat globular shape. This palm 
has three flowering spadices standing upright, the largest being 3 feet 
6 inches long. It grows in a box 5 feet square, and 5 feet 3 inches 
deep, in soil composed of very rough brown loam, leaf mould, and 
sand. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "On the Composition of the Ash of Armeria maritima,^' by 
Dr. Voelcker, Professor of Chemistry, Cirencester. (See p. 266.) 

2. " Remarks on numerous species of Diatomacece found in Peat 
from Cantyre," by J. H. Balfour, M.D. The author observed that 
the peat is remarkable on account of its containing an immense accu- 
mulation of leaves which are comparatively unaltered in their structure. 
The bed in which it occurs is stated by the Duke of Argyll to be in 
an extensive flat or plain very little raised above the existing level of 
the sea, full of peat mosses, strata of clay, with vegetable stems, &c. 
It must be of ancient date, as it is covered by clay and gravel, and 
there is reason to believe that a peat moss which is now cut away lay 
over it. This moss, where it remains still uncut, is from 10 to 12 
feet in depth. The forms of the leaves are well marked, and the fol- 
lowing appear to occur : — 

Leaves of Salix caprea, S, viminalis or stipularis, and of Rumex 
Acetosella. 

Stem and leaves of a moss. 

Stems of grasses, and of a rush. 

Leaves of a heath-like plant, either Empetrum niyruniy or a species 
of Erica. 

Epidermis of birch. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 345 

Mr. John Matthews, who had examined the microscopic structure 
of the leaves, &c., had detected woody and vascular tissue. He had 
also found scalariform vessels indicating the remains of ferns, and had 
detected the cellular arrangement of grasses as well as of mosses. His 
investigations have shown the unaltered condition of the anatomical 
structure ; and prove the advantage of the use of microscopic re- 
searches in determining the nature of plants found under peculiar 
conditions such as those referred to. On a farther examination of 
the peat, Mr. Matthews and Mr. Cobbold detected numerous species 
of Diatomaceae belonging to the following genera : — Navicida, Coc- 
conema, Gallionella, Campylodiscus, Fragillaria, Diatoma, Eiiastrum, 
Gomphonema, &c., along with some spiculse of sponges. The leaves 
found in the peat having been examined by Dr. Voelcker, give the 
following result : — 

Ash from leaves dried at 212° — 32-46. Ash of a reddish colour, 
apparently from the presence of oxide of iron ; resembles ordinary 
peat-ashes in many respects. 

3. "Notice of a Lepidodendron found in Craigleith Quarry, and 
of a species of Dadoxylon discovered in the sandstone of Arthur's 
Seat," by Mr. A. Bryson. 

Mr. Bryson exhibited a very fine section, measuring 6 by 5 inches, 
of Lepidodendron obovatum from Craigleith, which is apparently 
allied to L. Harcourtii, Brongn., and in which the structure is 
distinctly shown. He also exhibited a section of Dadoxylon from 
sandstone under the trap of Salisbury Crags, showing disc-bearing 
woody tissue ; this plant Mr. Bryson supposes to be allied to Da- 
doxylon {Pinites) Wlthami, which is found at Craigleith. Mr. Bry- 
son stated his opinion that Lepidodendron would be found closely 
allied to the tree-ferns of the present day. 

4. "Notice of several new Indian Plants," by H. Cleghorn, M.D., 
H.E.I.C.S. Dr. Cleghorn stated that he was indebted to Dr. Wight 
for publishing some of his drawings of Mysore plants in the ' Icones 
Plantarum Indise Orientalis,' now in progress, and which, while it 
will form a lasting monument to the industry and labours of the 
author, supphes to the student of Indian botany a standard work of 
reference, illustrating the Indian flora, so far as it goes, as perfectly 
as Sowerby's 'English Botany ' depicts the British flora. 

Dr. Cleghorn exhibited the original specimens of Osbeckia hispi- 
dissima (Wight) and Mitreola paniculata (Wall.), figured in the Part 
recently received from Madras ; Dunbaria lati/olia (W. and A.), 
dedicated to Professor Dunbar of Edinburgh ; Alysicarpus styraci- 
folius (DC.) ; Hedysarum glumaceum. Box. Fl. Ind. iii. p. 646 ; the 
ticket of the original specimen in the Edinburgh University Herba- 
rium in Roxburgh's handvmting is distinctly written H. plumaceiim. 
The error has been copied into subsequent works. 

Dr. Cleghorn exhibited microscopic preparations, by Mr, John 
Matthews, of the stellate hairs and glands of Rottleria tinctoria, the 
latter only containing the colouring matter of the dye used by the 
Mahommedans. 

Dr. Balfour mentioned that he had received a letter from Dr. 
Johnston of Berwick, in which he states that he is now convinced 



346 Miscellaneous. 

tliat the Anacharis Alsinastrum found in the Whiteadder is of foreign 
origin. 

A letter was read from Mr. C. E. Parker, Torquay, noticing various 
instances which had been observed of the effects of hghtning on trees ; 
and mentioning the occurrence of Tilia Europcea on a promontory in 
the sea near to Torquay, where he supposes it to be indigenous. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

ATHANAS NITESCENS. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Weymouth, March 5, 185L 
Gentlemen, — On the 2nd instant I obtained from two small rock- 
pools (one of which was not more than 18 inches diameter), at ex- 
treme low-water mark, sixty or seventy specimens oiAthanas nitescens, 
and am thus enabled not only to add this as a new locality, but 
to fill up the blank of colour in Mr. Bell's ' Crustacea.' The 
general colour varies from a transparent watery-green in the very 
small specimens through almost all the shades of green, some haAing 
a yellowish tinge, whilst others are of a deep liver colour (they vary 
quite as much in their general colour as Hij)polyte varians) ; some few 
are of a pale buff ; there are however two markings constant in every 
specimen ; the first is a broad white stripe, extending from the base of 
the rostrum along the middle of the back, and ending at the junction 
of the plates of the tail with the body. This stripe when the animal 
is dried disappears altogether in the lightest specimens, — is scarcely 
visible in others, whilst in the liver-coloured specimens it remains 
visible, but changed to a pinkish brown. The first pair of legs are the 
colour of the body, but the other four pairs are barred or annulated 
alternately with reddish brown and white in the manner of Pagurua 
Forbesii. The plates of the tail are unicolorous. 

Athanas nitescens lives a long time out of water ; it is very active, 
but not so much as some small Galatheas in the same pool with it, 
though like it they strike backwards and attempt to enter some cre- 
vice to escape. In confinement they are timid, striking to all parts of 
the basm ; but they will crawl up to a pen or any substance put 
quietly into the water and apparently explore it. One of my speci- 
mens has the right fore-leg very much larger than the left, but on 
comparing this individual with another of the same size, I find the 
large leg is the proper size, and that it is the smaller leg which is de- 
formed, thus proving that the small leg has replaced one broken off. 
The fingers are generally much paler than the hands. 

I am, Gentlemen, yours obediently, 

William Thompson. 

Description of a new species of Mole (Talpa leucura, Blyth) . 
By Ed. Blytii, Esq. 

The species of restricted Talpa that have hitherto been described 
amount to four only in number, that I am aware of ; viz. T. cv.ropeea. 



Miscellaneous. 347 

L., of Europe generally, — T. ceeca, Savi, of Italy and Greece, — T. 
moogura, Temminck, of Japan, — and T. mieroura, Hodgson, of Nepal, 
Sikim, Butan, and the mountains of Asam : but the Society's Museum 
has long possessed specimens of another from Cherra Punji (N. of 
Sylhet), which I have recognised as distinct for some years, but now 
only proceed to describe. 

In its externa] characters, the Cherra Punji Mole diiFers little from 
T. mieroura, except that the tail is considerably more developed, 
though much less so than in T. europcea ; and the latter is clad and 
tufted with white hairs, whence I propose for the species the name of 
T. leucura. This animal, also, would seem hardly to attain the size 
of T. mieroura. An adult female in spirit measures 4^ inches long, 
with tail f inch additional : the latter is of a club shape, much con- 
stricted for the basal half. The general colour of the fur, too, is less 
fulvescent than is usual with T. mieroura. In both of these Asiatic 
species, as in T. cceea, there is no perforation of the integument over 
the eye, as in T. europcea ; the skin being there merely attenuated and 
imperfectly transparent. 

But the characteristic distinction of T. leucura consists in having 
only two small praemolars in the upper jaw anterior to the great last 
praemolar {carnassier, or ' scissor-tooth ') ; both T. europcea and T. 
mieroura having three, — these being comparatively larger and less 
separated in the latter, and the carnassier is also much larger in T. 
mieroura than in T. europcea. The posterior spur of the canine (? or 
pseudo-canine*) is remarkably developed in T. leucura, in place of 
the absent small prsemolar. In the dentition of the lower jaw, there 
are also characteristic differences distinguishing these three species. 
In the Moles, as in most other Inseetivora, and also in the Lemuridce 
(the very peculiar genus Cheiromys, which has rodential tusks, 
excepted), the lower canine is minute and takes the form of an 
incisor, for which it has been very commonly mistaken f; and the 
first praemolar is developed to assume the form of a canine, but locks 
posteriorly to the upper canine (or pseudo-canine), and like it has a 
double fang. There is no instance of a genuine lower canine locking 
behind the upper one, unless the gnawing tusks of the Rodentia and 
of the Lemuridous Cheiromys be regarded as the homologues of 
canines, which seems to be indicated more by the co-presence of un- 
doubted upper incisors in the Leporidce, than the reverse is by the 
difficulty of always tracing the origin of upper rodential tusks 

* In all the Inseetivora, Cuv., which apparently possess upper canines, 
these teeth have rather the structure of modified false molars, and, I beheve, 
have always double fangs, as exemplified by Talpa, Centetes, and Gymnura. 

t No placental mammal has more than three pairs of true incisors, or 
than three pairs of true molars (distinguished by their not being preceded 
by deciduary teeth in the young animal, as is the case with all other teeth). 
Although certain instances occur, as especially in tlie hoofed ruminants, 
where the lower canine is hardly (if at all) to be distinguished from the 
incisors, yet this fourth supposed pair of incisors never co-exists with an 
undoubted canine {vide the Camels, Horses, Ta])irs, &c.), that is among the 
placental mammalia, inasmuch as they are the veritable homologues of those 
teeth. 



348 Miscellaneous. 

through the iiiterraaxillaries to the true maxillary bones in the 
rodents generally. But to return to Talpa leucura : following the 
minute lower canine and the canine-like first lower prsemolar of this 
species, there are two small ])raemolars anterior to the carnassier or 
last of the series, and the first of these is conspicuously much smaller 
than the second ; in T. microura the two are of equal or nearly 
equal size, and occupy more space longitudinally ; while in T. europcea 
these and the carnassier successively enlarge in a regular gradation, 
the latter being proportionally smaller than in the two Indian species. 
Both scissor-teeth are indeed most developed in T. microura, and the 
teeth generally are more robust. 

The specimens of T. microura from Asam, like those of Nepal, 
have generally a very minute tail, which can at least be distinctly 
enough felt under the fur ; but those from the vicinity of Darjiling 
have no external trace of tail, whether sent as skins or in spirit. I 
have found, however, no perceptible difference in the skulls and 
dentition, nor in any other character whatever, that should warrant 
us in considering the tail-less Darjiling Moles as a distinct species, 
separable from T. microura. The Society's Museum contains T. 
leucura stuffed and in spirit, and the skull of the specimen preserved 
in spirit has been extracted and cleaned ; while the dentition of the 
stuffed specimen is exposed, and is quite similar to that of the other 
here described. It is not improbable that T. leucura may extend 
its range eastward into China ; and in that direction we may look for 
additional species of Talpa, if not also in western Asia. In Africa 
the genus is unknown, but is represented in the south by Chrysochlore ; 
in North America by Scalops and Condylura ; while in South America 
the Insectivora, Cuv., do not occur, their functions being performed 
by numerous diminutive species of Didelphys, as also may be said 
in Australia by the Perameles tribe ; and it is far from unlikely that 
Australia may yet be found to produce a fossorial marsupial form, re- 
sembling the Moles as other Marsupialia present an analogical but 
superficial hkeness to certain other Insectivora. — From the Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. III., 1850. 

On the Analogy between the mode of Reproduction in Plants and 
the "Alternation of Generations " observed iti some Radiata. By 
James D. Dana. 

The very remarkable fact that a Polyp and a Medusa may be in 
some instances different states of one and the same species, has been 
well established of late by the researches of Sars, Dalyell, Steenstrup 
and others ; and recent important observations have been made on 
the subject by Professor Agassiz. The alternations are as follows : — 

1 . The Medusa produces eggs ; — 

2. The eggs, after passing through an infusorial state, fix them- 
selves and become polyps, like Corynee, Tubularity, or Campanu- 
larice ; — 

3. The polyps produce a kind of bud that finally drops off and 
becomes a Medusa. 



Miscellaneous. 349 

Thus the egg of a Medusa, in such cases, does not produce a Me- 
dusa, except after going through the intermediate state of a polyp. 
Or if we commence with the polyp, the series is thus : — 

1 . The polyp produces bulbs that become Medusae ; 

2. The Medusae produce eggs ; 

3. The eggs produce polyps. 

This is what is called by Steenstrup " Alternation of Generations ;" 
and he considers the earlier generation as preparing the way for the 
latter. It certainly seems to be a most mysterious process : — a pa- 
rent producing eggs which afford a progeny of wholly different form 
(even so different, that naturalists have arranged the progeny in an- 
other grand division of the Radiata) ; and this progeny, afterwards, 
by a species of budding or gemmation repeating the form of the ori- 
ginal parent. 

Yet although seemingly so mysterious, is not this mode of deve- 
lopment common in the vegetable kingdom ? Is it not the prevalent 
process in the plants of our gardens and fields, with which we are all 
familiar ? 

It is well known to us, that in most plants, our trees and shrubs 
for example, growth from the seed brings out a bud of leaves ; from 
this bud after elongation, other leaf-buds are often developed, each 
consisting like the first of a number of leaves. It is an admitted fact 
(as may be found in Treatises on Vegetable Physiology) that each of 
these buds is a proper plant-individual, and that those constituting a 
tree are as distinct and independent as the several polyps of a com- 
pound zoophyte ; and that the tree therefore is as much a compound 
group of individuals as the zoophyte. In some cases the plant forms 
but a single leaf-bud ; in others, where there is successive gemmation 
for a period, the number is gradually multiplied, and more or less ac- 
cording to the habit of the species. So among polyps, there is the 
simple and compoimd Tubularia, Campanularia, and the like. 

After the plant has sufficiently matured by the production and 
growth of its number of leaf-buds, there is a new development — a 
flower-bud — consisting of the same elements as the leaf-bud, but 
wholly unlike it in general appearance — as much so, as the Medusa 
is unlike the polyp. The flower-individual starts as a bulb from the 
leaf-individual, or the group of leaf-individuals, and is analogous in 
every respect to the bulbs from the Campanularia; and alHed species ; 
and when it has fully matured, it produces, like the Medusa, ovules 
or seed — these seed to begin the round again of successive or alter- 
nating developments. 

Thus among plants the seeds produce leaf-individuals ; these yield 
bulbs or buds becoming flower-indi%dduals ; and these produce seeds ; 
precisely as the egg produces polyps, the polyps, bulbs that deve- 
lope into Medusae, and the Medusae, eggs. 

When we follow out this subject minutely, we find the analogy 
completely sustained even in minor points of structure and growth. 
The leaf-bud consists of leaves developed in a spiral order ; and in the 
polyp, as some species show beyond doubt, the tentacles and corre- 
sponding parts are spiral in development. The same spiral character 



350 Miscellaneous. 

is found in tlie flower, but the volutions are so close as not to be di- 
stinguished readily from circles. In the Medusae referred to, the 
regularly circular form is far more neatly and perfectly developed 
than among the polyps — as is clearly seen in a comparison of the 
polyp Coryna with the elegant Sarsia, a species of which is described 
and" beautifully delineated in Professor Agassiz's recent memoir, pub- 
lished by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston. The 
relations in structure between plants and polj^s might be further 
dwelt upon ; but for other observations the writer would refer to hia 
volume on Zoophytes. 

The only point in which the analogy seems to fail, is that the 
Medusa-bud falls off before its full development, while this is not so 
with plants. But it is obvious that this is unimportant in its bearing 
on this subject. It is a consequence of the grand difference in the 
mode of nutritiou in the two kingdoms of nature ; for the plant-bud 
on separation loses its only means of nutriment. 

The law of alternating generations is therefore no limited principle, 
strange and anomalous, applying only to a few Radiata. It embraces 
under its scope the vegetable kingdom, and it is but another instance 
of identity in the laws of growth in the two great departments of hfe. 
— From SillimarCs American Journal of Science and Arts, No. 30, 
November 1850. 

Note on Callichthys and Anableps. 
By J. P. G. Smith, Esq. 

The flesh of Callichthys, when cooked, is of a fine deep yellow 
colour, and in substance is somewhat cheesy or buttery on the tongue, 
it is very rich in flavour : no cleaning of the intestines appears to be 
necessary before preparation for the table. 

In the creeks by which the island of Mexianna is intersected, these 
fish literally swarm and keep the waters alive and in a state of con- 
stant disturbance. I have witnessed them crossing a log of wood, 
which was lying in the water and intercepted the passage, in such 
numbers that they quite concealed it from view ; and the people, when 
they wanted a dish, were in the habit of going down to a favourable 
spot and picking them out with their hands, without going into the 
water. 

Anableps swims in small shoals with the eyes above the surface of 
the water, generally close to the shore, and so near together that I 
have shot twenty to thirty at a time by firing a gun among them ; 
their flesh is very sweet, and not unlike a smelt in taste. — From the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, March 26, 1850. 

BOTANICAL TRAVELLERS. 

We learn from Mr. Stevens that Mr. N. Plant, Curator of the 
Leicester Museum, is about to leave England to investigate the 
natural productions of several districts in S. America, the Sandwich 
Islands, &c. 

His proposed course is, first to Rio Grande, thence to La Plata and 
Paraguay ; next crossing to ('hili, he will turn northward, examining 



Meteorological Observations. 351 

the western slopes of the ChiUan and Peruvian Andes; from Pei-u 
he will make for the Sandwich Islands, and carefully examuie that 
group ; proceeding thence to Vancouver's Island and several adjoin- 
fng districts of the N. American continent, he wdl return homeward 

by* the East Indian Islands. ^ , ■ , ■ ^ i,.n. Ar-^^A 

Mr Plant will make collections of birds, msects, shells dried 
plants and other objects, and anticipates being able to send home 
many mteresting and valuable specimens during the four or fiveyears 
which his journey will occupy. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR FEB. 1851. 
Chiswick -February 1 . Overcast : fine : clear at night. 2. Rain : hazy : slight 

sf Clear an?fine 24. ClcTudy : foggy. 25. Foggy 26. F.ne : clear : frosty. 
S: St shower of sleet : dense dark clouds. 28. Cloudy and cold. 



ight snower oi sieei : ucii»<= «<».- - - 

aiean temperature of the month ^^ 



•35 
42 -60 



Mean temperature of Feb. 1850 • - 

Mean temperature of Feb. for the last twenty-five years . 39 ^56 _^^^^ 

Average amount of rain in Feb 

Bo.^o«.-Feb. 1. Fine. 2. Cloudy. 3. Cloudy: rain p.m. 4. Fj^'^- 5. 
Cloudy: rain P.M. 6. Fine. 7- Cloudy: ra.n a.m. -d .m 8-10 Fme. 

liri%S .S. Fi-i '24%ne:'r;^ntM^'"25. ^o'ggy -ain ..L. 2. Fine. 
27. Fine : rain a.m. and p.m. 28. Fine. 

Applegartk Manse, Dumfries.shire.-¥eb. I, ^rT-'^'^F^^^tJrSrT 

d^jt'f ^in L^i^igl^^nKo^t Sn iJt^'^^iX 
5 Rain III d;v hlh wind : flood. 8. Fair and fine a.m. : a few drops p.m. 
9. Fog hoar frost deared P.M. 10. Fair a.m. : rain p.m ^ 12 Dnppmg 
day ^13. Fair throughout. 14. Fairear ly a.m : shght dnzzle 15 6^ Shower 
dukg night : fine day. J.^^^^-^- = J ^^^ ^'^l.^^F^s fi^e : buuTrfl; reen. 
It Fro. hSefrrrlt: f^llS. J- W mild : ^^a-eter faUm^^^^^^ 

monS'the iprfng flowers were 'earlier by three or our -eks U>an usual : snow- 
drops, crocuses, hepaticas. polyanthuses, daffodils, m full bloom. ^^^^^ 

Mean temperature of the month ^^ ^^ 

Mean temperature of Feb. 1850 • 

Mean temperature of Feb. for the last twenty-nme years ... ^6^ 90 _^^^^^^^^ 
Average rain in Feb . 

27. Hoar-frost : cloudy. 28. Showers : cloudy. 



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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 41. MAY 1851. 



XXXrV.— Contributions to the Natural History of the Shark. By 
Richard Hill, Corr. Mem. Zool. Soc. Lond., and M. C. Roy. 
Agr. Soc. Jam. 

Spanish-Town, Jamaica, August 1850. 

Observing, when I was at Port Henderson in 1842, that when- 
ever the sein was hauled the fishermen caught numerous young 
Sharks, it became evident to me, that under ordinary circum- 
stances, these ravenous fishes are ground-feeders ; and that the 
structure of their mouth, far beneath the snout, and entering the 
origin of the trunk, fits them especially for snatching up their 
prey from the ground, when they quarter over a shoal, like a 
hound scenting and beating over a field. I could not, however, 
at the time I made the remark, reconcile the predilection of the 
same fishes for hunting at the surface of the sea, with their habit 
of hounding for their prey in deep waters. I think I have now 
found an explanation for this contradictory instinct. We have a 
proximate solution for the difference of habit in the viviparous 
nature of this family of Cartilaginous Fishes. 

Cartilaginous Fishes are endowed with a peculiar generative 
oeconomy. They procreate in coitu, whereas the Osseous Fishes 
almost universally (the exceptions are veiy few) cast their spawn 
without contact ; that is, the female deposits the ova, and the 
male the seminal fluid independently. Impregnation is effected 
by diffusion, just as the pollen of plants is disseminated from one 
flower to another, or is conveyed through the air from the male 
to the female tree. 

Let us devote a moment's attention to the instincts and habits 
of some three or four of the Osseous Fishes the most important to 
man. We begin with the Pilchard and the Herring. In carry- 
ing on the great purpose of organic life — "increase and mul- 
tiply" — at certain seasons, within certain ranges of latitude, 
these two species of fishes approach the coasts in inconceivably 

Ann. if Ma^. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. \ii. 23 



354 Mr. R. Hill's Contributions to the 

large bodies. What may be called the multitudinous array, is 
increased as they pass onward to their breeding ground, by num- 
berless smaller masses, which, perpetually joining the main body, 
add to the number of the muster. In the early months of the 
year, the Pilchard and the Herring avoid the surface waters. 
They are known to keep then near the bottom in soundings, by 
being taken in the stomachs of rapacious fishes. Their union 
into the bodies called schulls is not permanent, but partial, earlier 
than July; but as they breed only once in the year, the great 
multitudes that approach the coast do not perform this function 
until the month of October, and then at no great distance from 
the shore. The instinctive necessity that gathers the multitude 
of these and several other species of fish near to coasts, and 
within the reach of man, when they are in the best condition to 
form his food, is a beautiful exhibition of providential oeconomy ; 
but this is the secondary object ; the primary is the perpetuity 
of the species. 

Let us illustrate the manner and circumstances under which 
impregnation is effected, by the habits of some fish of similar in- 
stincts, but more under our observation than the Pilchard or the 
Herring, or those that inhabit the broad ocean. Let us devote 
our attention for a little while to the Salmon, a fish plentiful in 
the rivers of the northern temperate zone, where they spawn, and 
where, in carrying out their procreative instincts, they exhibit un- 
wearied perseverance and indomitable energy of purpose. During 
the early part of the season, when the ova begin to develope in 
the mature fish, the Salmon ascend the rivers in which they de- 
sign to breed ; advancing with the flood, but generally retiring 
with the ebb, till the upward stream enables them to get beyond 
the place they had previously reached. The female fish appear 
before the males, and those of the first year, called the grilse in 
their first spawning, move to the breeding grounds, and ascend 
the rivers earlier than the Salmon of mature age. By the time 
the season has advanced, they have reached beyond the influence 
of the tide, and are losing their condition more and more, as 
they approach nearer and nearer the time of expelling the ova. 
Eventually the male Salmon follows, surmounting the obstacles 
of the stream, with the same perseverance. " They shoot up 
rivers with the velocity of arrows, and make wonderful efforts to 
surmount cascades and other impediments by leaping ; — fre- 
quently clearing an elevation of 8 or 10 feet, — and, gaining the 
water above, pursue their course. If they fail in their attempt, 
and fall back into the stream, it is only to remain a short time 
quiescent, and thus recruit their strength to enable them to make 
new efforts *." 

* Yanell's British Fishes, vol. ii. p. 9. 



Natural History of the Shark. 355 

"The process of spawning has been described by various ob- 
servers ■-' A pair of fish are seen to make a furrow, by working 
up the gravel with their noses, rather against the stream, as a 
Salmon^eannot work with his head down s ream, f- the wate. 
then going into his gills the wrong way, drowns hira. When 
the furrow is made, the male and female retire to a little 
dista^ice, one to the one side, and the other to the other side of 
theTrrow; they then throw themselves on their sides aga^n 
come together, and rubbing against each other, both shed their 
smwn into the furrow at the same time This process is not 
S^eted at once; it requires from eight to twelve days for 
them to lav all their spawn, and when they have done they be- 
Sk^themJelves to the pools to recruit themselves. Three pairs 
have been seen on the spawning bed at one time, and were closely 
watched, while making the furrow and laymg the spawn *. 

We return for a moment from the river to the sea, to carry on 
the instincts from sexual association to parental oversight, and 
e'a d for a dependent offspring. We might expect that an ar- 
rangement for the perpetuity of the species which left the eggs 
aftef being fertilized Ld deposited in shallow waters to be per- 
feSed by the heats of the ensuing summer (for the young do not 
appear UU the middle of the year following, ^7 which time the 
parents have returned to the sea and regained the deeps)-we 
might expect that such an arrangement would hardly exhibit in- 
Sinct, expanding into care and watchfulness on the part of the 
mak parent. The history of the Lump-sucker {Cycloptems lum- 
;4 however is a remarkable instance of solicitude for the young 
in the male. The CyclopteridcB are a family of fishes of exceed- 
ngly Cited locomotive'^powers. To compensate for the defi- 
cielly attending an organization fitted to make but small pro- 
gress through the water, nature has bestowed upon them a 
provision by which they attach themselves o other movmg ob- 
Ss so as to transport themselves readily into different and 
ktant feeding-places. They adhere by an ^PP^^^^us termed the 
sucker, and hold so tenaciously to their place when fixed, that if 
thev die in that position, adhesion contmues aft^r death; when 
the fish however has no motive for maintaining this sullen tena- 
city, upon a wet finger being applied to the part with which it 
sucks, it holds on suspended, and on g^^^F^S ^\^^^^ f^'^t 
he water, it instantly attaches itself to the hand. When Fabri- 
cius related that the^Lump-suckers, m April or May, enter the 
rocky bays of the Greenland coast for the purpose of spawmng ; 
that the female, preceding the male, deposited the roe among the 
larger Alg^ in the fissures of the rocks; that, followed by the 
* YarreU quoting Ellis' on the Natural History of the Salaion. British 
Fishes, vol. ii. 03* 



356 Mr. R. Hill's Contributions to the 

male shortly afterwards, she finally left him fructifying the eggs, 
and adhering to the masses of roe till the eggs were hatched, 
and that he fought other fishes while watching and guarding the 
important deposit ; — he was doubted by the cautious Lacepede : 
but his statement has not only been confirmed, but the traits of 
parental care first made known by him have been considerably 
extended by the testimony of the fishermen of Berwickshire, in 
Dr. George Johnston's History of the Fishes of that coast. It 
appears from their observation, that the male fish not alone 
covers the spawn and remains covering it until the ova are 
hatched ; but that he receives the young on his back, to which 
they attach themselves, and that he then sails away loaded with 
them to deeper and more safe retreats. 

I would here mention, as a still more remarkable illustration 
of the ofiices performed by male fishes independently, that in the 
SyngnathidcB or Pipe-fish tribe there is a strange and very pecu- 
liar organization. The male has a subcaudal pouch closed by 
two elongated lateral flaps. On separating these flaps in the 
spawning season, a sac is seen lined with ova, or marked with 
hemispherical depressions, from which the ova had been removed. 
This marsupial structure in a fish, though curious, is very intelli- 
gible as a peculiarity of the male sex only. Fishes of the Osseous 
division, we have seen already, are not impregnated by intro- 
raittent contact. The female spawns the roe, and the male ejects 
the milt into the common element, and impregnation results 
from the efi'usion of sperm upon the waters. Another ceconomy 
prevails in the Pipe-fish : the female discharges the ova into the 
caudal pouch of the male, and the eggs there receive impregna- 
tion from the proximative sexual organs, where they are retained 
until the young escape from the capsules in a state of perfect 
development. 

1 have exhibited the instinctive actions of oviparous fishes for 
the purpose of showing the extent to which a provident arrange- 
ment of habits necessary for the continuance of the species in- 
fluences the two sexes under their remarkable ceconomy. We 
shall find the phsenomena of viviparous fishes replete with ten- 
dencies not less remarkable, though altogether working in an- 
other direction. What is wonderful in all these impressions, is 
the consciousness, which, in our distinction between the rational 
and the instinctive mind, we should say manifests itself in a be- 
lief as to a future, which, not existing as knowledge, or as a fact 
the result of experience, cannot be an anticipation of conse- 
quences. " When we consider, however," as Professor Brown 
beautifully observes, "who it is that formed us, it would have 
been wonderful if the belief had not arisen ; because in that 
case, the phfenomcna of nature, however regularly arranged, 



Natural History of the Shark, 357 

would have been arranged in vain, and that Almighty Being, 
who, by enabling us to foresee the physical wants that are to 
arise, has enabled us to provide for them, would have left the 
creatures for whom He has been so bounteously provident, to 
perish, ignorant and irresolute, amid elements that seemed waiting 
to obey them, and victims of confusion in the very midst of all 
the harmonies of the universe *." 

We now proceed to consider the special oeconoray of Cartila- 
ginous Fishes. 

In the Osseous Fishes the ova escape into the interior of the 
ovary, and are expelled through an excretory orifice resembling 
the duct of an ordinary gland. In the Cartilaginous Fishes, and 
in all other Vertebrata, the germs burst from the exterior of the 
ovarium, from whence they are generally conveyed as eggs out 
of the body through intermediate tubes, or hatched internally ; 
the oflFspring being retained within the body, to be nourished in 
receptacles provided for the purpose, until they arrive at a con- 
siderably advanced state of development. 

It is only by degrees that perfect ovigerous organs make their 
appearance in Cartilaginous Fishes. In the Lamprey is found the 
first appearance of the ovary common to the higher Vertebrata. 
As there is no excretory duct, naturalists were long at a loss to 
explain how the ova were expelled ; it is now ascertained that as 
the eggs become mature they break loose from the nidus in 
which they were generated, and penetrate into the peritoneal 
cavity, and floating loose in the abdomen escape into the sur- 
rounding water in countless numbers, by two orifices placed on 
each side of the anal opening. 

Such is the first step in the provision for ovigerous organs in 
Cartilaginous Fishes. 

In the Sharks and Rays it advances a step further, and the 
female sexual apparatus receives the important addition of an 
oviduct. In this passage the germ is seized on its escape from 
the ovarium, and furnished with additional coverings necessary 
for the security of the foetus. 

Some of the Rays and the Sharks are oviparous, and others 
viviparous. To accommodate the species of each respectively to 
their different circumstances, a different provision for the foetal 
life is severally made. The means employed for attaining the 
oviparous end are simple and beautiful. "About the middle of 
the oviduct of the female, there is a thick glandular mass, des- 
tined to secrete a horny shell in which the yolk and white of the 
egg become encased." This coincides with the provision in birds 
for investing the egg with a calcified covering, in other words, with 

* Moral Philosophy, Lecture VI. Physical Inquiry. 



358 Mr. R. Hill's Contributions to the 

an egg-shell ; but the corresponding action in the same organ in 
the Ray and the Shark goes no further than giving it a covering 
of horn. " The egg, when thus completed, has somewhat the 
shape of a pillow-case, with the four corners lengthened out into 
long tendi-ils like cords," by which the egg is fastened to sea- 
weeds, or branching corals, in the spots where they are deposited. 
" A brittle egg-shell would soon be destroyed by the beating 
of the waves, hence the necessity for the corneous envelope ; and 
yet, how is the feeble embryo to escape from such a tough and 
leather-like cradle V This obstacle has been overcome by a very 
etficient expedient : the egg remains permanently open in two 
places ; or, to carry out our humble simile, as Professor Jones, to 
whom we are indebted for our details, very instructively observes*, 
one side of the pillow-case is left unsewn in two places to receive 
and eject water. The slightest pressure from within separates 
the valvular lips of the openings, and no sooner has the little 
Shark extricated itself from its confinement through one of the 
slits, than the two sides close again so accurately, that the fissure 
is not at all perceptible. In those Sharks which are viviparous, 
that is, whose young are hatched in the oviduct prior to their 
expulsion, this egg-shell is never formed, and the investments of 
the foetus remain permanently membranous. 

In the Dictionary of Natural History, a work containing the 
most recent information on the phsenomena of organic life, Bosc, 
the author of the article on Rays, represents an intermediate de- 
velopment in which the corneous egg is hatched within the parent, 
and in which the young fish is expelled at the moment it bursts 
the covering. There is some little obscurity in his narrative, but 
it is plain that he not only insists on this intermediate process 
of utero- gestation, but affirms that it varies in one and the same 
Ray, and is sometimes a perfect hatching of the egg within the 
parent, and sometimes a delivery of the foetus from the uterine 
cavity, while it is still within the corneous envelope, and to be 
hatched after extrusion in the surrounding waters, t give his 
words : — 

" On observera sans doute avec surprise que je parle d'oeufs, 
quoique j'aie deja dit que les Raies etoient vivipares; mais il 
est difficile de s'exprimer autrement. Ce ne sont point de veri- 
tables oeufs, ce sont des matrices oviformes que portent les 
Raies. Quelque temps apres le premier accouplement, il sort de 
lem* ovaire un de ces oeufs ou une de ces matrices, qui reste 
attachee h la mere, et dans laquelle se developpe un foetus 
jusqu'a I'epoque oii il est assez fort pour briser les enveloppes qui 
le tiennent enferme, nager et se pourvoir de nourriture. Quel- 

* Lectiu-es ou the Animal Kingdom, bv Rymer Jones. Chap, xxvii. 
sec. 582. 



Natural History of the Shark. 359 

ques auteursj et Lacepede, suit leur avis, pretendent que ces 
petits eclosent dans le ventre meme de leur mere, comme ceux 
des Squales ; mais il est facile de croire que ces deux manieres 
peuvent avoir lieu dans la meme espece, selon les circonstances. 
Cet oeuf n'est pas plutot debarrasse de son foetus, qu'il se separe 
de la mere, qu'il s'en presente un autre dejk feconde avec le 
premier, ou qu'il se fait un nouvel accouplement qui donne la 
vie h un nouvel oeuf, pourvu d'un blauc ou d'un jaune comme le 
premier, et ainsi de suite*. " 

This is talking at something like a hazard respecting the 
forming of the egg, and the expelling the immature as well as 
the mature young in the Ray ; but Bosc writes with more con- 
fidence when treating of the Shark : — " Les diverses especes de 
Squales qu'on a observees sont toutes ovovivipares, c'est-a-dire 
que leurs oeufs eclosent dans leur ventre, et successivement ; 
mais il arrive quelquefois, et dans certaines especes plutot que 
dans d'autres, que ces oeufs sont expulses avant le complet accroisse- 
tnent de I'embryon quHls contiennent, ce qui n'empeche 2)as, pour 
Vordinaire, les embryons de parvenir a bien-\." 

In the degree in which the oviparous or viviparous character 
prevails in Cartilaginous Fishes, the ground-feeding habit is con- 
stant, or modified by a predilection for the surface waters. I 
shall not detail many instances of this distinction, but confine 
myself to the similarity of ground-habit of the Small Spotted 
Dog-fish {Scyllium canicula) and the Scymnus spinosus of Cuvier, 
two fishes very wide apart in their place of classification. 

The Small Spotted Dog-fish is one of the most common of 
the Shark tribe on the British shores, particularly along the 
southern coast. It is constantly stationed near the bottom, 
where it feeds on small fish and Crustacea, taking freely the bait 
the fishermen use for the capture of shoal feeders, such as soles 
and plaice. This fish, one of the numerous alliances of the true 
Shark, commonly known as Dog-fish, and distinguished by the 
several canine names of Beagle, Hound, Rough Hound, Smooth 
Hound, and Spotted and Penny Dog, from the habit of following 
their prey coui-sing along the bottom, and hunting in companies 
or packs, brings forth its young enclosed in the horny case we 
have been describing, terminating at each corner in exceedingly 
lengthened and convoluted tendrils, for fixing it to the sea- weed 

* Bosc speaks with more distinctness respecting this occurrence in ovovi- 
viparous Sharks. " On trouve souvent, sur les rivages, de ces oeufs rejetes 
par le flot, et tres-entiers. II est probable que ce sont ceux qui n'ont pas 
ete fecondes, ou qui sont sortis du ventre de leur mere avant le terme 
prescrit par la nature ; car souvent il s'en fait des expulsions irregulieres, 
comme chez les Raies." — Diction, d'Hist. natur., Requin. 

t Idem. Squale. 



360 Mr. R. Hill's Contributions to the 

when deposited within the reach of the light and heat of the 
summer sun. Two narrow shts in the capsule, the provision we 
have referred to already, allow of the admission of aerated water, 
and of the expulsion of the fluid, when the oxygen has been 
consumed in sustaining the embiyo. For a time the young fish 
is nom-ished by the vitellus attached to the body, till it has 
acquired the power of taking food by the mouth, when the fluid 
contained in the depending sac being taken within the abdomen, 
just as the yolk which nourishes the bird within the egg is ab- 
sorbed at the moment of hatching, the matured Dog-fish escapes 
by the fissure which opened near where the head of the folded 
embryo was situated. 

There is another interesting provision observed in this class 
of Cartilaginous Fishes. The oi-dinary gills are not fitted, at the 
early stage of life, for the ofiice of respiration. To meet this 
emergency there are filaments provided at each branchial open- 
ing, containing a single minute reflected vessel, in which the 
blood is submitted to the action of the aerated water. These 
appendages are only temporary. Some short time after the 
embryo has been excluded, the filaments are gradually absorbed, 
and respiration is carried on by the true gills. 

In everything connected with the structure of the egg, we 
see the provision made for hatching it, independent of the parent ; 
the arrangement for suppljdng it with air from the influent waters, 
on the one hand ; and the appliances for securing it near the 
surface, within reach of the sun's rays, and within the increased 
temperature of the shore, on the other. The parent having de- 
posited the egg, already vivified by previous contact, when the 
male and female hunted together in social packs, it is left to the 
accident of tides and agitated seas to be matured and hatched in 
due season. 

The Scymnus spinosus, or Spinous Shark, is not so well known 
on the British coast as the Spotted Dog-fish, but it is common 
enough in the Mediterranean with the Squalus Nicensis and the 
Huraantin or Centrina. The Centrina inhabits muddy bottoms, 
and the Nicensis aff'ects waters of a particular degree of tempera- 
ture; Risso says of 10 degi'ees of Reaumur, equal to 53 of 
Fahrenheit; and that it is caught with particular baits at a 
thousand metres below the surface. When the spinosus is taken 
on the Cornish coast, it is caught either in trawl-nets or on hooks 
sunk down for conger-eels, and baited with cuttle-fish. The fisher- 
men describe its action as most powerful in the water. As they 
are obliged to let him run with a line four times to the bottom 
before they can hamper him with a sliding noose, let down over 
the line to his tail, Mr. Yarrell therefore remarks, that as these 
and the trawl-net only do their ivork at the bottom, we may con- 



Natural Histm'y of the Shark. 361 

elude that the Sajmniis spinostis is a Ground Shark ; and Dr. 
Andrew Smith says of the specimens occasionally found at the 
Cape of Good Hope, that they are described by the fishermen as 
sluggish and unwieldy in their movements, — seldom observed on 
the surface, and hooked always when they are fishing in deep 
water, and when the bait is near the bottom. As the spinosus 
resembles in this respect the Scyllium or true Ground Shark, 
Dr. Smith concludes, that if we regard only its internal organiza- 
tion, we should be disposed to consider it as closely allied to 
that genus*. The Scyllium we have already spoken of as ovi- 
parous. 

Of the Sharks that frequent the surface waters, the Blue Shark 
{Carcharias glaucus), the White Shark (C vulgaris), and the 
Basking Shark {Selachus maximus) are the most conspicuous. 
They are all three of gigantic size, but two only are voi-acious, 
if the word 'voracity' be restricted to a predacious appetency 
for large animals. Of the ZygceruB or Hammer-headed Sharks, 
which are said to possess habits very similar to those of the 
other large Squalidts, sharing with them their characteristic 
rapacity, and not hesitating to attack man when an opportunity 
ofi'ers, we have not such specific facts respecting their mode of 
utero-gestation as to say whether their oeconomy is so absolutely 
viviparous as to i-ender a resort to the increased temperature of 
the surface waters necessary for maturing the foetus ; they are 
not very frequently seen in the broad ocean. That which the 
atmosphere does for the eggs of the Ground Sharks, anchored as 
we have described, by their tangled tendrils in shoal waters, the 
viviparous Sharks must effect by constantly haunting such depths 
only as are heated by the daily sun. 

Now, as we know that the lower the animal is in the scale of 
organization, the nearer it approaches to the plant in compara- 
tive feebleness of function in generating heat ; and as we know 
that the heat of worms, insects, Crustacea and mollusca, and of 
fishes and amphibia, is commonly only two or three degrees 
above that of the medium in which they are immersed, and that, 
absolutely colder in their circulatory fluids than the higher ani- 
mals, they are incapable of resisting any considerable changes 
in the surrounding medium, whether it be from heat to cold or 
from cold to heat; we necessarily know also that their blood 
must be absolutely gelid in the polar regions, and cold in the 
temperate zone in the cold months of the year, and they must 
be heated to a degree of warmth equal to that of the medium 
in which they move in the hot season, whether that medium be 
air or water. 

* Dr. Andiew Smith, on the Zoology of South Africa, No. 1. 



362 Mr. R. HilPs Contributions to the 

In all animals whose respiratory organs are so constructed, 
that the consumption of oxygen, and the consequent evolution 
of carbonic acid gas is minute in quantity, the production of 
heat is proportionally small. In the invertebrate classes the 
respiratory apparatus is feeble in its action, and these animals 
accordingly generate heat in a minimum degree. In the class 
of fishes, though the respiratory apparatus is large, and though 
all the blood of the body circulates through it, yet as only the 
air contained in the water is brought into contact with the re- 
spiratory organ, the temperature of the blood is, as a consequence, 
regulated by that of the fluid in which the fish swims. In the 
reptile, though there is a true and proper lung, and though air 
is respired, yet as only one half of the blood of the body 
circulates through the comparatively small, imperfectly divided, 
and simply constructed air-bag, which constitutes its respiratory 
organ, its temperature does not exceed that of the atmosphere. 
Hence the contrast exhibited between the temperature of cold- 
blooded and warm-blooded creatures — between the mammiferous 
quadruped, whose lung, comparatively large, and composed of 
innumerable minute and closely- set air-vesicles, presents to the 
atmosphere an immense extent of surface, and the intermediate 
air-breathing reptile, whose organs, made up of numerous 
divisions broken into vesicles and cells, bring the circulatory 
fluid but imperfectly into contact with the air. In the fish, the 
lowest order of Vertebrata, the respii'atory organs, formed as 
fringed folds disposed in leaves, and called gills, communicate 
to the blood increased warmth only by adding the direct action 
of the sun's rays to the augmented heat of the air in contact 
with the superficial waters. 

As a resort to the warmth of the surface waters is necessary 
to mature the foetus in the viviparous Shark, the period of 
gestation must be increased or diminished just in proportion as 
facilities are afforded for the access to heat. " Les femelles," 
says Bosc "mettent bas leurs petits successivement et k des 
epoques plus ou moins eloignees, selon les especes, et sans doute 
selon la chaleur de Feau au milieu de laquelle elles vivent." It 
is necessary to detail the generative organs of these viviparous 
fishes to understand the exigencies of this oeconomy. 

I shaU avoid a minute account of the general internal organs 
of Sharks. It is enough to mention that immediately beneath 
the heart and liver, which are situated near the mouth of the 
fish, and between the arches that support the respiratory ap- 
paratus, the testes of the male, attached to the region of the 
spine, communicate with long and tortuous vasa deferentia, which 
occupy the whole length of the body to the cloaca. Correspond- 
ing to the testes of the male are the ovaria of the female, which 



Natural History of the Shark. 363 

occupy the same situation, and are not very different from them 
in appearance ; they have a common oviduct, and end in uterine 
cavities. 

Some of the viviparous Cartilaginous Fishes are fertile only on 
one side, generally the right. The testes are made up of two 
portions, but one only has an excretory duct, and one only of the 
ovaria is fully developed. The tortuous passage of the vas de- 
ferens in the male terminates in an orifice common to it and the 
ureters, which open on a kind of papillary eminence, the intro- 
mittent instrument for internal impregnation. The glandular 
passage from the ovarium is much less developed in viviparous 
than in oviparous Cartilaginous Fishes. The oviduct is greater 
in diameter, and the wide dilated uterine cavity, lined with plicae, 
is the receptacle in which the young in the viviparous Sharks 
are retained after the eggs are hatched, until they are fit for ex- 
clusion in a state of active matuiity. 

We have already spoken of the glands in the oviduct of the 
oviparous Rays and Sharks, as a provision for forming a horny 
shell in which to encase the egg — an oeconomy which coincides 
with the provision in bu'ds for investing the white and yolk 
with a calcareous covering. In some species of viviparous 
Sharks, much more than in others, as in the Mustelus of Cuvier, 
the walls of the uterine portion of the oviduct are so closely 
attached to the contained ovum, as to remind the anatomist very 
forcibly of the placental connection that exists in the Mammalia. 
In these instances, according to Miiller, the egg in the oviduct 
is covered only with a kind of membranous investment or chorion, 
w^hich is as thin and delicate as the amnion of Mammalia, and 
without apparent organization. This sacculate membrane is 
seven or eight times as long as the vitellus, and the regularly 
plicated walls are embraced by corresponding folds of the lining 
membrane of the oviduct, so that there is a very intimate adhe- 
sion between the two. With this detail we finish our anatomical 
refei'ences to the female, but we have not done with the male. 

In the vicinity of the cloacal apertui-e are two very important 
members, that distinguish in a remarkable manner the male from 
the female Shark. They are anal appendages called claspers or 
holders, and are prominent accessoiy organs in the Ray and the 
Chimara, as well as in the Shark. They are an extension of the 
ventral fins. A cartilage unites them with the genitals, and the 
pieces that articulate wdth this cartilage have received names 
which imply their structural analogy to the hind hmbs of qua- 
drupeds. These are the femur, the tibia, the metatarsus, and 
the OS calcis, tenninating in a sort of digit. There is a tendon 
of the great adductor muscle, with cartilaginous pieces, that 
represent phalanges, moved by some strong muscles on either 



364 Mr. R. Hill's Cuntributiotis to the 

side, respectively uamed the depressor, the elevator, the adductor, 
and the expansor of the fin. Though the claspers are without 
muscular apparatus calculated to approximate them, when out- 
stretched (for they recover their place after expansion only by 
their own elasticity), they are notwithstanding supposed by some 
naturalists to perfomi all the offices of prehension, by the action 
and pressure of the ventral fins, with which they are conjoined. 

Dr. John Davy has examined and compared these members 
with great minuteness. Though he describes them carefully, he 
is doubtful of their functional purpose. We shall quote his 
remarks at length : — 

" Before entering on the infei-ences to be di-awn from the re- 
lative functions of the difi^erent parts constituting the male organs, 
which are contained within the abdominal cavity, I would wish 
to offer a few remarks on the external accessoi-y organs, which 
have commonly been considered auxiliary to the more important 
internal ones. They are the anal appendages, which are cha- 
racteristic of the male Cartilaginous Fishes, organs of complicated 
and curious structui'e, the use of which at present is far from 
being vmderstood. 

" The Torpedo, the common Ray, and the Thornback, are the 
only species of Ray which I have yet carefully examined in rela- 
tion to the organization of these parts. In each species they are 
veiy similar, consisting of articulated bones, muscles, mucous 
ducts, &c., and containing a large and remarkable gland, asso- 
ciated with an elaborate and complicated structure. 

" On account of the large size of the Ray, and its large anal 
appendages and their full development, the gland and its accom- 
paniments are seen in this fish to great advantage. In two 
specimens of Raia batis which I have examined, each about three 
feet long, the gland was neai'ly the size of a chestnut of a very 
elongated oval form, divided on one side, as it were, into two 
columns by a superficia