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(being a continuation of the 'magazine of botany and zoology,' and of 



Sir W. JARDINE, Bart., F.L.S.— P. J. SELBY, Esq., F.L.S., 



J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh, 




LONDON .. „,^, 







** Omnes res creatse sunt divinae sapientise et potentiae testes, divitiae felicitatis 
humanae: — ex haruin usu bonitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; 
ex oeconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper sestimata ; k ver6 eruditis 
et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit" — 


The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and thrbw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain thyme 

And purple heath -flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles. 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread. 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 







I. On some new genera and species of Palaeozoic Corals and Forami- 
nifera. By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 1 

II. Note on the Colour of a Freshwater Loch. By George Dickie, 
M.D., Lecturer on Zoology and Botany in the University and King's 
College of Aberdeen 20 

III. Stirpes Cryptogamse Sarnienses; or Contributions towards the 
Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. By the Rev. T. Salwey, Oswestry... 22 

IV. On the Structure and Habits of the OrohanchacecB. By Arthur 
Henfrey, F.L.S 29 

V. Remarks on the British Geodephaga ; with Notes on some Scyd- 
meenidce and Fselaphidce. By Dr. H. Schaum 32 

VI. On the mode of growth in Oscillatoria and allied genera. By 
John Ralfs, M.R.C.S., Penzance 39 

VII. On the Structure of the Teeth of some Fossil Fish of the Car- 
boniferous Period. By Prof. Owen, F.R.S 41 

VIII. Descriptions of yi'jo/iiJe^y. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. ... 43 

IX. Observations on Mr. M'Coy's description of the Tail of Diplo- 
pterus. By Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart 53 

Neiv Books : — An Introduction to Botany, by J. Lindley, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. — Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia during 
the years 1844-5 & 6, &c., by Captain Charles Sturt, F.L.S.: 
with a Botanical Appendix by Robert Brown, D.C.L., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., and Ornithological Notices by John Gould, F.R.S. — Ar- 
ran and Excursions to Arran, with reference to the Natural Hi- 
story of the Island, by the Rev. David Landsborough 55 — 61 

Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh ; Royal Physical 

Society of Edinburgh ; Zoological Society 61 — 73 

Journey to explore the Province of Para ; How to prevent the Attacks 


of the Bed-bug, Cimex lectularius, by John Blackwall, F.L.S. ; 
JDescription of Sarcoptilus, a new genus of Pennatulidce, by J. E. 
Gray, Esq., F.R.S. &c. ; Remarkable Instances of Instinct, or In- 
telligence, in Animals, by Dr. Warwick; Note on the genus i5ra- 
chycladium ; Prevention of Bugs, by Thomas Stratton, R.N.; Me- 
teorological Observations and Table 74 — 80 


X. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. By Richard Spruce, 
Esq. (With three Plates.) 81 

XL Algae Orientales : — Descriptions of new species belonging to the 
genus Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a Plate.) 106 

XII. Observations on the Minute Structure and Mode of Contraction 
of Voluntary Muscular Fibre. By W. Murray Dobie, F.B.S.E. (With 

a Plate.) 109 

XIII. On some new genera and species of Palaeozoic Corals and 
Foraminifera. By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 119 

XIV. Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its Kindred. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S 136 

XV. Reply to Sir Philip Egerton's Letter on the Tail of Diplopterus. 

By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 139 

XVL Reply to Prof. Owen's Letter on the Ganoine of some Fish- 
teeth. By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 140 

XVII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 141 

New Books: — The Treasury of Natural History, or a Popular Dic- 
tionary of Animated Nature, by Samuel Maunder, Esq 146 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Edin- 
burgh 148—154 

On the Existence of an Ovum or Ovule as well in the Male as in the 
Female of Plants and Animals, producing in the one case Sper- 
matozoa or Pollen grains, in the other the primitive Cells of the 
Embryo, by Ch. Robin, M.D. ; On the Gum Kino of the Tenas- 
serim Provinces, by the Rev. F. Mason ; Meteorological Observa- 
tions and Table 154—160 


XVIII. Observations upon several genera hitherto placed in Sola- 
nacecB^ and upon others intermediate between that family and the Scro- 
phulariacece. By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c 161 

XIX. On the Anatomy o£ Eolis, a genus of Mollusks of the order 
Nudibranchiata. By Albany Hancock and Dennis Embleton, M.D. 
(With two Plates.) 183 



XX. Brief Notice of several Mammalia and Birds discovered by 

B. il. Hodgson, Esq., in Upper India. By Thomas Horsfield, M.D. 202 

XXI. Notes on Chalcidites, and descriptions of various new species. 

By Francis Walker, F.L.S 204 

XXII. Some Account of the Storm of January in Bedfordshire. By 
John Martin, Esq 210 

XXIII. Descriptions of five new species of Coleoptera. By the 
Rev. J. F. Dawson, LL.B 213 

XXIV. Algse Orientales : — Descriptions of new species belonging to 

i\\e genns Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a Plate.) 216 

XXV. On the Gonidia of Lichens. By G. H. K. Thwaites, Lec- 
turer on Botany and Vegetable Physiology at the Bristol Medical 
School. (With a Plate.) 219 

New Books : — Illustrations of the Proceedings of the Zoological So- 
ciety. Parti 222 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 224 — 233 

Note on the Development and Organization of Infusoria — Gyratory 
Movements of the Vitellus : Pulsations of the Contractile Vesicle 
in the Egg, by M. F. Pouchet ; British Museum, Zoological De- 
partment, Conchology ; English Wild Beasts a Century and a half 
ago ; On Thaliella, a new genus of Cirripedes allied to Scalpellum, 
by J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. ; Post-office Regulations; TheTui, or 
Parson-bird ; Obituary : — Mr. Edward Forster ; Rossia Owenii, 
Ball ; Meteorological Observations and Table 233 — 240 


XXVI. Note on Cystocoleus, a new genus of minute Plants. By 
G. H. K. Thwaites, Lecturer on Botany and Vegetable Physiology 

in the Bristol Medical School. (With a Plate.) 241 

XXVII. Description o^ Coccochloris Brehissonii, a new species of 
the Palmellece, in conjugation. By G. H. K. Thwaites. (With a 
Plate.) 243 

XXVIII. On some new Palaeozoic Echinodermata. By Frederick 
M'CoY, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c 244 

XXIX. Algse Orientales: — Descriptions of new species belonging 
to the genus Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a 
Plate.) 254 

XXX. Descriptions of two new Birds from Jamaica. By Philip 
Henry Gosse, Esq 257 

XXXI. Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its Kindred. ' 
Nos. 4, 5. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S 259 

XXXII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
MiERs, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S .'. 261 



XXXIII. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. By Richard 
Spruce, Esq 269 

XXXIV. Observations on the Animal of Kellia rubra ^hy Willi au 
Clark, Esq., in a Letter to Professor Edward Forbes 293 

XXXV. Descriptions of .^4pA^6?e5. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. ... 295 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 305 — 312 

On Poly cotyledon ous Embryos, by M. P. Duchartre ; Preparation of 
Pineapple Fibres in Singapore for the Manufacture of Pina Cloth ; 
Advantages accruing from the Study of Entomology ; Description 
of a new Mexican Quail, by William Gambel, M.D. ; Descriptions 
of two new Californian Quadrupeds, by William Gambel, M.D. ; 
Meteorological Observations and Table 312 — 320 


XXXVI. On the Excavating Powers of certain Sponges belonging 
to the genus Cliona ; with descriptions of several new Species, and an 
allied generic form. By Albany Hancock, Esq. (With four Plates.) 321 

XXXVII. On the mode of growth in Calothrix and allied genera. 

By John Ralfs, M.R.C.S., Penzance 348 

XXXVIII. Additions to the Fauna of Ireland. By William 
Thompson, Esq., Pres. Nat. Hist, and Phil. Society of Belfast 351 

XXXIX. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. By Richard 
Spruce, Esq 358 

XL. Observations on the recent Foraminifera. By William Clark, 
Esq 380 

XLI. On the Animal of Kellia rubra. By Joshua Alder, Esq. ... 383 

XLII. Description of a bag- shaped, glandular apparatus on a Bra- 
zilian Bat, the Emhallonura canina of Prince Maximilian. By Prof. 
J. T. Reinhardt 386 

XLIII. On some Families and Genera of Corals. By William 
King, F.G.S. France 388 

New Books: — Rare and Remarkable Animals of Scotland, represented 
from living subjects; with Practical Observations on their Nature, 
by Sir John Graham Dalyell, Bart. — First Steps to Zoology, by 
Robert Patterson, Esq. — The Elements of Botany, by A. De Jus- 
sieu. Translated by J. H. Wilson, F.L.S. &c 391—397 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Royal Society ; Botanical So- 
ciety of Edinburgh 397—427 

Observations on the Geology and Natural History of Mexico, by W. 

H. Pease ; Meteorological Observations and Table 427 — 432 



XLIV. On the British species of Plumhaginacece. By Charles 
C. Babington, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S 483 

XLV. Contrihutions to the Botany of South America. By John 
MiERs, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 443 

XLVI. On the Animal of Ke Ilia rubra. By W. Clark, Esq 452 

XLVII. An Account of a Specimen of the Faagmaer, or Vogmarus 
Islandicus {Trachypterus Bogmarus of Cuvier and Valenciennes), 
thrown ashore in the Firth of Forth. By John Reid, M.D., Professor 
of Anatomy and Medicine in the University of St. Andrews. (With a 
Plate.) 456 

XLVIII. The Musci and Hepaticse of the Pyrenees. By Richard 
Spruce, Esq 478 

XLIX. Algae Orientales : — Descriptions of new species belonging 
to the genus Sargassum. By R. K, Greville, LL.D. &c. (With a 
Plate.) .... = 503 

L. On the MoUusca of Vigo Bay in the North-west of Spain, by 
Robert MacAndrew, Esq., F.L.S,, in a Letter to Professor Edward 
Forbes, F.R.S 507 

LI. On the Identification of a new Genus of Parasitic Insects, An- 
thophorabia. By George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S 513 

Proceedings of the Royal Society; Botanical Society of Edinburgh 518 — 520 

Capnodium, novum Fungorum genus, by C. Montagne, D.M. ; Podi- 

soma fuscum ] Meteorological Observations and Table 520 — 523 

Index 524 


Plate L Hypnum pyrenaiciim. — Dicranum glaucum.-— Poly tri chum al- 
II. Isothecium Philippianum. 
ni. Southbya tophacea. 
IV. New specie? of Sargassum. 

V ) 

Yl* > Anatomy of Eolis. 

VII. Sfructure of Muscular Fibre. 

VIII. Synalissa vulgaris. — Cystocoleus ebeneus. — Coccoclilovis Brebis- 


X. V New species of Sargassum. 

XI. J 

XIV r^®^ species of Excavating Sponges. 


XVI. Structure of Vogmarus Islandicus. 

Page 6, 9 lines from top, /or 11.5 to 180, nad 115 to 130. 





•' per litora spargite museum. 

Naiades, et circiim vitreos considite fontes : 
Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, divae, replete canistrum. 
At vos, o Nymphffi Craterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, l)e» pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N. Parthenii Giannettasii Eel. 1. 

No. la. JANUARY 1849. 

1. — On some new genera and species of Palaozoic Corals and For a- 
minifera. By Frederick M^Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S,D, &c. 


Petraia^ gigas (M'Coy), 
Sp, Char. Obtusely conical, slightly oblique, section elliptical ; 
internal cast divided into forty broad, flat, smooth ribs, sepa- 
rated by the strong sulci of the principal lamellse reaching to 
the centre ; each of those ribs is divided by a fine mesial sulcus, 
the remains of the intermediate lamellse, not reaching to the 
centre, making the total number of lamellse about eighty. 
Length of imperfect cast 2 inches 7 lines ; width of long axis 
at base 11 lines, at edge of cup 3 inches 7 lines (compressed), 
width of ribs 2 lines. 

This large and strongly marked species from the number of 
its lamellse can only be confounded with the P. pluriradialis 
(Phil, sp.) and P. elongata (Phil, sp.), from both of which it dif- 
fers in its form and great size, width of ribs on the cast, absence 
of the punctures, &c. The strong primary lamellae reach the 
centre with a very slight indication of twisting ; the secondary 
ones are very delicate towards the base, but become nearly equal 

* Having examined Count Miinster's original specimens of several spe- 
cies of his genus Petraia, I have satisfied myself that they are really corals, 
as suggested by Mr. Lonsdale and others, although he describes them in his 
* Beitrage ' as Gasteropods, the publication of which view prevented Prof. 
Phillips adopting the genus in his work on the Fossils of Devon and Corn- 

Ann. it; Mag, N. Hist. Ser. 2. PW. iii. 1 

2 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

in strength to the others as they approach the edge of the cup. 
The denticulation of the laraellse is scarcely perceptible. 

Not uncommon in the fine gray Devonian slates of New Quay. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Clisiophyllum Keyserlingii (M^Coy). 

Sp, Char. Conical, slightly curved, terminal cell obhque, 1 inch 
2 lines in diameter in a specimen 3 inches long ; surface finely 
striated longitudinally (about eight strise in one-fourth of an 
inch) ; lamellae thin, equal, about fifty-one, descending straight 
into the deep part of the terminal star, and then abruptly 
twisted spirally about an imaginary axis, forming a prominent 
conical centre about one-third the diameter of the cup, and as 
high as its base is wide. 

This highly typical species of Mr. Dana^s American genus 
Clisiophyllum is closely allied to the Cyathophyllum coniseptum of 
Count Keyserling's * Wissenschaftliche Beobachtungen auf einer 
Reise in das Petschora-Land,' from which it is distinguished by 
the strong twisting of the plates about the central cone, and by 
having little more than half the number of lamellse at the same 
diameter. Viewing with Mr. Dana the conical arrangement of the 
septa as a generic instead of a specific character, it seems probable 
that the two varieties given by Count Keyserling of his Cyath. 
coniseptum are really two species ; and the present species, though 
presenting some intermediate characters, is I think distinct ; if 
hereafter any one should think otherwise, they still could hardly 
object to the name I have proposed in honour of so enterprising 
a geologist, the more so as the term coniseptum would not be ap- 
plicable as a specific name in the genus Clisiophyllum^ where all 
have the conical arrangement of septa alluded to ; there can how- 
ever, I think, be little doubt of the distinctness of the species. In 
the transverse section the central area seems a confused, close 
crumpling of vesicular plates occupying rather more than one- 
third the whole diameter, and from it to the circumference the 
strong, equal, rather distant plates radiate. The external ver- 
tical striae are double the number of the actual radiating lamellae. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{CoL University of Cambridge.) 

Clisiophyllum biparfi^m (M^Coy) . 
Sp. Char. Very elongate- conic, nearly cylindrical, with a dia- 
meter of 1^ inch for the greater part of its length ; strongly 
and regularly striated externally (about five striae in one-fourth 
of an inch) ; external striae corresponding in number to the 
radiating lamellae : in the transverse rough section the central 
area is rather less than one-third the whole diameter, composed 
of the edges of confusedly blended vesicular plates, crossed by 

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 3 

a few faint extensions of the radiating lamellae, and divided 
into two symmetrical portions by a strong median fissure ; the 
space between this inner area and the outer wall is regularly 
radiated with from sixty-three to sixty-nine equal, thin, rather 
distant lamellse connected by numerous delicate, transverse, 
vesicular plates ; terminal cup deep, lined by the^vertical la- 
mellse, and having a large oval prominent boss in the centre 
traversed by a sharp mesial crest ; about one-half or one-third 
of the radiating lamellse ascend the central boss, always in a 
direct line, those at the sides of the mesial crest being at right 
angles to it, the others joining at a more acute angle as they 
approach the extremity, and opposite one end of the crest we 
generally observe one or two of the radiating lamellse shorter 
than the rest, producing a sort of siphon-like irregularity such 
as we see in Caninia : vertical section indistinctly triareal ; 
outer area defined, about one- sixth of the width on each side, 
composed of small, much-curved, vesicular plates, forming 
small semicircular cells arranged in very oblique rows upwards 
and outwards, about seven in a row ; inner zone about equal- 
ling the outer one in width, passing gradually into the central 
structure, formed of slightly larger and less curved vesicular 
plates than the outer zone, and having a nearly horizontal di- 
rection ; central area composed of large, thin, close, little- 
curved, vesicular plates, forming a strongly arched series of 
narrow, elongate cells, the convexity of the arch upwards, con- 
forming to the shape of the central boss in the cup ; if the ver- 
tical section be at right angles to the medial fissure or crest of 
the central boss, there is a line visible down the middle of the 

This coral is interesting to the physiologist from the combi- 
nation of the bipartite or symmetrical with the radiated type of 
structure, as in some FungicB, &c. It nearly equals the Caninia 
gigantea (Mich.) in size and cylindrical form, but is easily distin- 
guished by the strong longitudinal strise of the surface, the want 
of transverse septa in the central area, &c. 

Rather common in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Clisiophyllum prolapsum (M'Coy) . 

Sp. Char. Elongate- conic, much curved and twisted on its axis, 
terminal cell oblique, deep, vrith steep sides, a narrow flattened 
or concave space at bottom, from which protrudes the central 
boss, which is about one -third the diameter of the cup, nearly 
as high as wide, cylindrical, obtusely rounded above, and with 
a deep umbilical cavity in the middle (in partially decomposed 
or weathered specimens a rough vertical fracture frequently 


Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

shows the central area as a thick, smooth, persistent tube) ; 
diameter of the adult little more than an inch, and which it 
attains at two inches long, remaining nearly cylindrical after 
that length ; surface closely striated longitudinally, about fifteen 
striae in one-fourth of an inch, corresponding in number with 
the radiating lamellse : hojnzontal section, inner area rather 
more than one-third the diameter, of small, closely blended, 
vesicular plates; outer area with 180 radiating lamellse, ninety 
of which reach from the wall to the edge of the inner area, and 
ninety intermediate ones only reach half way ; intermediate 
transverse vesicular plates very delicate : vertical section, inner 
area defined by rather thick walls ; it consists of minute, com- 
pressed, elongate cells, arranged in transverse curved rows, 
the convexity of the curve upwards ; outer area, large cellular 
structure, inclining upwards and outwards. 

Rather common in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Strephodes (M'Coy), n. g. 

Etym. o-T/3e(/)ft), torqueo (from the twisting of the lamellse 

about the centre). 

(Strombodes pars of Lonsdale, not of Schweigger.) 

Gen. Char. Corallum simple and conic, or compound and form- 
ing rounded masses of 
inseparably united poly- 
gonal cells; in either case 
the terminal cup is deep 
with numerous equal, ra- 
diating lamellse, conver- 
ging from the walls to the 
centre, where they meet 
and are complicated, 
usually twisted in bun- 
dles about an imaginary 
axis : vertical section, 
small vesicular struc- 
ture, the rows of cells ar- 
ranged in a semielliptical 
curve, convexity down- 
wards, descending from 
the sides at a steep angle 
and rounding under the 
centre, where the cells Strephodes : a. vertical section and termi- 
are a little larger than ^^^ ^^^^^ of compound species ; b. do. sim- 
at the sides : horizontal P^^ 'P^^^^^' 

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 5 

section^ radiating lamellae meeting and complicated in the cen- 
tre, connected by very thin transverse vesicular plates, and 
the stars of the compound species separated by thick divisional 
walls : budding in the compound species marginal, in the sim- 
ple species often exhibiting periodical death and continuance 
of growth from the centre, giving an imbricating " ringed ** 
appearance to the exterior. 

This genus is most allied to Cyathophyllum and Clisiophyllumy 
all three having simply conic and compound polygonal-celled 
species. Strephodes differs from Cyathophyllum by the equality of 
the radiating lamellae and their meeting in the centre both in the 
terminal cup and horizontal section, and in wanting the transverse 
diaphragms ; from Clisiophyllum, which it resembles in the meet- 
ing of the lamellse in the centre and the absence of horizontal 
diaphragms, it differs in the centre (though often slightly pro- 
jecting) not being elevated into the large tent-like cone, charac- 
teristic of that genus, and in the rows of vesicular cells in the 
vertical section not having the reversed upward curvature which 
is connected with that peculiar form of cell. The simple species 
have been placed — I cannot imagine why — in the genus Strom- 
bodes of Schweigger by Mr. Lonsdale and some others (see the 
observations below on this latter genus). The compound species 
differ from Astraa, with which many palaeontologists confound 
them, by the solid boundary- walls to the cells (see note on this 
genus below), and from Acervularia (Schweig., not Lonsd.) by 
the marginal budding and want of the central tube of that 

The genus Streptoplasma of Hall in his recent volume on the 
Palaeontology of New York, although defined nearly in the same 
manner, and the name having the same meaning, applies ob- 
viously according to his specific descriptions and figures of all the 
species, not to the present corals, but to those known in Europe 
under the names Petraia and Turbinolopsis, in which the lamellae 
extend directly and simply almost to the centre, only the most 
minute portion of the centre exhibiting in some species a trace 
of twisting, and there being none of the vesicular plates between 
the lamellae which are so strongly developed in the present 

Strephodes multilamellatum (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Elongate-conic, very gradually tapering (generally 
about 5 inches long, with a diameter of about IJ inch at the 
termination) ; terminal cell oblique, oval, the short axis about 
one-third less than the long; surface regularly girt at about 
every quarter of an inch with slightly oblique, strong cup- 

6 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

shaped rims of growth, concave above and produced by the 
successive growths from the centre leaving the prominent 
edges of the previous cells ; weathered surface finely striated 
by the edges of the vertical lamellae, of which there are about 
twelve in a quarter of an inch : the horizontal oval section shows 
the centre to be excentric, close to one of the broad sides, and 
formed by the twisting of the radiating lamellae about an ima- 
ginary axis ; radiating lamellse very thin, of equal thickness, 
about 115 to 180 at the margin, some stopping and some 
uniting as they approach the centre, about which they are 
twisted in parcels ; all the lamellae connected throughout, at 
regular intervals, by minute transverse vesicular plates : in- 
ternal structure exposed by horizontal and vertical sections, 
uniformly and minutely cellular. 

The great number and closeness of the lamellae distinguish 
this species from those published forms allied to it. 

Rare in the lower carboniferous limestones of Arnside, Kendal, 
and Lisardrea, Boyle, co. Roscommon, Ireland. 

{CoL University of Cambridge.) 

Cyathaxonia costata (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Elongate-conic, generally about one inch long and 
half an inch in diameter at the cup, which is circular and 
horizontal ; surface irregularly wrinkled transversely, and 
marked longitudinally with remarkably thick, strong, sharply- 
defined striae, about seven in one-fourth of an inch ; central 
solid axis very thick (often one line in diameter), and from it 
twenty-six thick, wedge-like, vertical lamellae radiate to the 
walls ; transverse vesicular plates connecting the lamellae ex- 
ceedingly delicate ; in the sections the vertical lamellae are seen 
to dichotomise upwards, and the large curved plates of the 
loose vesicular structure incline upwards and inwards towards 
the axis. 

This is more slender in form than the C. mitratum (Schlot. sp.) 
or C. cornu-copice (Mich.), and from which and all the other tur- 
binated corals of the palaeozoic rocks it is distinguished externally 
by the strong, distinct, distant longitudinal ridges ; the internal 
characters approximate it only to the Cyathaooonia cornu (Mich.), 
from which it is distinguished by its simple, few and thick la- 
mellae and thick axis, as well as more turbinate form. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Palaeozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 7 

Cyathophyllum dianthoides (M'Coy). 

^p. Char. Corallum very proliferous, forming wide conical groups; 
individual cones rapidly expanding, averaging one-third (or less) 
longer than wide, concentrically wrinkled and with obsolete 
longitudinal striae externally ; terminal cup very deep with 
either a sharp or truncated edge, and containing from 96 
to 100 (as it approaches one inch in diameter) very thin, 
crenulated radiating lamellse, alternately longer and shorter : 
vertical section shows less than one-third the diameter on each 
side occupied by minute vesicular tissue, the rows of cells ex- 
tending obliquely upwards and outwards ; the broad middle 
part is occupied by close, thick, transverse diaphragms. From 
eight to sixteen young cones take their origin from the inner 
part of the margin of favourably situated parent- cups, thus 
forming compound masses 3 inches or more in diameter, adult 
cones averaging 1^ inch long. 

This is closely allied to the C dianthus, Gold, {truncatus, Linn.), 
and the compound examples of C. turhinatum (Linn, and Gold.), 
but is distinguished from the first by its wide, rapidly expanding 
cones, and from both by the lamellse being distinctly of two al- 
ternating sizes, much thinner and greatly more numerous. 

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Arnside, Kendal. 

(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Cyathophyllum paracida (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum of slender cones averaging half an inch wide 
at mouth and 1^ inch long (generally somewhat smaller), 
straight or variously bent, and sometimes irregularly coales- 
cing so as to form loose irregular masses ; three or four young 
cones take their origin from within the margin of the parent 
cell, which they smother by their growth : internal structure, 
centre occupied by broad slightly undulated transverse dia- 
phragms, four-fifths the width of the tubes ; narrow outer area 
occupied by thirty-two equal, narrow, radiating lamellse, va- 
riously connected by small, curved, vesicular plates ; outer sur- 
face faintly striated longitudinally. 

Allied to the C. caspitosum and C. quadrigeminum of the older 
rocks, but the branches are not so long and cylindrical as in the 
first, nor so short or laterally united as in the latter ; the number 
of the lamellse and character of the narrow lamelliferous zone, and 
the very wide, distinct transverse diaphragms will serve to dis- 
criminate even fragments of the species. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

8 Ml*. F. M^Coy on some new genera and species of 

Cyathophyllu7n pseudo -vermicular e (M^Coy) . 

Sp. Char. Elongate, cylindrical, flexuous ; surface very irregular, 
annulated or transversely nodular, coarsely striated longitudi- 
nally (about six striae in one-fourth of an inch) ; branches ave- 
raging from half to three-fourths of an inch in diameter ; small 
cylindrical branches project at distant irregular intervals from 
the sides : internal structure, central area rather more than 
half the diameter of the tube, defined, composed of flat, slightly 
undulated transverse septa, bearing at their circumference a 
series of from twenty-four to twenty- seven very short, rather 
distant radiating lamellse, not reaching half-way to the centre ; 
interval between this inner area and the walls filled with loose 
cellular structure, formed of small vesicular curved plates, 
highly inclined upwards and outwards. 

This interesting coral perfectly resembles the Cyathophyllum 
vermiculare of Goldfuss in external characters, but by cutting and 
grinding down some specimens of the true Eifel coral of that 
species, I have ascertained beyond doubt (what was before 
suspected by Mr. Lonsdale) that it is not a true Cyathophyllum, 
but belongs to that group which I have named Strephodes, having 
the radiating lamellse extending from the walls to the centre, and 
there twisted together without transverse diaphragms ; it also has 
the curious character of the radiating lamellse having an elliptical 
section, being thicker in the middle than at either end, a pecu- 
liarity which I have also noticed in a British (Devonian) speci- 
men of the same species, though not alluded to by Mr. Lonsdale 
in his note on this species in the memoir of Prof. Sedgwick and 
Sir E,. Murchison on the Devonian System. The present moun- 
tain limestone coral I have shown above to possess the true Cya- 
thophyllum structure, and it is not therefore likely, after what I 
have stated with regard to the Devonian species, to be in future 
confounded with it. Externally it also bears a strong resemblance 
to the mountain limestone fossil which I have called Lonsdaleia 
duplicata (Mart, sp.), but that coral I have ascertained to possess 
the very different internal structure of Lithostrotion of Lonsdale 
{Strombodes of Schweigger), and it is consequently with a little 
care incapable of being confounded with the present fossil. 

Not uncommon in the lower carboniferous limestone of Ken- 
dal ; a variety also occurs in the lower carboniferous limestone of 
Kiltullagh, Roscommon, L^eland. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Diphyphyllum lateseptatum (M'Coy). 

Bp. Char. Stems upwards of 8 inches long, cylindrical, about 
3 lines in diameter ; nearly smooth, very faintly striated Ion- 

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifet^a. 9 

gitudinally, and obsoletely wrinkled concentrically : vertical 
section, middle area occupied by slightly irregular transverse 
diaphragms extending across two-thirds the diameter of the 
tubes, about four in the vertical space of one line, their edges 
abruptly bent downwards ; lateral areas very narrow, of equal 
width, the inner composed of one set of minute horizontal 
plates, the outer of two rows of minute, curved, vesicular plates 
inclining upwards and outwards. 

This species differs from the D. concinnum (Lonsd.) of the 
carboniferous limestone east of the Ural chain, in the great pro- 
portional width of the transverse medial plates, which average two- 
thirds the diameter of the stem, or three times the width of the 
two outer areas of one side in the present species, but average one- 
third the diameter of the stem, or about equal to the two outer 
areas of one side in the other. The dichotomous mode of divi- 
sion of the stems characteristic of this group, and also the conical 
upward projections of the centre of the transverse lamellse im- 
mediately under the point of fissure, were very well shown in 
many of the specimens. 

Abundant in the carboniferous limestone near Corwen. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Stylastrcea irregularis (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum of polygonal (five- or six-angled) tubes two 
lines in diameter, of such twisted and irregular upward growth 
that a vertical fracture frequently exposes a mixed appearance 
of outer walls and internal section ; outer surface longitudi- 
nally striated and transversely wrinkled by waves of growth : 
vertical section, inner area broad, regularly septate by nearly 
straight, equal, thick transverse plates ; outer area very nar- 
row, composed of much-curved vesicular plates, forming rather 
open rounded cells, in rows obliquely upwards and outwards, 
two or three in a row : horizontal section, central area smooth, 
surrounded by about thirty slightly flexuous radiating lamellse 
from the walls, fifteen of which are much shorter than the 
others ; near the walls the radiating lamellse are connected by 
few, thick, vesicular plates. 

This species is remarkable for the peculiar, irregularly twisted 
mode of growth of the columns, which, when the rock is com- 
pact, gives the mixed character to the fracture seemingly between 
that of Lithostrotion {Strombodes) and Stijlastraa. It is also re- 
markable for the nearly perfect transverse chambering of the 
central area. The small diameter of the tubes and few lamellse 
easily distinguish it from the other allied species. 

10 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

Forms small masses in the carboniferous limestone of Derby- 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 


Strombodes (Schweigger, not of Lonsdale) = Lithostrotion 

This genus is defined by Prof. Schweigger (Beobachtungen 
auf Naturhistorischen Reisen, &c. tab. 6) as " Cellul-ce lamellosce, 
centro depresso. Stirps e conis lamellosis in strata horizontalia 
conjunctis. Cellula terminalis cyathiformis.'^ And he makes 
two divisions : 1st, ^^ coni e centro proliferiy'' for which he refers 
to the ^ Amoenitates Academicse ^ of Linnseus, vol. i. pi. at p. 313, 
figs. 11 and 4 (this figure however shows the origin of a marginal 
hud at one point) . His 2nd group, " coni e disco proliferi" and 
the reference to the same plate, figs. 10 and 3, belong to a true 
Cyathophyllum (C. dianthus, Gold.) ; his 1st group and the refer- 
ence to the figures and description in the ' Amcenitates Acade- 
micae ' must therefore be taken as the type of the genus, and seem 
fully to justify the reference by Goldfuss of his American Strom- 
bodes pentagonum to this genus, the more so when the reference 
in Fougt^s description, above referred to, to fig. 18 of the above 
plate, is taken into account. A coral perfectly similar to that 
of Goldfuss has been also figured by Mr. Dana in ' Silliman's 
Journal ' as an example of Strombodes. As therefore the notion 
that those compound polygonal-celled corals, are the true Strom- 
bodes of Schweigger seems to prevail extensively, and I think 
justly, it only remains for me to add, that having carefully ex- 
amined authentic specimens of the S. pentagonum, 1 find the cone- 
in- cone appearance of some of the figures to be produced by a 
peculiarity of weathering by which many of the vesicular plates 
towards the circumference of the stars have fallen out, and that 
the coral truly possesses all the characters so admirably eluci- 
dated by Mr. Lonsdale in the ' Geology of Russia ' under the title 
oi Lithostrotion, a name which it would be well now to replace 
by the old title Strombodes of Schweigger. In no case could 
either the definition or references of Schweigger justify the placing 
those Silurian and Devonian corals called Strombodes by Mr. 
Lonsdale in this genus. The following species is generically 
placed in accordance with this view. 

Strombodes conaxis (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Columns irregularly aggregated, averaging half an inch 
in width, mostly hexagonal : axis elliptical, formed of a series 

Palcsozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 11 

of closely superposed conical plates, connected by a few fine 
vertical lamellae : lamelliferous zone surrounding the axis nar- 
row, of about forty-two alternately broad and rudimentary 
lamellse, the interstitial plates of which are nearly horizontal : 
outer zone wide, formed of large arched plates, not highly in- 
clined, and forming a loosely vesicular structure : terminal star, 
axis very prominent, oval, vertically ribbed, but not twisted, 
seated in a deep oval or circular cup, lined by the strong ra- 
diating lamellae ; outer zone nearly flat, oblique at the sides, 
faintly marked with rather distant, fine lines, representing the 
strong radiating lamellae of the inner zone, continued to the 
boundaries of the cells, which are strong, prominent and 
slightly crenulated. 

A vertical section shows first, the outer largely vesicular area 
formed of broad, curved, slightly inclined plates ; between this 
and the inner area there is a fine vertical defining line, within 
which the plates of the inner zone are seen to be finer and closer 
than those of the outer, forming a smaller cellular structure ; the 
rows of cells are nearly horizontal near the outer zone, but within 
seem gradually to bend up and become continuous with the co- 
nical cup-like plates forming the axis ; those conical plates of the 
axis seem connected by extremely delicate, irregular, radiating 
plates ; in a rough transverse section the axis appears as a deep 
conical hollow on the under side. It will thus be seen that in the 
remarkable cone-in-cone structure of the axis this resembles the 
Russian Strombodes mammillare and >S^. astroides {Lithostrotion id. 
of Lonsdale), from both of which it difi'ers in the axis not being 
twisted in the terminal star, in the outer zone not being traversed 
by strong radiating lamellae, from the former in the much less 
obliquity of the plates of the outer area, and from the latter by 
the largely cellular structure of the outer area, as well as the di- 
stinctness of all the three areas under every circumstance. In 
general appearance and imperfect radiation of the outer area it 
resembles the S. emar datum and S.floriforme {Lithostrotion id. of 
Lonsdale), but is distinguished from the first by the rudimentary 
radiating lamellae between the primary ones, and from both by 
the conical structure of the axis, which is formed in them of 
irregularly twisted vertical plates. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone near Bakewell, 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Lonsdaleia (M'Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Corallum composed of circular, tapering, proliferous 
stems, never laterally united ; internally composed of three 

12 Mr. F. M^Coy on some new genera and species of 

areas ; 1st, a cylindrical, de- 
fined, complex axis composed 
of irregularly blended vesicular 
plates ; 2nd, a cylindrical, de- 
fined area of strong, vertical, 
radiating lamellse, connected 
by thin transverse dissepi- 
ments, only visible in the ver- 
tical section ; Srd, a wide, 
largely cellular outer zone be- 
tween the vertical lamellse and 
the external wall of the stem, 
composed of much- curved 
vesicular plates extending ob- 
liquely upwards and outwards : 

outer walls of the tubes longi- Lonsdaleia : a old branch exterior 
tudinally striated and trans- ^:^i^^^t'^'-^ ^^^ 
versely rugose : reproduction b. Transverse section showing the 
by circular germs developed in three areas and a bud ( X ) grow- 
the cellular outer zone, and i"? '^ the outer one. 
springing at once obliquely '' '^''''''^^ «^^*;«"- 
without the area of the parent stem, which continues its 
growth uninterruptedly with the slender young stem project- 
ing from one of the transverse rugosities of the external sur- 
face ; the young stem seems at first only composed of the axis, 
and gradually acquires the inner lamelliferous and outer ve- 
sicular zones as it increases in size. 

The little-known Erismatholites Madreporites duplicatus of 
Martin's 'Petrificata Derbiensia' may be looked upon as the 
type of this genus, which 1 have dedicated to Mr. Lonsdale as a 
slight token of my admiration for his labours in illustrating the 
structure of fossil corals. It will be seen from the above notice 
to unite in itself the internal structure of Strombodes (Lithostro- 
Hon, Lonsd.) with the external character and mode of growth of 
Cyathophyllum (C. dianthus, &c.). 

Lonsdaleia crassiconus (M^Coy). 
Sp, Char. Corallum forming groups or loosely connected masses 
of elongate-conical stems, averaging 6 to 7 lines in diameter ; 
surface with concentric wrinkles and coarse flexuous longitu- 
dinal striae ; lateral branches rapidly expanding, conical, widen- 
ing from their base at the rate of 6 lines in 9 lines of length : 
horizontal section shows a central circular axis \^ line in dia- 
meter of closely twisted laminae ; outside which is a circular 
area 3 lines in diameter, of about twenty-four vertical radiating 
lamellae, with few or no connecting vesicular plates between 

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 13 

them ; the outer area composed of small, irregular, curved ve- 
sicular plates, forming an irregular cellulose texture : vertical 
section, the central axis of close, spirally and conically twisted 
laminae ; inner area of one row of distant, delicate, irregular, 
curved transverse plates forming very open cells ; outer area 
defined from the inner, formed of loose irregular cellular tissue, 
of large, slightly-curved vesicular plates, extending obliquely 
upwards and outwards. 

This species is much less irregularly wrinkled than the L. du- 
plicata (Mart, sp.), forms shorter and more widely turbinated 
masses, and is distinguished externally at a glance by the lateral 
branches expanding rapidly from their point of attachment to a 
conical form, while in the L. duplicata the lateral branches re- 
tain their original small diameter for a great length (increasing 
at about the rate of 4 lines in 3 inches), and present a strange 
contrast to the parent stem, as is faithfully shown in the rough 
figure of Martin. 

In the red carboniferous limestone of Arnside, Kendal ; also 
near Bakewell, Derbyshire, in the limestone of the same age. 

{Col, University of Cambridge.) 

Lonsdaleia rugosa (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Branches 6 or 7 lines in diameter, elongate-conic, ex- 
ceedingly rugose with large transverse irregular undulations 
and funnel-shaped irregularities of growth, crossed by coarse, 
obtuse longitudinal strise (four in the space of 2 lines) ; young 
lateral branches small, continuing very slender for a consider- 
able length ; terminal cups deep, with a prominent compressed 
axis in the centre, middle portion with strong radiating lamellae, 
which, as they approach the margin, become fainter and united 
into a network by strong interstitial vesicular plates : hori- 
zontal section, central axis 2 lines wide, of close, fine, compli- 
cated laminse, crossed by one thick mesial plate; axis sur- 
rounded by an area 5 lines wide, of about forty-tw^o equal ra- 
diating lamellse, with very few and delicate transverse vesi- 
cular plates ; outer area partially radiated by delicate prolon- 
gations of the radiating lamellse, with numerous strong curved 
vesicular plates : vertical section shows a thick solid line indi- 
cating the centre of the axis (and corresponding to the mesial 
line through the axis of the cross section), from which the 
delicate, thin, close, complicated laminse of the axis diverge 
downwards, but pass gradually into the larger and more hori- 
zontal cellular tissue of the second area ; this latter is separated 
by a definite line from the outer area, which is of smaller 
cellular tissue, composed of small, curved, vesicular plates ex- 
tending obliquely upwards and outwards. 

14 Mr. F. M^Coy on some new genera and species of 

In general appearance this resembles the L. duplicata (Marc. 
sp.), but is much more rugose, and the young branches expand 
more rapidly ; in the vertical section it is distinguished by the 
central line and the undefined sides of the axis, as well as the very 
much smaller size of the cells of the vesicular structure, and the 
much greater number of the radiating lamellae, which do not ex- 
ceed twenty-four or twenty-six in that species. There is a slight 
external resemblance between this coral and the Cyathophyllum 
pseudo-vermiculare (M'Coy), but the prominent axis easily di- 
stinguishes it. 

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Corwen. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Lon^daleia ? stylastrceaformis (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum composed of easily separable (four- to six- 
sided) prismatic tubes from 3 to 5 lines in diameter ; outer 
walls faintly striated longitudinally, and marked with arched, 
transverse, imbricating rugosities : vertical section, axis large, 
defined, composed of irregular, spirally complicated lamellae ; 
inner area of little-curved, vesicular plates, inclining obliquely 
upwards and outwards, each plate generally extending from 
the axis to the circumference of the inner zone, so that there 
is but one, or occasionally two lengthened cells in a row be- 
tween those points ; outer area narrow, composed of slightly 
arched plates inclining obliquely upwards and outwards, each 
plate usually reaching from the inner zone to the outer wall ; 
more rarely a second arched plate is required, so that gene- 
rally there is but a single row of long cells between the inner 
zone and outer wall, with occasionally a small irregular cell 
towards the margin : transverse polished section showing a large 
oval or circular, irregularly reticulated or cellular axis, from 
which twenty-five lamellae of equal length and thickness ra- 
diate almost to the outer walls, the cellular lining of the walls 
free of radiating lamellae being very narrow, and forming ap- 
parently a single row of irregular cells ; the spaces between 
the radiating lamellae crossed by very thin arched plates : 
transverse rough fracture generally cup -like above, the outer 
zone forming an oblique, nearly uniform margin, faintly un- 
dulated in a radiating direction, within which is the rough flat 
fracture of the inner zone and axis ; on the under side the po- 
sition of those parts is reversed, the inner area being promi- 
nent and surrounded by a narrow, radiated border sloping to 
the walls. 

This coral is very remarkable for uniting in itself the internal 
structure of Strombodes [Lithostrotion, Lonsd.) with the external 
form and easily-separable columns of the Stylastrcsa of the same 

PalcEOZoic Corals and For aminif era. 15 

writer. I am unable to afford any information on what would 
under the circumstances be the most interesting point, namely 
the mode of production of new columns : taking all the circum- 
stances into consideration, I suspect the mode of increase was 
similar to that I have described in Lonsdaleia generally, the ex- 
ternal prismatic form (which is of itself of no value) being pro- 
duced by the pressure of a closer mode of growth than in the 
L. duplicata. As it is impossible to conceive a Strombodes (or 
Lithostrotion) splitting into easily-separable columns, I provi- 
sionally therefore place it in Lonsdaleia. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Kendal. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Nemaphyllum (M'Coy), n. g. 
Gen. Char. Corallum composed of numerous inseparably united, 
polygonal, prismatic tubes, each having a straight, thin, flat, 
fillet-like solid, or nearly solid, 
axis, from which, in the hori- 
zontal section^ the fine nume- 
rous radiating lamellae are seen 
extending directly to the walls ; 
radiating lamellae connected by 
very fine transverse dissepi- 
ments only visible externally in 
the outer area : vertical section 

shows three distinct areas ; ^;.^<^^-.^.^^L~,^^;*f-.*> ^--^^^>;;. 
1st, the thin flat axis; 2nd, a ^S^^^^ 
sharply deiined cylmder oi very ^^*^r#|p^^I?^5ft 


minutely vesicular arched plates, 

the rows directed from the axis Section and terminal stars of Ne- 

obhquely downwards and out- f «f%^[^^« = « «• axes; 6. young 
1 •'■•T .-,• . ,, n ^ bud withm the ai'ea 01 the parent, 
wards ; outside this is the ord ^ 

area of similar small arched plates forming a minutely vesi- 
cular structure slightly smaller than that of the inner zone, 
but the rows directed obliquely upwards and outwards : repro- 
duction by small circular buds developed within the area of the 
parent star. 

In mode of reproduction and tri-areal structure this genus ap- 
proaches Strombodes (as above understood), from which it differs 
altogether in the nature of the axis, which in all the species of 
that genus is cylindrical, composed of numerous plates variously 
twisted together, and giving a cellulose section in every direction ; 
the axis of the present group on the contrary forms a thin, flat, 
simply solid lamina, and is exhibited in a vertical fracture either 
as a narrow opake white line, or as a broad ribbon-like fillet, ac- 
cording to whether the section is in the direction of its width or 

16 Mr. F. M^Coy on some new genera and species of 

across it ; a further difference is constantly observable between 
those groups in the vertical section, which is^ that the interstitial 
vesicular plates of the inner area in Strjmbodes have their rows 
either nearly horizontal or inclining obliquely upwards from the 
axis towards the outer wall, while in l^emaphyllum on the con- 
trary they converge towards the axis above and incline down- 
wards and outwards below, so as to meet at a considerable angle 
those of the outer area which incline in the usual direction up- 
wards and outwards towards the walls ; this peculiarity in the 
inclination of the interstitial vesicular plates of the inner area 
produces a marked difference in the stars on the weathered sur- 
face in the two genera, causing the inner area to form a large 
prominent oval or conical boss in Nemaphyllum, and a flat or 
deeply hollowed cup in Strombodes. A third difference between 
those generic groxips is, that in the latter the vertical radiating 
lamellae are principally confined to the inner area, not existing 
in most of the species at all in the outer area, and do not reach 
the walls, while on the contrary all the radiating lamellse in Ne~ 
maphyllum arise from the outer walls, are strongest in the outer 
area, and only half of them in general penetrate the inner area. 
In the latter corals also the whole vesicular structure is much 
more minute and delicate in stems of the same size than in the 
others, and the cells of the inner area are larger than those of 
the outer, which is the reverse of what we find in Strombodes. 
As the young columns are produced from circular buds conti- 
nuing their development within the walls of the parent, it results 
that the stems are inseparably united ; the walls defining the stars 
being one simple plate, the joint production of the adjacent 
polypes, cannot be divided, and consequently vertical fractures of 
the mass, instead of exposing the flat, striated external surface of 
the stems, pass invariably through the substance of the coral 
itself, exposing only sections of the interior ; the external walls 
being only seen in those rare cases showing the extreme limits of 
a mass, or where in a section two masses may have coalesced. 
Some of the species resemble Clisiophyllum, but are distinguished 
by the peculiar axis and by the cells of the inner area being 
larger and fewer than those of the outer. The genus is I believe 
exclusively palaeozoic. 

Nemaphyllum arachnoideum (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Stars with from four to seven angles, and averaging 
from 6 to 9 lines in diameter ; axis very thin, 1 line wide : ver- 
tical section, inner vesicular area wider than the outer, of little- 
arched plates inclining slightly downwards from the axis ; it 
takes about two of those plates to reach from the axis to the 
extent of this area, or two irregularly elongate unequal cells 

Palceozoic Corals and For aminif era. 17 

in an oblique line from the axis to the wall of the inner area ; 
outer area separated from the inner by a sharp distinct line 
on each side, and composed of much smaller and more highly 
curved vesicular plates, so that there are from five to seven 
small, nearly equal, rounded cells extending in a line obliquely 
upwards and outwards from the inner area to the outer walls 
of the tube : horizontal section, boundary or divisional walls 
thin, stars radiated with from fifty to fifty-five very thin lamellae, 
of equal thickness, but alternately long and short, the long 
reaching to the centre, the short barely entering the edge of 
the inner area : weathered surface, stars flattened, separated 
by a depressed line ; inner area forming a gently convex oval 
or circular boss, with the axis forming a short impressed line 
in the middle ; the radiating lamellae exhibit numerous delicate 
curved interstitial plates in the outer area, but none in the 
inner area. 

This beautifully delicate species is the largest of the genus I am 
acquainted with, the usual width of the stars being about 7 lines, 
diameter of the inner area about 2| lines. It very frequently 
exhibits the young oval buds within the corners of the old stars, 
generally but one, very rarely two in a star. 

Forms large masses in the carboniferous limestone of Derby- 

{Col, University of Cambridge.) 

Nemaphyllum minus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Stars having from four to seven angles and averaging 
from 3 to 4 lines in diameter ; axis thin, about fths of a line 
wide : vertical section, inner area slightly wider than the outer 
on each side, composed of slightly curved vesicular plates ex- 
tending obliquely downwards and outwards, each one nearly 
reaching from the axis to the external boundary of the inner 
area, forming thus but one or two cells in each oblique row 
between those points ; outer area of smaller and more curved 
plates, forming smaller, more regular and rounded cells dis- 
posed in indistinct rows obliquely upwards and outwards, about 
four in a row from the inner area to the outer wall : weathered 
surface, stars nearly flat, separated by impressed lines, inner 
area forming a large convex oval or circular boss in the middle 
of the star and having the axis in the centre ; radiating lamellae 
forty-five, thin, of equal thickness, one-half of them reaching 
the centre, the intermediate ones entering but a short way into 
the inner zone ; numerous small, curved, interstitial plates be- 
tween the lamellae in the outer zone, not visible in the inner 
This species is allied to the N. arachnoideum (M^Coy), but is 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol.'m. 2 

18 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

constantly distinguished by the smaller size of the stars, fewer 
radiating lamellae, and more open internal vesicular structure. 

Forms large masses in the carboniferous limestone of Kendal. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Nemophyllum decipiens (M^Coy). 

Sp, Char. Weathered surface having the stars undefined, the 
lamellae of the outer area of adjoining cells appearing conti- 
nuous, and forming a flat surface, in which the inner area of 
each star forms a deep cylindrical cell 1| line in diameter, and 
about their own diameter apart ; in the bottom of those cells 
the lamellae rise to form a little cone, from the apex of which 
projects (when well-preserved) the long thin flat axis, rising to 
the level of the outer area ; on the polished transverse section 
the stars are perfectly defined by distinct walls four- to six- 
angled, 2 to 3 lines in diameter, with a flat central axis half a 
line wide, and show the circular germs of young columns in 
the corners of some of the old stars ; radiating lamellae thin, 
about thirty-four, of equal thickness, one half reaching the 
centre, the other barely touching the inner area, which forms 
a circle about 1 1 line in diameter ; the radiating plates are 
connected by numerous curved vesicular plates in the outer 
area, but few or none are visible in the inner area : vertical 
section J axis thin, solid ; inner area of small, curved, vesicular 
plates extending obliquely downwards and outwards from the 
axis, about two or three cells in a row ; outer area separated 
from the inner by a thin vertical line, it is composed of small 
curved vesicular plates, in rows inclining obliquely upwards and 
outwards, about four cells in a row. 

The flat broad spaces between the cups, the seeming continuity 
of the radiating lamellae of adjoining stars, and the apparent want 
of divisional walls between those latter, give the weathered sur- 
face of this coral much the aspect of the so-called Astrcea Henna Mi 
(Lonsd.) of the Devonian rocks ; but it is clearly distinguished by 
the divisional walls appearing distinctly in the horizontal sections, 
and by the flat, nearly solid axis, which is very obvious both in 
the polished section and weathered stars. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Nemaphyllum clisioides (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Stars generally hexagonal and averiaging 2 lines in 
diameter : weathered surface, stars defined by a rather thick, 
prominent, crenulated divisional wall; outer area inclined down- 
wards and inwards to form a shallow cup, in the middle of 
which the inner area rises into a conical tent-like boss bavins: 

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 19 

the small flattened axis in the centre : horizontal section, divi- 
sional lines of the stars thin, straight ; axis thin, half a line 
wide; radiating lamellae thirty-six, thin, one half extending in 
a llexuous manner from the walls to the centre, the inter- 
vening ones also flexuous but of irregular lengths, most of 
them reaching half-way ; transverse vesicular plates very few 
and delicate, if visible at all : vei'tical section, axis as in the 
other species ; inner area very wide, of large, little-curved ve- 
sicular plates, inclining obliquely downwards and outwards; 
one or two lengthened irregular cells reach from the axis to the 
outer area ; outer area very narrow, of small, much-curved ve- 
sicular plates inclining very obliquely upwards and outwards, 
forming minute rounded cells about two in a row. 

This species much resembles some of the massive Astrseoid 
ClisiophyUice of Dana by the conical tent- like aspect of the inner 
area within the cups or weathered terminal cells ; the distinct 
flattened axis, resembling that of the other Nemaphyllics, will 
however distinguish it. The flexuous character of the radiating 
lamellae in the transverse polished section is remarkable. The 
Astraa irregularis of PortlocVs ' Report on Londonderry, ^& c 
which I know to be a true Nemaphyllum, resembles this species 
in the small .size of the stars and flexuous lamellae, but is easily 
distinguished by the cells being simply cup-shaped, descending 
uninterruptedly from the walls to the small, flat, prominent axis 
in the bottom of the cup, instead of the large tent-like boss 
formed by the inner zone of the above. 

Forms irregular tuberose masses in the carboniferous limestone 
of Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Nemaphyllum sepiosum (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum of long, inseparable, slightly diverging five- 
or six-angled tubes, with an average diameter of 5 lines : ?;^r- 
tical section, axis straight, thin, flat, three-fourths of a line 
wide; inner area composed of large, rather distant, slightly 
arched plates, each of which generally extends across the en- 
tire area, so that one lengthened cell (rarely more) reaches 
from one side to the other of this area, having the axis in the 
middle ; outer area broad, of numerous minute, much-arched 
vesicular plates inclining obliquely upwards and outwards, 
about four of the little cells in the oblique line from the inner 
area to the outer wall : transverse rough fracture showing the 
inner area to be composed of slightly conical or cup-shaped 
plates, their diameter equal to that of the area, and pierced in 
the centre by the flat persistent axis : polished trarisverse sec- 


20 Dr. Dickie 07i the Colour of a Freshwater Loch. 

Hon, radiating lamellae forty-eiglit, thin, twenty-four of which 
reach the centre, while the intervening ones are nearly mar- 
ginal, not reaching half-way to the inner zone ; interlamellar 
vesicular plates very numerous and delicate in the outer zone, 
apparently absent in the inner zone. 

This species has some affinity with the N. minus (M^Coy), but 
is constantly distinguished by the open, simple, subseptate cha- 
racter of the inner zone in the vertical section, the extreme com- 
parative shortness of the alternate lamellae in the transverse sec- 
tion, and the peculiar character of the broad, simple, cup-like 
plates of the inner zone in the rough transverse fracture. 

Very common in the carboniferous limestone of Tullyard, 
Armagh, Ireland. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

[To be continued.] 

11.— Note on the Colour of a Freshwater Loch. By George 
Dickie^ M.D., Lecturer on Zoology and Botany in the Uni- 
versity and King^s College of Aberdeen*. 

Various vegetable productions have on different occasions been 
recorded as having appeared in such profusion that they com- 
municated a colour of greater or less intensity to bodies of fresh 
water in which they naturally live. The plants in question be- 
long to the Oscillatoriea and Nostochinece ; among the former, 
Oscillatoria cerugescens has been recorded by Dr. Drummond 
(Ann, Nat. Hist. vol. i. 1st Series) as giving a tinge to the water 
of Glaslough in Ireland f ; I have found the same species at 
Aberdeen, and particularly abundant in a small and shallow ar- 
tificial lake, in sheets of great extent at the bottom. I have not 
observed it, as stated by Dr. Drummond, "broken into innu- 
merable fragments, and suspended like cloudy flocculi in the 
water ;'' it sometimes however becomes detached from the bot- 
tom and forms large masses on the surface. The following 
plants belonging to the Nostochineae have been described by 
Mr. Thompson of Belfast as producing the same effect : the 
Anabaina spiralis {Spirillum Thompsoni, Hass.) was observed to 
colour Ballydrain Lake in the county of Antrim ; Anabaina Flos- 
aquce, Bory, he saw "tinging with its delicate green hue the 
margin of the smallest of the Lochs Maben in Dumfries-shire,'^ 
and Aphanizomenon incurvum, Morren, was " observed on the sur- 
face of sheltered creeks in Ballydrain Lake.'' 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Nov. 9, 1848. 
•j* Oscillatoria ruhescens has been observed to communicate a red tint to 
Lake Morat in Switzerland. 

Dr. Dickie on the Colour of a Freshwater' Loch, 21 

Professor AUman has more recently described (Annals of Na- 
tural History, vol. xi.) a new plant, Trichormus incurvus. All., 
as ^* colouring the water of the Grand Canal Docks near Dublin, 
a pea-green." 

The present brief notice is for the purpose of recording the 
occurrence of a species of Rivularia near Aberdeen, under cir- 
cumstances similar to those of the plants alluded to and pro- 
ducing a like effect. For some years back excursions have been 
made with the students of my botanical class to a loch on the 
estate of Parkhill, about four miles north-west from Aberdeen. 
The sheet of water in question is about a quarter of a mile in its 
greatest length ; on almost all sides it is surrounded by extensive 
deposits of peat, with the soluble matter of which a great pro- 
portion of the water passing into the loch is impregnated. The 
loch abounds in Scirpus lacustris, Arundo Phragmites, Nuphar 
lutea, Nymphcsa alba, and various species of Potamogeton, &c. 
The locality was generally visited in the beginning of July; 
nothing pecuUar had ever been observed till the summer of 1846, 
when my attention was arrested by a peculiar appearance of the 
water, especially near the edge, but extending also some distance 
into the loch. Numerous minute bodies with a spherical outline, 
and varying in size from g^^th to y 2*^ ^^ ^^ i^^^ ^^ diameter, 
were seen floating at different depths, and giving the water a pe- 
culiar appearance. In some places they were very densely con- 
gregated, especially in small creeks at the edge of the loch. A 
quantity was collected by filtration through a piece of cloth, and 
on examination by the microscope, there could be no doubt that 
the production was of a vegetable nature and a species of Rivu- 
laria ; one however unknown to me, and not agreeing with the 
description of any species described in works to which I had 
access. Specimens were sent to the Rev. M. J. Berkeley; he in- 
formed me that the plant belonged to the genus mentioned, and 
stated it to be Rivularia echinulata, E. B. Along with it, but in 
very small quantity, I also found another plant, the Anahaina 
Flos-aqvxB, Bory. 

In the first week of July 1847, the same species were observed 
similarly associated, but the Anabaina was now more plentiful, 
without however any apparent corresponding diminution in the 
quantity of the Rivularia. 

In July last (1848) it was observed that the Rivularia was as 
rare as the Anabaina had been in 1846 ; to the latter consequently 
the water of the loch now owed its colour, which was a very dull 
green ; the colour however becomes brighter when the plant is 
dried. In neither of the seasons mentioned was it in my power 
to make any observations on the colour of the loch earlier or 
later than the date above-mentioned, consequently nothing can 

22 Rev. T. Salwey on the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. 

be added respecting the comparative development and progress 
of the two plants at other seasons. 

Two other smaller lochs in the same vicinity were not observed 
to present any appearance of the productions in question. 

In connection with the subject of this short notice, it may be 
stated, that during a visit to Ben Muich Dhu in 1846, the appear- 
ance presented by a patch of snow at 3500 feet of elevation, at- 
tracted attention. It seemed as if sprinkled over with soot ; a 
quantity of the black matter was collected, and found to consist 
in part of the following Diatomacece : Eunotia friodon, Navicula 
viridula ?, N. curvula ?, and Meridion circulare, and along with 
them Protococcus nivalis in very small proportion ; the remain- 
der consisted of inorganic matter, the nature of which was not 

III. — Stirpes Cryptogamae Sarnienses ; or Contributions towards 
the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. By the Rev. T. Salwey, 

So much has been done by Mr. Babington in his 'Primitise 
Florse Sarnicse ^ for the illustration of the phsenogamous flora of 
the Channel Islands, that perhaps a brief notice of the crypto- 
gamic botany of one of the islands of this group may be accept- 
able to some of the Members of the Botanical Society. Guernsey 
does not appear to be very prolific in cryptogamic plants — a va- 
riety of causes tend to produce this result — the open nature of 
the country ; the great paucity of wood ; the general dryness of 
the soil from the circumstance of all the rocks being of the pri- 
mitive formation ; and the very great proportion of the land 
being under the cultivation either of the spade or plough ; all 
these circumstances are inimical to the growth and perfect deve- 
lopment of cryptogamic plants. There are no woods in the 
island, and the soil even of the orchards is in general under the 
culture of the spade. It is at once evident therefore that the 
great variety of Agarics, Boleti, and the innumerable other Fungi 
which are found so abundantly in the extensive woods and rich 
pastures of England, have no corresponding habitats here in 
which to grow. The same reason limits the number of Musci, 
Hepaticse and Jungermannise, whilst from the few brooks and 
ponds which are found in the island it is equally hopeless to ex- 
pect a great number of freshwater Alga?. Even the lichens do 
not exhibit that luxuriance of growth which we find in the deep 
woods and glens (jf the Cambrian mountains. Thus the com- 
mon Parmelia saxatilis is seldom found here in fruit, and the few 

♦ Head before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Nov. 9th, 1818, 

Rev. T. Salwey on the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernseij. 23 

meagre specimens of Sticta pulmonaria are also without apo- 
tliecia. The abundance of their orchards led me to expect that 
I should discover here the Parmelia chrysophthalma which is 
found in the south of England ; but my researches failed in dis- 
covering more than a single specimen of this plant in an orchard 
in Sark. My friend Mr. Lukis some years ago once found also 
a single specimen of the same plant in the northern part of 
Guernsey. This island however possesses much to interest the 
Hellenist from more northern regions. He will find here abun- 
dance of the Roccella tindoria, and will also meet with Lecanora 
milvina, Lecidea Salveii, Parmelia leucomelaSj Sticta aurata, and 
Porina pustulata of Ach., — a plant hitherto a stranger to our 
British flora. 

In the minute epiphyllous fungi the island is more prolific 
than I have found any locality of the same extent in England — 
some few species are in extreme abundance and very fine, as the 
Puccinia Cotyledonis and jEcidium Bunii — the Dothidea rubra 
also is much more highly developed than I ever found it in En- 
gland, thus showing the influence of a southern climate on this 
class of plants. There was one circumstance however with re- 
spect to this tribe of plants which much struck me. In Shrop- 
shire and Herefordshire, as well as in Wales, it is perhaps not 
possible to find a sycamore-tree of which the leaves are not 
blackened with numerous specimens of the Rhytisma acerinum ; 
whilst in Guernsey I could not even detect a single specimen, 
although I examined every tree I met with after my attention 
was attracted by this circumstance. The leaves of every sycamore- 
tree in the island are as perfectly free from this discolouring epi- 
phyte as those of the plane-tree. One or two of the Uredines 
which I have sent to Mr. Berkeley he thinks may prove to be 
new species. Amongst this tribe of plants he has already named 
as new the Depazea Caricce on the leaves of the common fig-tree, 
and the Ustilago Salveii on young plants of Dactylon glomeratus. 

The richest part of the cryptogamic flora of Guernsey will 
doubtless be found in the marine Algse. Were any one well ac- 
quainted with this department of botany to be long resident here, 
I feel little doubt that some interesting discoveries might be 
made. The few opportunities I have had of studying them from 
short and occasional visits to the sea -coast, and this in only one 
or two localities, have given me little opportunity of becoming- 
much acquainted with this branch of botany; whilst during 
the time of my residence in this island, the state of my health 
confined me so much to the house, that my botanical researches 
in every branch were greatly interrupted. The list therefore 
which I have sent you is only to be considered as " contribu- 
tions " towards the cryptogamic flora of Guernsey, of which it is 

24 Rev. T. Salwey on the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. 

hoped that some native of the island will be induced to give us a 
more complete account, for what a stranger is enabled to discover 
in a brief visit can only be a small portion of the botanical trea- 
sures of the island. 

I feel that I cannot conclude this short notice without ex- 
pressing my best thanks to my friends Messrs. Borrer, Berkeley, 
Ralfs and Wilson for kindly naming such specimens as I was in 
doubt about. 

List of Guernsey Cryptogamic Plants j with a few notices upon 
some of them. 


Phascum crispum ; j3. rostellatum. 

Pottia Heimii. Rocks in the parish 
of St. Peter du Bois on the coast. 
rGymnostomum fasciculare, Hook. 
J and Tay. in part {Wilson). 
I Physcomitrium ericetorum, Bruch 
\_ and Schimper, var. ( Wilson). 
Gymnostomum pyriforme. 

Weissia fugax. In a cave at Petit Bo. 

con tro versa. 
Grimmia pulvinata. 
Ceratodon purpureus. 
Trichostomum canescens. 
Dicranurn bryoides. 

Campelopus densus. Jerbourg. 
Tortula muralis. 

ruralis ; ^. laevipila. 
Polytrichum commune. 

Entosthodon Templetoni. Road lead- 
ing down to Petit Bo from the 
Funaria hygrometrica. 
Orthotrichum diaphanum. Catel 

churchyard and upon elm-trees at 
the bottom of the Rohais road. 
Orthotrichum tenellum. Do. do. 
Bryum argenteum. 
erythrocarpon. Walls about 

St. Peter's Port. 
Bartramia pomiformis. 
Pterigonium filiforme. 

Hypnum serpens, 

Teesdalii. Cave in Petit Bo. 
resupinatum. Jerbourg. 

Riccia crystallina. 
Anthoceros punctatus. 
Marchantia polymorpha. 


Marchantia hemisphaerica. 
Jungermannia bicuspidata. 



Rev. T. Salwey on the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. 25 

Jungermannia complanata. 

Jungermannia dilatata. 

j3. nionilensis. 


llamalina pollinaria. 

Roccella tinctoria. 

Usnea plicata. 
Evernia flavicans. 
Ramalina calicaris. 

a. fraxinea. 

/3. fastigiata. 

I cannot agree with the authors who unite these two plants. 
If intermediate states are to be considered as a sufficient ground 
for uniting what have hitherto been considered distinct species, 
then must a great many^more of the Cladonice be united than is 
now done, for between the greater part of the different species in 
this genus there are so many intermediate states, that it is ex- 
tremely difficult to know to what species to refer many speci- 
mens. Manufacturers have noticed that the tinctoria is very 
superior as a dye to the fuciformis, and my friend Mr. Lukis has 
pointed out to me a distinction between these two plants which 
I was not before aware of, but which the examination of a great 
number of specimens enabled me to confirm ; viz. that the sap of 
tinctoria is of a deep yellow, staining the fingers when gathered, 
whereas that of the fuciformis is not so. It is perhaps to be re- 
gretted that chemical tests have not been resorted to in endea- 
vouring to distinguish between nearly allied plants. 
Cetraria sepincola. Parmelia olivacea. 

Peltigera resupinata. 
/3. parilis. 

/3. pusilla; spuria, Ach. 
Sticta aurata. Jerbourg, Mr. Lu/ds; 
on the rocks N. of the Eperquerie, 
Sark, T. S. 
Sticta fuliginosa. 
Parmelia perforata, 

j3. omphalodes. 
y. sulcata, FL Hib. 


rugosa, FL Hib. 



i. concolor; candelaria, 

laevigata, Ach. & E. B. 

scortea, do. 

chrysophthalma. In an or- 
chard at Sark. 

leucomela. Jerbourg and 
S. W. point of Rocquaine 
Bay, Mr. Lukis. 






/3. hispida; Lichen tenel- 
lus, E. B. 

erosa, Suppl. to E. Bof. 

26 Rev. T. Salwey on the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. 

There are two varieties (unless indeed they are distinct spe- 
cies) of this plant in Guernsey. In the one the thallus exhibits 
the same loose mode of growth that it does with us in England 
and Wales_, but has no soredise ; but in the other it adheres so 
closely either to the rock or tree on which it grows that it is very 
difficult to detach the specimen. The surface too of this latter 
var. ?, and not the edges, is copiously sprinkled with soredise. 
In the description given of the er^osa in the ^ Suppl. to E. B.^ it 
is observed, " that sometimes the edges are raised, and producing 
mealy granules on the under side, assume, although not hollow, 
an appearance approaching to that common in P. tenella." The 
soredise however of the Guernsey var. of this plant are on the 
upper surface of the thallus. The hue of the thallus too, which 
is of a very pale whitish green, and its being more frequently 
found investing the dark crevices of rocks than growing on trees, 
seems to point out a difference of species. The shields also of 
the former variety are decidedly black, whilst those of the latter, 
though very minute in my specimens, are of a brown colour. 
The former variety I have not found in fruit in Guernsey. 

Parmelia obscura. Parmelia crassa. 

a. cycloselis. coarctata. 

/3. ulothrix. saxicola. 

plumbea. elegans. 

lanuginosa. muvorum. 
brunnea. /3. miniata. 

pezizoides, Suppl. to E. B. 

There is a very beautiful variety of this plant forming ex- 
tremely thin extensive patches on the rocks of a bright orange 
colour. The thallus is almost wholly minutely granular, and 
without apothecia. To the naked eye it looks only like an orange 
stain upon the rock. 

Parmelia fulgens. Downs near the 

leaden hue towards the edges, 

sea on the N. of the island, Miss 

when dry. Apothecia hemisphe- 


rical, dark brown, with a raised 

Parmelia circinata. 

somewhat crenulate border of a 


lighter hue than the thallus. On 

j3. squamulosa. 

the rocks at Dixcart Bay, Sark. 


Parmelia hrematomma. 

carneo-lutea. On an elm- 

varia, and 

tree in the village above 

8, polytropa. 

Saint's Bay. 





sordida ; a. glaucoma. 


/S. sulphnrea. 

badia ; j3. milvina. Jer- 

' impolita; Arthonia prui- 


nosa, Jcfi. 



? exigua? 

Gyalecta cupularis ; Lichen marmo- 

Crust cartilaginous, of a dark green 

reus, E. B. 

colour, having somewhat of a 

Cladonia endivia^ folia. 

Rev. T. Salwey 07i the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. 27 

Cladonia alcicornis. 

gracilis ; b. hybrida; cervi- 
cornis, E. B. 
15iEoniyces vufus, E. B. 

anomalus, Fl. Hib. 
Biatora atrorufa. 

vernalis ; a. luteola. 
A very beautiful state of this with 
reddish shields which are often 
proliferous, and with a waved bor- 
der, grows on decaying tufts of 
thrift in Sark. 
Biatora rivulosa ; a. saxicola. 
j8. corticola. 

Between uUgi?iosa and synothea, E.B. 
Crust dark green, consisting of in- 
numerable very minute granules 
or scales, forming a spongy crust. 
Apothecium black, globular, finally 
flat, and with a pale border usually 
sprinkled over with the minute 
scales of the crust. On walls. 
Biatora quernea. Barren, 

Salveii ; Lecidea, Suppl. to 
Lecidea canescens. 
albocaerulescens ; Lecid. cee- 

sia, Ach, 
contigua ; a. disciformis. 

atro-albfi; e. subconcentrica; 
Lichen concentricus,£ Z^. 
enteroleuca ; elyeochroma. 

Lecidea albo-atra ; a. corticola. 

c. saxicola ; epi- 
polius, E. 13. 
sabuletorum ; y. coniops. 
citrinella; scabrosus, E. B. 
Umbilicaria pustulata. Near Petit 

Bo, Mr. Liilcis, 
Opegrapha saxatilis. 
Coniocarpon cinnabarinum. 
Sphserophoron compressum. 
Endocarpon miniatum. 

pulchellum,^. J5. Suppl. 
2602. On some elm- 
trees in the lane lead- 
ing from Havilland to 
Fermain Bay. 
Sagedia fuscella. 
Pertusaria communis, 

pustulata, Ach. On an 
ash-tree by the side of 
the road at Rousaitre. 
Verrucaria epigaea. 

epidermidis. ' 


acrotella, Fl. Hib. 
Collema nigrum, 

Chara vulgaris. 

Cystoseira granulata. 

Halidrys siliquosa. 
Fucus vesiculosus. 



Himanthalia lorea. 


Chara pulchella. Sark. 


Lichina pygmaea. 
Alaria esculenta. 
Laminaria digitata. 

Chordaria flagelliformis. 
Chorda filuin ; /3. thrix, 
Dictyota dichotonia. 
Fnrcellaria faiaigiata. 

28 Rev. T. Salwey on the Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey. 

Delesseria ruscifolia. 
Rhodomenia bifida. 


palmata ; j3. sarniensis. 
Plocamium coccineum. 
Rhodomela subfiisca. 
Laurencia tenuissima. 
Chylocladia ovalis. 

Gigartina purpurascens. 
Chondrus crispus. 
Gelidium corneum. 
Dumontia filiformis. 
Porphyra vulgaris. 
Ulva lactuca. 
Enteromorpha intestinalis. 
Bangia fuscopurpurea. Scarce. 
Codium tomentosum. 
Vaucheria velutina. 

Cladostephus verticillatus. 

Sphacelaria scoparia. 

olivacea. In a cave near 
the gentlemen's bath- 
Ectocarpus littoral is. 

tomentosus. Grand Cobo. 
Polysiphonia fastigiata. 
Dasya coccinea. 
Ceramium rubrum. 
Griffithsia equisetifolia. 

Griffithsia setacea. Fermain Bay. 
corallina. Bay under the 
Artillery Barracks. 
Calithamnion polyspermuni. 
Conferva Linum. St. Sampson's, 
Zygnema nitidum. 

Scytonema myochrus. This forms a 
velvety stratum upon a bank near 
the sea at Jerbourg. It is of a 
deep indigo colour. 
Lingbya muralis. 
Oscillatoria nigra. 
Chroolepus aureus. 

Trentepohlia purpurea. In a cave 

beyond the bathing-place. 
Corynephora marina. 
Palmella botryoides. 

Nostoc commune, 
vulet in Saint's Bay. 
Rivularia atra. Grand Havre. 
Meloseira nummuloides. Brook in 

the N. of the island. 
Fragilaria pectinalis. In a well at 

St. Andrew's. 
Diatoma fenestratum, 
Ivy Castle. 
Gomphonema arapullaceum 
well at St. Andrew's. 

In a small ri- 

Ditches near 



Agaricus procerus, 
Georgii. St. Martin's : sold 

in the market, 
Polyporus vulgaris. 

ulmarius. In an elm-tree 
in the village at Saint's 

Thelephora hirsuta. 

Peziza cacaliae. On pods of M«^Aio/a 

sinuata. Portinfer. 
Cryptomyces versicolor ; c. viridis. 

St. Sampson's. 
Dacrymyces stillatus. 
Sphaeria typhina. 
V gram in is. 

confluens. On the decaying 
trunk of an ash- tree in 
St. Andrew's parish, 

On the Structure and Habits of the Orobanchaceae. 29 

Sphseria concentrica. Ustilago Salveii, Berk. MSS, On 

Myriangium Duriaei, Berk. 8f Mont. young plants of Dactylon glome- 

On ash-trees in Sark. ratus. St. Martin's. 

Phoma asteriscus. On Heracleum in Uredo compransor. 

Moulin Huet Bay. Petroselini. On Slum lati- 

Dothidea ulmi. folium. 

rubra. caricina. On Cyperus longus. 

Lycoperdon gemniatum ; e. furfura- bif'rons. On Rutnex obtusifo- 

ceum. lius. 

Scleroderma vulgare. ranunculacearum. 

Evysiphe communis. lubigo. 

Oidium moniloides. cylindrospora. 

Aregma bulbosum. polygonorum. 

Puccinia graminis. Rosae. 

polygonorum. caprearum. 

lychnidearum. leguminosarum. 

Cotyledonis. Candida. On Lepidium latifo- 

violarum. Hum. Grand Cubo. 

Fabae. primulae. 

prunorum. hypericorum. 

iEcidium Bunii. trifolii, Di?c.apiculosa,/>/f. On 

laceratum. Medicago denticulata. 

primulae. . On Lotus hispidus. 

rubellum. . On pea leaves — not ap- 

ranunculacearum. pendiculosa — a very hand- 

Periclymeni. FermaiiiBay. some species. 

Depazea Caricae. On the leaves of Scillarum. 
the common fig-tree. Berk. MSS. 

IV. — On the Structure and Habits of the Orobanchacese. 
By Arthur Henfrey, F.L.S. 

The discovery by Mr. Mitten of the parasitism of Thesium, and 
the extension of the same character among the. Uhinanthacese 
pointed out by M. Decaisne, have given additional interest to the 
study of parasitical plants, and I take advantage of an opportu- 
nity I had last summer of examining our two common species of 
Orobanche, rapum, Thuill., and minora Sutt., to call attention to 
some points connected with their structure and mode of growth 
which do not appear to have been noticed. 

M. Duchartre published in the ^ Ann. des Sc. nat.^ Sept. 1843, 
an account of the anatomy oi Lathrcea clandestina, Linn., and in 
the ' Ann. des Sc. nat.' Aug. 1845 of Orobanche Eryngii, Vauch. ; 
and in the 'Ann. des Sciences nat.^ for Sept. 1847, M. Lory 
relates the results of his observations on the structure and phy- 
siology of Orobanche Teucrii, Holl et Schultz., Galii^ Duby, 
major, L., brachysepala, Schultz., and cruenta, Bert., which, as 
far as they go, agree with what I have noticed in Orobanche 
rapum and minor. 

The stems of these plants present in a cross section a veiy 

30 Mr. A. Henfrey on the Structure and Habits 

large central cellular region or pith, composed of elongated cy- 
lindrical cells ; these pass gradually, without the intervention of 
a medullary sheath, into the woody region composed of a num- 
ber of fibro- vascular bundles arranged in a circle and forming a 
continuous envelope to the pith, no medullary rays existing. 
The wood, which is very deficient in quantity compared with the 
pith and cortical layer, contains spiral fibrous vessels, the turns 
of the spirals being sometimes in contact, at others widely sepa- 
rated, not unrollable, and these are surrounded by elongated cy- 
lindrical cells with conical extremities. The wood passes insen- 
sibly into the cortical parenchyma which forms a very broad 
region, composed of cells resembling those of the pith, and it is 
clothed externally by a layer of epidermis, the cells of which 
have the form of elongated prisms. Stomates appear to be very 
rare ; I observed none in a number of portions of epidermis of 
O. rapum taken from all parts of the stem, but the cells were 
often filled with a brown resinous secretion. In O. minor this 
secretion is less abundant, and I observed a few stomates here 
and there. In both species the epidermis is clothed with nume- 
rous capitate glandular hairs ; these consist of filaments formed 
of three or four cells attached end to end and gradually dimi- 
nishing in diameter upward, terminated above by a globular 
body consisting of one, two or three cells, filled with a resinous 

In full-grown specimens the lower part of the stem is enlarged 
into a bulbous expansion which appears to me to be a true tuber. 
It presents a central parenchymatous region, which by its en- 
largement forces the fibro-vascular bundles apart, so that they 
lie irregularly toward the periphery, beneath the cortical region 
continuous with that of the upper part of the stem. The vas- 
cular structures in the tuber consist, not of spiral vessels like 
those of the stem, but of longish cells, which from their varying 
direction have not been thrown into long ducts like the vessels 
above, by the absorption of their contiguous ends, but retain 
their cellular form, while the deposition of secondary layers has 
gone on to the conversion of the spiral into the reticulated struc- 

The stem and upper part of the tuber are furnished with fleshy 
scales which are composed of cellular tissue, and have fibro-vas- 
cular bundles running into them from the woody zone. 

The roots bear some resemblance to those of Monocotyledons. 
They present a central vascular region composed of about four 
bundles disposed so that the vessels present a cross in the trans- 
verse section, but the woody cells forming the remainder of the 
bundles are blended into a mass, well-defined at the circumfe- 
rence, where they are inclosed by the cortical layer. The vessels 

of the Orobancliacese. 31 

of the roots arise from the bundles of the tuber and are of the 
reticulated kind; the cortical layer of the roots is continuous 
with the cortical parenchyma of the tuber. 

These tubers of Orohanche propagate by subterraneous buds. 
It is well known that the plants often occur three or four ad- 
hering together, but I believe the reason has not before been 
shown. I found growing plants with the decayed tubers of the 
preceding year still adherent, and others which had completed 
their flowering, that had buds growing out from the base of 
the tuber. These buds were not axillary in appearance, for they 
arose quite below the lowest scales of the tuber, but it is reason- 
able to suppose that they had originated from the axils of scales 
w^hich had decayed. 

The most important point remains, viz. the mode of attachment 
of the parasite to the foster-plant. I have only observed this in 
O. minor ; here the root of the Trifolium was traced into the sub- 
stance of the tuber ; its fibro-vascular structures become sepa- 
rated, and lose themselves by ramifying in the substance of the 
parasite. The union is completely organic, and in one speci- 
men examined the tuber had grown so much that the root of the 
Trifolium, which was curved round the tuber, lay imbedded in 
a groove formed by the growth of the latter, but actual union 
only existed at the apex of the root which penetrated into the 
substance of the tuber. 

The point which has always struck me most in observing the 
parasitism of Orobanche is the small size of the root to which 
they are always attached, and it appears to me that there is much 
yet to be explained both in this tribe and in all the other root 
parasites. The presence of proper roots would seem to indicate 
that the parasites are not wholly nourished from the foster-plant, 
a conclusion which irresistibly presses upon us when we see a tall 
Orobanche some two feet high and three-quarters of an inch thick 
attached to a slender root not measuring a quarter of an inch 
in diameter. Their own proper roots in Orobanche are small and 
few in number, and I believe that in O. rapum at least, the whole 
tuber with its scales is an absorbing organ. My reason for this 
supposition is the condition of its tissues. The tuber and scales 
are composed almost wholly of succulent cellular tissue ; the epi- 
dermis resembles the epithelium of roots, and like it dries up and 
becomes discoloured very rapidly on exposure to the air. These 
structures are manifestly as well adapted to the absorption of 
fluid nourishment as the aerial roots of the epiphytic Orchi- 
dacese, and I see no objection to the assumption that they are so 

The question of the parasitism is not interfered with by the 
above proposition ; but we have to account for the assimilation of 

32 Dr. Scliaum on the British Geodephaga. 

the nutriment and the formation of large quantities of starch and 
highly carbonized resinous matters in plants devoid of leaves or 
other green parts. Of this I can offer no explanation without 
going into hypotheses regarding assimilation in general, which I 
am not willing to do here ; I will only observe, that I believe as- 
similation to be a process wholly distinct and independent of the 
respiration, liberating oxygen, in the green parts of plants. 

The specimens in which I traced the connection of the para- 
site with the root of the foster-plant were single and small ; in 
other cases I found a group of two or three large specimens at- 
tached together and to a decayed tuber, probably of the former 
year, and having no apparent connection with a foster-plant. This 
point requires further observation ; but these cases suggest that 
the seedling plant may require a foster-plant, while those pro- 
duced by buds from an old plant are less dependent; just as the 
green parasites in the K-hinanthacese are apparently independent 
after they have acquired a certain degree of development. 

The development of the ovary confirms Mr. Brown^s view of its 
structure, in opposition to the opinion expressed by Dr. Lindley. 
I have satisfied myself, by tracing the formation from the earliest 
stages, that the carpels stand fore and aft, and not laterally. A 
section of the perfect style also, just below the stigma, exhibits 
two vascular bundles, one in front and one behind, opposite the 
sutures of dehiscence, so that the lobes of the stigma each be- 
long half to each carpel. The supposed analogy with Gentianacese 
therefore falls to the ground, while that with Scrophulariacese is 

V. — Remarks on the British Geodephaga ; with Notes on some 
Scydmsenidse and Pselaphidse. By Dr. H. Schaum*. 

No attempt to reconcile, even in a tolerably satisfactory manner, 
the great difference which exists between the usual English no- 
menclature and our own, has hitherto been successful. Of the 
'more numerous and difficult genera of insects, an understanding 
can scarcely be obtained without interchanging specimens or 
studying the original collections. The descriptions of the En- 
glish writers, which perhaps may suffice to make known to the 

* Translated by Wm. S. Dallas, Esq., from the * Entomologische Zeitiuig ' 
for February 1848, pp. 34-44, and communicated by him. 

[These introductory remarks of Dr. Schaum apply only to Coleoptera, 
for Mr. Henry Doubleday and Mr. Stainton have done much to rectify the 
nomenclature of the nocturnal smaller Lepidoptera, while Messrs. Shuckard, 
F. Smith, Haliday, Walker and others have laboured, and by foreign works 
have determined the species of many groups of Hymenoptera and Diptera.] 

Dr. Schaum on the British Geodephaga. 33 

native collectors the comparatively few species of the scanty Bri- 
tish fauna, are not sufficient for the entomologists of the conti- 
nent, who have a richer field before them. Recognition from 
descriptions, besides, becomes still more difficult, because insects 
which are represented by English writers under names given by 
Gyllenhal, Dejean, or other authors, are frequently incorrectly 
determined, and consequently cannot serve as starting-points for 
the settlement of the other species. An interchange of specimens 
has not yet been successfully introduced, for most of the English 
collectors, induced by the insular position of Great Britain, con- 
fine themselves entirely to the investigation of their own fauna, 
and usually feel no interest whatever in continental insects. 

A two months^ residence in London gave me the opportunity 
of seeing the collection of Mr. J. F. Stephens frequently, and 
as the most liberal permission to make use of it was granted to 
me by the kind owner, I resolved to investigate thoroughly some 
families contained in it, considering this more advantageous 
than collecting notes on individual species of diff^ereut families. 
I chose Carabici and Hydrocanthari, with which I am most con- 
versant, and in which I promised myself most success. I should 
willingly have investigated some other groups, such as the Elaters 
and a part of the Palpicornes ; but my stay in London was too 
short, and my time too much occupied to admit of this ; and be- 
sides, I dreaded making erroneous statements in many cases, from 
the impossibility of now and then comparing correctly deter- 
mined specimens of German species. 

It is to be wished that English entomologists, following Wal- 
ton's example, would set themselves to the task (and attend to it 
closely) of studying individual families, so as to bring about in 
them an agreement between the English nomenclature and that 
employed on the continent. Walton's laborious works on the 
British Curculionidse are published in Taylor's ' Annals of Na- 
tural History,' and I hope the ' Entomologische Zeitung ' may 
soon give us translations of his last essays. 

I will now go through the genera of Carabici in their order. 

Cicindela sylvicola. — The specimen figured by Curtis, which is in 
the collection of Mr. J. F. Stephens, is a green variety of C. hybrida, 
Dej. The true C. sylvicola, Dej., is not indigenous in England. 

Dromius fenestratus, Ste., is not fenestratus, Fab., Dej., but a va- 
riety of D. testaceus, Erichs., with a yellow spot on the anterior half 
of the elytra *. The type of the latter species is mixed with D. agilis 
in Stephens's collection under the names of D. agilis and meridio- 

D. bipennifer is Sigma, Rossi, Dej. ; D. impunctatus belongs to 

* This variety is described by Dejean, i. p. 242, as D. agilis, var. a. 
Ann. ^ Mac/. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. in. 3 

34 Dr. Schaum on the British Geodephaga. 

D. obscuroguttatus, Duft., spilotus, Dej. D. angustatus and maurus 
are not distinct, and both=Z). maurus, St. 

Lamprias (Lebia) nigritarsis does not appear to me to differ from 
L. cyanocephala, nor L. rufipes from L. chlorocephala. 

Tarus humeralis is Dejean's Cymindis of the same name. T. macu- 
laris and axillaris are mutually identical, and perhaps only a variety 
of C humeralis with a dark red prothorax ; at all events quite distinct 
both from C. macularis, Dej., and C. axillaris, Dej. T. coadunatus, 
IcBvigatus, homagricus and angularis again form one species, w^hich is 
identical with C. homagrica, Dej . T. basalts is the Gyllenhalian spe- 
cies of the same name. It appears consequently that there are three 
species of Cymindis indigenous to England — C humeralis, homagrica 
and basalis. 

Brachinus crepitans. — To this species, the specimens named in 
Stephens's collection B. immaculicornis, explodens and glabratus ap- 
peared to me to belong. 

Almost the whole of the English species of the genus Dyschirius 
are known on the continent under other names ; only B, nitidus, 
politus, ceneus and gibbus of Stephens are, the first probably, and the 
three others certainly, the like-named species of Dejean and Putzeys. 
Of the others, D. minimus is the same as B. gibbus ; B. pusillus, ova- 
tus and thoracicus are not distinct from B. aeneus ; B. tristis is a spe- 
cimen of the same species inclining, in colour, to blue ; B. rufipes 
and punctatus are the same as B. salinus, Schaum, Putz. ; B. areno- 
sus is an immature specimen of the true B. thoracicus, Fab., Er., 
Putz.*; B. cylindricus the same as B. politus, and B. inermis, digi- 
tatus andfulvipes form one species, and are identical with B. areno- 
sus, Putz. (non Steph.). Putzeys has been misled, by an incorrectly 
determined specimen in Hope's collection, into describing this marked 
species (which I found in plenty on the sea-shore near Swinemiinde - 
in the summer of 1845) as B. arenosus, Ste. The name B. inermis, 
under which Curtis has so beautifully figured it, will be retained 
for this species. 

The English specimens of Nebria livida all belong to A^. lateralis, 
Fab. : the true N. livida is not indigenous in England. 

Helobia (Nebria) lata, Newm., is, according to the original spe- 
cimens, only a rather large variety of H. brevicollis, and H. vari- 
cornis, Newm., is described from immature specimens of the same 
species. H. cethiops, Ste., is a large specimen of Gyllenhalii, Schonh., 
of which H. Marshallana, Ste. (arctica, Dej.) is an alpine form. 

Leistus nigricans, Newm. — The original is an old, dark specimen 
of L. spinibarbis. L. Janus, Newm., is described from immature 
specimens of L.fulvibarbis, Dej. Leistus montanus, Ste., is a very 
marked species of this genus, apparently unknown on the continent. 
L. indentatus, Newm., is unknown to me, as I have not seen the ori- 
ginal specimen ; it is most probably not a distinct species, and the 
depression described merely accidental. 

* This was the only specimen of this species (Z). thoracicus, Fab.) in 
Stephens's collection ; it is not rare in England however, and has been taken 
by Wollaston in great plenty. 

Dr. Schaum on the British Gcodcphaga. 35 

Trimorphns scapularis and confinis, Ste., are the same as Badister 
humeralis, Bon. ; T. erro, Newm., is identical with B. peltatus. 111. 

Badister suturalis. — The specimen originally described and figured 
by Stephens is a pretty variety of B. unipustulatus, Bon., cephalotes, 
Dej. The specimens which Stephens subsequently received and 
mentioned in the * Supplement to his Illustrations ' are of a similar 
variety of B. bipustulatus . To the latter species B. microcephalus, 
Ste., also belongs. 

Epomis circumscriptus, Duft., is not indigenous in England ; in 
Stephens's collection I found under this name two different Chlccnii 
from the Cape. 

Chlisnius jfulgidus, Ste., is an immature specimen of C. melano- 
cornis, which has shrivelled in drying ; C. xanthopus, Ste., is a North 
American species allied to C. cohaltinus. 

Agonum austriacum is modestum, Dej.; A.fulgens, Ste., is iden- 
tical with A. Ericeti, Panz., Sturm; A. plicicolle is a deformed spe- 
cimen of A. viduum ; A.viduum, Erichson's species of the same name. 
A. versutum, lave, emarginatum, moestum, lugubre and afrum all ap- 
peared to me to belong to A. moestum, Erich. A. Bogemanni I have 
not seen, the species not being in Stephens's collection. 

A. quadripunctatum diflfers entirely from quadripunctaium, DeGeer, 
and appeared to me to he A. fuliginosum, Knoch ; A. consimiie I look 
upon as A. scitulum, Dej., and yi. atratum, Ste., as gracile, Sturm, 
Dej. ; A. piceum, Simpsoni, pullum, striatum and fuliginosum are all to 
be united as A. fuliginosum, Knoch ; A. micans and cursitor corre- 
spond with A. micans, Nicolai, Er., pelidnum, Duft., Dej. ; A. picipes 
is the species so called by Dejean and Erichson. A.fuscipenne and 
gracile belong again to fuliginosum ; A. pelidnum is Thoreyi, Dej., a 
species not rare in England ; A. affine is the true^. pelidnum, Payk., 
Gyll., Er., puellum, Dej. ; A. pusillum is a single minute specimen, 
and therefore difficult to determine ; perhaps it is also to be united 
to A . fuliginosum ', A. livens is the Gyllenhalian insect of the same 

Odontonyx rotundicollis. Marsh., is the same as Olisthopus rotun' 
datus, Payk. 

Calathus apicalis, Newm., is described after an immature specimen 
of C. melanocephalus ; C crocopus and fuscus are to be united with 
C.flavipes, Payk., Sturm; C. rufangulus is the genuine C. fuscus. 
Fab., Dej., Er. ; C. mollis is ochropterus, Duft., a plentiful species at 
Liverpool, under stones near the sea ; C. nubigena, Haliday, is a di- 
stinct species which has been discovered in Ireland. 

Platyderus ruficollis is Feronia (Pterost.) depressa, Dej. 

Argutor inquinatus is a large variety of F. vernalis, Dej. ; A. rufo- 
marginatus and vernalis are specimens of the same species of ordinary 
size; A. incequalis, Scalesii and longicollis are varieties of A. longi- 
collis, Duft., Sturm, ochraceus, Sturm, negligens, Dej. ; A. diligens is 
A. strenuus, 111., Panz., pullus, Gyll., Dej. ; A. interstinctus , ery^ 
thropus, strenuus and pullus all belong to A. pygmceus, Sturm, Er., 
strenuus, Dej. ; A. anthracinus is Feronia minor, Dej. 

Pogonus Burrellii is P. luridipennis, Germ. ; P. chalceus and litto- 


36 Dr. Schaum on the British Geodephaga. 

ralis correspond with halophilus, Germ., Dej. ; P. ceruginosus, Ste., 
is the genuine P. littoralis, Duft., Sturm. 

Omaseus Orinomum is not to be divided from 0. Bulwerii; the spe- 
cies is not known to me under any other name ; A. IcBvigatus, Ste. 
is F. minor, Dej., again ; 0. rufifemoratus is a variety of 0. nigrita 
with red thighs ; 0. tetricus, Haliday, and 0. rotundicollis, Ste., are 
F. gracilis, Dej. ; 0. affinis is a monstrous specimen of 0. melanarius ; 
Feronia picea is picimana, Duft., Dej. 

Amara acuminata, ohsoleta, similata, trivialis, vulgaris, spreta, fa- 
miliaris, communis and tibialis, Ste., are the Erichsonian species of 
the same names ; A. ovata belongs to A. obsoleta, as do also A. in- 
genua and subcenea of the Stephensian collection, but the descriptions 
of the two last in Stephens's ' Manual ' are repetitions of those given 
by Erichson under those names. Stephens's descriptions of A. mu- 
nicipalis, brunnea, curta and patricia are also borrowed from Erichson, 
the genuine species of these names not existing in his collection. The 
specimen there marked as A. curta is a dark A. spreta ; the original 
specimen of the A. discrepans. Marsh., referred by Stephens to A. 
brunnea, isan^. bifrons ; the Stephensian descriptions of ^. munici- 
palis and patricia are not founded on specimens. The other species 
of the genus answer to ours as follows, viz. : A. nitida, Ste., is the 
true A. plebeja, GylL, A. Icevls and lucida belong to A.familiaris, 
A. convexior, plebeja, obtusa and atroccerulea to A. communis, Gyll., 
and A. erythropa and injima to A. gemina, Er. ; A. atra is a black 
variety of A. trivialis, A. laticollis probably the true A. nitida, Sturm, 
Er., and A. tricuspidata is a species unknown to me, distinct from 
A. tricuspidata, Dej., perhaps A. depressa, Er. 

Brady tus crassus is identical with A. consularis, B. marginatus the 
same as A. patricia, B. torridus an immature female of A. apricaria, 
and B.fulvus and ferrugineus are mutually identical. 

Harpalus serripes, tardus and stygius belong to H. serripes, as do 
also H . fuscipalpis and tenebrosus, whilst H. rufimanus, fuliginosus 
and latus constitute the true H. tardus. 111., Dej. ; H, nigripes, piger, 
anxius,femoralis, complanatus, Jlaviventris and luteicornis are all only 
slight varieties of H. anxius ; H, luteicornis for example being a small 
female, audi/, complanatus diiid Jlaviventris immature specimens. H. 
thoracicus, depressus and melampus are the same as H. semiviolaceus , 
Dej.; H. Petisii, rubripes , azureus , chloropterus, marginellus, fulvipes 
and lentus are varieties, sexual or otherwise, of H. rubripes ; H. caffer 
is the true H. perplexus, GylL, Dej. ; H. rufitarsis a small, and H. 
calceatus a large specimen of Anisodactylus binotatus. Upon the other 
Harpali I cannot venture to pronounce any opinion ; they are mostly 
species which are rare in the north-east of Germany and are less 
known to me. 

Pangus scaritides, a single female, which has nothing in common 
with Selenophorus scaritides, and appeared to me scarcely distinct 
from Actephilus pumilus, Ste. 

Actejjhilus vernalis is H. picipennis, Dej. ; A. pumilus is not known 
to me with certainty. 

Ophonus stictus appeared to me to belong to H. monticola, Dej. 

Dr. Schaum on the British Geodephaga. 87 

(the genuine Carabus obscurus, Fab.) ; O. punctatulus and nitidulus 
are mutually identical, and the same as H. punctatulus, Dej. ; O. 
punctatissimus may perliaps be subcordatus, Dej. ; . foraminulosus 
appeared to me to belong to puncticollis, Payk., Dej., and 0. punc- 
ticeps to be a small variety of the same species, whilst O. puncticollis, 
subpimctatus and cribellum might answer for the H. b'revicollis, Dej. 
I will not however give out these statements as absolutely certain. 

Stenolophus Skrimshiranus might perhaps correspond with the S. 
melanocephalus, Findel, which is described by Dejean as a variety of 
S. vaporariorum, but I am not convinced that it is so. 

Most of the specimens of Trechus dor satis in the Stephensian col- 
lection belonged to Stenol. elegans, Dej. ; T, echus parvulus is an im- 
mature St. dorsalis, Dej. ; T. jflavicollis is Acup. luridus, Dej., but not 
T. jlavicoltis, Sturm ; T. nitidus is identical with the preceding ; T, 
rujicollis is Brady cellus similis, Er., and T. placidus the Brady cellus 
placidus, Er. ; T. suturalis is Acup. cognatus, Gyll., Dej. The spe- 
cimens with a reddish thorax which are mentioned in Stephens's 
descriptions belong to placidus, Gyll. ; I cannot distinguish T.fulvus 
from Acup. Harpalinus, Dej.; T. pallidus is founded on immature 
specimens of the same species. 

T. brunnipes is a species of Brady cellus not otherwise known to 
me, nearly allied to B. Harpalinus, and distinct from Stenol. brun- 
nipes, Sturm, Er. ; T. consputus and meridianus are the species so 
called by Erichson ; T. cognatus is nothing but a specimen of T. me- 
ridianus; T. aquaticus, with its varieties T. fuscipennis and tristis, is 
identical with T. minutus, Er., and T. laEvis is a large specimen of the 
same species. 

Blemus paludosus is Dejean's Trechus of the same name; B. pal- 
lidus answers exactly to the description of Trechus fulvus, Dej., but 
does not agree with T. pallidus, Sturm. Of the true B. longicornis, 
Sturm, I have seen no English specimen. 

Lymnceum nigropiceum is a very marked species, which was pre- 
viously quite unknown to me. 

Tachys scutellaris is the same as Bemb. scutellare, Dej. ; T. bino- 
tatus and vittatus the same as B. guttula, Dej., Er. ; T. inermis, pu- 
sillus, obtusus and gracilis belong to B. obtusum, Sturm, Dej. ; T. mi- 
nutissimus and perhaps also T. minimus, Curt., which I have not seen, 
are identical with B. bistriatum, Dej. ; T. maritimus is not in Ste- 
phens's collection. 

Philochihus ceneus is Bemb. ceneum. Germ. ; P. Doris, subfenestratus 
and biguttatus appeared to me to belong to B. vulneratum, Dej. ; and 
P. guttula to B. biguttatum. The typical specimen of 5. hcemorrhoum, 
Kirby, is a B. guttula, Dej. Specimens of B. obtusum have been con- 
founded with it by Stephens. 

Ocys currens is Bemb. pumilio, Dej.; 0. melanocephalus and tem- 
pestivus are the same as B. rufescens, Dej. 

Peryphus femoratus and concinnus appeared to me to belong to 
Bemb. Bruxellense, Putz., and the second is certainly different from 
B. concinnum of Putzeys. Under P. maritimus several species are 
confounded ; of the four specimens in the Stephensian cabinet, two 

38 Dr. Schaum on the British Geodephaga. 

belong to the preceding species, one to B. conc'mnum of Putzeys, and 
the fourth to B. rupestre, Dej. ; B. tetraspilotus is wanting in Ste- 
phens's collection. Two specimens which Wollaston communicated 
to me under this name belonged to B. rupestre, Dej. ; P. littoralis 
is B. rupestre, Dej. ; P. lunatus and ustus are B. lunatum, Duft., P. 
lunatus being established on immature and P. ustus on mature spe- 
cimens of that insect ; P. decorus and albipes correspond with P. 
brunnipes, Dej., P. albipes being the young specimens; P. nitidulus. 
Marsh., is P. rufipes, Dej., and P. agilis the same as B. decorum, 
Dej. On the other species of the genus Peryphus I cannot venture 
to give any decided opinion. 

Notaphus undulatus is Bemb. undulatum, Dej., Er. ; N. ustulatus, 
nebulosus, semipunctatus and obliquus=B. ustulatum, Dej., Er. ; N. 
stictus may correspond with the lately described N, Dejeanii, Putz. ; 
N. fumigatus is Dejean's Bembidium of the same name ; N. ephip- 
pium=^B. pallidipenne, Dej. (non 111.) ; A^. castanopterus is a pale 
variety of B. assimile, Gyll., Dej., Er. 

Lopha poecila=B. articulatum, Dej.; L. quadriguttata and quadri- 
maculata are Dejean's species of the same names ; L. pulchra is a 
bluish specimen of 5. celere ; L. assimilis=B. Doris, 111., Dej., Er. ; 
L. pusilla and hcemorrhoidalis are also the same as B. Doris, 111. ; L. 
tiigra~B. Mannerheimii, Sahib., Dej. ; L. pulicaria and mimma=B. 
pusillum, Gyll., Dej. ; L. nana is wanting in Stephens's collection; 
L. Doris and Spencii=B. assimile, Gyll., Dej. 

Tachypus celer = Bemb. celere; T. acutus. Marsh., is an immature 
specimen of the same species ; T. properans, chalceus and orichalcicus 
= B. velox, Er. ; T. bipunctaius=B. bip., Dej., &c. ; T. chlorophanus 
and striatus=:B. cerosum, Er. 

Bembidium impressum is quite distinct from B. impressum, Dej., 
being nothing but an ill-preserved specimen of B. flavipes. 

Notiophilus tibialis, Ste.=iV. palustris, Er., whilst N. palustris of 
the Stephensian collection belongs to N. biguttatus, Er. 

[As Dr. Schaum's remarks on the British Water-beetles, which 
form a part of his paper in the * Entomologische Zeitung,' have 
already appeared, in a more detailed form, in this country (see Zoo- 
logist, pp. 1887 and 1932), it has not been considered necessary to 
reproduce them here.] 


Scydmcenus ruficornis, Denny, is nothing but the female of >S. den- 
ticornis. I have compared two of the specimens mentioned by Denny 

S. Wighami, Denny (also according to an original specimen which 
E. Doubleday communicated to me) is identical with S. angulatus^ 
Kunze. The species could not be recognized from Denny's imperfect 

S . punctipennis , Ste., is a true S, collaris. 

S. Dennii, Ste., as I had previously supposed, is the male of S. den- 
ticornis. Several species of this genus were incorrectly determined 

Mr. J. Ralfs on the mode of growth in Oscillatoria, 39 

in Stephens's collection ; the descriptions in his works however are 
not taken from these specimens, but borrowed from Denny. 

Euplectus Kirbii, Denn^^ of which I have examined the original 
specimen in the British Museum, is not identical with ^. signatus, 
as Erichson and Aube suppose, but with E. Fischeri, Aube (Tischeri, 
Heer). Denny has overlooked the j)it in the forehead which charac- 
terizes this species. 

Stephens refers the Euplectus sanguineus, Denny, as a synonym 
to E. minutus of Marsham, but incorrectly ; the specimen of the latter 
differs in nothing from an ordinary E. signatus. 

E. ruficornis, Ste., is synonymous with E. ambiguus, Reichb. 

Bythinus grandipalpus, Ste., is the female of B. Curtisii, Denny. 

Bryawis assimilis, Curt., I have not seen. 

The specimen named Bryaxis insignis, Reichb., in Stephens's 
collection, does not agree at all with the true P. insignis, Reichb. 
(:=Tyrus mucronatus), but is the same insect as Bryaxis juncorum. 

VI. — On the mode of growth in Oscillatoria and allied genera. 
By John Ralfs, M.R.C.S., Penzance*. 

The growth of the lower Algae by repeated transverse division of 
their cells is now a well-established fact. In the Desmidiea and 
the PalmellecB this division is usually complete and gives rise to 
distinct individuals. In the latter family the common gelatinous 
matrix mostly retains them in such close connection that the 
entire mass is regarded as a frond, of which the cells are only 
portions. The case is essentially similar in the Desmidiece ; but 
in them the common matrix is so exceedingly thin that it can 
scarcely be detected, whilst the slightest touch scatters the cells, 
rendering their independence apparent, and hence each individual 
is considered a frond. 

In Tiresias and many other simple, filamentous Algae, the 
divided cells remain closely united, and form a jointed filament 
which continues to elongate until the cells cease to divide. 

I believe that in Oscillatoria we may trace a mode of growth 
of an intermediate kind and connecting these extremes. In many 
species of this genus the stratum spreads with great rapidity. 
This rapid growth cannot be caused by zoospores or granules 
vegetating in constant succession, because, although the fila- 
ments vary in length, their breadth is uniform. It does not de- 
pend on the simple elongation of the filaments, because, in many 
species, the filaments always remain short, notwithstanding the 
great increase of the mass. 

The difiiculty of tracing the growth in Oscillatoria is enhanced 
by its cells being frequently confluent, or having their divisions 

♦ Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, December H, 1848. 

40 Mr. J. Ralfs on the mode of growth in Oscillatoria. 

marked merely by faint transverse strise. Still that the cells 
divide as in the other simple Algse will scarcely be contested^ if 
indeed the fact be not sufficiently proved in those species which 
have some of the striae about twice the ordinary distance apart, 
as is always the case when cells are dividing. 

In general the cells are indicated, as I have just stated, by 
more or less evident transverse, straight striae; but at certain 
intervals the junction margins become rounded during division 
and the filament separates into distinct portions. All the Oscil- 
latorieae have the filaments inclosed in sheaths. When the sheath 
divides together with the cell, the original filament at once forms 
two ; and as this process is continually going on, we can easily 
conceive the rapid extension of the stratum consequent upon the 
progressive increase in the number of filaments. 

It may be necessary to mention, that it is easy to distinguish 
between a natural separation and a fracture. In the latter case 
the ends formed by violence are abrupt ; in the former they are 
usually rounded. 

When, as in some species, there is a complete separation of the 
internal filament unaccompanied by simultaneous division of its 
sheath, the latter retains the portions in connection. Lyngbya 
ferruginea affords a good example of this kind, and as its fila- 
ments are stouter than those of most species of Oscillatoria^ no 
better plant can be selected for observation. If a portion of the 
stratum be examined, filaments of various lengths may be seen 
mingled together ; but they are all of the same breadth, although 
some of them are not longer than broad. 

When separated portions are thus held together by the sheath, 
there is generally a short interval between them. Whether this 
results from an elongation of the sheath or the mutual repulsion 
of the inclosed portions is doubtfuh The latter I consider as the 
more likely cause. May it not be produced by an electric cur- 
rent developed at the instant of partition ? Perhaps the radia- 
tion of the filaments from the stratum, in some species of OsciU 
latoria, may be similarly accounted for. 

Microcoleus is known by its numerous, short, simple Oscilla- 
toria-Yik^ filaments being contained within either a simple or a 
slightly branched, inflated sheath or frond. The presence indeed 
of this common covering is the character which separates Micro-' 
coleus from Oscillatoria ; for the filaments and their manner of 
division are alike in both. 

In Oscillatoria the parted filaments are retained together 
merely by the common mucus which permits a comparatively 
wider range, and allows them to diverge in various directions. 
In Microcoleus, on the contrary, their freedom is restricted; the 
frond by its form and size keeps them parallel and binds them 

Prof. Owen on the Structure of the Teeth of some Fossil Fish. 41 

in bundles. At first the frond contains only one or two fila- 
ments (as correctly stated by Mr. H assail in his ' British Fresh- 
water Algse ') ; but these dividing as in Oscillatoriay the inflated 
frond becomes completely filled and at length ruptured, when 
the filaments escape from it to form new plants. 

I intend in a future communication to offer some evidence in 
proof that the appositional branches in Rivularia, Calothrix and 
other genera are merely modifications of the mode of growth here 

VII. — On the Structure of the Teeth of some Fossil Fish of the 
Carboniferous Period. By Prof. Owen, F.R.S. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

In the interesting and instructive summary of the modifications 
of the teeth in fossil fishes of the carboniferous period which 
Mr. M'Coy has given in the ^Proceedings of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society,^ June 1848, he notices a layer of true 
enamel in ' Centrodus/ which he says " is quite distinct from 
that dense modification of dentine, which, forming the polished 
surface of most fish-teeth, has been confounded with true enamel, 
but which it is here proposed to call ^ ganoine ' in future descrip- 
tions^' (p. 65). I have long been in the habit of applying the 
term ' ganoine ' to the peculiar tissue which forms the enamel- 
like surface of ' ganoid scales / but, as the term has been pub- 
lished by me in no other way than orally in lectures, I should be 
willing to resign it for the new dental tissue which Mr. M'Coy 
professes to have discovered, if his claim to the discovery were 
sound. If I mistake not, Mr. M^Coy first announced his discovery 
in your 'August Number' of the present year, p. 124, where, 
after animadverting on the frequent mistake of his new modifi- 
cation of dentine for true enamel, he says : " The latter is, how- 
ever, secreted by a distinct organ quite external to and indepen- 
dent of the dentine, while the false enamel, which I propose to 
call ' ganoine,' is merely produced by the calcigerous tubes of the 
dentine becoming suddenly straighter, closer and more numerous 
as they approach the surface " (p. 124). 

In my 'Odontography' I defined what I believe to be the 
' ganoine ' of Mr. M'Coy in the following words : " In some in- 
stances, as in the teeth of the flying-fish [Exoccetus) and sucking- 
fish {Remora), the substance of the tooth is uniform, and not 
covered by a layer of a denser texture. In others, as the shark, 
sphyrsena, &c., the tooth is coated with a dense, shining, enamel- 

42 Prof. Owen on the Structure of the Teeth of some Fossil Fish, 

like substance ; but this is not true enamel, nor the product of a 
distinct organ ; it differs from the body of the tooth only in the 
greater proportion of the earthy particles, their more minute dif- 
fusion through the gelatinous basis, and the more parallel ar- 
rangement of the calcigerous tubes ; but it is developed in and 
by the same matrix, and resulting from the calcification of its 
external layer, is the first part of the tooth which is formed " 
(p. 8). I then go on to cite the fishes that have true enamel, 
developed from a distinct organ (p. 9) : and the modifications of 
the enamel-like dentine are described at pp. 34, 54, 56 e^ pas- 
sim^. To most of the modifications of dentine in fish-teeth I have 
assigned and published names, e. g. ' osteodentine, ' ' vasoden- 
tine,^ ' plicidentine,' ' dendrodentine,^ ' labyrinthodentine ^ t : if 
it be really requisite to give a name to the modification of hard 
dentine above defined, I would suggest to Mr. M'Coy the de- 
sirableness of adhering to the terminology already in use. The 
term ^ ganoine ' is required for the enamel-like tissue of ganoid 
scales, and that of ' vitrodentine ' would have been the one I 
should have proposed for the tissue which I believe myself to 
have first defined, had I not been checked by the observation of 
the very gradual passage of hard or true dentine into it in many 
fishes, and by the natural desire to reduce the number of new 
terms to the minimum which the exigences of science seemed to 

From the terms of the descriptions quoted from the ' Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History,^ 1848, p. 124, and from the 
' Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society ^ for June 
1848, anatomists might be led to cite the subject of them as the 
' ganoine of M^Coy ;' but I am sure that gentleman is above the 
device by which small zoologists, of what our plain-speaking 
German brethren call the ^ Gattungsmacherei,' endeavour to ap- 
propriate a new species discovered and defined by another, by 
the mere imposition of a name. 

I remain, Gentlemen, your very obedient servant, 

Richard Owen. 

* The texture of the tooth of Ctenodus is described as presenting " a 
coarse osseous structure at the base, supporting a dense osseous or enamel- 
like layer," p. 63. Although in defining the obvious external characters of 
the tooth of Petalodus the term ' enamel ' is used, I am careful, in describing 
the structure, to state that '* the short terminal branches of the medullary 
canals, which distribute the calcigerous tubes to the enamel-like outer layer, 
are slightly bent downwards," &c., p. 62 : so that after the previous defini- 
tion of the * enamel-like ' substance at p. 8, no mistake could be made. 

t ' Odontography ' and ' Lectures on Vertebrata,' torn. i. p. 226. 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 43 

VIII. — Descriptions 0/ Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. ii. p. 431.] 

56. Aphis dirhodttj n. s. 
This species feeds on the rose with Aphis RoscSj and is some- 
times far more numerous than that species in the spring and in 
the autumn, but its appearance is less regular ; it frequents various 
species of rose both wild and cultivated, such as Rosa centifolia, 
R. canina, R. eglanteria ; and in the summer it migrates to dif- 
ferent species of corn and of grass {Secale, Triticum, Avena, Hor- 
deum, Bromus, Dactylis, Holcus, and Poa), and it fixes itself on 
the blades of these plants, whereas A. Avena prefers the flowers. 
Aphidius Avena, an Allotria, Asaphes cenea, and Megaspilus Car- 
penteri, are its parasites, and these will be more particularly 
noticed in another part of these descriptions. 

The viviparous wingless female. This sometimes rests through 
a severe winter under the rose-leaves without being injured, and 
begins to multiply very early in the spring : it is oval, and pale 
greenish yellow : the feelers have pale brown tips, and are about 
one-fourth of the length of the body : the eyes are dark red : the 
mouth and the nectaries are pale yellow with brown tips, and 
the latter are about one-sixth of the length of the body : the tip 
of the abdomen is brown : the legs are shorter and more slender 
than those of Aphis Rosa, and the feet are pale brown : it is also 
distinguished from that species by its paler colour, its shorter 
feelers, and its larger body ; the two kinds may often be seen 
together on one rose-twig, each surrounded by its respective little 

The front is prominent in the middle between the eyes : the 
tubercles on which the feelers are seated are rather less developed 
than those of the preceding species ; the fourth joint of the feelers 
is much shorter than the third; the fifth is shorter than the 
fourth ; the sixth is not half the length of the fifth ; the seventh 
is nearly as long as the third. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it much resembles 
the wingless female in colour : its wings are unfolded in April or 
May, and then it is pale green : the chest is buff ; its lobes are 
pale brown : the feelers are brown, green at the base, and much 
shorter than the body ; the fourth joint is shorter than the third, 
and the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is nearly half 
the length of the fifth ; the seventh is a little shorter than the 
third : the eyes are dark brown : the mouth has a brown tip : the 
nectaries are about one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs 
are pale yellowish green and rather long ; the feet and the tips of 
the thighs and of the shanks are brown : the wings are colourless. 

44 Mr. F. Walker^s Descriptions of Aphides. 

and nearly twice the length of the body ; the wing-ribs and the 
rib-veins are pale yellowish green; the veins are brown. 

1st var. The feelers are blacky and as long as the body : the 
nectaries are pale green with black tips, and about one-fifth of 
the length of the body. In the autumn. 

2nd var. Pale yellowish green : the lobes of the chest and the 
breast are dark gray : the feelers are green at the base, and longer 
than the body : the other limbs are pale yellow : the tip of the 
mouth, the eyes, and the tips of the nectaries are black, and the 
latter are nearly one-fourth of the length of the body : the knees, 
the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black : the wing-ribs and 
the rib-veins are pale yellow ; the wing-brands are pale brown, 
and the other veins are brown. In the autumn, when the winged 
females abound on the rose-leaf, and each of them is surrounded 
by a group of its white or pale green little ones. 

Variation in the wing-veins. The second vein is forked, but the 
third is undivided. 

The oviparous wingless female. This species in its nuptial state 
is born of the winged female during October and some part of 
November, and is very delicate and pretty : it has a pale lemon co- 
lour : the head is almost white: the eyes are dark red: the limbs are 
white : the feelers are blackish towards their tips : the tip of the 
mouth and the tips of the nectaries are black, and the latter are 
as long as one-fifth of the body : the knees and the tips of the 
shanks are pale brown ; the feet are black : the hind-shanks are 
sometimes pale brown. 

1st var. Green. 2nd var. Pale straw-colour. 3rd var. Buff. 
4th var. Light buff varied with pale red. 5th var. Rose-colour. 
6th var. Saffron. 7th var. Orange. 

The winged male. It pairs with the oviparous female in Octo- 
ber and November, and is buff: the head, the disc of the chest 
and that of the breast are brown : the abdomen has a black line 
along the back and a row of black dots on each side : the feelers 
are black, dull buff at the base, and much longer than the body : 
the fourth vein is much shorter than the third ; the fifth is hardly 
shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is less than half the length of 
the fifth ; the seventh is nearly as long as the third : the mouth 
is pale buff ; its tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are pale 
buff with black tips, and one-fifth of the length of the body : the 
legs, especially the thighs, are pale yellow ; the knees, the feet, and 
the tips of the shanks are black ; the wing-ribs and the rib-veins 
are pale yellow ; the wing-brands are pale brown ; the other veins 
are brown. 

1st var. Pale orange : the head, the disc of the chest and that 
of the breast are black : the feelers are pale orange towards the 
base : the eyes are dark red : the nectaries are dull brown, and as 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 45 

long as one-fourth of the body ; the thighs excepting the base 
are black. 

2nd var. The nectaries are yellow with black tips. 

57. Aphis Avena, Fabr. 

Aphis Avencs, Fabr. Sp. Ins. ii. 386. 17; Syst. Ent. 736. 15, 
Ent. Syst. iv. 214. 21 ; Syst. Rhyn. 297. 21 ; Gmel. ed. Syst. 
Nat. i. 4. 2206. 5; Vill. Ins. 551. 50; Schrank, Faun. Boic. 
ii. 1. 104; Stewart, ii. 110; Macq. Ann. Sci. Nat. 1831, 468; 
Kalt. Mon. Pfian. i. 108. 6. 

A. granariay Kirby, Linn. Trans, iv. 238 ; Curtis, Journ. R. 
Agric. Soc. vi. 

A, Hordei, Kyber, Germ. Mag. 

A. cerealis, Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 16. 6. 

Bromaphis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2"^^ serie, v. 479. 

This kind feeds on Secale cereale, Triticum cestivum, &c., Avena 
sativa, Danthonia strigosa, Hordeum vulgar e^ H. murinum, Bromits 
mollis, B. secalinuSj Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Glyceria 
fluitans, Poa annua, and on other grasses, and also on Polygonum 

The viviparous wingless female. When young it is dull pale 
yellow : the feelers are shorter than the body : the mouth has a 
black tip, and reaches the base of the hind-legs : the nectaries 
have also black tips, and are as long as one-sixth of the body. 

1st var. The body is red. 2nd var. The body is dull green : 
the hind-part of the abdomen is red. 

When full-grown it is red : the feelers are black, and very 
nearly as long as the body ; the fourth joint is more than half 
the length of the third ; the fifth is much shorter than the fourth ; 
the sixth is hardly one-third of the length of the fifth ; the seventh 
is a little longer than the third, and about five times the length of 
the sixth : the front is convex in the middle, and has a very di- 
stinct lobe on each side, or in other words it is somewhat undu- 
lating, and has a projection in the middle and one on each side : 
the eyes and the mouth are black : the tip of the abdomen is com- 
pressed and curved : the nectaries are black, very slightly curved 
and tapering towards their tips, and between one-fourth and 
one-fifth of the length of the body : the legs are dull yellow and 
moderately long ; the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks 
are black ; the shanks are very slightly curved ; the fore-legs are 
not very much shorter than the hind-legs. 

1st var. The body is green, and varieties also occur with every 
tint between this coloui* and red. 

2nd var. The disc of the body is blackish. 

3rd var. The legs are bright pale yellow. 

4th var. The thighs are black from near the base to the tips. 

46 Mr. F. Walker^ s Descriptions of Aphides. 

5th var. The body is brown : the feelers are black, and longer 
than the body : the tip of the abdomen is yellow : the nectaries 
are black, and rather less than one-fourth of the length of the 
body : the legs are black ; the thighs from the base to the middle 
and the shanks except their tips are yellow. 

6th var. The body is dark green : the feelers are dull green at 
the base and as long as the body : the mouth is green at the 
base : the legs are pale green ; the feet and the tips of the thighs 
and of the shanks are black. 

Sometimes green and yellow are variously mixed together in 
the body ; sometimes it is dull yellow, or pale red, or red with 
the disc of the abdomen nearly black, 'and with the thighs black 
from the middle to the tips, or red with the head green, or green 
mottled with red, or nearly black, or with a slight metallic tinge. 
The young ones in the body are sometimes twenty or so in num- 
ber and of various size : the tubercles which support the feelers 
are short ; the second joint of the feelers is much shorter and 
narrower than the first ; the third is much more slender than the 

The viviparous winged female. It is brown : the lobes of the 
chest and a row of spots on each side of the abdomen are black : 
the feelers are black, and a little longer than the body : the mouth 
is yellow ; its tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are black, 
and as long as one-fifth of the body : the tip of the abdomen is 
yellow : the legs are long and yellow^ ; the thighs, excepting the 
base, the feet, and the tips of the shanks, are black : the wings 
are colourless ; the wing-ribs and the veins are pale yellow ; the 
wing-brands are pale brown. 

1st var. The body is reddish brown : the fore-border and the 
hind-border of the fore-chest are paler : the abdomen is dull yel- 
lowish green with a row of very small black dots on each side : 
the feelers and the eyes are black, and the former are a little 
longer than the body : the mouth is dull green with a black tip : 
the nectaries are a little more than one-fourth of the length of 
the body : the wing-brands and the veins are brown. 

The thighs are of a deeper black and the shanks of a brighter 
yellow than those of the wingless female. The red colour of this 
species becomes much brighter when it is preserved in Canada 
balsam. The colour of the pupa is more often red than that of 
the wingless female, and the nectaries of the latter are somewhat 
shorter than those of the former. 

2nd var. The body is green with a slight bluish tint : the disc 
of the head and that of the chest and of the breast are red : the 
mouth is dull green with a black tip : the nectaries are as long as 
one-fourth of the body : the thighs are green towards the base. 
The structure of the wings does not serve to distinguish this from 
the preceding species. 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 47 

58. Aphis Hieracii, Schrank. 

Aphis Hieracii, Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 121. 1233; Kalt. Mon. 
Pflan. i. 17. 7. 

The following plants are the food of this species : Hieracium 
sylvaticum, H. sylvestre, H. murorum^ H. Pilosella, H. Sphondy- 
lium, Crepis tectorum, and other species, Carduus, Arctium Lappa, 
Ballot a nigra, dehor ium Intybus, C, Endivia, 

The viviparous wingless female. When young it is yellow, 
elliptical, shining, and covered with short hairs : the feelers are 
black, pale yellow at the base, and longer than the body : the 
eyes are dark red : the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip is black : the 
nectaries are dull yellow, and as long as one-sixth of the body ; 
their tips are black : the legs are dull yellow, and moderately 
long ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are black. 

1st var. Pale red. 

2nd var. Tinged with green : the feelers are shorter than the 

3rd var. Feelers yellow ; tips of the joints black. 

When full-grown it is oval, slightly convex, smooth and 
shining, pale green, or pale reddish green, or reddish yellow : the 
feelers are very pale green or dull yellow with black tips, and a 
little longer than the body : the eyes are black : the mouth and 
the nectaries are pale yellow, or very pale green, with black tips ; 
sometimes the latter are black excepting the base which is pale 
green ; they are nearly as long as one-fourth of the body : the 
legs are pale yellow or very pale green ; the feet and the tips of 
the shanks, and sometimes also the tips of the thighs, are black. 

1 st var. Bright yellow : the limbs are pale yellow ; the tips of 
their joints and the nectaries are black. 

The viviparous winged female. The pupa is grass-green, rather 
long and narrow : the feelers are black, green towards the base 
in the young ones, and a very little longer than the body : the 
mouth is dull green, and reaches near to the base of the hind-legs ; 
its tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are black and about 
one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs are dull green ; the 
thighs are pale yellow towards the base ; the feet and the tips of 
the thighs and of the shanks are black : the rudimentary wings 
are green : sometimes it is pale green, and its limbs are still 
paler : when full-grown the legs are black ; the base of the 
thighs and the shanks except their tips are yellow. 

When the wings are unfolded it is black and shining: the 
abdomen is dark green : the feelers are slender and much longer 
than the body : the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip is brown : the 
nectaries are black, and nearly one-fourth of the length of the 
body : the legs are long and pale yellow ; the thighs, except the 
base, the feet, and the tips of the shanks, are black : the wings 

48 Mr. F. Walker^s Descriptions of Aphides. 

are colourless, and twice the length of the body ; the wing-ribs 
are pale yellow ; the wing-brands are pale brown ; the veins are 

1st var. While a pupa it resembles the wingless female in 
colour, but when the wings are unfolded it is dull green or 
greenish yellow : the discs of the head, of the chest and of the 
breast are black, and the abdomen has a row of black dots on 
each side : the feelers are black and as long as the body : the 
mouth is pale yellow ; its tip and the eyes are black : the legs 
are also pale yellow with black feet and shank-tips. 

2nd var. The body is black : the fore-border and the hind- 
border of the fore-chest are green : the abdomen is green with 
black cross-bands, and has a row of black spots on each side : the 
feelers are a little longer than the body : the mouth is pale green ; 
its tip is black : the nectaries are about one-fifth of the length 
of the body : the legs are yellow ; the feet and the tips of the 
thighs and of the shanks, and nearly the whole of the hind-thighs 
are black. 

Variation in the wing-veins. The lower branch of the first fork 
is wanting. 

The front of the head is prominent in the middle, and has a 
tubercle on each side for the support of the feelers ; the first joint 
of these organs is longer and narrower than the tubercle on which 
it is seated ; the second is shorter and much narrower than the 
first ; the third is narrower than the second ; the fourth is shorter 
than the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is 
about one-third of the length of the fifth ; the seventh is longer 
than the third : the tip of the abdomen is compressed and very 
slightly curved. 

59. Aphis AsteriSj n. s. 

The viviparous wingless female. It is oval, slightly convex, dull 
olive-green, very much tinged with red especially round the bor- 
der, covered with white beneath and sometimes above : it has a 
row of impressions on each side of the body, and these are most 
distinct towards the head : the feelers are black, yellow near the 
base, and longer than the body : the eyes are dark red : the mouth 
is dull yellow ; its tip is black : the nectaries are black, not curved, 
and about one-eighth of the length of the body : the legs are long 
and yellow ; the feet and the tips of the shanks and of the thighs 
are black. When young it is paler and more linear, and some- 
times green. Abundant on Aster tripolium, on the shore near 
Lancaster and at Holy wood, near Belfast, in the autumn. 

1st var. Almost black, especially towards the fore-chest and 
the head. 

The front is slightly concave in the middle, and convex on 

Mr. F. Walker^s Descriptions of Aphides. 49 

each side at the base of the feelers, but having no tubercles : there 
is a very little bristle on each side of the front : the feelers are 
shorter than the body ; the fourth joint is hardly shorter than the 
third ; the fifth is much shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is 
less than half the length of the fifth ; the seventh is full thrice 
the length of the sixth : the back is adorned with six or eight 
irregular lines of black dots : the tip of the abdomen is com- 
pressed, but very short : the fore-legs are not much shorter than 
the hind-legs ; the shanks are very slightly curved. 

60. Aphis Lactuca. 

Aphis LaciuciP, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 335. 14; Fabr. Ent. Syst. 
iv. 220. 52 ; Syst. Rhyn. 301. 52 ; Reaum. Ins. iii. t. 22. f. 3-5 ; 
Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2205 ; Rossi, Faun. Etrusc. 264. 1401 ; 
Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 120; Fonscol. Ann. Soc. Ent. x. 170. 
10; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 37. 25. 

A. Ribis nigri, Sir Oswald Mosley, Gard. Chron. i. 684. 

This species feeds on the ^ following plants : Sonchus olera- 
ceuSy S. asper, S. arvensis, Lactuca oleracea, Crepis tectorurrij 
Picris echioides, Ribes nigrum^ R. rubrum, R. grossularia, R. uva 
crispa. Like A. Berberidis it diff'ers from the other species of 
Aphis in having spindle-shaped nectaries. 

The viviparous wingless female. This is hatched from the e^^ 
in March on R. nigrum, R. grossularia, and more rarely on R. 
rubrum. At this time and when very young it is light lively 
green, shining, half- transparent, rather long, slightly convex, 
and has three rows of minute tubercles along the back : the head 
is almost white : the feelers are white at the base, brown tow^ards 
the tips, and rather more than half the length of the body : the 
eyes are dark red : the mouth and the nectaries are white with 
brown tips, and the latter are about one-seventh of the length of 
the body : the legs are almost white ; the shanks are bristly ; 
their tips and the feet are pale brow^n. 

1st var. Dull dark green wdth still darker limbs : the feelers 
are a little shorter than the body, and the nectaries are about 
one-eighth of its length. 

When full-grown it is deep grass-green, oval, and shining : 
the discs of the head, the chest, the breast and the abdomen are 
black, and there is a row of black spots along each side of the 
latter : the feelers are black, and as long as the body : the nec- 
taries are black, spindle-shaped, and nearly one-fifth of the 
length of the body : the legs are black, long, and rather stout. 

1st var. Green, dark green beneath, shaded with black or 
sometimes all black above : the feelers are a little longer than 
the body : the mouth is green with a black tip : the nectaries 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 4 

50 Mr. F. Walker^s Desaipttons of Apliides. 

are cylindrical and about one- sixth of the length of the body : 
the thighs are green towards the base. 

2nd var. Pale green, elliptical_, convex, smooth, and shining : 
the feelers are pale yellow : the tips of the joints are black : the 
nectaries are about one-sixth of the length of the body ; their 
tips are pale brown : the legs are pale yellow ; the feet and the 
tips of the shanks are black. 

3rd var. Pale lively green, oval, not shining : the head and 
the limbs are white, but tinged with green : the feelers are 
shorter than the body; the tips of their joints are sometimes 
black, as are also the tip of the mouth, the knees, the feet, and the 
tips of the shanks. 

4th var. The body is of a fresh light green colour, but not 
shining ; it has a whitish tinge especially towards the head, and 
is sometimes mottled with white or with pale red : the feelers are 
pale yellow, and nearly as long as the body ; the tips of the 
joints are black : the eyes are dark red : the mouth is pale yellow 
with a black tip, so also are the nectaries, which are nearly one- 
fourth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the 
feet and the tips of the shanks are black. 

5 th var. Of a clear white colour. In the autumn on Crepis 

The viviparous winged female. Green : the head and the fore- 
chest above are dark green : the disc of the middle chest and 
that of the middle breast afe almost black, and there are black 
bands across the upper segments of the abdomen : the feelers 
are black, a little longer than the body, pale yellow towards the 
base which is dark green : the eyes are dark brown : the mouth 
is pale green with a black tip : the nectaries are pale green with 
brown tips, and about one-fourth of the length of the body : 
the legs are pale yellow, long and slender ; the feet and the 
tips of the thighs and of the shanks are brown : the wings are 
colourless, and about twice the length of the body ; the rib-veins 
are pale green; the wing-brands are pale buif; the veins are 
brown. On the sow-thistle at the end of April. 

While a pupa it is green and rather flat : the feelers are dull 
pale green, and a little longer than the body ; the tips of the 
joints are black : the mouth is green with a black tip : the nec- 
taries are spindle-shaped, rather dull buff, and about one-sixth 
of the length of the body : the legs are dull pale green ; the 
knees and the tips of the shanks are brown. 

1st var. The limbs are blackish green. 

The wings are unfolded in May, and the Aphis is then black 
and shining : the fore-chest is green with a black band across it : 
the abdomen is grass-green ; its disc is chiefly black : the feelers 
are a little longer than the body : the mouth is pale green with 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 51 

a black tip : the nectaries are green, spindle-shaped, and about 
one-sixth of the length of the body ; their tips are black : the 
legs are pale yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of 
the shanks are black : the wings are colourless, and much longer 
than the body; the wing-ribs and the wing-brands are pale 
green ; the veins are brown. 

1st var. The mouth is pale yellow with a black tip : the nec- 
taries are cylindrical ; their tips are brown : the feet and the tips 
of the thighs and of the shanks are also brown. 

2nd var. The abdomen is green, and has a row of transverse 
black spots along the middle of the back, and a row of black dots 
on each side : the feelers are nearly as long as the body : the nec- 
taries are black : the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the wing-brands 
are dull buff. 

3rd var. The legs are green ; the thighs except the base and 
the feet are black : the wing-brands are pale brown. 

4th var. Green : the lobes of the chest are brown, and the 
breast is pale gray : there is a vivid green stripe along the mid- 
dle of the abdomen, which is whitish beneath : the feelers are pale 
green towards the base : the eyes are darkred : the thighs are 
pale green ; the shanks are dull yellow ; their tips and the feet are 
black : the wing-ribs, the rib-veins, and the wing-brands are pale 
yellow ; the other veins are pale brown. In the autumn. 

5th var. The nectaries are pale yellow, and rather more than 
one-fifth of the length of the body. 

6th var. Black : the borders of the fore-chest, the fore-breast, 
and the abdomen are greenish yellow; the back of the latter is 
varied with black : the nectaries are dark yellow, black towards 
the base and at the tips, and rather more than one-sixth of the 
length of the body : the thighs are pale yellow from the base to 
the middle, and black from thence to the tips ; the shanks are 
dark yellow, their tips and the feet are black : the wing-brands 
are brown. 

It acquires wings on the lettuce at the end of May. Fourth 
generation ? 

7th var. Pupa. Limbs blackish green. 

8th var. Pupa. Pale yellow ; the feelers are as long as the 
body ; the tips of the joints and the whole of the latter joints are 
brown : the tips of the mouth, the tips of the nectaries, the feet, 
and the tips of the shanks are also brown. On the sow-thistle. 

9th var. Black : the fore-chest is dark green ; its fore-border 
and its hind-border are light green : the abdomen is green, and 
has a large black spot near the tip of the back, and a row of 
black dots on each side : the nectaries are pale yellow with brown 
tips : the legs are pale yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs 
and of the shanks are black ; the wing-brands are pale brown. 


63 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Apliides. 

10th var. Papa. The body is rose-colour, mottled with yel- 
low : the limbs are yellowish white with black tips : the rudiments 
of the wings are w^hite with black tips. 

11th var. The feelers of the pupa are black, pale yellow at the 
base : the nectaries are not more than one-fifth of the length of 
the body : the rudimentary wings are pale brown. 

The winged insect is black: the fore-border and the hind- 
border and the underside of the fore-chest are green : the abdo- 
men also is green, and has a row of black spots on each side of 
it, and a large black subquadrate spot on its disc : the mouth is 
pale green ; its tip is black : the nectaries are pale green, and as 
long as one-sixth of the body ; their tips are black : the legs are 
dull yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of the shanks 
are black : the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow ; the 
brands and the other veins are pale brown. 

The oviparous wingless female. This occurs in the beginning 
of November : it is green, shining, and long-elliptic : the abdo- 
men is lengthened towards the tip : the feelers are yellow, 
black towards the tips, and nearly as long as the body : the 
eyes are dark red : the mouth is pale yellow with a black tip : 
the nectaries are yellow with black tips, spindle-shaped, and 
rather more than one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs 
are yellow ; the thighs are pale yellow, darker towards their tips ; 
the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black. 

1st var. Body varied with darker green, and having three 
green lines along the back. 

2nd var. Body yellowish green : the head, the chest, and the 
tip of the abdomen are very pale yellowish green : the feelers are 
black with the exception of the base, and a httle longer than the 
body : the eyes are black : the nectaries are nearly one-fourth of 
the length of the body : the hind-shanks are dark yellow. 

3rd var. The fore-chest is olive-colour : the head and a row 
of short bands on the abdomen are dark olive : the nectaries are 
also olive. 

4th var. Pale green : the head, the chest, and the tip of the 
abdomen are pale yellow : the feelers are pale yellow ; the tips of 
some of the joints are black : the legs are also pale yellow ; the 
feet and the tips of the shanks are black. 

5th var. Like the preceding, but with a lively green spot on 
the middle of the chest. 

The winged male. It pairs with the oviparous female in No- 
vember, and is black : the abdomen is yellowish brown with a row 
of black spots on each side : the feelers are rather thick till near 
their tips, and longer than the body; the fourth joint is much 
shorter than the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the 
sixth is about one-third of the length of the fifth ; the seventh is 

Sir Philip Egerton on the Tail of Diplopterus. 53 

usually longer^ but sometimes a little shorter than the third : the 
mouth is yellow with a black tip : the nectaries are black, and 
nearly one-fourth of the length of the body : the legs are black ; 
the fore-thighs from the base to the middle, the other thighs at 
the base, and the shanks excepting their tips, are yellow : the 
wing-ribs are yellow ; the wing-brands axe pale brown ; the veins 
are brown. 

1st var. The abdomen is dark yellowish green ; there is a 
row of short black bands along its back and a row of black spots 
on each side : the mouth is black, but yellow towards the base : 
the legs are black ; the thighs are pale yellow at the base ; the 
shanks excepting their tips are dark yellow. 

The front is slightly convex : the feelers are seated on short 
stalks ; the first joint is longer and more slender than the base 
which supports it ; the second is shorter and much narrower than 
the first ; the third is a little more slender than the second; the 
fourth is much shorter than the third ; the fifth is shorter than 
the fourth ; the sixth is about half the length of the fifth ; the 
seventh is nearly as long as the third : the nectaries are spindle- 
shaped : the tip of the abdomen is compressed, and rather more 
than half the length of the nectaries : the fore-legs are much 
shorter than the hind-legs, whose shanks are slightly curved : the 
length of the furcations of the third vein is variable. 

Variation in the wing-veins. The lower branch of the first fork 
of the third vein is wanting. 

[To be continued.] 

IX. — Observations on Mr. McCoy's description of the Tail of 
Diplopterus*. By Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History, 

I ventured to trespass on your columns in September last, to 
direct attention to what I considered an unfairness on the part 
of Mr. M'Coy towards my absent friend Professor Agassiz. In 
his reply to my observations Mr. M^Coy distinctly acknowledges 
the priority of Agassiz^s observations, and allows that the know- 
ledge of them " added considerably to the certainty which he 
felt of the correctness of the view he had put forward.^^ The 
courtesy usually observed between investigators in a common 
field would have required this avowal to have been made in the 
first instance. Though tardy it is nevertheless complete. I re- 

* Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. Nov. 1S18, p. 303. 

54 Sir Philip Egerton on the Tail o/Diplopterus. 

gret to be again obliged to notice an omission no less unjust to 
Professor Agassiz. In the November Number of the ' Annals/ 
Mr. M'Coy, when treating of the tail of DiplopteruSj says : — 
" M. Agassiz has described the species of this genus as having 
heterocercal tails/^ leaving it naturally to be inferred, that these 
fishes had the ordinary form of tail common to many of the older 
ganoids. He then proceeds to state, that so far from this being 
the case, "there is almost as great a development of fin- rays 
above as belovi^ the spinal prolongation." This form of tail, in- 
termediate in appearance between the homocercal and hetero- 
cercal types, he proposes to style "diphy cereal.'^ The following 
passage from the ' Fossil Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone,^ p. 54, 
shows how fairly ! Agassiz^s description has been stated by Mr. 
M^Coy in reference to this modification of the caudal fin : — " La 
caudale a une conformation des plus singulieres. II va sans dire 
qu^elle est heterocerque, et que la masse principale des rayons 
est inseree sous le prolongement releve de la colonne vertebrale ; 
mais au bord superieure il y a au lieu de fulcres de veritables 
rayons, en grande quantite, si bien que le prolongement de la 
colonne vertebrale se trouve garni de rayons en haut comme en 
bas." Fig. 1. of tab. 18 gives a very good representation of the 
peculiarity described in the text. Now although the more per- 
fect specimens examined by Mr. M^Coy may have enabled him 
to trace this modification to a greater extent, yet, in all fairness, 
he ought to have alluded to the facts established by Agassiz in 
the passage quoted above. I prefer again to attribute this seem- 
ing unfairness to forgetfulness of Agassiz^s writings, rather than 
to intentional disregard of them, an opinion which is strengthened 
by the occurrence in Mr. McCoy's writings of the cancelled spe- 
cific appellation latus, when speaking of Coccosteus decipiens. 
The remarks on the gradations of structure between the two 
types of tail, appended in a note to Mr. M'Coy^s paper, and 
stated to have been also noticed by Miiller, were made by the 
Professor so long ago as 1844, so that his claim to priority and 
not only to simultaneity of discovery is unquestionable. In con-, 
elusion, I must beg to disclaim any the slightest intention of 
giving annoyance to Mr. M^Coy, or of underrating in any degree 
the value of his ichthyologic investigations. I am only anxious 
that justice should be done to those who through absence are 
unable to vindicate their own rights until it may be too late to 
do so with eiFect. 
I have the honour to be. Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton. 

Bibliographical Notices. 


An Introduction to Botany. By J. Lindley, Ph.D., F.R.S. Fourth 
Edition, with Corrections and numerous Additions. 

Dr. Lindley's welLknown Manual now makes its appearance in 
two considerable volumes, another proof, if such were wanting, of 
the increasing interest for botany in this country. This edition may 
almost be regarded as a new work compared with its predecessors, 
little remaining unaltered but the plan and illustrations, its principal 
value arising from its containing a carefully collected mass of quo- 
tations from almost all the more important memoirs and reports 
published during the interval since the former edition was printed. 

Under these circumstances, we have to speak of the execution of 
the work more than of original subject-matter, and to indicate the 
manner in which the author has dealt with his materials. 

In the first place must be mentioned with all praise the extremely 
lucid manner in which Dr. Lindley realizes and expresses the various 
doctrines he has to communicate ; we have, probably, few scientific 
writers who excel him in this respect. 

With regard to the first part of the work, treating of elementary 
structure, the recent investigations on the subject are very fully 
given in the form of extracts from our own pages, the Ray reports 
and similar sources. We may notice one error retained from the 
former edition, aflirming what would be a strange anomaly if 
correct, viz. (i. p. 142) the quotation from the ' Ann. des Sc.,' that 
Nerium Oleander and other plants have cavities in the cuticle in lieu 
of stomates ; the fact being that the stomates are situated in the 
walls of cavities in the leaves. 

At page 'IQQ (vol. i.) Dr. Lindley states that he does not see how 
Schleiden's views " affect the distinction stated to exist between 
Exogens and Endogens, or offer any valid objection to the employ- 
ment of those terms." Now it is or should be a canon in termino- 
logy that one word should have only one meaning, and since those 
two words, Exogens and Endogens, have been used to express a 
distinction mistakenly assumed to exist, to retain and apply them on 
different grounds is surely inadmissible. To exogenous growth as 
existing in Dicotyledons, there is no corresponding or rather oppo- 
site process in Monocotyledons, to allow of the antithetical term, 
endogenous growth, the gn)wth of Monocotyledons differing from 
that of the first year of Dicotyledons in points not at all contem- 
plated by the author of the expressions in question. 

In vol. ii. p. 82 et seq. we have a long discussion on the questions 
whether flowerless plants have sexes or seeds. Dr. Lindley is not 
inclined to admit their existence, but he concedes the idea of sexual- 
ity in the view taken by Mr. Thwaites ; on the ground that " it is 
not so much the mere presence of sexes, or of a mysterious sexual 
essence, that is denied, as that the organs called sexual in flowerless 
plants are of the same, or a similar, nature as those known to be 
sexes in the higher orders." It seems to us that this is rather a 

56 Bibliographical Notices. 

distinction without a difference. If we under!?tand Mr. Thwaites's 
ideas correctly, he regards, in the case of simple conjugation for in- 
stance, one cell as the homologue of the pollen-grain, the other of 
the germinal vesicle of a flowering plant. The modifications of the 
envelopes of these essential elements are of no consequence as to the 
general theory. At the same t'me we agree with Dr. Lindley that 
the balance of evidence lies against the doctrine of sexuality in the 
flowerless plants. The unconfirmed statements of Schleiden on the 
fertilization in the Marsileacese are not alluded to ; the analogy of 
the larger spores to ovules has certainly been satisfactorily shown, 
by the subsequent observations of Mettenius and Niigeli. 

We were rather surprised to find (at p. 136. vol. ii.) a repetition 
of the old statement, that the old bark and the wood, of Dicotyledons, 
are separated in spring by the exudation of a slimy substance called 
cambium ; we should have thought this an oversight had it not 
also occurred in the first volume ; any one may convince himself that 
there is no solution of continuity by submitting a section to the 
microscope, but this section requires care and a very sharp knife. 

There are other minute points which might be noticed ; but look- 
ing at the work as a whole, and the fullness and especial clearness 
with which the multifarious questions are expounded, this would be 
an invidious task ; and we feel that the work must be received as a 
most welcome contribution, not only by advanced students, but par- 
ticularly by all now on the threshold of the science, who have indeed 
great facilities compared with those who date their first acquaintance 
with botany from but a few years back. 

Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia during the years 
1844-5 & 6, &c., by Captain Charles Sturt, F.L.S. : with a 
Botanical Appendix by Robert Brown, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
and Ornithological Notices by John Gould, F.R.S. 

This is not the place to give an account of the geographical results 
of this last expedition of " the father of geographical research ;" if it 
were, we should be tempted to linger among its pages. 

In this book the usually dreary and almost hopelessly depressing 
inland tracts of Australia are described by one, who has made them 
his home for many a weary month, in a way which reminds us of the 
narratives of the Arctic discoverers, Parry, Franklin, Richardson, 
Back and Buchan, or the antarctic voyage described by Ross and 
Hooker and M''Cormick. In their pages, such incidents as a white 
fox or little Mus leucopus visiting the icebound ships, a little marmot 
coming into a tent and snuggling, from the winter's blast, beside 
the fire, regardless of the sleeping terrier — the purple saxifrage 
(S. oppositifolin) creeping as it were out of the snow, the Ledum pa- 
lustre, Cranberry, exquisite Dryas octopetala, Oxyria, and not a few 
Ranunculi — " icy " and " hairy," springing as if by magic out of the 
ground immediately when the snow has melted on some little 
favoured spot — tell in a way that can only be understood and en- 
joyed by the naturalist or the poet. 

Bibliographical Notices. 57 

In like manner those precursors of civilization (to go no further 
back), Flinders, Oxley, Grey, Mitchell, Leichardt and bturt, find in 
the desert not a few favoured spots ; Australia has its Eremocharis 
(what a happy name !), its flights of parrakeets, its little gorgeous 
Maluri, its bronze -winged and crested pigeons, their wings 
" sprinkled with liquid gold," its rock kangaroos, its pretty Tarsipes 
Spenserce, its even more curious Myrmecohius, and insects as bright 
as its Buprestid(S, or as dull and curious as its species of Helceus. 
In the book before us, Capt. Sturt's narrative is made interesting by 
the numerous descriptions of the habits of the animals he and his 
party met with ; while in the appendix, contributed by Mr. Gould and 
Dr. Robert Brown, are curious, and, owing to the novelty of the 
plants, valuable additions to our knowledge of Australian natural 

It is seldom now that we or any one else have to refer to recent 
works of Dr. Brown — the most distinguished botanist of this or any 
other country, — and it is pleasing to see him again in the field where 
so many of his early discovered flowers are blooming. The author of 
the ' Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandise ' has added a botanical ap- 
pendix to his friend Capt. Sturt's book — an appendix which of itself 
will make the book valuable to the scientific man. 

Capt. Sturt's collection consisted of about 100 species, with many 
other plants, chiefly trees, not easily determinable, and alluded to in 
his interesting narrative. The Captain and his companion Mr. Browne 
(the name was a good one for Austrahan botany), " seem," as Dr. 
Robert Brown informs us in his appendix, " to have collected chiefly 
those plants that appeared to them new or striking," and of such the 
collection contains a considerable proportion. 

The new genera and species recorded are — 
Blennodia, a genus of Cruciferae allied to Matthiola, but diff^ering 
in having incumbent cotyledons, and in the mucous covering of 
the seeds ; the species is Blennodia canescens. 
Sturtia, a genus of Malvaceae nearly related to Gossypium and 
Senra ; the species Sturtia Gossypioides was found by the enterpri- 
sing man with whose name it is associated, in the beds of the 
creeks on the Barrier Range. 
Tribulus hystrix and T. occidentalis from the W. coast of Australia, 

the latter found during the voyage of the Beagle. 
Tribulopis, a new genus allied to Tribulus, and containing three 
species here shortly characterized : T. Solandri, found by Banks 
and Solander in 1770 near Endeavour River; T. angustifolia on 
the shore at the top of the Gulf of Carpentaria, where it was disco- 
vered by Mr. Brown on Flinders's expedition in 1802 and 1803 ; 
and T. pentandra. 
Crotalaria Sturtii and C. Cunninghami. 
Clianthus Dampieri ; the synonyma are given and remarks, some from 

Cunningham's MS. Journal. 
Clidanthera, n. g. ; perhaps near Psoralea, but differing in the 
unusual dehiscence of the anthers. The species is named Clidan- 
thera Psorolioides. 

58 Bibliographical Notices. 

Swainsona grandijiora , S. Greyana, S. ? laxa. 

Pentadymis, n. g. of Labiate plants; P. incana. 

Cassia Sturtii, C. canaliculata, C. eremophila, Cunningh. MSS., C. 
platypoda, C. phyllodinea. 

Petalostylis, a new genus of CtEsalpinece very near Labichea ; the 
species is named Petalostylis Labicheoides. 

PoDocoMA, a genus distinguished from Erigeron particularly by its 
stipitate pappus. The only species yet known is Podocoma cunei- 

Leichardtia, a genus named after Dr. Leichardt, among the most 
enterprising of Australian explorers, whose narrative has been for 
two years before the public ; the compliment of Mr. Brown will 
prove in the eyes of all botanists one even more graceful than the 
deserved one of the medal of the Royal Geographical Society 
of London awarded to him in 1846. 

The species Leichardtia australis was originally found by Sir T. 
Mitchell, but with fruit only, in one of his journeys, and also in 
his last expedition, where it is mentioned (Trop. Austr. p. 85) as 
Doubah ; the natives, we are informed by Sir Thomas, eat the seed- 
vessel entire, preferring it roasted. Captain Sturt observes, that 
the natives of the districts where he found it eat only the pulpy 
seed-vessel, rejecting the seeds. 

Jasminum linear e, Brown, Prodr. i. 521, is a very generally distri- 
buted Australian species. Dr. Lindley has, according to our au- 
thor, made of a very slight variety of it, his species Jasminum Mit- 
chellii (Lindley in Mitchell's Trop. Austr. p. 365). 

Jasminum micranthum, n. s. 

Goodenia cycloptera, n. s. 

SccEvola depauperata, n. s. " In salt-ground in lat. 26° S." 

Eremophila Cunning hamii ; Eremodendi'on C, DeCandolle, Prod. xi. 
713 ; Deless. Ic. Sel. v. 43. t. 100, where there is an error in the 
number of the ovules. Our author gives an analysis of the five 
species, describing a new one. 

Eremophila Sturtii. We may remark, that a genus of Desert-loving 
Egyptian and Arabian MantidcB is named Eremiaphila. The slight 
difference of spelling and sound, as well as the total distinction of 
the subjects, ought to prevent any change of name. Insects and 
plants are sufficiently vfeW-marked without the mere alteration of 
a sound. 

Stenochilus longifolius, Br. Prod. i. 517, is identical with the recently 
described S. pubiflorus and salicinus. The same remark that ap- 
plied to the name of the last genus applies to this. Amongst the 
Coleoptera there is a well-marked genus Stenocheila, described by 
Prof. Lacordaire ; there is no danger of an entomologist without 
this beautiful carabidous form, finding some day an Australian 
plant sent him by a correspondent in place of an insect desideratum 
to his cabinet. 

Grevillea (Eugrevillea) Sturtii, n. s. 

Grevillea Mitchellii, Hooker, Mitchell's Trop. Austr. p. 265, proves 
to be G. chrysodendron, Br. Prod. Fl. N. Holl. 379, the name being 

Bibliographical Notices. 59 

given, " not from the colour of the under surface of the leaves, 

vs^hich is nearly white, but from the numerous orange-coloured 

racemes rendering this tree conspicuous at a great distance." 
Grevillea {Plagiopoda) neglect a, n. s. 
Grevillea {Cycloptera) lineata, n. s. near G. striata. 
Ptilotus lati/olius, n. s. A similar remark might be made on this 

generic name to those two already given. 
Neurachne paradoxa, n. s. 

We have dwelt on this paper at greater length than usual, for in 
it are far more than " veteris vestigia flammae." We extract an in- 
teresting passage supplemental to some observations of Dr. Brown's 
published in 1814 in the Botanical Appendix to Captain Flinders's 

•' From the knowledge I then had of New Holland, or Australian 
vegetation, I stated that its chief peculiarities existed in the greatest 
degree in a parallel included between 33° and 35° S. lat., which I 
therefore called the principal parallel, but that these peculiarities or 
characteristic tribes were found chiefly at its western and eastern 
extremities, being remarkably diminished in that intermediate por- 
tion included between 133° and 138° E. long. These observations 
related entirely to the shores of Australia, its interior being at that 
period altogether unknown ; and the species of Australian plants 
with which I was then acquainted did not exceed 4200. Since that 
time great additions have been made to the number, chiefly by Mr. 
Allan Cunningham, in his various journeys from Port Jackson, and 
on the shores of the north and north-west coasts during the voyages 
of Captain King, whom he accompanied ; by Messrs. William Baxter, 
James Drummond, and M. Preiss, at the western extremity of the 
principal parallel ; and by Mr. Ronald Gunn, in Van Diemen's Land. 
It is probable that I may be considered as underrating these addi- 
tions, when I venture to state them as only between two and three 
thousand, and that the whole number of Australian plants at pre- 
sent known does not exceed, but rather falls short of, 7000 species. 

"These additions, whatever their amount may be, confirm my ori- 
ginal statement respecting the distribution of the characteristic tribes 
of the New Holland flora ; some additional breadth might perhaps 
be given to the principal parallel, and the extent of the peculiar fa- 
milies may now be stated as much greater at or near its western 
than at its eastern extremity. 

" With the vegetation of the extra-tropical interior of Australia, we 
are now in some degree acquainted, chiefly from the collections formed 
by the late Mr. Allan Cunningham, and Charles Fraser, in Oxley's 
two expeditions from Port Jackson into the western interior, in 1817 
and 1818; from Captain Sturt's early expeditions, in which the 
rivers Darling, Murrumbidgee, and Murray, were discovered ; from 
those of Sir Thomas Mitchell, who never failed to form extensive 
collections of plants of the regions he visited ; and lastly, from Cap- 
tain Sturt's present collection. 

" The whole number of plants collected in these various expedi- 
tions may be estimated at about 700 or 750 species ; and the gene- 

60 Bibliographical Notices. 

ral character of the vegetation, especially of the extensive sterile 
regions, very nearly resembles that of the heads of the two great 
inlets of the south coast, particularly that of Spencer's Gulf, the same 
or a still greater diminution of the characteristic tribes of the general 
Australian flora being observable. Of these characteristic tribes, 
hardly any considerable proportion is found, except oi Eucalyptus, and 
even that genus seems to be much reduced in the number of species ; 
of the leafless Acacia, which appear to exist in nearly their usual 
proportion ; and of Callitris and Casuarina. The extensive families 
of EpacridecB, Stylidea, Restiacecc, and the tribe of Decandrous Papi- 
Uonacece, hardly exist, and the still more characteristic and extensive 
family of Troteacea is reduced to a few species of Grevillea, Hakea, 
and Persoonia. 

" Nor are there any extensive families peculiar to these regions ; 
the only characteristic tribes being that small section of aphyllous, or 
nearly aphyllous CassitB, which I have particularly adverted to in my 
account of some of the species belonging to Captain Sturt's collec- 
tion, and several genera of Myoporince, particularly Eremophila and 
Stenochilus. Both these tribes appear to be confined to the interior, 
or to the two great gulfs of the south coast, which may be termed the 
outlets or direct continuation of the southern interior; several of the 
species observed at the head of Spencer's Gulf also existing in nearly 
the same meridian, several degrees to the northward. It is not a 
little remarkable that nearly the same general character of vegetation 
appears to exist in the sterile islands of Dampier's Archipelago, on the 
north-west coast, where even some of the species which probably 
exist through the whole of the southern interior are found ; of these 
the most striking instances are, Clianihus Dampieri and Jasminum 
lineare, and to establish this extensive range of these two species was 
my object in entering so minutely into their history in the preceding 

" A still greater reduction of the peculiarities of New Holland 
vegetation takes place in the islands of the south coast." 

Of zoological productions, as far as birds are concerned, Mr. Gould 
informed Captain Sturt that the Cinclosoma cinnamomeus, Gould, 
beautifully figured by Messrs. Gould and Richter in vol. ii., was the 
only new one found during his expedition ; but the Captain evidently, 
though a close observer and accurate recorder of the habits of ani- 
mals, had no facilities, in the usually desert tracts he passed over, to 
preserve skins and specimens, except of plants, easily brought within 
a few sheets of paper : where shrubs are found there will be birds, 
and where plants and animals can live many insects will find a home ; 
we should like to see some of the insect inhabitants of the regions 
Captain Sturt passed through. 

"The figures of the Milvus affinis, and the truly exquisite plate of 
Pigeons, and also that of the Mus conditor, convince us that if Mr. 
Gould, like Mr. Audubon, were to publish, in parts, a reduced size 
(say largish octavo) of such works as his truly national Birds of 
Europe and Birds of Australia, such a series of volumes would find 
an entrance where his larger works could never be seen : the co- 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 61 

loured figures in the book before us prove that reduced representations 
when carefully done and coloured (as these figures are) are more 
useful to the scientific man than large folio volumes, however gorgeous 
and magnificent. 

In Germany, his fine work on the Ramphastidce has been copied on 
a reduced scale ; it is a ]nty that so spirited and talented a man should 
not have all the results of the profit of such books. — A. W. 

Arran and Excursions to Arran, with reference to the Natural History 
of the Island. By the Rev. David Landsborough. 1847. John- 

This excellent work should have been printed without its prefa- 
tory matter, and it would have been noticed by us earlier, but for 
the difficulty we felt about referring to a poem in a scientific Journal. 
The poem of Arran however only occupies 80 pages of a book of 
367 pages, so that the gifted and amiable author of it should have 
published the poem separate, and the excursions separate, or at least 
given the prominence and preface to the larger and (to us) more 
valuable portion of his book. In a future number we intend to give 
some extracts from these very interesting excursions, which will 
show such as are not acquainted with them, that they have another 
" Journal of a Naturalist," and a decidedly originally-treated natural 
history of Arran, which would have delighted Gilbert White of Sel- 
borne. With the works of the Rev. D. Landsborough and the geo- 
logical and picturesque descriptions of Professor Ramsay, Arran, the 
Queen of Scotland's Islands, behind " whose northern battlement of 
hills " we have witnessed more than one glorious sunset, the visitor 
will find most excellent guides. We have tested them both; they 
should be printed in one volume. — A. W. 



Nov. 9, 1848.— The Rev. Dr. Fleming, President, in the Chair. 

The President opened the meeting by making a few observations 
on the flourishing state of the Society. He alluded to the interesting 
communications which had been read during the past session, many 
of which had been published in the Society's Transactions ; and con- 
cluded by expressing a hope that the ensuing session might be 
equally prosperous. 

Numerous donations to the Museum and Library were announced, 
and thanks ordered to be returned for them. 

The following communications were read : — 

1 . " Algaj Orientales, or Descriptions of new species belonging to 
the genus iSargassum " (part 3), by R. K. Greville, LL.D. (Ann. Nat. 
Hist. vol. ii. S. 2. p. 431.) 

2. " Stirpes Cryptogamse Sarnienses, or Contributions towards the 

62 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Cryptogamic Flora of Guernsey," by the Rev. T. Salwey. (See p. 22 
of the present Number.) 

3. " Notice of the occurrence of Anacharis Alsinasirum (Bab.) in 
the river Leen near Nottingham," by James Mitchell, M.D. 

The author states that he first noticed the plant in the muddy 
river Leen which runs through the meadows near Nottingham in 
September 1848, and that more recently he has seen it in enormous 
masses in that stream and in more or less quantity in " every ditch in 
the meadows," and says that " it has certainly not been introduced " 
there. He has not yet noticed the flowers. [The Rev. A. Bloxam 
informs us that it has recently been found by Mr. Kirk of Coventry 
in another new locality ; viz. in the four reservoirs attached to the 
Watford Locks near Crick in Northamptonshire. — Ed. Annals.] 

4. Dr. Balfour read a letter from Dr. George Johnston of Ber- 
wick, in which he notices the discovery of the Anacharis Alsinasirum 
in a truly wild locality in the bed of the Whittadder. He also read 
extracts from a letter from Mr. Babington, stating that he possesses 
a specimen of the same plant sent to him in July 1842, by Dr. John- 
ston, from a pond at Dunse Castle in Berwickshire ; the specimen 
was sent at that time as being a plant new to Dr. Johnston, but from' 
the want of flower or fruit it was not then determined and subse- 
quently mislaid. 

5. " Note on the Colour of a Freshwater Loch," by George Dickie, 
M.D. See p. 20 of the present Number. 

December 14. — The Rev. Dr. Fleming, President, in the Chair. 

Before proceeding to the business of the meeting, it was unani- 
mously resolved, that the Society should record the loss which bo- 
tany and horticulture had sustained in the death of Mr. William 
M'Nab, Superintendent of the Royal Botanical Garden of Edin- 
burgh. Long and ardently devoted to the cultivation of plants, 
Mr. M'Nab had carefully observed the influence of particular treat- 
ment on their evolution, and had acquired very distinct conceptions 
of the nature and limits of variation, and the conditions of healthy 
vegetation. To a profound technical and practical knowledge of his 
profession he added a frankness in imparting his information, con- 
joined with a correct view of his social position, and a singleness 
and modesty of character by which he secured a rare amount of 
respect and esteem. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. " Algae Orientales, or Descriptions of new species belonging to 
the genus Sargassum" (part 4), by R. K. Greville, LL.D. 

The paper was illustrated by drawings of each species, and will 
appear in the ' Annals of Natural History ' and in the Society's Trans- 

2. " On certain Glandular Bodies occurring in the Epidermis of 
Plants," by Charles Murchison, Esq. Mr. Murchison stated that 
the bodies under consideration consist of nucleated cells of various 
forms, often divided by partitions, and containing oily and granular 
matter. In describing them he noticed — 1st, Their structure, form, 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. G3 

and distribution ; 2nd, The action of chemical re- agents on them ; 
and 3rd, Their development. He mentioned their occurrence in 
Aloysia citriodora, where they exist in the form of a transparent cir- 
cular membrane, with a central dark spot or nucleus ; in various 
Labiata, including species of Thymus, Mentha, Ballota, Melissa, La- 
vandula, Marrubium, Leonurus, Teucrium, Sideritis, Hyssopus and 
Origanum, in which they appear in the form of a transparent parent- 
cell, including a circular body about 1- 600th of an inch in diameter, 
which is divided into four by a crucial septum, and in some cases 
subdivided further, so as to give twelve compartments — four in the 
centre and eight in the circumference, disposed in a circular manner. 

The author next considered these bodies as they occur in the Lilac 
{Syringa vulgaris), Tecoma australis, Myrica conifera and serrata. 

He stated that their contents are usually of an oily nature, being 
soluble in aether, but insoluble in water. They are developed in the 
same way as cells in general, the nucleus splitting into two cells, 
and each of these into two others, and so on. In all these bodies 
there are four primary compartments, which are often subdivided 
into eight, twelve, or more. This division into four resembles what 
takes place in pollen grains, and in the spores of many Cryptogamic 
plants, as Lycopodium, Sphagnum, and various algae. 

From the form and structure of these bodies, taken in connection 
with their contents, and the manner in which they can be detached 
and separated from the cuticle, the author concludes that they are of 
a glandular nature. The paper was illustrated by coloured etchings. 

Mr. Sanderson called attention to some forms of abortive hairs, 
as represented by Raspail, and suggested that the bodies observed 
by Mr. Murchison might be of the same nature. 

3. " On the mode of growth of Oscillatoria and allied genera," 
by John Ralfs, Esq., Penzance. (See p. 39 of the present Number.) 

Professor Balfour was elected President for the ensuing year. 

Professor Christison, Dr. Neill, Rev. Dr. Fleming, and Professor 
Goodsir, were elected Vice-Presidents. 

William Brand, Esq., Treasurer, and Dr. Greville, Secretary. 


The monthly meeting of this Society took place in the Institution 
Rooms, 6 York Place, on the evening of Wednesday last, when Dr. 
Greville occupied the chair, and there was a full attendance of mem- 
bers and visitors. The first communication was from Mr. Hugh 
Miller regarding the Asterolepis, and other allied genera of fossil 
fishes from the Old Red Sandstone, illustrated by a beautiful set of 
specimens and casts, revealing the structure and oeconomy of these 
ancient Ganoids, and the relation they bear to their congeners of the 
present day. Mr. Miller mentioned that several large specimens of 
the Asterolepis had been found in Russia by Professor Asmus, of the 
University of Dorpat, and in the north and west of Caithness by Mr. 
Robert Dick of Thurso. The Caithness specimens, he said, though 
not altogether so gigantic as those of Russia, were in a greatly finer 

64 Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. 

state of keeping, and furnished a better basis for the restoration of 
the animal. Its head was covered with strong dermal plates of bone, 
fretted on the exterior surface by the star-like tubercles to which the 
creature owed its name ; its jaws were furnished by a thickly-set 
outer row of Jish teeth, and an inner thinly-set row of huge reptile 
teeth ; a single plate of vast size protected the under part of the head, 
filling up the arch-shaped space formed by the semicircular sweep 
of the lower jaw ; its gill-covers, like those of the sturgeon, were 
composed each of a single plate ; — like a contemporary fish of the 
same family, the Glyptolepis, it had a strong shoulder-bone (the ana- 
logue in fishes of the os humerus in quadrupeds and the human sub- 
ject), and its body was covered with delicately fretted scales inter- 
mediate in their style of carving between those of the Holoptychius 
and Glyptolepis. The true skull of the animal was apparently a mere 
cartilaginous box, of which no fragment survives, but in the exterior 
cranial plates there might be traced what seemed to be analogues 
of the frontal -superior, frontal- anterior, and parietal bones. The 
eye orbits were placed, as in many of its contemporaries, immediately 
over the upper jaw ; and, as in Coccosteus, Diplopterus, and Osteolepis, 
a small well-marked plate occupied the centre of the space between. 
The external lines of the frontal buckler did not always indicate lines 
of suture, but in some cases seemed purely ornamental ; and the rep- 
tile teeth of the creature, as, in the absence of specimens establishing 
the point, had been shrewdly anticipated by Agassiz, indicated the 
true Dendrodic character. One very curious bone, which had its 
place probably over the shoulder, greatly resembled the dorsal spine 
of one of the huger Placoids of the Carboniferous system, — the Gyra- 
canthus ; it was similarly furrowed by diagonal groovings ; but not- 
withstanding the resemblance, it was evidently not an ichthyodorulite, 
but lay flat on the body of the creature in the character of a plate. 
As shown by numerous coprolites found in the same bed with the 
remains of Asterolepis, and which, from their great size, could have 
belonged to none of its contemporaries, the animal had possessed, 
like existing sharks and rays, and some of the extinct Enaiosaurians, 
the spiral disposition of intestine ; and the broken fragments of 
scales of Dipterus, palpably present in their convolutions, demon- 
strated, what might, indeed, be inferred from its formidable teeth, 
carnivorous habits. Mr. Miller stated that the bulk of some of the 
individuals of this genus must have been enormous ; and he was the 
more desirous, he said, to draw attention to the fact, as he had men- 
tioned in his little work on the Old Red Sandstone, founding on a 
large amount of negative evidence, that the fishes of the Lower Old 
Red Sandstone were characterized generally by a mediocrity of size. 
Single occipital plates found by Mr. Dick, in the neighbourhood of 
Thurso, measured sixteen and a half inches, and a corresponding 
plate, in the collection of Professor Asmus, at Dorpat, two feet across ; 
whereas in the very massive specimen of Holoptychius, found by the 
Rev. Mr. Noble of St. Madoes, at Clashbennie, and now in the Bri- 
tish Museum, the two plates by which this single plate of the Aste- 
rolepis is represented, measure only four and a half inches. Mr. 

Zoological Society. 65 

Miller acknowledged to the Society his great obligations to Mr. Dick, 
a singularly intelligent tradesman of Thurso, to whose geological 
labours, prosecuted in his leisure hours, Mr. Miller mainly owed his 
acquaintance with this gigantic Ganoid, and who had kindly made 
over to him the interesting fossils now before them, illustrative of its 
form and character. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Miller's paper several members spoke of 
the interesting nature of his researches, and the desirableness of 
those engaged in the study of paljeontology exerting themselves to 
have in Edinburgh a public collection of fossils, in which our city is 
so deficient. An interesting discussion also took place, principally 
bearing on the relation existing between the fossil fauna and flora of 
ancient epochs and those of the recent aera, when some interesting 
facts were stated by several members, which it is hoped will be 
brought forward at a future meeting. 

Mr. R. Stark then exhibited to the meeting a few specimens of 
mosses recently received from North America, and lichens from the 
Falkland Islands. Among the former were fine specimens of Bryum 
roseum, a large and beautiful species, with mature fruit, Neckera mi- 
nor, Pal. Beauv., ^nA Anomodon viticulosum, B. Auct., which is con- 
fined to North America. These, and the other species shown, illus- 
trated the modifications produced by the difference of climate and 
other influences on them, as well as plants of a higher order common 
to the European and American continent. The lichens from the 
Falkland Islands, brought home by Dr. J. Hooker, were mostly of 
species closely allied to or identical with those of Britain. One of 
the most interesting was a minute species — Squamaria elegans — 
which may be regarded as the most southerly plant known, being 
found alone on the bleak and desolate southern coast of Cockburn's 
Island, beyond which all traces of vegetation disappear. Mr. Stark 
concluded by a few remarks on the desirableness of more fully inves- 
tigating the geographical range of these plants, with a view of illus- 
trating other branches of natural history. 


Feb. 22, 1848.— William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following paper was read : — 

1. On a new Species of Chimpanzee. By Professor Owen, 


This communication contained a description of the skulls of adult 
and aged male and female Chimpanzees from the Gaboon river, west 
coast of Africa, much exceeding in size and specifically distinct from 
the previously known Troglodytes niger. The author proposed to 
call the new species Troglodytes Savagei, after Dr. Thos. S. Savage, 
by whom it had been discovered and its existence made known to 
Professor Owen, in a letter dated April 24th, 1847, and of which the 
following extract was read : — 

Ann. 6c Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 5 

66 Zoological Society. 

" Protestant Mission-House, 
Gaboon River, West Africa, 
" My dear Sir, April 24, 1847. 

" Your known interest in the Zoology of Africa will find a ready 
excuse I trust for the following communication, and lead you, in the 
midst of various engagements, to give me a few moments in reply. 
I am on my way to the United States in a vessel which, to complete 
its voyage, had to touch at this point. I find it a region rich and 
untried in all the departments of Natural History, besides being full 
of interest in a far more important point of view, that of a missionary 
field. I have found the existence of an animal of an extraordinary 
character in this locality, and which I have reason to believe is un- 
known to the naturalist. As yet I have been unable to obtain more 
than a part of a skeleton. It belongs to the Simiadce, and is closely 
allied to the Orangs proper. It reaches nearly if not quite the 
height of five feet in the adult state and is of a large size. I am con- 
siderably in doubt in regard to its identity with an animal said to 
have been known to BufFon as a large species of orang-outan, under 
the name of Pongo. It is referred to in a note on the 58th page 
of the first volume of the American edition of Cuvier's ' llegne 
Animal,' where he asserts that Pongo is a corruption of Boggo, 
which is given in Africa to the chimpanzee or to the mandrill, and 
was applied by BufFon to a pretended large species of orang-outan, 
the mere imaginary product of his combinations. Then he says that 
Wurmb, a naturalist of Batavia, transferred the name (Pongo) to a 
moiikey in Borneo, which he thinks identical with Pithecus Satyrus 
(the real orang-outan, a red orang of Asia). 

" My excellent friend, the Rev. J. L. Wilson, missionary of the 
Am. Bd. of Comm. For. Missions to this part of Africa, thinks that 
Pongo comes from * Mpongive,' the name of the tribe, and con- 
sequently the region, on the banks of the Gaboon river near its 
mouth, among which tribe he has resided for about five years. 
The tribe once extended a great distance on the coast above and 
below the river Gaboon, and the languages spoken for a great 
distance both above and below are evidently but dialects, with the 
Mpongive, of one language. Whence BufFon professed to receive 
his specimen of * large species of orang-outan ' I know not ; but 
this region and its vicinity indefinitely are the only points at which, 
so far as I can ascertain, ' a large species of orang-outan ' has been 
heard of except the chimpanzee, which is now well-known. I have 
seen it mentioned that the skeleton of the Pongo of Borneo is in the 
Royal College of Surgeons, of which Institution you are a Professor. 
Now may I solicit your aid in this matter ? I will send you outlines 
of the skull of the male and female (adults), and ask the favour of 
a reply to my letter, stating whether you can identify them with 
that of any animal you know of under the name of Pongo, or any 
other cognomen. I have no correspondent in Paris ; if you feel 
suflficient interest in the subject, will you do me the favour to as- 
certain from that city the fact whether such skulls exist in any 
cabinet there ? The natives state that a young one was caught 

Zoological Society, 07 

many years ago and sold to a French captain who never returned, 
and that it was the only individual taken out of the river. From 
what I know, the young skull would very much resemble that of 
the chimpanzee. I have four crania (two male and two female), 
with many bones, though not a perfect skeleton ; but I hope to 
complete one before I leave the river, and to procure a dead sub- 
ject, which I shall preserve in spirits. Great uncertainty however 
attends my success, as they are indescribably fierce and dangerous, 
and are found only far in the interior ; they are killed by elephant- 
hunters only in self-defence. 

" Below you have a sketch of the cranium of the male (No. 1) 
and female (No. 2), executed for me by Mrs. Prince, the wife of 
Dr. Prince, the English Baptist Missionary at Fernando Po, who is 
here for a short time in search of health, a, a are two low ridges 
converging as seen in the sketch, and uniting at x, and forming a 
strong prominent ridge in the course of the sagittal suture, which 
comes into a junction with a lateral ridge, d, sent back from the 
petrous portion of such temporal bone ; e is a strong fossa of tri- 
angular shape between the ridges a, a. The space between the 
zygoma and temporal bone in a transverse direction is If inch deep ; 
the diameter from before backwards 3 inches ; at 6 is a sinus 
about half an inch in depth and an inch in length, with foramina 
for the passage of blood-vessels and nerves. The two upper middle 
incisor teeth are absent, but their sockets show their size to have 
been nearly if not quite double the two outer ones. The two lower 
middle incisor teeth are narrower than the two outer. 

" The female cranium is a full-grown one, but differing from the 
male in the prominence of the ridges, the two anterior corresponding 
to a, a in the male, and the central are rudimental only, except at the 
extremes of the latter where it joins the posterior transverse ridge, 
lettered d in the male. It has lost the two middle upper incisors, which 
bear the same relation in respect to size to the two outer that those of 
the male do. All the incisors both in the upper and lower jaw are 
larger than they are in the male. The canines in the female are 
shorter than in the male. These points are all that I need specify- 
to enable you to identify the crania with any in your possession. 
You will greatly oblige me by a comparison, and communicating 
the result at your earliest convenience." 

Professor Owen having, at the time when he received this in- 
formation, observed in the cranium of a young but nearly adult 
Troglodytes niger that the canine teeth presented the same sexual 
superiority of development* as in the orang's (Pithecus), believed 
it possible that the marks of distinction mentioned by Dr. Savage 
might prove to be the fully developed characteristics of old and 
powerful males of the Troglodytes niger ; and in the absence of 
means of making comparisons of other characters, besides superior 
size, longer and larger canine teeth, and concomitant strong sagittal 
and lambdoidal cristse, he had deemed it better to communicate 

* Odontography, pi. 118, 119, fig. 1. 



Zoological Society. 

these doubts to Dr. Savage, than to hazard a premature indication 
of a species, which mi^ht prove a sexual, or a local and stronger, 
variety of chimpanzee. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

Mr. Samuel Stutchbury of Bristol, who had likewise received from 
Dr. Savage a similar announcement of the existence of a large and 
formidable species of chimpanzee in the Gaboon district, had re- 
quested some of the captains of vessels trading from Bristol to the 
Gaboon river to make inquiries respecting the species and en- 

Zoological Society. 69 

deavour to obtain specimens of it ; and the result was that Captain 
George WagstatF had succeeded in procuring at the Gaboon river, 
and had presented to Mr. Stutchbury, three skulls of the large species 
and one of the smaller species of chimpanzee, all adult : and these 
skulls Mr. Stutchbury had transmitted for description and exhibition 
at the Zoological Society. 

One of the skulls of the large species (Troglodytes Savagei) was 
of a very old male : the length of the skull was 11 j inches (0*29), 
with the molars worn nearly to the stumps, and the crown of the 
canine reduced, partly by fracture, partly by attrition, to its basal 
portion : its pulp had been inflamed and had produced ulceration of 
the alveolus. 

A second skull was also of a male, of equal size, with the full 
dentition of maturity, but with merely the summits of the cusps of 
the molars and the margins of the incisors slightly worn. The 
third skull of the Troglodytes Savagei was of a female, 9 inches 
(0'23) long, with the mature dentition, and with the molars not 
more worn than in the younger male. The fourth skull was of a 
female adult chimpanzee, 1\ inches (0*185) in length, of the known 
species (Troglodytes niger), with the complete permanent dentition, 
and the teeth more abraded than in the two preceding skulls. 

The lower jaw was wanting in each of the foregoing specimens, 
and the occipital or basal part of the skull had been more or less 
fractured in each ; the skull of the young but full-grown male of 
the Troglodytes Savagei being the most perfect. 

Captain WagstafF reached Bristol in a broken state of health, and 
died soon after his arrival. The only information which Mr. Stutch- 
bury was able to obtain from him was, that the natives, when they 
succeed in killing one of these chimpanzees, make a ' fetish' of the 
cranium. The specimens bore indications of the sacred marks in 
broad red stripes crossed by a white stripe, of some pigment which 
could be washed off. Their superstitious reverence of these hideous 
remains of their formidable and dreaded enemy adds to the difliculty 
of obtaining specimens. 

Besides the young but mature skull of the male Troglodytes niger^ 
of which the permanent dentition was figured in the author's 
' Odontography,' he had compared with Mr. Stutchbury's speci- 
mens of Troglodytes Savagei, a skull of a more aged male Troglodytes 
niger with the permanent dentition more worn than in the younger 
adult male of the Troglodytes Savagei. The results of a detailed 
comparison between the skulls of the adult males of the two species 
were then given. Besides the differences of size, as indicated in 
the subjoined * Table of Dimensions,' the following were among the 
characters establishing the specific distinction of the two chimpan- 
zees. With regard to the dentition, the author observed that, as 
in the smaller species of the Orangs of Borneo (Pithecus Morio), the 
incisive teeth of the smaller species of chimpanzee (Troglodytes 
niger) equalled in size those of the larger species (Troglodytes 
Savagei) ; but that the canines and the molars were considerably 
larger in the Troglodytes Savagei : the series of the five molar teeth 

70 Zoological Society. 

in this species occupy an extent of 2 inches 7^ lines (0*06'8), whilst 
in Troglodytes niger tlieir extent is only 1 inch \0^ lines (0'048). 
The crown of the canine inclines more outwards in Troglodytes 
Savagei ; the longitudinal convex ridge on its inner surface is more 
prominent, the anterior groove bounding that ridge being deeper in 
Troglodytes Savagei than in Troglodytes niger : the posterior inner 
groove is continued upon the root of the tooth in Troglodytes 
Savagei. The last molar is more nearly equal in size to the penul- 
timate one, and is more complex in structure, than in Troglodytes 
niger ; it has the posterior outer cusp and particularly the posterior 
inner cusp more developed, and it has distinctly the connecting 
cross ridge between the posterior outer and the anterior inner cusp, 
which ridge is not developed in the last molar of Troglodytes niger. 
The bony palate is longer in projiortion to its breadth than in 
Troglodytes niger, in which the breadth of the palate between the 
canines is absolutely greater than in Troglodytes Savagei. 

The external sutures between the premaxillary and maxillary 
bones, which disappear so early in the Troglodytes niger, are more 
or less persistent and traceable in all but the oldest male skull of 
the Troglodytes Savagei; these sutures show that after the pre- 
maxillary bone has entered the nose, of which it forms the lateral 
boundary of the external opening, it again appears upon the exterior 
surface of the face above the nostril, where its upper extremity forms 
a triangular or wedge-shaped flattened piece, interposed between 
the lower half of the os nasi and the os maxillare superius, thus ex- 
cluding the latter bone from the boundary of the external nostril. 
One skull of a young Troglodytes niger with deciduous teeth in place, 
shows by the still persistent upper half of its facial suture, that it 
terminates in a point a little above the middle of the border of the 
external nostril, and that a portion of the superior maxillary is in- 
terposed between it and the nasal : in two other skulls of young 
Troglodytes niger, the slender pointed summits of the premaxillaries 
reach the nasals and exclude the maxillaries from the boundary of 
the nostril, but do not expand into triangular plates as in Troglodytes 
Savagei : in not any of the skulls of Troglodytes niger with the per- 
manent dentition does any trace of the suture between the premax- 
illaries and maxillaries remain*. 

The nasal bones of the Troglodytes Savagei also afforded a re- 
markable specific character : although the traces of their primary 
median division were obvious at their lower part, they had coa- 
lesced with each other as in the smaller species ; but instead of 
being flat, or slightly and equably convex on the anterior surface, 
as in Troglodytes niger, they are produced forwards as they incline 
towards each other, along their upper half, and project there in the 
form of a slight bony longitudinal ridge, equally dividing the lower 
half of the interorbital space. This character — the nearest ap])roach 

* M. de Blainville, describing the osteology of the chimpanzee from a young 
specimen of the Troglodytes niger, says, " Mais les premaxillaires, qm olfrent la 
particularite de toucher a peine les os du nez et de souder dc fort bon heure avec 
les raaxillaires," &c. Osteographic, fasc. i. p. 33. 

Zoological Society. 71 

to the prominent nasal bones of Man made by any known species of 
ajje — is as well-marked in the female Troglodytes Savagei as in the 
male. The lower half of the coalesced nasals in Troglodytes Savagei 
is expanded and nearly flat, of an oval form, with the border forming 
the upper part of the nostril eraarginate on each side of a median, 
sometimes bifid, point. Thus the lateral border of the nasal bone 
describes a strong sigmoid curve, convex outwards in its lower two- 
thirds, in Troglodytes Savagei; in the less expanded nasal bone of 
Troglodytes niger the same border is usually concave outwards, or 
very slightly convex outwards at the lower third ; and the outer 
surface of the bone is flat or equably and very slightly convex. The 
greater breadth of the lower end of the nasal with the expansion of 
the upper ends of the premaxillaries, gives a diflferent form to the 
external nostril in the Troglodytes Savagei to that which it presents 
in Troglodytes niger : in this it is ovate or cordate with the narrow 
end upwards ; in the larger species it is a wide ellipsoid, almost as 
broad above as below. 

The alveolar portion of the premaxillaries in Troglodytes Savagei 
was absolutely shorter than in Troglodytes niger, and therefore 
much shorter relatively, and to that extent the skull of the larger 
species is less ' prognathic* The zygomatic processes were not 
only absolutely as well as relatively stronger and deeper than in 
Troglodytes niger, but diflPerently shaped ; the squamosal portion 
rising in an angular form in Troglodytes Savagei, and being as deep 
as the malar portion. The temporal fossae are relatively as well as 
absolutely wider ; for whilst the zygomatic arches are more expanded, 
the diameter of the intervening postorbital part of the cranium is the 
same in the male Trogl. Savagei as in the Trogl. niger. There is a 
distinct hemispheric mastoid process in the male Troglodytes Savagei, 
The spheno-maxillary fissure is narrower and less bent in Troglodytes 
Savagei than in Troglodytes niger, in which it more nearly resembles 
that of Man. The supraorbital ridges were even proportionally more 
developed in the larger than in the smaller species of chimpanzee, 
and send down a vertical prominence to the root of the nasal bones. 
The outer and lower borders of the orbits, and the whole malar bones 
are more prominent and tumid, and, with the enormous sagittal and 
lambdoidal crests and zygomatic arches, give a scowling and dia- 
bolical physiognomy even to dry bones of the head of this most for- 
midable of the great Anthropoid apes. 

In the skull of the female of the Troglodytes Savagei in which 
the canine teeth show the same sexual inferiority of size as in the 
female Troglodytes niger, the molar teeth present the same superior 
degree of development and complexity, especially the last molar, as 
in the male of the larger species, and have demanded a concomitant 
increase of bulk of the temporal muscles ; and consequently not only 
are the zygomatic arches relatively stronger, but the temporal ridges, 
instead of being separated as shown in an aged skull of the female 
Troglodytes niger in the museum of the College of Surgeons,- by a 
smooth tract of more than an inch in breadth, come into contact 
at the beginning of the sagittal suture, and are so continued back- 
wards with a narrow groove between them, to the lambdoidal crest. 

73 Zoological Bociety. 

The development of this crest also renders the supraoccipital sur- 
face almost flat in the female Troglodytes Savagei, and it is even con- 
cave in the great males ; whilst in both adult males and females of 
the Troglodytes niger it is convex. 

There are specific distinctions in the interior of the cranium of 
the two species : the olfactory (rhinencephalic) fossa closed by the 
cribriform plate, though very little wider, is considerably deeper in 
Troglodytes Savagei than in Troglodytes niger ; and the * crista galli,' 
which is small in Troglodytes niger, is absent in Troglodytes Savagei, 
nor is there any ridge continued from the fossa upon the inner sur- 
face of the frontal in the line of the frontal suture. 

In Troglodytes niger there is a short ala minor sphenoidei continued 
outwards from the anterior clinoid process, and the upper and outer 
angle of the foramen lacerum anterius is produced into a short cleft : 
in Troglodytes Savagei the rudiment of the ala minor terminates at 
the upper border of the foramen lacerum anterius, which has a sub- 
quadrate form, and is not extended outwards into an angular fissure. 
The sella turcica is relatively shallower in Troglodytes Savagei than 
in Troglodytes niger, in which it is shallower than in Man. 

Many other minor differences were noted, but these would be 
better understood by the aid of the figures in the memoir. Some 
scepticism, the author observed, might be expected as to the alleged 
specific distinction of the large and small chimpanzees by natural- 
ists who had not been able to realise the differences by actual 
comparison of the specimens; but Professor Owen felt no doubt 
that, as in the case of the Pithecus Morio, more extended knowledge 
of the new species would confirm the validity of its distinction from 
the Troglodytes niger. 

The stronger zygomatic arches and the more developed sagittal 
and lambdoidal crests might be viewed as adaptive developments 
concomitant on the larger canines, and indicative of a larger and 
more powerful variety of chimpanzee ; but the larger proportional 
molars and the smaller proportional incisors, the more equal and 
complex last molar tooth, together with the prominence — slight as 
it is — of the nasal bones at their median coalescence, their inferior 
expansion, and, above all, the reappearance of the premaxillaries by 
their expanded superior extremities upon the face above the nostril, 
are more than mere differences of size and proportion, and being 
repeated in both male and female adults of the great chimpanzee of 
Gaboon, leave no alternative, according to the value assigned to 
such characters in other Quadrumanous genera, than to pronounce 
the Troglodytes Savagei to be specifically distinct from the Troglo- 
dytes niger, and this to be, as the Pithecus Morio is to the Pithecus 
Wurmbii in Borneo, a smaller, feebler and more anthropoid species 
of the genus Troglodytes in Africa. 

In conclusion. Prof. Owen remarked that he had proposed the 
name of the new species of Chimpanzee provisionally, for the con- 
venience of its description and comparison ; and that, should he be 
able to learn that its discoverer had given a name to it, he should 
adopt that name, of which Troglodytes Savagei would then be a 

Zoological Society. 


Length of the head from the inion, or pos- "j 

terior plane of the occiput, to the niar- V 

gin of the incisors J 

Length of the head from the imon to the 1 

fronto-nasal suture J 

Length of the head from the fronto-nasal \ 

suture to the margin of the incisors ... J 
Transverse diameter of the cranium atl 

the post-auditory ridges J 

Length of the smallest lateral diameter"! 

of the cranium behind the orbits J 

Length of the osfrontis 

Length of the sagittal suture 

Distance between the temporal ridges 

Diameter of the face at the zygomata 

Length of the zygomatic fossa 

Breadth of the zygomatic ybs^fl! 

Diameter of the face taken from the out- 1 

sides of the middle of the orbits J 

Interorbital space 

Lateral diameter of the orbit 

Perpendicular diameter of the orbit 

Transverse diameter of the nasal aperture 
Perpendicular diameterof the nasal aperture 
Distance between the infraorbital fora- \ 

mina / 

Breadth of the alveolar portion of the 1 

maxilla superior J 

Distance from the inferior margin of the! 

nasal bone to the inferior margin of > 

the intermaxillary bones J 

Length of the bony palate 

Distance from the anterior margin of the "j 

intermaxillary bones to the anterior K 

palatal foramen J 

Antero-posterior extent of the palatal 1 

process of the palate bone J 

Breadth of the crown of the first incisor.., 
Breadth of the crown of the second incisor 
Breadth of the four incisors (upper jaw) ... 
Length of the grinding surface of all the 1 

molares, the bicuspides included J 

Length of the crown of the canine tooth... 
Breadth of the enameled crown of the"! 

canine tooth J 

Interspace between the canine and in-"^ 

cisor teeth, upper jaw 

Distance from the anterior margin 

the occipital foramen to the posterior 

margin of the bony palate 



in. lin. 

11 4 

6 10 

lor y 











3 1 

2 6 
4 1 

1 1 

1 1 







in. lin. 

9 0* 

6 3 

4 4 

5 6 

2 5 

3 7 


5 3 


1 5 

4 8 

2 5 

2 7 

2 3 

3 4 




1 6: 

2 7 






in. lin. 

7 6 

5 2 

3 8 

4 9 
2 8 


1 4 
1 3 

2 4 

2 3 
2 10 


in. lin. 

5 4 

3 10 
5 1 

2 9 

2 10 
2 8 
1 11 
1 4 

4 4 


1 5 
1 3 

2 4^ 

2 6 

2 7 

3 1 




1 H 

1 9* 





n. lin. 
8 6 

5 7 

4 4 

4 8 

2 6 

3 9 

1 8 

2 8 


2 5 2 9 2 10 

in. lin. 
10 6 

* To front border of premaxillaries. 

t This varies according to the outswelling of the aethmoidal cells : in one female skull of 
Trogl. niger the interorbital space was an inch across. 
X Of the alveolus. § Base mutilated. !| Suture obliterated. 

71 Miscellaneous. 


Journey to Explore the Province of Para. 

Messrs. Wallace and Bates, two enterprising and deserving young 
men, left this country last April on an expedition to South America 
to explore some of the vast and unexamined regions of the province 
of Para, said to be so rich and varied in its productions of natural 
history. They have already forwarded two beautiful parcels of in- 
sects of all orders, containing about 7000 specimens in very fine con- 
dition, and a vast number of novelties, besides other very rare spe- 
cies, some of which were known only to the entomological world by 
the beautiful figures in Cramer and Stoll, and a few shells and bird- 
skins. The last parcel is the result of their journey up the river 
Tocantins. The following passage is an extract from their letter to 
Mr. S. Stevens, dated Para, Oct. 23, to whom the consignments have 
been forwarded, and who has the disposal of them (see Advertise- 
ment on cover). 

*• If any one is curious about our trip up the Tocantins, you may 
inform them that we ascended to about the 4th parallel of S. lat. 
near the Rio Tabocas, having reached Arroya, the last abode of ci- 
vilized people, and passed a little beyond to view the rapids called 
Guaribas. We hired one of the heavy iron boats with two sails for 
the voyage, with a crew of four Indians and a black cook. We had 
the usual difficulties of travellers in this country in the desertion of 
our crew, which delayed us six or seven days in going up ; the voy- 
age took us three weeks to Guaribas and two weeks returning. We 
reached a point about twenty miles below Arroya, beyond which a 
large canoe cannot pass in the dry season, from the rapids, falls and 
whirlpools which here commence and obstruct the navigation of this 
magnificent river more or less to its source ; here we were obliged to 
leave our vessel and continue in an open boat, in which we were 
exposed for two days, amply repaid however by the beauty of the 
scenery, the river (here a mile wide) being studded with rocky and 
sandy islets of all sizes, and richly clad with vegetation ; the shores 
high and undulating, covered with a dense but picturesque forest ; 
the waters dark and clear as crystal ; and the excitement in shooting 
fearful rapids, &c. acted as a necessary stimulant under the heat of 
an equatorial sun, and thermometer 95° in the shade. Our collec- 
tions were chiefly made lower down the river. During the five weeks 
of our journey we had no rain till the last two days. The weather 
here is as delightful as ever ; the mornings invariably fine, and a 
shower in the afternoon every third or fourth day, which cools and 
refreshes everything delightfully. The heat is never oppressive ; the 
nights always cool ; there can certainly be no climate in the world 
superior to this, and few equal. Since sending our last collection, we 
have had further experience of the rarity of insects in this country. 
The Lepidoptera are numerous in sj)ccies, but not in individuals ; 
the Coleoptera are exceedingly scarce, and other orders are gene- 

Miscellaneom. 75 

rally, like the Lepidoptera, sparing in individuals ; we attribute it to 
the uninterrupted extent of monotonous forest over which animal 
life is sparingly but widely scattered. However this makes a differ- 
ence in the commercial value of the subjects. The present collection 
is the fruits of two months' devoted and almost exclusive attention 
to insects. Shells and Orchids continue to be exceedingly scarce." 

How to prevent the Attacks of the Bed-bug, Ciraex lectularius. 
By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 

To Richard Taylor, Esq. 

Oakland, December 7th, 1818. 
My dear Sir, — A short communication of mine, printed in the 
' Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' second series, vol. ii, 
pp. 357-359, recommending the adoption of a method of preventing 
the attacks of the bed-bug, founded on the fact, established by ob- 
servation and experiment, thnt this loathsome insect, in consequence 
of not being provided with a climbing apparatus, is incapable of 
ascending hard dry bodies having highly polished perpendicular sur- 
faces, has elicited, I perceive, a few strictures from the pen of your 
correspondent Walter White, Esq., to the purport, that the plan 
proposed is neither new in kind nor efficient in operation (' Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History,' second series, vol. ii. pp. 457,458). 

To the spirit in which the strictures are made, no objection can 
possibly be entertained ; but I may be allowed to remark, that the 
sole object I had in contemplation when obtruding upon the readers 
of your widely- circulated Journal my thoughts in connexion with 
this practical application of entomological knowledge to the domestic 
comfort of thousands of human beings, was public utility ; whether 
the scheme propounded had novelty to recommend it or not, I had 
small means of ascertaining, and, indeed, did not stop to inquire, 
being satisfied that, speaking generally, it was, at all events, either 
unknown or strangely disregarded. 

With reference to the only circumstance advanced by Mr. White 
as militating against the efficacy of the project I have enunciated ; 
namely, that bugs are in the habit of crawling up walls and along 
ceilings until they perceive that they are directly over beds, when 
they quit their hold of the plaster and drop upon them, I would ob- 
serve, that although neither reading nor personal experience had 
made me acquainted with this remarkable instinctive phsenomenon 
in the natural history of the bed-bug, yet the idea had occurred to 
my mind that such a descent might sometimes happen accidentally ; 
but that as it would probably be a rare event, and, except in the 
case of an impregnated female, would not be likely to produce per- 
manent inconvenience, any special provision to counteract it was 
deemed unnecessary. Considered as the result of an innate propen- 
sity this act assumes a widely different character, and it becomes a 
matter of importance to determine in what manner it can be guarded 

76 Miscellaneous. 

against : fortunately the difficulty is not great ; a canopy composed 
of any light compact material closely attached to a wooden frame in 
whose outer margins glass cylinders are so far imbedded as to leave 
a bold, convex, exterior surface, would completely answer the pur- 
pose. This canopy, whose area must exceed that of the bed, may 
be supported on the summits of the bedposts or suspended from the 
ceiling, as may be most convenient ; and if its periphery were con- 
structed without angles, it would be a decided advantage. When the 
extreme difficulty of extirpating bugs from rooms, especially in old 
houses where they have been suffered to multiply to excess, is borne 
in mind, the desirableness of possessing the means of securing beds 
from their insidious approaches will scarcely be denied. 

The plan of protection against the attacks of the bed-bug which I 
have proposed or advocated, if the latter term should be thought 
more appropriate, of course was never intended to apply to animals 
provided with wings or a spinning apparatus ; to prevent their ac- 
cess to beds, recourse must be had to musquito-curtains, or to some 
similar contrivance ; but with regard to spiders, as they do not seek 
to prey upon or even to come in contact with the human species, 
and as the pain consequent upon the wounds which our more power- 
ful indigenous species are capable of inflicting is very slight and 
speedily subsides, there is nothing to be apprehended from the Ara- 
neidea of Great Britain. 

I am, my dear Sir, very truly yours, 

John Blackwall. 

Description of Sarcoptilus, a new genus of PENNATULioiE. 
By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 

Sir William Jackson Hooker lately sent to the British Museum 
some bottles containing animals in spirits, some from New Zealand, 
others from South America, and some without any habitats : amongst 
the latter there is a fine specimen of a Sea Pen, resembling the true 
genus Pennatula in general form, but differing from it most essentially 
in the form of the pinn<e and their substance, and presenting a most 
interesting new form in the family. 

Each of the pinnce resemble the frond of Renilla, Lam. ; they are 
placed in two crowded rows, one on each side of the upper part of 
the axis, and, like that genus, they have the polypes scattered over 
the upper surface of the pinnae, which, as well as the surface of the 
stem, do not exhibit any spicula, but are smooth and fleshy. 

This genus may be considered as the passage between Pennatula 
and Renilla, 


Coral pen-shaped ; shaft thick, fleshy, attenuated towards the tip, 
smooth, slightly striated longitudinally, and granulose on the surface ; 
axis subquadrangular, rather thick, flexible when moist, formed of 
concentric coats and longitudinal fibres. Pinnce placed in two 
rrowded rows, one on each side of one of the faces of the upper part 

Miscellaneous. 77 

of the shaft, kidney-shaped, crumpled, with the polypes scattered on 
the edge and upper surfaces, especially near the edge. Polypes 
small, when contracted leaving very small papillae on the surface. 

Sarcoptilus grandis. 

Shaft very thick at the base, longitudinally striated. Pinnae 25 
on each side, the lower one smallest. 

Hab. ? Brit. Mus. 

Length 8 inches. — From the Proceedings of the Zool. Soc. for 
March 14, 1848. 

Remarkable Instances of Instinct, or Intelligence, in Animals. 
By Dr. Warwick. 

When he resided at Durham, the seat of the Earl of Stamford and 
Warrington, he was walking one evening in the park, and came to a 
pond, where fish intended for the table were temporarily kept. He 
took particular notice of a fine pike, of about six pounds weight, 
which, when it observed him, darted hastily away. In so doing, it 
struck its head against a tenterhook in a post (of which there were 
several in the pond, placed to prevent poaching), and, as it afterwards 
appeared, fractured its skull, and turned the optic nerve on one side. 
The agony evinced by the animal appeared most horrible. It rushed 
to the bottom, and, boring its head into the mud, whirled itself round 
with such velocity that it was almost lost to the sight for a short in- 
terval. It then plunged about the pond, and at length threw itself 
completely out of the water on to the bank. He (the doctor) went 
and examined it, and found that a very small portion of the brain 
was protruding from the fracture in the skull. He carefully replaced 
this, and, with a small silver tooth-pick, raised the indented portion 
of the skull. The fish remained still for a short time, and he then 
put it again into the pond. It appeared at first a good deal relieved, 
but in a few minutes it again darted and plunged about until it threw 
itself out of the water a second time. A second time Dr. Warwick 
did what he could to relieve it, and again put it into the water. It 
continued for several times to throw itself out of the pond, and, with 
the assistance of the keeper, the doctor at length made a kind of 
pillow for the fish, which was then left in the pond to its fate. Upon 
making his appearance at the pond on the following morning, the 
pike came towards him to the edge of the water, and actually laid 
its head upon his foot. The doctor thought this most extraordinary, 
but he examined the fish's skull, and found it going on all right. He 
then walked backwards and forwards along the edge of the pond for 
some time, and the fish continued to swim up and down, turning 
whenever he turned ; but being blind on the wounded side of its skull, 
it always appeared agitated when it had that side towards the bank, 
as it could not then see its benefactor. On the next day he took 
some young friends down to see the fish, which came to him as usual, 
and, at length, he actually taught the pike to come to him at his 
whistle and feed out of his hands. With other persons it continued 

78 Miscellaneous. 

as shy as fish usually are. He (Dr. Warwick) thought this a most 
remarkable instance of gratitude in a fish for a benefit received ; and, 
as it always came at his whistle, it proved also what he had pre- 
viously, with other naturalists, disbelieved, that fishes are sensible to 

Dr. Warwick next related an anecdote illustrative of extraordinary 
instinct in the elephant " Chunee," which was shot some years ago 
at Exeter Change, London, in consequence of his having gone mad. 
This animal would pick up a shilling from the ground with its trunk, 
and place it in the waistcoat pocket of the person who intentionally 
dropped it. Upon one occasion Dr. Warwick dropped a shilling 
purposely out of the animal's reach, and waited the result with some 
curiosity. 1'he elephant appeared to consider for some time, and 
then raising its proboscis to nearly a horizontal position, blew 
violently against the opposite wall ; the reverberation of the wind 
was so forcible that it blew the coin over ; and the elephant repeated 
its blowing until it had got the shilling within its reach ; it then 
picked it up as usual, and deposited it in the doctor's waistcoat 

The President, Dr. Booth, also related an anecdote of this same 
*' Chunee." When the first symptoms of madness were evinced, and 
it was thought necessary to poison him, a strong dose of mineral 
poison was inserted into an orange and given to the elephant. The 
animal was fond of oranges, and immediately swallowed it ; but the 
dose was not strong enough — it merely made him sick. It was at- 
tempted to give a still stronger dose in the same manner, but the 
animal would not take it, and would never again swallow an orange 
without first crushing it on the ground, as if to smell its contents. — 
Proc. of the Lit. and Phil. Soc. of Liverpool, Nov. iv^. p. 76. 


King's ClifFe, Dec. 14, 1848. 
As the generic name Brachycladium, ' Ann. of Nat. Hist.' series 2, 
vol. ii. p. 382, is pre-occupied, I beg to substitute for it Brachycar- 
phium. — M. J . B. 


To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Dec. 18, 1848. 

Gentlemen, — In the Magazine for the last two months are letters 
on the prevention of the bed-bug {Cimex lectularius) . 

I have used Sir William Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid, the solu- 
tion of the chloride of zinc ; it was applied by means of a feather 
to all the joints and crevices in the bedstead and with complete 
success. The solution entering the wood rendered it an unfit, and 
probably a poisonous habitation for the Cimex. 

The prevention of these animals is of more importance than some 
may at first suppose it to be ; in some severe diseases, the disturbance 

Meteorological Observations. 79 

they give the patient may greatly impede recovery, and I have heard 
of instances where soldiers in barracks finding sleep impossible in 
bed have gone out of doors, and sleeping there have been seized 
with inflammation of the lungs or other diseases, dangerous and 
sometimes fatal. Yours, &c., 

Thomas Stratton, R.N. 


Chiswick. — November!. Rain, with fog. 2. Fine: cloudy. 3. Overcast: 
cloudy and fine. 4. Overcast. 5. Clear and frosty : overcast. 6. Overcast. 
7. Clear and cold : sharp frost at night. 8. Froaty : bright sun : clear and frosty. 
9, 10. Clear: slight frost at nights. 11. Overcast. 12. Slight rain. 13, 14. Very 
fine, 15. Clear : severe frost at night. 16. Frosty : clear and fine. 17. Densely 
clouded: rain: peculiar luminosity in the evening: overcast. 18. Densely 
clouded. 19. Very fine. 20. Densely clouded : rain : boisterous. 21. Clear 
and fine: peculiar aurora borcalis half past seven p.m. in N.W. 22. Overcast. 
2:3. Rain. 24. Cloudy: clear and frosty. 25. Frosty: overcast: slight rain. 
26. Cloudy. 27. Very fine. 28. Cloudy. 29. Densely overcast : boisterous. 
SO. Clear : cloudy : partially overcast. 

JNJean temperature of the month 41°*0] 

Mean temperature of Nov. 1847 44 -61 

Mean temperature of Nov. for the last twenty years 43 -00 

Average amount of rain in Nov 2*56 inches. 

Boston. — Nov. 1. Foggy. 2. Fine. 3. Rain : rain a.m. and p.m. 4. Fine: 
rain early a.m. and snow p.m. 5. Fine: rain p.m. 6. Cloudy. 7,8. Fine. 

9. Cloudy : snow A.M. 10 — 14. Fine. 15. Cloudy. 16. Fine. 17. Cloudy: 
rain a.m. 18. Cloudy. 19. Fine. 20. Cloudy : rain in evening. 21. Fine. 
22. Cloudy: rain a.m. 23. Cloudy. 24. Fine. 25. Fine: rain p.m. 26 — 

28. Fine. 29. Fine : rain p.m. 30. Fine. 

Apjilegarlh Mnnse, Dumfries-shire. — Nov. 1. Dull a.m. : soft rain p.m. 2. Fine 
generally: flying showers. 3. Rain a.m.: cleared: looking frosty. 4. Frost 
hard : hills covered with snow. 5. Frost hard : sprinkling of snow. 6. Thaw : 
showers : stormy. 7. Frost : fine clear day. 8. Frost : clear : snow p.m. 9. Fine 
winter day : frost : snow inch deep. 10. Frost : clear: snow melting. 11. Frost : 
dull and cloudy : snow gone. 12. Fine: no frost a.m. : gentle frost p.m. 13. 
Frost A.M. : a change of weather. 14. Frost a.m.: thaw: frost again. 15. Frost a.m.: 
thaw P.M. 16. Drops of rain occasionally. 17. Rain during night : aurora very 
splendid. 18. Heavy rain during night : ditto day. 19. Frost a.m. : thaw p.m. 
20. Storm of rain and wind : flood. 21. Bleak and dull all day. 22. Rain 
greater part of day. 23. Fair a.m. : rain p.m. 24. Frost again. 25,26. Thaw: 
rain and high wind. 27. Fair and fine. 28. Wet nearly all day : high wind. 

29. Frequent showers. 30. Fair, but cloudy. 

Mean temperature of the month 39°'8 

Mean temperature of Nov. 1847 47 '7 

Mean temperature of Nov. for the last twenty five years . 40 '4 

Rain in Nov. 1847 3*79inches. 

Average amount of rain in Nov. for twenty years 3*60 „ 

Sandwich Mnnse, Orkney. — Nov. 1. Drops: rain : aurora. 2. Showers: hail- 
showers. 3. Snow: hail-showers. 4. Snow: clear. 5. Showers. 6. Cloudy: 
showers. 7. Showers : sleet. 8. Snow-showers : clear : frost. 9. Cloudy : rain. 

10. Cloudy: clear: aurora. 11. Bright: drizzle: showers. 12. Fine: clear. 
13. Cloudy : showers. 14. Cloudy : hail-showers. 15. Cloudy: showers. J 6. 
Bright: cloudy. 1 7. Showers : aurora. 18. Damp : showers : aurora. 19. Hoar- 
frost : showers. 20. Rain. 21. Rain: cloudy: aurora. 22. Rain. 23. Showers: 
aurora. 24. Cloudy : clear. 25, 'IG. Cloudy : rain. 27, 28. Showers. 29. 
Cloudy : showers. 30. Showers. 













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No. 14. FEBRUARY 1849. 

X. — The Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 
By Richard Spruce*. 

[With three Plates.] 

Before entering upon an enumeration of the Musci and Hepa- 
ticae of tlie Pyrenees, it will be proper to indicate the sources 
from which it has been derived. I have not been able to find 
any trustworthy record of mosses gathered in the Pyrenees pre- 
vious to the time of Bridel, who in 1803 visited the Pyrenees 
Orientales and the northern part of Catalonia, where he disco- 
vered his Bartramia stricta, Barbula chloronotos and some others. 
Of BridePs mosses I have seen only a very few, communicated by 
Professor Arnott from the herbarium of M. Requien. In the 
3rd edition of the 'Flore Fran9aise^ (1815) several Pyrenean 
stations of mosses are recorded, on the authority of DeCandolle, 
Ramond, Dufour and Grateloup. The two botanists last-named 
have since that period continued to pay occasional botanical 
visits to the Pyrenees, almost up to the present time, and to 
their liberality I owe specimens of such mosses as they collected. 
In 18^5 the eastern and central Pyrenees were visited by our 
distinguished countrymen, Messrs. G. Bentham and G. A. Walker- 
Arnott, and the latter gentleman has kindly communicated to 
me specimens of nearly all his Pyrenean mosses, a few only of 
which he has noticed in '' A Tour to the South of France and 
the Pyrenees,'^ inserted in the ' Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journar for April 1826. Still later, from 1828 to 1830, the 
eastern Pyrenees were at various times partially explored by Dr. C. 
Montague, whose knowledge of general Cryptogamy is unrivalled, 
and his discoveries, including numerous lichens and not a few 
mosses, were announced by himself in the ' Archives de Bota- 
nique,' tom. i. (1833), under the title of " Notice sur les Plantes 

• Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Jan. 11th, 1819. 
Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 6 

82 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hejmtica of the Pyrenees. 

Cryptogames recemment decouvertes en France/^ &c. Most of 
these I have had the opportunity of examining. In 1835_, Dr. 
Grateloup began to pubhsh in the 'Actes de la Societe Lin- 
neenne de Bordeaux/ torn, vii., a " Cryptogamie TarbeUienne^ 
ou Description succincte des Plantes cryptogames qui croissent 
aux environs de Dax, dans le Dept. des Landes/' in which were 
to be comprised all the Cryptogamia growing within 25 leagues 
of Dax, a district which would include the extreme Western Py- 
renees ; but it proceeded no farther than the publication of the 
Characese, Filices and Hepaticse, for specimens of most of which I 
am under obligation to Dr. Grateloup. About the year 1843, MM. 
Philippe and de Lugo, two botanists residing at Bagneres-de- 
Bigorre, began to collect the mosses and Hepaticae of the neigh- 
bouring mountains, and on the occasion of my visit to that city, 
two years afterwards, they put into my hands, without reserve, 
specimens of all they had succeeded in finding. A few mosses 
have also at difierent times been gathered in the Pyrenees by 
MM. desMoulins, Durieu, Gaston-Sacaze, and probably by others 
of whom I have not heard, and of whose labours I cannot there- 
fore make that honourable mention which is their due. In 1845 
came my own visit to the Pyrenees, undertaken principally 
(though not solely) for the purpose of studying the Musci and 
Hepaticae, and extending through a period of nearly eleven 
months. It will not be without use if I here briefly retrace my 
steps, as some repetition will be thereby avoided, and an oppor- 
tunity will be afforded of indicating the position of certain loca- 
lities, the names of which are of frequent recurrence in my cata- 
logue, though too obscure to be found in an ordinary map*. 

I arrived at Pau, the chef-lieu of the Dept. of the Basses- 
Pyrenees, and the ancient capital of Beam, in the early part of 
May 1845, and my first herborization in the Pyrenees was made 
on the 13th of the same month. My excursions comprised, be- 
sides the woods, &c. adjoining the town of Pau, the villages of 
Juran9on, Gelos, Rontignon and Narcastet, lying on the south- 
ern bank of the Gave de Pau, with the valleys running up from 
them to the southward, among what may be called the skirts of 
the Pyrenees ; and the village of Bilheres, lying south of the same 
river. From the 29th to the 31st were devoted to a visit to 
Oloron, at the entrance of the Vallee d'Aspe, along which runs 
one of the most frequented roads into Spain. On the 11th of 
June I again left Pau for St. Sever, in the Landes, on a visit to 
Dr. Leon Dufour, the eminent naturalist, where eight days were 
usefully spent in exploring the neighbouring landes, especially 

* For a fuller account of my tour consult flic ' London Journal of Botany,' 
vol. V. p. 104. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 83 

those of Mugriet (Commune of Souprosse) a few miles distant 
from St. Sever, and on the opposite side ofthe Adour. Return- 
ing thence to Pau, I again started on the 25th for Laruns, a 
little town lying about 26 miles to the southward, near the up- 
per extremity of the Vallee d'Ossau, and midway between the 
Eaux Bonnes and the Eaux Chaudes. Here commenced my ac- 
quaintance with the real Pyrenees. My excursions included the 
Pic de Ger and the Montague Verte, the former overlooking the 
Eaux Bonnes from the south and the latter from the north ; the 
Gorge de Hourat, conducting to the Eaux Chaudes, and watered 
by the Gave de Gabas ; the Gave de Valentin, which uniting at 
Laruns with the Gave de Gabas, forms the Gave d'Ossau ; the 
village of Beost and the hameau of Bages (celebrated as the re- 
sidence of Gaston-Sacaze, the shepherd-botanist). Descending 
the Vallee d'Ossau and again taking Pau in my way, I proceeded 
on the 8th of July to Argelez, in the Dept. of the Hautes Pyre- 
nees. The following day was given to the herborization of Pierre- 
fitte, on the south side of the valley (or rather plain) of Argelez, 
and at the confluence of the gorges of Luz and Cauterets. On 
the 11th I ascended to Cauterets, where I remained until the end 
of the month. My excursions from it were to the Pont d'Espagne 
and Lac de Gaube, ascending the Val de Jeret along the banks of 
the Gave de Marcadaou ; to the valleys of Lutour and Combascou, 
and to Mont Lize. On the 2nd of August, accompanied by 
Dr. Southby, a compatriot enthusiastic in the pursuit of natural 
history, I crossed the central chain by the Port de Cauterets to 
the baths of Penticosa in Aragon. In this excursion, which oc- 
cupied four days, numerous interesting flowers, but scarcely any 
mosses, were added to my collection. Returning to Cauterets, 
and descending from thence to Argelez, on the 8th I again 
ascended to Luz, at the entrance of the valley of Bareges. From 
Luz I visited the celebrated Chaos and Cirque de Gavarnie, the 
Vallee d'Estaube, &c., but my bryological collections were not 
much swelled thereby. On the 20th I crossed the Tourmalet to 
Bagneres-de-Bigorre, in the valley of the Adour. My stay was 
but short, for the present, and my only excursion of importance 
was to the flowery Mont Lhieris. The 27th and 28th of the 
same month were taken up in walking through the mountains, 
by way of the Hourquette d^Aspin, the Vallee d'Aure and the 
Port de Peyresourde, to Bagneres-de-Luchon, in the Dept. of the 
Haute Garonne. During my stay here of five weeks, I explored 
the whole of the magnificent Vallee du Lys (lateral to the valley 
of Luchon) with its four lakes and twenty-four cascades, and I 
ascended the lofty mountain of Crabioules (mountain of crahes 
or izards) which bounds it on the west, as far as the snow-line on 
the 1st and 2nd of October. Before this time I had visited the 


84 Mr. R. Spruce on the Mnsci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees'. 

mountain of Superbagneres_, which rises from the back of the 
town, the gorge of Esquierry (" le jardin des Pyrenees '') ; the 
Lacs d^Oo (Lac de Seculejo and Lac d^Espingo) lying between 
Mont Crabioules andthe Vallee d'Aure; the Valine de Barbe (in 
which is the Bois de Gouerdere), and, passing through the Port 
de Portillon at its extremity, the upper part of the Vallee d'Aran 
in Catalonia; and on the 10th, 11th and 12th of September, 
passing through the Bois de Sajust and the Port de Benasque (in 
the central chain), 1 had ascended the Maladetta in Aragon. 
Leaving Bagneres-de-Luchon and the Haute Garonne on the 
4th of October, I returned to Bagneres-de-Bigorre, and occupied 
myself until nearly the end of the month in exploring its envi- 
rons, by which my collection of pleurocarpous mosses was much 
enriched. The localities examined were the rocks of Bedat and 
Salut, close by the town ; Mont Lhieris and the woods of Gerde 
and Aste at its base ; the Gorge de Labassere ; the Vallee de 
Lesponne with Lac Lehou (otherwise Lac Bleu), and a tributary 
valley (Ardalos) extending to the base of the terminal cone of the 
Pic du Midi. The autumn being unusually prolonged, and the 
summits still clear of snow, I undertook another expedition to 
the Basses Pyrenees, and on the Jst of November proceeded 
again to Laruns, where I remained until fairly driven away by 
the coming of winter. Besides the locahties visited in summer 
from this station, I now examined the Vallee de Beost, which 
leads across the Col de Louvie to the Vallee d^Argelez ; the upper 
part of the Gave de Valentin towards the Col de Tortes ; the 
mountain (Goursi) which shades Laruns on the south ; and Gabas, 
near the base of the Pic du Midi. Driven from the mountains, 
my next destination was, by way of Pau, to Dax {Aqute Augusta> 
Tarbellicce) in the Landes [Ager Syrticus), where I arrived on the 
18th of November. In the midst of almost unceasing rain I vi- 
sited in this rich district the ophitic rocks of St. Pandelon on the 
banks of the Luy (a tributary of the Adour), the chalk rocks of 
Tercis, and the woods of Saubagnac and La Torte. Having de- 
voted a fortnight to a re-examination of the neighbourhood of 
Pau, I returned early in December to Bagneres to winter. In 
the Pyrenees, as throughout nearly all the rest of Europe, the 
winter of 1845-6 w^as remarkably mild, and by the month of 
February the lower mountains were quite clear of snow. I availed 
myself of this circumstance to explore the district almost com- 
pletely, and in one instance to make, in company with M. Phi- 
lippe, an excursion of four days (from the 5th to the 8th of Fe- 
bruary) into the heart of the mountains, for the purpose of ex- 
amining the back of the Pic de Mont-Aigu and the Vallee de 
Castelloubon (otherwise V. de Gazos), which is separated by only 
a narrow ridge from the valleys of Luz and Argelez. Even at 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and HepaticcB of the Pyrenees. 8.' 

that season we were able to reach an altitude of 7000 feet, and 
might easily have gone higher, but the ground at that height, 
though almost clear of snow, was frozen to the depth of several 
inches, and the waterfalls were changed into sheets of ice. The 
chief localities examined near Bagneres, and not previously 
named, are the forests of Transoubat and of L^Escaladieu (the 
latter on the road to Toulouse) ; the valleys of Campan, Serris 
and Trebons ; the Bois de Lagaillaste and the Camp de Cesar, 
both near the village of Pouzac ; the Cotes schisteux of Loucrup 
and the Bois de Montgaillard, on the road to Lourdes. These 
examinations enabled me to add extensively to the list of mosses 
previously observed by MM. Philippe and de Lugo. Finally 
quitting Bagneres early in March, a last visit to Pau rendered 
my collection of the mosses of the Western Pyrenees still more 
complete ; and in proceeding thence to Paris, two days spent at 
St. Sever with the excellent Dufour, afforded me rarities unob- 
served the preceding year. 

In this resume of my wanderings I have avoided alluding to 
the species collected, but it will be seen, by tracing my track on 
the map, that I executed a network of journeys sufficient ta ex- 
plore pretty fully the tract of mountains traversed, extending 
from the Vallee d^Aspe on the west to the Vallee d^Aran on the 
east, and to enable me to state with considerable confidence the 
amount and distribution of species within these limits. 

Since my return from the Pyrenees I have had a few additional 
species and habitats from my friend Philippe, and also from 
M. Schimper, who passed through part of the Pyrenees in 1847 
on his way into Spain. 

It must in conclusion be acknowledged, that it is only botanists 
resident in the Pyrenees who have it in their power to present to 
the world a complete flora, whether Phanerogamic or Crypto- 
gamic, of these mountains. Botanical geography is a subject 
that can be but very imperfectly studied in the cabinet, and in 
sitting down to arrange the materials collected on a distant ex- 
pedition, one always finds some deficiency, some essential obser- 
vation omitted, which, to a person on the spot, might be sup- 
plied by travelling possibly only a few paces. 

General considerations on the structure, ^c. of the Pyrenees, — 
The Pyrenees may be aptly compared to an immense barrier, 
raised by nature^s hand for the separation of two nations, and 
extending from sea to sea. The transversal ridges which spring 
here and there from the central chain may be considered as the 
buttresses, or as the outworks of this great fortification. The 
area occupied by these mountains lies between 3° 20' E. and 
2° (V \v. long, (from Greenwich), and from a little north of the 
43rd parallel nearly to the 42nd. Their direction, from the 

86 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

Mediterranean to the Bay of Biscay, is nearly W. by N. ; and 
their length, from Cape Creux to the Port des Passages, is about 
270 English miles. It is well known that the Pyrenees have at 
the latter limit reached but half their length, and that their con- 
tinuation constitutes the elevated ridges of Bizcaya, Asturias and 
GalHcia, up to their real termination at Cape Finisterre ; at pre- 
sent, however, we have only to do with that portion w^hich sepa- 
rates France from Spain, and to which the name " Pyrenees " is 
popularly limited. 

When attentively considered, the Pyrenees will be found to 
consist of two chains : the western, which increases in altitude 
from the ocean to the Maladetta (10,722 ft.*), its highest point, 
whence it rapidly sinks to the opposite sea ; the eastern com- 
mencing north of the Maladetta, with hills of slight elevation, 
increases in height as it approaches the Mediterranean, not far 
from which is Mont Canigou (8652 ft.), one of its loftiest sum- 
mits. From the point of dislocation is thrown off to the north- 
ward a remarkable embranchment, which separates the basin of the 
Garonne from that of the Adour, giving birth to the latter river, 
and. stretches through the Dept. of the Hautes Pyrenees a little 
way into that of Gers : its highest point is the Pic du Midi de 
Bigorre (9000 ft.). Some geologists (as M. Beboul) have traced 
several distinct axes of elevation in the Pyrenees ; and M. Elie 
de Beaumont supposes that they have been upheaved at four 
distinct epochs, though the great mass owes its elevation to only 
the third of these, which was posterior to the chalk formation. 
The fourth epoch of elevation is perceivable only in the localities 
where serpentine [ophite) appears. 

The loftiest summits of the Pyrenees are nearly all out of the 
central chain ; the Maladetta, the culminating point of the whole 
range, is to the southward of it ; as is also Mont Perdu, the next 
in altitude. The depressions (called " Ports '^ in the medial 
ridge, and usually ^^ Cols '^ in the transversal ones) are all of con- 
siderable elevation, often from 7000 to 9000 feet, and there are 
only two passes practicable for carriages, one at each extremity 
of the chain. On the southern or Spanish side the ascent is 
more abrupt than on the northern side, where two ridges (at 
least) parallel to the medial ridge, and yielding to it very little 
in height, are usually distinctly traceable. The Spanish Pyrenees 
are also watered by fewer streams, have fewer lakes, and are less 
clad with forests than the French. On both sides the valleys are 
in most cases steep ; the basins we successively encounter in 

* The altitudes are all in French measures, and 1 have given very few, 
for besides that I had not the opportunity of determining any myself, the 
altitude of the same mountain, as stated by different observers, often varies 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticcp of the Pyrenees. 87 

ascending them are usually small, and occupied either by lakes, 
or by alluvium deposited by the descending streams. In only 
two cases have I seen hollows filled with peat, one on Mont 
Goursi in the Basses Pyrenees, and the other at the head of a 
small valley, lateral to the Vallee de Lesponne in the H antes 

The line of perpetual congelation in the Pyrenees, I assume 
from my own observations to be at an average height of nearly 
9000 feet, or more than 1000 feet higher than in the Alps. One 
authority, now before me, fixes it at 8718 feet, and Ramond 
estimated it at from 8100 to 8400 feet, which I do not hesitate 
to say is much too low. It varies however considerably with the 
degree of exposure and even with the form of a mountain, and 
the snow is uniformly found to melt less, and consequently to 
descend lower in an eastern exposure than elsewhere. Hence, 
even on the highest mountains, the band of perpetual snow is 
not more than from one to two thousand feet broad. 

The streams which take their rise on the southern slopes of 
the Pyrenees flow nearly all into the Ebro. On the northern 
slopes, the space lying opposite the western half of this drainage 
of the Ebro is occupied by the Adour and its tributaries, while 
the space corresponding to the eastern half, extending from the 
source of the Adour to that of the Arriege, is occupied by the 
upper part of the basin of the Garonne. In the extreme eastern 
angle, on both the northern and southern side, are various small 
streams which run directly into the Mediterranean. This drain- 
age of the rivers would seem to afford us the basis of a division 
of the Pyrenees, for the purpose of estimating the distribution of 
plants on their surface ; but on trial such a division will be found 
intractable, and I prefer another which separates the plants into 
more distinct groups, and corresponds very nearly with that 
adopted by the botanistes sedentaires of the Pyrenees. I divide 
the Pyrenees into three districts^ the Western, the Central, and 
the Eastern, the limits of which I proceed to define. 

The Central Pyrenees are comprised between the upper part 
of the Gave de Pau, from its source at the Cirque de Gavarnie 
as far as to the bridge of Lourdes, on the west ; and Mont Mala- 
detta and the Vallee d^Aran, watered by the infant Garonne, on 
the east; or from the meridian of Greenwich* to about 50 minutes 
of east longitude. This district includes, in France, the upper 
part of the Dept. of the Haute Garonne and most of the upper 
part of the Hautes Pyrenees ; in Spain, part of Aragon and a 
very small angle of Catalonia. It is watered by the upper 

* The village of Liiz, in the valley of Bareges, is exactly in the longitude 
of (irecnwich. 

88 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

branches of the Adour and Garonne, and contains the highest 
mountains and the deepest valleys in the Pyrenees, as well as the 
most extensive forests. Glaciers of great extent are found in this 
district only ; the principal are those which occupy the northern 
slopes of the Maladetta and Crabioules. 

The Western Pyrenees extend from the Central to the ocean 
at Bayonne and St. Jean de Luz. They include, in France, the 
Dept. of the Basses Pyrenees and part of the Landes, stretching 
as far as the Adour at St. Sever and Dax, besides a small portion 
of the Hautes Pyrenees ; in Spain, a small part of NavaiTC and 
most of the northern part of Aragon. This district extends 
farther to the north than either of the others ; it is consequently 
colder at the same altitude, and in the sandy plains bordering 
on the Adour and the ocean the climate is much more humid. 

The Eastern Pyrenees are comprised between the Central and 
the Mediterranean. In France they occupy the whole length of 
the Depts. of Arriege and Pyrenees Orientales ; in Spain, nearly 
all the northern part of Catalonia. This district is the most 
southern, the warmest and driest, and the most denuded of 
forests of the whole three*. 

A rough sketch of the mineralogy of the Pyrenees, so far as it 
is connected with the distribution of plants, will conduce to a 
more complete idea of the peculiarities of these divisions. The 
igneous rocks of the Pyrenees do not, as in the Alps, constitute 
some of the loftiest mountains, and the highest point at which 
I am aware of the existence of granite is on the summit of the 
Pic du Midi d'Ossau (9186 ft.), unless it attains the summit of 
Neouvielle (9696 ft.), as some maintain. In the eastern part of 
the Western Pyrenees it constitutes the mass of the mountains 
above Cauterets, especially those which include the valleys of 
Combascou, Lutour and Jeret, and the Lac de Gaube; from 
whence it passes (by the Vallee d^Azun, &c.) into the upper part 
of the Vallee d^Ossau, where I have observed it from below the 
Eaux Chaudes to the Pic du Midi, and on the circumjacent moun- 
tains, in which it is the predominant rock. From the Vallee 
d^Ossau it dips at once so profoundly as not to be observed in 
the deepest parts of the Vallee d^Aspe, or in any of the valleys 
to the westward, until it reappears near Bayonne, in the massif 
of Cambo. In the Central Pyrenees it appears in the valley of 
Bareges (continued from the valley of Cauterets) and about the 
base of the Pic du Midi de Bigorre ; but, with this latter excep- 

* I should add, that great part of the Arriege is still a terra incognita to 
me, and I especially commend its exploration to resident cryptogamists. 
Probably, from its containing some very lofty summits, as the Pics of Mont- 
calm and Estats, both its character and its vegetable products would require 
the western part of it to be annexed to our Central district. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica* of the Pyrenees. 89 

tion, it rarely attains the surface in the neighbourhood of Bag- 
n^res-de-Bigorre. Near Bagneres-de-Luchon it appears in most 
of the valleys and at the base of the mountains. From the 
Central Pyrenees it passes into the Eastern, where, especially in 
the Dept. of Pyr. Orientales, it constitutes a very large proportion 
of the surface. In the granite I include gneiss, and possibly some 
other rocks whose internal structure is of nearly the same cha- 

Mica-slate (schiste-micace) I have observed in the Western 
Pyrenees only in the valley of Cauterets, especially at the base of 
the Monne and on Mont Lize. Thence it passes into the Cen- 
tral district, where it constitutes the terminal cone of the Pic du 
Midi, the Pic de Mont-Aigu, and all the adjacent mountains. 
The wall of rock which supports the waters of Lac Lehou is of 
mica-schist, and in general the embankments of all the lakes in 
the Pyrenees are of this rock or of granite. In the Eastern Py- 
renees the mountains on the western side of the river Aude are 
of mica-schist, and I am not aware of its occurrence elsewhere. 

Slate [schist e-argileux) roay be regarded as the most important 
rock in the Pyrenees, appearing as it does in every part of them. 
In the W. Pyrenees I have observed it in the Vallee d^Ossau ; also 
near Argelez, where it is the predominant rock, extending from 
thence along the gorge of Luz to the valley of Bareges, where it 
meets the mica-schist and other primary rocks. Ascending from 
Argelez by the valley of Cauterets, it extends (though not unin- 
terruptedly) to the very summit of the central chain. The Port 
de Cauterets and all the other passes which have fallen under my 
notice are (as in the Alps) excavated in slate-rock, which is often 
very siliceous, and cleaves with difficulty in at least two direc- 
tions. From Cauterets the slate passes into the Central Pyrenees, 
descending almost to their bases, and attaining the ridge of the 
central chain, as at the Port de Benasque, &c. In the Eastern 
Pyrenees it would seem to occur chiefly about the base of the 
mountains, skirting the granitic nucleus. The lower mountains 
in the Pyrenees, whose chief constituent is clay-slate or grauwacke, 
have commonly rounded summits, and are covered with herbage ; 
but the loftier ones, and especially those of the medial ridge, have 
a bolder aspect ; their sides are furrowed by deep ravines, and 
their summits are serrated and peaked. When closely examined 
they are found to be in a state of continual decomposition and 
degradation, probably from the dissemination of iron pyrites in 
these rocks. 

Transition-limestone [calcaire de transition) constitutes also its 
proportion of the surface of the Pyrenees. In the W. Pyrenees 
it forms the principal part of the ridge of the central chain, 
lying to the south of the Pic du Midi d'Ossau. From the val- 

90 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees* 

ley of Cauterets it would seem to be entirely absent^ but it re- 
appears in the Central Pyrenees in the great valley of Bareges, 
where it extends from the bottom of the valley of Gedre to a little 
beyond the lake of Gavarnie, and plunges under the immense 
mass of alpine limestone of the Marbore. The lower hills near 
B.-de-Bigorre, especially the Pic de Lhieris, are formed almost 
entirely of it_, and here it often presents itself in thin beds, alter- 
nating with clay-slate. In the upper part of the valley of Lu- 
chon, and in all the surrounding mountains, I do not recollect 
to have observed any calcareous rock. In the E. Pyrenees, 
transition-limestone would seem to occur amongst the granitic 
formations in detached masses (accompanied however by slate) 
chiefly in the neighbourhood of Villefranche and Prats de Mollo, 
and in the Corbieres. The ascents of mountains of transition- 
limestone are interrupted by escarpments, which are rarely of 
great elevation. 

Of secondary rocks, the only one which I shall have occasion 
to mention is oolitic limestone (calcaire alpin). To this rock the 
Pyrenees owe some of their grandest features, as it forms escarp- 
ments in some instances considerably exceeding a thousand feet 
in altitude, as at the Cirque de Gavarnie, the termination of the 
Vallee d^Estaube, &c. ; but wherever it attains the alpine region 
(as in the instances just cited) I have found it quite destitute of 
mosses, probably from its exposed position, above the region of 
forests. It is only in the lower hills of the Western Pyrenees, 
especially near Pau, where it occurs as a conglomerate, that the 
alpine limestone has afforded me any cryptogamia. Some of 
Dr. Arnott's mosses from the Pyr. Orientales, judging from the 
fragments attached to the specimens, have been gathered on 
alpine limestone. 

Trap-rocks I have remarked in the Pyrenees in small detached 
masses, but I have gathered cryptogamia only on a rapidly de- 
composing ophite at Labassere near B.-de-Bigorre, and at St. 
Pandelon near Dax. 

This brief sketch of the chief rocks of the Pyrenees is confessedly 
very imperfect ; it is also designedly superficial, for it is only by 
the surface-rock that plants whose roots rarely penetrate to the 
depth of an inch can possibly be influenced. The position, too, 
of any rock in the geological series cannot be said to have any- 
thing to do with the distribution of plants, though the presence 
of a certain mineral is in many cases essential to their existence. 
From my observations in the Pyrenees and elsewhere, I have 
ascertained pretty accurately what mosses require a matrix con- 
taining carbonate of lime ; these will be specified as they occur. 
They have obviously no preference for primitive, transition, or 
secondary limestone, but they are always most abundant and 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 91 

luxuriant on limestones of which the surface rapidly decomposes ; 
hence the older limestones, which in the Pyrenees are often trans- 
formed into marble, are never in that state prolific in mosses. Of 
those species which absolutely refuse to vegetate on limestone (and 
they are not very numerous), some are found on a great variety 
of rocks ; but probably when carefully examined these rocks would 
be found to contain some one element, essential to all the species 
making choice of them. Silex, for example, seems necessary to 
certain Grimmice ; and there are a few mosses rarely found except 
on rocks containing a large proportion of iron. It is scarcely 
necessary to mention that many mosses are never found on rocks 
at all, but by exception, some preferring the bark of living trees 
[cortical) and others decayed trunks or logs [lignal). 

Distribution of Musci and Hepatica in the Pyrenees, according 
to latitude and longitude. — The distribution of plants on any given 
portion of the eartVs surface requires to be estimated both hori- 
zontally and vertically, and if the surface to be considered extend 
through several degrees of latitude, the two modes will require 
to be exhibited both separately and in combination. It is ob- 
vious that a comparison of the vegetation of any portion of the 
earth with that of any other portion, or of the whole, must 
always be incomplete, until the whole of the earth's surface shall 
have been examined. Hence the following account of the dis- 
tribution of Musci and Hepaticae in the Pyrenees can only be re- 
garded as approximatively correct. I enumerate 390 Musci and 
91 Hepaticse in the Pyrenees. Taking the whole number of 
Musci known in the world to be 2400 (which is rather over than 
under the limit), and of Hepaticse to be 1200, this would show 
the Pyrenees to possess nearly one-sixth of the entire family of 
Musci and but one-thirteenth of the Hepaticse, or twice as great 
a proportion of the former as of the latter. But this proportion 
is very nearly what we should arrive at in comparing the Musci 
and Hepaticse of Europe with those of the rest of the world, so 
much more numerous are Hepaticse in the southern than in the 
northern hemisphere. 

The species which attain absolutely their northern limit in the 
Pyrenees seem to be only the four following : — 

Hypnum aureum. Tortula caespitosa. 

Bryum platyloma. Soulhbya tophacea. 

Those which attain their southern limit are apparently much 
more numerous ; but when the mountains of Spain come to be 
fully explored, the list will probably be somewhat lessened ; and 
I ought to acknowledge that, possessing no complete list of the 
Cryptogamia of Italy, I may have assigned the Pyrenees as the 
southern limit for a few species which in reality extend farther 

92 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

south in Italy. So far however as I can ascertain, the follow- 
ing species have their southern limit in the Pyrenees : — 

Hypniim umbratum. 





caespitosum . 













Isothecium rufescens. 

Leskea rostrata. 

Anacamptodon splachnoides. 
Mielichoferia nitida. 
Catoscopium nigritum. 
Bartramia marchica. 
Bryum acuminatum. 






Mnium spinosum. 

Milium spinulosum. 

Aulacomnion androgynum. 
Physcomitvium acuminatum. 
Tortula alpina. 



Dicranum fulvum. 


Arctoa fulvella. 
Anodus Donnianus. 
Orthotrichum Biuchii. 


Hedvvigia imberbis. 
Grimmia anodon. 



Encalypta commutata. 

Polytrichum sexangulare. 
Fissidens grandifrons. 
Sarcoscyphus adustus. 
Aliculavia compressa. 
Jungermannia sphserocarpa. 




Lejeunia ovata. 
Frullania fragilifoHa. 
Dumortiera irrigua. 

Few species can be expected to attain their eastern limit in 
the Pyrenees (lying as they do on the western side of Europe), 
and I can find only these six, of which all but one {Fissidens 
grandifrons) had been previously supposed to be confined to our 
own islands : — 

Hypnum caespitosum. Lejeunia ovata. 

Tortula papillosa. Frullania fragilifolia. 

Fissidens grandifrons. Dumortiera irrigua. 

The number of Musci and Hepaticae which are not found any- 
where to the westward of Europe, either on the continent of 
America or in the intermediate islands, is considerable, and they 
mostly attain their western limit in the British Isles. Some 
species which reach their western European limit in the Pyrenees 
(not being found in the British Isles) reappear in N. America, 
under nearly the same latitude : such are Hypnum Haldanianum^ 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 93 

Leskea rostrata and attenuata, Physcomitrium acuminatum^ Tor- 
tula caspiiosa, Dicranum fulvum, Fissidens grandifrons, &c. Tor- 
tula chloronotos reappears in the isle of TenerifFe. There are only 
the following species whose occurrence westward of the Pyrenees 
has not yet been recorded : — 

Hypnum Pyrenaicum. Tortula inclinata. 

Vaucheri. Encalypta ligulata. 

Isotheciuin Philippianum. Buxbaumia indusiata. 

Bryum polymorphum. Plagiochila Pyrenaica. 

Mnium medium. Scapania apiculata. 

Of the few mosses which grow on the southern slope of the 
Pyrenees, only one species {Tortula ccespitosa) was not found at 
all on the northern. The Spanish Pyrenees have in fact a pecu- 
liarly arid aspect (to the eye of a cryptogamist), and correspond 
well with the distant view I have had of the dry and naked 
sierras of Spain*. 

If we now compare the three districts of the Pyrenees, above 
defined, one with another, we find a considerable number of 
species peculiar to each. The following mosses, gathered in the 
Western Pyrenees, were none of them observed in the Central 
and Eastern Pyrenees. [Those species marked with a (t) are 
peculiar to the sandy plains of the Landes.] 

Hypnum strigosum. Physcomitrium ericetorum. 
megapolitauuui f. acuminatum, 

caespitosum t- Tortula ambiguaf. 
trichophorum. papillosa. 

Catoscopium nigritum. latifolia. 

Bryum Tozeri. caespitosa. 

csespiticium. Trichostomum luridum. 

erythrocarpon. subulatum \. 

torquescens. Dicranum spurium. 

platyloma. Weisia cirrhataf. 

Muelleri f. Wimmeriana. 

Mnium spinosum. Gymnostomum calcareum. 

Funaria convexaf. Ptychomitrium pusillum. 

Entosthodon Templetonif. Orthotrichum crispulum. 

* Cavanilles, in his * Observaciones sobre hi Historia Natural, &rc. del 
Reyno de Valencia (Madrid, 1795),' amongst all the localities which he so 
minutely describes, mentions but one of bryological promise, where he ob- 
served the solitary moss which enters into his catalogue of the plants. In 
speaking of the mountains of Valldigna (p. 218) he says, ** Los montes por 
donde estan expueslos al mediodia son secos, y que no hay fuentes en sus 
raices : al contrariolas faldas septentrionales de todos ellos estan sembradas 
de sitios humedos y frondosos, y en las raices nacen fuentes abundantes. 
.... En el valle de Barig son innumerables las fuentes que nacen desds 

Aldaya hasta Puigmola En estos sitios htimedos y somhrios esfa 

siempre viva la naturaleza, cubierto el suelo de vegetales, y casi siembre de 
flores : alii se disputan las plantas el terreno. La doradilla (Ceterach), el 
polipodio comun, el pteris {Pt. aquilina) y la jungermania allanada (/^. 
complanata) occ\ipan las hendeduras de las pefias.'' 

94 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

Orthotrichum patens. 

Conomitrium Julianum f. 
Buxbaumia aphyllaf* 
Sphagnum cuspidatum f. 

compactum f. 
Alicularia compressa. 

Southbya tophacea. 
Jungermannia curvula. 


dentata f. 
Lejeunia ovata. 

Frullania fragilifolia. 

The whole of the following were observed only in the Central 
Pyrenees : — 
Hypnum Pyrenaicum. 







Neckera pumila. 
Entodon cladorrhizans. 

Isothecium Philippianum. 

Leskea rostrata. 

Hookeria lucens. 
Anacamptodon splachnoides. 
Bartramia marchica. 
Bryum pyriforme. 





Mnium lycopodioides. 

Dissodon Froelichianus. 
Anacalypta latifolia. 
Tortula vinealis. 
Ceratodon cylindricus. 
Distichium inclinatum. 

Dicranum fulvum. 


Arctoa fulvella. 
Campylostelium saxicola. 
Brachyodus trichodes. 
A nodus Donnianus. 
Seligeria recurvata. 
Anoectangium compactum. 
Zygodon conoideus. 
Orthotrichum rivulaie. 
Grimmia anodon. 


Fissidens osmundioides. 
Tetrodontium Brownianum. 
Sphagnum acutifolium. 

Sarcoscyphus adustus. 
Jungermannia Schraderi. 





Lophocolea minor. 

Harpanthus scutatus. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthos. 


Dumortiera irrigua. 
The following species are peculiar to the Eastern Pyrenees, and 
when the Hepaticse of that district come to be ascertained, the 
list will undoubtedly be extended : — 

Hypnum fluitans. 

Fabronia pusilla. 
Bartramia stricta. 
Bryum bimum. 
Tortula mucronifolia. 


In glancing over the above lists, we cannot fail to be struck 
with the great number of species, especially of pleurocarpous 
mosses, peculiar to the central district. The obvious and true 

Tortula subulata, var. inermis. 

Orthotrichum Sturmii. 
Grimmia plagiopoda. 

Polytrichum sexangulare. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticee of the Pyrenees. 95 

explanation of this is to be found in what is above remarked re- 
specting the depth of the valleys and the extent and density of 
the forests ; pleurocarpous mosses demanding in the latitude of 
the Pyrenees a great deal of shade. 

A few species, occurring in both the Central and Eastern 
Pyrenees, were not observed in the Western. They are : — 

Hypnum reflexum. Desmatodon nervosus. 

Mielichoferia nitida. Dicranum longifolium. 
Bryum polymorphum var. cur- virens. 

visetum. Grimmia atrata. 

Timmia megapolitana. Cinclidotus aquaticus. 
Trichostomum tophaceum. 

The list of species wanting to the Eastern Pyrenees, but ob- 
served in both the Western and Central, is so very large that I 
forbear to insert it, feeling assured that when the former district 
comes to be explored as the two latter have been, it will be found 
much less deficient than this list would show it. Three mosses, 
Amblyodon dealbatus, Tortula marginata and cuneifolia, gi'owing 
in both the Eastern and Western Pyrenees, have not hitherto been 
observed in the intermediate district. 

Were I now asked to name a moss characteristic of the whole 
Pyrenees^ I should say at once Fissidens grandifrons, Brid. (the 
Dicranum palmiforme of Ramond), which is a conspicuous orna- 
ment wherever moist calcareous rocks are found, but is scarcely 
met with out of the Pyrenees*. Amongst the Hepaticse, Jun- 
germannia acuta is scarcely less abundant, growing on the same 
sort of rock. The following species may also be considered re- 
spectively characteristic of our three districts, viz. Southbya 
tophacea of the Western, Isothecium Philippianum of the Central, 
and Bartramia stricta of the Eastern. 

Distribution of Musci and Hepaticce in the Pyrenees, according 
to altitude. — We come next to treat of the vertical distribution 
of plants, the most interesting branch of Phytostatics. In at- 
tempting to define our zones of altitude by natural boundaries, 

* It will not be out of place to mention here a curious circumstance re- 
lating to this moss. \\.^ fruit has never yet been found, and even \U flowers 
were unknown when it was figured in the * Bryologia Europsea.' A few years 
ago, Mr. SuUivant discovered female plants at the Falls of Niagara, and in 
1846 he published the specimens in his beautiful 'Musci Alleghanienses ' 
(no. 186). In Jan. 1846, a single tuft of male plants was found by myself 
and M. Philippe on a dripping limestone rock near Bagneres, and the in- 
florescence will be described in the proper place. These are all the flowers 
that have ever been found, and it will be a remarkable circumstance if it be 
ascertained (as this would seem to show) that only the male plant exists in 
Europe, and only the female in America\ The obvious conclusion would be 
that the plant never had fruited, and without artificial aid never would 
fruit. It has, however, ample means of maintaining and spreading itself 
without the aid of seeds. 

96 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

that is, by certain plants which constitute a marked feature in 
them, it would seem at first sight a great advantage could we se- 
lect in every country the same species for this purpose ; but a little 
research will suffice to show us the impracticability of this. To 
go no farther than the Alps ; near as they are to the Pyrenees, and 
similar as their vegetation is in many respects, there are yet im- 
portant differences. While, for instance, there is no tree in the 
Alps above the region of the spruce-fir (Pinus Abies, L.), in the 
Pyrenees there is above this a broad and well-marked belt of 
Scotch fir [Pinus sylvestris, L.). Again, there is in the Alps, 
above the limit to which the oak ascends, a zone in which the 
birch [Betula alba, L.) is the predominant tree; but in the 
Pyi-enees the birch is excessively rare ; indeed I do not at this 
moment recollect having anywhere seen it where I could be cer- 
tain it had not been planted, and I perceive Mr. Bentham in- 
cludes it in his catalogue with a mark of doubt. It would also 
be quite impossible to define any of our climatal zones in the 
Pyrenees by the distribution of the heaths, as has been done for 
the British Isles by Mr. Watson in his ' Cybele Britannica.' The 
only " heath-clad hills " I have seen in the Pyrenees, reminding 
me of our English and Scottish hills, are some of the lower 
mountains around Bagneres-de-Bigorre, and here the prevailing 
species is Erica vagans, though Calluna vulgaris occurs also, 
sparingly. The latter species seems never to penetrate far into 
the mountains. Again, Erica tetralix is not found at all in the 
Central or Eastern Pyrenees, but only in the Western. The 
only heath I have remarked near Bagneres-de-Luchon is Erica 
cinerea. E. arborea is abundant in the valley of Argelez and its 
tributary valleys (Castelloubon, &c.), but is absent from the Cen- 
tral Pyrenees, while it reappears in several parts of the Eastern. 
It has been shown by M. des Moulins ("Etat de la Vegetation 
sur le Pic du Midi de Bigorre, &c. /^ ' Recueil des Actes de 
P Academic Roy ale de Bordeaux,^ 1844), that several species of 
thistles occupy zones of altitude in the Pyrenees which are easily 
ascertained, and he has actually constructed a scale of the dis- 
tribution of fourteen species in the Pyrenees Centrales, showing 
the altitudes at which they appear and disappear. But were 
this scale taken as the basis of a climatal arrangement (which M. 
des Moulins by no means proposes), how would it assist us in 
comparing the flora of the Pyrenees with that of Lapland, where 
according to Wahlenberg, " Cardui in sylvis admodum rari, 
omnesque fere inermes sunt. De ca^tero quoque plantse vel 
frutices aculeati in Lapponia non crescunt, &c. '^ ? 

In comparing two distant portions of the earth's surface with 
each other, in both of which the same plant is extensively distri- 
buted, we are not hence to conclude that the zone which it oc- 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 97 

cupies has in both countries the same averape annual temperature. 
Were this the case, such discrepancies as the following would be 
inexplicable. On Mount Etna, the beech, the birch and the 
Scotch fir are said to occupy the same zone. In the Pyrenees 
the beech ceases before the Scotch fir begins, and in the Alps 
the birch is said to fail even below the spruce-fir. But in Lap- 
land the birch extends far above the Scotch fir, and in fact 
ascends higher on the mountains than any other tree. Assuming 
the correctness of these observations (which for Lapland and the 
Alps cannot be questioned), we are bound to conclude that there 
are peculiarities of constitution in certain species w^hich enable 
them to ascend proportionally higher in one latitude than in 
another *. In other words, an alpine flora is not necessarily an 
arctic flora, in its character. Hence the saying of Linnaeus, 
" Plantse diversse indicant altitudinem perpendicularem terrae/' 
must be regarded not as an axiom but as a problem, the complete 
solution of which still remains to be efi*ected. 

It will readily be admitted that all our artificial arrangements, 

* The discussion of this idiosyncrasy would demand an entire volume, 
but Wahlenberg's explanation of it (Flora Lapponica, Introd.) is worth 
quoting, and should be borne in mind in comparing the flora of the Pyrenees 
or of the Alps with that of Lapland. " Valde probabile mihi videtur a calore 
meridiano vegetationisgradum praecipue pendere "(p. xlix, 1. c.) — '■'■Temperies 
tantum ilia cestivalis in vegetatione producenda efficax, constituit clima, 
ejusque gradus determinat." (p. lii.) — " Aliae plantse longam magis, quam ca- 
Udam cBstatem sibi exposcunt : ubi temperatura aestivalis media /je?r tres men,' 
ses gradum 8°'5 (Centigr.) baud attingit, ibi hordeum baud ad maturitatem 
pervenire potest. Hoc quidem jamdudum infra Enontekis contingit ; sed 
nihilominus tamen arbores variae aestate brevi et calida hujus regionis con- 
tentae sunt : Betulae enim et Salices alpes versus longe altius Isete propa- 
gantur. Arbores coniferae fere ac Hordeum aestatem longiorem quamquam 
temperatiorem, requirunt, itaque longe altius ascendunt in alpibus Helve- 
ticis quam Betula, &c. Ex observationibus thermometricis allatis constat, 
astatem in alpibus Helveticls, etiamsi femperatior sit, fere longiorem esse, 
quam in alpibus Lapponicis ; et pro certo scimus, temperaturam mediam 
omnium mensium per totum annum eo magis aequabilem esse in montibus 
Andium Americae meridionalis, et igitur omnes arbores, calidiorem quam 
longiorem aestatem requirentes, ibi crescere desinunt duplo longius infra 
limitem nivalem quam apud nos ; sed Hordeum aliaque Cerealia temperie 
moderata 7 vel 8 graduum contenta, si ea modo longior sit, duplo altius 
versus limitem nivalem ibi adscendunt quam omnes arbores." (p. liii.) 

It is also well known that some plants will hear forcing , that is, will sur- 
vive and flourish under constant excitement and irritation, much better than 
others ; hence we could hardly expect any plant which will not bear some 
degree of forcing, to thrive in the rapid summer, with its long days and 
proportionally great meridional heat, of countries bordering on the Arctic 
circle; should it even subsist through the rigorous winter of that region. 

I am sensible how much the absence of exact thermometrical observa- 
tions takes away from t?ie completeness of this sketch of part of the flora 
of the Pyrenees. I have none of my own to adduce, except a few made at - 
the foot of the Western Pyrenees in the month of June, when I found the 
meridional temperature to often exceed 90° Fahrenheit. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol.'m. 7 

98 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees, 

whether phytostatical or phytological, are imperfect; yet they have 
all their use in placing the same object before us under different 
points of view. As regards the Pyrenees, I have judged it best 
under all the circumstances to adopt the climatal arrangement 
sanctioned by the usage of the most eminent resident botanists. 
The first exposition of this is to be found in the writings of 
Ramond, one of the earliest observers in geographical botany. 
He ascertained that the oak {Quercus robur) ascended from the 
plains to the height of 1600 metres ; that the beech [Fagus syl- 
vatica) occupied a zone of from 600 to 1800 metres ; the fir 
{Pinus Abies) and the yew [Taxus communis) a zone of from 
1400 to 2000 metres ; and that the Scotch fir [Pinus sylvestris) 
commencing at the latter limit, ascended in its smaller forms 
(especially that called Pinus Mughus by Jacquin) as high as 
2400 metres. Above this limit (he observes) there are no more 
trees. Here commence shrubs, with dry leaves, and mostly pro- 
cumbent or prostrate stems, which are concealed under the snow 
during the winter. Such are Rhododendron ferrugineum, various 
species of Daphne, Passerina and Globularia, Salix herbacea and 
reticulata, &c. Leaving these, we meet humbie herbs with 
perennial roots, leaves in rosettes and mostly naked stems : first 
in the series are Gentiana campestris. Primula villosa, Saxifraga 
longifolia, Aizoon, &c. ; next. Ranunculus alpestris, nivalis and 
parnassifoliu^, Androsace alpina, &c.; lastly, Ranunculus glacialis, 
Saxifraga ccsspitosa, oppositifolia, androsacea and grcenlandica 
(Lapeyr., non L.) : these, with lichens, reach 3000 or even 3400 
metres, and extend to and even beyond the line of eternal snow. 
Guided by these observations of Ramond, and by others of his 
own, M. des Moulins, in the admirable memoir above-cited, has 
proposed to divide the Pyrenees into zones of altitude, as follows. 
The commencement of the subalpine zone he places at 4200 feet, 
about which altitude the cultivation of esculent vegetables (rye, 
potatoes, cabbages, &c.) ceases. It extends as far as 6000 feet, 
which is the upper limit of the growth of the spruce-fir and the 
beech*. The plants of the mountains, united with certain plants 
frequent in the plains, form the basis of its vegetation, and the 
real subalpines attain in it their greatest development both as to 
size and number. Meadows are scarce in this zone and do not 
occur above it. 

The alpine region M. des Moulins divides into three zones. 
First, the inferalpine, which extends from 6000 to 7200 feet, and 
is characterized chiefly by the presence of Pinus sylvestris, which 

* My own observations are here somewhat at variance with those of M. 
des Moulins. The beech has seemed to me to fail ordinarily some hundred 
feet below the fir, and in effect about the point where the latter attains its 
greatest development. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees, 99 

even in its most stunted form scarcely passes the upper limit. 
Rhododendron ferrugineum expires in this zone at from 6600 to 
6900 feet, and above this altitude the herbage is composed chiefly 
oiNardus stricta (a grass common in the marshes of the Landes !) 
and of Festuca eskia, Ram. {F. varia 7. crassifolia, Koch ; Eskio, 
Jispet andOursagno of the mountaineers of the Pyrenees). Amongst 
the shrubs characteristic of this zone may be mentioned Vacci- 
nium Myrtillus and uliginosum, Empetrum nigrum^ Sorbus cJia- 
mcemespilus and Salia; Pyrenaica ; amongst the herbaceous plants, 
Silene ciliata and Arenaria ciliata. Crocus multifidus, which is 
a conspicuous ornament of the lower mountains (as around 
Bagneres-de-Bigorre), reaches the very summit of the inferalpine 

The medialpine zone extends from 7200 to 8400 feet. Festuca 
eskia attains the upper limit of this zone, but Nardus stricta fails 
below it. Juniperus nana is the giant of the vegetation, already 
so much contracted. Here the weeds which follow the traces of 
man and of the domesticated animals from the plains, cease to 
exist. The following species are abundant in this zone : Statics 
alpina, Gentiana alpina, Potentilla nivalis, Cherleria sedoides, 
Silene acaulis, Iberis spathulata, Berger., and Pyrethrum alpinum. 

Lastly, above 8400 feet, in order to characterise the superalpine 
zone, we have merely to add to the plants of the middle zone 
a veiy small number of herbaceous plants, all perennial, and 
rarely descending into the medialpine zone. Such are Ranun- 
culus glacialis and parnassifolius, Stellaria cerastoides, Androsace 
alpina, Sibbaldia procumbens, Saxifraga groenlandica, Lap., and 
S. androsacea. 

Thus far M. des Moulins. Of the zone below the subalpine, 
which I call the Zona montosa, he says nothing, because it was 
not necessary to his estimation of the flora of the Pic du Midi. 
It corresponds very nearly to Mr. Watson's "Agrarian Re- 
gion,'' and were it our sole object to determine the distribution 
of Phanerogamia within its limits, it would be expedient to 
divide it into three zones, as M. des Moulins does the alpine 
region. Ascending from the plain, these zones might con- 
veniently be separated, first by the upper limit of the cultivation 
of the vine, and secondly by that of maize, and the three divi- 
sions would be of nearly equal breadth. The cultivation of the 
vine in the Pyrenees is, as Humboldt observed it to be in South 
America, very nearly coterminous with the natural forests of 
chestnut-trees. It is true that chestnuts occur above the vine- 
yards, but it is only sporadically ; and so do vines occur here and 
there, trained to cottages in sheltered situations, considerably 
beyond the zone where they normally find a suitable climate. The 
cultivation of maize extends to about the point where the box 


100 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees, 

begins to flourish luxuriantly. For the purpose, however, of 
estimating the climatal distribution of mosses, it will rarely be 
requisite to divide the montose zone ; and where I find occasion 
to speak of an inferior and a superior montose zone, it is to be 
supposed divided into two equal portions. 

In order to enable any one to compare more completely the 
distribution of plants in the Pyrenees with that of the rest of 
Europe, and especially with that of our own islands, I add the 
names of several plants which I have myself observed in the 
various zones, of which many of them have appeared to me cha- 

Planities (= Zq). Teesdalia nudicaulis, Helianthemum alys- 
soides et guttatum, Viola lactea, Silene bicolor, Lupinus angus- 
tifolius, Corrigiola littoralis, TUecebrum verticillatum, Hyoseris 
minima. Erica scoparia et ciliaris, Anagallis tenella et crassifolia, 
Pinguicula lusitanica, Phalangium bicolor, Avena Thorei, Agrostis 
setacea et elegans, Airopsis globosa, Cynosurus echinatus, &c. &c. 

Zona montosa (= Z^), Pars inferior. Ranunculus nemoro- 
sus. Anemone ranunculoides, Hepatica triloba, Geranium phseum, 
Saxifraga Geum, Asperula cynanchica. Prunella grandiflora, Sta- 
chys alpina. Euphorbia hyberna et dulcis, Cephalanthera ensi- 
folia, Kceleria cristata, Melica ciliata. 

Zona montosa superior. Potentilla micrantha, Orobus luteus, 
Saxifraga Geum, Astrantia major, Heracleum Pyrenaicum, Arnica 
montana, Cirsium Monspessulanum, Prenanthes purpurea, Soyeria 
lapsanoides, Scrophularia Scopolii, Erinus alpinus, Teucrium 
Pyrenaicum, Calamintha sylvatica, Rumex scutatus, Buxus sem- 
pervirens, Carex montana, Asplenium septentrionale. 

Zona suhalpina (= Zg). Ranunculus aconitifolius. Spiraea Arun- 
cus, Meconopsis Cambrica, Arabis alpina, Hutchinsia alpina, Car- 
damine latifolia et resedifolia, Viola cornuta, Dianthus Monspes- 
sulanus, Saponaria ocymoides. Geranium cinereum, Hippocrepis 
comosa, Trifolium alpinum, Sempervivum montanum, Saxifraga 
Geum et aquatica, Chserophyllum hirsutum, Sambucus racemosa, 
Galium vernum, Ramon dia Pyrenaica, Scrophularia Scopolii, Di- 
gitalis purpurea et lutea, Linaria alpina, Veronica Ponse et saxa- 
tilis, Tozzia alpina, Teucrium Chamsedrys, Nigritella angustifolia, 
Lilium Pyrenaicum, Merendera Bulbocodium, Carex ornithopoda, 
Asplenium Halleri. 

Zona inferalpina (=; Zg). Ranunculus Gouani, Helianthemum 
(Elandicum, Viola biflora, Gypsophila repens. Geranium cine- 
reum, Trifolium alpinum, Dryas octopetala, Geum Pyrenaicum, 
Potentilla alchemilloides et rupestris, Epilobium alpinum. Pa- 
ronychia serpyllifolia, Saxifraga Aizoon /9. minor, Eryngium 
Bourgati, Aster alpinus, Homogyne alpina, Carduus carlinoides, 
Crepis pygmsea, Jasione perennis, Erinus alpinus var. hirsutus. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and HepaticcB of the Pyrenees. 101 

Veronica aphylla, Bartsia alpina, Pedicularis comosa, Horminum 
Pyrenaicum, Pinguicula grandiflora, Androsace carnea et villosa. 
Primula integrifolia, Globularia nudicaulis et rupestris, Statice 
alpina, Salix Pyrenaica et reticulata, Luzula pediformis, Carex 
sempervirens, Eestuca varia, Aspidium Lonchitis, Lycopodium 
Selago, Polypodium Phegopteris. 

Zona medialpina (= Z4). Ranunculus alpestris, montanus, 
Pyrenseus, Cardamine bellidifolia, Draba aizoides, Sisymbrium 
pinnatifidum, Saponaria csespitosa, Arenaria purpurascens, Stel- 
laria cerastoides, Cerastium alpinum, Cherleria sedoides, Geum 
montanum, Potentilla nivalis, Rhodiola rosea, Saxifraga aretioides, 
bryoides et muscoides, Asperula hirta, Aronicum scorpioides. 
Chrysanthemum alpinum, Erigeron alpinus, Gnaphalium leon- 
topodium et supinum, Senecio Tournefortii, Crepis pygmaea. 
Taraxacum officinale var. alpinum, Campanula pusilla, Jasione 
perennis, Phyteuma hemisphsericum, Euphrasia minima, Pedicu- 
laris Pyrenaica et rostrata, Pinguicula alpina, Soldanella alpina. 
Daphne Cneorum, Veronica alpina, Juniperus nana, Juncus tri- 
fidus, Luzula spadicea et pediformis, Carex Pyrenaica, Festuca 

Zona super alpina (= ZJ. Cardamine bellidifolia, Draba niva- 
lis, Potentilla nivalis et Salisburgensis, Saxifraga bryoides, gra- 
nulata var., muscoides et groenlandica. Lap., Senecio Tournefortii, 
Gentiana alpina, Myosotis sylvatica var. alpestris, Pedicularis 
rostrata, Soldanella alpina, Statice alpina, Salix retusa et her- 
bacea, Luzula spicata, Carex curvula et nigra, Agrostis vulgaris 
var. alpina, Sesleria disticha. 

Throughout the following catalogue of the mosses, the zones 
which each species occupies will be distinctly specified ; and to 
enable me to do this in the smallest possible compass, I propose 
the notation of zones above indicated, that is to say, Zj for the 
first zone above the plain, Zg for the second, &c., and Zq for the 
plain itself. It is in many cases difficult to ascertain the zone in 
which a moss has normally its station, for in mountainous coun- 
tries the seeds, &c. of mosses are carried down by the streams, 
precisely as those of flowering-plants are ; but a large proportion 
of mosses are found only near streams, and that especially in a 
low latitude, where the requisite degree of moisture is more rarely 
met with. Hence certain mosses, natives of the alpine region, 
are occasionally found some thousands of feet below it. To take 
an instance in Grimmia spiralis, a species which is stated by the 
authors of the ' Bryologia Europsea' to have its " veritable habitat 
au-dessus de toute vegetation forestiere." Near Cauterets, op- 
posite the baths of La Raillere, on the rude blocks of granite 
which are thickly strewn along the banks of the Gave de Marca- 
daou, this species forms large lax tufts, disfigured by the sand of 

102 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

the stream, yet bearing a few capsules. This is far below the 
commencement of the suhalpine zone ; but in continuing to ascend 
the stream, until we emerge on the broken plain adjacent to the 
Lac de Gaube, where the only trees are a few scattered pines 
(i. e. towards the upper limit of the inferalpine zone), we find the 
same species, forming small compact tufts and bearing a profu- 
sion of fruit, growing on the same sort of rock, and often far 
removed from any stream. Here it is obviously at home. 

The localities visited within Z5 are for the most part entirely 
destitute of mosses, in consequence of the declivities being co- 
vered with sliding fragments of schistose rock. Two species of 
Hepaticse, Sarcoscyphus emarginatus and Alicularia scalaris, com- 
mon in the plains, ascend in varying forms nearly to the limit of 
perpetual snow, and with Jungermannia julacea form the sole 
representatives of the tribe in Zg. I must also observe, that 
nowhere in the Pyrenees do mosses and lichens ascend higher 
than all flowering-plants. Even above the line of perpetual con- 
gelation, wherever a rock peeps out of the snow (its sides being 
too steep for the snow to rest upon them). Saxifrages, and two or 
three other kinds of plants equally hardy, fix themselves in its 
crevices. This is also the case with lichens, but scarcely with 
realfrondose mosses, and I very much doubt whether there be any 
region in the world (alpine or arctic) where mosses leave below 
them every phanerogamous plant, although we have long been 
taught to believe that such is the case. Ramond found flowers 
to accompany Mont Perdu almost to its summit. 

I proceed now to exhibit in a tabular form a list of those 
Musci, Hepaticae and Lichenes which have appeared to me cha- 
racteristic of the various zones in the Pyrenees. I have consi- 
dered a species characteristic of a particular zone for the follow- 
ing reasons : 1 . It is either abundantly distributed in that zone 
throughout the chain, and scarcely seen above or below it ; or, 
2. It occurs at various (it may be distant) points of the chain, 
and nowhere abundantly, yet is always confined to one zone ; or 
else, 3. It is distributed through several zones, but exists in its 
perfect state only in one. A few species flourish with equal 
luxuriance in two or more zones. Those mentioned for the 
superalpine zone were almost its sole occupants, and most of 
them were sterile. The species united by brackets were fre- 
quently grouped together in one tuft, so as to be taken up at 
once by the hand ; or, in the case of crustaceous lichens, occupied 
the surface of one stone. The species printed in italics are con- 
sidered peculiarly characteristic of the zone in which they are 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 103 







Polytrichum juniperinum. 

f Jungermannia julacea. 

Parmelia chrysoleuca. 


< Sarcoscyphusemarginatus. 

Lecidea atrobrunnea. 


j Encalypta vhabdocarpa. 
\ Hypnum molluscum var. 

L Alicularia scalaris. 

Umbilicaria proboscidea var. 

Endocarpon miniatum, var. 


■ DesmatodonlatifoUus,var. 





. Weisia crispula var. 


■ Weisia crispula var. 

"Jungermannia julacea. 

' Umbilicaria proboscidea. 
\ atropruinosa. 


• Dicranum Starkii. 

Sarcoscyphus emarginatus. 



. Arctoa fulvella. 

< Alicularia scalaris. 

Cetraria pinastri. 

^-v C5 

Grimmia sulcata. 

Gymnomitrium concinna- 

J Cladonia vermicularis. 
\ gracilis. 





Tortula vinealis, var. nivalis 

Lecidea Morio. 

O B^ 

Dissodon Froelichianus. 



Anacalypta latifolia. 



Bryum turbinatum, var. lati- 

Parmelia ventosa. 


Peltigera crocea. 


Hypnum plicatura. 

f Hypnum plicatum. 

Gymnomitrium concinnatum 

Peltigera crocea. 

J Leskea incurvata. 

Jungermannia albicans var. 

Lecidea Wahlenbergii. 

1 Tortula aciphylla. 


Parmelia ventosa. 

L Dicranum Starkii. 

Mastigobryura deflexum. 

J Lecidea Morio. 
\ Parmelia badia. 

Desmatodon latifolius. 


Hypnum reflexum. 

Biatora decipiens. 




Grimmia spiralis. 


ovata var. 




Timmia megapolitana. 


Bryum polymorphum, var. 


capillare var. 3. 
Bartramia ithyphylla. 
Gy mnostomum curvirostrum 


Hypnum dimorphum. 

r Hypnum dimorphum. 
\ Starkii. 

Mastigobryum deflexum. 

Cetraria juniperina. 

f Jungermannia trichophylla 

Parmelia ventosa. 

r Bryum acuminatum. 


Biatora lurida. 

■< Zierii. 

1 reclusa. 

Umbilicaria pustulata. 

L capillare var. 2. 

IScapania apiculata. 


r Hypnum Crista-castrensis 

Jungermannia nana. 


< uncinatum. 



L Schreberi. 




/ riparia. 
\ acuta. 




[sotbecium striatum. 
Bartramia Halleriana. 
Trichostomum glaucescens. 
Campylopus longirostris. 
Grimmia elatior. 
Gymnostomum rupestre. 
Ptychomitrium polyphyllum. 



Grimmia ovata. 

104 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 











Pterogonium filiforme. 

"Leskea attenuata. 
J Entodon insidiosus. 
) Hypnum rugosum. 
Bryum elongatum. 
' Dicranum polycarpum. 
\ Rhabdoweisia fugax. 
^ Orthotrichum Hutchinsiae 

Tortula paludosa. 
Trichostomum tortile. 
Grimmia leucophcea. 
Fissidens grandifrons. 
Bryum obconicum. 
Hypnum crassinervium. 

Plagiochila Pyrenaica. 
r Jungermannia acuta. 
\ Wilsoniana. 

^ Parmelia fulgens. 
\ crassa. 

r Lecidea Candida. 
\ vesicularis. 
Verrucaria maxima. 

f Opegrapha cerebrina, 
\ Verrucaria Dufourei. 




J Isothecium repens. 

\ Hypnum Haldanianum. 


f Leucodon sciuroides. 
\ Dicranum montanum. 
Tortula revoluta. 

Bryum atropurpureum. 
Grimmia crinita. 
Fissidens incurvus. 

J Jungermannia Wilsoniana. 
\ Southbya tophacea. 

II r 


Hypnum illecebrum. 
Leptodon Smithii. 
Bryum torquescens var. 
r Tozeri. 

< Entosthodon Templetoni. 

Tortula cuneifolia. 
t Trichostomum subulatum. 

Jungermannia Francisci. 
J Saccogyna viticulosa. 
\ Mastigobryum trilobatum. 
Reboulia hemisphserica. 
Riccia fluitans. 

Parmelia chrysophthalma. 


Opegrapha elegans. 

It was my intention to have given here a comparative view of 
the distribution of Musci and Hepaticse in the Pyrenees and in 
the other great mountain-ranges of the worlds as also with that 
of our own islands, but this introduction has already swelled to 
a tedious length, and 1 hasten to close it with a few general 

As there are certain flowering-plants which accompany the 
habitations of men and of cattle from the plains nearly to the tops 
of the mountains, namely, in the Pyrenees, nettles, mallows and 
docks {Rumex Patientia) ; so there are likewise certain mosses 
which cling with equal tenacity to these traces of civilization. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 105 

The most notable are Ceratodon purpureus and Funaria hygro- 
metrica. Tortula ruralis is associated with these until in the in- 
feralpine zone it meets and is supplanted by T. aciphyllaf which 
I have never seen away from the sheep-cotes and the huts of the 
shepherds. At about the same height Hypnum rutabulum and 
Bryum capillare give place to Hypnum pUcatum and Leskea in- 
curvata ; these last, along with Tortula aciphylla, indicate the 
localities where the domesticated animals have taken up their 
temporary sojourn, throughout all the higher mountains. 

The cryptogamic vegetation of the Pyrenees, taken in the masSy 
has great general resemblance to that of our own islands, espe- 
cially of Ireland, and the species common to both attain nearly 
the same comparative altitude. Yet there are features in the 
former which would forcibly strike a bryologist accustomed only 
to the mosses of the British Isles. About the foot of the Pyrenees 
he would be struck with the luxuriant fructification of Dicranum 
glaucum and Leucodon sciuroides, the fruit of the latter being one 
of the greatest rarities of our islands; and he would equally re- 
mark the absence of Bryum ccespiticium, of which I gathered only 
a single tuft, on a wall near Oloron ; nor has it been observed 
elsewhere in the Pyrenees, though we are accustomed to look on 
it as the commonest of mosses. Bryum cernuum and inclinatum 
are almost equally scarce, though frequent with us and ascending 
high into the mountains. Were he next to climb the lower cal- 
careous hills, he would see Hypnum rugulosum, abietinum, and 
Leskea attenuata profusely covering the scattered stones and 
rocks, and forming quite a marked feature even in the scenery. 
But he would miss Hypnum undulatum and the Sphagna which 
ornament our moist turfy hills ; and if he ascended higher, he 
would probably see no Splachna or AndrececB. The rarity of the 
latter cannot be attributed to the southern latitude of the Pyre- 
nees, for they exist even under the equator, as for instance on 
Mount Pichincha. The abundance of these two genera in the 
Alps of Switzerland must give a character to their vegetation 
wanting in the Pyrenees ; and in general the Alps would seem 
to be much more mossy than the Pyrenees, above the region of 
forests, giving birth for example to an immense number of Brya, 
which in the Pyrenees are nowhere abundant above the in feral- 
pine zone. This may reasonably be attributed to the more 
northerly position of the Alps, to their extending through a far 
wider zone of latitude, and not consisting like the Pyrenees of a 
single narrow chain; and to their greater humidity, which is 
probably dependent on the immense breadth of snow that perpe- 
tually covers them. The species described in this catalogue as 
new have none of them been observed in the Alps, with the ex- 
ception of Hypnum Pyrenaiaimj which was the only one noticed 

106 Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassum. 

above the subalpine zone ; and there are a few other Pyrenaean 
mosses wanting to the Alps*. 

Two Jungermannia exceedingly common in Britain, Lophocolea 
bidentata and heterophylla, are all but absent from the Pyrenees ; 
and two others, Jungermannia barbata and Ptilidium ciliare, 
great ornaments of our mountainous districts, are altogether 
wanting. The latter attains its southern limit in the north of 
Italy; it is distributed throughout middle and northern Europe, 
but grows in greatest luxuriance within the Arctic circle. (Conf. 
Wahlenberg and the accounts of our Northern voyagers.) 

According to Wahlenberg, there are in Lapland, as in the 
Pyrenees, extensive forests of Pinus Abies and P. sylvestrisy and 
both descend into the plain ; the former cease at the altitude of 
800 feet and the latter at 1200 feet, indicating respectively the 
upper limits of the " regio sylvatica '' and the '' regio subsylva- 
tica.^^ But in the Pyrenees these trees ascend proportionally far 
higher than in Lapland ; and that they do not occupy the same 
climatal zones we shall see by comparing the positions of a few 
mosses common to both countries. In the Pyrenees, Tortula tor- 
tuosa, Bryum crudumf Didymodon capillaceus and Dicranum virens 
are found in the region of coniferous trees, and are rarely seen 
above it ; but these are precisely species mentioned by W ahlen- 
berg as characteristic of his " Alpes inferiores,^^ which are above 
the region even of the birch ('^ regio subalpina, Wahl.^'), and are 
characterized by the presence of Betula nana^ Diapenzia lappo- 
nica and Silene acaulis. Yet the comparative altitudes attained 
by the mosses in the Pyrenees and in Lapland accord very nearly, 
and the species which ascend highest in the one for the most part 
do the same also in the other. Hence the zone occupied by a 
moss common to both has probably in both the same average 
cestival temperature. 

[To be continued.] 

XI. — Alg£B Orientales : — Descriptions of new Species belonging to 
the genus Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c.t 

[Continued from vol. ii. p. 434.] 

[With a Plate.] 


10. Sargassum porosum (nob.) ; caule cylindraceo, brevissimo, mu- 
ricato, ramis planis ; foliis ovato-oblongis, subundulatis, inciso- 

* The number of species which I have found in the Pyrenees new to the 
flora of France is considerable ; but I cannot give a correct list of them, as I 
have not the dates of several species discovered in the Alps and Jura and 
nearly contemporaneously in the Pyrenees. 

f Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 14th Dec. 1848. 

AtmJcMa^. }kt.mst. S Z X(A 3.nJK 

J)'- <hrri/7r dfl 

JDr r Sctrtrhy ^c 

Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassum. 107 

dentatis, unlnerviis ; vesiculis sphaericis breviter petiolatis ; recep- 
taculis minutis, axillaribus, cylindraceis, oblongis, inerraibus, sub- 
Hab. in mari Peninsulas Indise Orientalis ; Shuter (1827), Wight. 

Root an expanded cartilaginous disc. Stem cylindrical, very 
short (in the only specimen I possess scarcely half an inch), about 
the thickness of a blackbird^s quill, muricate. Primary branches 
few, 12-18 inches or more lonr, simple or sparingly divided, flat, 
a line or more broad, giving off the secondary branches in a 
distichous manner at intervals of about half an inch ; these are 
from 3 to 6 inches long, and closely set with fruit-bearing ramuli 
likewise distichously arranged, and from half an inch to an inch 
in length. Leaves; those of the young primary branches, 
especially near the base, an inch long, ovate-oblong, sometimes 
ovate-lanceolate, somewhat undulate, deeply, and very irregularly 
inciso-dentate ; those on the secondary branches half the size 
above-mentioned, and those accompanying the fructification mi- 
nute and somewhat cuneate; all furnished with a slender nerve 
becoming faint and disappearing before reaching the apex, and 
with abundance of oval pores. Vesicles spherical, on stalks 
scarcely a line long; those accompanying the leaves on the 
young primary branches considerably larger than the seed of 
Lathyrus odoratus ; those on the smaller branches and those inter- 
mixed with the receptacles much less. Receptacles axillary, about 
a line long, cylindraceous, linear- oblong, obtuse, unarmed, form- 
ing irregularly divided clusters. Colour a rich red-brown, the 
younger leaves paler and somewhat translucent. Substance mem- 
branaceous, slightly rigid when dry. 

This species is allied to Sargassum incisifolium, Ag., found at 
the Cape of Good Hope, but differs in the entire receptacles be- 
sides other characters. In an old state the branches lose their 
leaves and seem covered with the little tufted racemes. 

The specimen which I possess from Dr. Shuter was kindly 
communicated by Sir W. J. Hooker. 

11. Sargassum elegans (nob.); caule filiformi, teretiusculo, ramosis- 
simo ; foliis lineari-oblongis, obtusis, laciniato- dentatis, inferne 
oblique attenuatis ; vesiculis parvulis, sphaericis ; receptaculis li- 
neari-oblongis, subcompressis, apieem versus dentatis, racemosis. 

Wight in herb. no. 15. 

Hab. in mari Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis ; Wight. 

Plant probably between 1 and 2 feet long ; the specimen before 
me being fully 12 inches of the upper extremity, the whole of 
which bears evidence of having been covered with branches. Root 
I have not seen. Stem, or probably more correctly primary 
branch, filiform, about double the thickness of a hog's bristle. 

108 Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassum. 

giving off spreading branches 3-4 inches long, at intervals of 
half an inch, which become gradually shorter upwards, thickly- 
covered with leaves, vesicles and receptacles. Leaves linear- 
oblong, or, sometimes, oblong-lanceolate, nearly three-quarters 
of an inch in length, 2-3 lines broad, obliquely attenuated at 
the base into a very slender petiole, sharply inciso-dentate, or 
even laciniate, furnished with a delicate nerve and oval pores. 
Vesicles numerous, spherical, the largest not half the size of the 
seed of Lathyrus odoratuSy most of them as small as an ordinary 
pin's head, often apiculate, and the apiculus excentric, furnished 
with a few papilliform pores, and supported on a little compressed 
stalk not a line in length. Receptacles axillary, cylindraceous or 
subcorapressed, oblong or somewhat club-shaped, sharply tgothed^ 
and forming little racemose tufts about a line and a half long. 
Colour dull reddish brown. Substance somewhat membranaceous 
and slightly diaphanous. 

A very beautiful species. When dry, the laciniate teeth of the 
leaves give them quite a fringed appearance. 

12. Sargassum hrevifolium (nob.) ; caule teretiusculo, muricato ; 
foliis parvulis, obovatis, dentatis, uninerviis ; vesiculis minutis, 
sphsericis ; receptaculis filiformibus, elongatis, racemosis. 

Wight in herb. no. 20. 

Var. |S ; foliis laciniato-dentatis, in petiolo longiore attenuate. An 

species distincta ? 
Wight in herb. no. 10. 
Hab. in mari Peninsulse Indiae Orientalis ; Wight. 

Root I have not seen. Stem (or primary branch ?) probably 
2 feet long or more ; but only fragments are in my possession ; 
cylindraceous, somewhat muricate. Branches 4 or 5 inches long, 
thickly clothed with the fructiferous ramuli, which are not more 
than half an inch in length. Leaves ; those on the main branches 
I have not seen ; those on the secondary branches, from the axils 
of which the clusters of receptacles and vesicles arise, are about 
a third of an inch long, more or less obovate, remotely dentate, 
rounded at the end, furnished with pores and a nerve which soon 
becomes rather faint and disappears below the summit. Vesicles 
spherical, numerous, the size of a large pin's head, having pro- 
minent pores, supported on filiform stalks half a line in length, 
and arising from the lower ramifications of the raceme. Recep- 
tacles numerous, filiform, elongated, forming much-divided ra- 
cemes from a quarter to half an inch long. The receptacles are 
not unfrequently foliaceous towards their upper extremity, in 
which case they resemble linear leaves toothed at the margin, and 
are furnished with a nerve and pores. Colour reddish black when 
dry. Substance cartilaginous. 





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J-Bastre . sc. 

On the Structure of Voluntary Muscular Fibre. 109 

In variety p. the stem is more muricate. The leaves smaller, 
and besides being inciso- or laciniato-dentate, they are attenuated 
more gradually into a longer and more slender stalk. The recep- 
tacles are smaller, but present no other perceptible difference. 

In the absence of more perfect specimens, and indeed of a 
larger series, the present description must necessarily be imper- 
fect. The plant I have considered as a doubtful variety bears a 
great resemblance to the other, yet I might perhaps with some 
reason have raised it to the rank of a species ; the striking simi- 
larity of the fructification alone deterred me. Should it prove 
distinct, it may bear the name of S. pergracile. 


Sargassum porosum. 

Fig. 1. Leaves and vesicles on the young plant. 

— 2. One of the lower leaves. 

— 3. Leaves and vesicles on the fertile branches. 

— 4. Leaves of the ramuli with receptacle. 

— b. Portion of a branch with old racemes, after the leaves and vesicles 

have disappeared. The two last magnified. 

Sargassum elegans. 
Fig. 1. A branch. 

— 2. Leaf from ditto. 

— 3. Raceme. 

— 4 & 5. Raceme. 

— 6. Vesicles. 2, 4, 5 and 6 magnified. 

Sargassum brevifolium. 

Fig. 1. Lower portion of a branch. 

— 2. Raceme of fructification, with vesicles. 

— 3. Raceme, vesicles and leaf. 

— 4. Vesicle. 

— 5. Portion of var. /3. 

— ■ 6. Leaves of ditto, 3, 4 and 6 magnified. 

XII. — Observations on the Minute Structure and Mode of Con- 
traction of Voluntary Muscular Fibre ; being the abstract of a 
Paper read before the Royal Medical Society, Edinburgh, De- 
cember I5th, 1848. By W. Murray Dobie, F.B.S.E. 

[With a Plate.] 

The structure of cross-striated muscle is a subject which has 
more or less engaged the attention of minute anatomists, since 
the first introduction of the microscope as a means of histological 

There is perhaps no animal texture as to the nature of which 
more contrary opinions have been held, or more conflicting state- 

110 Mr. W. M. Dobie on the Minute Structure and 

ments advanced^ than that of voluntary muscle, so that even at 
the present time it must still be considered a question by no 
means set at rest. 

My object in the present communication is to state briefly 
the opinions which a careful examination of this texture in seve- 
ral animals has led me to adopt, confining my observations to the 
elementary fibre, independent of its sarcolemmal sheath. 

Before proceeding to do so, I shall very shortly notice the 
opinions of the principal microscopic anatomists who have been 
employed in this investigation. 

Robert Hooke and Leuwenhoek were the first to examine 
muscular fibre with the microscope. Robert Hooke speaks of 
the " fibres resembling a necklace of pearl •" it is probable that 
by fibres he means the ultimate fibrillse. 

Leuwenhoek saw and figured the transverse striae, which he 
regarded as only surface-markings produced by the windings of 
a spiral thread. He considered the fibre to be composed of glo- 
bules, less in size than the corpuscles of the blood. He made 
cross-sections of the fibres, and showed them to be polygonal and 
surrounded by areolar texture. 

Malpighi, in an isolated passage of his works, notices the 
transverse striae. De Heide also described and figured them. 

In the large work of Muys, which appeared in the middle of 
the last century, the author describes muscle with great care ; he 
was evidently acquainted with the transverse striae, and figured 
the fibrillae, which he terms '^ fila," and describes as " nonnun- 
quam etiam nodosa '^ (PI. VII. fig. lab cd). The nodose appear- 
ance would seem to have perplexed him, and he considered it not 
universal. Muys was well-aware of the solidity of the elementary 
fibres, and his drawings of cross-sections of muscle are well- 
worthy of examination. 

Prochaska wrote an excellent treatise on muscle* ; he supposed 
that the markings seen on the surface of a muscular fibre were 
caused by the lateral pressure of vessels, nerves or fibres. He 
injected muscle very successfully, and found the vessels so nu- 
merous, that he attributed the contraction of muscle to the dis- 
tension of these vessels throwing the fibre into zigzag flexures. 

Fontana, in his treatise " On the Venom of the Viper f/' 
makes some short but excellent observations on muscular fibre ; 
he was the first anatomist who ascribed the transverse striae to 
the lateral coaptation of the sarcal elements of the fibrillae. He 
thus speaks of the fibrillae : — 

" Les fils charnus primitifs sont des cylindres solides, egaux 
entr'eux, et marques visiblement h distances egales de petits 
signes, comme d^autant de petits diaphragmes, ou rides. Je n'ai 

♦ De Carne Musciilaii. f Sur le V^nin de la Vipere, 1781. 

Mode of Contraction of Voluntary Muscular Fibre. Ill 

pu apercevoir dans ces fils une marche vraiment ondee, et il m'a 
paru que les petites taches curvilignes du faisceau primitif etoient 
ibrmees par les petits signes, ou diaphragmes, des fils charnus 
primitifs/' (PL VII. fig. 3.) 

Sir Everard Home and Mr. Bauer took up the microscopical 
investigation of muscular fibre in 1818 and again in 1826. Un- 
fortunately for science they fell into remarkable errors. Their 
observations retarded rather than advanced the microscopic ana- 
tomy of muscle, and raised doubts as to the credibility of any 
conclusions drawn from microscopic observations. 

Sir Everard Home and Mr. Bauer *j seeing the tendency which 
blood- corpuscles have to unite in a longitudinal series, fancied it 
highly probable that the fibrillse of striated muscle were formed 
in the same manner. Sir Everard states that the particles of the 
fibrillse are of the same diameter as the blood-corpuscles deprived 
of their colour ; he supposes Leuwenhoek^s assertion, that muscle 
is composed of globules of less diameter than the blood- corpuscles, 
incorrect, and he endeavours to account for this supposed mistake 
by adducing the fact, that Leuwenhoek never possessed a micro- 

Mr. Skey, in a paper in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' sets 
forth as his opinion, that each muscular fibre is a tube, contain- 
ing in its interior a semi-transparent amorphous substance ; the 
tube he supposes to be composed of fibrillse, and the transverse 
striae to be depressions on the surface of the fibre. 

The views of Miiller, Schwann, Lauth and Henle are very 
similar to those advanced by Fontana. 

Schwann considers the fibrillse to be beaded filaments, pre- 
senting under the microscope a succession of dark points sepa- 
rated by light and somewhat narrower portions of the fibril. 

Dr. Martin Barry holds the structure of muscle to be spiral ; 
he says each fibril is composed of two spirals coiling in opposite 

From these observers I shall pass to those who in recent times 
have examined the fibrillse of muscle, with a view to determining 
the real constitution of these filaments. 

The publication of Mr. Bowman's paper in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' was an sera in the microscopy of muscle, though he 
does not seem to have been able to make out the ultimate con- 
stitution of the fibrillse, which he considered were composed of a 
series of highly refracting particles of one kind ; he thus describes 
them : — 

" Fibrillse present alternate dark and light points when the 

* Philosophical Transactions, 1818 and 1826. 

113 Mr. W. M. Dobie on the Minute Sti^cture and 

part is a little out of focus. The light parts are the centres of 
highly refracting particles acting as lenses ; the dark points the 
intervals between them. If now the focus be carefully adjusted 
and the achromatic condenser be used for the purpose of defining 
the outhne with the utmost precision, each dark interspace be- 
tween the refracting points will be found to be reduced to two 
very slender straight lines, crossing the fibrillse in a transverse 
direction, and giving the light spaces as now seen a rectangular 
figure." (Fig. 3 a b.) 

Dr. Sharpey, from an examination of Mr. Lealand^s prepara- 
tions of the muscle of pig, considers the sarcal particles each to 
be composed of a dark central and clear outer part. Dr. Sharpey 
mentions that Mr. Lealand himself first pointed out a cross line 
in the clear interval, and also the bright surrounding areas 
(fig. 4«&6). 

Dr. Carpenter examining the same dissections comes to a 
similar conclusion (fig. 2 b). 

Professor Allen Thomson of Glasgow, in his late work on Phy- 
siology, describes the structure of the fibrillse in the same way as 
Dr. Sharpey : but since the pubhcation of that work he has been 
led to doubt the existence of any lateral clear edge, as he himself 
has informed me. 

Mr. Erasmus Wilson, from an examination of Mr. Lealand's 
preparations, which he is pleased to call his "own investiga- 
tions," describes the fibrillse very differently ; he does not repre- 
sent any clear lateral edge to the fibril ; he considers the clear as 
well as the dark space to be severally composed of a pair of cells, 
the dark pair containing a denser " myoline " than the clear pair ; 
each of these cells is again subdivided into two, thus giving four 
square cells of equal size in each dark or light interval (fig. 5 
a & b). 

I shall now advert to my own views regarding this structure, 
which I have deduced from the examination of very numerous 
demonstrations of the fibrillse, which I have succeeded in making 
in several kinds of muscular fibre, generally in the perfectly fresh 

When a favourable specimen of the muscular fibrillse of the 
frog, pig, or ox, is placed under a microscope magnifying about 
500 diameters, and the focus is adjusted with great care to the 
point at which the fibrillse can be seen with the greatest di- 
stinctness, or at what I shall term the distinct focus, the ap- 
pearance presented is the following : — The fibrillse are seen 
to be divided equally into a series of quadrangular spaces or 
areas, which are observed to be of two kinds, the one dark, the 
other clear or light, regularly alternating with each other. The 

Mode of Contraction of Voluntary Muscular Fibre. 113 

clear area may be observed in favourable specimens to have a 
distinct edge, and when the fibril has been in no way distorted 
or stretched, to be continuous with the edge of the dark area. 
Crossing the clear space at its centre, and at right angles to the 
length of the fibril, will be seen a distinct dark line ; this line di- 
vides the clear area into two equal parts or divisions, which are 
necessarily quadrangular. The dark space in the same focus 
presents a shape very similar to the clear one, though generally 
of a more elongated form ; its whole surface is dark, with the 
exception however of a clear line crossing it in the same manner 
as the dark transverse line does the clear space, and dividing it 
equally into two dark particles (fig. 6 a) . 

In some cases I have seen the dark spaces divided into three 
by two clear cross-lines ; an appearance I think which cannot be 
relied on, as the other dark spaces in the same fibrils presented 
the space as double only, with the single clear transverse line. 

When the fibrils are stretched, the dark space often appears as 
if somewhat elevated above the clear space ; I have seen this very 
distinctly in stretched fibrils from the lobster, examined very 
shortly after death, the clear space having scalloped edges 
(fig. 7a). 

With regard to the term dark space, it must not be supposed 
that it is really opake ; for under a superficial focus it also be- 
comes clear, as I shall presently describe. I shall still retain the 
term as expressive of what is observed when the fibril is seen 
under the distinct focus. 

If the focus of the instrument be now adjusted for the more 
superficial part of the fibril, or a little above it, a remarkable 
change is observed ; the general appearance of the fibril is dimi- 
nished in distinctness, and what was before the dark space now 
appears clear (but not so translucent as the clear space in the 
distinct focus), and is then seen to be crossed transversely by a 
dark line (fig. 6 b) . 

The clear area or space undergoes a similar change of appear- 
ance, becoming quite dark, but no line can be observed to cross 
it. The focus under which this is observed, to avoid confusion 
I shall call the superficial focus (fig. 6 b). 

It will perhaps be considered trivial thus to describe the ap- 
pearance of the fibrillse under an indistinct focus : but that it 
is not so, I hope afterwards to be able to prove ; for on the 
change of appearances thus presented, I believe hangs the true 
explanation of the cause of the transverse striae of voluntary 

In some kinds of muscular fibrillse, it is a matter of great dif- 
ficulty to perceive any dark transverse line in the clear space : 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 8 

114 Mr. W. M. Dobie on the Minute Structure and 

this arises from the extremely small size of this space, especially 
when the fibril is in a relaxed condition, and is more particularly 
found in the examination of the muscular fibiils offish, lobster or 
crab, in which indeed this line can be very rarely seen (fig. 7 b). 
Hence most probably the reason why Mr. Bowman does not re- 
present it. In such cases the only way to obtain a view of it is 
by stretching the fibril when in a perfectly fresh state; this 
cross-line of the clear space in the lobster partook more of the 
nature of a band, in the cases where I was enabled to examine it 
(PI. VII. fig. 7 a). In the fish (salmon) I have only seen it in a 
few cases, but in these the appearance was so distinct as not to 
leave the least doubt of its existence. 

I am not aware that this cross-line in the lobster, salmon, skate 
and frog has been seen by any preceding observers. In the pig 
and human subject it has been seen; I have also distinctly ob- 
served it in the muscular fibrillse of the ox. 

The length of the dark and clear spaces is sometimes identical ; 
at other times, and more frequently, the clear space is shorter ; 
and in the lobster and salmon is often so narrow as to be dimi- 
nished to a somewhat dark line when the fibril is in a perfectly 
relaxed condition. 

I have also frequently observed, in dissections of the muscular 
fibrillse of the frog and salmon, an appearance which I consider it 
important to mention, the true explanation of which I am at pre- 
sent unable to decide upon. It is as follows : — ^At the point where 
two fibrillse are separated from each other, extended for a greater 
or less distance between them, there often exists a beautiful ho- 
mogeneous membrane, (resembling the web between two of the 
toes of a duck,) which is stretched by the violence used in the 
separation of the fibrillse (fig. 8 «). In some recent observations 
which I have made on the muscular fibres of the skate when 
perfectly fresh, this appearance invariably presented itself, with 
this peculiarity however, that instead of being perfectly homoge- 
neous, it was marked with stripes corresponding to the dark 
and light spaces of the fibrillse between which it was stretched 
(fig. 8 6). 

I was at first inclined to regard this membrane as a shred of 
the sarcolemma accidentally stretched out between two fibrillse ; 
but from its being of a decidedly more delicate nature than that 
membrane, and from its being present in nearly e\'Bry part of 
some preparations, I am inclined to consider it as being caused 
by some homogeneous connecting medium spread among the 

The strise in this membrane in the skate I am at a loss to ac- 
count for ; perhaps from the tearing of the membrane over the 

Mode of Contraction of Voluntary Muscular Fibre. 115 

fibrillae, the surface of the membrane may have been thrown into 
delicate rugae by the elevation of the dark spaces above the clear 
ones, as may be often seen in stretched fibrils. 

I have seen appearances in the skate that would almost lead 
to the belief that this membrane was a fibril spread out laterally 
into a membrane; this would quite account for the striae on its 
surface. The subject requires more investigation. 

The form of the fibrillae I consider to be somewhat flattened or 
ribbon-shaped ; this can be easily seen when an isolated fibril 
becomes accidentally twisted. 

The conclusions which I would draw with regard to the struc- 
ture of muscular fibre from what I have myself observed, I shall 
now endeavour to give. 

1. That (excluding the sarcolemma) an ultimate fibre of 
voluntary muscle is composed of two kinds of sarcous matter, 
arranged in a definite manner, having a tendency under certain 
circumstances to split up intofibrillae (PI. VII. fig. 9), very rarely 
into discs, and then generally after prolonged maceration in 
spirit. The fibrillse are divided into dark and light spaces. 

2. That the dark sarcal element or space has some peculiarity 
in its molecular arrangement, differing from the clear sarcal ele- 
ment or space, which causes it to refract light in a different way. 
That we are not entitled to say that it is composed of cells con- 
taining a fluid of greater density than that contained in the con- 
tiguous clear space ; in fact, that we are not able to say with any 
degree of certainty, that any portion of a muscular fibril in the 
mature state is a cell containing fluid, as Mr. Erasmus Wilson 

3. That the clear space can be distinctly seen to have a dark 
line crossing it transversely and dividing it into two equal parts, 
and that the dark space also presents a similar division caused by 
a line which is generally seen of a lighter shade than the other 
parts of the same space, and not a broad black band as is erro- 
neously represented by Mr. Erasmus Wilson (fig. 6 « & fig. 5 a) . 

4. That no clear area exists at the edge of the fibrillse extend- 
ing transversely outwards from the dark spaces, giving the 
fibrillse the appearance of a chain of nucleated cells, as is repre- 
sented by Dr. Sharpey and Dr. Carpenter (fig. 4). This conclu- 
sion I have been irresistibly led to by the following considera- 
tions : — 

a. The fact that when two fibrillse lie side by side, the edges 
of the black spaces are in accurate apposition. 

b. That if this lateral clear area really existed, the fibre would 
be spotted, or at least marked with longitudinal strise quite as 
distinct as the transverse ones, which in this case would not be 
well-marked (fig. 4«). 


116 Mr. W. M. Dobie on the Minute Sti-udure and 

c. That the edges of the clear space can be seen under a fine 
instrument not to extend farther laterally than the edges of the 
dark space (fig. 6 a). 

[I perceive Mr. Quekett in one of the plates to his recent 
work on the Microscope has distinctly represented this, though 
he gives an incorrect diagram to explain an appearance which he 
represents quite correctly.] 

d. That the cross-line in the clear space measures exactly the 
same as the breadth of the dark space, and that it can be di- 
stinctly seen in favourable cases to touch the edges of the clear 
space (fig. Qa). 

5. That it seems probable that there exists a homogeneous 
connecting medium among the fibrillse (fig. 8 a & ^). 

6. That the structure of cross- striated muscular fibre is essen- 
tially the same in all the members of the animal kingdom. 

7. That from all I have seen of the structure of voluntary 
muscle, I am perfectly certain that the appearances presented are 
quite inconsistent with any palpable spiral arrangement, either 
in the fibre or fibrillse, as is still the opinion of Dr. Martin Barry. 
Mr. Bowman^s observations ought to have set this point at rest. 

8. That the dark spaces become clear, and clear spaces dark, 
during a change in the focus of the instrument, causing a pecu- 
liar appearance of movement on the fibrillse (fig. Q ahb). 

9. That the clear spaces are generally narrower in the fish 
and lobster than in the frog and mammalia (fig. 6«). 

10. That the fibrillse are somewhat flattened bands. 

11. That the dark spaces in some cases appear as if slightly 
elevated above the clear spaces of a fibril (fig. 7 a). 

The transverse striae. 

The transverse striae, when observed with great care and during 
rapid though slight alterations of the focus, are seen to undergo 
some change in appearance; a kind of shifting a short space 
backwards and forwards. This appearance I explain in the fol- 
lowing manner. 

The muscular fibrils being composed of a series of clear and 
dark particles, which under change of focus alter from dark to 
clear and from clear to dark, this change also takes place under ^ 
the same circumstances in the complete fibre, so that the dark 
transverse striae are at one time formed by the lateral coaptation 
of the dark spaces, at another time by a like coaptation of the 
clear spaces. 

I see no other way of explaining this peculiar appearance of 
movement on the surface of the fibre during alterations of focus 
in a rational manner, and I believe that Mr. Erasmus Wilson is 

Mode of Contraction of Voluntary Muscular Fibre, 117 

wrong in stating that the dark transverse striae are always formed 
by the lateral union of the light spaces. 

This appearance of movement cannot be caused by dark spaces 
of fibrillse lying immediately below the clear spaces of a set of 
fibres which are superficial to them. As the movement can be 
seen in a perfectly fresh and undisturbed fibre, it can also be 
seen on the individual fibrillse, as I have already stated. 

The contraction of voluntary muscle. 

Hales, Prevost and Dumas, from observations made on the ab- 
dominal muscles of the frog, considered the contraction of mus- 
cle to be due to zigzag flexures taking place in each fibre. Pre- 
vost and Dumas imagined it to be an electrical efiect of the pass- 
age of nervous cords across the fibre at the angles of flexure. 

Professor Allen Thomson repeated the experiments of Hales, 
Prevost and Dumas, and was led from the observations he then 
made to consider that the zigzag plicse were not produced until 
the contraction had ceased in the fibres which were the subjects 
of it ; he observed single fibres continuing in contraction, being 
simply shortened and not falling into the zigzag flexures. Pro- 
fessor Owen was also led to doubt the accuracy of the statements 
of Prevost and Dumas from noticing that during the contraction 
of unstriated muscles in some Filarias and in a Vesicularia, a 
swelling took place in the centre of the fibre which thus became 
shorter and thicker. 

Dr. A. Farre observed a similar fact in the unstriated muscles 
of the Polypifera. 

The admirable researches of Mr. Bowman have left us little to 
wish for with regard to the nature of the contraction ; I refer to 
his observations published in the ^ Philosophical Transactions' 
for 1842. All his observations were made on muscular fibres of 
animals shortly after death. 

I shall briefly allude to some observations made with reference 
to this subject on the living and uninjured tadpole. 

In April this year (1848), when observing the circulation in 
the tail of a tadpole after the disappearance of the gills, I was 
surprised on noticing that the cross-striated muscular fibres were 
distinctly visible through the external tegument; the contrac- 
tions after the animal was somewhat exhausted were slow and 
beautiful, not uniform throughout, as is the case when the tail is 
observed immediately after the death of the animal and stripped 
of its integument : the former is the active, living and voluntary, 
the latter the passive contraction. 

When the contraction was comparatively slow, the approach of 
the transverse strise could be seen with extreme distinctness ; the 

118 On the Structure of Voluntary Muscular Fibre. 

relaxation was as instantaneous as the contraction in that part 
of the fibre which was the subject of it. 

The circulation of the blood was visibly accelerated after a 
rapid series of contractions ; the blood seemed to be pressed out 
of the vessels of the part undergoing contraction ; on relaxation 
taking place the afflux was immediate. 

These observations were made at a time when 1 was much en- 
gaged with other matters, and are consequently very imperfect. 
I hope to be able to resume the inquiry during the ensuing 
spring, when these interesting animals can be obtained in a pro- 
per state for the examination. I believe this is the first obser- 
vation of the contraction of a cross-striated muscle, so high in 
the scale of being as the Batrachia. I may mention that Dr. 
Allen Thomson repeated my experiments on the tadpole about 
the same time and with similar results. 

Among the Rotifera I have observed very beautiful examples 
of cross-striated muscle, more especially in the Euchlanis tri- 
quetra and in the Euchlanis Hornemannij which are not uncom- 
mon species ; the approach of the transverse striae is very marked. 
The relaxed fibres are subject to a degree of zigzag flexure when 
other muscles of the animal are in action. 

In conclusion, one word on the mode of displaying or separa- 
ting fibrillse from the mass of a fibre, which is unquestionably a 
very difficult operation. Mr. Lealand the optician seems to have 
almost completely monopolized this branch of minute dissection, 
as nearly the whole of the best preparations extant are from his 
hands. I am not aware that he has yet made known his mode 
of procedure to the public. 

If a muscular fibre of the salmon be used, it is in general not 
very difficult to separate the fibrillse in water. Allowing it to 
remain in moderately strong spirit for a short time, not only re- 
moves the oil-globules from around the fibre, but greatly facili- 
tates the dissection ; it may then be mounted in the usual way, 
in spirit, or what perhaps answers better, in glycerine diluted 
with about three times its bulk of water. 

The most characteristic specimens are obtained with greatest 
ease from the frog, the size of the fibres rendering them very easy 
to manipulate. Allow the leg of a frog stripped of integument to 
remain in moderately strong spirit for about tv/o hours, then 
commence the dissection with extremely fine needles set in long 
handles. The largest fibres should be selected. After a few 
trials the rudest operator can scarcely fail to separate the fibrillse. 

The muscular fibres of the skate, treated in the same manner, 
affi)rd easily-dissected and most characteristic examples of mus- 
cular fibrillae. 

Mr. F. M'Coy on Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera, 119 


Fig. I. ah cd, four figures of fibrillae after Muys. 

— 2. "A fibre covered with cellular membrane at the upper part," cross- 

striated and splitting up into fibrillae at one end : after Fontana. 

— 3. Diagram of fibrillae after Bowman, 

— 4. Diagram to illustrate the views of Sharpey, Lealand and Carpenter: 

a, two fibrils united ; 6, single fibril, with each sarcal particle ha- 
ving a dark central and clear outer part. 
•^ 5. Diagram of two fibrillae to illustrate the views of Mr. Erasmus Wil- 
son : a, usual appearance of fibrillae ; 6, a very much stretched 
fibril to show the dark and clear spaces, each divided into four. 

— 6. Diagram to show the fibrillae in the distinct and superficial focus : 

a, fibrils in distinct focus ; by fibrils in superficial focus from the 

— 7. Diagram of two fibrils from the lobster: a, fresh fibril much 

stretched, showing scalloped edges of clear space ; h, similar fibril 
unstretched, showing clear space apparently dark from its nar- 

— 8. Diagram to illustrate a membrane observed among the fibrillae : 

a, membrane as seen in frog and salmon ; h, similar membrane 
observed among fibrillae of the muscle of skate, perfectly fresh. 

— 9. General appearance of a dissection of muscular fibre from the frog, 

magnified about 500 diameters. 

XIII, — On some new genera and species of Palaozoic Corals and 
Foraminifera. By Frederick M^Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c. 

[Continued from p. 20.] 

Stylaxis (M'Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Corallum composed of adjacent polygonal, prismatic, 
easily separable tubes, inter- 
nally divided into three areas : 
vertical section, 1st, a thin, flat, 
straight axis ; 2nd, a broad in- 
ner area composed of nume- 
rous curved vesicular plates in 
irregular rows converging up- 
wards to the axis ; 3rd, an outer 
area on each side composed of 
smaller and more curved vesi- 
cular plates, in rows inclining 
obliquely upwards and out- 
wards : horizontal section dis- 
playing the central flat axis 
surrounded by radiating la- «• Mode of growth and division of 
mellse extending from the walls, ^tem ; 6 horizontal section; 

1 i 1 • .1 , c. vertical section, 

and connected m the outer area 

by numerous transverse vesicular plates : additional columns 

120 Mr. F. M^Coy on some new genera and species of 

produced by a bipartite division of the parent stem parallel to 
one of its faces : polyps distinctly separated above. 
The corals of this genus bear precisely the same relation to 
Nemaphyllum that StylastrcRa (Lonsd.) does to the Lithostrotion 
of the same writer (Strombodes) with regard to their mode of 
development, that is to say, in Nemaphyllum, as in Strombodes, 
the increase is by circular buds developed within the walls of the 
parent stem, the polygonal walls being gradually perfected by the 
joint labour of adjacent polyps ; which it is inferred from their 
mode of growth, had a community of existence and organic 
union at the surface, and from the same cause the columns have 
no outer surface to exhibit in a rough fracture, but break 
through the middle rather than separate one from another. In 
the Stylaxis however, as in the Stylastrcea, the new columns are 
produced by a sudden splitting of one of the columns into two, 
the divisional lines commencing along the middle of one face and 
going directly across to the opposite face, distinctly separating 
the young four- sided column at once by a double-plated, recti- 
linear boundary- wall parallel with one of the faces ; the external 
striae of the old column being traceable upwards into the young 
one. The columns are easily separable one from another in the 
rough fracture, and the polyps are inferred to have been distinct 
from each other, and each to have constructed independently its 
own boundary-wall. 

Stylaxis major (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Tubes averaging 6 lines in diameter, mostly hexago- 
nal, external surface coarsely striated longitudinally and trans- 
versely marked with strong curved irregularities of growth, 
the convexity of the curves upwards : horizontal section, sixty- 
three slender radiating lamellae converging from the walls to- 
wards the flat central style or axis, which is about 1 line in 
width ; one half of the lamellae reach the centre, the inter- 
vening ones reach halfway; outer area exhibiting numerous 
transverse vesicular plates between the radiating lamellae : ver- 
tical section, axis straight, ribbon-like ; inner area broad, of 
slightly curved vesicular plates forming rows of lengthened 
irregular cells, extending obliquely downwards and outwards 
from the axis, about three in a row ; outer area of rows of 
small hemispherically-curved plates, including small rounded 
cells extending very obhquely upwards and outwards, about 
six in each row. 
This species is remarkable for the large size of its tubes and 

great number of the radiating lamellae. 

From the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
{CoL University of Cambridge.) 

Palaozoic Corals and For aminif era. 121 

Stylaxis Flemingii (M^Coy). 

Sji. Char. Corallum of very long, prismatic, generally hexagonal, 
easily separable tubes, averaging 3 lines in diameter ; outer 
surface strongly striated longitudinally, and marked with di- 
rect transverse rugosities of growth ; bipartite division of the 
columns frequent : vertical section exhibiting the thin flat axis 
surrounded by an inner zone of small vesicular plates inclining 
downwards and outwards from the axis, and an outer zone of 
small vesicular plates inclined in an opposite direction or up- 
wards and outwards : horizontal section^ axis thin, half a line 
wide, surrounded by about forty-three thin, radiating lamellse 
from the walls, half of which only reach half way ; numerous 
small, thin, transverse connecting plates between the lamellse 
in the outer zone. 

The bipartite mode of division of the column is frequently 
and easily observed in this species, which commonly forms large 
masses. It gi'eatly resembles externally the StylastrcEa basalti- 
formiSy but is easily distinguished by the small, but distinct, cen- 
tral axis visible in the transverse fracture, and further by the dif- 
ferent disposition of the lamellse of the inner zone. The small 
size of the tubes and less number of lamellse distinguish it from 
the Stylaxis major. 

This is probably the Lithostrotion striatum of Fleming, (Brit. 
Anim.) as he particularly says, " the rays of the star unite with 
a small solid central axis.^' I think however with Mr. Lonsdale, 
that he is wrong in his references. I have great pleasure in de- 
dicating it to so admirable a naturalist, the extraordinary merit 
of whose writings on the British marine animals is well known 
to all who engage in the same laborious and difficult study. 

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Columnaria (Gold, as here redefined). 

Gen. Char. Corallum of aggregate, subparallel branches, either 
round and concentrically wrinkled, or more usually by mutual 
pressure becoming polygonal and longitudinally sulcated, but 
always easily separable; internal structure as in Amplexus, 
having many transverse simple diaphragms, and the walls lon- 
gitudinally sulcated by marginal rudimentary lamellse, which 
crenulate the edges of the transverse plates. Increase by fis- 
sure of the parent tube or cell, as in Stylastraa (Lonsd.) . Type 
of the genus Columnaria sulcata (Gold.). 

This genus has been erroneously described by Goldfuss in the 
first instance, and has been misunderstood by nearly every sub- 
sequent author — all describing radiating lamellse from the walls 

122 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

to the centre, and stating that there are no transverse plates ; I 
was rather surprised therefore to find the characters I have given 
ahove, in authentic specimens from the Eifel of the C. sulcata 
(Gold.) j they also exist in the C. irregularis (Miinst.), C. senilis 
(Koninck), and the following. I deny the existence in those species 
of radiating lamellae near the centre, and find the transverse dia- 
phragms conspicuous. The real affinities of the genus seem to 
be between Michelinea and Amplexus, differing from the former 
in the tubes being individually distinct (as in Stylastrcea) and 
easily separable by fracture, and being without communicating 
pores ; from the latter it only differs in its compound mode of 
growth. As thus restricted the genus is no doubt a good one : 
the other dissimilar species placed in this genus by Dr. Goldfuss 
and others will easily fall into Cyathophyllum and other existing 

Columnaria laxa (M'Coy). 

Bp. Char. Corallum forming large masses of contiguous, shghtly 
fiexuous tubes, rarely in contact ; generally round and finely 
wrinkled transversely, occasionally the tubes in some part of 
their length touch the adjoining ones, and then become poly- 
gonal and longitudinally sulcated ; transverse diaphragms un- 
dulated, and obliquely inclined in various directions ; diameter 
of tubes from 3 to 4 lines. 

The tubes being rarely in contact, and often cylindrical and 
fiexuous, distinguishes this species from its congeners. The 
transverse diaphragms and absence of radiating lamellae will 
serve to separate prismatic portions from the other basaltiform 
corals found with it. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Michelinea glomerata (M^Coy) . 

Sp. Char. Cells polygonal, irregularly aggregated, so as to open 
on every side of the large amorphous masses formed by its ir- 
regular mode of growth ; cells averaging 2 lines in diameter ; 
internal vesicular plates very irregular, much curved and highly 

This is perhaps most allied to the Russian M. concinna (Lonsd.), 
but as that species is remarkable for the breadth, flatness and 
horizontality of its internal plates, so this is equally remarkable 
for their irregularity, convexity, small size, and nearly vertical 
position, forming in the sections a multitude of small rounded 
vesicles, without any approach to horizontality. The small size 
of the cells and mode of growth seem somewhat analogous in 

Palaeozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 123 

both, and separate them at a glance from the three other pub- 
lished species. 

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire, form- 
ing subcylindrical masses 3 or 4 inches long. 

(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Michelinea grandis (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum widely conic, the width considerably exceed- 
ing the height, externally marked with thick, rounded, radia- 
ting ridges, finely wrinkled across ; polygonal cells, on the 
upper convex surface, averaging 5 to 8 lines in diameter (most 
near the former at a height of half an inch, most near the 
latter size at a height of 2 inches), very deep with thin walls 
not coated by vesicular plates, but having numerous distinct 
foramina and many longitudinal striae within ; internal vesi- 
cular plates small, very thin, much curved, forming nearly 
horizontal rows of vesicles at the bottom of the cells. 

This fine species is most allied to the M. tenuisepta (Phil, sp.), 
but is distinguished by the much wider conical form of the mass 
and by the cells having, on an average, a diameter three times 
greater at the same height than in that species, of which I have 
examined many specimens both British and foreign, and find the 
figures of Michelin and Koninck, as well as of Prof. Phillips, exact 
in this respect. Young specimens (1 to 2 inches in diameter) 
slightly resemble the M. favosa (Gold, sp.) in form, having the 
base much flatter than in the adult, but on comparison with 
authentic Belgian specimens they are found to be distinguished 
by the large rounded radiating ridges on the exterior, of which 
no traces exist in that species, as may be also seen from the 
figures of Goldfuss and Michelin ; the cells also of the present 
species are, even at that stage, larger, and increased growth de- 
stroys all resemblance. The M. megastoma (Phil, sp.), which 
has large cells (although much less than the present species), is 
distinguished by its mode of growth, it forming large flattened 
expansions ; internally its vesicular plates are much larger, fewer, 
and highly inclined at the circumference, coating the walls of the 
cells to their very edge, giving them a peculiar thick tumid ap- 
pearance, which may be imperfectly recognized in the worn 
specimen figured by Prof. Phillips, but which distinguishes 
even fragments from the other four species. Average height of 
the conical masses 2| inches, width 3| inches. 

Very common in the carboniferous limestone of Arnside, 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

124 Mr. F. M'Coy on some neiv genera and species of 

Sarcinula (Lamk.). 
? = Arachnophyllum (Dana) . 

The corals of this genus are essentially composed of vertical, 
cylindrical, transversely septate tubes, with radiating lamellae 
within, forming distant circular cells without polygonal bounda- 
ries ; the tubes are imbedded in a uniform cellulose tissue, from 
which the buds or young tubes seem to arise whenever the di- 
stance becomes great between any two cells, but the young tubes 
do not seem traceable into the old. The coral referred to by 
Dana [Acervularia Baltica of Lonsdale in the ^ Silurian System ') 
as the type of his genus Arachnophyllum, I find to have the 
cell-tubes transversely septate, though not well shown in Lons- 
dale's figure — the latter genus has therefore no peculiar cha- 
racters — the cellular structure of the rays being common to 
several corals. 

Sarcinula tuherosa (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum forming large shapeless masses, the upper 
surface covered with irregular tuberose projections, separated 
by flat or concave spaces, and each having a depressed tubular 
centre 1 line in diameter, average distance between the centres 
5 lines ; from the margin of each centre about thirty slightly 
sigmoidal, very delicate laminae radiate to the adjoining ones, 
generally without interruption, the radii connected by nume- 
rous small transverse vesicular plates : vertical section, centres 
forming nearly vertical and subparallel cylindrical tubes, with 
close transverse septa, connected by exceedingly fine uniform 
cellulose structure, which seems formed of small depressed 
cells arranged nearly in horizontal layers with a double curve 
conforming to the projections of the surface : horizontal section 
shows the tubular centres connected by a minute uniform 
cellular structure with a scarcely appreciable radiation. 

This strongly resembles the so-called Acervularia Baltica of 
the 'Silurian System.' 

Hare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Sarcinula placenta (M'Coy) . 

Sp. Char. Corallum forming tabular masses about 1 inch thick ; 
under side with small, concentric, imbricating undulations of 
growth and radiating scratch-like striae ; the upper and lower 
surfaces parallel and flat, composed of vertical cylindrical tubes 
forming circular cells at the surface 1 line in diameter, and 
averaging about 2 lines apart ; the intervening space being flat, 
cellular, and obscurely radiated on the weathered surface by 

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifei-a. 1 25 

about thirty curved radii : vertical section, tubes irregularly 
transversely septate by vesicular plates ; spaces between tbe 
tubes composed of slightly waved transverse rows of small, 
curved, vesicular plates, forming a nearly uniform, minutely 
cellular structure : horizontal section, tubes either plain or 
showing more or less of the transverse vesicular plates ; inter- 
vening spaces irregularly cellular, but showing a slight dis- 
position to form curved, star-like lines round the tubes. 

This interesting coral bears a strong external resemblance to 
the Nemaphyllum decipiens (M'Coy), but is distinguished by 
having no divisional lines between the stars in either section. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{CoL University of Cambridge.) 

Sarcinula Phillipsii (M'Coy). 
Ref. ? Phil. Pal. Foss. fig. 15 D. 

I have given the above name provisionally to a coral which I 
believe to be identical with the Flintshire one figured as above 
by Prof. Phillips, but not named or described. It is closely allied 
to the preceding species, but is of a thicker growth, the tubes are 
one-third larger and surrounded by thirty-two to forty strong 
radiating lamellae extending to the adjoining tubes, and there is 
an obvious tendency in the middle of the transverse diaphragms 
to extend upwards to form an irregularly compressed sohd axis, 
often visible in the weathered cups. 

Common in the carboniferous limestone of Corwen. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Astrcea carbonaria (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Corallum forming very large masses, terminal stars 
from 9 lines to an inch and a half in diameter, obscurely 
pentagonal, bounded by narrow, rounded, cellular spaces 
(no simple divisional walls), having from 107 to 130 thin, 
jagged, radiating lamellae, which descend to form an oval or 
circular cup, and one half of which rise again to form a large 
oval central boss, in the centre of which the lamellae become 
indistinctly blended : vertical section shows the uninterrupted 
passage of the loose vesicular tissue, in gentle curves, from star 
to star ; a very small space directly under the centre of each 
star having the vesicular structure almost transverse : hori- 
zontal section shows the alternately long and short radiating 
lamellae connected throughout by fine transverse vesicular 
plates, and the former obscurely blended at the centre (no 
axis), and the irregular cellular structure intervening between 
the adjacent stars. 

126 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

This magnificent species is the only true Astrcea I have yet 
seen from the palaeozoic rocks, the numerous corals of this age 
described under this generic title by British and foreign authors 
belonging for the most part to the family CyathophyllicUe-^ often 
transversely septate in the middle and having solid polygonal 
divisional walls to the stars — characters completely at variance 
with those of the recent and mesozoic Astnsce, and indicating 
important differences in the animals and mode of increase. 

Abundant in some parts of the carboniferous limestone near 
Bake well, Derbyshire ; more rare in the same formation at 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Heterophyllia (M^Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Stem elongate, subcylindrical, irregularly fluted lon- 
gitudinally : horizontal section, few, 
distant lamellae destitute of any order 
of arrangement, but irregularly 
branching and coalescing in their 
passage from the thin solid external 
walls towards some indefinite point 
near the centre, where the few main 
lamellae irregularly anastomose : ver- 
tical section showing about the middle 
an irregularly flexuous line (the edge 
of one or two of the radiating vertical 
lamellae), from which on each side a 
row of thin, distant, siffmoidally „ , , „. , • -. 

curved plates extends obliquely up- ^tem ; h. horizontal and 
wards and outwards, forming a row of vertical section. 
large rhomboidal cells on each side. 

The paradoxical characters of the lamellae — their perfect want 
of symmetry of disposition, and their irregular branch-like union 
among themselves, together with the remarkable openness of the 
cellular structure, render those corals totally unlike any other 
recent or fossil group. From Cladocora and Caryophyllia, to 
which they are most allied, they are distinguished by the want 
of the cellular axis, and by their few, unsymmetrical and anasto- 
mosing lamellae. I suspect the Cladocora ? sulcata of Lonsdale 
may belong to this group, but I have not seen examples of it 

Heterophyllia grandis (M'Coy) . 

Sp. Char. Stem slightly flexuous, about 5 lines in diameter, 
scarcely tapering in 3 inches, longitudinally marked with deep 
unequal grooves, and few, large, polygonal, unequal ridges, 

Palaozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 


giving a very irregularly angulose section to the stem ; surface 
smooth ; internal structure as given in the generic character. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Hetei'ophjllia ornata (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Stems subcylindrical, long, flexuous, averaging \~ line 
in diameter, with about sixteen narrow, subequal, longitudinal 
ridges sharply defined, and separated by flat spaces rather 
wider than the ridges they separate, the ridges are set with 
small round tubercles more than their own diameter apart ; 
surface very minutely granulose : internal structure as in 
generic character ; horizontal section j lamellae about fourteen 
at the margin. 

Rather rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Siphonodendron (M^Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Corallum of variously aggregated, branching, cylindri- 
cal or elongate-conic stems; young branches produced by lateral 
buds ; outer wall thin, 
lined by two or three 
rows of small vesicular 
plates forming a narrow 
outer vesicular area in 
both sections ; terminal 
cups deep, lined by 
numerous vertical la- 
mellae, alternately larger 
and smaller, and having 
in the bottom a small, 
prominent, tubular axis : 
vertical section shows a 

small, central, persist- Recent Lithodendron. 
ent, siphon-like tube «• Mode of growth 
or axis, which pierces ^^^^ "'""^^"^^ '""' 
through a series of long, i^ Horizontal section, 
conical or dome-shaped 
transverse diaphragms occupying the greater part of the 
width of the tube, the convexity upward, forming in this sec- 
tion lines diverging downwards and outwards from the axis, 
till they reach the narrow external cellulose layer on each 
side : horizontal section shows the small tube-like axis, sur- 
rounded usually by a few thin concentric lines which are the 
edges of the conoidal diaphragms cut through by the section ; 


a. Mode of growth 
and vertical sec- 

128 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

from these the vertical lamellae radiate to the circumference, 
where they are connected by the small transverse vesicular 
plates forming the narrow external cellular zone. 

I propose this genus for a number of corals exceedingly 
abundant in the mountain limestone, but hitherto classed by 
Prof. Phillips, Mr. Lonsdale, and others with Lithodendron. This 
latter genus was originally proposed by Schweigger (Beobach- 
tungen, &c. tab. 6) to include, 1st, the Oculina of Lamarck, in- 
cluding the type of Blainville^s Dendrophyllia ; and 2ndly, a di- 
vision, which allowing the previously constituted genus Oculina 
to stand for the first division, becomes the real type of his ge- 
nus, and the four references he gives to Esper's ' Pfianzenthiere ' 
as examples of this genus are typical examples of the group 
subsequently named Lohophyllia by Blainville ; this latter name 
therefore becomes a mere synonym of Lithodendron and should 
be laid aside, unless, as many writers seem inclined, it be used 
for the short, wide species with lobed discs, and thus leave Litho- 
dendron for the more slender cylindrical forms : although there 
is no clear line of separation between the groups, it may be con- 
venient to retain both names for those extreme forms, but in no 
case can the Siphonodendra of the mountain limestone be 
brought in any close relation with those recent and mesozoic 
types. The differences are briefly these : 1st, Siphonodendron 
increases by lateral buds, — Lithodendron by a lateral elongation 
and gradual division of the old cup and dichotomous fissure of 
the stem ; 2nd, Siphonodendron has a narrow tubular axis and 
wide conoidal diaphragms, while Lithodendron has a large cel- 
lular axis and no diaphragms. I have illustrated those points in 
the accompanying sketch. Cladocora of Ehrenberg agrees in ex- 
ternal form and mode of branching with Siphonodendron, but has 
the internal structure here represented in Lithodendron. 

Cladochonus brevicoUis (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Slender stem- like neck of each cell about 1 line long 
and half a line in diameter, the upper end suddenly swelling 
to a cup-shaped cell about 2 lines long and 1 line in diameter, 
curving downwards at an angle of about 135°, the point of 
junction of the cup and the stem giving origin, at an angle of 
45°, to the stem of a second cell similar to the first, but incli- 
ning in the opposite direction, and in like manner giving ori- 
gin from its upper convexity to a third and that to a fourth, 
&c. perfectly similar cell, forming together an erect, regularly 
zigzag corallum. 

From its regularly angular mode of growth or connexion of 
the large drooping bell-shaped cups, inclining in opposite direc- 

Palceozoic Corals and Foraminifera, 129 

tions from thin short slender stems, this is one of the prettiest 
species of the genus. It most resembles the C. tenuicollis (M'Coy) 
figured in the 'Annals' for October 1847 (PI. XI. fig. 8), from 
the carboniferous shales of New South Wales, but is distinguished 
by its smaller size and much shorter necks to the cells, while, as 
in that species, their small diameter compared with their cups 
distinguishes it from the C, a-assa (M'Coy) of the carboniferous 
slate of Ireland. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

{Madreporacea .) 

Dendropora megastoma (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Stem slightly flexuous, subquadrate, branches few, 

distant, resembling the main stem in size and shape, and 

toming off from it nearly at right angles ; each face has a row 

of large oval cells with prominent edges, the sides of which 

have twelve vertical sulci ending in tubercles ; the cells of each 

row are rather less than twice their diameter apart, the lateral 

rows opposite and alternating with the other two rows ; the 

width of the cells slightly exceeds that of the face on which they 

rest, so as to indent the margin ; interstices obscurely poroso- 

punctate ; width of stem about half a line. 

This beautiful coral is distinguished from the D. explicita 

yMich.) from the Devonian beds of Boulogne-sur-Mer by its 

smaller size and larger cells. Michelin, in his ' Iconographie 

Zoophytologique,' founds this genus from the last-named coral, 

and approximates it to the genera Criserpia and Aulopora ; the 

twelve sulci which I observe to the margin of the cells in this 

species however show that this cannot be the true affinity of the 

group, which must now rather be placed in the Madreporacea 

near Seriatopora. 

I have examined several specimens on a piece of carboniferous 
limestone from Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Palceopora (M'Coy), n. g. 
Gen. Char. Corallum polymorphous, generally subhemispherical 
and concentrically ridged beneath, rarely branched ; formed of 
cylindrical, distinctly walled, tubular cells, having internally 
twelve vertical sulci or rudimentary lamellse, and divided at 
irregular intervals by transverse diaphragms ; the tubes sur- 
rounded and connected by a uniform minute network of small 
vesicular plates. 

I propose this genus for all the so-called Porites of the palaeo- 
zoic rocks. First described by Goldfuss as AstrcecB, they were re- 
Ann. &: Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 9 

130 My. F. IVPCoy on some neiv genera and species of 

moved by Ehrenberg (Ueber Corallenthiere des rothen Meeres, 
&c.) and Lonsdale (Silurian System) to the recent genus Porites, 
in which they were followed — probably without examination — by 
many writers ; Profs. Bronn (Lethsea_, &c.), Phillips (Palaeozoic 
Fossils) and others have however much more happily pointed out 
their resemblance to Heliopora. The distinct walled tubular cells 
visible in both sections, connected by cellular tissue, with their 
twelve rudimentary lamellae, distinguish the present ancient corals 
from the modern genera just named, for Porites has a minutely 
reticulated corallum impressed by shallow polygonal undefined 
cells on the upper surface, and presenting in the horizontal and 
vertical sections an uninterrupted uniformly vesicular structure. 
Heliopora agrees perfectly in external appearance, and in the 
two sections exhibits the same characters of vesicular structure 
connecting tubular cells with transverse diaphragms, but in it 
the tubes have eighteen or more rudimentary lamellae, while 
they are constantly twelve in the present genus, which I only 
know as yet in the older and middle palaeozoic rocks» 

Fistulipora (M'Coy), n. g. 

Gen, Char. Corallum incrusting, composed of long, simple, cylin- 
drical, thick-walled tubes, the , 
mouths of which open as simple ^^fe^^^^rv r~^is^ 
equal circular cells on the sur- ^^^^^^fe^ fe^^ 
face, and having transverse ff^^BW^^S ^^^ 
funnel-shaped diaphragms at jM^|^*p^|f ^^^ 
variable distances ; interval be- tRi^^MSJ 
tween the tubes occupied by a Fistulipora : a. mode of growth, nat. 
cellular network of small vesi- size, enveloping a crinoid stem. 
cular plates. ^- magnified surface and section. 

This genus is proposed to include the Manon cribromm (Gold.) 
of the Eifel, &c., and the two following species from the moun- 
tain limestone. They have no affinity with the fossil sponges of 
the genus Manon, with which the only previously known species 
was classed by Goldfuss and others, but are more allied to the 
so-called Porites of the palaeozoic rocks [Palceopora, M^Coy), 
from which they differ in the absence of the rudimentary radia- 
ting or vertical lamellae to the cell-tubes. The sides of the tubes 
do not seem to be ever perforated by connecting pores. 

Fistulipora minor (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Cell-tubes with slightly prominent margins at the 
surface, about four in the space of one line, rather less than 
their own diameter apart, the intervening space composed of 
from one to three rows of the minute vesicular cells. 

The tubes of this species are of so small a diameter that I have 

Pal<JEOZoic Corals and Foraminifera. 131 

not been able to see the diaphragms ; they are from half a line 
to nearly an inch in length according to the age of the exampla, 
but not altering materially their diameter or relative distance. 
It most usually occurs incrusting crinoid stems or other foreign 
bodies, from which the tubes radiate to the surface, and I suspect 
the whole corallum, from the minuteness of its parts, may have 
been taken for a Favosites or Alveolites, from which the lens will 
easily distinguish it by showing the reticulated interstices be- 
tween the tubes. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

(Col, University of Cambridge.) 

Fistulipora major (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Cell-tubes two-thirds of a line in diameter and about 
their own diameter apart, their walls thick, of concentric lay- 
ers, with closely placed funnel-shaped internal diaphragms: 
interstices minutely vesicular, four to six rows of vesicular 
cells between each pair of tubes. 

The comparatively great size and distinctness of the parts of 
this coral enabled me first clearly to ascertain the generic pecu- 
liarities of the whole group. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 


I believe no examples of this group have been hitherto deter- 
mined in the British carboniferous rocks, which is the more re- 
markable from their great abundance in the corresponding de- 
posits in Russia, and according to M. de Verneuil* in America. I 
may mention, that since the publication of M. Ehrenberg's paper 
on the carboniferous Foraminifera in the ' Monats Bericht ' of 
the Berlin Academy, I have diligently sought for the several 
carboniferous species he describes in the limestone of a great 
number of different British localities without success. The fol- 
lowing is the only species I have met with, and I only know it 
at present from the one locality. 

Nodosaria fusulinaformis (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Shell of two or more inflated, pyriform, easily separa- 
ble lodges, the first one having a small mucronate point at its 
posterior end, and contracted to a very slender, short neck at 
the anterior end, which joins the pyriform second cell, which 

* " Note sur le parallelisme des depots paleozoiques de TAm^rique Sep- 
tentrionale avec ceux de I'Europe," &c., Bulletin de la Soc. Geol. de 
France, 2® serie, vol. iv. 


132 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

is also contracted to a similar minute neck in front ; surface 
smooth. Length of individual cells averaging 1 line, width 
^ two-thirds of a line. 

J So like is this in size and shape to the inflated variety of 
Fischer de Waldheim^s Fusulina cylindrica occurring in such 
quantities in some parts of the Russian carboniferous limestone, 
that it might easily be mistaken for it ; it is destitute however of 
the longitudinal external fissure-like opening and complex in- 
ternal structure of that genus, seeming more properly allied to 
certain moniliform, few- celled Nodosariay such for instance as 
the N. rudis and N. rugosa of M. D'Orbigny's work on the 
Austrian Foraminifera, with both of which species it agrees almost 
perfectly. The lodges or cells are almost always found separated 
(from the minuteness of the connecting neck), which gives them 
the striking resemblance to Fusulina above alluded to ; I have 
heard however of several of them having been found united in a 
line by their little necks, and I have myself seen two thus united, 
and the posterior cell not being a terminal one. 

Occurs in great numbers on the weathered surfaces of the car- 

Lboniferous limestone in the parish of Shivey, Tyrone, in the 
north of Ireland. 
(Col. University of Cambridge and Royal Dublin Society.) 

Exclusive of the above species, the following is a list of such 
British corals of the carboniferous period as I have myself 
noted since the publication of Morris's Catalogue of British 
Fossils in addition to the species there given ; it includes, 
1st, some species described by foreign authors which I have 
recognized in Britain ; 2nd, a few Devonian species for which 
I give undoubted carboniferous localities ; and 3rd, those new 
forms which I have figured and described in the ^ Synopsis of 
the Characters of the Carboniferous Limestone Fossils of Ire- 
land ' published some years ago, the result of an examination 
of the collections made in that country by Mr. Griffith of 
Dublin, with whose permission 1 now however, for the first 
time, publish the principal geological and geographical loca- 
lities, the omission of which in the work mentioned has often 
been regretted. All the localities except those in italics are in 
Ireland. All the species in italics are in the Geological Museum 
of the University of Cambridge. The following abbreviations 
are used of the rocks : Ar. L. Arenaceous Limestone, a peculiar 
band in the middle of the yellow sandstone at the base of the 
carboniferous series ; Calp, a provincial term for a band of dark 
argillaceous limestone occurring between the great lower and 
upper limestones, accompanied in the north of Ireland by thick 

Pal(B02oic Corals and Foraminifei^a. 133 

beds of shale and a little sandstone ; C. L. Carboniferous 
Limestone generally ; C. Sh. Carboniferous Shale generally ; 
C. SL Carboniferous Slate, the shales between the base of the 
lower limestone and the top of the yellow sandstone, alterna- 
ting more or less with each at the points of junction ; L. L, 
Lower Limestone, the great limestone of Ireland, between the 
Calp and the carb. slate ; U. L. Upper Limestone, a thinner 
deposit than the lower limestone, occurring between the Calp 
and the millstone grit. Y. S. Yellow Sandstone— a thick 
sandstone at the base of the carboniferous system in Ireland, 
occupying the space between the carboniferous slate and the 
old red sandstone, and by many geologists considered to be- 
long to the latter ; I have recognised however in the shales in- 
tercalated with it nearly the same suite of fossils which we find 
in the carboniferous slate and in the Calp, and in the beds of 
arenaceous limestone occasionally occurring in it I have iden- 
tified the most characteristic fossils of the main or lower lime- 
stone, so that no doubt remains in my mind of the correctness 
of Mr. Griffith's original view, that this sandstone forms the 
true base of the carboniferous limestone formation. 


Goldfussi (Michel, sp.), Icon. Zoopli. L. L. Hook Head, Wexford. 
?palmata (M'Coy). Flustra id., Syii. Carb. Foss. Irel. 

Calp. Manor Hamilton. 


antiqua (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. Irel. C. SI. Hook Point. 


campanulata (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. C. SI. Hook Head. 
gigas {M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. of Irel. Calp. Ballintrillick. 
serpens (Gold.), Petrefacten. Calp. Bundoran. 


megastoma (M*Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. C. SI Hook Head. 

cornu-hovis (Mich.), Icon. Zooph. C. L. Corwen. 

cormi-copice {Mic\i.), Icon. Zoo^h. C. Sh. Red Castle, Mt. Rath ; 

Glasgow, I. of Man. 

fexuosa (Gold, sp.), Petrefacten. C. L. Kendal. 

giSanUa (Mich).. Icon. Zooph. { l± ^^^„,, j, „f ^„,, 

patula (Mich.), Icon. Zooph. C.Sl. Hook, Wexford. 

* If the small recent and newer fossil corals referred to the genus Alccto 
really belon<^ (as seems the general opinion now) to the Polyzoa, there 
could be no hesitation in considering the comparatively gross palaeozoic spe- 
cies not only as generically distinct, but as belonging to a different order — 
the sulcation visible within the tubesof several of the species clearly indicating 
rudimentary radiating lamellae, which, as they exceed twelve in number, 
place those corals among the .y^«/7io.tort, — most probably, I think, near-5'yri«- 
gopora, in which a similar sulcation has been detected. Instead therefore of 
considering the words Alecto and Aulopora as synonymous, we may, with 
advantage, retain each for the peculiar section of the group indicated. 

134 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new genera and species of 

C. SI. Poulscadden Bay, Howth . 


placenta (Phil.), Pal. Foss 


affinis (Gold.), Petrefacten. 


antiquus (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 

hacularius (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 
crassus (M*Coy), Syn. Carb.- Foss. 


cornu (Mich.), Icon. Zooph. 

spinosa (Kon. sp.), Anim. Foss, Belg. 


antiqua* (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 


Goihlandka \ (Gold.), Petrefacten. 

wjlata (Kon.), Anim. Foss. Belg. 

C.Sh. 7. of Man. 

C. Sh. Rahan's Bay; St. John's 

Point, Donegal. 
C. L. Derbyshire. 

{C. L. Derbyshire. 
C.Sh.- -^ 

Lisnapaste ; Lackagh. 

C. L. Kendal. 
C. L. 1, of Alan. 

C.Sl. Hook. 

C. L. Derbyshire ; /. of Man. 
C. L. Kendal. 


antiqua (Lonsd. Devonian var.), Geol. Trans, vol. v. 

Y. S. Bruckless, 

C. SI. Blackball Head, Cork ; Cur- 
rens; Clonea; Clonmel, &c. 


carinata (M'Coy),^ Syn. Carb. Foss. 

crassa (M'Coy), Syn. Carb.. Foss. 
ejuncida (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss, 

formosa (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 

{C. L. Derbyshire ; /. of Man ; 
Tynan ; Mountmellick. 
Calp. Malahide. 
L. L. Bally nacourty; Kildare. 
L, L. Cork. 
r C. L. Derbyshire. 
\ Calp. Malahide, Dublin. 
LU. L. Ki 

Killymeal, Dungannon. 
U. L. Killymeal, Dungannon. 
L. L. Cork. 
L. L. Cork. 

frutex (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 
hemisphaerica (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 
Morrisii (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 

».„to>ora(« (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. {%^^ MlitlSr'^' 
Gculata (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. C. SI. Ballynacourty, Dungarvan. 

rC.Sl. Poulscadden. 
plebeia (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. < L. L. Cork; Howth; Derbysh. 

I Calp. Bundoran ; Ballintrillick. 
quadridecimalis(M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. V. L. Black .Lion, Enniskillen. 
varicosa (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. U. L. Black Lion, Enniskillen, 

* More lately figured by Michelin (Icon. Zooph.) under the name of 
Michelinea compressa. 

f It is several years since I first published this as a carboniferous coral 
from a single Irish specimen, concerning the locality of which some doubt 
was expressed. I have now examined a large suite from the Derbyshire 
limestone, and compared them minutely with authentic specimens of Gold- 
fuss's coral from the Eifel, and am enabled fully to confirm my original ob- 


Pal(jeozoic Corals and Foraminifera. 1 35 


r C. SI. Ballynacourty; Poulscadden. 
hipinnata (PhiJ. var.), Pal. Foss. < Calp. Biindoraii. 

L U. L. Killymeal, Dungannon. 
gracilis (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. 

C. SI. Ballynacourty, Red Castle, Mt. Rath. 
Calp. Ballintrillick. 
U. L. Killymeal, Dungannon. 
grandis (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. L. L. Meelick Chapel, Co. Clare. 

pulcherrima (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. C. SI. Hook Head. 


Lousdaliana (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. C. L. Laracor, Trim, 
ziczac (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. Ar. L. Granard. 

Hibernica (Sc. sp.), M'Coy, Syn. Carb. Foss. 

rL.^L. Cork. 
X Calp. Ballintrillick. 
L U. L. Knockninny ; BlackLion . 


Newenhami (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. C. L. Meelick Chapel, co. Clare. 


gracilis (Phil.), Pal. Foss. C. SI. Ballynacourty; Lisnapaste. 

similis (Phil.), Pal. Foss. C. SI. Toberyellathan, Gort; St. 

Doolaghs, Dublin. 

aranea (M'Coy). Astrcea id., Syn. Carb. Foss. 

C. L. Magheramore, Tobercurry. 

bina (Lonsd. Devon.var.), Phil. Pal. Fo»s. { l' «,• ?™:e!.rTralee. 

celtica (Lamx. sp.), Phil. Pal. Foss. C. SI. Clonea ; Knocklofty. 

pauciradialis (Phil, sp.), Pal. Foss. C. SI. Currens; Ballynacourty. 

pluriradialis (Phil, sp.). Pal. Foss. C. SI. Currens, Castle Island. 


, 7 .., /Tiiftn \ r Ar. L. Townparks, Killeshandra. 

fasiuosa (Kon. sp.), Anim. Foss. Belg. | ^' ^- KiHymeal! ' 
marginata (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. U. L. Killymeal, Dungannon. 

{Ar. L. Townparks, Killeshandra. 
L. L. Rathgillen, Nobber. 
U. L. Black Lion, Enniskillen. 

verrucosa (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. { ^; ^^ ^^'^^clTle, Mt. Rath. 

pluma (Sc. MSS.), M'Coy, Syn. Carb. Foss. 

f C. SI. Poulscadden, Howth ; Hook. 
< L. L. Kildare. 
ICalp. Malahide. 

undata (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. L. L. Kildare. 


pauciradiale (M'Coy). Litliodendron id., Syn. Carb. Foss. 

C. L. Magheramore, Tobercurrv. 

136 Mr. H.E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 


scahra (Rafin. sp.). Favosites id., Kon. Anim. Foss. Belg. 

C. SI. Hook; Clonea; Currens. 
Strombodes {Lithostrotion, Lonsd.). 

emarciatum (Lonsd. sp.), Geol. lluss. and Ural. C. L. Derbyshire. 


dichotoma (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. { ^; ^; ^S L^nfEnnl'skillen. 

megastoma (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss. U. L. Killymeal. 

raricostata (M'Coy), Syn. Carb. Foss.' U. L. Killymeal, Dungannon. 

XIV. — Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its Kindred. 
Nos. 1, 3, 3. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S. 

One of the main objects which Dr. Melville and mj^self had in 
view, in publishing our recent work on the Dodo and its Kindred, 
was to draw the attention of others to this interesting historico- 
physical investigation, and thus to elicit from all quarters such 
additional items of information as had escaped our own research. 
Many a curious scrap of Dodo-knowledge is doubtless still buried 
in the holes and corners of hbraries, museums, and picture-gal- 
leries, and many a precious bone-fragment still moulders in the 
caverns and alluvions of the Mascarene Islands. Already, in the 
short interval since our publication saw the light, have several 
important links been added to the chain of evidence there dis- 
played, — partly through the kind dihgence of our friends, and 
partly by our own more recent researches. These supplementary 
facts I propose to communicate from time to time to the ' Annals 
of Natural History.^ 

1. Historical evidence of the Dodo. — I grieve to be obliged to 
record that Oxford, the cradle of so much learning, now stands 
convicted of having been the grave, not of one Dodo (as was 
hitherto supposed), but of two. A small dingy MS. volume has 
lately been purchased by the fellows of Queen^s College, Oxford 
(I dare not say at what price), from Mr. Rodd the bookseller. This 
precious but unattractive little book is the original autograph 
diary of Thomas Crossfield, once fellow of Queen^s, and extends 
over fourteen years, from 1626 to 1640. Amidst a variety of 
matters, some of historical interest, and others '^ of no importance 
to any but the owner," we find the following curious passage, 
which was first detected, and kindly communicated to me, by the 
Kev. Dr. Bliss. 

,. Page 68. "1634. Spectacula Oxonii in hoc anno. 
i'(;:jl V. vi^ ^' The Palsgraves Family. 
■ ■ ^:,Hiiii3(„ 3. His ma^ies Hokus Pokus. 
4 3. Dancing vpon the rope. 

4. Hierusalcm in its glory, destruction. 

Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 137 

The story deuided into 5 or 6 parts, invented by Mr. Gos- 
ling-, sometimes schollar to Mr. Camden, enginer, who be- 

Anatomy schoole. His wife dying left him some meanes 
in a chest, w^^ a maide seruant cunningly getting y^ key of 
her master, conveyed away, and soe he now glad to get his 
liuinge by vseing his wits for such inventions.^^ 
How Mr. Gosling obtained his '' Dodar," or what subsequently 
became of it, we have not a particle of evidence. The contents, 
and even the locality, of " y® Anatomy schoole " of 1634 are alike 
unknown, the existing Anatomy school having been founded 
about 1750, independently of any previous establishment. One 
thing is certain, that this " Dodar " was not the same individual 
as the one which subsequently formed one of the treasures of the 
Ashmolean Museum, which was " ordered to be removed " in 
1755, and whose head and foot are fortunately still in existence. 
For we have the clearest evidence that the latter specimen was 
in Tradescant's private collection at Lambeth in 1656, and was 
not transferred to Oxford till 1683 (see * The Dodo and its Kin- 
dred,' pp. 23, 32). Two Dodos have therefore existed, at suc- 
cessive periods, in the venerable repositories of Oxford University, 
where the naturalist from the remotest parts of Europe now 
makes the mouldering relics of one an object of pilgrimage. 

I may here mention, that the presei-vation of these relics is 
due not so much to Fortune as to old Ashmole himself. In his 
original regulations for the management of his museum, it is 
enacted that when any of the specimens were found to be in bad 
condition, they should not be wholly destroyed, but the hard 
parts, such as the heads and feet, should be put away in a closet ; 
and to this judicious proviso of the old astrologer we are pro- 
bably indebted for the most important evidences now existing on 
the structure of the Dodo. 

2. Affinities of the Dodo. — I have received from that excellent 
osteologist, Mr. Thomas Allis of York, the following interesting 
communication, relating to a point in the anatomy of the Dodo 
which Dr. Melville and I had overlooked, but which wholly con- 
firms our conclusions. 

" On looking at plate ix* I immediately perceived strikingly 
confirmatory evidence of your views as to the Columbidine affi- 
nities of the Dodo, unnoticed either by thyself or by thy talented 
coadjutor, in his elaborate anatomical description of the head of 
that bird. This evidence consists in the number of the sclerotic 
plates. At the Zoological Section of the British Association at 
Liverpool I exhibited dissections of the sclerotic ring of about 
seventy birds; among the seventy there were three species of 

138 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 

Columbid(E ; each of these three had eleven plates in the sclerotic 
ring ; being the precise number figured in the Dodo. No other 
bird had a similar number, and none so small a number, with 
the single exception of the Australian PodarguSj in which bird 
the sclerotic ring is composed of one single bone, without the 
smallest trace of a division into separate plates. No abstract of 
my paper on the subject was published in the proceedings of that 
meeting, and its contents were never made public. 

"I exhibited the rings of eight species of Raptores; the 
smallest number of sclerotic bones in this order was fourteen ; 
and seven species of Gallinida, thirteen being the smallest num- 
ber of plates. 

" I thought this confirmatory evidence of the correctness of 
your views could not be otherwise than acceptable to thee ; if 
thou considerest it of sufficient importance to deserve to be made 
known through one of our scientific periodicals, be so good as to 
get it inserted. 

" Thy sincere friend, 

"Thomas Allis." 

Let me here, in passing, express an earnest hope that some 
means may be found of giving to the public the benefit of the 
valuable and original researches of Mr. Allis, which have hitherto 
been retained in MS. by that '^great difficulty ^^ of natural-history- 
authors, the expense of illustrative engravings. 

3. Historical evidences of the Solitaire. — In a recent explora- 
tion of the precious collection of foreign periodicals in the Bod- 
leian library, I discovered a work of which I had long been in 
quest, the * Memoires de la Societe Royale des Sciences et Belles 
Lettres de Nancy,' 4 vols. 12°, Nancy, 1754-1759. The Pre- 
sident of the Society, M. d'Heguerty, had been governor of 
Bourbon about 1734, and in a discourse which he delivered 
March 26, 1751, he entertained the Nancy savans with an ac- 
count of the Mascarene Islands. Speaking of Bourbon, he men- 
tions pintados, partridges, and other birds, but says nothing of 
the brevipennate birds of that island, though we have proof that 
they still existed in the time of La Bourdonnaye, d'Heguerty's 
successor (see ' Dodo audits Kindred,' p. 60). He atones how- 
ever for this omission by the following interesting notice of the 
Solitaire of Rodriguez, which is the more valuable as our previous 
historical evidence of that bird was almost wholly confined to the 
single testimony of Leguat. We now find that this bird survived 
from the time of Leguat's visit, 1693, down to about 1735, and 
that, like the Dodo, it was capable of being kept alive in con- 

At vol. i. p. 79, M. d'Heguerty says, speaking of Rodriguez: 

Mr. F. M'Coy on the Tail o/Diplopterus. 139 

" On y ti'ouve aussi des oiseaux de differentes especes, que Pon 
prend souvent k la course, et entre autres des Solitaires, qui 
n'ont presqu^ point de plumes aux ailes ; cet oiseau, plus gros 
qu^un Cygne, a la physionomie triste ; apprivoise on le voit tou- 
jours marcher k la meme ligne, tant qu'il a d^espace, et retro- 
grader de meme sans s^en ecarter. Lorsqu^on en fait Pouverture, 
on y trouve ordinairement des Bezoards, dont on fait cas, et qui 
sont utiles dans la medecine." 

XV. — Reply to Sir Philip Egerton's Letter on the Tail of Di- 
plopterus. By Frederick M'Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Cambridge, Jan. 13th, 1849. 

Sir Philip Egerton has written a letter in your last Number, 
from which it would appear that I had acted unfairly towards 
Prof. Agassiz in my description of the diphycercal type of tail 
in the November Number of your Journal, by remarking that 
Agassiz called the tail of Diplopterus ' heterocercal,^ and leaving 
it to be inferred that the ordinary heterocercal form was intended. 
Sir P. Egerton does not deny the accuracy of my description and 
figure of the tail of this genus and its difference from the true 
heterocercal type ; and though no one comparing them with 
Agassiz^s work will see any resemblance, yet Sir Philip Egerton 
endeavours to show that Agassiz gave the same characters that 
I do, by suppressing in his letter all allusions to those passages 
in Agassiz's writings which state without reserve that the genus 
was heterocercal, and by quoting a certain passage (giving a 
very imperfect notion of the tail however) in which the exist- 
ence of rays above the spine is mentioned. I will not ask why 
Sir Philip Egerton only gave you the quotation from Agassiz's 
work as far as he did ? or why he did not quote it entire ? But 
I supply the missing line of the quotation : ^' La caudale est tron- 
quee presque verticalement, et la colonne vertebrate finit a son 
angle superieure ;" and I may add to this (what Sir P. Egerton 
also omits to mention), that in the restored figure of the genus 
(tab. E), combining his latest information in the same work, 
Agassiz figures Diplopterus with a heterocercal tail perfectly iden- 
tical with that of Osteolepis figured on the same plate, which is 
one of the most perfectly heterocercal fishes we know. This 
figure too is in accordance with the above omitted portion of the 
quotation, and with the prevailing theory that none but hetero- 
cercal-tailed fishes lived at those ancient periods ; it shows that 
the quotation given by Sir P. Egerton did not imply a knowledge 

140 On the Ganoine of some Fish-teeth. 

on the part of Agassiz of the structure which I have pointed out 
in my paper ; and it also shows the author's interpretation of 
what portion of rays are seen above the spine in fig. 1. pi. 18. 
of the Monog. of the Old Red Fishes, which Sir P. Egerton 
states to be a good representation of the structure (although 
he does not mention that fig. 2 of the same plate represents it 
as perfectly heterocercal) . Will Sir Philip Egerton compare 
Agassiz's restored figure referred to, with mine in your Journal, 
and say that that is right and mine wrong ? or will he say that 
his figure and the above portion of the quotation are not as 
clear definitions of the heterocercal type of tail as it is possible 
to give ? 1 trust these observations will show, that whatever 
" unfairness '* may be in this discussion is not on my side ; and 
I may assure Sir Philip Egerton, that not for all the palseontolo- 
gical discoveries in the world would 1 misrepresent the writings 
of any one, much less of Prof. Agassiz, for whose brilliant talents, 
extensive learning, and enormous service to natural science, no 
one can have a more profound veneration than myself. 

With regard to my " using the cancelled specific appellation 
latus when speaking of the Coccosteus decipiensy' 1 must beg to 
refer Sir Philip Egerton to the Rules for Nomenclature published 
by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, for 
the reasons which have influenced me in retaining the original 
name. I have the honour to remain. Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Frederick M^Coy. 

XVI. — Reply to Prof. Owen's Lettet' on the Ganoine of some Fish- 
teeth. By Frederick M^Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Cambridge, Jan. 13th, 1849. 

In reference to Prof. Owen's letter in your last Number, will you 
favour me by the insertion of a few lines ? 

In your Number for August last, I published a notice of some 
fossil fish, and in describing the teeth used the new term '' ya- 
noine " to designate a peculiar modification of '^ dentine j' which, 
from forming the hard polished surface of those teeth, had been 
confounded with true enamel by nearly all writers on fossil fish. 
To define the term, 1 briefly defined the tissue for which I used 
it, and its anatomical distinction from " enamel." Prof. Owen 
writes to point out that he had observed the distinction himself, 
as indeed every anatomist must who looks at a slice of tooth 
through a microscope ; yet in the note to his letter he cites a 

Mr. J. Miers on the genus Witheringia. 141 

case from his ' Odontography/ where he had himself inadver- 
tently called it " enamel " in describing a fossil tooth (Peta- 

althoiigh in other places he had described it as it 
is. Prof. Agassiz I believe in all his descriptive characters 
has called it "enamel," and so have most writers. The case 
therefore stands now as before, namely, that a peculiar modifi- 
cation of tissue exists in certain fish-teeth, very diiFerent from 
" enamel/' yet confounded with it by many writers, frequently 
called " enamel " in the technical descriptions, and for which no 
other term had hitherto been proposed ; my object now is to state, 
that in proposing the term " ganoine " for the sake of brevity and 
accuracy in the descriptions of the fossils I was engaged on, I by 
no means intended to impute ignorance of its structural peculi- 
arities to any preceding writer. If I had been aware that Prof. 
Owen had used the word in question orally at his lectures for the 
polished part of ganoid scales, and that he would have preferred 
" vitro-dentine '^ for the dental tissue, I should of course have 
used it also ; but as those terms have not been so published, while 
mine is already current, it is scarcely possible 1 think to make a 
change now without producing more confusion than the change 
would be worth. 

I have the honour to remain, Gentlemen, 
lUgnqi?!! Your most obedient servant, 

Frederick M'Coy. 

XVII. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Mters, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 


The following observations will I hope serve to throw some 
light upon this hitherto obscure genus. It always appeared to 
me that the Witheringia picta, as figured by Martins (Nov. Gen. 
tab. 227), must either form the type of a very distinct group, or 
be considered as a very good illustration of that genus, for which 
reason I refrained from publishing what I had long ago observed 
on the subject, until I could satisfy myself of the absolute cha- 
racter obscurely indicated by L^Heritier, in regard to his typical 
species W. solanacea (Sert. Angl. 33. tab. 1). Under this un- 
certainty (in a note, Lond. Journ. Bot. iv. 353) I alluded to the 
unsuccessful search I had everywhere made for some specimen, or 
better details, of the plant in question, so as to be able to com- 
prehend the limits and features of the generic character of 
Witheringia, and I expressed my regret that the original type no 
longer existed in L^Heritier's herbarium in the British Museum, 
as that would at once have cleared up this ambiguity. Dr. 

142 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Witheringia. 

Sendtner has since come to a more decided conclusion, by pro- 
posing Martius^s plant before alluded to as the type of a new 
genus, which he calls Athena>a ; but I am not aware upon what 
grounds he holds it distinct from Witheringia, nor can I learn 
that he has given any determined limits of this latter genus. 
From observations lately made, it appears to me that farther 
uncertainty on this point need not be entertained, and I propose 
therefore, to offer my reasons, founded on the facts now demon- 
strated, for justifying the conclusions thus formed. In Sir Wm. 
Hooker's most valuable herbarium there exists among Goudot's 
collection from Columbia, a plant which appeared to me to be a 
Sarachaj except that its habit is rather more suffruticose and 
erect than most species of that genus, and its flowers smaller and 
fewer than usual : on examining this more attentively and com- 
paring it carefully with the figure and description of L'Heritier's 
plant, I could not do otherwise than conclude that it was very 
closely related to his Witheringia solanacea, and as such may well 
serve, in the absence of the original, as a substitute for the type 
of what he intended as that genus. I have also compared this 
Columbian plant with the descriptions given by Prof. Kunth of 
several fruticose species, which he arranged in the same genus, 
and at the same time have examined several analogous plants 
from intertropical America, either closely allied or nearly iden- 
tical with these last-mentioned species ; and finally, I have com- 
pared these with the Witheringia hirsuta, Gardn., a species that 
does not seem to differ from the W. picta, Mart., collating this 
at the same time with Von Martius's excellent description and 
figure of this latter species before quoted : all these forms ex- 
hibit a gradation from Saracha on the one hand to Acnistus on 
the other. But Witheringia, according to modern authors, is 
made to embrace a number of heterogeneous species, and it is 
obvious that, without taking into account L'Heritier's plant, all 
the remaining species in the herbaceous section enumerated by 
Dr. Walpers (Repert. iv. 29) do not belong to that genus, being 
mostly referable to a very distinct section of Solanum, probably 
a good subgenus. 

Throughout the vegetable kingdom we find individuals pos- 
sessing aberrant characters, and exhibiting an intermediate state 
between the artificial limits of our botanical distributions, or par- 
taking of their mutual extremes, and this is as fully apparent in 
the SolanacecB as in any other family. Thus, many experienced 
botanists have found it difficult to determine whether certain in- 
dividuals should be referred to Petunia or Salpiglossis, plants not 
only belonging to separate genera, but hitherto placed in distinct 
natural orders. In like manner it may be doubted whether cer- 
tain plants should be referred to Physalis, when they are seen 

Mr. J. Miers on the genus Witheringia. 143 

to be scanty of the very remarkable character that distinguishes 
most of its species, viz. the remarkable growth and extreme in- 
flation of the calyx in fruit ; and so also in the approximate ge- 
nus Sarachtty individuals are sometimes observed, where, com- 
bined with a calyx not sensibly increasing in size, they present 
a corolla deeply campanulate, marked with large coloured spots, 
and a pentangular border so characteristic of Physalis : in these 
equivocal points of structure, it appears to me we may call in the 
aid of their general habit in order to determine the genus to 
which they should be referred, for in Physalis the inflorescence 
will be found to be universally 1-flowered in each axil, while in 
Saracha it is as uniformly more or less distinctly umbellate. 
Thus likewise in Acnistus, a genus with Cestrum-like flowers, we 
have a very variable length of the tube of the corolla, which in 
A. umbellatus is hardly distinguishable from the section ChcE- 
nesthes oi lochroma , while in A. arborescens (the original Cestrum 
cauliflorum of Jacquin, Hort. Schoenb. tab. 325) the tube is so 
short as to leave no possible distinction between this genus and 
that called Witheringia by Kunth, as will be hereafter demon- 

Now, as will be hereafter shown, neither Witheringia so- 
lanacea, nor the Columbian plant here alluded to as being so 
closely allied to it, can be distinguished from Saracha ; they have 
both a 5 -partite calyx, a rotate corolla deeply cleft, stamens ari- 
sing from triangular expansions originating at the base of its 
short tube, and the fruit is a pisiform berry supported on a calyx 
that does not materially increase in size ; the peduncle is bifur- 
cate, and forms a 2-flowered umbel as in many species of Sara- 
cha ; and to make this analogy still more complete, although the 
stem is somewhat lignescent and perennial at base as in some 
species of this last-mentioned genus, their branches are in like 
manner herbaceous, and L^Heritier describes Witheringia sola- 
nacea as possessing the same kind of large tuberose root as in 
the Saracha jaltomata, Schlect. : for all which reasons I have no 
hesitation in referring all these plants to one genus. 

Of the fruticose species hitherto included in Witheringia^ there 
are evidently two distinct groups, the several Columbian species 
enumerated by Kunth, and the Brazilian species of Martins : the 
former are distinguished by having extra- axillary fascicles, gene- 
rally of numerous, sometimes of very few flowers, always upon 
simple peduncles, and not umbellate as in Hebecladus ; the calyx 
is always distinctly tubular, with an almost entire margin, and 
five very minute distant teeth, not 5 -partite as observed in Hebe- 
cladus, Saracha, and Witheringia picta; the corolla is tubular, 
with a 5 -partite border, not so decidedly long and infundibuli- 
form as in Hebecladus and Acnistus ; the berry is small, seldom 

144 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Witheringia. 

exceeding the size of a peppercorn, and is supported on a small 
persistent and nonaiigescent calyx ; it is not one-tenth the size of 
the large oval berry inclosed within its increasing calyx, which is 
seen in Witheringia picta ; the positive characters here alluded 
to will be found to approach very closely to Acnistus, and to be 
quite incompatible with the plants of the other group referred to. 
From these several facts the inference is irresistible, that 
Witheringia solanacea should at once be referred to Saracha, and 
that Witheringia macrophylla, W. ciliata, W. mollis, W. rhom- 
boidea, W. dumetorum and W. riparia of Prof. Kunth, together 
with some others, form a distinct group, which I propose to call 
Brachistus, and that the genus Witheringia as defined by L^He- 
ritier must fall upon that group of plants, of which the Withe- 
ringia picta, Mart., may be considered the type. These are di- 
stinguished by an inflorescence either solitary or fasciculate in 
each axil or dichotomy of the branches, in which latter cases they 
arise successively at different periods, so that we see in each fas- 
cicle, every gradation of development from the nascent bud to 
the ripened fruit : the peduncle is always 1 -flowered, slender and 
drooping in the young flower, but it grows much longer, becomes 
rigidly erect, and is considerably thickened towards the apex, in 
fruit : the calyx is 5 -partite, the corolla has a very short tube, 
and a deeply 5-cleft rotate border, with the stamens arising from 
triangular extensions a little above the base of the tube, as in 
Hebecladus and Saracka : the berry is large, oval, and wholly in- 
cluded within the enlarged calyx, and the form of the embryo of 
its seed is spiral. 

It may be urged that the name of Saracha should give place 
to that of Witheringia, but such a change would answer no good 
purpose, and could not be effected without great confusion, a 
very unnecessary creation of synonyms, and the annihilation of a 
genus long recognized. The recommendation above suggested 
appears to me the only proper course to pursue, and in adopting 
it, we do not violate the rule of priority, as L^Heritier's plant was 
only a cultivated specimen, the place of whose origin is still quite 
unknown ; and as no specimen of it appears to be in existence, 
it is clear that as a species, and especially as the type of a genus, 
it must ever remain problematical : and finally, that as L^Heri- 
tier's generic character remains in full force, as applied to another 
distinct group, the tribute intended by him to honour the me- 
mory of Withering is thus inviolably preserved. The genus 
Witheringia being thus established, it follows as a necessary con- 
sequence, that the AthenceaofDr. Sendtnermust give place to it. 
The following generic character drawn up from my own observa- 
tions will not be found to differ materially from that of the au- 
thor last mentioned. 

Mr. J. Micrs on the genus Withcringia. 145 

WiTHERiNGiA, L'Her., Mart. Athencea, Sendt. — Calyx sub- 
campanulatus, profunde 5-partitus, persistens. Corolla rotata, 
tubo brevi, limbo S-partito^ laciniis oblongis, acuminatis, sesti- 
vatione valvata. Stamina 5, erecta ; filamenta filiformia, brevia, 
paulo supra basin corollse inserta, imo repente triangulariter 
dilatata, et hinc in annulum fere coalita; anthercB oblongse, 
2-loculares, basi emarginato-cordatse, loculis connectivo an- 
gusto dorsali parallele connatis, longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. 
Ovarium ovatum, 2-loculare, ovulis plurimis, utrinque disse- 
pimento adnatis. Stylus simplex, longitudine staminum, apice 
iucrassatus, fistulosus. Stigma subintegrum, glandula gluti- 
nosa 2-loba semi-immersa. Bacca ovata, calyce aucto tecta. 
Semina compressa, rhomboideo-reniformia, in pulpam tenueni 
nidulantia, testa scrobiculata, subscabra, hilo perforate in sinu 
marginali. Embryo in albumen carnosum, subspiralis : coty- 
ledonibus semiteretibus_, radicula 3-4-plo brevioribus. — Fru- 
tices Brasilienses, dichotome ramosce-, folia alterna, vel gemina 
altera minori [in twnonibus subfasciculata) , integra ; flores pe- 
dunculati, axillares, vel in dichotomiis solitarii^ bini, vel plures 
fasciculati, et tunc alterna vice singulatim tardius enati, pedun- 
culo fructifero demum erecto, elongato et incrassato. 

1. Witheringia picta, Mart., Nov. Gen. et Spec. iii. 74. tab. 227. 
Witberingia hirsuta, Gardn. Lond. Journ. Bot. i. 541 . Athensea 
picta, Sendtn. Flor. Bras. fasc. vi. p. 134 ; Walp. Repert. vi. 580. 
— Brasilia, Prov. Rio de Janeiro et Minas Geraes. 

To tbe long and excellent description of Von Martins above 
referred to, it is quite unnecessary to offer the smallest additional 
remark, except that Gardner^ s plant which I collected at the same 
time does not appear to me to offer any difference from that 
figured by Martins, and that it is a little more hairy* : if 
therefore it does not belong to this species, it most probably is 
referable to W. pogogena. Of the following seven species I have 
no knowledge whatever, beyond the short notice extracted by 
Dr. Walpers from Dr.ySeudtner's description, to which I refer 
the reader. >t --tft h; 

2. Witheringia pogogena. Athensea pogogena, Sendtn. loc. cit. 
p. 135 ; Walp. Repert. vi. 580. Solanum pogogenum, Moricand, 
PL Nouv. d'Amer. iii. 24. tab. 17. — BrasiUa, Prov. Bahia. 

3. Witheringia micrantha. Athensea micrantha, Sendtn. loc, 
cit. ; Walp, Rep. vi. 580. — Brasilia, Villa Vicosa. 

* As Dr. von Martius's admirable work is within the reach of few per- 
sons, and as it may be desirable to compare the above with its analogous 
genera, I have given a figure with full details of the structure of this species, 
which 1 first collected at Tejuca in 18;}3, and afterwards with Mr. Gardner 
in 1837 (Gardn. no. 237) ; it will be shown in the * Illust. S. Anier, Plants^' 
pi. 35. 

Ann. ^ Mag, N. Hist. Ser.2. Vol. iii, 10 

14G Bihlio graphical Notices. 

4. Witherinyia Schottiana. Athencea Schottiana, Sendtn. loc. 
cit.', TFalp. Rep»\i, 581. — Brasilia, Prov. Rio de Janeiro. 

5. Witheringia Pohliana. Athensea Pohliana, Sendtn. loc. cit. ; 
Walp. Rep. vi. 581. — Brasilia, Prov. Minas Geraes. 

6. Witheringia Martiana. Athensea Martiana, Sendtn. loc. 
cit.; Walp. Rep. vi. 581. Solanum paradoxum, Schott MSS. — 
Brasilia, Prov. Rio de Janeiro et Minas Geraes. 

7. Witheringia hirsuta {non Gardn.) . Athensea hirsuta, /Sfew(/^w. 
loc. cit. ; Walp. loc. cit. — Brasilia, Prov. Minas Geraes. 

8. Witheringia anonacea. Athensea anonacea, Sendtn. loc. cit. 
tab. 18 ; Walp. loc. cit. — Brasilia australis. 


The Treasury of Natural History , or a Popular Dictionary of Animated 
Nature. By Samuel Maunder. London : Longman, Brown, 
Green, and Longmans. 

Many of our readers no doubt still retain some affection for the 
Natural History Book of their more youthful days. But, with what- 
ever regard we may view this old friend and companion, — with its 
queer woodcuts — its lion, tiger, elephant, and anonymous animal 
thrown out in bold relief, while the beetle, the bug and the butter- 
fly are summarily dismissed with a most magnanimous disregard of 
specific distinctions, — when we consider the great increase which has 
taken place in our stock of zoological knowledge since the days of 
Buifon and Goldsmith, and the number of otherwise well-informed 
persons with whom we are daily brought into contact, whose know- 
ledge of Natural History is entirely derived from the study, in years 
long gone by, of the " History of Three Hundred Animals," it can 
hardly be denied, that there has long been an absolute necessity for 
some cheap and decidedly popular work on the subject, which should 
give some knowledge of zoological classification to those who, from 
the want either of time or inclination, have never troubled them- 
selves with the study of nature, and at the same time furnish them 
with a hand-book for reference, on any ordinary matters connected 
with the science. To supply this want is the object of the ' Treasury 
of Natural History.* 

It is questionable whether it be advisable to plunge the beginner, 
at the very outset of his career, into all the mysteries and technica- 
lities of an exact system, and Mr. Maunder has perhaps judged rightly 
in preferring the alphabetical arrangement for the body of his work, 
to throwing his subject into a systematic form ; for many will be 
induced to read portions of a book, when arranged in a manner with 
which they are familiar, who would be frightened at once on finding 
themselves encountered, at starting, by a classification of which they 
are totally ignorant. Moreover, the systematic table at the com- 
mencement of the work will be found quite sufficient to give the 
reader that general idea of classification which a beginner requires. 

Bibliographical Notices. 147 

and to render easy the subsequent acquisition of a more exact 
knowledge of that portion of the subject. It follows, as nearly as 
possible, the arrangement given by Cuvier in the second edition of 
his • Regne Animal,' with alterations in those portions of it which 
have been modified by succeeding observers. 

As the necessarily low price of a popular work must always im- 
pose a narrow limit on its author, it is evident that certain groups 
and species will be thrown more prominently forward than others. 
Mr. Maunder appears to have selected for this purpose those 
which are most likely to come immediately under the notice of the 
young naturalist, namely the British birds and butterflies, most of 
which are noticed in the work, and many of them nicely and accu- 
rately figured in the accompanying woodcuts. Eight hundred and 
sixty of these illustrations are scattered through the book, principally 
representing the species referred to in the letterpress, but occasionally 
furnishing the reader with illustrations of the anatomical and generic 
characters of the groups under discussion. "As to the manner in 
which this work has been embellished," says Mr. Maunder in his feel- 
ing and well- written preface, " I can speak with perfect satisfaction. 
About nine hundred accurate woodcuts have been given ; and in order that 
this highly important part of the work should not be treated slightly or 
erroneously, I obtained the valuable assistance of Mr. Adam White, 
of the British Museum, a gentleman who to the enthusiasm belong- 
ing to the true naturalist unites a sober judgement and great ex- 
perience. To him was accordingly entrusted the selection of all the 
subjects, and under his superintendence every drawing has been 
made by competent artists. And here let me add that I have availed 
myself of Mr. White's acknowledged zoological attainments, and im- 
proved my book by adopting many valuable hints and suggestions 
with which he has from time to time kindly furnished me. The en- 
gravings are in Mr. R. Branstone's best manner, and will no doubt 
be properly appreciated." 

In the alphabetical portion, the animals are arranged principally 
in accordance with their English names, where such exist ; but the 
scientific names are also given, thus furnishing the uninitiated reader 
with some insight into the mysteries of the binomial method of no- 
menclature, which, fortunately, still survives the attacks of French 
radicalism. Mr. Maunder however has wisely avoided encumbering 
himself with synonyms, and the one example (see Asserador) with 
which he has furnished his readers, of the synonymy of a species, 
will no doubt prove abundantly mystifying to those who are still 
happy enough to suppose that there is but one name for each ani- 
mal, and one animal for each name. 

We must not omit to notice the excellent " Syllabus of Practical 
Taxidermy" which will be found at the end of the 'Treasury.' 
The preface states that it is by Mr. A. Hepburn of Whittlngham, 
and it Is one of the best treatises on the subject with which we are 
acquainted. It forms a very appropriate appendage to a work in- 
tended to raise a taste for Natural History in the minds of the young, 
and will prove very valuable to the country zoologist. A " Glossary 
of Technical Terms " closes the volume. 


148 Zoological Society. 

We regret that our space does not permit us to make any extracts 
from the book, but we can assure our readers that they will find in 
it a vast mass of useful information, compressed into a very small 
space and in a convenient form for reference. The most recent works, 
including voyages and travels, appear to have been consulted with 
advantage, and the extracts from them to have been well and care- 
fully selected. 

We hope that in some future edition Mr. Maunder will shorten 
such articles as that on Man, as the space might be much more ad- 
vantageously occupied by other subjects. 



January 25, 1848. — Dr. Gamble in the Chair. 
The following paper was read ; — 

Note on the Capture of the Aurochs (Bos Urns, Bodd). By 
M. Dimitri de Dolmatoff, Master of the Imperial Forests 
IN the Government of Grodno. 

(Communicated by Sir Roderick Murchison.) 

Having been appointed, in 1842, Master of the Forests of the 
Government of Grodno, I have been led, as much by duty as by in- 
clination, to pay particular attention to the forest of Bialowieza, the 
last asylum of the Bison of Europe, and I have given a description of 
that primitive forest and of its interesting inhabitant, both worthy to 
be numbered amongst those curiosities which our beautiful and im- 

mense country presents. My work was favourably received by our 
government, but subsequently five years of assiduous observations and 
researches have convinced me that that work is incomplete, and have 

Zoological Society. 149 

excited in me the desire to draw up a treatise on the Bison ; for my 
own experience embraces curious facts and free from all error. 

I have turned my attention particularly to refute by experience 
the erroneous opinion, accredited by all the writers who have treated 
on this subject, namely that the calf of the Bison cannot be suckled by 
our domestic cow. This fable has been repeated even in the work 
of an esteemed writer of our times, the Baron de Brinvers, who rely- 
ing upon the recital of another writer, the learned Gilibert, asserts 
that two female Bison calves, caught in the forest of Bialowieza, 
seven weeks old, constantly refused the teats of a domestic cow ; 
that they consented, indeed, to suck a goat, but as soon as they had 
had enough, they repelled their nurse with disdain, and grew furious 
whenever they were put to a domestic cow. M. de Brinvers had 
not himself the possibility of verifying this fact ; and he cites tra- 
ditions, communicated to him by the old inhabitants of the environs ; 
for if any one of the forest guards, or the peasants who inhabit the 
forest, had even met a Bison calf, parted by any accident from its 
mother, he would rather have left it, than seized and nursed it, in 
contravention of the severe law, which prohibits the capture or kill- 
ing of a Bison. It was therefore only the supreme order of His 
Majesty the Emperor, emanating from the desire expressed by Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria to possess in her Zoological Garden two living 
Bisons, which has enabled me to rectify the error above mentioned. 
For as many attempts had already proved, that Bisons captured full- 
grown and in their wild state could never bear the captivity and 
especially the transport, and would infallibly perish, I proposed to 
catch two young calves, and to suckle them at the houses of the 
forest guards. His Excellence the Minister of the Domains of the 
Empire, Comte de KisselefF, having approved of this project, and 
ordered it to be put in execution, I went without delay to the forest of 
Bialowieza. It was the 20th of July, 1846, at daybreak, and assisted 
by 300 beaters and 80 keepers of that forest, armed with fowling- 
pieces, charged only with powder, that we set out on the trace of a 
troop of Bisons explored during the night. 

The day was superb and the sky serene ; there was not a breath 
of wind, and nothing interrupted the calm of nature, so imposing 

under the majestic dome of the primitive forest The 300 

beaters, aided by 50 keepers, had surrounded in the most profound 
silence the solitary valley in which were the troop of Bisons. Ac- 
companied by 30 keepers of determination and merit, we penetrated, 
step by step, into the surrounded enclosure, advancing with the 
greatest caution, and, so to speak, holding our breath. Arrived at 
the limit which bordered the valley, we enjoyed one of the most in- 
teresting pictures ! The troop of Bisons was lying down on the slope 
of a hill, ruminating, in the most perfect security, whilst the calves 
gamboled around the troop, amused themselves with attacking one 
another, striking the ground with their agile feet, and throwing up 
the sand into the air ; then they ran off to their respective mothers, 
rubbed themselves against them, licked them, and then returned to 
their gambols. But at the first sound of the horn the picture changed 
in the twinkling of an eye ! The troop, as if struck by a magic wand. 

150 Zoological Society. 

jumped on their feet, and seemed to concentrate all their faculties 
in two senses, hearing and sight. The calves pressed timidly 
against their mothers. Then, when the noise of the hounds 
resounded, the Bisons hastened to range themselves in the order 
which they usually take in similar circumstances, namely, placing 
their calves in front they form the rear-guard, to protect them from 
the pursuit of the dogs, and advance. Arrived at the line occupied 
by the beaters and the keepers, they were received with piercing 
cries and firing of guns. They then changed the order of defence ; 
the old Bisons rushed with fury on one side, broke the line of chase, 
and continued their course victoriously, bounding along, and dis- 
daining to trouble themselves about their enemies who were crouching 
against the enormous trees. The keepers however succeeded in 
detaching two calves from the troop : one, aged 3 months, was taken 
at once ; the other of 15 months, though seized by eight persons 
overthrew them and fled. The dogs were set in pursuit, and the Bison, 
forced into a marsh, was bound and carried to the court-yard of the 
forester. Four Bison calves, 1 male and 3 females, were taken in 
other places in the forest. One of these females, aged only a few 
days, was suckled at first by a domestic cow, of a fawn colour simi- 
lar to that of the Bison, and, to the surprise of every one, the cow 
manifested a tender attachment for this adopted wild and bearded 
young one. Unfortunately the young animal died six days after- 
wards, sufifocated by a swelling in the neck, which it had before it 
was caught, and which was continually increasing. The other calves 
took no food the first day of their captivity ; but on the following 
day, the one aged 3 months began to suck a cow and seemed gay 
and lively. Its companions in captivity, excepting the one 15 
months old, began at first to take milk from a man's hand, then 
they drank from a pail with great avidity, and when the pail was 
empty they licked one another's muzzles. In a short time they lost 
their wild look, and their timidity changed into an extreme vivacity 
and petulance. When let out of their stable, into the large court- 
yard of the farm, the rapidity of their movements, their agility, 
and the lightness of their leaps, similar to those of the goat or stag, 
astonished every one. They played with the calves of the domestic 
cow^s of their own accord, combated with them, and although 
stronger, they appeared to yield to them from generosity. The male 
Bison of 15 months for a long time preserved his wild and stern 
look ; he was irritated at the approach of any one, shook his head, 
lashed his tail, and presented his horns. After two months of cap- 
tivity he was at length tamed, and attached himself to the peasant 
who fed him ; and then more liberty was given him. The Bisons 
are in general fond of striking the ground with their feet, throwing 
the earth into the air, and then rearing as horses do. They 
exhibit much attachment to the person who feeds and looks after 
them, come and rub themselves against him, licking his hands, and 
obeying his voice; they run bounding up when he calls them. 
Whenever they were let out of the stable, they grew animated, raised 
their head proudly, dilated their nostrils, snorted with force, and 
jgave themselves up to all kinds of sports ; but soon perceiving that 

Zoological Society. 151 

they were shut up, they turned their looks now toward the immense 
forest, then toward the carpet of verdure spread out before them in 
the distance ; they seemed to recollect their wild liberty, and lower- 
ing their head they returned into their stable with an inexpressible 

Six Bison calves, taken last year during the chase which I have 
just described, were brought up in two places, at some distance from 
one another. The two males caught during the first chase suffered 
nothing from the new food which was offered them ; the others, 
which drank the milk instead of sucking it, had diarrhoea for a 
week. But it is probable that this complaint arose from the milk, 
with which they were fed, being brought from some distance, and 
becoming sour on the transport ; for as soon as two cows were pro- 
cured for each Bison, and they received fresh and lukewarm milk, 
the complaint ceased. The two first became accustomed also to lick 
salt, whilst the others never touched it. As for the young Bison, 
aged 15 months, he would not take milk, and began from the first 
day to eat oats mixed with chopped straw, hay from the forest and the 
meadows, the bark and leaves of the ash, the wild pear, the hornbeam, 
the aspen and other young shrubs. The same food served for the 
other young Bisons, when milk was no longer given them. They 
drink sprmg and river water indifferently, and take more and oftener 
in the day during the summer. The young calves refused at first 
to quench their thirst with pure water, and it was necessary to 
whiten the water with a little milk. Hunger and thirst make them 
utter a kind of grunt similar to that of the pig. Abundant and 
varied food, a stable which in winter protected them against the 
cold and in summer against insects, had a remarkable influence on 
the grov,'th of the young Bison ; so much so, that a young female, 
captured in January of this year, and intended to supply the place of 
one which died, was found to be only half as large as its companions 
of the same age taken last year and brought up by man's care. And 
as history tells us of bisons being killed of enormous size, and that 
in their wild state they are of different shapes, it would be interest- 
ing to ascertain what dimensions a Bison might attain, tamed, fed, 
and brought up by man ; especially in England, where the art of 
rearing domestic animals is carried to the highest degree of perfec- 
tion. Another still more important experiment would be to attempt 
to couple a Bison bull with a domestic cow ; and I am led to think 
the thing possible from the inclination manifested by the young 
Bison bull taken last year, and now aged 2 years and 3 months, 
towards the female calf. Perhaps a new crossed race of cattle might 
thus be obtained, which, uniting extraordinary strength and agility 
with docility and attachment to man, might become of great utility 
to him. Lastly, taking into consideration that one pair of young 
tamed Bisons is destined for London, the second for St. Petersburgh, 
and the third to remain here, on their natal soil, it would be no less 
interesting to communicate reciprocally and at proper times the 
comparative observations which shall have been made on the climatal 
influence exercised on these animals in the different regions whither 
they shall be transplanted. 

152 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

The tamed Bisons carried from Bialowieza to Grodno have just 
made by land a journey of 140 versts (20 German leagues). The 
pair destined for St. Petersburgh was shut up in an oblong cage, 
covered with straw, divided into two compartments, so that the 
Bisons could lie down without turning away from one another. This 
new prison and the jolting of the carriage had a painful effect on the 
spirit of the Bisons, and although tranquil and resigned, they took 
no food, and would not lie down for the first twenty-four hours ; but 
the second day they became calm and returned to their old habits. 
The journey lasted three days. 

The male and female destined for London travelled in a much 
more spacious and uncovered cage. The male was very restless 
during the whole journey, struggled incessantly, made a roaring 
similar to the bellowing of the bull, and wounded himself in the eye 
in attempting to leap over the bar of the cage, two toises high. Of 
the age now of 15 months, the male is 4 feet 1 inch in height and 5 
feet 6 inches long ; the female is 4 feet high, and 5 feet 3 inches 

At Grodno the Bisons are placed in a spacious stable, and each 
pair is separated from the other. At first, on attempting to put them 
together, they fell to fighting desperately, so much so that they even 
knocked down the solid partition which separated them ; they began 
by all attacking one another, and then, which is a singular fact, the 
three male Bisons fell upon the only female within their reach, and 
would infallibly have killed her, if the keepers had not defended 
her. Subsequently they became accustomed to one another, and 
the combats ceased. 

It would be necessary, in my opinion, to keep the Bisons in a 
spacious park, where they would be able to live at their ease ; and 
as they detest brilliant colours, and red especially enrages them, their 
keepers ought to wear clothes of a dark colour. I should also men- 
tion that they dislike dogs, and grow furious when pursued by them, 


Master of the Forests of the Government of Grodno. 


Jan. II, 1849. — Professor Balfour, President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "A short Notice of Berwickshire Plants," by James Hardy, 
Esq. In this communication Mr. Hardy first alluded to the vegeta- 
tion of the coast between Cockburnspath and the mouth of the Pease- 
burn ; the chief plants of importance being Glaucium luteum^ Astra- 
galus glycyphyllos, Blysmus rufus, Carex extensa and Ligusticum sco- 
ticum. The oyster-plant {Bteenhammera [or Stenhammaria as it 
ought to be spelt] marilima) used to grow on that shore, but it has 
now disappeared, although it still grows abundantly two miles east 
from the Pease Dean. 

This Dean has little to recommend it botanically, but its scenery 
is very interesting. One of the best botanical localities in the district 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 153 

is a glen called Blackburnrigg Dean, about a quarter of a mile from 
Grant's Station of the N. British Railway. It offers nothing to the 
eye, yet there are a number of good plants in it, such as Melica 
nutans, Helosciadium inundatum, Pyrola media, Chrysosplenium alterni- 
folium, Sedum villosum, Rubus saxatilis, Trientalis europdea, Carduus 
nutans, Listera cordata, Botrychium Lunaria. Poterium Sanguisorba 
grows near Barmouth Station, south from Eyemouth. [This plant 
was found abundantly near St. Abb's Head, by Dr. Balfour's party, 
two years ago.] Ranunculus arvensis, Lythrum Salicaria, Galium, 
boreale, and G, Mollugo, grow near Swinton, and Ophioglossum vul- 
gatum near Coldstream, this last being new to the Berwickshire flora. 

2. " A short Notice of East Lothian Plants," by J. C. Howden, 
Esq. In this paper the author mentions the occurrence of Weissia 
nigrita on Gullane Links ; and gives a list of plants found by him in 
various parts of East Lothian ; at Presmennan Lake, Typha latifolia, 
Scutellaria galericulata and Carex intermedia. On the banks of Whit- 
tingham Water, Saponaria officinalis, Cichorium Intybus, Malva 
moschata and Hyoscyamus niger. In Ormiston Woods, Valeriana py- 
renaica, Convallaria multiflora, Polygonum Bistorta. In Prestonhall 
Woods, Helleborus fcetidus has become naturalized ; and on the side 
of the road between Whittingham and Stenton, Asperula taurina has 
fixed itself. 

3. " Notice of Piassaba, a fibrous matter, from South America, 
used for the manufacture of ropes," &c., by Dr. Balfour. This fibrous 
matter was sent to Dr. Balfour by Mr. Michael Connal of Glasgow. 
It is used for the purposes of manufacture in London, and is im- 
ported from Bahia, Pernambuco, &c. Dr. Balfour gave a general 
account of the fibrous matter yielded by Palms, and alluded to the 
microscopic structure of their woody bundles. He illustrated his 
remarks by specimens of fibre from the cocoa-nut palm, sago palm, 
talipot palm, Livistona chinensis, and various species of Chamcerops 
and Corypha growing in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. He stated 

>^iat Dr. Arnott had examined the Piassaba fibre, and referred it to 
the Attalea funifera of Martins. The palm is the Cocos de Piagaba 
of Prince Maximilian's Travels. It attains a height of twenty or 
thirty feet, and has pinnated fronds fifteen or twenty feet long. The 
fibres of the petioles and spathes, after maceration, are used for 
forming very tenacious cables, which resist well the action of salt 
water. The black fibrous matter resembling whalebone, which is 
connected with the leaves, has been employed for forming brushes. 
Specimens of this manufacture were exhibited, also a large drawing 
of the palm. The fruit of this palm, under the name of Coquilla 
nuts, is imported into this country. The pericarp is thick and hard, 
and is used for making handles for umbrellas, drawers, &c. When 
examined under the microscope, it shows thickened cells very much 
resembling those seen in bone, the thickening matter being depo- 
sited in concentric circles. The seeds have an oily albumen, and a 
kind of solid palm oil is formed from them. Specimens of the nuts, 
and the articles made from them, as well as of the solid oil, were 

4. " Algae Orientales " (part 5), by Dr. Greville. In this paper 

154 Miscellaneous. 

are described the following new species of East Indian Sargassa, 
Sargassum obovatum, S. Wightii and S. cervicorne. Drawings and 
dissections were exhibited. The paper will appear in the ' Annals of 
Natural History ' and in the Society's Transactions. 

5. "An Account of the Mosses and Hepaticae growing on the 
Pyrenees," by Richard Spruce, Esq. (See p. 81 of the present 


On the Existence of an Ovum or Ovule as well in the Male as in the 
Female of Plants and Aniinals ; producing in the one case Sperma- 
tozoa or Pollen-grains, in the other the primitive Cells of the Embryo. 
By Ch. Robin, M.D.* 
The above-named memoir was submitted to a commission, consist- 
ing of MM. Serres, Dumas, and Milne-Edwards, and the following 
report has been drawn up and printed in the ' Comptes Rendus ' : 

" The facts contained in this memoir prove that, in the male or- 
gans of plants and of animals, an ovule is formed, analogous to that 
of the female, and constituted in a like manner ; that the vitellus of 
this ovule divides as does that of the female, and by the same me- 
chanism, giving rise to the development of the embryonary cells, which 
after being modified by a special evolution constitute pollen-grains or 
spermatozoa- Thus there is an analogy, and often an identity, be- 
tween the product of the male generative organs and that of the 
female. On the other hand, there is an identity in the mode of for- 
mation of the embryonary cells in the ovum of vegetables and of ani- 
mals ; and lastly, the mechanism by which the embryonary cells of 
the male ovule (which are modified to constitute pollen-grains or 
spermatozoa) are formed, is the same as that which gives birth to the 
primary cells of the female ovum, the collection of which forms the 
embryo. Thus the phfenomen m of the division of the vitellus, 
figured and described for the first time among the Vertebrata by Pre- 
vost and Dumas, may be extended to vegetables in an equal degree, 
and it is the expression of a general and unique mechanism, according 
to which the embryonary cells and zoosperms of all beings are formed. 

*' A. Analogy in the mode of formation of the embryonary cells in the 

ovules of animals and of vegetables. 

"1. It has been for along time admitted that the ovum of animals 
appears among the cells of the Graafian vesicles, or the bottom of the 
ovigerous tubes of the ovary, in the form of a small translucent cell, 
the nucleus of which is represented by the germinal vesicle. By 
degrees the transparent contents of the cell become granular and 
opake, and constitute the vitellus. At this moment the ovum is 
fitted for fecundation : it is still but a cell in a morphological point 
of view ; physiologically speaking, however, it has a special nature, — 
it is a product without an analogue in the body, and set apart for a spe- 
cial function. On the occurrence of fecundation it becomes subject 
to division, leading to the formation of embryonary cells at the ex- 

* The editors are indebted for this communication to J. T. Arlidge, 

Miscellaneous. 155 

pense of the vitellus, within its homogeneous and amorphous envelope 
— the vitelline membrane. 

" 2. Referring to cryptogamic plants, nothing is more striking than 
the identity between the segmentation of the contents of the spores 
for the development of sporules, or the division of the contents of the 
latter for the formation of embryonary cells and the like phseno- 
menon in animals (see the works of Thuret and Decaisne) . More- 
over, one cannot hesitate to compare the spores or the sporules of 
cryptogamic plants with the ovule of animals, — their homogeneous 
envelope with the vitelline membrane, and their granular contents 
with the vitellus. With respect to the dilFerences which, in this 
point of view, exist between the formation of spores and their ger- 
mination among fungi and microscopical algae, they constitute no 
more than mere varieties of the phsenomenon of segmentation, and 
such are to be met with in higher organizations, and the gradual 
simplification or degradation may be traced. 

•' 3. In phanerogamous plants the embryonary sac appears in the 
form of a transparent cell in the nucleus of the ovule : its contents 
very soon become granular and form a true vitellus. After fecun- 
dation two nuclei make their appearance, around which the granular 
matter of the vitellus collects itself ; in the line of separation between 
these two spherical bodies a dissepiment appears, indicating the for- 
mation of the membrane to envelope each of them and to transform 
them into embryonary cells : this effected, each of the latter subdivide 
into two, and so on. Here it is still evident that the embryonary cells 
are formed after the same fashion as in animals, and these facts shovir 
that the embryonary sac of phanerogamous plant? is the only part of 
them comparable with the ovum of animals. We have in it the true 
ovule of plants, in the form of a cell, soon displaying a homogeneous 
envelope or vitelline membrane, and a granular interior or vitellus. 
As to the primine, secundine, and nucleus or tercine, these are but 
organs composed of cellular tissue, organs of protection or of nutri- 
<»^on, and accessory only to the essential part — the ovule. 

*• B. Analogy between the product of the male organs and that of the 
ovaries of the female among plants and animals, and identity between 
the mode of formation in the male ovule of the grains of pollen or of 
spermatozoa, and that of the embryonary cells in the female ovule. 

"1. All botanists agree in describing, in each half of the young 
anther, the development of large cells, out of which the grains of 
pollen are formed, and v/hich are called the parent- cells of pollen, or 
pollen-utricles. These utricles are made up of granular contents, 
constituting a true vitellus analogous to that of the vegetable ovule, 
and inclosed by a homogeneous wall, or vitelline membrane. In 
the vitellus, at first two, and afterwards four nuclei appear, around 
which the vitelhne granules congregate, in such a way as to form 
so many small spheres, each of which soon becomes furnished with 
an inclosing envelope. These cells thus formed, after some modi- 
fication of their w^alls, constitute grains of pollen. The analogy in 
the formation of the latter to that of the embryonary cells in the 
ovule, or embryonary sac of the plant, cannot fail to be observed, in 

156 Miscellaneous. 

every point, except in that the embryonic cell of the male ovule 
whilst retaining its cell-form, has become a special organ, endowed 
with a special property, viz. fecundation by the intromission of the 
pollen-tube into the ovule : whilst in the female ovule, on the con- 
trary, the embryonary cells analogous to those of the male ovule are 
metamorphosed into anatomical elements (tracheae, dotted vessels, 
cellular tissue, &c.)." 

The reporters go on to observe : — " 2. That the facts contained 
in this part of the (M. Robin's) memoir demonstrate that, in cryp- 
togamic plants, the antheridia must be regarded as the analogues of 
the male ovules of vegetables : they are formed, in fact, of a homo- 
geneous envelope, — the vitelline membrane, and contain a granular 
mass, — the vitellus. At the expense of this vitellus are formed the 
moveable animalcules of algae, mosses, &c., the true spermatozoa of 
algae, as believed by MM. Thuret, Decaisne, and Montagne, &c. 
The observations of M. Robin tend also to show, that the sperma- 
tozoa of many algae have sometimes been confounded with spores 
provided with vibratile cilia, or zoospores ; and he describes, after 
some original observations, the development of those of Ulva lactuca. 
He states that in this plant the granular contents, or vitellus of the 
cells of the frond, — which fulfil the office of antheridia, or of the 
male ovule, become broken up into two, four, or eight, or into as 
many as twelve, twenty-four, and even thirty-two segments, or little 
spheres, after the same plan as prevails in the division to form pollen 
grains, or vegetable, or animal embryonic cells. Very soon four 
cilia are developed on one point of the surface of these spherules, and 
then the latter escape from the ruptured antheridium, evincing very 
active movements. With respect to cryptogamic plants, the male 
fecundating corpuscles of which are as yet undiscovered, further re- 
searches are necessary. 

"3. M. Reichert has watched the development of the spermatozoa 
in the Strongylus auricularis, and in the Ascaris acuminata. In the 
first stage, some transparent cells spring up at the bottom of the testi- 
cular tubes, each provided with a germinal vesicle, the contents of which 
soon become granular, and assimilate it to the vitellus of the female 
ovum ; whilst the envelope appears homogeneous and amorphous, like 
the vitelline membrane : in short, it is a true ovule, similar in every 
respect to one of known female origin. The vitellus very soon 
divides into two spheres, then into four, each of which gets inclosed 
by a wall, and constitutes an embryonic cell : by degrees each cell 
thus produced changes its form, and at the same time a prolongation 
makes its appearance at one of its poles, which forms the tail of the 
spermatozoon, the cell itself forming the head or body. M. Segond 
has, in conjunction with M. Robin, also noted this identity of the 
male and female ovule in the blue Rhizostoma (Rhizostoma Cuvieri), 
as well as some of the phaenomena of the evolution of the vitellus. 

"ResumL — 1 . It is seen that an ovule is formed in the male organs 
analogous to that derived from the ovary ; that in the male ovule 
grains of pollen or zoosperms are developed, after the same manner 
as the primitive cells of the embryo are formed in the female ovule, 
and hence these fecundating corpuscles are the analogues of the em- 

Miscellaneous. 157 

bryonary cells, with this constant difference, that they are themselves 
spontaneously formed, and become the determining cause of the evo- 
lution of the latter. 

"2. As to the development of the tail, or the vibratile cilia of the 
spermatozoa of algae and of animals, and the movements they present, 
these are not more astonishing than the formation of vibratile cilia 
on the surface of epithelial cells of mucous membrane, and both are, 
without doubt, of the same, and as yet unknown, nature. But the 
movements they exhibit are not of themselves sufficient to charac- 
terize spermatozoa as animals, no more than the carrying about of 
an epithelial cell, or of a spore of fucus by the agency of cilia can 
constitute either of those an animal ; in fine, they are no more ani- 
mals than are embryonic cells. 

" 3. It being once recognised that an ovule is formed by the male 
apparatus analogous to that produced by the female, and presenting 
an identity with the latter in its evolution, two series of ovules may 
be naturally formed : — 

'• A. — Of male ovules. 

"1. Those of animals (parent zoospermic utricles). 

'• 2. Those of cryptogamic plants (antheridia, or cells fulfilling their 
purpose in the Ulvacece and other cryptogamia) . 

" 3. Those of phanerogamous plants (parent-cells of pollen). 

" B. — Of female ovules, or ovules strictly so called. 

** 1. Those of animals (ova). 

" 2. Those of cryptogamic plants (spores, some zoospores, spo- 

" 3. Those of phanerogamic plants (vegetable embryonary sac). 

" All ovules or ova are constituted essentially of a vitellus with its 
germinal vesicle and vitelline membrane. But in the male ovules 
the division of the vitellus is a primitive phsenomenon, spontaneous, 
and always limited to the formation of spermatozoa — the true em- 
bryonary cells of the male, which have the property of determining 
in the female ovule the same phsenomenon (self-division) which 
has given them birth, and which proceeds in the latter to the evolu- 
tion of the embryo. The female ovules, on the contrary, form the 
second series of organs, the vitellus of which, in order to become 
divided in its turn, and to form the primary cells of the embryo, 
needs the concourse of the spontaneously developed products of the 
male vitellus." — Comptes Rendus. 

On the Gum Kino of the Tenasserim Provinces* 
By the Rev. F. Mason. 

In a valuable article by Dr. Royle on Gum Kino, reprinted in the 
Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, which 
ostensibly enumerates all the various regions from which it has been 
imported into England, there is no mention of this article being im- 
ported from this coast. Yet long before Dr. Royle compiled that 
communication, more than one consignment had been made by par- 
ties in Maulmain to houses in London of gum kino to the amount 
of a thousand pounds. 

It was brought to Maulmain by an English merchant from the 

1 58 Miscellaneous . 

Shan States, and stated by him, as our commissioner at the time in- 
formed the writer, to be the production of the Pa-douk, the same 
tree as the one in Maulmain thus denominated by the Burmans. 
Several years before I had directed attention to this tree as pro- 
ducing an astringent gum resembling gum kino, but the medical 
officer to whom I submitted specimens of the gum said it was " a 
kind of dragon's blood ;" but after it was known that the gum of 
the Pa-douk had been sold in London for the veritable gum kino, 
another medical gentleman tried in his practice the exudation of the 
tree in his compound in the place of the gum kino in his stores, and 
reported the effects the same, that their medical virtues were alike. 

The next inquiry that arises is for the genus and species of the 
Pa-douk. When I first came to the coast, all the English residents 
of my acquaintance called it " Burman Senna," and the surgeon of 
the station told me that he believed it was a species of senna. The 
Rev. H. Malcom, D.D., President of Georgetown College, Ken- 
tucky, who came out to India a dozen years ago in order to go back 
again and write a book, has stereotyped in his travels, — " Pa-douk, 
or Mahogany (^Swietenia Mahogdni), is plentiful in the upper pro- 
vinces, especially round Ava, found occasionally in Pegu." In a 
native Pali dictionary, found in the Burmese monasteries, Pa-douk 
stands as the definition of Pe-td-thd-ld, and the corresponding San- 
scrit word in Wilson's Dictionary is defined Pentaptera ; but the 
Pa-douk does not belong to that genus. In Piddington's Index 
however Peetshala stands as the Hindee name, and in Voigt's Cata- 
logue Peet-sal as the Bengalee name of Pterocarpus marsupium ; 
and this brings us nearer the truth, for Pa-douk is a name common 
to two different species of Pterocarpus^ but which look so much 
alike that they are usually regarded as one species. Undoubtedly 
one species is P. Indicus, and the other I presume is the one named 
by Wight P. Wallichii, but which was marked in Wallich's (Cata- 
logue P. Dalbergioidesy from which it differs in no well-marked 
character excepting that the racemes are axillary and simple, while 
in the latter they are terminal and " much-branched." Wight says of 
P, Wallichii in his Prodromus, "stamens all united or split down 
on the upper side only ;" so they are sometimes in our tree. In the 
figure that he gives in his Illustrations they are represented as dia- 
delphous, nine and one, and so they are seen occasionally in our 
tree ; but the more common form is that of being split down the 
middle into two equal parts, of five each, as in P. Dalbergioides. 
The wood too resembles it. " Not unlike mahogany, but rather 
redder, heavier and coarser in the grain." It is often called " red 
wood" at Maulmain; and from the colour of the wood, some of the 
natives distinguish the species " red Pa-douk," being P, Dalber- 
gioides, and " white Pa-douk," P. Indicus. 

Both these trees produce an astringent gum, which has been ex- 
ported for gum kino; or whether it was a mixture of both it is not 
possible to say. Probably the latter, as the native collectors would 
not probably make any distinction. Possibly it is the production of 
neither. It may be that P. marsupium is found in the Shan States, 
for it grows I believe in Assam ; and the man that did not distin- 

Meteorological Observations. 159 

guish the two species in Maulmain, would not distinguish them from 
a third at Zimmay. Be that as it may, this is certain, that these 
provinces can furnish the commercial world with a large quantity of 
gum kino. If the result of the experiment which was made be cor- 
rect, we have a great abundance of it within our own borders ; for 
the Pa-douk is one of the most common forest trees in the provinces 
from the Tenasserim to the Salwan. Jt furnishes a considerable 
portion of the fuel that is sold in Maulmain. But if not, it is cer- 
tainly abundant in the neighbouring provinces, whose only avenue 
to market is through our territories. — Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, August 184-8. 

Chiswick. — December 1. Foggy and drizzly: cloudy: rain, and boisterous at 
night. 2. Fine, 3. Clear : overcast : boisterous, with rain at night. 4. 
Boisterous, with heavy rain : clear at night. 5. Overcast : clear : slight rain. 
6. Clear : heavy clouds. 7. Rain. 8. Slight ran. 9. Very fine. 10. Clear 
and very fine. H. Foggy : cloudy. 12. Foggy : uniformly overcast. 13. Ex- 
ceedingly fine. 14. Fine. 15. Hazy: rain. 16. Drizzly: constant heavy 
rain. 17. Cloudy: foggy. 18. Hazy: fine: densely overcast. 19. Foggy. 

20. Hazy : clear and frosty at night. 21. Clear and frosty. 22. Frosty : clear : 
frosty. 23. Foggy : hazy : sharp frost. 24. Frosty : slight haze : overcast. 25. 
Hazy : cloudy. 26. Densely clouded. 27, 28. Fine. 29. Overcast. 30. Foggy : 
fine : foggy. 31. Foggy : hazy : foggy at night. 

]\Jean temperature of the month 41°*75 

Mean temperature of Dec. 1847 41 '09 

Mean temperature of Dec. for the last twenty years 39 '66 

Average amount of rain in Dec 1-58 inch. 

Boston. — Dec. 1. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 2. Fine. 3. Fine : rain p.m. 
4. Cloudy: rain p.m. 5. Cloudy: rain a.m. 6. Fine : rain a.m. 7. Rain: 
rain a.m. and p.m. 8. Fine: rain p.m. 9 — 11. Fine. 12. Cloudy. 13. Fine, 
14. Cloudy: rain p.m. 15. Cloudy: stormy, with rain from s.w. p.m. 16. 
Cloudy: rain p.m. 17,18. Fine. 19. Rain: rain early a.m. 20. Cloudy. 

21. Fine : plenty of ice this morning. 22 — 24. Fine. 25,26. Rain. 27,28. 
Cloudy. 29. Fine. 30. Cloudy. 31. Cloudy : a remarkable dark day. 

Applegarlh Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Dec. 1. Frost a.m. : rain and high wind p.m. 
2. Rain: sleet: high wind: lightning. 3. Snow inch deep : heavy rain p.m. 
4. Very high flood : heavy rain and high wind. 5. Fair, after very wet night : 
flood again. 6. Dull : drizzling : frost a.m. 7. Frost : damp and drizzly p.m. 
8. Soft, moist and foggy. 9. Rain all day : high wind p.m. 10. Fair : high wind. 
11. Fairand fine. 12. Dull and foggy a.m. : rain p.m. 13. Rain a.m. : showery 
all day. 14. Fair a.m. : rain and high wind p.m. i5. Fair a.m. : rain p.m., with 
storm of wind. 16. Fairand fine. 17. Frost a.m.: slight showers p.m. 18. 
Fair A.M. : cloudy: showery p.m. 19. Fair: fog: cleared p.m. 20. Frost: 
thaw P.M. 21. Frost, hard : clear and bracing. 22. Frost very hard : clear. 
23. Frost keen : clear : wind rising, 24. Frost : high wind p.m. 25. Frost, slight : 
thaw P.M. 26. Rain very heavy : high wind. 27. Fair and clear : threatening 
frost. 28. Hard frost all day.' 29. Hard frost. 30. Frost moderate : dull. 
31. Frost moderate : cloudy. 

Mean temperature of the month 39°*8 

Mean temperature of Dec. 1847 40 '2 

Mean temperature of Dec. for the last twenty five years . 38 "2 

Average amount of rain in Dec. for twenty years 2'94 inches. 

Saridivick Manse, Orkney. — Dec. 1. Hoar-frost: rain. 2. Cloudy. 3. Rain: 
cloudy. 4. Showers: thunder : hail-showers. 5. Hoar-frost: showers. 6. Bright: 
showers. 7. Bright : clear. 8. Showers : rain. 9. Cloudy : rain. 10. Hazy: 
rain: clear. 11. Cloudy: clear. 12. Cloudy: rain. 13. Bright: showers. 
14. Cloudy. 15. Bright : rain. 16. Showers: clear. 17. Showers : cloudy. 
18. Cloudy. 19. Bright: clear. 20. Cloudy. 21. Bright: clear: aurora. 

22. Clear : frost : clear : aurora. 23. Clear : frost : clear. 24, 25. Cloudy. 26. 
Rain : cloudy. 27. Showers : clear. 28, 29. Clear : frost : clear. 30, 31. Cloudy. 











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No. 15. MARCH 1849. 

XVIII. — Observations upon several genera hitherto placed in 
Solanacese, and upon others intermediate between that family 
and the Scrophulariaceae. By John Mters, Esq., F.R.S., 
F.L.S. &c. 

My attention during the last few years having been directed to 
the study of the Solanacea, I have given the results of this in- 
quiry in a series of memoirs in the ' Lond. Journ. Bot./ vols, iv., 
v. and vii., and also in the ^ Illustration of South Amer. Plants/ 
where delineations are offered of the peculiar features of each 
genus. Having at length completed the analysis of the remain- 
ing genera of this order, the results will be given in succession 
in this Journal ; but in order to explain my views in regard to 
that family, the following observations are necessary. 

Following the track I had marked out as the basis of these 
investigations, which has been chiefly to satisfy myself by careful 
analysis of the true limits that serve to separate different genera, 
I have encountered a number of facts which are very difficult to 
reconcile with our present distribution of the Solanacea, and 
which have induced me to carry this inquiry much further than 
was at first contemplated. These results having been published 
at intervals, as they presented themselves, the order in which 
they have appeared is necessarily imperfect in a systematic point 
of view ; but as my principal object has been to arrive at truth, 
I expect some degree of indulgence, for what may appear as de- 
fects of arrangement and want of plan. I have alluded to the 
increasing number of novel cases that have offered themselves 
during this inquiry, which render it difficult to decide whether 
certain genera should be classed in Solanacece or in Scrophula- 
riacea, as these natural orders are at present considered ; and in 
consequence of the accumulation of these anomalies, it appears 
at length necessarily expedient to draw a more certain line of 
distinction between these two important natural orders. This 
difficulty is not new in the history of the science, for nearly forty 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. Hi. 11 

163 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solauacese. 

years ago it did not escape the acute penetration of our distin- 
guished countryman Mr. Robert Brown, who then suggested 
the plan of avoiding it by the estabhshment of an intermediate 
family*. Another of the great botanists of our time, Mr. Ben- 
tham, who has made the Scrophulariacece one of the chief objects 
of his study, and to whom we are indebted for the admirable 
monograph of that order in the 10th volume of the ' Prodromus ' 
of DeCandolle, published only two years ago, although evidently 
aware of this necessity, has never carried it into execution : the 
tribe of the SalpiglossidecE, which he placed at the head of the Scro- 
phulariacece, was manifestly framed under a point of view bearing 
toward this end ; and in the addenda to the same volume of the 
' Prodromus,^ p. 595, he offers some remarks upon what I had 
previously hinted, respecting the separation of the genus Lycium 
from the Solanacece (Lond. Journ. Bot. v. 183). 

The establishment of the Salpiglossidece in the manner just 
mentioned, has however in no degree removed the objections be- 
fore existing, and from the facts which I shall now have to com- 
municate, these exceptions will be seen increased to a manifold 
amount; for it is now evident that a considerable number of ge- 
nera, hitherto placed in Solanacece, possess a regular corolla, with 
a 5-lobed border, offering an imbricate aestivation, contrary to the 
usual structure of the order, and although possessing five stamens, 
one is often smaller, and sometimes sterile, showing an evident 
tendency towards the structure of the Scrophulariacea* ; and thus, 
besides Lycium and some of the genera of the Salpiylossidece, we 
have now Petunia, Nieremhergia, Solandra, Juanulloa, Marckea, 
HyoscyamuSf Atropa, Mandragora, Nicandra, Anisodus, &c. &c., 
forming too important a number of exceptional cases to be passed 
over in neglect. Having lately examined with much care the 
structure of most of these genera, I am now better prepared to 
carry out the views, which I hinted at three years ago, in an 
earlier stage of this inquiry (Lond. Journ. Bot. v. 152), where I 
suggested the propriety of associating these dissident genera in 
a distinct and intermediate tribe or family. 

I therefore now propose definitely to confine the Solanacece as 

* Solanacece, "a Scrophularinis distinguuntur prsecipiie embryone ar- 
cuato vel spiral! et corollse aestivatione plicata, floribusque saepissime regu- 
laribus isostemonibus. Hinc genera corolla non plicata et simul embryone 
recto, vel excludenda, vel cum iis corolla imbricata, embryone leviter arcuato, 
staminibusque didynamis in propria sectione disponenda, futuri ordinis 
initia." — Prodr. p. 444. 

From tbe state of our knowledge at that time, it is evident that these allu- 
sions were intended to apply principally to the Verbascece, which by Jussieu, 
Linnaeus and most preceding botanists were classed among Solanece, but 
they certainly may be referred with additional force to the instances alluded 
to above. 

Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanaceae. 163 

nearly as possible within the limits prescribed by Mr. Robert 
Brown in his ' Prod.^ [lac. cit.)j viz. to those genera with a mo- 
nopetalous corolla, with a 5-, rarely 4-partite border, even in ex- 
ceptional cases nearly regular and equal, the borders of whose 
lobes are always valvate or induplicato-valvate in aestivation; 
epipetalous stamens, alternate with and equal to the number of 
the lobes, the fifth being seldom shorter and still more rarely 
sterile, anthers always bursting by longitudinal slits or pores ; 
an ovarium most generally 2-celled, rarely 3- to 5-locular, with a 
simple style, a bilobed or clavate stigma often hollow ; a fruit 
either capsular or baccate, and albuminous seeds with a terete 
embryo, straight, and more or less curved in a nearly annular 
form, or somewhat spiral, the radicle in all cases pointing to the 
basal angle of the seed, and turned away to some short distance 
from the hilum, which is generally lateral and marginal, rarely 
almost basal. 

The Scrophulariacea I would also propose should be confined 
to those genera that possess a tubular corolla more or less curved 
and irregular, with a 4- or 5 -partite border generally unequal 
and bilabiate, the lobes rarely equal, but in every case with a de- 
cidedly imbricate aestivation ; stamens 2 or 4, didynamous, seldom 
with a fifth, which is very rarely fertile, often only rudimentary : 
an ovarium, most generally bilocular ; a simple style, with a stigma 
more or less bilabiate or bilobed ; the fruit almost always cap- 
sular (in very few instances baccate), 2-locular, rarely more-celled, 
bursting in various ways, with central placentae adnate to the 
dissepiment, and an embryo enveloped in albumen but little 
curved, generally with the radicle pointing to a basal hilum * ; in 
one solitary instance [Campy lanthus) the embryo is however peri- 
spherically curved. In this very natural family, although the 
floral leaves are often alternate, the cauline leaves are most gene- 
rally opposite, which occurs only accidentally in SolanacecBy and 
the origin of the inflorescence is strictly axillary. Thus limited, 
they form a very distinct natural order. 

The intermediate group, which I now propose as a suborder, 
under the name of Atropines, or as a new order, under that of 
Atropacea, will consist of genera having a tubular persistent 
calyx, more or less deeply divided, a hypogynous tubular corolla, 
with the tube more or less plicated in bud, and with a border 
generally divided into 5 lobes slightly unequal, but which are 

* According to Mr. Bentham's authority, DeCand. ' Prod.' x. p. 186, and 
a statement positively affirmed by most botanists, but one which, it appears 
to me, must be received with some modification ; for in the seemingly truth- 
ful analyses of the genera figured by Nees v. Esenbeck, * Gen. PI. Germ.,' 
the radicle is shown as in SolanacecB, not pointing directly to the hilum. See 
plates of Erlnus, Veronica, Wulfenia, Odontites, Euphrasia, Barisia, Pedi- 
cularis, and Alectorolophus {Rhinanthus). 


164 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

always either imbricately disposed in aestivation or arranged 
under some modification between that form and the plicate^ but 
never valvate, the margins of each lobe being constantly free 
from those of the adjoining ones ; they have generally 5 fertile 
epipetalous stamens, alternate with the lobes, with one of them 
sometimes a little shorter, 1 or 3 being very rarely sterile ; an- 
thers bilobed, with the lobes parallel, bursting longitudinally at 
the margin, one of these lobes being sometimes sterile ; the ova- 
rium 2-celled, rarely 5-locular, with ovules generally ascending, 
attached to fleshy placentse which are adnate to the dissepiments, 
as in Solanace(B and Scrophulariacece, a simple style, and a bilobed 
stigma often of a very peculiar form ; the fruit is either baccate 
or capsular, the seeds generally reniform or compressed, with a 
lateral hilum ; the embryo, placed in albumen, is either straight 
or more or less curved, sometimes perispherically or spirally. 
They are plants with much the habit of the SolanacecE, with 
alternate, simple or geminate leaves, many of them possessed of 
powerfully medicinal properties. 

They oflfer the peculiarity, distinct from Scrophulariacece, and 
similar to that of the Solanaceae, in having the origin of the in- 
florescence always somewhat extra-axillary and lateral in regard 
to the insertion of the petiole. 1 propose to arrange them in the 
following manner : — 

Atropines or Atropace^. 

Tribe 1 . Nicotianeee, Corolla with an elongated fun- 
nel-shaped tube, often more or less hypocrateri- 
form,with5 nearly equal lobes, which are con- 
duplicate and then twisted in aestivation, as in 
Convolvulus : stamens 5, one frequently shorter ; 
anthers 2-lobed, lobes almost free, medifixed, 
and without connective, bursting laterally along 
the outer edge : capsule 2-locular with bifid 
valves, the margins of which are somewhat sep- 
ticidal, and slightly inflexed at base : seeds with 
a short terete embryo somewhat incurved or 
slightly arcuate. 

Tribe 2. Daturea. Corolla with an elongated fun-' 
nel- shaped tube, having a 5 -angular expanded 
border with a contorted complicated aestivation, 
as in the NicotianefB : 5 equal stamens ; anthers 
2-lobed, lobes linear, laterally adnate, dorsally 



attached to a fleshy connective, and bursting yCeratocaulis 

longitudinally in front : fruit sub-baccate or cap- 
sular, 2-celled above, 4-celled below, with the 
fleshy placentae adnate to the middle of the dis- 
sepiment : seeds with a nearly annular curved 
terete embryo. 


Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanaccse. 165 



Tribe 3. Duhoisiea. Corolla with a tube either elon- 
gated and ventricose above, or short and rotate, 
with a 5-lobed border, the lobes being diversely 
volutive in aestivation : 5 equal stamens or 4 di- 
dynamous with the rudiment of a fifth ; anthers 
rounded, cordate, always extrorse, either 2- 
celled, with the cells confluent at the apex, or 
unilocular v/ith a hippocrepiform line of de- 
hiscence, and gaping transversely as in Verhas- 
cum : ovarium 2-locular, with numerous ovules 
affixed to thickened placentae adnate to the dis- 
sepiment : fruit either baccate or capsular, 2- 
valved, with septicidal dehiscence : terete em- 
bryo in albumen, slightly curved. 

Tribe 4. Schizanthece. Corolla deeply cleft into seve- 
ral irregular divisions, with a somewhat reci- 
procative aestivation : stamens 5, of which 3 are 
sterile ; style erect, with a small fistulose stigma, v^ o i • fi 
slightly swollen below, its contracted entire mar- f 
gin filled with a globose viscous gland : capsule I 
2 -celled, 4-valved, seeds with a terete hemicy- ! 
clically arcuate embryo. J 

Tribe 5. SalpiglossidecB. Corolla more or less ven-' 
tricose above, sometimes contracted in the 
mouth, the border being divided into 5 nearly 
equal regular segments, one of them always 
somewhat larger and more erect, their aestiva- 
tion being reciprocative (seep. 172): stamens 4, 
didynamous, sometimes with the rudiment of a 
fifth ; anthers 2-lobed, lobes divaricate at base, 
connected at apex by intervening filament, one 
of the lobes being sometimes reduced to a small 
lateral dehiscent gland : style winged at its apex 
or expanded into a remarkable tongue-shaped 
process, which is stigmatose at its emargina- 
ture: fruit capsular, 2-locular, 2-valved: embryo 
slightly curved, much more so in Salpiglossis . 

Tribe 6. Petuniece. Corolla with an elongated tube, 
sometimes hypocrateriform, seldom with the ru- 
diment of a palate, the border being divided 
into 5 nearly equal, rounded and emarginated 
lobes, their aestivation in Petunia being replica- 
tive (see p. 173), in Nieremhergia, replicative 
at the base of the lobes, with a perfectly quin- 
cuncial imbrication at their summits : stamens 5, 
one of which is shorter, 2 longest ; anthers 2- 
lobed, divaricate at base, without connective : 
stigma expanded into a remarkably tongue- 
shaped form, emarginate at its apex, in Nierem 
bergia embracing the anthers : capsule and seed 
as in Salpiglossidece. 


Nieremhergia . 



166 Mr. J. Miers on sevei-al genera hitherto placed in Solaiiacese. 

f Anisodus, 

Tribe 7. Hyoscyamea. Corolla tubular, more or less 
expanded in the mouth in a campanular form, 
with the border divided into 5 equal rounded 
lobes: stamens 5, equal; anthers 2-lobed, affixed 
to a narrow dorsal connective above, free below, Hyoscyamus, 
and bursting longitudinally in front near the Scopolia, 
margin : ovarium 2-celled, and singularly sur- yPhysoclcena, 
mounted by a fleshy epigynous gland, which is Cacahus, 
either small and stylobasic, or else enveloping Thinogeton. 
the upper moiety of the ovarium : fruit an ex- 
succous berry, which sometimes bursts by a cir- 
cumscissile line on the margin of the gland : em- 
bryo terete, annular, and somewhat spiral. 

Tribe 8. Atropece, Corolla tubular, more or less 
campanular, with a border divided into 5 equal 
rounded lobes, which are imbricate in aestiva- 
tion : stamens 5, equal ; anthers ovate, 2-lobed, 
lobes laterally adnate, reversed in Atropa by the 
deflexion of the filaments : fruit baccate, 2- or 
5-celled, fleshy, often somewhat exsuccous : em- 
bryo terete, nearly perispherical. 

Tribe 9. Solandrece. Corolla generally with an elon- 
gated, straight, rarely a short tube, in no degree 
plicated in bud, border 5-cleft into more or less 
rounded equal lobes : 5 equal stamens, generally Solandray 
epipetalous, but sometimes arising from the out- Marckea, 
side of a free ring, attached to the base of the )>Juanulloa, 
corolla ; anthers oblong, 2-celled, cells parallel Sarcophysa, 
and adnate upon a dorsal connective, and burst- Ectozoma. 
ing longitudinally in front : fruit a fleshy 2-locu- 
lar berry, and seeds with a nearly straight terete 
embryo, with a lax testa, as in the Cestrinece. 

Tribe 10. Brunsfelsiece. Corolla with a more or less" 
elongated tube, somewhat ventricose below the 
contracted mouth, border divided into 5 nearly 
equal segments, their aestivation being decidedly 
imbricative (unknown in Heteranthia) : stamens 
didynamous, somewhat inflected at the apex, xj^ 

with one pair shorter; anthers unilocular and ^ tt . .i-* 

hippocrepiform, as in the Verbascea and the Du~ 
boisiece : style slender : stigma small, bilobed, 
and simply clavate, or with the lobes somewhat 
gaping : fruit either capsular or baccate, with a 
nearly straight embryo. 

The Solanacece, AtropacecE and Scrophulariacece, as here de- 
fined, evidently constitute an alliance, bound together by very 
striking and peculiar characters, distinguishable in the structure 
of their corolla and ovarium, but more especially in that of their 



Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 167 

fruit, which is most generally 2-celled, with many seeds fixed to 
thickened placentae adnate to the dissepiment, and having a 
terete embryo, more or less curved, with an inferior radicle, cha- 
racters that are common to the whole of this large group. So 
gradual is the transition from one link to another of this chain, 
that it is difficult to discover any decided break in their conti- 
nuity, but notwithstanding this, they form too large an assem- 
blage to constitute one single family. The SolanacecBj as distin- 
guished from the Bcrophulariacece in general, exhibit characters 
sufficiently marked, but the difficulty lies with the large interme- 
diate group above indicated, that equally partake of the features 
of both these extremes. I am quite averse to the practice of 
multiplying unnecessarily the amount of natural orders beyond 
the smallest possible number : it is not therefore any idle no- 
tion of proposing a new family that leads now to this sugges- 
tion, which would defeat its own object unless supported by 
facts, and urged by the necessity of the case ; but it is the desire 
of grappling with a formidable obstacle, that would otherwise 
prevent us from establishing any decided limits between these 
two great families. If this difficulty presented itself to me in so 
prominent a degree three years ago (Lond. Journ. Bot. v. 183, 
note), when I first noticed the anomaly in Lycium, and suggested 
its separation from Solanacece on that account, with how much 
more force must this discrepancy present itself, when the ex- 
ceptionable cases now amount to so extensive an accumulation 
in point of number ! The sestivation of the corolla has hitherto 
been considered to form an unerring line of demarcation between 
the Solanacea and Scrophulariacecje, but if we place in the former 
family a large proportion of genera possessing an imbricate aesti- 
vation, and offering frequently nearly anisoraerous flowers (cha- 
racters peculiar to the last-mentioned order), we lose at once the 
only valid features that can serve to discriminate the boundaries 
of these great families. It is clear that the intermediate group 
here proposed to be collected together can only be disposed of 
in three modes : they must be associated either with the Sola- 
nacece, or be attached to the Scrophulariacete, or else they must 
remain as a distinct family. In the first case, the Solanacece would 
be then divided into two suborders : 1. the Solaninece, having a 
corolla with valvate aestivation ; and 2. Atropinece, with imbricate 
aestivation. In the second case we should associate, 1. Atropinece, 
with flowers nearly isomerous ; and 2. Scrophularinece, with ani- 
somerous flowers. In either of these two cases we find that in- 
consistency to a great extent would be unavoidable ; for in the 
former instance we admit a large circle of exceptions to the only 
leading characteristic mark of the order ; and in the second case 
we include a considerable number of genera, nearly isomerous, in a 

168 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

family whose principal feature is to possess anisoinerous flowers ; 
but in the third case we avoid these difficulties and ensure con- 
sistency, preserving at the same time the peculiar characteristic 
features both of the SolanacecB and ScrophulariacecB : we should 
then have thus, 1. Solanacea, offering isomerous flowers with a 
valvate or induplicato-valvate aestivation ; 2. Atropacea, isomerous 
flowers, or nearly so, with imbricate or a peculiar aestivation ; and 
3. Scrophulariacea, anisomerous flowers with imbricate sestiva- 
tion. In any of the three modes of distribution above indicated, 
it matters little which we adopt, in regard to the absolute ar- 
rangement of the various genera, for in every case they remain 
alike, in exactly the same linear order of position. The value of 
the Atropacece, as a distinct order, must now rest entirely on its 
own intrinsic merits : its adoption seems the only course by 
which a large amount of inconsistency can be removed, and it 
appears to me a far less objectionable plan to call up a new 
family, than to destroy the great landmarks that serve to discri- 
minate the limits of two of the most natural families in the 

Having shown the arrangement proposed for the distribution 
of the AtropacecB, I must offer the following explanation. The 
division into the suborders Hectemhryece and Curvembryece, as 
proposed by Endlicher, and followed by me in the arrangement 
of the Solanacece formerly given in ^ Lond. Journ. Bot.^ v. 148, 
offers by far too inconstant and doubtful a character to be main- 
tained there, or be adopted here ; for among the Salpiglossidea, 
some species of Petunia possess an embryo nearly straight, and 
more curved in others, while in Salpiglossis it is often spirally 
bent into more than a complete gyration. I have preferred rather 
to follow the aestivation of the corolla, as it gradually verges from 
the plicato- valvate of the Solanacetje into the imbricate mode of 
the Scrophulariaceae : thus in the tribes Nicotianece and Daturecs 
we have the contorto- conduplicate, a form by no means valvate, 
but the first departure from it : in the Duhoisiece we have another 
advance, where the lobes of the border are seemingly valvate, but 
on examination their margins will be found convolutely inflected, 
a form which I have named volutive : in the SalpiglossidecB it 
assumes the next step here denominated reciprocative : in the 
Petuniea we have again another degree, which is only a modifi- 
cation of the imbricative, and which I have termed replicative : 
and finally, in the HyoscyamecB, Atropece, SolandrecE and Bruns- 
felsiecs, it becomes decidedly imbricative and quincuncial, as in 
the Scrophulariace(P, with which natural order the latter tribe most 
closely osculates. In the Atropece the amount of imbrication is 
small in extent ; in the genera Brunsfelsia and Solandra it is ex- 
cessive in amount, the lobes wholly enveloping one another in 

Mr. J, Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanaceae. 169 

succession. I proceed now to add a few remarks upon each tribe 

1 . Nicotianece. — The aestivation of the corolla in this tribe, as 
has been just remarked, is by no means valvate, or induplicato- 
valvate, as in the Solanace(2, the lobes of its border being on the 
contrary conduplicate, that is to say, the sides are turned inwards, 
and each Jobe is thus folded separately on its inner face, along 
the central nervure, the sides closely pressed together, the mar- 
gins being quite free from those of the adjoining lobes, and thus 
plicated, they all possess a spirally twisted inclination in the bud. 
This approaches the aestivation of the Salpiglossidea, to which 
tribe they offer a still nearer affinity in having the fifth stamen 
very often shorter, with the other four somewhat didynamous. 
It is for these reasons that I have removed the Nicotianece from 
the Solanacece, where I formerly placed them. 

2. DaturecB. — With this very natural group Solandra has been 
associated by most botanists, but it evidently possesses a very 
different relationship. The Daturece are remarkable for their 
large showy flowers, and they all present an aestivation similar to 
that of the Nicotianece, only more decidedly contortive and quite 
distinct from the valvate prsefloration of the Solanacea. Brug- 
mansia I consider as most decidedly distinct generically from 
Datura, with which it is associated by most botanists, differing 
in many points of structure, and forming arborescent shrubs, 
sometimes even tall trees, with long pendent trumpet-shaped 
flowers of an unusually large size. 

3. Duboisiece. — The genera composing this very distinct group 
were partly included by Mr. Bentham (Prodr. DeCand. x. 191) 
in his SalpiglossidecB ; these are Buboisia and Anthocercis, to 
which Prof. Endlicher added Anthotroche, a genus which by the 
former has been referred to SolanacecB. In proposing to alter 
the decisions of so distinguished a botanist as Mr. Bentham, who, 
from the accuracy of his observations and the solidity of his con- 
clusions, stands deservedly as one of the first botanists of our 
time, it becomes necessary that I should offer some extremely 
valid reasons for the changes now suggested, and accordingly I 
will offer a few remarks on each genus in succession. 

a. Duboisia appears to me to have no relation with any genus 
belonging to the ScrophulariacecE. Its only species was originally 
described by Mr. Brown in his ' Prodr .^ p. 448, who placed it, 
together with Anthocercis, in a second section of Solanece. The 
habit of this plant, as well as the structure of its flowers, are 
there stated to agree with those of Myoporum, whence it derived 
its specific name : the figure given of this plant by Endlicher in 
his ' Iconographia,^'^l. 77, sufficiently agrees with other Myo- 
poraceous plants there designed. On examining a specimen of 

170 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

the same plant in Sir Wm. Hooker's herbarium, I noticed one 
very important character that has been quite overlooked by all 
preceding observers : the anthers are here decidedly extrorse, 
instead of the usual introrse direction before assigned to them. 
This circumstance brings Duboisia in close connexion with the 
two following genera, and at once removes them from the tribe of 
the Salpiglossidece. 

yQ. Anthocercis. — I was glad to avail myself of the opportu- 
nity of investigating the structure of the flowers in this genus 
from a plant in the living state of A. viscosa. It agrees with 
the figure given by Endhcher in his ' Iconographia/ tab. 68, of 
A. littorea, with the exception of the very important feature of 
the structure of the anthers, which, as in the preceding genus, 
offer the very distinct peculiarity of being affixed extrorsely just 
above the sinus upon the filament, so that the lines of dehiscence 
are towards the tube of the corolla, not introrsely towards the 
centre of the fiower, as appears represented in the plate above 
referred to. The aestivation of the corolla in 
Anthocercis viscosa is also very peculiar : at 
first sight it would be said to be induplicato- 
valvate, but upon more careful examination it 
will be observed that each lobe of the border is 
distinctly supervolute, one of its edges being 
rolled inwards and overlapped by its opposite 
edge ; these are not all turned in one direction, 
two being dextrorsely, and the other three coiled 
up alternately in a sinistrorse order. This mode 
of aestivation is certainly extremely unusual and 
peculiar, approaching that observed in the Goode- 
noviacece, on which on a former occasion (Lond. 
Journ.Bot. vii. p. 59) I have made some observa- 
tions. There exists between them this difference, 
that here each lobe is longitudinally and super- 
volutely coiled round upon itself, in a somewhat 
spiral form, while in Goodenia the winged margins are respec- 
tively folded back over one another, upon the plane of the cen- 
tral portion of each segment. I have also examined in the dried 
state the flowers of A. littorea, A. albicans, A. Tasmanica and 
A. scabrella, and they all appear to offer the same kind of aesti- 
vation and similarly extrorse anthers, so that these appear to be 
constant characters. It is worthy of remark, that the peculiar 
smell of the leaves and flowers of Anthocercis viscosa resembles 
that of the Myoporace<2, and that its pedicels are bibracteated, 
which is also a feature in that family ; but its extra- axillary pe- 
duncles, the aestivation of its corolla, the position of its stamens, 
its bilocular ovarium with numerous ovules attached to a thick- 

Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 171 

ened placentiferous dissepiment, its many-seeded capsular fruit, 
and its slightly curved embryo with an inferior radicle, are cha- 
racters quite opposed to its admission into that family. Nor can 
these be made to harmonize either with the Scrophulariacece or 
Solanacece, to the latter of which they offer a nearer affinity. 
These characters are sufficiently prominent and distinct, and de- 
mand a more attentive investigation. 

7. Anthotroche. — This genus was placed by Prof. Endlicher 
in ScrophulariacecBy among the Salpi^lossidea, but it has been 
since excluded from the order by Mr. Bentham, and referred to 
SolanacecB (DeCand. Prodr. x. p. 586). It appears to me how- 
ever to have as little relation with the one as with the other of these 
families. Upon examining a specimen belonging to this genus 
from Swan River, I find that in the structure of its anthers it 
agrees entirely with that just described as existing in Duboisia ; 
this consists of one reniform unilocular cell, fixed extrorsely on 
the filament, and dehiscing on the exterior face by one hippocre- 
pical suture. Here the tube of the corolla is short and straight, 
and the border is divided into five regular lobes, which are ro- 
tately expanded ; the stamens are 5 and equal. The ovarium 
has an epigynous prominent stylobasic gland as in CacabtiSj ana- 
logous to that of Hyoscyamus. 

Respecting the Duboisiece it only remains to be observed, that 
the main points of distinction between it and the other tribes 
with which it is here associated, will be found to exist in the ex- 
trorse direction of the anthers and the singular aestivation of the 
corolla, peculiarities which, although very remarkable, are not 
of themselves of sufficient importance to claim for the plants that 
compose it the rank of a separate family, but they constitute a 
very distinct tribe of the Atropacea. It will consist of two sec- 
tions : 1. Euduboisiea, with baccate fruit, and 2. Anthotrochece, 
with capsular fruit, comprising Anthocercis and Anthotroche. It 
corresponds with the other tribes of the Atropacece in the ori- 
gin of the floral peduncles being lateral with respect to the point 
of insertion of the petiole. 

4. Schizantheae. — The genus Schizanthus, from the lateral 
extra-axillary insertion of its pedicels and other characters, ap- 
pears evidently to belong to the Atropacece rather than to the 
Scrophulariacea, but it does not accord with any of the tribes 
above noticed. It differs from them in the structure of its an- 
thers, which consist of two parallel cells, quite distinct and sepa- 
rated from one another, but conjoined by a broad membranaceous 
connective, upon which they are dorsally attached : it possesses 
five stamens, of which three are quite anantherous and rudimental; 
the corolla is deeply cleft into numerous unequal segments which 
have an imbricate aestivation. Its stigma approaches the form 

172 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

of that of Heteranthia : its fruit is capsular as in the Salpiglos- 
sidece, and its seeds contain a terete embryo^ curved in an ahnost 
spiral form. Its leaves are always alternate and deeply pinnati- 
sected, showing an approach to Salpiglossis and Pteroglossis. 
The abortion of three of its stamens is an irregularity of which 
we find a parallel case in lanthe, which only differs in that re- 
spect from Verbascum ; and the deeply laciniated divisions of its 
corolla is another abnormal feature^ but this may be considered 
only as a separation of the lobes of the corolla at each sinus^ or 
a return to its five normal divisions, with a still farther cleavage 
of each lobe_, by an extension in an excessive degree of the inci- 
sions commenced in the emarginatures of all the lobes of the 
border in Salpiglossis, which thus shows a tendency towards the 
laciniated form of the corolla of Schizanthus. 

5. SalpiglossidecB. — I have ventured to remove this tribe wholly 
from the Sci'ophulariacecB for the reasons that will be here fully 
explained, and as these are founded upon facts in great measure 
new, I may confidently expect that such an arrangement will 
meet with the concurrence of the author of the able monograph 
of this last-mentioned family, who in detailing the characters of 
the tribe in question, as given in the Prodr. DeCand. x. p. 190, 
goes the length of saying, " subordo Solanaceis capsularibus arete 
affinis, et forte melius eis adsociandus.^^ I propose however to 
remove from it several of the genera there associated. They form 
an extremely natural group, distinguished by the very peculiar 
aestivation of their corolla, their didynamous stamens, or where a 
fifth occurs it is invariably sterile, and they are especially conspi- 
cuous for the remarkable dilatation of the stigma, which at once 
signalizes them from the others. Their place is manifestly 
among the Atropaceae, with which they agree in having the ori- 
gin of the pedicels always somewhat lateral in regard to the floral 
leaflet or bract, not decidedly axillary, as in the Scrophulariaceae. 
They are all herbaceous plants, generally clothed with viscid 
glandular pubescence, and the campanular portion of the tube of 
the corolla is plicated in aestivation ; but the lobes of its border 
are first conduplicate, with the margins always free from those 
of the contiguous lobes, and twisted inwards in a peculiar man- 
ner, for which I have proposed the term reciprocative*, a con- 
dition intermediate between the induplicato-valvate aestivation 
of the Solanacese and the imbricate prgefloration of the Scrophu- 
lariacece ; in order to render this more evident, the accompanying 

* It may be thus defined: iEstivatio reciprocativa, i. e. lobi superioris 
exterioris marginibus utrinque induplicatis, loborum alterorum simpliciter 
conduplicatis, 2 sinistralibus dextrorsim, 2 dextralibus sinistrorsim torsive 
convolutis, marginibus sese applieitis et a contiguis liberis postice spectan- 
tibus, plicaturis antice inclinantibus. 

Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 173 

figure is given in the margin ; fig. 1 being the 
corolla viewed sideways; fig. 2, ditto seen in 
front; fig. 3, ditto seen from above. I have added 
to this group a new genus^ Pteroglossis, founded 
upon a plant collected in the north of Chile by 
Bridges (his No. 1389). In Salpiglossis the two 
broadly expanded lips of the stigma appear al- 
most confluent into a tongue-shaped process, 
while in the other genera they are more or less 
distinctly separated and 2 -lipped, especially in 
Leptoglossis and Browallia ; but in Pteroglossis 
one of the lips appears altogether wanting, or 
reduced to a small prominent gland. 

6. Petuniece. — The genera which I have separated from the 
Solanacece to form this tribe, approach the Salpiglossidece most 
closely in habit and in the general structure of their flowers and 
seeds, and moreover partake of their peculiar feature, the great 
dilatation of their stigma : the broadly expanded lips of this or- 
gan appear however more or less soldered into a tongue-shaped 
process, as in Salpiglossis, which singularly embraces the con- 
nate anthers in Nierembergia'^. They difler notwithstanding 
from the Salpiglossidece in the pe- 
culiar complex aestivation of their 
corolla : that of Nieremhergia, 
being figured in plate 18 A. fig. 2 
of the ^Illustration of South Amer. 
Plants,^ will require no further 
explanation : the figure of that of 
Petunia was omitted in plate 23 
of that work, and its description 
was most obscurely given in 'Lond. 
Journ. Bot.' v. p. 18 (in a note), 
owing to several omissions and 
transposals of words in the hurry 
of the last moment of the monthly 
publication of that journal. In 
order to remedy this omission, a 
delineation of the aestivation t of 

Petunia violacea is now given in the margin; fig. 1 being the 
corolla seen in front ; fig. 2, the same viewed sideways ; fig. 3, a 
transverse section made across the line a a ; fig. 4, ditto ditto 
across b b. 

* See 111. South Amer. Plants, pi. 18. A. fig. 4, B. fig. 5, and pi. 20. fig. 3. 

t It may be thus more simply defined : i^stivatio replica tiva, i. e. lobis 
omnibus subconduplicatis, superioris interioris marginibus revolutis, altero- 
rum plicaturis postice torsis, marginibus cum contiguis quincuncialiter late 
imbricatis, margine altero hinc revoluto. 

174 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

7. Hyoscyamece. — This forms a very natural tribe, remarkable 
for the very singular epigynous gland, hitherto I believe new in 
the history of vegetable physiology, the origin and nature of 
which it is desirable to ascertain. It cannot bear any analogy 
with the true disc, which is always hypogynous in the superior 
ovarium and epigynous in the inferior germen, and which is ge- 
nerally admitted by botanists to be little more than a confluent 
whorl of abortive stamens. In Cacabus it assumes the form of 
an enlargement of the base of the style, but that it exists here as 
a distinct organ is proved by the swelling seen within the matured 
fruit, in the summit of the cavity of the cells. In Thinogeton it is 
considerably larger, where it appears as a coriaceous thickening 
of the chartaceous covering that forms the upper portion of its 
dry berry. It is however most distinctly developed in Hyoscya- 
muSf even in the young ovarium, in the form of a fleshy external 
gland, which covers more than the superior moiety of the entire 
germen, and on making a longitudinal section it is seen di- 
stinctly adnate upon the true endocarpium : it forms therefore a 
very good discriminating character of this tribe. The cause of the 
opercular dehiscence of the fruit in Hyoscyamus is thus readily 
accounted for, because while the lower half of the pericarpial 
covering remains thin and membranaceous, the opercular portion 
becomes hard and coriaceous, from the indurescence of the glan- 
dular covering above-mentioned *. I have placed doubtfully in 

* Although in the above case it is easy to trace the cause of the opercular 
dehiscence of the fruit, the same is not so readily accounted for in other cases ; 
in Aiiagallis for example. In this last-mentioned instance, a distinct zonal 
line may be seen in the thin pericarpial covering before the ripening of the 
fruit, and it is along this that the membranaceous capsule afterwards bursts, 
by a clean circumscissure. This zonal line however bears no relation to the 
longitudinal true nervures, which may be distinctly traced in the pericarpial 
covering, and which, extending from the style to the base, may be referred 
to the midribs and marginal junctions of the original carpellary leaves : but 
what is the nature of the line which traverses these nervures at right angles 
across all the carpellary leaves? This is difficult to be accounted for, unless 
we imagine it to arise from a cause somewhat analogous to the case of Hyo- 
scyamus, only that instead of the line being the marginal limit of an epigy- 
nous gland, it may be the edge of an original elementary hypogynous disc, 
which by its subsequent growth and attenuation becomes hardly distin- 
guishable from the rest of the pericarpium. On examining this pericarpial 
covering, about the period of the fall of the corolla, this zonal line is seen 
more transparent than the rest of its substance, and not opake, as is ob- 
servable in the regular longitudinal nervures which may then be readily 
traced ; at this period however, and even in the younger state of the ova- 
rium, before this zonal line becomes distinguishable, the lower half of the 
pericarpial membrane is decidedly of a more greenish hue than the upper 
moiety. This appears to me the only theory on which we can account for 
the dehiscence of the capsule in Anagallis, but in suggesting it, I confess 
that I could not discern the fact of the original existence and ultimate at- 
tenuation of such a disc as I have imagined. Although, generally speaking, 

Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 175 

this tribe, Scopolia, Physoclana, Thinogeton and Cacabus, genera 
which offer a striking affinity to one another in their most essen- 
tial characters, and there can be Uttle doubt that they all form 
a portion of one very distinct group. These characters coincide 
for the most part with those of Hi/oscijamus, and the only con- 
sideration wanting to complete their affinity is the aestivation of 
their corolla. The funnel-shaped and almost entire border of 
the corolla in those genera would almost necessarily imply the 
regular plicature of its campanular portion, but it is probable 
that at the same time the lobes in aestivation may be somewhat 
imbricate, as is distinctly observable in Nierembergia and Petu- 
nia. It is impossible to determine this question from dried spe- 
cimens, and it can only be ascertained from the examination of 
living plants. Should the aestivation be found, on the contrary, 
to be entirely induplicato-valvate, these four genera would not 
belong to Atropacece, but must be referred to Bolanacece, where 
they would naturally find their place as. a capsular tribe preceding 
the JaboroseoB. 

8. Atropeae. — This very distinct group is distinguishable from 
the other tribes by its baccate fruit, and its ovary devoid of a 
fleshy epigynous gland. The first four genera possess a perennial 
root, with numerous deciduous herbaceous stems, large showy 
flowers, and a somewhat shrubby habit, with dense foliage and 
large leaves. Lycium, on the contrary, is a straggling shrub with 
woody stems, and frequently with spinous branches : its flowers 
are small. These differences are only generic, and do not offer 
sufficient reasons for separating the latter genus as a tribe distinct 
from the others. 

no apparent hypogynous disc is to be seen among the Primulacece, it is oc- 
casionally discernible, but I believe only in those genera where the capsule 
bursts into valves by the longitudinal carpellary nervures, as in Lysimachiat 
of which genus Nees v. Esenb. in his * Gen. PI. Fl. Getm.' says distinctly, 
" Germen liberum basi disco annuliformi cinctum." This view of the case, 
though quite hypothetical, is rendered still more probable by the facts ob- 
servable in the capsule of Plantago, which offers a membranaceous pyxi- 
dium very similar to that oi Anagallis. At an early period the future trans- 
verse line of dehiscence is discernible in the ovarium, as in Jnagallis, but it 
is then more approximate to the base, proving that the growth of its lower 
portion is afterwards more considerable than the upper part ; as it advances 
towards maturity the zonal line becomes more marked, the upper portion 
of the pericarpial covering being of a deeper green hue and more opake, 
while the lower moiety is distinctly hyaline and transparent, and of more 
slender texture ; on becoming ripe, the greater indurescence of the upper 
half, by desiccation, is still more evident, facts whic hlead to the only reason- 
able conclusion, that the upper portion of the ovarium is covered by a very 
thin epigynous glandular covering, as in Uyoscyamus, but too thin to be 
readily detected in parts of such very slender texture : that it does exist, is 
however proved by the circumstance of that part of the pericarpial covering 
being always less pervious to light, when viewed under the microscope, than 
the lower moiety. 

176 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

9. Solandrece. — These form a very natural group, being all 
suffruticose, mostly subscandent plants, with large leaves and 
generally showy flowers. I have been enabled to obtain very 
satisfactory elements of the little-known genera Juanulloa and 
Marckea, besides those of two new genera. They bear a some- 
what similar position among the Atropacece that the Metterni- 
chiecB hold among the Solanacece, and the analogy in the struc- 
ture of the seeds of Marckea and Metternichia is sufficiently re- 

10. BrunsfelsiecB. — This group, consisting of some of the plants 
placed by Mr. Bentham in his SalpiglossidecBi is distinguishable 
from that tribe as above limited by the absence of the remark- 
able dilatation of the stigma : it will comprise the genera Bruns- 
felsia, Franciscea and Heteranthia : the latter much resembles 
Browallia in its habit, but it accords with the two former genera 
in the structure of its anthers, which are unilocular, and curved 
in the shape of a horseshoe round a fleshy globular connective, 
that in great part enters into and nearly fills the cavity of the 
cell, as in the Verbascea, I have here considered Franciscea as 
distinct from Brunsfelsia, which Mr. Bentham (in DeCand. Prodr. 
X. p. 198) combined together under one genus. In Brunsfelsia 
however the corolla is always of a yellowish colour, the tube is 
considerably longer and narrower in proportion, and the fruit 
consists of a large fleshy drupe inclosing a putamen which is 
quite indehiscent. In Franciscea the flowers are always of a 
purplish or violet colour, with a much shorter tube and an 
oblique rotate border : the fruit is generally capsular, and rarely 
somewhat baccate ; but when this occurs, I have noticed in the 
dried specimens, that as the fleshy sarcocarp covering the puta- 
men dries into the form of a coriaceous integument, both split 
into four divisions at the apex, in a valvular form, as in the cap- 
sular species. In Brunsfelsia the style is very long and slender, 
quite erect at the apex, and terminated by a small clavate stigma 
which is bilobed, its equal concave lobes being filled with a ball 
of grumous matter. In Franciscea the style is considerably en- 
larged and incurved at its summit, which is terminated by a 
much larger bilobed gaping stigma, the lower lobe being some- 
what smaller, and it exhibits in its sinus a globe of viscous mat- 
ter, seen only in the living state. In Heteranthia the style is 
far exserted, and is terminated at its slender and somewhat in- 
curved apex by an almost obsolete fistulose stigma. The spe- 
cies of Brunsfelsia attain the size of large trees, 20 feet in height, 
while on the contrary those of Franciscea do not exceed the size 
of bushes, which are seldom more than 3 or 4 feet high. Hete- 
ranthia, on the other hand, is a small repent perennial plant, 
with short ascending branches, terminated by a racemose inflo- 

Mr. J. Miers on sevei'al genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 177 

Having now reviewed in succession the different genera com- 
posing the SalpiglossidecE of Bentham, with the exception of 
Schwenkia, it is necessary to offer a few words upon that genus, 
the true affinity of which for many years puzzled the sagacity of 

Linnasus had the penetration first to point out its affinity 
with the Solanea, an opinion which has been since quite disre- 
garded. Jt was afterwards considered as belonging to Primu- 
lacecSy on account of the insertion of its stamens opposite to the 
lobes of the corolla. By Nees v. Esenbeck and Martins it was 
subsequently referred to ScrophulariacecB (Nov. Act. xi. p. 47) ; 
but a note was added by Martius pointing out the greater proba- 
bility of its affinity to Acanthaceae, because of the fissure of the 
apex of the dissepiment, a character which I have not observed 
in the genus. This indication has not been adopted by others, 
certainly not by Nees, who in his monograph on this last-men- 
tioned family (DeCand. Prodr. vol. xi.) does not allude in any 
way to Schwenkia in relation to it. Mr. Bentham was the first 
to explain the apparent anomaly of the position of the stamens 
in regard to the lobes of the corolla, and to demonstrate that the 
intermediate glands seen in most of the species constituted the 
true normal lobes of the border, and that the stamens were con- 
sequently alternate, and not opposite to its lobes. It was there- 
fore placed by that able botanist next Browallia, a position that 
appears to me hardly satisfactory, on account of the valvate sesti- 
vation of the lobes of its corolla, and because its anthers consist 
of two distinct cells fixed on the apex of a dilated membranaceous 
filament. For these reasons, I would suggest its nearer affinity to 
Fabiana, with which it possesses many characters in common : 
the cristate projection of the placentae from the middle of the dis- 
sepiment, and the insertion of the ovules in distinct linear series 
as described by Martius {loc. cit.), quite correspond with the 
figure I have given of the placentation of Fabiana (111. S. Am. 
PI. tab. 17). Schwenkia however is a genus that requires more 
careful examination. 

Having thus indicated those genera which I propose to sepa- 
rate from the Solanacece, it is desirable to exhibit the arrange- 
ment of the remainder that will hence constitute that family. 
There is a considerable alteration in the view now offered, from 
that given on a former occasion, as since that time most of the 
genera have been more attentively examined, and their characters 
more accurately ascertained. I intend therefore in the sequel to 
present a description of the outlines, all now completed, of such 
of the genera as have not yet been dehneated, enumerating at the 
same time the several species composing them (with the excep- 
tion of those of Solanum, Capsicum, Physalis and a few others), 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol.'m, 13 

178 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

to which will be subjoined a review, of the several new genera 
that have presented themselves in the course of this inquiry. To 
these details will be added the description of such of the genera 
of the Atropaceae as have not yet been described by me, and the 
whole will offer a large accumulation of novel facts, that probably 
may serve to facilitate the labours of the able botanist now en- 
gaged in a monograph of this large family, which has hitherto 
been so little studied. 

In these investigations I have been carried far beyond the line 
originally intended, having been tempted to proceed by the 
abundant materials that have presented themselves to my notice, 
principally derived from the rich herbarium of Sir Wm. Hooker, 
to whose kind liberality I am mainly indebted for the opportu- 
nity of bringing to light so large an accumulation of new facts. 
The following synopsis will be sufficient to exhibit the proposed 
arrangement without farther explanations. 


Tribus 1. Metternichie^ (char. Lend. Journ. 

Bot. v. 148). Fructus capsularis, embryo 

teres, rectus 1 . Metternichia. 

2. Sessea, 
Tribus 2. Cestrine^e (char. loc. cit,). Id. id.. . 3. Cestrum. 
Tribus 3. Fabiane^ (char. loc. cit.). Fructus 

capsularis, embryo paullulo incurvatus, fere 

rectus 4 Fabiana. 

5. Vestia. 

6. Schwenkia } 
Tribus 4. Jaborose^e. Corolla tubo elongato 

siccatione nigrescens : fructus baccatus 2- 

locularis, embryo teres, fere annularis .... 7. Jaborosa. 

8. Dorystigma. 

9. Himeranthus. 

10. Trechonates. 

11. Salpichroma. 

12. Nectouxia. 
Tribus 5. locHROMEiE. Corolla tubo elongato, 

limbo 5 -lido plus duplo longiore : antherae 
longitudinaliter dehiscentes : calyx fructife- 
rus vix auctus baccam 2-locularem sufFul- 
ciens vel arete cingens : embryo teres, fere 
annularis 13. lochroma. 

14. Cleochroma, 

15. Lycioplesium. 

16. Pacilochroma. 

17. Hebecladus. 

18. Dunalia. 

19. Acnistus. 

20. Phrodus. 

Mr. J. fliers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacere. 179 

Tribus 6. Physale^. Corolla tubo brevi, limbo 
campanulato 5-angulato vel 5-partito : an- 
therae longitudinaliter dehiscentes : calyx 
fructiferus valde auctus et vesicarius : fruc- 
tus baccatus, embryo teres, fere annularis. . 21. Physalis. 

22. Larnax. 

23. Margaranthus. 

24. Withania. 
2.5. Hypnoticum. 

Tribus 7. WiTHERiNGEiE. Corolla tubo brevi, 
limbo 5-fido vix excedente : antherse longitu- 
dinaliter dehiscentes : calyx fructiferus vix 
auctus, baccam 2-locularem sufFulciens, vel 
earn arete vestiens : embryo teres, spiraliter 
curvatus . , 26. Witheringia. 

27. Capsicum. 

28. Brachistus. 

29. Saracha. 

30. Discopodium. 

31. Puneera. 
52. Aureliana. 
33. Sichlera. 

Tribus 8. Solane^- Antherse apice 2-poros8e, 
vel in tubum connatse, intus dehiscentes : 
fructus baccatus, 2- raro pluri-locularis : em- 
bryo teres, spiraliter ar-euatus 34. Solarium. 

35. Cyphomandra. 

36. Triguera. 

37. Ly coper sicum. 

Verbasceje. — The suggestions of oiu* learned countryman^ 
offered in his 'Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl./ whicli I have cited in a 
former page (in a note^ ante^ p. 162), were evidently intended, 
in the state of our knowledge at that time, to apply principally 
to the Verbascea, which by Jussieu, Linnseus, and other emi- 
nent botanists had been classed among the SolanecB. Bart- 
ling afterwards was the first to arrange the Verbascea as a di- 
stinct tribe among the Scrophulariacecef and Nees v. Esenbeck, 
acting upon the suggestion of Mr. Brown, proposed the Ver- 
hascince as a distinct family, intermediate between Solaneae and 
i^crophularince (Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. p. 78). The principal 
reasons that have induced all subsequent botanists to adopt tlie 
suggestion of Bartling, have been the imbricate aestivation of the 
corolla, and the frequent suppression of some of the stamens, 
which have been considered paramount to the many other not 
less important considerations that tended to show the near ap- 
proximation of the VerbasceiB to the Solanece ; but these objec- 
tions, fatal as they were to the admission of this tribe into the 
latter family, do not apply to their connexion with the Atropacea^ 


1 80 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanacese. 

with which group they exhibit beyond all doubt a very close 
alliance. This is manifest in their general habit, their alternate 
leaves with glutinous pubescence, their fetid smell, their power- 
fully narcotic and other medicinal qualities, which are so charac- 
teristic of the Solanace(E and Atropacece : to these may be added 
the particular structure of their stamens, which have their an- 
thers of a somewhat lunar form, and quite unilocular, curved 
round a large clavate termination of the hlament, with an almost 
globular expansion of their connective, within the cell, that serves 
as the polliniferous receptacle, a character pointed out by Nees 
as being foreign to the Solaneae and rare among the Scrophula- 
rince, and as claiming for them a distinct station in the system. 
On the other hand it should be borne in mind, that this peculiar 
character exists also in the genus Scrophularia itself, the flowers 
of which exhibit often declinate anthers and barbate filaments, 
together with a fifth sterile stamen, a feature rare in the Sci^o- 
phulariacece, and one that tends to show a very close connexion 
of this genus with the Verbascece., with which tribe it had been 
before associated by all preceding botanists, until Mr. Bentham, 
in his admirable monograph of the order, has placed it among 
the Chelonea (DeCand. Prodr. x. 299). In most of the genera 
of this last-mentioned tribe, the anthers are formed constantly,* 
I believe, of two distinct and divaricate cells, affixed at their apex 
on the slender summit of the filament, and quite wanting of the 
fleshy connective so manifest in Scrophularia and the Verbasceae. 
Whatever may be determined in regard to the proper place of the 
Verbasce(B in the system, it is manifest that it is not by the 
number of the stamens that we can fix the limit between the Atro- 
pacecB and Scrophulariacece : thus it is impossible to separate 
Celsia from Verbascum, and it would be equally as admissible to 
include Celsia with its didynamous stamens, or lanthe with its 
single pair, m Atropacece, as it is to place Verbascum^ with its 
regular pentandrous flowers, in Scrophulariacea : such discre- 
pancies cannot fail to occur in many solitary points of osculation 
between the genera of diff'erent tribes, in all our artificial modes 
of the classification of plants. We have also other instances not 
less strikingly contrary to the ordinary rule in the Xuaresia bi- 
flora of the ' Flora Peruviana,^ which has a regular 5-partite co- 
rolla and 5 alternate equal stamens : this plant Mr. Bentham 
unhesitatingly considers to be a true species of Capraria, a genus 
decidedly Scrophulariaceous ; and in like manner the Bacopa of 
Aublet with its 5 equal stamens ofi'ers another exception, but 
here the plant has opposite leaves, and possesses so precisely the 
habit and general features of HerpesteSy that its position must 
without doubt be fixed contiguous to that genus. The same rule 
will apply to another anomalous case instanced by Mr. Bentham 

Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto placed in Solanaccae. 181 

in the genus Campylanthus^ the seeds of which have a perisphe- 
rically-curved embryo, a character that by itself would place it 
in Atropacece; but that distinguished botanist fixes its position 
among Scrophulariacece, on account of the form of its corolla and 
of its anthers, notwithstanding, as he observes, that it bears little 
analogy with any other genus contiguous to it. The principal 
reason however that appears to me to give the Verbascece the pre- 
ference of a place among the Scrophulariacece is the truly axillary 
origin of the floral peduncles, a character that in all such doubt- 
ful cases may be employed as a decisive line of demarcation be- 
tween that order and the Atropacece. The position of the Ver- 
bascece should then appear at the head of the Scrophulariacea, 
occupying the place of a suborder in the manner of the Salpi- 
fflossidea of Bentham (DeCand. Prodr. x. p. 190), where they 
would serve as a connecting link of the closest affinity between 
these two families. 

Retzia. — This anomalous genus* has never yet found a cer- 
tain or satisfactory place in the system, and its position must 
remain problematical until the structure of its fruit and seed be 
more accurately investigated. By many botanists it has been 
placed in Convolvulacets ; others have indicated its relation to 
Apocynece; some have again referred it to Polemoniacecs, with 
which it certainly offers no affinity ; and Bartling proposed for it 
a new natural order, under the name of Retziacece, but this stands 
upon too insufficient grounds. Endlicher places Retziacece as a 
doubtful order after Solanacece, and Dr. Lindley arranges the 
genus Retzia among Solanacem, after Sessea. In the form of ita 
calyx and of its corolla, the number and position of its stamens, 
its bilocular ovarium with placentae attached to the dissepiment, 
the structure of its capsule and of its seeds as far as they are 
known, offer characters strictly conformable with those of Sola- 
nacea ; but it would now rather fall among the Atropacece, on ac- 
count of the aestivation of its corolla, which is said by Endlicher 
and Lindley to be imbricate, and not valvate : the form of its 
embryo, which on the authority of Brown (Prodr. 482) is terete 
and straight, necessarily, if it were admitted into this family, 
would point to its situation as a tribe near the Solandrece. 

Thus far every feature appears in conformity with such an ar- 

* Retzia, Thimb. Calyx tubular, 5-fid, lobes lanceolate, somewhat unequal. 
Corolla tubular, elongated, straight, tube in no degree plicated, border of 
5 short equal lobes imbricated in aestivation. Stamens 5, equal, nearly ses- 
sile in mouth of tube, alternate with its lobes, Jilamenis extremely short. 
Anthers oblong, cordate, 2-celled, cells parallel, bursting longitudinally in 
front. Ovarium oblong, ?eated on a fleshy gland, 2-locular, ovules upon 
placentae adnate to the dissepiment? Stijle longer than corolla, filiform. 
Stiyvia very sbort, bifid, with divaricate linear segments. Capsule bisul- 
caLe, bilocular, bivalved. Seeds several. Embryo straight, terete. 

182 Mr. J. Miers on several genera hitherto jdaced in Solanacese. 

rangement, but one objection presents itself which renders this 
conclusion somewhat unsatisfactory, and that is the peculiar habit 
of the only well-recognized species, Retzia spicata, which is dif- 
ferent from that of any Solanaceous or Atropaceous plant. Here 
the leaves are verticillate in fours, and the flowers are solitary 
and sessile in each axil, being supported by two bracts similar in 
size and shape to the lobes of the calyx. The genus Solenostigma 
of Klotzsch, founded upon one of Zeyher^s African plants, and 
supposed to be identical with Retzia, was placed by that botanist 
in Stilbaceae ; but the name would imply that the stigma is there 
hollow and tubular, while in Retzia it consists of two small linear 
divaricate segments ; hence it is probable that Klotzsch^ s plant is 
Tery different from that of Thunberg. I may here observe how- 
ever, that this fact does not of itself invalidate their mutual affi- 
nity, for in the vast genus Solanum we meet with different spe- 
cies, some with a hollow tubular stigma, and others with bifid 
linear segments, exactly similar to the stigma of Retzia. The 
Polemonium campanuloides and P. roelloides of Thunberg have 
been referred t€> Retzia by Sprengel, G. Don and Dr. Walpers ; 
these plants have both alternate leaves, and if really species of 
that genus, they would tend to remove the doubts above expressed 
in regard to the place of Retzia in this natural order. Willdenow 
states (Syst. i. 887) that the two species last alluded to, cannot 
belong to Polemonium^ which has a trifid stigma ; and he adds, 
that P. campanuloides has a bifid stigma as in Retzia. The Con- 
volvulus oenotheroides (Linn, fil.) is also said to be another species 
of this genus. The only facts wanting to confirm its place in the 
system are the position of its ovules and the structure of its seeds. 
Dr. Lindley, who has examined its ovarium, has observed that 
its ovules are very few, two (or four ?) in each cell^ articulated 
with and suspended from the dissepiment by a large thickened 
funiculus, a character not at all conformable with the Atropacece 
or SolanacecB, and one that would seem to remove this genus 
nearer to the Bruniacea, wdth which Retzia will be found to pos- 
sess many similar characters. For the present therefore we must 
hesitate in attaching Retzia to the Atropacece. 

The genus Lonchostoma of Wikstrom, placed by most botanists 
in Retziace^j offers, I find, many characters in common with Bru- 
niacece : its sepals are united at the base by a membranaceous tube 
w^hich closely invests the ovarium, if not almost adnate with it ; 
they are surrounded by bracts of equal size : it resembles Graven- 
horstia in having its petals combined into a funnel-shaped tube 
with a 5-partite border, the lobes of which are carinate and con- 
volutely imbricate in aestivation ; the anthers, cordate at base, are 
nearly sessile in the mouth ; the style is divided halfway down and 
terminated by clavate stigmata ; the ovarium, 2-celled, appears 

AnnJtMag.yat.Hist S2. Xol.l. If. V. 

A.ffanrr>rfr rM. 

./ /A CSoHTcrit 

A/ui.l- M<ui Sat. Hist. S'2. Vol.:>.7YJ7. 

.//V r.Soi"^rA(' .'(- 

^. Ban cock del. 

Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 183 

under the microscope to be composed of two distinct, though 
connate carpels ; the ovules are few, horizontally attached, or 
somewhat pendulous from narrow axile placentie attached to the 
twofold dissepiment. These are characters that secin to corre- 
spond in great measure with the Bruniacea, with which the habit 
of Lonchostoma does not ill accord. These are merely hasty 
indications, as it would be foreign to the object of the present 
investigation to pursue such inquiries farther. 

XIX. — On the Anatomy of Eolis, a genus of Mollusks of the order 
Nudibranchiata. By Albany Hancock and Dennis Em- 
bleton, M.D. 

[Continued from vol. i. 2nd Series, p. 105.] 

[With two Plates.] 

Nervous System. 

This is made up of central masses or ganglia united by com- 
missures, and of nerves. The ganglia are five or six pairs, four 
of which are symmetrically arranged wdth regard to the median 
line, and together with their commissures surround the com- 
mencement of the oesophagus lying upon the upper and poste- 
rior surface of the buccal mass, vol. xv. PI. V. fig. 16 b and Fl. V. 
fig. 1 of present paper. Two pairs are supra-oesophageal and two 
infra-oesophageal. The former exceed the latter many times in 
size. The masses are of a pale yellowish flesh-colour, and appear 
to be filled with globular vesicles of various sizes. 

First, of the supra-oesophageal or cerebral ganglia, the median 
pair, PL V. fig. 1 a «, largest of all, are irregularly ovate, flattened 
above and below, and somewhat constricted about the middle as 
if composed of two parts ; their anterior ends, which are the 
larger and truncated, are united across the median line by a short 
broad commissure. The second or lateral pair, b b, lie rather 
behind the first and on the sides of the oesophagus ; they are 
irregularly spheroidal, smaller than the first and flattened like 
them, and intimately connected to their external posterior mar- 
gin. The two pairs of infra-oesophageal ganglia are of very un- 
equal size : the first or buccal, or larger pair, c c, are elliptical, 
their long diameters placed transversely one on each side of the 
median line, across which a short thick commissure unites their 
contiguous ends ; from the under surface of these, at their outer 
and anterior part, spring two short pedicles, supporting the 
second pah* of ganglia, d d, the gastro-oesophageal, very small, 
not one-fourth the size of the last, but of tlie same form, in 

184 IMessrs. Hancock and Einbleton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 

addition to these_, there is a pair of ganglia, e e, at the base of the 
dorsal tentacles, which we call olfactory ; and we have seen what 
we take to be other ganglia, but of these we shall speak further on. 

The nervous centres intercommunicate by the following com- 
missures. A short broad one, f, unites the first pair of supra- 
oesophageal, and a similar though smaller, g, the first pair of 
infra- oesophageal ; these have been already noticed ; then the 
lateral supra-oesophageal are united to the first or anterior or 
cerebral by a broad flat band, h, so short that the ganglia appear 
to be continuous with each other. Next we have three nervous 
bands or collars, concentrically arranged, inclosing the oesopha- 
gus, and serving to complete the connexions of the supra-oeso- 
phageal ganglia with each other, and to bring them into asso- 
ciation with the infra- oesophageal. First, the innermost or 
thickest collar, z, lies close to the oesophageal wall, and is com- 
posed of four or five distinct nervous filaments running parallel 
to each other, and connecting together the posterior borders of 
the two lateral supra-oesophageal masses. Second, a slender, 
delicate collar, j, lies next outside, much wider than the former, 
and uniting the posterior and outer parts of the first pair of 
supra-oesophageal ganglia, it comes out from the under surface 
of these bodies and runs under the second or lateral ganglia. 
The existence of this collar or commissure between the posterior 
parts of the median cerebral ganglia, whilst their anterior parts 
are united by the anterior median commissure, seems to confirm 
the impression we received at first sight, that the cerebral ganglia 
are each of them double centres. It will be observed that the 
two last-described oesophageal collars are not attached in any 
way to the infra- oesophageal ganglia. The third or outermost 
collar, k, however establishes a communication between the first 
or median supra-oesophageal and the first infra-oesophageal gan- 
glia. This is a strong band, being little inferior in size to the 
first, of uniform texture, and lying just outside of the second col- 
lar, and in contact with it, it is the widest of the three. In front 
it is attached to the under part of the outer border of the first 
cerebral ganglia, considerably in advance of the coming off of the 
second collar ; from this part it is traced backwards under the 
lateral supra-ossophageal into the external end of the buccal 

The nerves vary a good deal in size, and we have been able to 
trace thirty-three pairs ; of these, twenty-one come off" from the 
supra-oesophageal ganglia, six from the infra-oesophageal, and 
five from the commissures. There is also a large pair which 
comes out from the buccal mass from an obscure ganglion im- 
bedded in the muscular tissue, and a small nerve, apparently 
single, that separates from the middle collar of the oesophagus, 

jMessrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy of Eolis. 185 

and seems to present a small ganglionic enlargement. We have 
numbered them in the order in which they occur, commencing 
at the median line in front. 

The first and second pairs, very minute, come out of the un- 
der surface of the anterior commissure of the first or cerebral 
ganglia, and pass to the skin on each side of the median line 
before and behind the dorsal tentacles. 

The third pair, large nerves, come out of the first cerebral 
ganglia at their upper surface, and near the middle of their an- 
terior border ; they pass forwards, upwards and downwards to the 
roots of the dorsal tentacles, within which each suddenly swells 
out into a remarkable ganglion, e, of an irregularly oval form, 
which, at its upper end, divides into three or four processes, each 
giving ofi" nerves to be distributed for the supply of the whole 
tentacle. This pair we look upon as the special nerves of smell- 
ing, for reasons which will be adduced hereafter, and as endowing 
the tentacle with the power of ordinary sensation likewise. If 
this view be correct, then the small branches passing from the 
ganglion to the sentient surface of the tentacles are properly to 
be designated olfactory nerves, and the thick pedicle supporting 
the ganglion and connecting it with the cerebral ganglion, olfac- 
tory tractus. 

The fourth and fifth pairs, considerably less than the third, 
arise also from the anterior part but under surface of the same 
ganglia, close together, and just outside of the third. The fourth 
runs forward to the outer lip before giving ofi^ any branches ; 
after that it divides and subdivides minutely, and goes to supply 
the outer lip above and below. The fifth runs forward and is 
distributed to the skin of the head and between the dorsal ten- 
tacles, but does not give ofi" such numerous branches as the pre- 
ceding nerve. 

The sixth, one of the largest nerves in the body, comes out of 
the external anterior angle of the ganglion, and after a short 
course outwards and forwards bifurcates. The two branches are 
about equal in size : one passes into the oral tentacle, divides into 
two branches which subdivide and supply the tentacle ; the other 
runs forward, and then inclines inwards towards the median 
line, and subdivides into many twigs which are distributed upon 
the roof of the channel of the mouth. 

The seventh and eighth are minute nerves which issue from 
the outer margin of the ganglion just behind the sixth. They 
take a straight course outward and pass into the skin of the side 
of the head. 

The ninth is a large pair, coming out of the same ganglion 
just behind the preceding, and running outwards and forwards 
gives off" a twig which goes to the muscles attaching the buccal 

186 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy «/Eolis. 

mass to the skin. It then passes forwards and m wards, and is 
lost upon the sides of the channel of the mouth. 

The tenth and eleventh pairs are small, come off from the same 
ganglion still further back and just in front of the eye, and pass 
directly outwards into the skin. 

The twelfth and thirteenth arise from the junction of the an- 
terior and lateral cerebral ganglia, and passing outwards and 
downwards first, then incline downwards and backwards and run 
half-way down the body, one above the other, in the skin between 
the border of the foot, and the rows of branchial papillae. 

The fourteenth and fifteenth, very minute pairs, emerge from 
the line of union of the anterior and' the lateral ganglia, and 
are then placed directly under the eye. The former of these 
nerves goes to the skin of the side of the head between the oral 
and the dorsal tentacles, the latter to the skin immediately be- 
hind the situation of the former. 

The sixteenth or optic nerves are stout but very short, and 
have the organ of vision at their extremity. They are inclined 
forwards and upwards from the line of union of the anterior and 
lateral ganglia. 

The seventeenth or auditory are mere rudiments of nerves, and 
are attached to the anterior ganglia quite close to the bases of 
the optic nerves, and immediately behind them. The auditory 
capsule and the eye will be described further on with the other 
organs of special sense. 

The eighteenth pair, one of the largest, issues from the outer 
borders of the lateral ganglia, rather in front of the middle, 
passes outward and bifurcates very soon after ; each of these 
branches again bifurcates and is distributed by many twigs to 
the muscles and skin of the foot, both anteriorly and posteriorly 
(thepedial nerve). 

The nineteenth, also of considerable size, come out of the ex- 
ternal borders of the lateral ganglia, behind the middle, separated 
by a considerable interval from the eighteenth, and passing 
slightly outwards take a backward course, and can be traced in 
the skin for a long way down the sides of the back, giving off 
chiefly externally numerous branches that supply the skin. This 
we presume is the respiratory nerve. 

The twentieth are seen to come forth from the posteriov mar- 
gins of the anterior ganglia, and are of a size little inferior to the 
last. They can be traced in the skin of the back between the 
last-described nerve and the dorsal median line nearly as far as 
the tail, giving off twigs from their outer sides like the nineteenth 
pair to the skin. 

The twenty-first, twenty-second and twenty-third pairs arc all 
small nerves coming out successively from the posterior borders 

Messrs. Hancock and Eniblcton on the Anatomy i/Eolis. 187 

of the anterior ganglia between the last-described nerve and the 
median line. They all pass a good way backwards to the dorsal 
skin on each side of the median line. 

The origin, course and distribution of the six pairs of infra- 
oesophageal nerves are as follows : — 

The lirst pair come from the upper surface of the roots of the 
pedicles that support the gastro-cesophageal, and close to the 
buccal ganglia. The nerves are rather small, run forwards and 
apply themselves to the oesophagus, along which they are con- 
ducted to the stomach, the greater part of which organ they sup- 
ply with branches. 

The second, third and fourth arise from the margins of the 
gastro-oesophageal ganglia, are very small nerves, but can be 
traced to the oesophagus and neighbouring parts of the stomach. 

The fifth pair come out of the external ends of the buccal 
ganglia in conjunction with the third or outermost oesophageal 
collar, to which they are slightly inferior in size. The nerves and 
the collar separate at once; the nerves passing backwards and 
outwards give oiF each a branch that bendy forwards and outwards 
and becomes lost among the muscles of the buccal mass external 
to the ganglion. The trunk then inclines towards an opening 
between the muscular bundles of the back part of the buccal 
mass, and enters that opening lying in contact with another large 
nerve that is observed to issue from the same. 

It is difficult to follow the trunk far into the intermuscular 
aperture, but as far as we have been able to trace it, it appears 
to be destined iov- the buccal mass and tongue. 

The sixth pair is given off from the posterior margin of the 
buccal ganglia, and shortly after becomes lost among the mus- 
cular bundles of the back part of the buccal mass. 

Of the five pairs of nerves from the commissures, two have 
already been described, viz. the first and second supra-oesopha- 
geal j the three that remain come off from the oesophageal collars 
in the following manner. 

The pair marked a come off from the outer margin of the first 
or innermost collar near the median line. They are very minute 
nerves, and we have not succeeded in tracking them to their 

That marked ^ is the genital and probably the cardiac nerve, 
and is an offset from the middle or slender collar, which it nearly 
equals in size, at a short distance behind its attachment to the 
anterior cerebral ganglion. It runs from this origin backwards 
and outwards to the generative organs, guided partly by the an- 
terior aorta, gains the fissure where the confluence of the ducts 
from the diftercnt parts of the generative apparatus exists, and 

188 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy of Eolis. 

is then subdivided among the testis, the oviduct, the mucus- 
gland, &c. It seems more than probable that the penis receives 
a twig from this nerve, and that the spermatheca and ovarium 
are also supplied from it, though we have not traced branches so 
far. If any branches pass from this nerve to the heart, which 
we are inclined to believe is the case, they probably run along 
the anterior aorta. 

We think it only right to remark, that not having traced this 
nerve with the same precision as the rest, we do not feel our- 
selves competent to speak so decidedly of its distribution as we 
could wish. 

The nerve 7 arises from the third or hindermost collar at the 
side, passes backwards to the aperture previously noticed as ex- 
isting in the buccal mass, and therein is applied to the surface 
of the nerve that issues from the opening, and further we have 
been unable to follow it. 

In addition to these we have the nerve marked S, which ap- 
pears to be single ; it comes off from the inner margin of the pos- 
terior segment of the middle slender collar near the median line, 
and has been traced to the under surface of the anterior portion 
of the stomach. There appears to be a small fusiform swelling 
on this nerve. 

The last nerve to be mentioned, and which is designated s, is 
somewhat inferior in size to the fifth infra-oesophageal, and as 
before stated emerges from the aperture among the muscular 
bundles of the posterior part of the buccal mass. On attempting 
to follow this nerve more deeply, we find it to end in what seems 
to be a ganglionic swelling f, from which nervous branches ap- 
parently radiate throughout the muscular tissue of the buccal 
mass. If this nerve be traced in the opposite direction from the 
intermuscular aperture, it is found to pass forwards, inclining at 
first inwards, and as it approaches the outermost collar receives 
obliquely from it, near the union of the collar with the buccal 
ganglion, a branch of communication, »; ; it next runs under that 
collar, and then under the middle one ; after this still passing 
forwards and approaching the posterior margin of the lateral 
supra-cesophageal ganglia, it turns outwards, hooking round 
over the two outer collars, but having no connexion with either 
at this part, and reaching the skin at the side of the buccal 
mass, it bifurcates, one branch passing forwards, the other back- 
wards ; they both send off numerous twigs which have been fol- 
lowed to the ramifications of the gastric system at the bases of 
the papillae. 

In E. olivacea, E. coronata, PL VI. fig. I, and E, Drummondi, 
PL V. fig. 2, the central masses and the nerves emanating from 

Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy of Eolis. 189 

them, and the commissures, excepting the modifications to be 
presently mentioned, are pretty much the same, as far as we have 
been able to examine them, as they exist in E. papillosa. 

In E. coronata the olfactory tractus are much shorter, and 
their ganglia more globular, and of much greater relative size 
than in E. papillosa, being indeed more than one-third the size 
of the lateral supra-cesophageal ganglia themselves. There is 
besides one principal nervous stem from the ganglion which runs 
up the central axis of the tentacle. 

In E. Drummondi the relative size of these ganglia is still 
greater and their form elliptical. The existence of these ganglia 
we believe to be constant in all the species ; we observed them in 
E. pellucida, E. Farrani, E. alba, E. gracilis^ E. picta, E. punc- 
tata , &c. 

The three nervous collars of the oesophagus can be observed 
easily in E. Drummondi, in which there appears to exist at the 
coming off of the genital nerve from the middle or slender collar 
a small ganglionic swelling 6. A similar swelling occurs also in 
E. coronata. 

When viewed attentively with the naked eye, the cerebral 
ganglia, and particularly the first or median pair, present a num- 
ber of large globular vesicles inclosed within a transparent mem- 
branous envelope. When compressed and somewhat magnified, 
all the ganglia seem to be made up of masses of vesicles, as the 
view of a buccal ganglion, PI. VI. fig. 3, will show. Under a 
higher power these vesicles or cells are found of very variable 
size, externally smooth, internally granular, and having one or 
more large distinct nuclei and nucleoli ; some have only one large 
nucleus and a distinct nucleolus ; the interior is filled with smaller 
cells of different dimensions and also nucleated ; the smallest of 
all however are minute, clear, bright cells, probably nuclei or 
rather nucleoli of larger vesicles. Many of these last are found 
also lying in the intervals of the large cells intermixed with the 
tenacious semifluid matrix that imbeds the nervous vesiclfcs, and 
in which no distinct forms can be discerned. On tearing up one 
of the cerebral ganglia and examining the contents of the mem- 
branous envelope in the compressor, under a high power (one- 
eighth object-glass), numbers of the cells of all sizes are seen 
under the form of pear-shaped, largely nucleated vesicles, PL VI. 
fig. 4, having a long pedicle attached ; the nucleus, which is very 
large, has an evident and well-marked nucleolus, and the pedicle 
or stalk of the cell is in the interior very finely granular. Groups 
of these pedicled ovoid vesicles may be observed, such as that at 
PI. VI. fig. 3, their pedicles all lying in the same direction, and 
tending either to unite or to run on parallel to each other, put- 
ting us strongly in mind of some of the simpler forms of glan- 

190 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 

dular apparatus. We cannot confidently say that we have traced 
groups of these pedicles into the nerves that issue from the gan- 
glia, but we have seen what inclines us very strongly to the idea, 
that such is in reality the relation of these two parts of the ner- 
vous system. At PL VI. fig. 2, where a nerve b is shown coming 
off from a buccal ganglion a, parallel strise are observed distinctly 
passing towards the nerve from the interior of the ganglion. 
Again, when the connexions of the nerves with the cerebral 
ganglia are examined, parallel strise can be seen continued from 
the commencement of the nerve for some distance into the gan- 
glion, becoming gradually more and more obscured by the vesi- 
cles of the ganglia and then lost altogether ; but from the tough- 
ness of the enveloping membrane — the body of the Nudibranch 
having lain for some time in spirit and water — and the extraor- 
dinary delicacy of the contained parts, we have not been able to 
lay bare, and leave in situ, in one and the same specimen, the 
real connexion which we believe to exist between the nerves and 
the vesicular element of the central ganglia. But w^e hope that 
further observation will enable us to show that the pedicles of 
the nerve-corpuscles in Eolis are continuous with the nerves; 
and if this be so, then that it may be the means of illustrating 
more clearly the connexion that exists in the Vertebrata and in 
Man between the nerves and the white and the gray matter of 
the brain and the rest of the centres of the nervous system. It 
is highly probable, however, that all the cells of the ganglia pos- 
sess a pedicle or stalk in their perfect state, and that the appa- 
rent absence of a pedicle or pedicles in some cells or groups of 
cells may be owing either to the unfavourable aspect under which 
they are presented to the eye — they being so placed that the pe- 
dicle is either very much foreshortened or hidden altogether by 
the cell itself, or else to the pedicle having been broken ofi" du- 
ring the manipulation of the specimen, or again to the magni- 
fying power in some cases not being sufficient to make them 
discernible, or lastly to their imperfect state of development. 

These cells or vesicles of the nervous ganglia of Eolis, although 
they show only one cauda or prolonged pedicle, are doubtless 
analogous to those caudate vesicles or nerve-corpuscles which are 
characteristic of the gray matter of the cerebro- spinal and sym- 
pathetic ganglia of the higher animals. 

The nerves themselves appear to have none of the cells above 
noticed, but to consist of series of parallel granular lines or 
fibrillse, which on tearing the nerve across often remain detached 
from each other, and which are all in their perfect state enveloped 
in a strong common sheath continuous with the membranous 
capsules of the ganglia. Where a nerve gives ofi" branches, lines 
of granular matter, probably the fibrillae just mentioned, are 

Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 191 

separated from the main stem and become inclosed in a sheath 
of their own, and this mode of division appears to be carried on 
to a very minute degree. We have not been able to detect the 
manner in which the nerves actually terminate ; certainly we have 
seen nothing to warrant the description and the figures of M. de 
Quatrefages relative to this particular. 

On taking a review of the nervous system of EoliSy we are at 
once struck with the high grade of development, and with the 
symmetrical arrangement that obtains in it ; the heterogangliate 
character applicable to many gasteropodous mollusks being, so far 
as our researches have led us, inapplicable to this more elevated 
being. The nervous centres are closely concentrated around the 
oesophagus, and there exists a sufficient correspondence between 
them and the same organs in the Cephalopoda to enable us con- 
fidently to compare them ; indeed we have every reason to think 
that we recognise in them the homologues of the principal masses 
of the nervous centres of the Vertebrata. 

If w^e turn to Professor Owen^s memoir on the Pearly Nau- 
tilus, pi. 7. fig. 1, in which the nervous system is represented, 
we find that the supra-oesophageal mass or brain together with 
the attached optic lobes, taken in conjunction with the anterior 
oesophageal ring formed by the union of two ganglia, corre- 
sponds to the anterior supra-oesophageal ganglia of Eolis with 
the slender or middle collar round the oesophagus, since they 
give off nerves which go to supply analogous parts, viz. the eyes, 
tentacles, lips, &c. The posterior oesophageal ring of the Nau- 
tilus to a great extent represents in the same way the lateral 
supra-oesophageal ganglia of Eolis, united with all the infra- 
oesophageal ganglia and the two large collars or commissures 

At fig. 3, same plate. Professor Owen gives a view of the ner- 
vous system of the Sepia officinalis ; the homology is equally di- 
stinct as in the former case, only the parts are more concentrated ; 
still they serve to lead us on more easily to compare the ganglia 
of Eolis with the several divisions of the more highly-developed 
nervous centres of the Vertebrata. In Eolis we see that certain 
nerves of relation — of special and common sensation, and their 
corresponding nerves of motion, voluntary or reflex — are in con- 
nexion only with the two pairs of supra-oesophageal ganglia. 
The olfactory and optic nerves, and numerous others to the lips, 
mouth, tentacles and side of head and back, are thus attached ; 
hence we infer that the anterior part of the supra-oesophageal 
ganglia may be in some measure compared, though not perhaps 
quite accurately, to the cerebrum and optic lobes of the Verte- 
brata j at all events these are the only parts to w^hich they corre- 
spond. The posterior parts of the median cerebral ganglia, and 

192 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 

the remaining ganglia together with their commissures and col- 
lars, are the representatives of the medulla oblongata and spinal 
cord of the higher animals. 

We do not discern in Eolis anything at all analogous to the 
sympathetic system of the higher animals. 

In the nervous system again we are sorry to be compelled to 
be at issue with M. de Quatrefages, who states in his paper that 
''toutes les grandes masses nerveuses sont reunies au-dessus de 
Foesophage et d^elles seules emaneut directement les nerfs qui se 
rendent dans toutes les parties du corps." Subsequently how- 
ever he points out the presence of a single small ganglion below 
the oesophagus, from which small nervous twigs are given off to 
the mouth and digestive tube. The incorrectness of these and 
other observations we hope to have rectified. Further, M. de 
Quatrefages makes out only one nervous oesophageal ring ; we 
have over and over again seen and verified the three represented 
in our plate. The nerves of vegetative life he derives from the 
same ganglia that give off the nerves of relation, and points this 
out as an interesting fact. The rule with two or three excep- 
tions appears to be, that the two sets of nerves have two appro- 
priately distinct sets of ganglionic centres, viz. the infra-oesopha- 
geal for vegetative life, and the supra-oesophageal for the life of 
relation, which is agreeable to analogy. With regard to the num- 
ber and arrangement of the nerves, we find M. de Quatrefages to 
be again in confusion. His number is very far short of the full 
complement, and he has traced scarcely any to their proper de- 
stination. We observe that he gives to the optic nerves a gan- 
glionic swelling which we have never seen, and omits the olfac- 
tory gajiglion, which may be seen even during life in the more 
transparent species. 

We do not understand M. de Nordmann's account of the ner- 
vous system. It is possible that in that section of the genus 
Eolis to which Tergipes belongs, the nervous system may differ 
from that of the other divisions, but we should be surprised to 
find it so different from that of those we have dissected, as it is 
represented in M. de Nordmann's paper. 

The Senses. 

The organs of the senses appear to be as highly developed in 
Eolis as in any other of the Gasteropods. The sense of touch is 
spread over the whole surface of the body, including the foot, 
the tentacles, and the branchial papillse, which last are so ex- 
tremely sensitive as to respond to the slightest undulations of the 
water around them. Many of the species indeed are so alive to 
such impressions, that it becomes a matter of difficulty to observe 
their habits, and even their natural form, since on the slightest 

Messrs. Hancock and Einblcton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 193 

motion of the water they curl up their foot and fall to the 

The oral tentacles, which are kept in perpetual action, seem 
to possess the sense of touch in an exquisite degree ; so much so 
that we are led to conclude, that from this circumstance, and 
from their anterior position, they ought to be regarded as special 
organs of touch. 

Taste, if present, most probably resides in the lining mem- 
brane of the buccal cavity, particularly in the folds at the back 
of the tongue (1st paper, PL I. fig. 8 h) and the cheek-mass, ef, 
and perhaps also in the laminae at the commencement of the 

When describing the third pair of nerves, we stated that we 
considered the dorsal tentacles to which these nerves pass to be 
distributed, as the olfactory organs, and for this opinion we now 
proceed to adduce reasons which appear to be sufficient. 

That these tentacles are special and very important organs, a 
consideration of the internal anatomical arrangement of their 
nervous element and of the peculiarities of their external form, 
peculiarities susceptible of great variety, would seem to leave very 
little doubt in the unprejudiced mind. 

First of all a large nerve, PL V. fig. 3, among the largest in 
the body, comes ofi* from the front of the median cerebral gan- 
glion j and secondly, this nerve, or more properly speaking, trac- 
tus, has superadded to it at the base of the tentacle a well- 
defined ganglionic swelling, e, of a size exactly proportioned to 
the extent of complexity in the external form of the tentacle. 
Thus in E. 'papillosa, in which the tentacle is smooth and in its 
simplest form, the ganglion is considerably less than in E. core- 
nata, PL VI. fig. 6, and E. Drummondi, in both of which the 
tentacle has a surface of a far more complicated kind, being ren- 
dered much more extensive by the adJition of numerous broad, 
circular laminse ; the ganglion being in these two species, as be- 
fore noticed, upwards of one-third the size of the lateral supra- 
cesophageal ganglion itself, PL VI. fig. 1 e, and PL V. fig. 2 e. 

If further evidence be required to illustrate the importance 
and special nature of these organs, we may go from the genus 
Eolis to the other members of the family Eolidida, as for in- 
stance to Eumenis marmorata, in which we find the laminae so 
closely set as to conceal the whole shaft of the tentacle, and 
moreover there exists a sheath at the base of the tentacle into 
which it can be retracted at the will of the animal. A sheath 
also exists in Doto, PL VI. fig. 7, into which the organ, though 
simple in form, is completely retractile. The same is found like- 
wise in Dendronotus arborescens, PL VI. figs. 8 & 9, in which the 
tentacle is remarkable for highly developed laminse ; and here the 
Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Scr. 2. Vol. iii. 13 

194 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 

sheath, which is long, and into which the tentacle is quite retrac- 
tile, is garnished around its extremity by a circle of arborescent 
filaments, by which the organ even, when extended, is to a 
great degree protected from injurious contact with surrounding 

Again, as if the laminated disposition of the tentacle were not 
sufficient for the purpose of the Antiopa splendida, PI. VI. fig. 10, 
we have these organs, a «, standing out from the sides of a me- 
dian crest, h, which is elevated above the surrounding skin, and 
crowned by a series of pinnate laminae. That this median crest 
is really a part of the olfactory organ, an addition to its com- 
plexity, is proved by the attendant modification of the nervous 
element, which is as follows. There is directly in front of and 
in contact with the median cerebral a pair of small ganglia, c c, 
each of which gives ofi* two branches, one of which, </, goes to 
the tentacle, and the other, e, much thicker, goes to one half of 
the median crest. 

We could easily adduce other examples from the Doridida, 
if others were required, to show the importance and the spe- 
ciality of these organs in the Nudibranchiata, but those we have 
brought forward seem enough for this purpose. Another cir- 
cumstance bearing upon the special nature of these tentacles, 
and noticed by Joshua Alder, Esq., one of the authors of this 
paper, in a communication made to the British Association 
at the Cork meeting, is that the cilia on their surface vibrate in 
a direction contrary to that of those on the surface of the 
branchial papillae. On these the cilia move constantly from the 
body towards the extremity of the papilla ; on those they act from 
the point of the tentacle towards the body ; thus, in the former 
case, the water which has served for respiration is drawn from 
the body and thrown ofi" from the apices of the papillse, whilst in 
the latter the fluid which we may suppose to contain odorous 
particles or qualities is attracted to the end of the tentacle, and 
made to pass down over the entire surface, and then thus to act 
upon the sentient nerve within. 

Now it is a constant occurrence in the higher animals that the 
fluid to be tested by the olfactory organ is always brought to the 
nerve, and made to pass over the sensitive surface in the majo- 
rity of instances by means of the agency of inspiration. In fishes 
however in which the nasal cavity is shut ofi" from the mouth and 
throat, another agency than that of respiration is required; the 
olfactory plates however are freely supplied with cilia, and these 
probably act a part analogous to those of the laminated tentacles 
of Eolis. But the dorsal tentacles are not only, according to our 
view, important and special organs, but they are, further, organs 
of smell. Their laminated structure is one evidence of this. The 

Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy of Eolis. 195 

organs pointed out by Professor Owen in his memoir on the 
Pearly Nautilus, which " consist of series of soft membranous 
laminse compactly arranged in a longitudinal direction, and situ- 
ated at the entry of the mouth, between the internal labial pro- 
cesses," are similarly constructed, and also supplied with nervous 
filaments from a pair of ganglia that are connected with the an- 
terior cerebral or brain. 

In fishes the olfactory organ consists of delicate membranous 
laminae, arranged in a manner not widely different from the dis- 
position of those of Eolis; they are disposed, as in the Dorididce, 
in a pinnate manner, attached to a central stem : examples of 
this may be seen in the dace and in the burn trout, PI. VI. fig. 12. 

In the higher Vertebrata the laminated form is evident 
wherever we look. It may be objected to this argument, that 
in the case of Eolis the laminae are arranged on the exterior of 
the tentacle, and in the Vertebrata in the interior of a cavity ; 
but if we can conceive of the tentacle of a Dendronotus, or of a 
Doris coccinea, PI. VI. fig. 11, retracted within a sheath, we have 
then a very good representation of the olfactory organ of the 

Further, the ganglia of the tentacular nerves are in front of all 
the rest, and are attached by their tractus to the anterior part of 
the cerebral mass, — ^the anterior median ganglia, an arrange- 
ment which, together with the anterior superior position of the 
tentacles themselves, perfectly corresponds to that of the acknow- 
ledged olfactory apparatus in fishes and all other Vertebrata. 

Lastly, if these tentacles be olfactory organs, we should expect, 
in tracing downwards the animal scale, that they would disap- 
pear before the tactile organs, the oral tentacles. That such is 
the rule even in the MoUusca we have the authority of Professor 
Owen. From what we have brought forward on this subject 
respecting the anatomical details, the external configuration, and 
the homology of the dorsal tentacles of Eolis^ we feel justified in 
assigning to them the office of olfaction rather than in supposing 
them to be the seat of some new and hitherto undescribed and 
mysterious sense, or even of touch, as is generally believed. That 
they are not for touch seems to be indicated in some measure by 
their dorsal position, their direction upwards, and by their being 
in some instances defended from external mechanical injury by 
a fence of delicate processes, as in Dendronotus arborescens, 
PI. VI. fig. 8. 

The sense of vision is subserved by two minute organs some- 
what inferior in development to those of the higher Gasteropods. 
They are situated beneath the skin, and are visible to the naked 
eye as two black dots immediately behind the dorsal tentacles ; 
they are each supported by what appears to be a short thickish 


196 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy of Eolisi 

pedicle, the optic nerve, PI. V. figs. 1 & 2, no. 16, whicli comes 
off from the upper surface near the middle of the external border 
of the median cerebral ganglion, close to its connection with the 
lateral one. The nerve is directed forwards, outwards and up- 
wards, and varies somewhat in length in different species ; it is 
covered by a very delicate transparent sheath : the eye itself, 
PI. V. fig. 3, has a wide external envelope — a delicate transpa- 
rent capsule, a, continuous with the sheath of the nerve. This 
envelope holds the place of the cornea and sclerotica of more 
highly organized eyes. Within it is contained an irregularly- 
shaped cup, b, of black pigmentary matter, which embraces the 
posterior half of a spherical, colourless, highly refractive crystal- 
line lens, c. 

The anterior border of this pigmentary or choroid coat appears 
to be free, and is irregularly crenate. Over the front of the lens, 
and separated from it by a narrow interval, is a transparent 
tunic, d, which is most aptly compared to the anterior capsule of 
the lens of the higher animals, though some may deem it the 
homologue of the cornea. The back part of the choroid coat 
seems to be pierced by the optic nerve, but from the minuteness 
of the organ and the opacity of the choroid, we have not been 
able to determine the exact relation of the retina to the pigmen- 
tary layer, nor the existence of a vitreous body. 

The degree of vision enjoyed by these animals must be slight. 
They can distinguish light from darkness, and can probably ap- 
preciate imperfectly difierent degrees of light, and as the eyes are 
placed under the skin of the head, their perception of objects 
must be exceedingly faint and indistinct. 

The auditory apparatus consists of a minute, elliptical, delicate, 
and transparent capsule, PI. V. figs. 1 & 2. no. 17, less than the 
eye, directly behind which it is situated ; it appears sessile upon the 
external border of the median cerebral ganglion, but there are 
faint indications of a pedicle or a nerve that enters the capsule at 
the front. The long diameter of the capsule lies in the antero- 
posterior direction; within this capsule, figs. 4 & 5 «, is another, 
bf still more delicate and much smaller. This latter contains 
numerous very minute, oval corpuscles or otolithes, fig. 4c, smooth, 
transparent, and highly refractive of light. In the centre of each 
an obscure dot, fig. 6, occurs, which, when highly magnified, ex- 
hibits a distinct appearance of nucleus and nucleolus. They are 
seen as we have described them in E. papillosa and E. coronata ; 
but in E. aurantiaca and E. olivacea, in E. picta and E. exigua, 
there is only one large spherical otolithe, fig. 5 Z>, which presents 
also indications on its surface of nucleus and nucleolus. 

These capsules are specimens of the auditory organ in perhaps 
its simplest form, and as such are adapted for the most limited 

Messrs. Hancock and Emblcton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 197 

perception of sonorous undulations. Since it has been ascertained 
that E. punctata and Dendronotus arborescens do emit sounds, it 
seems probable that these organs may be provided for the per- 
ception of such. These crystalline-looking bodies are stated to 
be calcareous, but on treating them with acetic acid we did not 
find after the lapse of some time that any material change had 
taken place. 

In investigating the different organs of Eolisy we have endea- 
voured, as we at first proposed, to place their anatomy and phy- 
siology in as clear and correct a light as possible, and to show in 
what particulars we differ from M. de Quatrefages, and now in 
terminating this memoir we are in a position to state, that his 
anatomical details are with regard to every organ more or less 

We are very glad therefore to learn that he has been led to 
forgo his proposed order Phlebenterata, and we may express a 
hope that the whole hypothesis of Phlebenterism as applied to 
the Mollusca will soon be abandoned. This Phlebenterism, which 
was first brought to light by M. Milne-Edwards, and maintained 
by him and M. de Quatrefages and some of the most distin- 
guished French naturalists, and which implies a fusion of the 
digestive and vascular systems by a marked degradation of the 
latter that reduces these Nudibranchiata almost to the condition 
of the Radiata, is, if we understand it at all, founded on the as- 
sumption that no veins or true auricle any more than a true in- 
testine exists in the Eolididte and other allied genera, — that the 
functions of respiration, chylification, and the secretion of bile 
are cumulated in the branchial papillae, and that the ramifica- 
tions of the digestive system in some way or other supply the 
deficiency which was supposed to exist at the venous part of the 
circulation, and also distributed the digested portions of aliment 
throughout the body. But on full consideration of what is put 
forth as Phlebenterism in the Mollusca by the French naturalists, 
we confess our inability to arrive at a precise understanding of 
what is meant by the term. We believe we have in our account 
of the anatomy of Eolis brought forward evidence enough to 
overthrow Phlebenterism, such as we conceive it to be as applied 
to these animals, and we will now in conclusion, and as briefly as 
we can, recapitidate what we have before advanced, adding some 
new observations which now occur to us. 

First, we have demonstrated that the vascular system is not in 
that state of degradation supposed by the French savans. We have 
shown a well-formed heart, consisting of ventricle and auricle, in- 
closed in a pericardial sac, the ventricle giving off an aorta that 
branches away to supply the principal viscera and the foot. The 

198 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy of Eolis. 

hepatic artery is wanting, but the fact of the liver being minutely 
divided among the branchial papillse, and the divisions being thus 
placed in contact with aerated blood, explains this hiatus and ne- 
cessitates it. The auricle receives three principal venous trunks, 
each of which is made up of several branches from the skin ante- 
riorly and posteriorly. These trunks have been called branchio- 
cardiac by M. Milne-Edwards and his followers, under the convic- 
tion that the whole of the blood passes to the heart from the 
branchial papillae by them. We find nothing in Eolis to favour the 
opinion that the whole of the blood is conducted by afferent vessels 
from the body or intervisceral lacunse direct to the branchiae, 
and thence exclusively by efferent vessels to the auricle. We see 
that the network of lacunse in the thickness of the skin receives 
the blood from the interior of the body, and allows it to flow 
freely therein in all directions ; part of it doubtless passes to the 
branchial papillae, but part also must go at once along the veins 
to the auricular part of the heart. In other words, the veins draw 
their blood from the sinuses or lacunae of the skin, and this suc- 
tion, so to speak, attracts the vital fluid at one and the same 
time from the branchial papillae and the lacunae of the body, so 
that the veins, instead of being merely branchio-cardiac, are really 
both systemic and pulmonary together. We have likewise pointed 
out small veins going from one of the viscera, the ovarium, into 
the skin at the side of the body, and even a small vessel of 
similar character going from the ovarium into the posterior me- 
dian trunk-vein ; the latter of course are systemic veins. Again, 
we find corroboration of this view of the parts in Eolis if we 
look to Doris : here the auricle receives three branches, one from 
each side, and one from behind as in Eolis ; this last branch in 
Doris is made up of veinlets from the respiratory organs alone, 
and hence may properly be called pulmonary or branchio-cardiac; 
the two lateral branches come not from the special respiratory 
organ at all, but directly from the skin. Now although the skin 
in Doris may have in some measure a function like that of the 
Eolidida, it must from its peculiar nature perform that function 
in a most imperfect manner ; hence we ought to look upon these 
lateral venous trunks in a corresponding inverse ratio as systemic 
veins. Thus both in Doris and in Eolis the blood enters the 
auricle in a state of only partial aeration, one portion reaching it 
from the respiratory organ, and another from the general system. 
In the Crustacea the blood in the great dorsal sinus is in the 
same state, a fact that John Hunter had long ago ascertained, 
and Professor Owen has more recently confirmed. Here surely 
there is not that degradation implied in the idea of Phleben- 
terism ; and according to M. Milne-Edwards' own showing, the 

Messrs. Hancock and Emblcton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 199 

vascular system is at least as perfect in the Eolididce as in the 
DorididcSj — nay even as complete as in the majority of the Gas- 

Secondly, the nervous system has been shown to consist of 
ganglia well-developed and concentrated, and of numerous and 
large nerves ; the eye, the ear, taste perhaps, certainly common 
sensibility exist, smell as well, and if our views be correct, to as 
high a degree as in any of the Mollusca; in short, the nervous 
system has reached a grade of organization higher than in the 
majority of the Gasteropods. This is most important evidence 
that the Eolididce are not in the degraded state implied by Phle- 

Thirdly, in these animals the respiratory system may be looked 
upon as somewhat less specialized than in other Gasteropoda, but 
it is sufficiently developed and specialized in the branchial papillae 
to prevent us from attributing its function, even in part, to the 
prolongations of the digestive system. 

Fourthly, we have pointed out the singular development and 
complexity of the genital organs, which are not in these respects 
inferior to many other Gasteropoda, and certainly similar to the 
genitalia of the Dorididce, with the exception that in Eolis the 
ovarium is ifluch more bulky. 

Fifthly, from the certainly not lower state of development of 
those systems of organs we have enumerated, it ought not to be 
expected that there should be any degradation of the digestive 
system of EoliSy and accordingly we find fleshy sensitive lips with 
superadded tentacles, a strong muscular buccal mass with horny 
cutting jaws, and a spiny prehensile tongue, minute salivary ap- 
paratus, a constricted oesophagus, a well-marked stomachal sac, 
with the adjunct of a distinct intestine ending in a lateral anal 
nipple. So far we find no deviation from the Gasteropodous 
type ; the liver however is as it were broken up into as many 
pieces as there are branchial papillae, and which by a series of 
ducts of variable number communicate with the stomach. Why, 
it may be asked, does the hepatic organ not occupy its usual 
place in the body ? The enormous development of the ovary we 
suppose necessitates the removal to the exterior which we observe, 
and the organ thus thrust out is divided among the papillae, ap- 
parently for the purpose of ensuring its being constantly bathed 
with aerated blood, whilst at the same time by this arrangement 
the body of Eolis is kept of small dimensions, a condition pro- 
bably rendered necessary by some peculiarities in the oeconomy 
and habits of the creature with which we are unacquainted. By 
this arrangement also the hepatic artery becomes unnecessary. 

Phlebenterism sup])oses that the chyle or nutritive part of the 
food passes into the blood-current of the system through the 

200 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 

ramifications as they are termed of the gastric cavity, which are 
prolonged into the papillae. It cannot however be contended 
that the chyle is transuded through the granular or glandular 
part, such as occurs in many of the Eolidida in the papillae, 
since it is manifestly a secreting and not an absorbing surface, 
and the current must set from without inwards. Now in E. de- 
specta the central duct or stem, and its accessory ducts, as well 
as their terminations in the papillae, are granular throughout; 
therefore the fact of the whole apparatus being one for secretion 
precludes the idea that the products of digestion can pass into 
the system from this organ. This arrangement we see in a still 
more striking manner in several others of the Eolididce, as in 
Hermcsa dendriticaj in which all parts of the much-branched 
hepatic organ are alike granular. In Eumenis marmorata, in 
which they are even follicular throughout, and in Dendronotus 
arbor escens^f the central duct is crowded with compound follicles, 
and all the branches are more or less follicular for a short di- 
stance, and then become simply granular ; indeed in this genus 
the posterior part of the stomach and the intestine are the only 
parts which are free from the above granular character. We are 
therefore led to conclude that it is from the pyloric end of the 
stomach and from the intestine that exudation or ^sorption of 
the chyle takes place, and this conclusion is strengthened by the 
fact, that it is in the intestine that the contents first assume their 
faecal character. We may add also that in Doto, the intestine, 
which is short and wide, is in the interior longitudinally plicated, 
as if thus to increase the extent of the absorbing surface. 

In conclusion then we hope to have shown, that not in any 
of the systems of organs is Eolis notably below the Nudi- 
branchiate type ; and we trust that this memoir, if it serve no 
other purpose, will at least assist in rescuing this genus, and 

* In this genus we see an iiiterinediate link between those members of 
the Nudibranchiata which are provided with a concentrated internal hepatic 
organ and the EoUdidcB, a fact which we pointed ont two years ago. The 
central duct is in fact nothing else than a true liver reduced somewhat in 
bulk, but being diffused by its prolongations into the branchial papillae. 
Another intermediate form and still more interesting link between the two 
extremes, as it exhibits the fii'st step in the deviation of the liver from the 
typical state, is seen in Scyllcea, and which we noticed in a paper communi- 
cated to the Oxford meeting of the British Association. The liver in Scyllcea 
is broken up into several globular masses of convoluted tubes sending off 
minute branches that ramify in the skin and penetrate the branchial tufts. 
In a paper by M. E. Blanchard in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles ' for 
March 1848, we observe that that gentleman has discovered in Telhys a 
similar arrangement of parts, and points this out as an excellent intermediate 
illustration of the affinities that exist among the different members of the 
Nudibranchiate group, and we are happy thus to find in his researches a 
corroboration of the fact which we had prcviovisly cited for the same end. 


Messrs. HancoCiC and Emblcton on the Anatomy o/Eolis. 201 

through it the Eolididce, from the degradation which M. de Qua- 
trefages and others from imperfect observations had too hastily 
imputed to them. 


Plate V. 

Fig, 1. Nervous system of Eolis papillosa : a a, median supra-oesophageal 
or cerebral ganglia ; b h, lateral supra-oesophageal ditto ; c c, buc- 
cal ditto ; d d, gastro-oesophageal ditto ; e e, olfactory ditto ; 
/, anterior median commissure ; g, posterior median ditto, or com- 
missure of tbe buccal ganglia ; h h, commissure between median 
and lateral supra-oesophageal ganglia ; i, innermost or shortest 
oesophageal nervous collar ; j, slender or middle ditto j k, outer- 
most or widest ditto. 

Nerves from supra-oesophageal ganglia : Nos. 1 and 2, small nerves to skin 
of head ; 3, olfactory traclus or nerves ; 4, nerve to the outer lip ; 
5, ditto to skin of head between dorsal tentacles ; 6, ditto to oral 
tentacles and roof of channel of mouth ; 7 and 8, ditto to skin of 
side of head ; 9, ditto to muscles attaching buccal mass to skin, 
ahd to sides of channel of moiith ; 10 and 11, ditto to skin at side 
of head ; 12 and 13, ditto to skin down side of body below the 
rows of papillae; 14 and 15, ditto to skin of side of head near the 
tentacles ; 16, optic nerves ; 17, auditory ditto ; 18, nerves to the 
foot; 19, ditto to skin down side of body to papillae (respiratory 
nerve) ; 20, ditto to skin of back ; 21, 22 and 23, ditto to skin of 
back near median line. 

Nerves from infra-oesophageal ganglia: 1, small nerves to stomach; 2,3 
and 4, smaller ditto to oesophagus and stomach ; 5, large ditto 
passing into the buccal mass ; 6, small ditto to back part of buccal 

Nerves from oesophageal collars : ec, minute nerves from innermost collar, 
destination unknown ; /3, genital and probably cardiac nerves ; 
y, nerves from outermost collar passing into buccal mass ; 8, single 
nerve from middle collar, probably gastric ; e, large nerve coming 
out of buccal mass froni a ganglionic swelling, and passing to be 
distributed to glands of papillae of skin ; ^, the ganglionic swelling 
situated in buccal mass, from which the large nerve e comes off; 
T], branch of communication between the large nerve e and the 
outermost oesophageal collar. 

Fig. 2. Nervous system of £. Drummondi. The letters correspond to those 
in last fig. except one, 6, which marks a small ganglionic swelling 
in connexion with middle collar and genital nerve. 

Fig. 3. Eye of E. picla: o, outer capsule; b, pigmentary cupj c, lens; 
d, capsule of ditto. 

Fig. 4. Auditory capsule of E. papillosa : a, outer capside ; b, inner ditto ; 
c, otolithes. 

Fig. 5. Auditory capsule of E. picta : references as in last fig. 

Fig. 6. Two otolithes from E. papillosa highly magnified (^tli object-glass), 
showing nucleus and nucleolus. 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Nervous system of £. coronata. Letters as in Plate V. figs. 1 & 2. 
Fig. 2. a, buccal ganglion of E. papillosa slightly compressed and magnified 
to show the vesicular contents ; b, nerve coming froln same. 

202 Notice of some Mammalia and Birds from Upper India. 

Fig. 3. Group of pear-shaped nerve-globules with pedicles all lying in same 
direction, the globules showing large nuclei and nucleoli from 
cerebral ganglion of E. papulosa. 

Fig. 4. Two isolated, pear-shaped, pedicled, nucleated nerve-corpuscles of 
large size from the same. 

Fig. 5. Smallest cells, bright and transparent, probably nucleoli, from the 

Fig. 6. Side view of dorsal tentacle of E. coronata : a, olfactory ganglion 
and nerve. 

Fig. 7. Dorsal tentacle with sheath, Doto fragiUs. 

Fig. 8. Lateral view of ditto ditto, Dendronotus arborescens. 

Fig. 9. Front view of ditto ditto ditto. 

Fig. 10. Side view of dorsal tentacles and laminated crest of Antiopa splen- 
dida : a a, tentacles ; 6, laminated crest ; c, ganglionic swelling in 
front of median cerebral ganglion ; d d, tractus olfactorius to lami- 
nated crest ; e e, ditto ditto to tentacle. 

Fig. 11. Front view of dorsal tentacle of Doris coccinea, showing central 
stem and laminae. 

Fig. 12. Olfactory laminae of Burn Trout, showing its resemblance to those 
of Doris coccinea : a, nostril ; b, central stem ; c, laminae. 

XX. — Brief Notice of several Mammalia and Birds discovered by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq., in Upper India, By Thomas Hors- 
FIELD, M.D. &c. 

Dear Sir, Library, East India House, Feb. 12, 1849. 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq., late British resident at Nepal, who is now 
zealously pursuing his researches into the natural history of the 
upper provinces of India, has lately presented to the museum of 
the East India Company, a small collection of mammalia from 
the neighbourhood of Sikim and Darjeling, and two birds from 
Tibet ; and (Mr. Hodgson) being desirous that a concise notice 
of them may be communicated to the public without delay, until 
he shall have an opportunity of publishing a more detailed de- 
scription of the new species, I request you, in his name, to insert 
the following list, with a few remarks, into an early number of 
the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History.^ 

Yours faithfully, 
Richard Taylor, Esq. Thomas Horsfield. 

List of Mammalia from Sikim and Darjeling , near Nepal, in 
Upper India. 

Numbers 1 to 4 have already been described and published. 

1. Genus Porcula, Hodgson, Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, vol. xvii. p. 423, with a figure. 
Type Porcula Salvania^, Hodgson. 

* Salvaniaj of or belonging to the Saul forest. 

Notice of some Mammalia and Birds from Upper India. 203 

Sp. Char. Pigmy hog of a black-brown colour, slightly and 
irregularly shaded with sordid amber ; iris hazel ; nude skin 
dirty flesh-colour ; hoofs glossy brown. Length from snout to 
vent 18 to 20 inches; height 8 to 10 inches; weight-7 to 10, 
rarely 12 lbs. 

2. Talpa micrura, Hodgs., Classified Catalogue of Mammals 
of Nepal ; Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. x. p. 910. 

^S. Rhizomys badius, Hodgs., Classified Catalogue of Mam- 
mals of Nepal; Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. x. p. 915. 

4. Lepus [Caprolagus) hispidus, Pearson. Described by J. T. 
Pearson, Esq. in the ' Bengal Sporting Magazine.' 

The following Mr. Hodgson indicates as undescribed, and they 
form an appropriate supplement to his Essay on the Rats, Mice, 
and Shrews of the Central Region of Nepal, printed in vol. xvi. 
of the ' Annals of Natural History,' &c. p. 266, &c. 

5. Neodon, n. g., Hodgson. 

Neodon Sikimensis, Hodgs. This animal Mr. Hodgson con- 
siders as a new type, though in many respects allied to Arvicola. 
Mr. J. E. Gray at my request has kindly compared the specimen 
with the Murines from India contained in the British Museum ; 
it appears to be nearly allied to Arvicola Roylei, Gray, described 
in the 'Annals of Natural History,' vol. x. p. 265. There are, 
however, in the Neodon some diiferences in the folds of the upper 
and lower grinders; these, with the other distinguishing cha- 
racters of this type, will be pointed out in Mr. Hodgson's de- 
tailed description. 

•'6. Mus cequicaudalisy Hodgs. Tail equal in length with the 

^ 7. Mus caudatior, Hodgs. Tail exceeding the body in length. 
^8. Mus Darjilingensisy Hodgs. 

9. Sorex Sikimensis, Hodgs. 

10. Sorex caudatus, Hodgs. 


1. Pica Tibet ana, Hodgs. 

Mr. G. R. Gray, who has carefully compared this bird with 
specimens in the British Museum, states that " it difi^ers from the 
European by its greater size, and by the white of the quills not 
extending to near the tip. In the English specimens the white 
comes within 8 lines of the tip." It appears to be allied to Pica 
megaloptera, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. of Bengal, vol. xi. p. 193. 

2. Coi'vus Tibetanus, Hodgs. Nearly allied to Corvus corax, 
but somewhat larger in size : the bill also is stouter. 

204 Mr. ¥. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites 

XXI. — Notes on Chalcidites, and Descriptions of various new 
species. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

Isosoma Maderse, fem. JEneo-atrum, capite fulvo bimacuiato, an- 
tennis pedibusque nigris, genubus tarsisque fulvis, alis subjlavis. 

Body black, convex, with a scarcely perceptible bronze tint, spa- 
ringly clothed with hairs : head and chest punctured : head transverse, 
subquadrate, somewhat rounded in front, shining, very finely punc- 
tured, having two very indistinct tawny spots behind, a little broader 
than the chest : eyes dark red : feelers black, somewhat slender, rather 
more than half the length of the body ; their breadth increases but 
very slightly from the base to the tips ; first joint long, bright 
tawny, slightly spindle-shaped; second long- obconical, piceous, 
tawny at the tip ; third a little longer than the second ; fourth shorter 
than the third ; fifth shorter than the fourth ; the two following 
joints also successively decreasing in length ; club spindle-shaped, 
very little broader but more than twice the length of the seventh 
joint : chest nearly spindle-shaped, broader in front : fore- chest sub* 
quadrate, shining, very finely punctured, a little broader than long, 
well developed ; fore-angles tawny and somewhat rounded : shield of 
the mid- chest shining, very finely and sparingly punctured, almost 
narrower than the fore-chest ; sutures of the parapsides very strongly 
marked, converging till they reach the hind-border of the shield, 
where their distance from each other is a little less than one-third of 
its breadth ; axillse large, and nearly conniving on the back, being 
separated there from each other by less than one-sixth of the breadth 
of the chest ; scutcheon conical, rather more thickly punctured than 
the fore-part of the body ; it has a rim along its hind-border which 
joins the hind- scutcheon ; the latter is very short : hind-chest well 
developed, declining, obconical, rugulose : petiole short, rugulose, 
nearly cylindrical, not half the length of the hind-chest : abdo- 
men long- elliptical, smooth, shining, clothed with a few white hairs, 
compressed at the tip, a little shorter but hardly broader than the 
chest ; metapodeon occupying about one-fourth of the back ; octoon 
not half the length of the metapodeon ; ennaton a little shorter than 
the octoon ; decaton a little longer than the ennaton ; each of the 
three following segments equalling the decaton in length : legs 
black ; knees, feet, and tips of thighs, of hips and of shanks tawny ; 
tips of four hinder feet piceous : wings with a slight yellow tinge ; 
veins luteous ; ulna much less than half the length of the humerus ; 
radius shorter than the ulna ; cubitus shorter than the radius ; brand 
very small. Length of the body \\ line ; of the wings '2^ lines. 

This and the twelve following species were found in the island of 
Madeira by Mr. WoUaston, to whose kindness I am indebted for the 
opportunity of examining them. 

Isosoma minor. 

Dicyclus Amage, mas. Viridi-mneus , abdomine purpurea, antennis 
nigris, pedibus piceo-fulvis, femoribus ceneis, alis limpidis. 

Head and chest convex, bronze, finely shagreened : head large, 

Mr. F. Walker on some neiv species of Chalcidites. 205 

much broader than the chest, green towards the mouth ; jaws fer- 
ruginous : eyes and eyelets dark piceous : feelers black ; first joint 
piceous, tawny at the base : chest nearly elliptical : fore-chest short, 
much rounded in front ; its length not more than one-fourth of its 
breadth : shield of the mid-chest rather short ; sutures of the parap- 
sides very indistinct ; axillae parted by one-fourth of the breadth of 
the chest ; scutcheon truncate-conical, rather large : hind-chest well 
developed, obconical, declining, brassy green, with a ridge along the 
middle and a rim on each side, where there are also a few white 
hairs : petiole short and very slender : abdomen flat, smooth, shining, 
purple, bright coppery green at the base, a little longer than broad ; 
metapodeon occupying more than one-third of the back, its hind- 
border convex ; octoon not half the length of the metapodeon ; en- 
naton shorter than the octoon ; decaton as long as the ennaton ; the 
following segments shorter : hips and thighs brassy ; trochanters and 
shanks piceous ; knees and feet tawny, tips of the latter piceous ; 
fore-shanks and fore-feet brown: wings colourless; veins pale brown ; 
ulna about half the length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than 
the ulna ; cubitus shorter than the ulna, slightly curved ; brand dark 
brown, of moderate size. Length of the body 1 line ; of the wings 
2 lines. 

Dicyclus nigro-aeneus. 

Pachyneuron formosum. 

Pteromalus Carinus, mas. jEneo-viridis, ah domine purpurea flavo 
maculato hasiceneo-viridi, antennis nigris, pedibus Jlavis, metafemO' 
rihusfulvis, alls limpidis , proalis fusco maculatis. 

Bright green, with a very slight brassy tint : head and chest convex, 
shining, finely shagreened : head a little broader than the chest ; 
front vertical : eyes and eyelets red : feelers black, slender, subclavate, 
as long as the chest ; first joint long, slender, tawny ; second cup- 
shaped, piceous, tawny at the tip ; third and fourth very short ; fifth 
and the following joints to the tenth successively decreasing in length 
and increasing in breadth ; club elliptical, rather broader than the tenth 
joint and a little more than twice its length : chest nearly elliptical : 
fore-chest short, narrower in front ; its length less than one-fourth of 
its breadth : shield of the mid-chest broader than long ; sutures of the 
parapsides very indistinct, approaching each other till they reach 
the hind-border, where they are separated by one-sixth of the breadth 
of the chest ; axillae rather large, separated by somewhat less than 
one-third of the breadth of the chest ; scutcheon nearly conical, 
truncate in front, with a rim along its hind-border, a little more con- 
vex than the shield ; hind-scutcheon visible but very short : hind- 
chest obconical, declining, with an indistinct suture along the middle 
and a rim on each side : petiole very short, not one-fourth of the 
length of the hind- chest : abdomen nearly conical, a little narrower 
and much shorter than the chest, depressed, smooth, shining, dark 
purple, with a large pale yellow spot near the base which is brassy 
green ; metapodeon occupying about one- third of the back ; octoon 

306 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

and following segments of moderate and nearly equal size : legs yel- 
low ; hips brassy green ; hind-thighs and tips of feet dull tawny : 
wings colourless, rather broad ; a large brown spot occupying most 
of the disc of each fore-wing ; veins tawny ; ulna rather more than 
half the length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than the ulna ; 
cubitus much shorter than the ulna ; brand large, piceous. Length 
of the body f line ; of the wings 1^ line. 

Pteromalus Anaxis, mas. Viridis, abdomine purpurea basi viridi- 
cupreo, antennis nigris, pedibus Jlavis, femoribus piceo-viridibus, 
alls limpidis. 

Head and chest convex, very finely shagreened, bright green : head 
large, broader than the chest, with a broad shallow furrow extending 
from the eyelets to the base of the feelers : eyes and eyelets piceous : 
jaws ferruginous : feelers black, filiform, as long as the head and 
the chest ; first joint long, slender, very slightly curved, tawny from 
the base to the middle and piceous thence to the tip ; second also 
piceous and shining ; third and fourth extremely minute ; the follow- 
ing from the fifth to the tenth successively decreasing in length ; 
club linear, pointed at the tip, a little more than twice the length of 
the tenth joint : chest nearly elliptical : fore-chest very short, its 
length hardly one-sixth of its breadth : shield of the mid -chest of 
moderate size, its disc rather flat ; sutures of the parapsides indi- 
stinct ; axillae parted by one-fourth of the breadth of the chest ; scut- 
cheon truncate-conical, more convex than the shield : hind-chest 
well developed, obconical, declining, with a ridge along the middle : 
petiole very short, coppery : abdomen long-elliptical, greenish cop- 
pery, smooth, shining, nearly flat, dark purple on the disc, very little 
shorter but much narrower than the chest ; metapodeon occupying 
nearly half of the back, bright green towards the base, where it is 
concave ; octoon not half the length of the metapodeon ; ennaton 
shorter than the octoon ; decaton as long as the octoon ; the fol- 
lowing segments very short : sexual parts long, pale tawny : legs very 
bright yellow ; hips green ; thighs piceous tinged with green, which 
dark colour as usual prevails most in the hind-legs and least in the 
fore-legs ; fore-feet tawny ; four hinder feet brown, first joint yellow : 
wings colourless ; veins piceous ; humerus twice the length of the 
ulna ; radius as long as the ulna ; cubitus very nearly as long as the 
radius ; brand of moderate size. Length of the body 1 line ; of the 
wings 2 lines. 

Pteromalus Scopas, mas. JEneo-viridis, abdominis disco purpureo, 

antennis fuscis, pedibus fulvis, femoribus viridibus, tibiis fusco 

fasciatis, alis limpidis. — Fern. Abdominis disco cupreo, antennis 

piceis, tibiis piceis, tarsis Jlavis. 

Head and chest convex, finely shagreened : head green, a little 

broader than the chest : eyes and eyelets red : feelers brown, filiform, 

rather stout, a little shorter than the head and the chest ; first joint 

piceous, linear, very slightly curved, tawny at the base ; second also 

piceous and shining ; third and fourth extremely minute ; the follow- 

Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalciditcs. 207 

ingfrom the fifth to the tenth successively but very slightly decreasing 
in length ; club long-conical, a little more than twice the length of 
the tenth joint : chest oval, brassy green, rather narrower towards 
the hind part : fore- chest very short, its length not more than one- 
eighth of its breadth : shield of the mid-chest broad ; sutures of the 
parapsides very iiidistinct ; axillae parted by full one-fourth of the 
breadth of the chest ; scutcheon truncate-conical, rather long : hind- 
chest of moderate size, obconical, abruptly declining, nearly smooth, 
with a ridge along the middle and a rim on each side : petiole ex- 
tremely short : abdomen spindle-shaped, flat, smooth, shining, green, 
dark purple on the disc, bright coppery green at the base, shorter 
and much narrower than the chest : metapodeon occupying near 
half the back ; octoon not one-fourth of the length of the metapo- 
deon ; ennaton longer than the octoon ; decaton a little shorter than 
the ennaton ; the following segments very short : sexual parts long, 
tawny : legs tawny ; hips and thighs green, tips of the latter yellow ; 
trochanters piceous ; a broad brown brand across each of the four 
hinder thighs ; four hinder feet pale tawny with piceous tips ; wings 
colourless ; veins tawny ; humerus more than twice the length of the 
ulna; radius a little longer than the ulna ; cubitus shorter than the 
radius ; brand small. 

Fem. Head and chest green, with a slight brassy tinge : head 
bluish green behind, rather broader than the chest : feelers clavate, 
piceous, shorter than the head and chest ; first joint green, tawny at 
the base ; the joints from the fifth to the tenth successively increasing 
in breadth and decreasing in length ; club short-conical, broader than 
the tenth joint and full twice its length : abdomen oval, a little broader 
but not longer than the chest ; bright green with the disc bronze, 
slightly compressed at the tip, concave above, very deeply keeled 
beneath, where it forms an angle whence it rises to the tip, which 
is much elevated, metapodeon occupying less than one-fourth of the 
back, its hind-border convex ; octoon not half the length of the meta- 
podeon ; each of the three following segments as long as the octoon ; 
paratelum shorter ; telum longer ; these segments are of more equal 
length beneath, where two or three ventral segments are visible 
towards the base of the abdomen : legs yellow ; hips and thighs 
green ; tips of the latter yellow ; trochanters dark tawny ; fore- 
shanks and fore-feet tawny ; four hinder shanks piceous with yellow 
tips ; four hinder feet with piceous tips : veins of the wings pale 
tawny; brand brown. Length of the body 1-1^ line; of the 
wings 2^-2|- lines. 

Pteromalus Calamis, mas et fem. ^neo-viridis, ahdomine pur- 
purea, antennis nigris, pedibus fulvis, femorihus vndsi piceis fem. 
obscure fulvis, alls limpidis. 

Body convex : head and chest extremely finely shagreened : head 
bluish green, rather large and thick, a little broader than the chest ; 
eyes and eyelets piceous: feelers black, very slightly subclavate, nearly 
as long as the head and the chest ; first joint long, slender, linear 
tawny ; second long cup -shaped ; third and fourth extremely minute ; 

208 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

the following joints from the fifth to the tenth nearly equal in length 
but slightly increasing in breadth ; club long-conical, hardly broader 
than the tenth joint, but more than twice its length : chest nearly 
elliptical, brassy green : fore-chest rather short, its length about one - 
fourth of its breadth : shield of the mid- chest rather short ; sutures of 
the parapsides very indistinct ; axillae large, parted by about one- 
sixth of the breadth of the chest ; scutcheon conical, coppery, rather 
prominent ; hind-scutcheon very short, but visible : hind-chest well 
developed, obconical, declining, with a ridge along the middle and 
a rim on each side ; petiole very short : abdomen nearly round, 
smooth, shining, purple, about half the length of the chest ; meta- 
podeon blue with a copper tinge at the base ; octoon and ennaton 
of moderate size ; the following segments extremely short, hardly 
visible : sexual parts long, pale : legs tawny ; hips green ; thighs 
piceous ; knees yellow ; four hinder feet pale tawny with piceous tips : 
wings colourless ; veins pale brown ; ulna much shorter than the 
humerus, but more than half its length ; radius much shorter than 
the ulna ; cubitus a little shorter than the radius, and rather more 
than half the length of the ulna ; brand very small. 

Fem. Head and chest dull green : head very little broader than the 
chest : feelers subclavate, shorter than the head and chest ; first joint 
tawny ; second piceous ; third and fourth tawny ; the following joints 
from the fifth to the tenth successively decreasing in length and 
increasing in breadth ; club eUiptical, broader than the tenth joint and 
nearly thrice its length : scutcheon dull coppery ; abdomen long ob- 
conical, smooth, shining, dull purple, as long and rather broader 
than the chest, keeled beneath, and having there an angle whose 
hinder line rises abruptly from the middle to the tip ; metapodeon 
bright green, concave at the base, nearly one-fourth of the length 
of the abdomen ; the following segments successively and shghtly 
decreasing in length : legs tawny ; hips green ; thighs dark tawny ; 
four hinder feet pale tawny with piceous tips. Length of the body |-1 
line ; of the wings IJ-l^ line. 

Allied to Pt. hemipterus, apicalis, and conifer. 

Cerchysius Euphranor, fem. ^neo-viridis, ahdomine cupreo apice 
purpurea, antennis nigris, pedibus fulvis, metapedum tibiis apice 
femoribusque piceis, alis limpidis. 

Head nearly semicircular, convex in front, slightly concave behind, 
green, coarsely shagreened, hardly as broad as the chest : eyes and 
eyelets dark red : feelers subclavate, black, a little shorter than the 
body ; first joint long, subclavate ; second cup-shaped ; the following 
joints successively increasing in breadth ; club long-conical, broader 
than the eighth joint and much more than twice its length : chest 
short, elliptical, convex, finely shagreened : fore- chest extremely 
short, hardly visible above : shield of the mid-chest short and broad ; 
axillae meeting on the back ; no traces of the sutures of the parap- 
sides ; scutcheon obconical, brassy, flat, more roughly shagreened 
than the shield ; its fore-border forming an obtuse angle : hind-chest 
very short, smooth, shining, purplish black : abdomen oblanceolate, 

Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 209 

coppery, smooth, shining, concave above, deeply keeled beneath, 
compressed at the tip which is bright purple, a little longer but 
very much narrower than the chest ; raetapodeon occupying full 
one-third of the back ; octoon and following segments short ; legs 
tawny ; middle legs paler than the fore-legs and dilated as usual ; 
tips of their feet brown ; hind-legs piceous ; their shanks tawny with 
piceous tips : wings narrow, nearly colourless except their ti})s, which 
are gray ; veins piceous ; ulna about one-third of the length of the 
humerus ; radius much longer than the ulna ; cubitus shorter than 
the ulna, and forming with the radius a more acute angle, than occurs 
in Encyrtus ; brand extremely small. Length of the body 1 line ; of 
the wings 1^ line, 

Eulophus Amempsinus. 

Tetrastichus flavifrons, fem. Nigro-viridis , capita fulvo, abdomine 
nigro -purpurea, antennis fuscis, pedibus fulvis, metafemoribus 
piceis, alls limpidis. 

Body smooth, shining : head tawny, broad, very short, impressed 
between the eyes, bright yellow and somewhat dilated about the 
region of the mouth, a little broader than the chest : eyes and eyelets 
bright red, the former prominent : feelers pale brown, subclavate, 
rather stout, more than half the length of the body ; first joint long, 
dilated ; second tawny, cup-shaped ; the following joints from the 
third to the sixth successively increasing in breadth and decreasing 
in length ; club long-elliptical, broader than the sixth joint and more 
than twice its length : chest short-elliptical, convex, greenish black, 
rather broad : fore -chest very short, its length not more than one- 
tenth of its breadth : shield of the mid- chest large ; sutures of the 
parapsides very distinct and strongly marked, converging towards 
the hind-border of the shield ; axillae parted by one-third of the 
breadth of the chest ; scutcheon short, obconical, with two parallel 
sutures along its back : hind-chest short and broad, hardly narrower 
behind : petiole extremely short, so that the abdomen appears sessile : 
abdomen short- elliptical, flat, purplish black, a little shorter and 
narrower than the chest ; metapodeon and three following segments 
of moderate length; the rest very short: oviduct pale tawny : legs pale 
tawny ; tips of feet brown ; hind-thighs mostly piceous : wings broad, 
colourless, pubescent, ciliated ; veins pale tawny ; ulna much longer 
than the humerus ; radius shorter than the ulna ; cubitus not one- 
third of the length of the radius ; brand extremely small. Length of 
the body ^ line ; of the wings 1 J line. 

Tetrastichus Silius, fem. Nigro-aneus, antennis fulvis basi piceis, 
pedibus fulvis, femoribus piceis, alis limpidis. 

Body smooth, shining : head black, broad, very short, impressed 
between the eyes, very little broader than the chest : eyes and eye- 
lets bright red, the former prominent : jaws ferruginous : feelers dull 
tawny, subclavate, rather more than half the length of the body ; 
first joint piceous ; second cup-shaped ; the following joints from the 

Ann. <Sf Mag. N. Hist, Ser. 2. Vol, iii. 14 

210 So?ne Account of the Storm of January in Bedfordshire. 

third to the sixth successively increasing in breadth and decreasing 
in length ; club long- elliptical, broader than the sixth joint and more 
than twice its length : chest short-elliptical, convex, brassy, rather 
broad : fore-chest very short ; its length not more than one-tenth 
of its breadth : shield of the mid-chest large ; sutures of the parap- 
sides very distinct and strongly marked ; axillae parted by one-third 
of the breadth of the chest ; scutcheon short, obconical, with two 
parallel sutures along its back : hind-chest short, broad, obconical, 
declining : petiole extremely short : abdomen long-elliptical, flat, 
bronze-black, slightly concave above, slightly keeled beneath, shorter 
and much narrower than the chest ; metapodeon and three following 
segments of moderate length ; the rest very short : legs pale tawny ; 
tips of feet brown ; thighs mostly piceous : wings broad, colourless, 
pubescent, ciliated ; veins pale tawny ; ulna much longer than the 
humerus ; radius shorter than the ulna ; cubitus not one-third of the 
length of the radius ; brand extremely small. Length of the body 
^ line ; of the wings 1^ line. 
Var. /3. Body black. 

XXII. — Some Account of the storm of January in Bedfordshire. 
By John Martin, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History, 

GentlExMEN, Froxfield, Feb. 14th, 1849. 

A REMARKABLE storin took place on Sunday the 14th of Janu- 
ary 1 849. A few particulars relating to it may be found inter- 
esting to those who attend to meteorological pursuits. 

The information with respect to it, in this communication, is 
chiefly confined to what occurred in the park of the Duke of Bed- 
ford, and is obtained from His Grace^s land steward, Thomas 
Bennett, Esq. 

The hurricane, attended by a heavy fall of rain, passed over 
Woburn Park about half-past two o'clock p.m. The direction 
it took was from the north-west to south-east ; its range did not 
appear to extend more than a quarter of a mile. The writer of 
this, who resides at the edge of the park, scarcely half a mile from 
the principal scene of destruction, was not aware of what was 
going on so close to him. The sun was shining a few minutes 
previously, and although the wind blew rather strongly, yet not 
perceptibly stronger than it had been blowing for some days. 

Its greatest violence did not continue more than a quarter 
of an hour. As far as information has been obtained as to its 
appearance in this vicinity, it was first observed at Fenny Strat- 
ford and Bow Brickhill on the borders of Bedfordshire. At these 
places several trees were thrown down as well as many old 
buildings. On Bow Brickhill Heath, where there is a large fir 

Some Account of the Storm of January in Bedfordshire. 211 

plantation of the Duke of Bedford' s^ several fir-trees were rooted 
up ; the destructive effects of the storm may be tracked, through 
that and an adjoining plantation on Wavendon Heath, to the 
Fuller's-earth Lodge on the high road to Northampton. From 
this place to Woburn Park there was no obstruction offered to 
its progress. It attacked the evergreens in a plantation at Crawley 
Grange near the gate of some water-meadows on the west, and 
continued from thence to Crawley Grange plantations on the east. 
Several very large trees were uprooted by the violence of the 
wind, principally spruce fir, and many others broken in the 
middle by their fall. It then took the course of a hollow in 
a plantation of evergreens in Crawley Dean Hills, clearing away 
all that resisted its progress — passing over the open part without 
causing much damage. At Flitwick, about five miles distant, a 
windmill was blown down, its cap and sails destroyed — half of 
one of the latter was carried sixty yards before it fell, and then 
rebounded ten yards further. One of the flaps, made of iron 
and canvas, was blown to a distance of one hundred yards from 
the mill. Several houses and barns in the village were untiled. 
The storm then appears to have passed off in the direction of 
Hitchin, on the borders of Hertfordshire. Its fury however ap- 
pears in a great measure to have been spent on the plantations 
of the Duke of Bedford, in the park and its vicinity. 

The number of trees blown down and broken on this property 
is about five hundred. The principal damage was to the fir tribe, 
and this is perhaps to be accounted for from their leaves holding 
the wind, offering an obstacle to the gale, while the leafless state 
of oaks, beeches, and other timber presented in this respect no 

A person who was on his way to Brickhill describes the violence 
of the storm to have been so great, as to force up the gravel on 
the road, and carry thorn bushes between two and three hundred 
yards. Several trees were blown down near him ; the window- 
shutters of a house torn off; and all this destruction is stated not 
to have occupied more than a minute and a half. It was ac- 
companied by a torrent of- rain. A young man who was going 
from Crawley to Woburn encountered the storm. Rain not 
falUng when he left home, he had not provided himself with any 
defence from what he did not anticipate on starting; he states 
that he had not proceeded more than ten minutes on his way, on 
arriving at the corner of the park wall on the road from Ampt- 
hill to Woburn, when his clothes and hat were entirely soaked 
through by a most heavy rain. In endeavouring to pass along 
the foot-path which runs close under the wall, it was with the 
utmost difficulty, owing to the violence of the storm, that he 
could maintain his footing ; indeed it was so violent as to compel 


212 Some Account of the Storm of January in Bedfordshii^e. 

him to retrace his steps. He had reached on his way back the 
corner of the wall close to the fir plantation in the Grange Belt, 
which he had only passed a few minutes previously, when he saw the 
whole clump of trees growing at the corner simultaneously laid 
prostrate. The action of the wdnd appeared to him to heave them 
up; in all probability, the blast, acting under the greater and lower 
branches, raised them in this manner. He describes the air around 
him as being darkened with the young shoots of the trees, 
mingled with thatch from haystacks in the adjoining fields ; the 
roar of the storm was so great as entirely to drown the spund 
of the falling timber, although he stood so close to the scene of 
its fury. A gig with three persons in it had only passed a few 
seconds previously ; though conscious that trees were falling, they 
did not actually witness them; it was with the utmost diffi- 
culty that the horse kept its legs, and the w^eight alone of the 
three prevented the vehicle itself from being blown over. 

At the lodge called the Deans there is a very fine Weymouth 
pine ; the keeper describes this tree as appearing to shiver to its 
very base, seemingly heaving up, as though underground action 
was at work ; happily for the security of the cottage it rode out 
the storm. 

A person residing at Castle Thorpe, two miles south of Hans- 
lape in Northamptonshire, states that the day was remarkably 
clear till half-past one, when he distinctly saw the storm-cloud 
rise from the west and overspread the sky in a quarter of an 
hour and proceed eastward. 

From information obtained through the kindness of a friend, 
it appears that the storm was observed at Bristol between twelve 
and one, and rather later at Cheltenham ; its course is not known 
to me thence until it arrived at Fenny Stratford, Bow Brickhill and 
Woburn Park — at Bishops Stortford and Colchester it was noticed 
at about three o'clock. It most probably swept across the island, 
rising in the British Channel and terminating in the German 
Ocean. On reference to the map, it appears to have assumed a 
semicircular shape, agreeably to the law laid down by Col. Reid in 
his very interesting record of facts in his work upon that subject. 

Some of your correspondents may have noticed its progress in 
other localities, and thus more effectually complete the course it 
took, and more decidedly establish in this instance the value of 
Col. Reid's theory. 

The remarks with which I trouble you were intended princi- 
pally to describe the effects of the storm in the Duke of Bedford's 
Park, where, from all that has been collected during its progress, 
the chief injury was sustained. 

I am. Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

John Martin. 

Rev. J. F. Dawson on new species of Coleoptera. 213 

XXIII. — Descriptions of five new species of Coleoptera. 
By the Rev. J. F. Dawson, LL.B. 


Fam. Harpalid^, MacLeay. 

Genus Amara, Bon. 

1 . Amara Fectensis. Oblonga convexa aenea nitida, iiiterdum cae- 
ruleo-nigra : elytris punctato-striatis : aiiteniiarum articulis tribus 
primis rufo-testaceis : tibiis tarsisque rufo-ferrugineis. Long. 4^ 

Oblong convex, body beneath shining black : head, thorax and 
elytra brassy brown, sometimes greenish brass, rarely blue-black, 
not always concolorous : thorax with an oblong deep impression 
on each side at the base, midway between the hinder angles and 
the dorsal furrow : elytra regularly and evenly striate, the striae 
deepening towards the apex and finely punctured for about two- 
thirds their length, the punctures gradually diminishing behind 
the middle and totally ceasing when the striae begin to deepen : 
within the outer margin an irregular line of deep impressions 
most numerous behind the middle : thighs pitchy black : tibiae 
and tarsi rusty red or pitchy testaceous ; anterior tibiae with the 
spine at the apex tricuspid, the middle mucro being longest and 
stoutest and slightly curved, the inner one smallest : first, second, 
third and basal half of the fourth joints of the antennae red, the 
rest fuscous black. 

Originally taken at Ryde, Isle of Wight, and referred incor- 
rectly to tricuspidata, Dej. We are indebted to Dr. Schaum for 
correcting this error ; and his opinion has since been confirmed 
by other continental entomologists, who have pronounced it to 
be an undescribed species. I have taken it annually for some 
years past in the north side of the Isle of Wight, but always 
sparingly, except on one occasion, when in company with my 
friend Mr. Wollaston (April 1846), it occurred plentifully among 
refuse left by a flood at Ryde. I have not seen it since. As the 
species requires a name, I have given it one commemorative of 
the locality in which it is (I believe exclusively) found. 

Genus Trechus, Clairville. 

2. Trechus incilis. Subtus niger, abdominis apice testaceo, supra 
nigro-piceus, thorace cordate, convexo, postice angustato, utrinque 
foveolato, angulis posticis inciHs, acutis : elytris oblongo-ovatis, 
striis quatuor dorsalibus ahbreviatis in singulo impressis : antenna- 
rum 2, 3 et 4 articulis nigris, reliquis, palpis pedibusque testaceis. 
Long. 2^ lin. 

Oblong ovate, dusky pitchy : head vnth two oblong frontal 
impressions : thorax heart-shaped, disc convex, broad in front. 

214 Rev. J. F. Dawson on new species of Coleoptera. 

with the sides considerably narrowed towards the hinder angles, 
which are acute, having a large fovea on each side nearly 
covering the base : elytra rather convex, the disc of each with 
three rugged abbreviated strice, and a fourth interrupted and some- 
what obsolete ; sides and apex smooth, with four or five impres- 
sions within the margin, near the humeral angles : body beneath 
shining black, with the tip of the abdomen broadly testaceous : 
antennae (except the second, third and fourth joints which are 
black), palpi and legs red. 

A pair, taken by myself in July 1847 at Whittlesea Mere, are 
the only specimens known. 

Genus Blemus, Zeigler. 

3, Blemus lopidosus. Rufo-testaceus, nitidus, capite interdum piceo, 
oculis riigris : elytris punctato-striatis, punctisque duobus im- 
pressis, palpis pedibusque pallidis. Long. 2| lin. 

Above reddish testaceous, paler beneath : head with a deep 
longitudinal stria on each side : thorax somewhat heart-shaped, 
: having a deep fovea oii each side at the base : elytra depressed, 
deeply striate, the stride finely punctate, third interstice with two 
deeper impressions : legs and palpi pale. 

Taken on the south coast of England some years ago, and 
erroneously referred to pallidus, Sturm. It appears to have been 
a scarce species, as I never saw a specimen in any collection till 
I had the good fortune to rediscover it about five years ago on 
the south coast of the Isle of Wight. Dr. Schaum, in his re- 
marks on the British Carabidce published in the Stettin Trans- 
actions*, has stated that it " answers perfectly to the description 
of Trechus fulvus, Dej.;" but in a letter which I received from 
him shortly after his last visit to England, he observes, in refer- 
ence to specimens which I had given him, " It is not Trechus 
fulvus, Dej., as I supposed : the latter, of which I have lately seen 
a typical specimen, is allied, but sufficiently distinct : Trechus pal- 
lidus, Sturm., being equally distinct : your insect ought to re- 
ceive a new name.^^ I have assigned it one, indicative of its ha- 
bitat, being found at some depth among the fine shingle on the 
sea-beach. It is taken also in similar situations in the north of 
England by Messrs. Hardy and Bold, but is very local. 

Fam. BEMBiDiiDiE, Stephens. 
Genus Perijphus, Megerle. 

4. Peryphus neglectus. Supra viridi-seneus, thorace cordate angus- 
tato, utrinque foveolato, angidis j)osticis acutis : elytris oblongis, 
paululurn depressis, punctato-striatis rufo-piceis, fasciis duabus 
fere obsoletis rufo-testaceis : antennarum 1, 2, 3 et 4 aiticulis, 
pedibusque testaceis. Long. 2J lin. 

[* See also ' Aniials,' p. 37, of the present volume. — Pin.] 

Rev. J. F. Dawson on new species of Coleoptera. 215 

Beneath black : head and thorax dark metallic green, shining, 
the former with a broad frontal impression on each side behind 
the eyes, back of the head smooth and glabrous : mandibles 
pitchy : palpi testaceous with the apex pitchy : first, second, third 
and basal half of the fourth joints of the antennae red, the rest 
fuscous black, all the joints (except the second) rather long : 
thorax convex, heart-shaped, narrow, not much more than half 
the width of the elytra at the base, which has a deep fovea on 
each side, hinder angles acute : elytra oblong, rather wide and 
depressed, the sides somewhat parallel, with the tip gently 
rounded, coarsely punctate-striate, with two deeper impressions 
on the third stria ; the apex smooth, pitchy red, with two reddish 
testaceous fascifs more or less obscure and obsolete, sometimes 
wholly wanting : legs testaceous red. 

Not unfrequent in the north of England on the banks of the 
Tyne and Derwent, and mentioned in the ' Catalogue of the In- 
sects of Northumberland and Durham^ as a variety of saxatilis 
by Mr. T. J. Bold, to whom I am indebted for my series. It is 
however sufficiently distinct from that species ; for independently 
of the colouring the structure is different, and while the elytra 
are considerably broader and perhaps less depressed, and the 
punctured striae not carried to the apex, as they are in saxatilis^ 
at the same time the thorax is smaller, narrower in front and more 
convex. Dr. Schaum, whose attention I called to the species, after 
a careful examination and comparison of the specimens which I 
had given him with their continental allies, both at Paris and 
Brussels, informed me that it is unknown. 

Genus Lopha, Megerle. 

5. Lopha Clarkii. Supra nigro-picea, thorace subcordato, truncate, 
utrinque foveolato : elytris oblongo-ovatis, punctato-striatis.punctis 
sat profundis : antennarum basi, pedibusque testaceis. Long. 1 J 

Beneath shining black, above pitchy black, head with two 
slightly flexuous strise, between which is an elevated ridge, on 
each side behind the eyes somewhat approximating in front • 
mandibles pitchy red, palpi pitchy black, basal joint of the an- 
tennse wholly and base of some of the following ones pale red ; 
thorax oblong heart-shaped, truncate before and behind, disc 
convex, transversely wrinkled, with the sides dilated and rounded 
before the middle, then narrowed, but leaving the base suffi- 
ciently broad, which has a large rugged fovea on each side, hinder 
angles acute : elytra oblong-ovate, wide, convex, deeply punctate- 
striate, the punctured stria) abbreviated before the apex, which 
with the sides is smooth, and has an obsolete blood-red spot 
near the outer margins : legs entirely red. In its general struc- 

216 Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassum. 

ture and in the deep punctures on the elytra it is allied to Man- 
nerheimii, but is a larger and more robust insect; the thorax 
especially is much larger and broader at its basis. 

I captured three specimens near Dorchester in May 1848, a 
pair of which I gave to Dr. Schaum, who informed me by letter 
after his return to Germany, that the species is unknown on the 

Ramsgate, February 15, 1849. 

XXIV. — Alg(B Orientales : — Descriptions of new Species belonging 
to the genus Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c.* 

[Continued from p. 109.] 

[With a Plate.] 


13. Sargassum obovatum (nob.); caule subcompresso ; foliis cauli- 
nis obovatis, obtusissimis, subintegris vel obcure dentatis ; aliis 
racemis intermixtis lanceolatis, serratis ; vesiculis subellipticis ; 
receptaculis minutis, oblongis, cylindraceis, in racemis densis, 
rotundatis, pedunculatis, aggregEitis. 

Hab. in mari Peninsulae Indise Orientalis ; Wight. 

Root unknown. Plant probably 1-2 feet long, judging from 
the fragment in my possession, which is apparently a portion of 
one of the primary branches or divisions of the stem ; this is 
somewhat compressed, as thick as a blackbird^ s quill, beset with 
numerous branches 2-3 inches long, which are bushy with ramuli 
less than an inch in length on which are found the racemes of 
fructification. Leaves : those on the stem above an inch long, 
obovate, quite rounded at the extremity, almost entire or ob- 
scurely repando-dentate, furnished with a nerve which disappears 
at some distance from the end; those on the smaller branches 
often more or less serrated, while those which accompany the 
fructification are much smaller, linear-lanceolate, and sharply ser- 
rate. Vesicles attaining the size of a small garden pea, varying in 
shape from elliptical to spherical, sometimes apiculate, supported 
on a compressed stalk generally little more than a line in length. 
Sometimes, however, one of the little lanceolate leaves becomes 
converted into a vesicle, and the stalk is then proportionally 
long. Receptacles cylindraceous, oblong, much-divided and lobed, 
forming a dense, roundish, very shortly pedicellated cluster a line 
or more in length. Colour very dark red-brown. Substance 
thick and cartilaginous. 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 11th Jan. 1849. 

vi//«..f J%. Snt liist. S. L \ oi-T'. I't.JX 

/r(:,-fyilU de-h 

Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassum. 217 

The only specimen — and it is a mere fragment — which I have 
seen of this Alga was disentangled from some other species. 
There appears to be a disposition in the leaves towards the ends 
of the branches to become incurved, but this may not be a per- 
manent character. 

14. Sargassum Wightii (nob.) ; caule compresso, distiche ramose ; 
foliis anguste lanceolatis, integerrimis ; vesiculis ellipticis, apicu- 
latis, longe petiolatis, petiolis planis, dilatatis ; receptaculis linea- 
ribus, compressis, ramosissimis, in racemo amplo subtruncato 

Wight in herb. no. 12 & 13. 

Hab. in mari Peninsulae Indise Orientalis ; Wight. 

Root an expanded disc, throwing up several mostly undivided 
stems from 1 to 2 feet in length, or probably more, giving off 
branches in a distichous manner, at intervals of half an inch or 
more; the lower ones are several inches long, becoming gra- 
dually shorter, and more remote as they approach the summit : 
the fruit-bearing ramuli are very short, and, like the rest, di- 
stichously arranged. Leaves from 1 to near 2 inches in length, 
narrow-lanceolate, sometimes almost linear-lanceolate, nearly 
equally attenuated at each extremity, acute, quite entire or 
obscurely repando-dentate, furnished with a somewhat faint nerve 
and a few scattered pores. Vesicles about the size of the seed 
of Lathyrus odoratuSj elliptical, apiculate, on long dilated folia- 
ceous stalks, in young plants arising from the axils of the cau- 
line leaves ; afterwards accompanying the fructification but spa- 
ringly, and generally taking the place of a leaf. Receptacles 
axillary, filiform, compressed, very much divided, the exterior 
branches the longest, so that the racemes have a cymose or tassel- 
like appearance. The racemes vary much in size, being dense, and 
not more than 2 or 3 lines long in some plants ; in others half 
an inch and much more lax. Colour dark, olivaceous, the recep- 
tacles black when dry. Substance slightly cartilaginous. 

In some specimens, the branches, besides producing axillary 
racemes, have the appearance of terminating in a larger raceme, 
an effect which seems to be produced by the ultimate leaves being 
converted into receptacles, the whole preserving the truncate and 
tassel-like outline of the axillary racemes. 

Eor this fine and very striking Alga I have reserved the name 
of the excellent and indefatigable naturalist from whom I received 
it. It is quite unlike any other species with which I am ac- 

15. Sargassum cervicorne (nob.) ; caule compresso, distiche ramoso ; 
foliis late lineari-lanceolatis subintegerrimis, superioribus atque in 
ramis fertilibus brevioribus, lanceolatis, plus minusve dentatis ; 

218 Dr. Greville on some 7iew species of Sargassum. 

vesiculis elliptico-sphsericis petiolatis, petlolis foliaceis, dilatatis ; 

receptaculis c^mpressis, valde dentatis, in racemo composito ag- 

Wight in herb. no. 17. 
Hab. in mari Peninsulae Indise Orientalis ; Wight. 

Root a callous disc, throwing up a number of stems nearly two 
feet long, compressed, a line or more broad, undivided, giving off 
branches in a distichous manner, at intervals of from half an inch 
to an inch or more, 3-6 inches long, spreading, the whole forming 
a more or less oblong outline. Fruit-bearing ramuli numerous, 
an inch long or more at the base of the branches, and dimi- 
nishing gradually to the extremity. Leaves: those produced 
from the main stem and especially on young plants often 2 to 
near 3 inches long, and from a quarter to half an inch in breadth, 
somewhat obtuse at the apex, either quite entire or obscurely 
repando-dentate, rarely furnished with a few sharp teeth towards 
the base. On the branches they are about an inch long, more 
or less lanceolate, more acute, often sharply toothed ; all furnished 
with a nerve and pores. Vesicles somew^hat elliptical, on young 
plants nearly as large as a small garden pea, supported on foli- 
aceous, dilated stalks 2-3 lines long. Sometimes the vesicle is 
winged and apiculate. Receptacles 1-1^ line long, axillary, 
forming pedunculate, more or less divided racemes, the segments 
very irregular in shape, compressed, and toothed so as frequently 
to resemble a deer's horn. 

The most remarkable feature in this Alga is the occasional 
length of the leaves which arise at the base of the primary 
branches, and which cause them to resemble the fronds of some 
of the Lycopodoid Polypodia. This is most conspicuous in a 
rather early stage of growth. The species however is liable, I 
suspect, to considerable variation ; and even on the same indivi- 
dual leaves may be seen almost, if not quite entire, while others 
are decidedly and sharply toothed. The latter occur chiefly in 
the upper part of the plant, and towards the ends of the branches. 
The description and figure I have given must be regarded as pro- 
visional, for if my apprehensions be well-founded, a more exten- 
sive series of specimens will be required before a complete cha- 
racter can be drawn up. 


Sargasstim ohovatum. 

Fig. 1. Termination of a branch. 

— 2. CauHne leaf. 

— 3. Leaves accompanying the receptacles. 

— 4. A raceme and leaf from the end of a branch. 
• — 5. Vesicles. 4 magnified. 

AntiSc Mag Xat.Sist S.Z.folZ.Il.Tm. 

Jj/i alissa I'uJcfaru . 

C \'3tocolcu3 eb 

GB.XT. dtl 

Coccochloris Jir^dissonii 

JJU C. Sotrerby 

Mr. G. H. K. Tliwaites on the Gonidia of Lichens. 219 

Sarcjassum Wiyhlii. 

Fig. 1. Portion of a branch. 

— 2, 2. Leaves and vesit-les from a young specimen. 

— 3. Raceme of fructification as sometimes seen tern)inating tlio 


— 4. Portion of a raceme in its more compact form. 

— 5. Portion of do. as Been in fig. 3. 

— 6. Vesicle. 4 & 5 magnified. 

Saj'gassum cervicorne. 

Fig. 1. One of the fertile ramuli, and leaf given off at the base of a branch. 

— 2. Leaf from a young plant with vesicles. 

— 3. Do. from towards the upper part of same plant. 

— 4. Vesicle;^. 

— 5. Receptacles as they are developed on one specimen. 

— 6. Do. The last ma«;nified. 

XXV. — On the Gonidia of Lichens. By G. H. K. Thwaites, 
Lecturer on Botany and Vegetable Physiology at the Bristol 
Medical School. 

[With a Plate.] 

There appears to have been much uncertainty felt by those who 
have devoted their attention to the study of the Lichens, as to 
the real character of those spherical or subspherical green bodies 
which are characteristic of true Lichens, and to which the name 
oi gonidia has been given, from the circumstance of their capa- 
bility of becoming developed into new plants when separated 
from the parent structure. Every one who has examined care- 
fully the ihallus of a Lichen under a tolerably high power of the 
microscope, must have been struck by the peculiar appearance of 
the gonidia^ as compared with ordinary cellular structure : — the 
frequent irregularity in their form — their want of correspondence 
in size — their slight attachment to each other, or to the filamen- 
tous tissue surrounding them, and their aggregation in certain 
parts of the structure — must have taken the attention of any 
observer who has been much accustomed to the examination of 
vegetable structures. These peculiarities indeed gave rise to a 
strong desire on my part to ascertain the real character of ^omWz«, 
and after examining a great number of species, both of true 
Lichens and of the genus Collema, and plants allied to it, I am 
able with confidence to state what is the true character oi gonidia. 
It is pretty generally known that the thallus of Collema consists 
of a number of moniliform filaments, and also of delicate anasto- 
mosing cylindrical filaments immersed in a more or less firm ge- 
latine. When examined more carefully the structure is found 
to consist of numerous Nostoc-like vesicles closely cohering, and 
among which ramify the anastomosing filaments. The cellular 

220 Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites on the Gonidia of Lichens. 

cuticle which invests the thallus of some species of Collema, or 
rather of Leptogium, Fr., is a modification only of the anasto- 
mosing filaments, as can be proved from the structure of some 
allied plants. 

What has just been stated may be considered a description of 
the ordinary structure of Collema and Leptogium, but in Collema 
nigrum we find each frond corresponding to a single nostoc-vesi- 
cle, which becomes invested with a cellular cuticle, and has ex- 
ternal to this the characteristic anastomosing filaments, which, 
with those of other similar fronds, go to form the filamentous 
substratum or kind of thallus upon which the fronds of this spe- 
cies are situated. In the true Lichens is to be traced a very 
similar structure, only that instead of nostoc-vesicles we find 
groups of cells very nearly resembling those of the genus Pleu- 
rococcuSj Meneghini, and around these cells, which increase in 
number by continual subdivision, anastomosing filaments or mo- 
difications of them become developed, just as takes place in Col- 
lema nigrum', indeed so great is the resemblance between the 
small fronds of that species and a state I have found of Biatora 
vernalis, as to have at first made me suppose they were imme- 
diately allied to each other. 

From the above then it is clear, that the gonidia of a Lichen 
are the analogues as regards their functions of the nostoc-vesicles 
of Collema, and this view enables us to understand what pre- 
viously appeared an anomalous character in these organs. The 
gonidia are in fact the essential part of the whole structure, 
and can scarcely be considered as gemnue, except when under 
certain circumstances they put on that character, just as ordinary 
cells do in other plants. 

The other elements of the Lichen-thallus may without difficulty 
be believed to represent modifications of the anastomosing fila- 
ments of Collema, which no doubt they are. 

It is thus shown that between Collema and the true Lichens 
there subsists a close though not an immediate affinity, the 
essential part of the former being represented by the genus 
Nostoc, and of the latter by the genus Pleurococcus. 

There are other plants bearing considerable external resem- 
blance to those we have been describing, but which are repre- 
sented, as respects their essential structure, by other genera of 
the lower Algae. Among such may be mentioned Synalissa vul- 
garis, Fr., first gathered in this country by Mr. Borrer, who found 
it growing upon St. Vincent's Rocks : externally this little plant 
much resembles a Collema, but an examination of its internal 
substance under the microscope exhibits to us a structure very 
like that of the genus Coccochloris : a number of single cells (or 
binate, when undergoing subdivision) are scattered throughout 

Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites on the Gonidia of Lichens. 221 

the gelatinous substance of the plant, and most thickly towards 
the periphery of the cylindrical branches of the fronds. Each 
cell is found, upon a careful inspection, to be surrounded by its 
definite amount of gelatine, and to be situated at the extremity 
of an ultimate ramification of the numerous somewhat anasto- 
mosing filaments which pervade the whole mass of the plant 
(PL VIII. A. fig. 2). The genus Paulia, Fee, a species of which 
(Paulia perforata, Mont. MSS.) has, at the request of Mr. Berke- 
ley, been kindly sent for my inspection by Dr. Montague, pos- 
sesses' an internal structure precisely similar in character to that 
of Synalissa. The asci of Synalissa vulgaris contain numerous 
perfectly spherical sporidia : I could not detect any apothecia in 
Dr. Montagne^s specimen of Paulia. The genus Lichina is im- 
mediately allied to Stigonema [Ephehe, Fr.), and the whole struc- 
ture is very different from that of Paulia, as I have ascertained 
from the examination of freshly-gathered specimens of the former 
recently sent me by Prof. Harvey. 

Whilst writing on this subject, I may mention another very 
interesting plant, which, in the texture of its frond and character 
of its fructification, exhibits some analogy to Collema. I allude 
to Mastodia tessellata, Flor. Ant., for a sight of specimens of 
which I have been indebted to the kindness of Professor Harvey 
and Mr. Berkeley. The essential structure of this plant is re- 
presented by the genus Ulva (especially Ulva crispa), but it pos- 
sesses apothecia containing asci, though the latter organs appear 
to have escaped the observation of the excellent botanists who 
described the plant, owing to the sporidia so soon becoming free. 

We have thus then offered to our view plants which, judging 
from their external appearance alone, would be arranged together 
in one undivided group, and even in some cases in the same 
genus, exhibiting nevertheless totally different types of structure. 
They are as follows : — 

1. The Lichens proper; 

2. Collema, Leptogium, &c. ; 

3. Synalissa and Paulia ; 

4. Mastodia-, 

represented respectively, as regards their essential fundamental 
structure, by the genera Pleurococcus, Nostoc, Coccochloris and 
Ulva {U. crispa), which are usually placed very near together in 
a natural arrangement ; but the circumstance of their each im- 
pressing a character, upon being a bond of union, as it were, to 
plants higher in the scale of vegetation, will doubtless, if well 
considered, furnish a key to the proper arrangement of species 
closely allied to and of equally low development with them. 

It is highly interesting to observe in these lower plants a 
typical character of essential structure binding together nume- 

222 Bibliographical Notices. 

rous species of various forms, and enabling us to distinguisli at 
once in other species resemblances of analogy from those of affi- 
nity : so true is it that in the smallest natural groups of orga- 
nized structures the same great principles are to be discovered, 
when carefully sought for, which exhibit themselves so obviously 
in the larger divisions of the Kingdom of Nature. 


Fig. 1. Portion of a plant o^ Synalissa vulgaris, Fr., slightly magnified. 

— 2. Small portion of the internal substance of the frond, sliowtng the 

arrangement of the cells, and their attachment to the branched 
filaments. Magnified 270 linear. 

— 3.\ Aw^ ■^a.xw^hyses o^ Synalissa vulgaris. Magnified 270 linear. 


Illustrations of the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
Parti. January — April. 1848. 8vo. 

We hail with hearty welcome this most noble addition to the illus- 
trated periodical zoological works of our country, and hope that it 
may meet with that liberal encouragement which will induce Mr. 
Mitchell, the able Secretary to the Zoological Society, to persevere 
in its publication. It is really a very handsome work, and indepen- 
dently of its scientific value, we must say that to the general lover 
of the works of an allwise Creator, this book must prove singularly 
pleasing. There is a very happy selection of subjects — something to 
please everybody. 

Mammalia are represented in 
Galidictis vittata, J. E. Gray, well drawn and lithographed by Mr. B. 
W. Hawkins. This animal belongs to the same family as the weasels, 
and is described by Mr. Gray from a specimen in the British Mu- 
seum, now so rich in its collection of mammalia. 

Ptilocercus Lowii, J. E. Gray, drawn and lithographed by Mr.Wolf. 
A very beautiful and singular insectivorous quadruped, organized for 
an arboreal life by its singular pen-shaped tail, with its two vanes, so 
suited to balance the little creature ; it was discovered by Mr. Hugh 
Low, Colonial Secretary, Borneo, in the woods of that island ; we 
hope the enterprising Secretary of the Zoological Society may suc- 
ceed in getting from Borneo live specimens of this and other zoolo- 
gical productions of the Indian Archipelago. 

Of Birds there are figured 
Coracopsis } personata^ G. R. Gray, a fine new species of Parrot, 
now in the noble collection of the Earl of Derby, President of the 
Zoological Society ; it is figured by Mr. B. W. Hawkins. — Trochilus 
(Heliangelus) Mavors, Gould. Mr. Richter has figured this and the 
next plate (our favourite) of these " children or messengers of the 
sun," as some one has pleasingly named the Humming-bird, — Trochilus 
(Helianthea) Eos, Gould, a most gorgeous bird, and most admirably 

Bibliographical Notices. 223 

figured and coloured : if Gould's forthcoming work on the Trochilidce 
is to have all the figures of a similar character and execution to this, 
we can assure him of almost certain encouragement. 

Of Annulosa, Insecta, 
Mr. Hewitson figures and describes a most beautiful species of But- 
terfly found by Mr. Charles Empson of Bath in South America; it is 
the Agrias jEdon ; this figure is coloured in a most masterly way, 
and to the artist must prove valuable as showing the arrangement, 
harmony and contrast of colour, which are exhibited in insects, on 
birds and on shells, in particular, in a way which often surprises 
artists not accustomed to look to these objects. Mr. Hewitson's 
figures of the eggs of British birds and his illustrations of Doubleday 
and Hewitson's Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera are well known. 

Of Annulosa, Crustacea, 
Mr. Gray figures two new species of Cirripeds, ScalpeUum ornatum 
and Anatifa ovalis, while figures by Mr. William Wing of the Lithodes 
(Echinocerus) cibarius. White, a singular rough edible species of 
crab from the Columbia River, in the collection of the British Mu- 
seum, are given in a most commendable way on stone ; — Mr. Wing 
bids fair to distinguish himself as a draughtsman of Crustacea, In- 
sects, and Radiata. 

Of Radiata 
Mr. J. E. Gray figures Sarcoptilus grandis, a new genus and species 
in the collection of the British Museum ; it is a singularly interest- 
ing form of Radiata. 

We have before us proofs of the plates that are to appear in 
Part II., and can only say they keep up amply the good character of 
Part I. 

Mr. Gray's new species of Monkey, Cercopithecus Pluto, figured 
most graphically by Mr. Wolf. 

Mr. Angas's new South African Antelope, described by Mr. Gray 
and named Tragelaphus Angasii, is shown in two excellent plates 
drawn by Mr, B. Waterhouse Hawkins ; it is a most lovely animal ; 
the male, female and young are represented. 

Of Birds, the Podica personata, G. R. Gray, one of the Finfoot 
tribe, is figured by Mr. Wolf, and also a new Parrot, the Psittacus 

Of Insects, Mr. Hewitson figures the new Butterfly (Corades Enyo), 
while Mr. Doubleday's interesting new Australian Moth is figured 
with its fine larva, which will form a valuable addition to our know- 
ledge of the history of Australian Lepidoptera. Mr. Wm.Wing has 
drawn and lithographed this plate. 

The price of these illustrations can only cover the expenses of pub- 
lication. We can most sincerely recommend the work to our readers, 
scientific and non-scientific : as plates of beautiful objects, admirably 
lithographed and most accurately coloured, they merit every praise ; 
as coloured prints for albums most of them would be sought after, if 
sold singly, at three times the price asked for them. They are good 
and cheap — rare qualities in combination. 

2*^4 Zoological Society. 



March 28, 1848.— Wm. Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were communicated to the Meeting : — 

1. Description of a new species of Butterfly, of the genus 
Agrias. By W. C. Hewitson, M.E.S. etc. 

Genus Agrias, Boisd. MSS.. 

Head rather broad, clothed with hair ; eyes nearly round or slightly 
oval, prominent ; maxillae rather longer than the thorax ; labial palpi 
rather widely separated, ascending, thickly clothed with scales, which 
in front are long ; basal joint curved, very short, second more than 
twice the length of the first ; third short, pointed. Antennae elon- 
gate, about three-fourths the length of the body, gradually thicken- 
ing from the base to the apex. 

Thorax large, elongate-ovate, truncate posteriorly, hairy. Anterior 
wings subtriangular, the anterior margin rounded, about one -half 
longer than the outer, which is nearly straight or slightly sinuate ; 
the inner margin rather longer than the outer, straight. Costal 
nervure stout, extending beyond the middle of the costa ; subcostal 
nervure throwing off its first nervule about the middle, the second 
a short distance before the end of the cell, the third at some distance 
beyond the cell, the fourth rather more remote from the third than 
that is from the fourth. Third subcostal nervule terminating at the 
apex ; fourth running close to the third until near the apex, then 
bent downwards and reaching the outer margin about half-way be- 
tween the apex and the termination of the fifth subcostal nervule ; 
upper disco- cellular nervule very short, middle above twice the length 
of the upper, lower nearly twice the length of the two other com- 
bined ; third median nervule considerably curved. Posterior v/ings 
obovate ; the fold for the reception of the body ample, anterior mar- 
gin rounded, outer slightly dentate, sinuate ; precostal nervure 
simple ; cell closed by a slight disco- cellular nervule. 

Anterior feet of the female small, the femur and tibia about of equal 
length, the tarsus short, four-jointed, the basal joint longer than the 
rest combined, which are all short, transverse, and nearly equal. 
Middle and posterior feet stout, rather short ; thelibiae spiny within, 
the spurs very short ; the tarsi spiny at the sides, the first joint spiny 
below also, equal in length to the rest combined ; claws small, curved ; 
pulvillus large. 

Abdomen short, tapering. 

AuBiAS j^Edon. Ag. alis anticis supra late chermesinis, apice mar'^^ 
gineque interna nigra, posticis suprd, nigris plagd magnd, cyaned, 
subtiis fuscescentibus , acellis septem submarginalibus nigris, alba 

Exp. alar. 3 unc. 9 lin., vel 95 millim. 

Hab. Nueva Granada. 

Zoological Society. 225 

Above, anterior wings rich crimson, the costal nervure and the 
inner margin fuscous black, the apex broadly and triangularly black, 
the black colour commencing on the costa opposite the end of the 
cell, becoming narrower towards the outer angle, where it unites with 
the fuscous black of the inner margin. Posterior wings black, marked 
with a large blue discoidal patch, extending nearly to the anal angle. 
Below, anterior wings with the part corresponding to the crimson of 
the upper surface much paler than above, the cell with two round 
black spots ; the black of the apex and inner margin replaced by pale 
fuscous ; the disco-cellular nervules marked with a fuscous black 
dash, and the apex crossed by two oblique bands of the same colour. 
Posterior wings pale fuscescent, with two rounded fuscous spots in 
the cell ; several scattered liturse of the same colour before the middle 
of the wing, then two transverse bands also fuscous, followed by a 
series of seven black spots pupilled with white, the last bipupillate, 
the ^cond spot the largest : between these spots and the margin a 
third fuscous band. 

Head, thorax and abdomen black. 

This beautiful butterfly is I believe unique in my own collection. 
It was taken by my friend Mr. Empson many years ago in South 
America, and was one of a very few things — all at that time very rare 
— which were saved from the shipwreck of a large collection. 

Mr. E. Doubleday, whose experience gives him great facility, has 
kindly supplied me with the generic characters. 

2. Description of Echinocerus cibarius, a new species and 
SUBGENUS OF Crustacea. By Adam White, F.L.S. etc. 

Amongst the Decapod Crustacea there are several genera of doubt- 
ful situation which belong to neither of the great divisions Brachyura 
and Macroura. Professor xVlilne-Edwards first brought them together 
as a section, under the name of Anomoura ; but, as he remarks, they 
do not form a very natural group, the principal advantage derived 
from its formation being the opportunity which it gives the syste- 
matist to withdraw all the aberrant species from the two very natural 
sections specified above. Not a year passes but new species are added 
to this group, and occasionally a new form is found ; in course of 
time these discoveries will serve to link genera which seem at pre- 
sent to be distant from each other, if at all related. The species 
described below is close to the genus Lithodes, some of the species 
of which have considerable resemblance to it. The generic name 
describes the peculiarity of the spined appendage to the outer an- 
tennae, while the specific name is given in allusion to its excellence 
as an article of food. 

In one of the two specimens in the British Museum, the legs, cara- 
pace and abdomen are covered with numerous barnacles, and on 
taking off the old carapace, which had commenced to split, the still 
coriaceous envelope, which would have formed the new carapace, 
may be found beneath it. On this are very plainly indicated the 
crowded warts, the scattered knobs, and lateral projecting spines, 
which are so prominent on the outer surface of the old carapace. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 1 5 

226 Zoological Society. 

The different regions of the carapace are also clearly distinguished : 
the body of this new carapace is coriaceous ; the warts are more cal- 
careous, and consist for the most part of small irregularly-shaped 
plates, arranged circularly round a small group of calcareous scales. 
These groups are of different sizes, from that of the head of a small 
pin to the space occupied by the top of a tolerably large nail. On 
a small portion of the carapace, on each side of the middle knob, and 
in two lines directed towards the front, there are distinct portions of 
calcareous matter already formed, while on the abdominal plates 
there are still more extensive calcareous portions formed in the co- 
rium ; the various groups of plates are distinctly visible, most of the 
scales are perforated, and through the holes in many cases a short 
hair or bristle protrudes. This new skin is only visible on the cara- 
pace and on the abdominal plates. 


Carapace considerably wider than long, subtriangular, very irre- 
gular above ; the front sinuated, with a large projecting pointed beak 
springing from the middle, and armed above with three or four spines 
arising from one knob ; the sinus on each side has three spines, the 
outer one very large and projecting ; edge of the carapace more or 
less spined all round, the spines on the latero-anterior ridges being 
sharp, those on the latero-posterior and posterior edges being blunt ; 
the latero-anterior and latero-posterior edges separated by a deep 
notch ; general surface of carapace closely covered with tubercles, 
which are perforated, and furnished with bristles springing from the 
holes ; on the stomachal region there is a high conical projection, 
the sides of which are comparatively smooth ; near the base of this 
on each side is a smooth somewhat oval wart, with an impressed line 
behind it ; on each branchial region a high conical projection, and 
another behind the middle of a straight line drawn between the 
branchial tubercles ; the posterior edge of the carapace with two 
rather large tubercles separated by a slight sinus. 

Chelce with the end of the fingers hollowed out somewhat like a 
spoon, the edges granulated, the hands with numerous large bristly 
pointed tubercles on the outside, three of these being on the upper 
edge ; the wrist with a large triangular expansion on the inside, 
which is spined and tubercled above ; second, third and fourth pairs 
of legs nearly as long as the first pair, and very similar in appearance, 
but not so thick ; the third joint from the tarsus flat on the sides ; 
the upper surface of the legs with large conical bristly tubercles or 
spines ; the spines on the tibial joint arranged in three longitudinal 
lines ; the tarsus spined, particularly on the lower edge ; fifth pair of 
legs quite concealed within the branchial cavities. 

Outer antennce with a large appendage at the base ; this appendage 
is smooth below, and has four longitudinal rows of spines on its up- 
per portion, the lateral rows having the longest spines. 

Inner antennas situated beneath and to the outside of the eyes ; the 
first joint very thick, particularly at the base, subcylindrical ; second 
and third joints cylindrical, nearly equal in length, thickest at the tips. 

Zoological Society. 227 

Eyes close together, placed under the frontal spine ; the peduncle 
is much shorter than, and not nearly so thick as, the basal joint of 
inner antennae ; the upper side covered with small spines. 

Outer jaw -feet resemble those oi Lithodes, especially in L. hrevipes. 

Abdomen very wide, rounded at the base, triangular at the end, 
formed of many plates of different sizes, which are close together ; 
the basal segment is crescent-shaped, and within its sinus are in- 
cluded the other plates, which are arranged in four longitudinal series ; 
the outer series narrow, the other three wide ; the plates of different 
sizes and shapes, with two supplemental plates, one on each side of 
the central row, and at its base ; the plates with rough and bristly 
tubercles ; the first joint of abdomen with two round depressions, the 
base of each being coriaceous-like, and furnished with only a few 
small scattered calcareous tubercles ; the middle of the hind-edge 
with four tubercles placed in pairs. 

Hab. North America, mouth of the Columbia River; Sir George 
Simpson. In Mus. Brit. 

3. Descriptions of new species of Turbo, chiefly from tue 


Turbo natalensis. Turb. testd vix imperforatd, orbiculari, de- 
pressiusculd, anfractibus spiraliter sulcatis, sulcis regulariter 
concavis latiusculis ; olivaceo-viridescente, rufo radiatim maculatd 
et punctatd, intus argented ; operculo testaceo, cristato. 

Hab. Port Natal ; Wahlberg. 

The operculum of this beautiful species is a tufted mass,, like that 
of the T. sarmaticus. 

Turbo saxosus. Turb. testd imperforatd, ovatd,spirce suturis sub- 
profund^ impressis ; anfractibus supern^ concavo-declivibus, medio 
angulatis, transversim obscure liratis, tuberculis juxta suturas coro- 
natis, infrci nunc muticis, nunc tuberculis bi-tri-seriatim armatis, 
laminis subtilibus, longitudinaliter obliquis , peculiariter exsculptis ; 
viridi albimaculatd, intus argented; operculo testaceo, crasso. 
Hab. West Columbia ; Cuming. 

Having observed this species in a private collection, under the 
name saxosus, in manuscript, I adopt it, though not a very appropriate 
one, lest it may have been published and escaped my observation. 
The rows of tubercles are extremely variable, being even more pro- 
minently developed in specimens of smaller growth than is here re- 

Turbo laminiferus. Turb. testd umbilicatd, ovatd, spira suturis 
canaliculatis ; anfractibus subtubulosis, spiraliter costatis, costis 
distantibus, et, cum interstitiis, pulcherrimi concentric^ laminatis, 
aperturd rotundd ; viridi, nigro longitudinaliter undatd, inths ar- 
Hab. Mouth of the Victoria river. New Holland. 
A very beautifully sculptured species, allied to the T. Ticaonicus, 
but perfectly distinguished from it, in being of uniformly smaller size, 


228 Zoological Society. 

more distinctly and remotely ribbed, and in being concentrically 
frilled throughout with a close succession of delicate laminae. 

Turbo murreus. Turb. testd minutd, suhorbiculari, vix umhilicatd, 
lavigatd, politd, albd, rosea nitide maculatd. 

Hab. ? 

A minute, delicately coloured, porcelain shell. 

Turbo corallinus. Turb. testd parvd, suborbiculari-ovatd, im- 
perforatd, conspicue spiraliter sulcatd ; rosea -purpurea, intils mar- 

Hab. ? 

Another interesting small species, of a dull livid rose-purple hue, 
strongly spirally grooved. 

Turbo trochoides. Turb. testd subpyramidali-ovatd, perforatd; 
anfractibus spiraliter sulcatis, superne concavis, deinde obsolete 
nodosis ; luteo-albicante, olivaceo radiatim maculatd, lineolis minU' 
tissimis aurantio-fuscis, oblique reticulatis. 

Hab. } 

A species of peculiar sculpture and marking, partaking very much 
of the generic character of Trochus. 

Turbo pustulatus. Turb. testd ovatd, subventricosd, imperforatd, 
nodis grandibus papillosis undique notatd, aperturce fauce argen- 
ted; albidd, alivaceo-fusca luteoque maculatd. 

Hab ? 

An interesting species covered with swollen nodules ; collected by 
Sir Edward Belcher during the voyage of the ' Sulphur.* 

Turbo turcicus. Turb. testd subpyramidali-ovatd, imperforatd, 
spira suturis excavatis, anfractibus spiraliter squamato-liratis , 
superne decUvibus, acute angulatis, ad angulum erecto-squamatis, 
aperturd parvd, lutescente, coccineo rufo pulcherrime radiatd. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

A prettily painted species encircled by a diadem of erect scales. 

Turbo pyropus. Turb. testd subdepresso-ovatd, imperforatd, spine 
sutu7'is simplicibus, anfractibus lavibus, striisve spiraliter cingu- 
latis ; albidd, striis vivide rubris, intils argented. 

Hab. ? 

Of a deep blood-red colour, with the margins of the aperture united 
beyond the columella. 

Turbo gemmatus. Turb. testd subdepresso-ovatd, imperforatd, 
spira suturis subprofund^ canaliculatis, anfractibus nodulis parvis 
undique gemmatis ; corallo-rufescenie, intils argented. 

Hab. ? 

Very similar in form to the preceding species, and partaking in 
some measure of the colour ; the spire differs in having the sutures 
deeply channeled, and the entire surface in being beaded with small 
papillose nodules. In the former species the margins of the aperture 
are entire, and it is the striae that are coloured upon a white ground. 

Turbo lugubris. Turb. testd suborbiculari-ovatd, spird depressd, 

Zoological Society. 229 

anfractibus supern^ declivibus, deinde nodulis papillosia cingulatis, 
columelld concavd; albidd, epidermide crassd nigricante indutd, 
columella et aperturd argenteis. 

Hab. ? 

Another species collected by Captain Belcher in the ' Sulphur,' not 
hitherto described. 

Turbo nivosus. Turb. testd oblong o-turbinatd, imperforatd, spird 
subexsertd, anfractibus spiraliter liratis, liris obtusis, irregulari- 
bus, duabus prominentibus subsquamosis ; vivid^ virescente , fusco 
hie illic maculatd, liris prominentibus et inferioribus fusco niveoque 
articulatis, intus argented. 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming. 

A prettily painted species, apparently not described before. 

TuHBO TUMiDULus. Twb. tcstd ovatd, imperforatd, spird subacu- 
minatd, anfractu ultijno amplo, tumidiusculo ; anfractibus undique 
spiraliter liratis, liris angustis, confertis, valde irregularibus, ob- 
lique serratis ; lutescente, intense castaneo-nebulatd. 

Hab. ? 

This species merges into the T. spinosus, but is very remotely con- 
nected with it. 

Turbo circularis. Turb. testd sub orbicular i, imperforatd, spird 
breviusculd, anfractibus superne depressis, liris obtus^ nodiferis, 
alternatim majoribus, cingulatis; rosaceo-fusco alboque marmo- 
ratd, columelld plano-concavd, alba, intiXs margaritaced. 

Hab. .? 

Very nearly allied in form and general aspect to the T. Natalensis, 
but readily distinguished on comparison. 

Turbo torcatus. Turb. testd orbiculari, spird depressiusculd, su- 
turis excavatis, subtus concavd, profunde umbilical d, anfractibus 
fortiter spiraliter costatis, costis rotundatis, lird minutd inter- 
veniente ; viridi, rufo-olivaceo nitide marmoratd, intiis argented. 
Hab. Point Swan, North Australia ; Dring. 

Allied in form to the T. versicolor and porphyriteSy from both of 
which species it is sufficiently distinguished by its strongly-ribbed 
growth . 

Turbo articulatus. Turb. testd ovatd, vix umbilicatd, spird acu- 
minatd, anfractibus subtubulosis, spiraliter obtuse costatis, costis 
irregularibus longitudinaliter creberrime serralo-striatis ; viridi 
purpureo -nigricante marmoratd et variegatd, intus argented. 

Hab. ? 

Allied to the T. radiatus in form, but peculiar in its articulated 
style of painting. 

Turbo japonicus. Turb. testd ovatd, imperforatd, tenuiculd, sub- 
inflatd, anfractibus IcBvibus, spiraliter costatis, costis nunc pi'omi- 
nentibus, regularibus, nunc planiusculis, valde irregularibus; 5/ja- 
diceo-luted, rufo varie tinctd et maculatd, intils argented. 

Hab. Japan. 

Like most shells from the Japanese islands, this is of very peculiar 

230 Zoological Society. 

character, and very different from any of the tropical species of the 

Turbo militaris. Turh. testd ovatd, imperforatd, tenuiculd, sub- 
ventricosd, anfractibus lavibus, superne declivibus ; rufescente 
albidd, maculis lineisque rufis nitide pictd; columellae margine 
livido-cinereo,^ intus argenteo . 

Hab. Isle of Annaa (on the reefs) ; Cuming. 

An interesting species of rather light growth, exhibiting a very 
distinct and characteristic style of painting. 

Turbo histrio. Turb. testd subglobosd, tumidd, imperforatd, spires 
suturis excavato-canalicvjatis , spiraliter liratis, liris subtilissime 
laminiferis, squamatis, squamis fortibus , erectis ; nived, aurantio- 
ferrugineo late radiatd, intus argented. 

Hab. ? 

A shell of ventricose growth, strongly scaled, whilst the entire 
surface is very minutely laminated. 

Turbo fluctuatus. Turb. testd transverse ovatd, crassiusculd, 
subventricosd , imperforatd ; anfractibus Icevibus, superne rude an- 
gulatis, ad unguium obsolete nodosis, infra liris plano-obtusis, hie 
illic fere evanidis cingulatis ; columelld concavd ; olivaced, lineis 
niveis viridi-umbratis, acute undatis conspicue longitudinaliter 
pictd, intils argented; operculo testaceo, spiraliter sulcato, medio 
subtilissime granuloso, marginem versus multiserrato. 
Hab. Punta, St. Elena, West Columbia ; Cuming. 
An extremely interesting species, which, though of rare occurrence, 
has long been known to me by the above name : from whom it re- 
ceived that appellation, which is very characteristic, I cannot, how- 
ever, learn. It is a shell of solid growth, somewhat rudely noduled, 
and obscurely flatly ridged. The ground-colour is that of a livid 
olive, very conspicuously marked with numerous zigzag lightning-like 
streaks of bright body- white, shaded with dark green. 

The operculum is remarkable : testaceous and strongly spirally 
grooved, the innermost groove is broadly excavated, and the central 
mass is solid and minutely granulated, whilst the portion without the 
broad groove is arranged in numerous concentric, finely- serrated 

April 11. — William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following paper was read to the meeting : — 

Supplementary Note on the Great Chimpanzee (Troglodytes 
Gorilla, Savage, Trogl. Savagei, Owen). By Professor 
Owen, F.R.S. etc 

Since the communication of my description of the skulls of the 
great Chimpanzee of the Gaboon district, I have received from an 
esteemed correspondent. Dr. Wyman, Professor of Anatomy in Har- 
vard University, United States, and a most accomplished anatomist 
and physiologist, a copy of his description of the parts of the skeleton 
of the great Chimpanzee which Dr. Savage had taken with him on 

Zoological Society. 231 

his return to America, together with a preliminary and highly inter- 
esting sketch of the natural history of the species by its discoverer, 
who proposes to call it Troglodytes Gorilla, ado])ting the term used 
by Hanno in describing the wild men which he discovered on the 
coast of Africa during his famous voyage*. 

Dr. Wyman gives dimensions of the skulls of a male and female 
Troglodytes Gorilla, with comparative measurements of a character- 
istic skull of a negro, and those of the Troglodytes niger and Simia 
satyrus (Sumatran variety, or S. Ahelii) from ray Memoir in Trans. 
Zool. Soc. vol. i. p. 374 ; and he sums up the following points as 
showing that from the Troglodytes niger the Trogl. Gorilla '* is readily 
distinguished — 

"1. By its greater size ; 

*• 2. By the size and form of the supraciliary ridges ; 

"3. By the existence of the large occipital and interparietal crests 
in the males, and by rudiments of the same in the females ; 

"4. By the great strength and arched form of the zygomatic 
arches ; 

"5. By the form of the anterior and posterior nasal orifices ; 

"6. By the structure of the infraorbitar canal ; 

"7. By the existence of an emargination on the posterior part of 
the hard palate ; 

" 8. The incisive alveoli do not project beyond the line of the rest 
of the face, as in the Chimpanzee and Orang ; 

" 9. The distance between the nasal orifice and the edge of the 
incisive alveoli is less than in the Chimpanzee ; 

"10. The ossa nasi are more narrow and compressed superiorly." 

The 5th, 7th and 9th are the characters which are most decisively 
repeated in the Bristol specimens of the skulls of Trogl. Gorilla, and 
are those that are least ascribable to age or the operation of external 
circumstances tending to produce a stronger variety of Chimpanzee. 
The value of the character from size is established by the concurrence 
of the foregoing more fixed ones. The supraciliary ridges are rela- 
tively as strongly developed and as prominent in the skull of a female 
adult Trogl. niger as in that of the Trogl. Gorilla, and they are as 
angular and rough or uneven in the skull of the adult male Trogl. 
niger as in that of the adult male Trogl. Gorilla. The male T?'ogl. 
niger shows also the median prominence between the orbits above 
the root of the nose. 

In six skulls of Troglodytes niger Dr. Wyman found that " the 
temporal ridges are generally separated from each other by a space 
varying from half an inch to one or two inches, according to age, 
but in none of them is to be seen even a rudiment of the interparietal 
ridge." In an adult, but by the condition of the teeth, not old 
male Trogl, niger, the temporal ridges have met above the oblite- 
rated suture, and developed the rudiment of an ' interparietal ridge,* 
which would probably have risen above its rudimental state had 
the exercise of the large temporal muscles been longer continued. 

* See the passage cited at p. 13, ' Falconer's Translation of the Voyage of 
Hanno,' London, 1797. 

232^ Zoological Society. 

Processes, ridges and crests dependent upon the stimulus of muscular 
action for their development, are the seats of most variety, and the 
least safe or satisfactory osteological marks of specific distinction. 
In the great males of the TV. Gorilla even a certain range of variety 
is presented by the skulls of the four adult males, which we are now 
able to compare. 

In the one described by Dr. Wyman the interparietal or sagittal 
crest is elevated about 1^ inch above the skull, and terminates 
above in a thin and free edge : in the fine male skull figured, 
and in the older male's skull, the two temporal ridges, though 
touching each other at their base, do not coalesce to form a single 
sagittal crest, but each terminates in a free edge, inclining from its 
fellow, and neither of them rise to half an inch at their highest part, 
three inches behind their point of contact. 

4. The specific cliaracter of the zygomatic arches is best shown 
by the depth and convex or angular upper contour of the squamosal 
portion of the arch. 

5. Dr. Wyman has well indicated the characteristic forms of the 
anterior and posterior nares ; and the conformity of the four skulls, 
two males and two females, submitted to his able and scientific scru- 
tiny, in this important character, w^th the three skulls which I have 
described, adds to our confidence in its constancy and value. The 
observed range of variety does not materially affect the well-marked 
difference of form in the posterior nares. Dr. Wyman finds in the 
TV. niger that " the transverse diameter of the orifice exceeds that 
of the vertical, but in the TV. Gorilla the vertical is twice that of the 
transverse, a condition which results from the elongation downwards 
of the superior maxillary bones." In one skull of an adult female 
Trogl. niger, in the Bristol Museum, the vertical diameter equals the 
transverse diameter of the posterior nares, and it exceeds it by about 
one-half only in the three skulls of the Tr, Gorilla in the same museum. 

6. With regard to the sixth character, which was pointed out to 
Dr. Wyman by Prof. Agassiz, it is stated that " in the Chimpanzee 
the infraorbital canal forms a deep groove, terminating in the spheno- 
maxillary fissure, its depth remaining uniform to its termination ; but 
in the Enge-ena {Trogl. Gorilla) the canal becomes gradually less 
deep from before backwards, and at the fissure is scarcely obvious." 
In the skull of the female Trogl. Gorilla (fig. 2) examined by me, 
the infraorbital canal is also shorter and shallower than in the skull 
of a female Trogl. niger, but the varieties observable in the condition 
of this canal in different individuals of the Trogl. niger are more 
marked than those above noticed in the skulls of the two specie** and 
induce me therefore to attach less importance to this character as a 
specific one. In two skulls of adult males, e. g. in the College of 
Surgeons, the infraorbital groove as it passes backwards again be- 
comes a canal by the meeting, and in one specimen by the coalescence 
of the two sides of the groove above the canal for an extent of from 
two to three lines before it enters the spheno-maxillary fissure. Dr. 
Wyman indeed notices a similar conformation in an adult cranium 
of the Chimpanzee belonging to Dr. J. C. Warren. Now this is a 

Miscellaneous. 233 

more decided difference from the continuous open groove at the floor 
of the orbit in the adult female Tr. niger than that groove presents 
in comparison with the shorter and shallower one in Trogl. Gorilla. 
I find too that the second character of Trogl. Gorilla pointed out by 
Prof. Agassiz, — " from the internal walls of the orbits which recede 
from each other in descending towards the floor, thus leaving a large 
pyramidal space for the lodgment of the os ethmo'ides," — is so much 
less marked in the female skull of Tr. Gorilla, as contrasted with that 
of Tr. niger, as to induce me to view it more in the light of a sexual 
than a specific modification. 

The seventh is a good character, and is repeated by each of the 
skulls of Tr. Gorilla examined by me. All the skuU^of Tr. niger also 
show the backward projecting point, where the emargination exists 
in TV. Gorilla. 

8. The minor relative projection of the incisive alveoli beyond the 
line of the rest of the face is as characteristic of the three skulls of 
Tr. Gorilla now in England as of the four in the United States, and 
results from the same comparative shortness of the premaxillary 
bones, between the nasal orifice and the edge of the incisive alveoli. 
But the ossa nasi, besides being more narrow and compressed supe- 
riorly, are more prominent at that part in TV. Gorilla than in Tr. niger, 
and they are also more expanded and broader inferiorly, and I cannot 
but regard the most decisive mark of the specific distinction of the 
Troglodytes Gorilla to be the longer persistence of the maxillo-pre- 
maxillary sutures, and the evidence thereby given of the peculiar 
form, development and connexions of the upper portions of the pre- 
maxillary bones. It is remarkable indeed, since these sutures remain 
so distinct in the adult female skull (fig. 2) and the younger adult 
male skull (fig. 1) here described, that no trace of them should have 
been detected in any of the four skulls taken by Dr. Savage to 
America, in which Dr. Wyman describes the ossa nasi as being 
*' firmly co-ossified with each other and with the surrounding bones.' 

The triangular expanded facial part of the upper end of each pre- 
maxillary intervening between the nasal and maxillary bones will 
always serve to distinguish the cranium of an immature Trogl. Gorilla 
from that of a Trogl. niger. 


Note on the Development and Organization of Infusoria: — Gyratory 
Movements of the Vitellus : Pulsations of the Contractile Vesicle in 
the Egg. By M. F. Pouchet*. 

I HAVE followed out the development of several animalcules : some 
emerge from the ovum with the form they are destined to present 
during the whole course of their existence {Kerona, Vorticella) \ others 
undergo, in the course of development, very apparent metamorphoses 

* Communicated by J. T. Arlidge, A.B., M.B. 

234 Miscellaneous. 

(Kolpoda, Dileptus). Owing to the latter circumstance, it has often 
happened that the young and the adult forms of the same animal- 
cule have been described as distinct species. It is certain, for in- 
stance, that the Glaucoma scintillans (Ehr.) is but the foetal or im- 
perfect condition of the Kolpoda cucullus (Miiller). 

In the ova of Vorticellce, having a diameter of '04 of a millimetre, 
the vitellus clearly manifests gyratory movements, in all respects re- 
sembling those in the ova of mollusca and other animals. When the 
young Vorticella is fully developed and on the point of leaving the 
eggj this gyration is succeeded by movements of another description, 
viz. by contractions of the entire animalcule, which, as is observed, 
for example, in^he young Lymnecc, seems to struggle under the 
transparent envelope of the Q^^. 

In the ova of Vorticellce, the animalcules of which are on the eve 
of exclusion, I have, in several instances, recognized the existence 
of the contractile vesicle, and have noted its movements. This vesi- 
cle was proportionately of less size than in the adult animal, and its 
pulsations were less frequent. These ova, at this period entirely 
occupied by the embryo animalcule, presented a diameter of '04 milli- 
metre, and the contractile vesicle which w^as situated at about the 
centre, when of its greatest dimensions, '005 of a millimetre. 

In the Vorticell<£ there exists a sac, sometimes very evident, on 
the side opposite the cardiac or contractile vesicle, and extending 
nearly the whole length of the animal. The interior of this sac pre- 
sents very distinct molecular movements, which seem clearly owing 
to the existence of vibratile cilia. At intervals this sac contracts 
from before backwards, and seems to transport in that direction a 
mass, distinct from the stomach vesicles which it compresses. This 
sac is the respiratory organ ; and its movements have induced some 
observers to hazard the opinion of the formation of vacuoli in the 
substance of the animal, or to admit the existence of a form of 
circulation of granules, such as is noticed in vegetable cells. 

From what proceeds, we must regard the contractile vesicle as a 
cardiac apparatus*. It is seen to manifest itself like the punctum 
saliens of oviparous embryos. And hence we cannot with Ehrenberg 
consider it as belonging to the genital, or, with Spallanzani, to the 
respiratory apparatus. — Comptes Rendus, Jan. 15th, 1849. 

[If these researches of M. Pouchet be confirmed, an important step 
in advance has been made in our knowledge of the Infusoria. We 
can no longer doubt, with M. Dujardin, the existence of ova, and of 
oviparous reproduction in the true Infusoria or Polygastrica. But 
until this confirmation be given, such exceedingly delicate observa- 
tions as those detailed must be received with some reserve ; seeing 
that imagination, and the desire to indicate an analogy with the 
higher animals, are too apt to interfere with precise investigation in 
such minute beings. 

Again, respecting the contractile vesicle said to be observable in 

* Wiegmanii (Archives, 1831) surmised the cardiac nature of this con- 
tractile vesicle; and Siebold entertains the same idea. — J.'I'.A. 

Miscellaneous. 235 

the embryo Vorticella, it is stated that its pulsations were less rapid 
than in the full-formed animalcule ; a circumstance at variance with 
analogy ; for, in the embryos of higher animals, the contractions 
of the cardiac vesicle, or punctum saliens, are more frequent than 
those of the circulating sac in the adult. Moreover, if such a perfect 
system of organs, presenting a cardiac and a respiratory sac, be ob- 
servable in the Vorticella, it must surely elevate that genus consider- 
ably in the scale of animals, and place it far above the majority of 
the polygastric Infusoria. And, consequently, if such a complex or- 
ganism can be shown in the Vorticella, we are not to attribute alike 
one to those other Infusoria with which that family is at present asso- 
ciated ; for the Monads, the Amoebae, &c., are surely but one remove 
from homogeneous organic matter. — J. T. A.] 

British Museum, Zoological Department. — Conchology. 

It is suggested that the fields of the tablets on which shells are 
fastened should be stained with different colours corresponding to 
the following grand geographical divisions, which may be termed 
"generic :" I.Europe; 2. Asia and its islands; S.Africa; 4. Australia; 
5. Polynesia; 6. North America ; 7. South America. 

Smaller specific geographical divisions might be indicated by a 
narrow border of a different colour to each tablet. When the loca- 
lity may be unknown, the tablet may remain white until further in- 
formation can be acquired. Such a plan would interfere in no wise 
with the arrangement of species according to their affinities, while it 
would facilitate the researches of the student, who could, at a glance, 
ascertain the country of a particular species, or direct his attention, 
in rapid succession, to all the denizens of the particular tract regard- 
ing which he is desirous of gaining information, merely by reference 
to an index-card showing the colours of the divisions and subdivisions. 
The specific subdivisions may be increased to any extent desirable by 
the use of double or treble borders of diverse colours. 

The above is offered as an improvement on the system in use in 
some private entomological cabinets of distinguishing indigenous 
British species by a ticket of a conspicuous colour. — W. H. B. 

February 24, 1849. 

English Wild Beasts a Century and a half ago. 

*' At Enfield, hardly out of the sight of smoke of the capital, was a 
region of five and twenty miles in circumference which contained 
only three houses and scarcely any inclosed fields. Deer as free as 
in an American forest wandered there by thousands. It is to be 
remarked, that wild animals of large size were then far more nume- 
rous than at present. The last wild boars, indeed, which had been 
preserved for the royal diversion, and had been allowed to ravage 
the cultivated land with their tusks, had been slaughtered by the 
exasperated rustics during the license of the civil war. The last 
wolf that has roamed our island had been slain in Scotland a short 
time before the close of the reign of Charles the Second. But many 

236 Miscellaneous, 

breeds, now extinct or rare, both of quadrupeds and birds, were still 
common. The fox, whose life is, in many counties, held almost as 
sacred as that of a human being, was considered as a mere nuisance. 
Oliver St. John told the Long Parliament that Strafford was to be 
regarded, not as a stag or hare, to whom some law was to be given, 
but as a fox, who was to be snared by any means, and knocked on 
the head without pity. This illustration would be by no means a 
happy one if addressed to country gentlemen of our time : but in 
St. John's days there were not seldom great massacres of foxes to 
which the peasantry thronged with all the dogs that could be mus. 
tered: traps were set ; nets were spread; no quarter was given; and to 
shoot a female with cub was considered as a feat which merited the 
gratitude of the neighbourhood. The red deer were then as common 
in Gloucestershire and Hampshire as they are now among the Gram- 
pian hills. On one occasion Queen Anne, on her way to Portsmouth, 
saw a herd of no less than 500. The wild bull with his white mane 
was still to be found wandering in a few of the southern forests. The 
badger made his dark and tortuous hole on the side of every hill 
where the copse wood grew thick. The wild cats were frequently 
heard by night wailing round the lodges of the rangers of Whittle- 
bury and Needwood. The yellow-breasted martin was still pursued 
in Cranbourne Chase for his fur, rej^uted inferior only to that of the 
sable. Fen eagles, measuring more than 9 feet between the extre- 
mities of the wings, preyed on fish along the coast of Norfolk. On 
all the downs, from the British Channel to Yorkshire, huge bustards 
strayed in troops of fifty or sixty, and were often hunted with grey- 
hounds. The marshes of Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire were 
covered during some months of every year by immense clouds of 
cranes. Some of these races the progress of cultivation has extir- 
pated. Of others the numbers are so much diminished that men 
crowd to gaze at a specimen as at a Bengal tiger or a Polar bear." — 
From Macaulays History of England. 

On Thaliella, a new genus of Cirripedes allied to Scalpellum. 
By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 


Valves 1 1 ; opercular valves subtriangular ; dorsal elongate, curved; 
lower dorsal and anterior compressed, with two pairs of lateral valves 
in the middle of the body above the base. Peduncle with rings of 
imbricate horny scales. 

This genus chiefly differs from Scalpellum in the front and hinder 
lateral pair of valves being each united into a single compressed valve, 
and in having no middle basal lateral valve. 

This genus was shown to me by Mr. J. S. Bowerbank, who re- 
ceived it from Algoa Bay attached to some species of Plumaria. 

Thaliella ornata. 

Pale horn-coloured, varied with red spots, or with a single red band 
on each side ; valves horny, subpellucid, radiately striated. 

On Plumaria, Algoa Bay, Cape of Good Hope. Presented to the 
British Museum by J. S. Bowerbank, Esq. 



Stroem (Nym. Saml. Danske, 1788, 295, n. Ill, f. 20) described 
a Lepas testd compressd 7-valvis stipite lamellosd, found on Gorgonia 
placomus in the North Sea, which is probably allied to this genus. — 
F7'om the Proceedings of the Zool. Sac. for March 14, 1848. 

Post-Office Regulations. 
The speedy and cheap transmission of intelligence is of the 
highest importance for the interests of science. The want of it 
has been a subject of general complaint, and the editors of scientific 
journals can but too well appreciate the inconvenience, discourage- 
ment and loss which it occasions. 

In the Advertisement prefixt to the eighth volume of the Monthly 
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Council regret the 
difficulty and delay in receiving scientific information. " With other 
countries," they observe, " and for larger parcels, the communication 
is most unsatisfactory. The expenses and extra charges at the En- 
gHsh ports are equivalent to a negative upon direct intercourse, even 
where the freight is prepaid, and the duty trifling. The Post-oflice 
charges for pamphlets over- sea are the Same as for letters. Until 
these matters are better regulated, a greater service can scarcely be 
rendered to scientific bodies than by facilitating the rapid transfer of 
international communications at a moderate cost." 

Our friend Mr. Thompson of Belfast, in communicating to us the 
letter from Dr. Gould of Boston, U.S., has also directed the atten- 
tion of our readers to the defective state of our means of communi- 
cation, at p. 366 of our last volume ; and we are glad to find that the 
hope which we there expressed has in some degree been realized, 
the subject having at length received attention from the authorities 
of the Post-office, by whom some important improvements have been 
introduced. With a view therefore to render these available, we 
subjoin the following particulars from the Post-ofl[ice regulations of 
the most recent date. 

Periodicals published as pamphlets, and parliamentary proceed- 
ings, provided they are made up in the same manner as news- 
papers, in covers open at the sides, so as to admit of examina- 
tion, are forwarded to the countries mentioned below at the fol- 
lowing rates, which must be prepaid either in stamps or money. 

Weighing and 

not exceeding 





not exceeding 



.... ,, 

. . . . 2 OZS. . 


9 OZS. 

... 10 OZS. . 



2 OZS. . „ 

.. .. 3 * .. 


10 .. . 

... 11 .... 



3 , 

.... 4 .... 


11 .. . 

... 12 .... 


4 .. . . „ 




12 .. . 

. .. 13 .. . 



5 „ 

.. .. 6 ... 

13 .. . 

... 14 .... 


6 .... „ 

.... 7 .. .. 



14 ... 

. .. 15 .. . 



7 .... „ 

.. .. 8 .. .. 



15 .. . 

. .. 16 .... 



8 .... „ 

.... 9 ... 



Beyond the weight of 16 ounces, they can only be forwarded at 
letter rates of postage. 

• We cannot see the reasonableness of the scale in one particular ; 
where the charge for 3 ozs. is six times as much as for 2 ozs. — Ed. 

238 Miscellaneous. 

The countries to and from which the above rates are applicable are : 
Belgium, United States of America*, 
Bremen, Cvia Belgium f, 

France, Prussia <j via Holland, 

Holland, \_via Hamburg. 

The rates to which parliamentary proceedings are liable when sent 
to the colonies, the rates for letters, prices current, &c., to the co- 
lonies and foreign parts in detail by every route, and numerous other 
particulars as to the despatch and arrivals of mails, &c. &c., will be 
found in the * Post-Office Official Monthly Director,' corrected and 
published on the 1st of every month by Letts, Son and Steer, 
8 Cornhill, price \s. per single copy, or 85. per annum. 


The ' Dido,' Capt. Maxwell, from Auckland, New Zealand, has 
brought home a few valuable curiosities for naturalists, the chief of 
which is a small black bird, about the size of the English blackbird, 
called the Tui (the parson-bird of Captain Cook), believed to be the 
first of the species ever brought to England alive. Many previous 
attempts have been made to bring this bird to England, but all 
hitherto have failed. — From the Times. 

OBITUARY.— Mr. Edward Forster. 
We have to record the decease of our highly esteemed friend 
Edward Forster, Esq., F.R.S., the Treasurer and a Vice-President of 
the Linnaean Society, of which Society also he was one of the oldest 
Fellows. Mr. Forster died on Wednesday, February the 21st, after 
a severe attack of cholera of less than two days' continuance, having 
previously enjoyed his usual and equable good health up to his 84th 
year. His strong attachment to his favourite botanical pursuits, 
and his zeal for the prosperity of the Linnsean Society, of whose 
eminent founder Sir J. E. Smith he had been an intimate and 
warmly attached friend, require an ampler record than can now be 
given of one who in every relation of life was truly estimable : 

Quem licet in sera rapuerunt fata senecta, 

Et vitse saturum sopiit alta quies, 
Nos tamen hunc, velut immaturo funere raptum, 

Flemus, et efFusis diffluimus lacrymis. 

Vixisti bene ac beate ! 


Semper corpore, mente sana, amicis 
Jucundus, pietate singulari. 

* The regulations for forwarding periodicals to and from the United 
States are precisely the same as for the other countries mentioned, but in 
the case of pamphlets not being periodicals, to and from the United States, 
the weight is limited to 8 ozs. 

f Periodicals, &c., when sent to Prussia via Belgium, are subject to a 
Belgian transit rate of 2d. per quarter ounce, in addition to the above rates. 
In charging works of this description, when more than one copy is under 
the same band, each copy is weighed and charged separately. 

Meteorological Observations. 239 

RossiA OwENii, Ball. 
This fine Cuttle-fish, hitherto known only as an Irish species, has 
been lately taken by Mr. Saxby on the coast of the Isle of Wight. — 
E. Forbes. 


Cliiswick. — January L Overcast : hazy. 2. Clear and frosty. 3. Frosty : dry 
haze : overcast : frosty. 4. Uniformly densely overcast : rain. 5. Drizzly and 
foggy. 6. Overcast. 7. Overcast : rain at night. 8. Rain. 9. Very fine : 
slight rain. 10. Cloudy: boisterous: rain. 11. Rain: densely clouded. 12. 
Frosty: overcast: rain. 13. Densely clouded : rain. 14. Rain. 15. Clear. 
16. Fine : rain. 17. Rain : densely overcast : clear. 18. Fine: boisterous at 
night. 19, 20. Very fine. 21. Very fine : overcast : boisterous. 22. Boisterous: 
fine : clear and boisterous. 23. Densely clouded : fine. 24. Cloudy : boisterous ' 
at night. 25. Densely clouded : boisterous. 26. Rain : exceedingly fine. 27. 
Slight frost : overcast : rain. 28. Cloudy : fine. 29. Rain : cloudy and cold : 
frosty at night. 30. Slight fog: drizzly. 31. Fine : clear and frosty at night. 

Mean temperature of the month 39°*56 

Mean temperature of Jan. 1848 33 '62 

Mean temperature of Jan. for the last twenty years 36 '40 

Average amount of rain in Jan l'59incb. 

Boston. — Jan. 1, Cloudy. 2 — 4. Fine. 5,6. Cloudy. 7. Fine: rain early a.m. 
8. Rain. 9. Fine: rain p.m. 10. Cloudy : stormy all day. 11. Cloudy : rain 
early A.M. 12. Fine. 13. Rain: rain early a.m. 14. Cloudy : rain early a.m. 
15. Fine : rain A.M. and p.m. 16. Foggy. 17 — 20. Fine. 21. Cloudy. 22 — 
24. Fine. 25. Cloudy. 26. Fine: rain early a.m. 27. Fine: rain p.m. 28. Fine. 
29. Rain : rain a.m. 30. Cloudy : rain a.m. and p.m. 31. Fine. 

Ap])legarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Jan. 1. Frost moderate. 2. Frost very 
hard : barometer falling. 3. Frost clear : fine. 4. Frost, but cloudy. 5. Frost : 
cloudy. 6. Frost : still cloudy. 7. Frost : still more overcast. 8. Thaw : rain : 
fo^ : rain again. 9. Frost again: clear a.m. : rain p.m. 10. Heavy rain during 
night : rivers flooded. 11. Frost a.m. : thaw at noon : rain. 12. Soft rain all 
day. 13. Soft rain : cleared : rain p.m. 14. Gentle frost: cloudy: wind rose. 

15. Soft: cloudy. 16. Mild and clear after rain a.m. 17. Moist a.m. : rain and 
high wind p.m. 18. Very fine till noon: rained again. 19. Frost: getting 
cloudy P.M. 20 Heavy rain and high wind p.m. : thunder. 21. Storm of wind 
and rain. 22. Fair, but a storm of wind. 23. Fair a.m. : came on storm, wind 
and rain. 24. Rain nearly all day : wind high. 25. Fair and keen a.m. : wet 
P.M. : high wind. 26. Fair a.m. : rain p.m. 27. Snow : rain : wind high. 28. 
Frost : clear : dull p.m. 29. Frost and snow : thaw and rain. SO. Frost mode- 
rate. 3 1 . Thaw and showery. 

Mean temperature of the month 36°*35 

Mean temperature of Jan. 1848 33 '80 

Mean temperature of Jan. for the last twenty-five years . 34 '90 

Rain 3*70 inches. 

Rain in January 1848 2-34 „ 

Average amount of rain in Jan. for the last twenty years 2*60 „ 

Sandwich Manse, Orkney. — Jan. 1 . Cloudy. 2. Bright : cloudy. 3. Cloudy. 

4. Cloudy : frost : snow-showers. 5. Bright : cloudy. 6. Snow. 7. Thaw : 

clear. 8. Rain : showers. 9. Showers : cloudy. 10. Rain : snow. 11. Snow. 

12. Rain : showers. 13. Showers. 14. Showers : sleet-showers. 15. Showers. 

16. Showers: cloudy. 17, 18. Showers. 19. Showers: clear. 20. Cloudy. 
21. Rain : showers. 22. Sleet-showers. 23. Sleet-showers : rain. 24. Rain*: 
sleet-showers : cloudy. 25. Sleet-showers: aurora. 26. Sleet-showers: clouily. 
27. Bright : sleet-showers. 28. Sleet-showers : clear. 29. Frost : cloudy. 30. 
Snow: sleet: showers. 31. Sleet-showers : showers. 

* From 9 p.m. on 23rd till 2 p.m. on 24th (about 17 hours) 2-08 inches of rain 









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No. 16. APRIL 1849. 

XXVI. — Note on Cystocoleus, a new genus of minute Plants, By 
G. H. K. Thwaites, Lecturer on Botany and Vegetable Phy- 
siology in the Bristol Medical School. 

[With a Plate.] 

Having recently been fortunate enough to meet with good spe- 
cimens of the Byssus nigra, Eng. Bot., I have been enabled to 
ascertain very satisfactorily its real structure^ about which bo- 
tanists appear hitherto to have been in much doubt. The struc- 
ture of this plant is so peculiar as to render necessary its removal 
from the genus Chroolepus, in which it now stands; and with 
the sanction of my friend, the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, I propose 
for it the new generic name of Cystocoleus, characterized as 

Cystocoleus. Plantse confervoidese, csespitosse; filamentis arti- 
culatis, cylindricis vel submoniliformibus, plus minusve ra- 
mosis, vagina cellulosa continua singulatim inclusis. Chroo- 
lepo affinis. 

Cystocoleus ebeneus. Fusco-niger, fragilis, parce ramosus. 

Conferva ebenea, Dillw. t. 101. 

Byssus nigra, E. B. t. 702 ! 

Chroolepus ebenea, Ag. Syst. Alg. p. 36 ; Harvey in Eng. Fl. 
p. 381 ; Manual of British Algce, p. 190. 

It will be seen by the above generic characters that this plant 
differs essentially from Chroolepus in having its filaments included 
in a sheath composed of distinct cells, the membrane of which is 
of a dark fuscous colour, and thus the internal filament can in 
most cases be with difficulty observed and examined. Occa- 
sionally, however, the internal filament, which in structure and 
character closely resembles the filaments of Chroolepus, protrudes 
beyond the investing sheath, and may then be seen to consist of 
oblong cells containing the peculiar reddish oily-looking endo- 

Ann. §• Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 16 

242 Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites on Cystocoleus. 

chrome of Chroolepus. The investing sheath is similar in cha- 
racter to that oi Rhizonema inferruptum, Eng. Bot. Supp. t. 2954, 
but the cells composing the latter are not at all opake. Delicate 
root-like appendages are given off from the sheaths of both spe- 
cies : indeed the analogy between these two species is curious, 
where the affinity is not very close. 

It is interesting to observe in these minute plants a parallel 
and simultaneous growth of an internal filament and an investing 
sheath, each in some measure independent of the other and re- 
presenting separate systems of cellular development. This will 
assist, I believe, to throw light upon the real structure of the 
apparently homogeneous gelatinous sheaths with which many of 
the lower plants are furnished. 

Professor Harvey has placed provisionally in the genus Chroo- 
lepus some other minute species of a dark colour and having an 
external resemblance to the present plant : that excellent bota- 
nist, however, at the same time remarks that they will probably 
prove to be fungi. Chroolepus ? Arnottii, Harv., for a specimen 
of which I am indebted to the kindness of Professor Harvey, is 
considered by Mr. Broome identical with the Torula conglu- 
tinata of Corda, and in this opinion I quite agree with him. It 
is properly an Antennaria. The present plant has nothing to do 
with the genus Helminthosporium, though some species of that 
genus has evidently been confounded with it by Capt. Carmi- 
chael and others. 

Chroolepus and Cystocoleus form with the genus Coenogoniumy 
Ehrenb., a small natural group, which it is difficult to locate in 
either of the principal divisions of cryptogamic plants. In the 
structure of their filaments they exhibit an affinity to the Algce^ 
whilst they resemble the Lichens in the kind of situations in 
which they are found growing. Canogonium has, moreover, 
apothecia very like those of a Lichen. Professor Kiitzing has 
grouped together the genera Chroolepus, Chantransia and 
Chlorotyliumy constituting of them his family Chantransiecey and 
arranging them amongst the Algae near the Draparnaldiece. 


Fig. 1. Filament of Cystocoleus ebeneus, with root-like appendages. Mag- 
nified 270 linear. 

— 2. Apex of a filament, in which the development of the investing sheath 

has heen arrested, and exhibiting the internal filament like that of 
Chroolepus. Magnified 270 linear. 

— 3. Portions of investing sheath. More highly magnified. 

Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites on Coccochloris Brebissonii. 243 

XXVII. — Description of Coccochloris Brebissonii, a new species 
of the Palmellese, in conjugation. By G. H. K. Thwaites. 

[With a Plate.] 

Coccochloris Brebissonii, n. sp. Frons saturate- viridis, gelatinosa, 
vix cartilaginea, efFusa, nee frustulosa : cellulis subsphsericis 
vel rotundato-ellipticis, minutissime granulosis: sporangiis 
oblongis. ' 

C. Brebissonii occurs upon the perpendicular surfaces of wet 
rocks, forming a gelatinous or slightly cartilaginous coating, se- 
parating very readily from the surface of the rock. It is of a pale 
green colour, sometimes slightly reddish. The cells are shortly 
elliptical with the ends much-rounded, and contain a minutely 
granulose endochrome of a yellowish green colour. The gela- 
tinous appendages of the cells cohere to form an apparently 
homogeneous mass, and are not separately distinguishable as in 
some species of the genus. The cells when conjugating are at 
first united by a narrow connecting tube, but this soon enlarges 
to the width of the cells. The sporangium is of an oblong form 
and transparent, containing an endochrome somewhat similar to 
that of the cells, but with the granules much larger. Imme- 
diately that conjugation of two cells has commenced to take place, 
their granules of endochrome are observed to have increased in 
size, and this increase continues until the sporangium is mature. 
During the formation of the sporangium, the original cell-mem- 
branes appear to become absorbed, and are not thrown off as in 
Cylindrocystis Brebissonii. 

Branched threads similar to those represented in my figure of 
Palmella botryoides, Grev.*, ramify throughout the gelatinous 
mass of the present species, but only in one instance have I suc- 
ceeded in tracing a connexion between them and the cells, owing 
I suspect to the state of maturity of the plant. By watching the 
species attentively, I hope to be able to obserye the early develop- 
ment of the plant from the contents of the sporangia. 

This well-marked species, which is I believe un described, I 
have the greatest pleasure in dedicating to the learned French 
botanist M. de Brebisson, to whose researches we are indebted 
for the first discovery of species of Palmellece in a state of con- 


Fig. 1. Small portion of Coccochloris Brebissonii^ showing the cells and 
ramifying threads. 

— 2. Cells of C. Brebissonii in conjugation. 

— 3. Mature sporangia. All magnified 270 linear. 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 2. vol. ii. PI. X. 


244 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new Palaozoic Echinodermata. 

XXVIII. — On some new Palaozoic Echinodermata. 
By Frederick M^Coy, M.G.S. & N.H.S.D. &c. 

Crinoidea. {Articulata.) 

Cupressocrinus (Gold . ) . 

It will be observed in the following descriptions of two species 
of this genus hitherto only known in the foreign Devonian strata, 
that I have attributed interscapular plates to its cup as in Pote- 
riocrinus, although such are not indicated in the figures or ge- 
neric characters of Goldfuss. I have however detected them in 
an authentic specimen of his C. crassus from the Eifel in the 
Cambridge collection, although not so clearly as in the following 
species. In the number and position of the plates of the body, 
Cupressocrinus and Poteriocrinus are identical; and in both, 
the articulations for the arms extend the entire width of the 
upper edge of each of the scapulse ; but there is a striking dif- 
ference in their form, which seems dependent on the total dis- 
similarity of their arms ; the cup in the latter genus is elongate- 
conic, the comparatively narrow scapulse giving off arms of mo- 
derate width, dichotomizing frequently, while in Cupressocrinus 
the cup is of an extremely wide saucer-like form, and the scapulse 
of inordinate width to give origin to the curiously wide, massive, 
simple arms which render the genus so remarkable. 

Cupressocrinus calyx (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Cup very wide, evenly convex, saucer-shaped, three 
times wider than long ; pelvis small, slightly concave, penta- 
gonal, of five pentagonal pieces ; alternating with and above 
which are five large first-costals, their length and width equal 
to the diameter of pelvis, four pentagonal and one with a very 
short sixth side ; alternating with, and above those, are five 
pentagonal scapulse, as long as the costals, but the width 
double the length ; to the short side of the hexagonal costal is 
obliquely attached a long pentagonal intercostal supporting 
two very small interscapular plates; scapula very thick, 
articular surface flat with an articular ridge running its whole 
width ; all the plates slightly convex and smooth. Width of 
cup 9 lines. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Cupressocrinus impressus (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Cup four times wider than deep ; pelvis concealed in 
a deep circular pit, out of which spring the broad ends of five 
ovato-lanceolate first-costals, the apex of one of which is trun- 

Mr. F. M'Coy on some new Palaeozoic Echinodermata. 245 

cated to support a small elongate interscapular plate, and on 
its side rests a somewhat larger intercostal plate ; scapula 
about one-third wider than long, pentagonal, the two lower 
sides concave, and the lower angles very much prolonged to 
fit between the lanceolate costals ; substance of the joints very 
thick, projecting far into the visceral cavity, a strong perfo- 
rated articular ridge runs across the top of the scapulse ; all 
the plates shghtly convex and smooth. 

Distinguished from the C. calyx by its deeply impressed pelvis 
and long, lanceolate first-costals. 

Not very uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derby- 

(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

PoteriocrinuLS nuciformis (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Body subovate, pointed below, constricted above from 
the upper margins of the scapulse being narrower than their 
lower portion ; pelvic plates very small, form unknown ; first- 
costals long, pentagonal, very narrow below, giving a pointed 
appearance to the lower portion of cup ; second costals large, 
tumid, subhexagonal, nearly twice the length of the first- 
costals, a little less wide than long ; scapulas pentagonal, about 
one-third wider below than above, giving a very perceptible, 
constricted appearance to the upper part of the cup, articula- 
tions apparently the whole width of the plate ; irregular in- 
tercostal large, subhexagonal, supporting two small pentagonal 
interscapulars ; surface smooth. Length of cup 8 lines, greatest 
diameter (at second costals) 7 lines. 

This closely resembles the P. Bockschii figured by Geinitz in 
his 'Grundriss der Versteinerungskunde,' t. 23. f. 13, but of 
which no description or definition has been published. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge — two examples.) 

Poteriocrinus crassimanus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char, Column small, of thin circular joints ; supracolumnar 
joint supporting five pentagonal first-costals, slightly wider 
than long, between and above which rest five pentagonal sea- 
pulce about as long as the costals, but about one-third wider 
than long, each of which supports one large cuneiform arm- 
joint, wider than long, from each of which proceed two hands 
of six joints each, thicker on alternate sides, the last joint 
cuneiform and supporting two fingers of about thirty-five 
joints, each wider than long ; costal and scapular plates ra- 

246 Mr. F. M'Coy 07i some new Palaeozoic Echinodermata. 

diatingly marked at their margins. Length of cup 3| lines, 
width 6 hnes, length of rays 2 inches. 

Of the arms visible one has but four joints, one has seven, and 
the other three visible have six each. This species differs from 
the P. radiatus (Aust.) by the slighter radiation of the plates, the 
greater proportional width of the cup, the articulation of the arm- 
joint extending the full width of the scapulae, the latter distinc- 
tion being very striking as well as the consequent gi'eater strength 
of the rays. The surface seems obscurely granulose, but is not 
distinctly preserved. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Hook Head, co. Wex- 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 


Platycrinus vesiculosus (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Body spheroidal, depressed; visceral portion hemi- 
spherical, deeper than the cup ; pelvis pentagonal, small, flat- 
tened ; scapulae small, rotundato-quadrate, one-third wider than 
long, very thick, gibbous, slightly concave in the centre, lower 
edge hanging below the pelvis, excavation for the first arm- 
joints very small, round, marginal, less than one-third the 
depth of the scapulae ; visceral plates very large, irregular, po- 
lygonal, some of them nearly equalling the scapulae in size, 
they are moderately convex, and each rendered rugged by se- 
veral small tubercular projections ; mouth lateral, surrounded 
by small plates. Length of small specimen from pelvis to 
vertex 6 lines, width 8 lines. 

The very large, bubble-like tuberculation of the visceral plates 
and the small, gibbous scapulae give a most peculiar aspect to this 
species, quite ualike any other I am acquainted with. I find 
the characters very constant. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone near Bakewell, 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Platycrinus diadema (M'Coy). ■ 

Bp. Char. Body very much depressed, spheroidal (from the base 
of pelvis to the vertex one- third less than the diameter between 
the arms) ; pelvis large, depressed, pentagonal, without divi- 
sional lines ; columnar adherence circular, crenated, one-third 
the diameter of the pelvis, but seated in the bottom of a deep 
circular excavation three-fourths the diameter of the pelvis ; 
scapulae hexagonal, nearly twice as wide above as below, about 
one-third wider than long, very slightly convex except at the 

Mr. F. M^Coy on some new Palaozoic Echinodermata. 247 

articulation for the arms, which are prominent, very large, 
broad, and two-thirds the depth of the plate ; interscapular 
plate large, hexagonal ; visceral plates rather small, hemisphe- 
rical. Height from pelvis to vertex 1 inch. 

The very wide, depressed, turban-like form of this species 
(which I find constant) easily distinguishes it from its congeners. 
All the plates are even and smooth. 

Not uncommon in the white decomposing encrinal beds of 
carboniferous limestone at Cleenish, co. Fermanagh, north of 

{Col. University of Cambridge and Royal Dublin Society.) 

Platycrinus megastylus (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Body broad ovate, visceral portion convex, not much 
elevated; cup rapidly expanding, conical; pelvis pentagonal, 
very small, resembling a prominent rim to the very large cir- 
cular columnar attachment, the diameter of which is three 
times greater than from its circumference to the edge of the 
pelvic plate ; scapulas slightly convex, even, nearly twice as wide 
above as below, little wider than long ; excavations for the arm- 
plates large, nearly half the depth of the scapulae ; capital plates 
variable in size and number, but large, few, unequal, polygonal, 
and most of them presenting a large conical protuberance in 
the centre ; entire surface smooth. Length of body 10 lines, 
width between the arms 9 lines. 

This species is excellently figured by Prof. Phillips (Geol. 
Yorksh.) with a doubtful reference to the P. l(Bvis of Miller. The 
latter species is, I believe, generally admitted now to be distinct, 
but having examined specimens agreeing with the above figure, 
I find the species to which it belongs differs both from that to 
which Goldfuss and that to which Mr. Austin have referred it, 
by the comparatively enormous size of the columnar attachment, 
and the narrow prominent rim to which the rest of the pelvic 
plate seems reduced. 

The specimens above described are from the carboniferous 
limestone of Bblland, where it occurs in company with numbers 
of the P. pileatus, Gold. (P. antheliontes, Aust.), which it much 
resembles, but from which it is easily distinguished by the above 

(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Actinocrinus (Amphoracrinus ?) olla (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Inversely pyriform, very gibbous ; arm-bases small, 
not very prominent ; cup below the arms hemispherical, visce- 
ral portion above very wide, elevated, cylindrical ; all the plates 

248 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new Palceozoic Echinodermafa. 

above and below flattened ; pelvis small, flattened, pentagonal, 
supporting on four of its sides four large hexagonal first-costal 
plates, about one-third wider than long, and on the fifth side 
one pentagonal plate; the five regular second costals are scarcely 
one-third wider than long, smaller than the first-costals and 
hexagonal, with the two upper lateral sides so short as some- 
times to make the plates seem quadrangular ; intercostals hex- 
agonal, longer than the first-costals ; pectoral plates rather 
large, flat, polygonal ; scapula pentagonal (or occasionally with 
the upper lateral angles truncated so as to be slightly hepta- 
gonal), one-third shorter than the first-costals ; interscapulars 
heptagonal or octagonal, as long as the intercostals ; the sur- 
face of all the plates marked with minute vermicular wrinkles. 
Diameter of cup 1 inch 9 lines. 

The sculpturing resembles that of the A. {Amphoracrinus) am- 
phora, from which the species is distinguished by its round inflated 
pot-like figure, small arm-bases, proportionate length of the 
costals, &c. 

Very common in the Derbyshire carboniferous limestone in 
company with the Poteriocrinus granulosus. 
{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Actinocrinus [Amphoracrinus) Atlas (M^Coy). 
Sp. Char. General figure of body elongate-oval, diameter between 
the arms little more than half the height of the body ; pelvis 
pentagonal, of three thick flattened joints ; first-costals small, 
one pentagonal and five wider heptagonal, the latter nearly twice 
as wide as long ; second costals as long as the first, but only 
one-third wider than long, hexagonal or sometimes quadrate 
(according as the upper lateral angles are entire or slightly 
truncated) ; scapula short, pentagonal, as wide as the second 
costals ; intercostals hexagonal, exceeding the first-costals in 
length ; arm-bases prominent, and over each is an elongate 
conical tubercle , pectoral plates rather large, convex and irre- 
gularly polygonal ; vertex covered by a very large hemisphe- 
rical plate, surrounded by six slightly smaller polygonal ones 
having a large conical protuberance in the middle ; mouth lon- 
gitudinally oval, rather nearer the vertex than the arm-base 
over the pentagonal first-costal, to which it inclines ; all the 
plates except the large ones of the vertex marked with minute 
vermicular wrinkles. Length from pelvis to plate on vertex 
1^ inch, diameter between the arms 10 lines. 
The enormous size of the visceral portion above the arms 
(nearly three times the height of the cup) has suggested the spe- 
cific name for this crinoid, which resembles the^. [Amphoracrinus) 
Gilbertsoni and A. [Amphoracrinus) amphora in its markings, pro- 

Mr. F. M'Coy on some new Palceozoic Echinodermata, 249 

minent tubercles over the arm- bases and great plates on the 
vertex ; but it differs from those, besides the great size of the 
visceral portion, very obviously in the greater proportional length 
and less width of the costals, most remarkably of the second 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of BoUand. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Eucalyptrocrinus polydactylus (M^Coy). 
Sp. Char. (Small concave joe/i^zs not seen) ; first-costals hexagonal, 
convex, one-third wider than long, each supporting a quadran- 
gular second costal^ nearly twice as wide as long, its width nearly 
one-third less than that of the first costal ; on each second costal 
rests a pentagonal scapular joint, equalling the second costal 
in width but exceeding it in depth ; on each scapula rest two 
hexagon alj^rs/ arm-joints nearly equalling the scapulae in width 
and depth, and joining by their inner margins (so that the in- 
terbrachial plates cannot rest on the scapulae) ; on each of these 
rests a smaller hexagonal second arm-joint, from each of which 
arise two hands of four or five fingers each] between the two 
second arm-joints of each arm is a small heptagonal inter- 
brachial plate, its inferior pointed end resting on the two first 
arm-joints, and its truncated upper end supporting the small 
lozenge-shaped plate peculiar to this genus ; circumscribed by 
the first and second costal, scapular, and first arm-plates, are 
the five large, equal, convex, nine-sided intercostal plates, each 
supporting on its upper edge a vertical row of three hexagonal 
interbrachial plates. Diameter of cup about 1^ inch. 

Besides the differences of proportion in the various plates 
which may be gathered from the description, this differs from 
the Hypanthocrinus (Eucalyptrocrinus) decorus (Phil.) and E. ro- 
saceus (Gold.) in the lateral union of the first arm-joints, and 
their supporting the interbrachial plates, instead of the scapulae, 
the scapulae consequently being pointed above ; also in the plates 
resting on the intercostal not being bifid, and most remarkably 
from all of the genus in the number of fingers, there being but 
two to each hand in the other species. 

Rare in the Wenlock limestone of Dudley. 

[Col. A cast in the University collection at Cambridge.) 


Pentremites campanulatus (M^Coy). 
Sp. Char. Bell-shaped, base as wide as the body; pseudambu- 
lacra* wide above, tapering to the angles at the base ; trans- 

* I use the word pseudambiilacra here to designate those poriferous rows 
iti Pentremites, &c. which resemble ambulacra, but the pores of which are 

250 Mr. F. M'Coy on some new Paleozoic Echinodermata. 

verse suture between the first and second series of supra-basal 
plates nearly medial ; base flattened ; surface minutely gra- 
nulated. Length 3 lines, width 3 lines. 

If we suppose the lower third abruptly cut off a P. ellipticus, 
we should have a good idea of this little species, which agreeing 
with the above in most characters is distinguished by its small 
size, more tapering ambulacra, greater proportional width and 
wide base. 

Rare in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 

[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Codaster (M^Coy), n. g. 
Etym. KcoSooy, tintinnabulum, and aarrjp, stella. 
Gen, Char. Cup conical, with the upper part broad, flat, trun- 
cate ; pelvis deep, conical, of three pieces, one tetragonal and 
two pentagonal, each having its inner apex 
notched to form part of the round columnar 
canal; on the upper edges of these rest five 
large equal first supra-basal plates which reach 
to the truncated summit, to which from their 
mesial gibbosity they give a pentagonal out- 
line ; in the centre of this superior disc the pj^t terminal disc 
mouth seems situated, and from it five promi- bf Codaster. 
nent, minutely porous pseudambulacra diverge, 
one to each angle, each being placed on a thick tapering ridge 
divided by a mesial sulcus ; from the re-entering angles of those 
ridges four other thick, rapidly tapering ridges proceed, one 
to the middle of each of four of the straight sides, each ridge 
at its thick, oral end shows an obscure impression, probably 
of the ovarian pores ; the fifth space is without a ridge, being 
occupied by a large, ovate or lozenge-shaped (? anal) opening ; 
the depressed, triangular intervening spaces are marked with 
coarse, rough parallel strise nearly coinciding in direction with 
the pseudambulacral ridges, and converging to the second set 
of ridges ; the impressed lines between these strise seem punc- 
tured, the fifth (? posterior) space is without sulcation. 

These strange and beautiful forms, the 'bell-stars,' as they 
may be called, are obviously allied to Pentremites (taking P. Der- 
biensis, florealis, oblongus, ellipticus, and such like as the types of 
the genus), from which they differ in having the small basal 
plates enormously developed into a conical pelvis, and having the 
pseudambulacra entirely confined to the capital plates (which here 

found by MM. Roemer and Yondell (Bulletin de la Soc. Geol. de France 
for 17th April 1848) to be really the alimentary canals of a double row of 
little jointed tentacles resembling I imagine those of Pseudocrinites. 

Mr. F. M'Coy on some new Paleozoic Echinodermata. 251 

form a truncated disc) instead of being continued through a 
sHt in the supra-basal plates nearly to their base. On the nature 
of the peculiar sulcation, represented in the subjoined sketch in 
four of the interambulacral spaces, I have no remark to offer. In 
Prof. Forbes^ s paper on the British Cystidea in the second volume 
of the ' Memoirs of the Geol. Survey/ p. 529, there is a figure 
representing " the projection of the arm-bearing surface of the 
Pentremites pentagonalis" which resembles the disc of our genus 
except in having the posterior interambulacral space sulcated, and 
with a thick mesial ridge like the rest ; I do not suppose that that 
figure is meant to represent the Platycrinus pentagonalis of Mil- 
ler, forming the Pentremites id. of G. Sowerby and Phillips, which 
presents no resemblance of the kind. I only know the following 
two species, from the carboniferous limestone. 

Cadaster acutus (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Pelvic and supra-basal plates of equal length ; pelvis 
acutely conical, obtusely subtrigonal in section ; columnar ad- 
herence small, round, prominent; surface smooth. Length 
6 lines, width of disc 5 lines. 

Not very uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of BoUand. 
(Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Codaster trilobatus (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Supra-basal one-third longer than the basal or pelvic 
plates ; pelvis divided into three tumid lobes which hang be- 
low the columnar adherence ; surface smooth. Length 7 lines, 
width of disc 5 lines. 

Not uncommon in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire. 
[Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Ord. Perischoechinida (M'Coy). 

All the known Echinida — from the spheroidal Echini with the 
mouth and anus both central, one vertically under the other, to the 
elongated, symmetrical Spatangi with their mouth and anus at 
opposite ends of the ventral disc — all agree in having their case 
made up of twenty vertical rows of plates, ten ambulacral and ten 
interambulacral. This is not only the most persistent character 
of the entire group, but the number becomes of extreme interest 
when, with Agassiz and Valentin, we view the globose test of the 
sea-urchins as a mere modification of the same parts which we find 
in a 5 -rayed starfish, — an ideal division of the mesial suture con- 
necting the two rows of plates in each interambulacrum of the 
former, giving at once the ambulacra, lateral ossicles, and other 
characters of the latter. The Echinites of the palseozoic rocks 
however are constructed-on an entirely different plan, having three 

252 Mr. F. M^Coy on some new Palceozoic Echinodermata, 

or more rows of interambulacral plates, instead of two as in those 
of the newer rocks and existing seas ; as therefore those sea-urchins 
differ from all of the order Echinida in the great number of rows 
of plates in the test, usually having an odd number of rows in the 
interambulacra, and the consequent impossibility of theoretically 
dividing them at the sutures into five equal parts, I would pro- 
pose to form a peculiar order for their reception under the above 
title, indicating the complexity of their structure. I first drew 
attention to the structural peculiarities of those fossils in 1844 
in my ' Synopsis of the Garb. Limest. Fossils of Ireland ^ (p. 171 
to 174), where I gave the generic characters of the genus Pa/«- 
chinus (proposed in manuscript by my friend Dr. Scouler), and 
described and figured several species having from three to five 
rows of plates in the interambulacra. In the same work I stated 
that the plates of the so-called Cidarites of the carboniferous 
period being hexagonal was a proof that they too must have had, 
like the Palachini, more than two rows of interambulacral plates, 
and being consequently distinct from the newer fossil and recent 
Cidarisy I mentioned that I had long distinguished them in 
manuscripts (in the collections at Dublin) under the name of 
Archaeocidaris. In that work T withdrew my own name however 
in favour of Echinocrinus, by which M. Agassiz had announced 
his intention of designating the carboniferous Cidaris Nerii, &c. 
in his Introduction to the 2nd livr. of his * Monog. des Echinod. 
Fossiles,^ p. 15 : although he did not either define the genus 
or recognise the aforesaid peculiarities, the name itself seemed 
to indicate an entirely diff*erent affinity, namely with the Cri- 
noidea, in which group this generic name is placed in Agassiz^s 
^ Nomenclator Zoologicus.' I propose to resume now my old 
name for this genus, 1st, because M. Agassiz neither indicated 
the affinities nor gave any descriptive notice of the genus Echi- 
nocrinus, while I have done both for my Archceocidaris ; 2nd, se- 
veral of the continental geologists have not followed my example 
in rejecting my own name, but prefer Archaocidaris ; 3rd, in the 
' Catalogue Raisonne des Echinodermes,^ &c., published by MM. 
Agassiz and Desor in the ^ Annales des Sc. Nat/ for November 
1846, no mention is made of the genus Echinocrinus^ but the 
species which were to have formed the type of it {Cidaris Nerii, 
&c.) are given under the new title of Palceocidaris, which of 
course has no claims for adoption on the score of priority; nor 
do MM. Agassiz and Desor even there seem aware of the pecu- 
liarity in form of the interambulacral plates or their abnormal 
number, although my observations on those points are mentioned 
by M. Verneuil nearly two years before in his ' Coup d^oeil general 
sur la Faime Paleozoique de Russie,^ prefixed to the second vol. 
of MM. Murchison, Verneuil, and Keyserling^s great w^ork on 

Mr. F. M'Coy on some new Palaozoic Echinodermata. 253 

Russia and the Ural Mountains. Under those circumstances, 
therefore, it seems the most simple and correct course to use the 
term Archaocidaris for those fossils. 

The order Perischoechinida may be divided into two families : 
1st, Palofchinida, having the interambulacral plates crowded with 
small, subequal, spinigerous tubercles, not perforated, the spines 
of one form (including Palaechinus, Melonites, Owen and Nor- 
wood, &c.) j 2nd, Archceocidaridoi, having the spines and tubercles 
of two forms and sizes, the primary spines very large, generally 
muricated, crenulated at the base, and each supported on a large 
mammillated and perforated primary tubercle surrounded by an 
elevated ring, never more than one on any plate, generally sur- 
rounded by a crowd of the small secondary tubercles (including 
Archceocidaris, M^Coy, and the following). These family divi- 
sions rest on the same characters as the separation of the true 
Echini and the Cidarida among the normally formed Echinida. 

Perischodomus (M'Coy), n. g. 

Etym. irepLa^oov, complexus, and Bco/Jia, domus. 

Gen. Char. Spheroidal, depressed, subpentagonal ; ambulacra 
narrow, of two rows of small plates, most usually of a trans- 



a. Diagram of portion of interambulacrum and ambulacra of Perischodomus. 

b. One of the primary and some of the secondary tubercles magnified more 


c. One of the ovarian plates. 

versely elongate pentagonal figure, and each pierced by one 
pair of simple pores; interambulacra wide, of five rows of 
plates very irregular in size and shape, all the plates covered 
with small equal granules or secondary tubercles, while the 
row on each side adjoining the ambulacra alone bear the small, 
smooth primary spines, one on each, the supporting tubercle 
being small, mammillated, perforated, but not crenulated, sur- 
rounded by a double ring and situated not in the centre, but 
near the ambulacral edge, a little above the middle ; ovarian 

254 Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassum. 

plates pierced each with six foramina ; mouth and anus small, 
both central. 

This genus is remarkable for the irregularity of form and size 
of the interarabulacral plates, differing in this both from Arch(Bo- 
cidaris and Palcechinus ; from the former it also differs in the 
greater number of the interambulacral plates being destitute of 
the mammillated primary tubercle, and by its small size and 
lateral position on those plates which do bear it ; from Palcechinus 
it differs, besides the above, in the two rows of primary tubercles 
to each interambulacrum, &c. I at present know but one species. 

Perischodomus biserialis (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char, Diameter {of flattened specimens) about 2^ inches, 
width of ambulacra at middle 3 lines ; width of mouth and 
ovarian circle each about 3 lines ; granules on the five rows of 
irregular interambulacral plates scarcely visible, the two rows 
of mammillated and perforated primary tubercles bordering 
the ambulacra very small ; two rows of ambulacral plates, about 
six or seven occupying the same space as one of the interam- 
bulacral plates of the middle of the row. 

Some few of the ambulacral plates are wedge-shaped, pointed 
towards the interambulacra, as in the sketch. The primary 
spines, as far as seen, were cylindrical and smooth. 

Rare in the lower carboniferous limestone of Hook Head, Wex- 

[Col. University of Cambridge (anal and genital half), and 
Dr. Griffith at Dublin (oral haK).) 

XXIX. — Algce Orientales : — Descriptions of new Species belonging 
to the genus Sargassum. By R. K. Greville, LL.D. &c.* 

[Continued from p. 219.] 

[With a Plate.] 

16. Sargassum squarrosum (nob.); caule filiformi, angulato; foliis 
(parvis) anguste obovatis, obtusis, plus minusve repando-dentatis ; 
vesicuhs subsphaericis, brevissime petiolatis ; receptaculis obovatis 
vel lineari-oblongis, piano- compressis, acute lateque dentatis. 

Hab. in mari Peninsulae Indise Orientalis ; Wight. 

Root I have not seen. Stem filiform, angular, a foot to, pro- 
bably, a foot and a half long, bushy with numerous branches 
which appear to be generally 2 or 3 inches long. Leaves 
small^ half an inch or, rarely, three-fourths of an inch in length, 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, February 8, 1849. 

Ami I- Mil/ Jot Jlist S :^ Vol 3 77 X 

r ^, 

S- diyiuuatum 

Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassum. 255 

narrow-obovate, rounded at the apex, attenuated at the base into 
a slender and rather long footstalk, often nearly entire, but more 
generally repando- or even serrato- dentate, furnished with pores, 
and a nerve which disappears before reaching the summit. Vesi- 
cles nearly the size of hempseed, subspherical, supported on stalks 
scarcely a line long. Receptacles a line or more in length, ax- 
illary, obovate, or oblong, compressed, the margin and apex fur- 
nished with broad sharp teeth ; frequently the receptacles are 
proliferous, the whole forming a very irregularly divided raceme, 
which is sometimes so twisted and curled as to give it the appear- 
ance of a cluster of minute proliferous leaves. 

From the two imperfect specimens which I possess of this 
plant, I suspect that it is subject to considerable variation, and 
my figure and description are given chiefly with a view of affording 
algologists a memorandum for its more accurate investigation. 
On one of my specimens several of the leaves are converted into 
vesicles, which are supported on stalks 2 lines long resembling 
the lower part of the leaf ; these are also winged and apiculate. 

17. Sargassum divaricatum (nob.) ; caule angulato ; foliis linearibus, 
acuminatis, breviter petiolatis, uninervibus, subintegerrimis ; vesi- 
culis numerosis, sphsericis, petiolatis, petiolis planis, dilatatis ; 
receptaculis cylindraceis, filiformibus, divaricato-dichotomis. 

Wight in herb. no. 7. 

Hah. in mari Peninsulse Indise Orientalis ; Wight. 

Root I have not seen. Entire plant probably a foot or more 
in length. Stem nearly as thick as a crow-quill, giving off 
spreading branches at short intervals 4 to 6 inches long, which 
are clothed with numerous short ramuli and leaves, so as to give 
the whole plant a bushy appearance. Leaves somewhat more 
than an inch in length, a line or more broad, more or less 
acuminate, entire, or rarely obscurely subdentate, shortly petio- 
late, furnished with a nerve and pores. Vesicles spherical, smaller 
than hempseed, on little flat dilated petioles about a line long ; 
sometimes they are margined, and occasionally on longer stalks 
resembling an abbreviated leaf, and apiculate. Receptacles fili- 
form, cylindraceous, subdichotomously divided, the segments 
spreading, the whole forming axillary tufts, often 3 or 4 lines in 
length. Colour reddish brown, that of the receptacles black. 
Substance cartilaginous. 

A well-marked species, the receptacles separating it at once 
from its congeners. When luxuriant the three or four tufts on 
a ramulus seem to form one mass, and to the naked eye suggest 
the idea of a little parasitic Gigartina, and is by no means unlike 
dwarf specimens of Gymnogonijrus Griffithsice, Mart. Sometimes 
the receptacles are less abundant and conspicuous, having fewer 

256 Dr. Greville on some new species of Sargassiim. 

divisions, the segments however being often nearly 2 Unes long. 
The leaves bear a considerable resemblance to those of Sargassum 
bacciferum, but are much more numerous. 

18. Sargassum acutifolium (nob.); caule piano- compresso, distiche 
ramoso ; foliis linearibus utrinque attenuatis, acutissimis, integer- 
rimis, uninervibus, ad ramulos filiformibus ; vesiculis sparsis, sub- 
ellipticis, petiolatis, petiolis planis ; receptaculis compressis, lineari- 
oblongis, ad apicem dentatis. 
Sargassum acinaria, Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 22 ? .-* 
Hah. in mari Peninsulse Indise Orientalis ; Wight. 

Root 1 have not seen. Plant probably 2 or 3 feet long. 
Stem (or probably primary branch) piano -compressed, a line or 
more broad, distichously branched; branches about an inch apart, 
8-12 inches long, flat like the stem, bearing ramuli 2-3 inches 
long, at intervals of |^ to ^ of an inch, which in their turn bear 
a smaller series upon which the fructification is placed. Leaves, 
the larger ones at the base of the branches, 2 inches in length, 
linear, acuminated at each extremity, entire, furnished with a 
nerve and a few scattered pores : the rest much smaller, almost 
filiform, those accompanying the fructification sometimes so slen- 
der as to be capillary. Vesicles scarcely half the size of hemp- 
seed, very sparingly developed, somewhat elliptical, on flat slender 
stalks, 2 lines or more long, mostly produced at the base of 
the racemes of receptacles. Sometimes a vesicle occurs at the 
extremity of a leaf. Receptacles minute, axillary, oblong or linear- 
oblong, compressed, generally toothed at the apex, forming more 
or less divided racemes. Colour reddish black. Substance car- 

It is not without considerable hesitation that I separate this 
plant from Sargassum acinaria of Agardh. There are however 
differences, judging from his description, (and in the absence of 
authenticated specimens,) which seem to be sufficiently decisive. 
The stem in S. acinaria is said to be angular. In the specimens 
before me both it and the branches are clearly piano-compressed, 
and give off the ramifications in a distichous manner. This 
character alone would remove my plant from the species above 
mentioned. The receptacles, described simply as cylindraceous 
in S. acinaria, are in the present plant, when fully deve- 
loped, mote or less compressed, and toothed at the apex. The 
cauline leaves are not ^Hanceolate,^^ being too narrow to be 
termed even linear-lanceolate ; but this is a character so liable 
to variation that much stress cannot be laid upon it. The 
racemes of fructification are truly axillary. The vesicles (in the 
specimens under examination) very few. Sargassum acutifolium 
is, from the abundance of the narrow leaves (which spread at a 
considerable angle), and also of the closely approximated tufts of 

Mr. P. H. Gosse on two new Birds from Jamaica. 257 

receptacles, very bushy in appearance. My specimens are not 
more than 14 inches long, but evidently indicate a plant 2 or 
3 feet in length. 


Sargassum squarrosum. 
Fig. 1. A branch. 

— 2. Leaves. 

— 3. Vesicles. 

— 4. Receptacles. The last magnified. 

Sargassum divaricatum. 

Fig. 1. One of the ramuli. 

— 2. Vesicles. 

— 3. Do. 

— 4. Receptacles. 3 & 4 magnified. 

Sargassum acutifolium. 
Fig. 1. A small branch. 

— 2. Do. from a young plant. 

— 3. Vesicles. 

— 4. Do. produced at the end of leaves. 

— 5. A raceme. •► 

— 6. A single receptacle. 5 & 6 magnified. 

XXX. — Descriptions of two new Birds from Jamaica. 
By Philip Henry Gosse. 

The former of the two species which I am about to describe was 
accidentally overlooked in writing my ' Birds of Jamaica/ and the 
latter has been discovered since the publication of that work. 

Eldnia cotta. Length 5^ inches, expanse of wing 8y^^, flexure 
2y%, rictus ^^, tarsus f^, middle toe y%. Irides dark hazel ; feet 
dark slate-gray; beak black. Head blackish ash; crown bril- 
liant yellow, commonly concealed; back and rump olive; tail 
blackish with olive edges ; wing black ; the primaries edged 
faintly, the secondaries, tertiaries and greater coverts conspicu- 
ously, with pale yellow; third quill longest. A white stripe, 
ill-defined, over the eye, meeting on the forehead; ear-coverts 
white, with dark tips; chin, cheeks, throat, and breast white, 
speckled obscurely with black beneath the eyes; belly, vent, 
under tail-coverts, and inner surface of wings, delicate pale 

This little Tyrant, for want of any obvious peculiarities to di- 
stinguish it from others of its genus, I have named from the 
locality where I first met with it, the Cotta-wood, a tangled cop- 
pice on Grand Vale Mountain, in the parish of St. Ehzabeth. I 
afterwards observed it in other situations, as in the woods around 
Bluefields, but it does not appear to be anywhere common : nor 
am I able to say whether it is a permanent resident, or merely a 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 17 

258 Mr. P. H. Gosse on two new Birds from Jamaica. 

winter visitant in Jamaica. Its manners, as far as I liave noticed 
them, resemble those of the other Tyrants ; pursuing insects in 
the air, and retiring to a prominent twig to eat them. I have 
observed one attack with much clamour a John-to-whit ( Vireo- 
sylva olivacea), on the wing. 

A figure of this species will be found in my ' Illustrations of 
the Birds of Jamaica,' Part xiii. plate 45. 

Trochilus Maria. Length 4i~ inches; wing from flexure 2y^; 
rictus rather more than -^q ; tarsus -^q ; middle toe -^q. Beak 
(in a dried state) blackish brown above, buff below, with the tip 

black : irides ? ; feet black. Crown dull black, each feather 

tipped with a spangle of green and bronze, the spangles having 
a tendency to form longitudinal rows : nape and sides of the neck 
blackish, beset with spangles less numerous, but larger and more 
golden than on the crown : back and shoulders of wings richly 
bronzed with a ruddy golden hue, slightly tending to green in 
some lights ; rump and upper tail-coverts more decidedly golden 
green ; tail black, glossed with golden green, principally towards 
the tips of the feathers, the uropygials having more of the me- 
tallic lustre than the rest ; wing quills and greater coverts pur- 
plish black, the innermost coverts and the winglet tipped with 
golden : throat, breast and belly emerald green, not scaly, the 
tips of the feathers only being metallic and showing the brownish 
black bases between them : vent and under tail-coverts black. 
The specimen appears to be an immature male. 

This specimen of a species previously unknown to me was 
obligingly forwarded to me by my esteemed scientific friend, 
Richard Hill, Esq. of Spanish-Town, to whom it was sefit from 
the mountains of Manchester. It is near to Polytmus, but dif- 
fers from it in the inferior length of its beak, and in the colours 
of the plumage ; but being apparently young, it is impossible to 
say what its adult condition may prove. I am happy however 
to fortify my own judgment by that of Mr. Gould, who on my 
showing it to him decidedly pronounced it new. 

Mr. Hill writes me concerning the specimen : " It was startled 
from a nest in which were two young ones, and was obtained 
by charging some of the blossoms of the mountain-pride {Spa- 
thelia simplex) on which it was feeding, with minute doses of 
strychnine. As soon as it sucked from one of the poisoned cha- 
lices, it fluttered, and fell dead." — " The nest does not differ in 
structure from those made of the drab- coloured down of the 
Eriodendron, or of the Ochroma lagopus, with a stucco of lichens." 

Mr. Hill had at first proposed to name this species " bi-ac- 
teatus" but afterwards substituted the feminine appellative, 
which I have pleasure in placing at the head of this article. 
"Doubting," he observes, "whether hracteatus was sufficiently 

Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 259 

distinctive, I had meditated calling it Maria, in remembrance of 
my late talented little niece, who had assisted me so much in my 
natural history studies, by collecting specimens and getting up 
facts relating to the instincts and habits of the objects I noted 
or described. Maria was with me in Manchester when I procured 
the green-backed swallow [yo\xv Hirundo euchrysea), and we visited 
together in the very district where this new Trochilus was found ; 
but I hesitated about the adoption of her name, from the impos- 
sibility of putting it in any other way than as ' Trochilus Maria* 
though T. Cora and T. Mango might reconcile me to it. 
[Other examples, as Anna, Sappho, &c., might also be added.] 
I leave the matter in your hands, but would suggest that the 
specific soubriquet should be considered undetermined, till fresh 
specimens be obtained." 

A figure of this specimen appears in my * Illustrations,^ Part xiii. 
plate 22. 

XXXI. — Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its 
Kindred. Nos. 4, 5. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S. 

[Continued from p. 139.] 

4. The Dodo applied to Heraldry. — I am indebted to the Rev. 
Richard Hooper, of St. Stephen^ s, Westminster, for obligingly 
calling my attention to what may be called the heraldic depart- 
ment of the Dodo-history. The introduction of such a subject 
into a scientific journal would require apology were it not certain 
that many a curious fact of history, both physical and civil, may 
be disentangled from the quaint devices of armorial pageantry. 
It now appears that besides the '^ human Dodos " referred to by a 
witty (yet scientific) writer in Blackwood^s Magazine (Jan. 1849, 
p. 81), a family has existed in modern times, bearing the syno- 
nymous name of Dronte, and decorated with a Dodo on their 
armorial shield. Could we now trace out the whereabouts of this 
family, we might possibly elicit from their archives some original 
facts connected with the present matter. All my inquiries about 
the Dronte family have indeed hitherto been fruitless, but I hope 
that this notice may induce heraldic students to throw light on 
the subject. The passage to which I here refer is contained in 
the ' Academy of Armory and Blazon ' by Randle Holme, pub- 
lished at Chester in 1688 ; book ii. ch. 13. p. 289. The Rev. 
J. Baron of Queen^s College, Oxford, has kindly afforded access 
to a copy of this rare work in the library of that college, and has 
enabled Mr. Delamotte to engrave the following facsimile of the 
heraldic device. This figure seems to have been copied, with a 
little alteration, from that contained in the rare edition of Bon- 


260 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 

tekoe (see ' Dodo and its Kindred/ p. 63), but tlie description is 
evidently taken from Clusius, Exotica, cap. iv. The author ju- 
diciously points out the discrepancy between the colour of the 
wings as given by Clusius and Bontius, which is explained by 
Dr. Hamel (^Der Dodo,' &c. pp. 25, 34) to have arisen from a 
mistranslation of the original Dutch of Van Neck. 

It is remarkable that although Holme takes his description 
from the works of Clusius and Bontius, yet his figure is copied 
from neither, but is taken from a third, and wholly independent, 
source. This seems conclusive as to the actual existence of a 
family bearing these arms ; for had they been Holme's own in- 
vention, he would naturally have copied the figure from one of 
the two works which furnished him with the description. So 
now to our author. 

" He beareth Sable a Dodo, or Dronte proper. By the name 
of Dronte, This exotic bird doth equal a Swan in bigness, and 
is of some authors termed Gallus Peregrinus and Sygnus Cu- 
cullatus, a Hooded Swan ; yet it is of a far differrent shape. 
For the head is great, covered (as it were) with a certain mem- 
brane, resembling a hood. The bill is thick, and long, yellow 
next the head, the point black ; the upper chap is hooked at the 
end, the lower chap had a blew spot between the yellow and 
black. It is covered with thin short feathers, and wants wings ; 
in stead thereof it hath four or five long black feathers ; that the 
hinder part of the body is round, flat, and fleshy, wherein for the 
tail were four or five small curled feathers, twirled up together, 
of an ash colour. The legs thick and short with long sharp 
pointed toes, yellowish ; claws black. Thighs covered with black 
feathers, the rest of the body grey. Yet Bontius, lib. 5. chap. 17. 
in his History of India, describes it to have a great ill-favoured 
head, covered with a membrane like a hood ; the bill bluish white, 
the tips of the upper mandable black, the lower yellow, the body 
is covered with soft grey feathers ; the soft feathered wings of a 
yellowish ash colour ; legs yellowish, and both them and the toes 
set with broad scales.'' 

5. Stones in the stomach of birds, indicative of frugivorous 
habits. — In the 'Dodo and its Kindred,' p. 43, it is stated that 

Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brachistus. 261 

^' stones are only swallowed by frugivorous birds, which require 
them to triturate their food, and are never found in the gizzards 
of the Raptores." Hence it was argued, that the Dodo, which is 
known to have had stones in its stomach, could have no affinity to 
Raptorial birds. Dr. G. Dickie of Aberdeen has however called 
my attention to a passage in Sir J. C. Ross's Antarctic Expe- 
dition, which shows that the above generalization, though un- 
doubtedly true in general, admits, like all rules, of an exception. 
It is there mentioned (voL ii. p. 159) that stones were usually 
found in the stomachs of the Aptenodytes Forsteri, to the amount 
of two to twenty lbs. weight. This is certainly a remarkable 
fact in the case of a piscivorous bird, and indicates some pecu- 
liarity in its habits which it would be desirable to clear up. Do 
any of the fucivorous Fish swallow pebbles to help digestion, 
and can the Penguin have thus acquired these foreign matters at 
second hand ? But whatever be the cause of this habit in the 
Penguin, it does not affect the argument as to the remoteness of 
the Dodo from the Raptorial birds. 

XXXIl. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Mters, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 146.] 


A PARTICULAR group of plants has been before alluded to under 
this name {ante, p. 144), most of which have been referred to 
Witheringia by Prof. Kunth, and from which genus I have shown 
that they differ by having a campanular calyx generally with an 
almost entire margin, which does not enlarge with the fruit, by 
a much smaller berry and other characters. They are also di- 
stinct from Acnistus by the calyx being generally entire on the 
margin, rarely 5 -toothed, and not having the five strong prominent 
nervures which give to the calyx of the latter genus the appear- 
ance of an almost pentangular tube : they differ also in the much 
shorter tube of the corolla, a more rotate border, more dilated 
stamens arising from a triangular expansion at the base, as in 
Hehecladus and Saracha ; their flowers are considerably less in 
size, and they have smaller berries, which exhibit a very thin 
membranaceous dissepiment, not thickened in the middle by the 
confluence of the placentae, as in Witheringia, Acnistus, lochroma, 
Saracha, &c. ; the placentse on the contrary, originating from a 
central line in the middle of the dissepiment, are thin and 
slender, projecting for a short distance at right angles into the 
cavity of the cell, and then become furcated, continuing mem- 

262 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brachistus. 

branaceous, with numerous seeds attached on each side. The 
ovarium is also surrounded at its base by a distinct annular disc, 
and is not seated simply upon a fleshy torus as in Acnistus, 
These plants appear to me closely allied to the Physalis arbo- 
rescens, Willd, which, on account of its arborescent habit and its 
different form of flower, I propose to separate from that genus 
and attach to this group. They may thus be made to constitute 
a distinct genus under the name of Brachistus, from ^pd')(^icrro<;, 
hrevissimus, on account of the shortness of the tube of their 
corolla. As lochroma (which I have made to include Chcenesthes) 
differs from Acnistus principally in the length of the tube of its 
corolla, so Brachistus on the other hand is not less distinct from 
that genus on account of the extreme shortness of the tube of 
the corolla, and its deeply cleft rotate border. This genus will 
first include all the species of Witheringia of Prof. Kunth (of 
which I will give below amended characters) with the exception 
of W. riparia, which from its infundibuliform corolla is evidently 
an Acnistus, and JV. angustifolia, which from its racemose blue 
flowers and other characters evidently does not belong to this 
genus, appertaining more probably to the same group as Solanum 
montanum. For the same reason are excluded the JV. crassifolia, 
Dun., and W. pendula, R. and Sch. The tV, salicifolia, Hook., 
is a Capraria according to Mr. Bentham, although it offers re- 
gular pentandrous flowers : it evidently belongs to the genus 
Xuaresia of R. and P. : the six herbaceous species of Witheringia 
of Dunal and Sprengel enumerated by Dr. Walpers (Repert. iii. 
pp. 31, 32), as I have before remarked, appear to me to belong to 
Solanum. The following I consider to be its generic characters : 

Braohistus (gen. nov.). — Calyx parvus, urceolatus, margine 
integro, vel rarius 4-5-dentato, persistens et non augescens. 
Corolla subrotata, tubo brevi, limbo 4-5-partito, lobis oblongis 
acutis, testivatione valvata. Stamina 4-5, erecta ; filamenta 
imo subdilatata, paulo supra basin corollse adnata; anthera 
oblongse, submucronulatse, 2-lob8e, lobis arete adnatis margine 
exteriore dehiscentibus. Ovarium ovatum, disco annulari imo 
cinctum, 2-loculare, dissepimento tenui utrinque in placentam 
membranaceam bifidam ovuligeram producto, ovulis plurimis. 
Stylus simplex, longitudine staminum. Stigma clavatum, sub- 
2-lobum. Bacca parva, globosa, calyce parvulo suffulta, 2- 
locularis. Semina compressa, in pulpo aquoso nidulantia, 
sublenticularia, testa aspero-scrobiculata ; csetera ignota. — Ar- 
bores vel frutices Americce ^quinoctialis: folia alterna velsajnus 
gemina, altero multo minori et heteromo7pho, subintegra vel an- 
gulato-dentata ; flores axillares, fasciculato-congestiy perpauci, 
vel rarius solitarii, pedicellis \-floris, gracilibus, erectis, demum 

Mr. J. Miers on the genm Brachistus. 


1. Brachistus stramonifolius. Witheringia stramonifoliaj H.B.K. 
Nov. Gen. iii. 13; — arboreus, ramulis angulatis^pubescentibus; 
foliis ovatis, acuminatis, insequalitcr cordatis et dentato-angu- 
latis, hirtellis, geminis, altero dimidio breviore ; floribus fasci- 
culato-congestis, birtellis, pedunculis nutantibus, 5-meris, sta- 
minibus margine pilosis, inclusis ; bacca pisiformi, calycis per- 
sistentis duplo diametro. — Mexico. 

The leaves are said to be 4-5 inches long, 2-3 inches broad, on 
a petiole 1-1^ inch : the flowers (fifteen to twenty) are aggregated 
in each extra-axillary fascicle, the peduncles varying from 6 to 
20 lines in length ; the corolla, the size of that of Capsicum fru- 
tescens, has an expanded 5 -partite border, the mouth of the short 
tube being pilose, the filaments are hairy on the margins. The 
berries are red, globular, 3 lines in diameter, and are supported 
by their small persistent calyx on slender deflexed peduncles. 

2. Brachistus macrophyllus. Witheringia macrophylla, H, B. K, 
loc. cit. 14; — fruticosus, ramulis subangulatis,tenuissimepube- 
rulis ; foliis ovato-ellipticis, subacuminatis, subrepandis, glabri- 
usculis, superioribus geminis, altero minore ; floribus plurimis, 
fasciculato-congestis, petiolo dimidio brevioribus, 4-meris, gla- 
bris, pedunculis filiformibus cernuis ; corollse tubo brevi, limbo 
4-partito, patente, filamentis margine villosis ; bacca minima, 
calyce parvulo suffulta. — Nova Granada. 

The leaves are stated to be 8 inches long and about 4 inches 
broad, somewhat smooth, but slightly woolly on the primary 
nervures, and supported on a petiole 14-15 lines long, which is 
slender, caniculate and pubescent. The flowers are numerous in 
each fascicle upon slender, smooth peduncles 4-5 lines long. The 
calyx is small, almost entire or obsoletely 4-toothed, and quite 
smooth. The corolla, not larger than that of Solanum nigrum , is 
of a greenish hue, with a very short tube, a rotate border with 
four pointed lobes, the included filaments being very short, flat- 
tened and ciliate on the margins ; the anther lobes are adnate, 
lanceolate, pointed, erect, and bursting on the margins. The 
ovarium is small, rounded, smooth, and seated on a glandular 
disc. The berry is red, not larger than a peppercorn, and sup- 
ported upon its small calyx. 

3. Brachistus ciliatus. Witheringia ciliata, H.B. K. loc. cit. 15. 
— fruticosus, ramis teretibus, glabris; foliis oblongis, acutis, 
basi angustatis, integerrimis, ciliatis, geminis, altero duplo mi- 
nore ; floribus 5-meris, parvis, paucis (1-2), extra-axillaribus, 
pedunculis capillaceis pubescentibus ; calyce urceolato obsolete 
dentato, dentibus linearibus pubescente ; corolla glabra, tubo 
brevi, limbo angulato sub-5-lobo patente, lobis acutis ; bacca 

264 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brachistus. 

globosa, calyce parvulo suffulta. — Nova Granada, in Andibus 

This plant bears very much the appearance of Solanum philly- 
reoides, Dun. The leaves are smooth, thin and membranaceous, 
ciliate on the margins, 1 ^ inch or more in length, 7 lines broad, 
on a pubescent petiole 4-5 lines long. The flowers, solitary or 
binate, are about the size of those of the last species, the very 
slender peduncles measuring S-9 lines : the pubescent calyx is 
almost entire on the margin, with five nearly obsolete erect teeth, 
the filaments are short, quite smooth and dilated below, the an- 
thers oblong, obtuse, erect, bursting on the margins. 

4. Brachistus mollis. Witheringia mollis, H, B. K. loo. cit. 15. 
— fruticosus, ramulis teretibus, cano-tomentosis ; foliis ovatis 
utrinque acuminatis, integerrimis, supra pubescentibus, subtus 
moUiter cano-tomentosis, geminis, altero multo minore et dif- 
formi; floribus 5-meris, extra-axillaribus (2-3-4), pedunculis 
filiformibus, elongatis, cernuis ; corollse tubo brevi, limbo an- 
gulato sub-5-lobo, laciniis acutis, staminibus glabris inclusis ; 
bacca minima, calyce parvulo suffulta. — Caxamarca, Peruvise. 

The leaves of this species are from 1^ to 2 inches long, and 9 
to 12 lines broad, on a tomentose petiole 3 lines long. The pe- 
duncles, from 9 to 11 lines in length, are slender, hairy, depen- 
dent, but erect in fruit ; the flowers are the size of those of the 
two former species ; the calyx is urceolate, incano-tomentose, 
with five short linear teeth ; the corolla is hairy outside, has a 
plicate and a somewhat pentangular limb with acute angles j the 
stamens, five or six, are short, smooth and erect ; the berry, not 
larger than a peppercorn, is supported on its very small persist- 
ent calyx. 

5. Brachistus rhomhoideus. Witheringia rhomboidea, H, B. K. 
loc. cit. 15. — fruticosus, ramis teretibus, tomentosis ; foliis 
ovatis, acutiusculis, basi rotundatis et insequalibus, integer- 
rimis, supra molliter pubescentibus, subtus cano-tomentosis, 
geminis, altero minore ; floribus paucis (4-6), extra-axillaribus, 
fasciculatis, pedunculis filiformibus petiolo longioribus ; corolla 
rotata, limbo 5-fido, laciniis acutis, apice hirtellis. — Nova Gra- 
nada (Quitidiu). 

The branches of this species are said to be somewhat scandent ; 
the leaves are scarcely 1 inch long, | inch broad, upon cano- 
tomentose petioles 2 to 5 lines in length : the peduncles are 4 or 
5 lines long, cernuous in flower, erect and 7 to 8 lines long in 
fruit. The flowers are the size of those of the three foregoing 
species; the calyx, cano-tomentose, is urceolate, with a nearly 
entire margin, and five short linear distant teeth : the corolla is 


Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brachistus. 265 

glabrous, with a rotate 5-fid border, the segments being oblong, 
acute and hairy at the apex ; the filaments are subulate, short 
and smooth. 

6. Brachistus dumetorum. Witheringia dumetorum, H. B. K. he. 
cit. 16. — fruticosus, ramulis subangulatis, junioribus tomen- 
tosis ; foliis ovatis, subacuminatis, basi cuneatis, supra hirto- 
pilosis, subtus hirto-tomentosis et canescentibus, superioribus 
geminis, aitero minore; lloribus geminis aut temis, extra- 
axillaribus, pedunculis filiformibus, tomentosis, petiolo multo 
longioribus ; corolla rotata, limbo 5-fido, laciniis brevibus, 
acutis, apice hirtis ; staminibus inclusis, glabris. — Nova Gra- 

The leaves have a somewhat obtusely pointed acuminated apex, 
and are gradually contracted at base upon a short and caniculate 
tomentose petiole of 2 lines in length ; they are from 12 to 16 
lines long and 6 to 8 lines broad, somewhat coriaceous, with 
parallel nervures, which with the midrib are prominent beneath. 
The peduncles are 3 to 5 lines long, filiform and tomentose ; the 
flowers are the size of those of the preceding species, the calyx of 
which it also resembles in form ; the corolla is rotate, smooth and 
plicated ; the filaments are very short, subulate and smooth. 

7. Brachistus riparius. Witheringia riparia, H. B. K. loc. cit. 
16. — fruticosus, ramulis angulatis, hispido-pilosis ; foliis sub- 
oblique obovato-oblongis, acuminatis, basi acutis, supra glabris 
et Isete viridibus, subtus in rachin pilosis, geminis, aitero multo 
minore; floribus plurimis, fasciculatis, congestis, extra-axilla- 
ribus, petiolum subsequantibus ; coroUse tubo calyce duplo lon- 
giore, infundibuliformi, limbo 5-partito; bacca sphserica. — 
Nova Granada (Andibus Quindiuensibus, alt. 6300 ped.). 

This species, from the greater length of its corolla, might be 
referred to Acnistus, did not the habit of the plant show it to 
be congeneric with the above-mentioned species described by 
Prof. Kunth. The larger of the geminate leaves are from 8 to 
10 inches long, 2i to 3^ inches broad, upon petioles 5 to 8 lines' 
long, caniculate and hispid ; the smaller leaves in each pair are 
only 1| to 3 inches long, upon a much shorter petiole, and they 
are elliptic or ovate-elliptic, and acute at both ends. The flowers 
are fasciculated upon distinct peduncles, and are about the size of 
those of Lycium harharum. The calyx is urceolate, obsoletely 
5-tgothed, thin and smooth ; the corolla is of a greenish white 
colour, smooth, the border divided into five equal divisions ; the 
filaments are pilose at base, the anthers oblong, bursting longi- 
tudinally ; the style is smooth and longer than the stamens. 

266 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brachistus. 

8. Brachistus hehephyllus (n. sp.) ; — fruticosus, ramulis teretibus, 
elliptico-lanceolatis, attenuato-acumiiiatis^ basi subcuneatis, 
integris, utrinque molliter incano-pubescentibus ; floribus plu- 
rimis, parvulis, 4-meriSj axillaribus, fasciculatis, pedunculis fili- 
formibuSj petiolo subtequalibus, pilosis; calyce piloso, urceolato, 
margine integro, ciliato ; corolla rotata, laciniis 4, oblongis, 
acutis, margine ciliatis, tubo brevi, intus pilosulo, staminibus 
brevibus, erectis : ovario ovato, disco annul ari insito : stylo 
staminibus superante, subincurvo ; stigmate clavato ; bacca 
parva, calyce minimo suffulta. — Nova Granada, v. s. in herb. 
Hook. (Los Tapios, Quindiu^ Goudot, sub nomine " Witheringia 
mollis, H. B. K.") 

This species, although approaching the Witheringia mollisj 
H. B. K., is certainly distinct from it in the form and size of its 
leaves, and its much smaller flowers, which are 4-merous : it has 
also an entire calyx. The leaves are 3 to 3J inches long, and 
about 1 or 1^ inch broad, upon a petiole from 5 to 9 lines in 
length ; the flowers, from 6 to 10 or more, are crowded in each 
axil, the pedicels being 5 lines in flower and 7 lines in fruit, they 
are pubescent and erect ; the corolla has a short tube with a 4-tid 
expanded border ; the filaments are gradually dilated to the base, 
smooth and somewhat pilose at the point of their insertion in the 
middle of the short tube, which is there pubescent ; the anthers 
are ovate, cordate, acute, adnate, and terminated by a sharp point ; 
the style is long, slender and exserted, somewhat incurved, with 
a small clavate stigma ; the ovarium is ovate, and surrounded at 
the base by an annular fleshy ring ; the berry is about the size of a 
peppercorn, supported on its smaller persistent withered calyx; 
the dissepiment and bifurcate placentae are membranaceous : the 
seeds were too immature to determine the form of the embryo*. 

9. Brachistus oblongifolius (n. sp.) ; — fruticosus, ramulis teneris, 
teretibus, glabris ; foliis oblongis, utrinque acuminatis, omnino 
glabris, breviter petiolatis, inferioribus subcoriaceis, rugoso- 
venosis, superioribus planiusculis, submembranaceis, geminis, 
altero tertio vel quarto minore, rhomboideo-ovato, breviter pe- 
tiolatis; floribus pentameris paucis, fasciculatis (2-4), pedun- 
culis subcernuis, petiolo sequilongis ; calyce urceolato, brevis- 
sime 5-dentato, glabro ; corolla tubulosa, breviter infundibu- 
liformi, limbo 5-lobo expanso, laciniis acutis, staminibus vix 
inclusis, filamentis filiformibus, medio tubi insertis, tubo hinc 
pubescente, aliter intus glabro. — Nova Granada, v. s. in herb. 
Hook. (Pantano del Moral, Ibague, Goudot.) 

* A figure of this species witli generic details will be given in Plate 36 of 
the * Illustr. South Amer. Plants.' 

Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brachistus. 267 

The larger leaves are 5 inches long and 2 inches broad, on a 
petiole of 4 lines ; the smaller leaves measure 2^ inches long and 
li inch broad, on a petiole of 3 lines; the peduncles are from 4 
to 6 lines long ; the calyx urceolate, 1 line long ; the tube of the 
corolla 3 lines, its segments 2 lines long*. 

10. Brachistus dimorphus (n. sp.) ; — fruticosus, ramulis teretibus, 
glaberrimis ; foliis elongato-lanceolatis, apice acuminatissimis, 
basi oblique in petiolum attenuatis, adultis utrinque glabris, 
supra ad rachin scabrido-pilosis, margine subciliatis, junioribus 
sparse pilosis, geminis, difformibus, altero multo minori, ro- 
tundato-ovato, sessili, basi insequali, supra glabro, subtus pal- 
lide fulvescente ; floribus pentameris binis, extra-axillaribus, 
cernuis, petiolo brevioribus ; calyce urceolato, fere integro, 
pubescente; corollse tubo brevissimo, limbo 5-partito, expanso, 
lobis acutis ; filamentis subulatis, compressis, glabris ; antheris 
oblongis ; stylo exserto, subincurvo ; stigmate clavato, sub-2- 
lobo. — Nova Granada, v. s. in herb. Hook. (Los Tapios, Quin- 
diu, Goudot.) 

This species is very distinct, its larger leaves being so extremely 
different in form from the others ; they are 3|^-3| inches long, 
f inch wide, on a petiole barely - inch in length, the smaller 
geminate leaf being 10 lines long and 7 lines broad ; the peduncle 
is scarcely 2 lines, and the corolla 2 lines in length ; the calyx 
is 1 line long and in diameter, submembranaceous, without ner- 
vures, and with five obsolete teeth on its almost entire margin f. 

11. Brachistus'? lanceafolius (n. sp.) ; — ramis ferrugineo-tomen- 
tosis, dichotomis, ramulis angulatis, divaricatim flexuosis, vix 
ligneis ; foliis alternis, lanceolatis, utrinque acuminatis, inte- 
gris, supra parce, subtus densius fulvo-puberulis, petiolo sub- 
brevi ; floribus e dichotomiis solitariis, vel e turionibus fasci- 
culatis ; pedunculis 1-4, unifloris, pilosis, apice incrassato- 
incurvis ; calyce piloso brevi, urceolato, angulato, margine fere 
integro, dentibus 5 minimis instructo; corolla rotata, sub- 
glabra, limbo 5-lobo, lobis acutis, triangular ibus, reflexis, mar- 
gine floccosis ; staminibus inclusis, erectis, glabris ; stylo apice 
incrassato, stigmate capitato-bilobo. — America sequinoctialis, 
V. s. in herb. Hook. (Loxa, regno Quitensi, Seemann, p. 879.) — 
(Vita, Peruvise, McLean.) 

This is a plant very distinct from the others, with very dicho- 
toraously spreading branches, which have a more medullary and 
less ligneous substance : there is no indication of fruit in the spe- 

* This species is represented in Plate 37 A. of the * Illustr. South Amer. 

t A drawing of this species is shown in Plate 37 B. of the * Illustr. South 
Amer. Plants.' 

268 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brachistus. 

cimens referred to, but the structure of the flower corresponds 
with that of all the plants above described. The leaves are 2f- 
3|- inches long, 1-1 1^ inch broad, upon a petiole 4-6 lines in 
length ; the peduncle measures | inch, the calyx 3 lines in dia- 
meter ; the corolla, including the acuminated segments, is f inch 

12. Brachistus Hookeriamis (n. sp.); — fruticulosus,ramulis striatis, 
moUiter pilosis, demum glabris ; foliis ovatis, utrinque abrupte 
acuminatis, imo in petiolum longe decurrentibus, utrinque 
sparse molliter hirsutis, demum subglabris, margine ciliatis, 
rachi incrassato venisque pinnatis glabris, geminis, altero multo 
minore ; floribus pentameris, parvulis, axillaribus, fasciculato- 
congestis ; calyce minimo, pubescente, margine integro, den- 
tibus 5, setaceis ; corolla lutea, glabra, tubo brevi, subcampa- 
nulato, limbo rotato, 5-angulato, angulis acutis, pilosulis; 
staminibus brevibus, glabris. — Ecuador, v. s. in herb. Hook. 
(Cerro de Lantana, Guayaquil, Jameson, et in horto Kewensi 

This pretty species is remarkable for the abundance and bril- 
liancy of its small yellow flowers. Its leaves are 2| inches long, 
1^ inch broad, with a somewhat winged petiole | inch long; the 
peduncle measures 7 lines, the calyx 1 line, with remote setaceous 
teeth i a line in length ; the corolla is 5 lines in diameter. 

13. Brachistus diver sifolius. Witheringia diversifolia, Klotsch 
MSS.; Walp. Rep. iii. 29; — sufiruticosus, ramis teretibus, sub- 
glabris, ramulis pubescentibus; foliis ovatis, acutis, basi abrupte 
attenuatis, utrinque sparsim pubescentibus, plerumque gemi- 
nis, altero obtusissimo duplo minori; pedunculis axillaribus, 
solitariis, calyce 5-dentato, corolla lutea, 5-fida. — Mexico. 
This plant was cultivated in the Botanic Garden of Berlin, 

from whence the particulars of the above description are proba- 
bly derived. 

14. Brachistus Neesianus. Physalis arborescens, Linn. Sp. PL 
261 ; Nees abEsenb. Linn. vi. p. 456 ; — sufiruticosus, ramulis 
angulatis, tomentosis ; foliis alternis, superioribus geminis, 
ovato-oblongis, acumine obtusiusculo, attenuatis, insequaliter 
repando-dentatis, crassiusculis, supra subtiliter, subtus densius 
tomentosis, pilis canis, stellatis ; floribus paucis (2-3), extra- 
axillaribus, pendulis ; calyce urceolato, pubescente, 5-fido, den- 
tibus ovatis, obtusiusculis, canescentibus ; corolla rotata, ultra 
medium 5-fida, laciniis lanceolatis, extus tomentellis; fructu 
ignoto. — Mexico (Yucatan). 

This plant has always been referred to Physalis, but doubtfully 
by Nees, who hardly considered it to belong to that genus, on 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 269 

account of its manifestly fruticose habit, and the different struc- 
ture of its flowers : with Brachistus it appears to correspond suf- 
ficiently, although nothing is yet known of its fruit. Willdenow 
considers this plant the same as that figured in Miller^s Diet, 
tab. 206. Tab. 20*, but Nees holds a contrary opinion (Linn. loc. 
cit. p. 441), principally on account of its leaves being opposite; 
it is however most likely that its geminate leaves may have been 
mistaken by Miller as opposite. 

The leaves are said to be 2 inches long, 1 inch broad, on a 
petiole i-f inch in length ; the peduncles are 2-2|^ lines long, 
the calyx scarcely 2^ lines ; the corolla, including the lobes, is 
3f lines in length. 

15. Brachistus 'iLinnceanus. Physalis arborescens, Z/fnw. >SJo. P/. 
161 ; Spr. Syst, Veg. i. 696 ; — caule arborescente ; foliis ova- 
tis, subangulatis, subtus lanatis ; floribus solitariis. — Mexico. 
This species is excluded by Nees (Linn. vi. 483) from Physalis, 

and considered by him as altogether distinct from the foregoing. 

From the above short character it is impossible to come to any 

decided opinion on the subject. 

XXXIII. — The Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 
By Richard Spruce. 

[Continued from p. 106.] 

The abbreviations made use of in this Catalogue are (besides 
those above-mentioned for the zones of altitude) P. occ, P. c. 
and P. or. for Pyrenai occidentals, centrales and orientates, re- 
spectively ; M. P. for " Musci Pyrenaici quos in Pyrenseis cen- 
tralibus occidentalibusque, necnon in Agro Syrtico, a.d. 1845 
-46 decerpsit Richard Spruce. Londini : 1847 ;" and H. P. for 
a similar fasciculus of the Hepaticee of the Pyrenees, and of the 
same date. 

I have made a point of citing the original description of each 
species, and one good figure of it, where such exists : the few 
synonyms that are occasionally given have been in most cases 
ascertained from authentic specimens. 

As to those localities which I owe to the observations of my 
friends, I have affixed an autopsial mark (!) to the finder's name 
in all cases where I have had the opportunity of examining his 
specimens ; and where I have not only done this but have also 
observed the same species in the very same place, a similar mark 

* " Physalis foliis ovato-lanceolatis, integerrimis, oppositis, caule fruti- 

270 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

of verification is attached also to the locality : see, for an example, 
the stations mentioned for Hypnum Starkii. 

Ordo MUSCI. 

Hemicyclum 1. Pleurocarpi, 

Tribus 1. Hypnace^. 

1. Hypnum, Dill., Linn. 

Obs. A large proportion of the species of this genus inhabit the 
Zona montosa superior and the Zona subalpina, in some instances ex- 
clusively. In Z3 they become much more rare, and above the line 
where forests disappear, Hypna can barely be said to exist. Of the 
rupestral species, the following were observed only on calcareous 
rocks or soil : H. ahietinum, recognitum, striatulum, murale, crassi- 
nervium, Vaucheri, Teesdalii, tenellum, ruyosum, commutatum, poly- 
morphum and depressum. Of the other species, several are occa- 
sionally found on trees, but they all grow with equal facility on 
rocks or on the ground. 

§ 1. Tamariscina. 

1. H. ahietinum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1591; Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 
t.32; M.P. 1. 

Hab. Zi_2 in rupibus calcareis umbrosis, per Pyrenseos vulga- 
tissimum, semper autem sterile. 

2. H. recognitum, Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. p. 92. t. 35. 
Hah. Zj in Pyr. orientalibus ; W. P. Schimper. 

3. H. tamariscinum, Dill. -, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 67. H. pro- 
liferum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1590 ; M. P. 2. 

Hah. liQ-z in sylvaticis, passim. 

§ 2. Umbrata. 

4. H splendens, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 262. t. 67. 

Hah. 7aq_^ locis umbrosis humidiusculis : fertile nusquam vidi. 

5. H. umhratum, Ehrh. Crypt. Exsicc. n. 66 ; Hedw. Sp. Muse, 
t. 67 ; SuUivant ! Musci Allegh. n. 2 ; M. P. 3. 

Hah. Tici in nemore obscuro juxta cataractam la Cascade du 
Cceur diet., in valle du L/ys P. centr. ; necnon in valle Jeret P. occ. 

6. H. Pyrenaicum, Spruce in Muse. P. n. 4 : caule procum- 
bente subdiviso, divisionibus irregulariter pinnatis, ramisque 
stuppa radiculosa hrevi, pallida, pinnato-divisa, obtectis ; foliis pa- 
tentibus, ovatis (ramorum ovato-lanceolatis) apiculatis acuminu- 
latisve, margine reflexis, argute et suhduplicato-serratis, nervo 
tenui ultra medium evanescente (rarissime nervis binis) et plicis 
trihus striceformihus instructis. 

Hah. in summa zona sylvatica (Z3) montis Crahioules, saxa cau- 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 271 

libus implexis dense obtegens. In Alpibus Helveticis et Tyro- 
lensibus viget, sec. eel. Schimper. 

Caulis procumbens, subdivisus, divislones irregulariter pinnatae vel 
subbipinnatse, ramique crocei, subcurvati, dense foliosi et inter folia 
radicibus pallidis, decompositis, planis, versus basin 2-4 cellulas latis, 
obsessi. Folia imbricata, patentia, ovata, apiculata et acuminulata, 
apice subtorta, concava, margine reflexa, argute et in parte superiori 
subduplicato-serrata ; plicis tribus striseformibus, media nervum de- 
bilem, ssepe ramosum, rarissime duplicem, supra medium evanescen- 
tem involvente, instructa ; e cellulis minoribus areolata, lutescentia : 
ramulina angustiora, plica media fere obliterata et ex eo nervo mani- 
festiori. Flores etfructus desiderantur. 

Ab hoc difFert H. umbratum, Ehrh., divisionibus bipinnatis, ramulis 
gracillimis ; radiculis compressis, latioribus, e 5-6 cellularum seriebus 
confiatis ; foliis multo minoribus^ magis patulis, caulem ramulosque 
hand velantibus, plerumque nervis binis instructis. 

Tab. I. 1. rami pars augm. ; 2. folium caulis \ 3. ramuli augm. ; 
4. apex f alii augm. circiter 240e>5 ; 5. pars stuppa radiculosa inter' 
foliaris pariter aucta. 

Obs. Although this comes so near H. umbratum in essential cha- 
racter, it has yet a very different habit, arising from the less di- 
vided stems and the much larger leaves, which are imbricated at such 
an angle as not to allow the stem to appear between them. All the 
states of H. brevirostre differ from it in the leaves being contracted 
below the long acumen, and especially in their being prolonged at the 
base into two semicircular free auricles, which are inflexed and em- 
brace the stem * ; they are also usually squarrose and furnished with 
two short nerves. H. plicatum, Schleich., is very similar in habit, 
and has the leaves plicato-striate in the same manner, but the latter 
are subsecund, with a longer nerve, their margins entire and most 
widely reflexed at about two-thirds of their length. H. Kamounense, 
Harv. (Hook. Icones, 1. 1. 24. f. 10), an Indian species, seems also to 
approach it very closely, differing chiefly in the shorter, almost obso^ 
lete nerve, the less sharply toothed margins of the leaves, and their 
more twisted apices, often describing two spires. 

§ 3. Squarrosa. 

7. H. brevirostre, Ehrh. PI. Exsicc. n. 85 ; Schwgr. Suppl. 

Hab. Zo_2 in umbrosis fere ubique, copiose fructiferum. 

8. H. triquetrum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1593 ; E. Bot. t. 1622 ; M. P. 7. 
Hah. Zo_3 in sylvaticis. 

9. H. squarrosum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1593; Dill. t. 39. f.38. 
Hab. Zo_3 in sylvis, pascuis, etc., rarissime fructificans. 

* This has not altogether escaped the notice of Schwaegrichen, who says 

of H. brevirostre, " folia cordato-ovata angulis baseos lateralibus 


272 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees, 

10. H. loreum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1593; H. et T. ! Muse. Brit. p. 181. 
t.26;M.P. 8. 

Hah. 7ii-2 in umbrosis. 

§ 4. Stellata. 

11. i/, stellatum,^ch.veh. Fl. Lips. p. 92; Schwgr. Suppl. t.l44. 
Hah. Z, locis humidis, baud vulgatum. 

12. H. polymorphunij Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 66. 

Hah. Zi_3 P. oec. et e. ad rupes ealeareas. Juranqon; Ba- 
gneres~de-Bigorre, ^c. In alpinis semper sterile invenitur. 

13. H. Halleri, L. Diss. Muse. p. 34; Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 
t 21 ; M. P. 58. 

Hah. Zg P. oee. in regione media mentis Pic de GeVy etiam eirea 
Cauterets ; P. e. loeo Lahassere : rupestre. '^ In Pyren. jugis de- 
pressis in planitiem exeurrentibus -" Dufour apud Bridel Br. Un. 

§ 5. Heteroptera. 

14. H. dimorphum, Brid. Suppl. Muse. 2. p. 149 ; Grev. Seot. 
Cr. Fl.t.l60;M.P. 57. 

Hah. 7i2-^ locis umbrosissimis, terrestre ; P. oee. eirea Caute- 
rets ) P. e. Lac -LeAoM (Philippe !) : P. or. Mt. Canigou et Port 
Negre (Arnott !). 

15. /f. heteropterum, Brueb apud Sehwgr. (sub Pterogonio) : 
dioieum ; eaule prostrato^ diviso, divisionibus subpinnatis ; foliis 
laxe imhricatiSy erectiusculis vel suhsecundis, ohliquis, ovatis, sub- 
acuminatis, nune aeutis nune obtusis, margine planis, suhserratis, 
nervo perhrevi nonnunquam furcato instructis, dorso papillosis ; 
pedieello Isevi ; eapsula ovato-oblonga, eernua ; operculo rostrato, 
capsulam vix (equante-, calyptra dimidiata glabra; peristomio 

Musei Pyrenaiei, 56. Pterogonium heteropterum, Brueb in 
Sebwaegr. Suppl. 3. v. 1. t. 210 6; vix Pterigynandrum h., Brid. 
Bryol. Univ. 2. p. 176. Hypnum catenulatum, H. et T. ! Muse. 
Brit. ed. 2. p. 160. t. 24 ; Hook. Eng. Flora, 5. P. 1. p. 81 ; non 
autem Sehwgr. Suppl. 1. v. 1. p. 218; nee Pterigyn. catenulatum j 
Brid. Muse. Ree. 2. P. 1. p. 64. t. 5. f. 4. 

Hah. Zi_2 ad saxa in sylvis Pyrenseorum eentralium, sat fre- 
quens sed rarissime fructificans. Prope B.-de-Bigorre capsulis 
onustum legi 17 Oetobris, 1845. In Hibernia ad Power scourt 
Waterfall, ubi primus omnium beatus Taylor detexit. In An- 
glise et Seotise plurimis loeis repertum est. In monte Vogeso et 
Germania oceidentali, teste Brueh, /. c. 

Csespites densi, implexi. Caulis prostratus, hie illic radicans, varie 
divisus; divisiones irregulariter pinnato-ramosse, ramis alternis, ascen- 
dentibus, plurimo tempore subsecundis, simplicibus, subramosis, ra- 
rius pinnatis. Folia caulis divisionumque ovato-acuminata, in summo 
caule acumine ssepius valde elongato, acuta, basi decurrentia et e 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 273 

marginibus inflexis semi-amplexicaulia ; *' aliorum ramorum erec- 
tiuscula, aliorum secunda" (Schwgr.), laxe et subquadrifarie imbri- 
cata, alia recta, alia oblique incurva, ovata, ovato-lanceolata et 
ovato-acuminata, quoad apicem nunc acuta nunc obtusa, margine 
plana; omnia denticulata, nervo perbrevi quartara folii partem ut 
plurimum emetiente, nunquam ad medium usque producto, nunc lato 
et obscuro, nunc ramoso vel e basi ipsa bifurcate, instructa ; cellulis 
mediocribus, oblongis, prominulis areolata et dorso valde papillosa ; 
in csespitibus sterilibus saepe pallida, flavescentia, in fertilibus autem 
fere semper saturate yiridia. Florescentia dioica. Caules masculi cum 
foemineis immixti, iis tenuiores : flares numerosi, alares, ovati, foliis 
12 plus minus, ovatis, exterioribus obtusis, internis acuminatis, acu- 
mine torquato, enerviis, valde concavis, obscure denticulatis, areo- 
latione laxiori ; antheridiis baud copiosis, paraphysatis. Foeminei floris 
folia perichsetialia sat numerosa, externa brevissima, interna elon- 
gata et flexuoso-acuminata, enervia, subdenticulata, laxe areolata, 
baud papillosa. Vaginula teres, viridis, apice tamen atro-rubens, 
archegoniis et paraphysibus numerosis perichaetium baud sequantibus 
onusta. Pedicellus semuncialis, Isevis, rufus. Capsula ovato-oblonga, 
cernua, e brunneo olivacea. Peristoma externi dentes 16, trabe- 
culati, linea media exarati, pallidi: interni membrana carinato-sul- 
cata, in processus totidem solidos, ciliis binis filiformibus interjectis, 
ultra medium fissa. Annulus duplex, revolubilis. Operculum e basi 
conica rostratum, rostro oblique curvato, capsulam fere aequans. 
Calyptra dimidiata, glabra. Semina congenerum. 

Ab hoc differt/jT. dimorphum, Brid., foliis caulis divisionumque pri- 
mariarum squarrosis ; ramis dense foliosis, foliis arete appressis " unde 
ramulorum facies teres " (Brid.), latioribus, obtusioribus, nervis binis 
tenuioribus et plerumque longioribus, e cellulis brevioribus areolatis, 
et maxime operculo conico. 

Obs. I have been thus particular in my description of this disputed 
moss in the hope of finally settling its name and synonymy. The 
characteristic figure of Schwaegrichen, though representing a barren 
specimen, and his description, accurate as far as it goes, place it be- 
yond a doubt that his Pterogonium heteropterum is the same plant as 
the Hypnum catenulatum of English authors ; but that it cannot be 
identical with the H. catenulatum of Schwgr. will be obvious from the 
following considerations. The leaves differ from Schwgr. 's descrip- 
tion of H, catenulatum in being oblique, decurrent at the base and 
slightly embracing the stem, the margins plane (by no means " stria 
utrinque marginali brevi," which implies a decidedly reflexed or re- 
curved margin), papillose and truly denticulate^ , the nerve very short, 
not " ultra medium evanescente." Besides these discrepancies are 
the very important ones of a dioicous inflorescence and a decidedly 
rostrate lidf, not " conicum brevissimo rostello." 

* The authors of * Muse. Brit,' for want of examining with sufficient mi- 
nuteness, supposed that the denticulation of the margins was ovXy apparent, 
arising from the papillosity of the surface. 

t Represented shorter in the ' Muse. Brit.' figure than in my Pyrenaean 
specimens, and in original ones from the authors. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N, Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. iii. 18 

274 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

Presuming the identity of our plant with the Pterogonium hetero- 
pterum of Schwaegrichen, and its diversity from the Hypnum catenU' 
latum of the same author, to be sufficiently established, I have further 
to remark that the Pterigyn. heteropterum of Brid. /. c. is surely a 
different plant from that of Schwaegrichen ; for it has " rami inor- 
dinate fasciculati," and " theca erecta oblonga, omnino Pterigynan- 
dri" to which is added " Inter P. gracile etjiliforme intermedium." 
These characters point rather to a form of P. filiforme, with which 
species we find Schwaegrichen identifying it, at the close of his de- 
scription, in these terms : " Hunc museum propterea pingi cura- 
veram, ut botanicorum curse commendaretur et fructus completi 
exquirerentur ; sed acceptis nuper a Bridelio speciminibus, illud a 
Pt.filiformi non difFerre convictus sum." He erred, however, in 
supposing his moss the same as Bridel's, and consequently a var. of 
P. filiforme, which may be excused him from the circumstance of his 
possessing only barren specimens. 

It still remains to inquire what is the veritable Hypnum catenulatum 
of Bridel and Schwgr. ; but I fear this question can only be settled 
by a reference to the herbaria of these authors. The moss pub- 
lished under that name in Schimper's ' Stirpes Normales,' &c. 
agrees with Schwaegrichen's description in the " folia obesa et 
mollia .... stria utrinque marginali brevi," and in the nerve, &c., 
but the inflorescence is certainly dioicous, while Schwaegrichen, 
whom it is difficult to suppose mistaken on this point, states that of 
his moss to be monoicous. A moss agreeing perfectly with Schimper's 
has been found by Mr. Ibbotson on Pen-y-ghent in Yorkshire, and 
the H. catenulatum of Drummond's 'Musci Americani,' No. 219, is 
possibly not specifically distinct. These three mosses are all sterile, 
and their identification is consequently the more difficult, if not quite 
impossible. I gathered the same moss in the Pyrenees in numerous 
stations, extending between the extreme limits of my explorations 
to the westward and eastward, yet always sterile, which would be 
inconceivable in a monoicous species distributed over so wide a space. 
However, rather than propose a new name for it, I am willing for 
the present to receive it as //. catenulatum. 

16. H. catenulatum, Brid. ? Mant. Muse. p. 167 ; Sehwgr. ? 
Suppl. P. 2. p. 218. ''Leskea Vaucheri, Schimp.^' M. P. 82. 

Hah. Zj sup. in saxis arborumque radicibus per Pyrenseos occi- 
dentales et centrales, baud raro cum Leskea attenuata et nervosa 

I gave this moss in ' Musci Pyrenaici ' as Leskea Vaucheri, Schimp., 
from a comparison with specimens under that name in Dr. Montagne's 
herb, at Paris ; but I have since learnt that M. Schimper really in- 
tended by Leskea Vaucheri the species mentioned in this catalogue as 
L. nervosa, and it is therefore not improbable that the tuft I examined 
contained both species, for they frequently- grow intermixed and are 
quite similar in habit. Very lately I have received from M. Schimper 
fertile si)ecimens of H. catenulatum ; the capsule and operculum are 
much of the same form as in H. heteropterum, and the processes of 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 275 

the inner peristome are imperforate, not " quatuor lacunis notati," as 
described by Schwaegrichen. 

§ 6. Serpentia. 

17. H. serpens, L. Sp. PI. p. 1596 ; E. Bot. 1. 1037 ; M. P. 60. 
Hab. Zo_2 in arboribus imis, &c. ; in montibus sequente minus 


18. H. subtile, Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 9 (sub Leskea) ; 
M. P. 61. 

Hab. Zi_2 ad truneos vetustos, sat frequens ; rarius ad rupes. 
Foret de Lhieris ; Vallee de Lutour, &c. 

19. H. Sprucii, Bruch in litt. (sub Leskea) ; Spruce in Lond. 
Journal of Botany_, 4. p. 180 ; M. P. 62. Hypnum confervoides, 
Drumm. ! Muse. Amer. n. 190 {ex parte) : non Bridelii. 

Hab. Zg P. occ. 9 in rupium umbrosarum fissuris montis Lize 
et vallis Beast ; P. e. (^ Vallon de Courbettes et Foret de Lhieris, 
csespitibus Mnii serrati immixtum. 

The inflorescence of this species is truly dioicous *, and from the 
circumstance oi female plants alone being found in the W. Pyrenees, 
and only male plants in the Central, it may readily be conjectured that 
no fruit was observed. 

§ 7. Tenella. 

20. H. tenellum, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 4. 1. 11. f. 12 ; M. P. 25. 
Hab. Zj in muris rupibusque calcareis circa Pau et B.-de-Bi- 

gorre. Mt. Ferrand, P. or. (Arnott !). 

§ 8. Depressa. 

21. if. sz7e5MCM7w,P.Beauv.Prodr. d'jEth.p.70; Schwgr. Suppl. 
t. 94 ; M. P. 46. H. repens, Poll, palat. ; Duby, Bot. Gall. ed. 2. 
P. 2. p. 562. 

Hab. Zi_3 ad truneos putrescentes per Pyrenseos prsecipue oc- 

In the Pyrenees I never observed this species but on rotten wood, 
but in Dec. 1847 I met with it on soft sandstone in ArnclifFe Wood, 
Eskdale. All the other British specimens I have seen belong to the 
following species. 

22. H. Milhlenbechii, Scliimp. ! mst. 

Hab. Z2_3 in terra rupibusque subhumidis, rarissimum. Lac 
de Seculejo. Inter pagos Luz et Bareges. 

23. H. depressum, Bruch ! in Bot. Zeit. 1824, p. 763. H con- 
fertum var. ^. depressum, Brid. Br. Univ. 2. p. 767. 

Hab. Zi P. c. Vallon de Serris, ad rupes calcareas. 

* Planta mascula foeminea tenuior. Flores sparsi, cauli ramisque solute 
adhjerentes. Folia perickaiialia sub-10, externa minuta, lanceolata, interna 
ovata brevi acumine, omnia serrata, enervia. Antheridia 2, ovaUa, brevi- 
pedicellata, singula paraphysibus 2 stipata. 


276 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

This species is abundant in woods on calcareous soil near Castle- 
Howard, but is always sterile. 

24. H. elegans, Hook. Muse. Exot. t.9; Schwgr. Suppl. t.282«. 
H. planifolium, Brid. ? BryoL Univ. 2. p. 411. 

Hah. Til— 2 I*- c. prope B.-de-Bigorre, ad terram ( ? ) ; Bois de 
Sajust prope B.-de-Luchon, ad rupes graniticas ( ¥ et<^). 

Mr. Wilson has lately found in Mr. 1 urner's herbarium fertile spe- 
cimens of this (gathered near Bantry by Miss Hutchins, but con- 
founded with H. denticulatum) which agree in every respect with the 
original specimen in Herb. Hook, (gathered by Menzies on the N.W. 
coast of America). He also suggests that H. planifolium, Brid., /. c, 
gathered by Lapylaie near Falaise, is the same species, but there are 
some discrepancies not easily reconcileable. For instance, our plant 
has the leaves remarkably deflexed at the apices so as to appear secund 
in profile, whereas Bridel says " folia recta;" but on the whole I ad- 
mit that it is very probable he had the same species under his eye. 

In the Bois de Sajust I found male and female plants intermixed. 
The former are very slender and elongated : the flowers are situated 
on the stem and the lower part of the branches, those near the base 
of the stem often fascicled, but the upper usually solitary ; they con- 
sist of about ten ovato-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, concave leaves, 
and include about four paraphysate antheridia. 

In April 1846 Mr. Borrer and myself gathered H. elegans on the 
sand-rocks in Bridge Park, Tunbridge Wells, and I have since met 
with it abundantly in the neighbourhood of Castle-Howard, inEskdale, 
&c. Perhaps Dr. Taylor was the first who ascertained its existence 
in the British Isles and clearly distinguished it ; Messrs Wilson and 
Mitten have also found it in several stations. It grows on decaying 
vegetable matter, on the earth or on rocks, avoiding only such as are 
calcareous, while H. depressum, its very near ally, is quite pertina- 
cious in selecting a calcareous matrix. The former differs from the 
latter chiefly in the more faintly toothed or quite entire leaves, their 
slenderer points and closer more chlorophyllose areolation, but espe- 
cially in the pendulous capsule. Both species are dioicous, scarcely 
ever fruiting, but propagating themselves by slender deciduous flagel- 
liform ramuli, which spring from the stem in fascicles. These ra- 
muli are sometimes so numerous as to be alone visible, and being 
clad with minute distant leaves, they give to the tufts the aspect of 
drawn-up H. suhtile. 

25. H. trichophorum, Spruce in mst. Leskea pilifera, Swartz ! 
(ex herb. Smithii). Neckera p.. Muse. Pyr. 66. H. denticulatum 
var. Donnianum, Drumm. ! Muse. Am. n. 165 [nonnull. exemplo- 
rum) : non H. Donnianum, Sm. 

Hab. Zg ad iatera seopulorum graniticorum versus terram spec- 
tantia, in umbrosissimis vallis Jeret, P. occ. 

Inflorescence monoicous : flowers fascicled, the male and female in 
separate fascicles. Peristome very pale ^ especially the outer ; the inner 
cloven to frds of its length : processes perforated, between the articu- 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 277 

lations, nearly throughout their length : cilia none or quite rudi- 

In ' Musci Pyr.' I placed this moss along with the first section of 
Neckera (^Omalia, Brid.), to which it approaches very much in habit; 
but the Omalice differ from it so essentially in some of their characters, 
that I feel compelled to withdraw it from their society. 0. compla- 
nata has the capsule very narrow-mouthed, the peristome conse- 
quently small and the outer teeth remarkably slender ; the processes 
of the inner are entire, very slender and fragile, and the basal membrane 
rises very little above the mouth of the capsule (so that the moss might 
be considered a true Neckera with as much justice as N. pumila, from 
which I am not certain that it should be separated). The inflores- 
cence is dioicous. O. trichomanoides has a wider-mouthed capsule ; 
the inner peristome firmer, reddish, the basal membrane = ^th of the 
whole, the processes deeply carinate but not lacunose. The inflores- 
cence is monoicous, and the flowers are mostly solitary. 

Hypnum trichophorum differs from both these, not only in the pe- 
ristome, but in the flaccid irregularly divided stems ; the symmetrical 
leaves, which are not 4-stichous, nor (as in the Omalice) so decurved 
at the apices as to make the branches appear channeled when viewed 
from below ; the long necked capsule ; the conical lid, &c. In nearly 
all these characters it is closely allied to H. denticulatum and puU 
chellum, both of which have not unfrequently a nearly symmetrical 
capsule. H. elegans is intermediate as to the form of its leaves 
between H. denticulatum and H. trichophorum. 

It is with great reluctance I change Swartz's specific name, but 
this is rendered compulsory by the removal of the species into Hyp- 
num, where there is already a " piliferum." I shall not, however, 
quarrel with those who are disposed to raise this section into a sepa- 
rate genus, and restore to the species its original name. 

26. H.pulchellum, Dicks. ! Ease. 2. p. 13. t. 5. f. 6 ; Herb. Sice, 
fasc. 9. n. 22. H. nitidulum, Wahl. Fl. Lapp. p. 370; M. P. 63. 

Hab. Z2_4 ad truncos putridos, in rupium fissuris, &c.^ P. occ. 
et c. V. de Jeret ; Esquierry, &c. En montant au Lac Lehou 

27. H. denticulatum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1595 j Hedw. Muse. Frond. 
4. t. 3. 

Hab. Zo_2 ad ligna putrida. A sequente florescentia monoica 

28. H. sylvaticum, L. Syst. Veg. p. 950 ; Schwgr. Suppl. t. 87 ; 
M.P. 64 (ex parte). 

Hab. Zo_4 ad ligna putrida, in rupibus subhumidis, &c. 
When growing in water or in moist places, the leaves of this spe- 
cies often put forth radicles from or near their apices. 

29. H. undulatum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1589 ; Schwgr. Suppl t. 282 ; 
M.P. 65. 

278 Mr. R. Spruce on the Mmci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

Hah. Za-a in umbrosis humidiusculis, rarius. ValUe de Le- 
sponne. Mt. Crahioules. 

§ 9. RUGOSA. 

30. H. rugosum, Elirh. Dec. n. 291. H. rugulosunij H. et T. ! 
Muse. Brit. p. 187. t. 26; M. P. 42. 

Hah. Zisup.— 2 ad saxa calcarea per totos Pyreuseos. 

§ 10. Plicata. 

31. H. plicatum^ Schleich. Cent. 4. n. 27; Schwgr. Suppl. 1. 
P. 2. p. 301; M.P. 6. 

Hah. Z3_4 ad saxa prsecipue granitica in alpinis, plerumque 
secus ovilia, sociis Leskea incurvata et Tortula aciphylla. In valle 
Arise P. c. fructif. invenit cl. Philippe ! 

Paraphylla are present in this species, which completely cover the 
stem between the leaves with a short felt. The largest are leaflike, 
though many times smaller than the true leaves, lanceolate or lan- 
ceolato-subulate, entire or with one or two teeth near the base. In 
their more rudimentary form they simulate radicles, being one or 
more cellules in breadth and slightly and irregularly branched. 
Hence the species may be considered to have some affinity with 
H. filicinum on the one hand, and with H. Pyrenaicum on the other. 

§ 11. Adunca. 

32. H. riparium, L. Sp. PI. p. 1595 ; Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 

Hah. Zj P. c. in ripis flum. Adour prope Bagneres (Philippe !). 

33. H.fluitans, L. Fl. Suec. 1074; Hedw. Muse. Frond, t. 36. 
Hah. P. or. in monte Canigou (Arnott !). In Pyrenseis nus- 

quam ipse inveni. 

34. H. palustre, L. Sp. PI. p. 1593 ; Eng. Bot. t. 1655 ; 
M.P. 37. 

Hah. Zi_2 in rivulis saxis emersis adhserens. 

35. H.falcatum, Brid. Muse. Rec. 2. P. 2. p. 63; Schwgr. 
Suppl. 1. 145 ; M. P. 38. 

Hah. Zg in scaturiginosis calcareis juxta rivulum Ruisseau 
d'Ardalos dictum, in valle Lesponne. — An mera sequentis forma ? 

36. H. fluviatile, Sw. Muse. Suec. p. 63; Hedw. Sp. Muse, 
t. 81. 

Hab. Z^ P. occ. in rivulis supra pagum Juranqon; P. c. in ripis 
fl. Adour prope Bagneres (Philippe !). {Pic St. Loup prope Mont-- 
pettier : Arnott!) 

37. H filicinum, L. Sp. PI. p. 15^0 ; Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 76 ; 
M. P. 39. H. conspurcaturn, Brid. ! in hb. Requien. 

Hah. Zi_2 in saxis udiusculi^prsecipue rivulorum. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 279 

" Var. foliis rigidis, nervo crassissimo instructis /' M. P. 40. 
H. VallisclauscE, Brid. ! Br. Univ. 2. p. 534. 

Hab. in fontibus profundis secus ripas flum. Adour, in vicinia 
pagi Aste, P. c. 

Specimens gathered by Messrs. Arnott and Requien at Vaucluse 
agree well with Bridel's description, and are quite the same as my 
own fvomJste. In * Musci Pyren.' I had considered H. Jilicinum and 
fluviatile not distinct, relying on Bridel's description of the latter 
(Br. Univ. p. 532), where the falcato-secund leaves (rarely seen in real 
H. fluviatile) are strongly insisted on. H. fluviatile verum is, how- 
ever, readily distinguished from H» fllicinum by the monoicous inflo- 

38. H. commutatum, Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 26. 
Hab. Zi_2 per Pyrenseos in scaturiginosis calcareis. 

Var. alpestre, Schimp. in litt. ; P. c. Vallon d* Arise (Philippe !) 
P. or. Port Negre (Arnott !). 

39. H. uncinatum, Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 5 ; M. P. 41. 

Hab. Z2_3 ad saxa et ligna putrida. 


40. H. Crista-castrensiSy L. Sp. PI. p. 1591 ; Hedw. Sp. Muse, 
t. 76; M. P. 43. 

Hab. Zg in Pyr. centralium sylvaticis, ad cataractam diet, la 
Cascade du Cceur in valle du Lys, etiam in valle Lesponne ; in 
P. occ. loco Pont d'Espagne. 

41. H. molluscunij Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. p. 56. t. 22; M. P. 

Hab. Zo— 5 in rupibus arborumque basi. 

" Var. terrestre, foliis insigniter serratis plerumque striatis •/' 
M. P. 45. 

Hab. ad terram in sylvis circa Pau, locis Pare de Pau, Bois de 
Gan, &c. 

In the Pyrenees, this species sports into innumerable forms, some- 
times simulating H. flagellare in the laxly spreading, scarcely at all 
secund leaves, which are shorter than ordinary, more sharply ser- 
rated and distinctly striated ; at other times it puts off the charac- 
teristic pectinato-pinnate ramification and assumes the habit of H. 
callichrous, to which also it approaches in the form of the leaves and 
their faintly-toothed margins. A small tuft of male plants was 
gathered in Z^ (Port de Cauterets) growing with Encalypta rhahdo- 

42. H flagellare, Dicks. Crypt. Fasc. 2. p. 12; H. et T. ! 
Muse. Brit. t. 25 ; M. P. 9. 

Hab. Zi sup. P. c. ad cataractam inter ipagnm Labassere et fon- 
tem diet, lafontaine sulfureuse: nusquam alias vidi. 

280 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

43. H. pratense, Koch (fide Bruch) ; Spruce in Lond. Journ. 
of Bot.4. p.l77; M. P. 51. 

Hah. Zj per totos Pyrenseos, in graminosis montium humilio- 
rum : sterile solum ipse vidi. Ad pedem monticuli Bedat prope 
B.-de-Bigorre fructif. invenit cl. Philippe ! 

44. H. callichrous, Brid. Br. Univ. 2. p. 631 ; M. P. 47. 
Hah, Z2_4 P. occ. in rup. irroratis ad pontem diet, le Pont 

d'Espagne, non procul a Cauterets ; P. c. in fauce la Gorge d'Es- 
quierry dicta, etiam in montibus Maladetta et CrahiouIeSj necnon 
en montant au Lac Lehou (Philippe !). 

45. H. incurvatum, Schrad. Crypt. Gew. n. 80; Schwgr. Suppl. 
t.94;M.P. 48. 

Hah. Zj per Pyr. centr. et occidentales : pulchen'ime ad saxa 
umbrosa prope Oloron. 

46. H. resupinatum, Tayl. ! in schedis recentioribus. H. mul- 
tifiorum, ejusd. in Fl. Hibern. P. 2. p. 46 ; M. P. 49. H. poly- 
anthos, E. Bot. 1. 1664. 

Hab. Zo_i P. occ. ad arbores prope Pau ; etiam in Agro Syrtico 
prope Aq. Tarbellicas. 

The two localities here cited are the only ones noted in the Pyre- 
nees, but in Britain this species is nearly as frequent as the following. 

47. H. cupressiformej L. Sp. PI. p. 1592; Hedw. Muse. 
Frond. 4. t. 23; M.P.50. 

Hah. Zq_4 passim. 

48. H. Haldanianum, Grev. ! in Ann. Lye. Hist. Nat. Novi- 
Eborac. 1. p. 275. t. 23 (e specim. a eel. auctore communicatis) ; 
SuUiv. ! Muse. Allegh. n. 14; M.P. 52. H pulchrumfDrwoam.. ! 
Muse. Amer. n. 180. H cylindricum, B. et S. ! 

Hah. Zi inf. P. c. ad terram et arborum radices in sylvis siccio- 
ribus civca B.-de-Bigorre [Bois de Lagaillaste et d'Aste). 

Inflorescence monoicous : male flowers confined to the stem. The 
teeth of the outer peristome and the processes of the inner are re- 
markably attenuated, and the latter (as well as the cilia) are papil 
lose upwards. There is considerable variation in the form of the 
apex of the leaf: in Sullivant's specimens the leaves are merely 
acute ; in Drummond's they are decidedly acuminate ; and my Pyre- 
naean specimens are intermediate in this respect. 

§ 13. CuSPIDATA. 

49. H cuspidatum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1595. H. palustre, kc, Dill, 
t. 39. f. 34. 

Hah. Zo_3 in pascuis rupibusque subhumidis : sterile semper 

50. H. Schreberi, Willd. Fl. Berol. p. 325; E. Bot. t. 1621 ; 
M.P. 53. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 281 

Hab. Zo_3 in umbrosis humidis : in Zona subalpina sola copio- 
siss. fructificans. 

51. H. purum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1594; E. Bot. 1. 1599; M. P. 54. 
Hah. Zo-2 in sylvis, &c. 

§ 14. JULACEA. 

52. H. julaceuniy Schwgr. in Schultes Reis. &c. {^\\}[i Leskea) ; 
M. P. 55. H. moniliforme, Wahl. Fl. Lapp. p. 376. t. 24. 

Hah. Z2_4 in rupestribus per Pyrenseos, rarius tamen et ste- 
rile. Mont Lize. Lac de Seculejo ( ? ). Lac Lehou {var. foliis 
longius apiculatis) . V. d'Eynes ( Arnott ! ) . — " Folia apiculo minuto 
plerumque incurvato semper reperi ;" Muse. Pyr. /. c. 

§ 15. Salebrosa. 

53. H. albicans, Neck. Meth. Muse. p. 180; E. Bot. t. 1300. 
Hah. Zo_i in arenosis, rarum. St. Pandelon. B.-de-Bigorre. 

54. H. glareosuMj Bruch. ! in litt. ; M. P. 29. H. salebrosum, 
H. et T. Muse. Brit. p. 166. t. Suppl. 5 (ex parte). 

Hah. Z, P. occ. ad saxa in valle Beost ; P. c. in arenosis ad ba- 
sin monticuli Bedat, et in saxosis sylvse Bois de Gouerdere dictse : 
loca calcarea am at. 

In the Bois de Gouerdere this grows intermixed with H. salebrosum, 
from which it is distinguished at sight by its leaves being paler and 
more silky, with longer more jiexuose points and very faintly toothed 
margins ; but the most important character is the dioicous inflorescence. 
It is a very abundant species in the neighbourhood of York and Castle- 
Howard, but is rarely fertile : it never grows on trees. H. salebrosum 
I have seen in England only on trees in woods near Kirkham Abbey, 
in the vale of the Yorkshire Derwent. 

55. H. salebrosum, Hoffm. Fl. Germ. 2. p. 74; Brid. Br. 
Univ. 2. p. 477 ; Grev. ! Scott. Cr. Fl. t. 284; M. P. 30. 

Hah. Zi_2 P. c. ad saxa et supra ligna putrida circa Bagneres- 
de-Luchon, locis Bois de Gouet^dere et Vallee du Lys, copiose; 
circa B.-de-Bigorre, rarius. 

56. H. campestre, Bruch ! in litt. ; M. P. 31 . 

Hab. Z| in graminosis circa thermas de Salut dictas, prope 
B.-de-Bigorre. Inter H. salebrosum et rutabulum medium. 

§ 16. RUTABULA. 

57. H. pseudoplumosum, Brid. Muse. Rec. 2. P. 2. p. 108 ; 
M. P. 36. H. plumosum, H. et T. ! Muse. Brit. p. 162. t. 25. 

Hah. Zi_2 in rivulorum saxis : socio consuetissimo H. populeo. 
Var. [H. suhsphcericarpon, Schleich. exs. cent. 2. n. 46) ; in 
Pyrenseis (Bridel). 

58. H.populeum, Hedvv. Sp. Muse. t. 70; M. P. 27. 
Hab. Z 1-2 ad saxa ex alveo emersa rivulorum. 

282 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatiae of the Pyrenees. 

59. H. reflexum, Starke; W. et Mohr. Bot. Tasch. p. 306 et 
476; Schwgr. Suppl. t. 143; M. P. 26. 

Hab. Z3P. c. in altioribus montis Crabioules, saxatile; P. or. 
Port Negre (Arnott !). 

60. H. Starkii, Brid. Muse. Rec. 2. p. 167 et Bryol. Univ. 2. 
p.595;M.P. 34. 

Hab. Z2_4 P. occ. ad terram in monte Lize, et juxta pontem 
diet. d^Espagne, socio H. dimorpho ; P. c. ad rupes argillaceo- 
schistosas loco Port de Benasque ! (Arnott !). 

The leaves of this species, especially in smaller and fertile spe- 
cimens, are often subfalcate, and it then approaches very closely 
H. paradoxum, Hook. f. et Wils. (Crypt. Ant. p. 113. t. 155. f. 2), 
its representative of the southern hemisphere. 

61. H. velutinum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1595 ; Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 
t.27;M.P. 35. 

Hab. Zo— 3 ad terram, &c. in umbrosioribus. 

62. H rivulare, Brucb ! in litt. ; M. P. 33. 

Hab. Zi_3 ad rivulorum lapides, P. c. circa B.-de-Bigorre {Foret 
de Transoubdt, &c.) ; P. occ. Gave de Valentin. 

63. H rutabulum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1590 ; Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 
t. 12;M. P. 32. 

Hab. Zi_3 in terra, &c. fere ubique. 

64. H. illecebrum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1594; Schwgr. Suppl. 1 . P. 2. 
p. 255 ; M. P. 16. H. blandum, Lyell ! in Hook. Fl. Lond. cum 

Hab. Zo— 1 P. occ. in arenosis inter herbas circa Pau, St. Sever 
et Aquas Tarbellicas ; in montes editiores hand ascendens. 

65. H. cmspitomm, Wils. ! E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2878; M.P. 17. 
Hab. Zq ad arborum radices in pratis irriguis arenaque suffusis 

prope Aq. Tarbellicas. 

§ 17. PRiELONGA. 

66. H. Teesdalii, Sm. Fl. Brit. 3. p. 1291 ; E. Bot. t. 202 ; 
M. P. 24. H laxepennatum, Brid. ! in hb. Requien {=H. curvi- 
setum, ^vid. = PylaiscBa radicans, Brid.; ex cl. Arnott). H. 
Schleicheri 7. obscu7mm, Brid. ? Br. Univ. 2. p. 405. . 

Hab. Zj ad rivulorum exsiccat. lapides, P. c. locis Elysee Cottin, 
Labassere, &c. ; P. occ. circa Gelos. 

67. Hpumihm, Wils. ! in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2942; M. P. 23. 
Hab. Zo_i P. occ. et centr. in solo calcareo sylvarum, sterile; 

? prope Pau et B.-de-Bigorre ; S in arenosis prope Dax. 

68. H Swartzii, Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 151. t. 14. H. pra- 
longum, M.P. 22 (ex parte). 

Hab. 7j(^-i in terra rupibusque udiusculis. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Miisci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 283 

69. H. prcelongum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1591 ; Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 
t.29; M.P. 2"^ [ex parte). 

Hab. Zo_i ad terrain et truncos, priori multo minus frequens. 

70. H. piliferum, Schreb. Fl. Lips. p. 91 ; Hedw. Muse. 
Frond. 4. t.l4;M. P. 21. 

Hab, Til sup. in virgultis, baud frequens : ad cataractam diet. 
la Cascade du gros Hetre prope les Eaux Bonnes, pulcherrime 
fructiferum. Loca calcarea amat, vix tamen iis proprium. 

71. H. Vaucherij Lesquereux ! mst. : dioicum ; caule prostrate, 
diviso ; divisionibus ascendentibus, apice attenuato decurvo scepe 
radicantibus, irregulariter bipinnatis ; ramulis cuspidatis, subse- 
cundis ; foliis suberectis, dense imbricatis, caulinis ovatis ex apice 
obtusiusculo longe subulato-acuminatis, ramulinis lanceolatis in 
acumen brevius sensim attenuatis, omnibus concavis, margine 
inferiori reflexis, apicem versus subserratis, nervo simplici furca- 
tove ad medium evanescente ; pedicello scabro ; capsula ovata, in- 
clinata, subcernua; operculo inclinato, conico-acuminato v. sub- 
rostrato, apice obtuso, capsulcE dimidium vix excedente ; calyptra 
dimidiata, glabra ; peristomii interni processibus pertusis, ciliis 
interjectis. — M. P. 19. 

Hab. Zi sup.-2 P- centr. prope B.-de-Bigorre in vallibus Serris 
et Castelloubon, saxa calcarea dense vestiens ; sociis H. crassinervio 
etisotheciolutescente. Hyeme fructificat. — Var.ff. minus {M.V. 20) 
in imis truncis saxisque graniticis ad ripas rivuli Gave du Lys 
umbrosissimaSj prope B.-de-Luchon : nonnisi sterile vidi. 

Simile H. crassinervio, Tayl., cui tamen sunt/oZza breviter acumi- 
nata, margine tota rejlexa v. explanata, argute serrata, nervo crasso 
instructa, capsula longior, rostrumque operculi duplo longius. H. pili- 
ferum, Schreb., statura major e, divisionibus bifariam pinnatis; foliis 
laxioribus, majoribus, caulinis ex apice obtusissimo naviculari longius 
attenuato-acuminatis (acumine=-J fol.) vix serrulatis ; operculo duplo 
longiori et peristomio interne minus profunde fisso digiioscendum est. 
H. cirrhosum, Schwgr. Suppl. 1. P. 2. p. 214, habitu H. Vaucheri 
baud absimile, folia iis H. piliferi fere longius acuminata habet. 

72. H. tenuicaule, Spruce; dioicum, ascendens, parce ramo- 
sum, ramis subdicbotomis, subparallelis ; foliis nitidis, erecto- 
patulis, lanceolatis, longe acuminatis, margine inferiori reflexis, vix 
serrulatis, nervo folii dimidium raro attingente, nonnunquam ob- 

Hab. Zi P. c. in arborum radicibus sylvae Bois de Lagaillaste 
dictse in vicinia B.-de-Bigorre, ? sola, sterilis ; sociis H. Halda^ 
niano et Isothecio repente. 

Planta pusilla ( = H. incurvaium), csespitosa. Rami pauci, supe- 
riores tamen nonnunquam fastigiati. Folia uniformia, flavescenti- 
viridia, nitida, sicco statu apice patula, areolatione e cellulis parvulis 

284 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

elongatis; caulina baud raro nervo perbrevi furcatoque instructa. 
Flores fceminei : folia pericbsetialia externa minima, rotundata, api- 
culata ; interiora majora, e basi ovato-lanceolata, capillari-acuminata ; 
intima parvula, subulata capillariave ; omnia enervia, integerrima. 
Archegonia sub-5, paraphysibus longiora. Planta mascula non aderat. 
Habitu fere Isothecii myosuroidis formae pusillse, difFert foliis ni- 
tidis, minime argute serratis. Ab //. Vaucheri foliis caulinis hand ex 
ohtuso acuminatis et nervo breviori distinctum. 

73. H. crassinervium, Tayl. ! in Fl. Hibern. 2. p. 43 ; Wils. ! 
in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2706 ; M. P. 18. 

Hab. Zi sup. ad rupes calcareas, hand infrequens. Les Eaux 
Bonnes ; B. -de-Big orre, &c. 


74. H. murale, Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 30; M. P. 15. 
Hah. Zi ad saxa ealearea. 

75. H. confertum, Dieks. Fase. Crypt. 4. p. 17; Sehwgr. Suppl. 
t.90;M.P. 14. 

Hah. Zo_i in saxosis montium humiliorum ; in arborum truneis 
ad rivuli hay ripas prope Aq. Tarbellieas [forma major). 

76. H. Megapolitanum, W. et M. Bot. Tasch. p. 326 ; Brid. 
Br. Univ. 2. p. 491. 

Hah. Zq p. occ. in arenosis prope Aq. TarbeUicas. 

77. H. rusciforme, Weiss. Crypt. Goett. p. 225 ; M. P. 13. 
H riparioidesj Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 13. H. atlanticumj 
Brid. ! in lib. Requien. 

Hab. Zj in rivulis ad saxa lignaque demersa. 

78. H. longirosti-e, Ehrb. PI. Exsicc. n. 75. H. striatum, 
Schreb. ; Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 1. 13. 

Hab. Zo_i locis sylvaticis. 

79. H. striatulum, Spruce in Musci Pyr. 12 : dioicum ; caule 
prostrato, diviso ; divisionibus subpinnatis, ramis ascendentibus, 
simplieibus compositisque ; foliis nitidis, patentibus, caulinis cor- 
dato-triquetris, ramulinis cordato-ovatis, omnibus longe acumi- 
natis, striatis, margine prseter ad basin planis, serratis, nervo va- 
lido panto ultra medium desinente ; pedicello Isevi ; operculo e basi 
convexo-eonica rostrato, capsulam ovali-ohlongam suhcernuam sub- 
sequante ; calyptra glabra. 

Hab. Z^ P. occo et c. in valle d'Ossau et circa Bagneres-de-Bi- 
gorre (locis Bedat, Vallon de Serris, &c.) in saxis calcareis quibus 
arete adnascitur. In Pyrenseis Asturiacis invenit Durieu. In 
Anglise et Hibernise austrinis el. Wilson, Thwaites et Mitten de- 
texerunt. Ad auctumni finem fructificat, 

Caulis prostratus, varie divisus, subpinnato-ramosus, ramis ascen- 
dentibus, simplieibus, ramosis vel subpinnatis. Folia paten tia, cor- 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 285 

dato-triquetra (ramulorum cordato-ovata), longe acuminata, plicato- 
striata, argute serrata, raargine utrinque ad basin reflexa superne 
plana, nervo crasso paulo ultra medium desinente instructa, areola- 
tione mediocri, amoene viridia v. fuscescentia, nitida. Florescentia 
dioica. Flores masculi ad caulem et ramos planta; tenuioris nati ; 
folia perigonialia sat numerosa, ovato-acuminata, concava, integer- 
rima, enervia vel rarius quadam nervi umbra prsedita ; antheridia cir- 
citer 20, brevi-pedicellata ; paraphyses illis numerosiores sublongio- 
resque. Flores fceminei folio caulino longiores ; folia perichiBtialia 
circiter 17, erecta, externa minuta, rotundato-ovata, enervia, intima 
oblonga, in acumen flexuosum, serratum et ad basin nonnunquam 
inciso-serratum subito attenuata, nervo rudimentario in acumen pro- 
ducto instructa ; archegonia parapbysibus numerosis stipata. Vagi- 
nula oblonga, teres. Pedicellus uncialis, aut paulo longior, Isevis, 
siccitate dextrorsum contortus. Capsula ovali-oblonga, inclinato-sub- 
cernua, badia. Operculum e basi convexo-conica rostratum, capsulse 
longitudine. Peristomium : denies externi sedecim, subulato-acumi- 
nati, linea media exarati : interius membrana pallidior, in processus 
totidem carinatos et in carina ssepe perforates, ciliis 2— 3-nis, baud 
ferme fragilibus, interjectis, apice usque ad f fissa. 

Ab H. longirostri quod proximum refert, statura duplo minori ; caule 
prostrato ; foliis nitidis, longius acuminatis, minus conspicue striatis, 
angulum 45*'-50<' cum ramo efformantihus (nee ut in H. striato fere 
squarrosis) ; capsula breviori, nequaquam horizontaliter cernua, et pe- 
ristomio interno profundius fisso, ciliis validioribus, distinguitur. 

Obs. Specimens gathered by Mr. Wilson near Killarney have the 
leaves sometimes more w^idely spreading, and therefore approach 
H. longirostre more nearly ; still the habit is the same as in my 
Pyrensean plant, namely very nearly that of //. velutinoides, Bruch, 
which however diiFers essentially from H. striatulum in the rough 
pedicel and the form of its leaves. Mr. Mitten's specimens, gathered 
in Sussex, about the roots of trees in a chalky soil, have much of the 
external aspect of Isothecium myosuroides, 

80. jy.sifn^05Mm,Hoffm.Deut. Fl. 2. p. 76;M.P.ll. H.pul- 
chellum, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 68. 

Hab. Z3 P. occ. ad terrain in alpinis prope Cautm'ets {Mont 
Lize; V. de Combascou). 

■\H. circinatum, Brid. Mant. Muse. p. 165. 
Hab. ad muros prope Burdigalam. Circa Vallem Clausam 
(Arnott !). 

In all probability this species exists also in the Pyrenees, though 
hitherto not observed there. 

Tribus 2. Isotheciace^. 
2. Climacium, W. et Mohr. 

81. C. dendroides, L. Sp. PI. p. 1593 (sub Hypno) ; M. P. 90; 
B. et S. Bryol. Eur. fasc. 16. 

286 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

Hab. Zo_2 in umbrosis humidis ; circa B.-de-Bigorre baud raro 

3. Isothecium, Brid. Br. Univ. 2. p. 355. 

Obs. The four sections into which I divide this genus are separated 
from each other by such wide intervals, that I shall not be surprised 
if at some future period they be placed in at least as many different 
genera. The family of Hypnoid mosses requires to be completely 
rearranged, and this can only be done well by a person perfectly 
familiar with exotic species. 

Isoth. rufescens is found only on calcareous rock, and its stems are 
mostly incrusted below with carbonate of lime. /. lutescens seems 
to grow on no other rock than limestone, but it is also occasionally 
found on trees. The three species of the last section prefer to grow 
on the living bark of trees, and /. striatum selects the slenderest 
twigs of subalpine shrubs and humble trees. 

§ 1. Dendroidea. 

82. /. alopecuruniy L. Sp. PI. p. 1594 (sub Hypno) ; Schwgr. 
Suppl. t. 327 ; M. P. 10. 

Hab. Zj in rupibus subhumidis_, baud vulgare. 

83. /. Myurum, Pollich, PI. Pal. 3. n. 1054. f. 8 (sub Hypno) ; 
M. P. 73. Hyp. earvatum, Sw. ; H. et T. ! Muse. Brit. p. 102. 

Hab. Zo_3 in sylvaticis, ad saxa et arborum truncos. 

" Var. ramis incrassatis vix curvatis, operculo breviori;" M. P. 
74 ; in rupibus terra obtectis pinetorum circa pontem d'Espagne 
dictum ; etiam secus lacum Seculejo. 

84. /. myosuroides, L. Sp. PI. p. 1596 (sub Hypno) ; E. Bot. 
1. 1567; M. P. 75. 

Hab. Zo— 3 in umbrosis prsecipue secus rivulos, saxatile et ar- 
bustivum. — Folia nonnunquam subsecunda. 

§ 2. Sericea. 

85. /. aureum, Lagasca in Ann. de Cienc. Nat. n. 14 (sub 
Hypno)', Brid. Br. Un. 2. p. 469. 

Hab. Zg P. c. in rupibus prope lacum Espingo, sterile ( ? ), 
socia Tayloria serrata. 

The leaves are incorrectly described by Bridel as nerveless : in my 
specimens, as in others gathered by M. Schimper in the Sierra Mo- 
rena, the leaves are (like those of /. lutescens) strongly S-plicate, the 
middle fold involving the nerve. 

86. /. lutescens, Huds. Fl. Angl. (sub Hypno). H. lutescens, 
Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 16; M. P. 88. 

Hab. Zj in terra rupibusque calcareis, necnon in arboribus. — 
Circa B.-de-Bigorre (locis Elysee Cottin, Bois d'Aste, &c.) cap- 
sulis ovato-cylindricis fere erectis ludit. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 287 

The scabrous setcB, the tristriate leaves, and the whole habit of this 
species bring it so near /. sericeum, that in a natural distribution I 
apprehend they must be jDlaced in the same genus. Besides, if we 
compare the fructification, we shall not find very great differences. 
The capsule of /. lutescens (as above intimated) is sometimes elon- 
gated and very nearly erect, although never quite symmetrical. The 
inner peristome, as in /. sericeum and Philippianum, has the cilia either 
wholly or in part absorbed at the period of maturity, although capsules 
not quite ripe show slender 2-3-nate cilia. (1 have observed similar 
circumstances in /. polyanthum.) The chief difference from /. seri' 
ceum is in the lacunose processes and their very slight granulation. 
The annulus is double. The inner membrane of the capsule projects 
beyond its mouth the breadth of the annulus before it is divided. 
The teeth are strongly trabeculate within and enveloped in a delicate 

87. /. sericeum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1595 (sub Hypno) ; M. P. 76, 
Leskea s., Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. 1. 17. 

Hab. Zo_2 in arboribus, &e. vulgatissimum. 

88. /. Philippianum, Spruce in Muse. Pyr. 77: dioicum; caule 
prostrate, radieante, diviso ; divisionibus pinnato-ramosis, ramis 
ereetis, plerumque simplicibus ; foliis dense imbricatis, erectis, 
lanceolato-acuminatis, striatis, toto ambitu minute denticulatis, 
nervo percurrente ; pedicello laevi, rarius scabriu^culo ; capsula 
erecta, symmetrica,, ovato-cylindrica; operculo breviter rostrato, 
rostro subcurvato ; calyptra dimidiata, glabra. 

Hab. Zj sup. P. c. ad saxa calcarea in umbrosis mentis Lhieris, 
prope Bagneres-de-Bigorre ; etiam in rupibus graniticis sylvse 
Bois de Gouerdere dictse, prope B.-de-Luchon. Auctumno et 
hyemis initio fructificat. 

PlantcE latas plagas efficientes. Caulis 2-6 uncias longus, pinnatus, 
ramis suberectis, simplicibus, rarius furcatis, hie illic radicans et ist- 
hinc divisiones pinnato-ramosas edens. Folia densa, erecta, supe- 
riora nonnunquam (in sicco saltern statu) subsecunda, omnia lanceo- 
lata seu ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, acumine caulinorum tenuiori, 
plicato- striata, toto ambitu minute denticulata, nervo continuo in- 
structa, e cellulis minimis lineari-elongatis areolata, viridia aut auro 
subnitentia. Florescentia dioica : flores masculos non habui : fmminei 
cauligeni, elongati, foliis numerosis, 24 et pluribus, erectis, arete va- 
ginantibus, interioribus acumine setaceo, flexuoso terminatis, leviter 
plicatis, obsolete nervosis, paraphyses copiosissimas archegoniis lon- 
giores complectentibus. Vaglnula oblongo-cylindrica, viridis. Pedi- 
cellus uncialis, Isevis vel rarius et inferne praecipue scabriusculus, sic- 
citate dextrorsum contortus. Capsula erecta, symmetrica, ovato-cylin- 
drica, microstoma, pallida. Peristoma externi dentes subulati, qua- 
drangulares, transverse septati (baud trabeculati) ad basin versus 
tantum linea media exarati, sparsira papillosi, pallidi ; interni mem- 
brana profunde (usque ad f ) fissa, lutescens ; processibus dentes fere 

288 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

sequantibus, lineari-subulatis, solidls, papillis minutissimis opacis ob- 
sitis, unde fuligine quasi oblitis, ciliis interjectis nullis seu rudimen- 
tariis. ^wwm/m5 e duplici serie cellularum. conflatus. Operculum hre- 
viter rostratum, rostro subinclinato. Calyptra dimidiata, glabra, cap- 
sulam fere to tarn obtegens. Semina minutissima, minute granulosa. 
Ab Isothecio sericeo nitore minus spectahili, ramis siccitate vix cur- 
vatis,/o/u nervo perdurante, pedicello suhlavi, calyptra (etiam juvenili) 
glaherrima, peristoma dentibus minime (I. sericei instar) e septis in 
facie externa internaque prominulis traheculatis, notisque aliis difFert. 
Ab /. lutescente foliis solidinerviis, capsula erecta symmetrica, ut et 
peristomii interni configuratione distinguitur. 

Tab. II. 1, 2, Z. folia aucta; 4. apex folii magis aucta ; 5. capsula 
aucta ; 6. peristomii pars; 7. ejusdem dens externus a latere visus, 
2^0-ies auct. ; 8. dens peristomii Isothecii sericei a latere visus, ad id. 


89. /. rufescens, Dicks. Cr. Ease. 3. t. 8. f. 4 (sub Hypno) ; 
M. P. 78. 

Hab. Zi sup. in monte Lhieris et juxta aquas diet, les Eaux 
Chaudes, ad rupes calcareas irroratas. In Pyrenseis (Bridel). 

90. /. chryseum, Schwgr. in Scliultes Reise auf den Glockner, 
2. p. 364 (sub Hypno). Leskea rufescens ^. chrysea, Brid. Br. 
Univ. 2. p. 286. 

Hab. Z2_4 P. occ. et c. in rupium humidarum fissuris. Col de 
Louvie. Esquierry. Bois de Sajust. 

This is the moss mentioned in my ' Musci and Hepaticse of Tees- 
dale ' (Annals, 1844) under no. 91, Hypnum multiflorum, TayL, of 
which, in deference to Dr. Taylor's opinion, I considered it a form. 
It is however quite distinct from both that species and /. rufescens, 
and is not like the latter confined to calcareous rocks. 


91. /. polyanthum, Schreb. Fl. Lips. p. 97 (sub Hypno); 
M. P. 79. Leskea p. y Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 2. 

Hab. Z, P. c. in Tilise unicse trunco juxta theruias oppidi Ba- 
gneres-de-huchon ; necnon in sepibus prope Arreau : rarius. 

92. /. repens, Brid. Suppl. Muse. p. 131 (sub Pterigynandro) ; 
M. P. 80 ; Schwgr. Suppl. t. 27, et t. 246 B (sub Neckera). 

Hab. Zi inf. P. occ. et c. in arborum praesertim Castanearum 
radicibus circa Pau et B.-de-Bigorre. 

Peristomium duplex : dentes externi pallidi : interius ad basin usque 
in cilia brunnea, tenuissima, ssepe apice inter se anastomosantia, e 
cellularum serie singula (rarius ex parte duplici) conflata, fissum. 

93. /. striatum, Schwgr. Suppl. t. 27 (sub Pterogonio) et 
t. 246 A. (sub Neckera) ; M. P. 81. 

Hab. Zg P. c. pulcherrime fructiferum in fruticum ramulis ad 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 289 

latera montis Lhieris, ubi detexerunt cl. Philippe et De Lugo ! 
Sterile infra lacum Espingo ipse inveni. Perist. dupleXy ac in prse- 

4. Leskea, Hedw. 

94. L, nervosa J Brid. Mant. Muse. p. 128 (sub Pterigynandro). 
Pt. longifoliuniy Schleicli. ! Cent. 4. n. 8. " Leskea Froelichii, 
Brid.?;^^ M.P. 83. 

Hab, Zj P. occ. et c. in arboribus iinis saxisque graniticis, circa 
Cauterets et Pierrefitte prrecipue. Bords de VAdour a B.-de-Bi- 
gorre (Philippe !). 

95. L. incurvata, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 53; M. P. 84. H. atro- 
virens, Dicks. Cr. Fasc. 2. p. 10. 

Hab. Z3_5 in saxis graniticis pr^ecipue secus ovilia. Mt. Ma- 
ladetta, Mt. Lize, &c. — Subter nivibus fructus maturat. 

96. L. polycarpa, Ehrh. Crypt. Exsicc. n. 96; M. P. 85. Hyp- 
num medium, Dicks, ; H. et T. ! Muse. Brit. p. 154. t. 24. 

Hab. Zo_i P. occ. et c. in truncis imis secus ripas rivuli Luy, 
prope Aq. Tarbellicas ; etiam juxta fl. Adour, Bagneres ! (Phi- 
lippe !). 

97. L. rostrata, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 55 ; Sullivant ! Musci 
Allegh. n. 63; M.P. 86. 

Hab. Z, sup. in sylvaticis ad rupes inque fruticum radicibus. 
Vallon de Serris ; Superbagneres, &c. 

98. L. longifolia, Hartm. ! in litt. (sub Anomodonte) ; M. P. 87, 
Hab. Z] P. c. in Carpini Betuli truncis secus rivulum Gave du 

LySy socia L. attenuata ; etiam ad saxa in monticulo Camp de Cesar 
dicto prope B.-de-Bigorre. 

I possess specimens of this gathered by Messrs. Gardener and Scott 
in Forfarshire. 

99. L. attenuata, Schreb. Fl. Lips. p. 100 (sub Hypno)-, Hedw. 
Muse. Frond. 1. 1. 12 ; Sullivant ! Musci Allegh. n. 61 ; M. P. 88. 

Hab. Zi_2 in regione Fagi si/lvaticce per totos Pyrenseos, saxa 
calcarea et truncos veteriores dense' obtegens. 

100. L. viticulosa, L. Sp. PI. p. 1592 (sub Hypno) ; M. P. 89, 
Neckera v., Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 48. 

Hab. Zo_2 in saxis sylvarum. 

I do not think this can be separated generically from L. attenuata. 
The two approach very closely in the form and texture of the leaves : 
both have the same pallid peristome (internal and external), the only 
difference being that in the latter the sporular sac extends a little 
beyond the mouth of the capsule, before it is divided into the pro- 
cesses constituting the inner peristome. In L. viticulosa the inner 
peristome is cloven quite down to the mouth of the capsule, and be- 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 19 

290 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

sides the slender processes (or rather cilia) there are interposed ci- 
liola, but exceedingly short (= about two cellules). 

5. Entodon, C. Miiller in Linnsea, 1844, Band 2. Heft 6. 

101. E. cladorrhizans, Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 47 (sub Neckera). 
Neckera c, Sullivant ! Musci Allegh. n. 77. Isoth. c, M. P. 71. 

Hab. Zj sup. P. c. in ulmo unica ad ripas rivuli diet. Gave du 

102. E. insidiosuSy Mont. ! in Ann. des Sciences Nat. Dec. 
1843, torn. 20. t. 15. f. 1 (sub Isothecio) ; M. P. 72. Entodon 
Montagneiy C. Miill. 1. c. 

Hah. Zi sup. in terra saxisque calcareis cacdi B.-de-Bigorreyloci^ 
Ely see Cot tin, Medous, &c. : semper absque fructu. 

Very soon after my return to England from the Pyrenees, I dis- 
covered this beautiful species in several stations around Castle- How- 
ard, growing always in calcareous soil, and often accompanied by 
Hypnum recognitum. 

Tribus 3. NECKERACEiE. 

6. Neckera^ Hedw. (ex parte). 
[Neckei-a Distichia, Brid. Br. Univ. 2. p. 238.) 

103. N. crispa, L. Sp. PI. 1589 (sub H7jpno) ; Hedw. Fund. 
Muse. 2. 1. 14 ; M. P. 70. 

Hab. Zi_2 in rupibus arboribusque passim. 

104. N.pumila, Hedw. Muse. Prond. 3. t. 20 ; M. P. 69. 
Hab. Z| P. c. in arborum cortice sylvse Foret de VEscaladieu 

dictse : nusquam alias vidi. 

7. Omalia, Brid. Br. Univ. 2. p. 325. 

105. O. complanata, L. Sp. PI. p. 1588 (sub Hypno). Leskea c, 
Hedw. Fund. Muse. 2. 1. 10. Neckera c, M. P. 67. 

Hab, Zo_2 in fruticibus prsecipue Buxis. 

106. O. trichomanoides, Schreb. Fl. Lips. p. 88 (sub Hypno). 
Hypnum tr., H. et T. ! Muse. Brit. p. 152. t. 24. Neckera tr., 
M.P. 68. 

Hab. Zo_i in umbrosis humidis ad arborum radices ; hand 

Tribus 4. HooKERiACEyE. 

8. Hookeria, Smith. 

107. //. lucens, L. Sp. PI. p. 1589 (sub i/z/jono); E. Bot. t.l902; 
M.P. 91. 

Hab. Z]_2 P. c. in sylvaticis secus rivulos, rarissima. Circa 
B.'de-Bigorre. Lac de Seculejo. 

Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 291 

Tribus 5. Pterogoniace^e. y 

9. Leptodon, Web., Tab. Syn. Muse. 

108. L. Smithii, Dicks. Ease. 2. p. 10. t.5. f. 4 {snh Hypno). 
Hab. Zo_i in arborum cortice circa Pau, &c. In Pyr. orien- 

talibus (Arnott ! Montagne !). Circa Burdigalam, socia Cryphaa 
heteromalla, legi. 

10. Pterogoniuniy Swartz. 

109. P.filiformey Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 7; M. P. 92. 
Hah. Zi_3 ad saxa et arbores, circa Cauterets preecipue, fre- 


" Var. foliis secundis. P. heteropteruniy Brid. ? Br. Univ. 2. 
p. 176. Hab. in rupibus secus lacum Espingo prope B.-de-La- 

110. P. gracile, L. Syst. Veg. p. 952 (sub Hypno) ; M. P. 94. 
Pterigynandrum gr., Hedw. Muse. Frond. 4. t. 6. 

Hab. Zo_2 in saxis Pyrenseorum, semper sterile ; in arboribus 
sylvse Lesperon prope Aq. Tarbellicas Agri Syrtici fructiferum 
legi 20 Novembris, 1845. 

The leaves of this species, besides heing papiliose from the project- 
ing cellules, are tuberculate on the back in the upper half; the tuber- 
cles arranged with some regularity parallel to the sides of the leaf, 
three or four cellules apart, and springing from the points where 
four cellules meet. 

111. P.? suhenervium, Spruce; dioicum; c«M/e prostrate, vage 
hipinnato, ramis ascendentibus, subparallelis ; foliis e basi patula 
apice surrectis, ovatis oblongo-ovatisve, acuminatis, concavis, mar- 
gine inferiori leviter reflexis, integerrimis, nervo rudimentario via: 
ullo, areolatione guttulata. 

Hab. Z^ in arborum cortice prope B.-de-Bigorre et Pau : ? sola, 

Caules ^-\ unc, intricati, hie illic radiculos rufos emittentes. 
Folia saturate viridia, integerrima, margine tamen inferiori e cellu- 
larum parietibus prominulis subundulata ; nervo brevissimo, longi- 
tudine latitudinem baud excedente ; siccando appressa, apice autem 
recurva patulave : in ramis tenuioribus nonnunquam adsunt folia an- 
gustiora, acumine cirrhoso chlorophyllo carente instructa. Cellula 
discretse ; inferiores latitudine tertiam partem long, habent, supe- 
riores vix dimidiam ; refiexus vero rotundatec, minores, unde folium 
ibidem magis opacum videtur. Flores fceminei ad caulem et ramos pri- 
maries nati ; folia perichcetialia, intimis minoribus subulatis exceptis, 
ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, serrata, cellulis marginalibus curvatis, 
enervia. Archegonia crassa, nuraerosa, 10 circiter, paraphysibus om- 
nino destituta. 

Folia iis Pt. gracilis baud absimilia, epapillosa autem et apice aw- 


292 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 

gustiora sunt. Cseterum ramos nee incurvos nee fasciculatos habet. 
Clasmatodon pusillus , Hook, et Wils. in Drumm. Mosses of S. States 
of N. America (Regmatodon parvulus, Hampe, Icones, t. 14) habitu 
et magnitudine ut etiam foliis margine basali reflexis, areolatione 
guttulata, &c., similis, certe differt florescentia monoica et foliis lati- 
oribus ad medium usque nervatis, 

11. Leucodon, Schwgr. 

112. L. sciuroideSj L. Sp. PI. p. 1596 (sub Hypno) ; Schwgr. 

Hab. Zo_i in arborum truncis ; copiose fructificans. 

12. Cyrtopus, Brid. Bryol. Univ. 2. p. 235. 

113. C. curtipendulus, L. Sp. PL p. 1594 (sub Hypno). Am- 
modon c, H. et T. ! Muse. Brit. ed. 1. p. 79. t. 22 (1818). An- 
titrichia c, Brid. Mant. Muse. p. 136 (1819) et Br. Univ. 2. 
p. 223. 

Hab. Zj ad saxa et truncos. Fertilem in sylva Foret de Tran- 
soubdt dicta invenit cl. Philippe ! 

This species agrees well enough in habit and character with some 
of the exotic species of Cyrtopus, e.g. C. acuminatus, Hook. Muse. 
Exot. 1. 151, and I therefore place it along with them rather than in 
Anomodon or Antitrichia, both of which genera have been founded 
on incorrect views of the structure of the inner peristome. The cilia 
neither spring from the sides of the teeth, as stated in ' Muscologia 
Britannica,' nor are they opposite to the teeth, as Bridel says ; on the 
contrary, they are (as in all mosses) a continuation of the sporular sac, 
and they alternate with the teeth. 1'hey are the most slender and 
delicate I have seen in any moss, and consist either of a single series 
of cellules throughout, or here and there of a double series, when 
they are often perforated. There are sometimes rudimentary ciliola 
(solitary or twin) between them. 

Tribus 6. Fabrontace^. 

13. Fahroniaj Baddi. 

114. F.pusilla, Baddi, Act. Florent. ; Schwgr. Suppl. t. 99. 
Hah. Pyr. or. prope Rodez (Arnott !) ; etiam "in rupibus cavis 

ad >S^/. Martin in radicibus mentis Canigou " (Mont, in Arch, de 
Bot. torn. 1). "Circa Bax Aquitanise'^ (Grateloup in Brid. Br. 

Tribus 7. Anacamptodonte^. 

14. Anacamptodon, Brid. 

115. A. splachnoides, Brid. Mant. Muse. p. 136; Sulliv. ! 
Musci Allegh. n. 82 ; M. P. 97. ISIeckera s., Schwgr. Suppl. 
t. 82. 

Hah. Zi sup. P. c. Vallee du Lys, in trunco Carpini Betuli unico. 

Mr. W. Clark on the Animal of Kellia rubra. avo 

Tribus 8. Cryph^ace^. 
15. Cryphcea, Brid. 

116. C. heteromallaj Hedw. Muse. Frond. 3. 1. 15 i^wbNeckera) \ 
M. P. 96. 

Hab. Zo_i corticicola per Pyrenseos humiliores. 

[To be continued.] 

XXXIV. — Observations on the Animal of Kellia rubra, by Wil- 
liam Clark, Esq., in a Letter to Professor Edward Forbes. 

To Richard Taylor, Esq. 
Dear Sir^ 
The interesting letter I herewith send you relates to the curious 
little bivalve mollusk Kellia rubra, upon the animal of which 
some important observations were communicated by Mr. Alder 
to the number of the ' Annals ' for September last. In the 15th 
part of the ' History of British Mollusca,' by Mr. Hanley and 
myself, full use is made of Mr. Alder^s notes, and also of valu- 
able manuscript notes on the Kellice kindly communicated to us 
by Mr. Clark. The discrepancies between the statements of dif- 
ferent observers as detailed in our work have induced Mr. Clark 
to turn his immediate attention to the subject, and the results 
are contained in the following letter. Their value is such that I 
grudge the delaying of the communication of them to the public 
until the conclusion of the ^ History,' when we mean to add 
abundant new matter in supplementary notes. 

I need scarcely say that the statements of Mr. Clark go towards 
confirming the union of Recluz's genus Poronia with Kellia, the 
view taken in the ^ History of British Mollusca.' M. Deshayes's 
drawing of the animal of Kellia Geoffroyi (in the MoUusques 
d'Algerie) exhibits the same conformation of tube observed by 
Mr. Alder first and since by Mr. Clark in Kellia rubra. 

Most truly yours, 

Edward Forbes. 

7 Norfolk' Crescent, Bath, 
My dear Sir, 7th March, 1849. 

It gives me pleasure to have it in my power to send you what 
I think is a correct account of the malacology of Kellia rubra. 

After I had written to you on the 4th instant, I became dis- 
satisfied, and I determined to make an attempt at once to settle 
the point, as to the tube of Kellia rubra being open underneath 
or otherwise ; for which purpose I wrote to a friend to obtain 
from certain rocks, four miles from Exmouth, a parcel of Fucus 

294 Mr. W. Clark on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 

pygmcBus, and send it to Bath in a moist state with a small phial 
of sea-water. It arrived yesterday by the post, and I found therein 
twelve specimens of Kellia ruhra, which being placed in a watch- 
glass in sea-water showed themselves as lively as if examined at 
Exmouth. By the superior appliances used I at once saw what 
I had overlooked at Exmouth, and that Mr. Alder is perfectly right 
in stating the tube to be open below ; all the animals repeatedly 
inserted the foot into the canal, and by thus displacing its sides, 
showed distinctly it was an open fold of the membrane ; but the 
moment the foot was withdrawn, it reverted to its usual perfect 
tube-like aspect ; indeed the most accomplished observer might 
be deceived, as it appears M. Philippi was. In fact this canal is 
a mere prolongation of the mantle, which is entirely open for 
more than half the ventral range, for the working of the foot 
and byssal apparatus. 

But Mr. Alder is mistaken in supposing the tube-like fold to 
be for branchial purposes; no currents, at least branchial ones, 
enter therein or issue therefrom ; it is a fold merely subservient 
to locomotion; this I perceived to be the case in a very short 
time, as I found the movements of the foot and tube-like canal- 
to be nearly isochronal and dependent on each other, as when 
the foot was extended and fixed for a forward movement, the 
tube was also exserted, and by its muscular retractive power, in 
contemporaneous action with the foot, the shell was advanced in 
progression. It will now be asked, where then is the branchial 
aperture ? This I have also satisfactorily discovered ; it is the 
posterior opening which has passed for the anus, and is in reality 
a considerable elongated oval fissure, having its periphery slightly 
thickened or margined, and divided from the rima magna of the 
byssus and foot by a strong, narrow, transverse septum ; from 
the termination of this opening the mantle is closed to the um- 
bones ; within this fissure I distinctly saw a part of the points of 
the branchicB, and it was regularly dilated and contracted as the 
currents of sea-water were received, and after aeration of the cir- 
culating fluid expelled, in a similar manner to the action of systole 
and diastole. I must now speak of the anus, which I had also 
the good fortune to discover ; it is placed at the posterior end of, 
and under the branchial aperture, and is a very minute, and for 
a part of its length, a disunited pendulous tube ; its orifice is not 
one-tenth part of the size of the branchial opening; from this 
internal tube I repeatedly saw the rejectamenta expelled in small 
cylindrical light yellow or grayish pellets, which, falling within 
the cavity of the fissure, were instantly ejected; this oval aper- 
ture cannot even be called sessile, it is only a slit, serving as a 
common canal, for supplying the branchise with water and for the 
passage of the fseces ; these are the only two openings in the 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 295 

mantle, one for the foot, and one in common, for branchiae and 

It must not be supposed that I have mistaken the functions 
of this fissure, and that it only belongs to the anal apparatus. 
This is not the case ; it is beyond doubt a common cavity for twf> 
distinct purposes, viz. anal and branchial. 

Thus this apparently strangely-formed animal turns out to be 
very similar to most of the bivalves, having the branchial and anal 
openings close together, where they ought to be, at the posterior 
end, and the anterior tube-like fold being nothing more than an 
aid to the foot in locomotion. I should not be at all surprised if 
the tube of Kellia suborbicularis, when closely examined (as it 
shall be), turns out to be an open canal ; but whether this is the 
case or not, it is not for branchial, but locomotive uses. 

From this examination it results, that the only essential dif- 
ference between the two species is, that the one is viviparous and 
the other oviparous. You will now be able to judge if the genus 
Poronia must be adopted. 

In the twelve specimens no young were found, as in the summer- 
time ; I therefore conclude that '' Alma Venus," as Lucretius 
styles the goddess, does not influence the self-sufficing loves of 
these moUusca until 

" species patefacta est verna diei, 

Et reserata viget genitabilis aura Favoni." 

I am, my dear Sir, most truly yours, 
Ed. Forbes, Esq. William Clark. 

XXXV. — Descriptions 0/ Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 
[Continued from p. 53.] 

61. Aphis Ribis. 

Aphis Ribis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 733. 1 ; Faun. Suec. 975 ; 
Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2201 ; Fabr. Syst. Ent. 734. 5 ; Sp. Ins. ii. 
385 ; Ent. Syst. iv. 211. 7; Syst. Rhyn. 295. 7; Frisch, Ins. ii. 
9. t. 14; Reaum. Ins. iii. 281-350. t. 22. f. 7-10; Hausm. 111. 
Mag. i. 437. 2; Leuwenh. Arc. ep. 90. 545. t. 548; Blanck. Ins. 
164. t. 14. f. D. 2; Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 108. 1195 ; Sir 
Oswald Mosley, Gard. Chron. i. 628; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 39. 

Ribifex, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2"^® serie, v. 476. 

This Aphis feeds on Ribis rubrum, R. nigrum, R. alpinum, R. 
grossularia, and R. uva crispa, from March till November. 

The viviparous wingless female. In the spring and when very 
young it is dark olive-green, oval, short, and plump : the feelei-s 

296 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

are yellow with brown tips, and not half the length of the body : 
the eyes are black : the nectaries are white, and about one-twelfth 
of the length of the body. 

1st var. The body is mottled with paler green : the feelers are 
nearly all white : the eyes are dark brown. 

2nd var. The nectaries are pale green with brown tips, and 
about one-seventh of the length of the body. 

It attains its full size in April, and is then greenish yellow, 
oval, convex, and slightly hairy above : there is a rim on each 
side of the body, and two vivid green lines along the back : the 
feelers are almost white with the exception of four black rings, 
and hardly half the length of the body : the mouth is very pale 
green ; its tip and the eyes are brown : the nectaries are pale 
straw-colour with brown tips, and about one-sixth of the length 
of the body : the legs are very pale green ; the feet and the tips 
of the shanks are brown. 

3rd var. Yellowish green. 

4th var. Grass-green. 

5th var. The limbs are white ; the feelers are more than half 
of the length of the body, and the nectaries are about one-fifth 
of its length. 

6th var. Bright yellow : the limbs are white : the feelers are 
a little shorter than the body ; the eyes, the tip of the mouth, 
and the feet are black : the nectaries are one-fourth of the length 
of the body. 

7th var. In the autumn and when it is young it is pale yel- 
low and half transparent : the tips of the joints of the feelers, 
the tip of the mouth, and the feet are black. When full-grown 
it is yellow, convex, smooth, shining, oval, or nearly elliptic : the 
feelers are a little shorter than the body : the eyes are red : the 
nectaries are whitish with black tips, and about one-sixth of the 
length of the body : the legs are whitish ; the knees are gray ; the 
feet and the tips of the shanks are black. 

8th var. Like the preceding, but the body is almost white. 

9th var. Like the preceding, but with a lively green stripe down 
the middle of the body. 

lOch var. The feelers are much longer than the body. 

11th var. Bright yellow : the limbs are pale yellow : the feel- 
ers are a little longer than the body ; the tips of their joints, the 
eyes, and the tip of the mouth are black : the nectaries have black 
tips, and are as long as one-fifth of the body : the knees and the 
tips of the shanks are gray : the feet are black. 
' 12th var. Greenish white. 

13th var. Nearly white. 

It varies much in breadth and in outline ; some of the insects 
are slender and spindle-shaped, others are stout and elliptical or 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 297 

oval. During the spring and the early part of summer it abounds 
under the red swollen leaves, and like many of the clustering 
species is the favourite food of the grubs of the ladybirds and of 
the St/rphi. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it is pale green ; 
the limbs are almost white ; the feelers are as long as the body ; 
the tips of some of the joints are pale brown : the eyes are dark 
red : the nectaries are rather more than one- fifth of the length 
of the body : the feet and the tips of the shanks are brown. 

1st var. Greenish white. 

2nd var. Nearly white. 

3rd var. Grass-green. 

4th var. Bright yellow, nearly elliptical, and having a vivid 
green stripe along the back : the eyes are red : the limbs are pale 
yellow or almost white. 

The wings are unfolded in May, and the insect is then yellow 
and slightly varied with green : the head, the chest and the 
breast are brown : there is a large black spot near the tip of the 
abdomen, and a row of small black spots on each side : the feelers 
are brown, and longer than the body : the eyes are black : the 
mouth is pale yellow with a black tip : the nectaries have also 
black tips, and are nearly one-fifth of the length of the body : the 
legs are dull yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of 
the shanks are black : the wings are colourless, and very much 
longer than the body : the wing-ribs are very pale yellow ; the 
wing-brands and the veins are brown. 

5th var. The head and the chest are bufi^: the abdomen is 
pale green varied with darker colour : the feelers are black, pale 
green towards the base ; the base of the third joint is pale yel- 
low : the eyes are dark brown : the tip of the mouth is brown : 
the nectaries are pale yellow with brown tips, and nearly one- 
fourth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the 
knees, and the tips of the thighs and of the shanks are brown : 
the wing- ribs are pale green; the rib- veins are buff; the wing- 
brands are dark buff. 

6th var. The head, the chest and the abdomen are black : 
the feelers are black, yellow at the base, and a little shorter than 
the body. 

7th var. Yellow : the back of the head is brown : the chest 
is streaked with dull red : there are transverse black spots with 
dark green edges on the back of the abdomen : the feelers are 
black, and a little longer than the abdomen : the nectaries are pale 
yellow, and about one-eighth of the length of the body. 

8th var. Yellow : there is a broad brown band across the 
fore-chest : the middle-chest is brown : the breast is black : the 
abdomen has a large quadrate black spot on its disc, and a row 

298 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 

of small black spots on each side : the feelers are black, and 
nearly as long as the body : the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip 
and the eyes are black : the nectaries are spindle-shaped, dull 
yellow, darker towards the base and at the tips, and hardly 
one- fifth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; 
the hind-thighs, excepting the base, the feet, and the tips of 
the other thighs and of the shanks, are black : the wing-ribs, the 
rib-veins, and the wing-brands are pale yellow; the other veins 
are pale brown. This, like its predecessor, the wingless female, 
almost disappears during some part of the summer and the au- 
tumn, but a solitary little individual may still be seen here and 
there beneath the leaves. 

The oviparous wingless female. This lives in October and in 
the beginning of November, when it lays its eggs on the shoots 
of the currant : it is elliptical, olive-green, mottled with pale yel- 
low : there is a large green spot on each side of the abdomen by 
the nectaries : the feelers are yellow, black towards the tips, and 
longer than the body : the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip and the 
eyes are black : the nectaries are pale yellow with black tips, 
and as long as one- fourth of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; 
the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black ; the 
hind-shanks are shaded with pale brown. 

1st var. Yellowish green. 

2nd var. Yellowish white. 

3rd var. A black band round the middle of each hind-shank. 

The winged male. It pairs with the oviparous female before the 
end of October. The head and the chest are black : the abdo- 
men is dull yellow, with a few short slight bands across its back : 
the feelers are rather thick till near their tips, and almost as long 
as the body : the mouth is yellow with a black tip : the nectaries 
are black, and as long as one- sixth of the body : the legs are yel- 
low ; the hind-thighs, the feet, and the tips of the other thighs 
and of the shanks are black : the wing-ribs are yellow ; the wing- 
brands and the veins are brown. 

1st var. The fore-chest beneath its borders above, and the ab- 
domen are dull greenish yellow; the latter has a row of black 
dots on each side : the nectaries are as long as one-eighth of the 
body : the hind-thighs are pale yellow towards the base. 

62. Aphis Galeopsidisy Kaltenbach. 

Aphis Galeopsidis, Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 35. 23. 

This is a very elegant insect : it is hairy like A. Avellance and 
A. tetrarhoda, but in other characters it differs widely from these 
two species. It feeds from February to October on Galeopsis 
tetrahit, G. bifida, Lamium album, L.purpureum, L. amplexicaule, 
Polygonum Persicaria, P. lapathifolium, P. hydropiper, P. laxi- 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 299 

sporum, Heracleum sphondylium, Plantago lanceolata, Stachys sijl- 
vatica, Tussilago Farfara, T. petasiteSj and Potentilla anserina. 

The front is hairy and somewhat notched : the first joint of the 
feelers has on the inner side of its tip a slight process which is 
most developed in the wingless female. It is common in the 
neighbourhood of London and of Lancaster, and Mr. Hardy has 
found it near Newcastle. 

The viviparous wingless female. This is small, hairy, elliptical, 
rather narrow and flat, almost transparent, white or tinged with a 
very pale green or straw-colour : the eyes are dark brown : the 
mouth is white with a black tip, and reaches the middle hips : the 
feelers are slender, setaceous, hairy, much longer than the body ; 
their tips are brown ; the fourth joint is much shorter than the 
third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is rather 
more than one-fourth of the length of the fifth ; the seventh is 
nearly as long as the third : the eyes are black : the nectaries are 
father more than one-fourth of the length of the body; they are 
somewhat thicker towards the tips which are black : the legs are 
long, slender and hairy : the feet are black. The young are nar- 
row and linear. It is infested by an Allotria. 

1st var. Pale green with two rows of transverse vivid green 
spots along the back. 

2nd var. The nectaries are not more than one-twelfth of the 
length of the body. 

3rd var. The feelers are rather longer than the body : the 
nectaries are about one-ninth of its length. 

4th var. The body and the limbs are white : the eyes, the tips 
of the feelers, of the mouth, of the nectaries and of the feet are 
black : the nectaries are one-sixth of the length of the body. 

5th var. Very pale rose-colour, or pale yellow tinged with pale 
red, not shining : there is a deep red stripe down the middle of 
the body : the head is white : the feelers are white, and much 
shorter than the body ; the tips of some of the latter joints are 
black : the mouth is white ; its tip and the eyes are black : the 
nectaries are white with black tips, and about one-sixth of the 
length of the body : the legs are white ; the tips of the feet are 

6th var. Greenish white with two very large vivid green spots 
near the base of the nectaries. 

7th var. The body is white : the feelers are a little longer than 
the body : the eyes, the tip of the mouth, and the tips of the 
shanks and of the feet are black : the nectaries are nearly one- 
third of the length of the body. 

8th var. The body is pale yellow : the feelers are black towards 
the tips, and a little longer than the body : the mouth is pale 
yellow ; its tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are also pale 

300 Mr. F. Walker^s Descriptions of Aphides. 

yellow with black tips, and^bout one-third of the length of the 
body : the feet are black. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it resembles the 
wingless female in colour, and the rudiments of its wings are 
white, but when these organs are unfolded it is pale greenish 
yellow : the feelers are black, pale green at the base, and as long 
as the body : the fourth joint is much less than half the length 
of the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is as 
long as the fifth ; the seventh is as long as the fourth : the eyes 
are dark red : the mouth is pale green ; its tip is black : the disc 
of the chest and that of the breast are dark green : the abdomen 
is very pale yellow with transverse broken bright green bands : 
the nectaries are pale yellow, and nearly one-sixth of the length 
of the body ; their tips are black : the legs are pale greenish yel- 
low, long and slender ; the knees, the feet, and the tips of the 
shanks are black : the wings are colourless, and much longer 
than the body ; the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow, 
the wing-brands are nearly colourless : the veins are brown ; the 
first and the second veins diverge, but the second and the third 
are nearly parallel to each other ; the first fork of the third vein 
is a little before one-third and the second after two-thirds of its 
length ; the fourth vein is much curved, and the angle of the 
brand whence it springs is very slight. 

1st var. Dull yellowish green : the feelers are brown, white 
towards the tips : the disc of the chest and that of the breast are 
black : the abdomen is pale yellowish green, and on its disc there 
are a few small green marks and one large square dark green spot : 
the nectaries are pale yellowish green, and nearly one-fourth of 
the length of the body ; their tips are black : the wing-brands are 
very pale brown. 

2nd var. Pale greenish white : the feelers are much longer 
than the body ; their tips are white : the discs of the head, of the 
chest and of the breast are brown or black, and there is also a 
brown or black spot on each side of the chest : the abdomen is 
traversed by black bands ; the first and the second are narrow ; 
the third and the fourth are broad : the eyes are dark brown : 
the nectaries are nearly white, and not more than one-tenth of 
the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the tips of the 
thighs are brown ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are black : 
the wing-ribs are white ; the wing-brands are gray ; the veins 
are black. The pupa is all white except the eyes and the feet 
which are brown. 

3rd var. While a pupa the chest is bufi\, and the rudimentary 
wings are white. 

4th var. While a pupa it is pale greenish yellow or pale saffi-on, 
long-elliptic, rather flat, smooth, not shining : there is a green 

Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 301 

stripe along the back, or a white stripe with a black line on each 
side of it : the feelers are pale yellow, pale green at the base, 
black towards the tips, and much shorter than the body : the 
rudimentary wings are pale green : the mouth is pale yellow ; its 
tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are nearly as long as 
one-sixth of the body ; their tips are black : the legs are pale 
yellow ; the thighs are pale green ; the tips of the feet are black. 

The oviparous wingless female. The body is pale yellow, ellip- 
tical, and convex : the abdomen is lengthened behind : the feelers 
are black towards their tips, and a little shorter than the body ; 
the tip of the mouth and the eyes are black : the nectaries have 
black tips, and are as long as one-fourth of the body : the knees, 
the feet and the tips of the shanks are also black. 

1st var. The body is red : the limbs are pale yellow : the feel- 
ers are black towards their tips, and as long as the body : the 
tip of the mouth and the eyes are black : the nectaries have black 
tips, and are as long as one-fourth of the body : the feet and the 
tips of the shanks are black. 

Length of the body 1 line ; of the wings 2^ lines. 

63. Aphis Ahietina, n. s. 

The viviparous wingless female. This is oval, green, convex, 
rather dull, and half a line in length : the head and the limbs 
are paler and sometimes tinged with yellow : the front jof the 
head is convex in the middle, but concave on each side, from 
whence there is a small protuberance extending to the base 
of the feelers : the feelers are broji^n towards the tips and 
about half the length of the body; the inner side of the first 
joint is convex, and has no process; the fourth joint is more 
than half the length of the third; the fifth is much shorter 
than the fourth; the sixth is a little shorter than the fifth; 
the seventh is longer than the sixth : the eyes are dull red : 
the tip of the mouth is brown : the nectaries have brown tips, 
and are about one-fourth of the length of the body, which has a 
slight rim on each side of the back : the legs are moderately long ; 
the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are brown. The 
young ones are as usual narrow, flat, and linear, and have short 
white limbs. 

In 1846, a year remarkable for the mildness of the winter and 
of the spring, it had attained its full size before the end of 
January, and was very abundant near London beneath the leaves 
of the spruce- firs, some of which were stripped of their foliage 
in consequence of its attacks. It does not disappear before the 
latter part of November. 

The viviparous winged female. This form comprises the second 
generation, and in 1846 its wings were unfolded before the end 

302 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

of March. It is green : the disc of the chest and that of the 
breast, the feelers, the tip of the mouth, the tips of the nectaries, 
the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are brown : the 
feelers are more than half the length of the body ; the fourth 
joint is very much shorter than the third ; the fifth is a little 
shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is shorter than the fifth ; the 
seventh is a little longer than the sixth ; and the nectaries are 
about one-sixth of the length of the body : the wings are colour- 
less and about twice the length of the body: the wing- ribs and 
the brands are green, and the veins are pale brown ; the first and 
the second veins diverge much from each other, but the second 
and the third veins are nearly parallel ; the latter has its first fork 
after one-third and its second fork a little before two-thirds of 
its length ; it is more or less obsolete at the base ; the fourth vein 
is much curved, and the angle of the brand whence it springs is 
hardly perceptible. 

Variations of the wing -veins. — 1st var. The lower branch of 
the first fork of the third vein is wanting. 

Length of the body f line ; of the wings 2 J lines. 

64. Aphis Rosarum, Kalt. 

Aphis Rosarum, Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 101. 76. 

This species feeds on Rosa centifolia and gallica in gardens, 
and Mr. Hardy has forwarded to me specimens found on Rosa 
spinosissima in October near Newcastle. 

The viviparous wingless female. This little species appears on 
the rose {Rosa centifolia and gallica) in the beginning of March 
or later, and is then dull green, paler beneath, rather flat, and 
very long : the feelers are rather more than one-fourth, and the 
nectaries are about one-seventh of the length of the body : the 
eyes are brown : the legs are short and stout. During its growth 
it acquires a brighter green hue, and then the limbs are almost 
white : the front of the head is very convex in the middle : the 
first joint of the feelers has a slight protuberance on the inner 
side of its tip ; the fourth joint is shorter than the third, but 
longer than the fifth ; the sixth is a little shorter than the fifth ; 
the seventh is much longer than the sixth. It much resembles 
A. Caprece. 

1st var. Whitish green, with two vivid green stripes along the 

2nd var. Whitish green, with two bluish green stripes along 
the back. 

The viviparous winged female. Is black : the fore-chest is green, 
having in front a blackish green band which is sometimes broad 
and sometimes narrow : the abdomen is green ; each segment is 
traversed by a black band and has a black spot on each side : the 

Mr. F. Walkei'^s Descriptions of Aphides. 303 

feelers are black, rather thick at the base, and about half the 
length of the body : the fourth joint is about half the length of 
the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is much 
shorter than the fifth, but more than half its length ; the seventh 
is as long as the fourth : the mouth and the nectaries are black, 
and the latter are about one-eighth of the length of the body : 
the thighs and the shanks, especially of the fore-legs, are dull 
pale yellow towards the base : the wings are colourless, and much 
longer than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the brands 
are pale brown, and the veins are darker ; the second vein di- 
verges from the first, but is nearly parallel to the third, whose 
first fork is a little after one-third, and its second fork long after 
two- thirds of its length. 

1st var. The thighs and the shanks are yellow with black tips. 

2nd var. Black : the abdomen has interrupted gray bands 
above, and is very dark green beneath : the feelers are nearly as 
long as the body : the ^outh and the nectaries are dark green ; 
the former has a black tip, and the latter are about one- sixth of 
the length of the body : the legs are dull buff ; the thighs are 
pale yellow ; their tips and those of the shanks and the feet are 

Variations in the winff -veins. — 1st var. With no second fork in 
one wing. 

2nd var. The third vein has not two forks, but is divided into 
three branches. 

The oviparous wingless female. Very small, yellow, narrow, 
long, spindle-shaped, rather flat, and not shining : there are two 
green stripes along the whole length of the back : the limbs are 
pale yellow : the feelers have black tips, and are about half the 
length of the body : the tip of the mouth, the eyes, and the tips 
of the nectaries are black, and the latter are as long as one-fourth 
of the body : the legs are moderately long ; the knees, the feet, 
and the tips of the shanks are black. 

The winded male. Appears in September and October, and 
pairs in the latter month with the oviparous female : it is small 
and black : the borders of the fore-chest and the fore-breast are 
pale green : the abdomen is green : the feelers are as long as the 
body : the mouth is pale yellow with a black tip : the nectaries 
are dull green with black tips, and as long as one-sixth of the 
body : the legs are pale yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs 
and of the shanks are black : the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are 
pale yellow ; the wing-brands and the other veins are pale brown. 

1st var. The borders of the fore-chest and the fore-breast are 
dark green : the abdomen has a row of black spots on each side : 
the mouth is dull yellow with a black tip : the nectaries are black : 
the four hinder thighs excepting the base are also black. 

Length of the body f line ; of the wings 2 lines. 

304 Mr. F. Walker^s Descriptions of Aphides. 

65. Aphis Avellance, Schrank. 

Aphis Avellan<2, Schrank, Faun. Boic. 112. 1207; Kalt. Mon. 
Pflan. 143. 116. 

This species clusters on the stalks and shoots of Corylus Avel- 
lana, whereas A. Coryli is scattered on the leaves of that tree. 

The viviparous wingless female. The body is oval, convex, hairy, 
pale green, and varies in breadth : the front is bristly, and has a 
protuberance in the middle, and one more slight at the inner base 
of each feeler : the feelers are pale yellow and very much longer 
than the body ; the tips of the joints are brown ; the first and the 
second joints are bristly, and the third is also so to a less degree ; 
the fourth joint is a little shorter than the third ; the fifth is as 
long as or longer than the fourth ; the sixth is less than half the 
length of the fifth ; the seventh is more than four times the length 
of the sixth: the mouth reaches the hind hips, or very near thereto, 
and even much beyond them in the young insects : the nectaries 
are green, and full one-fourth of the length of the body ; they 
are slightly tapering from the base to the tips : the tip of the 
abdomen does not form a tube : the legs are pale yellow, very 
long and hairy ; the shanks are very slightly curved ; the fore- 
legs are but little shorter than the hind-legs ; the feet and the 
tips of the shanks are brown : the young ones in the body some- 
times amount to twenty or upwards. 

1st var. The feelers are a little shorter than the body ; the fifth 
joint is longer than the fourth ; the sixth is full half the length 
of the fifth ; the seventh is about one-third of the length of the 

2nd var. The seventh joint of the feelers is about five times 
the length of the sixth. 

3rd var. The body is rose-colour. 

4th var. The body is lilac-colour. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it resembles the 
wingless Aphis in colour : the rudimentary wings are pale 
green, and when they are unfolded, the head and the disc of the 
chest have a darker colour : the wings are colourless, and much 
longer than the body ; the second vein diverges rather more from 
the first than it does from the third ; the forks of the latter are 
inconstant in length, and sometimes the situation of their source 
varies in the opposite wings of the same insect ; the fourth vein 
is but slightly curved, and the angle of the brand whence it 
springs is extremely slight. 

Length of the body 1 line ; of the wings 3 lines. 

[To be continued.] 

Zoological Society. 305 



May 9, 1848.— W. Yarrell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 
The following communications were made to the Meeting : — 
1. Notice of a new species of Monkey from Angola, living 
IN THE Gardens of the Society. By J. E. Gray, Esq., 
F.R.S. etc. 

The Society has recently procured a Monkey from Angola, which 
bears some resemblance to the Diadema Monkey which M. F. Cu- 
vier erroneously described and figured as the female of Cercopithecus 
Diana, but it differs from that species in the lips being black, like 
the face, and only covered with very short whitish hairs ; and also in 
being much darker coloured ; and this blackness has increased since 
it has been in the possession of the Society and obtained a better 
fur. At first sight I thought that it might be a melanism of some 
other species ; but on comparing my notes with the specimens in 
the British Museum collection, I am convinced that it is different 
from any I have before had the opportunity of examining. 

It belongs to the division of the genus Cercopithecus with rounded 
whiskers formed of annulated hairs, which have no heard, a variegated 
fur, and black nose and lips, and is easily distinguished from the 
species of that division by its dark colour and broad frontal band. I 
propose to call it 

The Pluto. Cercopithecus Pluto, 

Sp. ch. Black ; the hair of the broad frontal band, ringed with 
white ; the large rounded whiskers, the back, the upper part of the 
front of the sides, and the base of the tail, ringed with varying 
greenish white ; the distal half of the tail black ; the face and lips 
black, with short, scattered white hairs. 

Inhab. Angola. 

This species is easily known at first sight by the deep black colour 
of the back of the head, and limbs, and the broad white frontal band : 
the large mantle- like patch of minute, white, grisled hairs on the 
back, and the large size of the black and white ringed whiskers, 
giving the whole animal a very striking appearance. 

The tail at this time is not in very good condition, and the end 
appears to have been destroyed. 

2. Observations on some Brazilian Bats, with the Description 
OF A new Genus. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 

Having lately received from Hamburg a collection of Bats from 
Brazil, containing several specie^ which I have not before seen, I 
beg to lay some observations on them before the Society. 

I may premise that they were all named, on what authority I know 
not, and referred to described species, but several of them do not 
agree with the specimens which I have received with the same names 
before, nor with the original descriptions. 

Ann, ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. i\i. 20 

306 Zoological Society. 

Arctibeus leucomus, n. sp. 

Grey brown, paler beneath ; axilla whitish ; tuft of hair on the 
side of the neck, near the shoulders, pure white ; hair of back grey- 
brown, with darker tips ; the arms, and upper and lower surface of 
membranes near the sides, hairy ; the interfemoral membrane rather 
wide, hairy above ; nose-leaf ovato-lanceolate, longer than broad, 
with a thick midrib ; ears rather large, rounded ; tragus oblong, 
toothed on the outer side. 

Inhab. Brazils. 

I received this specimen under the name of Phyllostoma brevicau- 
datum, but it cannot be of that species, as it has no appearance of 
any tail. It agrees with P. Neuwied's figure in having a rather wider 
interfemoral membrane than the other Arctibei, but it differs from it 
in the membranes being much more hairy, and in the absence of the 
peculiar white, epaulet-like spots. 

Length of tarsus 7|'" ; foot 5'"; wing-bone 1" 5'"; thumb 6'". 

Nyctiplanus, n. g. 

Tail none ; interfemoral membrane none ; head short ; nose-leaf 
lanceolate, erect ; lower lip entire, with a triangular group of warts 
in front ; cutting teeth ^ ; ears lateral, separate ; tragus denticu- 
lated ; wings broad; index finger one-jointed, middle finger four- 
jointed; thumb elongate, lower joint short, inclosed, upper joint elon- 
gated, slender, free ; feet moderate, toes equal, compressed. 

This genus has the same kind of nose-leaf as Phyllostoma, but dif- 
fers from all the genera with that form of nose-leaf in having no 
interfemoral membrane. In this character it agrees with Diphylla 
and Stenodema ; but these genera only have a scarcely elevated nose- 

Nyctiplanus rotundatus, n. sp. 

Dark brown, beneath paler ; hair yellowish brown, with dark tips ; 
of the under side paler, with pale tips ; of the sides of the body dark 
blackish brown ; the fore-arm above and below, and the upper part 
of the wing- membranes near the body and on the side of the legs 
hairy; nose-leaf ovate, lanceolate, about as long as broad; apex 
acuminated ; ears rather acute, nakefl ; tragal lanceolate, acute. 

Inhab. Brazils. 

Length of wing-bone 1" 71'"; tarsus 8^'"; foot 5'"; thumb 5'". 

I received this specimen under the name of Phyllostoma rotunda- 
tum, which is probably the MS. name of some German zoologist. 

3. Description of a new Heron. By John Gould, Esq., 
f.r.s. etc. etc 

Ardea leucoph^a, n. sp. 

Forehead and upper portion of the crest white ; sides of the head 
and lower portion of the crest deep glossy black ; neck white, washed 
with vinous, and with a series of lanceolate marks of black disposed 
alternately down the front ; all the upper surface, wings and tail dark 
grey, the lanceolate feathers of the back fading into white ; edge of 

■Zoological Society. 307 

the wings buffy white ; primaries and secondaries dark slate-colour ; 
flanks and under surface of the wing grey ; chest and abdomen white, 
separated from the grey of the flanks by a series of black feathers ; 
under tail-coverts and thighs white ; bill yellow ; tarsi olive. 

The young differs in having the whole of the crown of the head 
black ; all the upper surface greyish brown ; and the under surface 
striated with brown and white. 

Total length 38 inches ; bill 7 ; wing 19 ; tail 1\ ; tarsi 5. 

Hab. India and Australia. 

Remark. — Having carefully compared examples of this species 
with the Common Heron of Europe, I find it differs from that bird 
in being altogether of a larger size, and that the line of the bill, in- 
stead of being straight, has an upward tendency ; in other respects 
they are very similar. 

4. On the Habits of Mabouya agilis. By P. H. Gosse. 

In the parts of Jamaica with which I am familiar, this pretty, active 
little Scink is abundant. It is most numerous in the lowlands, and 
on the gently- sloping hills of moderate elevation that form the cha- 
racteristic feature of the southern side of that beautiful island. The 
fences there are largely composed of ' dry- wall,' built of rough un- 
hewn stones, without cement. On these walls the Mabouya may be 
seen crawling, and often lying quite still in the sunshine ; when 
alarmed it darts with lightning-like rapidity into one of the crevices 
which abound in all parts of such a structure. Indeed it rarely 
ventures far from some refuge of this kind, and I presume that the 
facilities for instant retreat affbrded by these pervious walls are the 
chief cause of its preference for them. It is scarcely ever seen on 
the ground, except when avoiding danger; nor on the trunk or 
branches of trees or shrubs ; but in the concavity of a pinguin leaf 
(Bromelia pinguin) it is occasionally observed to lie, basking in the 

The rounded form of the head and body, devoid of projections ; the 
close-lying and glossy scales ; the shortness of the legs, bringing the 
belly flat upon the ground ; and its constant habit of resting with the 
chin on the ground also, give to the Mabouya an aspect very much 
unlike that of our other common lizards, and cannot fail to remind 
even the least observant of its affinit)'^ with the serpent- tribes. The 
negroes, in the recognition of this proximity, doubtless, have be- 
stowed upon it the appellation of " Snake's waiting-boy," or more 
briefly, " Snake-boy." In the parishes ol St. Elizabeth's and West- 
moreland it is also frequently called the " Woodslave," though in 
other parts of the island this term seems to be applied to some of the 
Geckotida. From the shortness of its legs results also another resem- 
blance to a snake, for owing to the shortness of the steps, if made 
only with the legs, it throws the shoulder and the hip forward at each 
step ; and this thro wing- out of the sides at diflferent parts alternately 
produces a wriggling motion, somewhat serpentine in appearance. 

The Woodslave is not very easily captured alive : the hair-noose 
so successfully used in taking our other small lizards I have always 


308 Zoological Society . 

found to fail, if tried on this species ; for though it is not difficult to 
pass the noose over the head (the reptile allowing this so long as its 
assailant's approaches and motions are deliberate and gentle), it is 
instantly slipped off again, because there is no sensible contraction 
behind the occiput, and the scales lie too smoothly to afford the 
slightest hold. They are too wary and too swift to be caught by 
the hand. A smart tap with a switch, however, across the shoulders 
or the back disables them for awhile ; but if the blow descend on the 
tail, that organ instantly separates, with the like brittleness, as in 
other lizards. Cats not unfrequently catch them. 

The form of the scales and the manner of their apposition remind 
us of the fishes : they are convex above, concave beneath, are slightly 
attached to the skin, and lap over each other at the edges. The 
colours of the animal are produced by pigment deposited on the under 
surface of the scales, which in a scale recently removed is soft, and 
readily rubbed off: the skin beneath is black. The scales, which are 
subpentagonal, are marked with a series of regular lines, indented 
on both surfaces, connected by transverse ones, somewhat like the 
nervures in the wing of an insect ; they lose themselves before they 
reach the hinder edge. The pigment is deposited in 
the centres of the areas formed by the lines. The 
scales from the back and from the belly are alike ; but 
the postreme two-thirds of the tail are covered, both 
on the upper and under surfaces, by narrow transverse 
plates, which do not essentially differ however from 
the other scales, except in having a greater number of ^ **^'^^^' magnified, 
parallel depressed lines. 

The beautiful provision for protecting the eye without impeding 
vision, shown by the lower (and larger) eyelid having a sort of win- 
dow, a transparent, glassy, circular plate in its centre, immediately 
opposite the pupil when the eye is closed, is well-worthy of admira- 
tion as an obvious example of creative wisdom and providential care. 
Habitually darting to and fro in the narrow crevices of walls and 
heaps of stones, the eyes of the Woodslave, if unprotected, might be 
continually liable to injurious contusions, while as it feeds on the 
insects, at least in part, that resort to such situations, undimmed 
vision would be essential to it while permeating them. 

The Woodslave is viviparous. I first became aware of this fact 
by the dissection of a specimen killed on the 11th of February, in 
the abdomen of which were several oval sacs, about half an inch long, 
composed of a soft, transparent, very tender membrane, which dis- 
played a foetus within each, far advanced to maturity. And on the 
29th of April I killed another female, the abdomen of which was very 
much dilated : in this specimen I found four young, quite matured, 
and fully coloured, with a brilliancy indeed superior to that of the 
adult : they were enveloped in two sacs, but each foetus was inclosed 
in its own amnios besides, a very delicate membrane in which it lay 
coiled up ; the vitellus not quite absorbed, but attached by the funis 
to the belly. There was also a portion of the tail of a fifth foetus, the 
body of which had probably been forced from the abdomen of the 

Zoological Society. 309 

parent, through the wound which killed it. The young measured, 
from the muzzle to anus, 1^^ inch ; thence to extremity of tail 1^^ 
inch. These two specimens, displaying the contents of the abdomen 
in situ, are now, with other specimens of both sexes, in the British 

I afterwards found that this fact had not escaped the observation 
of the indefatigable Robinson ; for, on consulting his manuscript vo- 
lumes in Kingston, I met with the following notes, recorded nearly a 
century ago : — " No author that I have met with has observed that 
any animals of the Lizard-kind are viviparous ; yet I have by accident 
discovered that the smooth Snake-lizard of Jamaica brings its young 
forth alive. Mr. Long having caught one of these alive, tied it all 
night upon a table with a thread, and in the morning found a young 
one or two lying near the other, which was a full-grown one. Being 
at a loss to account for this, as imagining that all the Lizard-kind 
were oviparous, he called upon me to know my sentiments. It ap- 
peared very plain to me that this animal was viviparous ; nor does 
this seem strange to me, when I consider that some of the Serpent- 
kind are also viviparous, viz. the Viper and Rattle-snake. 

" Some time in August 1760, as I was looking over a parcel of 
preserved lizards, finding amongst the rest one of these Snake-lizards 
full-grown, with the belly very much distended, in which state they 
may be often seen, — 1 took my penknife, and endeavoured to cut the 
abdomen open, but found it so well defended by a covering of very 
small hard scales, like those of a fish, that my knife would not enter 
till I had scraped them away, when opening the abdomen I found two 
beautiful young ones, about two inches long." (Rob. MSS. iv. 47.) 

The stomach is a lengthened sac. In specimens that I examined 
I found small cockroaches, fragments of crickets, &c., insects which 
live in heaps of stones. In one specimen I observed a few slender, 
rather short, intestinal thread-worms, loose among the abdominal 

Sloane's ' Lacerta minor Isevis' (tab. 273. fig. 5) is certainly the 
present species, and is not a bad representation. His description, 
however, like most of his zoological notes, is full of confusion and 
error. He says, "This is bigger than the former [which I think to 
be the female of the Purple- tailed Anolis*], smooth, having a great 
many brown spots, otherwise much the same [!], laying a very small, 
white, hard- shelled egg (fig. 6) [which is however the egg of a com- 
mon little Sphceriodactylus], nestling in rotten -holed trees [here he 
confounds it with Gecko rapicauda], leaping from one bough to 
another [here with the Anoles] ; 'tis very common among old pali- 
sades, &c." It is very evident to me that Sloane's zoological notes 
were but in a slight degree the result of his own observation ; he 
trusted to the loose reports of negroes and others, generally correct 
of something or other, but very often misapplied, the local names and 
habits of widely different species being huddled and mingled together 
in almost inextricable confusion. That fruitful source of error, the 
application of the same names to different species in different (and 
* I hope to describe this species in a future memoir. — P. H. G. 

310 Zoological Society. 

sometimes in the same) localities, to which I have alluded in my 
'Birds of Jamaica/ p. 177, against which a naturalist should always 
be on his guard in a foreign country, appears to have misled our 
venerable naturalist. Nor does it seem to me disrespectful to the 
name of that great man thus to expose his mistakes, since I feel able 
to speak positively, from long-continued and familiar personal obser- 
vation, and because precision in the narration and application of 
facts is of the highest importance in natural science. 

I subjoin a description, noted from the living animal. Head, neck 
and fore-part of back, reddish brown, bronzed ; a broad band of black 
runs from the muzzle on each side, inclosing the eye, and passing 
down to the hind-leg ; this band is bounded, both above and below, 
by a band of yellowish white, gradually becoming obsolete between 
the fore- and hind-leg ; each of these pale bands is again bounded 
by a line of black, more or less interrupted or maculate, the superior 
of which extends along the tail ; lower back and tail, greenish brown ; 
whole under- parts greenish white, silvery ; upper surface of the limbs 
and feet black, with pale confluent spots. The whole animal reflects 
a metallic gloss. There is no appreciable difference in the sexes. 

Dimensions of one measured, a gravid female, of rather large 
size : — Length, muzzle to anus ^-^^ inches ; tail b^ : total nearly 9 
inches. Muzzle to eye 2^ in. ; muzzle to ear ^V ^^* 5 muzzle to front 
of fore-leg ly^^^ in. ; axilla of fore-leg to front of hind-leg 2 in. ; fore- 
leg, from axilla to tip of claws, -^ in. ; hind-leg 1^^- in. 

This is the only species of Mabouya that I found in Jamaica. Is 
M. Sloanei (Dum. et Bib.), which is ascribed to the same island, 
really distinct ? 

June 13. — Harpur Gamble, Esq., M.D., in the Chair. 

1. Description of Tragelaphus Angasii, Gray, with some 
Account of its Habits. By George French Angas. 

This new and brilliant Antelope, the Inyala of the Amazulu, ap- 
pears to be a link between the Koodoo and Boshbok, uniting in 
itself the markings and characteristic features of both these animals. 

The adult male is about 7 ft. 6 in. in total length, and 3 ft. 4 in. 
high at the shoulder. Though elegant in form, and with much of 
the grace of the solitary Koodoo, the robust and shaggy aspect of 
the male bears considerable resemblance to that of the Goat. Legs 
clean ; hoofs pointed and black, with two oval cream-coloured spots 
in front of each fetlock, immediately above the hoof. Horns 1 ft. 
10 in. long, twisted and sublyrate, very similar to those of the 
Boshbok, but rather more spiral ; have sharp polished extremities, 
of a pale straw-colour ; rest of horns brownish black, deeply ridged 
from the forehead to about half the length of the horn. Prevailing 
colour greyish black, tinged with purplish brown and ochre ; on the 
neck, flanks, and cheeks, marked with several white stripes like the 
Koodoo ; forehead brilliant sienna-brown, almost approaching to 
orange ; mane black down the neck, and white from the withers to 
the insertion of the tail. Ears Sin. long, oval, rufous, tipped with 
black and fringed inside with white hairs ; a pale ochreous circle 

Zoological Society. 311 

round the eyes, which are connected by two white spots forming an 
arrow-shaped mark on a black ground ; nose black ; a white spot on 
each side of the upper lip; chin and gullet white; and three white marks 
under each eye ; neck covered with long shaggy hair, extending also 
under the belly and fringing the haunches to the knees ; two white 
spots on the flanks, and a patch of long white hair on the anterior 
portion of the thigh ; a white tuft under the belly, and another on 
the dewlap ; on the outer side of the fore-legs is a black patch above 
the knee surrounded by three white spots ; legs below the knee 
bright rufous colour ; tail 1 ft. 8 in. long, black above, with tip and 
inside white. 

Female smaller and without horns ; total length 6 ft. ; nose to 
insertion of ear 10 in. ; length of ear G\ in. ; height from fore-foot 
to shoulder 2 ft. 9 in. ; tail 1 ft. 3 in. in length. Colour a bright 
rufous, inclining to orange, becoming very pale on the belly and 
lower parts, and white inside the thighs ; a black dorsal ridge of 
bristly hair extends from the back of the crown to the tail ; nose 
black ; the white spots on various parts of the body nearly resemble 
those of the male, only the white stripes on both sides are more 
numerous and clearly defined, amounting to twelve or thirteen in 
number ; tail rufous above and white below, tipped with black. 

The young resembles the female, but is rather paler in colour, and 
has more white spots on the flank and sides. 

Inhabits the lower undulating hills scattered with Mimosa bushes, 
that border upon the northern shores of St. Lucia Bay, in the Zulu 
country, lat. 28° south. Found in small troops of eight or ten 
together, feeding amongst the thickets. 

Mr. Gray has named this species after my father, George Fife 
Angas, Esq., of South Australia, who has always taken a lively in- 
terest in my travels and researches in natural history. I may add, 
that the preceding notes were drawn up from recently-killed speci- 
mens, which I in vain attempted to purchase from the Boers who 
possessed them. 

2, Description of a new species of Podica. 
By G. R. Gray, Esq., F.L.S. etc. 

The bird now laid before the Meeting forms a second species of 
the genus Podica, Less., the type of which, P. senegalensis, is peculiar 
to Western Africa. It was obtained from Malacca, and thus extends 
the range of this singular group, Heliorninee, to a third quarter of 
the globe. The only species known until of late years, which is the 
type of the subfamily (Heliornis surinamensis) , exists in the warmer 
parts of the American continent. 

Podica personata, n. sp. 

Sp. ch. — Upper parts olive-brown ; top of the head, lores, cheeks 
and jugulum, deep black ; back of neck bluish olive ; a short white 
streak borders the black from the posterior angle of the eye ; the 
lower surface white ; breast tinged with brown ; the side-feathers 
faintly, and the under tail-coverts deeply, barred with brown ; the 

312 Miscellaneous. 

quills and tail deep brown ; bill yellow ; the feet lead-colour, and 
the membrane that borders the toes yellow. 

Total length, 20 inches ; bill, 2 inches and 2 lines ; wing, 10 inches ; 
tarsi, 1 inch and 10 lines. 

It differs from the typical Podica in having a portion of the lores 
naked, in the greater breadth of the tail-feathers, and in their being 
rather rigid. 

The only specimen I have seen, from which this description and the 
drawing have been made, was presented to the British Museum by 
the Right Hon. the Earl of Ellenborough. 


On Polycotyledonous Embryos. By M. P. Duchartre. 

Since Jussieu, by a happy application of a principle first asserted 
by Ray, has taken the characters furnished by the embryo for the 
basis of the great divisions of the vegetable kingdom, all the ques- 
tions relating thereto have become highly important. The first of 
these characters is that deduced from the number of the cotyledons, 
according to which all embryonal plants have been divided into mo- 
nocotyledons and dicotyledons. This number is nearly always, in 
fact, one or two ; but according to the majority of botanists, it 
exceeds two in the embryo of a small number of plants to which the 
denomination of polycotyledonous has been applied. By a remark- 
able peculiarity these plants are distributed among several families 
and also genera of which the majority of species have the more fre- 
quently but two cotyledons ; whence it has been considered impossible 
to establish for them a special class. The object of this memoir is 
to examine if these plants are really provided with several distinct 
cotyledons, or have only two which are deeply divided into a variable 
number of lobes. 

I first show by several examples that the cotyledons, or the seminal 
leaves of the dicotyledonous plants, have a very marked tendency to 
divide on their median line, in various degrees, sometimes so deeply 
as to cause each cotyledonous lobe to be wrongly considered as 
constituting a distinct cotyledon. Amongst other facts, I have de- 
scribed and figured germinating plants of Dianthus chinensis, Linn., 
which show all the degrees of division from the slit of one of tlie 
seminal leaves to the complete division of each one of the two into 
two nearly independent lobes. I also show by a series of different 
states, that the embryo of the Macleya owes to a division of its 
cotyledons the remarkable appearance which has caused it to be de- 
scribed as possessing sometimes from three to four cotyledons. I 
nevertheless observe that, in some very rare cases, the binary whorl 
of cotyledons may become ternary ; of which examples are enume- 

I then pass to those embryos the cotyledons of which are normally 
bipartite, and describe the development of that of Amsinkia and their 
germination. I show that the two cotyledons of tliese plants, sim- 

Miscellaneous. 313 

pie at their first appearance, each very soon develope two equal lobes ; 
and that, from this moment until when the two seminal leaves have 
attained their complete development, it becomes more and more 
evident that each of them is only divided in the direction of the 
medial line. 

A complete analogy of development and organization induced me 
then to study the embryo of Schizopetalon Walkeri, Sims., to which 
Mr. Robert Brown, in the 'Botanical Register,' tab. 752, and recently 
M. Barneoud, have assigned four distinct and separate cotyledons, 
contrary to the opinion expressed by Mr. W. Hooker in the ' Exotic 
Flora,' tab. 74. I show that the embryo of this plant passes through 
a series of analogous states to those which I have mentioned in Am- 
sinkia ; that its germination resembles that of the latter plant, al- 
though the division of each of its two seminal leaves into two lobes 
is still deeper ; lastly, I adduce in support of these facts those which 
the anatomical structure furnishes, and 1 show that in the germina- 
tions of Schizopetalon we find two fibro-vascular bundles which cor- 
respond to the undivided portion of the two cotyledons, and which, 
higher up, separate into two branches, each destined for one of the 
two cotyledonary lobes. This singular genus of Cruciferse should 
consequently be removed from the list of polycotyledonous plants. 

After having taken a glance at the species of Canarium and Aga- 
thophyllum, the embryo of which appears to have but two cotyledons, 
each divided into three or more lobes, I come to those Coniferse that 
have been considered to possess several cotyledons, and in which it 
is generally agreed the type of the polycotyledonous embryos is 
found. This opinion was admitted in science on the authority of 
Gsertner, Salisbury, L. C. Richard, and M. A. Richard. It is en- 
tirely opposed to that expressed by Adanson and Jussieu, who state 
that these Coniferse have but two cotyledons deeply divided into a con- 
siderable number of long narrow lobes. Although this latter view 
has been abandoned by modern botanists, I have attempted to prove 
that it alone is based on facts. After having discussed the objections 
which have been raised against it by Gsertner and M. A. Richard, I 
deduce from a careful examination of the embryo in seventeen dif- 
ferent species, and of that of the germination in some of them, the 
following results. 

The pretended multiple cotyledons of the Firs, and of the genera 
in which the embryo is organized on the same plan, are not verti- 
cillate, that is to say, arranged regularly in a circle around a point. 
On the contrary, they always occur divided into two opposite groups, 
absolutely placed like two ordinary cotyledons. In each of these 
two groups, the appendages which have been regarded as distinct 
and separate cotyledons, and which I regard only as lobes, are ge- 
nerally pressed one against the other, whilst a very marked space 
exists between the two groups, sometimes large enough to occupy, 
towards the centre, about a third of the total diameter of the embryo. 
Often, and particularly in the case where the lobes are numerous, 
the embryo is compressed in the direction of the breadth of the two 
cotyledons. Viewing the embryo from the top, the pretended mul- 

314 Miscellaneous, 

tiple cotyledons are frequently seen ranged in two parallel lines, 
and these two lines are then separated one from the other by a 
very visible slit. This intercotyledonary slit is continued to the two 
opposite sides of the embryo, where it is easily recognised by its 
greater size, especially in some species {Pinus pinaster. Solan., Pinus 
excelsa. Wall., &c.). In certain cases these two opposite lateral slits 
gradually descend lower than those interposed between the lobes ; 
the assertion of Jussieu therefore, although too much generalized, 
was based on facts. To recognise, in these doubtful cases, the ar- 
rangement of the cotyledonary lobes into two groups, the best plan 
is to make with a very sharp instrument, a transverse section towards 
the middle of the lowest cotyledons ; the remaining basilary portion 
evidencing clearly, in almost every case, the arrangement here de- 

To these facts furnished by the adult embryo, I add others taken 
from the germination and phyllotaxy. M. Lestiboudois has likewise 
recently been led, by observations on anatomical phyllotaxy, to admit 
that all the Coniferae are dicotyledonous. 

The species of Ceratophyllum have been and are still described as 
possessing four unequal cotyledons in pairs. But the observations of 
M. Schleiden, with which mine agree on nearly every point, have 
sufficiently shown that it is an error arising from the first whorl of 
plumular leaves, and which always appear binary, having been con- 
founded with the two cotyledons. 

After having removed from the category of polycotyledonous plants 
nearly all those admitted as such, there remains in my opinion but 
some species of Persoonia which should provisionally be referred to 
this group, upon the authority of Mr. R, Brown, and respecting 
which I am unable to form an opinion owing to want of material. — 
Comptes Rendus, xxvii. p. 226. 

Preparation of Pineapple Fibres in Singapore for the Manufacture of 

Pina Cloth. 

Some time ago we observed, in the neighbourhood of Batu Blyer, 
a number of Chinese labourers employed in cleaning the fibres of 
pineapple leaves for exportation to China. As we believe this to 
be a new and promising branch of industry in this settlement, where 
numerous islets are covered by the pineapple, it would be well to 
draw the attention of the Chinese and Bugis frequenting or inhabit- 
ing these islets to the subject. The process of extracting and 
bleaching the fibres is exceedingly simple. The first step is to re- 
move the fleshy or succulent side of the leaf. A Chinese, astride 
on a narrow stool, extends on it, in front of him, a pineapple leaf, 
one end of which is kept firm by being placed beneath a small bun- 
dle of cloth on which he sits. He then with a kind of two-handled 
plane made of bamboo removes the succulent matter. Another 
man receives the leaves as they are planed, and with his thumb-nail 
loosens and gathers the fibres about the middle of the leaf, which 
enables him by one effort to detach the whole of them from the outer 
skin. The fibres are next steeped in water for some time, after 

Miscellaneous. 315 

which they are washed in order to free them from the matter that 
still adheres and binds them together. They are now laid out to 
dry and bleach on rude frames of split bamboo. The process of 
steeping, washing, and exposing to the sun is repeated for some days 
until the fibres are considered to be properly bleached. Without 
further preparation they are sent into town for exportation to China. 
Nearly all the islands near Singapore are more or less planted 
with pineapples, which at a rough estimate cover an extent of two 
thousand acres. The enormous quantity of leaves that are annually 
suffered to putrefy on the ground would supply fibre for a large 
manufactory of valuable pina cloth. The fibre should be cleaned on 
the spot. Fortunately the pineapple planters are not Malays, but 
industrious and thrifty Bugis, most of whom have families. These 
men could be readily induced to prepare the fibres. Let any mer- 
chant offer an adequate price, and a steady annual supply will soon 
be obtained. — From the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern 
Asia, No. 8, Aug. 1848. 

Advantages accruing from the Study of Entomology . 

To estimate in their true extent the important bearings of Ento- 
mology on our pecuniary interests, we must not confine our attention 
to the hundreds of thousands of pounds which we annually lose from 
the attacks of the hop-fly, the turnip-flea, the wire-worm, the weevil, 
and the host of insect-assailants of our home agricultural and horti- 
cultural produce, but we must extend our views to our colonies, and 
we shall there find that in Australia the potato crops (as we learn 
from Mr. Thwaites) are in some quarters wholly cut off by the 
potato-bug ; that in the West Indies, in addition to the numerous 
and long-kno)^n insect-enemies of the sugar-cane, a new pest of the 
Coccus-ivihe, sent us by Dr. Davy, has lately attacked it in Barbados, 
and the cocoa-nut trees in the same island have nearly fallen a sacri- 
fice to a minute Aleyrodes referred to by Sir Robert Schomburgk ; 
while in India the cotton crops are often seriously injured by insects 
of various tribes, whose history we have yet to learn ; and in Ceylon, 
the Governor, Lord Torrington, states, in a letter addressed last year 
to Earl Grey, so serious have the attacks of the "Coffee-bug" (a 
species of Coccus or scale-insect, said to be allied to C. Adonidum) 
proved for the last few years to the coffee-plantations, that the pro- 
duce of one estate, which had in former years been 2000 cwt. of 
coffee, fell suddenly to 700 cwt. wholly from the destruction caused 
by the bug ; and a similar heavy loss as to other coffee-plantations 
is confirmed by Mr. Gardner, who speaks of the insect as not con- 
fining its ravages to these, but spreading to other trees and plants, 
as limes, guavas, myrtles, roses, &c., so that in the Ceylon Botanic 
Garden there is scarcely a tree not in some measure affected. 

It appears highly probable, from facts collected by Mr. Gardner, 
and quoted in the ' Gardener's Chronicle' of Oct. 7, 1848, p. (}Q7y 
that this coffee-bug was introduced into Ceylon with some Mocha 
coffee-plants brought from Bombay ; and it is equally probable, as 

316 Miscellaneous. 

Dr. Lindley suggests, that had the foul plants been all burnt, or 
dipped in hot water, so as to kill the bugs, the Ceylon coffee-planters 
might have been saved from their present painful position. But 
why were not these precautions taken ? Simply because these 
coffee-planters are wholly ignorant of entomology. When Kalm, 
the Swedish naturalist, descried specimens of Bruchus Pisi disclosed 
in a parcel of peas he had brought from North America, he was 
thrown into a state of trepidation lest some of these pestilent insects 
should have escaped, and he should have been thus the unconscious in- 
strument of introducing so great a calamity into his beloved country. 
And had the Ceylon coffee-planter, to whom these infected Mocha- 
plants came, possessed a far less amount of entomological knowledge 
than Kalm, he would have carefully examined them, aware how 
easily a new insect-pest may be introduced from a foreign country, 
and of what vital importance it is that it should be ascertained that 
such introduced plants are free from disease, or thoroughly cleansed 
from it, if present. 

Here we have a further striking instance how desirable it is, as I 
have before contended, that some instruction in Natural History, 
and in Entomology as a branch of it, should be universally given in 
all our schools, from the highest to the lowest. Not only may 
a landed proprietor at home suggest to his tenants, or a country 
clergyman to his flock, the best way of destroying their insect-ene- 
mies ; but if our middle classes, likely to become in the course of 
their emigrations to our colonies, now every year more extensive, 
coffee-planters in Ceylon, or cotton-growers in India, or general 
agriculturists in Canada, Australia, or the Cape, were taught some- 
thing at school of the history of these assailants, as well as the 
working-men who accompany or assist them, there can be no doubt 
that this branch of their school education would turn to far more 
pecuniary advantage than much of what is now taught them. 

In adverting to this subject in my last year's Address, I pointed 
out how little merely " practical " but unscientific men are qualified 
to cope with the insect-hosts that assail them on every side, and I 
quoted the remarkable instance, which cannot be too often repeated, 
of the 240,000/. a-year which M. Guerin-Meneville, the distinguished 
French entomologist, has saved the olive-growers of the south of 
France by teaching them a mode, founded on the economy of the 
olive-fly (Dacus Olea:), of neutralizing the attacks of this pest, of 
which, in spite of all their practical skill, they were the annual 
victims to this large amount. I will conclude these remarks with 
referring to the prospect we now have of seeing our hop-plantations 
freed from their great destroyer the hop-fly {Aphis Humuli) — not 
from the efforts of the hop-growers, who considering it '*a blight" 
brought by some cold wind or atmospheric change, fold their arms 
in helpless apathy ; but in consequence of the investigations into the 
history and economy of the insect by an eminent British entomolo- 
gist, Mr. Francis Walker*, who has attended very closely to this 

* Annals of Nat. Hist. 1848, vol. i. p. 373. 

Miscellaneous. 317 

tribe. The difficulty in the case of the hop-aphis has always been 
to know where the eggs from which the flies proceed in spring, are 
placed by the gravid females in autumn. This could not be on the 
hop-plant, which dies down yearly to the roots. But the mystery 
has been solved by Mr. Walker, who has found that it is on the 
sloe-tree or black-thorn {Prunus spinosa) that the female deposits 
her eggs in autumn, which are there hatched in spring, and the 
second generation being produced with wings, flies to the hop- 
plants and establishes itself on the leaves, which, owing to the well- 
known rapid increase of these insects, it soon covers and exhausts of 
the sap. Now if the hop-aphis does not deposit its eggs on any 
other shrub or plant than the sloe, as Mr. Walker believes, it is 
evident that, to secure the hops in any district from the hop-aphis, 
it is only necessary to destroy all the sloe-trees, which, as they are 
found chiefly in hedges, and there in no great number, would be no 
difficult matter. And if, from the escape of a part of the sloe-trees, 
and the flight of some of the hop-aphides from distant quarters, a 
few of the female aphides were still found on the hop-plants in spring, 
nothing would be easier, as I ascertained by experiments in hop- 
grounds in Worcestershire in 1838*, than to clear them from every 
one of these assailants, at a very trifling expense, by employing 
women and children, by means of step-ladders, to crush every aphis 
found, by pressing them and the leaf between the thumb and fore- 
finger, so as to destroy the flies without injuring the texture of the 
leaf. When it is considered that the extirpation of the hop-aphis 
would in some years save 200,000/. to the revenue, and three or 
four times as much to the hop-growers, it is evident that this is a 
matter worth attention, and that the science which can efl*ect this 
sa\'ing is no trifling one. — From the Address delivered by the Pre- 
sident W. Spence, Esq., F.R.S., at the Anniversary Meeting of the 
Entomological Society of London, Jan. 22, 1849. 

Description of a new Mexican Quail. By William Gambel. M.D. 

Ortyx thoracicus. With a full, somewhat pointed crest, the 
feathers of which are black, obscurely mixed with dull brown and 
rufous. Nape mottled with black and bright rufous, and traversed 
by two interrupted white lines, which commence of a cinereous 
colour about the front and pass over the eyes. Throat and cheeks 
pale cinereous, each feather with a narrow black margin. Sides of 
neck, breast and sides pale rufous ; deepest on sides of neck, where 
the feathers have a few scattered black spots. Lower part of belly 
and vent white. Under tail-coverts rusty white, mottled with black. 
Tail very short and rounded, its colour dark brown, with freckled 
irregular bars of rusty white. Lower part of back and upper tail- 
coverts irregularly variegated with difl"erent shades of gray, fulvous 
and black ; upper part of back dark rufous, the centres of the feathers 
grayish, and traversed by fine, irregular, dusky lineations. Wings 
and scapulars beautifully variegated with black, rufous and gray ; 

* Introd. to Entomology, 6th edit., vol. i. p. 149. 

318 Miscellaneous. 

wing-coverts and scapulars having the upper vanes deep black, mar- 
gined and lined with rufous, the lower vanes grayish freckled, and 
blotched with black, while the shafts are dull whitish. 

Tertiaries on their upper vanes with broad fulvous margins ; feet 
and legs pale ; bill black ; irides chocolate-brown. 

Length 8 inches, wing 5 inches, tail 2 inches, tarsus 1 ^^ths, 

ridge of bill -j^^ths, from angle of mouth j-^ths. 

This appears to be an undescribed species of that group of quails 
which so much resemble our common O. virginianus. The present 
however is readily distinguished from that species by its much longer 
bill and very short tail, as well as its general markings, particularly 
beneath ; the breast and sides being of a plain fawn-colour, or pale 
rufous. The only specimen from which I describe was brought from 
Jalapa, Mexico, by Mr. Pease. It does not appear to be quite adult, 
and the markings about the head and throat may be somewhat dif- 
ferent in the old bird ; still however its characters are sufficiently 
marked. Judging from description, it must very nearly resemble 
the O. pectoralis of Gould ; but besides the difference of markings, 
he makes no mention of that species having a crest. The length of 
the bird, as well as of the wing, is in this also just one inch greater, 
which would hardly be the case in a young bird. — Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 77. 

Descriptions of two new Calif ornian Quadrupeds. 
By William Gambel, M.D. 
Dipodomys agilis. Colour above yellowish brown, mixed with 
dusky ; beneath pure white, extending half-way up the sides. Head 
elongated, tapering from the ears to a sharp point. Ears nearly 
round, sparsely hairy. Eyes large, dark brown. A large pouch on 
each side of the head, opening externally on the cheeks. Both hind- 
and fore-feet with four toes and the rudiment of a fifth. The hind- 
legs very long and strong. Tail very long, slender, covered with 
hair, and ending in a pencillated tuft. 

Length 10^ inches, including the tail, which is 6|- inches. 

r M^ [2 incisors. 

Teeth r^^^PP^^- \ 8 molars 
Dental system: ^l^^^l [8 molars. 

^ 20. ] , ^ , f 2 mcisors. 


In the upper jaw the incisors are divided by a longitudinal furrow. 

This beautiful Jerboa- like animal is an abundant inhabitant of the 
vineyards and cultivated fields of the Pueblo de los Angeles, Upper 

Like the other pouched animals, it forms extensive burrows, tra- 
versing the fields in different directions, and is only dislodged 
during the process of irrigation. They leap with surprising agility, 
sometimes the distance of ten feet or more at a spring, and are dif- 
ficult to capture. 

Mus californicus. Dark gray, lighter about the head and shoul- 
ders, above tinged with light brown, on the sides almost fulvous. 

Meteorological Observations. 319 

beneath almost white. Fore-feet with four toes and the rudiment 
of a fifth. Hind-feet with five toes. Tail nearly 5 inches in length, 
pretty thickly covered with short rigid hairs. Head acutely conical ; 
ears large, rounded, thin, sparsely hairy, 1 inch in length and -f-ths 
in breadth. Length of the body 4f inches. Old male : bristles of 
the nose 2^ inches. 

I captured but a single specimen of this species in a field near 
Monterey, Upper California, which, with those of the former, I had 
the misfortune to lose. — Ibid. 


Chiswick. — February 1. Frosty: foggy: rain. 2. Drizzly: hazy : rain. 3. Hazy 
and damp : densely overcast. 4. Overcast. 5. Very fine : overcast. 6. Hazy : 
densely overcast. 7. Overcast. 8. Very fine : clear. 9. Fine : overcast. 10. 
Overcast : clear at night. 1 1. Clear : very fine : barometer unusually high : clear 
and frosty at night. 12. Frosty and foggy : fine: clear and frosty. 13. Dense 
fog : fine at noon : foggy. 14. Foggy : fine. 15. Very fine. 16. Foggy : clear 
at night. 17. Frosty: exceedingly fine. 18. Overcast. 19. Overcast: fine. 
20. Slightly overcast : cloudy : rain. 21. Cloudy and fine : rain. 22, 23. Fine. 
24. Drizzly : rain : lightning in the evening : densely overcast. 25. Hazy : 
boisterous, with rain and thunder : constant heavy rain at night. 26. Cloudy 
and fine : frosty. 27. Frosty : cloudy and fine : clear. 28. Boisterous, with 
heavy rain. — On the 1 1th the barometer was higher than it has ever been observed 
in this locality. 

Mean temperature of the month 41°'35 

Mean temperature of Feb. 1848 43 '06 

Mean temperature of Feb. for the last twenty years 40 '36 

Average amount of rain in Feb 1*61 inch. 

Boston. — Feb. 1. Fine. 2,3. Foggy. 4,5. Fine. 6,7. Cloudy. 8. Fine: 
rain P.M. 9 — 12. Fine. 13. Foggy. 14 — 17. Fine. 18. Cloudy. 19. Cloudy: 
rain P.M. 20. Fine: rain p.m. 21. Cloudy. 22,23. Fine. 24,25. Cloudy. 

26, 27. Fine. 28. Rain : snow a.m. and p.m. 

Applegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Feb. 1. Frost and snow: looking moist p.m. 
2. Fog and drizzling all day. 3. Fog and drizzling. 4. Dull a.m. : drizzling 
rain p.m. 5. Still dull, but fair : cloudy and moist p.m. 6. Mild : cloudy: high 
wind P.M. 7. Rain during night : fair and clear. 8. Fair, but dull a.m. : rain p.m. 
9. Fair early a.m. : rain at noon : rain p.m. 10. Fine morning : one shower : 
clear P.M. 11. Frost: fog: cleared p.m. 12. Fair: slight shower: cleared. 
13. Frost A.M.: clear: rain p.m. 14. Fine spring day : dry throughout. 15. 
Fine : drying wind. 16. Frost : clear and fine : high wind p.m. 17. Fair and 
clear: storm of wind. 18, 19. Rain and wind. 20. Dull and moist. 21. Frost: 
rain and wind p.m. 22. Dull a.m. : came on storm, wind and rain. 23. Fair : 
slight frost : snow on hills. 24. Frost and snow : clear : freezing. 25. Hard 
frost : fine. 26. Very hard frost : hail-shower. 27. Hard frost. 28. Rain heavy : 
wind high. 

Mean temperature of the month 41°*2 

Mean temperature of Feb. 1848 40 '1 

Mean temperature of Feb. for the last twenty-five years . 37 '3 

Rain in Feb. 1848 5"53inches. 

Average amount of rain in Feb. for the last twenty years 2*04 „ 
Sandmck Manse, Orkney. — Feb. J. Clear: frost: cloudy. 2. Cloudy. 3. Bright: 
drizzle. 4. Bright : clear : hoar-frost. 5. Drizzle: rain. 6. Clear : cloudy, 
7. Drizzle : cloudy. 8. Bright : hail, thunder and lightning. 9. Cloudy : 
damp. 10. Thunder and lightning: sleet-showers. 11. Bright : cloudy. 12. 
Fine: clear : aurora. 13. Showers. 14. Rain. 15. Rain: drizzle. 16. Hazy: 
showers. 17. Cloudy: showers. 18. Showers. 19. Showers : aurora. 20. Snow- 
showers. 21. Frost : snow-showers. 22,23. Snow : frost : aurora. 24. Snow- 
showers. 25. Snow-showers : clear : frost. 26. Snow-showers : clear : aurora. 

27. Snow : fine : clear : aurora. 28. Rain : sleet-showers. 










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No. 17. MAY 1849. 

XXXVI. — On the Excavating Powers of certain Sponges belonging 
to the genus Cliona ; with descriptions of several new Species, 
and an allied generic form. By Albany Hancock^ Esq. 

[With four Plates.] 

While engaged in investigating the method by which the Mol- 
lusca bury themselves in &tone, wood, and other hard substances^ 
I was naturally led to examine the chambers inhabited by Cliona ; 
and having arrived at the conclusion that they are not the de- 
serted abode of worms, or cavities accidentally formed by erosion 
or otherwise as has been stated, but that they are worked out 
by this curious production itself, I asserted such to be the case 
in a paper communicated by me to the last Meeting of the Bri- 
tish Association. Since then I have gone more fully into this 
subject, and as the prevailing opinion appears to be adverse to 
that expressed by myself, I purpose now giving a detailed account 
of the facts, which I trust will be deemed sufficient to justify my 
former statement. 

My investigations have led to the discovery that Cliona celata 
does not stand alone as an aberrant type, but that it is, in fact, 
a member of a large group of beings, hitherto almost entirely 
overlooked, which play apparently a most important part in the 
(Economy of nature. I have determined upwards of fifty species 
of this curious sponge, all inhabiting more or less diversified 
chambers in calcareous substances, and in other respects well-cha* 
racterized. Of these species twelve belong to the British seas ; 
the rest are from various parts of the world. I have also ascer- 
tained that Cliona existed during several geological periods, and 
with the assistance of Mr. W. K. Loftus have determined that it 
occurs in the crag, in the London clay, in the Paris basin, in the 
chalk, in the greensand, and in the oolite ; and Mr. Alder has de- 
tected it in specimens of Pecten Islandicus from a raised beach 
on the coast of Bute. In most instances the characters of the 

Ann.^ Mag. N. Hist, Ser. 2. Fb/. iii. 21 

322 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

chambers are so well preserved in the fossil shells of these for- 
mations that the species may be determined. 

A new generic form has also been discovered : it is closely re- 
lated to Cliona, and like it conceals itself in calcareous bodies. 
Two or three species have occurred : they and several of the more 
characteristic species of Cliona that have come under my notice 
will be described in the sequel of this communication : the others 
are reserved for some future occasion. 

It is now upwards of twenty years since Professor Grant^s 
paper on Cliona celata appeared in the ' Edinburgh New Philo- 
sophical Journal'; and in 1840 M. Duvernoy described in the 
* Revue Zoologique ' another species inhabiting the shell of Ostrea 
hippopus. These I believe are the only species hitherto known, 
though extensive traces of the genus are to be found in every 
cabinet of shells, and probably on every shore of the British 

Professor Grant believed Cliona to be polypiferous. Such be- 
lief, however, has not been confirmed by subsequent observations, 
which seem on the contrary to prove that this production is 
truly a sponge, differing but little in internal structure from 
Halichondria. I have examined with much care the papillse of 
Cliona T\hen just removed from the sea, but have not succeeded 
in detecting any polypes. The propriety, nevertheless, of retain- 
ing it as a distinct genus would appear evident ; for though it un- 
doubtedly possesses many characters in common with Halichon- 
dria, yet Cliona differs widely from it in its habits, and parti- 
cularly in its contractile power, — a quality surely of great im- 
portance, raising Cliona in the scale of creation high above the 
sponges in general. 

From this striking character it perhaps might be inferred that 
Cliona, and likewise Thoosa, by which name I propose to desig- 
nate the new generic form, are closely related to Tethea, which 
is stated to be irritable ; and as the two former are both provided 
with siliceous bodies or granules on the surface, as will be after- 
wards shown, they would also appear to be alHed to Geodia, the 
external covering of which is composed of siliceous globules. 

The numerical extent of the species of Cliona cannot at pre- 
sent be estimated. Those now recorded are the result of a very 
limited investigation. That they are very numerous is evinced 
by the fact, that from a single specimen of Tridacna gigas a dozen 
species at least have been obtained. They are not merely spe- 
cifically numerous, but are likewise individually so ; and they 
attack inorganic as well as organic bodies. They appear to be 
pretty generally diffused over the surface of the globe, though 
most numerous in warm chmates : none have been yet procured 
from the Polar regions. 

with descriptions of new Species, 323 

On the coast of Northumberland the surface of almost every 
piece of limestone near low-water mark is riddled by Cliona : old 
shells^ whether univalves or bivalves, are filled with it ; it inha- 
bits nullipores ; and in southern latitudes it buries itself in corals^ 
Its ravages are very extensive and appear to be rapidly effected. 
I have seen half-grown living oysters with Cliona extending from 
the umbones almost to the ventral margin, and in one or two 
instances it even reaches that margin. In these cases it is evi- 
dent that the growth of the sponge must have been more rapid 
than that of the shell ; for the work of destruction could not 
commence until the oyster had attained to some size ; and had its 
growth been even equal to that of the sponge, the shell ought to 
have reached its full development before the sponge had gained 
the lower margin. 

When a shell is once attacked, the operations of these crea* 
tures never cease until they have extended throughout its entire 
substance. The middle portion soon becomes almost completely 
excavated, small pieces only remaining to divide the chambers or 
branches. A thin plate is left on the outer and inner surfaces 
to protect the parasite ; and even these plates are ultimately rid- 
dled with numerous circular holes, which are the only indication 
of the work of destruction beneath, until some slight external 
influence ruptures the protecting walls, or the increasing growth 
of the tenant bursts them asunder ; when the whole system of 
elaborately wrought chambers becoming exposed soon gives way, 
and Cliona^ Sampson-like, perishes amidst the ruin produced by 
its own energy. 

The excavating sponges abound in the Tropics, where they will 
keep in check the rapid increase of calcareous matter. The coral 
reef is built up by particles, and so by particles will it be reduced 
by the antagonism of these ever-working, all-pervading beings r 
the huge massive Tridacna falls in pieces subjected to the insi- 
dious encroachments of Cliona ; and the limestone rock, almost 
bidding defiance to elemental influences, crumbles beneath the 
touch of this the lowest of animated beings. 

It is difficult to say whether certain species of these parasites 
confine their ravages or not to certain shells or other calcareous 
bodies, though the fact of twelve species occurring in a single 
individual of Tridacna would appear to contradict such an opi- 
nion. Three or four distinct species are likewise found in the 
common oyster, and one of them occurs in limestone : Fusus an- 
tiquus has also supplied three good species. On the other hand 
Cliona radiata would appear to be confined to Triton variegatus, 
in two or three specimens of which it occurred abundantly; 
Murex regius is frequently affected by the operations of Cliona, 
and always, as far as I have been able to ascertain, by the same 


324 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Poivers of Sponges, 

*species. And the three individuals of C. corallinoides that I have 
procured are buried in as many specimens of Pecten maximus. 
All these cases, however, may arise from similarity of locality, 
and not from any partiality to the species. 

The boring sponges,, as far as I have examined them, are 
branched, or are composed of lobes united by delicate stems ; 
and all more or less anastomose according to the species : many 
of them are beautifully arborescent and of great delicacy*. They 
all bury themselves in shells or other calcareous bodies, and 
communicate with the water by papillse or oscula protruding 
through circular holes in the surface of the containing substance 
or matrix. In dead shells the papillae pass through both surfaces, 
but in living ones rarely penetrate the innermost layer, though 
occasionally they do so. When a mollusk is thus wounded it 
deposits calcareous matter over the orifice, and generally succeeds 
in excluding the intruder. The species vary considerably in form, 
and in Cliona might be divided into two or three distinct groups. 
In some the branches are almost linear, and anastomose only to 
a very slight degree ; others form a complete network with the 
meshes so small that very little of the matrix remains between 
the branches ; some have the branches moderately lobed ; and 
others again have the lobes large and crowded upon each other 
in all directions, and united by fine, very short stems. In most 
the terminal twigs are very minute, and exhibit in a decided 
manner the mode of growth. In C. gracilis, for example, we per- 
ceive that they are cylindrical, and divide dichotomously, and 
that afterwards they augment in thickness gradually and pretty 
regularly, there being^only slight indications of a lobed structure. 
In C. corallinoides, PL XV. fig. 1, the twigs are excessively mi- 
nute, passing onward for some distance through the sound shell ; 
and as they increase tkey become gradually lobed, the lobes ulti- 
mately attaining considerable size and becoming quadrate. This 
mode of growth is common to a great number of species : in some 
it is beautifully modified, as we see in C. spinosa, PL XIII ► fig. 5 ; 
here the terminal twigs are mostly short and pointed, resembling 
spines thrust out from all sides of the close-set lobes > which 
spines or twigs in their turn swell out and become lobes. But 
of all the excavating sponges, Thoosa cactoides, PL XIII. fig. 1, 

* Dr. Johnston describes C. eelata as " without beauty or definite foi'm ;" 
but the specimens he examined may have been of abnormal growth, result- 
ing perhaps from the entire destruction of the substance which bad inclosed 
them. The Doctor's species however appears to be distinct from the C. eelata 
of Grant, judging by the spicula, which, according to the figures of them by 
Mr. Bowerbank, are perfectly straight. In the species described by Pro- 
fessor Grant they are stated to be "slightly curved and a little fusiform, in 
the middled' 

with descriptions of new Species. 325 

is perhaps the most remarkable : in this the terminations of th* 
branches have a decided dendritic appearance; they divide pretty- 
regularly into two portions, which send off on all sides numerous, 
minute, linear twigs. The two principal portions soon swell out 
and form into oval lobes similar to those of the stems, which are 
seen likewise to give oiF linear twigs. These twigs and those of 
the terminal branches are so much alike, that it is impossible to 
doubt that the lobes of the stems have at one time been them- 
selves terminal branches. 

Thus is the form of the excavating sponges varied, and the 
chambers they inhabit modified; each species being always found 
in the same -formed cavities ; that is, those with the same kind 
of spicula, and with papillae of the same size, number and ar- 
rangement, are always found to branch and to anastomose in a 
similar manner, and to have the terminal twigs of the same cha- 
racter. This surely could not happen, did Cliona take up its 
abode in cavities caused by decay, or in excavations formed by 
worms, and were its shape dependait upon such accidental cir- 

The cavities in shells occupied by Cliona have at once, without 
examination, been attributed to worms ; and as inquiry was thus 
easily satisfied, the matter has remained up to the present time 
in obscurity. Those naturalists, however, who have paid parti- 
cular attention to the subject appear inclined to a contrary opi- 
nion. Professor Grant says, the chambers *^ have probably been 
perforated by some worms;" though at the conclusion of his 
communication before alluded to on the subject, it is stated that 
*' it may be questioned whether the sharp siliceous spicula and 
constant currents of its papillge do not exert some influence in 
forming or enlarging the habitation of this zoophyte." By 
Johnston's work on the British sponges it also appears that 
Mr. Wm. M'Calla, who found Cliona celata in Birterbuy bay, 
states that this animal ''is very destructive to the shells that 
come within its reach," and that in several instances " he had 
found large specimens of Pecten opercularis killed by the en- 
croachments of this parasite." And so satisfied was M. Duver- 
noy that the species described by him excavated its own habi- 
tation, that he gave to it the specific denomination of terebrans. 
The prevailing belief is as before stated, however, that Cliona 
does not excavate the chambers in which it is found ; but that 
they are formed by worms or by decay, or are produced in some 
other accidental manner ; and that the shape of the sponge 
depends on that of the cavities it may chance to inhabit. 
Were this belief correct, the chambers would occasionally occur 
only partially occupied. This never happens ; for Cliona always 
completely fills the various chambers and ramificatione even to 

326 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

the end of the most minute twigs. To this we have the testimony 
of Professor Grant, who says that the form of Cliona " depends 
on that of the cavities which it fills ; it insinuates itself into the 
minutest ramifications, and adheres so closely to their smooth pa- 
rietes, that it cannot be separated without tearing." 

From what has already been said respecting the form and 
mode of growth of these sponges, it is pretty evident that they 
must form their own habitation. But to put this in a still clearer 
light we have only to examine in detail any one species : we will 
take C. gorgonioideSy PI. XIV. fig. 1, as an example. The prin- 
cipal stems of this species take a zigzag direction, sending off" at 
the angles lateral branches which pass on to unite with the neigh- 
bouring stems : the terminal twigs are delicate and bifurcate, one 
of the divisions going immediately to form its junction with the 
adjoining stem. This mode of growth goes on until the entire 
substance of the shell in which the Cliona is lodged is completely 
filled with a network of branches ; the anastomosing increasing 
all the while by the addition of twigs from the main stems until 
very little of the shell is left to separate the various parts of the 
sponge. Now in all this there is nothing having the appearance 
of accident. Where the Cliona is not, the shell is perfectly sound 
and untouched : the terminal twigs are all alike delicate and of 
similar character, penetrating the hard perfect substance; the 
main stems become gradually and proportionately thick, and the 
anastomosis, though somewhat irregular, is identical throughout. 
And this takes place whether the specimen is buried in Fusus, 
in Buccinum, in Ostrea, or in limestone, in all of which this spe- 
cies occurs. 

Now if we assume for a moment that these sponges are in- 
capable of excavating the chambers in which they conceal them- 
selves, how shall we account for the formation of the beautiful 
dendritic cavities occupied by the terminal twigs of Thoosa cac- 
toides, PI. XIII. fig. I, and the regularly anastomosing and lobed 
chambers filled by its branches ? How are the arborescent 
channels and quadrate chambers of C. corallinoides, PI. XV. fig. 1, 
formed ? and what excavated the numerous, regular chambers, 
with their pointed spine-like ofi'sets, of C spinosa, PI. XIII. fig. 5 ? 
How shall we answer these questions, unless we can assert that 
the sponge inhabiting those systematic cavities formed them ? 
They are evidently not the result of decay, neither are they the 
burrows of worms; which, when in shell or other hard calcareous 
substance, are always linear, sometimes cylindrical, often de- 
pressed, never lobed, and frequently double, that is, with two 
channels divided by an elevated ridge. And so different are they 
in their general appearance, that it is very easy to point out 
which is the excavation of the worm, and which that of Cliona, 

with descriptions of new Species. 327 

when the burrows of the two interfere with each other, which 
not unfrequently occurs. 

There is, however, a very certain character which never fails 
to determine the habitation of the burrowing sponge, even though 
every particle of the animal be removed. If the parietes of the 
chambers and ramifications are viewed through an ordinary lens, 
they are found to be distinctly punctured in a peculiar manner, 
resembling what might be supposed to be the impress of shagreeu, 
only much more minute. In some species this puncturing is 
much finer than in others, and occasionally it varies a little in 
character; but is always to be observed on the walls of the 
burrows of these sponges, whether they be in shell, limestonCj 
coral, or nullipore. This puncturing therefore cannot be caused 
by the structure of the material in which the chambers are 
excavated, but must result from the character of the surface of 
their inhabitant. So certain a test is this, that by it alone the 
nature of the excavations in fossil shells may be determined 
with the greatest confidence. No other excavation, whether 
of worm or mollusk, presents a surface anything like that of 
the burrows of these sponges. And were no other proof at 
hand, this puncturing would be sufficient to establish the fact 
that these sponges possess the power of enlarging their habita- 
tion ; but when taken in connexion with what has already been 
said, little doubt can exist of the fact that Cliona entirely exca- 
vates its abode : indeed after an examination of the form of these 
beings, and of the branched, lobed and systematic cavities they 
occupy, it would seem impossible to arrive at any other conclu- 
sion. On this point, however, I possess, if possible, still stronger 

Through the kindness of Mr. Fryer I have had the examina- 
tion of an individual of Placuna placenta, in the shell of which 
there are imbedded numerous specimens of a very beautiful 
Cliona exhibiting every stage of development from the earliest to 
maturity. This shell is so transparent, that even the minutest twigs 
are seen with the greatest precision. At first the young Cliona is 
a mere circular speck just visible to the naked eye ; PI. XIV. 
fig. 4 «, represents it in this stage sunk within the substance of 
the shell, through which there is a papillary puncture almost as 
large as the individual itself: afterwards the circle increases in 
size around the papilla, and becomes irregular in form, b ; a thin 
linear branch is then pushed out from one side, c, and throws 
up through the shell another papilla. A branch from the op- 
posite side now makes its appearance, d; a third and a fourth 
.succeed, e,f; these are now seen to divide gradually into lobes, 
and to increase in thickness; numerous papilla?,/, being added, 
which penetrate the surface of the shell, and the terminations of 

328 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

the branches bifurcate ; — in short the young Cliona has now 
assumed the character of the mature sponge (fig. 2). Thus we 
can trace Cliona from its earUest stage of growth, — not larger 
than the gemmule of Halichondi'ia and resembling it in form, — 
up to its perfect development, step by step, excavating its compli- 
cated habitation in sound shell, within which it lies closely im- 
bedded, but unobscured by its pearly envelope which is perfectly 
free from decay and is untouched by worms : to neither of which 
by any constrained imagination can the chambers in this instance 
be attributed ; — Cliona makes them for itself. And now having, 
I trust, established this fact, we shall endeavour to ascertain the 
nature of the apparatus by which these sponges work out their 
abode, — a subject of much difficulty. 

The mollusks being furnished with a shell, the investigation 
into the nature of their excavating instrument is much compli- 
cated. The burrowing sponges, however, having no such hard 
covering, we have in them only the animal to look to for an ex- 
planation. The excavations of Cliona and Thoosa can only be 
effected by the surface of the sponge, aided either by some 
minute mechanical instruments in connexion with it, or by a 
solvent: unless, indeed, the water-currents of the papillae, as 
hinted by Professor Grant, be thought equal to perform the 
task. But were these currents of sufficient magnitude to 
penetrate rapidly into shell or hard limestone, it is difficult to 
see how they could be brought into effective operation. The 
papillae are closely adherent to the sides of the orifices through 
which they protrude; and here the water could have no effect; and 
yet these orifices are at first small, and are afterwards consider- 
ably increased in size. And at those points where the water is 
drawn into the sponge, the currents, of course, cannot be sup- 
posed to act in the way proposed. To show, however, how in- 
adequate these minute currents are to work out the chambers of 
Cliona, which we have seen are formed very rapidly, we have 
only to reflect on the comparatively slow action of the enormous 
currents of the sea, — of the tidal currents, and of those resulting 
from the lashing of the waves. The puncturing of the sides of 
the chambers also seems unfavourable to such an hypothesis. We 
shall not therefore stop to discuss this branch of the subject 
further, but at once inquire how far a solvent is likely to be the 

The extreme simplicity of the organic structure of these beings 
forbids a belief in the existence of a special secreting apparatus. 
If therefore a solvent fluid be the agent, it must be supposed to 
exude from the entire surface of this humble animal. The 
character of the excavations would also lead to the same con- 
plusion ; for it is evident that the form of the sponge is influcn- 

with descriptions of new Species. 329 

tial in determining that of the chambers it inhabits. The test 
then can be easily appUed; and were the secretion of an acid nature, 
there could be little difficulty, one would think, in detecting it ; 
particularly as Cliona appears to work perpetually — at least so 
long as it continues to grow. I have completely failed, however, 
in detecting an acid. 

I took C. gorgonioides alive fresh from the sea, and breaking 
up the stone in which it was lodged removed the creature by 
piecemeal, and placing each portion on litmus-paper pressed 
the fluids out of it between plates of glass ; but not the slightest 
alteration occurred. I continued trying piece after piece for 
several hours, and contrived to remove portions of the animal 
with the surface entire ; but all was in vain, — no indications of 
an acid solvent could be obtained. 

In a specimen of the Strombus gigas in the Newcastle Museum 
penetrated by a species of Cliona, the papillae have passed through 
the strong horny epidermis, drilling it with great precision ; the 
holes are quite circular, and of the same size as those in the shell. 
This could hardly be achieved by an acid solvent. 

When a portion of the fresh C. celata is carefully removed 
from the chambers and placed in a little acetic acid, a distinct 
efiervescence takes place as if calcareous matter mingled with the 
tissue. The same result occurs when a little of the dried sub- 
stance adhering to the sides of the excavations of Thoosa is re- 
moved and treated with the same acid. From these facts we 
may conclude, perhaps, that no acid solvent had been employed ; 
while it is likely, were the excavations effected by mechanical 
means, that the surface and tissue would be charged with cal- 
careous particles. Indeed such particles may generally be ob- 
served strewed along the branched channels in the shell of the 
oyster when inhabited by C. celata. I have also seen similar 
calcareous particles adhering to the animal of C. gorgonioides 
when removed from its chambers in limestone. These particles 
are large enough to be detected with a pocket lens, and 
will be more fully described further on. At present they are 
alluded to, as they afibrd a pretty strong proof of mechanical 

The excavations would then appear to be effected by mechanical, 
and not by chemical means. What is the instrument, and how 
is it applied ? 

With respect to Cliona^ it is well known to possess siliceous 
spicula ; some of the points of which penetrate the surface of 
the animal, and might be supposed capable of reducing the cal- 
careous bodies in which these creatures bury themselves. But 
other and apparently more efficient agents have been discovered, 
covering the surface of the sponcic. 

330 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powei^s of Sponges, 

The superficial covering of the animal of C. celata, PI. XIII. 
fig. 3, is liable to adhere to the sides of the excavations. If a 
portion of this is carefully removed and placed between plates of 
glass with the external surface uppermost and treated with strong 
nitric acid, large crystalline bodies of a peculiar character are dis- 
covered scattered over it (PL XII. fig. 1). These bodies are of a 
pale straw colour, and of the most brilliant lustre and gem-like 
beauty ; the largest measuring g^^y th of an inch across : they are 
mostly irregularly six-sided, depressed, and scale- like ; but stout 
and frequently thickened in the centre, the upper surface being 
covered with numerous, elevated, lozenge-shaped points, each 
generally having an expanded base of a squarish form slightly 
raised above the common surface (fig. 2) . These bodies are fre- 
quently congregated into groups, and are occasionally placed 
together side by side. Strong nitric acid does not the least afiect 
them after many days' immersion, the sharp angularity of the 
elevated points remaining unimpaired, and their brilliancy undi- 
minished. From these facts, and from the manner in which 
these bodies refract light, there can be little doubt that they are 
composed of silex, or some other substance equally dense. Be- 
sides these other crystalline bodies crowd the surface, which bodies 
are as brilliant as the former, and like them resist strong nitric acid. 
These are mostly minute, being generally g-y^Q^th of an inch wide ; 
they vary, however, considerably in size, and are occasionally very 
much larger : they are mostly angulated, have an expanded scale- 
like base, and much resemble the lozenge-shaped points of the 
larger bodies. These smaller ones are crowded together into dense 
masses, forming as it were a sort of silicified epithelium ; occa- 
sionally they become united by the blending of their expanded 
bases, and then the combined mass has considerable resemblance 
to the larger forms before described. 

Similar minute siliceous granules have been observed in all the 
species examined. The allied genus Tlioosa, too, has the surface 
provided with siliceous bodies of a very peculiar and novel ap- 
pearance. This genus is unfurnished with spicula in the interior, 
but has occasionally radiating ones supplying the surface, which is 
almost entirely composed of the siliceous bodies just alluded to. 

If a portion of the animal adhering to the chamber-walls of 
Thoosa be removed and placed with the surface uppermost, and 
examined in the microscope as an opake object, it is seen to be 
covered with a whitish semi-pellucid crust of a granular ap- 
pearance; on increasing the power to about 200 diameters, 
this crust is seen to be composed of a multitude of crystalline 
bodies formed of nodules. On examining these bodies by trans- 
mitted light with a still higher power (400 diameters), they are 
observed to rest on a thin membrane distinct from the substance 

with descriptions of new Species. 331 

below, which is almost entirely made up of tubes. The form of 
these bodies, Pis. XII. & XIII. fig. 10 a. & fig. 2 b, is now ob- 
served to be somewhat like that of the mulberry, and on closer 
examination they are found to be composed of a stout central 
axis, near each extremity of which is placed a whorl of six or 
eight large, irregularly quadrate nodules ; the extremities of the 
axis being each formed of a nodule similar to those of the whorls. 
Tliese bodies measure yf jth of an inch long, are colourless, refract 
light powerfully, and are as brilliant as the spicula, and in like 
manner are unaffected by strong nitric acid, how long soever sub- 
jected to its action. 

It is to the above-described peculiar siliceous bodies on the 
surface of the excavating sponges that I attribute the power they 
possess of burying themselves in calcareous substances. The 
spicula may perhaps assist in Cliona ; but they seem ill-adapted 
for the purpose in Thoosa, and indeed are not always present. In 
the former they undoubtedly penetrate the surface, and originally 
I was inclined to look upon them as the chief agents employed. 
The discovery of the mulberry-like bodies on the surface of Thoosa 
led me to examine more closely that of Cliontty and after finding 
there those beautiful gem-like crystals, so well adapted for cut- 
ting, their homology cannot be doubted ; and I am compelled to 
adopt the view just expressed. 

The surface then of these animals will very much resemble 
what I have elsewhere described the cutting surface to be in the 
boring moUusks ; in the former as in the latter every portion of 
it will cut with the keenness of glass-paper ; and as Cliona is ad- 
mitted on all hands to be highly contractile, there can be no dif- 
ficulty respecting the capabilities of the excavating apparatus as 
just described. All that is necessary is, that each siliceous gra- 
nule, or cluster of granules, should be put in motion. Action, — 
very limited, — not more extensive than that of vibratile cilia, 
would be sufficient ; and it would seem not at all improbable 
that it may be of the same nature. From Ehrenberg^s inves- 
tigations it would appear that the motion of these minute organs 
is produced by a contractile tissue on which they are based, and 
that in some of the animalcules they have a rotatory motion. 
Now if we suppose these siliceous bodies of Cliona and Thoosa to 
be in connexion with a similar contractile tissue, the whole sur- 
face of the sponge would be composed of thousands of minute 
drills quite able to cut into calcareous substances of the hardest 

Were the action of this character, the walls of the chambers 
would be drilled full of little holes, and would present just the 
appearance we have already seen they possess. And as the calca- 
reous particles were removed they would be carried away by the 

332 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Poivers of Sponges, 

ordinary currents, whicli setting in from the surface of the sponge 
would convey the reduced matter into the principal channels^ by 
which it would soon find an exit through the efferent papillary 
apertures. I have before alluded to calcareous particles found 
strewed along the channels inhabited by C. celata. These par- 
ticles, measuring g-Jo^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ong, are apparently too large 
to escape through the pores of the sponge, and are evidently not 
the scourings of the excavation ; they are much too large to arise 
in this way ; but are pieces probably cut out by a combination 
of the minute drills just described. To understand how this 
may be effected, we have only to suppose that numerous punc- 
tures are made through a thin, slightly attached plate or lamina 
of the oyster-shell, and that interspaces are left between the 
punctures ; and it is clear that as the drilling goes on, many 
of these interspaces will become detached in the form of de- 
pressed, many-sided, angulated bodies. And such are those that 
are found in the channels of the excavations. Those particles 
of a similar nature occumng in the chambers in limestone are 
undoubtedly produced much in the same manner. 

In the siliceous granules on the surface, and in the contractility 
of these sponges, we thus find an explanation of their excavating 

We shall conclude this communication with the description of 
a few of the species, premising that the figures of the spicula 
represent them drawn to a scale, so that at a glance a pretty 
correct idea may be obtained of their relative sizes. And it is as 
well perhaps to observe, that in every instance the full- developed 
spiculum has been measured and figured. 

Cliona celata, Grant. PL XIII. figs. 3 & 4. 
C. celata. Grant, Edin. New Phil. Journ. vol. i. p. 78. 
C. celata, Johnston, Br. Sponges, p. 125 ? 

Sponge of a clear yellow-ochre colour occasionally inclining to 
olive, composed of a large open network of branches ; the meshes 
irregularly angulated, frequently five- or six-sided, and occasion- 
ally half an inch wide ; the branches stout, often y^^j^ths of an inch 
thick, distinctly nodulous and generally depressed : papilla? large, 
some measuring y^h of an inch in diameter*; for the most 
part in a single row along the branches, but penetrating the 
surface of the matrix without much apparent order, and placed 
rather far apart from each other : terminal twigs rather short, 
delicate, almost linear, and generally bifurcated. Spicula very 
long, measuring upwards of -^jjth of an inch in length, a little 

*■ In tins and in the following descriptions the diameter of the papilla} has 
been determined by that of the papillary punctures. 

with descriptions of new Species, 333 

bent, not particularly stout, and sometimes slightly inclined to 
fusiform, but tapering pretty gradually to a sharp point at one 
end ; the other furnished with a well-defined globular head ap- 
proaching to ovate with generally a terminal point. 

This appears to be the most destructive species to oyster- shells, 
and abounds in the Frith of Forth. It is undoubtedly the C. 
celata of Grant : the form and large size of the spicula are suffi- 
cient to distinguish it. The C. celata of Dr. Johnston, however, is 
most likely another species, as the spicula are somewhat different. 

C. insidiosa» PI. XV. fig. 5. 

Sponge when dry of a brown colour, branched ; the branches 
about y\ths of an inch thick, irregular, anastomosing : papillse 
distant, irregularly arranged, rather small. Spicula yyyth of 
an inch long, stout, sometimes slightly fusiform, but generally 
tapering gradually to a fine sharp point at one end, towards 
which it is generally slightly bent ; the other extremity is fur- 
nished with a large globular head separated fi-om the shaft by a 
distinct dusky line, and mostly a little flattened like the head of 
a pin. 

This species, which occurs in Tridacna gigas, appears related to 
C gorgonioides ; like it this has only one kind of spicula, and in 
both they are furnished with a rounded head. A cross section 
M the excavations of this form has much the appearance of a 
similar view of those of that species. I have not been able to 
trace the terminations of the cavities, and therefore cannot speak 
to their form. The short, stout spicula of C. insidiosa with their 
large pin-like head are very characteristic, and readily distinguish 
it from its congeners. 

C. gorgonioides, PI. XIV. figs. I & 6. 

Sponge of a brownish yellow colour, branched, anastomosing; 
the principal branches stout, sometimes nearly ^th of an inch 
thick, irregularly rounded, or depressed, placed somewhat par- 
allel to each other, and much zigzaged, giving off lateral 
branches at the angles, which branches unite with those ad- 
joining : terminal twigs thin, tapering to a fine point and bifur- 
cating : papillse large, frequently almost y^^h of an inch in dia- 
meter, penetrating the surface of the shell or other matrix with- 
out apparent order, and placed considerably apart from each 
other. Spicula very numerous, large and stout, measuring ^^^th 
of an inch in length ; at one end there is an oval swelling which 
is frequently some little distance from the extremity : from thence 
the shaft gradually tapers to the other end, which is sharply 
pointed and is generally much bent, particularly towards the 

334 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges ^ 

enlarged extremity ; and sometimes the pointed end is a little 
recurved^ giving to the spicnlum a slight S-like twist. 

This species is common on the coast of Northumberland, where 
almost every piece of limestone at low-water mark has the sur- 
face riddled by it : it likewise occurs in the shell of Fusus antiquus 
and Buccinum undatum. I have obtained it also in oyster- shells 
from Prestonpans. The walls of the burrows of this form are 
strongly punctured, and every here and there are drilled with 
small conical holes. When in the thin shell of Fusus or Bucci* 
num, the branches are all confined to the same plane, and then 
this species has considerable resemblance to a Gorgonia. But 
when it takes up its abode in limestone, the branches frequently 
pass vertically to some depth into the substance of the rock, 
giving to the sponge a very complicated structure. 

In old specimens the branches become less regular, increasing 
much in thickness and number until very small spaces divide 
them : the external walls are now liable to give way, and the 
sponge being thus exposed must either perish or sink deeper 
into the matrix. 

C. radiata. PI. XV. fig. 3. 

Sponge delicately branched in a radiating manner; the branches 
being y^g th of an inch thick and divided at unequal distances into 
elongated lobes : terminal twigs simple, minute, linear : papillae 
rather variable in size, frequently very small, placed in a single 
close-set row along the branches ; in the central axis where the 
branches unite there is one much larger than the rest. Spicula 
^^th of an inch long, stout, straight, frequently a little bent ; one 
end with a large ovate head widest at its junction with the shaft, 
which is a little constricted at the point of union, and from which 
it is strongly defined by a dusky shadow. 

This form buries itself in the shell of Triton variegatus, and is 
easily recognized on the surface by the radiating lines of minute 
close-set papillary punctures. It is very destructive to the shells 
it attacks : at first it is composed of a few simple radiating 
branches ; these afterwards enlarge, and send off" lateral shoots 
which anastomose with the adjoining branches, and ultimately 
fuse, as it were, towards the centre, which becomes one mass of 
sponge frequently an inch wide ; all the shell, of course, at this 
part being entirely removed. 

C. gracilis, PI. XIV. fig. 7. 

Sponge composed of a few long, slender, linear branches, rarely 
if ever anastomosing, extending in length upwards of 5 inches, 
and only y^^th of an inch thick, with a few distant, indistinct 
constrictions indicating an approximation to a lobed structure : 

with descriptions of new Species. 335 

terminal twigs regularly bifurcating, the branches have conse- 
quently a dichotomous arrangement : papillae placed rather far 
apart, small, of equal size, and arranged in a single row along the 
branches, the direction of which they distinctly indicate on the 
surface of the matrix. Spicula of two kinds ; the larger about 
^yth of an inch in length, generally a little bent, stout and in- 
clining to fusiform, with the pointed end gradually tapering ; the 
opposite extremity provided with a rounded head, somewhat ellip- 
tical, and merging imperceptibly into the shaft. The smaller 
spicula are about ^rd the length of the larger ones, and are less 
stout ; they bend gradually in the centre, from whence they taper 
to a fine point at each end. 

I have seen only one specimen of this species; it is in Pecten 
maximus, most probably from Orkney, and extends from the beak 
to the ventral margin. The spicula somewhat resemble those of 
C corallinoides, but are considerably stouter; and though the 
heads are large and well-formed, they are not so distinctly marked 
as in that species; and the smaller ones bend less abruptly : the 
character of the branches is also remarkably different. 

The walls of the excavations of this species are rather finely 

C. muscoides. PI. XV. fig. 11. 

Sponge formed of numerous delicate, much- divided, closely 
and irregularly anastomosing branches, with the terminal ones 
very slender and composed of an open network ; the principal 
branches about -j-^^th of an inch thick, and distinctly seen rami- 
fying throughout the general interlacement of the sponge : pa- 
pillae small, very numerous, approximating, and where the ana- 
stomosis is extensive, without apparent order ; towards the ter- 
minal branches however they run in rows, and betray the course 
of the branches on the surface of the shell in which the specimen 
is buried. Spicula of two kinds, one with heads, the other with 
both ends pointed ; the former, measuring y| gth of an inch in 
length, are generally straight, proportionately stout, and with 
two globular heads, one terminal, though not always perfectly so, 
and one placed at a little distance down the shaft; occasionally 
there is an additional head a little way below the second ; from 
this end the shaft tapers gradually to a sharp point at the oppo- 
site extremity, towards whicli there is frequently a slight bend. 
The other kind of spicula are fusiform and as stout as those with 
heads, but only half their length ; they taper gently to both ends, 
wliich are finely pointed, and bend abruptly in the centre, where 
there is frequently a nodulous swelling ; there is also occasionally 
another indistinct nodule or two on each side of the centre one 
and at some little distance from it. 

336 Mr. A. Hancock on tJie Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

I have seen only one specimen of this interesting species ; it 
occurs in the shell of Monoceros fusoides in the Newcastle Mu- 
seum. It has injured nearly the whole surface of the body- whorl, 
and has extended its ravages over most of the spire. 

C. Howsei. PI. XIV. fig. 8. 

A small delicately branched and closely anastomosing species 
with the branches slightly lobed or nodulous : terminal twigs 
slender, long, linear, and rather acutely bifurcating, and anasto- 
mosing widely for a considerable length backwards ; afterwards 
"the meshes become very much reduced in size by the addition of 
branches. In the older parts, where the anastomosis is very dense, 
the meshes being about y^th of an inch wide, the lobes or no- 
dules are most distinct ; they rarely exceed y^^th of an inch in dia- 
meter : papillae very fine and close-set, running in a single row 
along the branches, and generally so disposed that the anasto- 
mosis can be easily followed by the perforations they make in the 
surface of the matrix, but from their minuteness might readily 
escape observation. Spicula very delicate and about y^o^h of an 
inch long ; there are tw^o kinds ; one is generally straight and 
tapers to a very fine, slender point at one end, and has at the 
other a well-marked terminal head, which is short and broadly 
ovate, with the apex at the extremity, and sometimes a little pro- 
longed: the other kind of spicula is generally a little longer 
than the preceding, and is mostly somewhat bent, but is likewise 
slender and gradually diminishes to a fine point at one extremity ; 
the other is most commonly furnished with two heads ; one is 
terminal or nearly so, the second is placed about |^rd down the 
shaft : it also frequently happens that the terminal head is 

This species is so very distinct in all its characters, that it 
cannot well be confounded with any other British form. Its 
slender, delicate branches, small and regular papillary punctures 
arranged in anastomosing lines, and its characteristic two-headed 
spicula at once distinguish it. Only two specimens have occurred, 
one in Fusus antiquus from the Dogger-bank, the other in a 
nullipore procured from the beach at Tynemouth. For these 
and for several other specimens I am indebted to Mr. Richard 
Howse, after whom this species is named. 

C. Northumhrica. PL XIV. fig. 5. 

Sponge when dry of a pale yellow colour, branched, closely 
and irregularly anastomosing and indistinctly lobed ; the larger 
lobes being sometimes ^th of an inch across : papillse rather 
small, seldom more than ^\jth of an inch in diameter, placed 
considerably apart along the branches, but appearing numerous. 

until descriptions of new Species. 337 

regularly distributed and rather closely set on the surface of the 
matrix. Spicula of two kinds ; one, mucli the larger, measures 
T^yth of an inch in length ; it has at one extremity a large 
rounded head, is straight, and tapers gradually to a sharp point 
at the other : the smaller spicula are scarcely more than \t\i the 
length of the former, are rather stout, fusiform, sharp and gra- 
dually pointed at both ends, and much and suddenly bent in the 
centre, where they are thickest. 

I have seen only two specimens of this species : they occur 
in individuals of Fusils antiquus brought from the Haddock 
grounds by the CuUercoats' fishermen. This may be at once 
distinguished from C. gorgonioides by the spicula, that species 
having only one kind, this two : but the form of the larger kind, 
which is common to both species, is sufficiently distinct ; its head 
in those of C. Northwnbrica is almost always quite circular and 
is at the extreme end ; and moreover they are rarely bent, and 
when so only very slightly. The branches too are indistinctly 
lobed in this species, but are never so in C gorgonioides, and the 
papillae are smaller and more numerous. Unfortunately I have 
not seen the terminal twigs, as the only two specimens procured 
of this species had entirely overrun the shells they had attacked. 
In both instances, the shell being dead, the papillae had perforated 
each surface. 

a Alderi. PL XV. fig. 9. 

Sponge branched, irregularly and widely anastomosing, and 
strongly lobed ; the lobes for the most part irregularly rounded, 
frequently ^th of an inch wide, placed close together, and united 
by a much-constricted stem : terminal twigs very fine, frequently 
linear for a considerable length, and bifurcating somewhat irre- 
gularly : papillse small, rather variable in size, the largest about 
^\jth of an inch in diameter, placed rather far apart in a single 
row along the branches on the surface of the matrix ; they appear 
occasionally to run in lines. Spicula of two sorts ; one yyT-th of 
an inch long, moderately thick, slightly bent, with a small oval 
head near one end, and tapering to the other extremity : the 
second kind is scarcely shorter than the former and has one end 
truncate, the opposite pointed, and is decidedly bent in the cen- 
tre. The puncturing of the walls of the chambers is distinctly 
visible with a low magnifying power. 

This species is named after my friend Mr. Alder, who took 
several specimens of it in Pectunculus pilosus on the coast of the 
Isle of Man : as yet it has occurred in no other locality. 

C. corallinoides. PI. XV. figs. 1 & 2. 
Sponge freely and distinctly branched, slightly anastomosing, 
and regularly and strongly lobed; the lobes about ^th of an incli 
Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iii. 22 

338 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

wide, and somewhat obtusely quadrate, a little longer than wide, 
placed end to end and united by a slender, central, cylindrical 
stem : terminal twigs exceedingly slender, almost linear, giving 
off lateral shoots, and irregularly bifurcating : papillse variable in 
size, some being nearly -^^\\i of an inch in diameter, while others 
are very much smaller, arising from the lobes without order; 
some of the lobes having only one papilla, others three or four. 
Spicula y Qth of an inch long, slender, generally bent in the cen- 
tre, tapering gradually to a sharp point at one end, and at the 
other furnished with an elliptical head defined at its junction with 
the shaft by a dusky line. Besides these there are other spicula 
of a different form which are equally numerous with those just 
described, but are much smaller and very delicate, measuring 
scarcely |^rd their length : these smaller ones are fusiform, with 
both extremities sharply pointed, and are suddenly bent in the 

This beautifully branched species occurs in British specimens 
of Pecten mawimus, but the exact locality is not known. Three 
examples have been procured. In all the papillary punctures are 
very variable in size, and indistinctly indicate on the surface of 
the shell the various ramifications of the sponge ; and in all the 
specimens the branches could be perfectly distinguished likewise 
on the inner surface. Here the sponge had made innumerable 
minute punctures, which the mollusk had endeavoured to close 
up by an accumulation of calcareous matter, covering the entire 
track of the branches with small granules. 

The walls of the excavations of this species are strongly and 
regularly punctured. 

C. Fryeri. PI. XIV. figs. 2, 4 & 9. 

Sponge formed of lobed branches arranged in a somewhat ra- 
diating manner, and irregularly anastomosing, with a few scat- 
tered, spine-like processes ; the lobes about y^o^^ ^^ ^^ mch. wide, 
considerably elongated, with the ends truncate, and united by a 
much-constricted central stem ; terminal twigs short, almost 
linear, bifurcating : papillse small, arranged in a single row along 
the branches, generally two or three to each lobe. Spicula of 
two forms : one, considerably larger than the other, generally mea- 
suring Yx^th of an inch in length, is straight, and furnished >at 
one end with an oval head ; from thence it tapers imperceptibly 
to the other extremity, which is finely pointed. The other form 
of spiculum is almost cylindrical, slightly curved, with the ends 
brought abruptly to sharp points. 

This beautiful species is imbedded in the shell of Placuna pla- 
centa, in the possession of J. H. Fryer, Esq. of Whitley House, 
fcifter whom it is named, and to whose interesting and extensive 


with descriptions of new Species. 339 

collection 1 am indebted on this, as on a fonner occasion, for 
much valuable assistance. 

On account of the transparency of the shell the whole of the 
sponge is exposed to view, as well as a series of the young exhi- 
biting every stage of development. The walls of the chambers of 
this species are strongly punctured. 

a spinosa. PI. XIII. figs. 5 & 7. 

Sponge branched, regularly anastomosing ; the branches along 
their entire course swelling into large lobes measuring nearly 
Y*2^th of an inch wide : terminal twigs minute, tapering, having 
a spine-like appearance, generally simple, but frequently a little 
branched : papillae numerous, for the most part small, with one 
here and there very much larger than the rest ; the largest about 
Y^2 th of an inch in diameter. When the sponge is in a growing 
state, the papillae penetrate the surface of the matrix in single 
rows in a somewhat branched manner, but as the growth matures 
and the anastomosis goes on, this arrangement is lost ; and ulti- 
mately the papillae are pretty regularly distributed over the whole 
surface. Spicula of two kinds ; one has a globular head at one 
end, is rather stout, straight, -^jth of an inch long, and tapers 
gradually to the opposite extremity, where it terminates in a fine 
sharp point : the other kind is fusiform, and is scarcely ^rd as 
long as that with a head, and is much less stout ; it is bent sud- 
denly in the middle, and from thence tapers gradually to the 
ends, which are very sharp and a little recurved. 

Of this species I have seen at least four individuals in the 
valves oi Perna femoralis and Placuna sella, and these I have been 
able to examine with great facility, on account of the transparency 
of the inner layer of shell through which the lobed branches with 
their terminal twigs are most distinctly visible, the internal punc- 
turing giving to them a pretty silvery appearance, and rendering 
the whole under a lens an object of great beauty. In the Placuna, 
which measures 6 inches wide, the ramifications of the sponge 
have passed from side to side, and have done much damage to 
the surface of both valves. For these specimens I am indebted 
to Mr. Robert Currie of Newcastle : those in Perna, from which 
the figures are taken, are in the Newcastle Museum. 

C. cervina. PL XV. fig. 8. 

Sponge formed of numerous branches, anastomosing, and en- 
larged into many rounded, and sometimes elongated lobes which 
are crowded upon each other, and measure each j^yth of an inch 
wide : terminal branches or twigs rather stout, slightly tapering, 
bifurcating pretty regularly, and frequently with lateral branches 
giving to them not a little the appearance of antlers : papillae 


340 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

generally small, numerous, disposed with a good deal of regu- 
larity, and having a few very much larger than the rest inter- 
mingled ; the larger ones gV^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ diameter. Spicula 
of two forms ; one y^oth of an inch long, sometimes quite straight, 
but generally a little bent, particularly towards the end which 
is sharp-pointed; from thence it gradually enlarges to the other 
extremity ; this terminates in a large, strongly defined, globular 
head, which is generally somewhat flattened like that of a pin ; 
the shaft being mostly a little constricted at the point of union 
with the head. The other form of spiculum is only about ^th the 
length of the former, is irregularly tuberculated, and very stout 
and squat, bends rather suddenly in the centre, and tapers ab- 
ruptly to the ends which are obtusely pointed. 

This species is very like C. spinosa in general habit, but the 
terminal twigs are not so delicate, and are more regularly bifur- 
cated : the lobes too are larger, and the papillae less than they 
are in that species. The spicula are also very different, and are 
quite sufficient to remove all doubt if such existed. 

Two or three specimens of C. cervina have occurred in the 
valves of Meleagrina albinat to which they have done much 
damage, and through the pellucid inner substance of which the 
sponge is distinctly revealed. These specimens are in the New- 
castle Museum. 

C. dendritica. PI. XII. fig. 5. and PI. XV. fig. 4. 

Sponge minutely branched, slightly and irregularly anastomo- 
sing ; the branches swelling at intervals into rounded or elon- 
gated lobes about ^^^th of an inch wide : terminal twigs fre- 
quently very long, and freely and elegantly divided like the 
branches of a tree : papillae small, not numerous. Spicula not 
more than yyjth of an inch long, proportionately stout, straight, 
occasionally a little bent ; one end with a globular head, some- 
times inclined to ovate, and tapering gradually to the other ex- 
tremity, which is very finely pointed : there are likewise fusiform 
spicula; these are considerably smaller than those with heads, 
and bend suddenly in the centre ; from thence they taper and 
terminate at each end in a sharp point. 

Several individuals of this pretty species have been observed 
in a specimen of Patella Mexicana in the Newcastle Museum. 
These are clearly seen through the pellucid enamel of the inside 
of the shell, and have a very distinct dendritic appearance. 

C. Canadensis. PI. XIV. fig. 10. 

Sponge composed of a dense anastomosing mass of strongly 
lobed branches ; the lobes large in proportion to the central stem, 
but rarely exceeding y^th of an inch wide, somewhat rounded. 

with descriptions of new Species. 341 

though irregular in form, and on account of their crowded state 
the mode of branching scarcely distinguishable, except towards 
the terminal twigs, which are linear, very minute and irregularly 
bifurcated : papillae small, numerous, and passing through the 
surface of the matrix without apparent order, though pretty 
equally distributed and closely set ; towards the margin of the 
sponge they occasionally run in lines. Spicula rather stout and 
short, being y|^th of an inch in length, somewhat suddenly bent 
in the centre, with one end generally a little enlarged and rounded, 
the other tapering gradually to a sharp point. There is also 
another kind of spicula which appear to be more numerous than 
those just described, but not quite so long ; these are sharply 
pointed at each end, and suddenly bent in the centre where they 
are thickest ; at this point, too, there is frequently a decided no- 
dule, and occasionally two or three. 

Only one specimen of this species has been obtained ; it is in 
the shell of Ostrea Canadensis. In general appearance this 
sponge has considerable resemblance to C. lohata) the lobes, 
however, are rounder and smaller, and the spicula at once distin- 
guish it from that species, and from all others with which I 
am acquainted. 

The puncturing in the sides of the excavations of C. Cana- 
densis is minute and somewhat obscure, and less regular than 

C. millepunctata. PI. XII. fig. 9. 

Sponge composed of an intricate interlacement of minute 
branches not more than y\jth of an inch thick, being throughout 
made up of close-set, irregularly rounded lobes, except towards 
their terminations, where they are linear and much less crowded : 
papillae minute, close-set, and exceedingly numerous : spicula 
j^^th of an inch long, linear, very slender, frequently much and 
abruptly bent in the centre, sometimes more gradually arched 
towards one end which is sharply pointed ; the other termination 
is furnished with a large elliptical head. 

I have seen only one example of this distinct species ; it is in 
the shell of Cassis tubei'osa, and spreads almost entirely over it ; 
the surface is crowded with the minute papillary orifices, and on 
rubbing a little of it away the substance beneath is found to be 
completely riddled with the sponge, and to present a pretty re- 
gularly punctured appearance caused by the chambers occupied 
by the lobes. The principal branches, however, can be distinctly 
traced ramifying in various directions. 

C. lobata. PI. XII. figs. 4 & 8. 

Sponge branched, anastomosing ; the branches composed of a 
scries of comparatively large, rounded, somewhat transversely 

342 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges , 

oval, and occasionally irregularly augulated lobes about -[^^^ of 
an inch wide, and united by a small central stem : terminal twigs 
short, linear, and bifurcated : papillse small, numerous, and dis- 
tributed on the surface of the matrix without apparent order. 
Spicula yJo*^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ l<^ng, not very slender, mostly a little 
bent, and brought gradually to a sharp point at one end ; the 
other with an irregularly rounded head, sometimes slightly ellip- 
tical, and generally not exactly terminal. 

The puncturing of the chamber- walls of this species is strong 
and decided, and the branches in old specimens are much con- 
fused on account of the frequent anastomosis and the crowding 
caused by the lobes. Towards the terminal twigs the character 
of the branches is however quite distinct. The C. lohata is not 
to be confounded with any other of the British forms, and is 
undoubtedly distinct from the various foreign species that have 
come under my notice. It occurs in Haliotis from Guernsey. 
I have seen two specimens affected by it, and in both cases very 
extensively ; in one the whole external surface is crowded with the 
minute papillary punctures. 

C. vastifica, PI. XV. fig. 13. 

Sponge formed of a close and intricate anastomosis of strongly 
lobed branches ; lobes irregularly angulated, frequently ^th of an 
inch wide, and united by a delicate stem : terminal twigs not long, 
linear : papillae small, rarely exceeding ^^^th of an inch in dia- 
meter, very numerous, close-set, and pretty regularly distributed 
over the surface of the matrix. Spicula of two kinds, one much 
larger than the other; the former gV^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ length, 
straight, rather slender, and diminishing imperceptibly to a very 
fine point at one end ; the other terminating in a perfectly glo- 
bvdar head. The smaller kind of spiculum is about ^rd the 
length of the larger, and is much thinner ; it is stoutish in the 
centre, where it rather suddenly bends a little, and from thence 
tapers gradually towards the ends, which are sharply pointed. 

When the outer surface of the shell containing this species is 
removed, a complete close network of chambers is revealed, con- 
taining the lobes of the sponge ; and on a closer examination they 
are seen to be united by small circular passages for the accom- 
modation of the uniting stems. The only specimen I have seen 
of this species is in the shell of an oy^ster from Prestonpans ?, the 
surface of which had suffered much injury by the influence of 
this parasite. The puncturing of the sides of the cavities of this 
species is finer than usual. 

C. rhombea. PI. XII. fig. 7. 
Sponge when dry of a pale straw colour, composed of numc- 

with descriptions of new Species. 343 

rous, small, imperfectly lozenge-shaped lobes, about jT-th of an 
inch wide, crowded on each other and united each to its neigh- 
bours by small cylindrical stems, four or five passing from each 
lobe : terminal twigs short and linear : papillae large in compa- 
rison with the lobes, measuring nearly 23-^^ °^ ^^ inch, in dia- 
meter, rather numerous, and disposed on the surface of the ma- 
trix without order. Spicula of two forms, one much larger than 
the other, being upwards of ^7*^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ lo^^gj straight, stout, 
and generally tapering to a fine point at one end; the other ter- 
mination is furnished with a globular head, a little inclined to 
oval. The other form of spiculuni is not more than half as long 
as those with heads, but is only a little inferior in thickness : it 
is fusiform, tapering gradually to a sharp point at each end, and 
is abruptly bent in the centre. 

This species occurs in Tridacna gigas ; the lobes appear to be 
arranged in a somewhat branched manner, but on account of 
their close approximation the order is obliterated. Some of the 
uniting stems are larger than the rest, and most probably indi- 
cate the main branches. 

C. purpurea. PL XII. fig. 6. 

Sponge made up of numerous, close-set, somewhat elongated 
and angulated lobes or nodules about y\jth of an inch in length, 
united by several delicate, cylindrical stems ; and when dry of an 
obscure purple colour : terminal twigs short, linear : papillae 
small, not very numerous, passing through the matrix without 
apparent order. Spicula numerous, of two sorts; one is larger than 
the other, y^o^^ ^^ ^^ inch, in length, linear, slightly and re- 
gularly bent, with the ends a little enlarged and rounded. The 
other kind of spiculum is about half as long as the preceding, 
and resembling it in form, with the exception that the extre- 
mities are not enlarged ; it is likewise irregularly spinous through- 
out its entire length. 

This species is readily distinguished by its purple colour and 
by the peculiar characters of its spicula. In general form there 
is considerable resemblance between it and C. nodosa ; the lobes, 
however, are much smaller than they are in that species, and the 
stems that unite them are less numerous ; they are likewise elon- 
gated. The C. purpurea occurs in Tridacna gigas. 

C. angulata. PI. XV. fig. 13. 

Sponge formed of a few irregularly shaped and angulated lobes 
or nodules, sometimes measuring ^th of an inch wide, placed 
close together, and united by a few small, short, cylindrical or 
flattened stems : terminal twigs rather short, simple, small and 
linear : papillae not very numerous, irregular in size and arrange- 

344 Mr. A. Haiicock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

ment, the largest about 2i:th of an inch in diameter. Spicula 
stout, nearly yyyth of an inch long, slightly and regularly 
curved, gradually tapering to a sharp point at one end, and 
with an oval swelling at the other, but not quite terminal, and 
frequently ill-defined. 

This species inhabits red coral from the Mediterranean, and 
completely destroys it ; the interior being reduced to a few large 
irregularly angulated chambers divided by very thin walls, while 
the surface remains comparatively uninjured, showing no signs 
of the ravages within except a few circular punctures of no 
great size, and at first so small as scarcely to attract attention. 
The puncturing of the walls of the chambers is very strong 
and regular in this species, and the spicula are characteristic, 
and stouter than usual : the stems that unite the lobes are com- 
paratively few. 

C. quadrata. PI. XV. fig. 6. 

Sponge composed of large, irregularly quadrate lobes, ^th of an 
inch wide, with the angles obtuse, connected without apparent 
order by several small, cylindrical stems passing irregularly from 
all sides, occasionally in pairs ; sometimes enlarged and flattened 
and arising from a depression in the side of the lobe : terminal 
twigs rather short, fine and linear : papillae not very numerous, 
about 2^^th of an inch in diameter, and placed rather far apart. 
Spicula very large and stout, measuring 7\jth of an inch in length, 
in form somewhat resembling a nine-pin; the shaft fusiform, 
swelling in the centre to an extraordinary degree, and tapering 
gradually to a fine point at one end ; the other terminates in an 
exactly rounded head, very large, and distinguished from the 
shaft by a dusky shadow caused by its rotundity. 

The animal of this species when dry is of a dark brown colour, 
and may at once be recognized by the enormous development of 
the spicula, which possess the utmost brillancy, and are very 
striking objects in the microscope. The excavations are also 
characteristic; their squareness of form, and numerous orifices for 
the passage of the connecting stems arranged frequently in pairs 
and flattened, sufiiciently distinguish this species. Only one or 
two individuals have occurred, and those in Tridacna gigas. 

C. nodosa. PL XV. fig. 10. 

Sponge formed of a congeries of large, irregularly angulated 
lobes disposed without apparent order, each measuring ^th of an 
inch wide, and united to each other by several delicate, very 
short, cylindrical stems : terminal twigs slender, a little produced, 
cylindrical : papillae not numerous, considerably apart from each 
other, the largest about ^^^^th of an inch in diameter. Spicula 

with descriptions of new Species. 345 

stout, fusiform, jjyth. of an inch long, much bent in the centre, 
and tapering towards the ends, which are sharp-pointed. 

The animal of this species when dry is snuff-coloured, and is 
readily distinguished from its congeners by its simple-formed 
spicula. When the shell in which it is concealed is broken 
across, the numerous, large, angulated chambers containing the 
lobes, separated only by thin walls, have much the appearance of 
honey-comb, lacking a little of its symmetry and perfect angu- 
larity. The C. nodosa is one of several species found in a large 
specimen of Tridacna gigas, and is evidently very destructive ; 
large portions of the strong ribs of the shell having given way 
in several places under the influence of this parasite. 

C. lahyrinthica. PI. XV. fig. 7. 

Sponge composed of an irregularly reticulated mass, the in- 
terlacing being exceedingly minute, and so intricate that it is im- 
possible to determine the order of the parts : papillae not very 
numerous, minute, without apparent order. Spicula numerous, 
fusiform, 277^'^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ long, rather stout, nearly cylindrical, 
shghtly and regularly bent from end to end, with each termi- 
nation suddenly brought to a sharp point. 

When dried this species is of a pale straw colour : it occurs 
in Tridacna gigas, to the shell of which it is very destructive. 
Several specimens have occurred ; one of them has sunk upwards 
of an inch deep into one of the ribs of the shell, and has extended 
its ravages four or five inches in length and nearly two in breadth, 
passing, in fact, from side to side of the rib, and giving to the 
entire substance the appearance of the central cellular structure 
of bone ; and this resemblance is rendered the more perfect on 
account of a thin layer of the surface being left almost sound. 

Genus Thoosa*. 

Sponge branched or lobed, buried in calcareous bodies ; the 
interior with anastomosing tubes, and devoid of spicula ; the sur- 
face with a crust of nodulous, crystalline bodies composed of 

This genus by its general form and habit is closely related to 
Cliona, from which it differs chiefly in the character of the sili- 
ceous bodies on the surface, and in the absence of spicula from 
the interior. Two or three species have occurred; they are all from 
the tropics, and vary considerably in form ; one or two of them 
have radiating spicula mixed with the siliceous bodies of the 

T. cactoides. PI. XIII. figs. 1 & 2. 

Sponge branched, strongly lobed, regularly and widely ana- 

* A sea- ny 111 ph. 

346 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Powers of Sponges, 

stomosing; the meshes frequently more than ^th of an inch 
wide; lobes elliptical, about jth of an inch broad_, and giving 
oiF numerous, minute, linear twigs : terminal branches dividing 
dichotomously and furnished on all sides with twigs similar to 
those of the lobes : the dichotomous arrangement may be traced 
throughout the branches. Siliceous bodies of the surface very 
numerous, measuring yfjth of an inch long and g-^^^th of an 
inch broad, composed of two whorls, each comprising six or 
seven squarish nodules ; the whorls being placed a little apart 
from each other near the ends of a stout central axis which ter- 
minates at each extremity in a nodule like those of the whorls. 

This is one of the largest and most beautiful of the excavating 
sponges j only one individual has occurred : it is buried in the 
substance of a large valve of Meleagrina margaritifera which has 
been in my collection many years. The branches extend from 
side to side of the shell, and reach from the beak almost to the 
ventral margin, measuring in length six or seven inches. The 
outer surface of this valve has unfortunately been removed, and 
the papillary punctures consequently destroyed : the ramifications 
of the lobed branches, however, are completely exposed, so that 
they can be traced throughout. But a considerable number of 
the terminal twigs remain imbedded in the shell, and are distinctly 
seen through the inner transparent layer. 

The puncturing of the walls of the cavities of this species is so 
strong that it may be seen even with the naked eye ; and they 
are likewise penetrated with numerous small orifices for the 
passage of the minute twigs which come from the underside of 
the lobes. Whether similar twigs pass from the upper surface 
I have not been able to determine, on account of the destruction 
of the external portion of the shell. Those from the lower sur- 
face puncture the innermost layer of the valve ; and as pearly 
matter has accumulated around each orifice, the inside of the 
shell is ornamented with numerous clusters, corresponding to 
the lobes, of minute pearl-like points, the beauty of which has 
probably led to the preservation of the shelh 

T, bulbosa. PI. XII. fig. 10. 

Sponge composed of a few large, irregularly shaped, and 
somewhat depressed lobes, occasionally inclining to square, but 
always more or less rounded ; united by a slender stem mostly 
flattened and variable in form : papillse not large, few, penetrating 
the surface of the matrix without order; apparently not more than 
one or two from each lobe. Siliceous bodies of the surface like 
those of T. cactoides, but a little less. In addition to these bodies 
the surface is provided with triradiate and quadriradiate spicula, 
the rays, measuring g^^i'C^ ^^ ^^ i^^^h long, arc straight, diverge 

with descriptions of new Species. 347 

nt various angles, and each tapers gradually to a line point ; at 
tlic place of junction there is generally a slight swelling. 

Several individuals of this species are buried in the specimen 
of Tridacna gigas so often mentioned. In some of them the lobes 
attain a great size, measuring half an inch in diameter. The walls 
of the chambers are much more minutely punctured than in T, 
cactoides ; and in one of the specimens examined the spicula differ 
from those above described. In the specimen alluded to they are 
multiradiate and triradiate of a peculiar character, the latter, 
PI. XIII. fig. 8, having one of its rays cut short — ^little more 
than a squarish tubercle indicating the point of union : the other 
two rays bend from each other rather abruptly near the middle 
and afterwards taper gradually to fine points. The multiradiate 
spicula, PI. XII. fig. 11, are about three times the length of 
the nodulous bodies, and are rare and very complicated : they are 
formed of two whorls of six or more rays each, the whorls being 
})laced rather near together on a central axis which is much pro- 
duced at the ends ; the rays are straight, and, tapering gradually 
to sharp points, have generally a rounded swelling near the ex- 

I have not yet been able to determine whether the specimen 
])rovided with these curious spicula is distinct or not, though I 
am inclined to believe that it is. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 1 . A portion of the surface of Cliona celata as seen in the compressor, 
magnified about 400 diameters, exhibiting crystalline bodies. 

— 2. Large crystalline bodies from the same more highly magnified. 

— '6, Small crystalline bodies also from the same, highly magnified. 

— 4. Chambers of C. lohata exposed by removing the surface of the ma- 

trix : — one half larger than nature : — o, papillary punctures. 

— 5, 5. Portions of C. dendritica four or five times the size of nature, ex- 

hibited as seen through the transparent substance of the matrix. 

— 6, 6. Spicula of C. purpurea much enlarged : a, a spiculum still more 

highly magnified.. 

— 7, 7. Spicula of C. rhomhea much enlarged. 

— 8. Ditto C. lohata ditto. 

— 9. Ditto C. millepuncfata ditto. 

— 10. a, Crystalline nodulous bodies from the surface of Thoosa bulbosa; 

b, triradiate and quadriradiate spicula from the same. 

— 11. Multiradiate spicula from the surface of Thoosa bullosa 1: a, an end 

view of a spiculum ; b, one of the rays more highly magnified. 

Plate XIII. 

Fi(j. 1. A portion of the branches and terminal twigs of Thoosa cactoides of 
the natural size. 

— 2. a, A portion of the surface of the same magnified about 200 diame- f, 

ters, exhibiting nodulous crystalline bodies; 6, two of these bodies ,J 
more highly magnified. V- 

348 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Mode of Gj-owth in Calothrix, ^r. 

Fig. 3. The branched chambers of Cliona celata exposed by the removal of 
the surface of the matrix : a, papillary punctures. 

— 4. Spicula of C. celata much enlarged. 

— 5. C. spinosa as seen through the transparent matrix, magnified two 


— 6. A portion of the surface of the matrix exhibiting the papillary punc- 

tures : — natural size. 

— 7. Spicula of C. spinosa much enlarged. 

— 8. Triradiate spicula from the surface of Thoosa hulbosa t 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1 . Chambers of C. gorgonioides exposed by the removal of the surface 
of the matrix, a little enlarged : o, papillary punctures. 

— 2. C, Fryeri as seen through the transparent matrix; one half en- 


— 3. Surface of the matrix of the same, exhibiting the papillary punctures. 

— 4. A series exhibiting the development of C. Fryeri considerably en- 

larged : a, represents the first stage ; h, c, c/, e, f, the succeeding 

— 5. Spicula of C. Northumhrica much enlarged. 

— 6. Ditto C. gorgonioides ditto. 

— 7. Ditto C. gracilis ditto. 

— 8. Ditto C. Howsei ditto. 

— 9. Ditto C. Fryeri ditto. 

— 10. Ditto C. Canadensis ditto. 

Plate XV. 

Fig. 1 . Chambers of C. corallinoides exposed by the removal of the surface 
of the matrix : a, papillary punctures. 

— 2. Spicula of C. corallinoides much enlarged. 

— 3. Ditto C. radiata ditto. 

— 4. Ditto C. dendritica ditto. 

— 5. Ditto C insidiosa ditto. 

— 6. Ditto C. quadrata ditto. 

— 7. Ditto C, labyrinihica ditto. 

— 8. Ditto C. cervina ditto. 

— 9. Ditto C. Jlderi ditto. 

— 10. Ditto C. nodosa ditto. 

— 11. Ditto C. mnscoides ditto. 

— 12. Ditto C. vastifica ditto. 

— 13. Ditto C. angulata ditto. 

XXXVII. — On the Mode of Growth in Calothrix and allied 
Genera. By John Ralfs, M.R.C.S., Penzance*. 

In my former communication I remarked that in Oscillatoria the 
division of the filament is accompanied by that of its sheath, 
whilst in Microcoleus the sheath is so inflated as not to interfere 
with the process of division. I shall now endeavour to prove 
that the appositional branches in Calothrix and other genera are 
the results of modifications of that mode of division which we see 
in Oscillatoria and Microcoleus. 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 8th March, 1849. 

Mr. J. Ralfs on the Mode of Growth in Calothrix, ^c. 349 

In Scytonema, Calothrix, Arthroncma, &c. the sheath is some- 
what cartilaginous and closely surrounds the contained filament. 
As its texture is comparatively firm, it admits only a slight degree 
of dilatation : it neither separates as in Oscillatoria, nor allows 
the bundling of the filaments as in Microcoleus. 

In all these genera the structure of the filament, irrespective 
of the sheath, is alike, and consists of a single, longitudinal series 
of disciform cells which are often confluent or have indistinct 

If a specimen of Calothrix or Canocoleus be examined we may 
frequently observe, especially near the extremities of the branches, 
short separated portions of filaments in every respect similar to 
those which sometimes occur in Oscillatoria. At first such a 
portion is separated from the original filament by a short in- 
terval ; but as there is no division of the sheath and both portions 
continue to elongate, they are soon in contact again. In the act 
of passing each other the extremities sometimes become atte- 
nuated. In this state the filament looks as if it had divided 
obliquely, and the upper portion becoming impacted between 
the filament and the sheath presents the appearance of a branch. 
From this explanation it will be evident that the branches in 
these genera are produced, not by an adhesion of other fila- 
ments, but by a dislocation of the filament itself. 

Both portions continue to elongate upwards, and branches are 
thus repeatedly formed by dislocation. The upper portions or 
branches, however, always retain their original advantage and 
extend beyond the trunk. This fact seems to me a strong proof 
of the correctness of the view I have given, for it could scarcely 
be constant if the branches originated in any other manner. 

The frond or sheath is itself truly branched or divided in the 
ordinary way. Sometimes, as in Calothrix, it is forked as soon 
as the upper portion becomes impacted, and the plant presents no 
peculiarity to the eye in its mode of branching except that the 
branches at the base are not united to the trunk. 

In Canocoleus the branching of the sheath does not occur at 
the same spot as the dislocation of the filament. Upon this cir- 
cumstance depends the peculiar character of the genus, for after 
the dislocation the inferior portion as it elongates necessarily 
pushes itself up by the side of the superior one. Sometimes the 
filaments are again branched by dislocation before the sheath 
divides, and thus from two to four (or even more) filaments pass 
up side by side within a common sheath. Where the sheath 
forks the filaments are in general equally distributed between its 

From what I have stated it will be seen that in Calothrix and 
Ccenocoleus the dislocated ends pass each other without any 

350 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Mode of Growth in Calotbrix, ^^c. 

alteration of their direction. This is not the case in Scytonema 
myochrouSf which acquires a very different habit owing to the vari- 
ation in the direction of the dislocated extremities. In that plant 
the new ends are curved towards the same side of the sheath ; 
they do not pass each other, but issue from the side together and 
at right angles to its axis. As both portions encounter equal 
resistance they elongate equally, and consequently the branches 
are said to be in pairs. Sometimes the dislocation does not take 
place until after a loop has been formed by a lateral protru- 
sion. Occasionally also the dislocation occurs without any cur- 
vature of the newly formed ends, which then pass each other as 
they do in Calothrix-, but this rarely happens except in the case 
of lower or basal dislocations. The presence in the same speci- 
men of both modes of branching proves that they depend on 
modifications of the same law, notwithstanding their very dif- 
ferent appearance. 

Calothrix mirahilis presents another variation in the direction 
of the dislocated ends. At first sight the mode of branching 
appears similar to that of Scytonema myochrous, and different 
only in having more frequent divisions ; but closer examination 
detects an essential difference. The filament indeed separates 
as in Calothrix and the ends pass each other; but instead of 
remaining within the same sheath, they immediately pass out 
obliquely in opposite directions; consequently as both portions 
are free and continue to elongate, they seem merely to anasto- 
mose by cohesion at the convexities of their sheaths. As this 
plant divides at short intervals, it has the appearance of intricate 

In Rivularia also the branches are the result of dislocation, but 
in that genus a globule is formed at the base of the branch at 
the time of dislocation. 

A similar globule is present in the lower branches of some 
species of Calothrix and Ccenocoleus ; in these however it is 
usually developed only after the impaction of the branch, but 
sometimes during the division of the filament. If the lower 
portion of the filament elongates and passes the vesicle, its ap- 
pearance does not differ from one formed after dislocation. If 
the lower portion ceases to grow at the time of division, the plant 
is like a simple filament here and there interrupted by a vesicle 
or sporangium. 

In this group, however, the branching of the filament is not 
invariably accompanied by dislocation : in Stigonema I believe 
it never occurs, and even in Scytonema I have seen some species 
allied to myochrous in which the branches were apparently pro- 
duced in the usual manner by lateral protrusion without inter- 
ruption of continuity. 

Mr. W. Thompson's Additions to the Fauna of Ireland. 351 

XXXVIII. — Additions to the Fauna of Ireland. By William 
Thompson, Esq., Pres. Nat. Hist, and Phil. Society of Belfast. 

Birds * 

1. Kentish Plover, Charadritis CantianuSy Latham. 
Three were killed in August last in Belfast bay. I subsequently 

learned from Robert J. Montgomery, Esq, that two were shot in 
Dublin bay in the autumn of 1846 ; one of which, procured by that 
gentleman, was kindly sent from Dublin for my inspection. 

2. Temminck's Stint, Tringa Temminckii, Leisler. 

A bird of this species, as I am informed by R. Chute, Esq., was 
shot near Tralee at the end of January 1848. 


1. Bullcea pruinosa, Clark. 
A dead specimen was obtained by George Barlee, Esq., by dredging 
on gravelly mud in Birterbuy bay in May 1848, at a depth of from 
twelve to fifteen fathoms. 

2. " Bulla ? acuminata, Brug. not Sow.," Philippi, Moll. Sicilise, 
V. i. 122. t. 7. f. 18. 

Procured with the last, and also at Arran off Galway bay, at a 
similar depth by Mr. Barlee. About the same time (May 1848) 
Mr. MacAndrew's dredge brought up a dead specimen between Pen- 
zance and the Old Head of Kinsale. He also took the species in 
sixty fathoms water on sandy mud, about fifteen miles oflf Mizzen 
Head (the nearest land), and in Bantry bay. 

3. Bulla mammillatay Phil. Moll. Sicilise, v. i. 122. t. 7. f. 20. 
Procured on the coast of Galway in 1 848 by Mr. Barlee. 

4. Orbis foliaceus, Phil. 
A specimen was brought up at the same time with the last off 
Mizzen Head. 

5. Stylifer Turtoni, Brod. 
Mr. Jeffreys informs me that his collection contains a specimen of 
this shell from Dublin bay. 

6. Rissoa abyssicola, Forbes. 
Procured at the same depth and on the same ground as Bulla acu- 
minata oif Mizzen Head. 

7. Rissoa fulffida, Mont. (sp.). 
Taken about the roots of sea- weed at low- water, Birterbuy bay, 
by Mr. Barlee. 

* Correction. — For Porphyrio hyacmtliimis, noticed in the * Annals,' 
vol. xviii. p. 311, read Gallinula martinica, Gmelin, of which species, Mr. 
R, Chute writes to me, he has now ascertained his specimen to be. 

352 Mr. W. Thompson's Additions to the Fauna of Ireland. 

8. '^ Eulima nitida [Melania), Lam./' Phil. Moll. Sicilise, vol. i. 

p. 157. t. 9. f. \7, and vol. ii. p. 134. 

Obtained by Mr. Barlee on the coast of Galway in 1848 ; accord- 
ing to a communication received from Mr. Jeffreys. 

9. Fusus Sabini, Gray. See Alder's Moll. Northumb. p. 64. 
Mr, Jeffreys possesses this species from Dublin bay. 

10. Trichotropis borealis, Brod, and Sow. 
A specimen was found among a quantity of old and worn bivalve 
shells, dredged from twenty-five to thirty-five fathoms outside the 
entrance of Belfast bay in July 1848, and sent to me by Mr. Hynd- 
man. Mr. Barlee obtained the species in the summer of this year 
on the coast of Galway. 

11. Natica sordida, Lam. 
From Dublin bay, in Mr. Jeffreys's cabinet. Dredged off Dingle 
bay and Baltimore harbour by Mr. MacAndrew. 

12. Chiton Hanleyiy Bean ; Thorpe, Marine Conch, p. 263. f. 57. 
Dredged off Arran islands, co. Galway, by Mr. Barlee in 1 848 : — 

Mr. Jeffreys. 

13. Ervilia castanea, Mont, (sp.), Forb. and Hani. Brit. Moll, 
vol. i. p. 341. t. 31. f. 5, 6. 

Procured with the valves united on the coast of Galway by Mr. 
Barlee in 1 848. AH previous specimens obtained on the British coast 
(off Cornwall and the Scilly islands) were but single valves, according 
to the work particularly referred to for this species. 

14. Nucula Polii, Phil. 

Mr. MacAndrew informs me that he dredged " some very young 
shells in May 1848 near the Nymph Bank at from fifty to sixty fa- 
thoms, and about as many miles from the Old Head of Kinsale on 
the course from the Land's End. In June, similar specimens were 
dredged from forty fathoms between Mizzen Head and Cape Clear, 
about twenty miles off the land." 

15. Galeomma Turtoni, Sow. 
An imperfect valve was dredged from the Nymph Bank by Mr. 
MacAndrew in 1848. 

16. Ascidia virginea, Forb. and Hani. Brit. Moll. vol. i. p. 33. 
pl.C. f.2. 

I have observed a few individuals of this species on the north-east 
coast. I doubt its identity with the A. virginea, Miill. Zool. Dan. 
vol. ii. p. 12. t. 49. f. 4, to which it is referred in the work quoted. 

17. Aplidiumfallax, Johnst. in Loud. Mag. Nat. Hist. vii. 15. 
f. 4. 

Found by me on th