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Full text of "The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology"

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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OP NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(being a continuation of the 'magazine of botany and zoology,' and of 

LOUDON and CHARLESWORTh's 'MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

Sir W. JARDINE, Bart., F.L.S.— P. J. SELBY, Esq., F.L.S., 

GEORGE JOHNSTON, M.D., 

CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh, 

AND 

RICHARD TAYLOR, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
VOL. IV.— SECOND SERIES. 






LONDON: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOR. 

SOLD BY S. HIGHLEY; SIMPKIN and MARSHALL; SHERWOOD AND CO.; W. WOOD, 

TAVISTOCK STREET; BAILLiI;rE, REGENT STREET, AND PARIS: 

LIZARS, AND MACLACHLAN AND STEWART, EDINBURGH : 

CURRY, DUBLIN : AND ASHER, BERLIN. 

1849. 



" Oinnes res creatae sunt divinae sapientiae et potentise testes, divitiae felicitatis 
humanae : — ex h arum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; 
ex ceconomia. in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, /joiew^ia majestatis elucet. 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibirelictis semper aestimata; a verd eruditis 
et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doetis et barbaris semper inimica fuit." — 

LiNNiEUS. 

The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain thyme 

And purple heath -flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818. 



FLAMMAM. 




y o I '^l 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



NUMBER XIX. 

Page 

I. Account of a Ribbon Fish {Gymnetrus) taken off the coast of 
Northumberland. By Albany Hancock and Dennis Embleton, M.D. 
(With two Plates.) 1 

II. Ornithological Notes. By John Blackwall, F.L.S 18 

III. A few remarks upon a species of Zoophyte discovered in the 
New Docks of Ipswich. By Mr. Edwin Giles and Dr. W. B. Clarke 26 

IV. On Odo7itites rubra, Pers., and the allied forms, including a 
notice of a new species. By John Ball, M.R.I. A 28 

V. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John Miers, 
Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 31 

VI. On the Identification of a Genus of Parasitic Hymenoptera. 

By J. O. Westwood, F.L.S 39 

VII. Descriptions of .^^j/aWe*. By Francis Walker, F.L.S 41 

VIII. On the Animal of Kellia rubra. By Joshua Alder, Esq. ... 48 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 56 — 73 

On the Development of the Purkinjean Corpuscle in Bone, by Dr. 
Leidy ; Mode of Progression with Animals, by W. A. Pike ; De- 
scriptions of new species of the genera Nyctale, Brehm., and Sy- 
cobius, Vieill., by John Cassin ; Description of a new species of 
Salamander from Upper California, by Edward Hallowell, M.D. ; 
The Pine Tree of the Tenasserim Provinces, by the Rev. F. Ma- 
son ; Description of a new Helix and Streptaxis, from the Collec- 
tion of H. Cuming, Esq., by Dr. L. Pfeift'er ; Meteorological Ob- 
servations and Table 74 — 80 

NUMBER XX. 

IX. A descriptive Account of the Freshwater Sponges (genus Spon- 
f/illa) in the Island of Bombay, with Observations on their Structure 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
and Development. By H. J. Carter, Esq., Assistant Surgeon, Bom- 
bay Establishment. (With three Plates.) 81 

X. Notice of a Bottle-nosed Dolphin {Delphinus Tursio, Fabr.) upon 
the Suffolk coas^t. By W. B. Clarke, M.D 100 

XL On Entozoa found in the Lungs of a Sheep. By John Gray 
Sandie, M.D., and George Padley, Esq., Liverpool. (With a Plate.) 102 

XII. The Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. By Richard 
Spruce, Esq 104 

XIII. Remarks on the Growth oi Bamhusa arundinacea in the large 
Conservatory, Chatsworth, By Mr. Robert Scott 120 

XIV. On the Identification of the Parasitic Genus of Insects, An- 
thophorabia. By George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S 122 

XV. Descriptions of four new Asiatic species of the genus Pupa of 
Draparnaud. By W. H. Benson, Esq 12 j 

XVI. On the Chemical Composition of the Fluid in the Ascidia of 
Nepenthes. By Dr. A. Voelcker of Frankfort 128 

XVII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
MiERs, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 136 

XVIII. On the Animal of Kellia rubra. By W. Clark, Esq 142 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 146 — 152 

The Effect of Iodine upon the Nectary, by Dr. R. Caspary ; On the In- 
timate Structui'e of Articular Cartilage, by Dr. Leidy ; Notice of 
an Excavating Cirripede, by A. Hancock, Esq. ; On the Arrange- 
ment of the Areolar Sheath of Muscular Fasciculi and its relation 
to the Tendon, by Dr. Leidy ; Meteorological Observations and 
Table 152—160 



NUMBER XXI. 

XIX. On the Classification of some British Fossil Crustacea, with 
Notices of new Forms in the University Collection at Cambridge. By 
Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's 
College, Belfast 161 

XX. On the Animals of Caecum trachea and C. glabrum. By Wil- 
liam Clark, Esq 180 

XXI. Contributions to the Botany of South Amei'ica. By John 
MiERs, Esq., F.RS., F.L.S. 185 

XXII. Characters of Diplommatina, a new genus of Terrestrial 
Mollusks belonging to the Family of CarychiadcB, and of a second spe- 
cies contained in it ; also of a new species of Carijchimn inhabiting the 
Western Himalaya. By W. H. Benson, Esq 193 

XXIII. Descriptions of .Y;)/(/(/e5. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. ... 195 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
Proceedings of tlie Botanical Society of Edinburgh ; Linuiean Society; 

Zoological Society 202 — 225 

Descriptions of Owls presumed to be undescribed, by John Cassin ; 
Descriptions of new Marine Shells, by T. A. Conrad ; Meteoro- 
logical Observations and Table 225 — 232 



NUMBER XXII. 

XXIV. Description of two new species of Floscular'ia, with remarks. 
By W. Murray Dobie, M.D., F.B.S.E., Member of the Royal Medical 
and Clinical Societies of Edinburgh. (With a Plate.) 233 

XXV. Observations on Mr. Hancock's paper on the Excavating 
Sponges. By John Morris, F.G.S 239 

XXVI. On the Branchial Currents of the Bivalve Mollusca. By 
Joshua Alder, Esq 242 

XXVII. Description of three new Genera and Species of Snakes. 

By J. E. Gray, Esq 246 

XXVIII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
MiERs, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 248 

XXIX. On the extinct and existing Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 

By Prof. NiLssoN of Lund 256 

XXX. Ohsei'vation of some of the Phases of Development of the 
Trichodina pediculus (?). By J. T. Arlidge, A.B., M.B. (Lond.), 
Member and Student in Anatomy of the Royal College of Surgeons. 
(With a Plate.) 269 

New Books: — The Rudiments of Botany: a familiar Introduction to 

the Study of Plants, by A. Henfrey, F.L.S. &c 274 

Proceedings of the Linnsean Society; Zoological Society 275 — 296 

On the Velvet-like Periostraca of Trigona, bj' J. E. Gray, Esq. ; The 
Tortoise-shell of Celebes ; Notice of some Mollusca recently taken 
by George Barlee, Esq., off Lerwick, by J. G. Jeffreys, Esq., 
F.R.S. ; Descriptions of new Freshwater Shells, by T. A. Conrad; 
Meteoroloffical Observations and Table , 296 — 304 



NUMBER XXIII. 

XXXI. Notice of the occurrence on the British coast of a Burrow- 
ing Barnacle belonging to a new Order of the Class Cirr/pedia. By 
Albany Hancock, Esq. (With two Plates.) 305 

XXXII. Note on the geiuis S'iphonotreia, with a description of a 
new Species. By John Morris, F.G.S. (With a Plate.) 315 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

XXXIII. On the Animal oi Dentalium Tarentinum. By William 
Clark, Esq 321 

XXXIV. On the Classification of some British Fossil Crustacea, 
with Notices of new Forms in the University Collection at Cambridge. 
By Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's 
College, Belfast 330 

XXXV. Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its Kindred. 
Nos. 6, 7, 8. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S 335 

XXXVI. Reports on the Progress of Physiological Botany. No. 5. 
On the Phnenomena accompanying the Germination of the Spores of 
Ferns. By Arthur Henfrey, F.L.S. &c 339 

XXXVII. On the extinct and existing Bovine Animals of Scandi- 
navia. By Prof. Nilsson of Lund 349 

XXXVIII. Observations on Mr. Morris's paper on the Excavating 
Sponges. By Albany Hancock, Esq 355 

XXXIX. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 357 

New Books: — Antiquites Celtiques et Antediluviennes ; Memoire sur 
rindustrie primitive et les Arts a leur origine, avec 80 planches 
representant 1600 figures 363 

Proceedings of the Linnasan Society; Zoological Society 365 — 382 

Gallinago Brehmi; Mr. William MacCalla ; Meteorological Observa- 
tions and Table 382 — 384 



NUMBER XXIV. 

XL. On the Primrose-leaf Miner; with notice of a proposed new 
Genus, and characters of three Species of Diptera. By Mr. James 
Hardy 385 

XLI. On the Classification of some British Fossil Crustacea, with 
Notices of new Forms in the University Collection at Cambridge. By 
Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen's 
College, Belfast = 392 

XLII. On the extinct and existing Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 
By Prof. NiLssoN of Lund 415 

XLIII. On two new species of Testaceous Mollusca. By William 
Clark, Esq 424 

XLIV. On the Botanical Productions of the Kingdom of Algiers, 
followed by a short notice of the supposed Manna of the Israelites. By 
Giles Munby, Esq , 426 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
XLV. Observations on the Synonymy of the genus Nomada of 
Fabricius, belonging to the family of Cuckoo or Parasitic Bees. By 
Frederick Smith 436 

New Books : — Principles of Scientific Botany ; or Botany as an Induc- 
tive Science, by Dr. M. J. Schleiden, Extraordinary Professor of 
Botany in the University of Jena. Translated by Edwin Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S. &c 442 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Edin- 
burgh 443—450 

What is the best plan to be adopted for the destruction of the Cossiis 
Ligniperda and Scolyttis destructorl, by C. J. Cox, M.D. ; Dis- 
covery of the wild state of Rye ; Presidency of the Linnsean 
Society ; On the pulvenilent matter which covers the surface of 
the body o( Lixus and other Insects ; Meteors ; Meteorological Ob- 
servations and Table 451 — 455 

Index 456 



PLATES IN VOL. IV. 

yj* > Anatomy of Gymnetrus Banksii. 

III.T 

IV. y Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 
V.J 
V. B. Entozoa from the Lungs of a Sheep. 
VI. New species of Floscularia. 

VII. New species of Siphonotreta. — Development of Tricliodina pedi- 
culus ? 

jy' [-Alcippe lampas. 



ERRATA. 
Page 1 62, 4 lines from top, for Podopilunmus read Nolopocoryxtes. 
, 1 2 , for Notopocorystes read Basinotopus. 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



" per litora spargite tnuscuns, 

Kaiades, et circilra vitreos considite foiites : 
Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, divje, replete canistrura. 
At vos, o NymphEE Craterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, Deae pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N. Parthenii Giannettasii EcL U 



No. 19. JULY 1849. 



I. — Account of a Ribbon Fish (Gymnetrus) taken off the coast of 
Northumberland. By Albany Hancock and Dennis Em- 

BLETON, M.D.* 

[With two Plates.] 

On the 26th of March, 1849, a fine specimen of a species of 
Gymnetrus, or Ribbon Fish, was captured by Bartholomew Taylor 
and his two sons, the crew of a fishing coble belonging to Cul- 
lercoats. It was found at about six miles from shore, and in 
from twenty to thirty fathoms water. The men having started 
from their fishing gi-ound to return homewards, observed at a 
little distance what appeared to be broken water ; the old man 
being struck with such a novelty directed his lads to pull towards 
it ; on nearing the spot they perceived a large fish lying on its 
side on the top of the water. The fish as they approached it 
righted itself, and came with a gentle lateral undulating motion 
towards them, showing its crest and a small portion of the head 
occasionally above water ; when it came alongside, one of them 
struck it with his picket — a hook attached to the end of a small 
stick, and used in landing their fish ; on this it made off with a 
vigorous and vertical undulating motion, and disappeared, Taylor 
says, as quick as lightning under the surface. In a short time it 

* Read at the Anniversary Meeting of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field 
C\uh, April 21, 1849. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 1 



3 Messrs. Hancock ajul Enibleton on a Gymnetrus 

reappeared at a little distance, and pulling up to it they found it 
again lying on its side ; they plied the picket a second time, and 
struck it a little behind the head ; the picket again tore through 
the tender flesh by a violent effort of the fish, which escaped once 
more, but with diminished vigour ; on the boat coming a third 
time alongside, the two young men putting their arms round the 
fish, lifted it into the boat. Signs of life remained for some time 
after the fish was captured, but no doubt it was in a dying or 
very sickly state when first discovered by the Taylors. 

It was exhibited the same day in Tyneniouth, North and South 
Shields, and brought to Newcastle next morning. In the after- 
noon we first saw it ; w^e found it much injured by the strokes of 
the hook and by rough handling during its removals and the 
examinations it had undergone. The fins were a good deal torn, 
but the fish evidently quite fresh. 

Its colour was a uniform silvery gray all over, resembling bright 
tin foil or white Dutch metal, except a few irregular dark spots 
and streaks towards the anterior part of the body. On closer 
inspection the remains of a bright iridescence were seen about the 
pectoral fin and head, the blue tint predominating. 

External description. — The fish presents somewhat the form 
of a double-edged sword blade, being excessively compressed ; its 
greatest thickness is decidedly nearer the ventral than the dorsal 
border ; from the thickest part it slopes gradually to each border, 
the dorsal being the sharper. The length of the fish is 12 ft. 3 in., 
the mouth not being projected forward ; immediately behind the 
gills it measures 8^ in. in depth ; from this point it gradually 
enlarges to a distance of upwards of 2 feet further back, where it 
attains its greatest depth of ll:j^in. ; this dimension remains 
much the same for 1^ ft. beyond ; it then gradually but per- 
ceptibly diminishes to the end of the dorsal fin, where the depth 
is 3 in. 

The thickness through the head at the gill-covers is 2 in., at 
the part of greatest depth 2| in. ; Plate I. fig. 2 shows a section 
at this part. Opposite the anus somewhat less ; it then gradually 
diminishes to the end of the dorsal fin, where it is upwards of 
^ths of an inch, fig. 3. 

The fishermen state that when this fish was first taken it was 
all over of a brilliant silvery iridescent hue, resembling in inten- 
sity that of the fresh herring, which soon faded, and shortly 
after we saw it, all traces of the iridescence except those already 
mentioned had disappeared. The skin is covered over with a 
silvery matter in which no scales are visible to the naked eye, 
but which is most readily detached from the skin and adheres to 
anything it comes in contact with. Submitted to the microscope 
it is found to consist partly of minute convex scale-like bodies of 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 3 

elongated pyrainidal outline with the base rounded, PI. I. fig. 4, 
which are formed of fine clear crystaUine-looking filaments, 
arranged side by side and radiating from the apex to the base 
of the scale ; these filaments grow much finer towards the base, 
where a number of minute granules are also observed. The 
scales remind one of some of those seen on the wdngs of moths. 
The bulk of the silvery matter of the skin, however, is made up of a 
soft matter finely granular, and presenting numerous transparent 
fragments of what have the aspect of acicular crystalline bodies. 
We have not been able to detect the mode of ai'rangement of the 
scale-like bodies on the skin. Round the posterior margin of the 
preoperculum is a broadish dusky mark on the skin, and near 
the top of the head above the eye a crescentic mark of a dark 
iridescent blue colour ; besides these there are on the side of the 
body several narrow, dusky black, slightly waved lines consider- 
ably apart from each other and obliquely inclined from before 
backwards ; of these eight or nine are above the lateral line and 
of unequal length ; below the same line they are more numerous, 
diminishing in size on the whole till they end in mere spots at 
some distance behind the anus. The lower series seems to cor- 
respond in some measure to the upper. Interspersed among the 
lines are a few irregular spots of the same hue towards the head. 
The dorsal and ventral ridges are also dusky. The lateral line 
was at first smooth and very distinct, but after the fish had been 
a few days in Goadby's fluid, elongated flat scales became appa- 
rent on the line ; it can be traced from the back part of the head 
above and behind the eye, sweeping down gradually to within 
3^ in. of the ventral margin at 18 in. from the snout ; at the anus 
it is 2 in. from the margin ; it thence runs backwards, still ap- 
proaching the margin, to the caudal extremity. 

Four longitudinal flattened ridges, each rather more than 1 in. 
broad, extend from the head to the tail immediately above the 
lateral line, wdiich cuts them off" very obliquely in front ; the up- 
permost, which is the longest, running forwards almost to the eye. 

The surface of the skin of the body is studded wdth very nu- 
merous distinct and separate tubercles of bone; the smallest and 
most depressed lie between the ridges and towards the ventral 
and dorsal margins, the largest and most elevated upon the ridges, 
some of these last being y\j in. in diameter. On the ventral 
ridge are numerous, irregular, and prominent tubercles slightly 
hooked backwards. The tubercles present no regular arrange- 
ment, they are imbedded in the skin, and it is difficult to say 
whether or not they had been covered by the silvery matter of 
the skin ; when we examined them, their apices w-ere uncovered 
by it. Some w^ere observed to have a perforation at the apex 
which was occupied by a soft papilla. The tubercles are replaced 

1* 



4 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on a Gymnetrus 

in the neighbom-hood of the head by irregular depressed indu- 
rations of the skin. 

The head is small and short, measuring 9 in. from the snout 
to the posterior margin of the gill- cover ; the outline of the lower 
jaw is a wide arch convex below, and stretching forwards and 
upwards to the mouth, which is placed in an elevated position 
and opens upwards and forwards ; the mouth is small, nearly cir- 
cular, and capable of being projected 2 or 3 in. forwards when 
the lower jaw is depressed. The profile of the head from the 
anterior end of the crest is at first suddenly concave, the conca- 
vity facing forwards and upwards, and just behind the anterior 
end of the curve exists the nasal chamber which is small, and 
owing to the damaged state of the fish we could only find one 
small aperture, which was longer than it was broad. Beyond this 
concavity the premaxillary bones project nearly horizontally to 
the mouth. The eye is 11 in. in diameter, the iris of a beautiful 
silvery white, and rather broader than the diameter of the pupil. 
The eye is situated 2^ in. below the base of the crest and \^ in. 
behind the frontal concave profile. There is a narrow imperfect 
circle of a dusky colour round the contour of the eyeball. The 
eye is very flat. The tongue is rather prominent, but small, 
smooth and fixed. There are no teeth. The interior of the mouth 
is black. 

The gill-covers are large in proportion to the size of the head, 
prolonged backwards, their posterior angles considerably ele- 
vated. The preoperculum has somewhat of a crescentic form, 
the lower border convex ; the anterior horn is narrow and pro- 
longed to its articulation with the lower maxilla, the posterior 
border has an obtuse angle pointing backwards. This border 
corresponds to and may rest upon the edge of the concavity 
formed by the operculum above and the interoperculum below. 
The operculum is on the whole broad and irregularly quadrate, 
with the upper anterior angle prolonged forwards and upwards ; 
the upper margin is smooth and slightly concave nearly as far as 
the angle, it then curves suddenly downwards a little to the 
angle which is rather obtuse. Below this is the posterior border, 
which is somewhat sinuous and rather oblique from above down- 
wards and forwards. 

The inferior border is nearly straight, and directed upwards 
and forwards corresponding to the interoperculum. 

The remaining bone, which we take for the interoperculum, is 
narrow and thin, prolonged almost to a point under the jaw and 
widening gradually to its posterior end, which is rounded and 
projects backwards beyond the preoperculum. Its lower border 
is convex and lies almost horizontally. 

These are the only pieces observed as entering into the forma- 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 5 

tion of the gill-covers. The above bones are exceedingly de- 
licate and fragile, and present the radiating lines of development 
with great prominence ; the silvery skin covering them is remark- 
able for its delicacy. 

The branchiostegal rays are seven in number ; the uppermost 
a broadish plate marked by radiating lines, the rest diminishing 
successively in size having the ordinary characters of such rays. 

The four branchial arches diminish in size backwards, and the 
pharyngeal is less than the fourth branchial arch. Tlie rays of 
the convexities of the branchial arches are very numerous ; the 
concavities of these arches are beset with prominent blunt- 
pointed tubercles which are studded with a number of short setae 
or bristles, sharp-pointed but rather soft, which project inwards 
towards the pharyngeal cavity. The first branchial arch has in 
addition a row of short pale- coloured rays or plates, the inner 
edges of which are also furnished with sette which project likewise 
inwards. On the roof of the pharynx are two or three pairs of 
short laminje (pharyngo-branchial) furnished with similar setae, 
pointed backwards and downwards in the direction of the 
entrance to the ojsophagus. 

The dorsal fin extends from immediately behind the upper and 
posterior end of the curved frontal profile to within 3 inches of 
the tail of the fish. The anterior part of the fin, more prominent 
than the rest, is composed of twelve rays, which were stated by 
the captors to have been 12 or 14 inches in length when the fish 
was taken, and to be each furnished with a membranous expan- 
sion on its posterior edge, increasing in width upwards something 
like a peacock^s feather. 

The first ray is a pretty strong spine arising just within the 
frontal curve, the three next are very slender, and much closer 
together than the rest, and when we first saw the fish, united for 
4 or 5 inches (their length at that time) by a membrane ; the 
next is equally slender wdth the preceding, but rather farther 
apart ; the three or four after this are nearly as strong as the 
first, the rest diminish in strength and length, and become uni- 
form with the rays of the dorsal fin. 

It is difficult for us to say whether the twelve front rays con- 
stituted a detached crest or formed merely the anterior continu- 
ation of the dorsal fin, though after careful and repeated exami- 
nations we found shreds of membrane in each interval between 
them, and their bases also were connected with a continuous mem- 
brane. In the interval between the twelfth and thirteenth rays the 
remains of a membrane were found connecting the bases of these 
rays, and their shafts were ragged and woolly-looking, as if a 
membrane had been torn off from them. We are therefore in- 
cHned to conclude that the crest was really a continuation of the 



6 ]\Iessrs. Hancock and Embleton on a Gyinnetrus 

dorsal fin and not a separate structure, though it is probable 
enough that the ends of its rays may have been for some distance 
free and even furnished with a membrane on their posterior mar- 
gin widening to the top, giving them the appearance of peacocks' 
feathers as asserted by the fishermen. This probability is height- 
ened by the fact of the head of the Gi/mnefrus from the Cornish 
coast being provided with two long rays having broad membra- 
nous expansions at their ends, which would justify a casual ob- 
server in comparing them in form to the above feathers. It is 
not unlikely besides that the second, third, fourth and fifth rays, 
on account of their resemblance in delicacy to the ordinary tin- 
rays, may have terminated difterently from the rest. The rays 
having been broken, we cannot say of ourselves whether they 
were uniform in size or not ; but from what we have learnt by 
questioning those who saw the fish, we conclude that the middle 
rays were the longest, those in front and behind them gradually 
decreasing in length. The rays of the crest are more closely set 
generally than those of the rest of the dorsal fin, which stand 
about half an inch apart. Exckisive of the crest there are 268 
rays in the dorsal fin. They terminate in fine points that pro- 
ject a little beyond the margin of the very delicate connecting 
membrane. This membrane was colourless according to the 
fishermen, but was bordered by a pale red when w^e observed it. 
The rays of the back are highest about the middle of the fish, 
where they measure upwards of 3~ in., and at the termination of 
the fin are about 1 in. in height. 

From the end of the fin the dorsal margin slopes rather rapidly 
downwards to within about an inch of the ventral margin, and is 
then prolonged to a rounded point at the caudal extremity. There 
is no caudal fin. The skin at this part, it is true, was broken, but 
on pressing together the broken edges they seemed to leave no 
hiatus. The fishermen persisted that the part was at first entire, 
and that thei'e was no appendage whatever. At a distance from 
this point of about 2 inches along the ventral margin there exists 
a shallow notch. Both the margins of the fish at this part are 
very thin. On carefully inspecting the surface of the body, some- 
thing like a series of transverse marks corresponding to the 
bodies of the vertebrse can be discerned, and the number of these 
has from this appearance been roughly estimated at about 110. 

The pectoral fins are placed close behind the gill-covers, and 
much nearer to the ventral margin than to the lateral line, which 
is at least half an inch above the points of the rays of the fins ; 
these fins are colourless, delicate, subtriangular, and the longest 
rays measure 2 inches. They are eleven in number and a good 
deal arched. 

The ventral fins are rejiresented by a pair of very strong and 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 7 

straight spines, stated by the fishermen to have been 7 or 8 inches 
long and as if broken at the end, and furnished along the pos- 
terior edge with a delicate membrane about half an inch broad. 
When we saw them they were about 4 in. long, and the mem- 
brane was distinctly visible at their bases. These spines, which 
at their root measure about \ in. in diameter, project from each 
side of the ventral ridge immediately behind the pectoral fins, 
are inclined backwards, and capable of a limited lateral and back- 
ward motion. We are assured by a gentleman who witnessed 
the landing of the fish, that tliese spines were bright crimson 
and resembling the feelers of a boiled lobster ; hence we conclude 
that they must have been originally flexible towards the end, 
and much longer than 7 or 8 in. as stated by the fishermen. The 
same gentleman says that the rays of the dorsal crest were sim- 
ple and unbordered by a membrane. 

The whole fish is remarkably delicate and tender, and easily 
broken when bent laterally, as shown by the injuries it has sus- 
tained by being lifted in and out of the boat, &c. ; the flesh is 
white and fine. 

Internal examination. — On opening the fish, the abdominal 
cavity, PI. II. fig. 2, is found to be small, and the eye is at once 
arrested by the bright pale orange vermilion colour of the liver, 
the rest of the viscera presenting no peculiarity of tint. 

The oesophagus, PL II. figs. 2 & 3f/, at first slightly funnel- 
shaped, soon assumes a diameter of 1 inch, and then forms a gra- 
dually increasing tube as far as the coming off of the duodenum 
23i in. below the orifice, where it measures 2^ in. in diameter. 

Nothing like any cardia or line of demarcation between the 
oesophagus and stomach exists in this tract. The duodenum 
comes off abruptly as a short tube 1^ in. in diameter, inclining 
forwards from the under surface of the stomach. The stomach, 
fig. 3 b, is continued on beyond the duodenum as a straight 
tube, gradually diminishing in diameter towards the posterior 
end of the fish, measuring an inch across opposite the anus. At 
this point it has the rectum or intestine lying below it, the ovaria 
and ureter above, the oviduct and ureter running down to the 
anus on its right side. 

It is slightly contracted opposite to the anus, and a little be- 
yond tliis enters a canal among the muscles, a continuation of 
the abdominal cavity, situated at about 1^ in. from the ventral 
margin and with tendinous walls, to which it is pretty firmly 
adhei-ent throughout. It is enlarged slightly after entering the 
canal, and then diminishes gradually from the diameter of rather 
more than an inch to the size of a crowquill. It can be traced 
backwards to within 1 ft. 8 in. of the caudal end of the fish, 
gradually approaching the ventral border and terminating in a 



8 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on a Gymnetrus 

blunt blind extremity, PI. II. figs. 2 & 3 c. The canal in which 
the csecal prolongation is lodged is prolonged for an inch or two 
beyond the end of this latter, and contains several small blood- 
vessels, and the cellular coating of the cjecum arranged in cords, 
the vessels being gradually lost by passing backwards and out- 
wards into the surrounding muscular tissue, the cellular cords 
being attached to the sides of the termination of the canal. 

The anterior main part of the stomach, when laid open, was 
quite empty, the inner surface of the oesophagus and stomach as 
far as 2 in. below the pylorus perfectly uniform and smooth ; 
from the point here indicated, the upper wall of the stomach 
presents the gradual beginnings of a few longitudinal plicse, on 
ti-acing which backwards they are found to increase in number 
until at 5 in. in front of the anus the whole inner surface of the 
tube is provided with them. They are continued on in the 
stomachic caecum to within 2 or 3 inches of its termination. At 
about halfway along this csecum was found a small quantity of 
the spawn of some fish partially digested,, several of the ova being 
still entire ; a little way in front of these was an angular bit of 
cinder. 

The pylorus, fig. 3 d, coming ofi" as above mentioned from the 
most enlarged part of the stomach, extends for only I7} in., when 
it becomes suddenly constricted and presents internally the usual 
circular valve. 

The duodenum, figs. 2 & 3 e,^ beyond is a cylinder of about 
1 in. in diameter and 1 ft. in length, perforated all round by 
very numerous circular openings, the orifices of the pancreatic 
cjeca, which measure about ^ inch in diameter and 1 inch in 
length, and completely mask the whole duodenum. This part 
of the tube extends forwards, lying parallel to and beneath the 
stomach, and overlapped by the posterior lobes of the liver for 
about 4 in., and then emerging as it were from the pancreatic 
cgeca is continuous with the remainder of the intestine, figs. 2 & 
3/y, which then is suddenly bent backwards and runs along the 
lower border of the pancreas obscured by the cpeca of the right 
side, and then keeping along the floor of the abdominal cavity it 
passes on as a straight tube to the anus, figs. 2 & 3_<7, at the 
front of which it opens separately. The diameter of the duode- 
num is diminished one-half at its exit from the pancreas, and the 
intestine continues of the same size to within an inch or two of 
the anus, where it is gradually lessened to about \ inch. The 
length of the intestine from duodenum to atius is 3 ft, 5 in. The 
inner surface of the intestine below the duodenum presents a 
very delicate honeycombed texture, the lamiuje being fine, of 
varying size, and crossing each other in all directions, the largest 
standing up pretty high and taking a longitudinal course. This 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 9 

form of valvulae conniventes extends to within 3 or 4 in. of the 
anus. A few inches below the end of the duodenum was observed 
a dehcate and transparent, but large and crescentic, membranous 
valve projecting into the cavity of the intestine. There is no di- 
vision into large and small intestine unless the above valve point 
it out. No Ccxcal appendage except to the stomach. The intes- 
tine contained nothing but a quantity of pancreatic secretion. 

Attached to the upper surface of that part of the intestine 
which is opposite to the pylorus is the spleen, fig. 3 h, ovoid in 
form, delicate and spongy in texture, 2 in. long by | in. broad, 
and of a very pale reddish brown colour. Large blood-vessels 
run along both the upper and lower borders of the intestine 
below the duodenum. 

The liver, figs. 2 & 3 ?', is large, and extends 18 inches back- 
wards from the anterior end of the abdominal cavity lying below 
the oesophagus, somewhat pointed in front, and becoming niore 
bulky towards the posterior end, where it is truncated diagonally 
from above downwards and forwards. 

The upper surface has a deep lissure partially dividing it into 
two unequal masses, the left being larger than the right ; along 
this fissure run the hepatic and pancreatic blood-vessels ; the gall- 
bladder and the cystic duct lie also attached to it. 

The gall-bladder, fig. 3j, about 5 in. long and 1^ in. broad, is 
of an irregularly elliptical form, its long diameter corresponding 
nearly to the length of the fish ; the cystic duct comes off from 
its anterior end, and running backwai'ds parallel to it and to the 
hepatic duct, joins the latter just before coming to the posterior 
border of the liver : the common duct, fig. 3 k, after this runs 
backwards among the lower appendices pyloricje of the left side, 
and debouches into the duodenum on a small papilla upwards of 
an inch distant from the pylorus. The gall-bladder contains a 
small quantity of yellow olive-coloured bile. The texture of the 
liver is so soft and fragile that it cannot be presei'ved. 

The ovaria, figs. 2 & 3 /, lie directly above the stomach, are 
about 3 ft. 3 in. long, and extend forwards nearly as far as the 
middle of the liver. Their ends taper to points diverging slightly 
from each other; traced backwards they gradually increase in 
bulk to f inch in diameter at their middle ; soon after this they 
diminish in size, become more closely connected, and unite at 
27 in. from their anterior points into one body, which tapers 
gradually to | in. in diameter, and then curving downwards to 
the external orifice on the right side of the stomachic csecum be- 
comes rapidly smaller, and opens behind the intestine. On lay- 
ing open the common tube or oviduct it is found for 2 or 3 in. 
from the oi'ifice quite plain ; above this, longitudinal folds of the 
lining membrane appear small and irregular at first, but soon 



10 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on a Gymiietrus 

larger, more projecting, and then occupying the whole inner sur- 
face of the tube. These plicse, which become tortuous and col- 
lected into rows of two or three together, are found to extend to 
the ends of the ovarian cavities, and are studded throughout with 
minute ova of unequal sizes in an undeveloped state. 

The ureter, figs. 2 & 3 m, a simple tube of the size of an ordi- 
nary goosequill, runs from the external orifice, just within which 
is a slight vesical ddatatiou, fig. 3 n, along the median line, lying 
above and attached to the ovaria, and in contact with the roof of 
the abdominal cavity, for a distance of 1 ft. 11 in., when it per- 
forates the fibrous membrane separating the kidney from the 
other viscera. It runs obliquely forwards and upwards into the 
kidney, fig. 3 o, which, inclosed in its proper cavity, extends 
from an inch behind where the ureter joins it as far as the cra- 
nium, a distance of 2 ft., reaching farther forward than the di- 
gestive cavity. The organ is partially and unequally cleft by a 
median fissure, the left side being larger than the right. Its 
tissue is reddish brown, spongy and friable. The posterior end 
of the kidney tapers to a point. The anterior end also tapers a 
little, but is rounded. The ureter enters the under surface of 
the gland and terminates by opening into the general cavity 
which exists along the median line of the organ. Along the 
upper angle of this cavity and elsewhere are the openings of 
small canals bringing the secretion from the uriniferous tubules. 
These last can be readily seen with a common magnifying glass. 

The supra-renal glands, fig. ^ji, are two small ovoid bodies, 
much paler than the kidney, partially imbedded in that organ on 
its upper surface at a distance of 2 inches from its posterior ex- 
tremity. There is no trace of air-bladder. 

The heart, which is double the size of that of an ordinary cod- 
fish, occupies a spacious triangular cavity. Its ventricle is large, 
firm and triangular. The bulb of the aorta is smaller than 
that of the cod. The auricle is capacious and of irregular form. 

The blood-vessels beyond were not examined, and we could not 
investigate the nervous system. 

In a little blood obtained from the heart, the blood-discs, 
PI. I. fig. 5, are found to vary much in size, and also in form 
from subcircular to elliptical and even fusiform, having their ex- 
ti'cmities or poles somewhat pointed. The nucleus is generally 
large and distinct, and presents several nucleoli of different sizes, 
giving it in many instances a granular appearance. 

General remarks. — Having referred to what we have been able 
to find recorded respecting the genus Gymnetrus, we found that 
the figures as well as the descriptions of the external parts were 
very imperfect and the anatomy little known ; hence we thought 
it desirable to make the above description fuller than otherwise 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 11 

would have been necessary. Seven or eight species only have 
been recorded. Cuvier and V.ilenciennes, in vol. x. p. 365 of 
their ' Histoire Naturelle des Poissons/ describe one species from 
a manuscript in the library of Sir Joseph Banks, which is pro- 
bably identical with ours, and to which they have given the name 
of G. Banksii. It was thrown up at Filey Bay, March 18, 1796, 
and taken to York market on the 21st. The description is as 
follows : — " La queue lui manquait aussi. Sa longueur etait de 
treize pieds, son epaisseur de trois pouces, la longueur de sa tete 
de sept. Ses Hancs etaient garnis de petites protuberances argen- 
tees disposees en series longitudinales. La dorsale, qui s'etendait 
depuis la tete jusqu^kTautre extremite, etait rouge, et avait deux 
cent quatre vingt dix et treize rayons (les treize rayons sont sans 
doute ceux de la nuque) ; la pectorale en avait douze ; la ventrale 
un seul. II n'y avait point d'anale ; on ne voyait point de dents ; 
I'interieure de la bouche etait noir ; la distance de I'anus ^ la 
bouche etait de quatre pieds. Toutes circonstances qui, comme 
on voit^ se rapprochent beaucoup de ce que nous avons observe 
dans nos Gymnetres de la Mediterranee*." 

This description, though not conclusive, is sufficient to war- 
rant us in adopting the name given by the French naturalists, 
and thus to avoid running the risk of adding uselessly to the list 
of synonyms. 

Another species is described in the same work, vol. x. p. 298, 
under the name Gymnetrus Gladius, which very much resembles 
our specimen ; besides however some minor diiferences, the upper 
border of the operculum differs materially — in the former it is 
convex, and presents three angular points ; in the latter it is 
smooth and concave t- 

There are two Norwegian species which appear generally to 
precede or accompany the shoals of herrings, and hence are 
called " King of the Herrings.^' Of these, the Regalecus Glesne 
of Ascanius (G. Ascanii of Shaw) seems to be the most nearly 
allied to our fish, but it is distinguished from it by the following 
marks. It is 10 ft. long and 6 in. deep ; its length is therefore 
to its depth as 20 to ] . From the measurements given in the 
former part of this paper, it will be seen that our fish is 13 times 
lono-er than it is deep. This has 268 rays in the dorsal fin ; 
that 120. 

Again, the G. Ascanii is devoid of the transverse dusky streaks 

* It lias not been in om* power to refer to the work here mentioned ; but 
to the kindness of Mr. Adam White of the British Museum, who called our 
attention to the above record, we are indebted for this extract, and also for 
another relative to G. Gladius. 

t The G. Telum of the same authors is also different from our fish, this 
having 268, that 398 rays in the dorsal fin. 



13 Messrs. Hancock an^/ Embleton on a Gymnetrus 

on the anterior part of the body so characteristic of our species^ 
but is furnished with longitudinal rows of minute dusky spots, and 
has moreover three broad dusky bands across the posterior part 
of the body behind the anus, and its forehead is white ; it is also 
described as having teeth ; the crest also probably differs, if the 
figure given in the ' Encyclopedic Methodique ' be correct ; the 
dorsal fin is continued round the caudal extremity for a little 
distance along the ventral line, being somewhat elongated at the 
extremity, forming a kind of caudal fin. The gill-membrane has 
only four or five rays. Thus, though there is a striking general 
resemblance, there are several important points of distinction 
between the G. Ascanii and the G. Banksii. 

The other Norwegian species named G. Grillii (Lindroth, Nou- 
velles Memoires de Stockholm, xix. pi. 8) is noticed in Griffith's 
' Cuvier ' as being 18 ft. long, and having upwards of 400 rays in 
the dorsal fin, and w^e conclude therefore that it also is distinct 
from our species*. 

Of the so-called Indian species, one, the Russellian, described 
as a probable variety in vol. iv. pt. 2 of Shaw's * Zoology,' is only 
2 ft. 8 in. long, and has 320 rays in the dorsal fin, and differs in 
several other respects. 

The other is the Blochian Gymnetrus of Shaw, the G. Haivkenii 
of Bloch, the figures of which are incorrect. This however in all 
probabdity ought not to be considered as an Indian species. The 
history of it, as far as we can gather, is as follows : — 

It appears that on the 23rd February, 1788, a species of Gtjm- 
netrus was drawn on shore in a net at Newlyn in Cornwall, and 
all that is really known of it is obtained from a figure with notes 
which was in the possession of the late ]\Ir. Chirgwin of Newlyn, 
who freely granted permission to Mr. Couch of Polperro to have 
a copy taken of it. Through the kindness of Mr. Couch we have 
been favoured with a reduced copy of the above figure made by 
Mr. Thomas Q. Couch ; and in the letter accompanying the draw- 
ing Mr. Couch states that Mr. Chirgwin assured him that his 
figure was the only true original, the fish having been drawn ashore 
not far from his house ; that however they might differ, all 
other figures were copied from his, and that the note wu-itten on 
his figure is the only one originally made from the specimen. 
Mv. Couch further says, that he has no doubt, from circum- 
stantial evidence, that the figure and account of the G. Hawkenii 
were communicated to Bloch by a ]\Ir. John Hawkins, brother 
of the late Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. Mr. Hawkins him- 
self, as Mr. Couch concludes from IVIr. Chirgwin's remarks, did 

* We have since been informed by Mr. J. E. Gray that G. Grillii has the 
same number of rays and the same dark cross bands on the anterior part of 
the body as the Cullercoats fish. 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 13 

not actually inspect the fish. The copier of the figure sent to 
Bloch appears to Mr. Couch to have committed a great mistake 
by attempting to correct one which he supposed to have been 
made by the original draftsman, and the mistake consists prin- 
cipally in his having removed the two filaments in front of the 
dorsal fin to the situation of the ventral fin, thus making four 
filaments there instead of two. The same mistake appears to 
have been made with regard to the figure of the G. Hawkenii in 
Yarrell's ' Fishes/ that figure being, as Mr. Yarrell informs our 
friend Mr, Alder, incorrect as regards the number of ventral fila- 
ments, and the addition of the caudal fin. 

It appears therefore that the G. Haivkenii of Bloch is simply 
the fish caught at Newlyn incorrectly copied. In the notes ap- 
pended to the drawing sent us by Mr. Couch, and which are 
copied from the original, are merely mentioned the date of the 
capture as above and the measurements ; " its length without the 
tail, which it wanted, was 8- ft., its extreme breadth 10^ in., and 
its thickness but 2| in," 

Its proportions therefore, allowing the tail to be somewhat 
deficient, come pretty near to those of our fish ; if the drawing 
however is to be relied on, it differs from ours in having only two 
filaments fi'om the head with expanded feather-like extremities, 
and in having the ventral processes like those of the head. The 
fins also are crimson, and the body is marked all over by delicate 
roundish spots, and has a few obscure streaks obliquely placed 
below the lateral line. 

On the whole then we are inclined to believe the Cornish spe- 
cimen distinct from the G. Banksii, though, from the evident 
want of knowledge of the draftsman, much reliance cannot be 
placed on his details. 

Notwithstanding the rarity of the genus Gymnetrus, there is 
eveiy reason to believe that specimens of it have been taken from 
time to time off the north-eastern coast of England. It appears 
by the ' Annual Register ' that a fish was captui-ed off Whitby, 
January 22, 1759, closely related to, if not identical with our spe- 
cies. The account, which may be interesting, we here reproduce. 
It is by Lionel Charlton, author of a ' History of Whitby ': — 

" Yesterday (Jan. 22) a very extraordinary fish was brought 
here by our fishermen, which broke into three pieces as they were 
hauling it into the coble. It was 1 1 ft. 4 in. long, exclusive of the 
tail, had a head like a turbot or brat, was about a foot broad near 
its head, but not above 4 or 5 in. near the tail, and not anywhere 
more than 3 in. thick. The thickest part was its belly, and it 
gradually diminished away towards the back, which was sharp, 
and had all along it one continued fin from the head to the tail. It 
was covered with an infinite number of white scales which stuck to 



14 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on a Gymnetrus 

and dyed everything that it touched ; and might be said in some 
sort to resemble the qidcksilvered back of a looking-glass. It 
appeared when laid on the sand like a long oak plank^ and was 
such a fish as nobody here ever saw before^ which caused a vast 
concourse of people round it the wdaole day." 

The breaking of the fish was owing to its great delicacy of 
structure^ and probably its little capacity for lateral motion. It 
was necessary to take great care in removing the Cullercoats fish 
for fear of fracture from the same causes. 

We are informed by ]\Ir. Stanton of Newcastle, that upwards 
of fifty years ago a silvery fish resembling in its general cha- 
racters the subject of this paper was exhibited here, and we have 
been favoured by Mr. Robert Bewick with a copy of a hand-bill 
relating to a fish shown in this town March 27, 1794, undoubt- 
edly referring to the specimen seen by Mr. Stanton. It is as 
follows : — " To be seen at Moses Hopper's, Flesh Market, a most 
curious fish taken at Newbiggen by the Sea, 10 ft. long, 1 ft. 
broad, 3 in. thick, and is thought to be the greatest curiosity 
that was ever seen in the kingdom before." 

This fish was sketched by our celebrated townsman Thomas 
Bewick, but unfortunately the sketch has been mislaid. 

We have lately been favoured with a letter from Mr. George 
Tate of Alnwick respecting a fish of this genus, from which we 
make the following extract : — " A fish was exhibited in January 
or February of the year 1845, similar in its general form to that, 
a drawing of which you showed me when I was last in Newcastle. 
One of the Preventive Service men observed this fish lying in 
a shallow pool in the sands about a mile south of Alnmouth, 
where it had been left by the receding tide. Its great length 
and unusual appearance at once raised the man's curiosity and 
excited his fears. On approaching it the creature bent itself 
round so as to appear like the rim of a coach-wheel, and the man 
supposing it was about to dart upon him drew his sword and 
struck it on the head. The fish struggled much, but the man 
striking it repeatedly at length succeeded in cutting off" its head. 

" This fish was IG ft. long, 11 in. deep, and about 6 in. thick 
at the thickest part, from which it very gradually diminished 
both in thickness and depth. The eye was large, measuring 
about 5 in. in circumference. The teeth very small and very 
acute. The skin was smooth, and no pustulations or hard points 
were observed, neither were any transverse streaks noticed ; but 
there were a few longitudinal ridges or corrugations about half 
an inch apart along the sides. The colour was a silvery gray, 
and the skin was covered by minute silvery-looking scales or par- 
ticles, which were in such great quantity, that in the course of the 
struggles the creature made after being struck, the spot where it 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 15 

was found was covered over with them. There were no pectoral 
or ventral or anal or caudal fins, neither was any crest observed. 
Tliese however may have been broken off, as the head was much 
injured by the blows which it has received. One fin, of a rich dark 
crimson colour, extended uninterruptedly from the neck along the 
back to within a few inches of the tail, which ended in an obtuse 
point. The fish was very beautiful ; the large eye, the rich, crim- 
son, rayed fin cresting its back, and the bright silvery hue of its 
body rendered it a striking and attractive object." The fish thus 
described by Mr. Tate, it will be seen resembles rather the Rega- 
lecus Glesne in its having teeth and being devoid of the trans- 
verse streaks. 

The following account of the capture of two fish of this genus 
has been taken down by us from the oral relation given by John 
Blackett Anderson^ of Walker near Newcastle. He states he re- 
collects the taking of two fish about fifty years ago at the outer 
Fern Islands. They were left by the tide in a shallow pool, and 
a signal being made by the keeper of the lighthouse, a boat went 
from the shore and brought them to Bambrough. They were 
sick when taken. One was about 4 ft. longer than the other, 
the lai'ger specimen was 18 ft. long. It could not be less, for it 
was as long as the breadth of a house- end which measured 18 ft., 
and against which it was laid out on a bench. The fish were 
about a foot deep, and were flat ; their colour was silvery, like a 
silver fish, but not so white. There were four processes about 
18 in. long from the head, of a red colour, like the feelers of 
boiled lobsters ; they tapered gradually towards their ends, which 
were enlarged to the form and size of a large button. Thinks 
these specimens occurred in spring. They were kept till putrid, 
and then thrown away. They excited much interest throughout 
the neighbourhood. Recollects them well, for he was living then 
on the spot. Has not seen the Cullercoats fish. 

We have moreover learnt from a Norwegian captain who fre- 
quents this port and has traded to Archangel, that in the Wliite 
Sea, fish closely resembling the Cullercoats one are occasionally 
seen, the silvery colour, long attenuated form, and rapid undu- 
lating motion being their chief characteristics. They are there 
called Stone Serpents. 

It has occurred at once to many here and to ourselves also on 
first viewing this Gynmetrus, that it may possibly have been taken 
for the famous Sea Serpent. The Archangel name of the fish 
seen there, strengthens the idea that it may at times have deceived 
the eye of some credulous mariner, from its rapid undulating 
motion, linear form, and from its occasionally appearing at the 
surface, and leaving a lengthened wake behind it, thus creating 
an exaggerated idea of its extent. 



16 Messrs. Hancock and Embleton on a Gymnetrus 

On consulting however the accounts which have appeared of 
the Sea Serpent, we find that tliey relate in most instances to 
creatures widely different from the Ribbon Fish, such as whales, 
seals, sharks, &c. seen under disadvantageous circumstances or 
impelfectly observed. Still, though the Gymnetrus may not have 
originated the idea of the existence of a marine serpent, we think 
it not improbable that the occasional appearance of this fish may 
very materially have tended to keep up among the Norwegian 
fishermen that faith which they are stated to hold in the exist- 
ence of such a monster. 

Of the habits of the Gymnetrus little can be said. The deli- 
cate general conformation of the body, the smallness and tender- 
ness of the mouth, the absence of teeth, the delicacy of the tins, 
show clearly that it is a fish not organized for attack — the dorsal 
crest and the ventral processes being obviously for the purpose 
of balancing the body, and not for either attack or defeice. Its 
means of defence may consist partly in the bone-studded skin, but 
chiefly in the adaptation for flight, evidenced in the compressed 
forfn of the body and in the great length and power of the tail. 
The small amount of half-digested food found in the stomachal 
csecum goes so far to prove the non-rapacious habits of the Gym- 
netrus, and make it probable that its habitual food is confined to 
the spawn of other fish, and the soft, small, and defenceless in- 
habitants of the deep. The absence of air-bladder seems to indi- 
cate the sea-bottom as the natural resort of this fish, where its 
food would be most abundant. 

The only evidence of its being indigenous on the north-eastern 
coast rests in its having been observed six times since 1 759. There 
is little doubt of the remarkable circumstance that all the six have 
been captured during the spring months. 

In conclusion, we have only to state, that the fish is now in the 
possession of ]\Ir. Edward Whitfield of Newcastle, who kindly 
granted us permission to make the necessary examinations, and we 
are happy in being able to state that that gentleman has expressed 
his intention of presenting this rai'e fish to the museum of the 
Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. 

Since writing the above we have received a pamphlet entitled 
" An Account of the Rare Fish, Regalecus Glesne, caught ofi" Cul- 
lercoats,^' &c. In it we find a copy of a figure of a Gymnetrus 
taken at Newlyn in Cornwall on Saturday 23rd day of February 
1788. This figure, with descriptive notes appended, is bound up 
at the end of a copy of Pennant's ' British Zoology' in the Banks- 
ian library. Mr. J. E. Gray supposes this figure and notes to 
be the authority for the various descriptions and figures of the 



taken off the coast of Northumberland. 17 

Cornisli specimen of G. Hawkenii. The Banksian figure, though 
possessing a good general resemblance to a Gymnetrus, differs so 
widely from the figure we have been favoured with by Mr. Couch, 
that we believe neither of them to have been a copy of the othei*, 
and the differences in the measurements that accompany the 
figures are such as to strengthen this belief j the length of the 
Banksian specimen is said to be 8 ft. 10 in., Mr. Couches 8^ ft. 
The depth of the former is 10 in., of the latter Vd\ in. ; the 
thickness of the former 2^ in., of the latter 2| in. These dis- 
crepancies could scarcely have arisen from errors of copying, but 
are more likely to be the result of examinations by different ob- 
servers. It would therefore appear that there must either have 
been more than one fish caught on the Cornish coast, or else that 
different drawings and descriptions have been made of the same 
specimen. 

The figure in the pamphlet does not appear to us materially 
to elucidate the species of the Cornish fish ; indeed the details 
both of the figures and descriptions are so imperfect that they 
may quite as readily be taken for the G. Gladius as for the 
G. Banksii; the spotting of Mr. Chirgwin's drawing brings 
strongly to mind the markings of the G. Gladius. 

We are glad to be able, from a letter of Mr. Yarrell in the 
above pamphlet, to add to the list of specimens now put on record 
one which was cast on shore alive at the village of Crovie near 
Macduff, after a severe north-easterly gale in March 1844. It 
is thus described : — '' Length without the tail, which was want- 
ing, 13 ft., greatest depth 12 in., greatest thickness 2| in. The 
dorsal fin was 2^ in. in height, and extended to the back of the 
head to a point near the tail. Rays in the dorsal fin apart from 
its anterior elongation on the head 264. Filaments rising from 
the head 15 ; the longest measuring 27 inches. They were con- 
nected at the base by a thin membrane similar in consistency to 
that which connects the rays of the dorsal fin, and are evidently 
a continuation of that fin. The pectoral fin is 2^ in. long, the 
rays 12 in. The ventrals consisted of two filaments 3 ft. in length. 
They were fringed with a thin membrane on two sides, and had 
evidently been broken. The head was 9 in. long from the point 
of the lower jaw to the end of the operculum. The whole body 
was covered with a delicate silvery white membrane, under which 
appeared a series of tuberculated and smooth bands extending 
over the whole length of the body ; twelve of these bands occu- 
pied the space above the lateral line. When the fish was in a 
fresh state these bands did not appear distinctly, but when the 
skin was taken off they appeared distinct enough. Behind the pec- 
toral fins appeared a few narrow dark bands extending across the 
fish ; these were quite distinct when the fish was in a fresh state, 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 2 



18 Mr. J. Black wallas Ornithological Notes. 

but the skin does not retain a trace of them. The dorsal fin had 
an orange tinge, and the lateral line extended along the lower 
third of the body. The distance of the vent from the end of the 
operculum was 4G inches." 

We agree at once with Mr. Yarrell in pronouncing this to be 
the same species as the Cullercoats fish, and it is confirmatory of 
our opinion that the crest was really a continuation of the dorsal 
fin. This Scotch specimen, like the English ones, was caught in 
the spring, and makes the eighth British example of this fish, 
which is therefore not so extremely rare as has been supposed. 

We observe that in the last Number of the ' Annals ' Professor 
J. Reid of St. Andrews has given a highly interesting description 
of what he believes to be the first British example of the Deal 
fish, and we take the present opportunity of stating that in the 
Newcastle Museum there is a specimen which was taken at New- 
biggen on the Northumberland coast, June 18th, 1844. This 
specimen is 5 ft. 5 in. long, and has 1 ft. maximum depth. The 
body was of a silvery gray, the dorsal fin and tail red. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES L and IL 
Plate L 

Fig. 1. Anterior portion of Gymnetrus Bunksi'i, tlie jaws being slightly pro- 
tnided ; the dotted lines on the crest and ventral })roccsscs repre- 
sent these parts as they are believed to have been originally, the 
contimions lines rcjjresent them as they were seen by us. 

Fig. 2. Outline of section of body at part of greatest thickness, showing the 
relative depth and thickness. 

Fig. 3. Outline of section of ditto, showing ditto ditto at 3 or 4 in. from tail. 

Fig. 4. Two of the radiated scale-like bodies fi'om the silvery matter of the 
skin. 

Fig. 5. Different forms of blood -globules, some shown on edge. 

Plate IL 

Fig. 1. Side view of G. Banlcsii in outline. 

Fig. 2. Side view of ditto, abdomen laid open, showing the viscera iyi situ : 
o, oesophagus ; c c, CcEcal prolongation of stomach ; e, pancreatic 
caeca covering duodenum; /, intestine; g, anus; i, liver; /, ova- 
ria ; m, ureter. 

Fig. 3. Plan of viscera removed from body : a, oesophagus ; h, stomach ; 
c c, stomachic cjecum ; d, pylorus; e, pancreatic cseca surrounding 
duodenum ; /, intestine; g, anus; h, spleen ; i, liver; j, gall-blad- 
der ; k, ductus communis choledochus ; /, ovaria ; m, ureter ; n, ve- 
sical dilatation of ditto ; o, kidney ; p, supra-renal bodies. 



II. — Ornithological Notes.^ By John Blackw^all, F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. x\\. p. 379.] 

The Great Gray Shrike, Lanius excubitor. 

Remarkable for the boldness and fierceness of its disposition, 
this species of shrike is sometimes troublesome to birdcatchers 



Mr. J. BlackwalFs Ornithological Notes. 19 

oy its daring attempts to carry off their call-birds. Early in 
tlie spring, a young man, who was intent upon obtaining for 
sale a supply of that minute but docile linnet the lesser redpole, 
Linota linaria, which is a summer visitor in Lancashire, where 
it breeds, proceeded to Gorton, near Manchester, and having 
arranged the cage containing his call-bird, and placed his twigs 
well-smeared with birdlime in the manner best adapted to attain 
his object, he patiently awaited the result. After having suc- 
cessfully followed his insidious occupation for a considerable time, 
a gray shrike flew to the cage, most likely for the purpose of 
devouring the decoy-bird, and perching upon the twig attached 
to its summit became entangled in the viscid material which 
covered it. The agitated bird made vigorous efforts to disen- 
gage itself from the unpleasant situation in which it was placed, 
but without avail ; its struggles only tended to involve it more 
completely in the tenacious toils with which it was encumbered. 
At length it was secured and placed in a dark cage with the red- 
poles which had been previously captured ; but the surprise and 
mortification of the birdcatcher may be imagined, when, on his 
arrival at home, he found that the shrike had killed all its com- 
panions in captivity. A friend of mine, who was actively en- 
gaged in collecting specimens of rare British birds, happened to 
hear of the circumstance, and succeeded in purchasing the shrike, 
which, when preserved and mounted, occupied a place in his 
cabinet. 

Though irregular in its visits to this country, and though 
seldom seen except in the colder months, yet the gray shrike 
has been observed, in more than one instance, to prolong its 
stay among the mountains of North Wales till late in INIay, and 
it is not improbable that it may sometimes breed in the princi- 
pality. Like the cuckoo and birds of prey in general, this species 
and the red backed shrike, Lanius collurio, are occasionally pur- 
sued and persecuted by small birds, which, fi'om the excited 
feelings they manifest, evidently have some cause for regarding 
them as enemies. 

Possessing greater compass of voice than is commonly sup- 
posed, the red-backed shrike is capable of giving utterance to a 
few low soft notes which constitute a short song ; but let it not 
be thought that they represent the calls or lays of other birds, 
artfully acquired for the purpose of luring them to destruction, 
as some persons have insinuated, for they are delivered by the 
shrike in a subdued tone and without the least attempt at con- 
cealment, the station usually occupied by it on such occasions 
being the loftiest twig of a tall hedge or bush ; and I have never 
succeeded, by the most careful and prolonged observation, in wit- 

2* 



20 Mr. J. Blackwall's Ornithuloyical Notes. 

nessing the fascinating effects ascribed to the music of this ima- 
ginary siren. 

The red-backed shrike may frequently be seen to take insects 
when on wing, like the Muscicapidce. 

The Whinchat, Saxicola ruhetra. 

In Denbighshire this pretty migratory bird arrives about the 
end of April, when the song of the male, which is sometimes 
delivered on the wing, may be heard repeated at short intervals. 
After the female has hatched her eggs, both sexes commence 
the call from which the species receives in Lancashire, whei'e it 
is abundant, the provincial name of idick ; the accent falls on the 
note supposed to resemble the first syllable of the word, and the 
second note of the call is sometimes repeated; thus, — utick tick. 

I have seen the vvhiuchat pursue the red-backed shrike with 
cries and gesticulations expressive of extreme animosity. 

The Sedge Warbler, Sylvia phragmitis. 

The late cold spring of 1847 exercised a very marked influence 
upon the vocal powers of our migratory warblers ; the notes of 
the sedge warbler, which were not heard in the neighbourhood 
of Llannvst till the 14th of May, were so defective in tone that 
this species found it quite impracticable to execute its song, 
being enabled by the most strenuous efforts to perform a few 
passages only, and those in a very imperfect manner; even the 
high powerful strain of the black-cap, Sylvia atricajnlla, and the 
deep rich melody of the garden-warbler, Sylvia hortensis, were 
reduced to a few short, abrupt, feeble sounds without any ap- 
parent connexion or modulation ; our resident singing birds also 
were sensibly affected by the severity of the season, all attempts 
to deliver their lays with their accustomed vigour and facility 
being totally unavailing. As the temperature increased with the 
advancing year, a corresponding improvement was perceptible in 
the wild music of the fields and woods, until the full flow of song 
announced the pleasing intelligence that the summer was at last 
confirmed. Now as it is evident, from the facts already stated, 
that a relation must exist between the singing of birds and the 
temperature of the atmosphere, I shall briefly advert to some of 
the circumstances which appear to constitute that relation. 

An idea seems to have been entertained by the Honourable 
Daines Barrington that the periodical cessation of the songs of 
birds may possibly be caused by some physical impediment, as 
indicated by the following paragraph extracted from the fifth 
letter addressed to that gentleman by Mr. White in his 'Natural 
History of Selborne :' — " Your supposition that there may be 



Mr. J. Blackwall's Ornitholuyical Notes. 21 

some natural obstruction in singing birds while they are mute, 
and that when this is removed the song recommences, is new 
and bold. I wish you could discover some good grounds for this 
suspicion." 

Moi'e than twenty-six years have elapsed since my attention 
was first particularly directed to this niteresting subject, and I 
am inclined to believe that if the candid and intelligent natural 
historian of Selborne had been made acquainted with the re- 
markable facts which then presented themselves to my observa- 
tion, he would have ceased to view the suggestion of Mr. Bar- 
rington merely in the light of a plausible hypothesis*. 

It is a matter of general notoriety that very few of our feathered 
songsters, in a state of liberty, continue their delightful warbling 
beyond the end of July, or the beginning of August, the latter, 
as Mr. White has remarked, being " the most mute month the 
spring, summer and autumn through ;" but whether this silence 
is constrained or voluntary can only be determined by a careful 
examination of the evidence bearing upon the case. 

Ornithologists almost universally attribute the singing of birds 
to the excitement induced by the passion of love, i*egarding it as 
an act of volition, which, without any absolute necessity, ceases 
to be practised when the predisposing stimulus is no longer felt ; 
but it cannot be denied that the songs of many species may fre- 
quently be heard after they have done breeding, and that the 
woodlark, redbreast, wren and dipper sing even during frosty 
weather in winter when the sun shines brightly. Besides, per- 
sons who have the management of birds in captivity are well- 
aware that they continue to exert their musical powers much 
longer than birds at large, and that those powers may be cir- 
cumscribed, or called into full activity at pleasure by regulating 
their supply of food and the temperature of their domicile ; 
female birds also, when in high condition, are known, occasion- 
ally, to assume a song somewhat resembling that of the male. 
These circumstances, together with the early age at which young 
birds begin to practise their songs, and the facility with which 
some species may be taught in confinement to substitute an ar- 
tificial tune for their natural notes, have led me to suppose that 
a partial coincidence in the periods during which birds of song- 
exercise their reproductive and musical functions may have been 
mistaken by ornithologists for a relation of cause and efi"ect. 

From observations and experiments made with the greatest 
care on several species of British singing birds, I have no hesi- 
tation in asserting that the song peculiar to each is the result of 

* See the Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Man- 
chester, second series, vol. iv. pp. 312, note "f, 4()5, 466, and vol. v. p. 261. 



23 Mr. J. Blackwall's Ornithological Notes. 

an instinctive impulse, liable to be brought into operation by the 
agency of various stimuli, combined with a suitable state of the 
vocal organs*; and this latter condition deserves especial atten- 
tion, for most of our songsters manifestly become mute in autumn 
from inability to continue their melodious strains ; their perse- 
vering but ineffectual efforts to prolong them, and the difficulty 
they experience in recommencing them in spring, proving to 
demonstration that their pleasing lays depend upon the energy 
of those muscles which contribute to form the voice ; an energy 
which is influenced chiefly by food, temperature, health, and the 
exercise of the reproductive function. 

The moulting of birds speedily follows the exhaustion conse- 
quent on the propagation of their species, and an attendant re- 
laxation of the vocal organs, which renders them incapable of 
obeying the dictates of the will, is, I conceive, the true cause of 
the periodical silence of singing birds. To this state of things 
succeeds a gradual reduction in the temperature of the atmo- 
sphere and in the supply of animal food, so that, with a few ex- 
ceptions already noticed, and those dependent in all probability 
upon some constitutional peculiarity, the enfeebled organs of 
voice do not recover their tone till the ensuing spring, when in- 
numerable animated beings, excited to activity by the genial 
warmth of the season, afford abundance of stimulating nutriment 
to the feathered songsters, which, with the concurrent restora- 
tion of their physical energies, enliven every copse with their 
sweet and unsophisticated music. Such I apprehend is the real 
nature of the connexion which subsists between atmospheric tem- 
perature and the singing of birds. 

Many birds are endowed with an extraordinary capacity for 
imitating sounds, and under the careful tuition of skilful instruct- 
ors readdy learn to pipe long and difficult tunes, to articulate 
words, and even to repeat short sentences with surprising pre- 
cision. Among our native species, the jay, magpie, starling and 
bullfinch afford familiar instances of the truth of this assertion ; 
but I am impressed with the belief that the spontaneous employ- 
ment of this faculty by individuals which have never been re- 
moved from their natural haunts is much more limited than is 
commonly supposed. If the term " mimic " be strictly applicable 
to any British bird in the wild state, the sedge warbler may be 
thought pre-eminently to merit that a])pellation, and, indeed, its 
song is usually described in ornithological works as being com- 
posed, in a great measure, of passages borrowed from the lays of 
other songsters ; yet I feel thoroughly satisfied that this reiterated 

* For particulars consult an essay on the notes of birds published in the 
Memoirs of the Literary and Pliilosophical Society of Manchester, second 
series, vol. iv. p. 289. 



Mr. J. Blackvvall's OrnitJiulogicul Notes. 23 

accusation of plagiarism is erroneous^ for those fancied imitations 
are merely resemblances, and are common to the songs of the 
entire species, which certaiidy would not be the case if they were 
factitious. In short, from the general character of the localities 
habitually frequented by the sedge warbler, it can seldom have 
an opportunity of hearing some of the birds whose notes it is 
supposed to mimic, while those of the black-headed bunting, 
Emberiza schceniclus, which is frequently associated with it, are 
never introduced into its song, that I am aware of, though from 
their style and tone they appear to be perfectly well adapted to 
its vocal powers and particularly easy of acquisition, being few 
in number and often repeated. 

When resident in Lancashire I enjoyed excellent opportunities 
of minutely investigating the habits of the jay, the magpie and 
the starling, species whose talent for mimicry is susceptible of a 
high degree of cultivation, the last possessing this faculty in a 
more perfect state of development perhaps than any other Bi'itish 
bird ; but, wuth the exception of individuals educated in captivity, 
I never detected the slightest display of their imitative powers ; 
and this remark applies with equal force to the bullfinch, which 
has very few natural notes, can scarcely be said to sing at all, 
and, while it retains its liberty, is not known to mimic any 
sound whatever ; yet whose great docility, retentive memory and 
flexibility of voice render the acquirement of artificial tunes an 
easy task. 

That persons of lively imagination should mistake the singu- 
lar tones comprised in the song of the starling for imitations of 
various inarticulate sounds ; the imperfect notes of the blackbird 
for endeavours to rival the crowing of the domestic cock ; or one 
of the spring-calls of the great titmouse for a successful effort to 
counterfeit the noise made in sharpening a saw, may cease to 
be regarded with surprise, when the attempts of some ornitho- 
logists to convey to the minds of their readers ideas of the songs 
of birds by the arbitrary arrangement of vowels and consonants 
are taken into consideration. 

A blackbird, after numerous unsuccessful endeavours to execute 
its song, which it was prevented from doing by some organic 
defect, abandoned the undertaking, and continued throughout 
the entire season to repeat, at intervals, two notes in quick suc- 
cession, the only musical tones apparently to which it was ca- 
pable of giving expression. The bird usually took its stand on 
a branch of a large Portugal laurel nearly opposite to my sitting- 
room window, and the frequent recurrence of these two notes 
soon suggested a familiar name to which they bore a resemblance 
sufficiently close to excite a momentary suspicion that it might 
be the result of imitation. That name I shall abstain from 



34 Mr. J. Blackwall's Ornitholvgical Notes. 

wi'iting, having no inclination to lay myself open to the sarcasm 
contained in the well-known distich, 

" As the fool thinks 
So the bell clinks." 

The Gray Wagtail, Motacilla hoarula. 

This beautiful species, remarkable for elegance of form, nice 
distribution of colours and graceful agility of movement, though 
observed to remain in Denbighshire and Caernarvonshire through- 
out the year, is certainly much more numerous in the summer 
than in the winter. It usually constructs its nest on the banks 
of brooks and rivers and the margins of pools and lakes ; but as 
it does not appear to increase perceptibly in those counties, not- 
withstanding the number of young birds brought up in them 
annually, it is evident that many individuals which withdraw 
from that part of Wales in autumn do not return to it ', the in- 
fluences which regulate the geographical distribution of birds 
are, however, involved in much obscurity. 

The yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava, so common in Lancashire 
during the summer season, I have not yet seen in the valley of 
the Conway. 

The Goatsucker, Caprimidgus europceus. 

White, in his ' Natural History of Selborne,^ letter xxii., ad- 
dressed to Thomas Pennant, Esq., states that the goatsucker 
sometimes makes a small squeak, which it repeats four or five 
times ; and that he has observed this to happen when the cock- 
bird has been pursuing the hen in a toying manner through the 
boughs of a tree. He asserts also, in his ' Observations in 
various branches of Natural History,' that when a person ap- 
proaches the haunts of goatsuckers in an evening, they continue 
flying round the head of the obtruder, and by striking their 
wings together above their backs, in the manner that the 
pigeons called Smiters are known to do, make a smart snap ; 
adding, that on such occasions they are probably jealous for 
their young, and that their noise and gesture are intended by 
way of menace. 

My own observations mostly serve to confirm the accuracy of 
those made by Mr. White ; nevertheless, I may remark that I 
have heard this species \itter its squeaking note vy^hen it was 
alarmed for the safety of its progeny ; and that I have seen the 
male strike its wings together above its back, and by that act, 
repeated several times in quick succession, produce a series of 
snapping sounds, when it was in eager pursuit of the female, at 
the commencement of the pairing season in the month of May. 

The habit which the goatsucker has of frequently alighting 
on roads in the dusk of evening is alluded to by Mr. Yarrell in 



Mr. J. Blackwall's Ornithological Notes. 25 

his ' History of British Birds/ and the cause of this occurrence 
is conjectured to be the desire to rub itself in the dust, Hke the 
Gallinm. That such may be the case I will not dispute, but I 
have never been able to detect the bird in the fact, though I have 
watched it on such occasions with the closest attention, and I 
have known it, in numerous instances, alight on a damp road 
or a compact gravel-walk, where there was no dust, and after 
having been repeatedly disturbed return to it again. 

It is probable that the circumstance of nestling goatsuckers 
having been mistaken for young cuckoos by unskilful ornitho- 
logists may have contributed in a considerable degree to promote 
the erroneous opinion that the cuckoo sometimes takes charge 
of its own offspring ; the two species, however, may readily be 
distinguished from each other, even when recently disengaged 
from the egg, by the structure of the beak and feet. 

With reference to its ordinary call, usually consisting of two 
prolonged tremulous notes, the latter of which is the lower, the 
Welsh have named this species troellivr or the spinner. 

The Bing Dove, Columba j^cdumbas. 

In seasons when acorns are unusally abundant, the oak woods 
in the valley of the Conway are resorted to by large flocks of 
ring doves, comprising a very much greater number of indivi- 
duals than have been bred in the neighbourhood, evidently at- 
tracted to the locality by the plentiful supply of food to be ob- 
tained in it. Whence they come, and by what means they 
acquire a knowledge of the fact that induces them to visit the 
district, I am at a loss to conjecture, as they do not assemble 
gradually, but arrive in large bodies almost simultaneously. 

The autumn of 1844 was a remarkably favourable season for 
the production of acorns, and ring doves were proportionately 
numerous. In the winter, the-birds procured them by turning- 
over the fallen leaves under which they lay hid ; and some idea 
may be formed of the immense consumption of nutriment of this 
kind by the doves, from the circumstance that on opening the 
craw of a specimen brought to me on the 26th of January 1845, 
it was found to contain forty-iive acorns of various sizes. 

The Common Sandpiper, Totanus hypoleucos. 

Sandpipers of several species, more especially the common 
one, are prevented from increasing so rapidly as they otherwise 
would in the county of Caernarvonshire, where numerous streams 
and lakes constitute favourite resorts of those birds, by the 
shepherds^ t^ogs, which habitually prowl about their haunts in 
quest of their nests, and devour indiscriminately both eggs and 
young. 



26 Messrs. Giles and Clarke on a species of Zoophyte 

III. — A few remarks upon a species of Zoophyte which has been 
discovered in the New Docks of fyswich. By Mr. Edwin Giles 
aucl Dr. W. B. Clarke. 

To the Editors of the Annats of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, 14 Bemers Street, Ipswich, Suffolk. 

The Zoophyte which is the object of the following remarks was 
discovered in the New Salt-water Docks of Ipswich in Suflfolk, 
and brought under my notice by Mr. Edwin Giles, who was then 
in possession of several fine and vigorous specimens. The ani- 
mal appears white, or of a delicate flesh-colour and semitrans- 
parent ; of an obconical form ; from a quarter to half an inch in 
length, exclusive of the tentacula, which are about three or four 
times the length of the body. The base is furnished with a more 
or less extensive disc for attachment ; the tentaculiferous extre- 
mity is circular and provided with from sixteen to twenty-one 
long tentacles and a subquadrangular central aperture or mouth, 
capable of rapid and very considerable expansion and contrac- 
tion. The circumference of the disc is bordered by an apparently 
roundish and slightly thickened margin from which the tenta- 
cula proceed ; whilst the disc is furnished with four subovate 
bodies, each placed diametrically opposite to another having an 
orifice-like appearance and extending to the base of the tentacle 
which is nearest to it : these bodies are also coincident each with 
one of the sub-bifid lobes of the mouth, as seen in the woodcut. 
These animals are extremely interesting from the elegance of 
their form and the rapidity and peculiarity of their movements. 
We had an opportunity of observing them whilst busily engaged 
in securing their prey, probably consisting of infusorial animals, 
which however were so small that we could not ascertain what 
had passed within their influence ; but we repeatedly observed 
a tentaculum rapidly contracted curved upon itself, and the ex- 
tremity introduced into the mouth, as in fig. E, which had sud- 
denly been expanded into its quadrangular form for its recep- 
tion, and as suddenly contracted, so that the four bifid lips 
grasped the introduced feeler, which remained a few seconds 
within the stomach, and was then gradually withdrawn and 
again extended to secure another victim. Not only was the ex- 
tremity of the tentacle occasionally introduced; but when the 
creature had secured an object by some of the lower discs, with 
which the whole extent of its surface appeared to be furnished, 
the feeler was doubled upon itself, as seen on the opposite side 
of fig. E, the mouth suddenly and widely expanded, and the re- 
duplication introduced into it, when it again closed upon the ten- 
taculum, and, as in the first instance, it remained a few seconds in 
the stomach and was then gradually withdrawn again : in these 
movements the mouth so closely grasped the tentacle that it ap- 



discovered in the Docks of Ipswich. 



27 



peared to strip off every extraneous body that might be adhering to 
it. The above evolutions were continually exhibited whilst we 
had it under observation, and in some instances two tentacles 
were introduced into the mouth at the same time. 




:^ E.Clarke del et sc 

The figs. A. B. C. D. have been engraved on wood by Dr. Edward Clarke, 
who very kindly offered his services in illustration of this paper. They are 
taken from some beautiful little drawings made by Mr. Edwin Giles of this 
zoophyte whilst living in his possession. 

A. represents a considerably magnified view of the tentaculiferous disc 
with the tentacles contracted. 

B. is a side view, showing the spur-like gemmation with the young polvpe 
proceeding from it. 

C. is a side view of another 
specimen showing the pistil-like 
gemmation and destitute of the 
polype. 

D. is a front or upper view of 
tliezoophyte as itappeared when in 
its dying state : the tentacles were 
all incurved, and particles floating 
over the di?c, when in this con- 
dition, were observed to have a 
rotatory motion connnunicated to 
them. 

E. is a fig. also engraved by 
Dr. Edward Oarke, and taken 
from a little diagram showing the 
position of the tentacles when in- 
troduced into the animal's mouth. 

Subjoined is a note from Mr. Edwin Giles upon this beautiful 
little animal. Believe me to remain, kc, 

W. B. Clarke, M.D. 




28 Mr. J. Ball on Odontites rubra, with notice of a new species. 

Dear Sir, Tavern Street, Ipswich, Suffolk. 

We have in our Wet Salt-water Dock a species of Hydroid 
Polype wliicli I have not met with in any publication that I have 
had an opportunity of referring to. It differs materially from the 
common species of our freshwater ponds in its body being less 
capable of extension, and in its having when mature from six- 
teen to twenty-one extensile tentacles around its disc, in the cen- 
tre of which, and rising considerably above the surface, when 
protruded, is a singularly and beautifully organized four-lobed 
mouth : the instant adaptation of its opening to the incurving 
tentacles, and its effective closing thereon when they are intro- 
duced into the cavity, are operations of the most interesting cha- 
racter. Around the base of the mouth, and equidistant from each 
other, are four oviform orifices, corresponding with the four pro- 
jecting lobes of the mouth and extending to the base of the 
nearest tentacle, giving to the disc somewhat the appearance of 
a flower with a four-cleft corolla. 

The incipient gemmation of this polype is spurlike and acute, 
upon which the young polype is formed : in some instances this 
s})ur or offshoot terminates in a little bulb, presenting the ap- 
pearance of a simple pistil of a plant having its stigma at the 
extremity and the germen at its base : upon offshoots of this 
latter form we have not at present noticed any young. 

I observed, previous to the death of this little creature, that 
the tentacles became incurved, and, at such times, substances 
floating over the orifice of the disc obtained a rotatory motion as 
if operated upon by cilia. 

Believe me to remain, &c., 

Edwin Giles. 



IV. — Ow Odontites rubra, Pers., and the allied forms, including 
a notice of a new species. By John Ball, M.R.I.A. 

This attempt to clear up the confusion which seems to exist as 
to the forms of the group of plants which were known to the 
older botanists under the name of Euphrasia Odontites, L,, is 
subject to great disadvantage, being chiefly founded upon the 
examination of dried specimens, from which it is very difficnlt 
to determine the true form and structure of the corolla and 
anthers, the organs from which the most important specific cha- 
racters are derived. I may observe in the first place, that some 
of the characters used by authors appear to me altogether falla- 
cious ; thus I find the relative length of the floral leaves, and the 
breadth of the segments of the lower lip of the corolla to vary in 
all the forms of this group. I proceed to point out by brief 
diagnostic characters the forms with which I am acquainted. 



Mr. J. Ball on Odontites rubra^ ivith notice of a netv speciea. 29 

Odontites verna, Reich. [O. rubra, Pcrs. and Benth. in D.C. 
Prod.) — Stem erect, branching, obsoletely tetragonous, hispid 
with reflexed hairs, from 6 to 20 inches in height ; leaves ses- 
sile, lanceolate, narrowed from near the base, and usually blunt- 
ish, remotely serrate, lower leaves elongated, those of the secon- 
dary branches and flowering spike with few — 2-4 — teeth, the 
last remote from the upper extremity of the leaf; flowers shortly 
pedunculate, usually shorter than the floral leaves ; calyx seg- 
ments equal to the tube in length, lanceolate, rather acute', 
corolla about twice as long as the calyx, pubescent, upper lip 
slightly convex, suberose, lower lip with three roundish ob- 
long obtuse lobes, the middle lobe somewhat longer and broader 
than the others ; filaments hairy, nearly equaling the length 
of the corolla ; anthers transverse, with a few glandular hairs, 
included in or slightly protruding from the upper lip of the 
corolla ; capsule oblong, hairy, when ripe equaling or slightly 
exceeding the calyx ; style filiform ; stigma minute, capitate, 
hairy ; seeds oblong furrowed. 

Common throughout Europe. 

O. verna var. elegans, nobis. (0. serotina, Reich, non Bert.) — 
Leaves narrowed at the base, almost linear ; flowers with longer 
peduncles ; corolla rather smaller, lower lip with three linear- 
oblong, nearly equal segments ; anthers slightly exserted. 

I possess this form from Buda in Hungary, and from Persia 
(Kotschy, Plantcg Persite Borealis, 693). I gathered it on the 
Wynd Cliff near Chepstow, on the oOth of August, 1848. From 
the observations of lleichenbach it is clear that this and not the 
following form is that intended by him (Flora Exc. num. 2450). 
It is probable that this is likewise the plant known to Mr. Ben- 
tham : I altogether concur in the propriety of uniting it to the 
preceding, as has been done by that eminent botanist (D.C. Prod. 
X. 551). 

Odontites Bertolonii, nobis. {Bartsia serotina, Bert.) — Stem as 
in 0. verna, seldom exceeding 12 inches in height, branches 
usually more numerous and shorter ; leaves very shortly petio- 
late, much smaller than in 0. verna, ovato -lanceolate, teeth more 
acute and much more approximate; calyx rather less deeply 
divided ; corolla with a rather shorter tube, lobes of the lower 
lip neai'ly equal ; anthers slightly exserted ; ripe capsule much 
smaller than in 0. verna. 

Though perhaps rather difficult to define by written charac- 
ters, this form appears to me fully entitled to specific distinction, 
in which opinion I am confirmed by the positive statements of 
the accurate Bertoloni. The shape and size of the leaves, the 



30 Mv, J. Ball on Odontites rubra, ivifh notice of a new species. 

dciisci' and more uniform inflorescence^ and the constantly smaller 
fruit appear to supply constant characters. The exserted anthers 
and the shorter Horal leaves are sometimes found in O. verna var. 
elegnns above described. I have specimens from Tuscany, Um- 
bria, Rome and Naples, the latter gathered by myself at the end 
of September 1845 ; but I have never seen any other than Ita- 
lian specimens, and the plant appears to be unknown in central 
Europe. 

In consequence of the confusion that exists as to the identity 
of the forms which have borne the names Eupkrasio serotino, it 
appears necessary to abandon that specific name, though highly 
appropriate, and in that case the Italian })lant cannot bear a more 
suitable name than that of the only author who has clearly distin- 
guished it from its allies. 

Odontites rotundata (n, sp. ?), nobis. 

About ten years ago I received from Professor Ilenslow a spe- 
cimen marked Bartsia Odontites ? gathered near the Hague, and 
about the same time I was favoured with an imperfect specimen 
gathered on Bepton Common, Sussex, by IMiss Plowden, and a 
specimen marked Cambridgeshire without the name of the col- 
lector. These plants appeared to me at the time to differ in many 
respects from the connnon English plant, but I was unwilling to 
describe them without a fuller acquaintance with the continental 
forms, I am now induced with some hesitation to assign to this 
form a distinct specific name, being unable to identify it with 
any of the described species. I subjoin a short description : — 

Odontites rotundafo. — Stem with numerous elongated branches 
from near the base, (in my specimens) 6-9 inches in height ; 
leaves sessile, lanceolate, crenato-serrate, teeth less acute and 
fewer than in 0. verna, floral leaves almost entire, equaling or 
(in my English specimens) shorter than the flowers ; segments 
of the calyx one-third of its length, hrondhj triangular ; corolla 
rather shorter than in O. verna, upper lip broad, convex, in- 
cluding the anthers, lower lip with three broadly rounded, nearly 
equal segments ; filaments nearly glabrous ; anthers transverse 
with scarcely any glandular hairs; style and stigma nearly 
glabrous ; capsule broadly oval, almost rounded, when ripe 
longer than the calyx. 

Hah. England and Holland. 

In my specimens the whole plant is less hispid, with a softer 
pubescence than in 0. verna. The form of the calyx and cap- 
sules, and the nearly glabrous filaments, anthers, style and stigma 
bring this form near to O. lanceolata, Keich.; but that plant, of 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Acnistus. 31 

which I possess specimens from Bonjean the original discoverer, 
differs by its rigid habit, with prominent hispid nerves to the 
leaves and calyces, by its erect anthers, and by the foroi and co- 
lour of its corolla, which in the present species scarcely differs 
from that of O. verna. As far as I can judge from dried speci- 
mens, the seeds of O. rotundata are considerably broader than 
those of O. verna : on the whole, the characters assigned appear 
to justify me in proposing this well-marked form as a new spe- 
cies, which like so many others must await the result of continued 
observation and experiment before it can be finally adopted by 
naturalists. 



V. — Contributions to the Botamj of South America. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. iii. p. 451.] 

Acnistus. 

To this genus, as defined on a former occasion (Lond. Joiu'n. 
Bot. iv. p. 335), I have to add another species. Subsequently 
[ibid. vii. p. 338) I alluded to the great proximity which this 
genus offers to Dunalia, and I may also add that it touches like- 
wise upon the section Chcenesihes of lucJivoma on the one hand, 
in a manner that renders it difficult to determine whether one 
species of Acnistus belongs to this or to the former genus ; on 
the other hand again it osculates closely upon Brachistus, so that 
B. oblongifolius from the length of its corolla (being twice that 
of its calyx) might almost be considered as an Acnistus : in this 
latter case however, as the plant has very dissimilar geminate 
leaves, a character peculiarly remarkable in most species of Bra- 
chistus, and as it presents only two, rarely more flowers in each 
axil, it cannot be considered as an Acnistus. 

14. Acnistus confertiflorus (n. sp.) ; — ramulis glabris, striatis ; 
foliis faseiculatis, oblongis, basi cuneatis, in petiolum longum 
gracilem attenuatis, apice obtusiusculis, supra pubescentibus, 
subtus fusco-tomentosis : floribus umbellato-fasciculatis, jae- 
dunculis apice incrassatis, calj^ceque pilosiusculis, corolla lutea, 
glabra, lobis acutis, marginibus tomentosis, staminibus stylo- 
que subexsertis. — Peruvia, v. s. in herb. Lindley (Lobb. n. 328). 

In this species the leaves (including a petiole of f inch long) 
are 2\ inches in length and | inch broad ; the peduncle is 9 or 
10 lines, the corolla 8 lines long : each axil usually presents four 
to five or six flowers, fasciculated with two to three or four young 
leaves, all growing out of the cicatrix of a fallen leaf of the pre- 



32 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Dimalia. 

vious year : it is probable therefore that the leaves grow to a much 
larger size than are seen in the above specimen. It comes very 
near Acnistus cauliflorus. 

DUNALIA. 

Since the last species of this genus were described, I am glad 
to have had an opportunity of seeing a new and very distinct 
species belonging to the section Pauciflora, which I found culti- 
vated at Kew, under the wame oi Lyciumobovatum. It confirms 
the views before taken of its structure, founded on an examination 
of the dried specimens described in the ' Lond. Journ. Bot/ 
vol. iv. p. 333, and vol. vii. p. 337. 

7. Dunalia lilacina (n. sp.) ; — fruticosa, inermis, ramulis striatis; 
foliis in axillis fasciculatis, spathulato-oblongis, apicc obtusi- 
usculis aut vix acutis, in petiolum elongatum gracilem attenu- 
atis, utrinque glaberrimis, margine revolutis, venis supenie 
immersis subtus coloratis ; floribus in fasciculis axillaribns so- 
litariis, nutantibus, pedunculo gracili, 1-iloro, calyceque brevi 
campanulato 5-nervio glabro, dentibus 5, rotundatis, mucro- 
natis ; corolla iufundibuliformi, lilacina, calyce 6-plo longiore, 
extus vix puberula, intus superne glabra, imo pubescente, 
limbo brevissiino, tomcntoso, fereintegro, dentibus 5-6, acutis, 
cum alteris fere obsoletis glabris interjectis ; staminibus 5-6, 
inclusis, quorum 3 paulo brevioribus, tilamentis glabris, supra 
basin insertis, appendicibus brevibus, utrinque bifidis, cano- 
pubescentibus ; stylo glabro, incluso. — Patria ignota, v. s. in 
hart. Keiv. cult. 

This species approaches very near to D. ramijlora : the inter- 
nodes are closely approximated, with four to six leaves crowded 
in each axil; the leaves are 1| inch long, tapering gradually 
from near the apex into a slender petiole of f of an inch, being 
altogether 2^ inches in length, and they are 5 lines in breadth ; 
the peduncles are only ~ inch long, scarcely thickened at the 
apex ; the calyx is 2 lines long ; the corolla 1 inch in length, 2 
lines in diameter from the base to the middle, whence it gra- 
dually enlarges to nearly 4 lines in the mouth ; the filaments are 
quite glabrous, arising from fleshy oblong cano-tomentose pro- 
cesses, with free margins, adnate to the base of the corolla for 
the length of Inline; the appendages, which are a continuation 
of the free margins of the processes, instead of being single and 
glabrous on each side of the filaments, as in all the other species, 
are here each bifid, very cano-tomentose, and scarcely a line in 
length ; the anthers are below the mouth of the corolla, as is also 
the clavate stigma, which is crowned with two greenish viscid 
glands. 



Mr. J. Miei's on the genus Phrodus. 33 

Phrodus. 

Among the collections made by Bridges in the arid districts of 
the province of Coquimbo in Chile, are three plants that bear 
quite the aspect of some of the singular Nolanaceous species 
which I noticed on a previous occasion as belonging to the ge- 
nera Alona and Dolium of Dr. Lindley. One of these same plants 
was formerly described by nie (Lond. Journ. Bot. iv. p. 501) 
under the name of Alona mia^ophyUa, because it possessed the 
same general habit, with flowers similar to those of Alona erici- 
folia and other Nolanaceous plants from the same locality, and 
being without fruit I concluded it must belong to that genus. 

The plants now to be described, though evidently referable to 
the tribe Solanece of Endlicher, do not correspond with any re- 
corded genus : from Salpichroma they differ in having a more 
tubular calyx, and a much shorter and broader corolla, which 
does not become black in drying : they approach Dunalia in the 
structure of their flowers, and somewhat in their Lycium-like 
habit, but their filaments are simple and more exserted. They 
greatly resemble at the same time many species of Lycium, but 
they differ from that genus in having much larger and more cam- 
panular flowers with a very different aestivation. The generic 
name now proposed for these plants is derived from (fypovSa, 
evanidus, because of their shabby stunted habit. 

Phrodus (gen. nov.). — Calyx urceolato-tubulosus, usque ad me- 
dium 5-dentatus, dentibus acutis, persistens. Corolla infun- 
dibuliformis, tubo imo contracto, superne ampliore, limbo 5- 
partito, laciniis oblongis vel rotundatis, expansis, sestivatione 
induplicato-valvatis. Stamina 5, subinrequalia, longe exserta; 
jilamenta filiformia, in coarctationem tubi adnata, imo villosa, 
hinc glabra ; antliercB ovatse, 2-lob8e, sine conuectivo apicifixse, 
lobis adnatis, rima laterali longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ova- 
rium ovatum, imo glandula annulari cinctum, 2-loculare, pluri- 
ovulatum, placentis incrassatis dissepimento utriuquc adnatis. 
Stylus filiformis, longitudine staminum. Stigma clavatum, 
obsolete 2-lobum. Bacca globosa, apice conica, calyce distensa 
arete inclusa, 2-locularis, polysperma. Semina compressa, re- 
niformia. Embryo in albumen carnosum teres, arcuatus, radi- 
cula ad angulum basilarem spectante, cotyledonibus semitere- 
tibus fere sequaute. — Fruticuli Chilenses ramosissimi ; folia tni- 
nima, ericoidea, carnosula ; flores solitarii, axillares,j)edunculati. 

1 . Phrodus microphyllus. Alona microphylla, Lond. Journ. Bot. 
iv. 501 ; — fruticulosus, nodoso-flexuosus, implexo-ramosus, ra- 
mulis junioribus brevibus divaricatis, vel deflexis, abortu apice 
ssepe spinesceutibus ; foliis subsessilibus par^"ulis, subfascicu- 
latis, spathulato-oblongis, carnosis, superne canaliculatis, sub- 

Aan. (S5' Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 3 



34- Mr. J. Miers oji the genus Phrodus. 

tus convexis, utrinque glauduloso-pubescentibus, imo callo 
turnido pevsistente suffultis^ callibus agglomeratis et axillis 
demum nudis hinc nodosis ; floribus breviter pedunculatis. — 
Chile, prov. Coquinibo, v. s. in herb. Hook. (Bridges, no. 1330), 
in herb. Lindl. (Bridges, no, 1331*). 

This appears to be a low bushy stunted shrub, with close, 
short, flexuose, knotty branchlets, frequently spinescent at the 
apex, or often reduced to a short spine : the older branches are 
generally quite bare of leaves, but the younger ones are closely 
invested with minute fleshy fasciculate semiterete leaves, scarcely 
more than 1 or 2 lines in length, and barely half a line in thick- 
ness ; these soon fall off, leaving the axils bare, the sterile appear- 
ance of which is increased by the knotty accretions formed by 
the persistent tumid bases of the fasciculate leaves ; the peduncle 
is 2 lines in length ; the calyx, 3 lines long, is somewhat cam- 
panular, being 2 lines broad, cleft full one-third of its length into 
five erect equal teeth : the corolla seldom exceeds 6 or 8 lines in 
length, the portion within the calyx being cylindrical, but it 
swells above and becomes funnel-shaped, with an expanded 
border consisting of five obtusely triangular equal lobes; the 
stamens are inserted in the contracted portion of the tube, where 
they are very hairy, above they are quite smooth, slender, erect, 
and extend 2 lines beyond the mouth of the tube ; the style is 
exserted to the same length t- 

2. Phrodus Bridgesii (n. sp.) ; — fruticosus, ramulis elongatis, 
teneris, subadscendentibus; foliis fasciculatis, spathulato-linea- 
ribus, subcarnosis,superne canaliculatis, subtus convexis, utrin- 
que viscoso-pubescentibus ; corolla calyce 3-plo longiore ; sta- 
minibus subinsequalibus, longe exsertis, stylo Eequilongis. — 
Chile ad Coquimbo. v. s. in herb. Hook, et Lindl. (Bx-idges, 
no. 1332). 

* There is evidently a confusion here in the numbers, which is not un- 
frcquent in many of Bridges's Cliile plants, in consequence of two or more 
specimens having been distributed on the same sheet without attached labels. 
Owing to this same cause, 1 have described his no. 1331 as the Dolia vermi- 
culaia ; it should have been no. 1 330, these numbers having been respec- 
tively interchanged. Under no. 1332 two very different plants have been 
distributed ; in Dr. Lindley's herbarium that number corresponds with his 
Alona haccata, and in Sir Wm. Hooker's herbarium the same number refers 
to a very distinct plant, which I have correctly described under the name of 
Sorema acuminata. I may here also observe, that there exists another error 
connected with some of Bridges's plants formerly described by me, inasfar 
as regards their locality : thus Sorema acwninata ( Lond. Journ. Bot. iv. 370), 
Sorema linearis (id. 499), Alona ericifolia (id. 501), and Dolia clavata (id. 
508), are all from the neighbourhood of Coquimbo, and not i'rom Concepcion, 
as I found inscribed in mistake on the specimens referred to. 

f This plant with generic details will be figured in the ' Illustr. South 
Amer. Plants,' plate 42 A. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Physalis. 35 

The habit of tliis species is somewhat different from the pre- 
ceding, the branchlets being- much longer, straighter and more 
slender ; the leaves are also larger and more linear, being 4 lines 
long by I line broad, and after their fall the axils do not become 
enlarged by callous knots, as occurs in the two other species ; 
the peduncle is 4 lines long; the calyx, 5 lines in length, is 
more funnel-shaped, and divided neai'ly halfway down into five 
acute teeth ; the corolla is 9 lines long, spreading above to a 
diameter of 6 lines, with a border of five short lobes, and is appa- 
rently of a pale yellow or whitish colour ; both it and the calyx 
as well as the peduncle, the stem and the leaves are thickly 
clothed with short glandular pubescent down : the style, thickened 
at its apex, is considerably farther exserted than the stamens : 
the berry, closely invested by the calyx, is globular, with a conical 
apex, and is 5 lines in diameter*. 

3. Phrodus nodosus (n. sp.) ; — fruticosus, ramulis nodoso-flexu- 
osis, subadscendentibus ; foliis fasciculatis, spathulato-linea- 
ribus, carnosis, eveniis, superne canaliculatis, imo callo tumido 
persistente suffultis, axillis hinc demum nodosis : corolla ob- 
scuriore, calyce campanulato duplo longiore, staminibus vix 
exsertis ; stylo istis multo longiore. — Coquimbo, v. s. in herb. 
Hook, et Lindl. (Bridges, no. 1333). 

The habit of this plant is intermediate between the two former, 
the branches being flexuose and knotty as in the first species ; its 
leaves are similar in size and shape to those of P. Bridyesii, but 
the agglomerated persistent callous bases of the leaves, after they 
have fallen, give to the branches, which are more flexuose and 
crooked, the same knotty appearance as in P. microphylla, a cha- 
racter quite wanting in the second species f* 

Physalis. 

Having spoken so frequently of this genus in relation to other 
approximate genera, it is desirable that its limits should be de- 
fined with more accuracy than heretofore. Its distinction from 
Saracha has been already marked by its inflorescence offering 
always a solitary axile flower, by its greatly increased vesicular 
reticulated calyx in fruit wholly inclosing the berry, and by its 
more deeply campanular and less rotate corolla with a border not 
so deeply cleft. In its enlarged vesicular calyx it ofi'ers much 
analogy with the genera Nicandra, Cacabus, Thinogeton, Ani- 
sodus, Withania and Hypnoticum, but the former has a longer 

* This species will be figured in plate 41 of the ' Illiist. South Anier. 
Plants.' 
t This plant will be shown iti plate 42 B. of the same work. 

3* 



30 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Physalis. 

and larger campanular corolla, with an erect almost entire mar- 
gin, and a calyx with five deeply carinated angles, and five spur- 
like extensions at its base ; the second has a more decidedly in- 
fundibuliform corolla, resembling that of a Nolana, and an almost 
transparent calyx marked with dark green lines ; the third has 
a still more tubular corolla with an enlarged thickened calyx : 
Anisodus has a large deeply bell-shaped flower with rounded 
lobes, and a vesicular thickened calyx with five large prominent 
nervures which become woody : in Withania the corolla is nar- 
row and deeply cleft, and the fructiferous calyx is broad and not 
contracted in its mouth : Hypnoticum has a small corolla with 
an extremely short tube, and a small erect five-cleft border. 

In Physalis, on the contrary, the corolla is broadly campanular, 
with a spreading pentangular border more or less entire, and 
generally with five large coloured spots at its base. All possess 
a swelling calyx enveloping the fruit, and Hypnoticum agrees with 
Physalis in having stellate or brachiate pubescence. The follow- 
ing is its emended generic character : — 

Physalis (char, reform.). — Calyx brevis, tubulosus, in lobis 5 
acutis semifissus, tubo in fructu valde aucto vesiculoso 5 an- 
guloso, persistens. Corolla late campanulata, ssepissime ma- 
culis magnis 5 colorata, imo breviter coarctata, limbo subro- 
tato, 5-angulato, rarius in lobis 5 triangularibus partito, sesti- 
vatione plicato-valvata. Stamina 5, imo coroUse inserta, e 
squamis 3-dentatis basi corollse adnatis et fere in annulum 
sistentibus orta; flamenta teretia, erecta; antherse oblongse, ba- 
sifixse, circum stylum conniventes, loculis 2, parallele connexis, 
rima marginali longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium ova- 
tum, imo disco carnoso impositum, 2-loculare, placentis e dis- 
sepimento cruciatim partientibus, tunc bifidis, lunularibus, 
undique ovuligeris. Stylus simplex, longitudine staminum. 
Stigma capitatum, 2-lobum. Bacca globosa, calyce vesiculoso, 
membranaceo, reticulato, celata. Semina plurima, parva, in 
pulpam nidulantia, reniformia, testa scrobiculata. Embryo 
intra albumen carnosum hemicyclicus, teres, radicula infera 
hilo laterali evitante cotyledonibus semiteretibus duplo lon- 
giore. — Herbse suffruticuloscs, radice perennente, totius orbis 
undique indigent, j)rocumbentes, dichotomo-ramosce, pilosa ; folia 
alterna, vel gemina, ovata, Integra, aut angulato-dentata, inter- 
dum cordata ; flores pedunculati, solitarii, extra-axillares, sce- 
pissime nutantes. 

All the species of Physalis are too well known and described 
to require any observation, but for the sake of illustrating the 
details of the genus, I have added a species that appears to be 
unrecorded. 



Mr. J. Miei's on the genus Larnax. 37 

Phijsalis gr-acilis (n. sp.) ; — caule gracili, substricto, pubescente ; 
foliis ovatis, acutis, petiolatis^ spepe incequilateralibus, crassi- 
usculis, utrinque pallidis et piibescentibus, petiolo sublongo, 
piloso; floi'ibus axillaribus, subsolitariis, peclunculo gracili, 
petiolo ffiquilongo, 1-floro, florc nutantc; calyce campanulato, 
profunde 5-partito, lobis acutis; corolla cyathiformi-campa- 
nulata, lutea^ maciilis 5 magnis violaceis notata, limbo 5-angu- 
lato, angulis obtusis ; staminibus corolla brevioribus, filamentis 
brevissimis. — Real del Moute, Mexico, v. s. in herb. Hook. 
(Coulter, 1222). 

The specimen is scarcely more than 8 inches long, with a 
single, slim, straight, apparently erect and somewhat branching 
stem; the internodes are about 1 inch, the leaves 12 to 15 lines 
long, 8 lines broad, upon a slender petiole 4 lines in length, they 
are somewhat obtuse and unequal at base ; the more slender pe- 
duncle is about 6-8 lines ; the calyx, 5 lines long, is half cleft into 
five acute segments, and together with the peduncle is hairy ; the 
corolla is 8 lines broad and 4 lines deep, the filaments are 3 lines, 
and the anthers nearly 2 lines long*. 

Larnax. 

There exists a small gr-oup of plants in several respects ap- 
proaching Physalis as defined in the preceding page, but which 
differ in having fasciculate flowers, a corolla deeply 5 -cleft, 
and in being herbaceous, erect, not prostrate plants. They vary 
from Cacahus and Thinogeton in the structure and colour of their 
corolla. The type is the Physalis suhti-iflora of the ' Flora Pe- 
ruviana,' tab. 176, and two other plants described by Prof. Kunth 
are evidently congeneric with it. They differ from Saracha in 
their flowers being fasciculate, not decidedly umbellate, and in 
their inflated calyx, which subsequently incloses the fruit, as in 
Physalis. They approach Margaranthus very closely, but they 
do not accord with that genus in the form of their corolla. The 
generic name proposed for this group is derived from \dpva^, 
capsa, because the fruit is encased by the swollen calyx. 

Larnax (gen. nov.). — Calyx tubulosus, augulatus, tenuis, 5-den- 
tatus, demum augescens et vesicarius. Corolla tubo brevis- 
simo, campanulato-infundibuliformi, limbo 5-fido, lobis acutis, 
subpatentibus. Stamina 5, brevia, tubo inclusa, sequalia, fila- 
menta brevissima, anther(e 2-loculares, loculis adnatis. Ova- 
rium ovatum, 2-loculare. Stylus brevis, erectus, apice sub- 
incurvus. Stigma sub-2-lobum. Bacca pisiformis, 2-locularis, 

* A figure of this species will be given in plate 39 B. of the ' Ilhist. South 
Amer. Plants.' 



38 j\Ii'. J. INliers on the genus Larnax. 

calyce globoso^ urceolato, vesicario, membranaceo luclusa. 
Semina plui'ima^ reniformia. Emh'ijo ignotus. — Herbpe Peru- 
vianse et Mexicanse, annuce, erectm, dichotome ramosce; folia 
alterna, solitaria am gemina, petiolata ; flores axillares, subsoli- 
tarii, aut plurimi fasciculati ; pedunculi 1-flori, floriferi erecti, 
fructiferi cernui ; corolla lutea. 

1. Larnax subtriflora. Physalis subtviflora, R. et P. Flora 
Peruv. ii. 42. tab. 176 a ; — caule angulato ; foliis ovatis, acutis, 
solitariisj vel geminis, venosis, utrinque villosis, pilis mollibus 
articulatis ; pedunculis 2-3nisve, gracilibus, erectiusculis ; 
corolla lutea, venosa; bacca pisiformi, lutescente. — Peruvia, 
ad Obragillo. 

This is an annual, growing to the height of 2 feet ; the 
leaves are represented as being 3 inches long, 1^ broad, on a 
petiole of 4 or 5 lines, they are somewhat unequal at base, and 
covered with long soft pubescence ; the peduncles are from 6 to 9 
lines long, the calyx scarcely 2 lines in length, the tube of the 
corolla 2 lines long, campanulate above, and the lobes of the 
border, of the same length, are somewhat patent. 

2. Larnax Orinocensis. Physalis Orinocensis, H. B. K. iii. 12 ; — 
caule herbaceo angulato, dichotome ramoso ; foliis ovatis, sub- 
acuminatis, basi insequalibus, et in petiolum decurrentibus, 
supra glabris, subtus pallidioribus, nervo venisque hirtellis ; 
floribus geminis, pedunculatis, pendulis; calyce urceolato- 
globoso, piloso, 5-dentato, dentibus acutis, pilis articulatis ; 
corolla infundibuliformi-campanulata,pilosiuscula, limbo 5-fido, 
laciniis obtusis eequalibus ; bacca globosa, pisiformi, calyce ve- 
sicario aucto reticulato tecta. — Orinoco. 

Neither this plant nor the following, from their inflorescence 
or general appearance, accord with Phi/salis, and so much was 
Prof. Kunth impressed with this idea, that he adds respecting 
them, " species anomalse, an genus distinctum ?" They appear 
to agree in all essential respects with the characters of the plant 
last described. The leaves are from 3 to 3| inches long, 19 to 
20 lines broad, on a pubescent petiole of 8 to 10 lines in length. 
The flowers are 5 lines long ; the peduncles 2 lines in flower, 
4 lines in fruit. The stamens are included within the corolla and 
are glabrous. 

3. Larnax Xolapensis. Physalis Xalapensis, H. B. K. loc. cit. 
p. 13; — caule herbaceo, angulato, subdichotome ramoso; foliis 
oblougis, acuminatis, basi angustatis et sequalibus, integris, 
cdiatis, pilis minutissimis utrinque conspersis ; floribus plu- 
rimis, subfasciculatis, pedunculis pilosis, calyce, corolla, fruc- 
tuque ut in praecedente. — iMexico, ad Xalapam. 



Mr. J. 0. Westvvoud on a genus of Parasitic Hymenoptera. 39 

This species differs only from the former in its more acuminate 
leaves, equal at base and pilose on both sides, and in its fasci- 
culate flowers. The leaves are from 4 to 5 inches long, 20 to 
21 lines broad, on a petiole of 12 to 15 lines in length. The 
flowers resemble those of the former species in size and shape ; 
they are probably fasciculate, as in the first-mentioned species, 
and not umbellate, a mode of expression often used by Professor 
Kunth in that sense, which is the more evident, as he makes no 
allusion to any general peduncle. 



VI. — On the Identification of a Genus of Parasitic Hymenoptera. 
By J. 0. Westwood, F.L.S. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Hammevsmitli, June 5, 1849. 

As I have neither leisure nor inclination to answer in detail 
Mr. Newport\s reiterated attacks upon me, I shall merely ob- 
serve — 

1st. That I again deny having expressed a single word of 
doubt as to Mr. Newport's having found the insects in question 
in 1832, or that I asserted that his knowledge of them was de- 
rived from my communications. I said that Mr. Newport must 
have known from those communications that his insects were 
identical with those reared by Audouin and exhibited by me. 

2nd. The notices published by me in 1845 and 1847 are suf- 
ficient to identify my insect and to distinguish it from every 
known species of Chatcididce, and ought (even if Mr. Newport had 
not been present when I exhibited my specimens and drawings, 
and gave a viva, voce description of the insect) to have satisfied 
him of their identity. My notices, although not drawn up in a 
technical manner, indicate the chief essential peculiarities of the 
insect, viz. 1st, its minute size; 2nd, its parasitism in the nests 
of mason bees and wasps ; 3rd, the impregnation of the female 
within the cell of the bee ; 4th, the habit of the female of using 
her wings, and seeking other cells in which to deposit her eggs ; 
5th, its position in the family Chalcididce ; 6th, the singular dis- 
torted* antennae of the males ; 7th, the minute size of the wings 
of the male, and 8th, the full size of the wings of the female. 

3rd. I reaffirm the identity of the insects, and having seen 
Mr. Newport's drawing made seventeen years ago, I do not hesi- 
tate to state that his description has been drawn up from this 

* Tlie anteiuise of Elasmns, &c. are not distorted in form; they are sim- 
ply furnished with long lateral branches. 



40 Mr. J. 0. Westwood on a genus of Parasitic Hymenoptera. 

imperfect slictcli, and that seven out of the nme generic cha- 
racters given by him in the ' Gard. Chronicle/ p. 183, are erro- 
neous; namely, 1st, the size of the head of the female; 2nd, the 
description of the female antennae ; 3rd, description of the wings 
of the female ; 4th, description of the tarsi of the female ; 5th, de- 
scription of the antennse of the male ; 6th, description of the eyes 
of the male ; 7th, size of the insects. Some of these characters, 
namely the veins of the wings and the 5 -jointed tarsi, neither 
belong to the family nor subfamily to which the insect is to be 
referred, whilst the possession of stemmatous eyes by the male is 
disproved by every known species of winged insect, whereas it is 
as essentially a character of some of the Ametabolous tribes. 
Mr. Newport admits it to be possible, but not probable, that he 
has made these mistakes (Gard. Chron. May 26th), and brings 
forward his own and my descriptions of the male antennse to show 
the improbabihty ; but on examining his drawing I find the space 
for the joints he has overlooked indicated by an increased length 
of the base of the following joint. The proper way to disprove 
my assertions is to produce his specimens for the examination of 
competent entomologists. 

4th. Respecting the physiology of Mr. Newport's paper it is 
to be observed, that finding two species of larvse in the nests of 
Anthophora, both of which produced species of Chalcididce (a fa- 
mily hitherto known only as insectivorous parasites), and finding 
moreover on dissection that both these larvse possessed the same 
forms of the digestive organs, Mr. Newport arrived at the con- 
clusion that one was insectivorous, and the other pollinivorous ! 
Driven however from this ground by the direct observation of the 
parasitism of Monodontomerus by Mr. F. Smith (who, notwith- 
standing Mr. Newport's attempt to deprive him of the credit 
thereof, was the first who discovered the parasitic larvse of that 
insect, and directed Mr. Newport to the spot), Mr. Newport tells 
us (Gard. Chron. p. 231), that "what he had chiefly dwelt upon 
in his paper was the circumstance of its being an external feeder, 
as proved by the hairs on its body, although he had advocated 
the opinion that it fed on pollen ; but as to whether this was the 
case or not, he considered that it mattered but little with refer- 
ence to the anatomical facts he had described :" in other words, 
that it was immaterial whether the insect were carnivorous or 
pollinivorous, its peculiar anatomy being equally suited for either 
condition ! But even here Mr. Newport has arrived at a wrong 
conclusion, for the hairs on the outside of the body of the larva 
are not characteristic of external feeding parasite-larvse, since 
those of Eulophus Nemati, which feed on the surface of the body 
of the larva of Nenuitus intercus, are destitute of hairs. 

As the paper which I read at the Linnsean Society on the 



Mr. F. Walker^s Descriptions of Aphides. 41 

1st of May last contains all that 1 have to say on this subject, I 
shall not reply to any further comments which INIr. Newport may 
think proper to publish unsupported by the production of the 
specimens which he professes to have described. 

I am, Gentlemen, your very obedient servant, 

J. 0. Westwood. 



VTI. — Descriptions o/ Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

[Contiiuied from vol. iii. p. 304.] 

66. Aphis Urticaria, Kaltenbach. 

Aphis Urticaria, Kalt. Mon. Pflan. 57. 39. 
This is a clustering species, and feeds on Urtica dioica, U. 
urens, Ruhus fruticosus, R. Idceus, and on Stachys sylvatica ? 

The viviparous wingless female. It is small, dark green, ellip- 
tical or oval, convex, and velvet-like, with a rim on each side : 
the front is slightly convex : the feelers are black, dull yellow 
towards the base, and hardly half the length of the body ; the 
first and the second joints are not angular ; the fourth is much 
shorter than the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the 
sixth is much shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is nearly as 
long as the third, and much more slender than the preceding 
joints : the mouth is dull yellow ; its tip and the eyes are black : 
the nectaries are pale yellow with black tips, and about one- 
twelfth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the 
knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black. When 
young it is sometimes pale greenish or yellowish red, with white 
limbs. 

1st var. The body is dark grayish red. 
2nd var. Dark green mixed with pale green. 
3rd var. Green, with a yellow head. 
4th var. Dark yellow. 
5th var. Pale yellow. 

6th var. Dark green, mottled with pale yellow and with black. 

7th var. Very dark green, or almost black : the feelers are 

rather more than half the length of the body : the nectaries arc 

dull green with black tips, and about one- eighth of the length of 

the body. 

8th var. ? Dull green with a white bloom : the feelers are 
brownish, pale yellow at the base, and not near half the length 
of the body : the mouth is dark green : the tip of the abdomen 
is almost black : the nectaries are very dark green, or almost 
black, and one-eighth of the length of the body : the legs are 
pale yellow ; the tips of the thighs are darker ; the feet and the 



42 Mr. F, Walker's Descriptiuns 0/ Aphides. 

tips of the shanks are brown. On Stachys sylvatica at the end 
of April. 

The viviparous winged female. Is black : the abdomen is dark 
green ; the segments have black borders : the feelers are much 
shorter than the body : the mouth is paler towards the base : the 
nectaries are hardly more than one-twelfth of the length of the 
body : the legs are black ; the shanks excepting their tips are 
yellow : the wings are colourless and very much longer than the 
body ; the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow ; the wing- 
brands and the veins are pale brown ; the second vein diverges a 
little more from the first than it does from the third ; the first 
fork of the latter vein usually begins after one-third, and the 
second long after two-thirds of the length of the vein ; the fourth 
vein is moderately curved, and the angle of the vein whence it 
springs is extremely slight. In the autumn. 

1st var. The mouth is dull green with a black tip : the nec- 
taries are about one-sixth of the length of the body : the thighs 
are yellow towards the base : the wing-ribs are pale green ; the 
veins are brown. At the end of May. 

2nd var. The abdomen is very dark green : the feelers are as 
long as the body : the mouth is dull yellow, but black towards 
its tip : the nectaries are hardly one-sixth of the length of the 
body : the fore-thighs are dark yellow towards the base. In the 
middle of October. 

3rd var. The body is black : the borders and the underside of 
the fore-chest and the abdomen are dark green : the feelers are as 
long as the body : the mouth and the nectaries are dull yellow 
with black tips, and the latter are as long as one-fourth of the 
body : the thighs are pale yellow at the base : the wing-veins are 
brown. 

Length of the body i-| line ; of the wings 2^-2^ lines. 

When it feeds on the bramble it is larger and paler than when 
it feeds on the nettle, and is much resorted to by Formica fusca. 

67. Aphis tetrarhoda, n. s. 

The viviparous wingless female. This species feeds on the rose, 
and when full-grown is deep green, oval, very convex and plump, 
and covered beneath with a white bloom ; it is bristly and has 
six rows of tubercles on the back, and the middle rows are very 
distinct : the front is hardly notched : the feelers are nearly half 
the length of the body : the eyes are dark red : the nectaries 
have brown tips, and ai'e about one-eighth of the length of the 
body : the legs are dark green, and rather long; the feet and the 
tips of the shanks are brown. When young it is pale grass-green, 
slightly convex, and has a rim on each side, but its tubercles are 
indistinct : the feelers are about half the length of the body. 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 43 

1st var. The body is red. 

2nd var. The body is hlac. 

3rd var. The body is blackish. 

The viviparous winged female. Unfolds its wings in the mid- 
dle of May : it is black and rather stout ; the abdomen is dark 
green with a row of black spots on each side : the feelers are 
rather thick, and a little shorter than the body : the first and the 
second joints are slightly angular on the inner side of their tips ; 
the fourth joint is but little more than half the length of the 
third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is 
about half the length of the fifth ; the seventh is as long as the 
fifth : the tip of the mouth and the nectaries are black, and the 
latter ai'e as long as one-fourth of the body : the legs are long ; 
the thighs are yellow towards the base : the wings are colourless, 
and nearly twice the length of the body ; the wing- ribs and the 
rib-veins are pale yellow ; the wing-brands and the veins are 
brown ; the second vein diverges much more from the first than it 
does from the third vein ; the forks of the latter usually have 
their respective sources at one-third and at two-thirds of the 
length ; the fourth vein is much curved near its beginning, but 
nearly straight in the latter part of its course ; the angle whence 
it springs is slight. 

Length of the body | line ; of the wings 2~ lines. 

68. Aphis Cerasi, Fabr. 

Aphis Cerasi, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. 211. 6 ; Syst. Rhyn. 295. 6 ; 
Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 45. 31. 

Cerasaphis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2"^^ serie, v. 477. 

It feeds on the wild and on the cultivated Cerasus Avius from 
April till November, and its large swarms on the shoots of this 
tree are sometimes injurious to the fruit ; it occasionally dwells on 
the peach, and its colour is then rather paler, especially towards 
the head. 

The viviparous wingless feviale. The eggs are hatched in April, 
and the young Aphides are red or reddish brown, but as they 
grow they acquire a darker colour, and are convex, plump, and 
shining, and have a brassy tint on the back : the limbs are brown : 
the feelers are black at the base, and about one-third of the 
length of the body : the eyes are dark brown : the suckers of the 
mouth are red, and can be thrust out to some distance : the legs 
are rather short and thick. When full-grown it is coal-black : 
the body is exceedingly plump and nearly round ; the punctures 
on each side are very distinct : the feelers are yellow towards the 
base, and nearly as long as the body : the nectaries are straight, 
and as long as one-sixth of the body, and have sometimes pale 
tips : the thighs at the base and the shanks except their tips are 



44 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptiuns of Aphides. 

more or less yellow^ and tlie latter are sometimes white. It 
swarms on the young shoots, which may be easily cut oflf and 
removed with all their inhabitants : the leaves which it infests 
become twisted, curled, and glutinous, and are often shed. It is 
infested by an Aphidius and by an Allotria. The front is nearly 
straight with a very distinct tubercle on each side : the feelers are 
sometimes about half the length of the body ; the fovu'th joint is 
more than half the length of the third ; the fifth is much shorter 
than the fourth ; the sixth is much shorter than the fifth, though 
more than half its length ; the seventh is about thrice the length 
of the sixth. 

The viviparous winged female. This while a pupa is dark red : 
the feelers, the feet, and the tips of the four hinder thighs and 
of the shanks are brown ; the feelers at the base and the legs 
with the above exceptions are yellow. The wings are unfolded in 
the beginning of June, and the insect is then black and shining : 
the borders of the fore-chest are dark red : the abdomen is dark 
brown : the feelers are as long as the body, and the nectaries are 
equal to one-sixth of its length : the mouth is pale yellow with a 
brown tip : the thighs towards the base and the shanks are yel- 
low : the wings are colourless, and much longer than the body ; 
the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the wing-brands are pale brown, 
and the veins are darker ; the second vein diverges more from the 
first than it does from the third ; the first fork of the latter begins 
before or at one-third, and the second fork at or after two-thirds 
of its length ; the fourth vein is much curved near its source, 
but nearly straight in the latter part of its course ; the angle 
whence it springs is very slight. The wings are milk-white for 
a while after they have been unfolded, and then the other limbs 
are also white, and the body is pale reddish brown. The fore- 
legs are considerably shorter than the hind-legs ; the shanks are 
straight. 

Variation in the wing-veins. The lower branch of the second 
fork is wanting. 

The oviparous wingless female. This occurs in the middle of 
November : it is black, elliptical, and much smaller and narrower 
than the viviparous female : the feelers are rather more than half 
the length of the body ; the fifth joint is hardly shorter than the 
fourth ; the seventh is nearly twice the length of the sixth : the 
abdomen is slightly produced at the tip, and has two plates 
beneath like those of A. Tilim : the legs are rather short and 
stout ; the hind-shanks are not dilated. The glutinous matter 
which covers its body when mixed with Canada balsam acquires 
a delicate green colour. 

The winged male. This resembles the winged female, but pairs 
with the oviparous female in November. The sixth joint of the 



Mr. F. Walker's DesaHptions of Aphides. 45 

feelers is about half the length of the fifth ; the seventh is about 
thrice the length of the sixth : the rib- vein begins to widen soon 
after the niidtilc of the length of the wing, and emits the fourth 
vein near its tip ; the third vein is forked a little before one-third 
of its length, and forked again just after two-thirds of its length. 
Length of the body |-1 line ; of the wings 2^-3 lines. 

69. Aphis trirhoda, n. s. 

This species, which has a very quiet disposition, abounds on 
the rose in the spring, and having acquired wings in May, it 
emigrates thence to the columbine, where it feeds equally on the 
upj)er surface and on the under surface of the leaf, which often 
becomes red or purple from its injuries. It continues on that 
plant till the end of October, 

The viviparous wingless female. It is elliptic, slightly convex, 
not shining, whitish green, covered with a white bloom, and re- 
markable for the peculiar softness and velvety appearance of its 
skin : the front is straight : the feelers are white, and about half 
the length of the body ; the first and the second joints are not 
angular ; the fourth is less than half the length of the third ; the 
fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is much shorter than 
the fifth ; the seventh equals the fifth in length : the eyes are dark 
brown : the mouth is white with a brown tip, and hardly reaches 
the middle hips : the tip of the abdomen and the nectaries are 
white, and the latter are one-twentieth of the length of the body : 
the legs also are white. 

1st var. Pale yellowish green. 

2nd var. ? or a distinct species. The body is elliptical, convex, 
dull, grass-green, with a very slight white bloom : the feelers are 
brownish green, and about one-fifth of the length of the body : 
the eyes are black : the mouth is dull green with a black tip, 
and does not reach more than half way between the fore and the 
middle legs : the nectaries do not rise above the surface of the 
body : the legs are dark brownish green, and rather short. 

The viviparous winged female. This unfolds its wings at the 
end of May : it is pale greenish yellow : the head and the discs 
of the fore-chest, of the middle-chest and of the middle- 
breast are black : there is a large black spot on each side of the 
middle-chest : some short confiuent black bands form a large 
irregular spot on the disc of the abdomen, on each side of which 
there is a row of black dots : the feelers are black, and a little 
shorter than the body : the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip and the 
eyes are black : the nectaries are pale yellow, and one-twentieth 
of the length of the body ; the third joint is rather stout ; the 
fourth is very slender, and less than half the length of the third ; 
the fifth is a little shorter than the fourth, and the sixth than 



46 Ml'. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

tlie fiftli ; the seventh is much shorter than the sixth : the legs 
are also pale yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of 
the shanks are black : the wings are colourless, and much longer 
than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the brands and 
the veins are brown, and the tips of the latter are slightly 
clouded ; the second vein diverges much more from the first than 
it does from the third ; the first fork of the latter begins a little 
before one-third, and the second a little after two- thirds of its 
length ; the fourth vein is moderately curved, and the angle 
whence it springs is very slight. The pupa is pale yellow, and 
the wings when just unfolded are milk-white as usual. 

1st var. The body, the movith and the nectaries are green : the 
wing-ribs are pale green ; the brands are pale brown. 

2nd var. The head, the discs of the fore-chest, of the middle- 
chest and of the middle-breast are brown, and so also are the 
spots on the middle-chest. 

3rd var. The body is dark green. 

4th var. The abdomen is without black dots. 

5th var. The feelers are much shorter than the body. 

6th var. Some of the latter joints of the feelers are pale with 
black tips. 

7th var. The nectaries are one-twelfth of the length of the 
body. 

8th var. The head, the discs of the fore-chest, of the breast, of 
the middle-chest, and a large spot on each side of the latter are 
brown : there are some short black confluent bands that form a 
large irregular spot on the disc of the abdomen, on each side of 
which there is usually a row of very small black dots. 

9th var. Dark green : the head, the disc of the chest and that 
of the breast are black : the mouth, the nectaries, the wing-ribs 
and the wing-brands are green. 

The winged male. It appears in the autumn and is much smaller 
than the winged female : the third joint of the feelers is rather 
stout ; the fourth is slender, and less than half the length of the 
third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the fourth, and the sixth 
than the fifth ; the seventh is much shorter than the sixth. 

Length of the body f-1 line ; of the wings 2~-2» lines. 

70. Aphis Brassicce, Linn. 

Aphis Brassicce, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 734. 12 ; Faun. Suec. 
2205. 985 ; Fabr. Syst. Ins. ii. 388. 36 ; Ent. Syst. iv. 218. 41 ; 
Syst. Rhyn. 300. 41 ; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2209 ; Harr. Ex. 66. 
pi. 18. f. 3-6 ; Frisch. Ins. xi. 10. t. 3. f. 15 ; Berk. Syn. i. 120; 
Stew. El. ii. 110; Turt. ii. 207; Swammerdam, Ins. v. 535; 
Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 119. 1228; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 106. 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 47 

81 ; Harris, Ins. New Ens:!. 190; Curtis, Journ. R. Agric. Soc. 
iii. 54. t. C. f. 5, 6. 

A. Raphaiii, Schrank, Faun. Boie. ii. 1. 119. 1229. 

A. Isatidis, Fonscol. Ann. Soc. Ent. x. 

A. Floris-RapfE, Curtis, Journ. R. Agric. Soc. iii. 55. t. C. 
f. 7, 8. 

Cinara Raphani, Sir Oswald Mosley, Gard. Chron. i. 827. 

C. Brassicce, Sir Oswald Mosley, G. C. i. 827. 

Crambophis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2°^® serie, v. 478. 

This Aphis abounds on the cabbage, Brassica oleracea, from 
the beginning of June to the beginning of November, and is 
found both in Europe and in North America. The matriarchs 
of the species dwell on wild plants, and their winged offspring 
fly to the cabbage, repose there on the underside of the leaf, and 
are soon surrounded by groups of wingless little ones. 

The viviparous ivingless female. This when very young is linear, 
pale green, and slightly powdered with white; the limbs are white: 
in the middle of June when full-grown it is pale yellowish green, 
slightly oval, very plump and convex, and most thickly covered 
with white powder : the front is convex : the feelers are pale yel- 
low with brown tips and much shorter than the body ; the first 
and the second joints are not angular; the fourth is less than 
half the length of the third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the 
fourth ; the sixth is much shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is 
longer than the fourth : the eyes are black : the mouth is pale 
yellow with a brown tip : the nectaries are yellow, and hardly 
more than one-twentieth of the length of the body : the legs are 
pale yellow ; the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are 
black. It is extremely numerous and most abundantly powdered 
in the beginning of July : the limbs are almost black, and the 
nectaries are about one-twelfth of the length of the body : its 
colour when it sheds its skin is soft fresh velvet-like green, but 
it soon again assumes the dull dusty hue which harmonizes so 
well with the underside of the cabbage-leaf. The part which it 
infests becomes discoloured ; it often emits a colourless honey- 
d(!W, is the prey oi Aphidius {Trionyx) Rupee, Curtis, and of an 
Allotria, and is much infested by Leptus Aphidum. 

1st var. The body is dull olive-green, oval, short, and plump : 
the feelers are white with black tips, and nearly half the length 
of the body : the mouth is white ; its tip and the eyes are black : 
the nectaries are black, and as long as one-twelfth of the body : 
the legs are white and moderately long ; the feet and the tips of 
the shanks are black. In summer on Spinacia oleracea. 

2nd var. The body is green, yellow towards the head, and 
covered with a whitish bloom : the feelers are yellow with black 
tips, and more than half the length of the body : the legs are 
yellow; the feet are black; the hind-shanks are green. 



48 Mr. J. Alder on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it much resembles 
the wingless female in colovir, but is comparatively flat ; when the 
wings are unfolded it is dark brownish green, and very often 
slightly covered with white powder : the abdomen is pale green 
with a very slight pearly tint on its disc ; it has also a black line 
across each segment, and a row of black spots on each side : the 
feelers are black, and a little shorter than the body ; the third 
joint is long and thick ; the fourth is less than half the length of 
the third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the fourth ; the sixth 
is shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is about twice the length 
of the fifth : the eyes are dark brown : the mouth is dull yellow 
with a brown tip : the nectaries are black, and as long as one- 
twelfth of the body : the legs are black ; the thighs are pale green 
towards the base : the wings are colourless, and very much longer 
than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the wing-brands 
are very pale brown, and their tips are very slightly clouded ; the 
second vein diverges more fi-om the first than it does from the 
third vein ; the forks of the latter usually begin respectively before 
one-third and before two-thirds of the length of the vein ; the 
fourth vein is curved moderately and equally throughout its 
length ; the angle of the brand whence it springs is distinct. 

1st var. Greenish yellow varied with brown. 

2nd var. The feelers are as long as the body. 

3rd var. The mouth is green with a black tip : the thighs are 
wholly black. 

4th var. The thighs and the middle shanks excepting the tips 
are pale yellow. 

Length of the body 1 line ; of the wings 3 lines. 

Most of the winged race die during the growth of their pro- 
geny, and adhere to the leaf at a short distance from the groups of 
the wingless insects. This species feeds also on Brassica Rapa, B. 
campestris, B. Napus, Sinapis arvensis, S. alba, S. nigra, Crambe 
maritima (on this plant, especially in a wild state, it occurs 
in great profusion), Raphanus sativus, R. Raphanistrum, Capsella 
Bursa, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Lepicliinn sativum, Thalictrum minus, 
Spinacia oleracea. 

[To be continued.] 



VIII. — On the Animal of Kellia rubra. 
By Joshua Alder, Esq. 

To Richard Taylor, Esq. 

Dear Sir, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, ISth June 1849. 

My remarks on the animal of Kellia rubra ha\e unfortunately 
brought me into a controversy with Mr. Clark, a gentleman with 
whom it would have given me much greater pleasure to have 



Mr. J. Alder on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 49 

found myself in agreement. Our opinions, however, appear to 
differ more widely that I at first expected. 

In my last letter I ventured to lay down, perhaps more broadly 
than usual, the theory of the branchial currents in the Conchifera 
as generally received*; and confirmed, as far as my experience 
goes, by my own observations. This theory of ciliary currents, 
received and expelled by separate apertures, Mr. Clark entirely 
denies, and thinks, if I understand him rightly, that no apertures 
are specially set apart for this purpose, but that the water for 
branchial purposes flows in and out of all the openings of the 
mantle indiscriminately ; — whether by ciliary action or not, is not 
stated. 

To enter into a review of this process as applied to the whole 
of the bivalves would greatly extend a discussion already, I am 
afraid, enci'oaching too much upon your pages ; and as I do not 
feel that I shall be able to throw any new light upon it from my 
own observations, I shall waive the general subject for the pre- 
sent and confine myself to the consideration of Mr. Clark's ob- 
jections to my views on Kellia rubra, which he thinks it not dif- 
ficult to show are wrong. Let us, then, carefully examine the 
arguments by which this position is to be established. 

The first is thus stated : — " It must be borne in mind that the 
mantle of Kellia rubra is open from the posterior branchial slit 
to its anterior termination. The open fold in question is merely 
a prolongation of that membrane ; and when the animal o^wns 
its valvesf, it must receive, like the Mactra and Veneres, or any 
other bivalve with an open mantle, the currents of sea-water ; and 
in closing them, a great part thereof, after bathing the branchiae, 
is ejected from the aperture of ingress, and only a portion of it 
passes out of the posterior orifices.'' This I admit to be the 
natural effect of the opening and closing of the valves, but surely 
Mr. Clark does not mean to say that the branchial currents are 
produced by this means ? According to ray views this is an oc- 
casional action entii-ely independent of the regular branchial cur- 
rents, and should not be confounded with them, as these latter 
go on when the valves are entirely at resf, and when consequently 
no such effect as here described could possibly be produced by 
them. As to the siphonal fold being merely a prolongation of 
the mantle, this is the case with the siphons of all the Conchifera ; 
the only difference being, that in the present instance the tube 
is formed by a fold of the mantle, while in other genera, and in 

* See Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert. 2nd ed. vol. vi. p. 7; Grant, Coinp. Anat. 
p. 5;39; Owen, Lectures on Comp. Anat. vol. i. p. 282. 

t These words are here put in italics, though not so in Mr. Clark's letter, 
to draw particular attention to them. I have taken the liberty of doing the 
same in other places. 

Ann. &; Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 4 



50 Mr. J. Alder on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 

another species of tlie same genus, the walls are closed ; yet their 
functions are surely analogous. A similar siphonal fold, though 
less perfect, may be seen in some of the Modiolce : but the case 
most in point is the siphon of the zoophagous gasteropods, which 
is a prolongation and fold of the mantle similar to this, yet no 
one that I am aware of has argued that it cannot be for the sup- 
ply of water to the branchite because it is continuously open with 
the other parts of the cloak*. 

Mr. Clark thinks my views incorrect : " As in those bivalves 
with open mantles the currents of water enter by the great pedal 
orifice or rima magna of the mantle to aerate the branchicB, and 
the greater part of the impure iluid is expelled by the aperture 
of ingress, a small portion, as before stated, passes out by the 
posterior siphonal apparatus." Is this any more than a repetition 
of the former statement, leaving out the opening and shutting of 
the valves, and defining the purpose more distinctly to be, " to 
aerate the branchias" ? That it has reference to the same action 
is evident from the words " as before stated." Mr. Clark must 
therefore either think that the branchial currents are produced 
by the opening and shutting of the valves, or he is confounding 
two things that are distinct. If the pedal orifice is the principal 
one by which the true branchial currents are received and ex- 
pelled, of course my observations, and the views of almost every 
author who has written on the subject must be wrong, but the 
proof requires to be brought forward in some more definite form 
than this. 

Again, Mr. Clark says, " In the mollusca with nearly closed 
mantles, only a small portion of the fluid can enter by the re- 
stricted pedal orifices ; the far greater portion must be inhaled 
by the posterior sijihons '^ (not necessarily by both), " and is often 
expelled simultaneously at both orifices, as I have observed in 
Pholadidea j^apijracea, the most closed of all the bivalves." This 
fact of the occasional simultaneous expulsion of water at both 
orifices seems to be the only one that Mr. Clai-k has satisfactorily 
ascertained from observation in this species ; he might perhaps 
have added that it was accompanied by a closing of the valves ; — 
at least such is the case with the allied Pholades as I have myself 
witnessed. But this sudden ejection of water is only occasional, 
and caused by other means than the regular ciliary currents. It 
is probable that in the Pholades and some other bivalves with 

* I am sorry to have misunderstood Mr, Clark with respect to the sense 
in which he took the words branchial and anal. I did not say, however, 
that he used the Avords, but that he appeared to take them (as used by 
others) in too restricted a sense. My reason for thinking so was, that he said 
the posterior opening had " passed for the anus," and took some trouble to 
show that the true anus is distinct from it. 



Mr. J. Alder 07i the Animal of Kellia rubra. 51 

long siphons {Mya, hutraria, &c.), the branchiae, being situated 
at a great distance from the apertures, may requu-e from time 
to time the assistance of muscular contraction for a thorough 
cleansing out of the branchial cavity, and in this case the water 
will be discharged out of both siphons from the stronger force 
overcoming the action of the cilia*. 

Mr. Clark takes some pains to prove that the water does not 
make a circuit through the intestines, which position, being un- 
disputed and apparently unconnected with the argument, I should 
not have noticed but for the conclusion drawn from it ; which is, 
" that the water therefore " (on account of not passing through 
the intestine ?) " for the branchise and sustentation must pass 
into the great branchial cavity, and issue therefrom by both the 
ducts at which it entered." How is this ? The conclusion appears 
to be a nan sequitur : but possibly I may misunderstand the 
meaning of the paragraph, though I have read it over carefully 
more than once. 

With respect to my statement of having seen, under the mi^ 
croscope, a continuous current of water flowing into the anterior 
tube of Kellia rubra, Mr. Clark observes, " All must admit this 
fact : as the fold is a part of the open mantle, no microscope is 
here required, as in every open-mantled bivalve of adequate size 
this action is instantly made apparent by a common lens, and is 
the invariable result of the animal opening its valves." In Mr. 
Clark^s former letter he says, " No currents, at least branchial 
ones, enter therein or issue therefrom ; it is a fold merely sub- 
servient to locomotion.^' The flow of a continuous current into 
this tube-like fold is now treated as an admitted fact, requiring 
no microscope for its demonstration ; — but it is attributed to the 
opening of the valves. It may be necessary therefore to state that 
the operation goes on when the valves are perfectly at rest, and 
cannot in that case be produced by their means. That I could 
see a current passing out at the posterior aperture is however to 
Mr. Clark a matter of the " gravest difliculty,'' only to be got 
over by supposing that I was deceived by the " aberration and 
well-known great deceptions involved in the use of high micro- 
scopic powers." It will be a satisfactory answer to this to state 
that I was able to see it with the lowest power of my microscope, 
where there could be no aberration. The advantage of a micro- 
scope over a pocket-lens in this case is the greater facility it 
affords in managing the light, which requires to be transmitted 

* The internal surface of these siphons is usually (perhaps always) covered 
with vibratile cilia, more minute than those of the branchiae, but acting in 
conjunction with them in producing the currents. Mr. Cocks informs me tliat 
he can see the cilia inside the anterior tube oi Kellia sithorhmilnris, with a 
lens of -^-inch focus. 

4* 



52 Mr. J. Alder on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 

through the fluid to show the floating particles ; for it is the size 
of these, and not that of the aperture, which enables an observer 
to distinguish the direction of a current. Mr. Clark could see 
the exci'ements pass out of this small opening. What then should 
prevent our seeing other bodies, if sufficiently visible under the 
microscope, float in or out ? 

For argument, Mr. Clark would assume that the posterior slit, 
as I state, shows no sign of an ingress-current. Yet no argu- 
ment is founded upon it, for in the very next sentence the con- 
trary /cc/ is stated to he proved "by the contraction and dilatation 
of the slit " (my dissent from this proof is already on record) ; 
" especially,^^ that gentleman adds, " as I have shown that the 
analogous tubes " (the anal ones ?) " of the close-mantled mol- 
lusca . . . must of necessity receive and discharge the fluid neces- 
sary for the branchial (Economy.^' Is this shown ? and where ? 

We have next an assumed case which is also called d, proof, 
j)ut in these words : " Suppose Kellia rubra, instead of being an 
open-mantled animal, is one of the closed mollusca, — where, in 
tiiis case, is the entrance to the branchial currents ? " All the 
known closed mollusca have at least two if not three apertures. 
A closed mollusk with a single aperture, if such did exist, would 
be an anomaly, and its branchial arrangement might also be ex- 
pected to be an exception to the general rule. But what argu- 
ment can be founded upon this ? That where there are two or 
more apertures, they cannot be set apart for difiierent purposes ? 
Certainly not ; — any more than we could argue that because some 
animals exist where the alimentary and excretory functions are 
performed through the same orifice, that in other animals where 
two orifices are found they cannot perform diff'erent functions. 

" It may be asked,^' says Mr. Clark, " why has nature departed 
from her usual scheme only in Kellia rubra and^. suborbicularisV 
The only way in which the usual scheme is departed from in this 
genus, is, not in giving the species a special inhalant siphon, but 
in placing it before instead of behind : and perhaps for this some 
reason might be found. Most bivalves live in sand, and they 
require to have both tubes placed at that end of the shell which 
usually communicates with the surface. The Kellia, on the con- 
trary, never burrow in sand, but inhabit the sinuosities of rocks, 
sea-weeds, and old shells : a simpler arrangement, by which the 
water can be admitted direct to the mouth and anterior part of 
the gills, is therefore not incompatible with its habits. But it 
is added, " We will now inquire into the ' cui bono ' of this fold 
of the mantle, considered as a branchial appendage. It is well 
known that nature never acts by way of surplusage ; and having 
given Kellia rubra an open mantle by which the currents can 
enter, as in other analogous open bivalves, we must conclude 



Mr. J. Alder on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 53 

that she has not departed from her usual scheme, and that this 
fold is not a special branchial organ, but is intended to fulfill 
other functions." Is this a legitimate conclusion to arrive at ? 
Mr. Clark here argues as if the departure from the usual scheme 
in Kellia rubra was in having a special branchial orifice ; but this 
is not the point of difference, as I have before stated, and these 
objections, if they have any weight, must apply equally to the 
posterior branchial siphons of all the open- mantled bivalves. 
They all have a pedal aperture through which the currents can 
enter. What then is the use of the so-called branchial siphon ? 
Or why are there three apertures performing the same function ? 
Surely there is something very like sui'plusage here. The " cui 
bono " may well be asked of Mr. ClarVs views, but not of mine, 
as I assign a separate function to each orifice : the branchial one 
being kept apart from the opening for the foot in order that the 
currents may not be interrupted by the action of that member. 

But Mr. Clark says, the foot does intrude itself occasionally 
into the folded siphon of Kellia rubra ; and this is the last and 
" conclusive proof " by which I am to be put hors de combat. 
" The animal very often thrusts its foot into the fold, and by the 
withdrawal of which it is opened and the edges separated. How 
then can a fold, whose form by this action is continually changing, 
and is subject to momentary interruption, be the conduit of re- 
gulai', delicate, and uninterrupted currents V I would ask, does 
not this objection tell more strongly against the true pedal 
opening of this and other bivalves, which Mr. Clark wishes to 
make out is the principal one for the entrance and exit of 
branchial currents ? Let any one look at this little animal with 
its siphonal fold stretched out in front, and frequently expanded 
almost into a cup-form, as if courting the entrance of the vivifying 
stream, and then say whether the basal part through which the 
foot is constantly protruded when in action, or the siphonal fold 
into which it not unfrequently makes a momentary incursion, is 
most free to supply the currents necessary for respiration and 
food. Mr. Clark calls these currents " regulai*, delicate, and un- 
interrupted." I have said that they are continuous, and pretty 
regularly sustained, but never contemplated asserting that they 
were not liable to occasional or accidental interruption. 

I shall now briefly advert to the curious use which Mr. Clark 
has found for the siphonal fold as a prehensile organ, and the 
no less curious terrestrial habits which he supposes this little 
bivalve to possess. For both I think that gentleman is greatly 
indebted to a lively imagination. Probably he will also find, 
on a more careful examination, that its habitat beyond tidal range 
has been rather overstated. I have never found it but within 
tide-marks, and cannot conceive how a bivalve mollusk, whose 



54 Mr. J. Alder on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 

structure disables it from procuring any food but what is floated 
into its shell by the agency of water, can possibly live perma- 
nently out of that element. It is true that oysters and several 
other bivalves can endui'e a sort of torpid existence out of water 
for some time when the valves are closed to prevent the evapo- 
ration of moisture from the gills; but Mr. Clark supposes this 
little Kellia able to walk abroad beyond tide-marks, notwith- 
standing the desiccation of the branchise which the opening of 
the valves might cause. 

Should I have succeeded in showing that the impossibility or 
even improbability of my views being correct has not been esta- 
blished, the following interesting letters from INIr. Cocks, de- 
tailing a series of observations kindly undertaken at my request, 
will go far to prove my original statement, that the anterior 
siphon in Kellia rubra is the ingress channel throvigh which 
water is supplied to the branchise and to the mouth. The mode 
by which it makes its exit has not been so satisfactorily made 
out, but I have great confidence that my views and observations 
on this point will also ultimately be confirmed. However that 
may be, if one fact has been established in the animal oeconomy, 
something has been gained. Mr. Cocks^s observations appear to 
have been more especially directed to the anterior siphon. 

I am, dear Sir, very truly yours, 

Joshua Alder. 

My Dear Sir, Falmouth, June 8, 1849. 

I have repeated the experiments on Kellia rubra and K. subor- 
bicularis, and the results confirm my former statements*. I 
witnessed the ingress of water, atoms, Crustacea, &c., very di- 
stinctly into the anterior siphon of both species, and also the ex- 
pulsion of fseces from the posterior siphon, but have failed in toto 
to prove the current of water posteriorly in either, or the expul- 
sion of water from the anterior siphon of K. rubra, although in 
K. subo7'bicularis it takes place: viz. a K. sub orbicularis that had 
been confined several months in one of my experimental bottles, 
was put into a watch-glass of fresh salt water. It sent forth the 
anterior siphon : the orifice expanded, and the water, atoms, &c. 
flowed freely into it for a few seconds : it then closed the aperture, 
contracted in length, and with a slight convulsive jerk of the 
animal and a partial closing of the valves, sent forth a jet of 
water, apparently free from any admixture, through the anterior 
tube. The operation was performed twice or thrice in a 
minute t- 

* Mr. Cocks'b first letter is not inserted, as the contents of it are sufficiently 
illustrated in the sequel. 

■j- This action, according to Mr. Cocks's description, appears to take place 
more decidedly and iVequently when the animal is removed from impure 



Mr. J. Alder on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 55 

May 31st. — I procured from Gwyllyu Vase several fine and 
healthy specimens of K. rubra and K.suborbicuiaris. The /t. rub7-a 
protruded its siphons, and the ingress of water, &c. was very ap- 
parent, as also the ejectment of faeces per posterior siphon, within a 
few minutes after immersion. — K. sub orbicularis : ingress of water 
per anterior siphon and egress of feeces per posterior siphon : — at 
intervals a slight spasmodic twitch of valves, but unable to detect 
a discharge of water per anterior siphon. [Here follows a re- 
gister of observations daily made from the 1st to the 8th of 
June v/ith the same result, excepting that on the 7th, when the 
water was changed, K. suburbicularis showed "a discharge of 
water per anterior siphon." 8th. K. suborbicularis : this action 
" subdued — flow of water per (into) anterior siphon regular."] 
From the 4th to the noon of the 7th they were allowed to re- 
main in the glass without changing the water : in the evening 
of that day I put them into fresh water. The /i. ruh-a absorbed 
the water and its contents freely and ejected faeces ; and although 
I employed powerful glasses, was unable to detect any (egress) 
current either anteriorly or posteriorly. Not so with K. subor- 
bicularis. It imbibed water freely and ejected faeces sparingly ; 
as well as passing a stream from the anterior siphon. I believe 
that the operation of ejecting water anteriorly by 7l. suborbicu- 
laris (with all my tact I have not been able to detect a current 
from the anterior siphon of K. rubra) is performed by the ani- 
mal in health with little muscular effort ; but when in confine- 
ment, poorly supplied with food, and that not to its taste, it 
becomes atrophized and feeble, consequently every effort of the 
will is demonstrable. 

The Lichina pygmcea is very common with us on the rocks, 
and is covered twice a day by the tide to the height of several 
feet. It forms a good retreat for K. rubra and Turtonia minuta. 
The Lichina confinis is also plentiful on our rocks, but is gene- 
rally out of the reach of the waves, although it sips the spray 
often. I have gathered a great deal of L. confinis, but never 
found a univalve or bivalve shell attached to it or near it. The 
Kellia rubra with us is found in situations within tide-marks, 
covered twice a day with the sea. 

I am, dear Sir, yours very truly, 
J. Alder, Esq. W. P. Cocks. 

My Dear Sir, Falmouth, June IG, 1S49. 

The Kellia rubra and K. suborbicularis imbibe water freely ; 
and constantly by their anterior siphons. We have had with us 

into fresh sea-water, and is probably a means of cleansing the branchial 
cavity from the effete water and bathing those organs more completely in 
the purer element. — J. A. 



56 Zoological Society. 

for the last three weeks Dr. Busch of Berhn, who is making a 
scientific tour of Great Britain, with a view of pursuing anato- 
mical researches among our marine animals. He left for Dublin 
last night. His microscope was a magnificent machine. I 
availed myself of its powers, and placed the bivalves under its 
magic influence. The sight was delightful. I could see the 
ingress of water into the anterior siphon of K. sub orbicularis 
and K. rubra, the ejectment of faeces from both distinctly. The 
altei'nate spasmodic action and forcing of water through the 
anterior tube of K. suborbicularis free of any admixtm-e was 
distinctly seen. The power employed was very great. The 
animal, one that had been in confinement for some time. This 
creature was removed from the field and a K. 7^ubra substituted ; 
the same power being employed. The anterior siphon was in 
constant motion; and the water, Crustacea, and minute atoms 
floating on its surface were distinctly seen to enter it : no regur- 
gitation took place anteriorly. I kept my eye to the instrument 
watching the creature's movement until my retina was nearly 
paralysed, without detecting the " placid stream." I have daily 
during the last six wrecks examined a score of K. rubra, both 
recent specimens and old prisoners, with lenses of different 
powers, — employed various contrivances with compound mirrors, 
lenses, &c., without detecting the current of water passing out of 
its anterior siphon. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, yours very truly, 
J. Alder, Esq. W. P. Cocks. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

June 13, 1848. — Harpur Gamble, Esq., M.D., in the Chair. 

3. Description of new species of the genus Cypr^a. 
By J. S. Gaskoin, Esq. 

1. CyprjEA Thersites (High-backed Cowrie). Cyp. testd ovatd, 
gibhosd, dorso elevate, basi latd plandque , saturate rufescente-fuscd ; 
aiitice posticeque depressiusculd, aperturd angustatd, postice re- 
curvd ; dentibus albis, distinctis, labii externi validis, columellari 
minus prominentibus ; sulco columellari antice profunda, lato ; 
extremitatibus valde productis, canali antico pleno. 
Shell ovate, very gibbous and high-backed, of a very dark, reddish- 
brown colour, not uniformly equal in intensity ; a curved whitish 
mark exists over both the anterior and the posterior extremities, at 
which places there is a depression, as though the mantle had not 
deposited any substance there after it had begun to secrete the 
colouring-matter, ])articularly that at the last whorl of the spire ; 



Zoological Society. 57 

aperture narrow, much curved at the posterior third of its length, 
the other two-thirds nearly straight; teeth white, distinct, even, 
about twenty-seven on the outer side, extending but slightly over 
the lip ; on the columellar side about twenty-four, broader at the 
anterior end, while along the continued edge of the aperture to its 
posterior extremity are mere indications of teeth ; columellar sulcus 
deep and broad, not extending beyond the more prominent teeth ; 
base broad and flat, its entire circumference of an uniform dark, 
reddish-brown colour, or spots of a similar colour, the colour lessen- 
ing in intensity towards the middle portion of the base, which is 
white, as is also the interior of the shell ; margins project, especially 
that of the lip : extremities produced, the posterior forming sharp or 
thin edges, and extending much upwards ; that on the columellar side 
terminating at the apex of the spire ; the anterior extremities also 
thin, and the channel upright. 

I have seen this shell only in the adult state. It has no general 
characteristic in common with any known species ; the extremities 
however have much similitude to Cypraa Scottii ; but it is a much 
shorter, more gibbous, heavier and thicker shell. 

Long, 2^2^ inches; high, Iy^"^; wide, 2. 

Hah. } 

Cabinets of British Museum, Saul, Cuming, &c. 

2. Cypr^a MARGiNATA (Broad-margined Cowrie). Cyp.testd ovatd, 
antice subacmninatci, postice et medicine valde gibbosd ; colore Jloris 
lactis, maculis fulvis, paucis irregulariter sp arsis ; bast valde 
pland et laid ; marginibus externis mediane fulvo-brunneo punctatis , 
punctis discretis ; aperturd laid, subspirali ; columelld postice gib- 
bosd, sulco parvo antico ; dentibus lateris columellaris circa viginti, 
late distinctis ; lateris externi cequalibus paululiim extensis, antice 
minoribus, circa viginti-novem ; extremitatibus, posticd productd, 
pland, canalem latum sursumformante, anticd minus productd, con- 
vergente, canalem brevem sursumformante ; spird valde conspicud ; 
marginibus planis, tenuibus, valde extensis. 
Shell ovate, anterior end rather pointed, the posterior and middle 
very gibbous ; of a cream- colour, a few fulvous spots are irregularly 
scattered over the entire back and sides of the shell, apparently the 
commencement of the deposition of colouring-matter ; base flat and 
very broad, on the outer edges are discrete fulvous brown spots, the 
rest of the base, the teeth, and the interior of the shell are of a clear 
cream-colour ; aperture wide, spiral ; columella gibbous posteriorly, 
a slight sulcus at the anterior end ; teeth form, on the columellar 
side, a single angular serrated edge, about twenty in number, wide 
apart and not very prominent ; on the other side they are more 
regular and even, extending, slightly prominent, half across the lip ; 
they are smaller and more perfect towards the anterior extremity, 
and about twenty-nine in number ; the extremities are produced, flat, 
form a broad channel, passing upwards at the posterior end of the 
shell, and terminate at the outer side of the apex of the spire ; the 
anterior extremities are much less produced, and converge, forming a 



58 Zoological Society. 

short channel running upwards ; spire very prominent ; margins flat 
and thin, extending much outwards ; the angle formed by the attach- 
ment of the outer margin to the shell is of a light brown colour, from 
which anteriorly radiate lines of the same colour over the upper 
surface of the margin. 

Differs from Cyp. Scott ii in its short and gibbous form, in the re- 
markable flat and broad cream-coloured base, in the very extended, 
flat and thin margins : the posterior channel has much the form of 
that of Scottii, but terminates at the apex, and not, as in Scottii, at 
the base of the spire. 

Length, 2^^^ inches ; altitude, 1^?^^ ; breadth, 1-^. 

Hub. } 

The only specimen I have seen of this peculiar shell is in the Bri- 
tish Museum, and may not be an adult. 

3. Cypr^a bicolor (Two-coloured Cowrie). Cyp.testd pyriformi, 
colore floris lactis ; fasciis latis, inten'uptis, bnumeis, centrali 
latiori ; basi latiusculd, rotundatd ; aperturd subspirali, latiusculd ; 
dentibus numerosis,prominentiusculis, columellaribus crassis, supra 
sulcum columellarem extensis ; margine e xter no crasso, punctata, 
punctis brunneis discretis ; extremitatibus brevibus, obtusis ; canali 
antico pallide rvfescente-jiavo. 
Shell pyriform, when young more ovate, smooth and shining; of 
a light cream-colour, having three broad, irregularly interrupted 
bands of a brown or fawn colour, extending entirely across the shell, 
the middle one being the broadest, the posterior the next so ; base 
broad, Tather convex, pale cream-colour; aperture subspiral, rather 
wide ; teeth numerous, rather prominent, on the lip about thirty 
curving round its edge, and extending about one-third over the lip ; 
on the columellar side teeth about seventeen, extending from the 
edge of the aperture over the columellar groove to end on its inner 
ridge, diminishing on that ridge in prominence towards the posterior 
extremity, where the denticulation is scarcely observable ; the colu- 
mellar groove of equal width the whole length ; margin, external 
very thick and prominent (not crenulated), somewhat angular at its 
outer edge, along which are many small brown distinct spots ; simi- 
larly coloured spots, but a little larger, are also on the columellar 
side, where a sUght margin exists, and which becomes jDrominent only 
to form the anterior extremity ; extremities short, obtuse ; the anterior 
channel has a very faint orange tinge. 

Long, yVo^'^s of ^'^ ^°ch ; high, y^o^^^^ '■> wide, y^^ ths. 
Hob. Australia, New Holland. 
Cabinets of Metcalfe, Saul, Gaskoin. 

Differs from the Cyp. piperita of Gray in not being cylindrical, but 
of a pyriform shape ; in being very gibbous, and a much heavier and 
thicker shell ; in having only three bands, which are very broad and 
conspicuous ; Cyp. piperita having four, which are generally narrow 
and obscurely visible in the adult shell, and on the later-formed part 
of the shell uninterrupted. 



Zoological Society. 59 

4. Cypr^a GRACILIS (Slender Cowrie). Cyp.testd oblongo-ovatd, 
antice gradatim acnminatd, pallide fiavescente-hrimned, maculis 
dorsalibus irregularibus pallide brunneis, later ibus basalibus brunneo 
punctatis, punctis paucis distinctis ; basi pallescente ; latere postico 
columeUari subgibboso ; aperturd latiusculd, subspirali ; dentibus 
labii externi prominentibus cequalibus, circa octodecim, labii colu- 
mellaris cegnalibus, anticis paululum majoribus, pariter circa octo- 
decim ; sulco columeUari antico depresso, postico inconspicno de- 
presso ; extremitatibns canalibus latisque prominentibus ; spird 
conspicud, profunde umbilicatu. 
Shell oblougo-ovate, gradually tapering towards the anterior end, 
smooth and shining, of a light fawn-colour, with very light brown 
irregular markings about the back, and a few distinct dark brown 
dots on the edges of the base of the shell on both sides, bands 
indistinct ; inside of shell milk-white ; base somewhat lighter in 
colour than the back ; posterior half of the columellar side rather 
gibbous, outer side of base somewhat depressed in the centre por- 
tion ; aperture subspiral, rather wide ; teeth of the lip ])rominent 
and even, extending in no degree on to the lip (only denticulating 
its edge), about eighteen in number, and about as many also on the 
columellar side, which are larger anteriorly, even, terminating ex- 
ternally in a line at the edge of, or rather just within the aperture, 
and internally, proceeding straight across the columellar groove to 
terminate at its inner edge the anterior half of the shell, and on the 
columella in points, the posterior half, there being mere small pro- 
jections indicating the continuance of the inner edge of the colu- 
mellar groove, which extends the whole length of the columella, 
diminishing in depth in the middle of the shell, and deepening at 
the posterior end to form a part of the channel ; margins slightly 
prominent, thick oia the outer side only, not crenulated ; extremities 
of a light brown colour externally, much produced and thick ; both 
the anterior are marginated and flattened externally ; channels wide 
and protrude beyond the body of the shell ; spire visible, deeply um- 
bilicated. 

Long, y^j^jjths of an inch ; wide, ^^^jths; high, y^yOjths. 

Hab. ■ . ? 

The only specimen I have seen of this elegant shell is in my col- 
lection, and was brought to this country by Sir E. Belcher in the 
' Samarang.' 

The only species with which this shell has any aflSnity is the Cyp. 
Sauli of Gaskoin ; and differs from it in the teeth being finer, and 
in being rather within the aperture, in having a columellar groove, 
in the absence of colour between the teeth, in being more ventricose, 
the wanting the characteristic dark blotch on the dorsum of Sauli, 
and difference of general coloration. 

I have thought it proper to add to this description the following 
note : — 

" My dear Sir, — I have carefully examined the little Cypraea 
which you left with me yesterday, and which you proposed to name 
Cyp. gracilis. It appears to me to be in perfect condition, and to 



60 Zoological Society. 

possess several characters by which it is most easily distinguished 
from all other described species with which I am acquainted. 

" In its teeth, which are not elongated over the columellar side, in 
the internal columellar groove, in its apical umbilicus, and in the 
much-produced posterior extremities, as well as in other characters, 
it differs essentially from Cyp. Walkeri of Gray ; and it has not the 
slightest appearance of malformation or monstrosity of form. I am 
therefore of opinion it is a perfectly distinct species, and ought to 
be described as such. "Yours, &c., 

" G. B. SoWERBY." 

" 30th March, 1848." 
" To J. S. Gaskoin, Esq." 

5. CypR^A OBSCURA (Dusky Cowrie). Cyp. testd ovatd, albicante, 
maculis duabus dorsalibus nigricantibus inconspicuis ; costellis 
rudibus, promiiientibus, ad dorsum concoloribus , ad margines et ad 
basin ulbis ; dentibus labii externi circa viginti, labii interni di- 
stantibus circa duodecim ; sulco colmnellari lato, margine interna 
dentibus serrate ; extremitatibus albis, crassis, prodiictiusculis . 
Shell ovate, of a dingy white colour, having two remarkable small, 
blackish, undefined spots or markings on the dorsum, one a little 
less than a third the length of the shell from each extremity ; ribs 
coarse and prominent, on the back of the same colour as the shell, 
but on the margins and base of a pure white ; they traverse the shell 
from one side of the aperture to the other, having a slight curving at 
the centre of the dorsum ; on the outer side several terminate on the 
side of the shell, fewer terminate on the columellar side, where some 
float ; base white, rather round ; aperture straightish, curved at the 
posterior end, rather narrow ; teeth even, formed by the costje, about 
twenty on the lip and about twelve on the columellar side, where 
they are distant and extend over a broad columellar groove to serrate 
its inner ridge ; margin on the outer side thick and white, none on 
the columellar side ; extremities white, thick, and somewhat pro- 
duced. No dorsal impression. 

Length, Y^A^hs of an inch ; altitude, yVo^hs ; breadth, ^^ths. 
Hab. North-west Australia ; Dupuch's Island (under stones, low 
water), collected by J. E. Dring, Esq., R.N. Abrolhos Island (under 
coral), by ditto. 

Cabinets of Gaskoin, Saul, &c. 

This shell is perhaps nearest in form to Cypr<ea pulex, Gray, but 
cannot be confounded with any known species. I have had for 
several years specimens of this shell, and the locality given me with 
them was Senegal ; but as Mr. Dring has lately brought others to 
this country, I have thought it right to give so authenticated a habi- 
tat as we have received from him. 

This manuscript description having been written for a few years, 
I send it for insertion in the ' Proceedings,' although Kiener appears 
to have described it in his work, ' Species General,' &c., under the 
name of Cyp. Napolina, a name ascribed to Duclos ; but Kiener does 
not say by what authority, yet I conclude that that ai)pellation 
should stand. Kiener's figures, pi. 53, figs. 3 and 3, are no repre- 



Zoological Society. 61 

sentations of his description. I was not aware until lately that this 
shell had already been described, but my English characters of the 
species may not be unacceptable, as they are more minute. 

6. Cyi'r^a sulcata (Grooved Cowry). Cyp. testd ovato-globosd, 
ventricosd, albd ; bast rotiindatd, aperturd latiusculd, post ice in- 
curvd, canalibus profundis et latis ; dentibus cequalibus, labii ex- 
terni circa triginta, lateris columellaris viginti, supra columellam 
continuis marginem iiiternam serratam formantibus ; costellis 
prominentibus plerumque ad impressionem dorsalem terminaiitibus, 
pseudo-costellis ad utramque extremitatem circa decern ; sulco 
columellari lato, prof undo, margine externo prominente, acuta ; 
extremitatibus obtusis, crassis ; spird conspicud ; impressione 
dorsali conspicud. 

Shell globoso-ovate, ventricose ; entirely of a clear white colour ; 
base convex, aperture rather wide, curved inwards at the posterior 
end, channels deep and broad ; teeth numerous and even, about 
thirty on the lip and twenty on the columellar side, which traverse 
the columellar groove to terminate at an inner serrated edge ; the 
ribs are continuations of the teeth, are prominent, and almost all 
terminate at the dorsal impression, a few only on the sides of the 
shell ; false ribs at each end about ten, interstices between the ribs 
minutely striated longitudinally ; columellar sulcus broad and deej), 
the outer edge, sharp and prominent, occupies the anterior third of 
the length of the columella, the other portion of the inner part of the 
columella flat (not grooved) ; extremities obtuse, thick, those of the 
lip longer than the body of the shell, the posterior one in a marked 
degree, which, passing round to form the channel, ends somewhat 
abruptly in a prominent sharp edge on the columella, which sharp 
edge constitutes the inner extremity ; spire perceptible, the false ribs 
pass over it ; dorsal impression well-pronounced, extends the length 
of the back to the false ribs at each end ; margins none. 

It is nearest in general form to Cyp. formosa of Gaskoin, but 
differs from it in having a dorsal impression, much coarser ribs, in the 
sharp outer edge of the columellar sulcus, the peculiar position and 
form of the inner and projection of the outer posterior extremities, 
in its pure white colour, &c. 

Hub. Manilla. 

Length, i^ths of an inch ; width, ^^^ths ; height, -j^ths. 

Cabinets of Gaskoin, Cuming. 

7. Cypr^ea vitrea (Glass-like Cowry). Cyp. testd ovato-globosd, 
albd, nitidd, semivitred ; basi rotundatd, aperturd angustiori paulu- 
lum incurvd, marginibus crassis ; dentibus cequalibus, numerosis, 
prominentibus, labii exferni circa triginta, columellaris viginti supra 
sulcum colurnellarem continuis ; sulco columellari lato, Icngitudinem 
aperturtB cequante, margine interna subrecta, serrata; costis magnis, 
ccqiialibus, jjr amine nti bus, cum dentibus continuis ad dorsum ter- 
minantibus ; lined dorsali inqiressd; extremitatibus abtusis, crassis 
brevibus ; margine externo crasso ; spird inconspicud. 



63 Zoological Society. 

Shell ovato-globose, almost round, of an uniform, semivitreous, 
shining, white appearance ; base convex, aperture rather narrow, 
slightly curved inwards its whole length, edges thick ; teeth even, 
rather thick, prominent, about thirty on the lip and twenty on the 
columellar side, where they traverse the columellar groove and ser- 
rate its nearly straight inner edge ; the groove is broad and very 
shallow, and nearly equal in width and depth the whole length of 
the aperture ; the teeth continue to form the ribs, which are large, 
even and prominent, and terminate at the dorsal impression, with 
the exception of two or three on each side ; the false ribs all form 
denticulations ; dorsal line impressed, extending from the apices 
formed by the joining of the false ribs ; extremities obtuse, thick and 
short ; margin very thick, none on the inner side ; spire not per- 
ceptible in the adult shell, being thickly covered by the false ribs. 

Hah. Philippines. 

Length, yVo^hs of an inch ; width, xVoths ; height, tVo^^s. 

Differs from Cyprtea globosa of Gray in the anterior extremities 
being of an equal length, aperture much narrower and less curved, 
base rounder, its semivitreous shining appearance, &c. 

Cabinet of Gaskoin. 

8. Cypr^a grando (Hail-stone Cowry). Cyp. testd ovato-globosd, 
nitidd, nived ; hasi rotundatd, sine varice ; aperturd latmsculd 
antice latiori, subspirali ; sulco columellari longitudinem columellce 
cequante, lato et pro/undo ; dentibus minimis, cequaUbus, labii 
circa quadraginta-octo, columellce circa triginta-quatuor ; costellis 
tenuibus et aqualibus, e dentibus continuis ; interstitiis longitudi- 
naliter tenuiterque cremdatis ; lined dorsali impressd ; extremitate 
posticd valde productd ; spird prominente et flavescente. 
Shell ovato-globose, shining, of a clear snow-white colour ; base 
round, being a continued convexity with the body of the shell, there 
being no margin on either side ; aperture widest at its anterior half, 
rather wide generally ; the columellar side spiral, edge of the lip but 
very slightly so ; columellar groove extends the entire length of the 
columella, and is continuous at both ends with the channels ; it is 
broad and deep, particularly at the anterior half; its outer and inner 
edges spiral, the outer edge angular and somewhat projecting; 
teeth very minute, numerous and even, about forty-eight on the lip, 
and about thirty-four on the columellar side, which traverse the co- 
lumellar groove to notch its inner edge ; the ribs delicate and even, 
and are continuations from the teeth ; many terminate on the sides of 
the shell (the teeth being so numerous, the outer portion could not 
contain their prolongation), the rest end mostly in fine points at the 
dorsal impression, alternately from either side ; a few are united 
with those of the opposite side ; interstices between the ribs finely 
crenulated longitudinally ; dorsal line impressed ; extremities, the 
anterior very slightly, the posterior much produced ; spire prominent 
and tinged with a light yellow colour ; margins none. 

This shell differs from the Cypraa vitrea, just described, in the 
minuteness and number of the teeth and delicacy of the ribs ; in the 



Zoological Society. 63 

unequal width of the aperture, and the spiral form of its inner side ; 
in the broad, deep and unequally wide columellar groove, prominent 
apex, absence of margin, &c. 

Length, yVtv''^^ °^ ^"^ ^^^^^ ' "^vidth, ^^^ths ; height, yL9_ths. 

Hab. Manilla. 

Cabinet of Gaskoin. 

9. Cypr^^ flaveoLjE, varietas labro-lineata. Cyprcece flaveolee 
varietas, lineis brunneis e dentibus labii externi supra basin con- 
timiis. 

Shell same form and size as Ci/p. flaveola : differs from it in being 
much paler in colour, and the white dottings are therefore less con- 
spicuous ; in the teeth being smaller and more numerous, and in 
there being elevated lines of a brown colour on the lip, continued from 
each tooth, and at the anterior end projecting bej'ond the margin ; in 
the anterior teeth of the columellar side being bifurcated, and in the 
dark brown dottings of the margins being more numerous, and ex- 
tending a little on to the base. 

Cabinets of Cuming, Saul. 

Hub. ? 

10. Cypr^^ QUADRiMACULAT^, Gray — varietas pallidula (Palish 
Cowry). Cyp. sine maculis nigris ; dentibus lateris columellari 
majoribus, prominent ioribus et paucioribus ; labii minoribus et nu- 
merosioribus ; basi nitente. 

This shell possesses characters, especially in colouring and general 
form, much in common with the former shell, but is destitute of the 
large black spots on the outsides of the extremities and on the spire ; 
there is in some individuals a thin dark line across the outer surface 
of the anterior channel ; the teeth on the columellar side are larger, 
more prominent, more even, and fewer in number ; while those on 
the lip are smaller and more numerous ; it never attains the size of 
quadrimaculata, the teeth and base of which are always dull, while 
those of the variety are always polished (shining). 

11. Cypr^a pulla. — The small " Trivia" I described under that 
appellation (Proc. Zool. Soc, March 10, 1846), I am enabled now to 
state the habitat of; — the Galapagos Islands, and the Bay of Guaya- 
quil ; Cuming. When I named this shell "pulla," I was not aware 
it was a synonym of Cyprcea adusta of Chemnitz and Lamarck, by 
Gmelin, — Cyp. onyx of Gray; but as Chemnitz's name "adusta" 
was the prior, and therefore the proper one, I do not consider it 
necessary to alter mine. 

12. Cypr^a pulicaria. — Reeve, in his description of this shell 
(Proc. Zool. Soc, March 10, 1846), remarks, that it differs from Cyp. 
piperita of Gray in not being banded; but most of the specimens that 
I have seen have four distinct, narrow, interrupted, light brown 
bands, nearly equidistant. Nine individuals, of thirteen in my col- 
lection, have these four very conspicuous bands ; that described by 
Reeve was one of the remaining four shells whose bands are covered. 
I will take the liberty to add to the distinctions from Cyp. piperita, 
the broad and projecting sulcus at the anterior portion of the co- 



64 Zoological Society. 

lumellar groove ; and the convergence of the anterior extremities, 
rendering the channel so much narrower than in piperita. 

13. Cypr^a nivea. — The shell described under that appellation 
by Gray, the original type of which, pierced with its two holes, is now 
before me, is a white variety of Cyprcea turdus : — vide Gray's Mo- 
nograph (Zool. Jour, i. 511). I'he figures, however, of Cypraa 
nivea of Gray, in Sowerby's Conch. lUus. and in Reeve's Conch. 
Iconica, are representations of the Cyprcea oryza of Gray (Zool. Jour, 
iii. 369) ; this same error seems to pervade in the arrangement of 
most of the collections I have seen. The Cyprcea nivea figured in 
Wood's Supplement to the Index Testaceol. is a young Cyp. Hum- 
phrey sii of Gray. 

14. Cypr^a Proijucta. — I am able at length to refer concho- 
logists to other specimens of this species than that described by 
me December 22, 1836, in these 'Proceedings,' which have been 
brought to this country by Capt. Sir Edward Belcher, and collected 
during the voyage of H.M.S. the Samarang. They are distributed 
into the cabinets of Miss Saul, Messrs. Cuming, Gaskoin, &c. The 
original shell, the type of this species, is well-represented in Sow- 
erby's Conchological Illustrations, fig. 155 ; in Reeve's Conchologia 
Iconica, pi. 24, fig. 137 ; and in Kiener's Species General, et Icono- 
gra])hie des Coquilles vivantes, fol. 53, figs. 5 and 5 : — this last is 
copied from Sowerby. 

June 27— William Yarrell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

1. On the Habits of Cyclura lophoma, an Iguaniform Lizard. 
By p. H. Gosse. 

The subject of the present paper seems to be as yet unknown to 
science ; it may be thus described : — 

Cyclura lophoma, mihi — (Ao^os, a crest, and w^os, the shoulder). 
Shields on the muzzle separated by small scales ; muzzle with four 
many-sided, convex, unkeeled plates on each side, the anterior and 
posterior very large, the intervening two smaller, short, but wide. 
General head-shields irregular in size, a largish one near the middle 
of the head ; lower jaw with one (posteriorly two) series of large, 
rhomboidal, keeled plates, with none between them and the labial 
plates. Dorsal crest high, continuous over the shoulders, inter- 
rupted over the loins. 

Length about 3 feet, of which the tail measures 21 inches. Colour 
(in a dried state) greenish- grey, with obscure blackish spots, con- 
fluent, so as to form a rude reticulation. 

This very distinct species may be at once recognised by the num- 
ber, form and arrangement of the plates of the muzzle, and particu- 
larlv by the serrated crest not being interrupted over the shoulders. 
I have never met with it alive in Jamaica ; the specimen from which 
the above description is taken, now in the British Museum, was one 
of many zoological treasures presented to me by my kind and valued 
friend, Richard Hill, Esq., of Spanish- town. It is to the same gen- 
tleman that I am indebted for the whole information, concerning the 



Zoological Society. 65 

economy of this Saurian, which I now submit to the Zoological 
Society". 

The following memoir from the pen of my friend was communi- 
cated to me in the beginning of the year 1846 ; the animal, though 
spoken of by the name Iguana, is the identical specimen above de- 
scribed, and which Mr. Hill had noticed to differ from /, tuhercU" 
lata by its lacking the dentelations on the gular pouch. 

" Our Iguana is considered to be entirely herbivorous. It is found 
only in particular parts of the island. The low limestone chain of 
hills, along the shore from Kingston Harbour and Goat Island, on 
to its continuation in Vere, is its ordinary haunt ; and it is not un- 
frequently taken in the plains between those sea-coast hills and the 
more inland mountains, being found in hollow trees in the pastures, 
where they congregate, several of them together. 

" The labourers in clearing and burning off some of the savannas 
between Spanish-town and Passage-fort the other day (March 1844), 
surprised in a hollow bastard- cedar tree {Guazuma ulmifolia) some 
five Iguanas of the largest size. The one I sketched measured forty- 
five inches long, and it was said not to have been the largest. It 
was extremely fat and muscular. A russet-green, here and there 
graduating into slaty-blue, is the general colour of the body and 
limbs ; some oblique lines of dark olive-green are traceable on the 
shoulders, and three broad dark triangular patches descend from the 
dentelations of the back down to the belly, with zigzag spots of 
dark olive-brown dispersed about. At very regular intervals, the 
tail is alternately of a lighter and darker olive-green. A bluish- 
green colour, more decided than on the body, prevails in the dente- 
lations of the back, and on the legs 

" Succulent herbs, growing in the forests of the limestone hills I 
have referred to, supply food for the Iguana. These hills, however, 
are so little suited for this sort of vegetation, that hardly anything 
more than aromatic and resinous trees and balsamic plants grow 
there. The lignum-vitae {Guaiacum), the Acacia nilotica, and cactuid 
plants, — particularly the torch and melon thistles {Cactus repandus et 
peruvianus, et Cactus melocactus) , — the lantana, and the vari'onia, 
with many balmy mallows {Sida althcelfolia, urens, capillaris, et vis- 
cosd), and the vervain (Stachytarpheta), seem to comprise almost the 
whole catalogue of trees, shrubs and herbs. These hills are, how- 
ever, inhabited by several domestic animals, which have run wild. 
Goats and hogs, derived from the common domestic breeds, have 
become feral ; and even the common domestic poultry, cocks and 
hens, have taken to the woods as jungle-fowl, with the pintado. 
Quails and doves find here a safe breeding-place. These hills are 
also the special resort of the musteline thrush, the wood-thrush of 
the North Americans, which more than divides with the mocking- 
bird the credit of a songster. It has a louder and more brilliant 
note, though its song be greatly less varied and melodious. The 
fruit of the torch-thistle seems the great attraction of the wood- 
thrush, but it is not easy to perceive the resource of the granivorous 
birds. The aromatic herbs suit the wild goats ; but the hogs can 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 5 



66 Zoological Society. 

find but few edible roots among rocks, l)ut very thinly interspersed 
with soil. In the occasional hollows a little mould has been col- 
lected from decayed leaves, mingled with marl, extremely stony and 
sterile ; and here a little more succulent herbage may prevail, and a 
few of the edible roots of the country may be found growing. The 
rocks have numerous caverns, and the springs that break out at the 
foot of the cliffs are an impure brackish water, though extremely 
transparent. Yet this district is almost exclusively the haunt of 
the Iguana. The occasional ones taken in the savannas are con- 
sidered to be stray visitants from the neighbouring hills ; they are 
not permanently established in the plains in which they are found. 

" I have noticed the particular kind of locality which the Iguana 
inhabits in this part of the country, because it presents very different 
features from the haunts usually assigned to this lizard elsewhere. 
Forests on the banks of rivers, and woods around springs, where it 
passes its time in the trees and in the water, living on fruits, grains 
and leaves, are said to be the places in which the hunters find it on 
the American continent " 

After referring to some notes of Sir R. Schomburgk made in 
Guiana, and to Goldsmith's graphic picture of noosing the Iguana, 
probably derived from Labat, which I do not here quote, because 
they refer to an animal generically distinct from ours, — my friend 
reverts to his own observations : — 

" The gular pouch which hangs like the dewlap of a bull beneath 
its throat can be inflated*, but it is not exactly known under 
what circumstances, ordinarily, it has recourse to this power of in- 
flation. When filled with air it would give breadth and buoyancy 
to the body, and if its habits are as aquatic as some accounts make 
them [those of Iguana proj)er] to be, it would afford to an her- 
bivorous animal no unimportant aid while swimming and cropping 
' its flowery food.' When excited it assumes a menacing attitude, 
and directs its eye to the object of attack with a peculiarly sinister 
look. At this time it inflates the throat, erects the crest and dente- 
lations on the back, and opens the mouth, showing the line of those 
peculiarly-set white teeth, with serrated edges, so excellently made 
to illustrate the remains of the gigantic fossil Iguanodon. The prin- 
ciple of their construction is so precisely similar, as to leave no doubt 
of the genuine connexion of the extinct with the existing herbivorous 
lizard. The adaptation of both is for the cropping and cutting of 
vegetable food. 

" In defending itself from attack, the Iguana converts its long 
flexible tail into no unimportant weapon. The dentelated upper 
edge, drawn rapidly over the body and limbs of an enemy, cuts like 
a saw. The twisted attitude which it assumes when approached is 
converted into a quick turn, in which movement the tail is nimljly 
struck by an overblow from one side to another, and then jerked 

* I believe my friend has fallen into a common error here. If I may judge 
from analogy in the genera AnoUs and Dactyloa, the gular pouch in the IguanidcB 
is ea^tensible but not inflatable, as I hope to show in a future paper on the habits 
of these genera. — P.H.G. 



Zoological Society. 67 

round. I have observed the same application of the tail to purposes 
of defence in the crocodile, and there can he little doubt that the 
dentelated crest upon this part of the body of lizards is for the in- 
fliction of serrated wounds. The lacerations which dogs suffer in 
attacking the Iguana are remarkably severe. 

" There can be no doubt that the Iguana voluntarily takes to the 
water ; but whether it delights to refresh itself in that element, as we 
should be led to suppose by the observation that it sports in it, I 
cannot learn from any of our people here. The one kept in the 
Zoological Gardens in the Regent's Park was seen to enter and cross 
a small pond, the fore-feet being motionless during the animal's pro- 
gress through the water. It is curious, however, that whilst the dry, 
sterile hills near us abound with Iguanas, the banks of the Rio Cobre, 
a river so near its haunts, are scarcely ever visited by them." 

After my arrival in England, the above notes coming under review, 
in my study of the Saurians I had brought home, I was induced to 
make further inquiry of Mr. Hill, whether in describing the inflation 
of the pouch, and the defensive action of the tail, he spoke from his 
own observation. From his reply I extract the following remarks : — 

" The purposes of defence, to which I represented it as 

applying its long tail with its armature of pointed and triple-edged 
scuta, were suggested to me by the negroes, who were present when 
I was examining the specimen I mentioned as fortj^-five inches in 
length. They warned me to stand out of the reach of its tail, for 
they saw it was going to turn itself rapidly round to strike. I ob- 
served a peculiar sinister look it had, derived not from the eye being 
turned within the socket, so as to indicate the object it was regard- 
ing, but from the peculiar turn of the head, as if listening and ob- 
serving. The negroes remarked that in the position in which its tail 
then lay, it was preparing to strike at me, and that dogs generally in 
setting upon them received desperate punishment, from the gashes 
and lacerations that were made into the thick muscles of the legs by 
the rapid flinging round of the Iguana in defending itself. The sud- 
den jerk with which it drew back its tail was said to enable it to rasp 
the very flesh off the bone. The notion expressed about the infla- 
tion of the gular pouch was the consequence of seeing two very large 
Iguanas from Cuba, which distended this appendage, and let it col- 
lapse again. The skin of these animals hung about them, as if they 
had been fat, and were, at the time I saw them, emaciated 

" An acquaintance has promised to supply me with notes of a pair 
of Cycluras that inhabited a hollow acacia-tree in his fields (Proso- 
pis juliflora) for some sixteen months. He suj)posed them male and 
female. They differed in size and in tint ; and were never, during 
the whole period of his acquaintance with them, seen on the outer 
tree both together. Like the pair of weather-indicators in the 
Dutchman's hygrometer, if one was out, the other was in. For a 
certain time every morning, one or other would be seen on some 
extreme eastern branch of the tree sunning itself, by basking at its 
length in the slant sunbeams that shot within the foliage. Their 
size and the nimble movement of the tail gave them so much the 

5* 



68 Zoological Sociehj. 

appearance of the ring-tailed monkey, when climbing, that a near- 
sighted observer, like myself, would mistake them for some Sapajou 
scrambling up the bark." 

The intelHgence thus promised has just been communicated to me, 
contained in the following letter from Stephen Minot, Esq., of Wor- 
cester Lodge, to Richard Hill, Esq. 

" February 1848. 

" Dear Sir, — In Accordance with your request, I send you a few 
particulars relative to the two Guanas that were seen during a period 
of nearly two years, at Worcester Lodge, in the parish of St. Ca- 
therine. 

" About the beginning of September 1844, a friend of mine, riding 
into the property, observed, as he thought, a large green lizard bask- 
ing in the sun on a hollow cashaw-tree {Prosopis juliflorn), close by 
the road. He struck at it with his riding-whip, and immediately 
the animal disappeared with great swiftness into the tree. For 
several weeks after this it was occasionally seen, but was extremely 
shy, always disappearing the moment any one approached the tree. 
I gave orders that no one should, under any pretence, frighten it 
again, as a servant who had seen it informed me it was a Guana. 
By degrees it got tamer ; and when I first saw it, it was, I should 
think, from 10 to 11 inches long, including the tail. About a year 
after this period it was always visible as soon as the sun became a 
little warm, clinging to the bark of the tree, or crouching (if I may 
use the term) along a small dry branch. I never saw it attempt to 
catch flies, or ants, or any insects ; and the only time I ever detected 
it feeding was about this period. One day after heavy rain, the sun 
having broken through the clouds, shining very bright, it was then 
eating the guinea-hen-weed {Petiveria), growing about ten yards 
from the root of the cashaw. I watched it a few moments, unper- 
ceived, and observed it walk very slowly, moving one leg at a time, 
— cropping, and apparently swallowing without any further process, 
a mouthful of leaf; and leaving an indenture on the plant of the size 
of his mouth. Immediately on seeing me, by a succession of rapid 
springs, neither running nor walking, nor was it like the hopping 
of the frog, it regained the tree, and in a second was out of sight. 
The hollow part of the tree is about seven feet from the ground. It 
evidently did not object to the water, as there was a small lodgement 
of water close by where it was feeding, through which it bounded 
without a moment's hesitation, though it might have regained the 
tree, if it had disliked the water, by going round the small swamp, 
which was only say three or four yards in diameter. I mention this 
circumstance of the water, as we had previously had dreadful dry 
weather, and I often wondered how the animals of this description 
lived for want of it ; and it was never visible during or immediately 
after rain, 

" It was, as you are aware, foolishly shot, in my absence, by young 

N , under the false impression that it ate chickens. I have 

spoken of it in the singular number, as we were not aware there were 
two, until Mr. N shot a second one on the same tree about 



Zoological Society. 69 

two or three hours after he killed the first. This discovery, that 
there were two instead of only one, accounted for what had pre- 
viously often surprised me, namely that sometimes the animal was 
of a brownish-green hue, and when of that colour always appeared 
larger than when it looked blackish. It therefore appears plain that 
they must have been male and female ; and, if that is correct, the 
male was by far the larger and handsomer. 

" The male, as I consider it, was the one I saw dead after it was 
shot. It was about from 22 to 24 inches long, but the tail did not 
appear so long in proportion, as it grew older, as it seemed when 
first discovered. I opened the animal, and found it full of pieces of 
guinea-hen- weed, some digested, some half- digested, and a large 
quantity quite fresh, which is accounted for by its being early in the 
morning, say nine o'clock, when it was shot. I may mention that I 
put the carcass into three or four different sorts of ants' nests, — the 
common, the stinging black, and the large red ant, — not one of which 
would touch it ; and when I forced them into the carcass, and put 
part of their nests in it, they ran away from it as quickly as possible. 
I did this under the hope of getting his skeleton." 

To this last observation Mr. Hill has appended the following note : 
— " This dislike for the flesh of the lizard may have resulted from 
the odour of the guinea-hen-weed, on which it had recently fed. 
I'he whole flesh would be imbued with the intolerable garlic-like 
scent." 

2. Descriptions of twenty-three new species ofVitrina, from 
THE Collection of H, Cuming, Esq. By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

1. Vitrina Cumingii, Beck MSS. Vitr. testd depresso- globosd, 
tenuissimd, subtiliter striatd, nitidd, albido-corned ; spird brevis- 
simd, obtusd ; suturd levi, lined impressd marginatd ; anfractibtis 
4 vix convexiusculis, ultimo injiato, subdepresso, medio lined rttfd 
cingulato ; aper turd par Hm obliqud, lunato-rotundatd ; peristomate 
simplice, marginibus remotis, columellari subverticali, leviter ar- 
cuato, superne reflexiusculo, perforationem punctiformem simu- 
lante, sitpero antrorsiim vix arcuato. 

Diam. 20, altit. 12 mill. 

Hab. The island of Bohol ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

2. Vitrina Margarita, Beck MSS. Vitr. testd depresso-glo- 
bosd, tenuissimd, striatuld, nitidd, pellucidd, carneo-hyalind ; 
spird parvuld, planiusculd ; suturd lineari ; anfractibus 3|- sub- 
planis, rapide accrescent ibus, ultimo mag?io, inflate ; aperturd 
obliqud, lunato-subcirculari ; peristomate tenuissimo, margine su- 
pero antrorsum dilatato, columellari leviter arcuato. 

Diam. 14, altit. 8 mill. 

Hab. The island of Guimaras ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

3. Vitrina smaragdulus. Beck MSS. Vitr. testd depressiusculd, 
tenui, vix striatuld, non nitente, diaphand, aureo-virente ; sjnrd 
parvuld, planiusculd ; suturd leviter impressd, angustissime mar- 
ginatd ; anfractibus Z^ planiusculis , rapide accrescentibus, ultimo 



70 Zoological Society. 

utrinque planiusculo, bast luto ; aperturd partim obliquci, rotun- 
dato-lunari, latiore quean altd ; peristomate tenui, subinjlexo, 
margine supero antrorsum dilatato, columellari vix recedente, 
leviter arcuato. 

Diam. 12, altit. 7 mill. 

Hab. The island of Negros ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

4. ViTRiNA BicoLOR, Bcck MSS. Vitr. testd subglobosd, tenui, 
sublcevigatd, nitidissimd, carneo-albidd ; spird brevi, convexd, ob- 
tusd ; suturd impressd ; anfractibus 3| rapide accrescentibus, 
ulthno inflato, antice hyaJino, beisi angustiusculo, membranaceo- 
marginato ; aperturd vix obliqud, lunato-rotundatd ; peristomate 
tenuissimo, margine dextro regulariter rotundato, columellari re- 
cedente, perarcuato. 

Diam. 18, altit. 10 mill. 

(Body of the animal white, apex black.) 

Hab. Isle of Guimaras ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

5. ViTRiNA GuiMARASENsis, Pfr. Vitr. tcstd depresso-semiglobosd, 
tenui, striatuld, subdiaphand, virenti- earned ; spird parvuld, pa- 
rilm elevatd; suturd marginatd ; anfractibus vix 4 subplanis, 
rapidissime accrescentibus, ultimo injlato, subdepresso ; aperturd 
obliqud, lunato-subcirculari, ceque altd ac latd, intus submargari' 
taced ; peristomate tenuissimo, margine dextro regulariter arcu- 
ato, columellari recedente, perarcuato. 

Diam. 15, altit. 8 mill. 

Hab. Isle of Guimaras ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

6. ViTRiNA Beckiana, Pfr. (Vitr. peraffinis. Beck MSS.) Vitr. 
testd depresso-globosd, circuitu ovali, tenuissimd, striatuld, pellu- 
cidd, nitidd, pallidissime rubella-corned ; spird mediocri, brevi, 
obtusd; anfractibus fere 4 vix convexiusculis, celeriter accrescen- 
tibus, ultimo subdepresso, basi lato ; aperturd pariim obliqud, 
lunato-rotundatd, latiore quam altd ; peristomate simplice, mar- 
ginibus remotis, supero regulariter arcuato, columellari superne 
reflexiusculo , basi recedente, perarcuato. 

Diam. 16, altit. 8 mill. 

Hab. The Philippine islands of Negros, Siquijor and Guimaras ; 
collected by Mr. Cuming. 

7. ViTRiNA POLiTissiMA, Beck MSS. Vitr. testd globoso-depressd, 
soliduld, Icevigatd, politissimd, diaphand, corned, saturatius ra- 
diatd ; spird mediocri, convexd ; suturd impressd, submarginatd ; 
anfractibus 4 convexiusculis, celeriter accrescentibus, ultimo de- 
presso-rotundato, basi lato; aperturd obliqud, lunato-rotundatd, 
ceque altd ac latd; peristomate simplice, margine superiore an- 
trorsum arcuato, columellari leviter arcuato. 

Diam. 14, altit. 7| mill. 

From the island of Zebu ; collected by Mr. Cuming on the leaves 
of small trees. The entire animal is black. 

8. ViTRiNA LEYTENSis, Bcck MSS. Vitr. testd depressd, circuitu 
ovali, tenuissimd, lavigatd, nitidissimd, lutescenti-carned ; spird 



Zoological Society. 71 

planiusculd, vix elevatd ; suturd leviter impressd ; anfractibus 3 
rapide accrescentibus, ultimo superne subplano, bast convexiore, 
latiusculo ; aperturd paritm obliqud, rotundato-lunari, latiore quam 
altd ; peristomate te?missimo, margine supero pariim arcuato, co- 
lumellari superne reflexiusculo, bast cum in/eriore unguium obtu- 
sum/ormante. 
Diam. 13, altit. 7 mill. 

From the island of Leyte. A larger variety, more opake, yellow- 
ish-whitish, from Siquijor. Collected hy Mr. Cuming. 

9. ViTRiNA GUTTA, Pfr. Fitr. testd depresso-globosd, tenuissitnd, 
glaberrimd, nitidissimd, hyalind ; spird vix elevatiusculd ; sutm-d 
lineari, angusie marginatd ; anfractibus 3^ planiusculis , rapide 
accrescentibus, ultimo magna, depresso-rotundato, basi latiusculo ; 
aperturd pariim obliqud, lunato-circulari ; peristomate simplice, 
undique regulariter arcuato, margine columellari intrante, supernl 
reflexiusculo. 

Diam. 11, altit. 6 mill. 

From Sorsogon, isle of Luzon ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

10. ViTRiNA RUFESCENS, Pfr. Vitr. testd depresso-globosd, tenuis- 
simd, plicatuld, nitidd, pellucidd, rufescente ; spird breviter conoi- 
ded, obtusiusculd ; suturd impressd ; anfractibus fere '^ convexius- 
culis, celeriter accrescentibus, ultimo ventroso ; aperturd vix obli- 
qud, lunato-subcirculari ; peristomate tenui, subinflexo, marginibus 
remotis, supero regulariter, columellari leviter arcuato. 

Diam. 13, altit. 8 mill. 

From the isle of Mindoro ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

11. ViTRiNA CRENULARis, Bcck MSS. Vitr. testd depressd, tenu- 
issimd, glabrd, nitidd, pellucidd, aured ; spird pland ; suturd levi- 
ter impressd; anfractibus 3^ planiusculis, juxta suturam plicato- 
crenulatis, rapide accrescentibus, ultimo depresso, basi lato ; 
aperturd obliqud, rotundato-lunari, latiore quam altd ; peristo- 
mate tenui, subinflexo, margine supero antrorsum dilatato, colu- 
mellari leviter arcuato, basali strictiusculo . 

Diam. 13, altit. 7 mill. 

From the Philippine islands of Negros and Zebu ; collected by 
Mr. Cuming. 

12. ViTRiNA REsiLiENS, Bcck MSS. Vitr. testd depressd, tenuis- 
simd, subtilissime et confertim plicatuld, nitidd, pellucidd, virenti- 
stramined ; spird planiusculd ; suturd leviter impressd ; anfracti- 
bus 3^ subplanis, ultimo lato, depresso, basi fere omninh mem- 
branaceo ; aperturd obliqud, lunato-ovali ; peristomate simplicis- 
simo, margine columellari statim procedente, leviter arcuato. 

Diam. 11, altit. Q\ mill. 

From Sibonga, island of Zebu. Found on leaves of small palms 
in dark woods. The body of the animal is white, the apex black 
(H. Cuming). 

13. ViTRiNA PAPiLLATA, Pfr. Vitr. testd depressd, tenui, lavius- 
culd, nitidd, pellucidd, pallide corned; spird planiusculd, medio 



73 Zoological Society. 

papillatd; suturd profundfe impressd, marginatd ; anfractibns 3^ 
convexiusculis, prope suturam striatulis, ultimo depresso, lineis 
obsoletis spiralibus interdum sculpto, peripherid rotundato, bast 
latiusculo ; aperiurd perobliqud, ampld, rotundato- lunari, latiore 
quam altd ; peristomate tenui, marg'me siipero antrorsum dilatato, 
columellari recedente, perarcuato. 

Diam. 10, altit. 5 mill. 

From Calauang, isle of Luzon ; collected by Mr. Coming. 

14. ViTRiNA PLANULATA, Pfr. Vitv. testd depresstssimd , subdis- 
coided, Iceviusculd, nitidd, earned ; spird planiuscnld ; suturd im- 
pressd ; anfractibus 3 vux convexiusculis, rapidissime accresccnti- 
biiSy ultimo depresso, basi angusto ; aperturd amplissimd, per- 
obliqud, lunari, transverse dilatatd ; peristomate tenui, margine 
sttpero antrorsum dilatato, columellari valde recedente, arcuato. 

Diam. 11, altit. 4^ mill. 

From Calauang, isle of Luzon ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

15. ViTRiNA APERTA, Bcck MSS. Vitr. tesfd depressissimd, sti- 
perne convexiusculd, basi apertd, Icevigatd, subopacd, virenti- 
albidd ; spird minutd, laterali ; suturd levi ; anfractibus 2^ con- 
vexiusculis, basi angustissimis, apertis, ultimo permagno, plane 
fornicato ; aperturd horizontali, auriformi, usque in verticem 

apertd; peristomate simplicissimo. 
Diam. 11, altit. 3 mill. 
From San Juan, isle of Luzon ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

16. ViTRiNA MONTicoLA, Bensou MSS.? Vitr. testd depressd, 
tenui, striatuld, nitidd, pellucidd, luiescenti- corned ; spird pland, 
viedio vix prominuld ; suturd leviter impressd ; anfractibus 4 ce- 
leriter accrescentibus, planiusculis , ultimo depresso, non descen- 
dente ; aperturd obliqud, rotundato-lunari ; peristomate simplice, 
marginibus conniventibus, callo tenuissimo junctis, supero antror- 
sum arcuato-dilatato, columellari cum basali unguium obtusum 
formante. 

Diam. 18, altit. 7| mill. 

From Bengal, Landour, Himalayah, Almorab. 

17. ViTRiNA Bensoni, Pfr. Vitr. testd depressiusculd, tenui, stria- 
tuld, fiitidd, pellucidd, pallicTe corned ; spird vix elevatd, obtusd ; 
suturd impressd, submarginatd ; anfractibus 3^ convexiusculis, 
ultimo subdepresso, peripherid rotundato, basi lato ; aperturd ob- 
liqud, lunato-subcirculari ; peristomate simplice, subinflexo, mar- 
ginibus conniventibus, supero antrorsum subdilatato, columellari 
recedente, perarcuato. 

Diam. 12, altit. vix 6 mill. 

In the Botanic Garden of Calcutta; collected by Mr. Benson. 

18. ViTRiNA HiANs, Riippell MSS. Vitr. testd depresso-globosd, 
tenui, striatuld, pellucidd, nitiduld, pallide corned, strigis saturati- 
oribus radiatd ; spird parvuld, conoideo-convexd ; suturd impressd, 
marginatd; anfractibus 4 convexiusculis, rapidc accrescentibus, 
ultimo rotundato, basi latiusculo ; aperturd obliqud, lunato-subcir- 



Zoological Society. 73 

culari ; peristomate simpUce, marginihus convergentibus, columel- 

lari subrecedente, leviter arcuato. 
Diam. 24, altit. 12 mill. 
From Abyssinia ; collected by Dr. Riippell. 

19. ViTRiNA RiJppELLiANA, Pfr. Vitv. tcstd subsemiglobosd, temii, 
arcuato-striatd, pellucidd, parum nitidd, fulvd ; spird brevi, ob- 
tusiusculd ; suturd impressd ; anfractibus 3 convexiusculis, rapide 
accrescentibus, ultimo ventroso, basi latiusculo ; aperturd obliqud, 
lunato-rotundatd ; peristomate simplice, margine super o fere an- 
gulatim antrors%im dilatato, columellari substricte recedente, basi 
leviter arcuato ; margine interno anfractuum inconspicuo. 

Diam. 18, altit. 10 mill. 

From Abyssinia ; found by Dr. Riippell. 

20. ViTRiNA SowERBYANA, Pfr. Vitr. testd depressd, subauri- 
formi, arcuatim plicattdd, tenuissimd, nitidd, pellucidd, brunneo- 
fulvd ; spird vix emersd ; suturd profunde impressd ; anfractibus 

3, primis convexiusculis, ultimo depresso, peripherid angulato, 
basi convexiore ; aperturd ampld, per obliqud, lunato-ovali, mar- 
ginibus conniventibus , supero vix dilatato, columellari perarcuato, 
anguste membranaceo-marginato ; margine interno anfractuum 
inconspicuo. 

Diam. 22, altit. 11 mill. 

From West Africa. 

21. ViTRiNA GRANDis, Bcck MSS. Vitr. testd depressd, tenui- 
usculd, radiatim subtiliter plicatuld, diaphand, non nitente, albido- 
siramined ; spird brevissimd, vix emersd, subpapillatd ; suturd 
impressd; anfractibus 3| rapide accrescentibus, subplanatis, ul- 
timo depresso, peripherid obsolete angulato, basi lato, striatulo, 
nitido ; aperturd pariim obliqud, latd, lunari ; peristomate sim- 
plice, margine supero antrorsum subdilatato, columellari subver- 
ticaliter descendente, arcuatim in basalem abiente. 

Diam. 18, alt. 8 mill. 
From West Africa, Guinea. 

22. ViTRiNA ABYssiNiCA, Riippell MSS. Vitr. testd depresso- 
ovatd, sublcevigatd, diaphand, vix nitiduld, sordide virenti-corned; 
spird brevi, convexiusculd ; suturd leviter impressd; anfractibus 
2i convexiusculis, celeriter accrescentibus, ultimo ]}eriphe?-id ro- 
tundato, basi latiusculo ; aperturd obliqud, rotundato -lunari, trans- 
verse dilatatd ; peristomate simplice, margine supero subrepando, 
columellari recedente, arcuato. 

Diam. 10, altit. 5\ mill. 

From Abyssinia; collected by Dr. Riippell. 

23. ViTRiNA viRENS, Pfr. Vitr. testd depressiusculd, subsemiovali, 
subtilissime striatuld, nitiduld, corneo-virente ; spird planiusculd ; 
suturd vix impressd; anfractibus 3 vix convexiusculis, rapide 
accrescentibus, ultimo subdepresso -rotundato, basi anguste mem- 
branaceo-marginato ; aperturd obliqud, lunato-subcirculari ; peri- 
stomate tenui, subinflexo, undique regulariter arcuato. 

Diam. 16, altit. 8 mill. 
Locality unknown. 



74 Miscellaneous. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
On the Development of the Purkinjean Corpuscle in Bone. 

Schwann, in his ' Mikroskopische Untersuchungen,' considers that 
the Purkinjean corpuscle of bone is derived from the pre-existing 
cartilag-e-cell, and that the canaliculi are prolongations, or protru- 
sions of the cell-wall. Many later authors, among whom are Gerber, 
and Todd and Bowman, express the opinion that it originates in the 
nucleus of the temporary cartilage-cell, and Tomes entertains the 
idea, that after the formation of the osseous tubes, in the process of 
ossification, the latter are filled up by a deposit of osseous granules, 
and while this deposit is going on, small cells are left, which are 
the rudimentary Purkinjean corpuscles. Henle thinks them to be 
the cavities of cells, the thickened walls of which are pierced by the 
canaliculi. Hassall confirms the view of Schwann, by stating, " the 
bone-cells (Purkinjean corpuscles) are to be regarded as complete 
corpuscles, the canaliculi of which are formed by the extension of 
the cell-wall, which is proved by watching the formation and de- 
velopment of bone."' 

The opinion of Schwann and Hassall I can fully corroborate from 
my own observations upon an ossifying frontal bone, from a human 
embryo measuring 2 inches from heel to vertex. Each lateral 
half of the bone is about 3^^ lines in diameter, and presents to the 
naked eye the appearance of a delicate and close network, arising 
from the numerous areolae occupied by temporary cartilage. The 
frontal and orbital plates, it is worthy of incidental remark, at this 
period are nearly on a plane with each other, or are connected to- 
gether at a very obtuse angle along a central, transverse, crescentic, 
raised line, the rudimentary supra-orbitar ridge. 

The mode of development of the Purkinjean corpuscle, as noticed 
upon the upper or posterior border of the os frontis, is briefly as 
follows : — After the primitive ossific rete has been formed from the 
deposit of the osseous salts, enclosing groups of cartilage-cells in 
the areolae, the further deposit takes place in a fibrous or line-like 
course from the parietes of the areolae of the primitive osseous rete, 
in the interspaces of the cartilage-cells nearest to, or in contact with 
the sides of the areolae. At this period the cells shoot out or extend 
their canaliculi between the fibrillae just formed, and then the cell- 
wall and continuous walls of the canaliculi fuse with the translucent, 
homogeneous, or hyaline substance of the cartilage existing between 
the cells and the osseous fibrillae, and with the fibrillae themselves, 
by the deposit of the osseous salts. The period of the formation of 
the canaliculi appears to be quite definite, occurring during the de- 
posit of the osseous salts, and not before. To such an extent is this 
the case, that I noticed in several instances cells which had formed 
their canaliculi upon the side which was ossified, while upon the 
other side I could not distinguish any trace of them. 

During the whole time of the formation of the Purkinjean cor- 
puscle, the nucleus remains unchanged ; at least no change is per- 
ceptible in it beneath the microscope ; and by applying tincture of 
iodine to the preparation, which turns the nucleus brown, I was able 



Miscellaneous. 75 

to detect it within the perfected Purkinjean corpuscle, not only 
corresponding to the nucleus of the remaining unossilied cartilage- 
cells in granular structure, but also in its measurements. After the 
Purkinjean corpuscle has been formed a short time, the nucleus dis- 
solves away or disappears. 

The newly-formed Purkinjean corpuscle is about the same size as 
the remaining unossified cartilage- cells, as indicated in the list of 
measurements appended to these notes. 

Size of cell of temporary cartilage from the unossified os frontis 
of a human embryo.yg'g^of aninch; nucleus of ditto, gygJ of an inch ; 
nucleolus, 1^555 of an inch ; Purkinjean corpuscle, yg'gj of an inch ; 
nucleus within the same, jqSo ^^ ^" inch. — Proceedings of the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 116. 

MODE OF PROGRESSION WITH ANIMALS. 

It has been noticed by nearly all naturalists, as one of the pecu- 
liarities of the Giraffe, that it moves the two legs on the same side 
of it together ; I have however noticed that most other animals walk 
in that manner, although few run so ; among others I will mention the 
following as verifying my observations : — the Camel, the Lion, the 
Tiger, and Leopard, and all animals of the Felidse, the Wolf, and 
Hysena, and all the canine race. 

Sometimes I have observed the same peculiarity in the Horse and 
Ass, though rarely ; the Camel runs so ; the other animals which I 
have mentioned, I have never observed to walk in the usual manner. 

W. A. Pike. 

Descriptions of new species of the genera Nyctale, Brehm., and Syco- 
bius, Vieill. By John Cassin. 

Genus Nyctale, Brehm. Handb. Nat. V'og. Deuts. p. 111. 

Nyctale Harrisii, nobis. 

Front, face, nuchal collar, and under surface of the body yellowish 
white, or buff colour. 

Spot between the eye and the bill, and a broad occipital band, 
black, the latter covering the greater part of the hind head. 

Feathers covering the ear black. 

Throat with a few black feathers, and many of the feathers of the 
ruff on the fiont neck conspicuously tipped with black. 

Upper surface of the back and wings deep reddish brown ; wing- 
coverts with conspicuous round spots of white ; all the quill-feathers 
also irregularly marked and spotted with white on the edges of both 
webs ; scapulars largely edged with white and buff. 

Upper tail- coverts brown, spotted with white. " Tail black, with 
about three pairs of rounded white spots on every feather. Tarsi 
thickly feathered to the toes, and with the whole under surface of 
the body buff colour. 

Total length of skin, from tip of bill to end of tail, about 7| in. ; 
wing, 5| ; tail, 2f . 

Hab. South America ? 

The specimen now described was obtained from Mr. J. G. Bell, 



76 Miscellaneous. 

Taxidermist, of New York, who has no accurate recollection of its 
locality, but is of the opinion that it came from South America. 

I have named this singular and beautiful little species in honour of 
Mr. Edward Harris, of Moorestown, N. J,, Chairman of the Ornitho- 
logical Committee of this Academy, and a distinguished naturalist. 

Genus Sycobius, Vieillot. 

Sycohius scuta tus, nobis. 

(^ Upper part of the head and neck, broad pectoral band and 
under tail- coverts bright crimson ; the crimson of the breast uniting 
on the sides of the neck with that of the head. 

Throat and ears black, which colour forms a large gular patch 
extending to, but scarcely including the eyes. 

All other parts of the body black. 

? Broad pectoral band and under tail- coverts crimson ; all other 
parts, including the head, black. 

Total length of skin, from tip of bill to end of tail, about 5| inches ; 
•wing, 3| ; tail, 2f . 

Hab. Western Africa. 

Two pairs of this species now described were brought to this 
country by Robert MacDowell, M.D., Surgeon attached to the 
colonial government of Sierra Leone, who collected them in Western 
Africa. 

It bears a greater resemblance to the Sj/cobius rubricollis (Swain- 
son), Vieill. Ois. Chant, pi. 43, than to any other species which I 
have found described ; but from this and all others it may readily be 
distinguished by its under tail-coverts being crimson, and also by its 
broad pectoral band of the same colour. — Proceedings of the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 157. 

Description of a new species of Salamander from Upper California. 
By Edward Hallowell, M.D. 

Salamandra lugubris. 

Sp. Char. — Head large ; eyes very prominent ; tail rather longer 
than the body, which is cylindrical. Head, tail, extremities, and the 
rest of the animal dark olive above, lighter beneath ; an indistinct 
irregular row of yellowish spots on each side. Several small spots 
of the same colour upon the neck and upper part of the tail and 
posterior extremities. 

Description. — Head large, swollen at the temples, depressed in 
front ; snout obtuse and somewhat rounded ; eyes large, latero- 
superior ; nostrils latero- anterior, small and distant ; the palate is 
provided with two transverse rows of teeth (situated immediately 
behind the posterior nares), which are incurvated internally and 
meet posteriorly. There is also a longitudinal row of teeth, sej)a- 
rated from those described by an interval of half a line ; tongue long 
and spatulate, very free at its edges, attached by a pedicle at its 
anterior extremity ; neck somewhat contracted, without a gular fold ; 
body and extremities slender, the posterior larger than the anterior ; 
tail compressed, cylindrical, tapering to a point. 

Colour. (From a specimen in spirits in the museum of the 



Miscellaneous. 77 

Academy.) — The animal above is of a uniform dark olive colour ; 
an irregular row of small yellowish spots is observed upon the 
sides of the body near the dorsum ; several are also seen upon the 
neck, the upper part of the tail, and also the posterior extremities 
in the specimen examined. The under part of the animal is light 
olive. 

Dimensions. — Length of head 6^ lines ; greatest breadth 6 lines ; 
length of neck and body to vent 1 inch 1 1 lines ; length of tail 2 
inches 1 line ; total length 4 inches 7 lines. 

Hub. Monterey, Upper California. It is said to be abundant in 
that region. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phi- 
ladelphia, vol. iv. p. 126. 

The Pine Tree of the Tenasserim Provinces. By the Rev. F. Mason. 
Some twenty years ago the residents of Moulmain were not a 
little surprised to find, among the drift wood of the Salwen, a log 
of some coniferous tree. This was the first intimation that any tree 
of the pine tribe grew on the borders of these provinces ; but whether 
it were of the genus Pinus, or Abies, or Larix, a pine, a fir, or a larch, 
did not appear. It was several years after this occurrence that one 
of our former commissioners told the writer he had offered a hundred 
rupees to any of the foresters who would bring down a spar of this 
tree. Spars have been subsequently brought down ; but it is be- 
lieved that Captain Latter, the Superintendent of Forests in these 
provinces, is the first European who has visited the locality where 
the tree is indigenous ; and from specimens of the foliage and fruit, 
which he has brought away with him, it appears to be a new species 
of Pinus, that may be characterized thus : — 

P. Latteri. Arbor 50-60 pedalis, cortice scabro, foliis geminis 7-8 
uncialibus caniculatis serratis* scabriusculis, strobilis 4 unciali- 
bus ovato-conicis, squamis rhombeis inermibus. 

Hab. In provincia Amherst : in convalli fluvii Thoungyeen. 

Descr. A tree of from 50 to 60 feet high or more, and from 1^ 
to 2 feet or more in diameter. Sheaths of the leaves arranged 
.spirally, tubular, membranous, 6 lines long. Leaves two from each 
sheath, equal, from 7 to 8 inches long, acute with a sharp point, 
convex on the back, slightly scabrous with eight rows, in pairs, of 
very minute thorns which produce a striated appearance, hollow on 
the under surface, serrated ; cones ovate-conical, nearly 4 inches long. 
Scales rhomboid, unarmed. 

The flower is unknown ; a single rijDc cone that had cast its seeds 
and a small branch being all the materials that have been furnished 
for description. 

Specimens of the wood that have fallen under the writer's notice 
contain more resinous matter than any other species of Coniferse he 
ever saw. It appears like woody fibre immersed in resin. The 
Karens make tar from the wood by a very simple process ; and large 

* Lindley says of the order, " Leaves entire at the margins;" but these 
are certainly finely serrated ; and I find P. excelsa described with leaves 
" toothleted." 



78 Miscellaneous. 

quantities of both tar and pitch miglit be manufactured in the forests, 
if a remunerative price could be obtained for the article. 

This species has been named after Captain Latter, as the dis- 
coverer, because all our acquaintance with the tree has been derived 
from him, beyond the vague knowledge that a ti-ee of the pine 
family existed somewhere on the banks of the Salwen. He reports 
it as growing with the Engben, which is a species of Dipterocarpus 
that is met on the sandy shores of the province of Tavoy, side by 
side with Casuarina muricata. This pine is not found west of the 
Donaw mountains, a part of an unbroken range of granite mountains 
that runs down from the falls of the Salwen to the old city of Tenas- 
serim, and which here separates the valley of the Thoungyeen fi'om 
the region watered by the Gyne and its tributaries. In a note to 
the writer. Captain Latter adds : — " In the valley of the Thoungyeen 
it is found growing on the raised central plateau of sandstone, mixed 
up with Engben trees ; and in proportion as the elevation increases 
the Engben disappears. In the Lower 'I'houngyeen, towards the re- 
motest parts of the valley, it is found on ranges of hills west of 
Theglar river. These are its sites on the British side of the Thoun- 
gyeen. On the Shan side of the river it is said to be more abundant, 
and appears to occupy the lower portion of the Toungnyoo range, 
where the sandstone formation is more prominently developed. 
From the accounts of Burmese foresters, who have seen the pine 
forests on both sides of the river, the tree appears to be of a finer 
growth on the Shan side than on the British, where trees are to be 
found of nine feet in girth and proportionably tall. I should say 
that on the British side of the valley the tree ranges at an altitude 
of 1000 to 15,000 feet above the level of the sea, and that its lati- 
tude is about 17° north." 

Possibly it may prove to be a known species ; but it is not among 
the twenty-two species described bj'^ Loudon as the denizens of Great 
Britain, nor among the twelve species described by Michaux in his 
' North American Sylva,' nor is it either of the Indian species de- 
scribed by Roxburgh. Should it however be a species described in 
some other work to which the writer in these " outskirts of civiliza- 
tion " has no means of access, some of the members of the Society 
will probably be able to point out the identity ; and though then 
this note will be no contribution to science, it will still be a contri- 
bution to our knowledge of the resources of the Tenasserim pro- 
vinces. — Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Jan. 1849. 

Description of a neio Helix and Streptaxis, from the Collection of 
H. Cuming, Esq. By Dr. L. Pfeiffer. 

1. Helix Strangei, Pfr. H. teste! late umbilicatd, depressd, soli- 
diusculd, superne confertim costulato-striatd, nitidd, castaneo- 
corned, subpellucidd ; spird paritm elevatd, obtusiusculd ; anfrac- 
tibus 5 vix convexiusculis, ultimo subdepre'sso, basi sublcevigato ; 
aperturd subobliqud, lunato-ovali ; peristomate simplice, recto, te- 
nui, marginibus conniventibus. 

Diam. 24, altit. 10—11 mill. 

From Brisbane Water, New South Wales (Mr. Strange). 



Meteorological Observations. 79 

2. Streptaxis uberifoumis, Pfr. Str. testd profiinde rimato- 
perforatd, subsemiglobosd, basi fere circulari, superne oblique et 
confertim cosUilato-striatd, striis subtilissimis subdecussatd, tenui, 
diaphand, pallide virenti-corned ; spird subconoided, vbtusd ; an- 
fractibus 6^ convexiusculis, ultimo deviante, basi subplanulato, 
lavigato ; aperturd parhm obliqud, lunato-ovali, edentuld ; peri- 
stomate simplice, breviter expanso-reflexo, marginibus remotis, 
superne subconvergentibus . 

Diam. 18, altit. 12 mill. 

From the Brazils. — From the Proc. Zool. Soc. June 27, 1848. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR MAY 1849, 

Chiswick. — May 1. Cloudy. 2. Foggy : overcast. 3. Foggy; fine. 4. Very 
fine. 5. Clear and fine : thunder, lightning, rain and hail in afternoon : cloudy 
at night. 6. Overcast. 7, 8. Overcast and cold : fine : cloudy. 9. Fine: showery. 
10. Overcast: slight rain. 11, Cloudy and cold. 12, Fine: overcast, iS. Very 
fine, 14, Rain: fine. 15. Cloudy: fine. 16, Rain : cloudy. 17. Cloudy: 
slight rain, 18. Overcast. 19. Cloudy and fine. 20. Rain throughout. 21. 
Hazy. 22. Rain: fine. 23. Fine. 24. Very fine: densely overcast at night, 
25, Cloudy: very fine, 26. Overcast: very fine, 27. Very fine, cloudy: rain. 
28. Overcast: very heavy rain, 29,30. Very fine, 31. Dry haze : overcast: 
clear at night. 

Mean temperature of the month 55°-I9 

Mean temperature of May 1848 58-12 

Mean temperature of May for the last twenty-three years ... 54 -22 
Average amount of rain in May l'82inch. 

Boston. — May 1. Cloudy. 2. Cloudy : rain early a.m. and late p.m. 3 — 5. 
Fine. 6 — 9. Cloudy. 10, Rain : rain a, m, and p.m. 11,12, Cloudy. 13,14. 
Cloudy: rain P.M. 15. Cloudy. 16. Rain: rain a.m. and p.m. 17, Fine: 
rain A. M, and P.M. 18. Rain: rain a.m, and p,m. 19. Cloudy. 20. Rain: 
rain A.M. and P.M. 21. Cloudy: rain p.m. 22. Cloudy: rain, with thunder 
and lightning P.M. 23. Cloudy : rain p.m. 24. Fine. 25. Rain : rain, with 
thunder and lightning early a.m. 26. Fine. 27. Rain : rain early a.m. : rain p.m. 
28. Cloudy : rain early A.M. 29. Fine : rain early a.m. 30,31. Fine. 

Applegarlh Manse, Duynfries-shire. — May 1. Remarkably fine day. 2. Dull, 
but fair. 3. Fiery heat : dry and parching. 4. Fiery heat. 5, 6. Fiery heat : 
heat less. 7, Fiery heat : a few slight drops of rain. 8. Fiery heat. 9, Mild 
day: wind variable. 10, Mild day: shower on the hills, 11, Chill and piercing : 
ungenial. 12. Mild and genial : rain at night 13. Dropping day : most wel- 
come rain. 14. Wet morning : bright afternoon, 15. Mild and damp: showers. 
16, Heavy showers, 17. Wet morning : very fine and hot. 18. Slight showers : 
fine cool evening. 19. Hot forenoon : blowing evening. 20. Heavy showers : 
dull. 21,22. Very fine day : damp evening. 23. Showers in forenoon : very 
fine, 24. Fair, but dull. 25. Fair and clear : cloudy p.m. 26. Fair and very 
fine. 27. Beautiful day. 28. Beautiful day : still warmer. 29. Fine, though 
cloudy : showers p.m. 30. Fine: clear bracing weather. 31. Slight rain : wind 
high p.m. 

Mean temperature of the month 50°"5 

Mean temperature of May 1848 52-9 

Mean temperature of May for twenty-five years 51 '09 

Rain in May for twenty years 1'69 inch. 

Sandwick Manse, Orkney. — May 1. Fine: clear. 2. Cloudy. 3. Clear: fine. 
4. Fine. 5. Cloudy : fine. 6. Cloudy : clear. 7. Cloudy : fine. 8. Cloudy. 
9. Bright : cloudy. 10. Fine. 11,12. Cloudy. 13. Rain : fine. 14. Fine: 
drizzle. 15, 16. Cloudy: drizzle. 17. Cloudy: rain. 18. Drizzle: cloudy. 
19. Clear. 20, 21. Cloudy. 22. Cloudy: hazy. 23. Bright: clear. 24. Bright: 
rain. 25, 26. Bright : clear. 27. Cloudy : clear. 28. Bright : cloudy. 29. 
Cloudy. 30. Bright : clear. 31. Bright : cloudy. 



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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 20. AUGUST 1849. 



IX. — A descriptive Account of the Fresliwatei^ Sponges {genus 
Spongilla) in the Island of Bombay, with Observations on their 
Structure atid Development. By H. J. Carter, Esq., Assist- 
ant Surgeon, Bombay Establishment. 

[With three Plates.] 

Since my "Notes" on these Sponges were published* I have 
made many more observations on them, and have extended my 
inquiries into their structure and development, so as to be able 
to offer a more accurate account of them than I could formerly. 
I have also ventured to name four out of the five species I have 
described, because they either do not appear to have hitherto 
been met with, or if before noticed, have not had their specific 
differences described with sufficient minuteness for their present 
identification. The only species which I think I have recognized 
is Spongilla friabilis (Lam.), that kind so admirably described by 
Dr. Grant t ; but even here the point on which I have founded 
my distinctive characters, viz. the form of the spicula round the 
seed-like bodies, has not been mentioned with that minuteness 
which renders my recognition of it entirely satisfactory. So far 
as actual observation and the information I have derived from 
the descriptions of others extend, all the species of Spongilla 
which have hitherto been described appear to be so amorphous, 
that without a knowledge of their minute structural differences, 
they are irrecognizable. Had this fact been form erly established, 
the same course which I have pursued for their specification 
would in all probability have been adopted from the beginning ; 
but with only two species, Spongilla fiuviatilis and lacustris and 
their varieties J, the genus appears to have failed from its insig- 

* Trans. Med. and Phys, Soc, Bombay, No. 8. Reprinted in Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist. No. 4, April 1848. 

■\ Edinb. Phil. Journal, vol. xiv. p. 270. 

X Johnston's Brit. Sponges, Synopsis, p. 250. 
Ann. i^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. iv. 6 



82 Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 

nificance to have obtained that attention which would have led to 
a description of the minute differences now required. 

Not so with the nature of SpongiUa, — that has been a disputed 
point ever since it was first studied ; its claims to animality or 
vegetability with those of the other sponges have been canvassed 
over and over again by the ablest physiologists, and yet remain 
undecided; still this subject does not appear to me to have been 
viewed in a proper light, for late discoveries would seem to show 
that there exists no line of demarcation between the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms, but that on the contrary the one passes by 
gentle and at last imperceptible gradations into the other. From 
the existence of cells as the principal component parts and as the 
elaborators of the most complicated forms of animal and vege- 
table structures, and the intimate connection that obtains between 
these little organisms in both kingdoms in their isolated and in- 
dependent existences and in their simplest composite forms, of 
which I take SpongiUa to be one, the time appears to have arrived 
for abandoning the question of the animality or vegetability of 
SpongiUa, for the more philosophical consideration of the position 
it holds in that transitionary part of the scale of organized bodies 
which unites the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 

Hitherto only five species of SpongiUa have been found in the 
island of Bombay ; they are the following : — 

1. SpongiUa cinerea, n. s. — Flat, surface slightly convex, pre- 
senting gentle eminences and depressions. Vents situated in the 
depressions, numerous, and tending to a quincuncial arrange- 
ment. Colour darkly cinereous on the surface, lighter towards 
the interior ; growing horizontally in circular patches, which sel- 
dom attain more than half an inch in thickness. Texture com- 
pact, fine, friable. Structure confused, fibro-reticulate ; fibres 
perpendicular, densely aggregated and united by transverse fila- 
ments. Seed-like bodies spheroidal, about g^jrd of an inch in 
diameter, presenting rough points externally. Spicula of two 
kinds, large and small ; large spicula slightly curved, smooth, 
pointed at both ends, about gUth of an inch in length ; small 
spicula slightly curved, thickly spiniferous, about 3 ^q th of an inch 
in length. (Plate III. fig. 5.) 

Hab. Sides of freshwater tanks in the island of Bombay, on 
rocks, stones, or gravel ; seldom covered by water more than six 
months in the year. 

Observations. — "N^Tiile the investing membrane of this species 
remains intact, its surface presents a dark, rusty, copper-colour, 
purplish under water. It never appears to throw up any pro- 
cesses, and extends over surfaces of 2 and 3 feet in circumference, 
or accumulates on small objects to the thickness mentioned. It 
is distinguished from the other species by its colour, the fineness 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 83 

of its texture, and the sniallness of its seed-like bodies and 
spicula. 

2. Sp.friabilist Lam. — Amorphous, surface irregularly con- 
vex, presenting low ridges or eminences. Vents situated on the 
latter, large, crateriform. Colour bright green on the surface, 
faintly yellow towards the interior. Growing in circumscribed 
masses on fixed bodies, or enveloping floating objects ; seldom 
attaining more than 2 inches in thickness. Texture loose, friable. 
Structure confusedly fibrous, reticulate, sometimes radiated. Seed- 
like bodies spheroidal, about gV^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ i^^ diameter, pre- 
senting smooth points externally. Spicula of two kinds, large 
and small ; large spicula slightly curved, smooth, pointed at both 
ends, about g yth of an inch in length ; small spicula also slightly 
curved, smooth, pointed at each end, about yigth of an inch in 
length. (Plate III. fig. 3.) 

Hab. Sides of freshwater tanks in the island of Bombay, on 
rocks, stones or gravel ; or temporarily on floating objects ; sel- 
dom covered by water more than six months in the year. 

Observations. — The colour of this species is bright green when 
fresh, but this fades after it becomes dry. It seldom throws up 
projections much beyond its surface ; does not appear to be in- 
clined to spread much ; and is matted and confused in its struc- 
ture towards its base and round its seed-like bodies. From the 
other sponges it is distinguished by the smooth spicula which 
surround its seed-like bodies and the n^atted structure just men- 
tioned. Its green colour combined with the smoothness of its 
spicula, both large and small, is useful in distinguishing it from 
the other species, but without the latter it is deceptive, because 
Sp. alba and Sp. plu)}iosa become green under certain circum- 
stances. It appears to be Sp. friabilis, Lam., from no mention 
having been made by Dr. Grant (in his description of this spe- 
cies*) of the presence of any but smooth pointed spicula in it, 
and the appearance of " transparent points " studding the sui-face 
of its seed-like bodies, which is not observable in any of the other 
species, wherein the small spicula are spiniferous or stelliferous. 

3. Sp. alba, n. s. — Flat or elevated, surface slightly convex, 
presenting gentle eminences and depressions or irregularly formed 
projections. Vents large, scattered. Colour yellow, growing 
horizontally, in circumscribed masses or in irregular patches, 
encrusting objects, seldom attaining more than an inch in thick- 
ness. Texture coarse, open. Structure reticulated. Investing 
membrane abounding in minute spicula. Seed-like bodies sphe- 
roidal, about ^'flth of an inch in diameter, presenting rough points 
externally. Spicula of two kinds, large and small ; large spicula 

* Edinb. Phil. Trans, vol. xiv. pp. 274 and 279. 

6* 



84 Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 

sliglitly curved, smooth, pointed at each end, about j^^th of an 
inch in length ; small spicula also slightly curved, thickly spi- 
niferous or pointed at each end ; the former, pertaining to the 
seed-like bodies, are about 2^0^^^ ^^ ^^ "^^^ ^^ length ; the latter, 
pertaining to the investing membrane, are more slender and a 
little less in length. (Plate III. fig. 4.) 

Hab. Sides of the freshwater tanks in the island of Bombay, 
on rocks, stones, gravel, or temporarily on floating objects. Sel- 
dom covered by water more than six months in the year. 

Observations. — This species is frequently found spreading over 
the flat surfaces of rocks to a considerable extent (like Sp. cinerea) 
without throwing up any processes ; on the other hand, it is also 
found in circumscribed portions throwing up irregidarly formed 
ragged projections, of an inch or more in length. It surrounds 
floating objects, such as straws, or binds together portions of 
gravel, showing in this latter state a greater degree of tenacity 
than any of the other species. In structure it is a coarse form of 
Sp. cinerea, but difiers from it in colour as well as in the size of 
its seed-like bodies and spicula ; possessing at the same time that 
peculiarity which distinguishes it from all the other species, of 
having numerous small spiniferous spicula in its investing mem- 
brane, which, when dry, gives it that white, lacelike appearance, 
which has led me to propose for it the specific term of alba. 

4. Sp. Meyeni, n. s. — Massive, surface convex, presenting 
large lobes, mammillary eminences, or pyramidal, compressed, 
obtuse or sharp-pointed projections of an inch or more in height, 
also low wavy ridges. Colour yellow. Growing in circumscribed 
masses, seldom attaining more than 3 inches in height. Texture 
fine, friable, soft, tomatose towards the base. Structiu'e fibrous, 
reticulated, radiated. Seed-like bodies spheroidal, about ^yth of 
an inch in diameter, studded with little toothed disks. Spicula of 
two kinds, large and small ; large spicula slightly curved, smooth, 
pointed at each end, about ^/grd of an inch in length ; small spi- 
cula straight, sometimes slightly spiniferous, terminated by a 
toothed disk at each end, about 42^2^^ ^^ ^^ v!\c\i in length. 
(Plate III. fig. 1.) 

Hab. Sides of the freshwater tanks in the island of Bombay, 
on rocks seldom covered by water more than six months in the 
year. 

Observations. — I have never observed this species either en- 
veloping floating bodies, or growing anywhere but on rocks, in 
circumscribed portions. It varies like the other species in being 
sometimes more, sometimes less firm in texture. No other spe- 
cies resembles the officinal sponges in external appearance so 
much as this when fully developed and free from foreign sub- 
stances. It is distinguished from the foregoing by the regularity 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 85 

of its structure, its radiated appearance interiorly, the form of its 
small spicula, and the manner in which its seed-like bodies are 
studded with little toothed disks ; and from the following species 
by the fineness of its texture and the spheroidal form of its seed- 
like bodies. Probably it is the species alluded to by Dr. John- 
ston* which was examined by Meyen from the kind and arrange- 
ment of the small spicula round the seed-like bodies, which how- 
ever in this species are not cemented together by carbonate of 
lime as stated by Meyen, but by an amorphous siliceous deposit. 

1 have named it after Meyen, who has characterized it by the 
description of its minute spicula. 

5. Sp. plumosa, n. s. — Massive, surface convex, presenting 
gentle eminences and depressions, or low wavy ridges. Colour 
yellow. Growing in circumscribed masses, attaining a height of 

2 inches. Texture loose, coarse, resistent. Structure coarsely 
fibrous, reticulated, radiated, fibres fasciculated, spreading from 
the base towards the circumference in a plumose form. Seed- 
like bodies ovoid, about -^^ndi of an inch in their longest dia- 
meter, studded with little toothed disks. Spicula of two kinds, 
large and small ; large spicula slightly curved, smooth, pointed 
at each end, about jTyth of an inch in length ; small spicula 
straight, sparsely spiniferous, terminated at each end by a toothed 
disk, about ^is^^^l of an inch in length. (Plate TIL fig. 2.) 

Hab. Sides of freshwater tanks in the island of Bombay, fixed 
or floating, seldom covered by water more than sLx months in the 
year. 

Observations. — This is the coarsest and most resistent of all 
the species. As yet I have only found three or four specimens of 
it, and these only in two tanks. I have never seen it fixed on any 
solid body, but always floating on the surface of the water, about 
a month after the first heavy rains of the S.W. monsoon have 
fallen. Having made its appearance in that position, and having 
remained there for upwards of a month, it then sinks to the bottom. 
That it grows like the rest, adherent to the sides of the tank, 
must be inferred from the first specimen which I found (which 
exceeded 2 feet in circumference) having had a free and a fixed 
surface, the latter coloui-ed by the red gravel on which it had 
grown. I have noticed it floating, for two successive years in 
the month of July, on the surface of the water of one of the two 
tanks in which I have found it, and would account for its tem- 
porary appearance in that position in the following way, viz. that 
soon after the first rains have fallen, and the tanks have become 
filled, all the sponges in them appear to undergo a partial state 
of putrescence, during which gas is generated in them, and ac- 
cumulates in globules in their structure, through which it must 

* Johnston's British Sponges, p. 154. 



86 Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay/. 

burst or tear them from their attachments and force them to the 
sm'face of the water. Since then the coarse structure of plumosa 
would appear to offer greater resistance to the escape of this air 
than that of any of the other species, it is probable that this is 
the reason of my having hitherto only found it in the position 
mentioned. As -S^. alba, without its specific differences, is but 
a coarse form of cinerea, so plumosa is, without its specific differ- 
ences, only a coarse form of Sp. Meyeni. The point which di- 
stinguishes it from all the other species consists in the form of 
its seed-like bodies, which are ovoid. From Sp. Meyeni it is also 
distinguished by its surface being more even, its projections less 
prominent, and its tendency to spread horizontally more than to 
rise vertically. 

General Observations. — It should be stated that in all these 
species except cinerea, their forms en masse are so diversified and 
so dependent on accidental circumstances, that not one of them 
can be said to possess any particular form of its own, or to be 
distinguishable from the rest by it alone. 

The measurements of the seed-like bodies and spicula are taken 
from the average of the largest of their kind ; they differ a little 
from those mentioned in my " Notes*," but this is owing to their 
having been the means of a larger number of measurements than 
I had an opportunity of making in the first instance. How- 
ever great the number of measurements, it is probable that when 
made at different times and from different sets of specimens, the 
results will always somewhat differ ; but this is a matter of very 
little consequence, as these points alone are not required for 
distinguishing characters. 

The large spiculum is of the same shape in all the species, and 
is therefore of no use as a specific character. (Plate V. fig. 2.) 

Structure and Development. 

The freshwater sponge is composed of a fleshy mass, supported 
on a fibrous, reticulated horny skeleton. The fleshy mass con- 
tains a great number of seed-like bodies in all stages of develop- 
ment, and the horny skeleton is permeated throughout with sili- 
ceous spicula. 

When the fleshy mass is examined by the aid of a microscope, 
it is found to be composed of a number of cells imbedded in and 
held together by an intercellular substance. 

These cells vary in diameter below the yoVo*^ P^"^"*- ^^ ^^ inch, 
which is about the average linear measurement of the largest. 
If one of them be selected for observation, it will be found to be 
composed of its proper cell-wall, a number of granules fixed to 
its upper and inner surface, and towards its centre generally one 
or more hyaline vesicles. 

♦ Op. rif. 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 87 

The granules are round or ovoid, translucent, and of an eme- 
rald or yellowish green colour, varying in diameter below the 
T2 ^0 0^^^ part of an inch, which is the average linear measurement 
of the largest. In some cells they are so minute and colourless 
as to appear only under the form of a nebular mass, while in 
others they are of the largest kind and few in number. 

The hyaline vesicles on the other hand are transparent, colour- 
less and globular, and although variable in point of size like the 
green granules, are seldom recognized before they much exceed 
the latter in diameter. They generally possess the remarkable 
property of slowly dilating and suddenly contracting themselves, 
and present in their interior, molecules of extreme minuteness in 
rapid commotion. 

When living and isolated the sponge-cell is polymorphous, its 
transparent or non-granular portion undergoing the greatest 
amount of transformation, while its semi-transparent or granular 
part, which is uppermost, is only slightly attracted to this side 
or that, according to the point of the cell which is in the act of 
being transformed. 

The intercellular substance, which forms the bond of union 
between the cells, is mucilaginous. When observed in the deli- 
cate pellicle, which, with its imbedded cells and granules, it forms 
over the surface and throughout the canals of the sponge, it is 
transparent ; but when a portion of this pellicle is cut from its 
attachments, it collapses and becomes semi-opake. In this state 
the detached portion immediately evinces a tendency to assume 
a spheroidal form; but whether the intercellular substance partici- 
pates in this act, or remains passive while it is wholly performed 
by the habit of the cells which are imbedded in it, to approximate 
themselves, I have not been able to determine. 

Seed-like Bodies. — The seed-like bodies occupy the oldest or 
first-formed portions of the sponge, never its periphery. They 
are round or ovoid according to the species, and each presents a 
single infundibular depression on its surface which communicates 
with the interior. At the earliest period of development in which 
I have recognized the seed-like body, it has been composed of a 
number of cells united together in a globular or ovoid mass (ac- 
cording to the species) by an intercellular substance similar to 
that just described. In this state, apparently without any cap- 
sule, and about half the size of the full -developed seed-like body, 
it seems to lie free, in a cavity formed by a condensation of the 
common structure of the sponge immediately surrounding it. 
The cells of which it is now composed appear to differ only from 
those of the full-developed sponge-cell in being smaller, in the 
colourless state of their germs, and in the absence of hyaline 
vesicles ; in all other respects they closely resemble the sponge- 



88 Mr. H.J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombmj. 

cells, possessing also a like but more limited power of motion. 
[I do not however wish it to be inferred from this close resem- 
blance^, that I am of opinion that the seed-like body is but an 
aggregate of separately developed sponge-cells ; on the contrary, 
there are always present among the cells of a piece of sponge 
which has been torn to pieces, many which contain within them 
(developing from their upper an inner surface) a number of 
transparent cells of various sizes, not unlike the hyaline vesicles 
in appearance, but all adhering together in a mass. It may 
perhaps be one of these cell-bearing cells which becomes the 
seed-like body. They are distinguished from the common sponge- 
cell by the character I have mentioned, by their containing fewer 
granules, and by their greater transparency, but in every other 
respect they are exactly like the sponge-cell.] To resume how- 
ever the subject of the development of the seed-like body, — it 
passes from the state just mentioned into a more circumscribed 
form, then becomes surrounded by a soft, white, compressible 
capsule, and finally thickens, turns yellow, and developes upon 
its exterior a firm crust of siliceous spiciila. 

Thus matured, its cells (Plate III. fig. 6 h), which were ori- 
ginally unequal in size, have now nearly all become equal, almost 
motionless, and a little exceed the average diameter of the largest 
sponge-cells; while their germs (Plate III. fig. 6 a), which in the 
first instance so nearly resembled the granules of the sponge- 
cells, are now four or five times larger, and vary in diameter be- 
low the 3 Jy ^th part of an inch, which is the average linear mea- 
surement of the largest of their kind. 

The capsule (Plate III. fig. 6/) has now passed from its soft, 
white state into a tough yellow coriaceous membrane, presenting 
in Meyeni and plumosa a hexagonally tessellated appearance 
(fig. 6 c), on the divisions of which rest the asteroid disks (fig. 6e) 
of the vertically-placed spicula (fig. 6^) which surround it. 

In the two species just mentioned the spicula arc arranged 
perpendicularly to the surface of the capsule, and the interval 
between them is filled up with a white siliceous, amorphous matter, 
which keeps them in position. Each spiculum extends a little 
beyond this mattei', and supports on its free end a toothed disk, 
similar to the one on its fixed end which rests on the capsule ; so 
that the external surface of the seed-like body in Meyeni and 
plumosa is studded with little stellated bodies; while in the other 
species, where there appears to be no such regular arrangement 
of these spicula, a number of smooth or spiniferous points is 
presented. 

Development of Spongilla. — When the cells of the seed-like 
body are forcibly expelled from their natural cavity, under water, 
they are irregular in form and motionless, but soon swell out (by 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bomhmj. 89 

endosmose ?), become globular, and after a few hours burst. At 
the time of bursting, their visible contents, which consist of a 
mass of germs, occupying about two-thirds of the cavity of the 
cell, subside, and afterwards gradually become spread over the 
bottom of the vessel in which they are contained. They are of 
various diameters below the 3 qVo^^^ P*^^^ of an inch (PI. III. fig.6a), 
which is the average linear measurement of the largest, and ap- 
pear to be endowed with the power of locomotion in proportion 
to their size ; that is to say, that while the largest scarcely do 
more than turn over now and then, as the globules of the blood, 
the most minute are incessantly moving backwards and forwards, 
here and there, and assembling in crowds around the larger 
ones. 

If a germ about the ^^^'^ ^th part of an inch in diameter be 
selected for examination, it will be observed to consist of a dis- 
coid, circular, well-defined translucent cell, which is green or yel- 
lowish green at the circumference, but becomes pale and colour- 
less towards the centre. This cell appears to be again surrounded 
by a colourless transparent capsule, the nature of which is un- 
kno^vn to me, and I am not altogether certain of its real exist- 
ence. 

The green colour is hardly perceptible in germs measuring less 
than the tq^o 0^^ P^^'* ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ diameter ; below this they 
all appear to be colourless. 

A few days after the germs have been eliminated, they for the 
most part become parcelled out into insulated groups, and united 
together by a semi-transparent mucilage. In this position the 
contents of the largest, which resemble the endochrome of the 
cells of Confervse, undergo a change, becoming nebulous towards 
the circumference, pellucid in the centre, and then nebulous 
throughout. The largest germs then disappear gradually, and 
their disappearance is followed by a successive development of 
proteans or active polymorphic cells. These proteans for the 
most part do not exceed, in their globular or passive state, the 
diameter of the germs which have disappeared, and a successive 
development of them continues to take place from the contents 
of the same seed-like body for two or three months after their 
elimination. There are some proteans present, however, much 
larger, exceeding even the ^^^th part of an inch in diameter, 
which always make their appearance under the same circum- 
stances, but they are not so numerous ; the most numerous are 
those which average in diameter the 3 oV 0^^ P^^^ o^ ^"^ i'^ch. The 
form assumed by the latter when in a state of activity is that of 
the diffluent protean (Plate IV. fig. 1 e), which in progression 
throws out globular or obtuse expansions of its cells ; that of the 
largest, the denticulated protean (fig. 1 d), which in progression 



90 Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 

shoots out digital or dentiform processes ; and that of the small- 
est, the vermiform protean (fig. 1/), which progresses after the 
manner of a worm. 

They are all (like the cells of the sponge) composed of a cell- 
wall, within which are round or ovoid, green, tj'anslucent gra- 
nules, varying in size and number ; and one or more hyaline 
vesicles. 

The green granules, although appearing to move over the whole 
surface of the protean in its active state, are, nevertheless, when 
it is in its globular or passive state, found to be confined to the 
upper and inner part of its cell- wall. Sometimes these granules, 
from their smallness, can hardly be recognized individually, and 
only appear in the form of a nebular mass ; this is frequently the 
case in the diffluent proteans and in tbose inferior to them in 
size ; at other times they are few in number and all the largest 
of their kind. 

The hyaline contracting vesicle, of which there is seldom a plu- 
rality in the smaller proteans, appears to be uninfluenced in its 
presence or development by the state of the green granules, since 
there is almost always one at least present, and in the enjoyment 
of great activity. 

Such are the changes in the contents of the seed-like body 
which are witnessed, under this mode of development, with re- 
ference to the germs ; we have now to turn our attention to the 
semi-transparent mucilage, which holds the germs together in 
their insulated groups, or binds them down singly to the surface 
of the vessel in which they are contained. 

This semi-transparent mucilage appears to be identical with 
the intercellular mucilage of the sponge ; it exhibits the same 
phsenomenon of ever undergoing a change in shape, but, as I 
have said before, I am not aware of its possessing this property, 
independently of the presence of the cells and minute germs 
which are contained in it ; neither do I know how it comes into 
existence, i. e. whether it be the product of the germs themselves, 
or whether it be eliminated with them, in a more elementary 
transparent and invisible form, from the cells of the seed-like 
bodies. Be this as it may, threads of it soon appear in straight 
lines extending over the surface of the watch-glass from portion 
to portion (Plate IV. fig. 1 h), and from object to object starting 
off from different points of an isolated germ — or from any point 
of a thread of it already formed — sometimes disposed in a flat 
reticulated structure over a spiculum, or on the surface of the 
glass — occasionally as broken portions like the ends of threads 
thrown together without union or order, and not unfrequently 
bearing minute germs in their course either at irregular distances 
from each other, or arranged like a string of beads. 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 91 

It might be as well to notice here that the yolk-Uke contents 
of the di-ied seed-hke body, with but shght modifications, undergo 
the same changes as those of the fresh one. If the former be 
divided with a sharp knife or lancet, and a portion of its contents 
picked out on the point of a needle and put into water, it swells 
out after a few days into a gelatinous mass ; its component parts, 
i. e. its germs and semi-transparent mucilage, begin to evince 
signs of active life, — a successive development of proteans follows, 
and threads of the semi-transparent mucilage shoot over the sur- 
face of the watch-glass in the manner I have just described. 

So far the elements of the sponge are developed from the con- 
tents of the seed-like body after forcible expulsion ; we have now 
to examine them after having issued in their natural way. 

If a seed-like body which has arrived at maturity be placed in 
water, a white substance will after a few days be observed to have 
issued from its interior, through the infundibular depression on 
its surface, and to have glued it to the glass ; and if this be ex- 
amined with a microscope, its circumference will be found to con- 
sist of a semi-transparent substance, the extreme edge of which 
is irregularly notched or extended into digital or tentacular pro- 
longations, precisely similar to those of the protean, which in 
progression or in polymorphism throws out parts of its cell in 
this way (Plate IV. fig. 2 c). In the semi-transparent substance 
may be observed hyaline vesicles of different sizes, contracting 
and dilating themselves as in the protean (fig. 2 d), and a little 
within it the green granules so grouped together (fig. 2 e) as 
almost to enable the practised eye to distinguish in situ the pass- 
ing forms of the cells to which they belong ; we may also see in 
the latter their hyaline vesicles with their contained molecules in 
great commotion, and between the cells themselves the intercel- 
lular mucilage (fig. 2/). 

If this newly-formed sponge be torn up, its isolated cells as- 
sume their globular or passive form or become polymorphous, 
changing their position and their locality, by emitting expansions 
similar to the proteans or polymorphic cells developed after a 
forcible expulsion of the contents of the seed-like body, and dif- 
fering only from them in being more indolent in their move- 
ments. 

Habits of the Sponge-cell. — In describing the habits of the 
sponge-cell so far as my observations extend, I shall first confine 
myself to those which are evinced by it iu, or when torn from, 
the fully-developed structure of the sponge, and subsequently 
advert to the habits of the polymorphic cells or proteans, which 
are developed from the contents of the seed-like body when for- 
cibly expelled. 

The sponge-cell when in situ is ever changing its form, both 



93 Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 

partially and wholly ; its granules also are ever varying their po- 
sition with, or independently of, the movements of the cell, and 
its pellucid vesicle or vesicles dilating and contracting themselves 
or remaining passively distended, and exhibiting in their interior 
molecules of extreme minuteness in rapid commotion. When 
first separated from the common mass, this cell for a short time 
assumes a globular form, and afterwards, in addition to be- 
coming polymorphic, evinces a power of locomotion. During its 
polymorphism it emits expansions of its cell-wall in the form of 
obtuse or globular projections, or digital and tentacular prolon- 
gations. If in progression it meets with another cell, both com- 
bine ; and if more are in the immediate neighbourhood, they all 
unite together into one common globular mass. Should a spicu- 
lum chance to be in the course of a cell, it will ascend it and tra- 
verse it from end to end, and, subsequently quitting it or assuming 
its globular form, embrace some part of it and remain stationarily 
attached to it. The changes in shape and position of the sponge- 
cell and its intercellular mucilage are for the most part effected 
so imperceptibly, that they may be likened to those which take 
place in a cloud. Its granules however are more active ; but there 
appears to be no motion in any part of the cell, excepting among 
the molecules within the hyaline vesicle, which in any way ap- 
proaches to that characteristic of the presence of cilia. 

It should be understood however that these remarks are not 
applicable to every sponge-cell, although fully developed, which 
appears in the field of the microscope, but rather a statement of 
what a sponge-cell may evince, than one of what every sponge- 
cell does evince. 

The polymorphic cells or proteans which appear in the watch- 
glass after the contents of a seed-like body have been forcibly 
expelled into it under distilled water, are much more active in 
their movements. Their cell-walls frequently assume the most 
fantastic figures, spheroidal, polygonal, asteroid, dendritic, &c. 
Their green granules move backwards or forwards, to this side 
or to that, with great activity, as the part of the cell to which they 
are attached is attracted in one direction or another ; while their 
hyaline vesicle or vesicles (in progression) appear occasionally in 
every part, not only of the body of the cell, but in its tubular 
prolongations. The contraction of the hyaline vesicle seems to 
take place most frequently when it arrives at the posterior extre- 
mity, that is, according to the direction in which the cell is pro- 
gressing ; next in frequency at the sides, seldom in the anterior 
or central part of the mass. When contraction takes place it is 
effected more or less completely, more or less suddenly ; if com- 
plete, a dark speck or opacity marks the original position of the 
vesicle, in the centre of which, if watched, it may be observed to 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 93 

re-appear, and as it is carried forward in the movements of the 
cell with the portion to which it is attached, it gradually regains 
its original size, and returning in due course to the point from 
which it started, again contracts as formerly. 

In progression, some of the large proteans developed in the 
way just mentioned appear to be conscious of the nature of cer- 
tain objects which they encounter in their course, since they will 
stop and surround them with their cell-wall. It is not uncom- 
mon to see a portion of a spiculum in the latter position (PL IV. 
fig. 3), the larger germs of the sponge itself, the body of a lori- 
cated animalcule, the g^oth part of an inch in diameter (fig. 4), 
on which the pressure exerted by the protean may be seen by 
the irregular form assumed by the animalcule the moment it has 
become surrounded. I once saw one of these proteans approach 
a gelatinous body, something like a sluggish or dead one of its 
own kind, and eqiial to itself in size, and having lengthened itself 
out so as to encircle it, send processes over and under it from 
both sides (fig. 6), which uniting with each other, at last ended 
in a complete approximation of the two opposite folds of the cell- 
wall, throughout their whole extent, and in the enclosure of the 
object within the duplicature. Even while the protean was thus 
spreading out its substance into a mere film, to surround so large 
an object, a tubular prolongation was sent out by it in another 
direction to seize and enclose in the same way a large germ which 
was lying near it. After having secured both objects the protean 
pursued its course rather more slowly than before, but still shoot- 
ing out its dentiform processes with much activity. It took about 
three-quarters of an hour to perform these two acts. 

Lastly, I have frequently seen it grapple with its own species ; 
when, if the one it meets is near its own size, they merely twist 
round each other for a short time and then separate ; but when 
it does not exceed the sixth or eighth part of its size, then there 
is much strugglmg between them, and the smaller one escapes, 
or is secured by the aid of the digital prolongations of the larger 
one, and enveloped as the object before mentioned in a fold of its 
cell-wall. 

On one occasion I witnessed a contest between two proteans, 
whereiia the large one, after having seized the smaller one with 
its finger-like processes, passed it under its body, so as to cause 
it to lie between itself and the glass. For a moment the small 
protean remained in this position, when the cell-wall raised itself 
over it in the form of a dome, in which so-formed cavity the little 
protean began to crawl round and round to seek for an exit ; 
gradually however the cell-wall closed in beneath it in the man- 
ner of a sphincter, and it was carried up as it were into the inte- 



94 Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 

rior of tlie cell, securely enclosed in a globular transparent cavity 
resembling a hyaline vesicle, but much larger (Plate IV. fig. 5) ; 
it then attached itself to the upper part of this cavity, assumed a 
globular form, became opake and motionless, and the larger pro- 
tean took on its course. 

Such are a few of the habits evinced by the sponge-cell, deve- 
loped in its natural way and by the process I have mentioned. 

Now, althovigh no doubt may exist in the mind of the reader 
as to the identity of the sponge-cells developed in the natural 
way, and most of those developed from the contents of the seed- 
like body when forcibly expelled ; yet it may be a question with 
him, whether all the proteans developed by the latter method 
come from the contents of the seed-like body, and therefore whe- 
ther the proteans whose habits I have just been describing, which 
slightly difier from those of the sponge-cell, taken from its natu- 
ral structure (only so far as this, however, that I have not seen 
the like evinced by the latter), have not been developed from 
some other source. 

All that I can say in answer to this question is, that although 
the proteans, which have evinced the remarkable habits I have 
described, are larger than the sponge-cell, more active in their 
component parts, more active as a whole, and appear to possess a 
greater share of intelligence ; yet their general aspect and com- 
ponent parts being the same, their constant appearance in the 
watch-glass with the other polymorphic cells in the progress of the 
development of the contents of the seed-like body after forcible 
expulsion, when they are nearly as numerous as any other form 
of the protean cells then present, together with the fact, that the 
sponge-cell itself frequently contains pieces of confervse within 
duplicatures of its cell-wall, and other foreign matters, just as 
these proteans include within the duplicatures of their cell-walls 
the objects I have mentioned, leaves me no conclusion to come 
to so reasonably, as, that the proteans or polymorphic cells so 
developed are but a higher condition of the sponge-cell met with 
in situ. How they obtain this condition, whether it be from the 
peculiar circumstances under which they are developed, or whe- 
ther it be the development peculiar to a particular class of cells 
of the same animal, are queries for future inquiry to determine. 

Next to the development of the fleshy substance comes that 
of the horny skeleton and its spicula, of which little more has 
been made known to me by my observations, than has been pub- 
lished by others who have already directed their attention to the 
same subjects, I have not iiad time to continue my investigation 
beyond the development of the fleshy substance, which is the 
utmost to which the contents of the seed-like body when forcibly 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 95 

expelled reaches ; although from rny " Notes '^ it should appear 
that it went farther, for I have therein stated, that I had seen 
the semi-transparent mucilage take on an arrangement in form 
and disposition like that of the spicula in the skeleton ; but this 
was an illusion, for I afterwards found out that this appearance 
had arisen from the semi-transparent mucilage having attached 
itself to a series of minute scratches on the surface of the watch- 
glass. 

My impression however is, that both the horny skeleton and 
its spicula are formed in the intercellular substance, and not 
within the cells. 

The spicula are membranous, and at an early period of their 
development pliable ; they afterwards become firm and brittle. If 
they be exposed to the Hame of a blowpipe, many of them swell 
out towards the middle or one end into a bulb, like that of a 
thermometer. This is more particularly the case with spicula of 
friabilis than with those of any of the other species. They are 
hollow, and the form of their cavity corresponds with that of 
their own form, being widest in the centre and narrow towards 
each extremity. Sometimes they contain a gi'een matter like the 
endochrome of cells of Confervse. 

Growth. — This only takes place during the time Spongilla is 
covered by water, which in the tanks of Bombay is not more than 
eight, or at the farthest nine months out of the year, but the 
duration of its submergence of course again varies with the posi- 
tion it occupies on the sides of the tank. Its increase however 
appears to be most rapid in September and October, i. e. about 
two months after the tanks have become filled ; subsequently it 
appears to go on more slowly. During the season of its growth, 
or while it is under water, it may extend from a portion, not 
more than a few lines in diameter, over a surface 2 or 3 feet in 
circumference, or it may evince no disposition whatever to ad- 
vance beyond its original bulk throughout the whole season. It 
increases in size by successive additions to its exterior. To what- 
ever extent this increase may reach, either vertically or hori- 
zontally, during the first season (assuming that it commenced 
fi'om a central point or germ), but few seed-like bodies are deve- 
loped in it, and these few, as I have before said, are found in the 
centre or first-formed portion. The next year the development 
of its fleshy substance appears to commence from these seed-like 
bodies, which a few weeks after it has again become submerged, 
pour forth their contents over the last year's skeleton, and reach- 
ing its circumference develope a new portion ; and in this way, 
by successive additions, it gradually increases in bulk, while the 
seed-like bodies accumulate about its centre, till at length it be- 



96 Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 

comes based on a mass of them, the lowermost of which merely 
consist of the refuse of those which have fulfilled the purpose for 
which they were originally destined*. 

Connected with the growth of Spongilla is also the following 
fact, which presented itself to me and which is interesting, inas- 
much as it seems to point out, that germs or full-developed cells 
of it abound in the water of the tanks, independently of those 
which exist imbedded in their natural structure : viz. one day I 
observed a few fresh straws floating together on the surface of 
the water of a tank which abounded mth several species of Spon- 
gilla ; they had been accidentally thrown there, but before they 
began to change colour from putrescence, and therefore but a 
few days after they had been in the water, a growth of Spongilla 
alba took place around each straw separately, which soon in- 
creased to the thickness of half an inch. I do not remember to 
have seen another instance of such rapid growth, and the fresh- 
ness of the straw proved this rapidity, for in this country it 
changes colour after a very few days^ immersion. 

Although I was perfectly aware that Spongilla might be unco- 
vered by water for many months in the year and still retain its 
vitality, yet I wished to see if this would be the case after the 
interval of more than a year. I therefore placed some portions, 
which I had kept for this purpose, in tanks supported on bits 
of cork, and others on stones from which they had been unde- 
tached ; but from some cause or other, whether from the partial 
putrescence which its dry fleshy substance subsequently under- 
went, or from this being present in a larger quantity in sponges 
taken out of the water in their living state and carefully pre- 
served, than in those exposed to the sun and winds on the dry 
rocks throughout the greater part of the year, or from both com- 
bined, the shrimps and crabs were attracted towards the former 
and devoured them with rapacity, while they left the latter un- 
touched ; so that I was at last compelled to enclose a portion in a 
gauze-wire case, which was kept 3 or 4 feet beneath the sm*- 
face of the water for several months. This portion was fixed on a 
stone, in the position in which it had grown, and when the case 
was taken up it was found to have exceeded by many times its ori- 
ginal bulk, was covered with its natural pellicle, and in the active 
performance of all its vital functions. 

Colour. — This in all, excepting cinerea, appears to be yellow. 

* Dutrochet has noticed the fact, that in a piece of Spongilla which he 
kept in water for some months, and which contained seed-like bodies, all 
the soft parts died, became putrid, and dissolved away during the winter, 
and that in the following spring the fleshy substance became renewed. — 
Memoires pour servir a I'Hibt. Anat. et Physiol, des Vegetaux et des Ani- 
maux, t. ii. p. 436. 



Mr. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 97 

The contents of the dried seed- like body are yellow, and al- 
though the new sponge when it first grows from them appears 
to be white, yet, if its cells be examined under a high magnify- 
ing power, their granules will be found to be translucent and 
yellow, closely resembling, under transmitted light, the colour of 
chlorine. 

Sometimes the green colour of the yellow sponge is evidently 
owing to the presence of numerous solitary spherical corpuscules, 
at other times it is as evidently owing to the presence of an Oscil- 
latoria or to Diatomacece, but more frequently it appears to de- 
pend on the presence of some coloui'ing matter in or about its 
cells or granules themselves. 

If some fresh cells of cinerea be examined under a high mag- 
nifying power, they and their contents will present the gray or 
lilac tint peculiar to the species, and in like manner the cells of 
yellow sponges which have become green would seem to indicate 
a similar position of their colouring matter, which in this instance 
however generally appears to depend on an extra tint of green 
added to the cell-granules only. 

Undoubtedly the sun has the povrer of turning the yellow 
sponges green when they are taken from the tank and exposed 
in a glass vessel to his rays. At the same time the greater part 
of the sponges are exposed to the sun in their natural habitations 
throughout the whole year, and yet, with the excej)tion of fria- 
bilis (which is always green, at least externally), it is only hei-e 
and there that you find a portion of the others taking on that 
colour. Exposure to light again does not appear to have this 
effect on the small pieces of sponge grown from the seed-like 
bodies, if care has been taken not to admit the presence of other 
organisms, for they retain their white cotton-like appearance, 
although exposed to the sun for several days, i. e. from the mo- 
ment they have become perceptible, up to the time that they 
perish from the want of nourishment in the distilled water in 
which they have been brought into existence. 

It is impossible therefore under these circumstances to say 
without further research, if the green colour is owing to an ad- 
ditional tint to the colouring matter of the cells or granules 
themselves, or to the presence of some foreign organism. Bory 
St. Vincent supposed it to be owing to the presence of Anabaina 
impalpabilis^, but when it is due to an Oscillatoria or to Diato- 
mac€(e, or to solitary organic corpuscules, they are distinctly visi- 
ble ; the green colour however is frequently present when neither 
can be observed. 

Among other experiments I instituted a set to ascertain if each 
species of Spongilla had its peculiar form of Proteus ; and for this 

* Johnston, Brit. Sponges, foot-note, p. 156. 
Ann. 6f Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 7 



98 Mr. H. J.Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 

purpose I took small portions of the yolk-like substance from the 
seed-like bodies of dried pieces of each of the sponges, and after 
having placed them in separate watch-glasses with distilled water, 
set them aside for a few days until the pi'oteans made their ap- 
pearance*. I then began to compare the latter with one another 
in the different watch-glasses, but instead of finding that each 
species of Spongilla had its peculiar form, I frequently found 
that the kind of protean I had determined on as proper to one 
species, was to be seen on the same or on the following day in a 
watch-glass containing yolk-like substance from the seed-like 
bodies of another species, and so on throughout all the glasses. 
It therefore would appear, that in whatever the specific distinctions 
of the different proteans consist, too much stress must not be laid 
upon their external forms. 

Respecting the position which Spongilla holds among orga- 
nized bodies, I feel incompetent to offer an opinion. All who know 
anything about the subject are aware that it is closely allied to 
both the animal and vegetable kingdoms, but it is for those who 
are best acquainted with that part of the chain which unites 
these two great conventional divisions, to assign to it its proper 
link. 

I might here state, however, that we are indebted to Dujardin 
for the earliest notice of the resemblance of the sponge-cell to 
the Proteus f. Ehrenberg^s name for the Proteus is Amoeba ; he 
has also applied the same name to the fifth family of his naked 
Phijtozoaria polygastrica, Sect. 3, Pseudopodia, in which is in- 
cluded the genus Amoeba. 

Finally, I stated in the P.S. to my " Notes J," that the Pro- 
teus fed on its like after the manner of the Hydra. The fact 
which induced me to make this assertion has been already 
mentioned, but the subject requires further investigation be- 
fore it can be considered conclusive. It is difficult to conceive 
why the Proteus should enclose within its cell-wall one of its own 
like, if it were not for the purpose of feeding upon it ; added to 
which the constant accumulation of refuse matter, which, issuing 
from the fsecal orifices, settles on the sm'face of the living sponge, 
when kept in a horizontal position, shows that there is a con- 
tinual elimination going on of material which is no longer useful 
in its oeconomy, and in connection with the fact to which I have 
alluded, would seem to point out the probability that such ejecta, 
to a certain extent, consist of the cast-off parts of organisms from 
which the nutrient parts have been abstracted. 

* Throughout all my experiments distilled water was used, and every 
precaution taken to preclude as far as practicable the introduction of foreign 
matter. 

t Ann. des Sc. Nat. n. s. x. p. 5. + Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. loc. cit. 



Ml*. H. J. Carter on the Freshwater Sponges of Bombay. 99 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES III. IV. and V. 
Plate III. 

Fig. \. Section of SpongiUa Meyeni, natural size. 

a. Small spiculum and seed-like body of the same, magnified. 
Fig. 2. Section oi Spongilla plumosa, natural size. 

b. Small spiculum and seed-like body of the same, magnified. 
Fig. 3. Section oi Spongillafriabilisl natural size. 

c. Small spiculum and seed-like body of the same, magnified. 
Fig. 4. Section of Spongilla alba, natural size. 

d. Small spiculum and seed-like body of the same, magnified. 
Fig. 5. Section of Spongilla cinerea, natural size. 

e. Small spiculum and seed-like body of the same, magnified. 

As none of these species possess specific forms, it has been deemed advi- 
sable to give sections of them, showing their average and relative thicknesses, 
the form of the projections from their surface, and the peculiarity of their 
internal structures respectively. 

Fig. 6. Magnified section of a seed-like body of .S'/Jow^i/Za Meyeni, showing, 
/, spicular crust ; g, coriaceous capsule ; h, internal cells, and i, in- 
fundibular opening. 
a. Germs of cells magnified, — the larggst ^oo*'^ P^^'*' ^^ ^" i"*^^^ '" 

diameter. 
h. Cell of seed-like body containing germs, magnified. 

c. Portion of coriaceous membrane magnified to show hexagonal divi- 

sions and transparent centres. 

d. Small spiculum oi Spongilla Meye7ti, magnified. 

e. One of its toothed disks with central aperture, magnified. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. \. Disk to show the appearance which is presented on the surface of 
the watch-glass a few days after the matter of the seed-like body 
has been forcibly expelled into it under distilled water. 

a. Denticulated proteus in progression, showing its granules and hya- 

line vesicles, magnified. 

b. Passive state of the same, magnified. 

c, c, c. Germs parcelled out in semi-transparent mucilage, magnified. 
d. Denticulated proteus, magnified. 
e, e. Diffluent proteus, ditto. 

f. Vermiform proteus, ditto. 

g, g. Animalcules about xoVoth part of an inch in diameter, which, to the 
almost complete exclusion of all other kinds, were generally pre- 
sent with the proteans, magnified. 

h, h, h. Threads of semi-transparent mucilage, ditto. 

Fig. 2. A magnified view of a newly-formed portion of Spongilla, grown in 
distilled water from a seed-like body, as seen with Ross's micro- 
scope, under a compound power of ith of an inch focus. 

a. Sponge-cell with its granules and hyaline vesicles magnified, taken 

from the same portion. 

b. The same in a passive state, magnified. 

c, c, c. Marginal or thinnest portion of newly-formed Spongilla, ditto. 

d, d. Form of its extreme edge, ditto. 

e, e. Hyaline contracting vesicles, ditto. 
/, /. Sponge-cells in situ, ditto. 

Fig. 3. Magnified view of a denticulated proteus with a portion of a spicu- 
lum in a fold of its cell-wall. 
Fig. 4, Ditto, Avith a loricated animalcule and germ in ditto. 

7* 



100 Dr. Clark on the Capture of a Bottle-nosed Dolphin. 

Fig. 5. Ditto, showing a small proteus attached to the side of a transparent 

cavity in ditto. 
Fig. 6. Ditto, in the act of suiTounding a foreign body. 
Fig. 7. Most striking forms assumed by proteans, developed from the matter 

of the seed-like bodies (seen at various times), magnified. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Remarkable forms assumed by proteans, developed from the matter 

of the seed-like bodies, magnified. 
Fig. 2. General form of large spiculum, ditto. 
Fig. 3. Magnified view of spiniferous spiculum. 



X. — Notice of a Bottle-nosed Dolphin (Delphinus Tursio, Fabr.) 
upon the Suffolk coast. By W. B. Clarke, M.D. 

A SPECIMEN of this Dolphin has been sent to the Ipswich Mu- 
seum within a few days ; it was discovered upon the beach at 
Bawdsey, which is a village about fourteen miles from Ipswich. 
The animal was stranded on the shore and left by the retiring 
tide. There are many regular transverse marks across the anterior 
edge of the dorsal fin, and across the back posterior to that fin : 
there was also a deep w^ound in the underside of its throat, a little 
anterior to the sternal region, apparently inflicted by a lance, and 
also various marks upon several parts of the body, as if produced 
by the blunt hook and point of a " boat-hook." By these I am 
induced to suppose that the creature was entangled at sea, in the 
net of some fishing vessel, the crew of which, upon finding it 
there, exerted their best means of despatching it, and afterwards 
turned it adrift. 

Prof. Bell remarks (in his History of Brit. Quad, including the 
Cetacea), " Considerable ambiguity appears to have rested upon 
this rare species of northern Dolphin, which has been gradually 
removed by Desmarest, G. Cuvier, and particularly by F. Cuvier, 
in his admirable book already quoted (Fr. Cuv. Hist. Nat. Cet. 
p. 141)." It now appears certain that the " Nisarnak " of Fa- 
bricius and of Bonnaterre, and the first of the two Bottle-nosed 
Whales figured by Hunter, are identical with the Delphinus 
Tursio. Desmarest and G. Cuvier had at first considered them 
distinct, but the latter distinguished naturalist afterwards cor- 
rected the error, and his brother has subsequently fully esta- 
blished their identity. 

The first account which we have of its appearance on our 
shores is that of J. Hunter, in which he considers it as the com- 
mon Dolphin, Delphinus Delphis. The specimen figured (Hun- 
ter, Phil. Trans. 1787, p. 373. t. 18) was caught, says Hunter, 
upon the sea-coast near Berkeley, where it had been seen for 
several days following its mother, and was taken along with the 
old one : the latter was 11 feet long. 



Dr. Clark on the Capture of a Bottle-nosed Dolphin. 101 

Mr. Jenyns mentions another instance of its occurrence in the 
river at Preston, the length of which was 11 feet. 

Col. Montagu apparently describes another taken in the river 
Dart in Devonshire, the length of which was 12 feet. 

Prof. Bell continues, " The history and description of this ani- 
mal are still deficient; it is probably a rare or local species, 
and may be chiefly confined to the northern seas -" he also believes 
it probable, with Mr. Jenyns (Bi-it. Vert. p. 41), that Delphimts 
truncatus of Mont. (Mem. Wern. Soc. iii. p. 75. t. 3) may be 
admitted as a synonym of this species. The one described by 
Montagu as taken in the river Dart in Devon, about five miles 
from the mouth of the river, was 12 feet in length and 8 in cir- 
cumference at the largest part. When wounded it is said to have 
made a noise like the " bellowing of a bull." 

Our specimen is a female, 8 feet 4 inches in length and 4 feet 
in girth. In colour it is black on the back, gray and purplish 
gray on the sides, and white wdth tinges of dusky white beneath. 
Forehead convex; jaws produced, subi-ostral, lower a little longer 

than the upper. Teeth conical, ^ : ^. 

In taking a general view of the creature I noticed the follow- 
ing proportions, viz. the dorsal fin appears to occupy the middle 
region between the point of the jaw and tip of the caudal fin : 
then drawing an imaginary line perpendicularly down fi'om the 
anterior base of the dorsal fin, the pectoral fins appear to occupy 
the middle region between this line and the point of the jaw ; 
whilst the cloaca occupies the middle region between the same 
line and the base of the caudal fin. 

There is a degree of beauty and elegance about the creature 
with regard to its general colouring and form, the fins presenting 
a series of ogee curves : the dorsal fin is ample and curves back- 
ward ; the pectoral fins appear rather small in proportion to the 
size of the animal ; the caudal fin, being the principal instrument 
of propulsion, is ample. The compressed character of the caudal 
extremity of the body is carried from the base along the middle 
region of the depressed fin so as to produce a ridge both above 
and below it, giving that part a peculiarly elegant form, and en- 
suring the greatest amount of effect in its vertical action upon 
the medium in which the creature is swimming. 

The respiratory aperture is 1 foot 2 inches from the point of 
the nose, and looking at the animal in profile appears to form 
an isosceles triangle with the eye and point of nose, the short 
side of which triangle is bounded by this aperture and the eye : 
it is so completely closed by the valvular arrangement as to ap- 
pear like a curved crescentic line with the ends or horns di)'ected 
forwards. The extremities of this aperture are one inch and three- 



102 Messrs. Sandie and Padley on Entozoa found 

quarters apart, and the convexity of the curve three-quarters of 
an inch, and when opened it presents a crescent-like form with 
the horns still directed /or^<;flrc?s. 

The mammary orifices are inguinal, and lie one on each side of 
the longitudinal folds or labia which conceal and are common 
to the anal, vaginal and vesical orifices, and are equidistant from 
its extremities : each is concealed within a small longitudinal fold 
and about half an inch from the former. 

The external auditory meatus is very small and puncture-like, 
surrounded by a dehcate membranous ruffle about ^^^^ P^^'^ ^^ 
an inch in height. 

The following are some of the measurements : — 

ft. in. 

Whole length 8 4i 

Girth 4 8 

Nose from the convexity of forehead to point 4 

Length of mouth 1 

Nose to eye 1 2 

Nose to respiratory aperture 1 2 

Nose to pectoral fin 1 10^ 

Nose to dorsal fin 3 10 

Length of dorsal fin 1 4 

Height of doi-sal fin 8 

Breadth of caudal fin 1 8 

Length of pectoral fin, anterior slope 1 1 

Length of pectoral fin, posterior slope 8i 

Bi-eadth of upper jaw at the base of the rostrum 3^ 

Breadth of under jaw at the base of the rostrum 3i 

Length of the fold or labia common to and concealing the anal, 

vaginal and vesical orifices 6 

Length of vaginal orifice including the vesical 3 

Length of perinEeum li 

Length of the fold, including the mammary orifice or nipple 0^ 

Collapsed nipple in length 0^ 

Collapsed nipple in width at its base , 0^: 

14 Berners Street, Ipswich, Suffolk. 



XI. — On Entozoa found in the Lungs of a Sheep. By John 
Gray Sandie, M.D., and George Padley, Esq., Liverpool. 

[With a Plate.] 

While passing along the street the other day, our attention was 
drawn to the lungs of a sheep exposed for sale at a butcher's 
shop. As the animal had been killed but a few hours before, the 
organ in question was quite fresh. From the middle to the base 
of the anterior margin of the lung, a number of opake masses 
were observed, the smallest of which was the size of a split-pea, 
while the largest appeared to be as big as a hazel-nut. On cut- 
ting into them two different kinds of matter were apparent, one 



in the Lungs of a Sheep. 103 

more opake and interspersed with numerous white specks, while 
the other was semitransparent and resembled soft tubercle. The 
exterior of all the masses lay immediately underneath the serous 
membrane, and some of them penetrated the pulmonary tissue, 
which was otherwise healthy, for about a quarter of an inch. 

A thin section was placed beneath the microscope and examined 
by reflected light, when a great many little objects, probably the 
white specks just spoken of, resembling in colour and outline 
grains of pearl barley, were seen distributed through the sur- 
rounding tissue. But with the aid of transmitted light and 
lenses of greater magnifying power (|-inch focus), a number of 
animalcules, such as represented in the annexed figure (Plate Y.B 
fig. 1), were seen coiled up and imbedded in a brownish mass 
consisting of minute cells and granules. They were very abun- 
dant in the opake portion of the section, and were very closely 
aggregated together in spots probably corresponding to the specks, 
whereas in the intervening portions as well as in the surround- 
ing more transparent structure, comparatively few were to be 
found. On making our first observation each individual was 
inclosed in a transparent membrane, which upon a subsequent 
examination was proved to be the wall of the ovum. We after- 
wards found many that had escaped from this envelope lying free 
in the morbid substance. Some were in the form of the letter S, 
while others presented a more complex convolution. On scraping 
a small portion from one of the tumours and mixing it with a 
little water between two slips of glass, the animals were seen to 
greater advantage, and their position in the pellucid covering 
was better defined. On several occasions we saw the animal 
liberate itself from the membrane in which it was encased ; this 
was accomplished by the approximation of the head and tail, 
which were subsequently separated, and driven against the sides 
of the sac that had previously been elongated, with such force as 
to ruptm-e it and so set the animal at liberty. In its movements, 
which were vermicular, the animal showed considerable activity. 
As it lay extended when quiescent the head appeared of a conical 
shape, and the tail presented a small, curved, flexible, filiform ap- 
pendage which was very characteristic (PL V. figs. 1, 2, 3). The 
integuments being transparent the alimentary canal could be 
distinctly traced, commencing narrow at the head, enlarging 
somewhat and terminating near the tail. In some this canal was 
empty (fig. 2), and the parietes of the tube clearly defined. In 
others it was occupied with granular matter (fig. 3) having much 
the appearance of the substance with which they were surrounded; 
in some instances to such an extent as to fill completely the in- 
terior of the animal. 

These Entozoa resemble the Trichina spiralis found in mus- 



104 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

cular tissue more than any other parasite with which we are ac- 
quainted, although differing from it in habitat, in having httle 
caudal appendage, and in being without, as far as we could dis- 
cover, any distinct cyst, excepting that of the ovum before alluded 
to. This is the first instance within our knowledge of Entozoa 
having been found in the lungs. The Filaria bronchialis in- 
habits the bronchial glands, and is moreover about an inch in 
length. 

We had an opportunity likewise of examining the ova of these 
animals, and of observing them in several stages of development. 
Some contained a simple oval granular mass (fig. 4) ; in others 
this appeared to be contracting (fig. 5), and in various stages of 
division and subdivision. In some there was a separation into 
two parts (figs. 6 & 7) ; others presented a mulberry mass similar 
to that found in the ova of other animals (figs. 8 & 9). Differ- 
ent degrees of progressive formation were observed from this 
subdivision up to the completion of the perfect animal coiled up 
within its unruptured envelope (fig. 10). 



XII. — The Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 
By Richard Spruce. 

[Concluded from vol. iii. p. 503.] 

Subtribus 2. Jungermannide^, N. ab E. 

5. Flagiochila, Nees et Mont. 

8. P. asplenioides, L. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 13 (sub Jung.) ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 49. 

Hab. Zo— 3 in umbrosis per montes totos. In Pyrenseis tres 
prseprimis formas innotavi : sunt — 

1. minor; H. P. 6 : caule gracili, squamis minutissimis (ue 
amphigastriis dicam) in ventre adsperso vel nudo ; foliis subse- 
cundis, margine dorsali valde reflexis et ex eo ad P. porelloidem 
appropinquans. — Hab. in sylvis Pyren. centralium. 

2. major; H. P. 7 : foliis maximis, confertis, patulis; squamis 
caulinis obviis, plerumque amorphis, nonnullis bitidis, nonnullis 
lineari-digitatis. — Hab. in valle du Lys. 

3. heterophijlla, N. ab E. ? Syn. Hep. p. 50; H. P. 8: caule 
tlagellifero, squamis minutis subulatis prsedito; foliis repandis, 
retusis emarginatisve. — Hab. Val de Jeret et Bois de Gouerdere, 
in rupibus umbrosissimis. 

9. P. Pyrenaica, Sprvicein Hep. Pyren. n. 9 : caule horizon- 
tali in planum ramoso ; foliis imbricatis, plano-distichis aut ad- 
scendentibus, subconvexis, ovato-subquadratis, apice variis, ob- 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 105 

lique unidentatis, truncato-bidentatis, denticulatis, retusis vol 
obtusis omninoque integerrimis : involucralibus majoribus, sub- 
verticalibus, arete adpi'essis, ovato-lingufeforrnibus, repandis sub- 
denticulatisve ; perianthio obovato-oblongo, compresso, incurvo, 
ore spinuloso-dentato hinc plerunique fisso. 

Hab. Zi_2 ad rupes humidiusculas Pyren. centraliura [Super- 
bagneres ; Grottes de Bedat prope B -de-Bigorre ; V. de Gazos) 
et occidentalium [Mont Goursi ; Gave de Valentin). 

Caules intertexti, fertiles ^"-1", steriles 2"-3" longi. Folia ramo- 
rum fertilium plerumque Integra retusave, sterilium contra vario modo 
inci?a rarius Integra et Integerrlma. Retis areolae 6-angulares, sub- 
contiguae. Color viridi-ollvaceus sicco statu in lutescentem vergens. 
Perianthium superne ampllatum. Capsulas maturas non habui. 

Florescentia monoica : perlgonia splclformla : folia lobulo involuto 
spinuloso vel laclniato-dentato stamina obtegente praedlta. 

Plagiochila interrnpta, N. ab E. Syn. Hep. p. 48, planta plerum- 
que humlllor, folia semper integerrima et perianthium ore repando- 
crenulatum habet. P. porelloides N. ab E., caulibus adscendentibus 
et/oliis gibbis, flaccidis, integerrimis, sat superque distlncta. 

Although I have lately had Dr. Gottsche's sanction for retaining 
Plagiochila Pyrenaica, I think it not Improbable that It may one day 
be proved a variety of P. interrvpta, a striking one certainly, and 
perhaps confined to the Pyrenees. The Plagiochila are so liable to 
variation in the toothing of the leaves, that It Is scarcely possible to 
suppose all the generally received species genuine. I have seen no 
specimens of P. porelloides vi^hlch I can safely separate from P. asple- 
nioides. 

6. Scapania, Lindenberg. 

10. S. compacta, Roth, Fl. Germ. 3. p. 375 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. 
Hep. p. 63. Jung, resupinata, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 23. 

" Var. 1, foliis in duplicatura ssepius alatis, ala repando-den- 
tata, lobo ventrali convexo -/' H. P. 10. — Hab. Zq in Agro Syr- 
tico circa St. Sever et Aquas Tarbellicas. " Collines de St. 
Pandelon, de Tercis ;" Grateloup in * Cryptogamie Tarbellienne.' 

" Var. 2, foliis ut plurimum insequaliter bilobis, lobo ventrali 
concavo ;" H. P. 11. — Hab. Zj P. c. in ai'enosis supra pagum 
Gerde prope B. -de-Bigorre. 

Possibly a distinct species from the foregoing. The segments of 
the leaves are subtrapezoidal , quite entire, the sinus gibbous, the areo- 
lation rather closer and subguttulate. I have, however, only the 
sterile plant. 

11. S. undulata, L. Sp. PI. p. 1598 (sub Jung.); Hook. Er. 
Jung. t. 22 ; Syn. Hep. p. 65 ; H. P. 12. 

Hab. Zo_3 in umbrosis humidis ad saxa. Pont d'Espagne. 
Alt. Crabioules. V. de Courbettes (Philippe !). " In Agro Syr- 
tico prope Dax'' (Grateloup, /. c). 



106 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

12. S. nemorosa, L. Sp. PI. p. 1598 (sub Jung.) ; Hook. Br. 
Jung. t. 21. f. 1-4 ; Syn. Hep. p. 68 ; H. P. 13. 

Hab. Zo_3 locis sylvaticis^ frequens. 

13. S. umbrosa, Sclirad. Samml. 2. p. 5 ; Hook. Br. Jung, 
t. 24; Syn. Hep. p. 69; H. P. 14. 

Hab. 7j2—z p. occ. ad saxa prope pontem diet. Pont d'Espagne. 
P. c. in monte Crabioules ad ligna putrida. E rarioribus. 

14. S. apiculata, Spruce in Hep. Pyren. n. 15 ; caule brevi 
simplice, infra perianthium innovante, e basi flexuosa repente 
adscendente ; foliis pallidis vel fuscescentibus, infimis minimis, 
bidentatis, vix complicatis, superioribus majoribus, usque ad ^ 
bifidis, conduplicatis, lobis oblique rhomboideis, apiculatis, subre- 
pandis, haud arete adpressis, ventrali plerumque concavo, dorsali 
paulo minori, convexo, margine tamen ssepius reflexo, sinu de- 
presso, guttulato-areolatis, cellulis discretis ; involucralibus con- 
formibus, deflexis; perianthio oblongo-clavato, compresso, sub- 
deflexo, ore repando. 

Hab. Tjci supra ligna putrida in sylvis editioribus. P. occ. 
Vallee de Beost. P. c. Cascade du Coeur prope B.-de-Luchon. 

S. umbrosa, proxima, colore specioso albo roseove, caule subra- 
moso, foliis homomallis, argute serratis, usque ad ^ bifidis, lobo 
dorsali ventrali 3-4plo minori, di versa est. S. carta N. ab E. 
foliorum forma, perianthio ciliato, &c. distinctissima. 

7. Jungermannia, Linnseus. 

Obs. Of the Jungermannia observed in the Pyrenees, Jg. acuta and 
Wilsoniana have their normal station on calcareous rock ; Jg. exsecta, 
ventricosa, curvula, incisa, divaricata, reclusa, curvifoUa and setacea 
were gathered only on decayed wood ; the remainder are chiefly glareal 
or viatical, and some of them were also occasionally seen on decayed 
wood. It will be remarked that those species which in the Pyre- 
nees occupy semiputrid trunks are the same which inhabit heaths 
on the plains and hills of the north of Europe. The species which 
approaches nearest the snow-line is Jg. julacea. 

§ 1. CoMPLicAT/E, Syn. Hep. 

15. J. albicans, Linn, Sp. PI. p. 1599; Syn. Hep. p. 75. 
Hab. Zo_4 terrestris et rupestris, fere ubique. 

16. J. obtusifolia, Hook. Br, Jung, t, 26; Syn. Hep. p. 76; 
H. P. 16. 

Hab. Zo_2 in viarum cavaruni parietibus solo arenoso. P. occ, 
St. Sever; Cauterets. P, c, B.-de-Bigorre ; Port de Portillon. 

17. /, exsecta, Sclimid, Ic. p, 241. t. 62; Hook, Br. Jung, 
t. 19 ; Syn. Hep. p. 77 ; H, P. 17. 

Hab. Tj^ in truncis putrescentibus. Fructiferum legi in monte 
Pic de Ger, P. occ. 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 107 

The fructification in my specimens differs somewhat from the de- 
scription in ' Synopsis Hepaticarum ' ; it is as follows : — Invplucral 
leaves with very acute segments, otherwise not differing from the 
cauline ones, with the exception of the innermost, which is rather 
shorter and terminated by several unequal apiculate teeth : it is ac- 
companied by a lanceolate very acute stipule. Perianth oblongo- 
cylindrical, compressed, with four obtuse angles or plicee, the mouth 
ciliate. 

§ 2. Integrifoli^j Syn. Hep. 

18. /. Schraderi, Mart. Fl. Erlang. Cr. p. 180. t. 6. f. 55 ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 83; Sullivant ! Musci Allegh. n. 235 ; H. P. 18. 

Hah. Zg P. c. ad saxa in umbrosissimis sccus cataractam Cas- 
cade du Coeur dictam. 

19. J. hyalina, Lyell in Hook. Br. Jung. t. 63; Syn. Hep. 
p. 92; H. P. 21. 

Hab. Zi_2 P. c. in rupibus secus rivulos, rarius ad terram. 
Vallee de Castelloubon ; Gorge de Labassere, &c. 

20. J. nana, N. ab E. ; Syn. Hep. ! p. 91 ; H. P. 20. 

Hab. Zi_3 per Pyrenseos occ. et centr. in viis cavis, sed nus- 
quam copiosa. Col de Louvie ; Bois de Lagaillaste ; Esquierry, 
&c. 

21. J. Genthiana, Hueben. Hep. Germ. p. 107; Syn. Hep. 
p. 94. "/. crenulata, Sm., var. foliis caulium fertilium minus 
compresso-contiguis, vix marginatis, perianthio [haud compresso) 
obovato, svhmxxcxonato, plicato-4!-angulo, angulis papilloso-alatis ;" 
H. P. 19. 

Hab. Zi_2 P. c. ad viarum parietes. Bois de Gerde prope 
Bagneres, pulcherrime ! Port de Portillon, &c. 

The characters quoted above from ' Hepaticse Pyrenaicse ' correctly 
indicate the differences of this plant from Jg. crenulata, and I am 
now quite satisfied of their being specific. 

22. /. crenulata, Sm. ! E. Bot. t. 1463 ; Syn. Hep. p. 90. 
Hab. Zo— 1 in arenosis turfosisque Agri Syrtici et P. centr., 

rarior. St. Sever ; B.-de-Bigorre. 

23. J. sphcerocarpa, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 74 ; Syn. Hep. p. 93 ; 
H. P. 22. 

Hab. Zi_2 P. occ. et c. locis similibus ac Jg. hyalina (n. 19). 
Gorge de Cauterets -, Labassere ; Foret de Transoubdt (Philippe !). 

The black crumbling schist at Labassere, on which Jg. sph<Bro- 
carpa and hyalina occur intermixed, is precisely of the same nature 
as the alum-shale in Eskdale near Whitby, Yorkshire, and it is re- 
markable that there also the same two species grow together in con- 
siderable quantity. 



108 Mr. It. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

24. J. cordifolia, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 32 ; Syn. Hep. p. 95 ; 
H. P. 24. 

Hub. Zi_3 P. c. in fontibus profundis secus ripas ^xxxn. Adow, 
in pagi Aste conspectu ; necnon in humidis montis Crabioules. 

Dr. Gottsche informs me that this species does not differ from Jg. 
tersa y. rivularis of German authors. 

25. /. riparia, Tayl. ! in Annals of Nat. Hist. xii. p. 88 ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 97; H. P. 25. 

Hab. Z,_3 in rupibus irroratis, rarius ad terrain, frequens. 

This species is often mixed with Jg. acuta, but it is not, like that 
species, confined to calcareous rock. 

26. /. pumila, With. Arrang. 3. p. 866 ; Hook. Br. Jung. 
t. 17. 

Hab. Zj P. c. ad saxa in sylva Bois de Sajust dicta: aliubi 
haud visa. 

I cannot distinguish authentic specimens of Jg. Zeyheri, Hueben, 
from this. Both are remarkable for the perianth terminating in a 
cone, which is not plicate, but has a furrow on each face, that on the 
dorsal being most evident, and along this the dehiscence takes place 
for the emission of the capsule. 

§ 3. BiDENTES, Syn. Hep. 

27. J. acuta, Lindbg. ; Syn. Hep. ! p. 103. J. Muelleri, 
N. ab E. ; Syn. Hep. ! p. 99 ; H. P. 26, 27, 28*. 

Hab. Zi_2 locis calcareis subhumidis terrestris et saxatilis, ra- 
rius liguicola, per Pyrenseos frequentissima. 

In ' Hepaticse Pyrenaicse ' I gave three forms of this species, 
scarcely differing from each other except in size ; the third form 
(No. 28) attains a length of 3 or 4 inches, and forms closely-tufted 
patches on the nearly vertical faces of rocks watered by the spray of 
rivulets in the upper part of the Vallee d'Ossau and the Gorge de 
Labassere. I there considered Jg. Bantriensis, Hook. Mst., which 
I gathered abundantly in Teesdale in 1843, as belonging to the same 
species, but at Dr. Gottsche's suggestion I have reconsidered this 
opinion, and I now think that the two may in all cases be safely 
distinguished. The differences are these : — in Jg. Bantriensis the 
leaves are always more or less erect, and in the large form they are 
secund, the two rows being contiguous by their upper surfaces, which 
I have never seen to be the case in Jg. acuta ; they are also less un- 
dulate, the sinus not gibbous, though from the incurvation of the apices 
there is sometimes the appearance of it. Perianth when young (and 
in all stages when unfertile) pyriform or broadly clavate ; while the 
perianth of Jg. acuta, in all states and at every age, even when quite 

* Jg. acuta and Muelleri are now ascertained to be absolutely identicab 
the former having the stipules nearly or altogether obsolete. 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 109 

short and half-developed, is of equal width from a little above the 
base to the summit, i. e. cylindrical*. 

28. J. Lyoni, Tayl. ! Trans. Bot. Soc. p. 116. t. 7 ; H. P. 29. 
Hab. Zi sup.— 2 inter muscos ad saxa sylvarum, baud rara. Val 

de Jeret, &c. 

The authors of ' Synopsis Hepaticarum ' had surely never seen 
correct examples of this when they referred it to Jy. socia, N. ab E., 
and their description of it, "foliis laciniis obtusis," is quite at variance 
with specimens I possess from Messrs. Lyon and Taylor. It is sin- 
gular that its near ally, Jy. barbata, Schreb., one of the commonest 
species in our mountains, should never have been observed in the 
Pyrenees. Dr. Grateloup indeed mentions it in his list as growing 
at the extreme western angle, " in montibus petrosis Cambo prope 
Bayonam," but without seeing his plant I dare not say that it is 
different from Jy. Lyoni-f. 

29. J. Wilsoniaiia, N. ab E. ; Syn. Hep. p. 103 ; H. P. 30. J. 
turhinata, Wils. ! in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2744. /. inflata, E. Bot. 
t. 2512. 

Hab. Z^ in rupibus calcareis subbumidis. Gelos prope Pau. 
B.-de-Bigorre. 

30. /. ventricosa, " Dicks." ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 28; Syn, Hep. 
p. 108. J. porphyroleuca, N. ab E. ; Syn. Hep. p. 109. "/. al- 
pestris, Schleich. ;" H. P. 31. 

Hab. Tii—z ad terram et truncos putridos. P. c. Kuisseau d'Ar- 
dalos. P. occ. Val de Jeret. 

I am doubtful whether Dickson meant this species by his Jy. ven- 
tricosa, Fasc. 2. p. 14. He gives no figure, but cites figures of Mi- 
cheli and Dillenius, which are certainly little like our plant, and adds, 
" Folia in nostra profundius fissa, quam in figuris Michelii etDillenii 
depinguntur," which is still more at variance with the species as 
figured by Hooker. Dr. Gottsche informs me that when this plant 
grows on rotten wood, where it often assumes a purplish tinge (as in 
some of my Pyrenean specimens), it is the J y. porphyroleuca of Nees. 
In ' Hepaticae Pyrenaicse ' I had considered this form as possibly Jy. 

* The plant alluded to at the close of my description of Jg. Bantriensis 
(* Annals,' 1844) as gathered by Mr. Ralfs at Dolgelley, is po-sibly distinct 
from both the above. The three perianths in my possession are all subtri- 
angular on the section, the dorsal face being the narrowest, and in one peri- 
anth the two lateral angles are winged and toothea. If it must be referred 
to one of the two, it will be to Jg. acuta, as it has the gibbous sinus of the 
leaves characteristic of that species. Mr. Wilson, to whom I am indebted 
for the specimens, has called it Jg. culearis. 

t Dr. Grateloup mentions in his list "Jg. setiformis, Ehrh. Hab. in 
sylvis ad terram et ad arb. truncos. Dax. Lesperon. Saubagnac ;" but as 
I searched for it in these stations without success, I cannot include it in my 
enumeration. It would be indeed remarkable to find in the plains of the 
south of Europe a species which grows most profusely in Lapland (Wahlen- 
berg), and which when it extends farther south is uniformly alpine. 



110 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

alpestris, Schleich., but specimens of the latter from Dr. Gottsche 
diifer in having the leaves roundish-ovate (not quadrate as in Jg. ven- 
tricosd), the sinus small, and the segments unequal, oblique. 

Var. minor. " Jg. excisa, Dicks. ? var. foliis e basi cuneata 
ovato-quadratis obovatisve, marginibus inflexis, sinu triangular! 
lunatove, involucralibus bifidis, integerrimis ; perianthio oblongo, 
ore obtuse plicato ;" H. P. 32. 

I believe I am correct in regarding this a minute form of Jg. ven- 
tricosa ; the leaves are usually more deeplj'^ cloven, the sinus trian- 
gular, the segments often divaricating ; and yet stems of the large, 
ordinary form may be found having the same characters. 

31. J. curvula, N. ab E.; Syn. Hep. p. 115; H. P. 33. 
Hab. Zg P. occ. in valle Comhascou supra ligna putrida. 

32. /. capitata, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 80; H. P. 34. /. excisa 
j3. crispata, Hook. /. c. t. 9. ff. 2, 11, 12. /. intermedia, Lindbg. 
Hep. Europ. p. 83; Syn. Hep. ! p. 116. 

Hab. Zo_2 P. occ. in arenosis Sti. Sever. P. c. in truncis pu- 
tridis secus cataractam Cascade da Coeur dictam : rarior. 

I am quite of opinion that the original name of Hooker should be 
retained for this species. Lindenberg was evidentlj'^ not avi^are that 
his own Jg. intermedia and Hooker's Jg. capitata were forms of one 
species ; from his description it is probable that he did not clearly 
distinguish it from some forms of his Jg. bicrenata, as he cites for it 
Hooker's tab. Suppl. 2 (Synopsis, p. 11), which exactly resembles 
Ekart's figures of Jg. bicrenata, and agrees well with specimens of 
the gemmiferous state of that species in my possession. 

33. J. bicrenata, Lindbg. Hep. Eur. p. 82; Syn. Hep. ! p. 115 ; 
H. P. 35, 36. 

Hab. Zo—i in arenosis ad viarum parietes. St. Sever. Pau. 
Bagneres. 

Dr. Gottsche has pointed out to me the remarkable scent of this 
species, resembling that of Jg. acuta and Bantriensis, and quite want- 
ing in Jg. capitata ; by this character, by the deeply and acutely 
cloven leaves, and especially by the guttulate areolation, Jg. bicrenata 
may always be safely distinguished. 

I fear Jg. excisa, Dicks. Crypt. 3. p. 11. t. 8. f. 7, will have to be 
entirely erased from the list of Hepaticse. I have spent much 
time in the attempt to ascertain what it really is, but without suc- 
cess ; formerly I thought it might be Jg. bicrenata, especially as there 
is a rude attempt in Dickson's figure to represent the guttulate areo- 
lation, characteristic of that species ; but the larger size, the branched 
stem, and especially the narrow shallow sinus of the leaves, seem to dis- 
prove such a supposition. Very lately I consulted the Smithian her- 
barium in the hope of finding an original specimen from Dickson, 
but even the name does not seem to exist there. I have examined 
a multitude of specimens from various parts of the British Isles, sent 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatic^ of the Pyrenees. Ill 

under the name of " Jg. excisa :" these belong in nearly equal quan- 
tities to three species, viz. : 

1. /. ventricosa, forma minor = J. excisa, Hook. t. 9 (excl. 

var. ^). 

2. J. bicrenata, Lindbg. = J. excisa gemmifera. Hook. t. 

Suppl. 2. 

3. /. capitata, Hook. = /. excisa /3. crispata, Hook. t. 9. 

ff. 2, 11, 12 = J. intermedia, Lindbg. 

It is exactly the same with specimens of " Jg. excisa " from the 

continent of Europe, nor have I ever seen a specimen agreeing with 

the descriptions that have been given of this species. Hooker says 

of Jg. excisa, " ioliis profunde emarginatis ;" of Jg. ventricosa, " foliis 

obtuse emarginatis :" Lindenberg says of Jg. excisa, " DifFert 

foliis minus prof uncle incis\s :" lastly, the authors of ' Synopsis Hepa- 
ticarum ' describe Jg. excisa, " foliis . . , sinu prof undo obtuso excisis." 
From these and similar discrepancies, I cannot help concluding that 
these distinguished hepaticologists had under their eyes small forms 
of more than one of the three species above-cited when they drew up 
their descriptions of the supposed "Jg. excisa, Dicks." Dr. Gottsche 
has even admitted to me that he is unable to determine Jg. excisa if 
given to him without a name. He adds, " what I have received from 
my English and German friends under the name of Jg. excisa differ 
so much from each other, that I confess not to know the species." 

34. /. incisa, Schrad.; Hook. Br. Jung. 1. 10; Syn. Hep. p. 118 ; 
H. P. 37. 

Hab. Zo_2 in truncis prostratis cariosis Pyrenseorum, frequens. 
" Ad terram humidam ac in rupibus muscosis circa Aquas Tar- 
bellicas" (Grateloup, /. c). 

The leaves of this species are normally conduplicate ; the lowest 
unequally bidentate with diverging segments, as in many Scapanice ; 
the upper with very unequal lobes, the dorsal lobe triangular, undi- 
vided, appressed to the stem, the ventral lobe bifid : both either entire at 
the margins or with a few spinulose teeth. This is the typical struc- 
ture, but, very rarely, the dorsal lobe is also bifid, and sometimes the 
ventral lobe is not bifid, but cut at the margin into several unequal 
spinulose teeth : sometimes it is trifid. In all cases the complication 
is discernible, notwithstanding the thickness of the stem, and even 
when the lobes are squarrosely spreading (as is seen also in some 
true Scapania, e. g. in varieties of S. ncmorosa). Hooker's figs. 3 
and 4, tab. 10, show this quite distinctly. 

35. J. minuta, Crantz ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 44; Syn. Hep. 
p. 120; H. P. 38. 

Hab. Z2 P. occ. ad rupes, baud vulgata, locis Val de Jeret et 
Montagne Verte. 

§ 4. BicuspiDEs, Syn. Hep. (^ Trigonanthus, nob. in hb.), 
Obs. This very natural group, resembling Lophocolea in the nature 
of its fructification, may well constitute a separate genus, for which 



112 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

I propose the name Trigonanthus. Many of the species are stellatedly 
branched, and, in all, the branches seem to have the same origin {e 
dorso) . In those species which have the stems exstipulaceous , there are 
always involucral stipules present, e. g. in Jg. bicuspidata, where the 
lowest stipule is lanceolate, the second obcordate, the third obcordate 
with a deeper notch, the fourth (next the perianth) irregularly trifid, 
and the perianth itself is composed of a. fifth stipule connate with two 
opposite leaves : hence its trigonous form and obvious affinity to that 
oi Lophocolea. The capsule is always oblong, and often remarkably so. 

36. J. divaricata, Smith ! in E. Bot. t. 719. J. Starkii, Hb. 
Funck; Syn. Hep. p. 131; H. P. 39. 

Hab. Zg P. c. supra ligna putrida in sylva Foret de Transoubdt 
dicta, non procul a B.-de-Bigori'e. 

I have examined the original specimen of Jg. divaricata, figured 
in 'English Botany,' from " Heaths near Holt, Nov. 1798, Rev. Mr. 
Francis " : it possesses very distinct stipules (!), and agrees in other 
respects with what has been called Jg. Starkii by German authors, 
and by Dr. Taylor Jg. stelluUfera. My own herbarium contains a 
great many forms, some stipulaceous throughout the length of the 
stems, others only towards the apex, and some altogether without 
stipules. Between all these I can draw no certain line of demar- 
cation, and if there be more than one species there must be several. 
In every form the leaves are nearly of the same width as the stem, 
roundish in outline or a little quadrate, the segments mostly acute 
and either diverging or connivent (when the leaves appear subcom- 
plicate), the cellules mostly 4-sided with rounded angles and discrete 
by narrow interstices. In all there is the same peculiarity of the 
involucral leaves being united so as to form one or two exterior pe- 
rianths ; all have these leaves toothed and the real perianth more or 
less ciliated at the mouth. 

37. J. Francisci, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 49 ; Syn. Hep. p. 133 ; 
H. P. 40. 

Hab. Zq p. occ. ad fossarum parietes in ericetis Agri Syrtici, 
loco Landes de Mugriet. 

38. /. dentata, Raddi in Mem. della Soc. Ital. di Mod. xix. 
p. 32; Syn. Hep. p. ]43. 

Hab. Zq p. occ. St. Sever, in arenosis, sociis /. bicrenata et 
Trichostomo subulato. 

This differs somewhat from the description in ' Synopsis Hepati- 
carum.' The stems are closely creeping, mostly simple, rarely with 
one branch. Leaves brownish, crowded and capitate on the flower- 
ing shoots, scarcely at all complicate, cloven mostly to below the mid- 
dle, spinuloso- dentate, the cellules rather small but discrete (not with 
such wide interstices as in Jg. Turneri). Stipules, on the lower part 
of the stem, minute, irregular in form, usually lanceolate or subu- 
late and toothed ; towards the apex larger, those of the involucre 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticce of the Pyrenees. 113 

oval (= I" leaf) and as well as the involucral leaves deeply toothed or 
even laciniate. 

The stems of Jff. Turneri, Hook., are much longer, more slender, 
and branched as in Jg. bicuspidata ; the leaves are smaller and more 
complicate, and there are no stipules. 

39. /. reclusa, Tayl. ! in Annals of Nat. Hist. xii. p. 89 ; 
H.P.41. 

Hab. Z2 in truncis putridis. P. occ. Pic de Ger. P. c. V. de 
Castelloubon. 

I consider this quite distinct from Jg. bicuspidata (with which 
Dr. Gottsche unites it as var. ericetorum) , and in some respects more 
nearly aUied to Jg. connivens. In 1846 Mr. Jenner showed me mag- 
nificent patches of it, growing with Jg. connivens, he, on sand-rocks 
in Bridge Park, Tunbridge Wells. 

40. /. bicuspidata, L.; Hook. Br. Jung. 1. 11; Syn. Hep. p. 138; 
H. P. 42. 

Hab. Zo_4 ubique. 

41. /. connivens, Dicks. Cr. fasc. 4. p. 19; Syn. Hep. p. 141. 
Hab. Zg P. c. loco Hourquette d'Aspin, lignicola. Semel visa ! 

42. J. curvifolia, Dicks.; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 16; Syn. Hep. 
p. 142 ; H. P. 43. 

Hab. Zg in truncis putridis, frequens. 

§ 5. iEQuiFOLiffi, N. ab E. 

43. /. setacea, Web. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 8 ; Syn.-> Hep. p. 144 ; 
H. P. 44. 

Hab. Za—a supra ligna putrida, rarior. Valde Jeret. Mt. Cra- 
bioules. 

44. /. trichophylla, L.; Hook. Br. Jung, t.7; Syn. Hep. p. 145; 
H. P. 45. 

Hab. Z-2—i ad saxa, truncos putridos^ inter muscos, &c., vulgata. 

45. J.julacea, Lightf. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 2; Syn. Hep. 
p. 146; H. P. 46. 

Hab. Z4_5 in rupibus humidis. P. c. Mt. Crabioules ; Lac 
Lehou. P. or. "in convalle Eynes" (Montague, /. c). 

8. Sphagnoecetis, N. ab E. 

46. S. communis, N. ab E. ; Syn. Hep. p. 148 ; H. P. 47. 
Jung. Sphagni, Dicks. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 33. 

Hab. Zo_i inf. ad arborum excisarum truncos cariosos in imis 
Pyrenpeis. " Dax, in paludibus spongiosis turfosisque inter 
Sphagnum palustre " (Grateloup, /. c.) . 

9. Liochlcena, N. ab E. 

47. L. lanceolata, L. (sub Jung.); Hook. Br. Jung. t. 18; 
Syn. Hep. p. 150; H. P. 48. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 8 



114 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci mid Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

Hah. Zo_2 secus rivulos Pyrenseorum, lignicola, rarius terrestris 
rupestrisve, frequens ; necnou in Agro Syrtico loco >S7. Pandelon 
de Dax. " In collibus umbrosis et ad rupes cretaceas Tercis ; 
necnon rupibus ophiticis St. Pandelon prope Dax" (Grate- 
loup, /. c.) . 

10. Lophocolea, N. ab E. 

Obs. The species of this genus may all be considered rare in the 
Pyrenees. L. bidentata I did not once observe in the higher moun- 
tains, though it occurred at the foot of the low hills near Pau, inter- 
mixed with mosses ; yet I can hardly persuade myself that it does 
not ascend higher, and that, being reputed so common a plant, I 
may have passed it by unnoticed. L. heterophylla, another species 
equally frequent with us, I gathered but once in the Pyrenees. 

48. L. minor, N. ab E. ; Syn. Hep. p. 160 ; H. P. 49. 

Hub. Zj P. c. in aggeribus circa B.-de-Bigorre ((J) et invalle 
d'Aure dicta. 

49. L. bidentata, L. Sp. PI. p. 1598 (sub Jung.) ; Hook. Br. 
Jung. t. 30. 

Hab. Zo— 1 inf. P. occ. et c. circa Pau et Dax. In montibus 
nusquam vidi ! 

50. L. heterophylla, Schrad. (sub Jung.) ; Hook. Br. Jung, 
t. 31 ; Syn. Hep. p. 164; H. P. 50. 

Hab. Zg P. c. Cascade du Coeur supra ligna putrida: e rarioribus. 

11. Harpanthus, N. ab E. (caractere extenso). 

51. H. scutatus, Web. et Mohr, Taschenb. p. 408 (sub Jung.). 
J. stipulacea, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 41. 

Hub. Tici P. c. in monte Crabioules ad truncos putridos, sociis 
Scapania apiculata, Jg. Schraderi, &c. 

The fructification of this plant is truly lateral (ramulo fertili e 
ventre caulis exeunte), and not as described in ' Synopsis Hepatica- 
rum,' p. 101, " perianthio terminali, mox dorsali," for an instance of 
which I have in vain searched perhaps a hundred fertile stems. The 
involiicrul leaves are normally tioo, with an interposed stipule, and the 
uppermost leaf is concrete with the perianth for one-third of its 
length. The perianth is very thick below (= 3-4 cellules), and should 
perhaps be rather regarded in this part as a hollowing out of the apex 
of the stem. The calyptra is concrete with the inner surface of the 
perianth for more than half its length, as correctly represented in 
Hooker's figure, but not alluded to in ' Synopsis Hepaticarum.' All 
these characters bring this species very close to Harpanthus Floto- 
vianus, N. ab E. (Syn. Hep. p. 170), the sole tangible difference 
being that in the former the perianth is obovate and in the latter 
fusiform, while they separate it widely from Jung, acuta and Ban- 
triensis. If we consult now the organs of vegetation, we find the 
similarity quite as striking. The leaves of H. Flotovianus are biden- 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepaticae of the Pyrenees. 115 

tate in the same manner, only with a shallower sinus ; the stipules 
are proportionally narrower, but equally acuminate, falcate and 
slightly twisted, and toothed on each side at the base just as in the 
other. With so many points of agreement, and with the same ge- 
neral habit (H. scutatus being only a smaller plant), I do not hesitate 
to place these two species in the same genus, which will still remain 
equally well distinguished from Jungermannia on the one side and 
from Chiloscyphus and Lophocolea on the other. 

12. Cliiloscyphns, N. ab E. 

52. Ch. pallescens, Schrad. Cr. Gew. .2. p. 7 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. 
Hep. p. 187. 

Hab. Z, P. c. ad terram in monte Lhieris. 

53. Ch.polyanthos, L, Sp. PL p. 1597 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. Hep. 
p. 188. 

Hah. Zg P. c. ad rivuli ripas in monte Crabioules. 

Var. /S. rivularis, Lindenb. Hep. Eur. p. 30 ; H. P. 51. — Hah. 
Zj in fontibus profundis secus ripas flum. Adour, socio Jg. cor- 
difolia (n. 24). 

Subtribus 3. Geocalyce^, N. ab E. 

13. Saccogyna, Dumortier. 

54. S. viticulosa, L. Sp. PI. p. 1597 (sub Jung.) ; Hook. Br. 
Jung. t. 60; Syn. Hep. p. 194; H. P. 52. 

Hah. Zq p. occ. in rupibus opliiticis Sti. Pandelon prope Aquas 
Tarbellicas. " Les rocliers crayeux de Tercis, de Riviere ; les 
forets de St. Vincent, de St. Paul, de Narrosse ; les coteaux de 
St. Pandelon" (Grateloup, I. c). 

Subtribus 4. Trichot^ianoide.e, N. ab E. 

14. Calypjogeia, Raddi. 

55. C. Trichomanis, L. Sp. PI. p. 1579 (sub Mnio), Jung. 
Trichomanis, Dicks. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 79. Cahjpogela Tri- 
chomanis, Corda ; Syn. Hep. p. 198 ; H. P. 53. 

Hah. Zo_2 ubique : fructifera in sylvis prope Juranc^on. 

15. Lepidozia, N. ab E. 

56. L. reptans, L. Sp. PI. p. 1599 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. Hep. 
p. 205 ; H. P. 54. Jg. reptans. Hook. Br. Jung. t. 65. 

Hah. Zo_2 supra ligna putrida, vulgaris. 

16. Mastigohrywn, N. ab E. 

57. M. deflexwn, N. ab E.; Syn. Hep. p. 231 ; H. P. 55. 
Hah. Zo-a in sylvis editioribus, baud rarum. Mte. Verte; V. 

de Castelloubon ) &c. Lac Lehou (Philippe!). 

58. M. trilobatum, L. Sp. PI. p. 1599 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. Hep. 
p. 230; H. P. 56. Jg. trihhata, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 76. 

8* 



116 Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyr-enees. 

Hah. Zo_i P. occ. in arborum excisarum truncis cariosis Sti. 
Pandelon prope Aquas Tarbellicas ; locis similibus Sti. Sever in- 
venit cl. Dufour ! P. c. Gorge de Lahassere (Philippe !). 

Subtribus 5. Ptilidie^, N. ab E. 
17. Tricliocolea, Dumortier. 

59. T. Tomentella, Ehrh. {^uh Jung .) ; Syn. Hep. p. 237; 
H. P. 57. Jg. Tomentella, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 36. 

Hab. Zo_2 locis humidis, frequens. " In umbrosis bumidius- 
culis, in colUbus et ad arb. truucos prope Dax" (Grateloup, I. c). 

Subtribus 6. PLATYPHYLLiE, N. ab E. 
18. Radula, N. ab E. 

60. R. complanata, L. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 81 (sub Jung.) ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 257 ; H. P. 58. 

Hab. Zo_2 ad truncos et rupes. 

19. Madotheca, Dumortier. 

61. M. lavigata, Scbrad. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 35 (sub Jung.) ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 276; H. P. 59. 

Hab. Zo— 2 in rupibus : semper sterilem inveni. 

62. M. platyphylla, L. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 40 (sub Jung.) ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 278; H. P. 60. M. platvphylloidea, N. ab E. ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 280. M. navicularis, N. ab E. ? Syn. Hep. p. 277 ? 

Hab. Zo_2 in rupibus arboribusquej vulgatissima. 

Subtribus 7. Jubule^^ N. ab E. 
20. Lejeunia, N. ab E. 
Ohs. The only species of this genus which attains the alpine re- 
gion is L. serpyllifolia, but it is always unfertile there. L. ovata 
iinds in the Pyrenees its only continental station, and but the second 
known, the first being the south-west corner of Ireland, around 
Ban try and Killarney. L. calcarea is confined to the rock indicated 
by its name*. 

* I did not observe Lejeunia minutissima in the Pyrenees, but it will not 
be out of place to mention bei-e that I had lately the opportunity of exami- 
ning Sir J. E. Smith's original specimens of this species, gathered in the New 
Forest by C. Lyell, Esq. in 1806, and figured on plate 1633 ofEng. P>ot., 
and that they agree as to the presence of stipules and ei^ery other essential 
character with Hooker's figure in ' Brit. Jungermanniae,' t. 52. Dr. Taylor 
was therefore in error (as I have always suspected) in maintaining Sir J. E. 
Smith's plant to be the exstipulaceous species ; but as my distinguished and 
lamented friend was the first clearly to distinguish the latter, I propose that 
it shall bear bis name, and the amended synonymy will stand thus : 

Lejeunia ininutissima, Smith! in Eng. Bot. t. 1633 (sub Jung.) ; Hook. 
Br. Jung. t. 52. Jimgerniannia ulicina, Tayl. ! in Trans, of Edinb. Bot. 
Soc. 1841, i. p. 115. Lejeunia ulicina, Syn. Hep. p. 387. 

Lejeunia Taylori, Sj)ruce. Jungermannia minutissima, Tayl.! /. c. (non 
Smith). Lejeunia minutissima, Syn. Hep. /. c. 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 117 

63. L. serpyllifolia, Dicks. Crypt, fasc. 4. p. 19 (sub Jung.) ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 374; H.P. 61. 

Hub. Zo_3 in rupibus^ arboribus imis, supra muscos, &c., fre- 
quens. 

64. L. ovata, Tayl. ! mst. j Syn. Hep. p. 376; H. P. 62. 
Hab. Zj P. occ. inter muscos in rupibus subhumidis faucis 

Gorge de Cauterets diet, repeus. 

I have sedulously compared this with specimens of L. ovata 
gathered in company with Dr. Taylor at Cromaglown, one of his 
original stations, and cannot detect the slightest difference. It is a 
rather larger plant than L. hamatifolia, Hook., from which it differs 
essentially as follows : the leaves are inore lurid and opaque (more 
chlorophyllose) and never serrated, as they are most frequently in the 
other ; the larger lobe is oblique, trapezoideo-ovate, with the margins 
convex nearly to the apex (while in the ovato-acuminate leaves of 
L. hamatifolia the margins of the larger lobe are concave above the 
junction with the involute lobe) ; the involute lobe is smaller, and 
has not a projecting tooth near the apex as in L. hamatifolia. 

65. L. calcarea, Libert; Syn. Hep. p. 344; H. P. 63. Jg. 
hamatifolia /3. echinata, Hook. Br. Jung. t. Suppl. 3. 

Hab, Z2 P. occ. ad saxa calcarea in regione media montis Pic 
de Ger, ut et in valle Combascou. 

21. Frullania, Raddi. 

66. F. dilatata, L. Sp. PI. p. 1600 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. Hep. 
p. 415 ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 5 ; M. P. 64. 

Hab. 2iQ—-i in arborum cortice. 

67. F. fragilifolia,^&j\. ! in Annals of Nat. Hist. xii. p. 172; 
Syn. Hep. p. 437 ; H. P. 65. 

Hab. Zj P. occ. in arboris unicse trunco prope paguni Gelos. 

68. F. Tamarisci, L. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 6 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. 
Hep. p. 438 ; H. P. 66. 

Hab. Zo_3 fere ubique, arborea et saxatilis. 

Hemicyclum 2. Frondosm. 

Subtribus 1. Codonie^j Dumortier. 

22. Fossombronia, Raddi. 

69. F. pusilla, L. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 69 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. 
Hep. p. 468; H. P. 67. 

Hab. Tifi-x in fossarum parietibus, baud vulgata. St. Sever. 
Dax (Grateloup). B. -de-Big orre. 

Subtribus 2. Haplgl^ene^, N. ab E. 
23. Pellia, Raddi. 

70. P. epiphylla, L. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 47 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. 
Hep. p. 488. 

Hab. Zo_i in fossarum marginibus. 



118 Mv. R. Spvuce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 

71. P. cahjcina, Tayl. ! in Mackay,ri. Hib. Pt. 3. p. 55 (sub 
Jung.) ; Syn. Hep. p. 490 ; H. P. 68. 

Hab. Zo— 1 P. occ. et c. in rivulorum ripis udis circa Dax, Pau 
ct B.-de-Bifforre. 

24. Blasia, Micheli. 

72. B.pusilla, L. Sp. PI. p. 1605; Syn. Hep. p. 491; H.P. 
69. Jg. Blasia, Hook. Br. Jung. t. 82-84. 

Hab. Zo— 1 P. occ. in rupibus opbiticis Sti. Pandelon propc Aq. 
Tarbellicas. P. c. in humidiusculis mentis Superbagneres. 

Subtribus 3. Aneure.e, N. ab E. 
25. Aneiira, Dumortier. 

73. A. ping ids, L. Sp. PI. p. 1602 {suh Jung.) ; Syn. Hep. 
p. 493. 

Hab. Zq " in paluclibus ac ripis, fontibusque prope Aq. Tar- 
bellicas " (Grateloup, /. c). 

74. A. multifida, L. Sp. PI. p. 1602 (sub Jung.) ; Syn. Hep. 
p. 496. 

Hab. Zq " ad terram bumidam propc fontes ac supra truncos 
putridos arborum, circa Dax" (Grateloup, I. c). 

75. A. pahnata, Hedw. Tlicor. Gen. (sub Jung.) ; Ekart, Sy- 
nops. Jung. t. 13. f. 115; Syn. Hep. p. 498; H. P. 70. 

Hab. Zo— 3 in truncis putridis. Val de Jeret, &c. 

Subtribus 4. Metzgerie.e, N. ab E. 
26. Metzgeria, Raddi. 

76. M.furcata, L. ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 55 ct 56 (sub Jung.) ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 502 ; H. P. 71. 

Hab. Zo_3 in saxis, arborum corticc, &c. 

77. M. pubescens,'^c\\Y?iVLk ; Hook. Br. Jung. t. 73 (sub Jung.)', 
Syn. Hep. p. 504; H. P. 72. 

Hab. Zo_3 in rujnbvis umbrosis montium frequcns, planitiei 
rarior [Dax; Grateloup). 

Tribus 2. Marchantie^, N. ab E. 

Subtribus 1. LuiNULARIee, N. ab E. 

27. Lunularia, Micheli. 

78. L. vulgaris, Micbeli, Nov. Gen. PI. p. 4. t. 4; Syn. Hep. 
p. 511; H.P. 73. 

Hab. Zo_i inf. in imis muris, viarum umbrosarum lateribus, &:c. 
Pyrenaeorum humiliorum ut et Agri Syrtici, frequcns. 



Mr. R. Spruce on the Musci and Hepatica of the Pyrenees. 119 

Subtribus 2. JECORARiEiE, N. ab E. 
28. Marchantia, Linn sens. 

79. M. jjohjmorpha, L. Sp. PI. p. 1603 ; Syn. Hep. p. 522. 
Hab. Zo_i locis exustis, &c., in planitie vulgatissime, in mon- 

tibus rarius. 

29. Preissia, N. ab E. 

80. P. commutata, N. ab E. Europ. Leberm. 4. p. Ixv. et 117 ; 
Syn. Hep. p. 539 ; H. P. 74. Marchantia androgyna, Tayl. ! in 
Linn. Trans. 17. p. 380. t. 12. f. 1. 

Hab. Z2 in rupibus huniidiusculis. Mont Lize; Labassere, &c. 

30. Dmnortiera, Reinwardt. 

81. D. irrigua, Wils. in Hook. Eng. Fl. v. P. 1. p. 106 (sub 
Marchantia) ; Syn. Hep. p. 543 ; H. P. 75. Hygropijla irrigua^ 
Tayl. ! in Linn. Trans, xvii. p. 390. 

Hab. Zi inf. P. c. B.-de-Bigorre, ad ripas rivuli qui ad thermas 
diet, de Salut originem suam habet ; sociis Pellia calycma et Fe- 
gatella conica. 

31. Fegatella, Raddi. 

82. F. conica, L. Sp. PI. p. 1604 (sub Marchantia) ; Syn. Hep. 
p. 546; H. P. 76. 

Hab. Zo— 1 locis humidis. 

32. Reboulia, N. ab E. 

83. R. hemispharica, Raddi in Opusc. scient. di Bolon. ii, 
p. 357 ; Syn. Hep. p. 548. 

Hab. Zq Dax, in huniidiusculis ac umbrosis (Grateloup; R. S.). 

33. Fimbriaria, N. ab E. 

84. F.fragrans, Selileicb. Cent, exsicc. 3. n. 64 (sub Mar- 
chantia) ; Syn. Hep. p. 558. 

Hab. Zq " ad margines fontium et fossarum ac in rupibus um- 
brosis prope Dax " (Grateloup, /. c.) . 

Subtribus 3. TargionieyE, N. ab E. 

34. Targionia, Miclieli. 

85. T. Michelii, Corda in Opitz Beitr. i. p. 649; Syu. Hep. 
p. 574. Targionia hypophylla, L. Sp. PL p. 1604. 

Hab. Zq " circa Dax" (Grateloup, /. c). 

Tribus 3. Anthocerote^, N. ab E. 

35. Anthoceros, Micheli. 

86. A. IcEvis, L. Sp. PL p. 1606 ; Syn. Hep. p. 586. 

Hab. Zq " ad terrani, in locis umbrosis liumidiusculis, prope 
Aq. Tarb." (Grateloup, /. c). 



120 Mr. R. Scott on the Growth of Bambusa arundinacea. 

87. A. punctatus, L. Sp. PI. p. 1601 ; Syn. Hep. p. 583 ; 
H. P. 77. 

Hab. Zo_i locis humidis solo argilloso prsecipue. St. Pandelon. 
St. Sever. Loucrup prope B. -de- Big err e. 

Tribiis 4. RicciEiE, Lindenberg. 
36. Sphcerocarpus, Micheli. 

88. S. Mlchelii, Bell. ; Mont, in Ann. des Sc. nat. ix. p. 39 ; 
Syn, Hep. p. 595. 

Hab. Zq circa Dax. "Elle croit sur la terre humide de 
quelqvies landes de Marensin, par I'ancienne route de Bordeaux 
k Bayonne " (Grateloup, /. c). 

37. Riccia, Micheli. 

89. R. glauca, L. ; Syn. Hep. p. 599. 

Hab. Zq " supra terram argillaceam in locis umbrosis Dax " 
(Grateloup, /. c.) ; locis cultis Sti. Sever. 

90. R. ciliata, Hoffm. ; Syn. Hep. p. 602. 

Hab. Zq "ad terram madidam circa Dax" (Grateloup, /. c). 

91. R.fluitans, L. ; Syn. Hep. p. 610. 

Hab. Zo " in fontibus Sti. Pandelon, kc." (Grateloup, /. c.) ; 
St. Sever (Dufour!). 

92. R. nutans, L. ; Syn. Hep. p. 606. 

Hab. Zq " in aquis stagnantibus Sti. Paul, prope Aq. Tarbel- 
licas " (Grateloup, /. c.) . 

XIII. — Remarks on the Growth of Bambusa arundinacea in the 
large Conservatory, Chatsworth. By Mr. Robert Scott*. 

In the tropics the Bamboo not only grows with astonishing ra- 
pidity, but attains a very great height. — in some instances as much 
as 100 feetf. This, together with its feathery elegance, places it 
in bold contrast to surrounding vegetation, and entitles it to rank 
second to the noble Palm. But under artificial culture it is in- 
deed seldom seen in anything like its native majesty, — the extent 
of our horticultural structures not admitting of its full develop- 
ment. 

In some degree at least this defect is obviated here, the Bam- 
busa being planted out in a border of rich loam, with plenty of 
room for its roots, and the canes likewise, in most cases, having 
ample accommodation. So situated the Bamboo seems at home. 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, July 12, 1849. 
t Mr. John Gibson, who collected in India for the Duko of Devonshire, 
has seen the Bamboo 100 feet high. 



Mr. R. Scott on the Growth of Bambusa arundinacea. 121 

On the 19th of August, 1846, I observed the crown of a cane 
just showing itself above the surface of the ground. From its 
appearance 1 was led to infer that ultimately it would attain to 
a large size, and I resolved to watch its progress. The cane was 
situated at the circumference of a group, and this circumstance 
rendered the observation of its growth more convenient than it 
would have been had the cane been situated in the centre. 

On referring to notes then made, I find that on September 1st 
the cane had reached a height of 8 feet from the ground. On 
the 6th September it had attained the height of 19 feet; and 
on September 13th it was 25 feet high : during the latter 
seventeen days of September the growth was uniformly 1 foot 
per day. Thus in forty-two days the cane had reached 42 feet 
from the ground, making an average growth of ~ inch per hour. 
The subjoined table may serve to place this matter in a clearer 
light. 



1846. 
Aug. 19. 
Sept. 1. 

„ 7. 


Cane just appearing above ground. 
„ 8 feet high. 
„ 19 ,, 


Average daily growth. 

nearly TJ inches, 
1 foot 10 inches. 


„ 13. 


„ 25 „ 


1 foot. 


„ 30. 


» 42 „ 


1 foot. 



Having attained the height of 42 feet, the top of the cane was 
in immediate contact with the roof of the house. This circum- 
stance rendered an arrest of its progress necessary; had it been 
otherwise, in all probability the cane would have extended 8 or 

10 feet more. 

In December 1847, the subject of the preceding remarks, 
along with the other canes forming the group previously alluded 
to, was cut down. The following observations were then made : 
Number of internodes, 32 ; circumference of the base of cane, 
8 inches ; circumference of top, \^ inch. The greatest circumfe- 
rence, 9 inches, occurred 8 ft. 3 in. from the base, and extended 
over four internodes. The two longest internodes measured each 
1 foot 6 inches. They occurred at 19 ft. 8 in. from the base, and 
wei'e each 8 inches in circumference. The shortest internode was 

11 inches, and was the lowermost on the cane. 

During the growth of the cane the temperature of the house 
was, — maximum 87°, minimum 60°, Fahrenheit. (Average 73^°.) 

In Paxton's 'Magazine of Gardening and Botany^ for 1849^ 
p. 62, there are a few remarks on the subject of this notice ; but 
some mistakes have been made in the figures there given. 

The cane is now in the British Museum. 

I may add, that the Bambusa arundinacea very seldom com- 
mences to form its canes here until August and sometimes Sep- 
tember, while the Bambusa nigra invariably makes its growth in 
May, The latter species has this year produced canes 16 ft. high. 



122 Mr. G. Newpoi't on a new genus of Parasitic Insects. 

XIV. — On the Identification of the Parasitic Genus of Insects, 
Anthophorabia. By George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, London, July 1849. 

Mr. Westwood's letter, inserted in your July number, in reply 
to my remarks on the identification of Anthophorabia, obliges me 
to trouble you with some further remax'ks on this subject. 

I mentioned in my letter to you, that immediately after the 
reading of my paper to the Linnsean Society, on the 20th of 
March, "the good faith of my statements (was) abruptly 
questioned in some remarks addressed to the Society by Mr. 
John Obadiah Westwood, ivho made it appear that my know- 
ledge of the insect Anthophorabia must have been derived from 
viva voce statements made by himself at a meeting of the Ento- 
mological Society in July 1847^' (Annals, vol. iii. p. 514). Mr. 
Westwood now, after professing that he " has neither leisure nor 
inclination to answer in detail," — which very probably he has 
not, — says, " I again deny having expressed a single word of 
doubt as to Mr. Newport having found the insects in question in 
1832, or that / asserted that his knowledge of them was derived 
from my communications." Now I beg to say, that whatever 
may have been the precise words employed, Mr. Westwood most 
certainly did express doubt, and did impress, and did endeavour 
to impress on the minds of those who were present, that my first 
knowledge of the insect I had described must have been derived 
from his observations at the Entomological Society in July 1847 ; 
and he asserted, in the most positive manner, that I was in the 
Chair at the time. The printed Proceedings of the Society prove 
that Mr. Spence was in the chair ! I may now further state, 
that he succeeded, for the time, in injuring me in the good 
opinion of many who were present at the Linnjean Society, as I 
have since been assured by several gentlemen ; as his imputations 
seemed to be supported by the fact — which he still dwells upon, 
with what object others may decide (iVnnals, p. 39) — of my having 
been present at the meeting of the Entomological Society when 
he referred to an insect by the name of Melittobia Audouinii ; 
although, to this very hour, I have never seen that insect or his 
drawings of it. Further, I may mention that it was evidently 
his object to question the accuracy of my statements in the paper 
I read to the Linnasan Society which drew forth the spontaneous 
evidence in my favour fi-om Mr. Nash, as I have since been as- 
sured by that gentleman, to whom I had shown drawings of my 
insect in 1832. These identical drawings, which I made fi'om 
living specimens, and which I regard as some of the most care- 



Mr. G. Newport on a new genus of Parasitic Insects. 123 

fully finished I have ever made, were on the table of the Lin- 
nsean Society when my paper was read, on the 20th of March, 
and also on the 1st of ^lay ; on which latter occasion they were 
examined fui' a few minutes only by Mr. Westwood. Yet he 
now makes the following assertion : " Having seen ]\Ir. Newport^s 
drawings made seventeen years ago, I do not hesitate to state that 
his description has been drawn up from this imperfect sketch (!), 
and that seven out of the nine generic characters given by him 
in the ' Gard. Chronicle,' p. 183, are erroneous." Indeed ! Seven 
characters erroneous ! ! Mr. Westwood^s former statement (Gard. 
Chronicle, p. 295) was, that six out of nine were wrong. But 
now he discovers " seven," — size of the head, the antennae, the 
wings, and the tarsi of the female, antennae and eyes of the male, 
and size of the insect. Truly, here are seven. First then as re- 
gards size. I have described my insect as being of the Lillipu- 
tian dimension of one line. Mr. Westwood says. No, it is exactly 
three-quarters. Many thanks for this, and the other equally 
important corrections, if confirmed. I have said the head of the 
insect is wider than the thorax. ]\Ir. Westwood says it is not. 
According to him, I have overlooked some joints in the antennse 
and some peculiarities of the wings. Possible, certainly. But the 
admission of the possibility is not an assent to the assertion, 
without proof. In the tarsi, however, he thinks that I have 
seen too much. 

As to the male insect he asserts that it has no eyes whatever, 
but that it has more joints in its antennee than I have described. 
Yet in all this, while afiirming the identity of his insect with 
mine, he keeps out of view the fact that the one he refers to is a 
native of France, and that which I have described is indigenous 
to this country ; and that the middle portion of the antenna in 
my insect is " large and globose," while the corresponding part 
in his, according to his description, is " very small and suban- 
uulose." Nevertheless he " does not hesitate " to " reaffirm " 
the identity of two insects, one of which he has never seen ! But 
furthei-, he " affirms," and possibly may hereafter " reaffirm," 
that some of the characters I have given for my insect, " namely 
the veins of the wings and the five-jointed tarsi, neither belong 
to ihe family nor subfamily to which the insect is to be referred, 
whilst the possession of stemmatous eyes by the male is disproved 
by every known species of winged insect, whereas it is as essen- 
tially a character of some of the Ametabolous tribes." Accord- 
ing to this lucid view, which seems to have been arrived at 
through one of ]\Ir. Westwood's " strikingly opposite analogies," 
if a winged insect has not compound eyes it cannot have eyes at 
all. Now it was the peculiarity of my insect possessing stem- 
matous eyes that led to the introduction of a description of it in 



124 Mr. G. Newport on a new genus of Parasitic Insects. 

my paper. With regard to the joints of the tarsi, it happens, un- 
fortunately for Mr. Westwood, that he is in this instance, at 
least, in the unenviable situation of bearing evidence against the 
correctness of his own statements. Ten years ago he published 
in his ' Introduction,' vol. ii. Generic Synopsis, p. 73, detailed 
definitions of three genera of Parasitic Hymen optera belonging 
to the very family, — Chalcidida, proposed also by himself, — to 
which my Anthopliorabia belongs ; and one of the characters 
which he employs to indicate each of these genera, — Tetracnemus, 
Agonioneurus, — which comprises thirteen species, — and Cocco- 
phagus three species, — is, that their tarsi are " fve-jointed" 

Thus much reliance may be placed on the scientific accuracy 
of Mr. Westwood's statements. I have now but to notice one 
other of his unnecessary assertions, of a more personal character, 
and which I could have wished to have believed to be simply ac- 
cidental. He says (Annals, p. 40) that Mr. F. Smith was the 
first to discover the parasitic larva of Monodontomeriis, and that 
/ have " attempted to deprive him of the credit " of this discovery. 
I regret much that this direct charge obliges me to state that 
Mr. Westwood asserts in this what is extremely wide of the truth. 
A short notice of the habits of the larva of Monodontomerus was 
sent by Mr. Smith to the Linnsean Society a fortnight after the 
reading of the first part of my paper on the 20th of March in 
which I described this larva ; and that notice was read on the 
3rd of April, Mr. Smith the author of it, Mr. Westwood and 
myself being present. Mr. Smith stated in his paper that he had 
found his insects at Charlton in Kent, in 1 848. After this paper 
had been read, I mentioned what I had already stated in my 
paper on the 20th of March, that I discovered the larva of Mo- 
nodontomerus on the 12th of September 1847 (at Gravesend), 
" that I had informed Mr. Smith at the time of the fact," and that 
" some time afterwards, as I learned from Mr. Smith himself, who, 
being present, could correct me if in error, he also collected larvae 
of this insect in the same locality " (see Gard. Chron. April, 
p. 231). Mr. Smith offered not the slightest remark on, or ob- 
jection to this statement, but tacitly admitted its correctness. 
And yet Mr. Westwood having heard this public announcement 
from my own lips, and knowing that it has appeared in print, — 
as he quotes a portion of the identical paragraph, — and knowing 
also that it cannot be refuted, has ventured to "affirm" the 
contrary. 

I remain, Gentlemen, yours very obediently, 

George Newport. 



Mr. W. H. Benson on new Asiatic species of the genus Pupa. 125 

XV. — Descriptions of four new Asiatic species of the genus Pupa 
of Draparnaud. By W. H. Benson, Esq. 

In the ' Zeitschrift fiir Malakologie ' for 1846 Dr. Pfeiffer adverts 
to the paucity of known species of Pupa from other countries 
than Europe, North America, the West Indies, and the Cape of 
Good Hope. In his ' Monographia ' he cites only Fupa bicolor, 
Hutton, as inhabiting India as well as the Isle of Bourbon 
(P. Largillierti, Philippi), giving but a single Indian locality 
(Mirzapore) for it ; and he quotes Pupa sulcata, Miiller, as a 
Ceylonese shell. The latter species may possibly occur in the 
station assigned to it, but it is also certainly a Mauritian shell, 
haunting the woods around Curepipe, with P. Pagoda, Fer., ac- 
cording to Sir David Barclay and ]\Ir. Rawson. Pupa bicolor has 
a very extensive range. Its beautiful vermilion and yellow tints, 
similar to those of several Mauritian Pupce, attracted my atten- 
tion to the animal in Bundelkhund as early as 1825 ; and I sub- 
sequently took it in numei'ous localities*, but in no place very 
plentifully, from the foot of the Himalayas in Rohilkhund down 
to the neighbourhood of Calcutta. In 1847 I met with it at 
Point de Galle in Ceylon, and Dr. Cantor found it, though rarely, 
in Pulo Penang. It did not occur to me at the Mauritius, al- 
though inhabiting its neighbour island. 

I have now to make known four new Oriental species ; one 
from China scarcely yielding the palm of size to any of the genus, 
the other three from India proper, all minute. Of these, two in- 
habit the Himalaya and one Lower Bengal. Some other species 
from India have been assigned to the genus Pupa, which, how- 
ever, fall more correctly into the cylindrical division of the genus 
Bulimus. 

1. Pupa regia, nobis. 

T. profundissime umbilicata, elongato-conica, subcylindrica, solida, 
alba, laevigata, nitidiuscula, oblique et remote, obsoleteque plicato- 
striata ; spira superne sensim attenuata, apice obtusiusculo ; ura- 
bilico pervio ; anfractibus undecim subplanulatis, ultimo antice 
ascendente, validius plicate, ad basin compresso ; sutura lineari, 
irregulariter crenata; apertura oblique truncato-ovata, sublaterali, 

* Viz. Bhamoury, Moradabad, and Bareilly, in Rohilkhund ; Etawah and 
Futtehpove in the Do-ab of the Ganges and Jnmna ; at Huineerpore in 
Bundelkhund, south of the latter river ; at Jounpore and Mirzapore in the 
Benares Division, north and south of the Ganges ; and at Howrah, on the 
west bank of the Ilooghly river, near Calcutta. It shelters itself in the' 
ground under loose stones, bricks, or wood, and comes forth in the rains of 
July. At Bhamoury I got it by digging at the root of a tree. It was there 
much dwarfed. The lower ranges of the Himalaya, within which it has 
never been met with, rise immediately from that spot ; and attain, in the 
course of twelve miles, an elevation of 8000 feet. 



126 Mr. W. H. Benson on neiv Asiatic sjjecies of the genus Pupa. 

ab axe deviante, intus fulvida ; plica columellari profunda, dupli- 
cata, parietali elongata, remotiuscula ; peristomato valde incras- 
sato, reflexo, subtus latiori, marginibus callo junctis, columellari 
expansOj superne sinuato, extus augulum etfnrmante, dextro me- 
dio antrorsum arcuato. 

Long. 43 mill., lat. 23 ; aperturse long, perist. incl. 18 mill. Lat. 9 
millim. 

Hub. prope Nanking, China. 

Brought by the late Dr. D. King, H.M.S. Cornwallis, and pre- 
sented by him to Dr. Cantor, to whose kindness I am indebted 
for the specimen. A wire introduced into the umbilicus will 
reach within a short distance of the summit. 

2. Pupa Huttoniona, nobis. 

T. rimata, ovato-oblonga, subcylindracea, hyalina, glabra, apice ob- 
tuso ; anfractibus 5 convexis ; apertura ovato-rotundata, quinque- 
plicata ; peristoraate exjDansiusculo, marginibus callo tenui junctis ; 
plica unica irregulari, sinuata, parietali, columellaribus duobus, 
palatalibus duobus profundis. 

Long. 1-L mill., lat. vix 1 mill. 

Hab. rarissime ad Simla montibus sub-Hiraalayanis occidentalibus ; 
Hutton. 

This species (unlike most of the smaller Simla species of land 
shells) has not hitherto been taken in other parts of the Hima- 
layan chain. 

3. Pupa j)liciclens, nobis. 

T. umbilicata, ovato-conica, subtrochiformi, glabriuscula, obscure 
striata, cornea ; anfractibus quinque convexis, ultimo ventrico.so, 
antice ascendente, ad basin tumido ; sutura impressa ; apice ob- 
tuso ; apertura irregulari, subtriangulari, 9-plicata ; peristomate 
continuo, sinuato, expanso, marginibus callo appresso expanse 
junctis ; dextro medio extus impresso, intus tuberculato-incras- 
sato ; plicis parietalibus 3, quarum 2 superioribus elongatis, colu- 
mellari dentiformi, unica, palatalibus 5, quarum 2 sub-basalibus 
minutis ; margine basali extus callo praedito ; umbilico angusto. 

Long. 2 mill., lat. l^mill. 

Hab. ad Landour et Mussoorie, montibus Himalayanis. 

The shell is very peculiarly formed, and seems to indicate the 
transition from Pupa to Anastoma. 

The animal has four tentacula, the superior pair bearing the 
percipient points or eyes, the inferior very short. The foot is 
hyaline, the tentacula and neck fuscous. The shell is carried 
horizontally. It is very local, although tolerably abundant where 
found. It creeps among moss, on damp rocks, generally in places 
which are seldom or never visited by the sun, in some of the lofty 
and precipitous glens of the mountains near Landour. It seems 
to be a capricious species. On a rock on which I found it abun- 



Ml". AY. H. Benson on new Asiatic species of the (jenus Pupa. 127 

dantly one year, I could not obtain a specimen at the same season 
in the following year. 

4. Pupa hrevicostis, nobis. 

T. rimato-perforata, cylindraceo-ovata, cornea, apice obtuse ; anfrac- 
tibus 4\, longitudine celeriter crescentibus ; ultimo antice non 
ascRndente, ~ longitudinis testae aequante, superioribus convexis, 
superne remote semicostulatis, ultimo et penultimo subplanulatis, 
dimidioque inferiori cseterorum sericeis, muticis ; apertura rotun- 
dato-ovata, 5-6-plicata ; jjlica 1 angulari, brevi ; secunda parietali 
profundiore, obliqua ; columellari unica ; palatalibus 2-3 pro- 
fundis ; peristomate expanso, subreflexo. 

Long. 1^ mill., lat. vix 1 mill. 

Hab. ad Barrackpore, Bengal. 

Taken by Dr. J. F. Bacon on the trunk of a tamarind-tree at 
the Cantonment of Barrackpore, near Calcutta, during the rainy 
season of 1848. Out of several individuals forwarded to me, 
overland, by letter in a quill, two reached me alive, and creeping 
about when supplied with moisture enabled me to verify their 
affinities. The lower pair of tentacula is deficient or inconspi- 
cuous, as in Vertigo ; the upper pair carry the eyes at their sum- 
mits. The shell is often carried at an angle of 45°. 

In 1834 Captain Hutton referred a small shell to the genus 
under the name of Pi/pa cmiopicta, vi^hich belongs strictly to Bu- 
limus, as conjectured by Pfeiffer, 'Monogr.' vol. ii. p. 82. It is 
figured, no. 492, in that genus by Beeve. It is necessary to re- 
mark that in the numerous specimens which I have examined, 
the callous parietal tooth at the junction of the outer lip has 
never been wanting. Yet this character was omitted by Captain 
Hutton, and it is not noted either in Beeve's figure or descrip- 
tion. I first took the shell in Bundelkhund in 1826 ; specimens 
received in 1835 from Captain Hutton showed how the tubercle 
had been overlooked by him, the shells being still covered by the 
dirt, from the presence of which he had named them. Subse- 
quently I found the species abundant under stones and rocks at 
Delhi, and Dr. Bacon met with it in great profusion at Kurnal 
on mud-walls and under tiles. It has never occurred to me or 
to my correspondents on the left bank of the Jumna nor of the 
Ganges. Dr. Bacon found a specimen or two at Dinapore on the 
right bank of the latter river, so that it has an extensive range 
to the south and west of those streams. 

The only locality hitherto given for the sinistral toothed Pupa 
Pottebergensis, Krauss, from Southern Africa, is the Pottenberg 
Mountain in Zwellendam, where Krauss found it, though rarely, 
on plants. Sir Edward Belcher pointed the shell out to me as 
occurring near the Bound Battery in Simon^s Bay, among Me- 



128 Dr. A. Voelcker on the Chemical Composition of the 

semhryanthema ; and I found it subsequently at a distant point 
of False Bay, near " the Strand," and again at Hout Bay. In all 
these places it was found among plants and bushes growing on 
sandy dunes near the sea. 

July 13, 1849. 



XVI. — On the Chemical Composition of the Fluid in the Ascidia of 
Nepenthes. By Dr. A. Voelcker of Frankfort*. 

The watery secretions of certain plants belonging to the genera 
Nepenthes, Cephalotus, and Sarracenia, have long attracted the 
attention of botanists ; but whilst the secreting organs of these 
plants have been minutely described, the chemical nature of the 
fluid itself has been but very imperfectly examined. That these 
liquids have not met with the attention to which their importance 
entitles them, may be accounted for by the circumstance that few 
chemists have an opportunity of obtaining the unaltered fluids, 
and that even those who are fortunate enough to procure them, 
seldom can command a sufficient quantity to enable them to inves- 
tigate their nature. With the exception of Dr. Turner^s analysis 
of the fluid in the ascidia of Nepenthes, I know of no other ana- 
lysis of this fluid or of similar secretions. The botanists who 
have given attention to the subject of the watery secretions of 
the leaves of plants have found these secretions to consist in most 
cases of nothing but pure water, and have only occasionally dis- 
covered in them some vegetable matter. Treviranus for instance 
observed a tasteless water in the corolla of Maranta gibba, which 
he however did not further examine; the same gentleman ex- 
amined the watery secretion of Amomum Zerumbet, and caused 
Dr. Goppert to subject it to chemical analysis, from which it re- 
sulted that the fluid between the scales of the spikes consisted of 
almost pure water, containing a small quantity of vegetable fibre 
and mucus. 

The most remarkable instance of a watery secretion from the 
leaves of plants is recorded in the 'Annals of Natural History ' 
for 1848, in a paper by Mr. Williamson, who observed that the 
leaves of Caladium destillatorium had the peculiar power of ex- 
haling watery fluid from a point near the apex on the upper side. 
Each full-grown healthy leaf, according to Mr. Williamson's ob- 
servation, produced about half a pint of water during the night, 
which, on being analysed, was found to contain a very minute 
portion of vegetable matter. 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, July 12, 1849. 



Fluid in the Ascidia of Nepenthes. ] 29 

It appeared to me highly improbable that these fluid secre- 
tions should consist of pure water with merely a trace of ve^-e- 
table matter, and no inorganic substances whatsoever. If they are 
to be regarded as true secretions, we naturally should expect them 
to contain some of the salts which we iind in all juices of plants. 
I was therefore anxious to examine this point, and I am glad that I 
have an opportunity of bringing the results of my analysis of the 
fluid HI the ascidia of Nepenthes before the notice of the Bota- 
nical Society. It is through the kindness of Prof. Balfour, 
Mr. Evans of the Experimental Gardens, Messrs. Jas. Dickson and 
Sons, and Sir W. Hooker, that I have obtained the materials for 
the following analysis, and I consider it my duty to express here 
publicly my deep sense of gratitude for the kindness and libe- 
rality with which the above-named gentlemen have assisted me 
in carrying on this inquiry. I have also to express my obliga- 
tions to Dr. George Wilson for kindly allowing m« the use of 
his laboratory. 

Linnpeus regarded the ascidia oi Nepenthes as a natm-al reser- 
voir for rain, and thought that the water found in them was intro- 
duced from without, and was not secreted by the plant itself. 
His opinion however has been contradicted already by many bo- 
tanists, especially Treviranus, who observed that the water in the 
pitchers of Nepenthes destillatoria is always clear, and that there 
exists a distinct secreting apparatus. Treviranus says, in an ar- 
ticle which appeared in the ' Edinb. New Philosoph. Journal ' for 
Oct. 1832— April 1833 :— "The parietes of the leaf of Nepenthes 
destillatoria are traversed by a multitude of proportionally large 
anastomosing veins, which contain many true spiral vessels. The 
upper half of its inner surface is covered with a blue rind, as parts 
often are which require to be protected from the action of water ; 
the under half is, on the contrary, shining and full of gland-like 
eminences directed downwards, and having a hole almost visible 
to the naked eye, which is uncovered by the cuticle which the 
remainder possesses.'' The watery secretion reaches generally 
to the level of these glands in the middle of the ascidium, and he 
thinks that they are true secreting organs. This peculiar struc- 
ture alone gives a strong reason for thinking that the water in 
the ascidia of Nepenthes is supplied by the plant itself, and the 
circumstance that water is found in pitchers which have never 
been opened is another argument against the supposition that it 
comes from without. The subjoined analysis of the fluid more- 
over leaves no doubt that it is a true secretion. 

Before I enter into the particulars of my experiments I will 
mention that I could not detect any oxalic acid in the fluid of 
Nepenthes. It is stated in Lindley's ' Vegetable Kingdom ' that 
Dr. Turner found this acid in combination with potash, and that 

Ann. &; Mac/. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol.iv. Q 



130 Dr. A. Voelckev on the Chemical Composition of the 

he also detected a trace of organic matter, which caused the 
watery fluid wheu boiling to emit an odour of boiled apples. 
Though I have examined the water of many pitchers fi'om four 
different localities, and paid particular attention to the detection 
of oxalic acid, I have failed in finding a trace of it, and I am 
therefore inclined to believe that Dr. Turner, on account of the 
minute quantity of solid matter which he must have got on eva- 
poration of the watei', was unable to subject the minute crystals 
which he took for superoxalate of potash to a further examina- 
tion, which would have shown him that the crystals were not 
superoxalate of potash, but chloride of potassium. The propor- 
tion of chloride of potassium which I found in the fluid is consider- 
able ; it is deposited from the liquid after evaporation in the form 
of minute but very regular cubes. The odour of boiled apples 
which Dr. Turner observed I found very distinct when the water 
was heated to the boiling-point. Besides chloride of potassium I 
found malic and a little citric acid, in combination usually with 
soda, lime and magnesia, and a small quantity of another orga- 
nic matter which gave a yellow tint to the water during its eva- 
poration. The quantity of the latter was too minute to enable 
me to ascertain its chemical nature. 

I will now proceed to describe the experiments with the dif- 
ferent fluids in the ascidia of Nepenthes : — 

1. Fluid from an unopened pitcher-plant grown in the Bota- 
nical Garden, Edinburgh. 

The water which I got on the 12th of June, 1849, was per- 
fectly colom'less and clear ; it had an agreeable, not very pro- 
nounced smell and a refreshing taste. Though its taste was not 
sour, litmus paper showed the presence of an acid or an acid salt 
by the red colour it assumed when dipped in the water. When 
heated it remained clear, and only assumed a slightly yellow 
colour when the liquid became very concentrated. The residue 
which remained on evaporation was cream-coloured, very hygro- 
scopic, and dissolved entirely in a small quantity of distilled 
water. Litmus paper plunged in this solution was turned red 
immediately; the acid which is present in the water therefore was 
not volatilized during the evaporation. 

The quantity of the water from one pitcher amounted to 

17'41 grains, 
which gave on evaporation 

0-16 of dry residue, dried at 212° F. 
100 parts of the fluid consequently contained 

0"92 per cent, of solid matter. 

2. Water from unopened pitcher-plants grown in the Botani- 
cal Garden, Edinbm-gh, June 13th, 1849. 

The physical characters were the same as those of the preceding 



Fluid in the Ascidia q/ Nepenthes. 131 

liquid. Litmus paper likewise was turned red when dipped in 
the water. 

The behaviour of the water towards chemical tests was as fol- 
lows : — 

Ammonia produced no change. 

Carbonate of ammonia produced no change. 

Lime-water produced no change. 

Chloride of calcium and ammonia produced no change. 

Nitrate of barytes produced no change. 

Nitrate of silver gave a white voluminous precipitate, inso- 
luble in nitric acid, but soluble in ammonia. 

Acetate of lead produced a white precipitate soluble for the 
greater part in boiling water. 

Basic acetate of lead gave a white voluminous precipitate in 
the clear liquid filtered from the precipitate which was caused by 
neutral acetate of lead. 

Oxalate of ammonia produced a small white precipitate of 
oxalate of lime. 

Phosphate of soda and ammonia, added to the concentrated 
liquid filtered from the oxalate of lime, gave a crystalline white 
precipitate of phosphate of magnesia and ammonia. 

Chloride of platinum, added to the water after having been 
evaporated to a small bulk, produced a crystalline yellow preci- 
pitate. 

The residue left on evaporation of the water coloured the alco- 
hol flame yellow. 

These reactions indicate the presence of chlorine, potash, soda, 
magnesia, lime and organic acids, and prove the absence of other 
bases and of sulphuric acid, tartaric acid, i-acemic acid, oxalic and 
phosphoric acid. 

3. Fluid from unopened pitcher-plants grown in the Experi- 
mental Gardens, Edinburgh, June 13th, 1849. 

The water was perfectly clear and colourless, had an acid re- 
action on litmus paper, and exhibited the same physical and che- 
mical characters as the fluid from the pitcher-plants of the Bota- 
nical Garden. 

63-21 grains of water left on evaporation a residue which, dried 
at 212° F., amounted to 

0*58 grain. 
100 parts of the fluid therefore contained 

0*91 per cent, of dry residue. 

Exposed to a red heat the residue (0*58 gr.) turned black, and 
gave off pungent fumes, and left a white ash after all the char- 
coal was completely burnt away, the weight of which was 0*42 
of a grain. 

The loss by burning therefore was 25*86 per cent. 

9* 



133 Dr. A. Voelckcr on the Chemical Composition of the 

The residue left on evaporation of this fluid was slightly co- 
loured, and gave an almost colourless solution with water. A 
portion of this solution was kept in a closed bottle. After the 
lapse of a fortnight the water in the bottle became turbid and 
deposited some light white flakes. The acid reaction, which was 
very distinct before, had now disappeared entirely. 

4. Fluid from opened pitcher-plants grown in the Experi- 
mental Gardens, June 14th, 1849. 

The fluid in the open pitchers was coloured yellow, but other- 
wise perfectly clear. The reactions with chemical tests were the 
same as the preceding. 

97*74 grains of water left on evaporation 0'85 of a grain of 
dry residue. 

100 parts therefore contained 0-87 per cent, of solid matter. 

This residue was coloured yellow, but redissolved entirely in a 
little water. 

5. Fluid from unopened pitcher-plants grown in Messrs. 
Dickson's nursery, June 17th, 1849. 

Fluid perfectly clear and colourless, reactions the same as above. 
319"48 grains left a residue which, dried at 212° F., was found 
to weigh 1"88 grain; or 

100 parts of the liquid contained 0'58 per cent. 

6. Liquid from unopened pitcher-plants grown in Messrs. Dick- 
son's nursery, June 21st, 1849. 

Physical and chemical characters of the liquid the same as 
above. 

193*82 grains of water left on evaporation 1*22 grain of dry 
residue, or 0"62 per cent. 

Allien burnt the 1*22 grain lost in weight 0*44 of a grain, 
or 100 parts of the residue lost 36"06 per cent. 

The solid matter of this liquid was very hygroscopic, and co- 
loured more yellow than that of the Botanical and Experimental 
Gardens. 1 found that the total weight of the solid matter in this 
fluid was not so large as in that of the Experimental Gardens, but 
that the proportion of organic matter in the residue was larger 
than that in the residue of the fluid procm'ed from the Experi- 
mental Gardens. 

7. Water from opened pitcher- plants grown in Messrs. Dick- 
son's nursery, June 24th, 1849. 

This fluid was yellow-coloured and not quite clear. Litmus 
paper was turned red when moistened with the water. The re- 
actions were the same as above, with the exception that nitrate of 
barytes produced a slight turbidity, indicating the presence of 
sulphuric acid. As I found no sulphuric acid in the liquid from 
the unopened pitchers of the same plants, nor in any of the 
liquids I examined, I think the sulphm*ic acid which I found 



Fluid in the Ascidia of Nepenthes. 133 

must have resulted from the water with which the plants had 
been watered which had found its way into the open pitchers*. 
In order to see if the liquid contained any volatile acid, I sub- 
jected about half an ounce of it to distillation. The distillation 
was continued till the residue in the glass retort was evaporated 
to dryness, and the generated steam carefully condensed in a 
glass receiver. The distilled portion was perfectly pure water, 
and experienced no change by any reagent. 

It results from this experiment that the liquid in the ascidia 
of Nepenthes does not contain any volatile acids, such as acetic or 
formic acid. 

8. Fluid from unopened pitcher-plants grown in the Royal 
Gardens, Kew. 

Having been unable to detect any oxalic acid in the above- 
mentioned fluids, I was anxious to ascertain whether or not the 
fluid of plants grown in other localities contained oxalic acid. I 
therefore applied to Sir W. Hooker, who with great liberality di- 
rected some liquid of unopened pitcher-plants grown in the Kew 
Royal Botanical Gardens to be sent to me. The physical and 
chemical characters of this fluid were precisely the same as those 
of the previously examined hquids. The proportion of solid 
matter it held in solution however was much smaller. 
299"87 grains of the liquid left on evaporation only 

0*82 of a grain of dry residue. 
100 parts of the liquid therefore contained 

0-27 per cent, of solid matter. 
On burning, the 0*82 of a grain lost 0-27 of a grain, or 
100 parts lost 32-92 per cent. 

All the liquids from the different localities above-mentioned 
which were left over I mixed together and evaporated the mix- 
ture to dryness. One-half of the dry residue I exposed to a red 
heat, and used the remaining white ash for the determination of 
the inorganic salts of which it was composed. 

The other half I dissolved in water and precipitated with basic 
acetate of lead, in order to obtain the organic acids in combina- 
tion with lead. This precipitate I collected on a filter and washed 
with cold distilled water. It was then removed from the filter 
and suspended in water, through which a current of sulphuretted 
hydrogen was passed. By this means I separated the lead as 
sulphuret, and obtained the organic acids free dissolved in water. 
This solution was colourless and very acid ; evaporated to a small 
bulk in a water-bath it assumed a yellow colour, and dried at last 
to a yellow crystalline mass, which deliquesced in the air and dis- 

* The water in tliis instance was procured chiefly from the Water of 
Leith. 



134 Dr. A. Voelcker on the Chemical Composition of the 

solved readily in water and alcohol, leaving behind a trace of a 
brown organic matter. 

Lime-water added in excess to a portion of the acid solution 
produced no precipitate in the cold, but on boiling a small white 
precipitate fell down which redissolved entirely in sal ammoniac. 

Chloride of calcium and ammonium left the liquid unchanged 
in the cold, but on boiling a precipitate was formed which was 
soluble in sal ammoniac. 

Acetate of lead gave a white precipitate insoluble in ammonia, 
soluble in acetic acid. 

Basic acetate of lead added to the liquid filtered from the pre- 
cipitate caused by neuti'al acetate of lead produced another abun- 
dant white precipitate. From these reactions it appears that the 
precipitate with lime-water was caused by citric acid and not by 
tartaric or racemic acid, the reactions of which acids are similar 
to those of citric acid, for tartrate of lime is not soluble in sal 
ammoniac, whilst tartrate of lead redissolves readily in ammonia. 
Tartaric acid moreover is sufficiently characterized by the sparing 
solubility of its acid potash salt, and as the acid liquid did not 
give rise to the formation of such a salt with potash, we have 
another indirect proof of the presence of citric acid. A little 
tartaric acid added to the liquid in which tartaric acid was sought 
in vain, after a few minutes produced the sparingly soluble pot- 
ash salt. 

Racemic acid is thrown down both by lime-water and by a 
solution of gypsum ; the acid liquid of Nepenthes remained un- 
changed by either reagent, hence it cannot have contained any 
racemic acid. 

The precipitate caused by chloride of calcium and ammonia 
and boiling was filtered hot, and alcohol and ammonia added to 
the clear liquid. The addition of alcohol produced a voluminous 
white precipitate, a reaction which indicates the presence of malic 
acid. The quantity of this precipitate was much larger than that 
of the lime precipitate which citric acid gave. The formation of 
a precipitate, upon addition of alcohol to the liquid from which 
the first had been separated by filtration, is characteristic of the 
presence of malic acid, for no other lime-salts were present ; for 
instance, no sulphate of lime was present which could have pro- 
duced a precipitate. But I thought it nevertheless necessary 
to examine the precipitate caused by the addition of alcohol 
further. When burnt it turned black, gave ofi" pungent vapours, 
and was converted into carbonate of lime. The solution of chlo- 
ride of calcium and ammonia used for the experiment remained 
clear after the addition of alcohol ; the acid liquid likewise re- 
mained clear when alcohol was added ; both put together imme- 
diately produced a white voluminous precipitate. 



Fluid in the Ascidia of Nepenthes. 135 

Basic acetate of lead, as already mentioned, throws down from 
the solution a white precipitate. I could not observe that this pre- 
cipitate melted below the boiling-point of water, as pure malate of 
lead does, but it must be remembered that this reaction is di- 
stinctly marked only when the malate of lead is pure ; admixtures 
of other salts of lead prevent it altogether ; and as I have shown 
the presence of citric acid and another organic substance which 
is thrown down by basic acetate of lead, there can be no doubt 
that this was the reason why the precipitate did not dissolve in 
boiling water. 

Though I have not been able to obtain a sufficient quantity of 
the acids oi Nepenthes for an elementary analysis, I think the above 
reactions prove the presence of malic and citric acid. Oxalic acid, 
which is readily detected, as the weakest solution of an oxalate is 
thrown down by lime-water, I failed to discover; on the contrary, I 
have shown that the water contained lime, which excludes the co- 
existence of oxalic acid in a clear liquid. 1 have found that the 
smallest quantity of oxalic acid immediately caused the water of 
Nepenthes to become turbid. 

The second half of the residue left on evaporation of the mixed 
fluids I exposed to a red heat in a platinum capsule. It turned 
black, gave off pungent fumes, and left a white salt after all the 
charcoal was burnt off. 

On analysis this residue was found to consist of 

Chloride of potassium 76"31 

Carbonate of soda 16'44 

Lime 3*94 

Magnesia 3-94 



100-63 

The unburnt residue left on evaporation of the fluid in the 
ascidia of Nepenthes therefore consists, if we take the average of 
the loss of the three determinations at 31*61 per cent, and reject 
the carbonic acid of the ash, of — 

Organic matter, chiefly 

Malic acid and a little citric acid . 38'61 

Chloride of potassium .... 50'43 

Soda 6-36 

Lime 2-59 

Magnesia 2'59 

100-57 
It is remarkable that none of the fluids which I examined 
contained any sulphuric acid, which acid has been found in all 
juices of plants, and which I do not doubt also exists in the sap 



136 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Margaranthus. 

of Nepenthes. An ash analysis of this interesting plant would 
show the proportion of sulphuric acid at once ; and as we are not 
in possession of an analysis of the ash of Nepenthes, which in 
other respects might be of interest, I take the liberty of asking 
those gentkmen who are in the possession of Nepenthes' plants 
to preserve the clippings of branches, &c., which I shall be glad 
to receive as materials for an ash analysis. 

XVII. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Mters, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 39.] 

Margaranthus. 
Among the various collections of Mexican and South American 
plants, I have not been able to iind any specimen corresponding 
with this genus, of which indeed nothing appears to be known, 
except the description given of it by Prof. Schlechtendal, and 
the figure drawn by that able botanist from living specimens 
raised in Halle fi*om seeds received from Mexico. On comparing 
this with Physalis and its allied genera, it will be seen to differ 
from them in the smaller size and pale blue colour of its flowers, 
and particularly in the great contraction of the mouth of the 
corolla, which gives it a globular instead of a campanular form. 
The calyx is more entire on its margin, and like Physalis en- 
larges, becomes vesicular, and incloses a small globular berry 
with aqueous juice, which becomes exsuccous. I have here 
amended its character as contrasted with its allied genera. 

Margaranthus, Schl. — Ca/y.z' urceolato-tubulosus, 5-angularis 
breviter 5-dentatus, persistens et accrescens. Corolla urceo- 
lato-globosa, 5- sulcata, imo attenuata, medio ventricosa, ore 
valde contracta, margine dentibus 5 minutis instructa, intus 
villosula. Stamina 5, sequalia, inclusa, corollse dimidio bre- 
viora ; anthercR conuiventes, 2-lobpe, dorso affixse, rima duplici 
longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Ovarium globosum, 2-sulcatum, 
disco carnoso annulari basi immersum, 2-loculare, placentis 
multiovulatis, medio dissepimenti uti'inque aduatis. Stylus 
simplex, apice attenuatus. Stigma truncatum. Bacca sub- 
stipitata, 2-locularis, exsucca, pericarpio membranaceo, poly- 
sperma, calyce inflato, ovoideo, reticulato-venoso, dentibus ore 
clauso laxe inclusa. Semina orbiculato-reniformia. Embryo 
in albumen semipellucidum curvatus. — Herba Mexicana dicho- 
tome ramosa, foliis alterms, ovatis, vel ovato-lanceolatis, acutis, 
petiolatis ; floribus axillai-ibus, solitariis, pa7'vulis, pedunculatis, 
nutantihus, sordide ccerulescentibus. 

1. Margaranthus solaaaceus, Schl. (Hort. Halens. i. tab. 1) ; — 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Nectouxia. 137 

valde ramosus, foliis inferioribus obovatis, acutis, imo rotun- 
datis, obsolete dentatis^ utrinque fere glabris, venis subpilosis, 
margineque ciliolatis, superioribus lanceolatis, ]jetiolo cauali- 
culato sparse pubescente. — Mexico (Papantla, Schiede). 

This plant appears to have very much the habit of a Physalis ; 
its lower leaves are 4 inches long, 2| inches broad, on a petiole 
of I to I inch ; the upper leaves are 2^ inches long, 10 lines broad, 
on a petiole of half an inch ; the peduncles are 1 line long ; the 
calyx 1 line, and the corolla 2 to 2^ lines in diameter ; the calyx 
increases to the size of half an inch, is globular in form, reticu- 
late, and incloses a berry of 3 lines in diameter. 

Nectouxia. 

This genus appears to have been little known hitherto except 
from the details given by Prof. Kunth (Nov. Gen. iii. p. 10), 
where a figure of Nectouxia formosa is given in ])late 193 of that 
work. On comparing a specimen of this genus in the herbarium 
of Sir Mm. Hooker, I am led to conclude it to be a second spe- 
cies, as I can hardly imagine that so accurate an observer could 
have been mistaken. In this species the difference lies in the 
calycine segments being much narrower, in the greater length of 
the corolla, in the segments of the border being narrower, in the 
lower insertion of the stamens, in the longer and more linear 
anthers, and more especially in the singular expansion of the 
upper portion of the filament, and finally in the exsertion of the 
style. Kunth describes his plant as being herbaceous and not 
higher than 8 inches, whereas this appears to be a much taller 
plant. Nectouxia evidently approaches very closely to the 
genus Salpichroma, and were it not for the reuiarkable peculiai'ity 
of the prominent corona in the mouth of the corolla, it could 
hardly be distinguished from that genus. Like Salpichroma it 
possesses the character of its flowers becoming black in drying : 
the expansion of its filament is also another distinguishing fea- 
ture. I have not been able to examine its perfect fruit, but it is 
evidently a berry : the form and structure of its ovarium quite 
correspond with that of Salpichroma. The following is its 
amended character : — 

Nectouxia. Char, emend. — Cabjx 5-partitus, laciniis sequa- 
libus, erectis, linearibus, acutis, persistens. Corolla hypocra- 
teriformi-tubulosa, tubo 5-nervi, 5-angulato, superne paulo 
ampliato, calyce 2-plo longiore, limbo patente, 5-partito, laci- 
niis gequalibus, oblongis, acuminato-obtusiusculis, sestivatione 
induplicato-valvatis, fauce in coronam brevem urceolatam ex- 
sertam 10-nervem 10-dcntatam producta. Stamina 5, inclusa, 
.Tqualia: filamenta brevia, supra tubi medium inserta, com- 



138 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Nectouxia. 

pressa, ssepe (an semper ?) superue in laminam membranaceam 
pandurfefortnem apice acutam subito dilatata : antherce lineari- 
oblongge, erectse, mucronulatte, medio dorsi affixse^ 2-loculares, 
loculis parallelis, usque ad medium disjunctis, rima longitu- 
dinali antice deliiscentibus. Ovarium conicum, disco parvo 
carnoso impositum, 2-loculare, placentis dissepimento utrin- 
que adnatis, multiovulatis. Stylus filiformis, tubo corollse 
excedens. Stigma exsertum elavatum emarginato-2-lobum. 
Cetera ignota. — Herbse ^erenwes Mexicans /o'^w/«j ioMo-petio- 
lata sparsa, superiora suhgemina, cordataj integra. Flores so- 
litai'ii, extra-axillares, pedunculati, cermci. Corolla flava, sicca- 
tione nigrescens. 

1. Nectouxia formosa, H. B. K. iii. 10. tab. 193; — herbacea, 
caule angulato ; foliis cordatis, ovatis, acutis, hirtellis ; calyce 
piloso-liispido, corolla flava, stamiuibus tubo baud superan- 
tibus. — Mexico (Real del Monte). 

Tbis plant is described as being scarcely 8 incbes in height 
with a fusiform root : its leaves, sometimes geminate, are from \^ 
to 1| inch long, and 1 to 1{- inch broad, upon a petiole 9 to 10 
lines in length : the peduncle of its solitary axile flower is half an 
inch long, its calycine segments 6 lines, the tube of its corolla 
10 lines, the lobes of its border 7 lines and 3| lines broad. 

3, Nectouxia hella (n. sp.) ; — herbacea, caule striate ; foliis cor- 
datis, ovatis, acutis, utrinque sparse et mollissime pubescen- 
tibus ; flore cernuo, staminibus infra faucem corollse omnino 
inclusis, filamentis superne in ligulam latam membranaceam 
expansis. — Mexico (Real del Monte, Coulter, no. 1270; — circa 
Tolucam, Andrieux, no. 180). 

Although found near the same locality, and in no way differ- 
ing in the shape of its leaves, its herbaceous stem and tapering 
root, this plant offers many points of structure at variance with 
the foregoing species, if we depend upon the usually accurate 
descriptions of Prof. Kunth. It is double its height, and its 
leaves are proportionally larger, being often geminate, 2f inches 
long, 2 inches broad, upon a petiole | inch in length ; the pedun- 
cle of its axillary flower is 1 inch long, its narrow linear acute 
calycine segments are | to | inch, the tube of its corolla 1 inch to 
1^ inch in length, and 2 to 3 lines in diameter at the mouth ; the 
lobes of its border are lanceolate, oblong, very patent, and | inch 
long ; the corona, with ten obsolete teetb, protrudes 2 lines be- 
yond the throat; the stamens, inserted somewhat above the middle 
of the tube, are 3 lines long ; the ovarium is elongated and point- 
edly conical, 3 lines long, | line at base, and is seated on a pro- 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Nicandra. 139 

minent annular ring, and tlie style and stigma do not exceed the 
extremity of the corona*. 

Nicandra. 

This genus of Adanson, on account of its augescent vesicular 
calyx, has been placed near Physalis, but it exhibits much dissi- 
milarity in its habit, in the blue colour and aestivation of its large 
bell-shaped Howers, and in the structure of its fruit. There is 
only one recorded species, well known to our gardens, the old 
Atropa physaloides, Linn., which is manifestly related to Atropa 
and Anisodus on account of the form and imbricate aestivation of 
its corolla and the nature of its fruit ; it differs however from both 
these genera in the very peculiar character of its calyx, in which 
respect it approaches Juanulloa, but it does not correspond with 
that genus either in its habit, the structure of its corolla, or the 
form of its embryo. It therefore takes its position in the tribe 
Atropea (Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd Ser. ii. 166), and I annex an 
emended character in conformity with my own observations 
made upon the living plant. 

Nicandra, Adans. Char, emend. — Calyx magnus, 5-partitus, 
laciniis sagittato-cordatis, acutis, erectis, longitudinaliter re- 
plicatis, marginibus infra medium valvatim conniventibus, hinc 
pseudo-alatis, angulis basalibus in calcaria 5 uncinata acutis- 
sima productis, persistens et augescens. Corolla magna, cam- 
panulata, limbo brevi 5-partito, lobis latis, rotundatis, patenti- 
retlexis, festivatioue imbricata. Stamina 5, sequalia, erecta, 
corollae triplo breviora, filamenta basi tubi e glandulis totidem 
trigonis utrinque auriculatis lanato-tomentosis orta, hinc for- 
nicata, erecta, et incurvata; anthercB ovatse, 2-loculares, imo 
cordatse, in sinu apicifixse, loculis parallele connatis, rima 
marginali longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium obovatum, 
disco carnoso crenulato insidcns, 5-loculare, ovulis plurimis, 
placentis incrassatis axi adnatis. Stylus brevis, longitudine 
staminum. Stigma quinquelobum, lobis obtusis, glanduloso- 
papillosis, in capitulum aggregatis. Bacca subsicca, sphserica, 
calyce globoso, membranaceo, valde reticulato, aucto, 5-gono 
inclusa, 3-5-locularis, pericarpio tenuissimo fragili irregulariter 
rumpente. Semina plurima, reniformia, hilo in sinu laterali ; 
testa scrobiculato-favosa. Embryo teres, intra albumen car- 
iiosum spiraliter arcuatus, cotyledonibus semiteretibus, radicula 
angulo basali spectante, hiloque evitante, duplo brevioribus. — 
Herba suffrutescens Peruana, caulibus plurimis, ramosis, deci- 
duis ; foliis alternis, superioribus geminis, oblongis, acutis, sinu- 

* A representation of this species, with sectional details, will be given in 
plate 40 of the ' Illust. South Amer. Plants.' 



140 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Nicandra. 

ato-incisis, in petiolutn longum decurrentibus, glaberrimis ; flori- 
hns pedunculatis, solitariis, extra-axillarihus, cernuis, peduuculo 
fi'udifero elongato, erecto, apice recurvo. 

1. Nicandra phjsaloides, Gaertn. ii. 237. tab. 131 ; Bot. Mag. 
2458. Atropa physaloides, Linn. ; Jacq. Obs. iv. tab. 98. Phy- 
salis datvirsefolia. Lam. Ency. ii. 102. Calydennos erosus, 
R. ^ P. ii. 44. Alkekengi, FeuilU, Obs. 724. tab. 1 6.— Planta 
om,uino glabra, radice fibrosa, pereimante ; caulibus frondosis, 
ramosissimis, annuis ; foliis glabris, oblongis, acutis, sinuato- 
incisis, in petiolum lougum decurrentibus ; ealyce reticulato, 
nitido, aucto ; corolla magna, azurea, campanulata, fundo al- 
bido, maculis 5 obscure ca^ruleis notata. — Peruvia, v. v. 

This plant is well known in most tropical countries, where it 
has become almost indigenous; it is cultivated in the open air in 
Kew Gardens, from which source an ample opportunity has been 
afforded of examining its structure in a living state. It grows 
there to the height of about 5 feet ; in warmer climates it attains 
a height of 6 or 8 feet ; its leaves are oblong, irregularly inciso- 
sinuate on the margin, with an acute summit, cuueate at base, 
and decurrent on the channeled petiole ; they are about 6^ inches 
long, upon a petiole of 1^ inch, are about 4 inches broad, and 
quite glabrous. The peduncle is pendent, about | inch in flower, 
growing to a length of 1^^ inch in fruit, when it becomes erect 
and suddenly deflexed at its thickened apex : the calyx is 9 lines 
long from its base to the point of its segments, or 1 inch long 
including its basal lobes; the segments are erect, with their 
margins undulated and connivent with the adjoining ones for 
their lower half, salient, producing the appearance as if it were 
5-wingcd ; in fruit it preserves the same form, becoming almost 
globular and vesicular, and of very reticulated texture, with the 
points of its segments conniving and wholly concealing the berry. 
The corolla is about twice the length of the calyx, broadly cam- 
panular, swelling gradually upwards from its middle ; the lobes 
of the border are rounded, somewhat erect and overlapping each 
other at the base, and suddenly revolute towards their apex, which 
is very obtuse, with a slight emarginature on each side of a short 
central point ; the stamens are scarcely one-third of the length 
of the corolla, arising from as many glands adnate to the base of 
the tube, forming a kind of fornix about the ovarium, and clothed 
with densely woolly brachiate hairs ; the filaments above are quite 
smooth, erect, and incurved at the apex ; the style is short, erect, 
surmounted by a large, globulai', woolly or papillose stigma, com- 
posed of five segments closely connivent ; the ovax-ium is seated 
upon a small crenulated yellow gland. The berry is quite glo- 
bular, about 8 lines in diameter, with three to five cells of unequal 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Cliocarpus. 141 

size, having slender dissepiments^ and being filled with an aqueous 
juice and numerous seeds attached to a large central placentation ; 
the berry when fully ripe becomes dry with its pericarp of thin 
and brittle texture, being easily ruptured by an irregular lace- 
ration. The seeds are flattened, reniform and rounded, about 
1 line in diameter. 

Cliocarpus. 

Among Gardner's Brazilian plants I have noticed one, which 
in the shape of its calyx, in the structure of its fruit, and espe- 
cially in the form of its embryo, comes near Nicandra, but it dis- 
agrees in having a woody stem and a wholly different habit ; its 
calyx does not, as in Nicandra, become thin, membranaceous and 
reticular, but is thick, somewhat fleshy, and densely covered 
with stellate tomentum, approaching in its form more to that of 
Juanulloa, although the shape of its embryo is that of the former 
genus. Its flower is yet unknown, as the only specimens col- 
lected were in fruit. On account of the structure of its seed I 
have placed it for the present next Nicandra, but its exact posi- 
tion cannot be known until we are acquainted with its floral cha- 
racters. I have called the genus Cliocarpus from Kkeico, claudo, 
Kap7rb<;, fructus, on account of its fruit being wholly concealed 
within the enlarged enveloping calyx. The following may be 
taken for its generic character until more ample details can be 
obtained : — 

Cliocarpus (gen. nov.). Flos iguotus. — Calt/x frnctifer auctus, 
5-partitus, laciniis lanceolatis, acutis, longitudinaliter subrcpli- 
catis, marginibus valvatim conniventibus, hinc tubum ventri- 
cosum sinuoso-5-angulatum, ore 5-dentatofere clausum, simu- 
lantibus, angulis imo saccatis. Bacca omnino inclusa, globosa, 
2-locularis. Semina plurima, placentis dissepimcnto adnatis 
affixa, reniformia, compressa ; testa scrobiculata, hilo in sinu 
laterali. Embryo teres, in albumen carnosum spiraliter arcuatus, 
cotyledonibus semiteretibus, radicula angulo basali spectante, 
hilo evitante, sub-3-plo brevioribus. — Frutex Brasilie7isis, dense 
stellato-tomentosus ; foliis alternis, ohlongis, inteyris, breviter 
petiolatis ; floribus extra-axillaribus, hinis vel solitariis, pedun- 
cnlo fructifero cernuo. 

1. Cliocai-pus Gardneri (n. sp.) ; — foliis obovatis, acuminatis, basi 
obtuse rotundatis, crassiusculis, supra pubescentibus, subtus 
dense cano-tomentosis, pilis stipitato-stellatis. — Brasilia, ad 
Arraial das INIerces, Prov. Minas Geraes, v. s. in herb. Hook. 
{Gardner, 5042). 

This is described as a shrub 6 to 10 feet high ; its branches 
are woody and covered with yellowish tomentum ; the leaves are 



142 Mr. W, Clark on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 

oblong, acuminated gradually, and sharply attenuated at the 
apex, rounded or subtruncated, and somewhat insequilateral at 
base, 3 inches long, 1^ inch broad, upon a thick short petiole 
of 2 lines in length. The flowers, sometimes in pairs, grow late- 
rally at the base of the petiole ; the peduncle is refracted, | to 
1 inch long, and covered with long glandular hairs mixed with 
shorter stellate pubescence ; the calyx, also tomentose, is 8 lines 
long, 6 lines across, inclosing a small globular berry 4 lines in 
diameter. 



XVIII. — On the Animal of Kellia rubra. 
By W. Clark, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Beacon Hill, Exmouth, Devon, July 5, 1849. 

I VENTURE to trouble you with a few observations in reply to 
Mr. Alder^s last paper, in the ' Annals ' of this month, on the 
subject of Kellia rubra, and then I hope to retire from the field. 
I have had ample scope allowed; and though you have not in- 
terrupted the discussion, by issuing the editorial veto, 

"Claudite jam rivos, pueri, sat prata biberunt," 
still we ought to keep in mind the phrase, 
" Est modus in rebus." 

Mr. Alder still continues to rely on the point that the regular 
ingress and egress of the branchial currents, and the regulation 
thereof, in the bivalve mollusca, are produced by the action of 
the vibratile cilia, which clothe the branchial laminse; I differ 
from his views, and think this doctrine entitled to no confidence, 
and that the cause is inadequate to the effect propounded. 

The branchial cilia have very different functions ; their sole use 
is to beat and subdivide the water, to facilitate the elimination 
of the vital principle therefrom, after it has been admitted into the 
branchial cavity by the opening of the valves of the animal, by 
the relaxation of the adductor muscles, and from whence the im- 
pure water is discharged by their contraction at the same points, 
ventral or siphonal, or a combination of both, as the animal may 
happen to be closed, or open mantled, at which it enters, and a 
fresh supply of the pure element is received to fill the vacuum 
caused by its expulsion. 

Great misapprehension has arisen from confounding the func- 
tions of two different sets of organs, attributing to the one the 
uses of the other, the real functions of which have altogether 
been unnoticed. 

The assumed regularity of the admission and discharge of the 



Mr. W. Clark on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 143 

branchial currents is a sad mistake ; nothing can be more irre- 
gular^ capricious, and uncertain ; they depend entirely on the 
volition, habits, and wants of the animal, and are often suspended 
for weeks in Kellia rubra, and twice in every twenty-four hours 
in the mussels and numerous Gasteropoda inhabiting the higher 
levels of the littoral zone. 

I positively dissent from Mr. Alder's views, repeated in his 
last paper, that the open fold of Kellia rubra is a special bran- 
chial organ. That the water enters therein no one disputes, inas- 
much as this fold is a simple continuation of the ventral portion 
of the mantle, and the water must flow therein, as it does in 
every other part of an open mantle. This sentiment is a repe- 
tition of one in a former paper ; but it is necessary to keep it in 
view, to show that the fold in question has no pretensions, as I 
think, to be considered as a special branchial organ to supply the 
want of one in the usual place nature is always accustomed to 
fix it, and I am inclined to think that Mr. Alder will ultimately 
find that she has not, as he states, placed the " inhalant siphon " 
" before instead of behind." 

This idea of inverting the invariable order of nature to account 
for an anomaly in the structure of Kellia rubra is a stretch of 
imagination, far beyond my conjecture, that the fold in question 
may be to assist locomotion. But I shall not be surprised to find 
that Mr. Alder and myself have mistaken the use of this fold in 
Kellia rubra, and that it may minister to supply water to the 
viviparous colony deposited in the ovarium of the animal of this 
species, and also act as an oviduct and receptacle for the young, 
until they arc sufficiently developed for exclusion. This idea 
arises from having seen, when examining some Kellia suborbicu- 
laris in a saucer, several testaceous young ejected from the ano- 
malous tube of one of the animals, which I find, as Mr. Alder 
states, is entire, and not an open fold as in Kellia rubra ; these I 
immediately gathered up, and have them now by me. I men- 
tioned some time ago this circumstance to Professor Forbes ; 
but notwithstanding this fact, I have never been able to dis- 
cover, in any of the very numerous ovaria of this species I have 
examined, anything but ova, but it is exceedingly probable the 
shells I saw ejected may have been deposited in the curious and 
extraordinary appendage in this animal, and there received the 
development in which I found them. 

As to Mr. Alder's other observations, on some quotations from 
my last paper, I leave them as I find them. I really have some 
difficulty in appreciating their scope, aim and applicability; in- 
deed some of them are so involved as not to be clear. I therefore 
beg him to accept the following new demonstration of the fallacy 
of the inhalant and exhalant branchial currents in the bivalves 



144 Mr. W. Clark on the Animal of Kellia rubra. 

having separate apertures, as an acquittance on account of those 
parts of bis observations which I have neglected to notice, and 
which, if established, will I am sure be considered by that gen- 
tleman as a sufficient answer. 

I propose to demonsti-ate that the water for branchial, as well 
as alimentary purposes, passes into the branchial cavity by both 
the posterior siphons, in conjunction with the pedal aperture in 
those animals in which the ventral range is sufficiently open, and 
is expelled indiscriminately in various proportions from all the 
apertures I have mentioned. 

It appears entirely to have escaped Mr. Alder's observation that 
the posterior siphons of all bivalves have other functions besides 
the conveyance of water to the branchia3, and that they are also 
furnished with most important organs of prehension, for pro- 
viding for the animal's sustentation ; these are the tentacular 
cirrhi and cilia wliich clothe both the anal and branchial siphons 
of a great majority of the bivalve mollusca, to entangle and cap- 
ture the minute animalculfe to be conveyed into the branchial 
cavity : how, and by what means, is this operation to be accom- 
plished ? I answer, through both the posterior ciliated siphons, 
by the agency of the currents of water, which enter and thus 
enable them to deposit within the branchial walls the prey which 
each cirrhigerous siphon has captured. We cannot suppose that 
nature has furnished the siphons of the animals with organs for 
taking their prey, without at the same time providing the means 
of conveying it into the branchial cavity, and there cannot be 
any other than the passage of the water through each siphon. 
We have here irrefragable proof that both the posterior siphons 
are subservient to provide the animal with water for branchial 
and alimentary uses. 

The Pectvies, Anomia, and Ostreos also indisputably prove the 
fallacy of Mr. Alder's doctrine of distinct apertures of ingress 
and egress for the branchial currents, as in these genera the 
animals have only one immense aperture, which extends nearly 
throughout the periphery of the shell, consequently the water 
can only enter into and issue from the same aperture. 

The only other point I must notice is Mr. Alder's assertion 
that I have " overstated " the tidal range oi Kellia rubra. What 
I said with respect to the habitat of this species, was from the 
recollections of fifteen years ago. I visited the locality a few 
days since, and again this day, with a person well acquainted 
with the coast, who called in to assist his judgement another in- 
dividual, who informed me that the rock from wliich I took in 
their presence Kellia rubra, is often not covered with water for a 
fortnight at a lime in calm weather : therefore, as I stated in my 
last paper, the washing of the bases and sides of the rocks suffices 



Mr. W. Clark on the Animal of Kcllia rubra. 145 

to supply moisture to prevent the desiccation of the branchise of 
Kellia rubra, as well as those of the Littorina jugosa and petrcea, 
and of the Patellce and Mytili, which, in many situations, are not 
submerged throughout the year; and I can affirm that I saw 
hundreds of some of the animals I have named from ten to twenty 
feet above the level of the highest spring-tide at any period of 
the year. How these animals exist is a mystery ; it is possible the 
saline particles in the air, and the fine spray carried by the winds 
to the rocks on which these animals ai*e found, may supply suffi- 
cient moisture for the branchiae ; but can the animal from these 
materials extract sustentation ? There is no appearance of their 
descent to lower levels ; they appear to be fixtures ; and I am in- 
formed they are to be found in the same situation in all seasons. 
As for Kellia rubra, they exist in myi'iads in all the higher levels 
of the littoral zone, but in the very lowest they are not submei'ged 
for four hours during the twenty-four. 

These facts invalidate the doctrine of the branchial currents by 
cilia, and their having separate apertures of ingress and egress ; 
for what can be the use of them in Kellia rubra, when they neces- 
sarily must be interrupted for twenty hours out of the twenty- 
four throughout the year ? It seems strange, according to Mr. 
Alder, that a special branchial organ should be furnished by na- 
ture for a bivalve, which can better dispense with such a specialty 
than any other in existence. 

With my best thanks for your liberal insertion of my papers 
in the ' Annals,' 

I remain, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 

Postscript. — To corroborate the conjecture stated above of 
the real uses of the anterior tubes of Kellia rubra and Kellia sub- 
orbicularis, I beg to add, that I have just examined a fine Kellia 
suborbicularis. I placed it on the umbones ; it immediately ex- 
serted and opened the tube, and by the aid of a powerful lens I 
counted at its fundus fifteen largely developed ova, and I have 
not the slightest doubt that these anomalous animals, as regards 
reproduction, are furnished with these anomalous tubes to minister 
thereto; and I have further to state, that on submitting this ani- 
mal to my scalpel and to one of Mr. Ross's best microscopes, I 
received the fullest confirmation of my conjectures, having found 
at the bottom of the ovarium resting on the fundus of the tube, 
ova in all states of development ^.wA. fully -formed testaceous young. 
I have carefully preserved the shell and ovarium. Therefore 
Kellia rubra and Kellia suborbicularis are undoubtedly vivipa- 
rous ; the only difierence between the two is, that the young in 
Kellia rubra are fully developed in the ovarium, and only require 
the open tube-like fold for an oviduct, and to convey water to 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vul. iv. 10 



146 Zoological Society. 

the pulli, whilst Kellia suborbicularis requires the tube to be 
closed, as it is for some time a nidus for the full development of 
the testaceous young. 

I am at this moment enabled to add, that I have just opened 
a very large Kellia suborbicularis having the contents of the ova- 
rium converted from its usual ova-like aspect into many thousands 
of completely testaceous young further to be developed before 
exclusion from the anomalous oviduct. 

The reason why this state of the ova has so often escaped de- 
tection is, that the ovarium has not been examined at the genial 
season. To see it as I have stated, we must attend to the in- 
junction of C. Lucretius — 

" Athens et terrse genitabile quaerere tempus." 

I have on a card many thousands of the testaceous young taken 
from the matrix of the individual above mentioned, a part of 
which I shall have much pleasure in forwarding to any gentleman 
who may desire it. 

It gives me great pleasure that the question of the use of the 
anomalous tubes is at length set at i*est, and the discussion as to 
them between Mr. Alder and myself is ended. 

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL. SOCIETY. 

June 27, 1848. — William Yarrell, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Description of fourteen new species of Helicea, from the 
Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. By Dk. L. Pfeiffer. 

1 . Helix vitellina, Pfr. Hel. testd angustissime umbilicatd, de- 
presso-globosd, siiperne minutissime decussatd, vix nitidd, fusces- 
centi-vitellind ; spird breviter conoided, ohtusiusculd ; anfractibus 
5^ convexiusculis, ultimo antice subdescendente, infra peripheriam 
vix striata, juxta umbilicum contractum albo ; aperturd obliqud, 
lunato-rotundatd ; peristomate simplice, marginibus remotis, colu- 
mellari albo, incrassato-reflexo, superne subdilatato. 

Diam. 29, altit. 18 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

2. Helix gemma, Pfr. (Vitrina suturalis. Beck MSS.) Hel. 
testd subperforatd , conoideo-orbiculatd, tenui, Icevigatd, nitidd, 
pellucidd, virenti-hyalind ; spird dejiresso-conoided ; suturd sub- 
marginatd ; anfractibus 4 vix convexiusculis, sensim accrescent ibus, 
ultimo non descendente ; aperturd par um obliqud, rotundato-lunari ; 
peristomate simplice, recto, margine columellari brevi, arcuato, 
superne reflexiusculo. 

Diam. 9, altit. 5 mill. 

From the islands of Luzon and Camiguing ; collected by Mr. Cu- 
ming. 



Zoological Society. 147 

3. Helix subfusca, Pfr. (Vitrina subfusca. Beck MSS.) Hel. 
testd subperforatd, depressd, tenui, subtiiiter striatuld, pellucidd, 
corneo-fuscd ; spird vix elevatd ; suturd levi, submarginatd; an- 

fractibus 4^ vix convexiusculis, celeriter accrescentibus, ultimo 
peripherid rotundato, antice nan descendente ; aperturd subobliqud, 
late lunari ; peristomate simplice, tenui, recto, marginibus conni- 
ventibus, dextro subsinuato, columellari subverticali, superne vix 
refiexiusculo. 

Diam. 11^, altit. 6^ mill. 

From Sorsogon, isle of Luzon ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

4. Helix VARGAsiANA, Pfr. Hel. testd subobtecteperforatd.conico- 
globosd, costulatd, opacd, cretaced, fasciis nonnullis obsoletis gri- 
seis notatd ; spird conicd, obtusd ; anfractibus b\ convexis, ultimo 
inflato, antice descendente ; aperturd lunato-rotundatd ; peristomate 
simplice, margine svpero et dextro rectis, basali breviter, columel- 
lari latissime reflexo, subverticali, perforationem fer''e tegente. 

Diam. 13, altit. 9,\ mill. 

From the island of Porto Sancto ; collected by Count Vargas. 

5. Helix calcarea, Pfr. Hel. testd perforatd, depresso-globosd, 
striatuld, lineis impressis obsolete reticulatd, opacd, calcared ; 
spird breviter conoided, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 5 convexiusculis, 
ultimo peripherid subcarinato, antice vix descendente ; aperturd 
subverticali, late lunari ; peristomate simplice, margine supero le- 
viter arcuato, basali breviter, columellari paulb latius rejlexo, declivi. 

Diam. 15, altit. 10 mill. 

From Porto Sancto ; collected by Count Vargas. 

6. Helix casta, Pfr. Hel. testd imperforatd, depressd, ut7-inque 
subcequaliter convexd, carinatd, striatuld, nitidd, sub epidermide 
decidud pallide lutescente albd ; suturd lineari, cretaced ; anfrac- 
tibus 4 subplanis, ultimo juxta suturam et infra carinam obsolete 
angulato ; columella brevi, declivi, excavatd, basi subtortd ; aper- 
turd subtrapezid ; peristomate expanso, albo, margine basali leviter 
arcuato, cum columella angulum formante . 

Diam. 47, altit. 23 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

7. Helix anomala, Pfr. Hel. testd umbilicatd, depressd, carinatd, 
solidd, utrinque convexiusculd, granulatd, violaceo -fused ; anfrac- 
tibus 5 convexiusculis, ultimo undique soluto, antice subitb descen- 
dente, basi constricto , profunde 4-scrobiculato ; umbilico cylindrico, 
aperto ; aperturd horizontali, transverse pyriformi ; peristomate 
crasso, continuo, hepatico, undique late expanso, margine basali 
profunde quadridentato. 

Diam. 24, altit. 11 mill. 

From Jamaica. Nearly allied to H. sinuata, but differing in the 
umbilicus and the form of the mouth. Nevertheless it may possibly 
be a monstrous variety of that shell. 

8. BuLiMUS iMPERATOR, Pfr. Bul. testd imperforatd, ovato-conicd, 
solidd, striatuld, strigis nigris, fulvis et albidis alternantibus, 

10* 



148 Zoological Society. 

interdum intcrruptis elegantissime pictd ; spirit elongato-conicd, 
acutiusculd ; anfractibus 6, superioribus planiusculis, 2 ultimis 
convexis, ultimo spird multh breviore ; columella subverticali, basi 
extrorsum subdentatd, carneo-Uvidd ; aperturd truncato-ovali, intus 
carulescente ; peristomate late expanse, nigro-marginato, margine 
dextro vix arcuato. 

Long. 68, diam. 38 mill. 

From the Philippine Islands. 

9. BuLiMus MONozoNUs, Pfr. Bui. testd imperforatd, conoideo- 
ovatd, soliduld, longitudinaliter oblique plicatd, saturate castaned ; 
spird conoided, obtusd ; anfractibus 5| convexis, ultimo spird paulb 
breviore, ad peripheriam cingulo lato albo ornato ; columclld sub- 
verticali, basi extrorsum subtuberculatd ; aperturd lunato-ovali, 
intus margaritaced ; peristomate obtuso, vix expansiusculo, margine 
basali cum columella angulum obtusum formante . 

Long. 52, diam. 32 mill. 
From the Philippine Islands. 

10. BuLiMUs LEPTocHiLus, Pfr. Bul. testd imperforatd, oblongo- 
ovatd, soliduld, striatd et malleatd, sub epidermide olivacescente 
castuneo-marmoratd ; spird elongato-conicd, obtusd; anfractibus 
6 vix convexiusculis, ultimo spiram vix superante ; columelld rece- 
dente, obsoletissime plicatd ; aperturd oblongd, angustd ; peristo- 
mate breviter expanso, simplice, tenui, pallide cameo, marginibus 
callo tenuissimo junctis . 

Long. 98, diam. 40 mill. 

From La Baja, province of Pamplona, New Granada (Funck). 

Nearly allied to Bul. Moritzianus, Pfr. 

IL BuLiMus cosTATUs, Pfr. Bul. testd vix perforatd, solidd, cy- 
lindraceo-turritd, longitudinaliter subconfertim costatd, nitidd, 
cineras cent i- earned ; spird elongatd, obtusd; anfractibus S^ plani- 
usculis, ultimo A longitudinis vix eequante ; columelld superne 
dentato-plicatd ; aperturd oblongd, intus fused ; peristomate bre- 
viter expanso, margine dextro superne arcuato, tum strictiusculo, 
columellari dilatato, reflexo, perforationem fere tegente. 

Long. 18, diam. 5^ mill. 

From the Brazils. 

12. AcHATiNA Reeveana, Pfr. Ach. testd oblong o-turritd, tenui, 
sublcEvigatd, sub lente spiraliter subtilissime striatd, nitiduld, sub 
epidermide fugace, lutescente albidd, luteo-bifasciatd; spird sub' 
turritd, obtusd; suturd regulariter crenulatd ; anfractibus 1\, 
omnibus convexiusculis, ultimo ^ longitudinis subcequante ; colu- 
melld tenui, strictiusculd, brevissime truncatd ; aperturd truncato- 
ovali ; peristomate tenuissimo. 

Long. 48, diam. 22 mill. 

From West Africa. Very similar to Ach. alabaster. Rang. 

13. AcHATiNA poRTORiCENSis, Pfr. Ackut. tcstd turrito-oblongd, 
Icevigatd, lineis longitudinalibus impressis irregulariter sculptd, 
nitidd, pallide corned, strigis saturatioribus ornatd ; spird elon- 



Zoological Society. 149 

gatd, obiusiusculd ; anfractibus 8 planiusculis, ultimo ^ longi- 
tudinis paulh superante ; columella antrorsum arcuatd, prope basin 
apertura abrupte truncatd; aperturd elliptico-semiovali j peristo- 
mate simplice. 

Long. 20, diam. 7 mill. 

From St. John's, Portorico (under stones). 

14. Clausilia Sieboldti, Pfr. Claus. testd arcuato-rimatd, fusi- 
formi, solidd, confertim costulatd, vix nitiduld, corneo-fuscd ; spird 
sensim attenuatd, acutd ; anfractibus 10 convexis, ultimo penulti- 
mum non superante, basi rotundato, obsolete gibbo ; aperturd 
magnd, pyriformi ; lamellis mediocribus, convergentibus ; lunelld 
profundd, arcuatd, extus conspicud ; plied palatali 1 mediocri 
subcolumellari inconspicud ; peristomate continuo, libero, albo, ex- 
panse, reflexiusculo. 

Long. 18, diam. 4 mill. 

From Japan (Sieboldt). 

July 11.— R. C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following papers were communicated to the Meeting : — 

1. On the Occurrence and Habits of Vespertilio emarginatus. 
By R. F. Tomes. 

The specimen of a Bat, the habits of which I am about to describe, 
was taken in Warwickshire, near Stratford-on-Avon, whilst flitting 
around the tops of some high elms by the Avon-side on the 20th of 
June, 1847. It was in company with several others when I suc- 
ceeded in shooting it, which I found very difficult on account of their 
exceedingly crooked, irregular mode of flight. 

I believe I have never seen one of these flying in open places in a 
straightforward manner, as the commoner species, the Noctule and 
Pipistrelle, usually do ; but they follow intimately and exactly the ex- 
tremities of the top branches of high elm or ash trees, always in the 
most sheltered and quiet spots, never appearing on the windward 
side of a tree, even on the calmest evening. They seem of a much 
more social disposition than any other kind of Bat, being usually in 
parties of about half-a-dozen, and all of them most commonly hawk- 
ing round the same tree for a few minutes, then moving off" to the 
next, and so on till all the trees of the group have been searched ; 
and then a re- examination of the same trees takes place. 

As above stated, their flight is never straight, even for a moment, 
but is excessively vacillating and butterfly-like, though rather slow, — 
performed, as I believe, with the head directed towards the centre of 
the tree, so that they in fact fly in a sideward direction. From this 
circumstance I conclude that they take their food, which consists of 
very minute gnats, while resting on the outer leaves, or when about 
to settle on them. 

If watched very closely for a little time, they move on to some 
other tree, appearing to shun observation very carefully. 

Gilbert White, I think, remarked of the Noctule, that it usually 
came abroad later than the Pipistrelle, which I can from personal 



150 Zoological Society. 

experience affirm to be the case. The species now under considera- 
tion is even later than the Noctule, seldom being seen until the latter 
has been abroad for an hour ; so late that, excepting on very clear 
evenings, there is little chance of either observing or obtaining spe- 
cimens. 

It is probable that they may be seen during the greater part of the 
summer months, for I remember to have seen and particularly no- 
ticed them for a long time before I thought of shooting one, and also 
for a considerable length of time afterwards. They may at any time 
be known by a person at all conversant with the method of flight of 
the different species of Bats, by their unsubstantial, butterfly-like 
appearance. 

Both the specimens which came into my possession in the way 
alluded to were females, and on dissection contained a single foetus, 
about half an inch in length ; yet even at this early age the mem- 
branes were considerably developed, and all the parts bore nearly 
the same relative proportion to each other as in the adult. 

The auricle of the ear appeared to be nearly, if not quite fully 
formed, and folded forward over the eyes, reaching almost to the end 
of the nose. 

When skinned and dissected this Bat was quite free from all un- 
pleasant smell. 

Dimensions. . ,. 

ID. un. 

Length of the head and body 1 7^ 

Length of head 7^ 

Length of tail 1 6^ 

Length of the auricle 6 

Width of ditto 3^ 

Length of the tragus 4 

Width of ditto Jg. 

Extent of wings 9 2^ 

Length of the humerus 9 

Length of the thumb 2 

Length from the point of the under jaw to the angle of 

the mouth, being the gape-line, 3 

Dentition. 

i. ±; c.^;f.m.±;m:-^: totalis. 
6 2 -^ 6 6 20 

Since the specimen obtained by Brongniart in the neighbourhood 
of Dover, none are recorded as having occurred till the present time, 
with the exception of a single specimen mentioned by Professor Mac- 
Gillivray, from Winchester, and described by him in the ' Naturalists' 
Library,' vol. xvii. He there states that the ears have " a semi- 
circular lobe at the base of their outer side, and a wide and deep sinus 
in their upper half," which certainly is not the case with my speci- 
mens, the notch being neither wide nor deep, nor the lobe at the base 
at all distinctly marked. Neither is there any great resemblance to 
Mr. Bell's figure, taken from Brongniart's ; the ears in that being 
much narrower in proportion to their length, with the sinus near the 



Zoological Society. 151 

top of the outer side. It agrees however very nearly with the de- 
scription and figure given by the latter naturalist from the specimen 
found by him near Dover, and there can be no doubt of its identity 
witli his specimen of Vespertilio emarginatus. 

2. On the Species of the Genus Placenta of Retzius. 
By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. etc 

Lamarck describes three species of this genus, depending on the 
general outline and the waved or flat form of the shell, characters 
which are liable to considerable variations, as may be found on the 
mere inspection of any large number of specimens. 

I have observed that the hinge forms a more permanent character, 
and affords the means of dividing the species into two sections, and 
furnishes characters which separate them from each other. In both 
subgenera the right valve is the flattest, and bears the ridges of the 
hinge. 

Sect. I. Placuna,s^.\jdiWLk.=Ephippmm,C\xQV[va..; Placenta (3, Schum. 
Shell purplish, subopake ; hinge-ridges rapidly diverging from one 
another at about the angle of 45 degrees. Muscular scar under 
the centre of the hinge. The ridges of nearly equal length. 

1. Placenta Sella. — Shell flexuous, outline rather rhombic, being 
straight in front and rather notched behind ; the ridges of the hinge 
not longer than they are separate from each other at the base. 

Anomia Sella, Gmelin, S. N. 3345, 1 788. 
Placuna Sella, Lamk. Hist. N. 2. 

Ephippium anglicanum maximum, Chemn. C. viii. t. 79. f. 714. cop. 
E. JM. t. 174. f. 1. 

Placenta Ephippium, Retz. 1788. 
Inhab. China, India. 
/3. Shell nearly flat, subquadrangular. 
Inhab. Australia. Brit. Mus. 

2. Placenta papyracea ; Placuna papyracea, Lamk. Hist. N, 2 = 
Ephippium parvum, Chemn. Conch, viii. t. 79. f. 719. cop. E. M. 
t. 174. f. 2. 

3. Placenta Lincolnii. — Shell flat, outline suborbicular, rounder 
before and behind ; ridges of the hinge elongate, longer than they are 
separate from each other at the base. 

Inhab. Australia ; Mr. W. Davison. British Museum. 
I wish to name this species after my excellent friend Mr. Abraham 
Lincoln, who kindly presented me with the specimen here described, 
and who is well known for his fondness for conchology and the libe- 
rality with which he allows persons to use his extensive collection. 
Sect. II. Placenta; Placenta, Schum. Shell semitransparent, flat, 
outline suborbicular ; ridges of the hinge very gradually diverging 
from each other, the hinder ridge much the longest. Muscular scar 
rather in front of the middle of the hinge. 

1. Placenta orbicularis, Retz. ; Placuna placenta, Lamk. Hist. N. 3 ; 
Anomia placenta, Linn. S. N. 1154 ; Chemn. Conch, viii. t. 79. f. 1 76. 
cop. E.M. t. 173. f. 2. 



153 Miscellaneous. 

Shell colourless, semitransparent ; when young, pale purplish. 

Inhab. China. N.W. Coast of Australia; Earl of Derby. Port 
Essington. 

The shells vary a little in the inequality of the hinge-ridges, but 
the hinder is always the longest. 

I may remark that Chemnitz gives the best character for the spe- 
cies, and has observed the character furnished by the hinge, which 
has been overlooked by Lamarck, and, as far as I am aware, by all 
recent authors. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 
The Effect of Iodine upon the Nectary. By Dr. R. Caspary*. 

We consider the nectary as a peculiar organ, in a physiological 
as well as in a morj)hologieal sense ; physiological, inasmuch as it 
secretes a saccharine fluid, and morphological, inasmuch as its cells 
are distinguished both by their structure and their contents from the 
cells of the neighbouring parts of the plant. The cells of the nec- 
tary are very small, globular or nearly so, and they contain a pecu- 
liarly dense and granular matter. 

One of the most important inquiries connected with the physio- 
logy of the nectary is to ascertain, how the sugar which it secretes 
is produced ? 

This question is only, as we may consider, one special form of the 
general question, how is sugar produced ? 

Without entering minutely into the general inquiry, we will refer 
only to two modes of the production of sugar, which probably have 
a special bearing upon the case before us. 

1st. Sugar is produced from starch by the presence of diastase, 
which however cannot be prepared as an independent substance, and 
the existence of which is consequently disputed. Its active element 
appears to be nitrogen, so that we may say that sugar is produced 
from starch by the presence of a body containing nitrogen. 

2ndly. Sugar is produced from starch or cellulose by the presence 
of sulphuric acid. 

Fremy has made use of the latter mode of the production of sugar 
in accounting for the sugar in fruits. He endeavours to demon- 
strate that as starch or cellulose is converted into sugar by sulphuric 
acid, so certain substances, present in fruits and taking the place of 
starch or cellulose, are changed into sugar by the presence of free 
vegetable acids, which act in a similar way to sulphuric acid. This 
mode of the production of sugar has not yet been alluded to in ac- 
counting for the sugar of the nectaries of plants. 

The first mode of the production of sugar, according to which 
starch is changed into sugar by the action of a body containing ni- 
trogen, is employed by Liebig in his ' Chemistry of Agriculture and 
Physiology,' in illustrating the formation of sugar in the trunks of 
trees, as in the maple. He however does not prosecute the subject 

♦ From the ' Botanische Zeitung," Feb. 2.3, 1SJ9. Translated and cora- 
nnuiicated by the author. 



Miscellaneous. 153 

to a great extent, and does not show by accurate observations or 
experiments that starch is always present in this process, or if it is 
not present, what substance acts in its place. 

I have assumed the first mode of the production of sugar in ac- 
counting for the saccharine secretion of the nectary in a little paper, 
' De Nectariis, Bonnse, apud Adolphum Marcum,' 1848, p. 45 seq. 
I ought there to have demonstrated two things : first, the presence 
of starch in the nectary, or at least of a substance deposited in it 
and holding the place of starch ; and, secondly, the existence of a 
body containing nitrogen, which should act upon the starch or other 
substance and convert it into sugar. I have endeavoured to demon- 
strate that such a body containing nitrogen, the formation of which 
takes place very near the nectary and which operates upon it, is to 
be found in the pollen and in the ovules, 1. c. p. 35 seq., and p. 48. I 
shall now proceed in these notes to give additional proofs of the effect 
of the substances containing nitrogen, which I conclude produce the 
nectar. In my former work I have ventured the supposition, that 
the variously-coloured granular substances deposited in the peculiar 
and globular or nearly globular cells of the nectary are actually 
starch, or at least hold the place of starch in the process. The 
presence of starch in the nectary, or the question as to whether the 
granular matter contained in the nectary be starch or not, is the sub- 
ject of the following observations. 

It is a well-known fact in chemistry and vegetable physiology, 
that iodine colours starch blue, and that it is a very delicate test. 
In answering, therefore, the question as to whether the granular mat- 
ter of the nectary be starch or not, we shall submit the nectary to the 
action of iodine. 

In the summer of 1848, I examined the nectaries of upwards of 
two hundred plants which are indigenous to the county of Norfolk 
in England. From the effect of iodine on the nectaries of those 
plants I obtained the following results. But before proceeding, I 
may be allowed to premise, that the iodine employed for the purpose 
was dissolved in weak spirits of wine, for I found it the most easy 
to manage in this form. If the iodine is dissolved in water, its 
action is not sufficiently rapid. If dissolved in more concentrated 
spirits of wine, it either colours too darkly, or on the addition of 
water under the microscope, disturbs the observation by the secretion 
of crystals. 

The membrane of the cells of the nectary, like membrane in gene- 
ral, takes a yellow or brown colour, more or less deep, on the appli- 
cation of iodine. The nectary of Euphorbia Peplus, L., which has 
naturally a yellow colour, is hardly visibly affected by iodine. In a 
general way iodine colours the nectary much more deeply yellow or 
more deeply brown than the other parts of the flower, as the ovary, 
the style, the petals and sepals. This is the case in Artemisia Absin- 
thium, L., Lapsana communis, L., Filago germanica, L. (male flower), 
Bellis perennis, L., Sonchus oleraceus, L., &c. In certain cases, in 
which there is some doubt as to the true site of the nectary, I would 
willingly be influenced by the effect of iodine, and assert, that that 
organ is the nectary which takes the darkest colour on the application 



154 Miscellaneous. 

of iodine. I therefore conclude, in the case of Knautia arvensis. 
Coulter, that the nectary is a small cylinder under the style, and in 
Succisa pratensis, Mcench., that it is a very peculiarly loose accumu- 
lation of cells at the base of the corolla, under the greatest lobe ; and 
I arrive at this conclusion because these parts are coloured the most 
darkly by iodine, and because their structure is analogous to that of 
nectaries in general. 

With respect to the contents of the cells of the nectary, we must 
carefully distinguish between the contents of the common cells and 
those of the pores. The contents of the former usually consist of a 
yellowish, greenish or uncoloured, transparent juice, and of a gra- 
nular matter, the grains of which are sometimes so small that they 
are scarcely visible, even with a magnifying power of 550, the whole 
having the appearance of a mass of slime interspersed with traces of 
grains. In most cases however the grains are clearly visible. Their 
colour varies considerably, but is limited to the different shades of 
yellow, green, gray, brown, and obscure violet, though the last is but 
very rarely observed. It did not occur once in the two hundred 
plants I examined last year. The colour of the grains is generally 
the most readily detected when they are congregated one upon the 
other in small clusters. The individual grains are generally colour- 
less and transparent. Sometimes in addition to the above-mentioned 
grains there are very large grains of the same globular form, but 
entirely transparent and free from colour, as in Pedicularis pahis- 
tris, L. I need hardly mention, that there are also in the nectaries 
of plants, crystals, air-vesicles, &c., which have no reference to the 
present subject. 

The grains contained in the cells of the nectary are also in most 
cases coloured yellow or brown by iodine. 

In eleven plants iodine obviously colours the grains blue, and thus 
proves that they are starch. In four others it colours them a bluish- 
brown or a brownish-blue : Armeria maritima, Willd., Hyoscyamus 
niger, L., Hypochccris radicata, L., and Sinapis alba, L. The eleven 
plants the grains of which become blue by the application of iodine 
are the following : Pedicularis palustris, L., Arenaria media, L., 
Metitha arvetisis, L., Malva moschata, L., Malva sylvestris, L., Cli- 
nopodium vulgare, L., Convolvulus sejnum, L., Conv. arvensis, L., 
Lychnis sylvestris, Hoppe, Lychnis dioica, L., Bryonia dioica, L. 
In the nectary of Pedicularis palustris only the above-mentioned 
larger and transparent grains take the blue colour. The nectary 
of Arenaria media, L., is the base of the sepals, where they abut 
upon the filaments, and the epidermis only contains starch. The 
nectaries of Lychnis sylvestris and dioica are on the gymnophorum 
between the bases of the petals and their processes. In Lychnis 
sylvestris I found evidence of starch only in the male flower, and in 
L. dioica only in the female flower. The grains of starch vary very 
much in size. The diameter of the largest is only about one-fourth 
of the diameter of a common grain of potato-starch, and the smallest 
grains are scarcely visible even with a magnifying j)ower of 550. 
The form of the grains is irregular, but more or less globular. Though 
coloured by iodine they remain transparent, and generally show a 



Miscellaneous. 155 

somewhat darker spot in the centre, which is probably a small hoi- 
low space, such as may often be seen in starch. Beside the dark 
spot in the centre I observed layers in the starch of Clinopodium vul- 
gare, but there were only two in the largest grains. Iodine some- 
times does not act upon the grains till after the lapse of some minutes, 
as in Convolvulus urvensis. 

Before I speak of the effect of iodine upon the pores, I must pre- 
mise, that the pores which are found in the nectaries of many plants 
have, with but few exceptions, a row of globular grains on the ex- 
terior margin, distinguished by their size, transjjarency, and freedom 
from colour. I found no trace of these grains in the pores of four 
of the plants I examined last summer, viz. Cakile maritima, Willd., 
Euphrasia officinalis, L., Statice Limonium, L., Sedum Telephium, L. 
Iodine had a different effect on the grains of these pores, although 
in their physical i^roperties they appear to be identical. In seven 
plants they became blue, and in fourteen brown, of a deep shade, 
much browner than any other part of the nectary. But whether 
they became blue or brown, the effect was always a sudden one, and 
much more rapid than in the case of the grains in the other cells. 
This may be well observed in Bryonia dioica, in which the rings of 
the grains in the pores instantaneously appear on the change of 
colour, which takes place immediately iodine touches the nectary ; 
whereas the grains in the other cells gradually and slowly assume 
the blue colour. All these grains, whether they take a blue or brown 
tint, have no dark spot in the centre nor any trace of layers, but 
consist of one uninterrupted mass of matter. The seven plants, the 
grains in the pores of which are coloured blue by iodine, are the fol- 
lowing : Bryonia dioica, L., Geranium Rohertianum, L., Parnassia pa- 
lustris, L., Sinapis alba, L., Cnicus lanceolatus, Willd., Scrophularia 
Balbisii, Hornem., Rubus fruticosus, L. The fourteen plants, the 
grains of the pores of which iodine colours dark brown, are the fol- 
lowing : Campanula Trachelium, L., Car Una vulgaris, L., Calendula 
officinalis, L., Centaurea scabiosa, L. (flower of the disc), Senecio syl- 
vaticus, L. (flower of the disc), Sonchus arvensis, L., Circcea lutetiana, 
L., Cichorium Intybus,lj., Reseda luteola,lj., Samolus Valerandi,Ij., 
Helianthus annuus, L. (flower of the disc), Tanacetum vulgare, L., 
Hieracium pilosella, L., Helminthia echioides, Gaertn. In all these 
cases, whether the grains of the pores are coloured blue or brown, 
the grains of the other cells assume a yellow or brown tint, except 
Bryonia dioica, in which they become blue, and Sinapis alba, L., in 
which they take a brownish-blue tint. 

The inquiry now presents itself, what is the granular matter in 
the nectaries and their pores which is coloured brown by iodine ? 
I cannot state established facts in reply, but only advance the hypo- 
thesis, that it is a starch-like substance, from which the sugar of the 
nectary might be easily produced. I am urged to this conclusion by 
the following reasons : — 

1st. The brown-tinted grains of the nectaries are in their physical 
properties, such as form, magnitude, colour and situation, exactly 
similar to the grains of the eleven or twenty-two plants, — as we include 
in the number those four plants the grains of which take a blue- 



156 Miscellaneous. 

brown colour, as well as those seven the pore-grains of which assume 
a blue tint,— which grains iodine proves to be real starch. It would 
be remarkable indeed, if the substance in the former were not also 
of a similar nature to starch, — if it were not in fact isomeric with 

starch. 

2ndlv. It would also be most remarkable, if plants of the same 
family,' the nectaries of which agree with one another in situation 
and structure, should in some cases contain starch in the nectary 
and in others a different substance. Amongst the Labiata, for in- 
stance, it is indisputable that the nectaries of Mentha arvensis and 
Clinop'odium vnlgare contain starch. It would be extraordinary in- 
deed if the contents of the nectaries of many other Labiatce, as of 
Stachys sylvatica and arvensis. Prunella vulgaris, Lamium album, &c., 
were not also starch, although they are turned brown by iodine, for 
their nectaries are in all other respects exactly similar tothose of the 

first. 

3rdlv. The elements of starch (C-, H'^, 0'°*) form also with the 
same number of atoms three or four other substances, dissimilar in 
their chemical and physical properties, viz. cellulose, inuline, dex- 
trine, and hchen starch. Schleiden, however, in his ' Wissenschaft- 
HcheBotanik,' 1846, does not consider lichen starch as a distinct 
substance, although Mulder in his ' Chemistry of Vegetable and 
Animal Physiology,' which I have before me only in an English 
translation by Fromberg, without date, regards it as a chemically 
distinct body. When will the time come when chemistry will state 
results on these important substances which will meet with general 
acceptance ? It is certain, at all events, that the chemical combina- 
tion of C'- H'° 0'° constitutes a most variable substance. Although 
we may never be able by direct analysis to prove the identity of 
the granular matter in the nectaries, which is coloured brown by 
iodine, and the formula C'^ H'o O'O, there is nothing to prevent us 
from assuming the identity, and concluding that the contents of the 
nectary, which are coloured brown by iodine, are isomeric with 
starch. ' From this substance, therefore, and the nitrogen contained 
in the pollen and ovules, the sugar of the nectar results. 
Cringleford, near Norwich, April 1849. 

On the Intimate Structure of Articular Cartilage. By Dr. Leidy. 
As is famihar to every anatomist, articular cartilages always 
fracture in a direction perpendicular to their surface, the broken 
edge presenting a striated appearance in the same direction. This 
character the older anatomists ascribed to a fibrous or columnar 
structure of the cartilage, Uke that of the enamel of the teeth, while 
histologists at the present day consider it as dependent upon the 
vertical arrangement of the rows of cartilage-cells, although it has 
been suspected to depend upon some ultimate arrangement of the 
matrix or intercellular substance not yet detected. In some late 
observations upon the structure and development of articular carti- 
lage, through means of an excellent microscope, made for me by 

* I quote from Mulder's 'Chemistry of Animal and Vegetable Physiology.' 



Miscellaneous. 157 

Messrs. Powell and Lealand of London, I have been enabled to dis- 
cover a definite structure in the intercellular substance. This con- 
sists of an arrangement of exceedingly fine, transparent filaments, 
nearly uniform in thickness, and having an average measurement of 
the ^5^0 (jth of an inch. An easy method of detecting this filamentous 
structure, is to tear a fine fibre from the broken edge of an articular 
cartilage which has been macerated in diluted muriatic acid, by 
means of a fine-pointed forceps, and exposing it in the ordinary way 
in water beneath the microscope, using the quarter- or eighth-inch 
objective power. The fine filaments, partly detached, will be seen 
in great numbers along the sides of the fibre. When these filaments 
are viewed by very oblique light, they appear to have an indistinct 
granular appearance, each composed of a single row of granules, 
which of course, in the articular cartilage, adhere together with greater 
tenacity in the direction of the length of the filaments than laterally. 

When an articular cartilage is broken in a direction from the 
under to the free surface, it is found that the fragments adhere by a 
membranous layer, covering the free surface of the cartilage, which 
by the older anatomists was considered as the extension of the 
synovial membrane ; by the anatomists of our day, either as a homo- 
geneous layer, or as nothing more than a stratum of the cartilage, the 
rows of cells of which take a direction parallel with the surface, or 
at right angles to those more deeply situated, and thus giving rise to 
this distinct laminated condition. That it is a cartilaginous layer is 
undoubtedly correct ; but instead of the rows of cells determining the 
arrangement, I find it depends upon the filamentary structure of the 
matrix, the filaments taking a course parallel with the surface of the 
cartilage, in a direction at right angles to those forming the matrix 
of the deeper part of the cartilage. 

A straight fibre may be torn from the articular cartilage, and in 
the act of tearing, should a row of cells be in the line of rupture, as 
is frequently the case, (for although generally following the course 
of the filaments, yet a number are oblique or even somewhat irregu- 
lar,) it will be torn through, which in itself would be sufficient to 
indicate that the fibrous arrangement of the cartilage did not depend 
upon its rows of cells, and indeed they have but little or no influence 
in this respect. 

From the foregoing description of the structure of the intercellular 
substance of articular cartilage, it can be readily understood that it 
may determine the course of the rows of cells, which is really the 
case. In the earliest period of the existence of the articular cartilage, 
the cartilage-cells are single, isolated, and equally diffused through- 
out a mass of hyaline substance, which latter in the progress of 
development becomes indistinctly granular, and then for the first 
time have I observed the appearance of the filamentary structure. 
In the splitting up of the primary cartilage- cell and development of 
others, they arrange themselves in the direction in which there is least 
resistance, which would be of course in the direction of the filaments 
of the intercellular matrix. Hence, in the deeper part of the articular 
cartilage, the rows of cells are generally vertical to the surface, and 
parallel to the same in its more superficial portion. 



158 Miscellaneous. 

In some of the articular cartilages sometimes there are peculiarities 
of structure which I think have never been pointed out, and are 
worthy of notice. 

In the articular cartilage of the condyles of the os femoris, I have 
occasionally noticed numerous minute lacunae ?, found in greatest 
abundance near the surface of attachment, and gradually decreasing 
in number until they entirely disappear in the superficial third of 
the cartilage. They are elongated, compressed, and their long 
diameter is invariably situated transversely, at right angles to the 
filamentous matrix, or parallel with the surface of the cartilage. 
The longest measure transversely ygVo °^ ^^ inch, the shortest yyVj 
of an inch, in the vertical direction g^gW of an inch. When well- 
defined, they appear more transparent than the cartilaginous matrix 
in which they are situated ; when viewed a little within the focus 
they appear deep black. 

Fibres of bone are not unfrequently met with in the articular car- 
tilages, especially in that of the head of the os femoris. They are 
generally found near the surface of attachment, but are not the con- 
tinuation of the bony structure upon which the cartilage is placed, 
for they are always arranged in a direction parallel to the surface. 
They are compressed cylindrical in form, and in transverse section 
present an elliptical figure, the long diameter of which is placed at right 
angles to the filaments of the cartilage matrix. They present a con- 
centrically laminated and a radiated structure, resembling somewhat 
that of the Haversian ossicle, but they neither present the canal nor 
the Purkinjean corpuscles. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 117. 

NOTICE OF AN EXCAVATING CIRBIPEDE. 

On the 8th of last June Mr. Albany Hancock communicated to a 
Meeting of the " Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club," an account of 
an excavating Cirripede which he had recently discovered on the 
neighbouring coast. This animal possesses much interest, not only on 
account of the peculiar habit of burying itself in the shell of mollusks, 
but likewise for its remarkable deviation of form from all the known 
types of the class. No part of the animal, though unprovided with 
shelly plates, is exposed, except two hps which guard a small narrow 
opening in the surface of the substance in which the Cirripede is 
concealed. 

On the Arrangement of the Areolar Sheath of Muscular Fasciculi and . 
its relation to the Tendon. By Dr. Leidy. 
It is well known that the fasciculi of fibres of the muscles are 
surrounded by sheaths of areolar tissue, but the arrangement of the 
filaments of fibrous tissue forming the sheaths, and their relation 
■with the tendon, I think has not been properly pointed out. From 
repeated observation, I have found that the filaments of fibrous tissue 
cross each other diagonally around the muscular fasciculi, forming 
a doubly spiral extensible sheath. None of the filaments run in the 
direction of the length of the fasciculi, and but few are transverse. 
Many of the filaments of a sheath form an interlacement in the same 
diagonal manner with the filaments of the sheaths of neighbouring 



Meteorological Observations. 159 

fasciculi. This arrangement is readily distinguished, if several fas- 
ciculi be drawn slightly from each other upon a plate of glass, and 
the intervening areolar tissue be viewed beneath the microscope. 
When the filaments reach the rounded extremities of the fasciculi, 
they become straight, and in this manner conjoin with the tendinous 
filaments originating at the extremities of the muscular fibres. The 
importance of this arrangement can be readily understood : from the 
diagonally crossing course of the areolar filaments, comparatively 
inelastic in themselves, the sheath is rendered elastic, thus per- 
mitting the muscular fibres freely to move without their action being 
interfered with ; while at the point of attachment of the fasciculi, 
where any elasticity would be worse than useless, from the fact that 
part of the muscular action would be lost in the mere extension of 
an elastic substance, we find the filaments arrange themselves so as 
to become part of the inextensible tendon. — Proceedings of the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 119. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR JUNE 1849. 
Chiswick. — June 1,2. Fine. 3. Fine: hazy: clear. 4. Very fine. 5. Sultry: 
showery at night. 6. Uniformly overcast. 7. Fine. 8. Fine : overcast. 9. Fine : 
rather cold: overcast: clear. 10 — 12. Overcast. 13. Fine: cloudy: clear. 
14. Fine : slightly clouded. 15. Dusky haze. 16. Overcast : fine. 17. Fine: 
dusky haze. 18. Fine. 19. Slight rain. 20. Very fine. 21. Fine. 22,23. 
Very fine. 24. Cloudless and very fine. 25. Overcast: very fine. 26 — 28. 
Very fine. 29. Cloudy : rain. 30. Cloudy : clear and cold at night. 

Mean temperature of the month 59''*S0 

Mean temperature of June 1848 59*58 

Mean temperature of June for the last twenty-three years ... 60 '85 

Average amount of rain in June 1*88 inch. 

Boston. — June 1. Cloudy. 2 — 4. Fine. 5. Cloudy: rain, with thunder and 
lightning A.M. : rain P.M. 6 — 9. Fine. 10. Cloudy : rain early a.m. 11. Cloudy. 

12. Cloudy: rain p.m. 13, 14. Fine. 15. Fine: rain p.m. 16. Cloudy. 17, 
18. Fine, 19. Fine : rain a.m. and p.m. 20. Fine. 21. Cloudy. 22. Fine. 
23. Cloudy. 24. Fine. 25. Rain. 26. Fine. 27. Cloudy. 28. Fine. 29. 
Fine : rain p.m. SO. Cloudy. 

jipplegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — June 1. Clear and bracing weather: 
shower a.m. 2. Fine and growing : one shower p.m. 3, 4. Fair and fine. 5. 
Fair a.m. : one shower p.m. : electr. 6, 7. Fair and fine. 8. Fair, but chilly 
from N.E. 9. Fair : air highly electric : thunder. 10. Fair and very droughty. 
11. Fair and droughty : getting cloudy. 12. Fair and droughty : cleared away. 

13. Fair and droughty. 14. Fair and droughty, but getting cloudy. 15. Fair 
and droughty : cloudy : thunder. 16. Slight shower : much thunder. 17. Again 
droughty. 18. Cloudy : a few drops of rain. 19. Heavy rain, night : shower, 
day. 20. Frosty during night: shower p.m. 21. A few drops : very high wind. 
22. Rain at intervals. 23. Fair and clear. 24. Light rain : very mild. 25. 
Cloudy a.m. : slightly showery. 26. Slight shower p.m. 27. Fine : warm : fair 
all day. 28. Fair. 29. Rain p.m., not heavy but soft. SO. Fair all day and 
warm. 

Mean temperature of the month 53°*3 

Mean temperature of June 1848 55 '7 

Mean temperature of June for twenty-five years 56 •! 

Rain in June for twenty years 3*16 inches. 

Saiulwick Mat(Se,0rk7iey. — June 1, 2. Bright : clear. 3. Bright : cloudy. 4. 
Showers : cloudy. 5, 6. Bright : clear. 7. Hazy : clear. 8. Bright : clear. 
9. Bright: snow-showers. 10. Cloudy. 11. Bright: clear. 12. Bright: 
cloudy. 13,14. Bright: clear. 15. Cloudy. 16. Drizzle: rain. 17. Clear: 
rain. IS. Rain. 19. Cloudy : damp. 20. Cloudy : rain. 21. Rain : clear. 
22. Cloudy. 23. Rain : cloudy. 24. Bright : clear. 25. Bright : rain. 26. 
Fog : drizzle. 27. Showers ; hazy. 28, 29. Bright : clear. 30. Bright : rain. 



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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 21. SEPTEMBER 1849. 



XIX. — On the Classification of some British Fossil Crustacea, with 
Notices of new Forms in the University Collection at Cambridge. 
By Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Geology aud Mineralogy 
in Queen's College, Belfast. 

The class Crustacea having received less attention from British 
palaeontologists than perhaps any other of similar importance, I 
have put together in the following pages a few observations I 
have been able to make on the examples in the collection of the 
University of Cambridge, as well as on a great number of speci- 
mens of the same species, for the most part finely preserved, 
lent me by various friends to render my observations as perfect 
as possible. I have given descriptions of some of the best-marked 
new species, also of some new genera ; I have endeavoured to refer 
some others, hitherto improperly placed in recent genera, to the 
various fossil genera established by foreign writers for cognate 
forms, and have ventured a few suggestions on the classification 
and systematic position of some of the groups. 

Class CRUSTACEA. 

Ord. PoDOPHTHALMA. Tribe Decapoda. 

[Br achy ur a.) 

Of this the most highly organized group of Crustacea, I believe 
the following genera have been quoted from British rocks with- 
out sufficient authority: viz. 1. Zantho (Leach); this has been 
quoted with doubt by Desmarest, Bronn, &c. from the London 
clay ; I have ascertained that the Crustacea referred to are of an 
extinct genus, more nearly related to Pilumnus thau to Zantho, 
which I have named Zanthopsis. 2. Orithya (Fabr.) : M. Des- 
longchamps referred with doubt a crustacean originally disco- 
vered by Sir Henry de la Beche in the greensand of Lyme Regis, 
to this recent genus of natatory Brachyura ; I find however that 
the species referred to [O. Labechii of Desl. Mem. de la Soc. Linn. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol iv. 11 



162 



Prof. F. M'Coy on the Classification of 






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de Normandie, Morrises Catalogue, &c.), and some similar forms 
from the gault, form a peculiar genus intermediate between Ho- 
mola and Corystes, and belonging not to the Brachyura but to 
the Anomura, for which I have proposed the name Podopilumnus. 
3. Inachus : Desmarest (Crust. Foss.), Morris (Catal.), and seve- 
ral other authors have quoted a species of this genus as found 
fossil in the London clay : — the figures and descriptions which 
I give below, from the abundance of perfect specimens which I 
have examined, leave no room for doubt that the fossil in question 
does not belong to the Brachyura but belongs to the Anomura, 
and forms a particular genus allied to Notopus, Dorippe and the 
like, to which I have gi\^en the name Notopocorystes. 4. Corystes / " 
(Latreille) : the gault fossils referred to this genus in Morris's 
' Catalogue ' belong to the same Anomurous genus as the so- 
called Orithya. 

Zanthopsis (M'Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Carapace suborbicular or transversely oval, gibbous, 
strongly arched from before backwards; gastric region very 
large, tumid, depressed in the middle towards the insertion 



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Diagram of the genus Zanthopsis. 
Entire animal as far as known ; b, view of the front from below, showing 
the internal antennae lodged in their transverse foss®, and the position 
of the outer pair in the inner canthi of the orbits ; c, abdomen of female, 
nat. size; d, ditto of male, iiat. size. 

of the genital region, which is very small, pentagonal, and not 
extending more than one-third the length of the carapace to- 
wards the front, generally divided by a transverse depression 
into two portions, the hinder of which is most prominent and 
equal in width to the cardiac and intestinal regions, which are 
longer than broad, and form together a tumid ridge of three 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 163 

obtuse oblong nodules (defined by a hollow along each side 
smoother than the rest of the carapace) ; branchial regions with 
four large tubercles, two before and two behind, the inner 
posterior one elongate obliquely backwards and outwards; 
front four-lobed (including the prominent inner angle of the 
orbit) ; orbits large, the two lateral and the inferior angles pro- 
minent ; latero-anterior margin with about three tubercles or 
spines on each side, the posterior pair largest, placed at the 
greatest width of the carapace, and in a line with the sulcus 
separating the genital and cardiac regions ; surface minutely 
and closely pitted; antennce as in Zantho (outer pair in the 
inner canthi of the orbits, inner pair in deep transverse fossae 
beneath the front) ; eyes on very short peduncles ; tail of seven 
distinct pieces in both sexes ; first pair of feet forming robust, 
unequal chelae ; hand subcompressed, nodulated, with the upper 
and inner edge tuberculato-dentate ; fingers short, with few 
large obtuse teeth -jfour hind jj air moderate, subequal, slightly 
compressed, smooth. 

The Cancer Leachii (Desra.) may be looked on as the type of 
this genus ; it was referred to Cancer or Zantho by Desmarest 
(Consid. sur les Crust, fos.) and to Cancer by IMilne-Edwards 
(Suites k Buffon), from the want probably of good specimens. It 
is nearer to Zantho by its tuberculated carapace, few tubercles on 
the latero-anterior margins, and position of the external antennse 
at the inner canthi of the eyes, instead of between these and the 
front ; but it differs in the great convexity of the carapace, and 
materially from both those genera in both sexes having seven 
separate joints in the tail, showing in this a closer relationship 
with Pilumnus, from which however the strong nodulation of the 
hind part of the carapace and its oval, vaulted form, as well as 
the quadrilobed front and great extent of the gastric region, di- 
stinguish it. 1 only know the genus from the London clay. 

Zanthopsis nodosa (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Carapace about one-seventh wider than long, very gib- 
bous in the middle, sloping gradually to the sides, more rapidly 
towards the posterior margin, falling most rapidly and with an 
abrupt curve towards the front ; anterior half broadly rounded, 
each antero-lateral margin with three large, obtusely rounded, 
nodular tubercles gradually diminishing towards the front ; 
tubercles of the branchial regions very prominent as large ob- 
tuse nodules ; gastric region tumid with a shallow depression 
along the middle ; genital region small, prominent, strongly 
divided by a wide transverse depression, posterior half most 
prominent, obscurely bilobed ; hollow space on each side of the 
mesial regional ridge remarkably smooth ; chela of the male 
rather larger than of the female, the upper ridge of the right 

11* 



164 Prof. F. M'Coy on the Classification of 

(large) hand with six or seven conical tubercles, that of the 
left with about four, outer side of each hand with two very- 
obscure small tubercles near the carpus, and one much larger 
but less distinct near the origin of the fingers ; two blunt teeth 
on the inner edge of each finger ; tail of the female broad 
ovate, of the male narrow hastate, terminal joint triangular, 
about 4th wider than long, penviltimate joint the same length 
but a little wider, third joint much wider than the others, but 
shorter than the fourth or fifth. Length about 1 inch 9 lines, 
width 2 inches. 

Common in the London clay of Sheppey. 

{Col. University of Cambridge and Mr. Bowerbank.) 

Zanthopsis bispinosa (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Carapace transversely oval, about one-fifth wider than 
long, gently convex, two posterior pair of tubercles of the an- 
tero-lateral margin forming short, flattened, sharp spines, the 
anterior one forming a small, very obtusely angular projection ; 
crest of the large hand with four or five tubercles, outer side 
with two strong elongate tubercles near the carpus, and one 
large obtuse one near the origin of the fingers ; tail of the 
female broad oval, the last and the penultimate joint of equal 
length, the latter twice as wide as long, fifth joint half the 
length of the penultimate. 

This is considerably wider and flatter than the Z. nodosa, and 
the tubercles on the branchial regions and those formed by the 
genital, cardiac and intestinal regions are much less prominent ; 
the hollow space along each side of the ridge formed by the medial 
regions is punctured almost as strongly as the rest of the carapace ; 
the tubercles on the ridge of the hand are fewer, but those on the 
outer side much more strongly marked; it is moreover easily 
distinguished by the two hind pair of tubercles of the antero- 
lateral margins forming depressed sharp spines in the one and 
large obtusely rounded nodules in the other. Length of carapace 
1 inch 9 lines, width 2 inches 3 lines. 
Common in the London clay of Sheppey. 
{Col. University of Cambridge and Mr. Bowerbank.) 

Zanthopsis unispinosa (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Carapace suborbicular, length and width nearly equal, 
evenly gibbous, sloping almost equally to the front and to the 
back ; tubercles of the branchial and medial regions nearly 
obsolete, flattened, obscurely defined ; antero-lateral margin 
with the posterior tubercle on each side forming a strong, 
short, depressed triangular spine, the two anterior pair almost 
obsolete, each indicated by a faint wave in the margin. Length 
of carapace 1 inch 6 lines, width 1 inch 8 lines. 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 



165 



This rare species is distinguished from the common Z. nodosa 
and Z. bispinosa by its more uniform convexity and by the orbi- 
cular form produced by the length so nearly equaling the width, 
as well as the single, angular, pointed spine on each side. The 
different projections on the posterior half of the carapace are 
much less sti'ongly marked than in the other species, though 
having the same form and position. 

Rare in the London clay of Sheppey. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Of this genus (Zanthopsis) authors describe from the London 
clay at Sheppey the Cancer Leachii (Desm.), which from the im- 
perfection of the specimen described originally (even the mar- 
gins of the carapace being absent), I do not think it is possible 
to recognise with any certainty. Also belonging to it and from 
the same locality is the Brachyurites hispidiformis of Schlotheim 
(Nachtr. z. Petrefactenk. t. 1. f. 3), which for a wonder has 
escaped insertion in my friend Mr. Morris's elaborate ' Cata- 
logue '; it has the exact form and strong nodulation of the Z. no- 
dosa, but having the two posterior pair of spines even more pro- 
duced and slender than in the Z. bispinosa. 

Podopilumnus (M'Coy), n. g. 

Gen. Char. Carapace having the front and antero-lateral margins 
forming a semielliptical 
curve, antero-lateral mar- 
gins not compressed, tu- 
mid, obtusely rounded, 
with about three small spi- 
nose tubercles ; front nar- 
row, slightly projecting, 
deeply four-lobed (inclu- 
ding the inner angles of 
the orbits), with a shal- 
low furrow extending a 
short way on the back 
from the middle notch ; 
orbits large, oval, lower 
margins denticulated, a 
small fissure in the under 
margin at the outer angle Diagram of the genus Podopilumnus. 
(and a doubtful trace of «• Carapace, thighs and chelas ; b, abdo- 
one in the upper margin) ; '"^ ."^ (;emale the two last dotted joints 
'^^ D / ^ p^^t in irom tnen* impressions on the 

breast-piece ; c, profile of carapace 
showing the abrupt downward curve of 




posterior lateral margin 
straight, longer than the 
anterior, converging to- 
wards the truncated base ; posterior half of the carapace flat- 



the front. 



166 Prof. F. M'Coy on the Classification of 

tened, anterior half abruptly sloped downwards towards the 
front ; whole surface even and nearly smooth^ the only regions 
defined are the cardiac and intestinal, which are marked by 
shallow furrows (P. Peruvianus) ; sides minutely granular ; 
abdomen of the female broad oval (apparently of seven joints) ; 
four hinder pair of feet subequal, slightly compressed, very 
long, the thigh (or third joint) alone equaling the posterior 
lateral margin of the carapace in length ; chelae short and 
strong. 

So far as the imperfection of the specimen allows of examina- 
tion, the most striking difference between the present genus and 
the recent Pilumnus consists in the great proportional length of 
the legs, which are rather longer and more slender than those of 
the Galene Natalensis of Krauss (see his Siidafrikanischen Crust. 
t.l.f.4), to which it bears some resemblance; the tail of the female 
is more ample, and the tumid rounding of the antero-lateral mar- 
gins and their small uncompressed spines contrast strongly with 
the similar parts in the recent genus. The only two known spe- 
cies are the following, and the so-called Por'tunus Peruvianus 
figured by D'Orbigny in the geological volume of his great ' Voy- 
age dans FAmerique meridionale' (t. 6. f. 17), of uncertain ori- 
gin, but which he suspected to have come from the cretaceous 
beds of the Cordillera ; a view I think confirmed by the geological 
place of the second species of the genus, which therefore at pre- 
sent would seem confined to the cretaceous system, and is I be- 
lieve the oldest of the genuine Bi-achyura known. 

Podopilumnus Fittoni (M'Coy). 

As this is the only accessible species of the genus, it will be 
sufficient, in addition to the above characters, to add the following 
particulars : — Length of carapace 1 inch 5 lines, width 1 inch 
9 lines, general surface smooth, sides minutely granular ; hands 
about 7 lines wide and 1 inch 1 line long, the obtusely keeled 
upper edge with five or six obtuse tubercles, the outer surface 
minutely shagreened and bearing three or four irregular longi- 
tudinal rows of small tubercles ; fingers short, curved, rounded 
on the outer edge, and with three or four blunt teeth on the inner 
edge ; tail 6^ lines broad, only the five proximal joints preserved, 
but the fifth being about the same length as the fourth, it 
is probable the remaining two were distinct, it being generally 
at that part of the tail that anchylosis occurs in those genera 
which have less than the normal number of abdominal or tail 
segments. 

Greensand of Lyme Regis. 

(Col. University of Cambridge.) 



sume Britiah Fossil Crustacea. 



167 



{Anomura.) 

Basinotopus (M'Coy), n. g.* 

I propose this genus for the reception of a very common crus- 
tacean of the London clay at Sheppey, originally figured and 




Diagram of the genus Basinotopus (nat. size). 

a. Male specimen seen from above; 6, profile of female specimen showing 
tiie tumid pterygostomian region and the elevation of the two hinder 
pair of legs over the third pair; c, abdomen of female, showing the tri- 
angular intercalated pieces between the fifth and sixth joints. 

described by Desmarest in his ' Histoire naturelle des Crustaces 
Fossiles ' under the name of Inachus Lamarckii, but which I have 
ascertained, from the examination of numerous finely preserved 
specimens, not to belong to the genus Inachus, nor even to the 
Brachyurous division, but is truly Anomurous, retaining the little 
triangular plate between the fifth and sLxth joints of the tail, in- 
dicating the presence of a caudal fin in the young, and also 
having the two hind pair of feet disproportionally small and ele- 
vated as in Homola, Doripjpe and Notopus, &c., from all of which 
it differs in the large peculiar posterior or basal space behind all 
the other regions on the carapace (from which the genus derives 
its name), besides other less striking characters. As there is but 
one species known, which never has been very fully described, I 
subjoin a description comprising the generic and specific charac- 
ters for the present. 

* On recognizing at first the Anomurous nature of this fossil, I thought it 
might be the generic type named Dromilites by Dr. Milne-Edwards in the 
number of ' I'lnstitut ' for August 1837 from Sheppey, but having lately had 
the pleasure of showing him the specimens, I find that though closely allied 
they are yet distinct. 



168 Prof. F. M'Coy on the Classification of 

Basinotopus Lamarckii (Desm. sp.). 
Syn. Inachus Lamarckii (Desm.). 
Carapace, broad ovate, very slightly longer than wide, gibbous ; 
rostrum short triangular, deeply channeled, bent downwards 
and with a small tooth on each side, a strong rough tubercle 
on each side of the base forming the inner angle of the orbits, 
another tubercle forms the outer angle, and from this to the 
level of the base of the cardiac region the margin bears four 
strong spinous tubercles ; the (jastric region extends half the 
length of the carapace, is strongly trilobed, the middle portion 
(corresponding to the so-called genital region of many crabs) 
tumid, subpcntagonal, the pointed end extending to the level 
of the orbits ; it bears one large rounded tubercle at each side 
of its base, and several irregular smaller ones between those 
and its ajjcx ; the lateral jiortions of the gastric region are less 
prominent and have an oblique ridge formed by the confluence 
of two or three tubercles parallel with the converging sides of 
the middle portion ; below those near the nuchal * furrow is a 
large cleft tubercle, and sometimes between those and the orbit 
two or three small granules; a slight hollow separates the 
gastric from the small square hepatic regions, which correspond 
on each side to the two anterior marginal spines, each bears 
one tubercle in its middle ; pterygostomian regions very tumid, 
mammillated ; branchial regions very large, each divided about 
the middle by a strong, prominent transverse ridge extending 
from the cardiac region to the fourth (or last) great marginal 
spine ; the anterior edge of this ridge is plicated, and the space 
between it and the nuchal furrow bears two tubercles, the 
anterior smallest ; the large, i)eculiar basal space behind these 
ridges is continuous from side to side behind the intestinal 
region ; it is closely pitted and rough with minute wrinkles; 
genital region forming a narrow transverse tuberculated ridge, 
its length being only one-fourth of its width, which equals that 
of the cardiac region, which is very gibbous, rotundato-qua- 
drate, and bearing a large hemispherical tubercle on each side ; 
intestinal region forming only a small mucro, imperfectly se- 
parated from the cardiac, and not extending more than half- 
way into the rough basal space towards the posterior margin ; 
abdomen of six joints, in the male narrow, with nearly parallel 
sides, obscurely trilobed longitudinally, the first joint very 

* I use this term to designate that most important and constant of all the 
furrows of the carapace — namely tliat which runs transversely across the 
back, forming the posterior boundary of the gastric and anterior hepatic re- 
gions ; it is especially strong, and frequently the only furrow, in the carapace 
of the Macrura, and corresponds on the back to the line of separation 
between the cephalic and thoracic segments beneath— the nec/c as it were, 
whence the name. 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 



169 



I'ounded and fur- 



small and smooth, second, third and fonrtli each with a pair 
of tubercles on the elevated middle portion, fifth smooth, with 
a small triangular piece (remains of the embryonic tail-tin) 
on each side between it and the sixth or last joint, which is 
subpentagonal and ratlier more than twice the lcnji;th of the 
fifth ; tail of the female broad ovate, smooth, trilobed ; anfe- 
rior pair of feet forming short robust chclrc, with scattered spi- 
nose tubercles ; the others small and smooth, the two hinder 
pair abruptly smaller and elevated above the rest. Length of 
carapace 10 lines, width 9 lines. 

Common in the London clay of She])])('y. 

{Col. University of Cambridge and Mr. Bowerbank.) 

Notopocorijsfes (M'Coy), n. g. 

Etym. v(i}TO<i, dorsum, irov'i, pes, and Corystes. 

Gen. Char. Carapace longer than broad, ovate, depressed, with 
scattered tubercles, anterior half broadly 
nished with a few strong marginal teeth ; 
posteiior lateral margins acute, straight, 
rapidly converging towards the base, 
which is narrow and deeply enuu'ginate ; 
front forming a short triangular rostrum, 
depressed in the middle, and with a small 
mesial ridge; orbits large, transversely 
oval, (complete below and above, with two 
longitudinal fissures in the upper margin; 
gastric region very large, rhomboidal, de- 
fined posteriorly by a strong o])tuscly an- 
gular nuchal furrow pointing backwards, 
slightly convex, extending nearly the width 
of the carapace, leaving a very small ob- 
scurely defined hepatic region on each side; 
genital region very small, aboiit twice as wide as long, not 
dividing the gastric region ; cardiac region moderately large, 
hexagonal, with a small deep lunate fossa on each side at its 
junction with the genital region ; intestinal region narrow ; 
branchial regions large, each divided by a shallow furrow pro- 
ceeding from the base of the genital region to the lateral mar- 
gin on each side, parallel with the nuchal hwYoyv ', plerijgostomian 
regions very tumid ; first pair of feet short, robust, didactyle 
spinulose ; rifth pair of feet disproportionally small and elevated 
above the level of the others ; abdomen of the male narrow 
(? six-jointed). 

This little genus completes the chain of affinities between the 
recent genera Homola and Corystes, rendering the transition per- 




Back view and profile 
of Nolopocorijslcs. 

widt 



170 Prof. F. INI'Coy on the Classification of 

feet from the Anomura to the Brachijura. In the general form 
of the carapace, of the rostrum, in the completeness and form of 
the orbits with the two fissm-es in their upper edge, it so exactly 
resembles Corystes as to have even deceived Dr. Leach, the first 
crustaceologist of his day (see MantelFs Geol. of Sussex, p. 97). 
I first suspected its anomurous nature from observing the faint 
sulcus dividing the branchial regions as we so commonly see in 
the short-tailed Anomura, and subsequently was gratified by the 
Woodwardian Inspectors with the sight of a little specimen of 
the N. Mantelli (M'Coy) in the old cabinet left by Woodward 
to the University of Cambridge, showing the chela and bases of 
all the feet, proving the posterior pair to be abruptly smaller than 
the preceding ones and elevated above theiii, and completely 
establishing the position of the genus : curiously enough, the 
entry of this specimen in Woodward's MS. Catalogue indicates the 
same analogy with the recent form which Dr. Leach pointed out 
so many years afterwards. This genus includes the " Cortjstes " 
of Leach andMantell (Geol. Suss. p. 129. figs. 9 & 10), also the 
species figs. 13, 15, 16 of the same plate, and the " species of a 
new genus allied to Arcania," figs. 7, 8, 14 of the same plate, 
which is also the Orithya Bechei of Deslongchamps (Menio de la 
Soc. Lin. de Normandie). Dr. Mantell in the above plate, fig. 15, 
shows a large joint in the abdomen below the fifth large one ; the 
specimen of the tail which I have seen is broken before the end 
of the fifth joint, so that I have no independent authority for the 
sixth joint or its mode of junction with the fifth, or whether the 
supplementary side pieces occur between them. 

Notojjocorystes Mantelli (M'Coy). 
Sp. Char. Greatest width of carapace (at base of gastric region) 
one-fifth less than the length ; three strong teeth on the an- 
tero-lateral margin, the middle one largest, placed at the end 
of the nuchal sulcus, the lower one between the first and the 
end of the faint branchial sulcus, at the end of which a fourth 
small tooth is found ; gastric region with a narrow mesial ridge 
from the rostrum bearing three small tubercles on its posterior 
half; each side of this region has a row of three tubercles 
running parallel with the gastric or nuchal furrow, the space 
between them being about equal to their distance from that 
furrow ; behind the inner tubercles of each row is one rather 
smaller ; the genital region bears one elongate tubercle in the 
middle ; cardiac and intestinal regions with a mesial ridge, the 
former bearing two large and the latter two small tubercles; 
branchial regions with an obtuse boss close to their upper in- 
ternal angle, and two equidistant tubercles on each side in an 
oblique line to the second marginal tooth close under the 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 171 

nuchal sulcus ; pterygostomiaa regions marked with large lon- 
gitudinal furrows and a few rows of sharp granules ; surface 
minutely granulated. Length from 9 lines to \\ inch. 

I suspect that the figures in Mantell's ' Geology of Sussex/ 
t. 29. figs. 15 & 16, and possibly 9 & 10, may belong to this spe- 
cies, though rather more elongate than the specimens I have 
seen. The N. Bechei (Desloug. sp.) is broader, more quadrate, 
and has vertical rows of tubercles on the branchial regions. I 
have a sincere pleasure in dedicating this species to the indefa- 
tigable geologist, who in one of the earliest of his many valuable 
geological works, has given the only figures I believe extant of 
all the species of the genus. 

Not uncommon in the greensand of Lyme Regis and in the 
gault of Folkestone. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Pagurus ? platycheles (M'Coy). 

&p. Char. Hands nearly equal, very much compressed, broad 
ovate, width nearly three-fourths the length, the moveable 
finger little smaller than the other; carpus trigonal, not so 
long as wide ; surface closely covered with very obtuse granules 
of unequal sizes. Length of left hand 10 lines, of I'ight hand 
8 lines ; width of left hand 7 lines, of right 5 lines ; length of 
carpus 4 lines, width nearly 5 lines. 

One interesting specimen in the collection at Cambridge shows 
the two strong crustaceous hands in situ, while all trace of the 
body and abdomen have disappeared, which could scarcely have 
happened unless, as in the recent Hermit Crabs, those parts 
were almost membranous; close under the right hand is a 
clear sparry cavity apparently indicating the place occupied by 
the soft perishable abdomen. The granulation of the surface 
resembles that of an Echinus. The species is remarkable for 
the width and brevity of its hands and wrists. 

Not uncommon in the great oolite of Minchinhampton. 



In connection with the group Anomura I may say a few words 
on a crustacean described and named Ammonicolax longinianus 
by Mr. Pearce (see Annals for September 1842), which he sup- 
posed to form a new genus of Hermit Crabs inhabiting the 
Ammonites. It seemed to me very incautious to infer that the 
Ammonicolax lived in the Ammonites on no better ground appa- 
rently than their co-existence in the Oxford clay at Christian 
Malford, and on recently examining two authentic specimens 
presented by Mr. Pratt to the University collection at Cambridge, 
I found that so far from being anomurous, the species had a well- 



172 Prof. E. M'Coy on the Classification of 

developed abdomen, caudal fins, remarkably large false feet, and 
all the characters of the Macrura, being in fact clearly referrible 
to the genus Mecochirus of Germar, so abundant in the upper 
oolitic schists of Bavaria, though not hitherto recognised in Bri- 
tain. The five internal processes mentioned on each side are 
merely the indications of the apodemata or internal partitions 
between the gills, and present no peculiarities. As the specific 
name longimanus would be peculiarly inappropriate when this in- 
teresting little crustacean is placed in its true genus (nearly all 
the species of which have longer hands), it might provisionally 
bear the name of Mecochirus Pearcei. 

{Macrura.) 

In this group we find several fossil cnistacea referred to recent 
genera in British works, without, I believe, just reason : — thus in 
Morris's Catalogue we find Palinurus Seurii quoted from Leeds, 
Yorkshire ; — if this muschelkalk fossil is found there, it should 
be placed in the Triassic genus Pemphix, formed many years ago 
for it by Von Meyer, it having no relation to Palinurus. The 
recent generic name Astacus has also been much used for fossils 
of various ages, but I have not yet seen or heard of the real oc- 
currence of that genus in the fossil state ; most of the species will 
be noticed below under their respective genera. 

Eryon Barrovensis (M^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Carapace subovate, about one-eighth broader than long 
near the truncated posterior margin ; lateral margins set with 
short tooth-like spines, two narrow incisions on each side, the 
hind pair a little in front of the middle, inclosing between 
them on each side a short rotundato-quadrate lobe ; front fiar- 
rowed, concavo-truncate, with the lateral angles slightly pro- 
duced outwards ; each of the inner pair of antennca having their 
two setse deeply divided, the outer one of each slightly longest, 
scale of the external antennae large, the setse scarcely thicker 
than those of the inner pair ; abdomen exceeding the length of 
the carapace by only one-third the length of the outer tail- 
flaps, which latter are very broad and subquadrate at the end 
(resembling those of the Eryon Hartmanni) ; each of the seg- 
ments except the first bears a lai*ge, oblong tubercle in the 
middle ; first pair of legs robust, short, hand and carpus to- 
gether nearly one-fourth less than the length of the middle of 
the carapace ; fingers very slender, both pointed, of equal 
length, incurved at the tip, the moveable one most abruptly. 
Surface minutely granulated, with larger granules on the me- 
sial ridge of the carapace. Length of carapace 2 inches, width 
2 inches 2 lines ; length of abdomen (to end of outer pair of 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 



173 



tail-flaps) 2 inches 2 lines ; length of hand 1 inch 3 lines, of 
carpus 4 lines, width of hand at middle 3^ lines. 

This is most allied to the only other liassic species which I am 
aware of, namely the E. Hartmanni of Herman von Meyer (see 
his " Beitrage zu Eryon " in the 18th vol. of the Nova Acta Acad. 
Cses. Leop. Carol. &c.), from which it differs in its much shorter 
abdomen, a character which approximates it to the otherwise dis- 
similar E. subpentagonus (Miinst.) and E. arctiformis (Schlot.) 
of the Kelheim and Solenhofen lithographic slates. In all the 
species described by Von ]\Ieyer and Miinster the hand and car- 
pus taken together equal or exceed the middle of the carapace in 
length ; this species is therefore most remarkably distinguished 
by the comparative shortness of its chelse as well as their greater 
robustness. 

Rare in the lias of Barrow-on-Soar. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Archaocarabus (M'Coy), n. g. 

Etym. ap'xalo'i, antiquus, and Kdpa/3o<?, Aristotle's name for the 
Palinurus or spiny lobster. 

Gen. Char. External antenna very thick and long, the setae of 
very short fimbriated joints ; fiy^st pair of feet much thicker 
than the others, the extremity of the penultimate joint dilated 
on its inner side to a broad, subtruncate, subcompressed hand 
as wide as the length of the curved terminal joint which is 
inflexed on it ; four posterior pairs of legs slender, compressed ; 
carapace semicylindrical, obtusely rounded above ; nuchal fur- 
row very wide and deep, extending with a gentle backward 
curve across the carapace in front of the middle ; cephalic por- 




Diagram of Archaocarabus. 
a. Portion of one of the outer antennas. 

tion depressed, front wide, subtruncate toothed, the lateral 
angles produced into large, flattened, slightly recurved spines 
over the eyes, shell below the orbits prolonged forwards into a 
thick spine ; crust excessively thin and fragile, covered with 



174 Prof. F. M'^Coy on the Classification of 

coarse adpressed tubercles ; abdomen very tliick, rounded, nearly 
twice the length of the carapace, segments nearly smooth, 
punctured, their extremities broadly falcate ; tail having the 
crustaceous portion at the outer margin of the base of the two 
outer pair of fins long, elliptical, strongly serrated on their 
inner edge. 

In all the characters of generic importance which I have seen 
in these fossils, they approach the recent Palinuri or spiny lob- 
sters, with the important exception of the sti-ucture of the first 
pair of feet, which in the recent genus are small, slender, and ter- 
minated by a simple point for walking only, forming a strong 
contrast with the present genus, in which they are powerful pre- 
hensile organs, much more robust than the other feet, broadly 
dilated towards the end, and terminated by a strong subcheliform 
claw. I only know the genus in the eocene tertiary strata. 

Archaocarabus Bowerbanki (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Carapace about 2 inches 4 lines long and 1 inch 
9 lines wide, all behind the nuchal sulcus marked with large 
semioval flattened tubercles, their blunt apices directed for- 
wards and encircled by a crescent of small pores ; the largest 
tubercles are about the middle of the back, and have a few 
small ones irregularly placed in the intervals, towards the side- 
margins they become smaller and more equal; anterior or 
cephalic portion more nearly smooth, having only small, sharp, 
widely separated granules, one on each side of the middle near 
the base and one or two in the median line near the front 
much larger than the rest ; front margin with aboiit three den- 
ticles on each side between the middle and the broad com- 
pressed horn-like processes at the angles, from each of which 
latter a ridge extends backwards bearing two or three strong 
spines ; the anterior prolongation of the cheeks beneath the 
orbit has also a row of a few large spines : abdomen to end of 
caudal fins nearly twice as long as the carapace, semicylindrical, 
nearly smooth, with few distant punctures, the ends of the first 
five segments abruptly narrowed, thickened and falcately 
curved backwards, sixth segment having articulated to each end 
the two thick, elHptical, crustaceous outer marginal supports 
of the two outer pair of tail-fins ; they are about three times 
longer than wide, serrated on the inner edge : fir'st pair of feet 
larger than the others, compressed, penultimate joint dilated 
towards the extremity into a flattened trigonal hand ; terminal 
joint forming a strong, subcompressed, curved, moveable finger, 
as long as the truncated end of the preceding joint, to which 
it is opposed for prehension, the arm about as long as the leg 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 



175 



of the second pair ; carpus about one-third the length of the 
arm and half the length of the hand, the width of which latter 
at top exceeds half its length; three ne.xt jmir of legs compressed, 
gradually diminishing in size ; fifth pair not seen. At about 
2 inches from their bases the external antennse are one-fourth 
of an inch in diameter. 

I have great pleasure in dedicating this fine species to Mr. 
Bowerbank, who has done so much to illustrate the fossil botany 
and zoology of the London clay — his work on the former having 
almost created the subject ; while the extraordinary extent and 
beauty of the collections which he has made of the other fossils 
of that formation are, I believe, quite unrivalled, and when fully 
published will demonstrate a richness in the fauna and flora of 
the eocene period in Britain for which few geologists are pre- 
pared. I have especially to record my obligations to him for 
sending me a large number of his choicest specimens of London- 
clay Crustacea of those species which I informed him I was about 
describing from the Cambridge collection, but the specimens of 
which at my disposal did not fully exhibit all the characters of 
the species ; and having mentioned my anxiety to render my de- 
scriptions of those as perfect as possible, without entering further 
on the extensive subject of the Crustacea of that formation. 

The present species is usually found with the abdomen doubled 
close under the thorax, which latter is almost always crushed, 
owing to the fragile delicacy of the crust. 

Rare in the London clay of Sheppey. 

{Col. University of Cambridge and Mr. Bowerbank.) 

Hoploparia (M'Coy), n. g. 

Etym. OTrXa, arma, and Trapeia, genu. 

Gen. Char. Carapace minutely granulose, oblong, tumid, slightly 




Hoploparia. 
compressed, a little deeper than wide, ending in front in a 
strong sharp rostrum, the sides of which are strongly carinate 



176 Prof. F. M'Coy 07i the Classification of 

and smooth, or with few very minute teeth ; beneath the orbits 
the cheeks are prolonged forwards about half the length of the 
rostrum, and usually strongly keeled and spinose, forming a 
semicylindrical sheath over the base of the strong triangular 
scale of the origin of the outer antennse, which reaches 
as far as the rostrum ; nuchal furrow strongly marked across 
the middle of the back, but not reaching the marginal third 
of each side ; cheeks'^ impi^essed by a deep \-shaped sulcus, 
one portion of which extends upwards nearly parallel with the 
nuchal furrow, the longer lower branch curves forward under 
the projecting part of the cheeks, and the shorter branch 
curves backwards under the end of the nuchal furrow ; abdo- 
men subcylindrical, smooth or slightly punctured, the second 
joint ha\ing broad, dilated quadi'ate ends, the third, fourth, 
and fifth terminating in triangular or broadly falcate extre- 
mities, the sixth having articulated to each end the two outer 
pairs of large trigonal tail-fins, the outer one on each side divided 
by a transverse suture rather less than one-third from the ex- 
tremity ; seventh joint (or middle flap of the tail) oblong, sides 
denticulated, extremity narrower than the base, and bearing a 
small spine at each corner ; first pair of legs veiy long and 
thick, unequal, the larger claw with large blunt teeth, the 
more slender one with more numerous and equal smaller sharp 
teeth ; the other legs slender. 

In the general characters, so far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain them, these crustaceans coincide with the living genus Ho- 
marus, but are constantly distinguished by the sheath-like pro- 
longation of the strongly ridged and spinose cheeks, the nearly 
smooth- sided rostrum, and the short distance which the nuchal 
furrow extends down the sides, as well as the separate X-shaped 
cheek-furrow on each side, and the size of the antennary scale. 
There are several species common in the British eocene tertiary 
and cretaceous rocks, only one of which has yet been noticed, 
viz, the Astacus longimanus of G. Sowerby (Zoological Journal, 
vol. ii. tab. 17) from the greensand of Lyme Jlegis, which I find 
to belong to the present genus, and which should have the name 
Hoploparia longimana (Sow. sp.). 

Hoploparia prismatica (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Carapace (excluding the rostrum) 1| inch long, width 
10 lines, subcylindi-ical behind, but having the section of 
a five- sided prism towards the front from the strong pro- 
jection of the large, acutely angular cheek-ridges, which bear 

* Or sides of the carapace immediately in front of each end of the nuchal 
furrow. 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 177 

about three lai'ge sharp teeth each ; rostrum large, deeply chan- 
neled in the middle, sides rising to v^^ry prominent keels mi- 
nutely serrated towards the end, one elongate tubercle on each 
side of its base ; nuchal furrow strong, ends curved forwards, 
but only extending about halfway from the middle of the back 
to the side margin ; beneath and in front of each ol its ends a 
very deeply marked X-shaped sulcus ; surface very closely and 
minutely granulated, punctured on the cardiac and intestinal 
region ; ends of the abdominal segments broadly rgunded with 
a small mucronate point directed backwards ; the last two 
joints with rough transverse scale-like sculpturing, the others 
so finely granulated as to appear nearly smooth. 

This species is remarkable for the size and prominence of its 
sharply angulated cheek-ridges ; the surface, particularly of the 
abdomen, is more nearly smooth than in the other species which 
I have seen. 

Common in the Speeton clay of Speeton, Yorkshire. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Hoploparia gammaroicles (M'^Coy). 

Sp. Char. Carapace averaging from the orbit to the posterior 
side-margin 2f inches, depth 1^ inch, minutely punctured on 
the middle of the back, coarsely squamoso-punctate on the 
gastric region, granulated on the sides, most strongly near the 
front lateral margins ; nuchal furrow strong, but only reaching 
halfway down the sides, its middle portion equally distant 
from the edge of the orbit and posterior margin of the cara- 
pace, or slightly nearer the former; X-shaped cheek-furrow 
deep ; rostrum strongly bicarinate, with a ridge-like tubercle 
about two lines long on each side of its base, and one small 
tubercle at an equal distance below the first pair at the edge 
of the orbit ; from a little behind the level of the orbit the 
cheek is elevated into a strong keel with about three large 
spinose tubercles, cheeks prolonged as a semieylindrical 
sheath to the outer antemiES half the length of the rosti-um : 
abdominal segments very flat and smooth, the articular ante- 
rior portion scarcely convex, and the sulcus dividing it from 
the posterior portion not very strong, first segment closely 
punctured like the middle of the thorax, the dorsal portion of 
the others with the puncta slight and distant, flaps of the tail 
coarsely squamoso-punctate ; cheke very large, with a rude 
scale-like sculpturing of the surface, broad one having the 
hand as wide (1^ inch) as from the carpus to the base of the 
moveable finger, four large, short spines on the inner margin, 
moveable finger longer than from its base to the carpus ; car- 
pus with several thick short spines ; smaller hand as long as 

Ann. ^- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 12 



178 Prof. F. M'Coy on the Classification of 

the great one, but about one-third less wide ; other legs very 

slender (third and fourth pair about 3 lines wide), subcom- 

pressed, smooth. 

This fine species much resembles our common recent lobster 
at first sight;, and has as large or even more robust claws, but 
similarly armed : in by far the greater number of specimens the 
characteristic prolongation of the cheeks, with its spinose keel 
becoming fixed in the matrix, causes the entire front of the cara- 
pace from a little behind the rostrum to be broken ofi", and so 
leaving no trace of this part of the carapace, heightens the resem- 
blance indicated by the specific name. 

Common in the London clay of Sheppey. 

{CoL University of Cambridge and Mr. Bowerbank.) 

Hoploparia Belli (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Carapace averaging from the orbit to the posterior 
side margin 1^ inch, depth of side 9 lines, closely ])unctured 
on the middle of the back, and very closely and uniformly gra- 
nulated over the sides ; nuchal furrow considerably nearer the 
posterior margin of the carapace than the edge of the orbit 
(measured a little one side of the mesial line), its ends reach 
two-thirds of the way from the mesial line to the lateral mar- 
gin ; A,-like cheek-furrow strong ; sheath-like prolongation of 
the cheeks obtusely rounded, the margins and lateral angles 
much inflexed, about half the length of the rostrum, two or 
three obtuse, undefined nodulations on the rounded promi- 
nence which extends backwards from its contracted carinate 
end towards the cheek-furrow ; bayonet-shaped antennary scale 
narrow, extending as far as the tip of the rostrum ; one blunt 
tubercle about twice its diameter from the median line on each 
side of the base of the rostrum, and another similar one at an 
equal distance below it on each side : abdomen thick, each seg- 
ment having a gently convex smooth anterior articular portion 
divided by a strong deep furrow from the rest, which is flat- 
tened and very closely and strongly punctured ; epimeral ex- 
tremities of the first joint rudimentary, of the second broad, 
subquadrate, rounded on the anterior and external edges, sub- 
truncate behind, mth the angle forming a short spine, third, 
fourth, fifth and sixth terminating in broad triangular plates, 
slightly falcate, the sixth rather longer than the preceding 
ones, and having the posterior lateral angles produced back- 
wards into a small spine on each side of the base of the seventh 
joint or middle tail-flap, which latter is subquadrate, its length 
and the width of the base being equal, narrowing towards the 
end, which is rounded and terminates at each angle in a small 
sharp spine ; side margins thickened, minutely dentated : first 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 179 

pair of legs closely scabroso-punctate ; chelse oval, very slender, 
about double the length of the carapace, not very unequal, 
greatest width about half the length from the base of the little 
finger to the carpus ; section subrhomboidal, outer angle ob- 
tusely carinated, smooth, sides obtusely rounded in the mid- 
dle, inner edge with two rows of about four lai'ge spiniform 
tubercles arched forwards ; fingers about one-third longer than 
the base, equal, subcompressed, rounded, straight and of nearly 
equal width throughout, nearly smooth, with a raised line of 
very minute teeth on the inner edge ; carpus small, section 
oval, scarce half the length from its tip to the base of the 
moveable finger, finely punctured, and with a few strong 
spines ; arm compressed ; the other legs slender and nearly 
smooth (third and fourth pair 1 line in diameter). 
This species is much more common in the London clay than 
the H. gammaroides (M'Coy), which it resembles, although only 
half the length ; it may be distinguished therefrom by the finer 
and more uniform granulation of the sides, the greater length of 
the nuchal furrow, and its being placed farther back towards the 
posterior margin ; the cheeks, instead of being strongly carinated 
and spined, are only obtusely rounded and nodulated; the 
chelge are more slender, and the segments of the abdomen differ 
in the present species, having the anterior smooth portion of each 
more convex and separated by a much deeper furrow from the 
posterior part, which in the H. gammaroides is closely punctate 
in the first segment only, the others being polished with compa- 
ratively slight distant puncta, while in the H. Belli the hinder 
parts of all the segments are equally rough with a coarse close- 
set punctuation. 

I dedicate this species to Prof. Bell, from whose able pen we 
may one day expect an illustrated volume on all the Crustacea of 
the London clay, for which I believe the most ample materials 
exist in metropolitan collections which will be at his disposal. 
Mr. Morris, in the preface to his Catalogue, mentions in the ca- 
binet of Mr. Bowerbank alone, the perfectly astonishing number 
of twenty to thirty species from this formation. Upwards of a 
dozen beautifully perfect specimens of this species were most 
obligingly sent me by Mr. Wetherell, on our mutual friend Mr. 
Yates mentioning that I was about describing the species from 
the Cambridge specimens, but was very anxious to render my 
specific description complete by the inspection of more perfect 
specimens. Mr. Bowerbank also lent me charming specimens 
with the same object. 

Common in the London clay of Sheppey, Hampstead, ^ays- 
water. Primrose Hill, &c. 

[Col. University of Cambridge, Mr. Bowerbank, Mr. "Wetherell, 
&c.) 

12* 



180 Mr. W. Clark on Ca?cum trachea and C. glabrum. 

XX. — On the Animals o/Csecum trachea and C. glabrum. 
By William Clark, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Norfolk Crescent, Bath, June 2Slh, 1S49. 

In the year 1834 I discovered the annual of Cacum trachea, in 
the coralline zones off Exmouth ; notes were then made on it, 
but only communicated to a few friends, and I am not aware that 
any author has mentioned the animal since that time, except in 
doubt, as to its character and position. Having within the last 
week, at the same place, examined many of this curious and 
minute species, I am enabled to give a particular description 
thereof, as well as some account of the still more minute conge- 
neric species, Cacwn glabrum, now seen for the first time. 

The shells of these animals have, from their forms, long been 
located with the Dentalia, but it will appear that in respect of 
the animal they have little connection with them ; they have also 
had other places assigned to them, and nialacologists are still in 
doubt with regard to their natural position. I therefore think 
this account may interest some of your readers, and assist to 
determine the proper '' locus standi " of these mollusca. 

CiECUM, Fleming. 
Cacum trachea et imjyerforatum, Montagu. 

Animal cylindrical, arcuated, externally pure white ; the mantle 
is very thick and fleshy, fitting the shell closely, and not extend- 
ing beyond its anterior margin ; the body is elongated and slender, 
with a long flat head, which on all occasions is in advance of the 
foot, and appears to assist in locomotion ; the fissui-e of the mouth 
is vertical, and from the tenuity of the skin the pale red buccal 
mass is distinctly visible, the corneous plates of which are of 
light yellow and subelliptical form ; the tongue was not detected, 
though, without doubt, one of the invariable spiny character 
exists. 

The tentacula are short, rather thick, subcylindrical, setose, 
and slightly clavate at the extremities ; the eyes are very minute, 
black, not raised on any kind of pedicle or eminence, and ])laced 
nearly in a line with the tentacula at a short distance from their 
bases, and if there is a divergence therefrom the tendency is ex- 
ternal. 

The slender neck, as in most of the other Gasteropoda, is fur- 
nished with longitudinal ridges, and in this species on each side 
of its centre, there are two frosted, pale yellowish white, con- 
tiguous raised lines forming a very decided canal or groove, the 
points of which terminate anteriorly at the immediate base of the 
eyes, and posteriorly at the furthest end of the neck, on the left 



Ml'. W. Clark on Csecum trachea and C. glabrum. 181 

side of which, at the usual point, may be seen a minute pale red 
branchial leaflet which puts on the appearance of there being 
two, a large and a smaller one, as in the canaliferous Gasteropoda ; 
but here, though we cannot vouch that there are not two, we are 
inclined to think there is only one, with a divei'gence from its 
base of a part of its surface ; the very marked canal seems neces- 
sary for the entrance of the branchial water, in consequence of 
the neck of the animal, when at rest, being so closely embraced 
by the fleshy muscular circular mantle, but in marching order it 
is protruded to an extraordinary extent. 

The stomach was distinctly observed, and is an oblong bursi- 
form organ, yellowish white and granular without, but on being 
opened presents a dark lead-coloured cavity, fortifled by strong 
transverse muscular bands or fillets. From it arises a very long 
convoluted intestine, and when extracted exhibited the usual fsecal 
matters; it appeared to coast the liver and ovarium, amongst 
the folds of which it makes a double, as is usual with the regular 
Gasterojiods, then progresses to the right side, where the minute, 
elongated, oval, conically pointed pellets were observed to be 
ejected. 

The ovarium is dark red-brown, aspersed with the most minute 
darker points, like the finest sand, with its posterior extremity 
fixed in the hollowed-out chamber of the terminal process of the 
shell ; it then extends to the stomach accompanied by the liver 
in alternate transverse portions ; this organ is a light greenish 
mass formed of larger granules than the ovarium, and the con- 
trast in colour of the two substances caused them to be observed 
without difiiculty. 

The neck admitted of a close examination, and did not exhibit 
the slightest traces of external reproductive organs ; it would 
then appear that the animal must depend on its own influences, 
but there ai'e doubts ; and from the concordance of all its organs 
with a large class of the Pectinibranchous Gasteropods, it maj^, 
like them, be unisexual, though the organs have escaped detec- 
tion ; but in all the specimens examined the ovarium was present 
in the usual place, and in no instance appeared to be replaced by 
the testicle, but the discriminations of such minute organs can- 
not be depended on. 

The foot is short, narrow, and truncate anteriorly when in ac- 
tion, sloping posteally to an obtusely pointed or rather rounded 
termination, on the upper part of which end is fixed the strong, 
circular, corneous, black-brown operculum, smooth and conical on 
the surface attached to the foot, concave without, and from its 
centre seven or eight fine close-set spiral lines, not concentrical, 
fill up the area. 

The animal is not at all shy ; it shows itself in all directions. 



182 Mr. W. Clark on Csecum trachea and C. glabrum. 

marches with great vivacity, carrying its shell sometimes with 
the convexity upwards, resting on the posterior point, or on one 
of the sides, frequently changing one for the other, by suddenly 
withdrawing the head and body, by which action it is thrown on 
the operculum at an elevation of 50° or 60° ; it then turns on the 
side it wishes. 

It thus appears that this minute creatux'e has all the organs of 
the Gasteropoda with entire apertures ; there are some modifica- 
tions of them, and the animal is not spiral ; still in number, qua- 
lity and pm'pose they are essentially the same as those of this 
large class, and I think it is clear that the genus Ccecum must 
be placed with them, in the immediate vicinity of the Rissoa. 

It is necessary to mention that the Dentalium imyer for alum 
and D. trachea, the types of the genus Cacum, are identical ; 
this fact is I believe generally admitted ; I will however in cor- 
roboration thereof observe, that in the same watch-glass of sea- 
water I carefully examined each of the two forms of this species, 
and their respective organs diifered in no respect, except that the 
colour of the buccal mass in C. trachea (Mont.) was somewhat 
paler than that of C. imperforatum, in consequence of its ado- 
lescence. I have made a second examination of the animals of 
both forms with the same result. 

The shell of Ccecum imperforatum (Mont.) is never found other- 
wise than adult ; this fact proves that C. trachesi is the young- 
shell, of which I have seen hundreds of all sizes and gradations 
of arcuation and tapering of the posterior extremities : these 
shells, like some others of the Gasteropoda,, particularly those of 
the genera Ajwrrhais and Turritella, have as a provision of na- 
ture the power to protect their delicate extremities by withdraw- 
ing them from the posterior pointed ends of the shells, some 
chambers of which they plug up; these being deprived of the 
animal, fall off and decay, and it remains uninjured. This is 
the case with Ccecum trachea, which probably performs this 
manoeuvre more than once, until it arrives at the form C. imper- 
foratum, with its adult constricted orifice, which it never has in 
a young state ; and even when the anterior part of the shell 
is broken, the animal always repairs it with a somewhat fuller 
cylinder; but the new orifice will not be constricted until the 
mutilated shell has arrived at the complete adult state, and it 
is rarely seen in this condition. What is called the posterior 
process of the shell is only one of the testaceous plugs with which 
the animal from time to time closes the posterior extremity. 

As to the specific appellations of trachea and imperforatum, 
though not quite contemporaneous, the more significant one of 
trachea ought, I think, to be adopted, as that of imperforatum is 
obviously improper. 



Mr. W. Clark on Csecimi trachea and C. glabrum. 183 

The generic term Vcecum appears to be somewhat objection- 
able in point of significancy. On the discovery of the animal I 
proposed to my friend Dr. Goodall, the late Provost of Eton, the 
generic appellation of Dentaliopsis, which I think I also men- 
tioned to Mr. Jeffreys of Swansea ; but Dr. Fleming is in posses- 
sion of the fieldj and has the undoubted prioi-ity, and I may say, 
owing to my own neglect, in not launching the genus : 
" Hos ego feci, tulit alter honores." 

Cacum glabrum, Montagu. 

After a research, in which I almost despaired of success, I have 
had the good fortune to meet with two living vivacious specimens 
of this species in the coralline zones of the Devonshire coast, oflf 
Budleigh Salterton, six miles from the shore, in ten fathoms 
water. 

To describe the organs of this animal would only be a repe- 
tition of what has been said on Coicum trachea ; I will only reca- 
pitulate them and notice the modifications thereof. 

The brown ovarium, light green liver, and the rectum with its 
contents of formed pale-brown pellets extending from the pylorus 
to the doubling amongst the folds of the liver, were distinctly 
visible through the transparency of the shell. The stomach, 
body and neck were of the purest white ; the lines forming the 
canal or groove in the neck are less developed than in the former 
species ; the buccal mass is of the palest blush colour, and the cor- 
neous plates of the most delicate and lightest green ; the spiny 
tongue was not seen ; the same default occurred in Caecum trachea, 
probably from its white colour and extreme slenderness ; it doubt- 
less exists ; the mantle is thick, circular and muscular, closely 
fitting the shell ; the eyes are precisely fixed as in C. trachea ; 
the very minute branchial leaflet is of the palest rose-colour, 
but the mantle must be removed to see it, owing to its extreme 
tenuity. 

I now come to those organs in which there are some variations : 
the tentacula, as in its congener, are frosted white and setose, 
but they appear to be proportionably longer, slenderer and more 
clavate at the tips ; these variations however are scai'cely appre- 
ciable. The foot is very short, truncate in front, rounded be- 
hind, and carried much more laterally in this species than in 
C. trachea ; and on its posterior upper part is the most differen- 
tial point in the animals, the curious operculum, which is circu- 
lar, and has six or seven spiral gyrations of a pale yellow, but 
instead of being concave or flat without and conical within, as in 
C trachea, it is in both respects the reverse. Represent to yourself 
the flat spiral circular operculum of the last species, pushed out 
from its inner surface, or inverted, and thus forming a cone of 



184 Mr. W. Clark on Ccecum trachea and C. glabruni. 

six or seven minute narrow terraces, one above the other, — you 
may then figure to yourself the form of that in decum ylabrum. 

This creature marches, and in its course performs exactly the 
same manoeuvres as the larger species. I thought the Caecum 
trachea very active, but it is far surpassed by this animal ; I put 
one of each in a watch-glass of sea- water, and with a camel's-hair 
bnish gave them a fair start, but the little one beat its compe- 
titor hollow, and accomplished a space of 2 inches in 55 seconds y 
thus affording a proof, even in the Mollusca, that natu^re compen- 
sates for the small volume of the minute beings in giving them 
greater energy, vivacity and quickness. This creature I found by 
admeasurement to be ^ ^th of an inch long, and y^ ^th of an inch; 
in diameter. 

I have been thus particular, as it will fall to the lot of very few 
malacologists to see this curious species alive. 

I beg to mention that last week,, in the offing at Exmouth, 
six miles from the shore, I dredged in the coralline zone a very 
small specimen of that rare species the Lucina orbicularis of the 
British Mollusca, and Venus orbiculata of Montagu, testante 
Laskeyo, whose figure is an exceeding faithful representation of 
its shape. This species has been considered of very doubtful Bri- 
tish origin, and we feel pleasure in adding it to our Indigena. 

The general aspect of the shell is of the palest bluish white on 
the outside and the same within, with a tinge of yellow at the 
posterior extremity on both sides. 

The longitudinal stride radiate from the very acute beaks to 
the ventral margin, and are most evident at the sides of the shell ; 
these are crossed by the strise of growth, giving it an irregular 
cancellated appearance ; the margin is quite plain and acute. 

There are in the left valve three primary teeth, and a conti- 
guous anterior lateral one, and in the right valve, three primary 
teeth with a receptacle for the lateral tooth of the left, and in 
each valve there are faint traces of posterior laminse ; this is the 
hinge of the genus Circe of the 'British Mollusca,^ but the 
twenty-four radiating longitudinal flattish costellse eminently 
distinguish this species from Circe minima : I am inclined to 
think Montagues shell should be styled Circe instead of Lucina 
orbiculata ; that excellent conchologist mentions only two pri- 
mary teeth in each valve, but the third might easily escape de- 
tection, as when he wrote imperfect instruments Mere in use, 
and perhaps there was a less critical examination of objects than 
in the pi-eseut day. If this shell is not the Ve7ius orbiculata of 
Montagu, as we confidently think, it must be considered a new 
species of Circe. The minute specimen is brilliantly fresh. 
I am. Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus INIarckca. 185 

XXI. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Mters, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 142.] 

Marckea. 

Or this genus no further information has hitherto been re- 
corded beyond the short account first pubhshed by lUchard, and 
so httle has its affinity been understood, that it was considered 
by Endhcher as related to the Nicotianece. Its alHance however 
is evidently with Sokmdra and JuanuUoa, agreeing with the latter 
genus in the structure of its calyx and fruit, and differing in the 
hypocrateriforni shape of its corolla, with broad, expanded and 
almost rotate border, and in its scarlet colour. 

From a plant in Sir William Hooker's herbarium, with only a 
single flower and fruit, I have been able to make the following 
analysis, which in some respects is incomplete, as I was anxious 
not to injure the specimen. 

Marckea, L. C. Richard. Lamarckea, Pers. — Calyx 5-sepalus, 
persistens, vix augescens : sepala lanceolata, acuminatissima, 
imo angustata, primum ultra medium, marginibus ciliatis, in 
tubum pentagonum valvatim conniventia, hinc supcrne lineari- 
attenuata, erecta, libera, dein in fructu omnino sejuneta. Co- 
rolla hypocrateriformis, tubo clongato, cylindrico, faucc sub- 
inflato, limbo 5-partito, laciniis oblongis, rotundatis, rotato- 
expansis, subreflexis, sestivatione imbricata. Stamina 5, a?qua- 
lia, paulo supra basin corollse orta, basi lanata, Jilamenta erecta, 
tenuia, antlierce in faucem corollffi inclusse, 2-loculares, lineari- 
oblongse, lobis disjunctis, puncto medio affixis, rima marginali 
longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium 2-loculare, placentis c 
dissepimento utrinque cruciatim tenuiter partientibus, hinc in- 
crassatis undique ovuligeris, ovulis angulo basali nexis, adscen- 
dentibus. Stylus tenuis, longitudine staminum. Stigma in- 
tegrum ? Bacca fere capsularis, exsucca, evalvis, pericarpio 
tenui indehiscente, sepalis persistentibus tecta, oblonga, 2-sul- 
cata, 2-locularis. Semina plurima, imbricatim disposita, ob- 
longa, acuminata, imo gibba, hilo in angulo basali, adscen- 
dentia, testa laxa. Embryo inti'a albumen parcura, carnosum, 
axillaris, leviter arcuatus, radicula infcra tereti, cotyledonibus 
ovatis, compressis, incumbentibus, sequilonga. — SufFrutices 
Guianenses et Antilhmi scandentes, ramis deperidentibus ; folia 
alterna, petiolata, elUptica, acuta, integra, glabra ; racemi axil- 
lares; corolla coccinea. 

1. Marckea coccinea, L. C. Rich. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Par. 107; 
A. Rich. Diet. Class, x. 1G8. cum icone. Lamarckea coccinea. 



186 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Marckea. 

Pers. Ench. i. 218 ; — scandens^ glaberrima ; foliis oblougis, 
apice subito acuminatis, imo obtusis, iiitidis, subcoriaceis ; 
racemo longe pedunculate, paucifloro, corolla coccinea, calyce 
2-3-plove lougiore. — Guiana^ v. s. in herb. Hook. (Surinam, 
Hostman, no. 348). 

This is evidently a scandent plant with slender branches ; the 
leaves are about 7^ inches long, 2;J inches broad, upon a some- 
what slender petiole, somewhat thickened at base, ^ inch in 
length ; they are quite smooth and of thick texture ; the peduncle 
of the raceme is axillary, about 3^ inches long, bearing a few 
flowers, only one remaining in the specimen above referred to ; 
the pedicel is about 1 inch in length ; the sepals are l^^ inch long, 
scarcely 3 lines broad in the middle ; the tube of the corolla is 
If inch long, 2 lines in diameter, swelling to half an inch below 
the mouth ; the lobes are 5 lines long, 4 lines broad, rounded, 
veined, overlapping each other on their margins, and when ex- 
panded, form a border about 1^^ inch in diameter ; the insertion of 
the stamens is about half an inch above the base of the tube, the 
filaments are very slender, nearly an inch long, and the anthers 
are 3 lines in length ; the berry is 8 lines long, 4 lines in diameter, 
apparently quite free of pulp, with a thin pericarp and slender 
dissepiment, containing numerous divaricate, ascending, imbri- 
cate seeds, each about 1^^ line in length*. 

2. Marckea ? longiflora (n. sp.) ; — scandens, ramulis glabris com- 
pressis ; foliis alternis, oblongis, apice repente acuminulatis, e 
medio ad basin subattenuatis, breviter petiolatis, coriaceis, 
glaberrimis, opacis; racemo sub-brevi, paucifloro ; corolla calyce 
4-5-plo longiore, tubo supra medium cylindraceo-carapanulato, 
limbi laciniis ovatis, subreflexis, staminibus inclusis. — Trini- 
dad, V. s. in herb. Hook. (La Laguna de Ora pouche, Purdie.) 

This plant corresponds in its habit with Marckea, but the spe- 
cimen above referred to presents only a single flower in a very 
bad condition, so that it is impossible to determine with certainty 
whether or not it belongs to this genus. The leaves are 7\ inches 
long, 3| inches broad, on a somewhat slender petiole thickened at 
base, and half an inch in length ; they are quite coriaceous, opake 
but not polished, though entirely glabrous ; they are marked with 
strong prominent nerves ; the peduncle of the raceme is appa- 
rently about Ih inch long, the pedicel 8 lines; the calyx exactly 
corresponds with that of the preceding species, the sepals being 
nearly an inch long, including their suddenly contracted linear 
apical points of 3 lines ; they are about 4 lines broad, with nearly 

* A representation of this plant, with sectional details, will be given in 
the ' Illiist. South Amer. Plants,' plate 45. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Juanulloa, 187 

parallel margins^ which are slightly conniveiit ; the tube of the 
corolla is about 3 inches in length, contracted at base for the 
length of l:p inch to scarcely more than 1^ line broad, and swell- 
ing above to a diameter of half an inch ; the lobes of the border 
are about half an incli in length and 4 or 5 lines in breadth, 
somewhat obtuse and patent ; the stamens ap])ear to originate in 
the contraction of the tube, with the anthers considerably below 
the mouth of the border ; the corolla is of much thinner texture 
than that of M. coccinea : in the form of its berry and enveloping 
calyx, the arrangement, size, and shape of its seeds, its lax testa, 
very thin albumen, and form of its embryo, it quite agrees with 
the former species. 

Juanulloa, 

This little-known genus of the ' Flora Peruviana ' was scarcely 
understood by the botanists of our time, until the very interesting 
account and excellent figure of a plant raised from seed in the 
Botanic Gardens of Kew was lately published by Sir Wm. Hooker. 
This proves to be a very different species from that figured by 
Ruiz and Pavon, and although generically identical with the 
Laureria inexicana of Schlechtendal, is again specifically distinct 
from it. The genus approaches Solandra in its climbing habit, 
large coriaceous leaves, and in the general structure of its flower 
and fruit, agreeing with it also in having a calyx consisting of five 
distinct sepals, conniving by their edges into an acutely pen- 
tangular tube, but here they subsequently become quite separate; 
it is also dissimilar in the cylindrical form of its corolla, with a 
small border of five rounded patent lobes, and with included 
stamens. It likewise approaches Marckea in the structure of its 
calyx, in which respect it resembles Nicandra and Cliocarpus, 
with which latter genus it also agrees, in having stellate tomen- 
tum. I have been able to complete from different sources the 
following amended generic character : — 

Juanulloa, R. & P. Prodr. xxvii. tab. 4. Ulloa, Pers. Ench. i. 
218. Laureria, Schlecht. Linn. viii. 513. Brugmansia, Sp. 
hortul. — Calyx coloratus, 5-sepalus, sepalis oblongo-acutis, 
marginibus subreflexis undulatis valvatim conniventibus, tu- 
bum inflatum 5-angularem ore coarctatum et 5-dentatum simu- 
lantibus, dein liberis et persistentibus. Corolla cylindrico- 
tubulosa, medio inflata, carnosula, fauce coarctata, limbo 5-lobo, 
lobis brevissimis, rotundatis, patentibus, festivatione imbricata. 
Stamina 5, gequalia, inclusa, erecta, filamenta in coarctationem 
imam corollge inseyta, basi villosa, antherce sublineares, 2-lobEe, 
lobis parallelis, connectivo lincari dorsali adnatis, intus longi- 
tudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium conicum, disco carnoso 5- 
lobo impositum, 2-loculare, multiovulatum, placentis centra- 



188 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Juanulloa. 

libus incrassatis dissepimento utrinquc aduatis. Stylus inclu- 
sus, apicc crassescens. Stigma oblongum, sub-bilabiatum^ lobis 
carnosis, adpressis, intus glaudulosis. Bacca ovata, sepaiis 
sejunctis cincta, 2-lociilaris. Semina plurima in pulpam nidii- 
lautia, oblouga, vix reuiformia, compressa, hilo infra medium 
laterali. Embryo intra albumen carnosum, fere rectus, radi- 
cula infera, tereti, paulo incurvata, cotyledonibus oblongis, 
crassis, compressis, accumbentibus, rectis, duplo longiore. — 
SufFrutices Peruviani et Mexicani dependentes ; folia alterna, 
oblonga, integra, coriacea, puhe tomentosa stellata plus minusve 
induta ; I'acemi terminales penduli ; ilores aurantiaci, vel punicei. 

1. Jua7iulloa parasitica, U. & P. FL Pcruv. ii. 47. tab. 185. Ul- 
loa parasitica, Pers. Ench. i. 218; — sufFrutex epiphytica, ra- 
mulis junioribus angulatis, glabris, epidermide teuui rimosa ; 
foliis oblongis, acumiuatis, coriaceis, nitidis, ruguloso-punctu- 
latis, subtiis albido vel liavido-furfuraceis, petiolo canaliculato, 
tenui, limbo 4-6-plo breviorc; racemis terminalibus, pendulis, 
dichotome ramosis; calj^ce magno, ovato, carnoso, colorato, 
inflato, 5-angulato, laciuiis demum sejunctis; corolla puuicea, 
cylindrica, calyce paulo longiore, medio subinflata, fauce 
coarctata, lobis brevibus rotundatis, patentibus ; bacca cerasi 
magnitudine punicea, sepaiis erectis vestita. — In Andibus 
Peruvianis excelsis, Pozuzo, Prov. Tai'mse, v. s. in herb. Mus. 
Brit. (Pavon). 

The leaves in this species are 5^ inches long, 2^ inches broad, 
with a thick channeled petiole of | inch in length ; the raceme 
is paniculate, 4-5 inches long, the pedicels i inch; the calyx, 
almost glabrous, is 1^ inch long, and ^ inch diameter ; the corolla 
is 1| inch long, 4 lines in diameter in the middle, 3 lines at both 
extremities, the lobes of the border being scarcely 2 lines in size ; 
the filaments are 5 lines long, the anthers of equal length, the 
berry being 1 inch long and | inch in diameter. 

2. Juanulloa Mexicana. Lau.reria Mexicana, /S'cA/ec/«/. Xm;z. viii. 
513. Brugmai\sia floribunda?, Paxton, Mag. Bot. ix. 241. 
cum icone ; — frutcx orgyalis, ramis glabris, epidermide rimosa, 
junioribus fulvido-tomentosis ; foliis ovatis, v. lato-lanceolatis, 
utrinque breviter acutis, supra Isevibus, subtus prsesertim in 
nervis tomento molU stellato tectis, breviter petiolatis ; calyce 
magno, e sepaiis 5, lato-ovatis, imo anguste attenuatis, tertia 
parte infimo in tubum 5-gonum 5-alatum margine cohtercn- 
tibus, demum sejunctis; corolla calyce paulo longiore, tubu- 
losa, sub-5-gona, extus stellato-tomentosa, intus glabra, cai'- 
nosa, limbi laciniis brevibus, obtusis : staminibus imo tomen- 
tosis, inclusis. — Mexico, La Laguna [Schiede) ; v. s. in herb. 
Hook. (Tenanipa, Prov. Vera Cruz, Linden, no. 50). 



Mr. J. Miers o?t the genus Juauulloa. 189 

The leaves of tliis plant are described by Scblechtendal as being 
from 4 to 6 incbes long and from 2 to 3 incbcs broad, upon a 
very sbort petiole of only 3 or 6 lines in length ; tbe calyx is 
\\ inch long, increasing to 1^^ inch; the corolla is 1| inch long, 
tbe filaments being 9 lines and tbe anthers 5 lines in length. 

Linden's plant above quoted, I have presumed to be the same 
species : here tbe leaves are thick and coriaceous, quite smooth 
above, clothed below with yellowish stellate down; they are broadly 
ovate, shortly and suddenly attenuated at the obtuse emarginated 
apex, 5|^ inches long_, 3|^ mches broad, on a thick channeled pe- 
tiole of § to I inch in length ; the inflorescence is nmch longer 
than in any other species, each dichotomous branch forming a 
distinct raceme of 4^ inches in length, bearing the articulations 
of several flowers towards their apex, which have all fallen off. 

3. Juanulloa Hookeriana. Juanulloa parasitica. Hook. Bot. Mag. 
tab. 4118; — frutex subscandens, ramis glabris, incano-glaucis 
epidermide rimosa, junioribus argenteo-tomentosis : foliis el- 
liptico-oblongis, utrinque subattenuatis, subcoriaceis, supra 
Iffivibus, subtus alutaceo-pulverulentis, pilis stellatis subto- 
mentosis, petiolo glabro, subtenui, canaliculato ; racemo brevi, 
subpaniculato, terminali, pedicellis brevissimis, crassis ; calyce 
magno, inflato, 5-angulato, breviter 5-dentato, angulis mox 
alatis et undulatis, e scpalis lineari-lanceolatis, 3-nerviis, crasso- 
coriaceis, aurantiaco-pulverulentis, margine coha^rentibus, de- 
mum liberis et persistentibus ; corolla cylindracea, imo breviter 
coarctata, calyce tertio longiore, limbi laciniis ovatis, obtusis, 
patentibus ; antheris infra faucem arete conniventibus. — Patria 
ignota ; v. v. cult, in hort. Kew, 

The leaves of this species are 5^ inches long, 2| inches broad, 
on a petiole of ^ to f inch in length ; the terminal inflorescence 
branches into two or three very short few-flowered racemes, the 
pedicels being 2 lines in length; the thick fleshy sepals are of an 
orange colour, 1^^ to If inch long, f inch broad, forming by their 
connivent edges a long and somewhat ventricose pentangular tube, 
the angles appearing in some degree winged and undulating ; 
the tube of the corolla is 1| inch long, 4 lines in diameter, very 
thick and fleshy, of a deep orange colour, externally clothed with 
fine floccose down, and smooth within, the segments of the bor- 
der being rounded, barely 3 lines long, and 2^ lines broad ; the 
stamens are fixed in the contracted portion of the tube, 3 lines 
above the base, and are pilose at their origin, quite smooth and 
terete above, erect, 11 lines long; the anthers, with somewhat 
mucronate apex, are 4 lines long, 1 line broad, adnate to a linear 
dorsal connective continuous with the filament ; the ovarium is 
conical, seated upon a thick fleshy five-lobed gland, with emar- 



190 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Sarcopbysa. 

ginated ronnded lobes ; tbe style is erect, sraootb, tbickened and 
hollow towards tbe summit ; tbe stigma consists of two oblong, 
adpressed, semiterete fleshy lobes, lined inside with green viscous 
glands. 

4. Juanulloa Panamensis (n. sp.) ; — frutex subscandens, ramis 
glabris, anguloso-compressis, epidermide rimosa ; foliis ellip- 
tico-oblongis, utrinque attenuatis, coriaceis, supra Isevibus, 
subtus alutaceo-pulverulentis, pilis stellatis flavicbs tomentosis, 
petiolo glabro, subtenui, canaliculato ; racemis brevissimis, 
3-4, terminalibus, aggregatis, floribus sub-umbellatim con- 
fertis : pedicellis calyce fere sequilongis, demum in fructu apice 
incrassatis duplo longioribus ; calyce breviore pseudo-angulato, 
sepalis demum liberis, lanceolatis, acutis, basi latis, carnosis, 
aurantiaco-pulverulentis ; corolla cylindracea, inio oreque co- 
arctata, supra medium inflata, calyce fere 3-plo longiore, ner- 
vis 5 prominentibus, limbi laciniis brevissimis, obtusiuscrdis, 
staminibus inclusis ; bacca oblonga, stylo persistente apiculata, 
sepalis coriaceis sejunctis cincta. — Panama, v. s. in herb. Hook. 
Veraguas [Seemann, no. 1200). 

This species bears much resemblance in the form and size of 
its leaves to J. Hookericma, but its inflorescence is very different, 
its calyx not half the size, the sepals less acuminate, the corolla 
longer and more contracted in its lower half. The leaves are 
5 inches long, 2i inches broad, on a petiole ^ to | inch in length ; 
they have a silvery lustre beneath, although covered somewhat 
more sparsely with yellow stellate or rather brachiate tomentum. 
The racemes, almost fasciculate at the apex of the branch, are 
scarcely more than | of an inch in length ; the pedicels are ~ inch 
long in flower, 1 inch long in fruit ; the sepals are little more 
than I inch long and f inch broad at base, and do not increase in 
size, but remain erect, separated, coriaceous, and embracing the 
ovate berry, | inch long, | inch diameter, crowned by the long, 
slender, persistent style ; the seeds are 2 lines long, nearly a line 
in breadth, and they have afforded the structural features given 
in the generic character*. 

Sarcophysa. 

Among the plants collected by Goudot and Purdie in New 
Granada, is one that nearly approaches Solandra, Juanulloa and 
Marckea, not only in its scandent habit, with large coriaceous 
leaves, but in the form of its corolla. It differs however from 
those genera in having a large, ovate, fleshy, tubular calyx, which 

* A representation of this species with sectional details, and an analysis 
of the flower of J. Iloolceriana, will be shown in plate 46 of the ' Illustr. 
South Amer. Plants.' 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Ectozoma, 191 

is much inflated in the middle, with a remarkably contracted 
mouth, bursting irregularly with the growth of the fruit, and not 
divided into distinct sepals as in the other genera above-men- 
tioned ; it is also distinguishable from JuanuUoa by its long, 
handsome, tubular corolla. Its name is derived from crapP, caro, 
and (f)V(Tr}, vesica, because of its fleshy inflated calyx. 

Sarcophysa (gen. nov.). — Calyx magnus, coloratus, ovatus, in- 
flato-tubulosus, crasso-carnosus, ore coarctato, breviter 5-par- 
tito, laciniis acutis, erectis, persistens, sed non augescens. 
Corolla cylindrico-tubulosa, tubo medio subinflato, calyce 3-plo 
longiore, limbo breviter 5-lobo, lobis acutis reflexis, staminibus 
styloque inclusis. Bacca ovata, styli basi apiculata, calyce 
coriaceo irregulariter fisso vestita. Csetera ignota. — Suff"rutex 
scandens Nova GranadcB, folia alterna, ovata, coriacea ; racemi 
penduli, paiiciflores ; corolla speciosa. 

1. Sarcophysa speciosa (n. sp.) ; — ramis dependentibus, dense 
tomentosis ; foliis ovatis, basi obtusis, apicc breviter angustatis, 
crasso-coriaceis, nervis profunde impressis, supra glaberrimis, 
minute ruguloso-punctulatis, subtus flavido-tomentosis, pilis 
stellato-braehiatis, petiolo crasso, reflexo, canaliculato, sub- 
brevi ; calyce magno, colorato ; corolla punicea ?, calyce duple 
longiore, extus subtomcntosa ; bacca magna, calyce vix auctOj 
fisso, sequilongo, inclusa. — Nova Granada, v. s. in herb. Hook. 
(Quindiu et Palmas, Goudot ; Quindiu, Purdie). 

This appears to be a scandent plant ; its leaves are quite smooth 
above, with a finely rugulose or shagreened surface ; below they 
are, as well as the petiole, covered with a dense orange-coloured 
and short tomentum ; they are 4 inches long, 2^ inches broad, on 
a thick channeled petiole half an inch long ; the flowers appear 
racemose ; the calyx 1^ inch long, nearly an inch in diameter ; the 
corolla is 2i inches in length, 8 lines diameter in the middle, 
contracted at both extremities to 5 lines, with oblong triangular 
teeth, 3 lines long ; the berry unripe is 1 1 inch long, | inch dia- 
meter, surrounded by the persistent coriaceous calyx, which is 
irregularly split on one side to the base ; the hairs df the tomen- 
tum are distinctly brachiate*. 

Ectozoma. 

In the Pavonian herbarium, preserved in the British Museum, 
I have noticed a plant that ofl"ers much analogy with the fore- 
going genera, agreeing with all the Solandrece in its habit, its 
coriaceous leaves, and terminal paniculated inflorescence, and 

* This species will be shown in plate 47 of the ' Illustr. South Amer. 
Plants.' 



192 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Ectozoma. 

although its flowers are much smaller, they agree in havdug a 
fleshy tubular corolla with five short lobes, which are imbricated in 
sestivation. They present the unusual character of the insertion 
of the stamens upon a free perigynous ring, as in Triguera, but 
with the peculiarity of being adnate upon its external face ; hence 
the derivation of its generic name, from e/cT09, extra, and ^M/j,a, 
cingula. In most cases where the stamens spring from a perigynous 
ring, the filaments originate from its inner face, as in Salpichroma, 
or from its margin, as in Triguera ; but we have a somewhat ana- 
logous case in Campanula medium, where the filaments are di- 
stinctly adnate upon the back of the large, broad processes, that 
form the fornix around the base of the style, peculiar to that 
genus. Its generic features may be characterized as follows : — 

Ectozoma (gen. nov.). — Ca/ya; campanulatus, brevis,crassus,sub- 
sequaliter 5-dcntatus, dentibus triangularibus, erectis. Corolla 
breviter tubulosa, medio subinflata, crasso-carnosa, limbo 5- 
lobo, lobis suborbicularibus, restivatione imbricatis. Stamina 5, 
requalia, inclusa, filamenta brevissima, compressa, e dorso an- 
uuli perigyni liberi tenuis margine cdiati orta. Anthera ob- 
longse, imo subcordatae, apice mucronulataj, lobis coriaceis con- 
nectivo dorsali lineari parallele adnatis, margine longitudina- 
liter dehiscentibus. Ovarium obovatum. Stylus erectus. Stig- 
ma fere exsertum, globosum, sub-2-lobum. Fructus iguotus. — 
Sufl'rutex Eaiadorensis,glaberrimus, suhscandens? ; folia alterna, 
ovata, vix acuta ; inflorescentia paniculata, terminalis. 

1. Ectozoma Pavonii; — glaberrima, ramulis compressis, suban- 
gulatis, epidermide rimosa ; foliis late ovatis, basi apiceqae ob- 
tusiusculis, vix acutis, crasso-coriaceis, supra iniprcsso-punc- 
tulatis, venis insculptis, subtus pallidis, venis prominentibus, 
pctiolo crasso canaliculate ; racemis paniculatis, 2-3, termi- 
nalibus ; floribus breviter pedicellatis_, calyce carnoso auran- 
tiaco, piloso, pilis brevibus articulatis ; corolla carnosa, aurau- 
tiaca, glabra, limbi laciniis crassiusculis. — Guayaquil, v. s. in 
herb. Mus. Brit. [Pavon). 

This plant bears much resemblance in its habit to Juanulloa 
and Sarcophxjsa. Its branchlets are much compressed, covered 
with a shining peeling bark; the leaves are 5 inches long, 3i 
inches broad, on a thick channeled petiole of half an inch in 
length. Its paniculate branching raceme is about 2 inches long, 
each pedicel is 1 line long ; the calyx, 4 lines in length and 3 lines 
in diameter, is very fleshy and rugosely pilose, and is divided to 
one-third its length into five equal erect teeth ; the tube of the 
corolla is 3 lines long, and the circular lobes of its border 1 line 
in diameter, the tube is somewhat narrowed at its base and in the 
throat ; the antheriferous free ring arises in the constriction of 



Ml". W. II. Benson on the f/enas Diploiiiniatiiia. 193 

the tube. It is possible that in the specimen relcrred to, the 
flowers are only in a young state, and that when fully grown 
they may assume a somewhat greater development, but I give the 
description in accordance with the specimen as it exists*. 

XXII. — Characters o/Diplommatina, a netv genus of Terrestrial 
Mollusks belonging to the Family of Carychiadfe, and of a second 
species contained in it ; also of a new species of Carychium in- 
habiting the Western Himalaya. By W. H. Benson, Esq. 

At page 81, vol. ii. of PfeifFer^s excellent Monograph of the 
Helicidce, there appears an erroneous reference to that family of 
an anomalous shell, the animal of which must exclude it from 
the position there assigned to it ; — I allude to the little Himalayan 
species called by Capt. Hutton in MSS. Carychium costatum, 
which Dr. Pfeiffer has described under the title of Bulimus folli- 
culus. Capt. Hutton, referring to the situation of the eyes and 
to their not being borne on the summits of the tentacula, asso- 
ciated the form with Carychium. The shell alone, differing in 
the shape of the aperture and destitute of plaits or teeth, would 
certainly be anomalous in that genus ; but it formed the only 
published type to which the species could be approximated. The 
following is the recorded result of my own repeated observations 
of the animals of both species. 

Tentacula two only, originating from the upper part of the 
head, long and filiform ; eyes situated on the posterior part of 
the tentacnla at their base, composed of two lobes : one lobe 
deeply seated in the tentaculum and larger than the other lobe, 
which is a small black point coming to the surface on the outer 
side of the larger lobe ; foot short. 

Had the animal been provided with an operculum f, it might 
possibly have been referred to the family of Cyclostomatidse in 
accordance with the position of the eyes, and the form of the 
aperture of the shell. The differences observable in the latter, 
as well as in its inhabitant, give countenance to a separation from 
Carychium ; I therefore propose for the type the following name 
derived from the peculiarity of the percipient points or eyes. 

Diplommatina, nobis. 

Char. Gen. Testa vix rimata, tenui, subovata ; spira elongata ; an- 
fractibus convexis, costatis, ultimo subascendente ; apertura eden- 

* A representation of this plant with details will be shown in plate 48 of 
the ' lllustr. South Amer. Plants.' 

f 1 believe I have the concurrence of the major pait of the conchologists 
of the present day in dissenting from Hang's opinion, ''qu'il n'est pas possible 
d'etablir dos divisions fondees sur la presence ou I'absence d'opercule. ' — 
Vide Rang's Manuel, p. 198, Art. Litiopa. 

Ann. ^c Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 13 



194 Mr. W. H. Benson on the genus Diplommatina. 

tula, subcirculari ; peristomate duplicate, expanse ; marginibus 
callo parietali appresso junctis ; operculo nuUo. 

Sp. 1. D. {Bui.) folliculus, Pfr. Monogr. vol. ii. p. 81-2. Cary- 
chium costatum, Hutt. MSS. 

Sp. 2. D. (Carych.) costulatum, Hutt. MSS. 

Testa minima, subimperforata, cylindrico-ovata, minute costulata, 
costulis obliquis regularibus, approximatis ; anfractibus 5, superio- 
ribus celeriter decrejcentibus ; ultimo angustiori, antice subascen- 
dente ; sutura profunda ; apice obtuso ; apertura rotundata, con- 
tinua, peristomate tenui, expanso, duplicate, labro secundo retro- 
misso a costulis satis distincto. 

Long. 2 mill., diam. vix 1 mill. 

Hub. in montibus sub-Himalayanis occidentalibus. 

It differs abundantly, in form as well as size, from D. folliculus, 
Pfr., in which also the double lip, distinct from the ribs, is 
strongly marked, although not noted in his characters. The 
present species is less than two-thirds the length of D. folliculus, 
and does not present the long conical spire of that species, de- 
creasing more suddenly towards the apex. 

It inhabits the same localities as the larger shell, abounding 
in masses of decayed fallen leaves, and under stones, in damp 
situations beneath trees, on the shady sides of the mountains, 
at from 5000 to 9000 feet elevation, at Simla, Mussoorie and 
Landour. 

Pfeiffer has given Bengal as the habitat of D. folliculus. It 
has never been met with in that province. Capt. Hutton dis- 
covered it at Simla near the Sutlej, and I have taken it abun- 
dantly at Landour, and still further eastward at Nynee Tal, and 
on the Ghagur Mountain towards the head of the Sarjou. It 
will probably be found in Nipal, or even further in the range, 
when the attention of visitors to those quarters shall be attracted 
to these diminutive animals, or perhaps the known species may 
be there replaced by other allied forms. 

In the same localities as Diplommatina, but less abundantly, 
occurs a new species of Carychium proper, quite distinct from the 
European species C. minimum and spelceum, Rossm., as well as 
from the American C. exiguum, Say. The following are its cha- 
racters : — 

C. Indicum, nobis. 

Testa minima, rimata, ovato-cylindracea, hyalina, nitida ; anfracti- 
bus quinque, superioribus convexis, ultimo et penultimo subpla- 
nulatis ; apice obtuso ; sutura impressa ; apertura ovata, peristo- 
mate incrassato, margine dextro intus medio callo dentiformi prse- 
dito ; plica parietali unica, columellari 1 obliqua. 

Long. 1| mill., diam. f mill. 

Hab. ad Simla et Landour montibus sub-Himalayanis, foliis putridis 
adhserens. 



Mr. F.Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 195 

I should have adopted Capt. Mutton's MS. name " bidens," 
were it truly descriptive of the shell. The columellar plate ap- 
pears to have escaped his observation from its minuteness and 
its backward position in the mouth. 

July 25, 1849. 



XXIII. — Descriptions 0/ Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 48.] 

71. Aphis Caprece, Fabr. 

Aphis Caprea, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 217. 33; Ent. Syst. iv. 221. 3 ; 
Syst. Rhyn. 294. 3; Scbrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 104. 1179; 
Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 2203 ; Stew. El. ii. 110 ; Turt. ii. 703 ; Kalt. 
Mon. Pflan. i. 109. 84; Ratz. Forst. Ins. iii. 218. 110. 

Aphis Pastinacce, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 1. 36. 31 ; Faun. Suec. 
997; Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii. 315. 13; Eut. Syst. iv.213. 13 ; Syst. 
Rhyn. 296. 13 ; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. 2202 ; Turt. ii. 703. 

A. ^gopodii, Fabr. Sp. Ins. ii. 387. 28 ; Ent. Syst. iv. 217. 
33 ; Syst. Rhyn. 299. 33 ; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2204 ; Stew. 
El. ii. 110. 

A. Podagrarim, Scop. Ent. Carn. 399 ; Schrank, Faun. Boic. 
ii. 1. 110. 

^gopndaphis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2"^^ serie, v. 479. 

This species feeds on Salix babylonica, S. caprea, S. amygdalina, 
S. alba, Angelica sylvestris, A. archangelica, ALgopodium Poda- 
graria, Chcnophyllum temulum, C. sijlvestre, Apium graveolens, 
A. Petroselinum, Sium nodifloi-um, Heracleum Sphondylium, Pas- 
tinaca sativa, Coniiim maculatum, Anethum Foeniculum, Peuce- 
danum officinale, &c. 

The viviparous wingless female. Pale green, especially on each 
side, elliptical, fiat, and rather small : the front is slightly con- 
vex, and not notched : the feelers are pale green, and shorter than 
the body ; their tips are black ; the first and the second joints are 
not angular ; the fourth joint is much less than half the length 
of the third, which is rather thick ; the fifth is shorter than 
the fourth ; the sixth is much shorter than the fifth ; the seventh 
is very slender and much longer than the fourth : the eyes are 
black : the mouth and the nectaries are pale green ; the former 
has a black tip, and the latter are very slightly spindle-shaped, 
and as long as one-fourth of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; 
the tips of the feet are black. On the willow. 

1st var. Oval, slightly convex, with two vivid green stripes 
along the back : the feelers are about one-fourth of the length 

13* 



196 J\lr. F. Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 

of the body ; their tips are brown : the eyes are dark brown : the 
tip of the mouth is brown : the nectaries are as long as one- 
eighth of the body : the legs are pale green ; the feet and the tips 
of the shanks are brown. Abundant on Anethmn Foeniculum in 
the beginning of May. 

2nd var. Small, grass-green, short elliptical, rather flat : the 
limbs are green ; the tips of the feelers, the eyes, the tip of the 
mouth, and the feet are brown : the feelers are not half the 
length of the body : the nectaries are about one-sixth of the 
length of the body. On Peucedanum officinale at the end of 
May. 

3rd var. The feelers are pale green, and little more than one- 
third of the length of the body ; their tips are black : the eyes 
are dark red. On Heracleuni SphondijUum at the end of June. 

4th var. The body is pale greenish yellow, and the head in- 
clines to a buff colour : the eyes are dark red : the feelers are pale 
yellow, darker towards their tips, and a little more than half the 
length of the body : the mouth is pale yellow with a black tip : 
the nectaries are pale yellow with black tips, and rather more 
than one-fourth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yel- 
low or greenish yellow; the tips of the feet are black. 

5th var. Green, shining : the feelers are pale yellow, and less 
than half the length of the body ; their tips are darker : the 
mouth is pale yellow; its tip and the eyes are black : the nec- 
taries are pale yellow, and as long as one-sixth of the body ; their 
tips are black : the legs are pale yellow ; the thighs are pale green ; 
the tips of the shanks and of the feet are dark. 

6th var. The body is pale red varied with yellow : the feelers 
are pale yellow, and about half the length of the body ; the tips 
of the latter joints are darker : the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip 
aad the eyes are black : the nectaries are pale yellow with black 
tips, and nearly one-fifth of the length of the body : the legs are 
pale green ; the knees and the tips of the shanks are brown ; the 
tips of the feet are black. 

7th var. The body is dark green, or pale green with the head 
and the limbs inclining to a white colour : the feelers are pale 
green with brown tips, and rather more than one-third of the 
length of the body : the nectaries are pale yellow with brown 
tips, and are as long as one-sixth of the body : the mouth is very 
pale green with a brown tip : the eyes are very dark brown : the 
legs are very pale green ; the feet are pale brown. 

8th var. The body is dull green : the feelers are black, dull 
yellow at the base, and much shorter than the body ; the joints 
are rather thick with the exception of the last, which is slender : 
the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip and the eyes are black : the 
nectaries are dark green, and as long as one-eighth of the body : 



Mr. r. Walkci-'s Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 197 

the legs are dull yellow, and rather short ; the kueesj the feet, 
and the tips of the shanks are black. 

9th var. Body pale yellowish green : the eyes are dark brown : 
the feelers are pale green at the base, brown at the tips, and 
rather less than one-third of the length of the body : the mouth 
is pale green with a brown tip : the nectaries are pale green, and 
nearly one-fifth of the length of the body : the legs are pale 
green ; the feet are brown. 

10th var. Body dark dull yellowish green ; the head and the 
limbs are still darker. 

11th var. Body grass-green. 

12th var. Body green, mottled with red. 

13th var. Body pale red. 

14th var. The tips of the nectaries and of the shanks are 
brown. 

15th var. The feelers and the legs are brown. 

16th var. The body is pale whitish green : the limbs are dull 
white or greenish white ; the former are nearly half the length of 
the body : the eyes are dark red : the tip of the mouth is black : 
the nectaries are as long as one-fourth of the body : the knees, 
the feet, and the tips of the shanks are dark. 

17th var. The seventh joint of the feelers is shorter than the 
sixth. 

The viviparous winged female. Green, and rather small : the 
head, the disc of the chest, and that of the breast are black : 
there is a large black spot on the back of the abdomen, and a 
row of small black spots on each side : the feelers are black, and 
a little longer than the body : the mouth is pale green ; its tip 
and the eyes are black : the nectaries are dull green, and as long 
as one-fourth of the body : the legs are pale yellow, and mode- 
rately long ; the thighs, except the base^ the feet, and the tips 
of the shanks, are black : the wings are colourless, and much 
longer than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale green ; the wing- 
brands and the veins are dark brown ; the tips of the latter are 
slightly clouded ; the second vein diverges much from the first, 
but is nearly parallel to the third ; the situation of the forks of 
the latter vein is variable, but the first is usually a little before 
one-third and the second much after two-thirds of the length ; 
the fourth vein is more curved towards its base than near its tip, 
and the angle of the brand whence it springs is very slight. On 
the willow in the middle of June. 

1st var. The abdomen is quite green : the thighs are green 
with black tips. 

2nd var. The abdomen is green, and there are black bands 
across its back : the feelers are nearly as long as the body : the 



198 Mr. F. Walker's Desci'iptions 0/ Aphides. 

legs are pale green ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are black : 
the wing-ribs are pale yellow. 

3rd var. The back of the abdomen is black, and it is traversed 
by green bands, one of which near the base is broader than the 
rest ; the nectaries are as long as one-sixth of the body. 

4th var. The abdomen is green, and its back is traversed by 
confluent black bands : the feelers are neai'ly as long as the body : 
the mouth is pale yellow with a black tip : the nectaries ai'e also 
pale yellow with black tips, and as long as one-sixth of the body : 
the thighs and the wing-ribs are pale yellow. 

5th var. Like the preceding, but the borders of the fore-chest 
and the fore-bi-east are dull yellow. 

6th var. Black, shining : the borders of the fore-chest are 
dark green : the abdomen is pale green at the base and beneath ; 
the disc and the hind-part are almost black : the feelers are less 
than half the length of the body : the nectaries are black, and 
about one-seventh of the length of the body : the legs are dull 
yellow ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are black : the wings 
are nearly twice the length of the body ; the wing-ribs are pale 
yellow ; the wing-brands are pale brown, and very long ; the veins 
are brown. On Anethum Foeniculum, in the beginning of May. 

7th var. Black : the base and the underside of the abdomen 
and the mouth are green, and the tip of the latter is black : the 
feelers are nearly as long as the body : the nectaries are about 
one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; 
the feet, and the tips of the thighs and of the shanks are black. 
On Peucedanum officinale, at the end of May. 

8th var. Black : the fore-border and the hind-border of the 
fore-chest and the abdomen are green ; the latter is sometimes 
traversed by black bands : the feelers are much shorter than the 
body : the mouth is green with a black tip : the legs are yellow ; 
the feet and the tips of the shanks are black ; the tips of the 
thighs are sometimes brown. 

9th var. Black : the abdomen is very dark green with a row 
of black spots on each side ; its underside is rather pale : the 
feelers are rather shorter than the body, or sometimes about 
half its length : the mouth is dark green with a black tip : the 
nectaries are one-fifth or one*sixth of the length of the body : 
the legs are dark dull green or dull yellow ; the feet and the 
tips of the thighs and of the shanks are brown or black : the 
wing-brands are dark green or pale brown. On Charophyllum 
sylvestre, in the beginning of May. 

10th var. While a pupa it is pale yellowish green, with two 
vivid green stripes along the back : the feelers are full one-third 
or sometimes more than half the length of the body : the nee- 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 199 

taries are about one-eighth of the length of the body : the rudi- 
mentary wings are buff. This colour continues for some little 
time after the insect acquires wings, which are milk-white for 
a while after their development. The winged insect is black and 
small : the feelers are more than half the length of the body : the 
mouth is dull green with a brown tip : the abdomen is green, and 
has a stripe of black spots on each side : the nectaries are black, 
and about one- sixth of the length of the body : the legs are pale 
yellow ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are brown ; the four 
hinder thighs are sometimes black : the wings are very much 
longer than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale green ; the brands 
are pale brown ; the veins are brown. 

11th var. Like the last, but the fore-border and the hind- 
border of the fore-chest are green : the feelers are shorter than 
the body : the mouth is pale green with a black tip : the nec- 
taries are green, and as long as one-fifth of the body : the legs 
are green ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are black : the 
wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow. 

12th var. Like the 10th var., but the borders and the under- 
side of the fore-chest are dull yellow : the tips of the fore-thighs, 
the middle thighs from the middle to the tips, and the hind- 
thighs excepting the base, are dull green : the wing-ribs and the 
rib-veins are pale yellow ; the veins are pale brown. 

13th var. The body is black : the sutures of the segments are 
dark green : the abdomen is green, and has a row of black spots 
on each side : the feelers are very much shorter than the body : 
the mouth is green with a black tip : the nectaries are green, 
and about one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs are dull 
yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of the shanks 
are black : the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the brands are dull 
buff. 

14tli var. The body is black : the foi-e-chest is dull green : the 
abdomen is pale grass-green ; the disc of its back is darker, and 
there is a row of very small black spots on each side : the feelers 
are black, and rather more than half the length of the body : the 
mouth is green with a brown tip : the nectaries are black, and 
about one-tenth of the length of the body : the legs are green ; 
the feet and the tips of the thighs and of the shanks are black : 
the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the brands and the veins are pale 
brown. 

15th var. The body is black and rather small : the abdomen, 
the fore-breast and the borders of the fore-chest are dull green : 
the feelers are much shorter than the body : the mouth is dull 
green with a black tip : the nectaries are dull green, and as long 
as one-sixth of the body : the legs are dark green ; the hind- 
thighs, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black : the wing- 



200 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions 0/ Aphides. 

ribs are yellow ; the wing-brands are pale brown ; the veins are 
brown. 

16th var. The body is black and very small : the feelers are as 
long as the body : the mouth is dull yellow with a black tip : the 
nectaries are as long as one-eighth of the body : the fore-thighs 
are yellow at the base ; the shanks are dark yellow with black 
tips : the wing-ribs are yellow ; the brands are pale brown ; the 
veins are dark brown, and very distinct. 

17th var. The body is black : the abdomen is green : the feel- 
ers are a little more than half the length of the body : the mouth 
is yellow towards the base : the nectaries are as long as one-sixth 
of the body : the legs are black ; the fore-thighs at the base, and 
the shanks except their tips are yellow : the wing-ribs are yel- 
low ; the brands and the veins are brown. 

18th var. The body is black : the borders of the fore-chest 
and the abdomen are dark green ; the back of the latter is black : 
the feelers are nearly as long as the body : the mouth is pale yel- 
low with a black tij) : the nectaries are black, and as long as one- 
sixth of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the four hinder 
thighs, the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black : 
the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow ; the brands and 
the other veins are pale brown. 

19th var. The fourth joint of the feelers is full half the length of 
the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is a little 
longer than the fifth ; the seventh is a little longer than the sixth. 

20th var. The fourth joint is nearly half the length of the 
third ; the fifth and the sixth are slightly club-shaped, and are 
each as long as the fourth ; the seventh is hardly longer than the 
sixth. 

21st var. The sixth joint is a little longer than the fifth. 

22nd var. The third joint is as long as the three following 
joints, and the seventh is about thrice the length of the sixth. 

23rd var. While a pupa it resembles the wingless Aphis, but 
the rudimentary wings are pale green : sometimes the body has 
two lively green stripes along the abdomen, and the colour varies 
to pale red which is sometimes varied with green and with brown. 
When winged it is dull greenish yellow : the disc of the chest 
and that of the breast are black : there is a brown band across 
the fore-chest : the feelers are shorter than the body : the mouth 
is yellow with a black tip : the nectaries are pale yellow with 
black tips, and as long as one-fifth of the body : the thighs are 
pale yellow. 

24th var. While a pupa the body is pale green varied with 
dark green, or pale red varied with yellow : the head and the 
fore-chest are pale red : the legs are pale greenish yellow ; the 
feet are black. 



j\lr. F. Walkcr^s Descriptions o/ Aphides. 201 

There are two varieties of this species on the willow, and they 
differ in size ; the black colour predominates in the smaller va- 
riety, and in the larger the green extends more over the body and 
over the legs. The pup^e resemble the wingless insect in colour, 
but the rudimentary wings and the disc of the chest are buff. 

The oviparous winffless female. It appears at the end of Octo- 
ber, and is elliptical, dark velvet-like red, and rather flat : the 
feelers are white with black tips, and about one-third of the 
length of the body : the mouth is white ; its tip and the eyes are 
black : the nectaries are white with black tips, and nearly one- 
fourth of the length of the body : the legs are dirty white ; the 
feet and the tips of the shanks are black ; the hind-shanks are 
broad and grayish black. It continues sometimes till near the 
end of November. 

1st var. Bright red : the disc of the abdomen is black. 

2nd var. The head is almost white. 

3rd var. Greenish yellow : the tip of the abdomen is orange : 
the legs are pale green ; the hind-shanks are dull green. 

4th var. Orange colour. 

5th var. The body is dull yellowish green, flat, oval, not 
shining : there is a broad irregular black stripe along the chest 
w^hereon it divides and passes along each side of the abdomen : 
the feelers are pale yellow, black towards the tips, and very nearly 
half the length of the body : the mouth is pale ; its tip and the 
eyes are black : the nectaries are white, and about one-twelfth of 
the length of the body : the legs are dirty yellowish white ; the 
feet and the tips of the shanks are black. 

The ivinged male. The body is small and black : the abdomen 
is dark brown : the feelers are black, thick from their base till 
near their tips, and nearly as long as the body : the mouth is 
yellow with a black tip ; the nectaries are black, and about one- 
sixth of the length of the body : the legs are black ; the shanks 
except their tips are yellow : the wings are colourless and much 
longer than the body ; the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are yellow ; 
the brands and the other veins are brown. 

1st var. The abdomen is broad, and rather dark yellow ; the 
nectaries are as long as the body : the legs are yellow ; the four 
hinder thighs, excepting the base, the feet, and the tips of the 
shanks and of the fore-thighs, are black. 

2nd var. The abdomen is very dark j-ed beneath, and covered 
with white powder : the feelers are a little longer than the body : 
the nectaries are as long as one-eighth of the body : the legs are 
black ; the thighs are pale yellow at the base ; the shanks ex- 
cejiting their tips are dark yellow : the wing-brands are {)ale 
brown. 

3rd var. The body is pale greenish yellow : the head, the disc 



202 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

of the chest and that of the breast are black : there is a broad 
black stripe along the abdomen : the feelers are black : the nec- 
taries are pale yellow with black tips, and less than one-fourth 
of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the knees, 
the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black. 

Variations of the iving-veins. 1st var. The first vein, the lower 
branch of the first fork, and (with the exception of its tip) the 
upper branch of the second fork of the third vein, are wanting. 

2nd var. The second vein has near its tip a fork which does 
not join the border of the wing. 

3rd var. The second fork of the third vein is close to the tip 

of the wing. 

[To be continued.] 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

June 14, 1849. — Professor Balfour, President, in the Chair. 

Donations to the library were announced. Specimens of the va- 
rious species and varieties of tea cultivated in Assam were presented 
by Dr. Jameson ; and Himalayan ferns by Mr. Wyville Thomson. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On Nostochinea," by Messrs. Ralfs and Thwaites. This 
was a continuation of a former paper, being descriptions of the spe- 
cies of Trichormus, Aphanizomenon, and Dolichospermiim. It will 
appear in the ' Annals of Natural History ' and the Society's 
' Transactions.' 

2. " Remarks on the Origin of Plants and the Physical and Geo- 
graphical Distribution of Species," by the Rev. Dr. Fleming. The 
author stated that it had been assumed as a first principle, con- 
nected with an extensive series of speculations in botany and geo- 
logy, that species had sprung from single centres, and that the indi- 
viduals had " radiated from one point to greater or lesser distances 
around it," according to Dr. J. Hooker; or that all the individuals 
of a species could be traced " from a single progenitor, or from two, 
according as the sexes might be united or distinct," and hence the 
origin of the phrase, " specific centres." In opposition to this view, 
it was stated, that the history of the human race, traced to their 
origin in a single pair, did not furnish an analogical argument of 
any value ; while the dependence of the carnivorous animals on the 
herbivorous kinds, and the latter, along with man himself, on plants, 
gave good grounds to conclude that many individuals, of grasses for 
example, were requisite in the first instance, and were brought forth 
abundantly. These considerations rendered the assumption of " spe- 
cific centres" extremely improbable; but the occurrence of similar 
species, in localities remote from one another, and even in opposite 
hemispheres, over M'hich, by no conceivable process, could dispersion 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 203 

from a single plant be reconciled with the phaenomena, did, in the 
oninion of the author, furnish a demonstration of its absurdity. Dr. 
Hooker, while admitting the identity of the species of opposite hemi- 
spheres, acknowledging about thirty antarctic forms as identical with 
European plants, even after careful comparison and with the ablest 
coadjutors, is inclined to consider the identity, not as indicating a 
multitude of progenitors of a species, but as an anomaly, the ex- 
planation of which must be sought for " in some natural cause." 
Professor E. Forbes disposes of the anomaly in a more summary 
manner, by an assertion, that " species of opposite hemispheres, 
placed under similar conditions, are representative, not identical." 
If this opinion be correct, then form and structure are vastly inferior 
in value in the determination of species, to latitude, a conclusion not 
likely to be adopted. The author concluded by recommending the 
abolition of the term " specific centres of distribution," as involving 
an erroneous hypothesis, and the substitution of the phrase "patches 
of distribution." 

Dr. Fleming exhibited a specimen of Xanthorrhoea hastilis, which 
had been sent by Assistant-Commissary Neill from St. George's 
Sound, together with some implements manufactured by the abori- 
gines, by means of the gum exuded from the bases of the leaves of 
this plant. 

July 12. — Dr. Balfour, President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On NostochinecB," by John Ralfs, Esq. This paper comprised 
descriptions of species of Hphcerozygu and Cylindrospermum, and will 
appear in the ' Annals of Natural History ' and the Society's ' Trans- 
actions.' 

2. " On the Chemical Composition of the Fluid in the Ascidia of 
Nepenthes," by Dr. A. Voelcker of Frankfort. (See p. 128.) 

Dr. Fleming called attention to the fact, that the young leaves of 
barley distil a clear fluid from their extremities. He was not aware 
of any analysis having been made of it. 

Dr. Balfour alluded to a similar pheenomenon on the leaf of 
Richardia (Calla) jEthiopica ; and Dr. Cleghorn made some remarks 
on the acid secretion (oxalic acid) of Cicer arietinum, the chick pea, 
which he had often observed the ryots collecting in India. 

3. "Notes of Excursions in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh," by 
Dr. Balfour. In these notes Dr. Balfour gave a short account of the 
botanical trips which he had taken with his pupils this season to 
Daimahoy, Arniston, Dysart, Prestonhall, Melrose, GuUane, Queens- 
ferry and the Bass, and noticed some of the more interesting plants 
which had been gathered. 

4. Dr. Balfour exhibited specimens of roots which had entered 
and choked up tile-drains ; viz. of an ash which had penetrated tile- 
drains in Hampshire, filling them up completely for a great extent, 
and causing serious injury, and stated that similar occurrences had 
been observed in various parts of the country, more especially at 
Muirkirk, the Carse of Gowrie and Prestonhall. The plants, whose 



204 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

roots had penetrated the drains in different localities, were : — elm, 
poplar, willow and ash. Polygonum Bistorta, Equisetum, and Tussilogo 
Farfara. The Bistort had been very troublesome in the Carse of 
Gowrie. Mr. Gorrie had found the roots of an alder penetrating 
into an old mine full of water, and developed there in a remarkable 
manner. 

Dr. Neill stated that twenty years ago Mr. Riddoch of Falkirk 
had transmitted to him a specimen of the root of Senecio Jacobcea 
that had entered a drain by a very small orifice, but afterwards ex- 
tended itself, completely filling the drain for about 20 feet. 

Mr. Wyville Thomson referred to an instance which had come 
under his observation in Ayrshire, in which drains were completely 
obstructed at a place where they passed through a larch plantation, 
the roots of the larches having filled them up. 

Sir John S. Forbes, in a letter addressed to Professor Balfour, gave 
some interesting particulars as to the water-pipes which supply the 
village of New Pitsligo, Aberdeenshire. Part of these tile-pipes, 3 
inches bore, were laid about forty years ago, overlapping 2^ inches, 
packed in clay throughout their whole length, and the joints filled 
with milled clay. The pipes are in general placed 3 feet deep ; but 
in some instances they approach nearer the surface owing to the 
levels, and at these points roots have entered. The roots proceed 
from plants outside and never adhere to the tile. They run along 
the inside for 6 or 8 yards, and then become matted together so as 
to fill the pipes completely. The plants which have been observed 
to send their roots into the pipes are species of Rumex and Carduus, 
&c. The pipes require to be cleaned at least once in the season, 
which is done by a long wire with a screw at the end, which is 
twisted among the roots so as to break them up, and allow the 
loosened matter to pass out at the lowest level. Sir John sent a 
specimen of the root of a gooseberry bush which had entered the 
pipes where they passed through a garden. 

Dr. Fleming suggested the importance of ascertaining the probable 
structural changes which enabled the roots of these plants to derive 
nourishment directly from running water. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited specimens of a peculiarly knotted stem of 
an elm from Prestonhall. The leading stem had been broken off, and 
one of the side branches rising from a remarkably knotted base had 
become erect, giving the tree a peculiar aspect. AH the branches of 
this new leader were covered with knots, while the other branches 
were free from them. The peculiarity was continued in plants raised 
from slips taken off the branch. 

Dr. Balfour also noticed the occurrence in Prestonhall grounds of 
a mountain ash, from which a large limb had been broken, splitting 
the tree so as to expose its centre, which is now covered with roots, 
sent down from the branches above. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited specimens of sycamore roots, taken by Mr. 
Gorrie from very stony ground, which had become flattened and hol- 
lowed so as to embrace large stones at different points. The roots, 
when removed, carried the stones with them, and in some instances 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 205 

the stones were almost completely enveloped by the expanded con- 
tinuous root. 

5. " Remarks on the growth of Bambusa arundinacea," by Mr. 
Robert Scott. (See p. 120.) 

Dr. Cleghorn of the Madras Army exhibited drawings, of some in- 
teresting plants from Western Mysore, India, a tract of country little 
explored by botanists, where for some years he has been in a jjecu- 
liarly favourable position for acquiring information. The district he 
represented to be singularly rich in natural productions : many me- 
dicinal shrubs are found, yielding gums, barks and dyes, the value of 
which is not sufficiently known or appreciated. There were laid 
before the meeting a specimen of Mysore gamboge, with figures of 
Garcinia pictoria, Rox., which furnishes it, and other Guttifcra ; also 
Zanthochymus pictorius, Rox., &c. The analysis and researches of 
Dr. Christison (with the o])inion of the Bombay Chamber of Com- 
merce) has fully established the intrinsic value of this gamboge, 
whilst the concurrent testimony of several accurate observers prove 
that the tree is found in abundance at an elevation of 2000 to 3000 
feet along a great portion of the range of Malabar Ghauts. The 
coffee-planters, who propose trading in the new article, have been 
seeking information, and it is expected that this hitherto neglected 
production of the forest may become an export of commercial im- 
portance from the western coast of the peninsula, rivaling Siam 
gamboge in the London market. Attention was directed to Entada 
Purs(Btha (W. & A.), an immense climbing shrub which runs over 
the tallest forest trees ; the legumes are often 3 feet long, and the 
seeds are used as weights in the bazaars. Among other plants ex- 
hibited were Hexacentris Mysorensis of Wight, Xnnthoxylou triphyl- 
lum, Juss., and Acrostichum flagelliferwn of Wallich. These draw- 
ings of Mysore plants, executed with the aid of a native artist, amount 
to 500 ; and the species collected by Dr. Cleghorn run up to 2000. 
From various interruptions and delicate health, the greater part of 
the collection remains unarranged. A sketch of the vegetation of 
Mysore was promised for a subsequent meeting. 

Mr. M'Nab exhibited a peculiar gelatinous matter, which con- 
tinues to increase in a solution of sugar, and forms it into vinegar. 
In the course of a month the mass divides, forming two independent 
masses, each of which has the power of carrying on the process of 
converting saccharine solution into vinegar. The vinegar produced 
is excellent, and is the only kind used by several persons in Edin- 
burgh. 

Mr. Evans exhibited Antennaria dioica and hyperborea, showing 
the difference between the two plants, the leaves of the latter being 
cottony on both sides, while those of the former are so on the under 
side only. Mr. Evans also exhibited plants of the Silesian potato, a 
small Ranunculaceous plant, whose tubers have been used for food. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited male flowers of Pinus Lambertiana from 
Mr. Spiers, with whom this pine is flowering ; and stated that the 
same plant has likewise produced fertile flowers, and is in course of 
ripening seeds. 



206 Linnaan Society. 

Mr. Stark sent specimens for exhibition of the following Algae 
dredged in the neighbourhood of Lamlash, Acran : — Bonnemaisonia 
asparagoides, Halymenia Ugulata, Polysiphonia parasitica, Delesseria 
ruscifolia and Nicophjllum punctatum. 

LINNAAN SOCIETY. 

November 7, 1848. — Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

A paper was read by F. J. Graham, Esq., F.L.S., " On the In- 
juries sustained by certain Plants from the attacks of parasitic Fungi, 
with particular reference to the Cause of the Potato Disease." 

In order to demonstrate the subject more clearly, Mr. Graham 
exhibited drawings, with magnified figures of several species of para- 
sites ; and a great many specimens of different plants, both native 
and exotic, presenting a healthy appearance on those parts which 
were still free from the attacks of the different species of mildew to 
which they w^ere subject, but at the same time showing the most in- 
disputable signs of disease on those parts which were infested by 
tufts of mildew. The manner in which one plant in particular. 
Shepherd's Purse {Thlaspi Bursa Pastor is, L.), was affected, was very 
remarkable. Portions of the stems of this were covered, to the ex- 
tent of two or three inches, with Botrytis parasitica, which caused 
them to become gouty or swollen to three times their natural size ; 
and eventually these parts assumed a brown colour and a moist pu- 
trescent character, which could be traced down the stalks, and in 
many cases killed the plants. Transverse sections of these blotches, 
compared with similar sections of a blotch on the potato stalk, ex- 
hibited the same effects, the dark fluid having penetrated the tissues 
of both to a considerable extent. Of all the species of parasitic mil- 
dews which he has noticed, Mr. Graham considers those belonging 
to the genus Botrytis to produce the severest injuries ; and it is an 
undisputed fact that the potato crops have been universally attacked, 
during the last three seasons, by Botrytis infestans. 

As to the manner in which these i)arasites acquire their destruc- 
tive power, Mr. Graham considers that it arises from the natural de- 
cay of their mycelium or internal filaments, which he has found tra- 
versing the tissues of plants, beneath the external tufts of mildew. 
That the tissues of plants are extensively permeated by this myce- 
lium, has been frequently shown by the Rev. M.J. Berkeley and other 
mycologists ; but the important fact that these roots (as they may 
be termed) die within the tissues of plants, along with their super- 
structure, assuming a dark colour in decay and ultimately dissolving 
into a viscous mass, has hitherto, Mr. Graham states, escaped the 
notice of authors. Decaying matter being thus secretly introduced, 
corrupts the adjacent tissues, and in many cases spreads over the 
entire plant and kills it. Mr. Graham states that he has arrived at 
this conclusion after repeated examinations under powerful micro- 
scopes, but that the effects are visible in some cases to the naked 
eye. Experiments made by enclosing tufts of mildew in the sap of 
those plants on which it grew, also exhibited the results above stated. 



Linnman Society. 207 

November 21. — Edward Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Mr. A. Adams, F L.S., presented specimens of the habitations of 
a species of Spider, collected by Captain Sir E. Belcher on the north- 
west side of Majambo Bay, in the Island of Madagascar, and com- 
municated by him to Mr. Adams, with the particulars of their history. 
It appears that on this coast the north-east wind blows so constantly 
and to such a degree, that it would effectually destroy the more usual 
forms of web ; to remedy which, the spiders of the locality collect 
together a number of small even-sized grains of quartz-sand, of which 
they fabricate a tolerably firm horn-shaped habitaculum, uniting them 
together by means of a line loose web, which they hang from the low 
shrubs that grow upon the sand, and thus suspended defy the breeze 
and ride out the gale in safety. 

Mr. J. Clarke exhibited specimens of FUago Jussiai and Melilotus 
arvensis, found near SatFron Walden, Essex. 

Mr. J. Hogg, F.R.S., F.L.S., exhibited dried specimens of a plant 
"which he regarded as a double variety of Matricaria Chamomilla, L., 
found by himself on the sandy road-side near Whitburn, Durham, to- 
gether with a coloured drawing of the natural size. He stated, in a 
communication accompanying the exhibition, that he had never before 
observed any similar vai-iety of the species above named, nor could 
he find any account of its having been known to vary with a double 
flower. Sir J. E. Smith, however, in his ' English Flora,' states of 
Anthemis nobilis, that " varieties with double flowers are common 
in gardens ;" and in Smith's own herbarium, in the Museum of the 
Society, are two specimens of Pyrethrum inodorum, var. flore pleno, 
the flowers of which very strongly resemble those exhibited. These 
were found in Norfolk by Mr. Crowe in 1799, and are mentioned in 
the 'English Flora' as "a double variety, having a multiplied ra- 
dius and an obliterated contracted disk." In the present example 
Mr. Hogg states that " the external white petals, or rather the florets 
of the radius, are altogether larger and stronger ; they are much 
elongated, strap-shaped, less narrow, with their margins somewhat 
folded inwards, and are rather more numerous than those in the ordi- 
nary single flower, from which they also diflfer by being sometimes 
bilabiate ; whilst the disk itself is greatly contracted and reduced, 
and its tubular florets appear to have become very small and abor- 
tive ; thus apparently indicating that the florets of the radius have 
become lengthened and enlarged at the expense of those of the disk." 
Mr. Hogg adds, that in general appearance these large double flowers 
of Matr. Chamomilla resemble the common white double flowers of 
the genus Chrysanthemum. 

December 5. — E. Forster, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Read the conclusion of Mr. Huxley's memoir on Physalia, com- 
menced at the last Meeting. 

The specimens of Physalia on which Mr. Huxley's observations 
were made, were collected on board the Rattlesnake, between the 
25th of February and the 3rd of March, between lat. 25° and 37° S. 



208 Linnaan Society. 

and long. 5° and 7° W. They varied in size from \ in. to 2 in. in the 
long diameter of the float. The author first describes the general 
appearance of the specimens, of which he doubts whether the largest 
were adult, and then proceeds to a minute examination of their de- 
tails, dividing them for this purpose into the float or air-bladder, and 
the appendages of greater or less length which depend from it when 
the animal is in its natural position at the surface of the water. The 
smaller specimens he states to be the best adapted for examination. 

The float is described as consisting of an outer coat, an inner coat 
and an air-sac contained within them, attached only to one spot of 
their parietes, and there communicating with the exterior by a small 
constricted aperture, which was always found on the upper surface. 
The disposition of the appendages is very irregular, but the larger ten- 
tacles are generally placed more externally, the smaller and nascent 
organs more towards the centre. These appendages are of three 
kinds, and consist of stomachal sacs, tentacles and cyathiform bodies. 
Of each of these the author gives a detailed description in their more 
perfect form, as well as in their undeveloped state as nascent organs ; 
and then proceeds to inquire, first, what is the physiological import- 
ance of the organs described, and secondly, what zoological place 
should be occupied by an animal provided with such organs so dis- 
posed. 

Each of these questions the author treats at considerable length. 
Of the function of the stomachal sacs in receiving the prey there can 
be little question ; but it may be doubted whether the digested nu- 
tritive matter circulates in the ciliated water-carrying canals or is 
absorbed into totally diflferent channels. In the latter case the pur- 
pose of the stomachal villi would plainly seem to be to absorb nutri- 
tive matter and convey it through their central canal to the wide in- 
terspace existing between the outer and inner membrane ; but the 
author states that he has never seen in this interspace any corpuscles 
analogous to those described by Will as blood-corpuscles. He sug- 
gests that the villosities noticed by Dr. Milne-Edwards in the sto- 
machal sacs of Apolemia are the same organs, and not ovaries as Dr. 
Milne-Edwards considers them ; and observes that similar organs 
exist in a Diphya (Eudoxia), hereafter to be more fully described. 
The function of the tentacles, both as prehensile and defensive 
organs, admits of little doubt; and on this subject the author notices 
an erroneous view of M. Lesson, who describes them merely as 
ducts for conveying an (hyjDothetical) acrid fluid from an (hypotheti- 
cal) poison-gland. He also controverts M. Lesson's opinion that cer- 
tain of the colourless tentacles are to be regarded as branchiae ; being 
quite convinced that there is no diff^erence between these and the 
ordinary tentacles except in the absence of colour. As regards the 
function of the cyathiform bodies, he has no other than analogical 
evidence to off^er. The only organs in the Aculepha with which he 
conceives them to have any resemblance are the natatorial organs of 
the Physophoras. But their little adaptation to a similar purpose, and 
the entire absence even of their rudiments in young Physaliee, dis- 
courage this comparison ; while on the other hand they bear a sin- 



Linnaan Society. 209 

gular resemblance to the female generative organs of a Diphya, and 
this resemblance extends even to the younger stages of both. 

Mr. Huxley concludes by referring Physalia to the position as- 
signed to it by Eschscholtz among Physophorce, and near Discolabe or 
Angela. In fact, he regards Physalia as in all its essential elements 
nothing but a Physophora, whose terminal dilatation has increased 
at the expense of the rest of the stem, and hence carries all its 
organs at the base of this dilatation. 

The paper was illustrated by pencil drawings of the structures de- 
scribed. 

Read also a translation* from the Swedish, of "Almanac notes 
for the year 1735, by Charles von Linne." 

* Note hy Dr. WalUch. — The Council of die Society did me the honour 
at the end of last session to entrust the duty of translation to ni}' care. It 
has been made in the first instance from a coniuiiuiication by Job. Aug. 
Holmstrom, in -'Botanical Notices" edited by Al. Ed. Liudblom, No. 12 for 
December 1845, pp. 210-218, with the following motto and preface. Mr. 
Bentham having pointed out to me that there existed a German translation 
by Dr. Beilschmid in the Flora for Februai-y 1847, ])p. 97-104, I have gladly 
availed myself of this additional aid. Nor have I altogether neglected to 
consult the precious little relic itself, now in the Society's possession, although 
of course without any other result than that of verifying the fidelity of Mr. 
Holmstrom's edition. All the notes are his with very few exceptions, which 
have been duly marked. I have taken the liberty of frequently leaving Lin- 
nseus's abbreviations in statu quo, and very rarely indeed altered his ortlio- 
graphy, 

" Parva lijec quippe, et quanquam paucis percontantibus adorata, tamen 
ignorantibus transcursa." — Apuleius, tlorida. 

Every, even the smallest memorial of a truly and through all ages 
great man, possesses its value, and deserves to be secured from de- 
cay and oblivion. It is on that account that I have thought it my 
duty to publish these notes of the ' Princeps Botanicorum,' which 
have accidentally come into my hands. Although containing nothing 
new, or of great importance, they furnish several valuable data con- 
nected with, perhaps, the most remarkable year in the life of Linne ; 
they exhibit, in various points, traces of the peculiar nd/vett of his 
style, and are therefore, in respect to character alone, not without 
their value. 

The annotations are written on ten pages, interleaved in an alma- 
nac having the following title : " Almanach pa Ahret efter JesuChristi 
naderika Fodelse 1735 Til Skara Horizont, etc. Utreknad och steld 
af Birger Vassenio, samt vidare fortsiittjande af underrettelsen til 
Retta Tanckar am thenna Synliga Werldennes SystematC; allar Sam- 
manhang. — Skara, Herm. Arnold Moller." 16mo. (Almanac for the 
year 1735 from the gracious birth of J. C. For the horizon of Skara, 
&c. Calculated and regulated by Birger Vassenius, together with 
further instructions concerning right ideas of the system or structure 
of this visible world.) 

The volume is quite complete and well-preserved. It appears, 
even during Linnaeus's lifetime, to have come into the possession of 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 14 



210 Linnaan Society. 

strangers, and to have been taken into the country and used there, 
through a succession of years, in lieu of a new almanac ; for we 
find, in three several places, remarks made by peasants' wives on 
sundry matters. One of its latest male or female owners has even 
altered with ink the year printed on the title-page for that of 1765. 
Thus the little brochure has passed into the possession of several 
individuals, without any of them being aware, or caring, by whom 
the many notes were added. These notes are numerous, and 
constitute almost an entire diary, during the first months of the 
year ; after which they become less and less frequent, ceasing alto- 
gether in the months of October and November. The complaint 
of A. Afzelius (in Linne's Eg. Ant.* pi. loc.,), that it is difficult to 
decipher the handwriting of Linnaeus, is often verified here. Yet I 
think I have hit on the right meaning in most instances. With 
respect to some of the most difficult places. Professor J. H. Schroder 
has afforded me explanation with his accustomed sagacity. 

The notes are now published with as much accuracy as was pos- 
sible, even as to spelling and grammar. The words which have 
been added by way of explanation are included within brackets. 
Italics indicate that abbreviations have been filled upf. A few notes 
have been subjoined. 

(JANUARY.) 
O ! Ens entium miserere mei ! 

1. Christmas dinner with alderman Dan. Moraeus. 

2. called on Sara hisa ', in a Lapland dress. 

3. the same, absentibus parentibus. 

4. prepared a new edition of Systema Mineral. ^ 

5. Assessors Benzelstierna and Kolmeter^ called on me. 

6. Christmas party at alderman Anders Jers. 

7. dined with assessor Kolmeter. 

8. commenced writing Sponsalia plantar.* 

9. continued. 

10. called on S. L. M. and had a little fun. 

11. tried Anders Jers's well. 

12. dined at Morbygden with B. Forsling. 

13. called on S. L. M., and at Kongsgarden *, and on me assessor 

Moraeus. 

14. Christmas party at Troilli's, surveyor of mines. 

15. " the provost's at Fahlun with S. L. M. 

* Linnaaus's Personal Notes, edited by A. Afzelius. — N. W. 

f Except on the first mention of a name, I have thought it best to leave 
the abbreviations unsupplied. — N.W. 

' Daughter of John Moraeus, town-physician {Stadsphysiciis), brother of 
the above mentioned. She was afterwards married to Linnaaus on the 26th 
June, 1738. 

'^ Probably a revision, in manuscript. 

^ The future brother-in-law of Linnjeus, married to Anne Christina, the 
younger daughter of John Moraeus. 

* Pubbshed its a disputation at Upsala, in 1746, 4to. 

* North- or Fahlu-Kongsgard. 



Linncean Society. 211 

16. dinner at secretary Neuman's. 

N.B. a clay of immortal commemoration, of final settling 
with S. L. M. 

17. wrote to baron Koskul, dean Sandel, magister Linder. 

18. dined with the lieutenant of the province (Landshiifdingen). 

19. Lars Petter ' dined at a party at engineer (Konstmaster) 

Trygg's. Betted two tankards of rhenish wine, that there 
will be a christening (barnsol) in 4 years. 

20. wrote to J. Moraeus, S. S.- about S. L. M. Explicitly solicited 

(her hand). 

21. wrote to S. L. M. 

22. called on , gave annulum. 

23. reciprocation by mother-in-law. 

24. wrote to the Society ^ cum lachesi Lapponica. 

25. remained quiet. 

26. noon + (at) alderman Lundstrom's (with) Niisman, controller, 

and Anders and Ions Williamsons. 

27. received from J. Mor. responsio concerning 3 O "' secundum 

abitum. seven temptations ! 

28. called on Troilli, surveyor of mines ; Stromberg, controller ; 

Trygg. 

29. called on S. L. M. concluded Floram Dalekarlicam^. 

30. dined with the lieutenant of the province. 

31. wrote to Doctor Celsius, Spelin and Neander about employment. 

(FEBRUARY.) 

1. attended a woman in childbirth. 

2. dined with the provost of Fahlu ; in the evening (at) Schultze's, 

accountant. 

3. at the Kongsgard and (with) S. L. M. Gave obligatio scripta 

fidei. 

4. was with a sick person at Morbygden. 

6. received letters from Celsius, Spelin, Neander, Liungwal (and) 

Sophia Littorin. 

7. wrote to Spelin, Liungwal, Tegnelin. 
8. in the evening (with) S. L. M. 

9. in the afternoon at a frolic at Morbygden. 
10. evening (with) S. L. M. 

11. with S. L. M. until X o'clock in the evening. 

12. paid visits Avith Browallius". 

' Quis? 2 SoceroSuo? 

' The Society of Sciences at Upsala, which had defrayed Linngeiis's re- 
cent journey into Lapland (in 1732. — B.). 

* Probably dined.— N. W. 

■' Years. This stipulation is notorious. Miss Hedin, Minne (Souvetiir) of 
Linne, i. p. 47. 

® Not published. 

7 " At that time domestic chaplain and tutor in the family of Reuterholm, 
lieut. of the province, afterwards professor and bishop at .\bo." — Linnjeiis's 
Personal Notes, p. 22. 

14=K 



212 Linnaan Society. 

13. paid a visit to F. Ehrenholm absente S. L. M. received letters 

from Spelin, Osaengius, Ahlgren. 

14. wrote to dean Sandel (and) Anna Maria Linnsea'. 

16. dined with surveyor of mines Troill and parents-in-law. 

17. Surv. of min. Borgenstrom (and) Svaben called on me-. 

18. took leave of father-in-law. 

19. took leave of S. L. M., who wrote the oath^. 

20. at 10 oclock, left Fahlun with Clas Sohlberg. 

21. dined with Swedenstierna (at) Hogfors, arrived at Nya Elfsborg. 

22. dined witli Lybecker, surveyor of mines, arrived at Nora. 

> remained at Knutsby with surv. of mines Christiernm. 
24./ 

25. was at the sulphur mine at Dylta, arrived at Orebro. 

26. left Orebro. 

27. went through Askersund; at noon with pastor Tiselius. 

28. thi'ough schenninge, arrived at Wislena. 

(MARCH.) 
1 . went to schenninge, called (on) Menlos, pastor loci. 
2. -, at church, dined at Wislena. 

3. called on Mag. Knop, Dinner at Bishop Benzeh'Ms's. 

4. went to Wislena, called on professor Hermens. 

5. remained. 

6. went through Schenninge and Wastena, visited the church. 

7. through Omberg to the end of Ostergiotland. 

8. in Smaland through grenna, Skiersadd to Jonkioping. 

9. at church in Jonkioping. 

10. dined at dean junbeck's. 

11. left; remained at Wrekstad. 

12. came to Wexio. 

13. dined at assessor Rothman's. 

14. general Koskul's. 

15. Hoken's*. 

16. treasurer Bergman's. 

17. assessor Rothman's. 

18. dined with treasurer Bergman. 

19. went to stenbrohult. 

23. Browall's letter dated the 7^ March arrived. 

24. wrote to inspector Sohlberg, Brovall and S. L. M. 
26. we were at mockelsnas. 

30. Browall's letter of 21 March arrived. 

31. Doctor Rothman called on me at stenbrohult. 

(APRIL.) 

3. Rothman left ; was at Did. 

6. feasted at Mocklanas with Ekelund (and) Hok. 

^ Linnaeus's sister, married to G. Hok, afterwards dean at Wiresta. 
^ Surv. of mines Anton Svab. After this follow two illegible words. 
^ See 3rd of tliis month. This reciprocal obligation by a written oath 
was not known before. * LinnEeus's brother-in-law. 



Linncean Society. 213 

7. feasted at stenbrohult with brother-in law (and) Tornquist. 

8, feasted at Dio with brother-in-law. 

9. Dito — and Uuner. 

13. Mag. Hok left us at stenbrohult. 

15. took leave of stenbrohult and its inhabitants, arrived at the Ry 

iron mine at Unner's. 

16. at noon at grotteryd ; arrived at the inn at Markary. 

17. arrived at Helsingborg. 

18. Day of prayers; went across the sound after evening prayer. 
22. embarked at Helsingor. 

24. sailed past Zealand (and) Copenhagen. 

25. got sight of german ground. 

26. S. L. M's birth-day. 1716'. 

26. arrived at Lybeck. 

27. at church at Lybeck. 

28. went to Hamburgh. 

29. inspected the town of Hamburgh. 

30. called on prof. Koul. 

(MAY.) 

1. Prof. Koul called on me. visited Sprekelsons Hort. 

2. inspected Nators cabinet and Hydram. 

3. at the Resident's", and Sprekelson's. 

4. dined at Schoning's and entertained Kohl (and) Jenes^. 

5. (walked) with Sprekelson in hort. 1 ducat. 

12. at a dinner party at Sprekelsons. 

13. Carl hinncBi birth-day*. 

13. wedding at Schonnings, 

14. 35 doler 7 ore silvercoin due to me*. 

15. visited Anderson's cabinet, drank 75 years old Rhenish wine. 

16. took leave of Hamburgh for Altona. 

17. at 9 oclock J ^ embarked. 

18. arrived at storen, remained at wefwelsflyt. 

19. at church at wjifvelsflyt, detained by contrary A". 

26. the environs of groeningen in sight. 

27. saw groniugen. 

28. got sight of Wiistfriesland. refreshment at Stiernkoog^. 

29. remained right opposite Stiernkoog. 

30. went across the sea, saw omerland, an island^ of 3 miles, very 

near being wrecked. 

31. at 5 oclock in the morning passed by Harlem'** a small sea- 

* By a singular conceit of Linnseus (" qvam sunt lusus pueriles amoris " .'), 
the name and year of bii-th of his betrothed are written with reversed letters 
and cyphers. — The pedigree in Personal Notes gives another day, namely 
the 28th April. 

^ Should tills be the President's, as Dr. Beilschmid translates it? — N. W. 

^ More correctly Jiinitsch, Gottfr. Jac, physician. Compare Personal 
Notes, pp. '23 and 8.3 ; Hedin, i. p. 50. 

^ This entry, too, is made with larger, reversed letters. 

■' Quis ? ^ J daytime. ' A wind. 

** Schiermonigkoog. ^ Ameland. '° Harlingen. 



214 Linncean Society. 

town ; at noon (passed) Yorge. in the evening (at) Enkhysen, 
situated on our left. At noon a terrible hurricane with rain, 
wind, thunder, lightning. Haddervik to the eastward, we could 
not see. Enkhysen was the first (pretty place') of Holland. 

(JUNE.) 

1 . obliged to continue off Enkhysen untill noon, on account of the 

storm and contrary wind, afterwards on our right saw Horn, a 
town. 

2. arrived early in the morning at Amsterdam ; in the afternoon I 

saw Hortum Medicum there. 

3. called on prof, botanices Burman, and at his library. 

4. inspected Seba's incomparable dispensary. 

5. dined at Burman's, (in) the evening went to Hadderwik. 

6. at 3 oclock in the morning arrived at Hadderwik. inspected the 

academy. Heard prof. Lom's introduction. 

7. post Examen creatus fui Candidat. medic. 

8. Recepi a Promotore Diss.^ meam censuratam et typographo tra- 

didi imprimendam. 

9 1 

> audivi Lectiones privatas Prof, de Gorter. 
10. J 

12. Linnseus Doctor Creatus fuit Harderovici^. 

13. left Hadderwik in the evening. 

14. arrived at Amsterdam. 

15. was at the plantations and saw crowds of people. 

16. took 7 ducats, total 8 ducats'*. 

18. went to Leyden. 

19. saw Hortum academicum. 

20. called on prof. v. Royen. 

21. saw the library. 

27. Artedi arrived at Leiden, saw the Arboretum of Boerhaave. 
30. sent Systema Naturae to the press*. 

(JULY.) 

14. (3. old style^) botanized on the sea-shore. 
6. went to Amsterdam. 

8. went to Leiden. 

15. completed the Systema nat. ^ 

16. wrote to Rothman and my father. 

17. went to Ytrecht. inspected Hort. Acad. 

' These very indistinct words are given conjecturally. 

" Nova liypothesis de febrium intermittentium natura. Diss. grad. Har- 
derovici, 1735, 4to. 

3 The 13th, according to Pers. Notes, p. 24. ■* Compare 5th May. 

* The printing commenced; see further on, the 15th July and 2nd (13th) 
December. 

^ This and some of the subsequent dates are according to the new style, 
quoted in a separate column in Vassenius' Almanac. In these cases I have 
added the old style dates within bracliets. 

J Finished the manuscript. 



Zoological Society. 215 

18. went to Leiden with Gronov. and Mouschenbr. 
22. went to Amsterdam, stayed with prof. Burm. 

28. literse ad uxorem'. 

29. sent to press Bibliotheca Botanica^. 

(AUGUST.) 

12. (1 . old style) received a bill of exchange for 200 Dollar silvercoin 

from Sohlberg. 

13. (2. o. s.) went to Cliffort. 

14. (3. o. s.) returned home. 
17. (6. o. s.) went to Leiden. 

19. (8. o. s.) arrived at Amsterdam. 

(18.) Appointed Praefectus Horti ClifFortiani. 

19. wrote to Inspector Sohlberg, Browall (and) S. L. M. 

(SEPTEMBER.) 
13. took charge of prsefecturam horti ClifFort. 

27.1 (16-17. o. s.) hora 1 noctis Artedius was drowned at Am- 
28. J sterdam. 

(DECEMBER.) 
13. (2. o. s.) Promotio cum Kappa Lugduni^. Concluded the 
printing of Systema Nat.* 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

July 25, 1848. — William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. Description of a new genus and species of Satyrid^. 
By W. Hewitson, Esq. 

The genus Corades, which Mr. E. Doubleday has named and kindly 
characterized for me, comprises but few species of butterflies^ most 
of which are of recent occurrence. They are from the mountainous 
districts of Columbia and Venezuela, where, like our European Hip- 
parchias of the same family, they delight in the alpine districts. 
They are remarkable for having the anal angle of the lower wings 
more or less produced into a tail. 

Genus Corades, Boisd. MSS. 
Head of moderate width, hairy; maxillae about two-thirds the 
length of the body, rather slender. Labial palpi porrect, ascending, 
longer than the head, clothed with hairs and scales, the scales at the 

' Jocose ita dixit. Cic. 

^ Left the press only in 1736 at Amsterdam, small 8vo. 

^ Cappa (medieval Latin), doctor's gown. See Du PVesne, Gloss. Lat. i. 
p. 856, et Gloss. Grsec. p. .584. Sperling ad Testan). Absolonis, p. 10.5. 

* The printing finished. This editio princeps, which is very rare in 
Sweden, has the following title ; Caroli Linnaei Systema Naturae, sive Regna 
tria Natnrje, systeniatice proposita per Classes, Ordines, Genera, et Species. 
Lugd. Bat. ap. Haak, 17.3.5. Fol. maj. — 14 page?. The original manuscript 
is preserved at the CaroUnska Institut, at Stockholm. Comp. Beckman's 
Minnen (Recollections), p. 112. 



316 Zoological Society. 

back of the second joint forming a tuft before the apex. First joint 
short, subcylindric, curved, stoutest at the base. Second joint three 
times the length of the first, subcylindric, slightly curved at the base, 
incrassated towards the apex, which is truncate. Third joint slen- 
derer than the second, about half its length, nearly cylindric, obtuse 
at the apex. Eyes nearly round, not very prominent, smooth. An- 
tennae less than two-thirds the length of the body, slender, grooved 
below, thickening gradually into a slender obtuse club. 

Thorax moderately stout. Anterior wings subtriangular ; the an- 
terior margin slightly arched, the outer nearly straight, three-fifths 
the length of the anterior ; inner margin nearly straight, four-fifths 
the length of the anterior. Costal nervule swollen at its origin, ter- 
minating beyond the middle of the anterior margin ; subcostal ner- 
vure rather slender, throwing off its first nervule at a short distance 
before, its second immediately before the end of the cell, the third at 
a point about as far beyond the end of the cell as the origin of the 
first is before it, its fourth about as far beyond the third as the origin 
of this last is distant from the origin of the second. Fourth sub- 
costal nervule terminating at the apex of the wing : upper disco- 
cellular nervule very short ; middle and lower disco-cellular nervules 
about equal, the former curved inwards, the latter outwards ; a rudi- 
mentary discoidal nervule extending inwards from the middle disco- 
cellular nervule : median nervure swollen at its base, its third nervule 
bent at a considerable angle where it is joined by the lower disco- 
cellular : submedian nervure stout, curved near the base : internal 
nervure wanting. Posterior wings obovate, produced into a short 
tail at the anal angle ; the anterior margin nearly straight, the outer 
much curved ; the abdominal fold ample. Precostal nervule stout, 
curved inwards : costal nervure rather stout, curved at its origin : 
subcostal nervure rather stout, bent at a considerable angle where 
the costal separates from it ; its second nervule angular where the 
straight ujjper disco-cellular nervule anastomoses with it. Discoidal 
nervule extending into the cell : lower disco-cellular nervule straight, 
longer than the upper, anastomosing with the discoidal nervure a long 
way beyond the anastomosis of the upper disco-cellular. Third me- 
dian nervule bent at nearly a right angle where the lower disco- 
cellular anastomoses with it. Anterior legs of the male slender, 
thinly clothed with scales and long delicate hairs ; the femur rather 
shorter than the tibia; the tarsus little more than two-thirds the* 
length of the tibia, one-jointed, nearly cylindric. Anterior legs of 
the female rather slender, clothed with scales and a few long fine 
hairs. Femur and tibia of about equal length, the latter nearly cy- 
lindric ; the apex slightly stoutest, thinly spiny both within and with- 
out. Tarsus shorter than the tibia, five-jointed, the first joint more 
than twice the length of the rest combined ; these all transverse : 
first to fourth bispinose at the apex ; second and fifth with a tuft of 
hair on each side at the base. Middle and posterior feet with the 
femora rather stout ; the tibiae very spiny all round, tlieir spurs stout ; 
the tarsi densely spiny above, and, except the fifth joint, spiny below ; 
the spines below tirranged somewhat in two series, the first joint longer 
than the rest combined, second about ouc-third the length of the 



Zoological SocietT/. 217 

first, third three-fourths the length of the second, fourth rather more 
than half the length of the third, fifth not quite so long as the third. 
Claws curved, acute, grooved below ; paronychia bilaciniate ; the 
outer lacinia slender, pointed, not so long as the claw ; the inner 
lancet-shaped, much broader than and nearly as long as the outer, 
very hairy ; pulvillus jointed, broad, not so long as the claws. Ab- 
domen rather short, not robust. 

This interesting genus, as remarked above, appears to be almost 
confined to the eastern slopes of the Andes and to the great branch 
of that mountain-range which runs along the northern parts of South 
America. Nearly all the specimens of the five or six species belong- 
ing to it existing in British collections were sent home by Air. Bridges 
from the eastern parts of Bolivia, and by Mr. Dyson from Caraccas. 
The peculiar sexual scales on the disc of the anterior wings of the 
males resemble those of the males of most species of this family in 
being long, tapering to a delicate hair-like point, at the end of 
which is a little plumelet. 

In form this genus resembles the P. Actorion of Linnaeus, which 
is the type of the genus Napho of Boisduval, but that insect belongs 
to the preceding family of Morphidce. 

CoRADES Enyo. Cor. alls omnibus, supra, chocoladinis , anticarum 
apice obscuriore, fulvo-maculatd ; subtus, anticis fuscescentibus 
apice pallidiori, maculis tribus albidis notatd, posticis fusco-gri- 
sescentibus , lineis duabus transversis obscurioribus . 

Exp. 2^ unc. vel 65 mill. Hab. Caraccas. 

Anterior wings, above chocolate-brown at the base, darker at the 
apex and along the outer margin ; between the cell and the apex is 
a transverse band composed of three fulvous spots, the first of which 
is divided by the subcostal nervure ; midway between the cell and the 
outer margin a curved spot of the same colour, divided by the first 
median nervule, and a rounded spot of the same colour near the anal 
angle. Posterior wings with the anal angle consideral)ly produced 
into a tail, entirely chocolate-brown. Below, the anterior wings are 
fuscous, the base rather paler, the apex ashy ; the subapical spots 
nearly white, the others as above ; the posterior wings clouded and 
freckled with ashy-grey and fuscous, having a slight silvery reflec- 
tion ; a transverse band, commencing on the costa, crosses the middle 
of the cell, and terminates before it reaches the inner margin ; a 
second similar band commences on the costa, and running along the 
lower disco-cellular nervule, terminates at the tail. 

Head, thorax and abdomen fuscous above, the two latter greyish 
below ; antennas fuscous ; palpi fuscous above, pale below. 

This insect was taken by Mr. Dyson in the mountains of Caraccas, 
where it seems to be rather rare. 

2. Description of a new genus of Notodontid^. 
By E. Doubleday, F.Z.S. 

Genus Hyl^ora. 
Head small, densely clothed with long hair-like scales, those at the 
base of the antennae very long, forming two tufts, which meet over 
the vertex. Eyes round, prominent. Maxillae slender, short, scarcely 



218 Zoological Society. 

so long as the thorax. Labial palpi short, the first and second joints 
densely scaly, the scales hair-like, the third joint clothed with short 
scales : first joint much curved, broadest at the apex ; second joint 
one-half longer than the first, subcylindric, stoutest in the middle, 
truncate at the apex ; third joint small, oval, about one-third the 
length of the second joint. Antennee of the male elongate, densely 
bipectinate, each pectination beautifully fringed with hairs : of the 
female long, setaceous, the inside set with short stiff hairs. 

Thorax stout, crested, the crest much highest in front. Anterior 
wings elongate, the anterior margin but little curved until near the 
apex ; outer margin rather more than half the length of the anterior, 
slightly dentate ; inner margin nearly straight, rather longer than 
the outer. Costal nervure extending about three-fourths the length 
of the costa. First subcostal nervule thrown oflf beyond the middle 
of the cell, terminating not far from the extremity of the costal ner- 
vure ; second subcostal nervure thrown off shortly before the end of 
the cell, curved so as to cross the subcostal nervure at some distance 
beyond the end of the cell, terminating on the outer margin midway 
between the fifth subcostal and the first discoidal nervule ; third 
subcostal nervule arising rather nearer to the end of the cell than to 
the apex of the wing ; the fourth nearer to the third than to the apex, 
this nervule terminating at the apex. First discoidal nervule appear- 
ing at first sight to be a continuation of the subcostal nervure, the 
upper disco-cellular nervule being wanting. Lower about the same 
length as the middle disco-cellular nervule, united to the third me- 
dian nervule shortly after its origin. Posterior wings with the ante- 
rior margin nearly straight, longer than the outer, which is rounded. 
Inner margin about two-thirds the length of the outer. Cell closed. 
Upper and lower disco-cellular nervule of about equal length. Dis- 
coidal nervure very slender ; the basal portion, as far as the end of the 
cell, atrophied. Legs with the femora and tibiae densely hairy. The 
anterior tibiae with a broad spur, nearly as long as the tibia itself, 
composed of a flat, slightly curved lancet-shaped lamina, fringed an- 
teriorly. Tibiae of the middle pair with two unequal spines at the 
apex, those of the third pair with two before the apex, two at the 
apex. Tarsi scaly, the first joint much the longest; claws small, 
curved ; paronychia broad, very hairjr, especially at the apex, shorter 
than the claw ; pulvillus jointed, the second joint very broad. Ab- 
domen clothed with long hairs, elongate, longer in the male than in 
the female. 

Larva stout, tapering towards the tail, the back flat, with a cre- 
nated ridge on each side. 

Hyl^ora eucalypti. Hyl. alls anticis brunneis, nigro pallidoque 
variis, mnculd basalt, alterdque geminatd marg'mis aiiterioris, 
vittd pone medium valde angulatd, fascidque marginis exterioris 
fuscis ; posticis rufo-brunneis . 

Exp. alar. 3^ unc- 4^ unc. vel 90-108 millim. 

Hub. Australia. 

I have not thought it necessary to enter into a detailed specific 
character of this insect, as the accompanying figure will give a far 
better idea of the species than the longest description. The noc- 



Zoological Society. 219 

turnal Lepidoptera are often almost impossible to describe, and it is 
only by the most accurate figures, or by comparison of specimens, 
that we can arrive at the determination of species. 

I am indebted to Mr. Alfred Lambert of Sydney for the speci- 
mens figured and for the drawing of the larva. The following note 
accompanies the specimen : — 

" The larva is figured in drawing No. 2. When I first found it I 
concluded that it was a Cerura, as in its habits it resembles the larva 
of that genus. It forms a strong cocoon, which is slightly attached 
to the trunk of the tree just below the surface of the ground. In 
form this cocoon is much like that of our common Saturnia, only 
exteriorly it is covered with points of sticks, grass, &c. The larva feeds 
on the Eucalypti, is found in January ; the imago ajDpears in July." 

From this it will be seen that it is a winter insect. 

3. Description of twenty-nine new species of Helicina, from 

THE collection OF H. CuMING, EsQ. By Dr. L. PfEIFFER. 

1. Helicina acuta, Pfr. Hel. testd depresso-conicd, soliduld, ob- 
liqtie confertim striatd et sabgranulatd, opacd, luted, superne rubra- 
unifasciatd ; spird conoided, acutd, mucronatd ; anfractibus fere 6 
planiusculis , acute carinatis, ultimo basi planiusculo ; aperturd 
perobliqud, subtriangulari ; columella subverticali, brevissimd, basi 
angulatd, superne in callum basalem tenuissimum abiente ; peristo- 
mate simplice, aurantiaco, margine supero subrecto, basali subin- 
crassato. 

Diam. 15, altit. 7^ mill. 

From Sibonga, isle of Zebu ; collected by Mr. Cuming. 

9.. Helicina Adamsiana, Pfr. Hel. testd depressd, tenuiusculd, 
sub lente seriebus confertis concentricis pustularum exigiiai'um 
snbasperatd, nitiduhl, diaphand, rubella ; spird brevissime conoi- 
ded ; anfractibus 5| planiusculis, ultimo depresso, peripherid ro- 
tundato, antice non scrobiculato ; aperturd obliqtid, subtriangulari ; 
columelld verticali, brevissimd, basi subangulatd, superne in callum 
tenuem, circumscriptum dilatatd ; peristomate angulatim expanso, 
reflexiusculo, margine supero breviter soluto, stricto, basali prope 
columellam subdentato. 

Diam. 8, altit. 4^ mill. 

From Jamaica. 

3. Helicina amcena, Pfr. Hel. testd subsemiglobosd, solidiusculd, 
oblique striatuld lineisque impressis concentricis distantibus sculptd, 
nitiduld, roseo et luteo vel albo variegatd ; spird convexd, mucro- 
nulatd ; anfractibus 5^ vix convexiusculis, ultimo infra medium 
carinato, basi subplano ; aperturd obliqud, subtriangulari, intus 
flavd ; columelld brevi, verticaliter subrimatd, basi angulosd, re- 
trorsum in callum tenuem, diffusum abiente ; peristomate simplice, 
margine supero late expanso, basali reflexo, 

Diam. 15, altit. 9^ mill. 
From Honduras. 

4. Helicina Besckei, Pfr. Hel. testd subsemiglobosd, solidd, sub- 
tilissime striatuld, sublcevigatd, opacd, citrind unicolore velfascid 



220 Zoological Societij. 

1 sanguined juxta suturam ornatd, vel omnino rubicundd , spird 
brevi, convexo-conoided, submucronatd ; anfractibus 5 subplanis, 
ultimo ad peripheriam carind 1 acutd, pluribusque obtusioribus 
munito ; aperturd obliqud, subtriangulari ; columelld breviter rece- 
dente, basi obsolete angulatd ; peristomate expanso, subincrassato, 
margine supero strictiusculo, basali subarcuato ; callo basali tenuis- 
simo. 

Diam. 17, altit. 10 mill. 

From Brazil (Bescke). 

5. Helicina campanula, Pfr. Hel. testd campanulato-conicd, so- 
liduld, l(Bvigatd, nitidd, citrind ; spird elevatd, convexd, acuminatd ; 
anfractibus 6 planiusculis , ultimo pone aperturam subconstricto, 
basi planulato ; aperturd obliqud, semilunari-subtriangulari ; colu- 
melld breviter recedente, basi subtruncatd, callum nitidum, semi- 
circularem emittente ; peristomate simplice, tenui, breviter expanso, 
margine basali strictiusculo. 

Diam. 8^, altit. 7 mill. 
From the island of Cuba. 

6. Helicina concentrica, Pfr. Hel. testd depresse trochiformi, 
tenuiusculd, striis longitvdinalibus et obliquis sub lente subtilissime 
sculptd, lineis concentricis elevatis utrinque munitd, acute carinatd, 
nitiduld, carneo-fuscd, alhido variegatd ; spird conoided, subpapil- 
latd ; anfractibus 4\ vix convexiusculis, ultimo utrinque convexiore ; 
aperturd obliqud, subsecuriformi, latiore quam altd; columelld 
subrimatd, breviter arcuatd, basi incrassatd in callum album, sub- 
circumscriptum retrorsutn dilatatd ; peristomate simplice, breviter 
expanso, margine basali immediate in columellam continuato. 

Diam. 10, altit. vix 6 mill. 

From Venezuela and New Granada (De Lattre) ; a larger variety 
from Mirador, Mexico (Galeotti). 

7. Helicina coNSTRicTA, Pfr. Hel. testd parvd, lenticulari, crassd, 
sublavigatd, non nitidd, opacd, albidd, lineis undulatis rubris pictd ; 
spird vix elevatd, obtusd ; anfractibus A\ planulatis, ultimo angu- 
lato, basi subturgido, pone aperturam constricto ; aperturd obliqud, 
subtriangulari, intus rubrd ; columelld simplice, callum crassius- 
culum albidum vel igneum retrorsum emittente ; peristomate sim- 
plice, obtuso, latere dextro rotundato. 

Diam. 6, altit. 3^ mill. 

From Otaheite and the Sandv^fich Islands. 

8. Helicina convexa, Pfr. Hel. testd convexo-orbiculatd , solidd, 
Icevigatd, nitidd, albd ; spird fornicatd, mucronulatd ; anfractibus 
A\, ultimis 2 convexiusctdis, ultimo obsolctissime angulato ; aper- 
turd integrd, obliqud, semilunari ; columelld breviter arcuatd, re- 
trorsum in callum crassum, concolorem abiente ; peristomate in- 
crassato, breviter expanso, margine basali d callo columellari inci- 
surd levissimd separata. 

Diam. 6^, altit. 4| mill. 
Locality unknown. 

9. Helicina Cumingiana, Pfr. Hel. testd subglobosd, tenuiusculd, 
longitudinaliter et confertiin plicatuld, earned, rubro ptmctatd et 



Zoological Society. 221 

variegatd ; spirit brevi, conoided, oblusiusculd ; anfractibns 5^ 
planiuscuUs, ultimo in/Into, obsolete angulato ; aperttird subverti- 
cali, semiovali ; columeUd basi dilatatd, antrorsum arcuatd, sub- 
truncatd, retrorsum in callum basi crassum, superne diffusum 
abiente ; pei'istomate subincrassato, breviter expanso, albo. 

Diam. 21, altit. 16^ mill. 

Locality unknown. 

10. Helicina Dysoni, Pfr. Hel. testd orbiculato -conoided, soli- 
diusculd, striatuld, nitiduld, earned, superne fasciis 2 angustis, 
saturatioribus ornatd ; spird elatd, obtusiusculd ; anfraclibus 5 con- 
vexiusculis, lente accrescentibus , ultimo basi subplanato ; apert^ird 
obliqud, semiovali, altiore quam laid; columeUd brevi, basi sub- 
truncatd, callum albidum, lined subimpressd circumscriptum, emit- 
tente ; peristomate simplice, brevissime reflexiusculo, margine 
utroque leviter arcuato. 

Diam. 8, altit. 5^ mill. 

/3. Minor, testd saturate earned, superne fasciis 2 angustis rubris 
et ad peripheriam 1 albd, 

y. Testd fulvo-rubelld, superne fasciis 2 angustis saturatioribus. 

h. Minor, testd flavd, superne fasciis 2 angustis fulvis, ad periphe- 
riam 1 albidd ornatd. 

From Cumana, Honduras (Dyson). 

11. Helicina exigua, Pfr. Hel. testd minutissimd, conicd, teiiui, 
subtilissime punctato-striatuld, pellucidd, pallide corned ; spird 
conicd, obtusiusc7ild ; anfractibus 5 perconvexis, ultimo obsolete 
angulato, basi planiusculo ; aperturd obliqud, lunari ; columella 
breviter recedente, callum exiguum emittente ; peristomate sim- 
plice, tenui. 

Diam. 2\, altit. 2 mill. 
From Honduras (Dyson). 

12. Helicina Funcki, Pfr. Hel. testd conico-subglobosd, tenuins- 
culd, sub lente tenuissime oblique striatuld, vix nitiduld, flavidd, 
roseo-nebulosd ; spird conoided, obtusiusculd; anfractibus 5^ pla- 
niuscuUs, ultimo utrinque convexiore, obsolete angulato ; aperturd 
obliqud, semiovali ; columella subarcuatd, lined impi-essd verticali 
notatd, basi subnodosd, in callum sensim tenuiorem retrorsum 
abiente ; peristomate late expanso, margine supero subrepando. 

Diam. 13|, altit. 9 mill. 

From San Yago, New Granada (Funck). 

13. Helicina gonochila, Pfr. Hel. testd conoideo-subglobosd, 
tenuiusculd, superne striis spiralibus obsoletis sculptd et punctatd, 
nitiduld, fulvo -earned ; spird brevi, conoided, subacutd ; anfrac- 
tibus A\ vix convexiusculis, ultimo medio subcarinato, luteo-eingu- 
lato, basi convexiore, distinctius concentrice striato ; aperturd sub- 
obliqud, triangulari-semiovuli, alliore quam latd ; columeUd subre- 
cedente, superne lineatn impressam, brevem, curvatam emittente, basi 
acute dent at d ; peristomate albo, rectangule late patente, margine 
basali substricto, cum columeUd unguium acutiusculum formante. 

Diam. 10, altit. 6| mill. 
From Venezuela. 



222 Zoological Societij. 

14. Helicina Gossei, Pfr. Hel. testd depresso-globosd, solidd, 
pustulis seriatis subasperatd, nltiduld, fuscidiilo-rubrd ; spird con- 
vexd ; anfractibus 4^ parum convexis, ultimo rotundato ; aperturd 
triangulari-semiovali,intus earned, nitidd ; eolumelld basi truncatd, 
retrorsum in callum crassum carneutn abietite ; peristomate subin- 
crassato, expanso,juxta columellam vix emarginato. 

Diam. 19, altit. 13^ mill. 
From Jamaica (Gosse). 

15. Helicixa Guildingiana, Pfr. Hel. testd depressd, tenuiusculd, 
sub lente subtilissime granulatd, diaphand, stramined vel albidd, 
infra suturamfulvo-iinifasciatd; spird brevi, convexd ; anfractibus 
4 vix convexiusculis, ultimo subdepresso, basi vix convexiore ; 
aperturd obliqud, subtriangulari-semiovali ; eolumelld brevi, exca- 
vatd, antrorsum in denticulum desinente, retrorsum iri callum tenu- 
em, semicircular em, fiavescentem expansd ; peristomate tenui, bre- 
viter reflexo, margine siipero repando, hasali incisurd levi H eolu- 
melld separato. 

Diam. 8, altit. 4| mill. 
Locality unknown. 

16. Helicina Hanleyana, Pfr. Hel. testd globoso-conicd, soli- 
duld, lineis concentricis, impressis, subdistantibus sculptd, vix 
diaphand, nitidd, fulvo-carned ; spird breviter conoided, obtusius- 
ciild ; anfractibus 5 vix convexiusculis, ultimo rotundato, antice 
subdescendente ; aperturd parum obliqud, subsemicirculari ; eolu- 
melld brevissimd, extrorsum denticulatd, callum tenuem, albidum, 
diffusum emittente ; peristomate albo, vix expansiusculo, intus sub- 
incrassato, basi in denticulum columellce abiente. 

Diam. 1\, altit. 5^ mill. 

From New Orleans (Mr. Salle). 

17. Helicina Kieneri, Pfr. Hel. testd conoided, tenuiusculd, ob- 
liqtie slriatd, lineis concentricis confertis subtilissime decussatd, 
albidd, fusco-violaceo marmoratd ; spird convexo-conoided, acutd; 
anfractibus b^ vix convexiusculis, ultimo compresse carinato, basi 
convexiore ; eolumelld recedente, planatd, superne impressd, basi 
incrassatd in callum basalem tenuem abiente; aperturd obliqud, 
integrd, semiovali, altiore quam lata ; peristomate simplice, tenui, 
late expanso. 

Diam. 16, altit. 1^ mill- 
Locality unknown. 

18. Helicina Lindeni, Pfr. Hel. testd globoso-conicd, tenuiusculd, 
subtilissime striolatd et punctatd, subdiaphand, pallide stramined 
vel earned ; spird conicd, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 6 vix convex- 
iusculis, ultimo inflato, obsolete angulato ; aperturd integrd , parum 
obliqvil, semiovali, altiore quam laid ; eolumelld leviter arcuatd, 
extrorsum in denticulum desinente, callum emittente exiguum, tenu- 
em ; peristomate breviter expanso, reflexivsculo. 

Diam. 11^. altit. 8^ mill. 

From Tapinaba, Mexico (Linden). 

19. Helicina Orbignyi, Pfr. Hel. testd depressd, sublenticulari, 



Zoological Society. 223 

solidd, striatuld, vix nitidd, fusco-carned ; spird vijc elatd ; an- 
fractibus 4^ planiusculis , ultimo depresso, subnngulato ; aperturd 
obliqud, semiovall, altiore quam laid ; columelld brevi, bnsi antror- 
sum dent (ltd, calluni albidum, semicircularem retrorsum emittente ; 
peristomate recto, subincrassato, juxta de?ite?n columelke non 
emargiriato. 

Diam. 7^, altit. 4 mill. 

From the island of Cuba. 

20. Helicina Oweniana, Pfr. Hel. testd conicd, tenui, IcEvigatd, 
sub lente lineolis impressis, antrorsum obliquis subtitissime sculptd, 
nitidd, pellucidd, stramined, sursum saluratiore ; spird conicd, 
vertice obtusiusculo, castaneo ; suturd lineari, albo-marginatd ; 
anfractibus 6 plants , ultimo basi planiusculo ; aperturd subobliqvd, 
semiovali ; columelld brevi, verticalitcr rimatd, callum tenuissimum 
retrorsum emittente; peristomate aurantiaco, angulutim patente, 
refleociusculo, margine utroque levissime curvato. 

Diam. 9, altit. 7| mill. 

From Chiapas, Mexico (Ghiesbreght). 

21. Helicijta plicatula, Pfr. Hel. testd depresse conoided, soli- 
duld, oblique regulariter et elegantissime plicatd, nitidd, corned ; 
spird brevi, conoided, acutiusculd ; anfractibus fere 5 convexius- 
culis, ultimo superne impresso, peripherid obsoletissinie angulato ; 
aperturd obliqud, semilunari ; columelld brevissimd, simplice, in 
callum tenuissimum diffusd ; peristomate subincrassato, cameo, 
margine supero sinuato, basali juxta columellam subdentato. 

Diam. 5, altit. 3 mill. 

From the island of Martinique. 

22. Helicina Reeveana, Pfr. Hel. testd conicd, soliduld, striis 
incrementi distinctis et lineolis obliquis impressis confertissimis sub 
lente clathratuld, nitiduld, albidd, rufo nebulosd et tceniatd ; spird 
elevatd, acutiusculd ; suturd impressd ; anfractibus 6 convexius- 
culis, ultimo angulato, basi vix convexiore ; aperturd subsemiovali, 
intus castaned ; columelld brevissimd, korizontaliter in callum 
parvulum, album, expansd ; peristomate albo, angulatim patente, 
margine basali leviter arcuato, cum columelld extus subangulatim 

juncto. 
Diam. S\, altit. 6 mill. 
From Cuba. 

23. Helicina Rohri, Pfr. Hel. testd conoided, crassd, striatuld 
et submalleatd, opacd, vix nitiduld, stramineo-albidd vel purpured, 
albo-fasciatd ; spird conoided, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 4^ — 5 
planiusculis, ultimo superne turgido, ad peripheriam carind aciitd, 
compressd, prominente munito, antice deflexo, basi vix convexo ; 
aperturd obliqud, parvidd, semiovali, altiore quam laid ; columelld 
subsimplice, basi obsolete tuberculatd, callum semicircularem alhvm 
retrorsum emittente; peristomate recto, acuto, intus crasse cilbo- 
labiato, margine supero emarginato. 

Diam. 10, altit. 7 mill. 

From the Marquesas Islands (Rohr). 



224 Zoological Society. 

24. Helicina sanguinea, Pfr. Hel. testa conoideo-orbiculatd, 
crassd, punctato-striatuld, opacd, sanguined ; spird brevi, conoided, 
acutiusculd; anfractibus 4^ planis, ultimo utrinque convexiusculo, 
medio subangulato ; aperturd obliqud, subtriangulari, ultiore quam 
lata; columelld basi antrorsum dentatd, callum tenuem, semicir- 
cularem retrorsmn emittente ; peristomate recto, intus sublabiatq, 
margine basali strictiusculo. 

Diam. lOi, altit. 6 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

25. Helicina (Trochatella) semilirata, Pfr. Hel. testd conico- 
globosd, solidd, opacd, flavidd, superne confertim albo-liratd; spird 
conicd, acutiusculd ; anfractibus 5\ planiusculis, ultimo convexius- 
culo, carinato, basi subtilissime concentrice striata ; aperturd perob- 
liqud, subtriangulari ; columelld simplice, immediate in marginem 
basalem abiente ; peristomate incrassato, angulatim expanso, mar- 
ginibus callo tenuissimo junctis, supero sinuato. 

Diam. 10|^, altit. 7^ mill. 
From Venezuela (Linden). 

26. Helicina Sowerbiana, Pfr. Hel. testd depresse trochiformi, 
tenuiusculd, lineis impressis spiraliter sulcata, alba ; spird conicd, 
acutiusculd; anfractibus 6 planiusculis, ultimo subcarinato, basi 
convexiusculo ; aperturd parum obliqud, subtriangulari ; columelld 
tenui, basi nodiferd ; peristomate simplice, angulatim expanso, 
margine supero sinuato; callo basali tenuissimo. 

Diam. 21, altit. 14 mill. 
From Guatimala (De Lattre). 

27. Helicina tenuilabris, Pfr. Hel. testd subglobosd, solidius- 
culd, sublcevigatd, albo et cinnamomeo variegatd et subfasciatd ; 
spird breviter conoided, acutiusculd; aifractibus fere 5 planius- 
culis, ultimo utrinque convexo, antice vix descendente ; aperturd 
obliqud, semiovali, intus cerasind, pallido-fasciatd ; columelld re- 
cedente, angustd, rctrorsum in callum tenuem dilatatd, basi imme- 
diate in peristoma tenue, expansiusculum, abiente. 

Diam. 10, altit. 7 mill. 
Locality unknown. 

28. Helicina tenuis, Pfr. Hel. testd turbinatd, tenuissimd, vix 
striatuld, pellucidd, corneo-albidd, rubro obsolete trifasciatd ; spird 
conicd, acutd ; anfractibus 6 vix convexiusculis, ultimo basi plani- 
usculo ; aperturd fere verticali, triangulari-semiovali ; columelld 
brevi, basi retrorsum subdentatd, superne in callum nitidum, cir- 
cumscriptum, dilatatd ; peristomate tetiui, angulatim expanso, mar- 
gine basali cum colujuellce basi angulum formante . 

Diam. 11, altit. 8^ mill. 
From Yucatan. 

29. Helicina unidentata, Pfr. Hel. testd depressd, tenuiusculd, 
liris concentricis alternatim validis, obtusis et minoribus cinctd, 
diaphand, nitiduld, rubelld ; spird vix elevatd ; anfractibus 4^ 
depressis, ultimo antice descendente, basi medio profunde excavato ; 
aperturd per obliqud, late lunari; columelld simplice, retrorsum in 



Miscellaneous. 225 

callum albidum circumscriptum dilatatd ; peristomate expanso, 
intus albo-lahiato, margine basali prope columellam dente magno, 
prominente, instructo. 

Diam. 5, altit, 2\ mill. 

From Honduras (Dyson). 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Descriptions of Owls presumed to be undescribed. By John Cassin. 

Ephialtes sagittatus, nobis. Adult r Entire plumage above rufous 
brown, inclining to chestnut ; plumage of the head with small pale 
spots encircled with black, bordering the shafts of the feathers, and 
near the tips assuming a hastate or sagittate form. 

Plumage of the back with every feather having about three to five 
spots of the same description, the arrow-headed shape and black 
border distinct and well-defined, some of the spots nearly white ; 
every feather also with very fine transverse lines, and minutely dotted 
or freckled with black. 

Wing-coverts with pale, nearly white, sagittate spots encircled 
with black. Internal coverts of the wings pale fawn yellow, more 
or less spotted with black, and with their tips broadly terminated 
with black, which forms a conspicuous bar on the inferior surface of 
the wing. Outer edge of scapulars nearly white with black spots. 
External webs of j)rimaries with alternate bands of pale and darker 
rufous brown ; internal webs much darker, with nearly black bands 
alternating with others slightly paler, which (the paler) are mottled 
with black towards the extremities of the quills. Exposed ends of 
the secondaries rufous brown, with large pale spots on the shafts, 
approaching the sagittate form, with their black borders extending 
into transverse narrow bands. First primary shortest, fifth and 
sixth longest. 

Feathers encircling the eyes, and the long bristle- like feathers at 
the base of the bill dark chestnut-brown, the latter freckled with 
black ; between the eye and the cavity of the ear whitish, with 
transverse lines, and broadly tipped with deep rufous brown. 
Feathers of the ruff white at their bases, with narrow transverse 
lines of deep rufous, but presenting a broad subterminal band of pure 
white, every feather terminated with a semicircular or lunular band 
of bright rufous brown. 

Front and superciliary region white, the feathers of the former 
with their shafts and with some minute marks of very dark brown ; 
superciliary feathers with well-defined tips of nearly black. Shorter 
(or anterior) feathers of the ear-like tufts white, with minute trans- 
verse lines and freckles of rufous brown ; longer feathers of the tufts 
brown on their external and white on their internal webs, trans- 
versely lined and ti])ped with darker brown. 

General colour of the under surface of the body very pale rufous 
and sordid yellowish white, on the breast with every feather having 
about five to seven very narrow transverse bands more or less di- 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 15 



226 Miscellaneous. 

stinctly defined, of blackish brown, and minutely and irregularly 
dotted with the same colour. Abdominal region with the bands 
less numerous, and many of the feathers having several irregularly 
shaped, though rather rounded and sagittate spots of nearly black. 

Tarsi covered to the toes with pale rufous whitish feathers. Toes 
naked. 

Tail same rufous brown as the back, with alternate bands of darker 
and paler shades ; in some instances the paler band on the external 
opposite to the darker band on the internal web. 

Bill and feet yellow, claws long and slender. 

Total length of skin about 10 inches, wing 7, tail 4^. 

Very young. Upper surface of the head and body pale yellowish 
and sordid rufous, every feather with several narrow transverse dark 
lines. Breast and belly darker, with the spots more distinctly 
rounded and occupying the whole breast and inferior surface. 

Wings and tail more fully developed than the other plumage. 

Hab. India ? 

One specimen of this species, without label, belongs to the R voli 
collection ; another, which is that of a young bird, labeled Malacca, 
has been received from Mr. Edward Wilson, who obtained it in 
Paris. I am acquainted with no species oi Ephialtes with which this 
can readily be confounded, and, in fact, it looks more like Dr. Hors- 
field's plate of Strix {P/iodilus) badius, than any other which I have 
met with, and is about the same size (as the figure}, while in general 
appearance, jjarticularly in the colouring of the breast and belly, it 
bears some resemblance to Strix {Lophost?-ix) cristata, Daud. (^gri- 
seatu. Lath.). It is however a true Ephialtes, though an aberrant 
species. The sagittate spots distinguish it, and, as far as I know, are 
peculiar. 

Ephialtes Watsonii, nobis. Summit of the head black, with a few 
very minute pale spots, more numerous on the front and eyebrows. 
Shorter feathers of the ear-tufts black, others black also, but with 
their inner webs spotted or mottled with white. A semicircle above 
the eye extending to the ear-tufts black ; rigid feathers at the base 
of the bill black, with pale grayish terminations ; feathers imme- 
diately below the eye gray, mottled and broadly tipped with black. 

Discal feathers grayish white, many of them speckled, and all 
tipped with black, presenting a white and black semicollar or rufF 
on each side of the neck. Plumage of the throat with fine alternate 
bars of black and nearly white. 

Neck above with a well-defined collar, the feathers composing 
which are strongly fulvous, terminated with white and speckled with 
black. 

Back, rump, tail- and wing-coverts mottled and freckled with 
grayish white upon a black ground, many of the feathers having 
about three to five very irregular transverse bands of whitish ; on 
the wing-coverts and back some of the pale marks are almost cir- 
cular with black centres, others are of irregular form also enclosing 
centres of black. 

External webs of the primaries black, with subquadrate nearly 
white bars, nearly all of which have black centres, assuming also a 



Miscellaneous. 227 

more or less well-defined square form. Internal webs of primaries 
with alternate bands of different shades of black. 

Breast and entire inferior parts pale fulvoUs, every feather con- 
spicuously marked on the shaft longitudinally with black, and with 
very irregular transverse bands and irregularly mottled with black ; 
the black markings most numerous and most irregular on the breast. 
Many of the feathers on the breast with very pale nearly white spots, 
having somewhat the appearance of being distributed in pairs. 

Tail black, with about seven or eight narrow irregular grayish 
bands, many of which have central lines of black. 

Tarsi feathered to the toes, pale fulvous white, mottled with black. 

Bill horn-colour at the base, whitish at the tip. 

Total length (of skin) about 9| inches, wing 7, tail 31. 

Younger ? Plumage above paler, with small spots and minute 
freckles of grayish white, scarcely assuming the appearance of bands. 

Breast with the dark markings predominating, and tending to 
form a broad pectoral band ; lower parts of the body bright fulvous 
with black marks. 

Hab. South America. 

This species bears some resemblance to Ephialtes atricapilla (Natt.), 
Temm. PI. Col. 14.5, but is much larger, and has only one nuchal 
collar. The general colour above is also much darker ; the fulvous 
colouring of the inferior surface of the body is also a striking dif- 
ference. 

One specimen of this species in the Rivoli collection is labeled 
" Orenoque," and another in the collection of the Academy is pro- 
bably from South America. 

I have named this bird in honor of Gavin Watson, M.D , of this 
city, a gentleman of extensive knowledge of natural history, much 
attached to the study of the American Raptores, and an especial 
admirer of the Owls. 

Syrniiim albogularis, nobis. Entire plumage above deep umber- 
brown, every feather more or less finely vermiculated and minutely 
spotted with black ; on the head also transversely lined and spotted 
with pure white, especially in the region of the occiput, where upon 
some feathers the white spots are disposed regularly in ])airs upon 
the opposite webs. 

Feathers of the back and rump having also three or four irregular 
transverse lines, and irregularly spotted with pale brownish nearly 
white. Scapulars broadly barred and edged with white. 

Lesser wing-coverts with irregular lines of pale brownish, and 
with large white marks on their external webs. Primaries with their 
external webs nearly black, with about eight to twelve square spots 
or bands of fulvous. Internal webs of primaries plain black or with 
obscure bands. 

Eyebrow w'hite ; a large semicircular segment of white covering 
the jaws and throat, interrupted at the base of the under mandible 
by a few brownish feathers ; many of those white feathers conspi- 
cuously tipped with black, forming a well-defined semicircular discal 
collar or ruff. 

Breast with a broad band of the same umber-brown as the back, 

15* 



228 Miscellaneous. 

every feather irregularly lined and minutely spotted with black ; many 
of the feathers also with subrounded spots of pure white, occasionally 
disposed in pairs. 

Abdomen, flanks and under tail-coverts fulvous, every feather 
marked longitudinally with black, and about one to three transverse 
marks of the same colour, assuming a partially lyrate form ; these 
marks less distinct on the flanks. 

Tail umber-brown, with about eight to ten irregular pale brownish 
white bars ; under surface paler. 

Plumage of the tarsi reaching nearly to the toes, pale reddish 
fulvous ; tibial plumage darker, inclining to ferruginous ; toes naked. 

Bill yellow. 

Total length about 9| inches, wing 8, tail A\. 

Hab. South America. 

Two specimens of this bird in the Rivoli collection are without 
label ; a third, obtained in Paris by Mr. Edward Wilson, is labeled 
" South America." 

T am acquainted with no species which in any considerable degree 
resembles the bird now described, nor have I met with a description 
a])plicable to it. 

Syrnlum virgatum, nobis. Plumage of the entire upper surface 
dark umber-brown, every feather having about three to five irregular 
transverse narrow bands of sordid yellowish white, most numerous 
and distinct on the head and rump. Upper tail-coverts banded with 
pure white. 

Scapulars obliquely banded on their outer webs with fulvous, on 
their inner webs more or less regularly banded with yellowish white. 
Wing-coverts with broader bands, and also mottled and pointed at 
their tips with whitish. 

Primaries very dark brown, nearly black, external webs with about 
seven square spots of grayish white, some of which enclose central 
spots of dark brown, and all more or less dotted and mottled with 
the same colour. These square spots less regular on the first and 
second primaries ; all the primaries with broad pale tips. Internal 
webs with regular bands of dark and paler brownish black. 

General colour of the face same as the head and back ; superciliary 
plumage and discal circle nearly white, more or less spotted and 
lined with deep brown. 

Breast deep umber-brown tinged with fulvous, every feather 
having about three very irregular transverse bands, which are 
broader and paler than those of the back, though of the same cha- 
racter ; on the lower part of the breast these bands are nearly white. 

Abdomen pale fulvous, every feather with a longitudinal stripe of 
black, and with one or two transverse irregular bands at the tip of 
the same colour ; ventral region and under tail-coverts pale fulvous 
nearly white, with a trace of blackish spots. 

Tarsi dark fulvous, mottled with brown ; feathered to the toes. 

Tail black, tipped with white, and having about fire bands, which 
are brownish on the outer and white on the inner webs. 

Bill horn-colour at the base, pale yellow at the tip : toes quite 
naked. 



Miscellaneous. 229 

Total length about 14 inches, wing 10^, tail 6. 

Younger or different sex ? Pale bands on the superior surface of 
the body broader, those on the wing-coverts, primaries and secon- 
daries enclosing tolerably regular bands of black. Scapulars with 
their outer webs fulvous and pure white. 

Spots on the outer webs of the primaries and bands on the tail 
nearly white ; secondaries broadly tipped with white, each terminal 
spot enclosing a segment of dark brown. 

Entire inferior surface of the body fulvous, feathers having lon- 
gitudinal stripes only of dark brown ; under tail-coverts nearly pure 
white. 

Younger } Bands on the back and rump almost obsolete, having 
the appearance of spots only. Scai)ulars and some of the wing- 
coverts broadly edged with pure white. 

Entire under surface of the body nearly white, with but a tinge 
of fulvous, the feathers having longitudinal bands only of deej) brown. 
Under tail-coverts and tarsi nearly white. 

Total length about 14 inches, wing 9^, tail 6. 

Hab. South America. 

This is a bird of which I have frequently seen specimens, and am 
surprised that I have not succeeded in finding a description of it. I 
am acquainted with no species intimately resembling it. — Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 121. 

Descriptions of new Marine Shells. By T. A. Conrad. 

The following new and interesting shells are from the coasts of 
Lower California and Peru : — 

SOLECARDIA, Con. 

Shell bivalve, equivalve ; hinge with two diverging cardinal teeth, 
and a linear oblique cartilage-pit between ; cardinal plate profoundly 
grooved on each side of the teeth; muscular impressions 2, small, 
rounded, remote from the margins, particularly from the base ; pallial 
impression entire. 

iS. eburnea. Oblong-oval, equilateral, ventricose, thin ; extremities 
nearly equally rounded ; basal margin arched ; valves white, shining, 
minutely shagreened, towards the base minutely rugose, with fine 
impressed radiating lines ; concentric lines towards the base finely 
waved, indenting the margin. 1 2-10: 8-10. 

In this singular bivalve the pallial impression shows no junction 
with the adductor impressions, but joins the extremities of the car- 
dinal plate. The muscular impressions are as distinct on the ex- 
terior as on the interior. 

Petricola. 

P. sinuosa. Subtriangular ; inflated anteriorly ; profoundly sinu- 
ous posteriorly ; ribs radiating, prominent, acute, except towards the 
anterior margin, where they are replaced by closely-arranged lines ; 
basal margin profoundly sinuous ; within brown, cavity of umbo 
white ; cardinal teeth prominent, two in one valve, and one broad 
one in the other. 8-10 : 6-10. 



230 Miscellaneous. 

Family Anatenid^. 
Cyathodonta, Con. 

An inequivalved bivalve ; hinge with a broad, not very projecting, 
cartilage-fosset, which is carinated near the margin ; muscular im- 
pressions rounded, indistinct ; pallial impression with a large i-ounded 
sinus . 

C undulata. Subovate, inequilateral, very thin and fragile, with 
obliquely concentric undulations, profound on the anterior side, and 
suddenly becoming obsolete towards the posterior extremity, which 
is truncated and direct ; posterior slope of the deeper valve obscurely 
tricarinated ; cartilage-pit robust ; valves with minute, very closely 
arranged, granulated radiating lines. 1 2-10 : 1 nearly. 

Family Pholadid^. 
Pholadopsis, Con. 
Inequivalved ; right valve produced posteriorly, left valve over- 
lapping the opposite ; cartilage situated on a projecting callus. 

P. pectinata. Ovate, very thin and fragile, profoundly gaping 
posteriorly ; profoundly ventricose anteriorly ; valves with elevated 
waved laminae terminating near a profound sinus, which extends 
from beak to base ; right valve undulated near the posterior end, 
reflected, margin pectinated ; both valves have concentric lines. 

Parapholas, Con. 
P. bisulcata. Ovate-oblong ; anterior accessory valves or deposit 
strong, shining, gibbous on the margin of aperture, and having 
obscure decussated striae, the transverse ones a little raised ; anterior 
side of the larger valves with numerous prominent crenulated radii ; 
a slightly oblique sulcus extends from beak to base, and a slightly 
impressed line runs from the beak to the posterior end of the closed 
portion of the base ; between the two impressed transverse lines the 
valves have closely-arranged, rugose, longitudinal laminae, and pos- 
terior to these the laminae are remote and elevated. 2^. 

Penitella. 

P. Wilsonii. Ovate-oblong, very thin, profoundly ventricose ; 
valves with a furrow from beak to base ; the papyraceous anterior 
valves very wide ; anterior valves with numerous oblique waved 
laminae and radiating acute ribs ; ligament margin sinuous ; posterior 
side with concentric distant undulations ; .two small accessory valves 
behind the beak, which are reflected posteriorly ; membranaceous 
appendage with a sinuous or concave margin where it joins the 
shell, and a deep annular groove anterior to the middle. 2^. 

Triton. 
T. perforatus. Subpyriform ; volutions 5 or 6 ; ribs revolving, 
flattened, slightly prominent, wide and narrow alternately, with 
narrow interstices, and an occasional revolving line ; angle of body 
whorl tuberculated ; spire scalariform, the angle of each whorl with a 
tuberculated rib or carina; colour cinereous; epidermis brown, rough, 
hairy, longitudinally ribbed ; aperture wide ; margin of labrum sinu- 



Meteorological Observations. 231 

ous above, profoundly ribbed ; ribs about half an inch long, on an 
ochraceous submargin ; columella with white folds and narrow, dark 
brown interstices ; beak bent, umbilicated. 3 8-10 : 2^. 

Oliva. 

O. propatula. Ovate-oblong, slightly gibbous towards the base ; 
colour pale ochraceous, marked with a few longitudinal zigzag brown 
lines, and with darker transverse hair-like lines and a few spots ; 
columella patulous, deeply sulcated interiorly ; deposit at the base 

carinated in the middle. "2^: 1 1-10 Proceedings of the Academy 

of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 155. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR JULY i849. 

Chiswick. — July 1. Very fine. 2. Light clouds: very fine. 3. Cloudy : slight 
showers. 4. Cloudy : clear at night. 5. Clear : very fine. 6, 7. Very fine. 
8. Very hot: clear at night. 9. Very fine : cloudless. 10. Dusky haze : clear. 
11, 12. Very fine. 13. Cloudy. 14. Very fine. 15. Overcast. 16. Very fine. 
17. Cloudy: showery. 18. Very fine : cloudy: heavy shower 5 p.m. : showery. 
19. Showery. 20. Fine: dense masses of low white clouds : showery. 21. Cloudy: 
showery. 22. Very fine: overcast. 23. Rain: cloudy. 24. Cloudy: heavy 
showers in forenoon : excessively heavy rain at night. 25. Fine: cloudy : showers 
occasionally : heavy showers, with thunder in afternoon. 26. Fine : thunder 
showers. 27. Overcast : very fine. 28. Very fine : cloudy. 29. Densely over- 
cast. 30. Fine. 31. Very fine : cloudy. 

Mean temperature of the month 62°'29 

Mean temperature of July 1848 62-09 

Mean temperature of July for the last twenty- three years ... 63 '23 
Average amount of rain in July 2-38 inches. 

Boston. — July 1 — 6. Fine. 7. Fine: thermometer 81° from 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. 
8 — 12. Fine. 13 — 16. Cloudy. 17. Cloudy : rain a.m. 18. Cloudy : rain p.m. 
19. Rain : rain A.M. and p.m. 20. Fine : rain a.m. 21. Fine : rain r.M. 22. 
Fine. 23. Rain : rain a.m. and p.m., with thunder and lightning. 24, 25. Cloudy : 
rain a.m. 26 — 28. Fine. 29. Rain : rain a.m. and p.m. 30. Fine. 31. Cloudy. 

Applegm-lh Manse, Dumfries-shire. — July 1. Fine rain : high wind p.m. 2, 
Rain during night : cleared and fine. 3. Heavy rain and strong wind. 4. Fine : 
slight shower. 5. Fine : occasional showers. 6. Complete day of rain. 7. Very 
heavy rain: high flood. 8. Fine and fair : pleasant air. 9, 10. Fine and fair. 
11. Very fine summer day. 12. Very warm. 13. Warm, but cooler from east 
wind. 14, 15. Warm. 16. Warm, but getting cloudy. 17. Heavy rain at 
night: clear day. 18. Rain. 19. Showers: occasionally fair and warm. 20. 
Showers : heavy p.. M. 21. Fine and fair. 22. Drizzly: showery. 23. Fine a.m. : 
showery p.m. 24. Showery. 25. Heavy showers : thunder. 26. Warm : slight 
shower : thunder. 27. Fair: cloudy: cleared p.m. 28. Fair a.m. : rain p.m. 
29. Heavy showers. 30. Heavy showers : thunder. 31. Heavy showers, less 
frequent : thunder. 

Mean temperature of the month 57'''0 

Mean temperature of July 1848 56-5 

Mean temperature of July for twenty-five years 58 '1 

Rain in July for twenty years 3*91 inches. 

Sandwick Manse, Orkney. — July 1. Rain : drizzle. 2. Showers. 3. Rain. 4. 
Bright: fine. 5. Clear : fine. 6. Cloudy : fine : cloudy. 7. Rain: cloudy: 
showers: bright. 8, 9. Clear: cloudy. 10. Damp : cloudy. 11. Cloudy : fine. 
12 — 14. Fine : fog. 15. Cloudy : clear. 16. Bright: rain. 17,18. Bright: 
cloudy. 19. Clear: damp. 20. Drizzle: cloudy. 21. Drizzle: damp. 22. 
Fine : drops. 23, 24. Cloudy : drizzle. 25. Rain : clear. 26. Bright : damp. 
27. Bright : showers. 28. Bright : rain. 29. Clear : showers : fine. 30. Clear : 
fine. 31. Showers. 



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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 22. OCTOBER 1849. 



XXIV. — Description of two new species of Floscularia, with 
remarks. By W. Murray Dobie, M.D., F.B.S.E., Member 
of the Royal Medical and Clinical Societies of Edinburgh. 

[With a Plate.] 

While examining various Rotifera in April this year (1849), 
I met with two Floscularias which differ essentially from any 
hitherto described. I propose in the pi-esent paper to charac- 
terize and describe briefly these two species, to which the plate 
has reference, and accompany the description with a few general 
remarks. 

Floscularia campanulata (mihi). PI. VI. fig. 3. 

Sp. Char. Case diaphanous. Rotatory organ furnished with^^ve 
flattened lobes fringed with very long cilia. Body ovate, with- 
out proboscis. Tail long and terminating abruptly in a trans- 
parent filament spread out into a kind of sucker at the point 
of attachment. PL VI. fig. 1. 

Length j'y in. when extended. Egg with two red eye-spots, 
contained in a large ovary. 

Hab. Boggy Park pond, 8i miles from Chester. Found on 
Ceratophyllum and Confervae. 

Floscularia cornuta (mihi). Plate VI. fig. 4. 

Sp. Char. Case short, diaphanous, and not very distinct. Rota- 
tory organ furnished with fve rounded lobes surrounded with 
extremely long and delicate cilia. A short, narrow, non-ciliated, 
flexible process [cornu) is attached to the outside of one of 
the lobes. Egg with two red eye-spots. Young animal with 
vibratile cilia on head and rapidly locomotive. 

Length -^-^ in. when extended. 

Hab. Boggy Park pond. Found on Ceratophyllum. 
Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 16 



234 Dr. W. M. Dobie on two new species of Floscularia. 

The following table will serve to show the relation these new 
species bear to the Eloscularias which have been already dis- 
covered. 



Species. 


Lobes. 


Processes. 


Cilia. 


Floscularia proboscidea 
ornata 


6. 

5-6 rounded. 

5 flattened. 

5. 


One large and ciliated. 

None. 

None. 
One narrow and non- 
ciliated. 


Short. 

Long. 

Long. 

\''erylong. 


campanulata 

cornuta 





The usual length of the adult Floscularia cam])anulata is about 
ygth of an inch when extended, but I have met with specimens 
larger than this. The case in this species is long, and not very 
defined, its surface is granular, and it contains minute rounded 
bodies in its substance. 

The body of this Floscularia when fully contracted is com- 
pletely inclosed within its case, which however is absent in the 
young animal. The body in both species is hyaline or colourless, 
except when coloured food has been received into the alimentary 
canal. 

The entrance to the alimentary canal in the Floscularia cam- 
panulata resembles a large open cup, and may be termed the in- 
fundibulura ; the edge of which, when the animal is expanded, 
is divided into five lobes by a corresponding number of depres- 
sions. Each of these lobes is flattened or laminar, slightly 
thickened at the margin, which is thickly fringed by long and 
very delicate cilia or setse, except for a small space in the middle 
of the depression. One of the lobes is rather larger than the 
other four. Five bands, apparently muscular, are seen passing 
to the centre of these depressions. Lines of a fainter description 
run up the centre of each lobe to near its apex ; these lines are 
frequently observed to contain highly refracting bodies resem- 
bling little globules of oil. See fig. 3. 

The rotatory organ of the Floscularia cornuta differs from the 
preceding ; it is divided by very deep depressions into five lobes, 
each terminated by a kind of ciliated knob ; and to the back of 
one of these lobes the flexible cornu is attached externally. The 
infundibulum in both species is separated from the next cavity, — 
whicli, following Dujardin, I call the vestibule, — by a rim en- 
larged at certain points into little knobs, each of which is clothed 
with cilia, not vibi-atile. 

The next portion of the alimentary canal is the crop separated 
from the vestibule by a diaphragm, in which is a slit-like open- 
ing fringed with vibratile cilia, the motion of which gives rise in 



Dr. W. M. Dobie on two new species of Floscularia. 235 

my opinion to the peculiar serpentine movement always observed 
at this point. See fig. 3 d. 

The cilia on the upper surface of this diaphragm and on the 
edges of its aperture assist in carrying the food into the croj). 

In both species the crop is ciliated throughout its interior. 
The next cavity, or second oesophageal bulb, contains the jaws 
and teeth — communicating above with the crop, and below with 
the conical termination of the alimentary tube. The teeth and 
jaws seem exactly alike in both the species I have examined with 
care : each jaw contains a bifurcated tooth, greatly resembling 
that of the Stephanoceros, only much more minute. See figs. 3, 
4&5. 

The ovigerous sac or ovary is large in both, containing several 
large ova which seem to be discharged from the cloaca, which is 
common to both the ovary and the alimentary canal. The red 
points can be seen in the egg before it is discharged ; the move- 
ments of the young animal within its case are quite perceptible 
at this period. See figs. G & 3 ^. 

The eggs for some time before they are completely hatched 
remain about the bottom of the case. I have been unable to 
detect any male organs in either of the species. 

The tail is long, and composed of non-striated muscular fibre 
inclosed in a continuation of the general integument. In the 
Floscularia campanulata it terminates in a homogeneous non-con- 
tractile filament produced into a sucker-like expansion, by which 
the animal attaches itself to Confervse or Ceratophijllum. 

The muscular system consists of non-striated fibres. Those 
composing the tail extend upwards and are lost upon the surface 
of the body. In the F. campanulata five very distinct bands run 
up the sides of the vestibule and infundibulum, and terminate by 
bifurcating in the depression between the lobes. The body and 
tail are highly contractile; the vestibule particularly so, large 
animalcules being frequently forced through the aperture leading 
into the crop by the powerful and continued contractions of its 
walls. 

No trace of a vascular system can be observed. The tremu- 
lous gill-like organs found in some Rotifers are here absent. 

With the exception of the eye-spots in the young animal, there 
are no organs of special sense. The whole surface is acutely sen- 
sible of tactile impressions, but the lobes of the rotatory organ and 
the coi-nu are perhaps more sensitive than the general surface. 

The cilia on these animals are of two kinds : the usual short 
vibratile kind line the interior of the crop and alimentary canal, 
and cover the lower part of the vestibule. The other variety of 
cilia are extremely long and filiform, of uniform thickness, aud 
not vibratile under ordinary circumstances. They are slowly 

16* 



236 Dr. W. M. Dobie on two new species of Floscularia. 

moved and spread out by the contractile substance of the lobes 
of the rotatory organ. 

When a solution of caustic potash is brought in contact with 
the filiform cilia, a most violent vibratile action immediately com- 
mences, and continues till the whole bundle is completely disor- 
ganized. Violent mechanical stimulation seems to have a similar 
effect, though in a less degree. 

I may here notice more particularly the peculiar cornu or pro- 
cess of the F. cornuta. The lobes of the rotatory organ of this 
animal resemble very much those of the F. ornata, with this dif- 
ference, that in the F. cornuta only five exist, while in the F. or- 
nata there are six according to Ehrenberg. The cornu is attached 
to the exterior of one of these lobes ; it is narrow and flexible ; the 
animal seems never to move it. It is best seen when the animal 
expands itself fully, for in the contracted state it is completely 
retracted within the integument. 

Immediately below the integument of the Floscularia cornuta 
are groups and lines of very small granules continually in a state 
of rapid molecular motion. In appearance they exactly resemble 
the molecules in the cusps of the Closterium. Besides the mole- 
cular they are subject to another motion ; for occasionally they 
may be seen to move from one part of the surface to another in 
currents not very distinct or persistent, and in no definite direc- 
tion. I have seen them running in lines down the tail and col- 
lecting into groups. This flowing movement occurs chiefly 
during the contractions and relaxations of the entire animal. 
See fig. 4. 

In the Flos, campanulata there are larger fixed granules distri- 
buted here and there throughout the body and tail ; these bodies 
more nearly I'esemble globules of oil. 

I am in much doubt as to the nature of these minute bodies in 
the F. cornuta. I think it })robable they are connected with the 
nutrition of the animal, and analogous to the free floating cor- 
puscles in the abdominal cavity of the Hydatina senta, or the so- 
called blood-corpuscles of the Tardigrada, so well described by 
M. Doyere. 

The Floscularia campanulata is gregarious ; sometimes as many 
as eight or ten specimens may be seen attached to a small por- 
tion of Conferva. 

The Flos, cornuta is found single ; there are seldom more than 
two or three near one another. 

The Flos, campanulata is a very active animal, expanding and 
contracting itself with great rapidity. The Flos, cornuta is by no 
means so strong and active : both species when satiated with food 
remain contracted for a considerable time. 

Ehrenberg regards the Floscularia described and figured by 



Dr. W. M. Dobie on two new species of Floscularia. 237 

M. Peltier* as identical with his Floscularia ornafa. Eoth Dujar- 
din and Peltier found the rotatory organ five-lobed in the species 
observed in France. Admitting these descriptions to be correct, 
we must either hold with Piitchard that the Floscularia ornata 
has sometimes live, at other times six lobes, or consider the five- 
lobed species of Peltier and Dujardinf to be a variety of Ehren- 
berg's true Flos, ornata. 

In no kind of Floscularia ornata has any cornu or process been 
seen attached to any of the lobes. My friend Mr, Hallett, late 
of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, writes me that 
he finds the Flos, ornata with a six-lobed rotatory organ and no 
process. 

M. Dujardin J, in describing his family Floscularia, observes as 
follows on the masticatory apparatus of the genus Floscularia : — 
" The Floscularia has simple mandibles ; in the Stephanoceros the 
mandibles are compound." With this assertion of Dujardin I 
do not agree ; the whole apparatus closely resembles that of the 
Stephanoceros, only on a smaller scale. One thing I feel certain 
of is, that the tooth is bifurcated and therefore cannot be simple. 

In figure 5 I have endeavoured to represent the dental appa- 
ratus of the Floscularia as I myself have frequently observed it. 
I cannot vouch for its entire accuracy, as it is very difficult to 
obtain a good view of them. 

M. Dujardin § thus observes regarding the eggs: " Les oeufs 
montrent un seul point rouge et non deux comme ceux qu'a re- 
presentes M. Ehrenberg." I must here also differ from M. Du- 
jardin. In nearly all my examinations of the eggs and young of 
the Floscularia, 1 have been able to make out two very distinct 
red eye-spots ; they appear in the egg when it has reached its 
full size, but are best seen in the young animal. 

Dujardin's observations || differ from those of Ehrenberg in 
another particular ; I again quote from Dujardin^s work : " Ce 
meme auteur (M. Eh.) leur assigne un etui membraneux, mais 
ceux qui ont ete observes en France manquent toujours de cet 
etui." My own observations coincide with Ehrenberg's descrip- 
tions ; the sheath is never absent except in the very young animal, 
but is often so delicate as to escape superficial obsei'vation. 

The two Floscularias described in this communication were 
obtained from a pond situated in Trevalyn in the parish of 
Gresford, Denbighshire, within a few yards of the boundary line 
limiting the detached portion of Flintshire in Gresford. The 

* Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 1S;38, t. x. p. 40, planche 4. 
t Hist. Nat. des Infus. p. GIO. 

X Hist. Nat. des Int'us. p. 009, also at p. Gil. " Les niaclioires lu'cint 
paru unideiitees."' 

§ Hist. Nat. des Infus. p. fill. i| lb. p. 609. 



238 Dr. W. M. Dobie on two new species q/" Floscularia. 

place is named the " Boggy Park," from an elevated quagmire 
in the meadow abounding in Pinguicula vulgaris, Anagallis tenella, 
Parnassia palustris, &c. It lies nearly two miles south of the 
Rossett station of the Shrewsbury and Chester Railway, at the 
base of the slope which descends from the table-land of Gresford. 
This eastern declivity of North Wales commands, at an elevation 
little exceeding a hundred feet above the level of the sea, a view 
not to be surpassed for extent and beauty ; — on the north stretch- 
ing over the peninsula of Wirral ; and in some states of the at- 
mosphere even to the southern mountains of Cumberland ; on the 
south to the Wrekin far into Shropshire; eastward to the Peck- 
forton, Delamere and Lancashire Hills ; — the towers of Chester 
and to Beeston Castle over the Vale Royal ; in clear weather to 
the mountainous district where Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Lan- 
cashire unite — a distance not less than forty miles. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1. Sucker-like termination of the tail of Floscularia campanulata. 
Fig. 2. Process on one of the lobes of Flos, coniuta. The cilia snrroundino- 

the rounded knob-like extremity of the lobe are supposed to be 

cut short. 
Fig 3. Floscularia campanulata, magnified 270 diameters. The cilia are 

represented on one lobe only. 

a. Granules resembling oil globules. 

b. One of the five muscles of the infundibulum. 

c. Rim separating the infundibulum and the vestibule. 

d. Diaphragm separating the vestibule from the crop with waved aper- 

ture. 

e. Dental apparatus and sac. 

/. Termination of the intestine. 
g. Case {etui, Dujardin). 
i. Sucker-like termination to tail. 
Fig, 4. Floscularia cornuta, magnified 200 diameters. 

a. Cornu or flexible process. 

b. Division between infundibulum and vestibule, with ciliated knobs 

as in fig. 3. 

c. Minute granules in a state of molecular motion. 

d. Diaphragm. 

e. Dental apparatus. 
/. Two ova in ovisac. 

g. Termination of intestine. 

h. Case in outline. 
Fig. 5. Dental apparatus isolated. 
Fig. 6. a. Young Floscularia cornula with vibratile cilia, 

b. Same, contracted. 



Mr. J. Morris on the Excavating Sponges. 239 

XXV. — Observations on IMr. Hancock^s /J^^jer on the Excavating 
Sponges. By John Morris, F.G.S. 

In the interesting communication "On the Excavating powers 
of certain Sponges/' &c. which appeared in the May Number of 
the ' Annals/ IMr. Hancock appears to have overlooked a paper 
published some time since by an Italian naturalist in which the 
same facts are fully and clearly described. Had this paper been 
more generally known, probably "the prevailing belief that Cliona 
does not excavate the chambers in which it is found, but that 
they are formed by worms or by decay," &c., might have been 
somewhat shaken, and " the matter which has remained up to the 
present time in obscurity " more clearly defined. It may there- 
fore be interesting to some of the readers of this Journal to give 
a short abstract of what was previously known on this subject, 
not merely for advocating the priority of discovery, but as 
strengthening the oi)inion as to the excavating power of these 
bodies, so admirably illustrated by Mr. Hancock*. 

Ten years have elapsed since Dr. Nardo communicated, in the 
name of his brother, to the Scientific Congress held at Pisa in 
] 839, a paper " On a new genus of Siliceous Sponges, named 
Vioa, living in excavations formed by itself in stones and in the 
shells of marine mollusca, boring them in every direction." This 
sponge consists of numerous small very fine acicular siliceous 
bodies arranged irregularly in a fieshy but not mucous substance, 
of a yellowish, orange or purple colour, permanent or fugacious 
according to the species. At certain periods of their growth, 
these sponges emit small germs visible to the naked eye, which 
transported by currents attach themselves to stones or marine 
shells, and commence to form passages in their substance, rid- 
dling them in every direction, so as even sometimes to destroy the 
stone or shell, leaving the sponge isolated and free. Dr. Nardo 
observed the following species all obtained from the Adriatic, and 
named by him Vioa tijpus, coccinea, Clio, Pasithea-f. 

At a subsequent meeting of the same Congress held at Milan 
in 1844, M. Michelin, whose attention had been previously di- 
rected to the point, read a short notice on the same subject, in 
which he alluded to the traces of an organized zoophytic body 

* It is but justice to Mr. Hancock to state, that his description of the 
means by which these sponges perforate calcareous substances is both novel 
and interesting. 

f Atti della prima riunione degli Scienziati Italiani tenuta in Pisa, 1839, 
p. IgI ; Pisa, 1840. A fuller notice of this paper is in the ' Annali delle 
Scien. del Reg. Lomb.-Vcnet.' vol. ix. p. 221 ; see also Revue Zoologique, 
1840, p. 27. In the same journal (p. 343) is M. Duvernoy's description of 
Spongia terebrans, inhabiting the valves oi' Oslrea fiippopus, Lam. 



240 Mr. J. Morris on the Excavating Sponges. 

inhabiting the tubular and vesicular cavities in the shell of Pla- 
cuna sella, but uncertain as to what family it really belonged. 
The Prince of Canino, Pi*esident, appointed a commission, con- 
sisting of Drs. Riippell and Nardo and Prof. Gene, to express their 
opinions on the fact, and Dr. Nardo in their name made a report, 
from which the following remarks are abridged. 

The peculiarity described by M. Michelin consists in having 
noticed between the two faces of the superior valve of Placuna 
sella, on account of its transparency, a kind of arborescence with 
dichotomous and anastomosing branches, having the inferior 
branches thick and decreasing towards their extremities, which 
are generally sharp and forked. 

On the inner layer of the shell no pores were observed commu- 
nicating with the branches, but on the outer layer are numerous 
small perforations serially disposed and corresponding with the 
articulations. These cavities have been produced by a perfora- 
ting parasitic animal which has introduced itself into the sub- 
stance of the valve, and which in consequence of a greater resist- 
ance or hardness of the inner layer in contact wdth the animal of 
the Placuna, has been compelled to extend itself horizontally, so 
as to form the arborescence described. On some parts of the 
surface may be observed a few attempts at perforation which have 
been arrested by a new layer of solid matter. In the Milan city 
museum is a fine specimen of Placuna having both valves per- 
forated. The large size of the holes in this shell has allowed a 
portion of the animal filling the cavities to be carefully examined. 
It belongs to the class of sponges, and specially to the genus 
Vioa, which Dr. Nardo first described in his memoir on the per- 
forating sponges, published in the ' Annals of Science of the 
Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom*.' From the form and arrange- 
ment of the siliceous spiculee, imbedded in the substance, sharp 
at one end and rounded at the other, it should be arranged (ac- 
cording to the system of Dr. Nardo) in the second order of sili- 
ceous sponges, the ninth family Vidida, and the first subfamily 
Vidina. This species appears to be distinct from all those pre- 
viously kuow^n and described, and may therefore bear the name 
Vioa Michelini. Dr. Nardo further adds as an important fact, 
that it is not only the Placunce which have been attacked by this 
kind of sponge, but also univalve shells ; and mentions a large 
specimen of Voluia in the Milan museum, which is perforated 
by a species of sponge distinct from the Vioa Michelini, as re- 
gards its mode of development, w^hich although serial and den- 
dritic, has the vesicular and articulated cavities smaller and bored 
on both sides. 

Dr. Nardo concludes the report with some remarks relative to 
* Sec the voliinip previously quoted. 



Mr. J. Morris on the Excavating Sponges. 241 

the genus Vioa, as well as to some inaccuracies of those authors 
who have written after him. He mentions that Dr. Johnston has 
not even suspected the HalicJiondria ccdata (which is a Vioa) to 
be a perforating sponge ; and also opposes the opinion of 
M. Dujardin, who thought that the perforations in shells and 
stones (which he, Dr. Nardo, had proved to be the work of a 
sponge) were at first occupied by small species of Annelides, and 
that the sponge subsequently inhabited their cavities. Dr. Nardo 
does not think that the name Cliona ought to be preferred to that 
of Vioa proposed by him, because Dr. Grant, in establishing his 
genus, did not consider it to be a sponge, but a polype having 
eight tentacula ; and he consequently proposes that the Spongia 
terebrans, Duveruoy, which M. Dujardin regards as a Cliona, 
should be named Vioa Dujardinii, if however it is distinct from 
the species already described*. 

Since the publication of this report for 1844, M. Michelin has 
observed a valve of Meleagrina niargaritifera, Lam., and speci- 
mens of the genera Conus and Fusus perforated by species of 
Vioa, as well as a valve of the fossil, Trigonia Dadalea, Park. 
M. Michelin has also noticed traces of the same genus on frag- 
ments of fossil shells from the chalk of Orglandes and the supra- 
cretaceous beds of Grignon (Revue Zoologique, 1846). 

The following species of Vioa appear to be identical with two 
of those described as Cliona by Mr. Hancock, 

Vioa Nardina, Michelin, Rev. Zool. 1846, pi. 1. fig. 1. 

V. dendritica, dichotoma, ramosissima, utriculis et tubulis corapo- 
sita ; utriculis vel rotundis vel ellipticis in seriebus eleganter dis- 
positis, inter se junctis per tubules exiguos interne rugosos ; tu- 
bulis terminalibus, acutissimis, ssepe furcatis. 

Inhabits the upper valve of the Placuna placenta, Lam. 

This species is identical with Cliona Fryeri, Hancock, Ann. 
Nat. Hist. 1849, p. 338. pi. 14. f. 2 ; and that author described 
it as imbedded in the same shell. 

Vioa Michelini, Nardo, Rev. Zool. 1846, pi. 1. fig. 2. 

V. dendritica, dichotoma, divaricata, utriculis et tubulis composita ; 
utriculis numerosis, vesiculosis, subpolygonis, interne rugosis, ve- 
tulis maximis, junioribus parvulis, elongatis, deinde subrotundis, 
per minutissimos tubulos junctis et anastomosantibus. 

Inhabits the upper valve of P lacuna sella. Lam. 

This species is the same as the Cliona spinosa, Hancock, Ann. 

* Atti delUi sesta Riunione dcgli Scien. Ital. tenuta in Milano, 1844, 
pp. 372, 42S, and Revue Zoologiqiie, 1S46 ; see also Annali delle Scien. del 
Keg. I>onib.-Ven, 1845, p. !1. 



243 Mr. J. Alder on the Branchial Currents 

Nat. Hist. 1849, p. 339. pi. 13. f. 5, and which he also found 
in the valves of P lacuna sella. 



At the Scientific Congress held at Lucca (1843), Dr. Nardo 
proposed a new classification of the Spongiada, dividing them into 
five families, under the names of Corneo-spongia, Silico-spongia, 
Calci-spongia, Corneo-silici-spongia, Corneo-calci-spougia, these 
families containing thu'ty genera*. 



XXVI. — On the Branchial Currents of the Bivalve Mollusca. 
By Joshua Alder, Esq. 

To Richard Taylor, Esq. 

Dear Sir, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 16th August 1849. 

It was not my intention again to have troubled you concerning 
those points in the oeconomy of the Bivalves about which Mr. 
Clark and I are at variance, but the concluding paragraph of that 
gentleman's letter, in which he claims to have set at rest the use 
of the anterior siphon in the genus Kellia, demands a few words 
from me, lest my silence should be taken as an acquiescence in 
such a statement. Perhaps I am also entitled to a reply to the 
two new arguments by which my opinions are attempted to be 
disproved. 

Mr. Clark has at length given us a distinct statement of his 
views mth respect to the admission of water into the branchial 
cavity of the bivalves, which he attributes to the opening and 
closing of the valves alone, and not to the action of cilia. Had 
this been stated at first, some misunderstanding might have been 
avoided. Undoubtedly a branchial current entering by a special 
aperture, w^hether anterior or posterior, cannot be accounted for 
by the opening and shutting of the valves. To explain such a 
current the existence of ciliary action is required ; but I was un- 
willing to believe that a gentleman of Mr. Clark's information 
could entirely have discarded it. However, instead of arguing 
this point further, I shall take the liberty of giving the result of 
some observations made upon two or three species of bivalves 
since the publication of my last letter. 

A small specimen of Modiola vulgaris, placed in a glass of 
sea-water, gradually expanded the margin of the mantle beyond 
the shell, and protruded the excretory siphon. When these were 

* Atti della quinta unione degli Scien. Ital. tenuta in Lucca, 1843, p. 436. 
The details of this paper have not I believe been published ; a short notice 
however of the three first families appeared about fifteen years ago in Dr. 
Oken's ' Isis.' 



of the Bivalve Mollusca. 243 

extended to their full length, an action commenced in the sm-- 
rounding water which was very discernible with a common lens; 
but for its more careful examination I put the animal under a 
low power of the microscope, and could then distinctly see that 
a cm'rent of water was passing in at the lower side of the open 
mantle, partly by the cirrigerous portion (as observed by Cuvier 
and others in the common mussel), but more especially at the part 
of the mantle just in front of the cirrhi, and between them and the 
foot. At the same time a very strong cm'rent was flowing off by 
the posterior siphon ; — so strong as to commmiicate a motion in 
the same direction to the surrounding water and its contents. 
These two currents continued while the mantle was expanded, 
but on its withdrawal they ceased, and the animal became quies- 
cent. During the whole of the time the valves remained sta- 
tionary. 

My next experiment was upon Modiola nigra, and with exactly 
the same results. The mantle of this species has the margin per- 
fectly smooth, and is extended in the posterior part of the large 
opening so as to simulate a second siphon. The current, how- 
ever, did not go in at the prolonged extremity of this siphonal 
fold, but at the anterior part of it. The egress-current of the 
anal siphon was very distinct. 

A specimen of Mactra ellij)tica was some time in protruding 
its siphons, which, as is well known, are long, and united to their 
extremities. No distinct action of the water could be observed 
until these were fully extended, and the hyaline valve exserted 
from the anal siphon. A violent agitation then commenced in 
the vicinity of the apertures, and, on looking carefully, I could 
see a current containing floating particles, animalcules, &c. flow- 
ing in at the branchial or inhalant siphon ; while an ex-current, 
still more conspicuous, flowed simultaneously from the anal one, 
sending the water to a considerable distance. At short intervals 
during this operation a spasmodic contraction of the valves and 
siphons sent off the water with a squirt ; probably at both aper- 
tures, biit this I could not distinctly make out. At such times 
only was there any perceptible motion of the valves, which, while 
the regular branchial cu.rrents were flowing, remained stationary 
and were held a little apart. The water remained motionless 
opposite the pedal aperture. The strong currents at the extre- 
mities of the siphons induce me to attribute a more powerful 
action to the cilia lining these orifices than I was at first inclined 
to do, as they are generally much smaller and more difficult to 
observe than those on the branchiae. 

The only other species I shall here notice is the Turtonia mi- 
nuta. At first the water was observed to pass into the widely 
open mantle of this little mollusk at all parts of the base of the 



244 M.Y. J. Aldev on the Branchial Cu7'rents 

shell. This was perhaps owing to the gradual opening of the 
valves, as afterwards the current appeared to be confined to the 
posterior portion, and while it was flowing in at that point, I 
could distinctly see an opposite current passing off at the poste- 
rior siphon. This simultaneous action of currents in contrary 
directions, observed in all the instances mentioned, is surely suf- 
ficient to prove the existence of some special motive power di- 
stinct from the action of the valves*. 

We shall now turn to Mr. Clark's two additional ' proofs,' by 
which he " proposes to demonstrate " that the water passes into 
the branchial cavity by both the posterior siphons, in conjunction 
with the pedal aperture, and that it is expelled indiscriminately in 
various proportions by all. The argument is a little obscure, but 
if admitted in its fullest extent could not demonstrate the whole 
of this proposition. As far as I can understand it, it is this : — that 
as " important prehensile organs " — cirrhi and cilia — clothe both 
the anal and branchial siphons " to entangle and capture the 
minute animalcules to be conveyed into the branchial cavity," 
therefore a current of water must pass into each siphon to carry 
them forward to their destination. But the premises are as- 
sumptions that require in the first place to be proved. Accord- 
ing to my observations, the cirrhi that surround the apertures 
are not prehensile but only tentacular ; their use apparently being 
to guard the orifices from the intrusion of anything hurtful. The 
cilia that clothe the interior of the siphons (which I presume are 
what Mr. Clark alludes to) are neither prehensile nor tentacular, 
but perform the office usual to these minute organs in assisting 
to create a current. But why should the food be seized and 
detained by these organs at so great a distance from the mouth, 
when it could (and does) flow freely into the branchial siphon by 
means of the same current that brought it to the aperture ? The 
hyaline valve of the anal siphon woidd obstruct the performance 
of such a function by the cirrhi of that aperture. This argument, 
therefore, instead of being ' irrefragable,' appears to me to prove 
nothing. 

The next argument rests on the literal meaning of the word 
' aperture.' In those bivalves whose mantle is entirely open the 
whole circumference forms only one aperture, consequently in 
these species there cannot be two apertures (ingress and egress). 
True. But there may be nevertheless an ingress- and an egress- 
current at different points of the open mantle without their in- 
terfering with each other : and such is the case in Anomia, where 
a current may be seen to pass in at the anterior base of the shell 

* " The respiratory currents are occasioned by the action of cilia, and are 
not dependent upon the opening and closing of the valves of the slali." — - 
Owen's Lect. Comp. Anat. vol. i. p. 283. 



of the Bivalve Mollusca. 245 

while another flows off posteriorly near the termination of the 
branchiae*. 

I now come to the most interesting part of Mr. Clark^s letter, 
where he informs ns that he has ascertained that Kellia subor- 
hicularis is viviparous, — a good discovery : but the supposition 
that the anterior siphon is only intended as a marsupial pouch 
for the further development of the ova after their extrusion from 
the ovarium, is a conjecture not warranted by Mr. Clark's own 
observations, as he afterwards saw completely testaceous young 
in the ovarium, thus doing away with the necessity of their 
being further detained in the open siphon, which is ill-adapted 
to the office assigned to it. Besides, if such had been the case, 
it would most likely have been observed before, as from the 
hyaline transparency of the tube and its wide aperture, it is 
always easy to see to the bottom of it. That the young escape 
by this aperture is probable, but this does not prevent its being 
used for branchial purposes ; as in no instance that I am aware 
of, either in a Bivalve or an Ascidian, is there a separate orifice 
of the cloak set apart for the extrusion of the ova. All that can 
therefore be admitted as ^jroved by Mr. Clark's observations, are 
the viviparous character of the reproduction in Kellia suborhi- 
cularis and the escape of the young (in one instance at least) by 
the anterior siphon. May I not add, — it is also proved by equally 
authentic observations, often repeated, — that both in Kellia I'ubra 
and K. suborbicularis, a special current can be seen to go into 
this siphon, and at no other part of the circumference of the 
mantle ? 

I remain, dear Sir, yours very truly, 

Joshua Alder 

P.S. Since writing the above I have had an opportunity of 
examining the currents in Pliolas crisjjuta, which I find to cor- 
respond entirely with those of the species already mentioned. 
As however Mr. Garner, in his excellent paper on the Lamelli- 
branchiata, though agreeing in the general existence of ciliary 
currents received and expelled by separate apertures, yet consi- 
ders this and some other allied genera to be exceptions, I pur- 
pose, with your permission, to treat this part of the subject a 
little more at large in a separate communication. 

* With respect to the range of Kellia rubra, Mr. Chirk has ascertained 
that he was right in stating that near Exniouth this species is found beyond 
ordinary high- water-mark, and often, in calm weather, is only covered by 
the sea at spring tides. If it has been also ascertained that " thousands of 
these animals pass Iheir entire existence witliout perhaps being compl&tely 
in a condition to receive branchial currents of sea-water," I shall agree 
that I was mistaken in thinking the account in question overstated. The 
ordinary range of Kellia rubra is within tide-marks. 



246 Mr. J. E. Gray on three new Genera and Species of Snakes. 

XXVII. — Description of three new Genera and Species of Snakes. 
By J. E. Gray, Esq. 

The greater part of the genera of innocuous Colubrine Snakes 
have only a small number of shields on the sides of the lips, the 
eyes being generally placed over the fourth, or the suture between 
the fourth and fifth upper labial shields. In the very long- 
headed genera, as Dryophis, the eye is over the fifth, and in one 
species, D. Catesbiji, it is over the suture between the fifth and 
sixth. Periops of Wagler and Chilolepis of Fitzinger, exhibit 
the greatest number of these shields amongst the snakes hitherto 
recorded ; the eyes in them are placed over the fifth, sixth and 
seventh shields, which are of small size. In the two genera I am 
about to notice the shields are large, and the eye is placed over 
the suture between the sixth aad seventh shields. 

1. Cynophis. — Head moderate, elongate, rather compressed 
on the sides ; crown flat, shielded, frontal shields four, anterior 
small between the nasals, hinder larger, bent down on the sides ; 
vertebral elongate, narrower behind ; superciliary shield narrow 
in front, wider behind and bent down on the outer side; occi- 
pital shields large, elongate, subtrigonal ; nostrils rather large, 
lateral, between two shields, the hinder rather the largest ; loreal 
shields moderate ; one very large, squarish, five-sided, anterior 
and a small posterior ocular ; temple with elongate shields, the 
upper one linear, oblique, margining the occipital ; rostral shield 
rather broad and high, subtrigonal, convex ; upper labial shields 
rather large, the five front ones rather narrow and high, the sixth 
and seventh broader, placed under and forming the lower mar- 
gin of the orbit, the eighth, ninth and tenth rather large, subtri- 
gonal, with the temporal shield above them ; the lower rostral 
small, the first, second, third and fourth lower labial narrow, the 
fifth and sixth much larger and broader, the hinder ones rather 
narrow; chin shield two pair, elongate, strap -shaped. Eyes 
rather large, pupil round. Body elongate, compressed ; back 
rounded ; belly flattened ; scales lanceolate, closely imbricate, 
smooth, the lower series rather broadest ; ventral shield rather 
broad, flat in the middle, and rather angularly bent up on the 
sides. Tail rather short, slender, conical, tapering; subcaudal 
plates two-rowed, flat on the inner and somewhat bent up on the 
outer sides. 

This snake has somewhat the external appearance of a small 
Boa. 

Cynophis histrigatus. — Yellow, rather paler beneath ; a narrow 
erect streak under the eyes on the suture of the sixth and seventh, 
and an oblique one from the back edge of the eyes to the suture 
of the eighth and ninth upper labial, a short broad streak on each 



Mr. J. E. Gray on three new Genera and Species of Snakes. 247 

side of the occiput, and an oblique streak on each side of the 
neck, and four or six spots forming cross bands on the front of 
the body black, a broad brown streak on the sides of the hinder 
part of the body. 

Inhab. Ceylon. Presented by H. Templeton, Esq. 

2. Alopecophis'. — Head rather elongated, somewhat flattened 
on the sides ; crown flat, shielded, frontal plates four ; anterior mo- 
derate between the nasals, slightly bent down on the side, hinder 
large, broad, bent down on the side; vertebral broad, narrower 
behind ; superciliary large, broader behind ; occipital large, sub- 
trigonal ; nostril lateral between two nearly equal plates ; loreal 
plate elongate, narrow ; anterior ocular very large, subtrigonal, 
the upper edge forming part of the crown ; posterior oculars two, 
the upper large, the lower very small ; temporal shields elongate, 
the two upper edging the occipital plate ; rostral shield very 
broad, rather low, convex above ; labial of both jaws similar, mo- 
derate and rather high, sixth and seventh upper rather larger, 
under and forming the lower edge of the orbit, the tenth rather 
elongate ; chin shield two pair, hinder smaller. Eyes rather 
large, pupil round. Body rather compressed ; back rounded be- 
neath flattened ; scales lanceolate, imbricate, smooth ; ventral 
shield rather broad, flat, angularly bent up on the side. Tail 
about one-third the length of the body, slender, tapering, sub- 
trigonal, flat beneath, subcaudal plate two-rowed. 

This genus chiefly difi'ers from the former in the elongated 
form of the loreal, the height of the anterior ocular, the two pos- 
terior oculars, and in the greater equality in the labial shields. 

Alopecophis chahjbeus. — Purplish brown, edge of the scales 
rather darker ; lips and beneath paler, with a very narrow rather 
darker line along the upper edge of the upper labial shields. 

Inhab. Mauritius. 

The third genus belongs to the tribe Elapsina, and is one of 
the largest and most beautiful-coloured of that deadly tribe. 

3. MEGiEROPHis. — Head small, scarcely wider than the body, 
rounded in front; crown flat ; nostrils large, open, lateral. Eyes 
lateral, large ; loreal shield none ; fangs distinct, maxillary teeth 
few. Body triangular ; scales of the sides elongate, six-sided, in 
oblique series five in each, of the vertebral series very broad, 
transverse ; subcaudal plate entire. 

This genus has the scaling of Bungarus and the small head of 
Naja and Elaps. 

Megaroj)his formosus. — Bluish black; head, under side, tail, a 
spot on each vertebral scale, and the upper edge of the lower 
series of scales yellow. 

Inhab. Borneo. Presented to the British Museum bv Sir 
James Brooke. 



248 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Solandra. 

This species has the colouring of Elaps hivirgatus, Miiller, and 
has most probably been mistaken for that species ; but it is of a 
much larger size^ and easily known by the large size of the ver- 
tebral scales. 

In the young specimen the spot on the back and sides forms a 
nearly continued stripe, and the outer edge of the ventral shield 
is clouded with black. 

British Museum, August 21, 1849. 



XXVIII. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 193.] 

Solandra. 

I NOTICE this genus, in order to confirm what has been already 
advanced respecting it in the preceding volume of the ' Annals,' 
p. 176, when I endeavoured to show that its relation is decidedly 
with Juanulloa, Marckea and Sarcophysa, constituting with these 
genera a distinct tribe of the Atropacece or Atropines, and in no 
degree related to Datura, with which it has been classed by all 
botanists heretofore. It will be seen to approach Juanulloa in 
its large tubular calyx, which splits generally on one side, in 
consequence of the growth of its large fleshy berry, in the struc- 
ture of which there exists a considerable resemblance in both ge- 
nera, but it differs from that genus, in its much larger and more 
campanular corolla. It bears also great analogy with Brunsfelsia, 
in its large, yellow, fleshy border, with five rounded lobes, greatly 
fimbriated on their margins, and deeply imbricated in aestivation, 
and also in its large berry filled with palp ; but it differs from this 
last-mentioned genus, in its general habit and in the structure of 
its stamens. It will serve to connect the Solandrece with the 
Bi'unsfelsie(By and in the linear arrangement shown in the tabular 
view, p. 176, as above quoted, it should have been placed below 
Ectozoma, and immediately preceding Brunsfelsia. I have not 
been able to examine its seeds or to find any analysis of its struc- 
ture, any farther than that the embryo is said to be arcuate ; in 
this respect it will probably resemble Juanulloa, Marckea and 
Franciscea, where it is terete, nearly straight or only slightly 
bent, with short, ovate cotyledons. The following is offered as 
an amended generic character : — 

Solandra, Swartz. (Char, emend.) — Calyx 5-sepalus, per- 
sistens; sepala lanceolata, acuta, marginibus intubum longum, 
cylindraceum, 5-angulatum, in.iequaliter et breviter 2-3-par- 
titum, demum hinc fissum, valvatim conniventia. Corolla 



Mr. J. ]\Iiers on the g onus Solaudra. 219 

magna, interne valde coarctata, carnosa, cylindracca, 5-gona, 
superne veutricoso-cainpanulata, crassa, 5-nervis, venis anasto- 
mosantibus, limbo 5-])artito, laciniis revolutis suba'qualibus 
rotundatis margine inciso-crispatis, sestivatione valde imbri- 
catis. Stamina b, reqiialia, ad constrictionem tubi inserta, 
inclusa ; filamenta glabra, subulata, erecta, cum stylo decli- 
nantia ; anthera approximatse, oblongse, basi subcordatse, sub- 
4-gon8e, apicitixae, 2-loculares, margine longitudinaliter deliis- 
centcs. Ovarium conicum, 2-loculare, placcntis cum dissepi- 
mento cruciformibus, hinc in loculis centralibus, valde incras- 
satis, lunulatis, undique seminigeris. Stylus tenuis, sub- 
exsertus, declinatus, superne subrecurvus. Stigma parvuni, 
sub-2-lobum, intus glandulosum. Bacca calyce fissa cincta, 
ovata, apice conica, imo e placcntis cum pericari)io demum 
connatis breviter sub-4-locularis, superne 2-locularis ; semina 
plurima, oblonga, conipressa, reniformia, in pulpam carnosam 
nidulautia. Embnjo intra albumen carnosum arcuatus. — 
Frutices sarmentosce AntillancE et Mexicana ; folia alterna, ad 
apicem ramorum conferta, obovato -oblong a, Integra, subcarnosa ; 
flores terminales, solitarii, rarius 2- vel S-ni, maximi, albido- 
lutescentes, imbro-picti. 

1. Solandra grandifiora, Swartz, Act. Holm. 1787, 300. tab. 11 ; 
Fl. hid. Oc. i. 387. tab. 9; Rchb. Fl.Exot. ii. 41. tab. 134; 
Jacq. Hart. Sch. i. 21. tab. 45 ; Salisb. Linn. Trans, vi. 100. 
tab. 6; MeenyExot.Pl. Kew. tab. 6; Bot. Mag. tab. 1874; Tus- 
sac, Fl. des Antilles, ii. 49. tab. 12. S. scandens, IVild.Rcliq. 
Rom. Sch. iv. 700. Datura sarmentosa. Lain. Encycl. vii. 463 ; 
— viscido-pubescenSjCaule sarmentosa, radicante; foliis alternis, 
aggregatis, petiolatis, obovato-oblongis, acuminatis ; floribus 
termiualibus, solitariis, rarius 2-3 aggregatis, laciniis corollse 
obtusissimis, crenato-laciniatis, antheris sublunatis, 4-cornibus, 
apiculatis, basi parum tissis, genitalibus subexsertis. — Jamaica. 

2. Solandra nitida, Zuccag. Cent. Roem. Coll. 128. no. 40. Port- 
landia grandiflora, Hort. Batav. ; — caule arborescente, ramis 
flexilibus, elongatis, divaricatis, cortice rimoso ; foliis glaber- 
rimis, nitidis ; tlore glabro, calyce 4-fido, corollse limbo 6—7- 
fido, segmentis rotundatis, crenato-undulatis, revolutis ; an- 
theris 2-cornutis. — Jamaica. 

3. Solandra guttata, D. Don. Bot. Reg. tab. 1551; TecomaxocliitI, 
Hern. Mex. 408. cum icone; — frutex erectus, ramosus, ramis 
foliorum lapsorum cicatricibus liispidis ; foliis late elliptico-ob- 
longis, acutis, subtus lanuginosis ; floribus termiualibus, soli- 
tariis; calyce tubuloso, 3-dentato, dentibus insequalibus, acutis ; 
corolla ampla, pallide lutea, fauci purpurco-maculata, tubo 
lougiori infundibuliformi, limbi laciniis latissimis, rotundatis, 
crispato-undulatis. — Mexico. 

Ann. 1!^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Volix. 17 



250 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Dyssochroma. 

Dyssochroma. 

A recent inquiry into the different species of Solandi'a, with 
the view of determining the true hmits of that genus^ has con- 
vinced me that a considerable difference of structure exists be- 
tween Solandra grandiflora and S. viridiflora ; upon comparing 
these carefully, we cannot fail to arrive at the conviction, that 
these two species must be held to be generically distinct. In 
the former instance, the calyx has the shape of a large and cylin- 
drical tube, irregularly cleft in the mouth into three unequal 
rather short teeth; it does not increase in size, but, in consequence 
of the growth of the fruit, splits on one side, by a longitudinal 
fissure, to the base ; in S. viridiflora, on the contrary, the calyx 
consists of five, very distinct, lanceolate divisions, all free to the 
base, which at first are slightly connivent by their somewhat 
thickened margins, but which are easily, and soon become, sepa- 
rated into distinct sepals. The corolla in Solandra grandiflora is 
much larger, more campanulate, of thicker consistence, of a yel- 
lowish colour, with deep red nervures, and with a border of five 
large rounded lobes, remarkably crenated or fimbriated on their 
margin, and these are considerably imbricated in aestivation, one 
lobe being quite interior, and another altogether exterior : the 
stamens are also very glabrous. On the contrary, in S. viridiflora, 
the corolla, of a greenish lurid white, is deeply divided (half-way 
down) into five equal, revolute, lanceolate, acuminated and entire 
segments, which are quite valvate in aestivation, and connivent 
by their somewhat inflected tomentose margins : the stamens are 
swollen and very sericeously pilose at their base ; in drying, both 
calyx and corolla become black, which does not occur in the true 
species of Solandra : in the latter genus the flowers are always 
terminal, whereas in S. viridiflora they are solitary and axillary, 
or at least grow out of several nearly terminal axillary fascicles 
of leaves : there are some other minor points of difference that 
will be traced in the details of the characters described. From 
these facts it will be seen that the new genus, of which the So- 
landra viridiflora may be considered the type, must be referred 
to the true Solanacea, and that it will belong to the Jahorosece, 
serving to connect that tribe vaih. the locliromece, and closely 
allied to Salpichroma and Nectouxia. I have called it Dysso- 
chroma, from Sycrcroo?, a>ger, and '^(^paifjia, color, on account of the 
lurid sickly green colour of its large flowers, which become black 
as they wither, or lose their moisture in drying, a character com- 
mon to all the Jaborosece. I have not been able to examine the 
embryo of this genus, but we may expect it will prove very differ- 
ent in form from that of Solandra. The following may be consi- 
dered as its generic character : — 

Dyssochroma, gen. nov. — Cahjx magnus, 5-sepalus, persistens ; 



Mr. J. Miers on the r/enus Dyssocliroma. 251 

sepala lanceolata, acuininatissima, priinuni marginibus in tu- 
bum 5-angulatum conniventibus, semicyliudrica, demum li- 
bera, erecta. Corolla carnosa, tubo imo cylindrico, angulato, 
superne infundibuliformi, aut ventricoso-campanulato, 15- 
nervi, limbo requilongo, 5-partito, laciniis ?eqiialibiis, longe 
lanceolatis, acuminatissiinis, iutegris, 3-nerviis, circinato-revo- 
lutis, sestivatione valvatis, marginibus tomentellis, subintro- 
flexis. Stamina o, lequalia, ad constrictionem tubi adnata, 
erecta, longissime exserta ; filamenta subulata, imo incx'assata, 
et sericeo-pilosa, superne glabra ; antherce. lineares, apice mu- 
cronulatse, imo cordat?e, in sinu dor si affixse, 2-loculares, locu- 
lis connective angusto parallele adnatis, intus longitudinaliter 
deliiscentibus. Stylus erectus, staminibus longiusculiis, apice 
incrassatus. Siigma 2-lobum, lobis oblougis, adprcssis, intus 
et marginibus recurvis glanduloso-viscosis. Ovarium conicum, 
disco carnoso magno impositum, 2-loculare, placentis centra- 
libus dissepimento adnatis, multiovulatis. Bacca; csetera ig- 
nota. — Suffrutices Brasilienses, scandentes, glabne ; folia al- 
terna, in ramis laxa, in turionihus fiorentibus fasciculatis, ellip- 
ticis, acuminatis : flores peduncuiati, e fasciculis solitarii, cernui, 
siccitate nigricantes ; corolla albido-viridescens. 

1 . Dyssochroma viridiflora. Solandra viridiflora, Sims, Bat. Mag. 
tab. 1948; Link ^ Otto, Ic. PL sel. 101. tab. 47 ;— foliis el- 
liptico-oblongis, utrinque attenuatis, glabris, petiolatis, deci- 
duis ; floribus magnis, solitariis, calyce glaberrimo, corolla tubo 
viridescente, limbo lurido-albescente. — Brasilia, Prov. Uio de 
Janeiro, ??. v. et s. in herb, meo et Hook. [Gardn. no. 502). 
I found this plant growing at Tejuca and in the Organ moun- 
tains : it is altogether glabrous : the stems are sarmentosc, and 
in the younger branches the leaves grow in dense fascicles, which, 
as they fall off, leave them covered with crowded cicatrices, giving 
them an areolate rugose appearance ; these terminate in a straight, 
angular, smooth stem, covered with a shining bark that readily 
peels off; the axils here are from 1| to 2 inches apart, and each 
solitary petiole is articulated in a projecting cup, from which a 
sharp ridge becomes decurrent on the stem below it ; the leaves 
are 4i inches long, 2 inches broad, on a channeled petiole | to 
I inch in length ; the peduncle is | inch long ; the calyx 1^ inch 
in length, l inch diameter ; the corolla including the lobes, at the 
period of opening, is 4 inches long, and when the segments are 
coiled back, 2^ inches long ; the cylindrical portion of the tube, 
I inch long, is included within the calyx, from which point it 
becomes gradually funnel-shaped, and a little below the mouth 
is somewhat ventricose, and about 1 inch in diameter, the lobes 
of the border being 1^ inch in length and 5 lines broad at base, 
these are marked by three parallel nerves which are continued 

17* 



252 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Cacabus. 

along the tube ; the stamens and style are exserted If inch be- 
yond the mouth of the tube, the anthers being 6 lines long and 
a line broad ; the style thickens towards the svmmiit, and is ter- 
minated by a stigma formed of two adpressed lobes, lined within 
by a thick viscous gland; the ovarium is about 3 lines in dia- 
meter and 3 lines in height, quite conical, and seated on a large 
fleshy and coloured gland. 

2. Di/ssockroma Io7igipes ? Solandra longipes, Sendt. in Mart. 
^ Endl. Fl. Bras. vi. 159; Walp. Rep. vi. 573; — fruticosa, 
glabra, foliis congestis, glabris, utrinque acutis, integerrimis ; 
floribus nutantibus ; pedicellis calycem subsequantibus, vel su- 
perantibus, fructiferis valde elongatis : calyce 5-partito ; corolla 
infundibuliformi, e basi sensim dilatata, limbo breviter 5-lido, 
laciniis acutis revolutis : stigmate longissimo spatio in stylum 
decurrente. — Brasilia australi. 

The above is all the information I have been able to obtain of 
this species : it wull be seen to differ in no respect from the pre- 
ceding one (as far as we may judge from the foregoing characters) 
except in the shorter lobes of the corolla : the gradual dilatation 
of the corolla, without any sudden ventricose enlargement, is 
very often seen in D. viridiflora. 

Cacabus. 

This genus was first proposed by Bernhardi for a Peruvian 
plant of Dombey^s collection, which was many years before ac- 
curately described and figured by I/Heritier (Stirp. Nov. Angl. 
p. 43. tab. 22), under the name of Phijsalis prostrata, and which 
appears to have since escaped farther notice : I find other spe- 
cies allied to it, which are all distinguished by their inflated calyx, 
generally of very delicate texture, remarkably reticulated, marked 
by dark green lines and veins, and which, swelling after the fall 
of the flower, eventually incloses the fruit, as in Physalis and 
several other genera. They have all herbaceous stems, are of a 
prostrate or straggling habit, and they bear a very striking re- 
semblance to Nolana, especially in their fleshy flexuose branches, 
often geminate leaves, large campanular blue flowers, with a 
somewhat pentangular border, and marked with fifteen longitu- 
dinal nervures, as in that genus : the stamens are also included 
and somewhat unequal in size : indeed so near is this similarity 
in external appearance, in one species, that I have constantly 
passed over, without suspicion, a specimen of Mathews^s collec- 
tion, named by him " Nolana spathulata, R. & P.,^^ which I did 
not consider it necessary to examine, as it was not in fruit. 

There exists in Sir William Hooker^s herbarium, a plant be- 
longing to this genus, which appears to correspond well with the 
description of the Nolana inflata of the ' Flora Peruviana,^ a spe- 



Mr. J. ]\Iiers on the genus Cacabub. 253 

cies which its authors neither saw uor examined^ the drawing 
and details there given having been furnished by their draughts- 
man Tafalhi, who jirobably never looked to the structure of the 
fruitj concluding the plant to be similar to the other species of 
Nolana there described : it is to be observed, that these species 
are as yet quite unknown to modern botanists, except from those 
descriptions, and may therefore be doubted as appertaining to 
that genus. 

In all the specimens I have examined belonging to the genus 
Cacabus, the ovarium is 2-celled, with a slender membranaceous 
dissepiment, along the axile line of which, the free placentse are 
respectively attached at right angles ; these are furcated and 
fleshy, extending near to the walls of the pericarp, so that when 
the fruit is cut open, the dissepiment being scarcely visible, the 
placentations, with the attached seeds, appear disposed in a some- 
what cruciform shape, seemingly as if the berry were 4-locular. 
The fruit, according to L'Heritier {loc. cit.), is a berry with an 
aqueous juice, as in Nicandra, and which, upon becoming dry, 
leaves a subcapsular, brittle, valveless shell, and which is bilocular 
with a membranaceous partition : as in Physalis, this berry is in- 
closed within a much larger ventricose calyx. Upon the summit 
of the ovarium and of the immature berry is seen a small flattened 
prominent gland, out of which the style originates : this bears 
much analogy to the larger epigynous gland so conspicuous in 
the ovarium of Hyoscyamus, and to which is attributable the 
peculiar mode of dehiscence in the fruit of that genus ; but in 
Cacabus there is no such opercular dehiscence, although the 
gland is visible in the apex of the cells after the opening of the 
pericarp ; a similar disc exists also in Thinogeton. I propose for 
this genus the following character : — 

Cacabus, Bernh. — Cahjw veutricosus, urceolato-subglobosus, 
membranaceus, inflatus, 10-angularis, 5-dentatus, dentibus 
ingequalibus, acutis, erectis, angulis nervosis, persistens et ac- 
crescens. Corolla campanulata, tubo imo breviter coarctato, 
subito ampliato, limbo campanulato,magno, margine explanato, 
subintegro, sinuato-pentangulari, 15-nervi, nervis in angulis 
ternatim parallelis, gestivatione ignota. Stamina 5, inclusa, 
fere seqnalia ; Jilamenta ad coarctationera tubi adnata, filiformia ; 
nnthera ovales, erectse, 2-lob8e, lobis parallele adnatis, margine 
longitudinaliter dehiscentibus. Ovarium ovatum, substipi- 
tatura, apice glandulo parvo carnoso donatum, 2 -loculare, pla- 
centis dissepimento tenuissimo utrinque adnatis, cruciatim dis- 
positis, et demum divaricatim 2-fidis, multiovulatis. Stylus 
filiformis, longitudine staminum. Stigma elougatum, 2-lamel- 
latum, lobis crassis subconnivcntibus intus stigmatosis. Bacca 
intra calycem auctum, vesiciformem, venoso-membranaceum, 



254 Mr. J. Miers on the c/enus Cacabus. 

reticulate pictum inclusa, subrotuuda, exsuccaj cortice fragili 
evalvato, 2-locularis, dissepimento tenui, placentis subcruciatis 
seminigeris. Semina uumerosa, subrenilbrmia^ compressa, 
testa rugosa, hilo lateral! marginali. Embryo intra albumen 
carnosum teres, subannularis, radicula angulo basali spectante 
et hilo evitante, cuti/Iedonibus semiteretibus sequilonga. — Herbse 
America meridionalis prostrates, subsuccosce, pilosce, Nolance 
facie ; folia in axillis alterna, geminata, uvata, simiato-angulosa, 
petiolata ; flores gemini, extra-axillares, pedunculati ; corolla 
violacea. 

1. Cacabus prostratus, Bernh. Lmw. xiii. p. 360. Physalis pro- 
strata, Z/'i/m/. loc.cit.; Jacq.Ic.Pl. Rar.Am. tab. 38; Andrews, 
Rep. tab. 75 ; Nees ab Esenb. Linn. vi. p. 480. P. Limensis, 
Retz. Observ. v. p. 22. Physaloides jjrostrata, Monch. Method. ; 
— herbaceus, annuus, pilis articulatis patentibus vestitus, caule 
prostrato; ramulis dichotome flexuosis ; foliis radicalibus op- 
positis, caulinis alternis, et geminis, altero minori, late ovatis, 
sinuato- vel repaudo-angulatis, basi subinffiqualibus, obtusis, 
supra glabris, subtus villosis, margine ciliatis, longe petiolatis, 
petiolo canaliculato dilatato, ciliato, folio fequilongo : pedun- 
culis solitariis vel geminis, in axillis lateralibus, floriferis 
erectis, demum reilexis, elongatis ; corolla cserulea, inio albido- 
radiata ; bacca globosa, glandulo parvo epigyno apiculata, 
calyce membranaceo multo majori recondita. — Peruvia, in nia- 
ritimis ? ad Chancay et Cliorillos, Prov. Linise. — v. s. in herb. 
Soc. Lin. {ex hort. cult.); in herb. Hook. (Palaria, ad sinum " los 
Chorillos^^ dictum, MacLean). 

It is unnecessary to offer any detailed account of this species, 
as we find so excellent an account of it given by L^Heritier, who 
described it from living plants, at that time growing in England ; 
it seems however to have been long lost to our gardens, although 
it was cultivated in Lee's nursery grounds in 1793, accord- 
ing to the specimen preserved in Sir J. E. Smithes herbarium. 
The leaves are from 2 to 2^^ inches long, li to 1| inch broad ; 
they are finely reticulated, with a number of raised minute dots 
in each areole ; the petiole is about 2 inches long, the fiowers are 
quickly fugacious ; the corolla is 1 inch long and 1 inch dia- 
meter across the mouth, the contracted base of the tube being 
3 lines in length ; the filaments are 3 lines long, slender, and 
hairy below ; the fructiferous calyx is white, and almost transpa- 
rent, hairy, globose, contracted in the mouth, with ten longitudinal 
nervures and anastomosing reticulations of a dark green colour, 
and is half an inch in diameter ; the inclosed berry, when ripe, 
is 3 lines in diameter, 2-celled, with bifurcate placcnt?e bearing 
a number of nimute rugose seeds ; it is quite devoid of pulp ; the 
pericai-p is membranaceous, indehiscent, and its apex is marked 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Cacabus. 255 

with a callous discoid process^ resulting from the liardening of its 
epigyuous gland. 

2. Cacabus Nolanoides (n. sp.) ; — herbaceus, molliter villosus, caule 
striato, dichotome ramoso ; foliis geminis^ altero multo niinori, 
ovatis, crassiusculis, undulato- vix sinuato-angulosis, margine 
ciliatis, basi inrequalibus, utrinque glabris, inferne ncrvis ])ilo- 
sulis, petiolo late dilatato, ciliato, folii longitudine ; tloribus 
solitariis, lateraliter extra-axillaribus, pedunculo llorifero erecto, 
fructifero rellexo, corolla cserulea : calyce inflato^ membranaceo^ 
10-nervi, reticulatim picto. — Peruvia, v. s. in herb, variis 
{Matheivs, no. 839, sub nomine Nolance sjmthulatce) . 

The leaves of this species are nearly oval, 4 inches long, 2| 
inches broad, upon a fleshy dilated petiole, with winged ciliate 
margins, 2^^ inches long and nearly 2 lines broad, subamplexicaul 
at base. The peduncle in flower is li inch long, the calyx is 
6 lines long and 4 lines broad, the corolla is 1| inch long, and 
\\ inch across its somewhat expanded and nearly entire border. 
The peduncle in fruit is reflexed, 1| inch long ; the enlarged calyx 
is 8 lines long and 7 lines broad, the inclosed berry measuring 
3 lines in diameter. This plant, which so greatly resembles the 
figure of Nolana spathulata in the ' Flora Peruviana,^ differs from 
it in the size of its leaves, the length of the petiole, the shape of 
the calyx, the size of its corolla, its more entire, not deeply-lobed 
border, the shape of its stigma, its vesicular calyx, not fleshy and 
subsequently bipartite, and finally by the very different structm-e 
of its fruit. It agrees in many respects however with the de- 
scription of the text*. 

3. Cacabus ? inflatus. Nolana inflata, R. ^ P. Flor. Peruv. ii. 
p. 7. tab. 112. fig. a; — herbaceus, pedahs, prostratus, annuus, 
foliis radicalibus confertis, oblongis, in petiolum longum imo 
dccurrentibus, cauhnis geminatis, ovatis, subobtusis, basi in- 
sequalibus, brevitcr petiolatis, petiolo dilatato ; floribus geminis, 
ex axillis lateraliter ortis, corolla speciosissima, albo-violacea ; 
fructu calyce striato, ventricoso, incluso. — Peruvia (in arenosis 
Prov. Arequipse). 

From its inflated calyx, there is every reason to conclude that 
this plant belongs to this genus, rather than to Nolana. It was 
not seen by Ruiz and Pavon, being only known to them from the 
sketch sent them by their draughtsman Tafalla ; the fruit is not 
described as consisting of distinct carpels, but as " semina 4-locu- 
laria," which may have been construed from "fructus 4-locularis,*' 
which the fruit of Cacabus almost appears to be, from its project- 
ing placentae. It has a prostrate habit, is about a foot long, its 

* A drawing of this species, with generic details, will be given in plate 19 
of the ' lUust. South Anier. Plants.' 



256 Prof. Nilsson on the extinct and existing 

radical leaves are 4 inches in length, 2 inches broad, upon a pe- 
tiole If to 2 inches: the cauline leaves are 1^ inch long, 1 inch 
broad, on a petiole of 3 hnes ; the peduncles are 1| inch, the 
calyx 8 hnes long, swollen in the middle, 4 lines in diameter, and 
lOnerved : the corolla is nearly 2 inches long, 1| inch diameter 
across the mouth, which is obsoletely 5-lobed. In all the other 
species of Nolana mentioned in the work above referred to, the 
calyx is described as being deeply 5-cleft, with the divisions 
sagittate or cordate at the base, as in our well-known garden 
species Sorema pi-ostrata ; but in the plant under consideration 
the calyx is said to be distinctly ventricose and striated, which 
agrees with the character of Cacabus. 

XXIX. — 071 the extinct and existing Bovine Animals of 
Scandinavia. By Prof. Nilsson of Lund*. 

Of the Ox kind (Bos, Linn.). 

Head oblong with broad muzzlef in which the nostrils project 
forward, open ; no lachrymal fossse ; the ears pretty long, oval. 
Horns for the most part round, near the roots annular according 
to their growth J, otherwise smooth; with roots pointing out- 
wards and curved in different directions, according to the 
various races. 
Body heavily built ; loins angular, not round ; stout, short, not 
high-boned, and broad. The female is provided with four 
teats. 
Tail long, pendent ; at the end it is furnished with a tuft of long 

hairs. 
Teeth, the grinders wuth the internal and external borders parallel. 
Skull : no opening between the facial bones above or in front of 
the orbits over the eyes, as in the Deer tribe. The lachrymal 
bones flatter, not hollowed out. The spinal process of the 
anterior vertebrae particularly strongly developed, to serve as 
attachment for the strong neck-muscles , and ligamentum 
nuchse which support the heavy head. 

The animals belonging to this class, with few exceptions, are 
the largest and strongest built of ruminating horned cattle. In 
a wild state they always live in herds under the guidance of some 
strong pugnacious bulls ; wandering from one track to another ; 
at one time seeking the forests, at another the plains ; at another, 
mountains and table lands; and at other times low and marshy 
places. They seek grassy spots, for theii* chief food consists 

* Translated from his ' Skandin's Diiggdjur.' 8vo,'lS48, pp. 530-574 
t The naked part where the nose ends is so called ; it comprises the up- 
per lip and that portion between the nostrils. 
t Whence the age of the animal is determined. 



Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 



257 



of grass : they often devour green leaves and young tender 
branches^ and these generally, besides the leaves of the pine and 
mosses, are their principal food during the winter in cold di- 
stricts. (1 am not here speaking of cattle that are housed.) They 
live like all ruminating animals (perhaps with the exception of 
the roe kind), and like their representatives among birds, viz. 
gallinaceous domestic fowls, in a state of polygamy; and like 
these, congregate, particularly at pairing-time, in flocks, when the 
forests resound and the fields echo with their loud cries. During 
this time, obstinate conflicts take place between the males, and 
the strongest are those which perpetuate the breed. Their cry 
is usually lowing, with some it is more grunting. They do not 
breed more than once a year, and the female seldom brings forth 
more than one calf at a time. 

Before showing from whence our domesticated races and those 
of other states of Europe are derived, I consider it more desirable 
first to describe the wild species, the fossil bones of which have 
been found in the turf-bogs in the south of Scania. These are 
divided into those which have — 

a. The forehead more long than broad, more or less flattened, 
the horns growing from the extremity of the angle which divides 
the vertex from the occiput ; the intermaxillary bone generally 
reaches up to the nasal bones. To this class belong — 

1. Uroxen [Bos Urus, Antiqu.* Bos primigenius, Recentiorum). 




Bos primiffenhis, Recentiorum- 
The forehead flat ; the edge of the neck straight, the horns 

* The denomination Uro.x is derived from that lan8uap:e which tlic Ger- 



258 Prof. Nilsson on the extinct and existing 

very large and long, near the roots directed outward and some- 
what backward, in the middle they are bent forward, and towards 
the points turned a little upward. 

Synonymy. Urns, Jul. Cresar, Bell. Gall. vi. cap. 28. Plinius Hist. Nat. ii. 

cap. 37. Gesner, Hist. Animal. (Frankfort, 1620) i. p. 14.5 witli fig.; ibid. 

p. 137 (skulls). Cuvier, Ossem. Fobs. iv. p. 150. tab. 11. fig. 1-1 ; 12. fig. 

3-8 (skulls). Retz. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1802, p. 282. 
The Wild O.r, Griffith, Animal Kingdom, iv. p. 111. Bos primigenites, 

Bojanus, Acta Acad. Caesar. Leopold. Carolin. tom. xiii. p. 422. pi. 11. 

N.B. I have not this treatise at hand. 

Desc7-iptiun. — Tliis colossal species of Ox, to judge from the 
skeleton, resembles almost the tame ox in form and the propor- 
tions of its body, but in its bulk it is far larger. To judge from 
the magnitude of the horn-cores, it had much larger horns, even 
larger than the long-horned breed of cattle found in the Cam- 
pania of Rome. According to all the accounts the colour of this 
ox was black ; it had white horns with long black points ; the 
hide was covered with hair like the tame ox, but it was shorter 
and smooth, with the exception of the forehead, where it was 
long and curly. 

The only specimens which we now possess of this extinct wild 
ox, are some skeletons dug up, of which two are at present pre- 
served here at the Museum of the University, where are also 
preserved about a dozen skulls of earlier and later specimens. 

The Skeleton. — Skull. — The forehead smooth between the 

manic race seems to have had in common in the earliest times, and signifies 
forest ox, wild ox (Bos sylvestris): for Ur, or Or, signifies forest or wood, 
wilderness, and is still used in many places in Sweden, Norway and Iceland. 
'I'hat the old word Ur or Urd was changed to Or, Ore, Ora, is shown by the 
word Orr/iciiis, which by the common people in Scania is called Or/ions, and 
in many places in Norway it is called Urlions. The stony and wild tracts 
which surround the base of the mountains are called in Norway Ore, in 
Iceland Urd. In Scania there still exist many old forests which bear the 
name of Ora, ai'.d the peasants in some parts of the country say indifferently 
tcora till oran and liora till sl:ogen, which is in both instances " drive to the 
wood." Also in the older German, Ur signifies wood, forest, but has in 
compositions of later times been changed into Alter ; ex. gr. Auerochs, Aiter- 
hahn. The Romans, when in Germany, first heard the word Urocx, and 
as they generally changed all names after the form of their own language, 
turned it into Urus. The Uroxen which were conveyed to Rome, and highly 
prized in the bull-fights of the circus, were by the ignorant confounded with 
the African Antelope Bubalis, wherefore the Urox sometimes by the Latin 
authors is mentioned under the name of Buhalus, — an error which Pliny 
notices. 

By our forefathers in Scandinavia as well as in Germany this wild animal 
is, however, not called Urox, but Ur or Ure, as in the poem of the Nihelunge, 
v. 3762, thence Urahorn in our old Sagas. In certain provinces an angry 
mad bull is still called Ure. The Canton of Uri in Switzerland takes its 
name from this animal, and bears a bull's head in its arms. 



Bovine Animah of Scandinavia. 



259 



roots of the horiis^ but lower clown more or less hollowed out. 
The nasal bone 



reaching up to the 
line drawn between 
the lower borders 
of the orbits ; the 
lower part of the 
laehrjTual bones a 
little broader than 
the upper; the di- 
stance between the 
orbits and the bases 
of the horns is 
double the diameter 
of the orbit ; the oc- 
cipital ridge straight 
or rounded off back- 
ward from the base of 
one horn to the other, 
and hollowed out be- 



Fig. 2. 




Bos primige7iius. 



low SO that it forms an acute angle ; foramen occipitale somewhat 
higher than broad; the horn-cores without pedicles, but with a 
broad knotty ring round the root, are near the root directed out- 
wards and somewhat backwards, in the centre curved forwards with 
the points upwards'i^. The outer edge of the zygomatic process of 
the temporal bone forms a right angle. A right line drawn be- 
tween the points of the horns falls over the roots of the horn, 
between them and the orbits. Atlas : its wings curved backwards, 
oblique, much broader at the back, 10 inches 3 lines in breadth, 
the upper arch convex, the lower with a compressed hump over 
the hinder edge. Epistropheus short, the processus spinosus a 
high rising ridge, inclining backwards, whose outer edge is thin, 
the anterior angle rounded : along the under side of the vertebra 
is a ridge which passes backwards over the edge of the cup-formed 
articular surface ; foramen meduUce spinalis, in front round, back 
above cylindrical, below^ flat. The arterial foramen oval. 

The remaining bones in the skeleton resemble those of the 
tame ox, with the exception of their magnitude, and like this 
species, the Urox has thirteen pairs of rib-bones and six lumbar 
vertebrje. As it would be far too diffuse to describe every single 
bone, I will only give the dimensions of those which are dissi- 



* Precisely such a direction have the horns of our tame oxen, quite 
contrary to the assertion of Bojanus and many others, who, in the unlike 
direction of the horns, choose to find a specific difference between the 
Vrtis and the Taunts. 



260 Prof. Nilsson on the extinct and existing 

milar in the skeletons. The whole length * of the skeleton from 
the nape to the end of the rump bones {ossa ischii) 9 feet. 

The length of the liead from the anterior border of ft- i"- '•"• 

the ossa intermaxill. to the occipital ridge 2 4 4 

Thus the whole length of the animal about IH to 12 

The height over the mane about 6 to C| 

The other dimensions. 

The length from the horn-cores to the intermax- 
illary bone's anterior edge 2 15 

The length from the orbit's lower edge to ditto,.. 1 '5 4 

,, „ horn base to the orbits 6 4 

„ ,, horn-core's concave side ... 16 6 

„ ,, horn-core's convex side ... 2 2 

The under jaw from the angle to the point 18 

The molar series in the upper jaw 7 4 

Breadth of the forehead between the upper part of 

the crown of the horn 9 1 

Breadth of the forehead between the lower parts 

ofditto 1 2 

Breadth of the forehead between the orbit's upper 

part 10 2 

Breadth of the forehead between the orbit's lower 

part 114 

Breadth between the intermaxillary bone's upper 

parts ',i 2 

Breadth between the apertures of the ear in a line 1 4 

Distance between the points of the horn-cores ... 2 4 

The circumference of the crown of the horn 12 4 

* I have at hand, in the Museum here, a complete and an incomplete 
skeleton of this species; besides from ten to twelve skulls both of younger 
and older; also many different loose bones from various parts of the body. 
When I wrote the first edition of this work twenty-seven years ago, 1 had 
seen skulls only of this colossal species; I came however to the conclusion, 
upon comparing them with the skulls of tame oxen, that the animal must 
have been about II5 feet long and 6 feet high, which comes the neai'est 
to the proportion. But I insert here the whole note: — 

" From these measurements (of the skull of an Urox) an idea may be 
formed of the magnitude of the Urox, which cei'tainly far surpassed that of 
all existing European animals. To judge from the proportions of the parts 
to a tame bull, the head of the Urox shows that it must have been an animal 
that from the nape to the root of the tail measured nearly 1 1^ feet, and in 
height over the mane about 6 feet. In the Museum of the Royal Academy 
are fragments of the cranium of the Urox, which must have belonged to an 
animal more than 12 feet in length and G^ feet high. On one, ihe distance 
between the base of the horns above is 9^ inches, below 13^ inches, the thick- 
ness at the root 15 inches. The largest Scanian ox 1 have seen, and which 
was of an unusually large size, measured in length from the nape to the root 
of the tail 8 feet, and was 5 feet high over the mane. When we now con- 
sider that bulls and cows never reach the size that castrated oxen do, and 
that we ought to compare the bull or the cow with the wild ox kind, we shall 
then easily perceive that this last-mentioned was much larger than the tame 
ox, and perhaps he was even somewhat bigger in the southern regions, for 
example in Germany, than here in Sweden. 

" Caesar's account that the Urits was magnitudme paulo infra Elephanios, 
was not so exaggerated as one has imagined^* 



Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 



261 



The body. 

The length of the spinal column to the last dorsal ft. in. lin. 

vertebra 7 7 4 

The length of the spinalcolumn further in a right 

line to the upper tuber ischii 9 

The length of the neck from atlas to and with the 

last neck vertebra 1 11 4 

Greatest length of one of the middle ribs without 

the cartilage 2 5 

Breadth 2 

The extremities. 

The length of shoulder-blade 1 8 

Breadth of its base 1 

The length of OS humeri between the articulations 1 2 

„ ,, radius 1 2 

,, ,, ulna with olecranon 1 7 

,, ,, olecranon from the articulation ... 7 
„ „ metacarpus between the articula- 
tions 10 

The length of pelvis between the tub. iliPand 

ischii 2 1 

The breadth in a line between both tub. ilii 1 1 1 

The length of os femoris between the articulations 1 7 

„ ,, tibia 1 5 

,, ,, metatarsus 11 





5 to G 



Remarks. — This skeleton is the most perfect specimen we 
have hitherto possessed ; but the animal was not full-grown at 
its death. In the museum there are several bones which indi- 
cate somewhat larger individuals. Yet this species, as it came 
in long after the Scandinavian boulder period, and therefore at 
a much later time than that during which the same species lived 
in England, has never attained to the same size here as there. 
The skull which Prof. Owen gives in his ' History of British 
Fossil Mammals,' London, 1846, p. 498, fig. 208*, is in length 
3 feet 1 inch, and the distance between the points of the horn- 
cores is more than 3 feet 6 inches, and the width of the forehead 
is near 11 inches; os metacarpi about 10 inches 5 lines; os 
metatarsi about 12 inches. At the Hunterian Museum in Lon- 
don there is a horn from the same species of animal found under 
turf in the marl, in which bones of the Cervus megaceros occur. 
From this situation it may be concluded that it is a still older and, 
in fact, much larger form than the preceding. It contains in 
length, according to the upper curvature, 3 feet 2 inches, and 
the circumference at the base is 1 foot 7~ inches ! With us 
they neither occur so large nor from so early a period. 

Place of abode. — This colossal species of Ox, which is no longer 

* Since the foregoing was printed and after this (thirty-fourth) sheet was 
set up, but not struck oft', I made a journey to England, where I first ob- 
tained the above-mentioned work, which I was not able to quote before. 



2G2 Prof. Nilsson on the extincffind existing 

to be found on the earth in its wild state, was formerly widely- 
spread over the greater part of Europe, from the present Scania 
to France and Italy, and from England to the northern and 
western parts of Asia ; as in all those places its fossil bones are 
found in more recent strata. That great physical changes have 
occurred in the position of places in Europe, during the long 
time it sojourned here, is more than probable. South Scania has 
separated itself from the German continent, by means of that part 
of the Baltic which now lies between its shores and those of Pome- 
rania ; also from Denmark by means of the Sound ; and England 
has also been separated from the great European continent by the 
Channel. Whether these straits — the Oresund, the Channel and 
the southern part of the Baltic — were formed at the same time, we 
do not know with certainty ; but from zoological reasons, which 
shall hereafter be adduced, it will appear that Scandinavia was at 
a much later period united to the European continent than En- 
gland. In the present southern part of Scania, in the district 
south of Soderas, which anciently appears to have formed the 
northern boundary of the Germanic continent, this species was 
found in vast numbers; and to judge from the fossil bones dug 
up from our turf-bogs, they are found here in much greater 
number than the Bison, which existed here contemporaneously 
with it. During an equally long period, fifteen skeletons or skulls 
of the Urus have been found in Scania and only three of the 
Bison. According to these remains found, there must have 
lived five times as many of the former species as of the latter. 
However, although this proportion cannot be determined so ex- 
actly by figures, it nevertheless shows that the Urus was found 
here in much larger number than the Bison, and this same pro- 
portion might hold good in the whole of the western part of 
Europe* ; while on the contrary, the Bison appears to have been 
far more numerous in its eastern parts, and far into west Asia, 
where it is yet found in great numbers between the Black 
and the Caspian seas. And that the Urus belonged to the 
western tracts of Europe, which being thickly peopled and culti- 
vated before the eastern parts, might also be a reason that it was, 
as wild, extirpat(;d or passed over into a tame race ; while the 
Bison of the east preserved itself much longer in East Prussia 
and Poland, and is even now found in a perfectly wild state in 
those countries most nearly bordering on Asia. This species 
never could be tamed. 

Julius Caesar describes the Urox in his time as being found in 

* In Denmavk a vast number of bones belonging to the Urus have been 
found, but as yet not one of the Bison. The Bison skulls which I saw in 
England belonged, if not to a totally different species, at least to a much older 
form than ours. 



Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 2G3 

the forests of the Hartz. He says that they in external form and 
colour fully resembled the common ox, but in point of magnitude 
they were little less than the elephant. They were both strong 
and swift, at the same time so spiteful that they spared neither 
man nor animal when they once caught sight of them. With 
the chase of these animals the Germanic youth became hardened, 
and the greater the number of horns of dead oxen they could 
exhibit, the more highly were they esteemed. These horns, 
which were larger than the common ox-horn, were frequently 
edged with silver and used as drinking vessels at great festivals 
(Jul. Caesar, Bell. Gall. vi. cap. 28). Also our forefathers and 
other descendants of the Germanic race appropriated the horns 
of the Urox to the same use. Pliny affirms that the northern 
peoples [Barbari septentrionales) drank out of Urox-horns, which 
were so large that one contaii^ed an urna* (Plin. Hist. Nat. ii. 
cap. 37). Solinus mentions, that this horn, on account of its 
great capacity, was used as a drinking- vessel at royal feasts. 

From the hide of the Urox our Germanic forefathers made 
girdles, and the flesh was eaten as palatable and healthy. 

Remarks. — The earlier existence of the Urox as a different 
species from the Bison can no longer be doubted, seeing that we 
possess not only the skulls but also entire skeletons of both ; but 
in later times a violent contest has arisen touching the question 
how far this animal existed in Europe diiring the age of history, 
and how far it is this species that is alluded to by the Roman 
authors under the denomination Urus (sometimes by them called 
Bubalus), and by the German writers of the middle age by that 
of Ure ; or, whether this name applied only to that one species of 
Bison which German and our own middle-age writers call Wisent. 
It is more especially Professor Pusch of Warsaw who in later 
times has maintained the latter opinion. If the question be, 
whether this colossal, flat-foreheaded species of Ox, which we 
here call Urus, lived in Europe, and at various times and even in 
Scania after the country had been inhabited by men, the answer 
requires no learned historical or philological research, no wasting 
of time and trouble which might be employed on more useful 
objects ; it requires for such an object only to visit the Museum 
at the University of Lund and to inspect one of the Urox skele- 
tons preserved there, which I had the honour of presenting to 
the Museum, and which in the year 1840 was taken up under 

* A Roman urna holds in Swedish measure 4^^^ kans. Pliny's account 
seems rather exaggerated, partlj' because a drinking vessel that holds 4-5 
kans was too heavy and too large even for the stoutest drinker; and partly 
because a horn of the largest Urox-skull, among the Scanian ones which I 
have before me, did not hold more (counting from the base) than about 1^ 
kan. 



264 Prof. Nilsson on the extinct and existing 

my own eyes from a depth of 10 feet out of a turf bog near to 
Onnarp in the district of Wemmenshog in the south of Scania. 
This skeleton affords an incontestable proof that the animal du- 
ring its lifetime was in contact with man : it has on its back a 
palpable mark of a wound from a javelin. Several celebrated 
anatomists and physiologists of the present day, among whom 
I need only mention the names of John Miiller of Berlin and 
And. Uetzius of Stockholm, have inspected this skeleton, and are 
unanimous in the opinion, that this hole in question upon the 
backbone is the consequence of a wound which during the life 
of the animal was made by the hand of man, and therefore not 
the least doubt can remain on this subject in the mind of any 
competent judge who examines it. The animal must have been 
very young, probably only a calf, when it was wounded. The 
huntsman who cast the javelin must have stood before it. The 
javelin, which entered at an extremelij acute angle (which proves 
a sharp-pointed instrument) on the external part near the edge 
on the projection of the first lumbar vertebra, has pierced the 
bone, passed out on the backward side, and pierced through the 
projection of the next bone. The weapon, which probably re- 
mained in the wound, had through suppuration ultimately fallen 
out. The side of the opening where the javelin entered is more 
round, surrounded by a callus, and in the inner part is a cavity 
which shows there had been a great suppuration (Ur-invan. tab. 
15. fig. 175). The opposite side of the aperture, which is more 
oblong in a vertical direction, and shows the form of the weapon, 
is surrounded by many projections of bone (Ur-inv. tab. 15. fig. 
176-177), which manifests that the animal lived at least one or 
two years after it had been wounded. It was yet young when it 
died, probably not more than three or four years old, and not un- 
likely was drowned by falling through the ice into the water, 
wherein after 4imes a turf-bog has formed over it. The skeleton 
lay with its head downwards, and one of its horns had penetrated 
deep into the blue clay which formed the bottom under the turf. 
As it is thus practically shown that this species of Ox lived con- 
temporaneously with man, and as it is equally certain that the 
same species of Ox lived here contemporaneously with the Rein- 
deer and Elk (some of their fossil remains being not uufrequently 
found together in our old turf-bogs) ; so it is more than proba- 
ble that these animals, namely the Wild Ox with the flat fore- 
head, the Reindeer and the Elk, also lived contemporaneously in 
Germany, from whence they evidently came hither : and this is 
so much the more certain, as bones of all three have also been 
dug up from turf-bogs in Ponierania. But now Julius Caesar re- 
lates (Bell. Gall. vi. 26-27), that among the animals which in his 
time were known and found contemporaneously in the Hercynian 



Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 265 

forest in Germany, and which (according to his meaning) were 
not found in any other place, were Reindeer, which he describes 
but does not name, together with the Alces and Urus, which he 
both names and describes. The first-named was in form and the 
varied colour of its hide like a goat, but in size rather larger ; it 
had branching horns, and these were found with both male and 
female ; they were longer and more elevated than in any other 
known animal*. 

That Caesar here means the Wild Reindeer is evident to every 
zoologist. In another place (vi. cap. 20) he speaks of the half- 
savage Germans, in his time, as using the reindeer skin for 
clothingf. Thus did the Reindeer at least exist in Germany in 
the historic period, which has also been denied. The second 
animal found in the Hercynian forest was the Alces, and the 
third was the Urus. The last-mentioned (cap. 28) was, according 
to Csesai", so colossal that it was only a little less than the 
elephant; in its external appearance, colour and form, it re- 
sembled the tame ox, but it had much larger horns, &c. It is 
thus possible, and more than possible, that Cresar's third Hercy- 
nian animal was the same as the three which formerly lived 
contemporaneously in Scania. But to assume with Pusch, that 
Caesar's Urus was not the flat-forchcaded Urox, but the convex- 
foreheaded Bison, would be to reject without reason what Caesar 
expressly alleges of the likeness of the Urus to the tame ox, 
both in outward appearance, form, and enormously large horns ; 
for it is certain that the Bison never can be said to be, " specie 
et colore et figura tauri ;" neither could a Roman, who was ac- 
customed to see the large-sized, long-horned cattle in Italy, of 
which we have representations even from Caesar's period, find 
the horns of the Bison so enormously large as Caesar describes 
those of the UrusX ; for the Bison, to judge from the cores on 
the skulls that have been found among us, even in its wildest 
state (at least in Caesar's time), could never have had such large 
horns as the Italian tame ox. Besides, it is a fact whicli cannot 
be disputed, that Roman writers who speak of the Uncs (by some 
called Bubalus; which appellations were synonymous, according 
to what Pliny expressly tells us, Hist. Nat. viii. 5) exactly cha- 
racterize him by his large, wide, open horns, his strength and 
swiftness, while the characteristic of the Bison is long hair on 
the back, neck, or under the chin ; and also that no one Roman 

* It is quite evident that Csesar has confused his remarks on the Reindeer 
and the Elk, so that at the same period he has inserted something that be- 
longed to the one and sonietliing to the other of these species of animals. 

•f- " Pellibus . . . rhenonum tegimentis utuntur." 

J " Amplitudiiie cornuum et figura et specie multum a nostrorum bovum 
cornibns difTert," Cses. vi. 29. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol iv. 18 



266 Prof. Nilsson on the ewtinct and existing 

writer ascribes to the Bison wide horns, or to the U7-us long 
hair. 

" Tibi dant variEe pectora tigres, 

Tibi villosi terga bisontes 

Lafisgue feri cornibus uri." — Seiiec. Hippol. Act. 1. v. 63. 

" Ger mania . . . gignit . . .jubatos Bisontes, excellentique vi 
et velocitate Uri, quibus imperitum vulgus Bubalorum nomen 
imponit." — Phn. Hist. Nat. viii. cap. 5. 

Both these animals were carried, to Rome to be viewed by the 
people in the Circus. INIartial and others, who v/ere present and 
saw thenij describe them as of different species. 

" lUi cessit atrox bubalus atque bison." — Martial, Sped. 23. 

For my part, I am convinced, from all these combined reasons, 
that our two largest species of fossil Ox were known to the Ro- 
mans under the name of Urus and Bison. They are also spoken 
of by German writers of the middle age. In the poem of the 
* Nibelungen,^ v. 3761, a chase is described which took place in a 
mountainous and woody tract (v. 3775) in the neighbourhood 
of Worms, where it is related that Siegfried killed one Visent 
and four Uri : — 

" Darnach schluch er scliiere einen Visciit unci einen Elch, 
Starker lire viere und einen grimmen Schelch *." 

In Griffith's admirable 'Animal Kingdom/ an English ela- 
boration of Cuvier's ' Regne Animal,' to which I had not pre- 
viously had accesS;, is given in the 4th book, p. 416^ an engraving 
of the Bos Urus. The original painting, which was found in the 
possession of a merchant at Augsburg, and copied for that work 
by Hamilton Smith, is supposed to have been executed in the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. This old painting, which is 
upon a square piece, had in one corner the remains of a (noble) 
coat of arms and the word Thur in gilt German characters almost 
effaced. If the plate be a true copy of the original, it shows 
plainly that it was made from a wild and not a tame animal. 
Such an exterior and such horns no tame animal has ; but just 
such horns and with just such a curvature and direction, to judge 
from the length and direction of the horn-cores, our fossil, great, 
flat-foreheaded Ox must have had. As a further proof of this my 
conviction, it may be added, that I possess a war-horn in bronze, 
dug from a depth of 6-8 feet out of a turf-bog in southern 

* Many have been the conjectures as to what animal isineantby 6'c/;e/c/i. 
Biiscliiug lias translated it by Brandhirsch ; others are of opinion tliat it 
was the now fossil Irish Cervtis euryceros ; but all this is only conjecture. In 
the same poem it is said (v. ^l^iG), that Siegfried's hound (Bracke) started 
" ein unc/efiigen lemven " which Siegfried shot, witli bow and arrow, and 
which made but three springs after being shot. But it is probable that by 
Leuwen is meant Lo, the Lynx. In v. 3755 is mentioned " ein vil starchez 
Jialpfivul," by which probably is meant a Glutton or Badger. 



Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 267 

Scania, which evidently belongs to that period when the inhabit* 
ants there used bronze for their weapons. This icar-Jiorn in form 
and curvature wholly resembles the horn- core upon the cranium 
of an Urox, and has the same long, thin, upturned points, like 
the ox in Hamilton Smithes drawing. It is more than probable 
that the inhabitants of the south of Sweden first used the horn 
of the Urox for their war-horns, and at a later period made them- 
selves horns of bronze in the same form as the former. To this may 
be added, that Baron Sigcsm. Herberstain relates in his ' llerum 
Moscoviticarum Commentar.^ of the year 1549, p. 33, that in his 
time, about the latter half of the sixteenth century, there was 
found in Massovia a species differing from the wild Lithuanian 
Zubr, which in its native land was called Thur. They were not 
found there in any large number, but were kept in some parks, 
and there were certain burthens laid on the towns to preserve 
and maintain them. In the same manner the Bison (Pol. Zubr) 
is now kept in a large forest at Bialowieza in Lithuania, by 
command of the Emperor of Russia* ; and, in like manner, a race 
of wild oxen is still preserved in Scotland in some woody parks f 
(Compare Bell, Brit. Quadr. p. 422) : a stuffed specimen of one 
of these animals is preserved in the British Museum J. 

Again, the above-mentioned painting, which Hamilton Smith 
copied, shows that the Urus was without mane, and had pretty 
smooth hair over the whole body, with the exception of the flat- 
(not convex) formed forehead, where it was longer and curly; 
the head was large, the neck thick, the dewlap small, the back 
straight, and tail long, so that it reached to the middle of the 
tarsi. The colour was entirely sooty black, the chin alone was 
white ; the horns, w^hich were straight-out, forward, and upward, 
were whitish with long black points §. 

* See the Note of M. Diniitri de DolmatofFin vol. iii. of the New Series 
of the 'Annals,' p. 148; and Prof. Owen's notes on the Anatomy of the 
Bison at p. 288 of the present Number. — Ed. An7i. Nat. Hist. 

t Notices relative to the wild oxen of Britain will be found in the earlier 
volumes of the ' Annals:' see vol. ii. p. 274, and vol. iii. pp. 241 and 356. 
— Ed. Ann. Nat. Hist. 

X It has been said that this " White Scotch Bull " was the last remnant 
of the Urns in its half-wild state ; but such is certainly not the case. Our 
large Holstein cattle come much nearer to the Urus, both as to the form of 
head and the size and direction of the horns. In the Scotch, the horns are 
curved upward, almost only in one direction ; the hair on the head and neck is 
longer and curlier; the forehead is, however, smooth ; the colour white, the 
ears a reddish brown, the head and neck with a gray-brown shade. There 
is no race of wild oxen of this colom-. It is a pity that no cranium has yet 
been preserved of it ; at least not one is to be met with in the Museums in 
London. 

§ Hamilton Smith adds in a note, that this painting agrees with a figure 
which is found in the ' Stone of Clunia ' with a Celtiberian inscription, and 
which represents a huntsman and a wild ox, 

18* 



268 On ilia extinct and existing Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 

This figure I look upon as genuine, and the best now to be 
found of the Urus in a wild state. The figure which Gesner (in 
his History of Animals, Francof. 1622, lib. i. p. 145) gives of 
the Urus or Polish Thur is inferior to the former, yet in all 
essential points they perfectly agree ; the direction of the horns, 
the long curly hair on the forehead, the short hairy covering of the 
remaining parts, the length of the tail, &c., are in both the same. 
Gesner assures us, after AVolfgang Lazius, that the communicated 
figures of that and of the Bison are made from living animals, 
through the care of Baron Herberstain ; and in the text he says : 
" Urus ... est forma bovis nigri, habet longiora cornua quam 
bisons. ^^ 

It is almost inconceivable how any one will reject so many 
concordant testimonies, and from such widely different places 
and times, that during the historical period there lived in 
Europe an enormously large ox, of the form of the tame ox, of 
a black colour and long spreading horns, quite dissimilar from 
the Bison. This denial is so much the more unreasonable, as the 
bones of just such an ox as described by the ancients have been 
found in the earth, and they have also been found in the same 
places with the bones of the Bison. 

That this Wild Ox has contributed to produce the race of our 
large, long-horned cattle, is more than probable. 

When and where this colossal, flat-foreheaded, large- horned 
Wild Ox first became tamed, we do not know ; but certainly it 
took place in remote antiquity and in a land far distant from us. 
Among the copies taken from fresco paintings on the sepulchres 
at Thebes, preserved in the Egyptian room of the British Museum, 
are to be seen groups of cattle, among which we distinguish some 
as the Zebu ; others have long horns bent in different directions, 
and seem already to be tame descendants from the Urus. They 
show a species of small growth, and have the horn-cores {steglar) 
outward, upward, and bent in one direction. It appears to me 
probable that the colossal smooth-foreheaded Urus was first 
tamed either in the south or south-west part of Europe, or 
already in Asia by some Celtic race ; but, nevertheless, long after 
this it was often found in a wild or half-wild state in the forests 
of central Europe, even till the beginning or middle of the 
sixteenth century ; that the tame race which sprung therefrom, 
perhaps like all tame races, became gradually smaller than the 
wild stocks, but yet larger than other tame races which spring 
from smaller stocks; and it was this large breed of black cattle 
which the Celtic races brought with them here to the north, and 
which are spoken of in many passages of our Sagas as belonging 
to the Jotens (giants). The tame race which sprang from the 
Urus has reached us from the south and west of Europe. It 
was found probably in Italy already in Cgesar's time ; but in the 



On the Phases of Development of the Trichodina pediculus (?) . 269 

interior of Germany quite a different race of tame oxen was found, 
niucli less in size, with smaller horns, and often without any : 
this will be treated of in the next article. 

This same small race was, without doubt, found among the 
Germanic tribes also here in Scandinavia, where the inhabitants, 
accustomed to small cattle, looked upon those introduced by the 
Jotens as so enormously large. That this race might exist at 
one and the same time, and in the same country, both wild and 
tame, is not more extraordinary than that the reindeer in Lap- 
land and the swine in the whole of south and central Europe should 
yet exist in the same tracts both in a wild and tame state. 

That the wildUrox from the earliest times was an object of chase 
to the inhabitants here, is proved beyond contradiction by the 
before-mentioned skeleton preserved in the museum at Lund. 
This race of wild oxen has never lived in Scandinavia farther 
north than Scania, and even here the fossil remains occur for the 
most part in the districts of Skytts, Bara and Wemmenhog. 
Once only have I obtained a skull from Allerum in the district 
of Luggude. 

We perhaps may be astonished at the thought that so colossal 
an animal as an ox of this race, whose natural food was grass, 
could winter in a country such as this, where the snow covers 
the fields often during five to six months of the year, and where 
the grass during that period either failed or was inaccessible. 
But our astonishment ceases when we see how the cattle support 
life during the winter in the forest tracts : with what avidity they 
bite off and devour the tender branches with their buds, and the 
catkins of birch, hazel, sallow and other species of willow. Those 
places where the Urox wintered were certainly thickly grown 
with the above-named trees, and from them it sustained life. It 
is not more surprising than to see the Elk live and winter in 
climates which are much more severe than that in which the 
Urox existed. 

[To be continued.] 

XXX. — Observation of some of the Phases of Development of the 
Trichodina pediculus (?). ByJ.T.ARLiDGE,A.B.,M.B.(Lond.), 
Member and Student in Anatomy of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons. 

[With a Plate.] 

Lv examining the contents of a bottle of water procured from a 
pool in the swampy part of Hampstead Heath, in the past month 
(July), and during the drought prevailing at that time, I en- 
countered an animalcule which I determined to be, most pro- 
bably, the Trichodina pediculus (Ehr.). Perceiving that the ani- 
mal was disposed to remain in the same locality under the nn- 



270 Mr. J . T. Arlidgc on some of the Phases of Development 

croscopc, and possessed in its interior several globules about a 
clear nucleus, indicating an aptness for ulterior changes, I deter- 
mined to ])rosccute a i'urther observation of it. 

Occupying about the centre of the being was a distinct, clear 
nucleus*, and around this were arranged six or seven granular 
greenish globules, with interspersed particles or granules. The 
circumference was also furnished with a single row of long and 
large cilia, which caused the animalcule to I'otate on its own axis, 
without altering its relative position (PI. VII. B. fig. 1). 

After observation had been continued a little while, most pro- 
bably from a change of position of the creature, an interior, con- 
tained circle came into view, eccentric to the outer one so far, 
that an interval was left between the two for about half of their 
periphery, whilst in the remaining half the two spheres were in 
a])position. This interval left between the two had a rather 
darker colouring, owing to its finely granular character, being 
minutely dotted as in engraving (fig. 2). 

These appearances were present about half-past one o'clock p.m. 
Moreover, at the same time that the two circles came under no- 
tice, the inner one was observed to rotate independently of the 
outer one, and indeed in the contrary direction, — a result I believe 
due (judging however from some slight indications only) to its 
surface being clothed with delicate cilia. Thus, the cilia of the 
external tunic bent themselves to the leftf, ])roducing a motion 
from right to left, whilst the inner one revolved turning from 
left to right. This contrariety in the direction of the revolution 
of the two spheres was very observable, being, at this period and 
for some time afterwards, very active. 

In process of time the motion of the contained circle waxed 
more rapid than that of the external, and seemed to impede the 
latter; at least, the rotation of the outer sphere became irre- 
gulai*, and was altogether shmer than when first witnessed. 

Between two and three o'clock the number of included glo- 
bules had decreased ; and instead of six or seven about the pellucid 
nucleus, only four could be discovered, but these were of larger 
size than those heretofore noticed. One of the four seemed more 
granular than the rest, and deeper seated ; another, of the lai'gest 
size, had one-half of its cavity clear, the other occupied with 
green granular matter. The remaining two were tolerably clear. 
Scattered in the interspace between the vesicles were some 
rounded granular green masses about one-fourth the size of the 
former, and, in addition, the counnon formless green particles 
(fig. 3). 

* This nucleus would, according to Ehrenberg's ideas, be called the testis 
or sperm-cell. 

\ I speak here of the apparent directions assumed, viewed under the mi- 
croscope: hence the real directions are just the reverse. 



of the Trifhodiim pcdiculus (?). 271 

At three o'clock a similar character prevailed ; two, however, 
of the vesicles having grown larger than the other two. 

At four o'clock the selfsame two larger ones had attained to 
double the size of the two others, and one of them exceeded the 
rest, and appeared to contain in its interior two roiuided green 
nuclei. The two smaller ones now hardly surpassed the rounded 
green granules spoken of (Hg. 4). 

At five o'clock two large vesicles were visible, and one smaller 
one of about one-fourth their size. The nucleus could still be 
detected about the centre of the animalcule, by a delicate ])ellucid 
outline, encroached upon and partly concealed by the pcrijdieries 
of the two developing cells of the interior (fig. 5). 

About six o'clock the two large vesicles had further augmented 
in size, and occupied the greater part of the area of the entire 
animal. One of these had in or upon it the two small granular 
masses described. The outline of the original nucleus was still 
perceptible. 

The two growing cells had now nearly come into contact, and 
every minute hastened the ajjposition whieli presently occurred, 
and in about another half-hour the two vesicles had blended 
together, a constriction only indicating the previous line of se])a- 
ration. Rather to one side of this constriction, and engaged 
within the periphery of the coalesced cells, thus occupying nearly 
the centre of the animal, the outline of a third vesicle could be 
seen, probably the original nucleus. Again, on the side 0[)|)(>site 
to the last vesich; — on that, viz. in which the gap of the mouth 
was perceptible, — was another sac, overlying slightly the margin 
of the large constricted coalesced cell, at the point of constriction, 
and containing granules in its interior (fig. 6). 

The original rotundity of the animalcule had become, to some 
extent, already interfered with by the development of the con- 
tained cell ; but this interfx;rence was destined to proceed ; for 
now the outer tunic began to protrude at one ])ole, in the long- 
axis of the enlarging interior cell, that is, in the direction in 
which the latter exerted its outward pressure. This tendency of 
the animal to increase in one direction continued, and an oval, 
and afterwards a pyriform figure was attained. 

The two green masses, described in one of the now-coalesced 
cells, occupied a ])osition at the projecting part of the animalcule, 
remaining distinct (fig. 7). 

The great cell would seem now to have undergone some de- 
gree of contraction on itself, for it became more globular, the 
constriction almost disappearing, and left a larger interval at the 
opposite end of the animal to that from which it protruded. In 
the meanwhile, the sac described as existing on the same side 
of the animalcule as the mouth, increased rapidly in its dimen- 
sions, so much so as to compress the larger one, forming for 



272 Mr. J. T. Arlidge on some of the Phases uf Development 

itself a hollow in its wall (fig. 8). Moreover^ the rotatory mo- 
tion became very slow and feeble^ and although the external 
large cilia still tiapped, bending towards the left^ no motion oc- 
curred in that direction^ save a slight oscillation of the lower 
half ; whilst the motion of the inner mass was irregular and 
slow. 

During the next quarter of an hour^ the animalcule wxnt on 
enlarging where occupied by the growing cells, the primary one, 
now spherical, protruding strongly : and, by reason of this cell 
having now nearly equalled in size the original being, the whole 
appeared like an animalcule in process of transverse fission (fig. 9). 

The second cell, which previously had occupied rather a lateral 
position with reference to the primai-y one, was now situated 
almost entirely beneath it. This second and smaller cell also 
was the only one which could be properly said to be included 
within the parent form, the larger one being but an appendage. 
The only portion which would seem to retain the latter in situ, 
was one — containing granular matter and some globules like the 
rest of the parent substance, — extending upwards for a short 
distance as a lateral band. 

The revolution of the animal seemed now to cease for a little 
while, but presently was resumed feebly and irregularly ; the ex- 
ternal cilia however only causing a jerking movement of the 
lower part. 

During the later changes, the cilia, which primarily fringed 
the entire margin, were now seen on the lower one — that viz. 
which remained of the original periphery — and also, owing to the 
transparency of the animal, along a line behind and just below 
that along which fission was about to occur (fig. 9). 

At seven o^clock, the lateral band attaching the budding cell 
to its parent had retracted to within a little distance of its base : 
the growth of the second cell had much advanced, and by its 
upward i)ressure against the primary sac, and the lateral pressure 
of the walls of the parent animal, it had assumed an irregular 
shape ; but its cavity remained quite diaphanous, excepting in its 
lower part, where a few fine granules were dispersed (fig. 10). 

On one side of the two developing cells a small transparent 
globule existed, along with three or four others, and some amor- 
])hous particles, in the substance of the parent being. The cilia 
had apparently decreased in size — or at least in distinctness and 
energ)^, and at half-past seven they had disappeared, motion in 
them having previously been arrested (fig. 10). 

At about a quarter to eight o'clock p.m. the first-formed cell 
had rendered itself almost independent of its parent, and was 
bent to one side. The second sac had much increased in size 
(fig. 11). 

Having withdrawn my attention for a moment to complete the 



of the Trichodina pediculus (?) . 






sketch of the animalcule at this stage of development, it happened 
unfortunately, that, in the instant, the first vesicle had detached 
itself and floated away, leaving the second free at the margin. 

Moreover^ it is to be noted, that, after the disappearance of 
this first sac, two spherical granular bodies similar to those I had 
thought to be present in it were still perceptible, occupying the 
same relative position to one another (fig. 12). 

Watching the progress of the second sac up to eight o^ clock, 
I saw it gradually make its way outwards, leaving more and more 
of the parent-being free. The latter still presented numerous 
small globules and greenish particles. Having subsequently 
made compression, the process of detachment was hastened, and 
at length completed, the second sac becoming independent. How- 
ever, this interference with the natural progress of development 
seemed to ai-rest its activity, for the detached bud showed no in- 
dication to move away, and the parent animal was left broken 
and misshapen, but still retaining its green globules and particles 
(fig. 12). 

Remarks. — The process of develoj)ment above described may be 
called one of internal gemmation, and is distinct from that of 
spontaneous fission, as detailed by authors, although in some of 
its pheenomena and phases it may resemble it. M. Dujardin 
would restrict the modes of propagation of the true Infusoria, or 
so-called Polygastrica, to that by spontaneous fission, and, occa- 
sionally, by gemmation. But in the animalcule observed by me, 
we certainly find another mode in operation, more akin to gene- 
ration by ova, which Ehrenberg considers to occur, although that 
most able microscopist would seem to have founded his opinion 
on other observed appearances, interpreted by Dujardin as due 
to the process of ' diffluence.^ 

It would have been very gratifying to me to have been enabled 
to follow the detached bud, and to have watched the changes it 
might have undergone. I have since met with diaphanous vesicles 
similar in character, devoid of any distinct nucleus, containing 
only some small particles of greenish matter, but have never been 
able to discover a very decisive progress in their development. 
However, this fact is certain, that the product of the animalcule 
observed did not partake of its distinctive characters, but was 
merely a simple non-ciliated cell. Such characters truly might be 
subsequently developed in it, or in another being derived from 
it, in accordance with the phsenomeuon of ' alternation of genera- 
tion ' of Steenstrup, or with the truth-bearing hypothesis of Prof. 
Owen, of an active ' spermatic force.^ 

It being much more my purpose in writing this paper to re- 
cord an observation than to speculate upon it, — leaving the latter 
to others more capable than myself, — I shall conclude by merely 



274 Bibliographical Notices. 

stating that most of the phaenomena I have traced were also 
observed by my friends and fellow-students at the College, 
Messrs. Hulme and Hallett. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

The Rudiments of Botany: a familiar Introduction to the Study of 
Plants. Bv A. Henfrey, F.L.S. &c. London, Van Voorst, 1849. 
24mo. Pp. 249. 

We have often been asked to point out some book by which a 
beginner might easily attain a knowledge of the more elementary 
parts of botany, and have always felt much difficulty in giving a 
satisfactory answer to the question. The above-named work has 
now supplied the want, and in future we shall at once direct the in- 
quirer's attention to it. It is written in simple language, so as to 
be easily understood by those who are totally without botanical 
knowledge, and nevertheless contains nearly all that preliminary in- 
formation which it is requisite to obtain before approaching the more 
elaborate ' Introductions to Botany,' such as the ' Outlines of Bo- 
tany ' by the same author, or Professor Balfour's ' INIanual.' Those 
who desire, as we hope all who have gone so far will do, to obtain 
still more minute scientific knowledge, will then study Dr. Lindley's 
excellent ' Introduction.' It is not however absolutely necessary, for 
such as only contemplate attaining a knowledge of the names of 
British plants, to extend their reading, at first, beyond the nice little 
book before us, since they will find in it all that is absolutely requi- 
site to enable them to use the books descriptive of our native plants. 
We say absolutely necessary ; for we certainly do not believe that 
those who have attained to that amount of knowledge will be satisfied 
to remain ignorant of the many highly interesting subjects included 
in physiological, not to mention the more curious and abstruse parts 
of systematic, botany which are elucidated in the more elaborate 
works, which, having got over the difficulties attending the attain- 
ment of the rudiments of the science, they will then be enabled to 
read with interest and ease. 

We think that Mr. Henfrey has performed the task which he has 
undertaken in a very satisfactory manner, nor have we any objections 
to make to the plan which he has followed, but think that he will 
be able in a future edition (for which we expect an early call) in 
some degree to improve the language of his book : not that much 
improvement is requisite, but such a book cannot be written in lan- 
guage of too simple and perspicuous a character. In some few cases 
an error in the punctuation has caused some slight ambiguity which 
will be immediately detected by its author. There are also a few 
typographical errors which require correction. These ambiguities 
and errors present no difficulty to the botanical reader, but may be 
the cause of error or inconvenience to the beginners to whom the 
book is addressed. For instance (p. 34), the wallflower, pink and 



Linneean Society. 



:^7o 



pear are instanced as illustrating the mode of growth in annual 
plants ; (page 41) the holly is called a shrub ; (page 43) the snow- 
drop is instanced as having a solitary flower on a stalk called a scape, 
in which we think that we see two errors, since a scape often bears 
more than one flower, and the snowdrop has several flowers. At 
page 98, line 3, we fancy that " figure " is put for " Fig." " In the 
diflferent kinds of clover we meet with spikes, umbels and capitules " 
(p. 99) ; we doubt the correctness of this statement. Sepals is put 
for jjctals on page 131 at line 11. 

There are a few other similar instances of inadvertence, but their 
very insignificance shows how little there is to which to except in 
the book, which we cannot too strongly recommend to our readers. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

LINNyEAN SOCIETY. 

Dec. 19, 1848. — The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Adam White, F.L.S., exhibited three curious species of He- 
viiptera belonging to the genera Scaptocoris and Petalochirus. He 
made some remarks on fossorial insects in general, illustrating them 
with specimens of a New Zealand Mole-Cricket and of a new genus 
of Carabidte, allied to Scarites. He particularly described a new spe- 
cies of Scaptocoris (S. Amyoti) from Northern India, remarkable in- 
asmuch as it forms a second distinct species of a very striking genus 
hitherto known to occur only in Brazil (8. castoneus, Perty). 

Read a paper, entitled " Experiments and Observations on the 
Poison of Animals of the Order Araneidea." By John Black wall, Esq., 
F.L.S.&c. 

After referring to the fabulous accounts of the singular eff"ects said 
to be produced in the human species by the bite of the Tarantula, and of 
the serious and sometimes fatal consequences attributed to that of the 
Malmignatte, Mr. Blackw^all proceeds to consider the validity of an 
opinion prevalent among arachnologists of the present day, that in- 
sects pierced by the fangs of spiders die almost instantaneously. He 
states that in the summer of 1846 he commenced an experimental 
investigation of the subject, the particulars of which he commu- 
nicates, arranging his experiments under four distinct heads, corre- 
sponding to the objects upon which they were made, namely the 
human species, spiders, insects, and inanimate substances. The ex- 
periments are detailed at length, and the following are the principal 
results. 

Fii'st, as regards the eff'ect of the bite of spiders upon the human 
species. The species selected was Epe'ira Dladema, and Mr, Black- 
wall states the legitimate conclusion deducible from various expe- 
riments to be, that there is nothing to apprehend from the bite of the 
most powerful British spiders, even when inflicted at a moment of 
extreme irritation and in hot sultry weather, the pain occasioned by 



276 Linneean Society. 

it being little if any more than is due to the laceration and com- 
pression which the injured part has sustained. 

Under the second head, the observations were made on a male 
and female of Tegenaria civilis ; on two females of Segestria senocu- 
lata; twice on females of Ciniflo atrox and females oi Lycosa ngretica ; 
on a female Epeira Diadema and a female Ccelotes saxatilis ; on two 
females oi Epeira Diadema ; and lastly on a female of Epeira Diadema, 
which in a state of high exasperation bit itself. Extensive mechani- 
cal injuries,. Mr. Blackwall states, commonly prove fatal to spiders, 
whether received in conflicts with their congeners or otherwise ; but 
no evidence supplied by his experiments indicates that the fluid 
emitted from the orifice in the fangs of the Araneidea possesses a 
property destructive to the existence of animals of that order when 
transmitted into a recent wound. 

Thirdly, as the result of numerous experiments on insects, made 
with Epeira Diadema, Segestria senoculata, Epeira quadrata, Tegenaria 
civilis, and Agelena labyrinthica, the author comes to the conclusion 
that they do not present any facts which appear to sanction the 
opinion that insects are deprived of life with much greater celerity 
when pierced by the fangs of spiders than when lacerated mechani- 
cally to an equal extent by other means. It is true however that 
the catastrophe is greatly accelerated if the spiders maintain a pro- 
tracted hold of their victims, but this is obviously attributable to the 
extraction of their fluids, which are transferred by often-repeated 
acts of deglutition into the stomachs of their adversaries. 

Fourthly, in his experiments on inanimate substances, Mr. Black- 
wall found that litmus-paper presented to spiders belonging to several 
genera when in a state of extreme irritation, and moistened by the 
transparent fluid which issues under such circumstances from the 
fissure near the extremity of their fangs, invariably became red as 
far as the fluid spread, clearly proving that this secretion, although 
tasteless, is an acid. On the other hand, the fluid which flows from 
the mouth, as also that contained in the stomach and that which is 
discharged from wounds inflicted on the body or limbs, were found 
by the same chemical test to be alkaline. Turmeric paper was ren- 
dered brown by the application of the fluids from the mouth and 
stomach, and restored to its original colour by the agency of the 
fluid secreted by the so-called poison-gland, thus attording complete 
confirmation of the respectively alkaline and acid natures of these 
several secretions. 

Mr. Blackwall concludes his paper by proposing the name of 
falces for the instruments by which spiders seize and destroy their 
prey ; the term mandibles being obviously improper for organs which 
do not, as Mr. W. S. MacLeay has plainly shown, constitute any 
part of the oral apparatus ; and that of chelicera, proposed by M. La- 
treille, implying an hypothetical analogy to the antennae of hexapod 
insects, from which they difi^er so widely both in structure and in 
function. He adds, that he has observed the labrum in a low state 
of development in species belonging to numerous genera, and that 
it is attached by its base to the superior surface of the palate, but 



Linnaan Society. 277 

that the extremity, which is free and usually round or somewhat 
pointed, can be slightly elevated, depressed, extended, retracted and 
moved laterally at will ; and mentions that Professor Owen has de- 
tected a rudimental labrum in spiders of the genus Mygule. To 
apply the term mandibles to organs originating above the labrum, 
and therefore not situated within the mouth, is evidently erroneous ; 
and the author ventures to anticipate, upon anatomical consider- 
ations, that future investigations will lead to the conclusion that the 
mandibles of the Araneidea are confluent with the palate. 

March 6, 1849.— R. Brown, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

The necessary business of the Meeting having been disposed of, 
the Vice-President in the Chair proposed, that, in consequence of 
the recent death of Edward Forster, Esq., Treasurer and VicePre-. 
sident of the Society, and in consideration of his long connexion 
with, and eminent services to, the Society and to Natural History, 
the Meeting should adjourn ; which was unanimously agreed to. 

March 20. — The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

Read a paper " On the Anatomy and Development of certain Chal- 
cididcE and IchneiimoiiidcE, compared with their special economy and 
instincts ; with descriptions of a new genus and sj)ecies of Bee Para- 
site." Part I. By George Newport, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. 

Mr. Newport remarked that the parasitic Hymenoptera in their 
larva state are among the most imperfectly organized forms of 
Articulata, and yet, having passed through this stage of their exist- 
ence, they become some of the more active and perfect of insects. 
They are nourished by suction, and either are attached singly to the 
external surface of the bodies of their victims, or reside in the same 
cells with them gregariously, or infest them internally, according to 
their species. In the whole of them, however, the general form of 
body and of the digestive organs, at the earlier periods of growth, is 
very similar, and the special development of each species is regulated 
by the same laws. They cast their tegument at diflferent periods of 
growth like other larvae, a fact which Mr. Newport has observed in 
Paniscus, although in the apodal larvae of Hymenoptera it has 
heretofore escaped the observation of naturalists. Their digestive 
apparatus at first is extremely simple, and has the form of a capa- 
cious bag or sac, without any anal outlet. Consequently no faeces 
are passed until the larva; have acquired their full growth and ceased 
to feed. After this period of assimilation the digestive cavity begins 
to assume a new condition. It becomes perforated at its base, and 
an intestine and anal outlet are formed, and faeces are then passed. 
One reason for this late completion of the alimentary canal seems to 
be the necessity that the fluids of the insect preyed upon should be 
preserved in a healthy state for the support of the parasite ; and 
another, that the food of the victim should not be contaminated. But 
when the parasites are full-grown the necessity for these conditions 
ceases, and the intestinal portion of the digestive apparatus is deve- 
loped. 



278 Linncean Society. 

The following description of a new genus of Chalcididce found in 
the cells of Anthophora was then given : — 

Genus Antiiophouabia, Newp. 

Fern. Caput tliorace latius ; antennce 6-articulatae, pilosi-p, avticulis 2'^° 
^tio 4to 5toqyg subsequalibiis, 6'° clavain elongato-ovalem eflormaiite. 
Thorax ahdomenque longitudine asquales. Alee vena mediana bifida. 
Tarsi 5-articulati, Mas: Antennce 4-aiticulatgs, avticnlo basali ar- 
cuato, magnopere dilatato, inferne excavato, 2^° cylindrico, ;j'''' niagno 
globoso, 4'° elongato-ovali. Oculi stemmatosi. Alee abbreviatte. 

Anthophorabia retusa (Fern.). Jilneo-viridis, capita magno, ociilis 
compositis nigris, abdomine nitido ovali, alis magnis rotundatis, pedibus 
flavescentibus. (Mas) flavus vel saturate fenugineus, capite magno lo- 
tundato ocello utrinque luiico tribusque in vertice instructo nigrescente, 
pedibus robustis. — Long. !in. 1. 

Mr. Newport found this species in abundance in the nests of An- 
thophora at Richborough in Kent, while searching for the larvae of 
Meloe in August 1831, 1832 and 1834. The lurva is apodal, sub- 
cylindrical and slightly attenuated at each extremity, and formed of 
fourteen segments, with a small head and short acute mandibles, and 
there were usually from thirty to fifty specimens in each bee- cell. In 
some instances they changed to nymphs and imagos at the end of 
summer, but in others the change did not take jjlace until the 
spring, at which time the perfect insect comes forth. 

The author states that he was unable to find any description of 
this curious parasite in the works of entomologists ; the only writer 
who makes reference to an insect which, possibly, may have some 
affinity with this, being Mr. Westwood, who refers to a species, 
found by M. Audouin in France, under the name of Melittobia Au- 
douinii, but without describing it ; so that if the two insects should 
prove to be identical, which Mr. Newport considers doubtful, this 
name cannot be adopted. Reaumur and Degeer both found parasites 
in the cells of Mason-bees, but their species have not been clearly 
made out. 

The author deduced conclusions with regard to the habits of 
Anthophorabia from peculiarities in the anatomy of the sexes, and 
expressed an opinion, from the absence of an ovipositor in the female, 
from both sexes being found in activity in the closed bee- cell, and 
more especially from the male possessing only steramata, instead of 
the usual compound eyes of winged insects, that impregnation is 
effected before the female first quits the cell, and that she deposits 
her eggs in new cells while these remain open and are being pro- 
visioned. The diflFerence of structure and function between compound 
eyes and ocelli was explained in support of these opinions, and the sexes 
of Anthophorabia were contrasted with those of Stylops, as described 
by the author in his " Memoir on Meloe," read to the Society on the 
19th of January 1847. These diflferences of structure in similar or- 
gans were regarded as always indicatory of peculiarities in economy. 

A second species of Chalcididce had also been found by the author, 
in the larva state, in the nests oi Anthophora, on the r2th of Sej)- 



Linnaan Society. 279 

tember 1847, at Gravesend, and which he at first mistook for the 
larvae of the species now named Anthophorubia. These larvae after- 
wards proved to be of a species which he named provisionally Mono- 
dontomerus nitidits. The general form of the larva and the armature 
of its body were then described, and the question discussed as to 
whether it was a carnivorous feeder, subsisting on the body of the 
bee larva, or a pollinivorous, subsisting on its food. The armature 
of hairs on the surface of its body showed that it was not an internal- 
feeding larva, as the author has never yet found the internal-feeding 
parasites of insects clothed with hairs. From the presence of hairs 
on its body, and from an examination of the faeces, the author was 
induced to regard it as pollinivorous. 

The larvae remained unchanged until the middle of May 1848, and 
some time before passing into the state of nymphs, faeces were passed 
for the first time, similar to those of the larva of Anthophora, which, 
like its parasite, Mr. Newport has constantly found passes nothing 
until it is full-grown and ready to undergo its transformation. The 
digestive apparatus of the larva of Monodontomerus was then de- 
scribed as occupying nearly the whole interior of the body in the 
shape of an oval sac, or Florence-flask, with exceedingly thick pa- 
rietes formed of masses or packets of cells, enclosed between a deli- 
cate muscular envelope on the external and a granulated mucous 
layer on the internal surface. This capacious digestive stomach is 
connected anteriorly with a short and narrow oesophagus, and jios- 
teriorly with an imperforated column of masses of cells, which are 
continuous with those that form the chief portion of the walls of this 
organ. After the larva has ceased to feed, the cells separate, and 
the column becomes a tube, the separation ])roceeding from the 
centre of the base of the sac along the axis of the column to the 
anal outlet in the terminal segment, after which this intestinal por- 
tion of the canal is further developed and the larva undergoes its 
transformation. 

The nymph state was assumed at the end of May, and the first 
perfect insects appeared on the 27th of June, or about four M'eeks 
afterwards. The author concludes that the female deposits her eggs 
in the cell of the bee, after it has been closed, by perforating it with 
her ovipositor. 

Drawings of the sexes of Anihophorabia and its larva, and of the 
larva and nymph of Monodontomerus, with details of anatomy, were 
exhibited. 

April 3. — Robert Brown, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Read a paper " On the Development of the Ovule in Orchis Morio, 
L." By Arthur Henfrey, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

The paper contains the results of a series of observations made in 
May 1848, which Mr. Henfrey presents to the Society, partly be- 
cause he believes that in the present state of the question all evidence 
derived from careful observation is of some value, and partly because 
he has succeeded in obtaining a more complete series of figures 
illustrating the successive conditions of the ovule than has yet been 



280 Linnaan Society. 

published ; Mohl, who gives the most complete account of the devC' 
lopment in Orchis Morio, having given no drawings. In the first 
stage, examined on the 3rd of May, the ovules of flowers which were 
just opened and were without signs of pollen on the stigmatic sur- 
face, were just curving over towards the anatropous position ; the 
nucleus projected beyond the cells forming the single coat of the 
ovule, and consisted of a large central cell (the embryo-sac) enclosed 
by a laver of very delicate cells of small size, constituting a jjroper 
coat of the nucleus. On the 9th, the ovules of fully-expanded 
flowers were not much altered except in the much clearer definition 
of the walls of the cells. The embryo-sac was filled with a clear 
colourless fluid, in which floated minute black atoms. In some 
flowers the stigma was smeared with pollen, which sent down nume- 
rous tubes, about xoVo*-^^ °^ ^" inch in diameter and at most one- 
fourth of the size of the smallest surrounding cells. On the 13th, 
when the flowers were withered and the stigmas were covered with 
pollen, a dense bundle of tubes lay in the midst of the lax tissue of 
the canal leading to the cavity of the ovary. Some of the ovules 
were completely anatropous, while others were about three- fourths 
curved, the former being about y^th of an inch in length. The 
two coats of the ovule were now distinctly evident, and the nucleus 
was still covered by its own cellular coat, and still contained only 
the clear colourless fluid with black points. On the 16th, the pistil - 
lary cords extended nearly to the base of the ovary, presenting all 
the characters of pollen-tubes, and apparently continuous with those 
derived from the pollen on the stigma. Both coats of the ovules 
had become considerably developed, and the inner had grown up far 
beyond the nucleus ; the embryo-sac had lost its proper cellular coat, 
had acquired the aspect of a large ovoid sac attached by a pedicle to 
the chalazal region, and contained opalescent mucilaginous matter 
(protoplasm), in most cases accumulated at the ends, chiefly at that 
next the micropyle. On the 20th, the last-mentioned appearance 
continued ; and at the micropyle end, one, two or (usually) three 
minute vesicles had been formed, always seeming to originate as 
cavities in the mucilage, and not as if derived from the formation of 
a membrane on the outer surface of a nucleus or cytoblast. These 
vesicles soon took the appearance of distinct cells with exceedingly 
dehcate walls, and undoubtedly existed before the pollen-tubes en- 
tered the foramina of the ovules. In those ovules which had been 
penetrated by the pollen-tubes, these were traced by Mr. Henfrey 
through the wide mouth of the outer coat and the narrow canal of 
the inner, as far as the apex of the embryo-sac, which however they 
never entered, but generally appeared to be directed a little to one 
side and to lie in contact with its outer surface, just over the place 
where the minute vesicles lie within. On the 31st, the previous 
observations were repeated and confirmed on specimens in various 
stages of growth. At this period, in some of the embryo-sacs one 
of the vesicles had become divided into two cells by a horizontal 
septum, the upper cell dividing again and growing out through the 
endostome in a conical form to produce the confervoid filament de- 



Linncean Society. 281 

scribed by Mr. Brown, and whicli Mr. Henfrey believes Prof. Schleiden 
to have mistaken for the pollen-tube. On the 3rd of June, the 
author again satisfied himself that the vesicle within the embryo-sac 
(the germinal vesicle) is the first cell of the embryonic body ; it 
generally exhibits a slight collection of protoplasm at its base, and 
soon after the pollen-tube reaches the surface of the embryo-sac 
divides into two cells, the upper dividing again and growing out into 
the articulated filament, the cells of which are formed by the pro- 
duction of septa in the same way as in confervas, hairs of phanero- 
gamous plants, &c. ; the mucilaginous layer (or primordial utricle of 
Mohl) being rendered very evident by the application of iodine. At 
the same time the lower part of the embryonic body enlarges and 
soon perfectly fills the embryo-sac, the process of cell-formation by 
which the embryo is produced varying apparently in different cases. 
Generally the lowest cell enlarges very much and becomes filled 
with dark mucilaginous matter, and then this is soon divided into a 
number of cells by the formation of septa. In some cases two of the 
germinal vesicles undergo development and two confervoid filaments 
are produced. 

From these observations Mr. Henfrey concludes that the embryo 
is really produced by the ovule itself ; that the germinal vesicle exists 
within the embryo-sac before the pollen exerts its influence ; that 
the pollen-tube penetrates the coats of the ovule to reach the em- 
bryo-sac ; and that the passage of the poUinic fluid through the in- 
tervening membranes impregnates the germinal vesicle and deter- 
mines its development into an embryo. The investigations having 
been made with every precaution, and the results being in perfect 
accordance with those of Amici, Mohl, MUller and others, he be- 
lieves them to be a sufficient refutation of Schleiden's views so far 
as the plant in question is concerned. He regards, however, as 
points requiring further investigation, the question whether the whole 
of the pistillary cords are composed of filaments directly produced 
by the pollen granules ; whether there is any relation between the 
application of the pollen on the stigma and the development of the 
germinal vesicles ; and whether the production of the confervoid 
filaments is a normal process, which is open to doubt when only ob- 
served in ovaries containing such an abundance of ovules as those 
of Orchis Morio. 

Read also a notice of a species of Monodontomerus , parasitic in 
the cells of Anthophora retusa, contained in a letter addressed to, and 
communicated by, Adam White, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Referring to the Monodontomerus described by Mr. Newport at 
the last Meeting, of which an account will be found at page 279, 
Mr. Smith remarks that it is identical with a species which he some 
months ago showed to Mr. Adam White and Mr. Francis Walker, 
the latter of whom then informed him that it was a new species of 
Monodontomerus. He adds, that Mr. Walker, in whose hands he 
placed specimens of both sexes for description, on learning a few 
days afterwards that Mr. Newport had reared the same insect from 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 19 



282 Linncean Society. 

the nest of Anthophora, readily waived his right of description in 
deference to Mr. Newport's wish to describe the insect himself. 

In the ' Zoologist' for March of the present year, Mr. Smith inci- 
dentally mentioned that he had bred two distinct species of Mono- 
dontomerus from the cells of Osmia hicornis and those of Anthophora 
retusa. Anxious, in the summer of 1848, to discover the larvae of 
Melecta punctata, he procured from a colony of Anthophora at Charl- 
ton in Kent a number of larvae and pupae ; but all the larvae, though 
differing much in colour, produced Anthophora only. While sepa- 
rating the larvae from the pupae, he observed in a cell partially broken 
open, containing a pupa of the bee, a small larva by its side slightly 
moving ; and on removing the pupa, he found twelve more minute 
larvae feeding upon it, which they continued to do for ten or twelve 
days, by which time they were fully grown. When first observed, 
the pupa of the bee was about one-third consumed, and at last not 
a vestige of it remained ; all that the cell contained besides the larvae 
being a small portion of yellow dust or small granules. They re- 
mained in the larva state for several weeks, and then changed to 
pupae, in which state they continued for about a fortnight, when 
they became perfect and active insects. The species of Monodonto- 
merus bred from the cells of Osmia also fed upon the pupa, and un- 
derwent the same process of development. 

Mr. Smith concludes by referring to a statement of Mr. Westwood 
in his ' Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects,' that he 
had frequently observed Monodontomerus flying about and entering 
the holes made in walls by Osniice, in which they were doubtlessly 
about to deposit their eggs; and to his mention of a species com- 
municated to him by M. Audouin, in which the males have rudi- 
mentary wings ; and suggests that it would be exceedingly inter- 
esting to determine whether the species of Monodontomerus, and the 
Anthophorabiu also, might be identical with the insects observed by 
Audouin and Fonscolombe. 

April 17.— N. Wallich, M.D., in the Chair. 

Read a paper entitled " Remarks on the genus Atriplex." By 
Joseph Woods, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

After observing, that, as far as the British species are concerned, 
the genus Atriplex had remained till lately as it appeared in the 
• English Flora' of Sir J. E. Smith in 1828, Mr. Woods proceeds to 
notice the additions made to it by Mr. Babington. The first of these 
is A. nitens {A. Hermanni of Moquin-Tandon), belonging to a divi- 
sion of the genus in which some of the flowers are perfect and pro- 
duce horizontal seeds. The author thinks the division a sound one, 
though on one occasion he has found a few horizontal seeds, the 
produce probably of perfect flowers, in A. littoralis. The second is 
A. marina, introduced by Linnaeus as a plant found in England, and 
distinguished from A. littoralis by its serrated leaves, Hudson ad- 
mitted it under the name of A. serrata, but most of our later bota- 
nists have considered it as a variety of A, littoralis, and it must be 
placed among the doubtful species. 



LinncBan Society. 283 

The next group, which has no perfect flowers, and a tendency to 
produce hastate or triangular leaves, is the one which presents the 
greatest difficulties. We find here, in the last edition of Mr. Babing- 
ton's ' Manual,' three new species, besides A. erecta of Hudson, 
which, though adopted by Smith as a very rare plant, is, if Babing- 
ton's view be correct, one of the most common. The surface of the 
seeds and the shape and tubercles of the perigonium or enlarged calyx 
covering the fruit seem to be a good deal relied upon in distinguishing 
these species ; but Mr. Woods states that several species, or at least 
several forms, have two sorts of seeds. Those of the smaller calyces 
are slightly depressed, smooth, black and shining ; while those 
formed in the larger calyces are much larger, so much so as to have 
occasionally three times the diameter of the upper seeds ; they are 
considerably more depressed, of a dark chestnut colour, and wrinkled 
or shagreened. The sepals are all at first smooth, and those in the 
lower part of the plant frequently never become tubercled. This he 
notes as particularly the case in A. angustifolia, of which otherwise 
the perigonium is as distinctly tubercled as in ^4. erecta. Mr. Woods 
is willing to admit as three common species — A. angustifolia, with 
rhomboid leaves and all the seeds black and smooth ; A. patula, with 
triangular leaves, and all or nearly all of the seeds depressed and 
shagreened; and A. deltoidea, with triangular leaves, and all or 
nearly all the seeds thick, black and smooth. A. erecta he thinks 
to be different from A. angustifolia, though he is unable to point out 
any satisfactory character. With A. prostrata and A. microsperma 
he is not sufficiently acquainted to form any judgment. A. rosea of 
Babington is perhaps a good species, though nearly allied to some 
of the maritime varieties of A. patula, and perfectly distinct from 
the A. rosea of continental botanists. The latter is a self-supporting 
plant, and not prostrate like the A. rosea of Babington. Koch sepa- 
rates A. laciniata and A. rosea from the other species by the lobes 
of the perigonium, united to the middle ; but this is often the case in 
A. patula, and not always so in A. laciniata. They are however 
hardened and of a pale colour. The author is disposed to rely more 
on the uniform buft' colour of the stem, which in A. jjatula and its 
allies is green with resinous stripes. The A. laciniata of the south 
of Europe is not our English plant. The former has its clusters dis- 
posed in long naked spikes, the latter in short leafy ones. Ours is 
probably the Linnaean plant. The perigone in Atriplex varies from 
ovate to rhombic, or to a square attached at the angle, and from that 
to campanulate ; the latter form is so decided in all the specimens 
of the continental plant with fully formed seeds within reach of Mr. 
Woods, that he suggests the trivial name of A. campanulata. 

Read also the following Letter from Linnaeus to the Rev. John 
White, formerly Chaplain at Gibraltar, and brother of Gilbert White 
of Selborne and of Benjamin White, then the principal English pub- 
lisher of works on natural history. Communicated by John Gould, 
Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

19* 



284 Linncean Society. 

Viro Reverendissimo et Venerando D'"* I. White. 
s, pi. d. 
Car. Linne. 
Accepi literas Tuas, ad calend. januarii datas, suo tempore et ad 
eas regessi : accepi et datas d. 1 Martii, et 22 Aprilis. Accepi et 
ante duos dies merces Tuas et dona vere aurea ; pro quibus om- 
nibus ac singulis grates imortales reddo, reddamq dum vixero. 
Sturnus collaris Scop. ann. 1, p. 131. Fringilla Sordone MflHe^/. orn. 
t. 3.38./. 1. Avis kyburgensis, Gesn. orn. app. 725. Muscicapa 
gula fusco undulata, tectricibus alarum nigricantibus apiculo albo, 
(collaris) mihi dicenda. Rostrum admodum parum est emargi- 
natum, diversa a Turdo arundinaceo. 
Turdum pygargum non antea vidi ; erit equidem Turdus ; apex rostri 

modice incurvus. 
Pratincolam antea non vidi ; ad Grallas spectat et proprii generis est. 
D"" Lever ne desinas grates meis verbis agere pro egregie et pul- 

cherrime conservatis aviculis, quibus me beare voluit. 
Phytolithi Filicum erant certe optimi 

isti lapides qui referunt taenias non vidi ; an radicum plantarum 

aquaticarum rudimenta? 
ista impressio in schisto, ita refert Sertulariam quandam Ellisii, 

ut nisi magnitudo vetaret, dicerem earn Sertulariam. 
alia foliis atris linearibus est Zostera. 
quadrati politi, Quartzum coloratum y. Syst. nat. 2. p. 65. 
Fuci rubri et pdosi impressiones rariores : 
Lepadogaster Gonum in lagenula est certe Cyclopterus nudus meus 

Syst. nat. A\A. p. % 
Attelabus calpensis : hunc etiam ab aliis accepi. 
Tenebrio femoribus uncinatis (bispinosis) Tenebrio calpensis mihi di- 

cendus. 
Motacilla cauda albo nigroq maculata. a me non antea visa. 
MyrmeleoH formicarium nostrum habet in alis stigma album, habeo 

jam insectum coram. 
Formicalyn. lege Formicalynx. 
Artedi opera non prostant apud nos, sed Leidse. 
Gryllus umhraculatus ubi habitat ; quid agit cum umbraculo ? 
Te Datore o])timo multa animalia habeo. 

Tetrao tridactyhis pedibus nudis tridactylis. 

Hirundo 7-upestris nigricans, rectricibus subsequalibus : 2, 3 ma- 
cula alba. 
Piscis thoracicus capita excoriate ; nondum nomen imposui. 
Attelabus calpensis caerulescens thorace piloso, elytris rubris : 

punctis 3 nigris. 
Sphex mutabilis atra pedibus hirtis, abdomine maculis luteis ple- 

rumque quatuor. 
Sphex erosa nigra, capite thorace alis pedibusque ferrugineis. 
Apis calpensis labio superiore acuminato inflexo, abdominis seg- 
mentis punctis geminis nigris. 



Linnceaii Society. 285 

Cancer c?/«re525biacliyurus, thorace Icevi linea transversa insculpto 
marginibus serratis, chelis leevibus. 

Cancer brachyurus subhirsutus, manibus totis ciliatis. 

Cancer ex squillarum prosapia 4 distinctse ; nondum posui diffe- 
rentias et numero plura, prseter ultima, Te inventore, alleganda. 
Literse excrescerent in infinitum, si simul et semel omnia response 
exponerem, nunc aliis negotiis implicitus reservo reliqua proximae 
epistolae. 
Scripsi multa addenda vol. 1. Syst. nat. idq quotidie ; absolvi dimi- 
dium tomum. Si Tuus frater edat, certus sum quod hoc prodeat 
optimis typis, qui Anglis communis. Tam multa quae quotidie 
prodiere, post priorem editionem operis, et quae allegavi multum 
laboris expostularunt. Si vixero absolvam opus in autumnum. 
Quid mihi ofFerat in sostrura ? An poterit habere optimum cor- 
rectorem typi? 
Upsalia?, 1774. d. .3 jvilii. 

Viro Reverendo Domino Job. White, 

London. 

Blackburn. 

May 1. — The Lord Bishop of Norwich, President, in the Chair. 

John Hogg, Esq., F.L.S., exhibited a portion of a large and re- 
markable Wasp's Nest, taken by himself last autumn. The portion 
exhibited formed about one-third of the entire nest, which was built 
in the inside of the roof of one of the wings of Mr. Hogg's house at 
Norton in the county of Durham, a part being fixed under the roof, 
and the remainder to the side wall immediately below it. The hole 
under the slates by which the wasps went in and out was originally 
made by sparrows ; and at this part, and among another portion of 
the wasp's nest, appeared the remains of the old bird's nest, con- 
sisting chiefly of straw with a few feathers. The entire wasp's nest 
bore the appearance of having been the fabric of several years, some 
of it being apparently older and in inferior preservation to the rest, 
as well as somewhat blackened. Externally the nest is beautifully 
parti-coloured, the layers of the various substances used in the con- 
struction presenting circular or curved lines or rings, which are 
brown, buff, yellow, grey, dark grey, nearly black, &c. ; altogether 
exhibiting a very elegant shell-like structure, which Mr. Hogg has 
not observed in any other British wasp's nest. These layers he re- 
gards as indicative of the mode in which the wasps carried on their 
labours ; one wasp, or set of wasps, having made use of the same 
substance (such as wood, lichen, the bark of a tree, &c.), collected 
from the same place, and of the same colour, to form one circular 
layer or ring ; and then having been succeeded by another wasp, or 
set of wasps, using other substances taken from another spot, and of 
a different colour; and so on. 

Mr. Hogg states that he has recently seen in the British Museum 
a very similar nest sent from China by Mr. Say ; but the species of 
the Chinese wasp, or even its genus, is not stated. He had at first 
hoped that his nest might have proved the work of the new wasp 



286 Linncean Society. 

taken by hira in his garden at Norton some years ago, and described 
by Mr. Frederick Smith, in his Memoir on British Wasps, under 
the name of Vespa borealis ; but on submitting to that gentleman 
specimens taken alive from the nest, they were determined by him 
to be neuters of the common wasp, Vespa vulgaris. 

The author concludes by stating his intention to present the por- 
tion of the nest exhibited to the British Museum, where, if deemed 
■worthy of preservation, it may be placed next to the Chinese nest, 
which it so closely resembles. 

Read in continuation a paper " On the Anatomy and Development 
of certain Chalcididce and Ichneumonidce," &c. Part II. By George 
Newport, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. 

The author first read a " Postscript " to the preceding part of this 
paper, abstracted at p. 277, one object of which was to confirm his 
statement, which had been questioned by Mr. Westwood, that he 
discovered the insect, Anthophorabia , in 1831, at which time he had 
made known the fact to D. W. Nash, Esq., now a Fellow of the 
Society, who permitted him to make known the circumstance. The 
author also corrected his view with regard to the nature of the food 
of the larva of the second species he had discovered in the nest of 
Anthophora, which he had named provisionally Monodontomerus 
nitidus, but which is now believed to be Monodontomerus obsoletus, 
which species had been suspected of infesting the genus Osmia, 
although the larva had hitherto been unknown. Having carefully 
examined the form of its mandibles since the first part of the paper 
was read, he now finds that they are acute, slender, and fitted only 
for piercing and not for comminuting food,, and consequently he agrees 
with Mr. Smith that the species is carnivorous, and not pollinivorous 
as he had supposed. Further examination of this larva, therefore, 
has tended to confirm the general views which he had maintained, 
that structure when carefully and accurately investigated is an in- 
fallible index to function and habits. 

The second part of the paper on the Ichneumonida was then read. 
This comprised a detailed account of the natural history of Paniscus 
virgatus from the bursting of the ovum to the assumption of the 
imago state. The egg, as noticed by Degeer in Ophion luteum, and 
by Hartig in other species, is affixed by a pedicle to the skin of the 
caterpillar on which the larva is destined to feed, and the larva con- 
tinues attached to it during the whole period of growth. Mr. New- 
port found the eggs of Paniscus virgatus on the full-grown larva of 
the broom-moth, Mamesti-n pisi, on the 26th of September 1847. 
They were black, shining, and of a pear-shaped form, and each was 
attached by a pedicle inserted into the skin of the caterpillar. At 
the moment of being hatched they w ere burst in front, by a vertical 
fissure, like the eggs of the lulidce, and the head only of the larva 
was gradually protruded, so that at first these ova more resembled 
the growing seeds of leguminous plants than animal organisms. 
The anterior portion only of the body was afterwards slowly pro- 
truded, but the larvae gave no e\ddence of sensation during the whole 



Linncnan Societij. 287 

of their growth, and scarcely even of vitaUty. Yet affixed by one 
extremity to the shell, and by the mouth to the skin of the cater- 
pillar, they grew rapidly until at from the 12th to the 1 5th day they 
had acquired their full size, and measured half an inch in length, and 
then for the first time became detached from the shell. The author 
then described the form and motions of the stomach as seen through 
the tegument on the second day of growth, and also the structure 
of the head, the distribution of the trachepe, and the mode in which 
the larva changes its skin while still attached to the egg-shell. This 
change was now seen for the first time in the apodal larvae of Hyme- 
noptera, as noticed in the first part of this paper, in these larvae of 
Paniscus. It occurred at least three times in each larva before 
quitting its shell. The skin is burst as in other insects along the 
dorsal surface of the thorax, and is gradually carried backwards 
chiefly by the efifect of growth of the larva, but it continues to in- 
close the caudal segments, which are also included between the two 
halves of the shell. The fourth change occurs when the insect is 
transformed to a nymph. It assumes this state inclosed in a leather- 
like cocoon spun by itself after it has destroyed the caterpillar on 
which it has fed, and while lying in the earthen chamber which the 
caterpillar had formed for its own change under ground. The change 
to a nymph took place in April, and to the perfect Ichneumon fly, 
Paniscus virgatu^, in May 1848- 

The author then describes the mode in which the alimentary canal 
is originally developed in the embryo of insects. The first developed 
portions of the embryo are, first, the ventral, and then the lateral 
parietes of the segments. The lateral grow from below upwards, 
until their free margins ultimately approach along the future dor- 
sal surface, meeting first of all in the cephalic, and then in the cau- 
dal segments. The termination of the future alimentary canal in 
the anal segment is the result of a fold on itself of a layer of the 
first portion of the yolk included by the completion of the two cau- 
dal segments, and is the commencement of the column of cells, 
which afterwards becoming perforated when the larva is full-grown, 
form the colon and intestine, and which retains the celliform struc- 
ture to so late a period in the larva of Monodontomerus . The re- 
mains of the yolk are included within the body by the union of the 
segments along the dorsal surface, and form the digestive cavity, 
the last portion included being in the prothorax, at which point the 
yolk enters the body in Crustacea, as pointed out by Rathke. The 
mode in which the great digestive cavity, or stomach, and the dif- 
ferent structures of the canal are formed is then described, and the 
general configuration of the organ is shown to be very similar, during 
the earlier stages of growth, in all embryos of insects. This pri- 
mary form is longer retained in the imperfect apodal larvae, espe- 
cially in' the parasites, than in other species, and hence the incom- 
pleteness noticed in Monodontomerus . The structure is completed 
earlier in Microgaster and Ichneumon ; but although in these a true 
colon and intestine are formed, these continue closed, and no faeces 
are passed until the larva is matured. The appendages of the canal 
follow the same laws of development. The glands which produce 



288 Zoological Society. 

the siik required by the insect for the formation of its cocoon, are 
formed the earliest. The Malpighian vessels are completed at a later 
period in these parasites than in the herbivorous larvae, in which 
they are well formed almost from the moment of leaving the egg. 
In conclusion the author states, " that in proportion to the more or 
less early development of any structure or organ, the function or in- 
stinct associated with that organ is more or less early evolved ; and 
that in proportion to the completeness of a tissue, such is the degree 
of perfection of each special function or instinct in the animal." 

Read also a paper by J. O. Westwood, Esq., F.L.S. &c., entitled 
" Description of Melittobia Audouinii, a Bee Parasite." The follow- 
ing are the essential characters of this genus, which belongs to the 
family Chalcididce and subfamily Eulophides. 

Melittobia. 
AntennsE maris 9-articulat£e ; articulo 1"" maximo subtiis ad apicem ex- 
cavate, articulis 4'° 5'° et 6*" minimis ; foeminse simplices, 8-articu- 
latse ; articulis tribus apicalibus in utroque sexu clavam ovalem foi'- 
mantibus. Mas coecus. Faemina oculis ocellisque instvucta. Ala; 
maris abbreviatse, fcemiuEe magnitudinis ordinarijE ; alse vena ordinaria 
Eulophorum typicorum instructae. Tarsi 4-articulati. — Habitatio pa- 
rasitica in nidis apum caementariarum. 
Notices of this insect (first observed by the late M. Victor Au- 
douin) had been published by Mr. Westwood in his ' Introduction to 
the Modern Classification of Insects' and in the Journal of Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society, and it was also considered by Mr. West- 
wood as identical with the insect described by Mr. Newport in the 
preceding paper under the name of Anthophorabia retusa, although 
different from the description published of that insect by Mr. New- 
port in the ' Gardener's Chronicle ' in the major part of its characters, 
some of which, as the possession of a furcate median vein and 
5 -jointed tarsi, are foreign to the family and subfamily to which it 
belongs ; whilst the asserted possession of stemmatous eyes by the 
male was regarded as erroneous, there being no instance of such a 
structure throughout the whole range of winged insects, whilst it is 
essentially a character of some of the wingless tribes. 

Mr. Westwood also exhibited specimens of the larvae of Eulophus 
Nemati, which are parasites on the outside of the body of the larvae 
of Nematus intercus, but which are nevertheless destitute of hairs on 
the surface of the body, although the external parasitism of the larvae 
of Monodontomerus was considered by Mr. Newport as indicated by 
the hairs on the surface of their bodies. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Nov. 14, 1848. — Wm. Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 
1. Notes on thf. Anatomy of the Male Aurochs {Bison europceus). 
By Prof. Owen, F.R.S., F.Z.S. etc. etc 

It was with much concern that I received notice at the latter part 
of September last of the sudden failing of health of the male Aurochs ; 



Zoological Society. 289 

the male of the pair munificently presented to the Zoological Society 
by His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia, at the instance of 
our distinguished scientific countryman Sir Roderick Impey Mur- 
chison, G.C.SS. The animal had refused its food ; it was prostrated 
by impeded and frequent respiration and a general oppressive feverish 
state, and died about a vpeek after the first attack. 

The morbid appearances, on dissection, were simple and conclu- 
sive. The whole right lung had been the seat of active inflammation 
and congestion ; most of the air-cells were filled with a bloody serum, 
which was infiltrated throughout the connecting tissue. A mass of 
coagulable lymph had been exuded from the whole exterior surface 
of the organ, cementing its lobes to each other and to the surround- 
ing parts, especially the pericardium. The mucous lining of the 
bronchial tubes was of a deep livid red colour, and the same evidence 
of inflammation extended throughout the trachea, and a little way 
down the bronchi of the sound lung. Both the liver and spleen broke 
down more easily under pressure than in the healthy common Ox ; 
the texture of the kidney also was softer, and of a more fuscous 
colour. The vessels of the pia mater were unusually gorged ; but 
these were probably the secondary consequences of the influence 
upon the circulation, and the quality of the blood induced by the 
primary and active disorganization of the respiratory system. The 
exciting cause of the disease I take to be the influence of the raw 
cold and heavy fogs, consequent on the undrained extent of clay- 
ground in which the menagerie of the Society is placed, and by which 
it is extensively surrounded. The effects of an atmosphere so loaded 
on the mucous tract of the respiratory organs to which it is applied, 
has long been manifested in various species of the exotic animals 
attempted to be preserved in the Zoological Gardens ; and the records 
of medicine bear testimony to similar ill effects upon those human 
inhabitants of the Regent's Park, whose habits and strength of con- 
stitution do not enable them to control and overcome this pregnant 
but happily remediable source of ill-health. 

The male Aurochs, at the period of its death, was two years and 
five months old. The following was the state of its dentition : — 

5 — 5 
i 3 — 3, e 1 — 1, m r— r =: 28 ; of which i 1 was permanent, i 2, i 3, 

and c were deciduous ; the molars were rf 2, 3 and 4, jw 1 and 2. 
I here use the formula explained in my communication to the British 
Association at Swansea, the notation used conveying in the space 
of one line the following facts : viz. that the animal had shed and 
replaced the median incisors of the lower jaw, but retained all the 
rest of its deciduous dentition, having gained in addition the first and 
second true molars of the permanent series. 

The tongue presented that deep leaden-bluish colour which Gili- 
bert describes*, but is rough, as in the common Ox, and the inner sur- 
face of the sides of the mouth is beset with the same kind of papillae. 
The scrotum and testes were much smaller than in the young do- 

* Gilibert, Indagatores Naturae in Lituania, De Bisonte Lituanico, pp. 30 — 49; 
Vilnae, 1781. 



290 Zoological Society. 

mestic Bull of the same age : the scrotum is rugous, sessile, not 
pendulous with a constricted neck, as in the Bos Taurus. 

As in most Ruminants, the principal viscus which presents itself 
on opening the abdomen, is the capacious paunch covered by the 
great omental sac : besides the paunch, some of the small intestines 
appeared in the right iliac and in the pubic regions. 

The paunch is firmly supported by its attachments on the dorsal 
aspect to the crura of the diaphragm and part of the expanded con- 
cavity of that muscle. The part of the serous membrane which 
answers to the aperture or mouth of the great omental sac in Man is 
attached to the upper and fore-part of the paunch, not to the lower 
or greater curvature, so that a free fold of the omentum is spread 
over the paunch between it and the abdominal muscles : the posterior 
fold of the omentum is attached to the left side or contour of the 
paunch, whence it is continued upon the fourth cavity, the duodenum 
and pancreas, and so on to the right crus of the diaphragm, forming 
one of the strong suspensory ligaments : the left lumbar attachment 
is continued more immediately from the long intra-abdominal oeso- 
phagus and back part of the paunch and reticulum. 

The paunch is sub-bifid, or divided into two principal chambers. 
The villi of its inner surface are intermediate in character between 
those of the common Ox and those of the American Bison. The 
villi of the rumen of the Ox are comparatively large, coarse, flat- 
tened, but pointed, except near the reticulum, where they assume 
the form of laminse with irregular jagged margins. In the American 
Bison they are longer, and for the most part filiform, and conse- 
quently more numerous. In the Aurochs the villi are shorter than 
in the Bison, and broader, being compressed and clavate, terminating 
in an even rounded margin : they are smaller and more numerous 
than in the common Ox. The relative position, size, and mode of 
intercommunication of the four divisions of the ruminating stomach 
offer no noticeable differences from that of the common Ox : but 
the disposition of the lining membrane of the second cavity (reticu- 
lum or honeycomb-bag) offers as marked a difference as that noticed 
on the inner surface of the paunch. In the common Ox the cells of 
the reticulum are deeper than in any Ruminant excepting the Camel- 
tribe, and they are of two kinds in respect of their size : the larger 
cells are disposed between broad parallel septa, and are formed by 
narrower septa at right angles to these : the smaller cells are sub- 
divisions of the larger or primary cells. 

In the Bison only one kind of hexagonal cells can properly be re- 
cognized, and their walls are of equal depth as a general rule : the 
folds developed from the bottom of these cells are much narrower, 
shorter, and more irregular than those that mark out the secondary 
cells in the common Ox. The laminae of the third cavity {psaltei'ium) 
are of two kinds, large and small ; the larger kind presenting two 
sizes which alternate with one another ; but betv/een each of the 
broader or larger kind of laminae one of the smaller kind intervenes : 
their surfaces are papillose, but the papillae are shorter than in the 
common Ox, which presents a similar arrangement of the laminae. 



Zoological {Society. 291 

A thick epithelium lines the whole of the three cavities above-de- 
scribed, as in other Ruminants. The lining membrane of the fourth 
or true digesting cavity was rather more vascular than usual : the 
almost smooth mucous membrane is produced into subparallel oblique 
folds li inch in breadth at its cardiac half: these subside towards 
the pyloric half, where the chief object is the valvular protuberance 
which overhangs the aperture leading into the duodenum. The 
duodenum bends backwards and turns down abruptly before gaining 
the left lumbar region ; then bends upwards and towards the left side, 
where it becomes free and carries out a complete investment from 
the mesentery : in the previous part of its course it is closely attached 
to the adjoining intestines. The principal mass of the small intes- 
tines lies dorsal and sacral of the enormous stomach, disposed in 
short coils upon the mesentery; they measured 132 feet in length. 

The ilium terminates in the caecum in the right lumbar region. 
The caecum is a simple, cylindrical, non- sacculated gut, about twice 
the diameter of the ilium ; it is bent upon the beginning of the colon, 
to which it is attached. 

The colon describes an arch at its commencement, ascending from 
the right side, and curving over to the left behind the paunch, then 
winding to the right again, and describing the series of subspiral 
folds characteristic of this gut in the Ruminants. The rectum de- 
scends nearly along the bodies of the lumbar and sacral vertebrae to 
the anus. The total length of the large intestines was twenty-one 
feet. The liver was proportionally small, and consisted chiefly of 
one lobe, as in other Ruminants ; not extending into the left e2:)igas- 
trium. There is a small lobulus Spigelii on the right and posterior 
border. 

The gall-bladder, large and full, protruded from a fissure in the 
right side of the liver : its duct receives four or five tributary ducts 
before it unites with the proper hepatic duct, which brings the bile 
from the left part of the liver. The ductus communis choledochus 
enters the duodenum where it forms its first bend. 

The pancreas lies below the liver, with its larger end across the 
last dorsal vertebra, and its narrower prolongation accompanying the 
duodenum ; the duct terminates in that intestine about eight inches 
beyond the biliary inlet. The kidneys consisted each of about twenty 
distinct lobes or renules. The more compact suprarenal bodies also 
m;inifested a subdivided outer surface. 

The above portions of the notes of the dissection of the male Au- 
rochs include all that appeared to be in any degree characteristic 
of the species, or affording any discriminative characters, as com- 
pared with its nearest congeners. The thoracic viscera, as far as 
their morbid condition permitted the comparison, were like those of 
the common Ox. I do not remember to have been so much im- 
pressed in former dissections of Ruminants Vv'ith the beautiful adap- 
tation of the parts exterior to the large and complex stomach, to its 
support and the facilitating its movements. Much of what is ordi- 
nary inelastic aponeurotic tissue in the abdominal parietes of many 



292 Zoological Society. 

other quadrupeds, e. g. the larger Carnivora, is metamorphosed into 
the yellow elastic tissue — tissu jaune — in the Aurochs, as in the 
common Ox, and in a still greater degree in the Rhinoceros and 
Elephant. By this change the abdominal muscles are proportionally 
relieved or aided in the sustentation of the capacious and heavily- 
laden digestive reservoirs. 

In the Aurochs, as in the other Ruminants, the disposition of the 
omental sac upon the sternal aspect of the paunch, interposed between 
it and the abdominal walls, makes it perform the office of a serous 
articular sac, two smooth and lubricated surfaces — the inner ones of 
the sac — being apposed to each other, and easily and freely gliding 
on each other ; it is like a kind of great ' tunica vaginalis ' — facili- 
tating the spiral peristaltic movements of the paunch, and by the 
layer of fat tending to preserve the warmth of the paunch. 

The skeleton of the Aurochs has been well delineated by Bojanus, 
in connection with an outline of the entire animal, and by Mr. George 
Landseer separately. The general characters of the framework of this 
rare species are very accurately rendered in both these figures. The 
skeleton of the young male Aurochs showed the same characteristic 
elevation of the spinous processes of the anterior dorsal vertebrae, 
and the same characteristic number of ribs — fourteen pairs — which 
are shown in the above-cited figures, and which repeated examina- 
tion has established as constant peculiarities of the species. With 
regard to the lengthened spines, I shall only remark on this inter- 
esting morphological peculiarity, that it contributes to illustrate the 
artificial nature of that view of the part commonly called rib, or ver- 
tebral rib, as a bone or element of the skeleton, apart from or be- 
longing to a distinct genus from the other vertebral elements. This 
view originally arose from the contemplation of the proportions of 
the ribs or pleurapophyses and spinous processes as they exist in Man. 
A long and slender form is associated with the idea of a rib as an 
essential character. In the Aurochs we see that the vertebral ele- 
ment called neural spine is longer than the pleurapophysis in the 
second and third dorsal vertebrae. But it is anchylosed to the other 
vertebral elements, whilst the pleurapophyses retain their primitive 
freedom, and the dorsal vertebrae are characterized as ' articulating 
with the ribs,' This, however, is a periodic, not an essential character. 
At an early period of life the cervical vertebrae also articulate with 
ribs, i. e. pleurapophyses ; but these become broad and remain short, 
and coalesce with the centrums and diapophyses of their respective 
vertebrae ; and the anthropotomist then calls them ' transverse pro- 
cesses,' and distinguishes them as being perforated, the foramen 
being the space included between the centrum, the diapophysis, and 
the pleurapophysis. 

Another remark is suggested by the skeleton of the Aurochs, 
touching the true value of the character of its fourteenth pair of free 
pleurapophyses. In the genus Bos proper there are only thirteen 
pairs. In the American Bison there are ^ifeew pairs. According to 
the artificial character in anatomy of the ' dorsal vertebrae,' the above- 



Zoological Society. 293 

cited Bovida have been supposed to diiFer actually in the number of 
their vertebrae, whereas this is absolutely the same in each of them ; 
after the seven cervical vertebrae there are nineteen true vertebrae, 
i. e. nineteen vertebrae between the last cervical and the sacral ver- 
tebrae. In the embryos of many Ungulates, rudiments of ribs (pleur- 
apophyses) are found moveably attached to vertebrae, to which they 
afterwards become anchylosed, and accordingly are called lumbar 
vertebrae. In the Aurochs these elements retain their freedom and 
growth in one more vertebra than in the common Ox ; in the Bison 
two more vertebrEe have moveable pleurapophyses. Accordingly we 
find that if the common Ox has but thirteen dorsal vertebrae, it has 
six lumbar vertebrae ; if the Aurochs has fourteen dorsal, it has five 
lumbar ; and if the Bison has fifteen dorsal vertebrae, it has but four 
lumbar. But the unity of the numerical character of the true ver- 
tebrae does not stop here ; for when we find, e. g. in the Dromedary, 
the Camel, the Llama, and the Vicugna, only twelve dorsal vertebrae, 
the typical nineteen is completed by seven lumbar vertebrae ; and 
this number is never surpassed in the Ruminants. Most of the species 
agree with the common Ox in the number of the true vertebrae that 
retain their pleurapophyses in moveable connection. The Reindeer 
and the GiraflFe resemble the Aurochs in having fourteen dorsal ver- 
tebrae. But what perhaps is still more interesting and usefully in- 
structive as to the true affinities of the hoofed quadrupeds with toes 
in even number, is the fact, that besides their common possession of 
a complex stomach and simple caecum, of a peculiar form of astra- 
galus, of a femur with two trochanters, and of a symmetrical pattern 
of the grinding surface of the molar teeth, they also agree, as I have 
shown in my paper on the genus Hyopotamus, in having nineteen 
natural segments of the skeleton, neither more nor less, between the 
neck and the pelvis. The Babiroussa, the African Wart-hogs (Pha- 
cochcerus), and the extinct Anoplotherium, resemble the majority of 
Ruminants in having thirteen dorsals and six lumbars ; the Wild Boar 
and the Peccari resemble the Aurochs in having fourteen dorsals and 
five lumbars ; the Hippopotamus resembles the Bison in having fifteen 
dorsals and four lumbars. 

This constancy in the number of the true vertebrae in the Artio- 
dactyle Ungulates is the more remarkable, and demonstrative of their 
natural co-affinity, by contrast with the variable number of those 
vertebrae in the odd- toed or Perissodactyle group, in which we find 
twenty-two dorso-lumbar vertebrae in the Rhinoceros, twenty-three 
in the Tapir and Palaeotherium, and as many as twenty-nine in the 
little Hyrax. 

With regard to the vertebrae of the trunk of the Aurochs, I may 
remark, that the only accessory process in addition to the ordinary 
zygapophyses and diapophyses is the metapophysis, which appears 
as a stout tubercle above the diapophysis in the middle dorsals, and 
gradually advances and rises upon the anterior zygapophyses in the 
posterior dorsal and lumbar vertebrae. This process is developed to 
an equality of length with the spinous i)rocesses in the Armadillos. 



294 Zoological Society. 

It is commonly associated with another accessory exogenous process, 
to which I have given the name ' anapojihysis ' in the Catalogue of 
the Osteological Series in the Royal College of Surgeons. This 
process, which in most of the Rodentia rises, at first, in common 
with the metapophysis, as a tubercle above the diapophysis, separates 
from the metapophysis as the vertebrae approach the pelvis, and in 
the lumbar series the anapophysis is seen projecting backwards from 
the base, or a little above the base of the diapophysis, its office being 
usually that of underlapping the anterior zygapophysis of the suc- 
ceeding vertebrae, and strengthening the articulation, whence Cuvier 
has alluded to it as an accessory articular process ; but its relation 
to the zygapophysial joint is an occasional and not a constant cha- 
racter. The tenth dorsal vertebra of the Saw-toothed Seal, Steno- 
rhynchus serridens, affords a good example of well-developed metapo- 
physes ; they are also large in most of the trunk vertebrae of the 
Tapir. The anapophyses are well-developed in the anterior lumbar 
vertebrae of the Hare and Rabbit. 

I have been induced to make this digression at the request of some 
of my anatomical friends, who have desired me to publish definitions 
of the terms, or rather of the processes so termed. 

Returning to the Aurochs, I shall conclude with some remarks, 
which the opportunity of dissecting the recent animal enables me to 
offer, respecting the true structure of the bones of the fore-foot (fig. 1) 
and hind-foot (fig. 2). 

The carpus (fig. 1) consists, as in other Ruminants, of six bones, 
four in the proximal row, viz. scaphoides (5), lunare (J), cuneiforme 
(c), pisiforme (j>) ; and two in the second row, the magnum (»?) and 
the unciforme («). 

The OS magnum supports that half of the cannon-bone which 
answers to the metacarpal of the digitus medius (iii). The unci- 
forme supports the other moiety which answers to the metacarpus 
of the digitus annularis (iv). The rudiment of the proximal end of 
the metacarpus of the digitus index (11) articulates with a part of the 
OS magnum, which may therefore be regarded as a connate trape- 
zoides. The rudiment of the proximal end of the metacarpal of the 
digitus minimus (v) articulates with the cuneiforme, and is applied 
to the ulnar end of the unciforme. 

The distal rudiments of the two abortive digits (11) and (v) are re- 
presented by a middle phalanx (2) and ungual phalanx (3), supported 
by fasciae extending from the proximal rudiments of their metacarpals, 
and also by ligaments attaching them to the large trochlear sesamoids 
behind the metacarpo-phalangeal joints of the two normal digits 
(ill and iv). These have each three phalanges (1, 2, 3) forming 
almost symmetrical pairs, with a large sesamoid {s) behind the distal 
joint. 

The hind- feet (fig. 2) are longer and more slender than the fore- 
feet, the greater length being chiefly due to the coalesced metatarsals. 

The tarsus includes five bones ; it seems to consist of six, but the 
ossicle (67) wedged between the tibia {&&), calcaneum (c/), and astra- 



Zoological Society, 



295 



galus (a), is the distal epiphysis of the fibula, and the sole represen- 
tative of that bone. The astragalus and calcaneum conform to the 
ordinary Ruminant type ; according to which, also, the naviculare {s) 
and cuboid {b) are confluent. The ectocuneiform (ce) is a broad flat 
bone supporting the moiety of the cannon-bone which answers to 
the digitus medius {iii) : a small round sesamoid (5) at the back of 
this joint has not sufficiently distinctive characters to carry convic- 
tion as to its special homology. The outer half of the cannon-bone, 
or metatarsal of the fourth toe {iv), articulates with the cuboid part 
of the scapho-cuboid bone. The second digit (ii) and fifth digit (v) 
are represented solely by the rudiments of their middle and ungual 
phalanges (2 & 3). There are two large trochlear sesamoids {s) 
behind the metatarso-phalangeal joints of the two fully-developed 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




tv ja 
Bones of fore-foot {Bison europaeus). 




Bones of hind-foot {Bison europaus). 



toes (Hi & iv), and one sesamoid behind the last joint of the same 
toes. 

In most artificially-prepared skeletons of Ruminants, moi'c or less 
of the small bones, often regarded as accessory, are lost ; but they are 
really for the most part beautifully indicative of traces of adherence 
to the archetype, and I have on that account particularized them in 
this notice of the anatomy of the Aurochs. 



296 Miscellaneous. 

Measurements of the Trunk of the Aurochs. 

Inches. 

Length of vertebral column from the atlas to the sixth caudal 

vertebra, measured across the diapophyses 81 

Length of vertebral column over the neural spines 88 

Length of cervical region over the diapophyses 17 

Length of dorsal region ditto 30 

Length of lumbar region ditto 13 

Length of sacral and six caudal ditto 21 

Depth of spine of seventh cervical 8 

Depth of spine of first, second and third dorsal, being the 

three longest, each 11 

Length of first rib 9 

Length of ninth, or the longest 18^ 

Seven ribs articulate by separate hsemapophyses to the sternum. 
Length of diapophysis of fourth lumbar, or the longest . . 4^ 

Breadth of atlas across the neural arch 7 

Extreme breadth across the spines of the ilia 14 

Extreme breadth across the pubis, from the inner edge of 
each acetabulum 6 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
On the Velvet-like Periostraca o/Trigona. By J. E. Gray, Esq. 

In my account of the species of the genus Trigona of Megerle, I 
mentioned that several species were covered with a velvet-like 
silvery coat hiding the surface of the horny periostraca. 

When this coat is minutely examined, it is found to be formed of 
numerous elongated spicula of a uniform length placed side by side 
perpendicular to the surface of the periostraca, so as to form a pile 
like velvet or plush. The length of the spicula, and consequently 
the thickness of the coat, increases towards the margin of the shell. 
This coat is generally rubbed off from the more convex part of the 
specimens which have not been very carefully preserved, but in such 
examples it is usually to be found near the edge of the valves, or on 
the lunule and other sunken portions of the surface. 

The Rev. Dr. Fleming has lately drawn my attention to the fact, 
that these spicula are siliceous and similar to those of siliceous 
sponges ; indeed Dr. Fleming is inclined to regard the velvet-like coat 
as a species of Halichondria parasitic on the shell rather than as a 
portion of the periostraca itself; and Dr. George Johnson of Ber- 
wick, who examined Dr. Fleming's specimen with me, is inclined to 
take the same view of the question. 

With these authorities opposed to my view I have reconsidered 
the question, but I am still inclined to believe that I am correct in 
considering the spicula as part of the shell formed by the animal as 
it produces the periostraca on the edge of the shell, and offer the 
following reasons in support of this conclusion : — 

1st. This kind of coat is found on several species of the genus 
which inhabit different pa>rts of the world. 



Miscellaneous. 297 

2nd. That the coat is uniformly spread over the whole surface of 
the shell ; in all parts of the shell it is only formed of a single series 
of spicula placed side by side parallel to each other and perpendi- 
cular to the surface of the shell, and that the spicula gradually in- 
crease in length, and consequently the coat in thickness, as the shell 
increases in size and thickness. 

3rd. That this velvet-like coat bears no resemblance to any spe- 
cimens of sponge that have come under my examination ; the spicula 
are not interwoven or felted together, but are placed parallel to each 
other in a most uniform manner ; and the coat always presents a 
uniform and even surface, and never shows any inclination to form 
prominences or branches on the surface, which is the habit of all the 
sponges I have seen which envelope and are parasitic on shells or 
other marine animals. 

4th. Our previous knowledge of the oeconomy of MoUusca has 
prepared us to believe that they can secrete siliceous bodies and 
form appendages on the surface of the periostraca separate from the 
body of the shell. Mr. Hancock has shown that the teeth on the 
tongue of various Gasteropodous MoUusca are siliceous, and he has 
shown that the surface of the foot and of various parts of the mantle 
of different acephalous and gasteropodous MoUusca is studded with 
siliceous granules, by which these animals are enabled to rasp away 
the surface of different marine bodies. 

Well-preserved specimens oiLucina pennsylvanica have each of the 
concentric ridges which ornament the surface of the shell fringed 
with a membranaceous or semicartilaginous expansion, which is 
edged with a series of most beautiful, regular, thick, convex, pearl- 
like pieces of shell, and the concentric ridges which cross the whorls 
of the outer surface of the horny operculum oi Liopa (^Delphinula, sp. 
Lam.) are fringed with beautiful regular subglobular pieces of shell. 

I may further observe, that the outer surface of the periostraca of 
many shells, both univalve and bivalve, is often covered with short 
crowded hair-like processes forming a velvety outer coat, as is easily 
seen in various species of Fectunculus, Buccinum, Triton, &c. 

I am therefore inclined to believe that in these Trigonce every layer 
or line of periostraca which is added to the edge of the one before 
deposited is furnished with a series of erect sUiceous spicula, which, 
in conjunction with those previously deposited, form the velvet-like 
coat of the periostraca found in that genus of bivalve shells. 

Though I am not wiUing to adopt the views of my friends Drs. 
Fleming and Johnson, yet I think that the discovery of the velvet- 
like coat of the Trigona being formed of siliceous spicula, is a most 
interesting addition to our knowledge of the oeconomy of MoUusca, 

THE TORTOISE-SHELL OF CELEBES*. 

Amongst the more valuable of the commodities which the enter- 
prising and industrious Bugis annually bring to us from Celebes and 

* Translated from the ' Verhandelingen van het Bataviaash Genootschap 
van Kunsten en Weienschappen,' vol. xvii. p. i. 

Ann. &f Mac/. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 20 



298 Miscellaneous, 

other eastern islands, tortoise-shell holds one of the first places. The 
quantity imported into Singapore sometimes rises above 13,000 and 
sometimes sinks below 7000 lbs., but the average, one year with 
another, is about 10,000 lbs. The following account by Mr. 
Vosmaer of its collection by the Orang Bajo of the south-eastern 
peninsula of Celebes will interest our readers. 

The Orang Bajo distinguish four principal kinds of Tortoise, and 
name them Kuhtan, Akung, Boko, and Rata. The first-named is 
the kind which, on account of its costly shell, is the most prized. It 
is the so-named Karet tortoise. The shell or back of this creature 
is covered with thirteen shields or blades, which lie regularly on each 
other in the manner of scales, five on the middle of the back and four 
on the sides ; these are the plates which furnish such costly tortoise- 
shell to art. The edge of the scale or of the back is further covered 
■with twenty-five thin pieces joined to each other, which in commerce 
are known under the appellation of feet or noses of the tortoise. The 
value of the tortoise-shell depends on the weight and quality of each 
head, under which expression is understood the collective tortoise- 
shell belonging to one and the same animal, which is the article of 
commerce so much in request both for the Chinese and European 
markets. 

Tortoise-shells which have white and black spots that touch each 
other, and are as much as possible similar on both sides of the blade, 
are, in the eyes of the Chinese, much finer, and are on that account 
more greedily monopolized by them, than those which want this pecu- 
liarity, and are on the contrary reddish, more damasked than spotted, 
possess little white, or whose colours, according to their taste, are 
badly distributed. The caprice of the Chinese makes them some- 
times value single heads at unheard-of prices, namely such as pass 
under the name of white heads, which they also distinguish by pe- 
culiar names. It is almost impossible to give an accurate descrip- 
tion of these kinds, and of their subdivisions, for these depend on 
many circumstances which remain inappreciable to our ej^es. It is 
therefore enough for me to remark on this subject, that such heads 
as, possessing the above-named qualities, are very white on the 
blades, and have the outer rim of each blade to the breadth of two 
or three fingers wholly white, and the weight of which amounts to 
2^ catties (qualities which are seldom found united), may be valued 
at one thousand guilders and upwards. The feet of the tortoise-shell 
are only destined for the Chinese market ; whenever the two hinder 
pieces are sound and have the weight of ^ catty or thereabouts, 
which is very seldom the case, they may reach the value of fifty 
guilders and more. The whole shell of a tortoise seldom weighs 
more than three catties, notwithstanding it is asserted that there 
sometimes occur heads of four and five catties. Tortoise-shells are 
also sometimes found, of which the shell, instead of thirteen blades, 
consists of a single undivided blade ; the Orang Bajos call this kind, 
which very seldom occurs, Lojong. 

The Akung alsc^ furnishes tortoise-shell (Karet), but the shell 
being thin, and of a poor quality, much less value is attached to it. 



Miscellaneous > 299 

The Boko is the same as that which is called Panju by the Malays. 
It is the common sea-tortoise, which is of no other use than to be 
eaten. To these sorts the Panjubui ought to be added, being the 
common tortoise with a thick shell, like that of the proper tortoise, 
but of poor quahty and therefore of trifling value ; so also the Akung 
Boko, which is distinguished from the common Boko by its much 
larger head. 

The Ratu, lastly, furnishes a sort which is distinguished by its 
peculiarly great size, the Orang Bajos asserting that it is usually 
twice as big as the largest tortoise-shell tortoise, and therefore 5 to 
6 feet long, and even more. 

The usual modes by which the Orang Bajos catch the tortoise 
are principally by the hadung, the harpoon and the net ; to these we 
add the simplest of all, namely falling upon the females when they 
resort to the strand to lay their eggs. This is also the most usual, 
I may almost say the only way, by which the inhabitants of the 
coast catch this animal. They need nothing more, than, as soon as 
they have got the creature, to turn it on its back, when, unable to 
turn itself again, it remains lying helpless in their power. It some- 
times also falls into the hands of the dwellers on the coast through 
means of their fishing-stakes, into which it enters like the fish, and 
from which it can find no outlet, but remains imprisoned in the 
inner-most chamber. 

Whenever the Orang Bajos have caught a tortoise, they kill it 
immediately, by bestowing some blows upon the head. They then 
take its upper shield, or the back itself quite off, being the only thing 
about the animal which is of value. The tortoise-shell adhering so 
fast to the shield, that, if they at once pulled it off, there would be 
danger of tearing the shells, they usually wait three days, during 
which time the soft parts become decomposed and the shells are 
loosened with little trouble. When they wish to remove the shell 
immediately after the capture, they separate it by means of boiling 
water. They also often accomplish this object by the heat of a fire, 
in the application of which, however, a danger is run of injuring the 
shell by burning it, for which reason this mode is only adopted by 
those who do not know its value. — Journal of the Indian Archipelago 
and Eastern Asia, April 1849. 

Notice of some Mollusca recently/ taken by George Barlee, Esq., off 
Lerwick, and exhibited at the Meeting of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, I7th Sept. 1849. By J. G. Jeffreys, 
Esq., F.R.S. 

Diphyllidia lineata. Otto. New to the British seas, but (according 
to M. Milne-Edwards) only one-fourth the usual size. 

Rissoa eximia, nov. sp. Shell oblong, rather solid, white. Whorls 5, 
the last equal in length to all the rest, rather swollen and ribbed 
longitudinally. The ribs are sharp, deep, and curved in the direction 
of the spire. There are about twelve of them on the last or body 
whorl. The two first whorls are destitute of ribs or any markings. 

20* 



300 Miscellaneous. 

These ribs are crossed in the middle of each of the last three whorls 
by other spiral ribs, of which there are three on the last, two on the 
next, and one on the middle whorl. The spiral or transverse ribs are 
only half the width and thickness of the longitudinal ribs. Base of 
the last whorl smooth. Suture deep and distinct, giving the spire 
rather a turreted appearance. Aperture oval, simple, contracted at 
the upper angle and smooth within. There is a slight fold on the 
pillar, forming behind it a small umbilicus. Length ^, breadth J^ 
of an inch. Somewhat resembles Odostomia pupa of Searles Wood 
in markings, and Rissoa Zetlandica in form. 

Fusus Berniciensls. From the hooks on fishing lines in deep water. 

Rostellaria Pescarbonis, Sow. 

Scissurella crispata. Alive, adhering to stones like Emarginula. 
The shell has no operculum, but it is to be regretted that Mr. Bar- 
lee did not observe the animal. 

Tellina balaustina. One specimen, half-grown. 

Descriptions of neiv Freshwater Shells. By T. A. Conrad. 

The following new freshwater shells from Georgia were kindly 
lent me for description by J. Hamilton Couper, Esq. 

Unio. 

U. securi/ormis. Suborbicular, thick, compressed ; valves slightly 
convex ; umbo flattened, marked with obtuse, narrow, divaricated 
plaits ; plaits on the lower half of the valves obscure and interrujjted ; 
umbonial slope rounded ; posterior slope with strong oblique plaits 
towards the apex ; beaks eroded ; epidermis black ; within white ; 
cardinal teeth large, direct, profoundly sulcated. 1^ : 1^. 

Inhabits Flint River, Georgia. 

U. stagnalis. Widely elliptical, ventricose, rather thin ; towards 
the posterior extremity very thin and fragile ; anteriorly regularly 
rounded ; posteriorly somewhat pointed, with an acutely rounded ex- 
tremity; basal margin regulai-ly curved; summits prominent, eroded; 
posterior margin very oblique and nearly straight ; epidermis ochra- 
ceous and olivaceous ; rays green, not very distinct on the middle 
and anterior side, but more so posteriorly, some rather broad, others 
linear ; posterior slope dark-coloured, rayed ; within white and highly 
iridescent posteriorly ; cardinal teeth much compressed and oblique, 
double in each valve ; lateral teeth very slightly curved, finely gra- 
nulated. Z\. 

Inhabits mill-ponds ; Ogeechee River, Georgia. 

17. Ogeecheensis. Elliptical, thin, inflated ; posterior side some- 
what pointed, extremity subangular ; valves slightly contracted from 
beak to base ; summits rather prominent, decorticated, slightly un- 
dulated ; epidermis ochraceous with interrupted green rays, some of 
them broad ; within white, highly iridescent posteriorly ; cardinal 
teeth oblique, compi'essed ; lateral teeth rectilinear. 3. 

Inhabits Ogeechee River, Georgia. 

Allied to the preceding, but has a lighter-coloured epidermis with 



Miscellaneous. 301 

more distinct rays, and is proportionally longer ; the cardinal tooth in 
the left valve is longer and less lobed, and the lateral teeth are 
straight, without granules, and less oblique than in the preceding 
species, which is a larger shell. 

U. oratus. Widely elliptical, ventricose, gaping at both ends ; 
posterior gape wide ; anterior extremity rather acutely rounded ; 
posterior margin sinuous, extremity subangular ; basal margin form- 
ing a nearly regular curve ; summits prominent ; umbo and beak 
eroded ; epidermis ochraceous, polished ; cardinal teeth compressed, 
oblique ; lateral teeth straight ; within white, much stained with 
waxen yellow. 3^. 

Inhabits Flint River, Georgia. 

This shell has the polished epidermis of U. cariosus, but is with- 
out a ray. It is longer in proportion than that species, with very 
different cardinal teeth, which are much nearer parallel with the 
margin above ; the shell also gapes far wider in the only specimen 
I have seen. 

U. rosaceus. Widely elliptical, ventricose above ; posterior mar- 
gin obliquely truncated, slightly sinuous ; extremity subangular or 
acutely rounded ; epidermis ochraceous and dark brown ; rays indi- 
stinct, frequently broad, but composed of fasciculi of lines ; surface 
with fine radiating wrinkles ; within deep rose-purple ; cardinal 
teeth prominent, oblique, compressed, trifid, or three teeth in the left 
valve. 3^. 

Inhabits Savannah River. 

Allied to U. ochraceus. Say. 

U. contrarius. Elliptical, moderately thick; valves somewhat 
flattened or plano-convex ; umbo and beak not prominent, much 
eroded ; umbonial slope acutely rounded ; posterior margin straight 
above, truncated, direct ; epidermis deep ochraceous, with linear 
radiating wrinkles, and obscurely rayed about the umbo ; within pale 
flesh-colour stained with waxen yellow ; cardinal teeth direct, thick, 
sulcated, not very prominent ; lateral teeth reversed, or the double 
tooth in the right valve. 3 1-5. 

Inhabits the Ogeechee River. 

U. nucleopsis. Obtusely subovate, slightly oblique, thick, nut 
ventricose ; umbonial slope rounded ; posterior slope with a few 
obscure plaits ; posterior margin subtruncated ; basal margin slightly 
tumid near the middle ; epidermis ochraceous, with a series of green 
spots along the umbonial slope ; posterior slope obsoletely striated ; 
within bluish white ; cardinal teeth thick, direct, single in the right 
valve. 1^. 

Inhabits Etowah River. 

U. Umatulus. Subelliptical, convex ; posterior side somewhat 
pointed ; umbonial slope angular ; posterior slo])e subcarinated in the 
middle ; posterior margin obliquely truncated ; extremity truncated, 
direct; basal margin regularly rounded; beaks not prominent, eroded; 
epidermis highly polished, dark brown and ochraceous, obscurely 



302 Miscellaneous. 

rayed ; within flesh-colour or pale salmon ; cardinal teeth oblique, 
compressed, double in each valve ; lateral teeth long, slightly- 
curved. 2. 

Inhabits Savannah River. 

U. aratiis. Trapezoidal, thick ; valves flattened on the sides, 
slightly contracted, marked with irregular arched, obtuse, inter- 
rupted folds, extending from the beaks nearly to the base ; umbonial 
slope angular ; posterior slope plicated ; beaks not prominent, pro- 
foundly eroded ; ligament margin elevated ; posterior extremity 
truncated obliquely inwards; basal margin contracted; epidermis 
nearly black ; within white, with a purple margin ; cardinal teeth 
direct, very thick, sulcated ; lateral teeth slightly arched. 

Inhabits Flint River, Georgia. 

Allied to U. Sloatianus and trapezoides. Lea. 

Margaritana, Schiim. 

M. Etowaensis. Oblong-ovate, thin and fragile, widely contracted 
from beak to base ; umbonial slope ventricose, with a plano-convex 
or flattened surface ; ligament margin rather elevated ; posterior sub- 
margin slightly concave ; umbonial slope angular posteriorly ; beaks 
eroded ; posterior extremity angular ; margin rounded towards the 
base ; basal margin subrectilinear ; within bluish and purplish, irides- 
cent ; cardinal tooth in the right valve rather long, oblique, com- 
pressed, curved, prominent ; in the opposite valve the tooth is widely 
bifid, the posterior lobe pyramidal. 

Inhabits Etowah River. 

Allied to M. Ravendiana, Lea. 

Melania. 

M. coelatura. Ovate-oblong, turreted ; volutions 6, with longi- 
tudinal ribs and unequal prominent revolving lines, subnodulous 
where they cross the ribs ; the ribs on the body whorl do not reach 
the middle ; the colour ochraceous and brown ; aperture narrow, 
elliptical ; labium with interior brown bands ; superior part of colu- 
mella somewhat callous. 

Inhabits Savannah River. 

M. petangulata. Subulate ; volutions 9 or 10, with an acutely 
carinated angle on all except the body whorl, which is subcarinated ; 
on each whorl of the spire is a revolving granulated line above the 
carina ; colour olive-brown. 

Inhabits Savannah River. 

M. nebulosa. Elongate- conoidal ; volutions 6 or 7, with revolving 
raised lines ', whorls of the spire carinated below the middle, above 
Mhich they are longitudinally ribbed, and have two or three revolving 
granulated lines ; granules compressed ; aperture widely elliptical ; 
colour ochraceous, with brownish black stains. , 

Inhabits Savannah River. 

M. percarinata. Elongate-conoidal ; volutions of the spire with 
a carinated line below the middle, and a revolving granulated line 
above ; body whorl with a granulated revolving line near the suture. 



Meteorological Observations. 303 

and three carinated lines, the superior one largest, the lower one tine ; 
colour dark olive-brown. 

Inhabits Savannah River. 

M. symmetrica. Subulate ; whorls 9, slightly convex, with lon- 
gitudinal, siightl}^ curved, narrow ribs, interrupted near the suture 
by a revolving granulated line ; ribs on the body whorl not extending 
as far as the middle ; margin of labrum profoundly rounded ; colour 
ochraceous and black. 

Inhabits Savannah River. 

Near the apex two or three volutions have a fine, granulated, 
carinated line. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR AUG. 1849. 

Cbiswick. — August \. Very fine: clear. 2. Very fine: slight rain. 3. Slight 
rain : overcast : cold at night. 4. Clear and fine. 5. Fine: cloudy. 6. Cloud- 
less : very fine. 7. Fine ; overcast : rain. 8. Clear : very fine : lightning. 9, 
Foggy : very fine : heavy showers. 10. Hazy: very fine : clear. 11. Clear: 
cloudy: rain. 12. Overcast : clear : rain. 13. Showery. 14. Cloudy and fine. 
15. Very fine. 16. Showery : very clear at night. 17 — 19. Fine. 20. Cloudy. 
21 — 23. Very fine. 24. Very fine : hazy. 25. Uniformly overcast : very fine. 

26, 27. Very fine. 28. Very fine : slight rain at night. 29. Overcast. 30. 
Dry haze: rain at night. 31. Hazy : cloudy and fine. 

Mean temperature of the month e2°"91 

Mean temperature of Aug. 1848 58 "74 

Mean temperature of Aug. for the last twenty-three years 62 "18 
Average amount of rain in August 2*41 inches, 

Boston. — Aug. 1. Fine. 2. Fine : rain p.m. 3. Cloudy. 4. Fine. 5 — 7. 
Cloudy. 8. Cloudy : rain early a.m.: thermometer 79° 3 p.m. 9. Fine : rain 
r.M. 10, 11. Cloudy: rain p.m. 12. Fine. 13. Cloudy : rain p.m. 14. Cloudy. 
15. Fine. 16. Cloudy. 17. Fine. 18. Cloudy : rain a.m. 19. Fine. 20 — 
23. Cloudy. 24— 26. Fine. 27— 29. Cloudy. SO. Cloudy : rain p.m. 31. Fine. 

Applegarlk Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Aug. 1. Fair. 2, 3. Fair : a few drops p.m. 
4. Fair and warm. 5, 6. Fair : warm : cloudy p.m. 7. Frequent showers. 8. 
Fair and fine : beautiful day. 9. Very warm : thunder: showers. 10. Heavy 
shower : very warm. 11. Very heavy rain : thunder. 12. Rain: river flooded. 
13. Heavy rain. 14. Showers a.m. : cloudy p.m. 15. One shower : dull and 
cloudy. 16. Heavy showers: hail. 17. Wet a.m.: fine: thunder p.m. 18. Fre- 
quent showers. 19. Fair: calm: cloudy. 20. Fair and fine. 21. Fair, but 
dull and cloudy. 22. Light drizzling showers. 23. Showers frequent, not 
heavy. 24. Fair, but cloudy. 25. Shower during night : cleared. 26. Showers 
A.M. : fine. 27. Fair and bracing: harvest day. 28. Fair, but dull : rain p.m. 
29. Fair and fine all day. 30. Rain throughout. 31. Fair and fine : dull: 
cleared. 

Mean temperature of the month 56°"7 

Mean temperature of Aug. 1848 53*7 

Mean temperature of Aug for the last twenty-five years ... 57 "1 

Mean rain in Aug. for twenty years 3*60 inches. 

Sandivick Manse, Orkney. — Aug. 1. Drizzle. 2 — 4. Drizzle : showers. 5. Fog: 
cloudy. 6. Fog. 7. Cloudy. 8. Rain : fog. 9. Hazy : fog. 10. Hazy : 
cloudy. 11. Cloudy : rain. 12. Clear : clear, aurora. 13. Bright : clear. 14. 
Drizzle : rain. 15. Clear. 16. Bright : cloudy. 17. Showers. 18. Bright: 
cloudy A.M. 19. Damp: cloudy. 20. Drizzle: damp. 21. Rain: fine. 22. 
Rain : clear. 23. Clear. 24. Clear : cloudy. 25. Bain. 26. Bright : showers. 

27. Bright : cloudy. 28. Cloudy : showers. 29. Drizzle : damp. 30. Bright: 
damp. 31. Clear: fine. 



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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 23. NOVEMBER 1849. 



XXXI. — Notice of the occurrence on the British coast of a 
Burrowing Barnacle belonging to a new Order of the Class 
Cirripedia. By xIlbany Hancock, Esq.* 

[With two Plates.] 

I HAVE recently procured a very curious little animal belonging 
to the class Ciry-ipedia, interesting not only on account of its 
modification of form, but also from its habit of burying itself in 
the substance of dead shells. The first individuals obtained 
w^ere concealed in a broken specimen of Fusus antiquus procured 
by the Rev. G. C. Abbes from the fishing boats at Whitburn in 
the county of Durham, and fortunately preserved on account of 
the fine specimens of Cliona gorgonioides which it contained. 
Since then I have got this Cirripede alive from the boats at Cul- 
lercoats, also in Fusus antiquus ; it has likewise occurred in Buc- 
cinum undatum from the same locality. And on breaking an old 
specimen of the former, which has been many years in my col- 
lection, it was found to have been extensively attacked by this 
novel parasite. Indeed almost every dead specimen of the large 
Fusus brought m by the fishermen from deep water is more or 
less affected by it ; and the only wonder is that it should have 
remained so long undetected. This perhaps may be explained 
by the fact that this animal only attacks dead shells, and always, 
as far as I have yet observed, from the inside, so that it is 
scarcely to be seen until the shell is broken. The columella is 
the chief seat of the ravages of this creature, though the sides of 
the whorls do not by any means escape, especially if the indi- 
viduals are numerous. When quite young they enter the sound 
shell, and as they grow enlarge their residence, which is always 
of the exact size and form of the tenant. 

It is interesting to remark how completely this animal, toge- 

* Read at the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science held at Birmingham, Sept. 12, 1849. 

Ann. ^ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 21 



306 Mr. A. Hancock on a BwTowing Barnacle 

ther with Cliona, destroys the shells of the larger moUusks of 
our coast. Cliona enters by the outer surface of the living shell, 
and rapidly spreads over the whorls ; but it is not until after 
death that the inner surface becomes much affected by it. Then 
this Cirripede commences its ravages on the columella, which it 
soon deprives of more than half its substance, and afterwards so 
reduces it and the inner surface of the whorls, that this once 
secure retreat of the mollusk, losing all power to resist external 
forces, speedily becomes a crumbling ruin. 

Little is to be seen externally, — a small slit in the shell or 
matrix marks the position of the head (PL VIII. figs. 1 & 2 Z»). 
This slit, which is one-eighth of an inch long, is rounded and 
gradually enlarged towards one end, and tapers to a tolerably 
line point at the other, which is generally a little bent. At this 
extremity the shell is mostly stained of a reddish hue (PL VIII. 
figs. 1 & 2 a) — the stain being well-defined and of an ovate or 
fan-like form, increasing in size for about -j^ths of an inch back- 
wards, and having a few pale radiating lines, which converge 
towards the slit ; on these lines there are a few minute punctures 
irregularly distributed ; but whether for functional purposes, or 
merely accidentally resulting from the close a])proximation of 
the animal to the surface, could not be determined : they are not 
unfrequently partially closed up with calcareous matter. 

The stain is cavised by the animal appearing through, which 
lies immediately below the surface of the matrix. This must be 
broken before the animal (PL VIII. figs. 3, 4, 5) can be removed, 
and then it is found to be y^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ mch long, and y%ths of an 
inch wide at the broadest part, of an irregular ovate form consi- 
derably depressed behind, h, where it expands into a broad circular 
disc ; and narrow and compressed in front, a, forming a sort of 
produced neck or head with a longitudinal slit, c', on the upper 
surface; — the general form resembling considerably a Roman 
lamp, the slit representing the orifice for the passage of the wick. 
The produced portion or head corresponds to the valvular part of 
the pedunculate Cirri])ede, and contains the body and arms or 
feet, — the slit being analogous to the usual opening for the pas- 
sage of these prehensile organs : there are, however, no shelly 
plates whatever, the mantle being soft, fleshy and highly con- 
tractile, having the sm'face distinctly marked with fine longitu- 
dinal muscular fibres below; this part arches deeply into the 
matrix, and joins rather abruptly the under surface of the de- 
pressed disc-like portion of the animal considerably behind the 
posterior end of the longitudinal slit. The margins of this slit 
are perfectly straight, thickened, and have somewhat the appear- 
ance of horn, but cannot be considered as forming distinct jjlates, 
though they compose, as it were, two valvular lips (figs. 3 & 5 c). 



belonging to a new Order of the Class Cirripedia. 307 

which can be closed or oi)eiied at the will of the animal ; in front 
they gradually blend with the mantle, behind they are deeply 
notched, and each terminates in a projecting, slightly curved 
point, d. The external surface of tliese valvular lips is furnished 
with numerous, minute, irregularly disposed, rather stout, curved 
spines, very transpai'ent and of a crystalline appearance. The 
circular, depressed, disc-like portion of the animal, corresponding 
to the pedicle of the pedunculate Barnacles, is slightly arched 
below, where it is pale, soft, fleshy, and as highly contractile as 
the anterior portion or head : the upper surface is flat, and has 
in the centre a broadly ovate, horny plate (figs. 3 & 5 e), most 
distinct in old individuals, but never entirely covering the part, 
the margins always extending beyond it. This plate is of a red- 
dish horn-colour, and is generally furnished with a few indistinct 
radiating ridges and tubercles corresponding to the radiating 
lines and punctures seen on the surface of the matrix. 

The animal, as before stated, lies immediately below the sur- 
face of the matrix, and is entirely free except at a point just be- 
hind the slit, g, and in front of the horny plate where there is a 
strong muscular attachment to the upper wall of the chamber. 
The longitudinal opening of the animal corresponds to the slit 
on the surface of the matrix : this opening is kept pretty accu- 
rately plugged by the thickened valvular lips of the animal, ex- 
cept when it is in watch for its prey, at which time a slight 
opening in front permits the passage of the prehensile arms 
(PI. VIII. figs. 3, 6 & 7/, </ & e, and PI. IX. fig. 1). These 
occupy the same position within the head or neck as they do in 
the valvular part of the pedunculate Cirripedes, being placed 
immediately in front of the mouth. They differ however consi- 
derably from those of all other Cirripedes. The arms of this 
animal are only six in number ; they are short and set in a circle 
on the extremity of a soft, fleshy, cylindrical pedicle (fig. 6 c), 
which is undoubtedly a prolongation of the true body of the 
animal ; the circle opens a little behind in the direction of the 
mouth. The arms are each composed of three articulations, the 
first or lowest being nmch the longest, the last the shortest ; 
they are all furnished with a few hairs on the margins and extre- 
mities : the four arms next the mouth have attached to their in- 
ner margins at the junction of the first and second articulations 
an oval cushion-hke body (PI. VIII. fig. 9, and PL IX. fig. \bh) 
placed longitudinally^, and wrinkled transversely, most probably 
for th^ purpose of prehension. Immediately behind the arms pro- 
jects a large conical body (PI. VIII. fig. 6/ and fig. 7 a) con- 
taining the mouth (fig. 6 <? & fig. 7 e')j which is placed near the 
base in front towards the circle of arms. The greater portion of 

21* 



308 Mr. A. Hancock on a Burrowing Barnacle 

this body is composed of the upper lip, which differs considerably 
from that of the other Cirripedes. In this it is delicate and 
horny, being enormously developed and surmounted by a sort of 
rostrum (figs, 6 & 7^ & h), which projects upwards and forwards 
and terminates in a slightly produced obtuse point ; the dorsal 
margin (fig. 7 c) is carinated and minutely denticulated. There 
are three pairs of mandibles as in the other Cirripedes : the outer 
pair,y, are each apparently composed of three articulations, the 
third or terminal one being much compressed, forming an irre- 
gular oval plate, with the upper end terminating in a tooth-like 
process curved inwards; the two other articulations are much 
narrower, but on account of their minuteness and delicacy their 
form could not be determined with accuracy. Only two articula- 
tions were observed in the second pair of mandibles, g ; the inner 
or first articulation is long, thin and straight, with the extremi- 
ties enlarged, and of an irregular form ; the outer or second joint 
is very similar to that of the outer pair ; it is however provided 
with two incurved teeth or spine-like processes at the upper ex- 
tremity. The innermost or third pair of mandibles, h, are rather 
wide, squarish plates with three or four stoutish hairs on their 
upper margin. 

At each side of the mouth there is a stout arm or palj) (fig. 6 h 
& fig. 7 d d) which stands erect and reaches a little above the 
ridge of the rostrum ; the anterior margin of these arms is a 
little convex, the posterior a little concave; and they are fur- 
nished with stout, rather soft pincers about half the length of 
the arm, covered with numerous long hairs : at the root of the 
pincers there is an articulation, so that they can be either bent 
forward or carried erect ; there is also apparently an imperfect 
joint at the point where the arm joins the side of the mouth, but 
this could not be determined with certainty, as the horny mem- 
brane of the limb is so delicate that it is impossible to say whe- 
ther the occasional flexure at this part is owing to its flexibility 
or to an articulation. It is difficult to say whether these arms 
represent what Dr. Martin-Saint-Ange names the jaw-feet in 
the pedunculate Cirripedes, or the two minute processes that 
are closely attached to the sides of the mouth in these animals, 
and which are considered palps by some writers. They seem to 
occupy the place of the latter, though from their form they have 
much the appearance of rudimentary anterior feet of the higher 
Crustacea. 

On each side of the rostrum, extending backwards and a little 
way below the carinated ridge, there is a series of rather close- 
set, transverse plates or hairs (figs. 6 & 7 z i) which taper towards 
their points, and are stout at their origin, where they are slightly 



belonging to a new Order of the Class Cirripedia. 309 

bind, and exhibit for some distance upwards tbe appearance of 
two channels (fig. 8), There can be little doubt that these or- 
gans are for branchial purposes. 

The chamber in which the animal is lodged is partially lined 
with calcareous matter secreted by the tenant ; this lining is very 
thin, and principally confined to the side walls of that part in 
which the anterior portion of the animal is lodged : here the 
lining gradually thickens as it approaches the margins of the slit, 
and passes a little beyond them, particularly towards its poste- 
rior termination. On looking down upon the slit this shelly 
lining (fig. 2 c) is seen distinctly projecting inwards from the 
margins, and exhibiting two or three longitudinal ridges mark- 
ing periods of growth, narrowing the opening backwards as the 
increase of the animal requires the advancement of the aperture 
in front. Shelly granules, d, may also occasionally be seen tilling 
up the curved posterior extremity of the slit. 

Notwithstanding the abundance of this animal I have not yet 
been able to investigate the internal anatomy, many specimens 
having necessarily been destroyed in making the external exami- 
nations, and others svifFered in attempts to remove them from 
their abode. This important part of the description must there- 
fore for the present be left almost untouched. 

The cloak below is free for a considerable way backwards ; 
above, immediately behind the slit, it is united in front with the 
true body of the animal, and behind, where the broad disc-like 
expansion is covered with the horny plate, it blends with a 
thickish layer of parenchymatous matter. The stomach is long 
and narrow, and passing downwards and backwards from the 
mouth bends rather suddenly forwards, and gradually tapering 
is continued into the cylindrical, fleshy pedicle which supports 
the arms, near to which it probably terminates. No caudal pro- 
longation of this part was observed similar to that which is com- 
mon to all the other Cirripedes ; the generative organs are there- 
fore probably moditied in this animal. 

Adhering to the parenchymatous matter beneath the horny 
plate the eggs are found spread out into a leaf-like expansion 
co-extensive with this part of the animal ; but whether or not 
this is really the ovarium could not be determined. It may be 
that the eggs have reached this position in some such way as 
they are supposed by certain writers to arrive in the pedicle of 
the pedunculate Barnacles. However, in this animal it is certain 
that the ova are never arranged in laminae at the base of the arms 
as in the other Cirripedes, but that they are hatched in the posi- 
tion in which they have just been described. Of this I have had 
ocular proof. 

In the early stages of development the eggs (PI. IX. figs. 5 



310 Mr. A. Hancock on a Burrowing Barnacle 

& 6) are of a yellow ochre colour, and the yolk is round and 
much smaller than the shell ; the yolk gradually assumes au ellip- 
tical form and soon fills the shell, it afterwards becomes a little 
flattened on one side (figs. 7 & 8), and by-and-by (figs. 9 & 10) 
three processes develope themselves from this part ; these pro- 
cesses are the rudimentary arms : about this time a black spot, 
the eye, makes its appearance towards one end, and at the other 
the tail is seen to be forming ; afterwards these parts enlarge and 
gradually put on their perfect forms, while the egg mass assumes 
a full rose-colour. 

On examining an individual in which the eggs had been ex- 
posed, they were all found to be in a high state of development ; 
on applying a powerful lens, I was delighted to find that nearly 
all the little creatures were alive, and most of them struggling 
for liberty. I soon had the satisfaction to observe several dis- 
engage themselves, and launch forth into the surrounding fluid — 
free, natatory Crustaceans. In the course of a few hours nearly 
the whole were hatched, and the wine-glass in which they were, 
exhibited a most animated scene. On holding it up to the light 
they were quite visible to the unassisted eye as white points; but 
with the aid of a magnifying-glass their motions could be accu- 
rately observed, and they were seen to resemble some of the En- 
tomustraca ; their large, single eye and general conformation show- 
ing their relationship to the genus Cyclops. They hung as it were 
suspended in the water, and every now and then dashed rapidly 
upwards with a fluttering, jerking motion. They commenced 
their ascent with great abruptness, and as abruptly became qui- 
escent again ; and once more hanging in the water were seen to 
descend slowly and gradually with their feet spread out above 
and their back downwards. They seldom or never moved hori- 
zontally, their chief object apparently being to ascend either per- 
pendicularly or diagonally, and always in an inverted position. 

On placing a few of these minute beings (PI. IX. figs. 2, 3 & 4) 
vmder the microscope, each was found to be provided with a tail, 
the body being ovate, broad and depressed, having on the back 
an ovate shield tapering a little backwards and with a broad in- 
terrapted line (figs. 2 & 4 a) of bright rose-colour towards the 
mai'gins : it is to this line chiefly that the general mass of eggs 
has a rosy hue as they approach maturity. The eye is large and 
placed in the centre of the forehead; it is of a vei'y deep rose- 
colour, — almost black in some lights. The tail is more than half 
the length of the body, and passes from below the shield, and 
appears to be composed of two or three articulations: at first it 
is very stout, but rather suddenly narrowing, tapers gradually to 
a tolerably fine point and arches upwards ; on the under surface, 
at the point of contraction, there is a small curved spine. There 



belonging to a new Ordei' of the Class Cirripedia. 311 

are three pairs of natatory legs placed well forwards and indi- 
stinctly articulated ; the anterior pair are simple and furnished 
with a few long setse at their extremities ; the other two pairs are 
bifid, the anterior portion being much the stouter, and marked 
with several indistinct close-set articulations towards the extre- 
mity ; each articulation bearing on its posterior margin a long 
seta : the posterior branch of the limb is also furnished with setge 
at its extremity. On each side of the head there is a stout pro- 
cess a little arched backwards with the point obtuse; these I am 
inclined to look upon as antennae, for they appear to arise from 
the head beneath the shield, though this could not be determined 
with certainty. It is possible enough that they are lateral pro- 
longations of the shield, similar to the " anterior horns '' of the 
larva of the pedunculate Cirripedes. Whether so or not, the 
larva of this new animal may at once be distinguished from that 
of this division of the Barnacles by the absence of the long spine 
projecting from the posterior margin of the shield. In other 
respects it evidently shows a strong general resemblance to the 
larva of these animals. 

The larva, then, as well as the characters of the animal itself, 
proves it to be a true Cirripede, while, in the former, we see a 
confirmation of the relationship shown by Thompson to exist 
between these creatures and the Crustaceans. Indeed this ani- 
mal in several particulars exhibits a very close approximation to 
them. The shape of the arms or palps by the sides of the mouth 
resembles not a little the mandibles of the Nymphons or the ante- 
rior feet of some of the higher forms ; and the horny shield over- 
Ijdng the expanded portion of the animal gives somewhat the 
idea of a rudimentary carapace : the rostrated upper lip, too, and 
setaceous branchiae have likewise a very crustacean appearance. 

In these particulars our new animal diifers from the typical 
Cirripedes ; but not more than in general form, which is very 
unlike that of either of the two great divisions of the class. The 
prehensile arms or feet, too, are highly characteristic in this, 
having, in fact, more the appearance of true feet than the cirri of 
the other Cirripedes; there are only six, or three pairs, while in 
all the other Barnacles there are double that number, or six pairs. 
In our animal the last or terminal joint is shortest and is simple, 
having few and comparatively short setae : the arms or feet indeed 
appear to be merely prehensile organs laying hold of prey by the 
aid of the cushion-like swellings before described as attached to 
their inner margins. 

The cirrigerous feet of the other Cirripedes are also undoubt- 
edly prehensile, but in a very different manner. In these each 
terminates in a pair of slender, much-elongated and curled ciri'i 
composed of numerous, minute articulations, furnished with a 



313 Mr. A. Hancock on a Burrowing Barnacle 

multitude of very long set?e arranged in double rows along the 
surface next the mouth. These setse diverge, so that when the 
cirri are spread out, the tips of the setse of the adjoining cirri cross 
each other, making a very complete net which the Cirripede is for 
ever spreading out and sweeping through the water in the direc- 
tion of the mouth. Its prey is thus secured, and nothing can 
escape that comes vnthin the range of this simple and beautiful 
apparatus. It is not then by currents produced by the cirri, as 
usually asserted, that these creatures obtain their food ; the feet 
form a prehensile net of the most efficient nature, and the only 
currents produced result from its action. 

In habit, too, this animal differs from all known Cirripedes ; 
none I believe but this species bury themselves in hard calca- 
reous bodies : some indeed partially conceal themselves in foreign 
substances, and all may be said in a certain sense to be parasi- 
tical. Tuhicinella and Coronula are well known to sink deep into 
the skin of whales ; but in both cases the whole of the valvular 
or upper portion of the animal is exposed ; and as both are well 
protected by their shells, it is evident that this habit is not for 
defence, the object apparently being to avoid that resistance of 
the surrounding element occasioned by the rapid m.ovements of 
this huge animal, and the consequent difficulty there would be 
of maintaining their hold of its smooth, contractile surface. 
Other genera, Prygona, Crusia and Acasta, are found concealed 
in corals and sponges ; none of them however excavate : these 
bodies simply grow round the Cirripede, and as it augments in 
size, which it does by increasing upwards, so does the coral or 
sponge advance with it. Litliotrya is the only genus of the class 
that has been described as actually excavating a habitation in 
hard calcareous bodies ; there is reason however to doubt the 
fact, as wx shall see by carefully examining Mr. Sowerby's own 
figures in his ' Genera of Shells.' This creature is a pedunculate 
Cirripede, and is stated to have at " the base of the peduncle a 
shelly appendage." For the moment granting this to be true, 
it is evident that the holes it occupies, if made by itself, can only 
have been formed by either this appendage, or by the base of the 
pedicle before the shelly appendage was secreted. But on refer- 
ring to the figures just alluded to, it would appear that neither 
hypothesis is correct. In one of these figures there is very cor- 
rectly delineated a couple of Serpulce adhering to the under sur- 
face of the basal appendage. Now it is pretty clear, that wxre 
this appendage used as a rasping surface, no Serpulte could exist 
as represented ; and were the excavations eflfected before the for- 
mation of this appendage, it must necessarily partake of the 
shape of the base of the newly-formed chamber to which it would 
be closely adherent, as in the parallel case oi Hipponi/.x : it would 



belonging to a new Order of the Class Cirripedia. 313 

therefore be physically impossible for Serpulce to develope them- 
selves on the under surface of such appendage. It is probable, 
then, that the basal plate oi Lithotrrja is nothing else but a broken 
valve of either Clavagella or of some small oyster that has been 
growing in the deserted abode most likely of Clavagella or 
perhaps of Lithodomus^ . 

Clitia verruca, which is unprovided with a shelly base, cer- 
tainly sinks slightly into the shells to which it adheres ; but this 
cannot be considered a burrowing Cirripede. Alcippe lampas, 
the name by which I propose to designate our new species, is the 
only one of the class, which, according to our present knowledge, 
can be so considered. It is the only one, at least, that entirely 
conceals itself in chambers of its own making in hard calcareous 
bodies. 

I have not been able to examine into the method by which 
the excavations are effected ; a fresh and numerous supply of 
specimens will be required for this purpose. I shall now only 
observe on this interesting part of the subject, that in this Cirri- 
pede we have a proof that an animal as highly organized as the 
Mollusca can bury itself in hard calcareous substances without 
the aid of shelly plates ; and that the walls of the burrow of this 
animal exhibit in a peculiar manner the structure of the shelly 
matrix. This however might result either from a solvent, or 
from the ajjplication of minute cutting bodies on a highly con- 
tractile, soft, and pliant surface. 

From the above general review of the characters and habits of 
this animal, we observe at once that it differs in so remarkable 
a manner from both the Campijlosomata and Acamptosomata, — 
orders established by Leach for the accommodation of the two 
great divisions, the pedunculate and sessile Barnacles, — that it 
becomes necessary to form a new order for the reception of this 
curious Cirripede. This order I propose to characterize as fol- 
lows : — 

Order Cryptosomata. 

Animal naked, burying itself in some foreign substance, at- 
tached by muscular adhesion to the upper wall of the chamber, 
and communicating with the water by an orifice : arms or feet 
six, composed of three articulations, the last simple : branchiae 
setaceous, attached to the external surface of the ujiper lip. 

Genus Alcippe. 
Animal depressed and enlarged posteriorly ; anterior portion 
compressed, with the mantle slit longitudinally on the upper 

* Whilst this was passing through the press I have been assured by 
Mr. C. Darwin, and his opinion on this subject is of the greatest vahie, that 
the dorsal cu^ of Lifhotrya is undoubtedly formed by the animal, and that it 
has the power of enlarging the cavities in which the larva takes up its abode. 



314 Mr. A. Hancock on a Burrowing Barnacle. 

surface : the foui* arms or feet next the mouth provided each 
with a prehensile cushion : palpi furnished with pincers ; upper 
lip rostrated. 

A. lampas. Animal with the margins of the lips thickened, 
each being furnished posteriorly with a curved point or process ; 
posterior portion considerably depressed, rounded, and provided 
with a horny plate on the upper surface : chamber in the shell 
of mollusks, partially lined with calcareous matter secreted by 
the animal; opening narrow, enlarged and rounded in front, 
tapering and curved behind. Length y^g^^^ ^f an inch, breadth 
y^ths of an inch. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES VIIL and IX. 
Plate VIII. 

Fig, 1. A portion of Fusus antlquus exhibiting numerous specimens of 
Alcippe lampas in the columella and sides of whorls : a, stain 
caused by the animal ; b, slit by which it communicates with the 
water. 

Fig. 2. Much-enlarged view of the external appearance of the chamber of 
yllcippe lampas : a, stain produced by the animal seen through the 
shell, exhibiting pale radiating lines and punctures ; h, slit in the 
matrix or shell by which the animal communicates with the water; 
c, calcareous layer partially lining the chamber, and projecting 
beyond the margins of the slit ; d, calcareous granules filling up 
posterior extremity of ditto. 

Fig. 3. Upper view of Alcippe lampas removed from its chamber : a, ante- 
rior portion containing the arms and true body : b, broad disc-like 
portion corresponding to the pedicle of the pedunculate Barnacles ; 
c, valvular lips ; c', the slit or opening; d, posterior terminal points 
of lips ; e, horny plate ; /, arms partially exserted ; g, the point at 
which the animal is attached to the chamber. 

Figs. 4, 5. Under and side views of the same : letters as in fig. 3. 

Fig. G. Anterior portion laid open to show the true body and arms: a, one 
of the valvular lips ; b, the other cut across and laid back ; c, fleshy 
pedicle supporting the arms d ; e, mouth ;/, upper lip ; g, rostrated 
termination of same ; h, arms or palpi by the sides of the mouth 
furnished with pincers ; i, branchijB. 

Fig. 7. Portion of the true body as seen in the compressor : a, upper lip ; 
b, rostrated termination of same ; c, carinated margin of same ; 
d d, arms or palps by sides of mouth ; e, prehensile arms ; e', the 
mouth ; /, the outer or first pair of mandibles ; g, second pair of 
ditto ; h, third or innermost pair of ditto ; i, the branchiae. 

Fig. 8. A few of the plates or setae of the branchiae highly magnified, ex- 
hibiting a double channel at the broad extremity which is bifid. 

Fig. 9. Prehensile cushion of the arms. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1 . The prehensile arms highly magnified : a, fleshy pedicle; b b, cushion- 
like swelling of same. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. Difterent views of the larva of Alcippe lampas : a, interrupted 
rose-coloured line surrounding the dorsal shield. 

Fig. 5. A mass of the eggs a little magnified. 

Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Eggs highly magnified, exhibiting different stages of 
development. 



Mr. J. Morris on the genus Siphonotreta. 315 

XXXII. — Note on the genus Siphonotreta, with a description of a 
new Species. By John Morris^ F.G.S. 

[With a Plate.] 

Among the numerous interesting fossils collected by Mr. John 
Gray from the Wenlock limestone and shale in the vicinity of 
Dudley, is one which I feel convinced belongs to Siphonotreta 
(de Vern.)^ a genus of Brachio])oda, hitherto considered peculiar 
to the Silurian formations of Russia. The genus having been 
previously unnoticed in this country, and presenting some pecu- 
liarities both as regards the structure of the shell and the mode 
of attachment, it may not be uninteresting to offer a few gene- 
ral remarks on the subject ; more especially as this genus, and 
some apparently allied forms, have been lately made the subject 
of a special notice by Dr. Kutorga of St. Petersburg. In this 
memoir* Dr. Kutorga has grouped together in one family (the 
Si])honotretese) four genera, Siphonotreta, Acrotreta, Schizotreta 
and Aulonotreta, which scarcely present any character in com- 
mon, and have been in part considered by preceding authors 
as belonging to different groups or distinct subfamilies of the 
Brachiopoda. 

Differing from Dr. Kutorga upon the relative value of the cha- 
racters of these genera, as well as their arrangement or the 
grouping of them in one family, and certainly objecting to that 
pernicious system of coining new generic names without a suffi- 
ciently valid reason, merely for the sake of introducing a more 
euphonious terminology, I cannot at the same time but freely 
acknowledge that palaeontologists are indebted to him for his 
elaborate memoir, containing descriptions of some new and in- 
teresting forms, illustrated with many beautiful figures of the 
different species. 

Of the above-mentioned genera, two have been known for 
about twenty years. One of them, remarkable for the immense 
abundance with which it occurs in the Lower Silurian grits of the 
north of Russia, its broken fragments disseminated in the plane 
of stratification, giving the rock a micaceous appearance, was 
first made known (1829) as a peculiar genus by Prof. Eichwaldf 
under the name of Obolus [Aulonotreta, Kut.) ; about the same 
period (1830), Pander % g^ve the name Ungula to this fossil, 
which L. von Buch § (1840) considered to be an Orthis. The other 

* Ueber die Siphonotretese, von Dr. S. Kutorga, Verhandlungen der 
Kaiserlichen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft fiir das Jahr 1847, p. 250, 
St. Petersburg, 1848. 

t Zoologia specialis, 1829, vol. i. p. 274. 

X Beitriige zur Geognosie des Russiscben Ileichs, 1830. 

§ Beitrage zur Bestimmung dcr Gebirgsformationen Russlands, 1840. 



316 Mr. J. Morris on the genus Siphonotreta. 

form was also first noticed by Eichwald in 1829 as a Crania (C. 
sulcata, C. unyuiculata) , which he afterwards (1843) placed under 
Terebratula^ ; subsequently however M. de Verneuil, in the se- 
cond volume of the great work on Russiaf, recognized the dif- 
ferences which separated these fossils from Crania and Terebra- 
tula, and gave them the very characteristic name of Siphonotreta, 
describing two species^ S. unguiculata and S. veri-ucosa. Since 
the publication of the work on Russia^ four additional species of 
the latter genus have rewarded the researches of Hern. v. Vol- 
borth and other Russian geologists, which are fully described, as 
well as those previously known, in the monograph by Dr. Kvi- 
torga above alluded to, and from which is extracted the following- 
synopsis of the principal characters of the genera included by 
Dr. Kutorga in the family of Siphonotretese. 

SiPHONOTRETE^, Kutorga. 
A. With a tubular closed sipho. 

«. The external siphonal opening passes from the apex towards the 
anterior margin. 

1. Siphonotreta, De Verneuil. 

S. unguiculata, Eichw. sp. S. conoides, Kut. 

S./ornicata, Kut. S. tentorium, Kut. 

S. verrucosa, Vern. , S. Jissa, Kut. 
/S. aculeata, Kut. 

b. The siphonal opening is directed from the apex towards the dor- 
sal margin. 

2. Schizotreta, Kutorga (Orbiculoidea, D'Orbigny). 
Opening narrow, slit-like ; no area, nor mark of deltidium. 

Sch. elliptica, Kut. 

3. Acrotreta, Kutorga. 

Opening elongated, oval ; area triangular and flattened, with a 
deltidium-like furrow. 

A. subconica, Kut. A. recurva, Kut. 

A. disparirugata, Kut. 

B. With a furrow-like sipho, opened on the whole hinge area. 

4. Aulonotreta, Kut. (Obohis, Eichw.; Ungula, Pander). 

A. polita = O. Apollinis, siluricus, ingricus, Eichw. ; Orthis un- 
gula. Von Buch. 
A. sculpta = 0. antiquissimus ? Eichwald. 

" The Siphonotretese are free, unattached Brachiopods J, whose 

* Beitragen zur Kenntniss des Russ. Reichs, 1843. 

t Russia and tlie Ural Mountains, by Sir R. I. Murchison, 1845, vol. ii. 
p. 286. 

J Dr. Kutorga alludes to the shells not being solidly attached by either 
of the valves. 



Mr. J. Morris on the yenus Siphonotreta. 317 

chief character consists in a short, perfectly straight, perforated 
beak, never bent towards the ventral valve. The walls of this 
beak are very thick, and hence it does not appear, as for instance 
in the TeTehratulce, hollow within, bnt solid and perforated by a 
narrow sipho, which serves for the reception of a cylindrical 
muscle of attachment. 

" The beak presents two chief diversities of form : it is either 
drawn away, in very different degrees, from the hinge-margin 
towards the centre of the dorsal valve ; that is, is placed at a 
greater or less elevation above the hinge-margin, — or it lies ex- 
actly in the same plane with the hinge-side of the dorsal valve. 
In the first case the dorsal valve has properly the form of a cone 
more or less inclined towards the hinge- side, and the sipho ap- 
pears either as a perfect tube [Siphonotreta, Acrotreta), or as a 
tube opened up externally for a portion of its length from the 
apex of the cone [Schizotreta) . In the second case the doi'sal 
valve represents only the half of a cone, in which the shorter 
hinge or posterior part has been cut away from the apex to the 
basis, exactly in such a manner that the external opening of the 
beak is changed into a groove less than a semicircle in depth, 
and the sipho into a semicylindrical groove open along the whole 
length of the hinge-surface {Aulonotreta) . See PI. VII. 

" In no portion of the shell of this group can we observe the 
slightest indication of a jn-edominance of development ; the cen- 
tral part is not distinguished from the marginal portions ; hence 
neither valve shows either a carina or a sinus ; the hinge-sides 
form together an arch, and pass imperceptibly into the lateral 
margins; there are no wing-shaped expansions of the hinge- 
margins, and finally, neither the cardinal nor anterior margins 
exhibit either folds, serratures, or excision. 

" The anatomical structure of the shell of the Siphonoti-etese 
is this. The whole inner surface is covered by a continuous layer 
which is so thin that it welds itself closely to, and takes the form 
of, all the larger prominences and folds of growth. This layer, 
from its position and colour", I shall call the nacreous-layer (Perl- 
mutterschicht) . The external surface of the shell is also covered 
by a continuous, but considerably thicker, corneous epidermal- 
layer, which is so much developed, and from its horny texture 
has so great durability, that sometimes, even when all the other 
layers are dissolved and vanished, it is still perfectly preserved — 
a peculiarity which, in the whole family of Brachiopods, is found 
only in this group and in the Linyulae. This epidermal-layer also 
covers the inner wall of the sipho in all its diversity of forms. 
Lastly, the part between these two layers, and always the thickest^ 
is the proper calcareous shell." 

Any remarks upon the above characters must be considered 



318 Mr. J. Morris on the genus Siphonotreta. 

merely provisional, having had but limited opportunities of in- 
specting specimens, and having seen but three of the four ge- 
nera above described, and not any showing interior structure. 
In the collection of Sir Tl. I. Murchison are specimens of SijjJw- 
notreta and Ohulus which I have been kindly allowed to examine : 
for the loan of Orbiculuidea, D^Orb., I am indebted to Mr. J. Gray 
of Dudley : with regard to Acrotreta, I have not seen the Russian 
specimens which are included in that genus, but the excellent 
figures given by Kutorga lead me to infer that they most pro- 
bably belong to that section of the Spiriferse constituting the 
genus Cyrtia of Dalmau, for the mesial furrow traversing the 
depressed triangular area in two of the species figured {A. sub- 
conica and A. recwva) indicates a more complex arrangement on 
the hinge-line than is found in the hingeless Brachiopods. 

As to the peculiar structure of the shell of Siphonotreta, which 
is a character of some value and at once distinguishes it from the 
other genera, it is not a little remarkable that neither M. de Ver- 
neuil nor Dr. Kutorga has figured it or alluded to it with suffi- 
cient importance. De Verneuil describes the shell as subcorneous, 
a surface chagrinee. Kutorga states the calcareous part proceed- 
ing from the apex to consist of a number of very fiat rings or of 
many oblique cones truncated at the bases, whereas Sir II. Mur- 
chison's specimens of Siphonotreta exhibit, certainly a shell both 
calcareous and corneous, but with a distinctly perforated struc- 
ture, as if composed of a series of oblique tubular layers, the 
perforated texture being larger than that found in the majority 
of Terehratula, and resembling that presented in Ter. Ca-pewelli 
(Davidson), Ter. hamifera (Barr.), in the genus Trematis (Sharpe), 
and in some species of Thecidea ; besides which the surface is 
ornamented, in all the described species, with numerous tubular 
spines, generally arranged in a very regular order, and leaving, 
when broken ofi", slightly projecting hollow tubercles in their 
place*. Neither of these characters are found in Orhiculoidea, 
D^Orb. {Schizotreta, Kut.), and Obolus, Eichw. [Aulonotreta, 
Kut.) ; their shells, although more solid and calcareous than the 
recent allies, are probably formed somewhat as in Orbicula and 
Lingula, and which are described by Dr. Carpenter as being 
" almost entirely composed of laminae of horny matter, which are 
perforated by minute tubuli, closely resembling those of ivory 
in size and arrangement, and passing obliquely through the 
laminae." 

The genus Schizotreta, Kut., is synonymous with Oi'biculoidea, 
D'Orb., and presents some, but probably only minor, characters 

* The genera Chonetes and Prodncfus are also furnished with tubular 
spines ; in the former they are arranged along the cardinal margin of the 
dorsal valve, and in the latter are irregularly scattered oi'er the surface. 



Mr. J. Morris on the genus Sipliouotrcta. 319 

which separate it from the ordinaiy Orbiculce ; the shell is gene- 
rally more solid and calcareous, both valves are nearly equally 
convex, and the passage for the muscle of attachment, instead of 
being through a longitudinal fissure as in Orlncula, is consider- 
ably contracted, being confined to a small tubular j) ci'f oration 
situated at the marginal end of a rather deep closed furrow. 
The pedunculated form assumed by the muscle of attachment in 
Orhiculoidea must have allowed greater freedom of motion to the 
animal, and may be the reason for the more conical development 
of the lower valve in this genus, as distinguished from the com- 
pressed form of the same valve in Orbicula. The contracted per- 
foration in Orbiculoidca is well shown in the figure of Orbicula 
Forbesii^, ' Memoirs Geol. Surv. of Gr. Britain,^ vol. ii. pi. 26. 
f. 2, and is alluded to by Mr. Salter in his remarks on this spe- 
cies. This shell appears to be the same as the Schizatreta ellip- 
tica, Kutorga (1847), and is probably the older form of Patella 
implicata, Sow. ' Sil. Syst.^ t. 12. f. 14 a, as well as identical 
with Patella antiquissima , Markl. (His. Let. Suec. t. 12. f. 11, 
and description), and is a type of D^Orbigny's Orbiculoidea . 

With respect to Obolus, which has not yet been recorded as 
occurring in this country, I have, by the kind permission of 
Prof. E. Forbes, examined tlie fine collection of Lingtda pos- 
sessed by the Museum of Practical Geology, without finding any 
form distinctly referable to Eichwald's genus. At present this 
shell is peculiar to Russia, being there widely distributed, and 
it appears to be one of the most ancient animal forms with which 
we are acquainted, for the beds containing it are altogether at 
the lowest limits of the fossiliferous deposits of Europe. It is 
somewhat remarkable, as mentioned by M. de Verncuil, that 
notwithstanding the extreme abundance of this shell in Russia, 
it has never been found on the other side of the Baltic, either in 
Sweden or Norway, where however exist grits of similar age to 
those of Russia, below the limestones containing Asaphus expan- 
sus and lllcenus crassicauda. Nor has it been found in America : 
it appears in that country, as in the British Islands, to be syn- 
chronously represented by the genus Lingula, with which it has 
the nearest affinity ; for Sir C. Lyell mentions that the lowest fos- 
siliferous strata in the United States (those for instance near 
Lake Champlain) contain abundant fragments oi Lingula, giving 
to the rock, as in the Obolite gvits of Russia, a very micaceous 
appearance. 

In the Russian specimens of Obolus, I could not detect the 
peculiar reticulated structure of Sijjhonotreta ; the shell is cal- 

* Mr. Gra}^ of Dudley possesses beautiful specimens of this shell, from 
which collection Mr. Davidson described it in the ' Bull, de la Soc. Geol. de 
France,' vol. v. 2nd ser. t. 3. f. '45. 



320 Mr. J. Morris 07i the genus Siphonotreta. 

careo -corneous, more solid than Lingula, but closely allied to it, 
and difFeriug from it in having one valve with a slight furrow for 
the passage of the pedicle, as well as some modifications in the 
interior structure of the valves. 

The group of the Siphonotretese, Kut., are arranged by M. 
D'Orbigny, under the families Lingulidse and Orbiculidse, in his 
first great division of Brachiopoda, with the following characters 
(Comptes Rendus, vol. xxv. p. 267, Aug. 1847) : — 

LinguUdce. A pedicle or exterior muscle passing between the valves ; 

shell corneous ; animal fixed. 
The beaks of both valves hollowed with a furrow for the passage of 

the muscle Lingula, Brug. 

The beak of one valve only with a furrow for the passage of the 

muscle Obolus, Eichwald. 

OrbiculidcE. The muscle passing out by the inferior valve ; shell 

free. 
Shell testaceous, perforated ; muscle of attachment pedunculated, 

placed at the summit of the beak. . Siphonotreta'^ , De Verneuil. 
Shell testaceous, perforated ; muscle of attachment placed by the 

side of the beak Orbicella f , D'Orb. 

Shell corneous, not perforated ; muscle pedunculated. 

Orbiculoidea, D'Orb. 
Shell corneous, not perforated ; muscle not pedunculated. 

Orbicula, Lam. 

From the above general remarks, it will be evident that the 
four genera above mentioned cannot properly be arranged in 
the same family of which Siphonotreta is the type, and from 
which the other three are readily distinguished ; in fact, as pre- 
viously observed, they belong to four distinct groups ; Siphono- 
treta being allied to Crania, Schizotreta to Orbicula, Aulonotreta 
to Lingula, and Acrotreta probably identical with Cyrtia. 

I shall conclude these notes with the following brief descrip- 
tion of the new species of Siphonotreta : — 

Siphonotreta anglica. PL VII. fig. 1 a-e. 

Shell of a rather oblong-oval form, depressed, marked by the 
fine lines of growth ; surface minutely but concentrically reticu- 

* Mr. W. King places Siphonotreta in the family Craniidae. 

t Orbicella, D'Orb. (Aug. 1847), is stated by Mr. Davidson, ' Bull. Geol. 
Soc. France,' n. s. vol. v. p. 315, to be identical with the genus Tremafis, 
Sharpe (June 1847). This can scarcely be the case, if both genera are cor- 
rectly described ; for Orbicella is placed by D'Orb. among the hingeless Bra- 
chiopods, whereas Mr. Sharpe describes Trematis as having a hinge. The 
two diverging plates in the non-perforated valve of Trematis are somewhat 
remarkable, as, where they exist in other Brachiopoda, they always form 
internally the margins of the deltidial area, partly protecting the passage for 
the muscle of attachment, and forming the dental processes of the hinge. 



Mr. W. Clark on the Animal t/Dentalium Tarentinum. 321 

lated, reticulation regular with quadrangular areolae, and covered 
with many slender linear tubular spines or their bases, somewhat 
quincuncially arranged ; spines smooth, dilated at the base, a 
little above which they remain of nearly uniform size throughout 
or very slightly tapering, and are regularly and transversely sul- 
cated or contracted, giving the spines a tjcaded or jointed ap- 
pearance. 

The general form of the shell and quincuncial arrangement of 
the spines resemble S. acideatn, Kutorga, but as that author does 
not figui'e or allude to any reticulated structure or the monili-.. 
form spines*, this is considered to be distinct ; unfortunately 
the specimen is much compressed, so that all the characters are 
not fully shown, and I have provisionally given the name of 
S. anglica until it can be compared with all the Russian species. 

Locality. From the Wenlock shale near Dudley. Collection 
of Mr. J. Gray. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1. Siphonotrela anglica. a. Shell, natural size. b. Shell, magnified 
view. c. Spines enlarged, d. Portion of ditto, magnified, e. Outer 
surface of shell, magnified. 

Fig. 2 a. Siphonotrcta verrucosa, b. Side view. c. Surface of shell, mag- 
nified, d. Interior of dorsal valve. 

Fig. 3 a. Schizofrefa= Orbiculoidea, D'Orh., 0. Forbesii. b. Showing lon- 
gitudinal furrow and contracted perforation. 

Fig. 4. Acrotreta = Cyrtial a. Dorsal valve, b. Ventral valve. 

Fig. 5. Aulo7iotreta ^ Obolus. 



XXXIII. — On the Animal o/Dentalium Tarentinum, 
By William Clark, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Naturat History. 

Gentlemen, Norfolk Crescent, Bath, Sept. 1, 1849. 

The animal I am about to present to your notice exhibits a 
series of characters of the highest interest, in its anatomy and 
functional developments, some of which are so anomalous that 
it must be considered one of the most singular of the testaceous 
mollusca. 

From my observations in the September Number of the ' An- 
nals,' it appears that the minute species of the genus Ccecum, 
from their configuration, have generally been located with the 
Dentalia, though it will be seen that there is little concordance 

* The moniliforni character of the spines may not be peculiar to this 
species, but will probably be found to belong to the whole genus, when the 
spines of the other species are carefully examined by a higher magnifying 
power than that used by Dr. Kutorga. 

Ann. i^- Mag. N. Hist. Ser.2. Vol.iv. 22 



322 Mr. W. Clark on the Animal o/Dentalium Tarentinum. 

between the animals of the two genera. I believe, with the ex- 
ception of M. Deshayes's monograph, nothing has been done to 
elucidate this curious molluscum ; and as I think that eminent 
malacologist has mistaken the uses of some of its organs, I am 
induced, by the facility of obtaining live specimens of the Den- 
talium Tarentinum, to review and augment what is at present 
known of it : the present species inhabits the coralline zones of 
the South Devon coasts, five or six miles from land, in twelve or 
fifteen fathoms water. 

Dentalium striatum, Montagu. 
Tarentinum, Lamarck. 

Animal yellowish white, conically elongated, mantle circular, 
anteriorly thick and fleshy, edge dentated, posteriorly of the 
thinnest texture ; the penultimate and antepenultimate portions 
of its margin are bounded by two intense white muscular elastic 
cordons ; the united action of these has the power of completely 
opening and closing the anterior aperture; when at rest, the 
animal, including the foot, is entirely inclosed by the tougher 
part of the mantle which supplies the place of an operculum. 

The foot is a very long and singular organ, placed in the cen- 
tre of the anterior end of the body, and fi"om its position is ap- 
plicable for use in every direction ; it is divided into three parts : 
the anterior one is a pointed cone acting in some measure as a 
tentaculum, and lies in the middle portion, which consists of two 
lateral, sinuated, symmetrical flaps or tenacula, that are usually 
protruded simultaneously with the terminal portion, and are the 
parts subservient to the animaFs very confined locomotion, to 
turn from side to side by using the lateral appendages as points 
d'appui, and also to climb and secure its food from the stems 
of the foraminiferous polyparia ; the third or basal section is a 
long flattish pedicle deeply grooved on its upper and lower sur- 
faces, extending to the base of the stomach, into which it opens, 
as it is hollowed out as far as the tenacular flaps, but there is no 
passage to the exterior surface. I have failed to discover the 
reason for this connection with the stomach : the hollow part is 
filled with water, but from what source does not appear, though 
I think it must come from the buccal aperture ; the use of this 
singular structure is clearly to augment the flexibility of the 
foot, as the animal frequently and suddenly doubles it up as the 
elephant does its trunk ; and also to withdraw the two anterior 
parts into the hollow portion : this retractile action is necessary 
in consequence of the peculiar mouth of the animal and rigid 
character of the anterior end of the mantle, to convey the sus- 
tentation captured by the tenacula into the cavity of the mantle 
within the reach of the very short foliaceous cirrhi at the buccal 



Mr. W. Clark on the Animal o/Dentalium Tarentinum. 323 

orifice : from the foot an elastic fibrous ribbon runs, on each 
side of the body^ to the posterior terminus, and afibrds the ani- 
mal the power of greatly contracting and dilatiug that end of it, 
as may be seen by the creases of contraction, which in some 
degree give the appearance of annxdations. 

At the base, and above the pedicle of the foot, if that surface 
of the animal is upwards which lies in the concavity of the shell, 
and vice versa, in the convexity, is inserted a distinct light yel- 
low tubular buccal appendage, without eyes or tentacula, which 
can only be considered a kind of external oesophagus, and as re- 
gards its accessories and form, has no pretensions to be styled a 
head ; it is encircled by about eight or ten short dendroid ten- 
tacular strands ; its cavity forms two extremely dilatable pouches 
divided by a longitudinal septum, which become compressed 
and merge apparently into one at the point of passage into the 
stomach ; these external receptacles invariably contain from ten 
to forty, or even more, very minute Foraminifera, a convincing 
proof of the voracity of these animals. I have never failed to find 
in them either the Quinque-, Tri-, or Biloculince, or the Rotalia 
Beccarii, the Lobatula vulgaris, Bulimina pulchella, Textularia 
oblonga, Lagena amphora, or the Robulina subcultrata, and more 
rarely a minute bivalve, either the Kellia suborbicularis or Astarte 
triangularis : this fact is another proof, if any additional ones 
were necessary, that an animal inhabits the minute calcareous 
forms which were formerly supposed to inclose Cephalopoda, or 
to be inserted in their membranes ; they are not inhabitants of 
the littoral, but of the coralline zones, and appear to be the sole 
aliment of this decided zoophagous raolluscum. These shells are 
in transitu to be acted on by the appendage within the stomach, 
which will be noticed shortly, and after having undergone its 
action the rejectamenta are discharged anteriorly with other 
mucal and faecal matters, and not at the posterior terminus 
agreeably to M. Deshayes's determination, and I shall presently 
demonstrate that the posterior aperture is not for anal uses, but 
to supply the branchise with water. 

It is now necessary to mention the figure and situation of the 
heart and branchise ; these points must be carefully kept in mind, 
as the demonstration I propose rests on a due consideration of 
them. The heart is a subrotund minute ventricle with a linear 
depression on its summit, and when opened shows the corre- 
sponding ridge ; its sm'face is fortified with muscular raised lines ; 
it is fixed centrally on the convex range at the posterior end of 
the branchial cavity and base of the stomach, and in some trans- 
parent animals may be seen in the pericardium ; in the very 
young pellucid shells seven inspirations and as many nearly 
isochronal expirations have been counted in a minute, and the 

22* 



324 Mr. W. Clark on the Animal o/Dentalium Tarentinum. 

corresponding ingress and egress of the water seen*. I have not 
detected auricles on each side of the heart, nor near it, as might be 
expected from the symmetry of the brauchise ; there are certainly 
minute points on each side of that organ, but I demur to call 
them auricles, and rather think they denote the valvular appen- 
dages of the heart to prevent regurgitation into the branchial 
veins. The blood of the posterior part of the body is brought 
to the branchial artery which runs at the inner base of the 
branchiae, by two longitudinal veins, which pass between the 
branchiffi on their convex surface, receiving tributaries ; I could 
not trace those of the anterior part ; the arterial blood is then 
distributed into the ramifications of the branchise, and after 
aeration is passed by each principal vein, which coasts the edges 
of those organs at their dichotomous points, to the heart, which 
throws out a posterior and anterior short trunk, both of which 
bifm'cate into two smaller arteries, which supply veins infusing a 
renewed vitality into all parts of the body, from whence the 
blood is again returned to the arterial centre. Under the micro- 
scope the blood of the tributary and superficial veins appears to 
be in some individuals of a pale pink colour, and in others of a 
purplish pale red cast. I have preparations to illustrate this order 
of the organs. 

The branchiae are two symmetrical, sublateral, and somewhat 
post-centrally situated, dark greenish brown, elongated, suboval 
organs, having their bases fixed on and hanging from the con- 
cave surface of the animal with their points vertically parallel to 
the bases ; the two branchiae are united at their inner surfaces 
by a bridle of branchial strands arranged symmetrically. 

The heart in the testaceous Gasteropoda, spiral and otherwise, 
is always placed at the posterior end of the branchial cavity, or, 
in other words, is fixed at that extremity of the hxaxxchvad furthest 
from the entry of the aerating fluid : this statement of position 
is of importance in coming to a conclusion as to the mode of 
entry of the water. But if the position of the organs of Denta- 
lium is examined under the view of the water approaching the 
branchiae under the mantle, as in the ordinary Gasteropoda, they 
will be found to be the reverse of what I have stated to be the 
usual natural position ; the heart will be found at the anterior 
end of the branchial cavity instead of at the posterior, and near- 
est to the entrance of the water instead of furthest from it : here 
is a subversion of the order of nature in respect to the position 
of these essential organs : how are they to be placed in harmony 
with her laws ? The solution of this question is simple : we have 

* Lamarck in the last ed. ' Anim. sans Vert.,' Milne Edwards's, 3rd vol. 
p. 13, says, "Car, apres les animaux vertebres, la nature n'ofFre, dans aucun 



Mr. W. Clark on the Animal o/Dentalium Tarentinum. 325 

only to consider that the water in this genus flows to the 
branchiae by the posterior aperture instead of at the front ; this 
view removes every difficulty, and may be regarded as a demon- 
stration of this fact, which is satisfactory and decisive, because 
it is founded on the organization which nature has conferred on 
these animals. 

I will state some facts in support of the conclusion that the 
branchiae in Dentalium receive the water posteriorly. I admit 
that notwithstanding a constriction, it may possibly enter in 
front under the mantle and be discharged posteriorly, and vice 
versa; but this action would be contrary to the natural position 
of the organs and the evidence I shall now adduce. But first it will 
be necessary to mention the mode of fixture of the animal to the 
shell : this is not at the centre, as in the spiral Gasteropoda, but 
at the posterior end, a little more than an eighth of an inch from 
the terminus, where, on the inner surface, may be seen the striae, 
in the hollows of which the fine filaments issuing through the 
mantle and proceeding from the longitudinal elastic ribbon 
running from the foot are deposited, and together with the 
strong sphincter of the posterior process, which is imbedded in 
an indentation not visible from without, firmly secure, by con- 
striction, that end of the animal to the shell. This is a striking 
example of the admirable adaptations of nature of the organs of 
animals to their wants and oeconomy ; for if this animal was fixed 
to the middle of the shell as in the spiral ones, the contracti- 
bility of the posterior part of the body would be destroyed, and 
its vermicular motion to aid and accelerate the passage of the 
branchial fluid and its expulsion through the comparatively nar- 
row medial duct paralysed. I may state in corroboration of the 
foregoing observations, that I have removed the posterior hyaline 
process and enlarged the orifice as much as possible, and then 
dropped therein some grains of fine sand to irritate the mem- 
branous spoon-shaped process, when instantly pure water, with- 
out the slightest admixture of faecal substances, was ejected ; and 
this result was invariable in all and many individuals. I have 
stated that in young transparent specimens an uninterrupted but 
slow action of systole and diastole might be observed, and was 
apparent from the distinct ascent and descent of the water in the 
branchial canal ; but this action cannot take place in a merely 
excretory tube ; it can only exist in a circulatory, or inhalant and 
exhalant one. I have carefully dissected the body from the 

animal, ces mouvements alternatifs et mcsures d'inspiration et d'expiratioti 
du fluide inspire," &c. 

On this point that great naturalist is in error, as in Dcntaliiuu Tarcntbium 
I have with a chronometer showing seconds, repeatedly marked nearly iso- 
chronal inspirations and expirations of the aerating fluid, the two together 
amounting to about twenty-six in a minute. 



326 Mr. W. Clark on the Animal o/Dentalium Tarentinum. 

branchise to its terminus, and submitted its substance to micro- 
scopic powers without discovering a trace of an intestine, which 
is usually the easiest organ to be detected by its colour and dis- 
tension. I have carefully watched thirty individuals at a time, 
and never saw any rejectamenta from the posterior process ; but 
in the same period frequent discharges anteriorly from the centre 
of the mantle, of foraminiferous spoil enveloped in mucus. I 
finally observe, that on the animal being removed from the shell, 
the medial branchial canal is distended, but in a short time col- 
lapses from the evaporation of the fluid, and exhibits a deep ca- 
naliferous groove ; and when the canal is not quite full, one or 
two globules, precisely like those of a spirit-level, may be made 
with the slightest pressure to float backwards and forwards from 
the posterior sphincteroid process to the branchije. Many other 
circumstances can be added in proof of the posterior entry of the 
branchial water, but I have already transgressed the limits of 
conciseness, and it is time to take some notice of the nervous sy- 
stem, salivary glands, the stomach and its contents, and the sub- 
stances which fill up the body from the branchiae to the posterior 
terminus. 

At the base of the oesophagus is a cerebral mass of four mi- 
nute, pale pink, subcircular, finely-punctured ganglions, in form 
somewhat like the letter X, united by a nervous thread or collar, 
which encircles the oesophagus at the point where it passes at the 
base of the foot into the stomach, and the fine filaments therefrom 
are distinctly visible passing to the stomach, and throwing oiF 
anastomosing lateral threads anteriorly to the foot, buccal oi'ifice, 
and the other front parts of the body. 

The salivary glands are very large, covering the base of the 
foot and the oesophageal ganglions, and envelope the buccal 
pouches so completely that they seem imbedded in them ; they 
spring from each side the base of the mouth, and are two thick 
fasciculi, which consist of a multitude of very fine, long, light 
yellow capillary strands ; their extraordinary volume is necessary 
to produce a copious supply of fluid to lubricate the enormous 
qiiantity of Foraminifera these animals swallow, especially of the 
scabrous ones, as Bulimina pulchella, and the sharp-pointed La- 
gena amphora. 

The oesophagus, after emerging from the nervous collar, in- 
stantly enters the stomachal cavity, which is composed of a mus- 
cular membrane of a broad oval form, the anterior and larger 
portion thereof being occupied by an extremely strong gizzard, 
formed of a pair of subelliptical folding jaws with eighteen laminae 
bent towards the points on each side, and studded with very 
strong blunt teeth : this denticular frame is supported by fleshy 
lobes encased in corneous plates, and appears to be an organ 
nearly similar to the buccal mass of the ordinary Gasteropoda ; 



Mr. W. Clark on the Animal o/Dentalium Tarentiuum. 327 

it is not however placed, as in them, immediately at the anterior 
orifice of a pharyngeal cesophagus leading to a stomach and 
fixed thereto by strong elastic threads, but it is the stomach 
itself most slightly attached to the membrane which envelopes 
it. This powerful machine undoubtedly acts as a gizzard to 
grind the testaceous food of this animal; it empties itself by 
a very short scoop-shaped canal into an intestine of three or 
four intricate gordian knot-like folds, which, strange to say, 
often contain a dozen or more shells that have escaped the 
action of the gizzard ; the intestine does not entwine with the 
liver, but is inclosed within the same cavity as the gizzard ; it 
pierces its inclosure on the right side, passes through the liver, 
and discharges the rejectamenta at the base of the branchial ca- 
vity under the mantle about the middle of the shell, from whence 
they are passed by the deep groove of the foot, which the animal 
can by the compression of its sides make canaliferous, as far as 
the middle section of the foot, around which, when the animals 
are fresh from the sea, they form repeated collars of mucus, 
which in a short time, from frequent aggregations of matter, 
become ponderous, break and fall off", and when examined are 
found to be composed of the spoil of shells : this circumstance, 
independent of all others, shows that the fseces are not discharged 
posteriorly. 

The liver is an extremely scanty light yellowish green organ 
placed under the stomach, and is continued under the branchial 
cavity, and then joins the ovarium, with which it becomes almost 
imperceptibly amalgamated throughout its whole length. The 
ovarium is very long and large, and fills up the whole of the poste- 
rior part of the body from the branchiae ; it consists of from four 
to six longitudinal rows of distinct granular yellowish white 
masses of ova, with scanty interweavings of the liver, which ex- 
hibit three stages of development ; the more forward ones become 
broken into six portions, and when ready for exclusion these 
again break into perfectly round, pale brown globules ; all these 
phases vary in different animals according to the advancement 
of fecundation. The oviduct is in the centre of the longitudinal 
rows of ova formed by their junction, and the ova are undoubt- 
edly discharged by the posterior spoon-shaped process, from 
whence I have seen volleys of fifty or a hundred ejected with 
considerable force in minute round points : these must not be 
mistaken for fsecal pellets, neither must the oviduct be con- 
founded with the branchial canal, which is the cavity formed 
between the mantle and the membrane of the ovarium. The ho- 
mogeneity of the masses of this part of the body in many con- 
ditions, especially when fecundation is not far advanced, renders 
the discrimination of organs of this character a matter of some 
difficulty. I have not discovered any exserted organs of repro- 



328 Mr. W. Clark on the Animal o/Deutalium Tarentinum. 

duction, and I think from various considerations that this ani- 
mal is an hermaphrodite, but without congression. Under the 
microscope, in the midst of the general mass, several small egg- 
shaped globules, having at one of the axes a minute, apparently 
tubular filament filled with a glary fiuid, may be seen in some 
individuals, but not in all, as I have sometimes searched in vain 
for them ; these may be the virile fecundating organs, which are 
perhaps only apparent at certain stages of gestation. 

I have extended these observations to an unusual and almost 
inconvenient length : the curious and anomalous structure of 
this molluscum, and the multitude of interesting characters at- 
tached to it, exhibit such modifications of the organs of the ty- 
pical Gasteropoda as appear to give it a claim to be considered 
as the point of transition from the bivalve mollusca to the great 
change in figure and faculties which nature has produced in the 
superior developments of the Gasteropoda ; and perhaps from a 
review of this account of these organs, malacologists may be in- 
duced to think that it will appropriately form one of the first, if 
not the first link, in the chain of the Gasteropod«. The symme- 
trical subventral position of the branchiae, the posterior flow of 
water to them, and the resemblance of the foot to that of some 
of the bivalves, combined with the similar character of its action, 
appear in a striking manner to show its connection with the Con- 
chiferse ; whilst by its cesophageal cerebral ganglions and com- 
pleteness of the circulation, it has established its claims as a 
Gasteropod. There are also traces of alliance with some of the 
inferior classes : the red blood and vermiform configuration of 
the posterior part of the animal show some of the characters of 
the Annelides; but though we acknowledge these sources of its 
origin, we cannot fail to see how clearly the animal of Dentalium 
displays at various points the progress of advancement, and the 
ameliorations nature has so beneficently effected in its animality. 

I have only seen one live specimen of the Dentalium entalis : 
the organs have the same characters as those of the present spe- 
cies, but it is very distinct ; the colour is snow-white, and on com- 
parison of two shells of the same size, the Dentalium entalis will 
be found much more slender ; the branchiae are also of a paler 
green, more scanty, thin and delicate. 

I had written thus far when I received from Paris M. Deshayes's 
memoir on the Dentalia, which I had not seen for twenty years, 
and its contents had nearly passed from my memory ; on looking 
it over I find that the differences between that gentleman and 
myself are more important than I was aware of, but I am not 
inclined to abandon my own views. I am also glad to find that 
I am enabled to fill up many gaps as regards the functions and 
habitudes of these animals. 

This gentleman, in stating the anus in Dentalium to be pos- 



Mr. W. Clark on the Animal of Dentalium Tarentinum. 329 

terior, observes that it is the only molluscum that has it so situ- 
ated ; but this anomaly, if it be so, I think I have disposed of. 

Those organs which I consider to be the symmetrical branchise 
are termed by M. Deshayes the lobes of the liver, each pouring 
into the stomach the bile by their biliary vessels. I cannot per- 
suade myself that this view is correct ; I have submitted them to 
the microscope, and in each principal strand I have seen the 
leading vein distended with red blood as well as in the net-like 
connecting ramifications ; I therefore consider what are called 
the biliary vessels to be the branchial veins conveying the blood 
to the heart instead of bile into the base of the stomach. M. Des- 
hayes in his figure has omitted to mark the vein which runs at 
the dichotomous points of his organ, which, when viewed under 
high powers, is very visible, and which I take to be the branchial 
vein. 

\Miat I term the salivary glands, are the branchise with M. 
DeshayeSj combining the functions of tentacula : he does not 
mention such glands. I must consider this assumption incorrect ; 
and to support this opinion I state that the heart is separated 
the whole length of the stomach from the bases of what M. 
Deshayes terms the branchise : this is a position without parallel, 
as that organ is invariably in the closest contact with one end 
of the branchise. That naturalist certainly connects the two organs 
by stating, as I think erroneously, that the heart sends great 
and numerous vessels to the branchise. Now the heart never 
transmits blood directly to the branchise, but impels it into the 
system by arteries and veins, from whence, as I have already 
stated, it reverts to those oi'gans. 

The filaments in dispute I have submitted to microscopical 
observation ; they only present the a})pearance of a complicated 
mass without a trace of particular arterial and branchial vessels, 
and they have nothing like the symmetry of branchise ; I believe 
them to be merely secreting glands, and may perhaps combine 
tentacular functions. 

M. Deshayes is, I think, in error in stating that the aliment 
undergoes a second mastication : this idea has arisen from his 
having divided the gizzard into two parts, one of which he de- 
scribes as " machoires," and the other as an " appareil dentairc 
assez compliques ;" the fact is, there are no hard parts in the buc- 
cal pouch, which, when removed, there being no internal (Eso- 
phagus, exposes to view the anterior part of the gizzard, which 
is likened to two spherical black points gaping like a small 
bivalve : these are only part and parcel of a whole — the gizzard, 
which may almost be called the stomach itself, as it fills the en- 
tire stomachal membrane, with the exception of the convoluted 
intestine at its base, consequently the aliment has no other mas- 
tication but of one denticular ap])aratus. 



330 



Prof. F. M'Coy on the Classification of 



■ That there are no errors in these observations would be an 
undue assumption ; for who, on such subjects and in the exami- 
nation of these minute objects, can hope to escape from occa- 
sional error ? I invite malacologists to offer their corrections, if 
I have diflPered on insufficient grounds from so eminent a natu- 
ralist as M. Deshayes ; and I conclude with the evocation, 

"Si quid novisti rectius istis, 

Candidas impsrti." 

I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 

P.S. I beg that the notice relative to the Venus orbiculata of 
Montagu, in my paper on the genus Cacum, in the ' Annals ' 
for August, may be considered as cancelled. 



XXXIV. — On the Classification of some British Fossil Crustacea, 
with Notices of neiv Forms in the University Collection at Cam- 
bridge. By Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Geology and 
Mineralogy in Queen^s College, Belfast. 

[Continued from p. 179.] 

Enoploclytia (M'Coy), n. g. 

Etym. evoTrXc?, armatus, and Chjtia. 

Gen. Char. Carapace fusiform, back rounded, sides convex, 
gently compressed, posterior end slightly narrowed and deeply 




Enoploclijtia. 

notched for the insertion of the abdomen, much contracted 
anteriorly, the front extended into a long, sharp-pointed de- 
pressed rostrum, the sides of which are armed with three or 
four strong spines ; one strong spine over the upper external 
angle of the orbit; eyes on short, thick peduncles; nuchal 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 331 

furrow strong, slightly arched backwards, the ends reaching 
each side margin at a point deeply notched by the abrupt nar- 
rowing of the margin from thence to the front ; branchial fur- 
rows double, inclosing between them a narrow, pointed ridge on 
each side, which meets its opposite fellow at less than a right 
angle (each meets the midline of the back at an angle of about 
40°) on a point of the back about halfway between the nuchal 
- furrow and the posterior margin ; abdomen (including the tail- 
fins) shorter than the carapace, segments very weak, slightly 
arched, their ends triangularly pointed (ends of the second one 
not dilated), sixth longer than the preceding ones, giving origin 
to the two broad, rotundato-trigonal pair of side-flaps of the tail, 
which are very large, thin, and undivided by transverse sutures ; 
seventh segment (or middle tail-flap) subtrigonal, thicker than 
the others and tuberculated ; surface of carapace, legs and 
chelae covered with large spinose tubercles and intervening 
granules of very irregular size ; fiy-st pair of feet or chela very 
large, subcompressed, fingers slender, with a row of large 
teeth on the inner edge, carpus very short, tumid, trigonal ; 
thr'ee next pair of legs slender, compressed (? apparently ter- 
minated by a blunt, trigonal, simple claw) ; ffth pair not 
seen. 

In the large, flattened, strongly toothed rostrum, rough spi- 
nose legs, the small size of the abdomen, with the general form of 
its little-arched, weak segments, and the undivided outer pair of 
tail laminse, this genus approaches the recent Galathaa more than 
any other recent group, differing in its peculiar branchial fur- 
rows and ridges, meeting at an angle on the middle of the back, 
&c. The long, dentated rostrum, large, rough, spinose tubercu- 
lation of the carapace and chelae easily distinguish those large cre- 
taceous species from the diminutive genera Clytia and Glyphcea 
of the oolitic rocks with which they have been hitherto con- 
founded. The type of the genus is the Astacvs Leachii (Maut.), 
to which at least the figures marked f. 1 & 4. t. 29 of the ' Geo- 
logy of Sussex' refer (some of the other figures possibly belonging 
to the E. brevimana, M'Coy) . The E. Leachii is also well figured 
and described by Reuss in his ' Versteinerungcn der bohm. 
Kreideformation,' and by Geinitz in his ' Char, der Schich. u. 
Pet. des sachsisch-bohmischen Kreidegebirges.' It is distin- 
guished by the very long, straight, narrow fingers of the chelae, 
which are nearly twice the length of the basal part of the hand, 
or from their base to the carpus, and set on their inner edge 
with a row of narrow cylindrical teeth their own length apart ; 
the whole hand (or penultimate joint and moveable finger) 
nearly one-fourth longer than the carapace. A second species 
of large size and remarkable form occurs in the chalk of Burwcll 



332 Prof. F. M'Coy on the Classification of 

and at Maidstone, several specimens of which I saw in the 
astonishingly beautiful collection of chalk fossils belonging to the 
Rev. Mr. Image, near Bury St. Edmunds : the hand in this 
species is much compi-essed as well as the carpus and arm, and 
all covered with large scattered curved spinose tubercles (largest 
on the outer and inner edges of the hand, carpus and arm) with 
an intermediate smaller tuberculation ; the basal part of the hand 
is subrhomboidal, slightly longer than its width ; carpus small, its 
greatest length and width equal, proximal end only half the size 
of the distal end, abruptly formed by a deep sinus in the proximal 
half of the inner margin (like that of the right arm of the recent 
Callianassa suhterranea) ; penultimate or immoveable finger 
straight, rapidly tapering to an obtuse point, its length only 
equaling that of the hand from the base of the finger to the 
carpus ; moveable or last finger a little longer, not tapering so 
rapidly, and incurved at the apex, each finger with a row of 
blunt hemispherical tubercular teeth less than their diameter 
apart. Average length of moveable finger 2 inches 6 lines, 
from thence to the carpus 1 inch 9 lines, width at base of fingers 
1 inch 9 lines, width of carpus 1 inch 1 line, width at distal 
end 1 inch 3 lines. I have affixed the name of Enoplochjtia 
Imagei to this, the largest and most interesting of the mesozoic 
Crustacea, to commemorate the zeal and taste of the amiable 
owner, whose exquisite collection of cretaceous fossils would, if 
more fully known, greatly increase our knowledge of the fossils of 
this period, 

Enoploclytia brevimana (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char. Carapace subcylindrical or slightly compressed, ave- 
raging 3i inches long and 1 inch 9 lines deep ; rostrum strong, 
pointed, with three or four large pointed teeth on each side, 
margins of the orbits with strong spines ; surface closely 
studded with small tubercles and large scattered spines ; 
hands short ovate, length little more than the depth of one 
side of the carapace, length of the moveable finger about equal 
to, from its base to the carpus, and a little longer than, the width 
of the hand, both fingers incurved at the tip and set on the 
inner edge with a row of blunt hemispherical teeth half their 
diameter apart ; carpus subtrigonal, a little longer than wide ; 
arm compressed, about one-third longer than wide ; surface of 
hand and carpus with many large, curved, spinose tubercles, 
and an intermediate, close, smaller tuberculation ; length of 
moveable finger 1 inch 1 line, from thence to carpus 1 1 lines, 
width of hand 1 inch. 

The very short small ovate hands easily distinguish this spe- 
cies from the other two. 



some British Fossil Crustacea. 333 

Common in the lower chalk of Cherry Hinton, near Cam- 
bridge. 

{Col. University of Cambridge and Rev. T. Image.) 

(Fam. ThalassinidcE.) 

Mei/eria (M'Coy)^ n. g. 7'^/m < CU^v^'iJ^-o^ 

Gen. Char. Carapace strongly compressed laterally ; nuchal fur- 
row very deep, V-shaped, the lateral portions nearly straight, 




Meyeria. 
a. Side view, h. Carapace seen from above, c. Tail- flaps. 

meeting on the back at an acute angle considerably in front of 
the middle, and extending to the lateral margins at a point 
deeply notched by the abrupt narrowing of the front from 
thence to the sharp rostrum : branchial furrow forming a nearly 
straight, delicate, impressed line from near the lower ends of 
the nuchal furrow to the middle of each side of the posterior 
margin (never meeting on the midline of the back) ; portion 
in front of the nuchal furrow with a few longitudinal, 
strong, denticulated ridges, rest of carapace rough with small 
pointed granules : abdomen semicylindrical, large, segments 
sculptured with rows of granules, the ends of the second 
joint dilated, quadrate, of the others subtrigonal, penultimate 
joint a little longer than the fifth, carrying the two outer pair 
of tail-flaps, which are strong, truncato-elliptical, with a mesial 
ridge, ends fimbriated, the outer one on each side divided by 
a transverse serrated suture about one-third from the end ; 
middle tail-flap oblong, apex truncated, narrower than the 
base ; legs slender, compressed, smooth, gradually diminish- 
ing in size from the first, the lower edge minutely serrated. 

The Astacus ornatus (Phil.) is the type of this genus, which, 
from the great compression of the carapace, size of the abdomen, 
character and direction of the branchial furrows, &c., seems to 



334 On the Classification of some British Fossil Crustacea. 

belong to the fossorial family in which I have placed it, the nearest 
analogue being perhaps the recent Gebia which burrows under 
the mud of Plymouth Sound : the fossils abounding in such a 
state of perfection in the line Speeton clay that they must have 
lived in it and died in the exact spots we now find them, har- 
monizes with this view of approximating them to those similar 
little forms which hve habitually buried in the mud. The sub- 
stance of the crust, though very thin, and, in the following spe- 
cies especially, often showing signs of considerable flexibility, 
seems rather harder than in most of the fossorial types, and the 
strong fringe of stiff hairs at the end of the tail-pieces is in the 
fossil replaced by semi-membranous flaps, still however strongly 
sulcated. I have not seen the extremities of the feet ; but if, as 
I suppose, the so-called Crangon Magnevillii of Deslongchamp 
(Mem. de la Soc. Lin. de Normandie, t. v.) belong to this genus, 
the four hinder pair of feet would terminate in simple pointed 
claws, and the first pair form subcheliform pincers, having the 
hand dilated and truncated at the extremity, which is toothed 
and has a small spiniform immoveable finger at one end, which is 
met by the slender moveable finger inflexed from the other end ; 
this also agrees with the general type of the fossorial Gebia. The 
carapace may be distinguished from Glyphaa by the branchial 
furrow in it being very delicate and extending obliquely to the 
posterior margin without meeting its fellow of the opposite side, 
while in Glyphaa they are very strong and meet on the back 
from opposite sides at an acute angle, without reaching the pos- 
terior margin. 

Meyeria magna (M'Coy). 

Sp. Char, Carapace about 2^ inches long and 1 inch 2 lines 
deep at the middle of the side ; three strong tuberculated lon- 
gitudinal ridges on each side of the cephalic part of the cara- 
pace ; from about the middle of the deep nuchal furrow a row 
of small tubercles extends halfway to the posterior margin, 
and higher up (bordering the intestinal region) a similar row 
on each side extends fi-om the posterior margin nearly half- 
way to the nuchal furrow ; rest of the carapace covered with 
minute sharp granules, about four in a space of thi*ee lines at 
the middle of the sides ; rostrum short, pointed ; abdomen 
about 3|^ inches long, each segment with about four irregular, 
single, crowded rows of granules disposed longitudinally, the 
broad intervening spaces nearly smooth ; a few iiTCgular groups 
of granules on the extremities ; the last segment granulated 
like the carapace ; tail-flaps broad, rotundato-trigonal, finely 
fimbriated at the ends, each with a strong mesial ridge ; 
transverse suture of the outer pair strongly marked, serrated ; 



Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 335 

legs subcompressed (section oval), smooth, the lower edge 
with a row of minute denticles directed forwards ; third joint 
of the first pair nearly 4 lines wide, gradually decreasing to 
the fifth pair, the third joints of which are about 1 line wide. 

Very abundant in the fine Fuller's earth of the " Lobster beds " 
of the lower greensand of Atherfield, Isle of Wight ; also in the 
Speeton clay of Speeton, Yorkshire coast. 

{Col. University of Cambridge.) 

Note. — As the Glyphcea rostrata (Phil, sp.) [Astacus rostratus, 
id., Geol. York) has been referred by Herman von Meyer (Neue 
Gattungen fos. Krebse) and subsequent authors to the G. M'un- 
steri, I may mention, that on comparing an authentic cast of that 
species with the English one, I find the latter fully distinguished, 
as a species, by the hind part of the thorax being much longer in 
proportion to the depth, even slightly exceeding in this respect 
the G. pustulosa (V. Mey.), which it exactly resembles in the 
character of its branchial furrows and their associated lobes, dif- 
fering however from it and agreeing with the G. Miinsteri in the 
abrupt notch-like narrowing of the margin in front of the nuchal 
furrow. 

[To be continued.] 

XXXV. — Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its 
Kindred. Nos. 6, 7, 8. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S. 

[Continued from vol. iii. p. 261.] 

6. On two additional bones of the Solitaire recently brought from 
Mauritius. — We are indebted to the officers of the Royal Society 
of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius for a valuable contribution to 
Didine osteology. These gentlemen no sooner heard of the in- 
terest which the history of the Dodo had excited in Europe, than 
they undertook to search in Mauritius and the adjacent islands 
for such parts of the skeleton of these extinct birds as were 
wanting to complete our knowledge. Before proceeding to 
excavate the alluvions and caverns of those islands in quest of 
bones, they wisely commenced by searching the cabinets of their 
own museum. Two bones were here discovered, which tradition 
referred to the Dodo, and these precious specimens the Society, 
with the most praiseworthy liberality, have sent to Europe. 

The bones now sent belong, not to the true Dodo, as was sup- 
posed by the Mauritian naturalists, but to that longer-legged 
species which inhabited the island of Rodriguez, and was deno- 
minated the Solitaire. They are both metatarsal bones, and 
consequently are so far only duplicates of portions of that bird 
which already existed in Europe. But from their superior state 
of preservation they supply some valuable information which was 



336 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 

previously unattainable. The three metatarsal bones of the 
Solitaire figured in the 'Dodo and its Kindred' (plate 15. f. 2, 
3, 4) are all more or less defective, one being incrusted with 
stalagmite, the other two much decayed and broken. The two 
additional bones now referred to supply in great measure these 
defects. One of them indeed is incrusted with stalagmite, and 
is evidently part of the same individual as the similarly incrusted 
bones in the Paris Museum which are figured in plates 13, 14 
and 15. This is evident, not only from comparison with its fel- 
low bone (pi. 15. f. 3), but from the following label attached to 
it by Prof. Bojer, Curator of the Mauritius Museum : — " Tarsus 
of the Dronte, being a remaining fragment of a more perfect 
skeleton sent by M. Julien Desjardins to the Baron G. Cuvier. 
The said skeleton was found in a cave at the island Rodrigue by 
M. Roquefeuille, inhabitant of Mauritius.'' 

The second metatarsal now sent is a remarkably perfect bone, 
the only defective portion being the posterior surface of the ecto- 
calcaneal process. Being wholly free from stalagmite, and pos- 
sessing its articular exti'cmities uninjured, it enables us to make 
many comparisons and measurements which were previously im- 
practicable. This specimen was ticketed by M. Bojer — "Tarsus 
of a bird, presumed to be a tarsus of the Dronte, discovered by 
Col. Dawkins in the same cave as No. 1, in 1831." 

This bone, though apparently belonging to an adult indivi- 
dual, is considerably smaller in its dimensions than any metatarsi 
of the Solitaire which have been previously examined. In fact, 
it is only half an inch longer than the same bone in the Oxford 
specimen of the Dodo. But notwithstanding the smaller size, 
it so precisely corresponds in form and proportions with the 
figured examples of the Solitaire's metatarsus as to leave not the 
slightest doubt that they all belong to one and the same species. 
The difference of size is not greater than is often seen to arise 
from diversity of sex, age, or development, in other species of 
birds. The following are its precise measurements : — 

Right Metatarsus of Solitaire. 

Length from lower border of middle trochlea to summit of inter- in. lin. 

cond3'loid tubercle 5 8 

Transverse diameter of the shaft 6 

Antero-posterior diameter of do. at the upper portion of articular 

surface for posterior metatarsal 4 

Transverse diameter of lower extremity 1 3h 

Distance from upper border of posterior metatarsal articular facet 

to internal intertrochlear notch 1 3 

Length from external trochlea to external condyloid fossa .5 !§ 

,, from internal do. to internal do 5 2^ 

Breadth of upper extremity , 1 2 

Antero-posterior diameter of do 1 1 

Projection of ento-calcaneal process 5h 



Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 337 

The length of this bone being so nearly that of the Dodo's 
metatarsus, we are enabled to see at a glance those great dif- 
ferences in its shape and proportions, which seem to justify us 
in asserting the Solitaire to have been generically, as well as 
specilically, distinct from the Dodo. The shaft of the bone is 
longer, both absolutely and proportionally, more slender, and 
less expanded at both extremities ; all which characters are in- 
dicative of greater speed and activity. There are also several 
minor distinctions which Dr. Melville has pointed out (Dodo 
and its Kindred, p. 117), and which are beautifxdly exhibited in 
the specimen before us. Yet notwithstanding these distinctions, 
there is no disputing the very close affinity between the two 
birds to which these osseous fragments belong. The metatarsi 
of the Dodo and of the Solitaire are both distinguished by the 
expansion of the trochlear extremity, the elongation of the inter- 
nal trochlea, the form and development of the calcaneal processes 
and of the buttress or ridge connected with them, with other 
characters indicative of near affinity. 

The characters alluded to moreover confirm in the strongest 
manner the affinity of both these birds to the Cohimhid(2 or 
Pigeons. If the bone before us were now discovered for the first 
time, no comparative anatomist could hesitate in pronouncing it 
to belong to a gigantic species of Pigeon. I need not repeat the 
arguments which we have already adduced on this head, but will 
mei'ely point out the single character, peculiar to the Pigeons and 
to the allied group of Pterocles, that the calcaneal canal which 
transmits the tendons of the Jlexor pe?-forans dif/itorum, passes on 
the outside of the posterior ridge or buttress, whereas in Galli- 
naceous and other birds it passes on the inside of that ridge. 

7. Dr. Cabofs views of Dodo-affinity identical with our own. — 
I gladly take this opportunity of doing justice to a short but able 
article by Dr. Cabot, published at the commencement of 1848 
in the ' Boston Journal of Natural History,' vol. v. p. 490. This 
paper has only lately come into my hands, and it is hardly 
necessary to add, that Dr. Cabot's conclusions as to the affinities 
of the Dodo were arrived at quite independently of those simul- 
taneously deduced by Dr. Melville and myself in this country. 
Under these circumstances it is gratifying to find that Dr. Cabot, 
although the data on which he reasoned were far less complete 
than our own, having only seen casts of the external parts of the 
Dodo's head and foot, has arrived at precisely the same conclu- 
sion as ourselves, viz. that " The Dodo was a gigantic Pigeon," 
and that it most nearly approached the genus Treron ( Vinago) . 
If the coherence of independent witnesses be any test of truth, 
we could hardly have had a stronger confirmation of the sound- 

Ann. ^Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. iv. 23 



338 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Dodo and its Kindred. 

ness of our \dews as to the affinities of the Dodo and its kindred 
than is afforded by Dr. Cabot^s brief and unpretending memoir. 
Prof. Brandt of Petersburg, in a paper published in the ' Ver- 
handlungen der Russisch-kaiserlichen Mineralogischen Gesell- 
schaft/ 1848, p. 201, still maintains the affinity of the Dodo to 
the Plovers, but with this exception I believe that all naturalists 
who have studied the subject are now disposed to regard the 
Columbine characters of the Dodo as predominating over all 
others. 

8. Supposed existence of a gigantic Bird in Madagascar. — I 
have received, through the kindness of F. R. Surtees, Esq., Her 
Majesty's Commissioner of Arbitration at the Cape of Good 
Hope, the following curious statement, which I insert here, as it 
may have some bearing on the subject of the Dodo or of its 
kindred. I have already alluded in our published work, p. 60, 
to the probable existence of some large brevipennate bird in 
Madagascar, and though it has escaped the search of modern 
naturalists, yet we have the positive testimony of Flacourt that 
such a bird was known in the island two centuries ago. It 
would therefore be unwise summarily to reject a story which, 
however marvellous, may rest on a substratum of truth, and may 
lead to the discovery of important and valuable facts. 

It appears from the information collected and communicated 
by Mr. Surtees, that in Oct. 1848, when H.M.S. Geyser was 
cruising off St. Augustine's Bay, Madagascar, a French gentle- 
man named Dumarele, who was a passenger oil board, gave the 
following account, which is extracted from the private journal of 
Mr. John Joliffe, Surgeon of the Geyser : — " After giving an ac- 
count of some curious monkeys with white shining silvery hair, 
M. Dumarele casually mentioned that some time previously, 
when in command of his own vessel trading along the coasts of 
Madagascar, he saw at Port Leven, on the north-west end of the 
island, the shell of an enormous egg, the production of an un- 
known bird inhabiting the wilds of the country, which held the 
almost incredible quantity of thirteen wine quart bottles of fluid ! ! \, 
he having himself carefully measured the quantity. It was of 
the colour and appearance of an ostrich egg, and the substance 
of the shell was about the thickness of a Spanish dollar, and 
very hard in texture. It was brought on board by the natives 
(the race of ' Sakalavas ') to be filled with rum, having a tole- 
rably large hole at one end, through which the contents of the 
egg had been extracted, and which served as the mouth of the 
vessel. M. Dumarele offered to purchase the egg from the 
natives, but they declined selling it, stating that it belonged to 
their chief, and that they could not dispose of it without his 



Mr. A. Henfrey on the Progress of Physiological Botany. 339 

permission. The natives said the egg was found in the jungle, 
and observed that such eggs were very very rarely met with, and 
that the bird which produces them is still more rarely seen." 

The value of such a statement of course depends on the cha- 
racter of the narrator, and on this head Mr. Joliffe observes — 
" ]M. Dumarele is a French mei'chant of Bourbon, a very re- 
spectable gentlemanly man, about sixty years of age, who has 
for years been trading with his own vessels along the coasts of 
Madagascar, and is well-acquainted with the different races of 
natives and with the resources of the country. His very un- 
assuming and quiet manner, and intelligent conversation, much 
prepossessed us in his favour, and we believed everything he 
told us to be worthy of credit as far as his judgement and good 
intention went." 

Mr. JolifFe's own opinion seems to be, that M. Dumarele was 
imposed upon in some way by the roguery of the natives. He 
judiciously adds however — " M. Dumarele^s story should not be 
despised or discredited in these times, when such extraordinary 
discoveries are constantly made in every branch of science, but 
publicity should be given to his statement, that persons visiting 
Madagascar may, if possible, collect fresh information on the 
subject, and clear up the mystery. The sight of one sound egg- 
would be worth a thousand theories." 

It is a singular circumstance, if nothing more, that Marco 
Polo refers the Roc, of Arabian-Night celebrity, to the island of 
Madagascar ; but as the Roc, however gigantic, was decidedly not 
brevipeyinate, a discussion of its history would be irrelevant to 
our present subject. 



XXXVI. — Reports on the Progress of Physiological Botany. 
No. 5. By Arthur Henfrey, F.L.S. &c. 

On the Phcenomena accompanying the Gei-mination of the Spores 

of Ferns. 

In the year 1842, Nageli discovered on the pro-embryo (the cel- 
lular expansion fruit produced from the spore in germination) of 
Ferns, peculiar organs which he considered to be analogous to 
the antheridia of the other Cryptogamic plants. 

In the account he published of these structures* he describes 
them as gland-like organs growing on the under surface, near 
the margin, very rarely upon the upper surface. They frequently 
appear as if composed of a single cell; but it may mostly be 

* Bewegliclie Spiral-faden (Saamenfaden ?) an Farren ; Schleiden und 
Nageli's Zeitschr. fiii- Wiss. Botanik, Heft i. 168. Zurich, 1844. 

23* 



340 Mr. A. Henfrey on the Progress of Physiological Botany : 

recognized that the organ is a sac formed of a single layer of 
cells. This sac is filled with contents which appear granular and 
opake. It bursts at the apex and allows a quantity of minute, 
round cellules to escape. These cellules move about actively in 
water. Each contains a spiral fibre, which by tearing the mem- 
brane of the cellule becomes free, and then exhibits a motion 
similar to that of the spermatic filaments of the Mosses, Liver- 
worts and Charas. 

The course of development of these organs is detailed, and is 
to the following effect : — Certain cells of the pro-embryo grow 
out by their free surface into processes which are gradually elon- 
gated and become divided by transverse septa, so as to resemble 
in some measure short and thick confervoid filaments ; the num- 
ber of superposed cells varies from two to five. Then these cells 
become multiplied by the formation of vertical septa, so that 
each is divided into five cells, four forming a peripheral layer in- 
closing one in the centre. The central cells of all the articula- 
tions become confluent into a canal running up the middle of 
the organ which thus becomes a sac, closed below by the cell of 
the pro-embryo and above by the four cells of the uppermost 
articulation. This structure is usual, but slight modifications 
occur, not only in the number of articulations formed, determi- 
ning the length of the organ, but in the development of the par- 
ticular joints, the uppermost and the bottom one sometimes re- 
maining in the state of simple cells. 

The organs when fully formed have the central cavity so 
densely filled with the moving cellules, that they sometimes ap- 
pear like mere double or even simple sacs, the cells forming the 
walls being compressed by the internal expansion. 

The central canal at first presents an opake granular appear- 
ance ; subsequently the contents are converted into the above- 
mentioned cellules. The mode of development of these is dis- 
cussed by the author, and the analogous process in the anthe- 
ridia of other Cryptogamia referred to ; he concludes that it is 
most probable that they are formed by a succession of develop- 
ments fi'om parent-cells, the central cell of the five of each arti- 
culation being the primary parent-cells. 

The organs containing the spiral filaments discharge their 
contents when placed in water, even before they are fully deve- 
loped. In an undeveloped condition they appear as round vesi- 
cles -004 to -005 of a line in diameter, containing homogeneous, 
or finely granular, colourless mucilage. Sometimes chlorophyll 
globules present themselves. Many possess a parietal nucleolus. 
The perfect cellules contain only a spiral filament. This usually 
has two turns ; sometimes only one and a half, sometimes two 
and a half or three. The filament has one broad and obtuse end. 



On the Germination of the Spoi'es of Ferns. 341 

while the other is attenuated. The author in some cases di- 
stinctly detected a long filiform appendage, like that described by 
Meyeu in the Charas. The thickened end is sometimes quite 
clavately thickened. When the filament is clearly seen, it is evi- 
dently a band with a Hat surface applied against the wall of the 
cellule. The bursting of the cellules allows the filaments to 
escape, but sometimes the whole or a fragment remains adherent 
to it and is carried about by it. While the spiral filaments are 
contained in the cellules in which they are produced, the convo- 
lutions are closely approximated ; as soon as they become free, 
they generally extend themselves and become like the turns of a 
screw. 

When the cellules are evacuated from their sac, they often lie 
from one to ten minutes unmoved ; then some of them begin to 
move. At first they turn around their own axes without change 
of place. As yet nothing is seen of the emergence of the spiral 
filament. By degrees they begin to move from their place, at 
first slowly, then more and more rapidly. The cellule still con- 
tinues to rotate on its axis. Next, a portion of the filament is 
seen to protrude from the cellule, which then tears quite open, 
and the filament thus comes in contact with the water in its en- 
tire length. The motion is then considerably accelerated. The 
cellules frequently begin to move directly they emerge from the 
sac ; sometimes they rotate while still inclosed in it and before 
it has opened; this happens when they are not in very close 
contact. 

M. Nageli describes five or six kinds of movement of the spi- 
ral filaments which he endeavours to define mathematically, but 
he states that besides these, the motion often appears quite irre- 
gular, especially in being suddenly arrested, diverted to one side 
or reversed. But he does not consider these irregularities beyond 
what may be accounted for by interfering influences occurring 
in the fluid. He considers the motions as by no means volun- 
tary ; being much too regular and mechanical for this. He says 
also that a careful comparison of them with those of the Infu- 
soria shows that they are totally different. 

The fundamental type of the movement of the filament is the 
revolution round the axis, as Schleiden (Grundz. der Wiss. Bot.) 
has explained it in the rest of the Cryptogamia. That this revo- 
lution round the axis is proper to it as a primary peculiarity, 
free from the other motions, is shown by these round and closed 
cellules, which, with their inclosed filament, revolve merely 
around their axis in water, or even while still within the organ 
of the plant. This peculiarity must, from the fact, be at once 
attributed to the spiral filament ; all the other movements may 



343 Mr. A. Henfrey on the Prop-ess of Pliysiological Botany : 

then be deduced from it. That there is an advancing movement 
follows from the heliacal shape. That it exhibits various de- 
viations from the straight line is quite as natural a result of the 
inequilateral construction, since both the thickness of the fila- 
ment and the diameter of the convolutions, as well as their di- 
stance from each other in the same spiral filament, alter succes- 
sively from one end to the other. 

They differ in chemical composition from the spiral fibres of 
the spiral tissues of plants, as they give with iodine the charac- 
teristic reaction of mucilage (a compound which contains nitro- 
gen) ; the membrane of the cellule remains uncoloured. 

After a comparison of these organs with the antheridia of the 
other Cryptogamia, from which the author arrives at the con- 
clusion that they are to be regarded as identical in their nature, 
he briefly discusses their import and probable function in the 
following terms : — 

" The antheridia have been compared with the anthers, a 
misconception which is only applicable by an ignorance or mis- 
apprehension of the morphology of the elementary organ. I 
believe no refutation of this view is now necessary. The anthe- 
ridia have not been compared with other organs of plants : they 
do not exhibit even a distant analogy to any of them. The only 
remaining analogy for the antheridia is with the male organs of 
reproduction of animals. In favour of this speaks the similar 
course of development of the spermatic filaments in plants and 
animals, since even in many of the Mammalia, the spermatozoa 
originate wound spirally in cellules ; further, the resemblance of 
the motion of the filaments in plants and animals, and, finally, 
the circumstance that in the Cryptogamia these spermatic fila- 
ments are the normal elementary parts of an organ, which, from 
its situation, must evidently have a relation to the reproduction. 
These reasons certainly appear to me to have great weight ; and 
if they do not absolutely warrant the assumption that the anthe- 
ridia are the male organs of the Cryptogamia, they may yet ex- 
cite further investigation on this ground. 

"The most important objections are: 1. that no organ ana- 
logous to the antheridia has been found in the Phanerogamia, 
and that they are themselves wanting in certain Cryptogamia 
with true spores ; 2. that, as the preceding observations show, 
the antheridia of the Ferns occur upon the pro-embryo ; so that 
it is almost impossible to conceive what relation they can here 
have to the spore-cells, which are formed not merely at a much 
later period, but first make their appearance long after the pro- 
embryo has altogether disap])eared." 

The figures illustrating this menioir are taken from Aspidimn 



On the Germination of the Spores of Ferns. 343 

augescens, Link, Asp. concinnum, Link, Asplenium dissection, 
Link, and other species not specified ; but the author states that 
the phsenomena are constant in all the Ferns he has examined. 
Nothing further appeared on this subject until December 

1847, when Dr. J. Mlinter communicated to the Berlin Natur- 
forschende Freunde*, the observations of Count Leszczic-Su- 
miuski; in January 1848 Prof. Ehrenberg also laid these before 
the Berlin Academy, and in the same year they were published 
in detail in a special memoirf. 

These researches are in the highest degree curious, and if the 
facts related prove to be correct, nmst importantly aflPect the 
received views of analogies in the generative processes of plants. 
As the account scarcely admits of compression, we will give the 
important passages in the author^s own words : — 

T/ie Sexual Organs of the Ferns. 

" In the year 1846 M. Nageli J made the interesting discovery 
that the pro-embryo of Ferns exhibits analogues of the anthe- 
ridia of the Mosses, Hepaticas and Charas. That observer de- 
scribed these aiitheridia or spiral-filament organs accurately and 
completely enough, but he was led away by a false principle in 
his researches, and thus regarded as differences in the stages of 
development what were actually different organs ; since both in 
their anatomical structure and physiological import, they are to 
be distinguished as two completely separate groups. 

" In the earliest condition of the pro-embryo are found on 
its under face, more rarely on the boi'ders, pecidiar gland-like 
cells projecting in a globular form from the surface. In more 
mature age they increase in number, and occupy more particu- 
larly the region among the radicle fibres. Some species, espe- 
cially Pteris serrulata, are remarkable for their great number. 
These organs originate by a sac-like elongation of particular 
cells of the pro-embryo, forming globular protuberances from its 
surface. Each at first contains chlorophyll, but by degrees a free 
cell is formed, the contents of which exhibit homogeneous mu- 
cilage, transparent globules, or distinct nuclei with nucleoli. As 
soon as this cell has increased in size sufficiently to fill up the 
original projecting sac, it is parted by a septum from the cell of 
the pro-embryo. Thus the organ becomes independent. A third 
cell is often formed between these, flattened above and below, 
constituting a kind of peduncle to the upper cell. The contents 

* A report by Dr. Munter appeared in the ' Botaiiisclie Zeitiiiig,' Jan. 21, 

1848, to which I shall allude presently. 

■f" " Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Farrnkriiuter ;" by Count Leszczic- 
Suminski; Berlin, 1818. % L. c. 



344 Mr. A. Henfrey on the Progress of Physiological Botmnj : 

of this latter display, often at a very early period, new minute 
cellules filled with a granular substance, occurring in an inde- 
finite number and sometimes appearing very regularly arranged. 
They become more and more distinct, and in the mature condi- 
tion generally fill up the parent-cell, so that this appears like a 
sac distended with round granules. By reciprocal pressure they 
acquire a parenchymatous aspect. When an organ of this kind 
has reached the proper stage of maturity, it bursts spontaneously 
at the apex and discharges an indefinite number of minute round 
cellules enveloped in mucus. In some cases I have observed an 
uniformly distributed, rhythmical motion of the whole discharged 
mass. But the cellules usually exhibit a motion round their 
axis very soon after their emergence ; each of them unfolds a spi- 
ral filament, which generally remains connected with the deli- 
cate cellule by its posterior extremity, and advances with an ac- 
tive revolution round its axis. 

" As Nageli has well described the very various movements of 
these s])iral filaments, it appears to me unnecessary to discuss 
this subject here. But I must observe that I have seen on the 
clavately swollen, anterior extremity of the spiral filament, de- 
licate motile cilia of considerable length, which however are only 
to be perceived distinctly with the help of the strongest artificial 
illumination. They are best observed when the rapid revolution 
of the filament is slackened. Then about six such cilia may be 
observed on each, which after the cessation of the motion of the 
spiral filament also gradually cease to move, and either stifily 
surround this or become in part so applied upon it that it is 
almost impossible to detect them. The motion of the cilia en- 
dures longer than that of the filament, and not unfrequently 
shortly recommences. The form of the spiral filament cannot be 
perceived distinctly either during active motion or after this has 
ceased, because in the first case the form is altered by the con- 
tinual change of the convolutions and the motion of the cilia, — 
in the latter by the cessation of the revolution, as the filament 
then contracts in irregular curves. It is necessary therefore to 
seek out a moment when the spiral filament, sufficiently mature, 
still remains in its cellule, and occurs on a free space in the pre- 
paration. In such cases it exhibits either two or three convolu- 
tions, or appears wound in a semicii-cle with the swollen extre- 
mity applied to the wall. The cilia are not then perceptible. 
This position often gives a very well-defined figure. It is di- 
stinctly seen that the spiral filament incloses a longish vesicle in 
the above-mentioned clavate thickening of the anterior extre- 
mity. The thick end diminishes gradually down into a filiform 
tail which bears a slightly swollen knob at the end. 



On the Germination of the Spores of Ferns. 345 

" In addition to these spiral-filament organs, we find on the 
under side of the pro-embryo near the notch of the border, on 
the cellular protuberance lying in the middle of the frond, other 
larger and not less important structures. These are hollow, 
ovate bodies, and consist of a papilla formed of ten to twelve 
cells, while the other organs seldom exhibit more than one. 
Their number is indefinite, since there are often only three upon 
one pro-embryo, while upon another of the same species appear 
eight or more. They differ from the above-mentioned organs 
not only in these points, but in their mode of origin and their 
structure. It is clear from the course of development that they 
are not spiral-filament organs in a more perfect condition. In 
the origin of these organs the cellular layer becomes thickened 
by the formation of new cells ; in the course of this process a 
large globular intercellular space is formed having a contracted 
orifice at the outer end. This latter is usually hexangular, and 
is immediately surrounded by green, usually quadrangular cells. 
The cells further from it are larger and contain less chlorophyll. 
From the borders of this cup-like orifice arise four largish cells, 
containing merely a clear fluid, often with nuclei, and arranged 
in a circle ; these leave a square intercellular space between 
them varying in size. From each of these cells three more are, 
as a rule, developed vertically one above another, so that the 
square space becomes elongated into a canal leading to the inte- 
rior of the organ. The cells at the apex are usually applied 
together so as to close the orifice. The eaj-ly origin of the canal 
causes the still uncovered cavity to be rarely met with. 

" These structures, so difi"erent in anatomical character, which 
were formerly regarded as antheridia in a difi"erent stage of de- 
velopment, also assume a distinct physiological import. 

" By continued observation I have succeeded in discovering in 
them the sexual apparatus of the Ferns, hitherto regarded as 
Cryptogamic. In the above-described hollow, ovate organs oc- 
curring on the middle of the pro-embryo, I have recognized the 
female apparatus; a circumstance, the establishment of which 
claims for the spiral-filament organs the import of male appa- 
ratus. The former, which is an ovule without envelopes, there- 
fore a simple naked nucleus, is to be divided into two parts ; one, 
the larger and upper portion projecting from the pro-embryo, 
the nuclear papilla {mammilla nuclei), and the other smaller, buried 
in the pro-embryo, the cavity for the embryo-sac {antrum nuclei). 
In the former we have again to distinguish : the orifice at the 
apex, the foramen of the nuclear papilla {ossiculum mammillce 
nuclei) ; and the prolongation of it leading into the cavity for the 
embryo-sac, the canal of the nuclear papilla {canalis mammillce 



346 Mr. A. Heufrey on the Progress of Physiological Botany : 

nuclei seu nuclei) . The orifice of the latter is directed toward the 
base of the pro-embryo. 

" Before the formation of the nuclear papilla^ there arises at the 
bottom of the cavity for the embryo-sac a minute transparent 
cell, the embryo-sac. This is seated like a tubercle on a parti- 
cular point as its suspensor. Already at this period we find in 
the cavity containing the embryo-sac from two to five, or even 
more free spiral filaments, never inclosed in their cellules. For 
at this period the spiral filaments move by the help of their cilia 
from the burst spiral-filament organs to the cavity for the em- 
bryo-sac, and penetrate into it. In this motion they are assisted 
by the mucus evacuated with them, and by the moisture always 
present on the under side of the pro-embryo. It requires some 
acquaintance with the form and different positions of the spiral 
filaments to recognise them in the cavity. The still wide open- 
ing of the cavity at this period facilitates their entrance (the 
borders of the organ scarcely project yet above the surface of the 
frond). At this period of the impregnation it sometimes hap- 
pens that we notice a quantity of dead spiral filaments around 
the cavity of the nucleus ; they then appear curved like an S, or 
else wound circularly or spirally. But I have seldom observed 
this phsenomenon. As the embryo-sac grows and thus displaces 
the spiral filaments, the canal of the papilla of the nucleus is 
formed, in the manner above described, and receives into it one, 
two or more, rarely several of them ; the rest decay in the bottom 
of the cavity. Before their entrance into it they exhibit with ad- 
vancing growth an evident expansion, which occurs especially in 
those subsequently received into the canal. In the mean time 
the embryo-sac, filled with blastema, has produced in its interior 
a parenchyma composed of several cells (endosperm), appears 
green, and has advanced so much in growth that it almost fills 
the cavity in which it is contained. One of the spiral filaments 
penetrates by one end into the part of the embryo- sac turned 
toward the canal. The penetrating end is that at which the 
smaller enlargement exists, which at the same time exhibits a 
greenish tint ; the larger, clavate, granular end projects out into 
the canal ; this usually incloses a minute pyriform cellule. An 
obstacle of no slight importance interferes with the observation 
here also ; the delicate filiform connection of the two ends of the 
spiral filament is usually torn by the pressure of the covering 
glass upon the preparation, and thus we see only the separated 
ends, one in the canal, the other in the cavity for the embryo- 
sac, totally unconnected. As soon as the smaller expansion has 
reached the middle of the embryo-sac, it separates from the 
spiral filament and now forms a closed globule, the germinal 



On the Genninotion of the Spores of Ferns. 347 

vesicle, in the interior of the embryo-sac. The other end, pro- 
jecting into the canal, dies away. This phrenomenon must not 
be confounded with the forcible tearing of the spiral filaments 
just alluded to. Through the union of the germinal vesicle and 
the embryo originates the embryonary globule, which is only 
attached below to the bottom of the cavity containing the em- 
bryo-sac by a very delicate filiform suspensor. With the growth 
of the embryonary globule the colourless nuclear papilla dies, 
dries up, and the canal in particular becomes coloured brown. 
In this condition it persists for a long time upon the now ex- 
panding cavity of the nucleus. Usually only one of the nume- 
rous naked ovules produced upon the pro-embryo developes its 
embryo. This need not appear wonderful, since similar examples 
are not wanting in the vegetable world, as in many Palms one 
alone of the three original cavities is regularly perfected. A spe- 
cial reason may be looked for here in the minute size of the pro- 
embryo, which does not afford sufficient nutriment for several 
embryos. With the further development of the one embryo the 
other rudimentary ovules die. In these the foramen of the pa- 
pilla expands, and allows the dead spiral filaments and the rest of 
the contents to escape. The canal, and especially the cavity for 
the embryo-sac, then exhibit a brown colour. The latter may 
be most distinctly recognized in this condition. In vegetating 
ovules, on the contrary, this part can only be observed by a most 
careful extraction of the single organ. For while on the one 
hand it is covered by the still erect nuclear papilla, the detection 
of it is on the other hand rendered impossible by the want of 
any peculiar colour or otherwise distinguishing outlines. Of all 
the species which I have examined, Polypodium aureum is, next to 
Pteris serrulata, the best-adapted. The impregnation follows 
exactly the above-described type in all families, genera and spe- 
cies ; an exceptional occurrence is the appearance, on the margin 
of the pro-embryo, even in its earliest stage, of a spiral-filament 
organ differing somewhat in structure, as it loses its uni-cellular 
aspect. Five or six parietal cells are formed which inclose in the 
middle a space either filled with spiral filaments, cellules or hol- 
lows. These structures must be regarded as monstrosities of the 
spiral-filament organs, since they occur abnormally and on in- 
dividuals which never produce an embryo. Such an infertile 
pro-embryo either decays soon after its origin, or, passing into a 
succulent state of growth, appears much larger than is natural. 
In this condition it acquires a resemblance to a Marchantia, and 
usually produces a great number of abortive ovules." 

This extract has readied such a length that we have not space 
to give an account of the author's description of the develop- 



348 Mr. A. Henfrey on the Progress of Physiological Botany. 

ment of tlie embryonary globule into an embryo. It must suflfice 
to state, that by the multiplication of cells it gradually enlarges 
and acquires a definite form, producing a frond at one end and 
a radicle at the other, bursts through the cavity in which it was 
developed, and grows up, producing new fronds, into the charac- 
teristic form of its species. These ulterior stages of the germi- 
nation from the pro-embryo have been described by other au- 
thors, although not so minutely, and our chief business is with 
the new doctrine of the generation which has already been cri- 
tically examined and contested. 

It must be mentioned here that the terms of Dr. Miinter's 
report * are rather different from the above, which is important, 
as he gives the facts as witnessed also by himself and Prof. Link. 
He says with regard to the act of impregnation : — "Persevering 
observations of these two essentially different organs gave the 
following results. The spiral filaments emerged from the spon- 
taneously opened hemispherical cells, two or three of them 
moved rapidly toward the cup-like cellular protuberance, pene- 
trated through the orifice into the still very short blind canal, 
and then were converted into a little heap of mucus (schleim- 
kliimpfchen) after their motion had ceased. After this {often-oh- 
served) process the quadratic orifice closed, and it was seen that, 
in the blind end, one of the cells lying on the inside of the wall of 
the semi-canal enlarged, and in it new cells originated." 

This cell is said to be the embryo, which, elongating in a di- 
rection at right angles to the canal, breaks through in two places, 
one end producing a frond, the other a root. 

In the early numbers of the ' Botanische Zeitung ' for the 
present year is contained a long memoir on this subject by Dr. 
Albert Wigand, who, after extensive investigations, arrives at the 
conclusion that the above-described process of impregnation does 
not occur, and that the views of Count Leszczic-Suminski and 
Dr. Miinter are based on errors of observation. His criticisms 
would occupy too much space for the present article ; I shall 
therefore reserve them for a future notice, and add to them some 
observations of my own. 

In the 'Annales des Sc. naturelles ^ for January 1849, M. 
Thuret describes the antheridia or spiral-filament organs of Ferns, 
but he does not appear to have detected the so-called ovules. He 
also mentions that he has found similar spiral-filament organs on 
the pro-embryo of the Equiseta. 

* Bot. ZeiUmg, Jan. 21, 1848. 



Oil t'lm extinct and existing Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 349 



XXXVII. — On the extinct and existing Bovine Animals of 
Scandinavia. By Prof. Nilsson of Lund. 

[Continued from p. 2G9.] 

2. Ox with higli occipital ridge [Bos frontosns, n. sp.). 

Fig. 3. 




Bos Jrontosiis. 

Gen. Char. The forehead convex at its upper part ; below smooth, 
rounded, the ridge of the occiput rising high in the centre, 
convex ; horns short, somewhat depressed at the roots, directed 
outwards and backwards, then bent forwards. 

Syn. Bos frontosus, Nilss. K. Vetensk. Akad. Ofversigt, d. 14 April 1847. 

Description. — This fossil Wild Ox, of whose skull the mu- 
seum here possesses both an old and a young specimen, forms a 
very different kind from any I have yet seen. It has however 
some remote resemblance to the Bison, through its convex 
forehead and its horn-pedicles. The old specimen, probably a 
bull, whose cranium is here delineated in face and profile, has 
the forehead between the horns convex ; below, where it is the 
smallest, flat-rounded ; between the eyes broad, hollowed. The 
ridge of the occiput thick, rounded, in the centre rising and 
strongly curved. The nasal bones seem to reach up to the line 
drawn over the sockets of the eyes. The horn-cores, which rest 
on longer pedicles than among any known species of Ox, are di- 
rected outwards and backwards, also somewhat curved down- 
wards in the same direction as the front of the forehead, above 
which they do not rise. They have the back and front somewhat 
flat-round, so that a transverse section would form more or less an 
oval. The outer edge of the zygomatic process of the temporal 
bone forms above the socket of the under-jaw nearly a right angle. 



350 



Prof. Nilsson on the extinct and existing 



The concavity of the temple is at the back transversely obtuse, in 

front it is obliquely pointed ; 

the hind part (as far as the 

socket of the under -jaw) 

twice as broad as the front 

part; the foramen of the 

occiput more high than broad. 

Besides the two skulls of this 

sort which the museum at 

present possesses, and of 

which also the younger is 

represented below, I have Bos frontosus. 

seen a third at the British Museum in London, which probably 

also belongs to the same species. 




An old Bull (?) 

from Djurmoss 

near Saxtorp in 

Scania. 

in. lin. 



A young specimen 
from a turf-bog in 
the district of Skytta 
in southern Scania, 
in. lin. 



A rather young 
one in the Bri- 
tish Museum. 



Length of frontal bones 12 4 

Length of orbits 3 

Length between horn-crown 

and orbits 5 2 4 2 4 4 

Breadth between horn-crown 

above 8 6 2 2 

Between horn-crown below... 10 7 5 8 

Breadth of forehead's smallest 

part 7 6 7 1 7 

Breadth between the upper 

edges of the orbits 10 4 S3 9 

Breadth in the centre above 

the orbits 8 5 6 5 

Thecircumferenceof the horn- 
core near the roots 8 6 6 6 

The size of these skulls denotes a species of Ox, which, although 
much less than the Bosj)ri- 



migenius, is yet consider- 
ably larger than the Bos 
longifrons. It seems to have 
been about the size of our 
common cow ; from which, 
however, in form it totally 
differs. In the museum 
here are to be seen some 
loose bones which seem to 
have belonged to this spe- 
cies. They are found in 



Fi£ 




Bos frontosus. 



turf-bogs under the Jaravall in southern Scania, and in such a 

* In the series of remains of the skull and horn-cores of the Bos longifrons 
preserved in the British Museum and that of the College of Surgeons, there 



Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 



351 



state as plainly shows they belonged to a more ancient period 
than that in which tame cattle existed in this country. 

Abode. — This species has lived in Scania contemporaneously 
with the Bos primigenius and Bison europaus ; that it has also 
often been found in England^ the above-mentioned cranium will 
show, which is preserved in the British Museum. As with us, 
it belongs to the country's oldest postpliocene fauna : it, like 
the before-mentioned Ox species, together with the Reindeer, 
Wild-boar and others, came from Germany during that period 
when the two countries were joined together. It must, there- 
fore, also be found in a fossil state in Germany, although as yet 
it has nowhere been observed. If it ever was tamed, and thereby 
in the course of time contributed to form some of the tame 
races of cattle, it must have been the lesser large-growth, small- 
horned, and often hornless race, which is to be found in the 
mountains of Norway, and which has a high protuberance 
between the setting-on of the horns above the nape. 

3. Dwarf Ox {Bos longifrons, Owen), figs. 6 & 7. 
Fig. 6. 




Bos longifrons. 
Gen. Char. The forehead flattened, with a prominent edge stand- 
ing up along the middle, and a smaller indenting backward ; 
the horns round, small, and directed outwardly upwards, and 
bent in one direction forwards. 

Syn. Bos longifrons, Owen's History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds, 
p. 508, fig. 211 (the forehead with horn-cores). 

are intermediate gradations in the convex rising of the occipital ridge and 
the length of the pedicles of the horns, which affect the value of those cha- 
racters as specific distinctions between i\\e Bos longifrons and Bos frontosus. 
The specimen (fig. 5) would seem to indicate that the typical characters as- 
signed by the learned Scandinavian naturalist to his Bos frontosus were simi- 
lai'lv modified or departed from in the specimens discovered in Scania. — Ed. 



353 



Prof. NilssiOii on the extinct and existing 



Description. — As far as \vc yet know, this is the smallest of 
all the Ox tribe which lived in a wild state in our ])ortion of the 
globe. To judge from the skeleton, it was 5 feet 4 inches long 
from the nape to the end of the rump bone, the head about 1 
foot 4 inches, so that the whole length must have been 6 feet 8 
inches. From the slender make of its bones, its body must 
rather have resembled a deer than our common tame ox ; its legs 
at the extreuiities arc; certainly somewhat shorter and also thinner 
than those of a crown-deer (full-autler'd red-deer). The skull is 
long and narrow, even more so than that of the deer ; the fore- 
head u|)wards (over the eyes) flattened, with an edge going along 
the frontal seam, which is m )st prominent upwards, and ends 
with a rounded indenting backwards ; between the eyes is a more 
or less considerable depression, above which there is often a 
rising, and beneath which lies the incision for the nasal bones, 
which go right u)) to tlu; line, drawn between the lower borders 
of the orbits. [Thus the frontal bones are not longer in this 
species than they are in the Urus or Taui-us.^ The horn- 
cores small, cylindrical, short, curved only in one direction 
forwards, sometimes, though seldoui^ downwards in the plane 
of the forehead ; the nasal bones in front two-pointed, with a 
deep small intermediate cavity ; the lacrymal bones flat, broadest 
in the middle, narrower in the orbital and nasal parts : there 
is always a rhombal opening between the frontal, nasal, and 
lacrymal bones. The form of the temporal cavity behind 
transverse-obtuse, before oblique-pointed ; its hinder part (to 
the angle above the joint of the under jaws) only one-fourth 
broader than the fore-part. N. B. Herein it resembles the tame 
Ox, but differs visibly from the B. frontosus and Urus. The 
anterior palatine apertures lancet-shaped, at the back oblique 
inward-pointed, the back ones lie between the palate bones ; 
the nape transverse, up- 
wards with a vertical in- 
denting, downwards with 
a vertical edge over the 
circular foramen of the 
nape (fig. 7). The skull 
of this species varies con- 
siderably in size and even 
something in form, ac- 
cording to its age and sex. 
I have in my possession 

the fragment of a fore- Bos Iomjifro,is. 

head with horn-cores of a very old individual which seems 
to have been a hull; the distance between the horn-cores 
upwards is 5 inches 3 lines, and the circumference of the horn- 




Bovine AnhKulu uf Scandinavia. ,'i53 

coves near tho roots 7 inches 1 line. Another 1 iiavc measured, 
whose breadth above the upper niari^in of the orbits was 7 inches 
5 hues : this measured between the horns u])vvard 5 inches 2 hues. 
Tlie length of the frontal l)one 8 inclies 4 lines. The horn-cores 
are sometimes fiat above, and rounded underneath. In a yovmgcr 
specimen, probably a cow, the horn-cores are exceedingly small, 
scarcely more than 3 inches lojjg, and at the root 4 inches 2 lines 
in circumference. This species is however always known by a 
protuberance upon the up[)cr part of the forehead in the front, 
and an indenting behind. The usual dimensions of young speci- 
mens are as follows : — 

Length of the skull from the edge of the nape to the front ft- in- lin. 

edge of the intermaxillary bones 14 

Length from the roots of the horns to the upper edge of orbits .3 4 

,, oforbits 2 4 

„ from the orbit to the end of the maxillary bone 8 4 

,, of intermaxillary bone's front edge 10 

,, from the edge of the nape to the incision of the nasal 

bones 7 2 

Length of the horn-core's greatest curvature (behind) 4 

,, of the nasal bones OHO 

„ of the row of molar teeth in the upper jaw r> 2 

,, of tlie under jaw 1 I 2 

„ ,, „ to the back edge of the condyloid 

process in a line I 1 G 

Breadtii between the horn-cores upwards 5 

,, over the forehead's narrowest part about 5 4 

„ of the occipital condyles 9 3 2^ 

„ between the upper edges of the orbits nearly 7 

„ transversely over the centre 5 in. G lin., over the chin 4 5.J 

„ over the side projections of the nose 5 1 

,, over the nose 2 G 

Height from the upper projection of the forehead to the base 

of the cranium 5 5A 

Height from the upper projection of the forehead to the edge 

of the foram. magn 4 

Circumference of the horn-cores near the Toot 4 .'5 

The other parts of the Skeleton. — Atlas in form like that of 
the tame ox ; the edges of the wings a little reflected, and behind 
a little broader ; the posterior articular processes small, short ; the 
knob of the upper ai'ch large, thick ; of the under arch more 
compressed over the back edge. Ascis like that of the tame ox, 
but the canal in process, odontoid, not so roundly excavated ; 
the spinous process, spinos. has the front edge angular. The 
rest of the skeleton most like that of the tame ox, but each bone, 
in proportion to the length, is more slender and thin. Atlas : 
the breadth over the wings 4 inches 5 lines, under the length of 
the curve 1:3; axis about 3 inches. The length of shoulder- 
blade 11:4, breadth 6:1; from cav. glen, to spin. 1 : 7 ; os hu- 

Ann. 6f Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2, Vol, iv. 24 



354? On the extinct and existing Bovine Animals of Scandinavia. 

meri 8:6; breadth of lower joint's superficies 2 : 4. Radius 
about 10 in. Metacorp. 7:3; breadth of lower articular surface 
2 in. The pelvis in a right line 1 ft. 2 in. 2 lin. Foram. ob- 
turat. oval, in front somewhat narrower. Os femoris 1\ : 4<. 
Tibial! -.^t. Metatarsus 8 : 4. First toe-joint 2in., second 1 : 2; 
the hoof 2:2. 

Abode. — This slender-built almost deer-like species of Ox has 
existed wild contemporaneously with the forementioned animals 
in the south and west of Scania ; and, as it appears, was found 
here in great numbers, probably in large flocks, in the vast 
forests with which the land was everywhere covered. It is not 
till within the last few years that our attention has been directed 
to its fossil remains, and already I have obtained several both of 
skulls and skeletons. In the Zoological Museum in Lund is pre- 
served a skull which was taken up from a deep turf-bog near the 
Cathedral in Lund ; and the back part of the skull with the horn- 
cores of a very old specimen was found, while digging a well, at the 
depth of nine ells,likewdse in Lund. From a turf-bog in the district 
of Skytts I have obtained a skull ; and from a turf-bog belonging 
to the parsonage of Nobbelof, in the district of Ljunit, two ske- 
letons of this species of Ox have been dug up during this summer. 
At the close of the late meeting of Naturalists in Copenhagen, 
Professor Steenstrup exhibited a recently dug-up skull belonging 
to this species found in a turf-bog in Seeland. In Ireland and 
England several remains have been found in different places, and 
in relatively older earth-beds. In England they have been found 
together witb the bones of the mammoth and rhinoceros (Owen, 
p. 510); they have been found in earth-beds over which lay a 
bed of marine shells, and over that a bed of freshwater shells 
(p. 511) : in Ireland they have been found in freshwater marl 
under turf-bogs, together with the bones of the Cervus megaceros, 
from which w^e can form an idea of their great antiquity ; but 
they have also been found in the same turf-bogs, whence Pro- 
fessor Owen draws the conclusion that this species of Ox con- 
tinued to live there even after the last-mentioned species of ani- 
mal was already extinct. With us, in the south of Scania, it 
lived contemporaneously with the Reindeer, Bos piimigenius, and 
Bos frontosus : it was certainly among the Herbivora that came 
into the country after the ' period of destruction,' when the fields 
were again clothed with grass, bushes and forests. With us, 
and, as far as we know, over all Europe, they were, as wild, 
exterminated before the so-called historic period. That this 
same species of fossil remains might be found in Germany also 
is more than merely probable, although none as yet have been 
noticed. How far this species of Ox in former times has any- 



Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Sponges. 355 

where been tamed, and so as to form the stock now living of 
any tame race, has not perhaps through any comparisons been 
fully shown; but Prof. Owen supposes that the small-grown, 
small-horned, often hornless cattle in Wales and in the High- 
lands of Scotland descended from that race which he considers 
was tamed before the invasion of the Romans, by the original 
inhabitants; when, on the conquest of the country, they fled 
with their herds to the woody mountain-tracts. If it exists 
among us in any tame race of cattle, it would seem to be in the 
so-called Finn cattle. 

The forehead more broad than long, convex : the horns set 
on anterior to the ridge which separates the forehead from the 
occiput. The intermaxillary bones never reach up as far as 
the nasal bones. 



XXXVIII. — Observations on Mr. ^lovris's papei- on the Excava- 
ting Sponges. By Albany Hancock, Esq. 

To Richard Taylor, Esq. 

Dear Sir, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Oct. 15, 1849. 

I HAD much pleasure on reading in the last Number of the 
'Annals,' Mr. Morris's abstract of the papers published by 
Dr. Nardo and M. Michelin on the Excavating Sponges, and 
am only sorry that I was not aware of the investigations of these 
naturalists at the time I drew up my own observations on the 
subject. The access to scientific works in the country is very 
limited, and those referred to by Mr. Morris I have had no oj)- 
portunity of seeing. 

When, in my paper read at the Swansea Meeting of the Bri- 
tish Association, I first stated my belief that Cliona excavated 
the chambers it inhabits, the assertion met with such general 
opposition, that I must confess I am now somewhat sur])rised on 
being informed that this subject had been so fully discussed 
some years ago ; so far at least as relates to the question whether 
or not these sponges make the holes in which they are found 
concealed. Indeed it seems strange that there should ever have 
been two opinions on this point ; for after the attention has once 
been called to it, a single specimen, in good condition, is suffi- 
cient to convince the inqu.irer that Cliona does really form its 
complicated habitation. This appeared to me so evident on ex- 
amining the first specimens I procured, that had this fact not 
been disputed by naturalists of great eminence, I should never 
have thought it necessary to have dwelt so long on it. At that 
time I should have had great pleasure in quoting Nardo or Mi- 
chelin in confirmation of this part of the argument, which was 

24* 



356 Mr. A. Hancock on the Excavating Sponges. 

preliminary to the discussion on the mode by which the excava- 
tions are effected ; — the principal object of my paper being to 
show a similarity in this respect between Cliona and the excava- 
ting Mollusca. 

Dr. Grant, whose opinion I quoted in my paper, and who 
wrote on the subject many years previous to the appearance of 
Dr. Nardo's memoir, seems to be the first to have asserted the pro- 
bability of Cliona fonning its own abode. He says, '* It may be 
questioned w^hether the sharp siliceous spicula and constant cur- 
rents of its papillse do not exert some influence in forming or en- 
larging the habitation of this zoophyte.'' Mr. Wm. M'Calla, too, 
was quoted as having stated that Cliona was " very desti-uctive 
to the shells that came within its reach.'' And from the fact 
that M. Duvernoyhad named a species terebrans, it was inferred 
that he also was convinced that these sponges formed the cham- 
bers they occupy, though I knew no more of what he had written 
on the subject than appears in the ' Microscopic Journal.' It is 
therefore pretty evident that I had no pretension to the discovery 
of the fact that Cliona has the power of burying itself in hard 
calcareous bodies ; though I found it necessary to put this matter, 
so far as I was able, beyond a doubt. In this respect the re- 
seai'ches of Nardo and Michelin are of the greatest value ; for 
confirmation is still required, as it appears all are not yet satisfied 
that a sponge can penetrate shell and stone. It would have been 
well, therefore, if Mr. Morris had given the abstract at greater 
length. 

It may be questioned, however, how far the Italian naturalist 
is justified in discarding the name given to these sponges by 
Dr. Grant, merely because that gentleman did not fully under- 
stand the nature of the production he described. Were such a 
principle to be admitted, nomenclature would be for ever fluctua- 
ting, and hundreds of names used by the early writers might be 
at once superseded. Dr. Grant's desciiption is excellent, full and 
clear; so that even the species may be determined. Why then 
should he be stripped of the honour of his discovery ? Had 
there been any obscurity, — any difficulty in determining what 
was meant, then there might have been some plea for adopting 
the generic appellation of a subsequent observer ; but even Nardo 
himself does not appear to doubt that his genus is identical with 
the Cliona of Grant. 

Neither can I at present assent to Mr. Morris's opinion, that 
my two species C. Fryeri and C. spinosa are identical with Vioa 
Nardina and V. Michelini. This there is reason to doubt. I 
have certainly not seen the figures referred to, but the descrip- 
tions are not full enough for identification ; and indeed, so far 
as they go, do not very well agree with my species. The charac- 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Thinogcton. 357 

tcrs of- the spicula however are not given, and witliout a know- 
ledge of these, no very conchisive opinion ought to be formed on 
the subject. In the abstract of Nardo^s report, we casually learn, 
undoubtedly, that the spicula are " sharp at one end and rounded 
at the other " in V. Michelini ; but in the C. spinosa, which 
Mr. Morris considers identical with it, they are of two kinds ; 
one fusiform and bent in the centre, the other with a globular 
enlargement at one end. It would therefore seem probable that 
these two species at least are distinct. The fact of specimens 
occurring in the same species of shell is not of much value in 
determining their identity : I have already described six or seven 
species procmed from the same matrix. 

I remain, dear Sir, yours truly, 

Albany Hancock. 



XXXIX. — Contributions to tlie Botany of South America. 
By John Mters, Esq., F.Il.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 250] 

Thinogeton. 

This interesting genus was founded by Mr. Bentham upon one 
of the plants collected on the coast of the Pacific, near Guayaquil, 
during the voyage of the ' Sulphur;' it is identical with Dictyo- 
calyx, proposed by Dr. Hooker for a plant obtained by Mr. Dar- 
win in one of the islands of the Gallapagos group. In many 
respects its characters approach so closely upon Cacabus, that 
some might feel disposed to consider them as congeneric ; its 
habit, however, is not so herbaceous, its stems are more strag- 
gling, terete, and though fistulose, are more woody ; the petiole 
is rounder, thicker, and grows to an unusual length (three or 
four times that of the blade) after the full growth of the leaf ; 
the corolla is less campanular, more infundibuliform, and after 
the impregnation of the ovarium, coils up spirally as in Convol- 
vulus, and remains attached to the calyx until the fruit is ma- 
tured ', the stamens are more unequal and shorter, the filaments 
less slender and more arched at their origin than in Cacabus ; the 
epigynous gland crowning the ovarium is much larger, more than 
hemispherical, being gradually lost in the texture of the more 
slender basal portion, while in Cacabus it is distinct, ])rominent, 
and much smaller, rising on the summit of the germen, like a 
small bulbular expansion of the style. A still more marked dif- 
ference is seen in the calyx, which in the tlorescent state in Thi- 
nogeton, is of much smaller diameter, quite tubular and invests 
the contracted base of the corolla; it is of thicker texture, and 



358 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Thinogeton. 

marked by ten prominent fleshy ribs, tapering gradually into the 
peduncle : in Cacabus, on the contrary, the calyx is at least three 
times the diameter of the base of the corolla, is more or less 
globular, of extremely thin and transparent texture, venously re- 
ticulated, plicated and deeply 5-angular, the angles being saccate 
at base ; the peduncle in Thinogeton, after the impregnation of 
the ovarium, becomes immediately detlexed, grows to four times 
its former length, and is afterwards much thickened at its apex : 
the teeth do not increase in size, but the tube, as in Physalis, 
becomes somewhat vesicular, reticulated, and lO-ribbed; expands 
to three times its former length, and five times its breadth, 
its texture remaining much thicker, when compared with the 
greatly inflated and delicately membranaceous web, which encloses 
the berry in Cacabus. The structure of the ovariuui is similar 
to that of the last-mentioned genus, but the furcated placenta; 
are again divided, and secrete an aqueous juice, in which the 
seeds are nourished ; the dissepiment remains membranaceous, 
but the placentas at length become hard and woody, and the cells 
dry and capsular, while in Cacabus the pericarp, the placentae 
and the dissepiment are all more or less membranaceous. The 
fruit, though somewhat fragile, does not burst by an opercular 
line, as in Hyoscgamus, because of the very gradual attenuation 
and absor))tion of its epigynous gland into the substance of the 
pericarpial membrane, not less than on account of tlie tliickeuing 
and indurescence of the dissepiment and placentse : for these rea- 
sons, it does not open by a sharp horizontal line, as in that genus, 
but remains a brittle, indehiscent putamen, with a tendency to 
break by an irregular transverse line in its thinnest part. 

Thinogeton, Bth. Char. ampl. — Calyx tubulosus, 10-striatus 
ad medium 5-partitus, laciniis acutissimis, erectis, subsequa- 
libus, pci*sisteus et augescens. Corolla infundibuliformis, tubo 
imo coarctato, deiu gradatim ampliato, 15-nervio, limbo 5-tido, 
lobis brevibus subinsequalibus, 3-angularibus. Stamina 5, in- 
clusa, intequalia, corolla 3-plo breviora ; filamenta in coarc- 
tationem tubi inserta, hinc fornicata, erecta, gracilia ; antherce 
conniventcs, oblongse, apicifix^e, 2-loculares, loculis parallele 
adnatis, rima marginali dehiscentibus. Ovarium ovatum, 2- 
loculare, dissepimento tenui, placentis cruciformibus utrinque 
adnatis, in locellis furcatis, carnosis, undique ovuligeris. St7j- 
lus leviter curvatus, filiformis, staminibus excedens. Stigma 
spathulato-dilatatum, compressum, sub-2-labiatum. Bacca ex- 
sicca, intra calycem auctum vesiciformem, venoso-reticulatum, 
lO-costatum inclusa, subglobosa, cortice coriaceo, superne cras- 
siore, infernc subfragili, evalvato, 2-locularis, placentis fur- 
catis coriaccis, seminibns plurimis gerentibus. Semina com- 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Thinogeton. 359 

pressa, subrcniforniiaj testa scrobiculata_, hilo lateralis niargi- 
nali. Embryo intra albumen carnosum teres, subspiralis, ra- 
dicula angulo basali spectante, hilo evitante, cotyledonibus se- 
miteretibiis paulo longiore. — Herbae America intertropica pro- 
strata, subjnlosa, subcarnosce, Convolvidi facie ; foliis alternis, 
axillaribus, oblongis, acutis, sinuato-incisis, vel undulatis, lon- 
gissime petiolatis, petiolo canaliculato, demum producto; floribus 
solitariis vel binis, pedunculatis subsecundis. 

1. Thinogeton maritimum, Bth. Voy. Sulph. 142; — viscoso-pu- 
bescensj carnosulum ; foliis lanceolatis vel lineari-oblongis, 
sinuoso-lobatis, vel grosse dentatis, basi in petiolum alatunx 
angustatis, crassiusculis, longiuscule petiolatis, Horalibus de- 
crescentibus ; tloribus solitariis vel geminis, lateralibus, axillis 
approximatis bine pseudo-paniculatis et terniinalibus, corolla 
sub-violacea. — Ecuador, ad Tumbez, in littoris maritimis ; v. s. 
in herb. Hooker (Lima, Cuming, no. 972). 

This is a prostrate plant, with much the habit of a Nolana, its 
branches measuring a foot and upwards. Its petioles and pedi- 
cels are erect, and therefore are all somewhat secnnd : I have not 
seen any caulinc leaves, but the floral leaves are much smaller, 
greatly narrower, and upon a shorter petiole than in the follow- 
ing species; the pedicels are 2 to 4 lines long, the calyx is 3 lines 
long, and 1 line diameter, swelling afterwards to a length of 7 
lines and a diameter of 5 lines : the corolla is 15 or 16 lines long, 
and 10 to 13 lines broad across the border; it is pubescent out- 
side, is persistent, and on withering, coils up in a spiral form, 
when the peduncle increases to a length of 9 lines and becomes 
suddenly reflexed. The berry is 4 lines in diameter, enclosed 
within the enlarged vesiciform calyx. 

2. Thinogeton Miersii. Dictyocalyx Miersii, Hook. fil. Linn. 
Trans, xx. p. 203 ; — subpubescens, foliis ovatis, acutis, basi 
insequalibus, cordato-auriculatis, et in petiolum angustatis, ir- 
rcgulariter sinuato-angulatis, angulis subobtusis, 3-5-nerviis, 
crasso-coriaceis, utrinque pilis brevibus rigidiusculis articulatis 
conspersis, longissime petiolatis ; floribus solitariis vel geminis, 
lateralibus, corolla sub-violacea extus puberula, limbo vix expla- 
nato, staminibus corolla brevioribus. — Ins. Gallapagos, v. s. in 
herb. Hook. (Charles et Albemarle Islands, Darivin.) 

This plant possesses a habit similar to that of the former spe- 
cies. The branching stems of woody texture are fistulose, smooth 
and terete. The leaves are from 2^ to 3 inches long, 2 to 2| 
inches broad, on a channeled petiole 5 inches long, that is nearly 
rectangular with the stem : they are almost smooth, or sparsely 
covered with very short rigid hairs : the peduncles arc slender, 



360 Mr. J. ]\Iicrs on the genus Thinogeton. 

^ to 1 inch long ; the calyx is 5 lines long, 2 lines diameter ; the 
corolla is 1 1 inch long, contracted for the length of 5 lines to a 
diameter of 1 line, and thence gradually swelling into a funnel 
shape, is 1 inch across the mouth ; three nearly parallel nervures 
extend along the middle of the lobes to the base of the tube ; the 
stamens arise in the contraction of the tube, and the anthers, 
which are double the length of those of the former species, are 
connivent around the style in the middle of the corolla; the 
flower on withering coils up in a spiral form, and the peduncle, 
subsequently deflexed, increases to a length of 1^ to ]| inch, 
becomes thicker, and enlarges considerably at its apex ; the calyx 
swells to an oblong oval form, nearly an inch long, 7 lines broad, 
10-angular, with ten prominent costate ribs, vesiciform, wdth the 
mouth closed by five short connivent teeth : it encloses a berry 
7 lines long, 5 lines diameter ; the pericarp is almost a putamen, 
the upper moiety being thick and coriaceous, the lower half 
thinner and more fragile; the dissepiment, and especially the 
lunated placentae, become thickened, coriaceous and almost lig- 
neous; it is apparently void of pulp, enclosing several seeds scarcely 
a line in diameter and much com])ressed, which are described 
by Dr. Hooker as being large ; but that term is evidently used in 
comparison with those of Nicotianum, with which this genus was 
thought to hold a close relation ; they are on the contrary smaller 
than in many other genera of this tribe*. 

3. Thinogeton Lobbianum (n. sp.) ; — viscoso-pubescens, caule stri- 
ato, flexuoso ; foliis ovalibus, irregulariter sinuato-angulosis 
et dentatis, imo cordato-auriculatis, et in petiolum longius- 
culum breviter attenuatis, 3-5-nerviis, tenuioribus, utrinque 
tomento brevi glanduloso subincano pubescentibus, petiolo 
tenui valde tomentoso ; floribus geminatis, calyce pubescente, 
corolla sub-violacea, extus puberula, staminibus insequalibus, 
corolla 2-3-plove brevioribus. — Columbia et Peruvia; v. s. in 
herb. Hook. (Columbia, Lobb. no. 299. Peru, Maclean.) 

This species is evidently intermediate between the two fore- 
going : the stem is much smaller, more striated, far more flexu- 
ose, with much shorter internodes, and altogether more pubescent 
than the last described; the leaves are 2 inches long, 1| inch 
broad, on a petiole of 2^ inches, but probably the lower leaves are 
somewhat larger : the peduncles are 9 lines long, slender and erect, 
but become suddenly deflexed on the withering of the corolla ; 
the calyx is 4 lines long, 1| line diameter; the corolla I^ inch 
long, I inch broad in the mouth ; the fructiferous calyx becomes 
almost globular, 5 lines long and 4 lines in diameter, contracted 

* A figure of tliis species, with generic details, will be given in plate 50 
of the' lllustr. South Amer. Plants,' 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Polydiclis. 361 

in the mouth, with live erect teeth, and cnclosiuji; a nearly glo- 
bular berry 4 lines in diameter. 

POLYDICLIS. 

The Nicotiana quadrivalvis of Pursh, and the Nicotiana mulii- 
valvis of Prof. Lindley, have long been known as anomalous spe- 
cies, which Don placed in his section Pohjdiclia of that genus, 
and I propose to adopt that name, or rather its more correct de- 
rivation, for a distinct genus, in order to embrace these plants, 
which are distinguished from Nicotiana by the diflferent struc- 
ture of the fruit and other characters. The first-mentioned plant 
is a native of Missouri, where it is said to be cultivated as tobacco ; 
it w^as introduced into England in 1811 and figured in the 
' Botanical Magazine.' The latter species was first cultivated in 
England in 1826 and figured in the 'Botanical Register.' They 
both differ from Nicotiana in their globular, three or more celled 
ovarium, with placentae projecting from the axis into the middle 
of the cell, where they become thickened and ovuligerous. The 
capsule is globular, often very large, umbilicate at the apex, three- 
to eight-grooved, with as many corr-esponding septicidal valves, 
which break away from the shriveled dissepiments. In Poly- 
diclis multivalvis, which has a six- or eight-celled ovarium, the pla- 
centje are often pluripartite in each cell, and as they become in- 
crassated, the fruit according to Dr. Lindley presents a series of 
external spurious cells around the true seminal cavities. Its 
generic name is derived from ttoXu?, multus, SiKXlf, valva, on 
account of the greater number of the valves and divisions of its 
capsule. 

PoLYDiCLis (gen.nov.). — Calyx globoso-tubulosus, 10-16-nervis, 
5-8-dentatus, dentibus valde acutis, insequalibus, erectis, per- 
sistens et augescens. Corolla tubo cylindrico, 15- vel pluri-ner- 
vio, basi ventricoso, calyce 2-3- plo longiore, limbo late campa- 
nulato, ad medium 5-6-fido, laciniis expansis, obtusiusculis, 3- 
nerviis, venisque anastomosantibus pictis. Stamina 5-6, in- 
sequalia, iuclusa, medio corollre inserta, filamenta tubo 3-plo 
breviora, filiformia, antheroi ovats, 2-lobre, lobis liberis, appo- 
sitis, rima exteriori dehiscentibus. Ovarium globosum, disco 
carnoso insitum, 3 ad 6-loculare, placentis ex angulis promi- 
nentibus in centro loculorum incrassatis, multiovulatis. Stylus 
erectus, inclusus. Stigma clavatum, 3 ad 6-lobum, lobis ob- 
tusis, expansis, glanduloso-papillosis. Capsula globosa, magna, 
umbilicata, 3-12-sulcata, calyce aucto arete cincta, 3-pluri- 
loculari, 3-plurivalvis, valvis septicidalibus dissepimentis de- 
mum solutis, ssepe locellis aliis spuriis exterioribus donata. 
Semina plurima, parva, oblonga, compressiuscula, hilo laterali. 
Embryo intra a/humen carnosum leviter incurvus, radicula te- 



362 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Polydiclis. 

reti, angulo basali spectante, cotyledonibus ovatis plano-con- 
vexis duplo longiore. — Herbse Amei-icae septentrionalis viscoso- 
pubescentes, oclore faetido ; folia alterna, ovato-lanceblata, ellip- 
tica, utrinque acuminata ; flores axillares, albidi, reticulato- 
picti. 

1. Polydiclis multivalvis. Nicotiana ynvliiv^Xv'i^, Lindl. Bot. Reg. 
tab. 833 ; Do7i, Diet. iv. 466 ; — viscido-pilosa, foliis carnosis, 
ovato-lanccolatis, breviter petiolatis, utrinque acuminatis, in- 
tegris, margiue undulatis^ demum fere glabris ; lloribus soli- 
tariis, paucis, axillaribus ; corolla magna, limbo explanato, al- 
bida, venis purpureis picta, 5-6-mera. — Columbia River, in 
locis saxosis. 

This plant is said to be of a strong bircose odour and viscid ; 
the leaves of the specimens I have seen are 6 inches long, 2^ 
inches broad, on a petiole not longer than \ or ^ an inch, which, 
together with the midrib, is fleshy, broad, ajid. seraiterete. The 
peduncle is scarcely more than \ inch long; the calyx about 

1 inch in length, and § inch diameter in its broadest part, con- 
tracted above, and divided into five, sometimes six very acute lan- 
ceolate teeth, one-third of its entire length ; it has ten or twelve 
prominent nervures with intermediate reticulations. The tube of 
the corolla is cylindrical, somewhat swollen at the base, 1| inch 
long, ^ inch diameter ; the border is very broad, expanded, about 

2 inches across, and divided to nearly half its breadth into five, 
sometimes six triangular obtuse segments : it is of a whitish 
colour, with anastomosing purplish lines. The stamens are equal 
in number to the segments of the corolla, and the anthers rise 
to the mouth of the tube. The berry is large, globular, 1 \ inch 
diameter, marked with deep grooves, corresponding with the 
number of cells, which vary from six to twelve ; it is umbilicate 
at the summit, and crowned by the persistent style, its lower 
half being closely invested by the swollen calyx. 

2. Polydiclis quadrivalvis. Nicotiana quadrivalvis, Pursh, Fl. 
Am. Sept. i. 141; Lehm. Hist. Nicot. c. 45. tab. 4; Don, 
Diet. iv. 466 ; Bot. Mag. tab. 1778 ; — viscido-pilosa, caule her- 
baceo, ramoso ; foliis oblongis, utrinque attenuatis, integris, 
superioribus lanceolatis, subsessilibus ; floribus 5-meris, ovario 
3-4-loculai'i, calyce pilosiusculo, corolla genitalibusque glabris, 
stigmate 3-4-lobo. — Missouri. 

The leaves of this species appear somewhat smaller than in