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Full text of "Annals and magazine of natural history : including zoology, botany and geology"

. 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(being a continuation of the 'magazine of botany and zoology,' and of 
loudon and ch arlesworth's 'magazine of natural history.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

Sir W. JARDINE, Bart., F.L.S.— P. J. SELBY,Esq., F.L.S., 

GEORGE JOHNSTON, M.D., 

CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esq., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh, 

AND 

RICHARD TAYLOR, F.L.S., F.G.S. 



VOL. V.— SECOND SERIES. 




PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOR. 

sold by s. highley; simpkin and Marshall; sherwood and co.; w. wood, 

TAVISTOCK STREET; BAILLlfeRE, REGENT STREET, AND PARIS.* 

LIZARS, AND MACLACHLAN AND STEWART, EDINBURGH: 

CURRY, DUBLIN : AND ASHER, BERLIN. 

1850. 



*'Omnes res creatae sunt divinae sapientiae et potentiae testes, divitise felicitatfo 
humanae: — ex harum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; 
ex ceconomiain conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibirelictis semper aestimata; a vere eruditia 
et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit." — 

LlNNiEUS. 

The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain thyme 

And purple heath -flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide : the frozen poles, 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818. 



FLAMMAM. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. V. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



NUMBER XXV. 



Pago 

I. Observations on the Conjugation of C'osterium Ehrenbergii. By 

the Rev. W. Smith, F.L.S. (With a Plate.) 1 

II. On the Terebrating Mollusca. By William Clark, Esq 6 

III. Descriptions of Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S 14 

IV. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 29 

V. Observations on the Structure of the Orchidacea, particularly 

the Vandece. By Prof. H. F. Link 36 

VI. On the occurrence of Charadrius virginiacus, Borkh., at Malta. 

By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S 40 

VII. Notice of a new Genus of Cestoid Worm. By M. P. J. Van 
Beneden. Communicated by J. T. Arlidge, A.B., M.B. (Lond.) ... 42 

VIII. Description of a new species of Veronica. By John Ball, 
M.R.I. A 47 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Ipswich Museum 48 — 69 

Botanical Notes, by J. Ball, Esq. ; Echinorhinus spinosus, by W. P. 
Cocks, Esq. ; On the Presence of Entophyta in healthy living 
Animals, by Dr. Leidy ; Description of a new species of Parrot, 
by G. R. Gray, Esq., F.L.S.; On Decay in Fruit; Presidency of 
the Linnasan Society ; Meteorological Observations and Table. 70 — 80 



NUMBER XXVI. 

IX. On the British species of Chara. By Charles C. Babington, 
M.A., F.L.S. &c 81 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
X. Observations on the species of Termitides of West Africa, de- 
scribed by Smeathman as Termes bellicosus, and by Linnaeus as T.fa- 
talis. By T. S. Savage 92 

XL On a supposed new species of Glyceria. By Frederick 
Townsend, B.A 104 

XII. Supplementary Notes on British Odostomice. By J. G. Jef- 
freys, F.R. & L.S 108 

XIII. Notes upon the smaller British Moths, with descriptions of 
some nondescript or imperfectly characterized species. By John Curtis, 
Esq., F.L.S. &c 110 

XIV. On Deposits of Diatomaceous Earth, found on the shores of 
Lough Mourne, County Antrim, with a record of species living in the 
waters of the Lake. By the Rev. W. Smith, F.L.S 121 

XV. Notes on Chalcidites, and descriptions of various new species. 

By Francis Walker, F.L.S 125 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Edinburgh ; 

Ipswich Museum 133 — 152 

Notice of specimens of the Wheat Midge from Nova Scotia, by J. W. 
Dawson ; On the Characters and Intimate Structure of the Odo- 
riferous Glands of the Invertebrata, by Dr. Leidy ; Journey to 
explore the Natural History of South America; On the genus 
Gregorina ; Nyctotherus, a new genus of Polygastrica allied to 
Plesconia, by Dr. Leidy ; Meteorological Observations and 
Table 152—160 



NUMBER XXVII. 

XVI. On the recent Foraminifera. By William Clark, Esq. ... 161 

XVII. On the Watery Secretion of the Leaves and Stems of the 
Ice-plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, L.). By Dr. Augustus 
Voelcker, Prof, of Chemistry Royal Agricult. College, Cirencester ... 171 

XVIII. On the Anatomy of the Freshwater Bryozoa, with de- 
scriptions of three new species. By Albany Hancock, Esq. (With 
four Plates.) 173 

XIX. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 204 

XX. Notes on Monf acuta ferruginosa. By Joshua Alder. (With 

a Plate.) 210 

XXI. Characters of several new East Indian and South African 
Helices, with remarks on some other species of the Genus occurring at 

the Cape of Good Hope. By W. H. Benson, Esq. 213 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 
New Books: — The Natural History of Ireland. — Vols. I. and II. Birds, 
comprising the Orders Raptores, Insessores, Itasores, and Gralla- 
tores, by William Thompson, Esq 218 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 224 — 2,33 

Notice of Powerful Bears, probably cogeval with the Great Fossil Deer 
of Ireland ; On the employment of Tar to preserve Wheat from the 
Attack of the Weevil, by M. Caillat ; Dr. Robert Ball ; Metamor- 
phoses of Donatio, sagittaria ; Wild Animals of Ancient Britain ; 
Errata'in Mr. Babington's paper on Chara ; Meteorological Ob- 
servations and Table 234 — 240 



NUMBER XXVIII. 

XXII. Notes on the Salmon and Bull-trout. By John Blackwall, 
F.L.S 241 

XXIII. Contributions to the Botany of South America. By John 
Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S 247 

XXIV. Heights of some points of the Cotswold Hills, with some 
experiments with the Aneroid Barometer. By W. Henry Hyett, 
Esq., F.R.S 255 

XXV. On the Embryogeny of Hippuris vulgaris. By John Scott 
Sanderson, F.B.S.E., Member of the Royal Medical Society of Edin- 
burgh 259 

XXVI. Notice of some of the rarer Plants observed in Orkney 
during the Summer of 1849. By John T. Syme, Esq 266 

XXVII. Descriptions of Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. ... 269 

XXVIII. Notes on a species of Hydra found in the Northumber- 
land Lakes. By Albany Hancock, Esq. (With two Plates.) 281 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Botanical Society of Edin- 
burgh 290—309 

Descriptions of new species of Birds of the Family Caprimulgidce, by 
John Cassin ; Former existence of Gigantic Bears in Ireland ; On 
some new genera and species of Entozoa, by Dr. Leidy ; On the 
mouthless Acari which have been formed into the genus Hypopus, 
by F. Dujardin ; Meteorological Observations and Table ... 310 — 320 



NUMBER XXIX. 

XXIX. On the Nostochinece. By John Ralfs, M.R.C.S. (With 
two Plates.) 32J 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
XXX. On Trichites, a fossil genus of Bivalve Mollusks. By John 
Lycett, Esq. (With a Plate.) 343 

XXXT. Characters of nine new or imperfectly described species of 
Planorbis inhabiting India and China. By W. H. Benson, Esq 348 

XXXII. Observations on the Littorinidce. By William Clark, 
Esq 352 

XXXIII. Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
M.A, F.L.S., and C E. Broome, Esq. (With two Plates.) 365 

XXXIV. On the species of Cercolabes confounded under the name 

of C. prehensilis. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S., Pres. Bot. Soc. &c. ... 380 

XXXV. On the characteristic Fossils of the Chalk Formation. By 

L. Von Buch. Communicated by Prof. J. Nicol 381 

XXXVI. Descriptions of British Aphides. By Francis Walker, 
F.L.S 388 



Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Linnsean Society ; Botanical 

Society of Edinburgh 395 — 424 

On the Pathology of the Silk-Worm (Bombyx Mori, L.) ; Examination 
of the Blood, by F. E. Gu6rin Meneville ; British Museum ; Echi- 
nocactus Eyriesii, by J. Toulmin Smith, Esq. ; Cause of the Potato 
Disease ; On the Nature of the Gregarince, by Dr. F. Stein ; Way 
in which Toads shed their Skins ; Meteorological Observations and 
Table 424—432 



NUMBER XXX. 

XXXVII. Notes on an Examination of Lamarck's species of Fossil 
Terebratulce. By Thomas Davidson, Esq., Member of the Geol. Soc. 
of France. Illustrated by figures of all the species drawn from the 
original specimens. (With three Plates.) 433 

XXXVIII. On the Internal Structure of Terebratula pectuncu- 
loides, Schl., Terebratula pulchella, Nils., and Terebratula Deslong- 
champsii, nob. By Thomas Davidson, Esq. (With a Plate.) 449 

XXXIX. On some Inhabitants of the Freshwater Muscles. By 

C. Vogt 450 

XL. Notices of British Fungi. By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., 

F.L.S., and C. E. Broome, Esq. (With two Plates.) 455 

XLI. On Hyoscyamus and Physochlcena. By John Miers, Esq., 

F.R.S., F.L.S 467 

XLII. On the genus Waltonia. By Thomas Davidson, Esq. (With 

a Plate.) 474 



CONTENTS. VII 

Page 
XLIII. On the Operculum of Gasteropodous ?»Iollusca, and an at- 
tempt to prove that it is homologous or identical with the second Valve 
of Conchifera. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S 470 

XLIV. On Cannabis indica, Indian Hemp. By Alexander Chris- 
tison, F.B.S.E., Member of the Royal Medical Society 483 



Proceedings of the Linnaean Society ; Zoological Society ; Botanical 

Society of Edinburgh 493 — 509 



On Scoliciaprisca, a Fossil Annelide of the Chalk, by A. de Quatrefages ; 
Description of a new species of Gorgonia from Australia, by J. E. 
Gray, Esq., F.R.S. ; Yellow Rain — Distribution of Plants; Popular 
Impressions in India regarding the Natural History of certain 
Animals, by H. Torrens, Esq., B.A. &c; on Cypreea umbilkata and 
C. eximia of Sowerby, by J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. ; the Hippopota- 
mus at the Zoological Gardens, by Prof. Owen, F.R.S. ; Meteoro- 
logical Observations and Table 509 — 519 

Index '. 520 



PLATES IN VOL. V. 

Plate I. Conjugation of Closterium Ehrenbcrgii. 



II. I 
II. I 



ry Y Anatomy of Freshwater Bryozoa. 

V.J 

VI. Anatomy of Hydra. — Montacuta ferruginosa. 
VII. Anatomy of Hydra. 



. y British Nostochineae. 



VIII. 

[X. 

X. Trichites nodosus. 
■^J'|New British Fungi. 



]U /\ Lamarck's Terebratulae. 



XIV. 



XV. Lamarck's Terebratulae. — Structure of Terebratula pectuncu- 
loides. — Waltonia Valenciennesii. 



ERRATA. 
Page 353, line 3, for misdated read misstated. 
362, line 26, for corde read corda. 



Ann.* Mag. XatMist. S.2. XoU.fU. 






6 



® 



/>/■•' H r .~SmitA del'. 



JDcC.Soxerbv sc 1 



THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 



" perlitora spargite museum. 

Naiades, et circum vitreos considite fontes ■ 
Pollice virgineo teneros hie carpite flores : 
Floribus et pictum, diva?, replete canistrum. 
At vos, o Nymphae Craterides, ite sub undas ; 
Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco 
Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, Dea? pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N. Parthenii Giannettatii Eel. 1 



No. 25. JANUARY 1850. 



I. — Observations on the Conjugation of Closterium Ehrenbergii. 
By the. Rev. W. Smith, F.L.S. 

[With a Plate.] 

THE conjugation of Closterium Ehrenbergii (Menegh.), under 
the name of Closterium lunula } has been described in a paper by 
M. Morren, f Annales des Sciences Naturelles/ 2nd ser. torn. v. 
1836, but the phenomenon does not appear to have met the eye 
of any late observer in this country, and is wholly unnoticed by 
the acute and careful authors of the ' British Desmidiese.' 

I have had an opportunity, during two successive seasons, of 
noticing the circumstance in question, and the facts elicited seem 
to vary in some important respects so materially from those re- 
corded by M. Morren, and are in themselves so different from the 
ordinary phenomena which accompany the conjugation of other 
Closteria, or indeed of any other of the Desmidiea, that I have 
thought it might be interesting to those engaged in such inves- 
tigations to state the particulars which have fallen under my 
notice. 

On the 23rd March 1848, 1 first discovered Closterium Ehren- 
bergii in a state of reproduction. On this occasion the period of 
conjugation had evidently nearly expired, as but few individuals 
were in that condition, and the mucus stratum, which results 
from the aggregation of conjugating fronds, had almost wholly 

Ann. §■ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 1 



i 



2 Rev. W. Smith on the Conjugation of 

disappeared. On the 29th of January ] 849, I again, in a differ- 
ent locality, met with conjugating fronds, and on this occasion 
in great abundance and in very perfect condition. Conjugation 
was evidently but just commenced, the mucus envelope was ge- 
neral, the fronds exhibited the peculiar condition of the internal 
granular mass which betokens the approaching change, and were 
in those relative positions which, as will be seen hereafter, indi- 
cate a tendency to unite in the formation of sporangia. A few 
days later, multitudes of individuals were found in every stage of 
conjugation, and the process continued until the beginning of 
March, towards the middle of which month few perfect fronds 
could be discovered, and the sporangia, hitherto in vast numbers, 
were fast disappearing : the mucus which held them in suspen- 
sion, and floating on the surface of the water, having become 
dissolved, they were only to be discovered upon a very careful 
search, entangled in the filaments of other plants or mixed with 
the earth at the bottom of the pool. At a later period, and in 
the locality of 1848, I found a few conjugated fronds on the 
7th of May 1849. 

The period of conjugation of this species would therefore ap- 
pear to be during the first three or four months of the year. 
M. Morren has noted it to occur in April, and again in June, re- 
marking, that probably two generations had lived in this inter- 
val. This opinion does not however seem to be borne out by the 
facts I have observed, as in no case have I been able to detect 
the plant in the same locality for more than a month or six weeks 
at one time, nor has it ever reappeared in any quantity in the 
same pool. I have occasionally found single fronds of Closterium 
Ehrenbergii in running water, but on all the occasions previously 
mentioned, it has occurred in clear shallow pools or marshes 
formed by springs on the open moorlands between Wareham and 
Corfe Castle. 

I proceed to notice the phenomena of conjugation as they 
successively presented themselves. The first is an alteration in 
the granular condition of the endochrome. This, from a light 
yellowish green, passes to a much darker shade, and the larger 
granules or " diaphanous vesicles " of Ralfs, which were ori- 
ginally few in number and arranged in a somewhat irregular 
longitudinal series (PI. I. fig. 1), become exceedingly numerous 
and pervade the entire frond. While this change is about taking 
place, the fronds approach in pairs, approximating by their con- 
cave surfaces, and finally coming into such close neighbourhood 
that their inflated centres are in contact and their extremities 
slightly overlapped (fig. 2). In a short time, probably in the 
course of twenty-four hours, a remarkable change takes place 
both in the appearance and condition of the fronds ; a mass of 



Closterium Ehrenbergii. 3 

delicate mucus is secreted around the approximated fronds ; these 
remove to a little distance from each other, undergo " self-divi- 
sion," and present altogether an irregular oval figure, the outline 
of which is formed by the periphery of the mucus, the four divi- 
sions of the fronds being placed in the middle in a somewhat 
quadrilateral manner (fig. 3). During the progress of self-divi- 
sion the internal membrane of the cell-wall becomes enlarged 
at the suture or line of separation, and projects in the form of 
an irregular cone with a blunt or rounded apex forming a beak, 
whose side view presents a triangular outline. This beak be- 
comes filled with endochrome, either by the dilatation or increase 
of the contents of the half-frond, and the divided frond assumes 
the appearance of one with two unequal segments, being what 
M. Morren calls " une Closterie a deux cones inegaux w (fig. 3) . 
On these membranous expansions, at the concave surfaces of the 
fronds and close to the original sutures, there appear, almost 
simultaneously with the formation of the beaks, two circular 
projections, which rupturing at their apices, give egress to the 
delicate sacs which inclose the endochrome, and which drawing 
with them their contents and meeting with the endochrome-sacs 
emitted through similar projections from the other half-fronds, 
form by their connection irregular masses which quickly conso- 
lidate and assume the appearance of perfectly circular, smooth 
dark-coloured balls, the sporangia of Ralfs and seminules of 
Morren (figs. 4, 5). 

The discharge of the endochrome and formation of the spo- 
rangia are accomplished with much rapidity, and may often be 
seen taking place in the field of the microscope, the whole ope- 
ration not occupying more than a few minutes. It will be seen 
from an inspection of the figures, that during the formation of 
the sporangia there appears to be a second development of mu- 
cus in the form of rings around the reproductive bodies ; this is 
probably only the effect of the pressure produced by the growth 
of the sporangia on the mass of investing mucus. It will also 
be seen that the pale transverse band adopted by Ralis as a cha- 
racter of the genus Closterium, and which in figs. 1 and 2 occu- 
pies the centre of the undivided frond, is, upon self-division 
taking place, removed a little towards the extremities of the half- 
fronds (fig. 3). The reason as well as the cause of this motion 
I am unable to explain, but it seems to confirm the propriety of 
adopting the band itself as a permanent and important cha- 
racter. 

With regard to the subsequent changes which take place in 
the sporangia, the time which elapses before they produce young 
fronds, and the mode in which such evolution of a fresh race is 
accomplished, I have not been fortunate enough to ascertain any- 

1* 



4 Rev. W. Smith on the Conjugation of 

thing with certainty. I preserved a mass of the conjugated 
fronds and multitudes of the perfect sporangia in water, which I 
frequently changed, for more than four months, but could not de- 
tect any appearance of young fronds, nor did I notice any mate- 
rial change in the sporangia until decomposition supervened with 
the increased temperature of the season. 

M. Morren contends that a sporangium becomes converted 
into a single frond, and gives a series of figures in illustration of 
the changes which the sporangium undergoes until it becomes 
" une Closterie a deux cones inegaux" (fig. 7 a,b,c,d). Now as I 
have shown that this form is the result of the self-division of the 
ordinary frond and invariably precedes conjugation, I am disposed 
to think that M. Morren has mistaken fronds thus divided, and 
afterwards thrown out of their relative positions, for modified 
sporangia. Certain it is that among myriads of conjugated 
fronds and their sporangia I have been unable to trace the gra- 
dations figured by M. Morren, nor have I on any occasion de- 
tected the slightest modification in the sporangia after their full 
maturation. A divided frond smaller than the others, or one in 
which the self-division has been arrested, may occasionally be 
discovered, but the very rarity of such examples precludes the 
idea that such forms result from the normal development or 
growth of the sporangia. 

How the species in Closterium Ehrenbergii may be renewed, 
appears still involved in the same uncertainty as that which en- 
velopes the propagation of every other species of Desmidiece. Self- 
division in the case before us seems only to accompany conju- 
gation, and will not, as in the other Desmidiece, account for the 
existence at certain periods of vast multitudes of the fronds. 
Another mode of increase, analogous to the propagation by zoo- 
spores in Sphceroplea crispa and other Algse, has been assigned 
to the Desmidiece, and it has been alleged that the endochrome 
escapes in the form of zoospores, and becomes transformed into 
new fronds. M. Morren not only affirms this to be the case, but 
gives a figure illustrative of the conversion of these zoospores, or 
as he terms them " propagules," into new fronds. Mr. Half's 
merely observes that the escape of the granular contents of the 
mature frond is probably one mode by which the Desmidiece are 
increased. He however regards the " swarming of the granules " 
(a curious circumstance observable in the Desmidiece and other 
Alga?, and which I am disposed to regard as a disturbance at- 
tendant upon the decay of the granular mass) as identical with 
the movement of the zoospores, and after accurately describing 
the phenomenon, goes on to state, that with the history of these 
granules after their escape from the frond he was altogether un- 
acquainted. Mr. Ralfs afterwards gives a figure (British Des- 



Closterium Ehrenbergii. 5 

midiea?, pi. 27), upon the authority of his coadjutor Mr. Jenner, 
representing the bursting of the sporangium and the growth of 
the young fronds from its contents in Closterium acerosum, so 
closely resembling the figure by M. Morren of the conversion of 
the propagules of Closterium Ehrenbergii into young fronds, that 
I cannot but believe a similar phenomenon to have been noticed 
by both observers, and am inclined to accept the view of Mr. Jen- 
ner as the correct one, and to regard propagation by zoospores 
or " propagules " as one not yet satisfactorily established in the 
Desmidiece. 

Increase by self-division, where a single frond separates into 
two equal parts, and generates at the suture two new segments 
respectively attached to the old, and thus forms from itself two 
perfect fronds, is one mode by which these minute organisms 
multiply with amazing rapidity ; but this is merely a repetition 
or increase of the individual ; the species must be renewed by 
another method, and that 1 believe to be the result of conjuga- 
tion, or in other words, the conversion of the sporangial contents 
into young fronds j the subject however still requires elucidation 
from the cautious and skilful use of the microscope. 

I may remark in conclusion, that in a generic arrangement, 
based upon the reproductive organs, Closterium Ehrenbergii will 
stand apart from all other Desmidiece. In it alone a pair of con- 
jugating fronds produce two sporangia. It is however allied to 
others of the present genus through Closterium lineatum, the spo- 
rangium of which, according to Mr. Ralfs, is binate, and shows 
a disposition to separate into two parts. 

Wareham, November 1, 1849. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. A single frond of Closterium Ehrenbergii in its ordinary condition. 
Fig. 2. Two fronds approaching and in the apposition which precedes con- 
jugation. 
Fig. 3. Conjugating fronds undergoing self-division, the upper showing the 
protuberances through the torn apices of which the contents of the 
divided fronds pass into the sporangia. 
Fig. 4. Conjugating fronds showing the passage of the endochrome-sac and 

its contents. 
F v ig. 5. Conjugated fronds having perfected their sporangia. 
Fig. 6. Development of the " propagules " into young fronds (after Morren). 
Compare with the figure given in the ' British Desmidieae,' pi. 27, of the 
conversion of the sporangial contents into young fronds in Closterium 
acerosum. 
Fig. 7. a, b, c, d. Development of a sporangium into " uneClosterie a deux 
cones inegaux," from Morren. 
The figures are all magnified 100 linear. Length of ordinary frond T ' T of 
an inch; greatest breadth of ditto T ^ ; length of divided frond Ti fo; 
length of beak T ^; diameter &f sporangium ^fa. 



6 Mr. W. Clark on the Terebrating Mollusca, and on the 

II. — On the Terebrating Mollusca. 
By William Clark, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

GENTLEMEN, Norfolk Crescent, Bath, Oct. 12, 1849. 

" Scire tuum, nihil e?t, nisi te scire hoc, sciat alter." 

This quotation, from one of the most sagacious of the satirists, 
is not meant to be applied here, as A. Persius employs it, to lash 
the inordinate vanities of authors craving to have their lucubra- 
tions committed to the press, but in its simple sense, as an in- 
contestable aphorism, that unless we communicate our ideas and 
what we know to others, our knowledge is vain and nought. In 
conformity with this application of the sentiment above, I pro- 
pose to state some important facts which I believe at present are 
not generally known relative to the boring Pholades and other 
Acephala, and particularly on the identity of Pholadidea papy- 
racea and Pholas lamellata of authors, together with some curious 
facts in the organization of the Bivalve Mollusca. 

To carry out these views, it will in the first place be necessary, 
to enable malacologists to form just conclusions on the matters I 
have sketched out, to furnish them with a correct account of the 
animals of Pholadidea papyracea and Pholas lamellata, accom- 
panied by a short summary of comparison, after which I trust I 
shall be able to place the vexata qucestio of the boring functions 
of the Acephala on the irrefragable bases of certainty ; and lastly, 
I shall communicate a most curious fact connected with the tes- 
taceous Acephala, which, if hitherto unknown and now established, 
must be considered most important, inasmuch as it will add a 
function of the first consideration to the oeconomy of these ani- 
mals. 

Pholadidea papyracea, Brit. Moll. 

Pholas papyracea, auctorum. 

Animal elongated, subcylindrical ; mantle closed, except a 
small rayed aperture for the foot, as long as one exists, and 
which corresponds in position with a similar aperture in the 
membrane connecting the doming of the shell, and is styled by 
Dr. Turton a " spiracle/' but which may perhaps in this species, 
the only one of the Pholades that has it, be for the purpose of a 
partial issue, or rather protrusion, without the solution of con- 
tinuity of the ventral membrane of the animal, of the hyaline 
cylindrical appendage which exists in all bivalves, to secure for 
it a point of support when the foot becomes so much diminished 
as not to afford one. In all other bivalves this stylet is not 
visible, being imbedded in the body and upper part of the pedi- 
cle of the foot, which is the leaning-stock or point of resistance, 



Identity of Pholadidea papyracea and Pholas lamellata. 7 

except in the Anomice, Ostrece and Pectinidce, in which, as the 
foot is reduced almost to nothing, the mass of the body is the 
only point d'appui ; but when the dome of the shell of the Pho- 
ladidea papyracea is removed, the dark basal point of the stylet 
presents itself in the centre of the mottled belly, precisely where 
the foot is placed in the group of the Pholades, and in this case 
it appears to act as a substitute. 

The siphonal apparatus consists of a long elastic sheath, 
which is often protruded to double the length of the shell, but 
in a state of half-extension it becomes highly corrugated ; it is 
clothed with a dull red-brown epidermis, under which it is 
bluish white ; the margin of its terminus is finely fringed with 
short white cirrhi ; within the sheath are the anal and branchial 
tubes, the former with the margin quite plain, but exserts a tu- 
bular hyaline process ; the latter is encircled by about twenty 
white cirrhi of different lengths. 

The liver is green, and situated as usual on the dorsal range. 
There are on each side the body a pair of pale reddish brown 
elongated suboval branchiae, the upper one being much the 
smallest, which are finely striated on the outer surfaces ; their pos- 
terior extremities suddenly become linear, and are then deposited 
in the branchial tube ; there are also two long flat linear palpi on 
each side, with lanceolate points ; these are more striated than 
the branchiae. The body is centrally subglobose, but tapers pos- 
teally and anteally to a blunt terminus, and the whole of it pre- 
sents, especially in the genial season, a mottled mass of flaky 
white subrotund spots or dots, with one of the termini of the 
elastic appendage appearing in the centre of the anterior extre- 
mity. With regard to the foot, as I have already observed, not 
a trace is visible, having vanished for reasons to be spoken of in 
another place. 

Pholadidea papyracea, Brit. Moll. 
Pholas lamellata, auctorum. 

Animal nearly of the form we have just described; mantle 
closed, except a large aperture for the passage of the foot, which 
in this form of the P. papyracea is most apparent. The branchial 
processes and siphonal tubes are, in the most minute points, 
similar to those organs in the form styled Pholadidea papyracea 
to which we refer ; the body, as in it, is subglobose, and pro- 
duced posteally and anteally to an obtuse point, and it is gene- 
rally of a bluish hyaline colour, with some fine anastomosing 
lines throughout its surface, but has nothing of the mottled ap- 
pearance of Pholadidea papyracea ; the shape of the branchiae is 
the same as in its congener, but their striae are more delicate and 
colour of the palest yellow ; these are the mere variations of ado- 
lescence, and generally prevail where specific identity cannot be 



8 Mr. W. Clark on the Terebrating Mollusca, and on the 

doubted, and they are deposited partially as in its congener, in 
the branchial tube ; the palpi and liver exhibit no variation. I 
now come to the most decided difference between the two ani- 
mals ; the foot, in the form we are now describing, is propor- 
tionally larger than in any other of the Pholades, of hyaline tex- 
ture, springing from the centre of the body with a long cylin- 
drical pedicle ; it has a subclavate appearance, truncate at the 
terminus, which is of suboval form and pointed anteally and pos- 
teally, and there is no outward visible trace of the curious elastic 
stylet common to all bivalves, and so conspicuous in the ventral 
tissue of the form Pholadidea papyracea. 

I will now make a short comparison of the two forms : it will be 
observed that it is stated, in the form Pholadidea papyracea, that 
the mantle is closed, except a very small aperture or " spiracle " 
for the foot, if it still exists ; but in the form Pholas lamellata 
there is a large aperture for a foot, that is, larger in proportion 
than in any of the Pholades. The branchiae, palpi, and elabo- 
rate siphonal apparatus are precisely the same with only varia- 
tions of colour ; the bodies of the two are of the same shape, but 
differ in colour and markings, the one being intensely mottled, 
the other hyaline ; the body of the one having no foot attached 
to it, but the other a very large one. These are the principal 
variations, and certainly constitute a very general difference of 
aspect between the animals of the two forms, and it must be ad- 
mitted that conchologists and even malacologists, who have not 
examined with care all the conditions and incidents attached to 
them, have had a prima facie case for doubting their identity ; 
but notwithstanding these great and visible discrepancies, I think 
I shall, by a suite of facts, observations, and reasoning thereon, 
be able decisively to settle their specific identity. 

But before I apply to this discussion, I propose to communi- 
cate what I consider to be the real agent of the Acephalous Mol- 
lusca in the operation of excavating their dwellings. This abrupt 
inroad on a subject only just mooted, will however, from the facts 
adduced, shorten the discussion when we revert to the subject 
we have for the moment abandoned, as they will I think satis- 
factorily account for some of the great variations of aspect be- 
tween the Pholadidea papyracea and the so-called Pholas lamellata 
and other apparent anomalies. I disclaim all merit for the great 
discovery of the animal functions that are the principal agents 
of the excavating powers of the Acephala, and which will I think 
for ever set at rest the endless discussions thereon, by placing 
the subject on the indestructible bases of certainty. 

This great result is due to the genius and talents evinced by 
Mr. Albany Hancock, in his paper in the i Annals ' of October 
1848, " On the Boring of the Mollusca into Rocks." If any con- 
siderations are due to me, they are of the most negative character, 



Identity of Pholadidea papyracea and Pliolas laniellata. 9 

and only consist in the circumstances, that during the summers 
of 1848-9 I sedulously for several weeks examined the Pho- 
lades, both in situ and in the closet, when after a careful inves- 
tigation I arrived at the same conclusions with respect to the 
boring agents of the bivalves as Mr. Hancock ; and I have the 
notes of them now by me, written before Mr. Hancock's publi- 
cation, which I intended to lay before the public ; that gentle- 
man has anticipated me, the whole merit is his, and I cordially 
apply to him the motto, " Palmam qui meruit, ferat." I will now 
state some facts which perhaps have escaped Mr. Hancock's at- 
tention, corroborative of his positive discovery. 

I revert for a moment to the consideration of the identity of 
Pholadidea papyracea and the Pholas lamellata of authors, on 
which point Professor Forbes and Mr. Hanley, in the ' British 
Mollusca/ have concurred, having in some measure relied on my 
authority communicated many years ago. The investigation in 
the last summer (1848) was undertaken by me both with the 
view of making an attempt to discover the terebrating powers of 
the Acephala, particularly of the Pholades, and for further proofs 
of the identity of the two forms styled by authors Pholadidea 
papyracea and Pholas lamellata. 

In the course of my examinations I was startled by the great 
variations in the organs of the two forms of this Pholas, which, 
twenty years ago, when I first examined this species, appear not 
to have so rigorously excited my notice ; doubts arose in my 
mind, that I might be wrong in my former determinations of 
identity, and I wrote to Dr. Battersby to express them to him 
and Mrs. Griffith, both of Torquay ; the latter a lady naturalist, 
who has taken great interest in this question ; but in the present 
summer of 1849, after a continued investigation of fourteen 
weeks, my doubts were dispelled, and I stated personally to Dr. 
Battersby, that after a careful review of all the evidences that pre- 
sented themselves, I reverted to and relied on my original deter- 
minations of identity of the two forms of Pholadidea papyracea. 

This change of opinion arose from the observation that in the 
adult Pholadidea papyracea, the mottled appearance of the belly, 
so dissimilar to that of the form Pholas lamellata, was due to the 
extension of the reproductive membranous organs of the ovarium 
and the spermatozoa, occupying the space usually appropriated 
to the foot, which I found had disappeared. This anomalous 
appearance excited my attention, and the reflection that with 
nearly absolute cceteris paribus, in the generalities of all the Pho- 
lades, there was no substantial reason why one species should 
always be deprived of the foot, when all the others possessed that 
appendage, and as I had come to the conclusion, that it was 
the boring instrument, I felt assured that this anomaly was only 



] Mr. W. Clark on the Terebrating Mollusca, and on the 

an apparent one, dependent on certain conditions connected with 
the growth of the animal ; and as the very large anterior gape in 
all the Pholades is the site of the powerful foot, and is never 
closed up during their existence, except in this species, I became 
fully convinced, that the foot, — having finally performed its tere- 
brating functions, the animal consequently having arrived at full 
growth (the test of which is the doming and formation of the 
caliciform incipient tubing, which is in Pholadidea papyracea, 
the last vestiges of the protecting tubes of the Teredinidce) — had 
become absorbed, on the well-known principle, that an organ 
from want of use is often, especially in the lower animals, 
followed by its total disappearance. This vanishing, depaupe- 
ration, and withering away of a foot now become useless, and as 
it were extinct from its complete inclosure, after it had per- 
formed its appointed duty of excavation, is in strict conformity 
with Lamarck's views (see page 158, last edition of the ( Ani- 
maux sans Vertebres '). Thus two most important facts are made 
evident by this phenomenon, which incontestably proves that the 
foot, agreeably to Mr. Hancock's views, is the excavator of the 
animal's dwelling ; and it stamps with additional consideration 
the Lamarckian doctrine of the progression and advancement of 
animality resulting from a want requiring to be supplied, which 
is effected by the concentration of the whole mass of vital energies, 
the circulation, nervous influences, aided by caloric, the gases, 
electricity, &c, in forcing and producing the supply of the parti- 
cular want. That great philosopher instances the addition of 
tentacula to the Helices in explanation of his views ; and this 
doctrine is strongly corroborated, if the fact of the obliteration 
of the foot in Pholadidea papyracea is considered, e contrario, as 
a retrocession in animalization. This phenomenon also proves 
that nature never permanently retains what is superfluous, or 
refuses, as far as its power extends, to supply urgent require- 
ments. 

This important proof of the soundness of the laws promul- 
gated by M. Lamarck, that nature mechanically produces the 
progressive march of animal improvement, almost makes us in- 
cline to assent to the high and metaphysical researches of that 
great naturalist, that the doctrine is not without foundation, that 
the first sparks of vitality arise from gravitation and molecular 
adherence, aided by the gases put in action by caloric, electri- 
city, &c. * If we adopt this view, we admit that the germ of vita- 
lity communicated to matter arises from the mechanical power 
entrusted to nature ; but we must not for a moment forget that 

* We would respectfully decline following our correspondent in these 
speculations. — R. T. 



Identity of Pholadidea papyracea and PLolas lamellata. 1 1 

nature can do no more than perform the high behests of the 
Deity, nor exceed those limits of action confided to her by the 
Great Huler of the universe, who is the ens entium, and the first 
cause of all that exists. 

I revert to the boring Mollusca. Mr. Hancock has in many 
consecutive pages taken the pains to show, that mechanical 
boring, the solvents, and the ciliary currents, cannot be the causes 
of excavation. I shall not for a moment dwell on these agents, 
which are utterly worthless, and incapable of producing the effects 
attributed to them; but it may not be amiss to adduce some 
further observations corroborative of Mr. Hancock's position, 
that the foot is the true terebrating agent. As regards the 
Pholades, Saxicavce, and the Venerirupis perforans of authors, 
they all inhabit the great littoral tracts of red sandstone on the 
Devon coasts, near Exmouth; this stone is composed of mole- 
cular grains so feebly conglomerated, that there is not the least 
necessity for the surface of the foot to be armed with siliceous 
points ; the most gentle rubbing of that muscular coriaceous or- 
gan will amply suffice to hollow out the cubicula of the molluscan 
inhabitants of the red sandstone on the Devon coasts. The Pho- 
lades at Exmouth, and I believe elsewhere, are rarely or ever 
found in calcareous substances ; the Saxicavce are always in the 
sandstone ; the Modiolina gastrochcena is never taken but in the 
coralline zone, — I speak of Exmouth, — and bores both stones and 
shells, as well as often forms its case of coarse agglutinated grains 
of sand or corally spoil. When the Saxicava and Modiolina gas- 
trochcena are located in calcareous deposits, it is probable that 
nature in this case provides the foot or mantle with siliceous 
points ; but I think the attrition of the foot, aided by fine simple 
sea-sand, is sufficient to rub down the cavities as fast as the ani- 
mals grow. I corroborate by a thousand observations, that in 
the Saxicavce and Modiolina gastrochcena, which have the foot 
slender and feeble, their mantles are strengthened by the most 
powerful muscular bands and fillets, which vary so much in 
shape, disposition and intensity, that I have in some cases used 
them successfully for specific distinction ; and I have not the 
least doubt, as Mr. Hancock states, that this powerfully-armed 
ventral portion of the mantle of the closed boring Acephala is 
fully adequate to rub down their habitations. I believe that the 
foot or mantle of the entire class of Acephala has the power of 
terebrating, if circumstances require the exercise of it. It may 
be observed that many of the Pholades are not in all circum- 
stances borers ; many of them, — I may name the Pholas dactylus 
and P. Candida at Exmouth, in the sandy districts, — pass their 
entire existence in pure sand ; the same condition attaches to the 
Venerirupis perforans and many other bivalves. As to the borers 



12 Mr. W. Clark on the Terebrating Mollusca, and on the 

in wood, as the exotic Pholas striata, the Teredines, and Xylo- 
phaga dorsalis, the foot is the undoubted agent of perforation, 
and in this class is probably armed with rasping additions, and 
it cannot be doubted has the power to rub down the hardest 
oak faster than the animal can require; in fact, the harder wood, 
as oak, is more easily comminuted than the spongy deal or elm 
plank. 

I take leave of this part of my present paper by again acknow- 
ledging the great service Mr. Hancock has conferred on malaco- 
logical science, by definitively, as I think, determining the true 
functional causes of the terebrating powers in the Acephalous 
Mollusca. 

I return to the question of the identity of the two forms of 
Pholadidea papyracea. I have already shown that the great va- 
riation in colour and markings between the adult Pholadidea 
papyracea and the young shell styled Pholas lamellata is the 
effect of generative influences, and that its conspicuous foot, when 
it arrives at full growth, which is testified by its becoming com- 
pletely domed, is depauperated and finally obliterated. These two 
great and principal variations of aspect between the two forms 
of Pholadidea papyracea, resulting from states of transition, ha- 
ving I trust been satisfactorily disposed of, and every other part 
of the animal exhibiting a prototype similarity, it is impossible, 
as I think, to entertain further doubts of the positive identity of 
the two shells usually termed by authors Pholas papyracea and 
P. lamellata. I may add, that it has been asked in objection, 
how is it that twenty Pholadidea papyracea are taken for one Pho- 
las lamellata, and that the two forms are not more frequently 
met with in the transition states ? This objection quickly yields 
to a just view of the Pholades as regards habitat and other in- 
fluences. 

The Pholades are usually inhabitants of the littoral zone, but 
by no means always so, as some species also inhabit the more 
pelagic zones ; the littoral shells are found in the superficial area 
of the red sandstone rocks from half-tide to the lowest littoral 
limits, and probably beyond, where they are unapproachable, at 
the depth of a very few inches; the whole area of the lower por- 
tion of the littoral zone is occupied by pele-mele colonies of Pho- 
las parva, Saxicava rugosa and Pholadidea papyracea, generally 
of adult proportions, with an intermixture of a comparative pau- 
city of the form Pholas lamellata. The Pholas dactylus and P. 
Candida usually inhabit the higher levels of the littoral zone. The 
fact of the deficiency of the young of the Pholadidea papyracea 
is occasioned solely by the pre- occupation of the area of the sand- 
stone rocks by the species I have mentioned, mostly adult ; and 
when the genial season of reproduction arrives, the fry are ejected, 



Identity of Pholadidea papyracea and Pbolas lamellata. 13 

and vast numbers become, as I believe is the case with all the 
Mollusca, at least the majority, the prey of the Echinodermata, 
Crustacea and other enemies ; therefore only a comparatively few 
survive, to continue the race and keep up the stock diminished 
by the annual demand for them, rarely for bait, but chiefly to 
supply the cabinets of the shell-collectors. These are the causes 
which fully account for the circumstance of twenty adult Pho- 
ladidea papyracea occurring for one in a state of adolescence ; 
thus, in conformity with the Malthusian doctrine, the ground 
being pre-occupied, no more stock can be admitted until some 
of the older colonists are removed, and reproduction is conse- 
quently limited by the ova becoming the prey of a multitude of 
enemies. 

I will say a few words on the pelagic Pholades inhabiting 
masses of stone dredged up in the littoral zones of the Devon 
coasts, six or eight miles from land. These shells, whether they 
are the two forms of Pholadidea papyracea, or the Pholas parva or 
P. dactylus, are always dwarf. I have a curious series of minute 
and completely adult Pholadidea papyracea not exceeding a 
quarter of an inch in length. Such shells are considered by the 
inexperienced observer as proofs that at all ages the Pholadidea 
papyracea is completely covered with a dome and continues gra- 
dually to increase : this is impossible, as when the dome and cali- 
ciform posterior extremity are once formed, all further growth is 
for ever terminated. The pelagic Pholades rarely exceed half an 
inch in length, consequently these dwarf forms are the result of 
locality, depth of water and many other conditions. In the deeper 
zones, the young forms of the present species, instead of being 
found in the proportion of one to twenty of the adult shells, ap- 
pear in equal numbers : this discrepancy in the proportions of 
the young shells inhabiting the littoral and pelagic zones, must 
arise from the circumstance that in the deeper waters there is 
more room for reproduction, more sustentation and fewer ene- 
mies ; this view corroborates the doctrine above, accounting for 
the disparity of numbers in the littoral zones between the young 
and old shells of this species. I have omitted to mention that I 
possess these shells in a genuine state of transition taken by 
myself in situ, and not produced by the arts of fraudulent 
dealers. 

I terminate the present paper by stating a fact of the greatest 
importance in the oeconomy of the Bivalves, which I believe is 
not generally known, and which was discovered by me twenty 
years since, but not then promulgated, except to a few friends, 
and lately I named it to Professor Forbes : though the fact was 
new then, I do not vouch that it is so now, as from my long seces- 
sion from malacological pursuits, many of the recent discoveries, 



14 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

scattered in the various works on natural history, may have 
escaped my attention. 

All malacologists are acquainted with the existence of the hya- 
line cylindrical elastic stylet that is found in the bodies of all 
bivalves, whether great or small ; I have seen this organ men- 
tioned in a work on natural history that has escaped my memory, 
with the addition that its use is entirely unknown. Whilst dis- 
secting the Pholadidea papyracea and other Pholades, in which 
this stylet is easily detected, and in which the larger end is im- 
bedded in the muscular fundus of the body and foot, instead of 
drawing it forth as I had often done, I was induced to trace its 
course, and found that it terminated in the stomach, and had 
attached to it a light yellow doubled-up corneous subtriangular 
plate, wrinkled into three bluntly pointed lobes at one end, and 
at the other a membrane by which it is affixed to the elastic 
stylet. This discovery at once made evident the use of this ap- 
pendage, and that it was an elastic spring to work the corneous 
plate or attritor, by the muscular action of the foot and body, to 
divide and comminute the food, and especially the minute crus- 
taceous and testaceous alimentary matters received into the sto- 
machal cavity ; it appears then that this appendage acts as a giz- 
zard, and the Bivalve Mollusca are thus supplied with a mastica- 
tory apparatus very analogous to the gizzards of some of the 
Gasteropoda. 

I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 



III. — Descriptions of Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. iv. p. 202.] 

72. Aphis Persica, Sulzer, &c. 

Aphis Persica has been described by several authors, but T 
believe that this name will apply to two species, and I defer 
giving the references until I can ascertain to which of these they 
most probably belong. 

This Aphis feeds on the peach, Amygdalus Persica, in Europe 
and in North America, and on the sloe (Prunus spinosa) ; the 
latter tree is its original habitation, but the introduction of the 
peach into England caused a partial change in its nourishment. 
It sometimes passes from the peach to the cherry, and multi- 
plies thereon. Schmidberger states that there are sixteen gene- 
rations in one year, and that some of the young ones of the 
second generation acquire wings. 

The viviparous wingless female. It appears on the buds of the 
peach-tree before the end of March, and when young is very 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 15 

dark green, but when full-grown it is pale green, oval, convex, 
plump, and smooth, but not shining : the front is slightly convex, 
and not notched : the limbs are pale yellow ; the feelers towards 
their tips, the tip of the mouth, the feet, and the tips of the 
shanks and of the nectaries are brown : the feelers are rather les3 
than half the length of the body ; the first and the second joints 
are not angular ; the fourth joint is much shorter than the third ; 
the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is much shorter 
than the fifth ; the seventh is more than twice the length of the 
sixth; the nectaries are about one-sixth or one-eighth of its 
length. 

1st var. Pale green mottled with dark green. 
2nd var. Pale yellowish green. 

3rd var. Of a fine amber colour. Intermediate varieties also 
occur. 

4th var., &c. In midsummer the masses on the young shoots 
are very thick, and the insect then has a great variety of 
tints j its colour passes from pale red or green to the hue of 
a mellow peach, or to dark red, and sometimes the whole of 
the body is black : the legs are red ; the four hinder thighs 
except the base, the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks, 
are black. 

5th var. Pale red, shining, reddish green beneath : the back, 
with the exception of a line along the middle and the borders of 
the segments, is red : the feelers are black, green at the base, and 
shorter than the body : the mouth is green ; its tip, the eyes and 
the nectaries are black, and the latter are one-twelfth of the 
length of the body : the legs are black : the fore-thighs, the base 
of the other thighs, and the shanks except their tips are yellow. 
On the cherry in July. 

6th var. Bright red, with four or more indistinct rows of little 
black dots along the back : the head is dark red : the feelers are 
white, dark red at the base, black towards the tips, and rather 
more than half the length of the body : the mouth and the legs 
are dull white ; the tip of the mouth, the eyes, the nectaries, the 
hind-thighs except the base, the knees, the feet, and the tips of 
the shanks, are black. End of July. 

In this form it is especially subject to the attacks of its enemies: 
Trombidium holosericeum devours it ; and tmAphidius, auAllotria, 
Ceraphron Carpenteri, and Myina Chaonia are its parasites. 

7th var. The feelers are brown, pale yellow at the base ; the 
mouth is pale yellow with a brown tip : the nectaries are pale 
yellow with brown tips, and are one-sixth or one-eighth of the 
length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the feet and the 
tips of the shanks are brown . 

8th var. The body is black, and other varieties occur when it 



16 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

is more or less varied with red : there are no tubercles in front of 
the head. 

The viviparous winged female. The pupa appears before the 
end of April, and the wings are unfolded in May. The insect 
is then black : the fore-chest and the abdomen are green ; the 
former has a broad black band across it, the disc of the latter is 
black, and there are rows of black spots on each side : the feelers 
are slender, and nearly or quite as long as the body ; the base 
of the third joint is pale yellow ; the fourth joint is very much 
shorter than the third ; the fifth is much shorter than the fourth ; 
the sixth is more than half the length of the fifth ; the seventh 
is nearly as long as the third, and thrice the length of the sixth : 
the mouth is pale green with a brown tip : the nectaries are black, 
and about one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs are pale 
yellow ; the feet, the tips of the thighs and of the shanks, and 
nearly the whole of the hind-thighs are black : the wings are 
colourless, and longer than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale 
green ; the wing-brands are pale brown, and the veins are darker ; 
the second vein diverges from the first, but is nearly parallel to 
the third ; the forks of the latter begin usually at one-third and at 
two-thirds of the length ; the fourth is slightly curved at its base, 
but nearly straight towards its tip; the angle of the brands whence 
it springs is very slight. 

1st var. The abdomen is dark reddish green, with a row of 
black spots on each side : the feelers are shorter than the body : 
the mouth is dark yellow ; its tip is black : the nectaries are as 
long as one-twelfth of the body : the thighs are black with the 
exception of the base : the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale 
yellow. 

2nd var. The abdomen is black : the nectaries are about one- 
tenth of the length of the body : the mouth is red with a black 
tip : the shanks, with the exception of their tips and the fore- 
thighs towards the base, are also red : the wing-brands are dull 
buff. End of July. 

3rd var. Dark brown : the abdomen is dull yellow ; the disc 
of its back and a row of spots on each side are black : the feelers 
are black, very slender, and a little longer than the body : the 
mouth is yellow ; its tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are 
dull dark yellow, and as long as one-eighth of the body : the legs 
are black, slender, and rather long ; the thighs towards the base 
and the shanks with the exception of their tips are yellow. End 
of September. 

In October this variety, which is of large size, occurs in abun- 
dance beneath the leaves, and is surrounded by flocks of bright 
green little ones, which as they continue to grow assume a bright 
pale red or yellow colour, and a variety of other tints. 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 17 

4th far. The body is black : the abdomen is dark reddish 
green. 

Variations of the wing-veins. 1st van — There is no upper 
branch in the first fork of the third branch-vein, but the lower 
branch is subdivided. 

2nd var. There is no second fork. 

3rd var. The lower division of the second fork sends forth an 
additional branch which does not reach the border of the wing. 

The oviparous wingless female, This appears in October, and is 
bright reel and velvet-like, slightly oval, rather convex : the head 
is black : the disc of the abdomen is dark red : the feelers are 
black, white towards the base and as long as the body : the nec- 
taries are white, with black tips : the legs are white ; the tips of 
the thighs are pale brown ; the feet and the tips of the shanks 
are black. 

The winged male. The body is black : the abdomen is dark 
yellowish red, with a row of black spots on each side : the feelers 
are black, and as long as the body : the month is dull yellow,, 
black towards the tip : the nectaries are pale yellow with black 
tips, and as long as one-fourth of the body : the thighs are black, 
pale yellow at the base ; the shanks are dark reddish yellow, 
their tips and the feet are black : the wing-ribs and the rib-veins 
are pale yellow ; the brands are pale brown ; the veins are brown. 

1st var. The abdomen is dark red. 

2nd var. The disc of the abdomen is blackish. 

3rd var. The abdomen is very dark green, almost black above : 
the feelers are longer than the body ; the fourth joint is much 
shorter than the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the 
sixth is less than half the length of the fifth ; the seventh is 
longer than the fourth, and thick till near their tips : the base 
of the mouth is dull yellow : the nectaries are as long as one-sixth 
of the body : the thighs at the base and the shanks except their 
tips are yellow. It pairs with the oviparous female at the end 
of October and in the beginning of November. 

Length of the body }-l£ line ; of the wings 2^—4^- lines. 

The wingless and the winged females as usual appear alter- 
nately, and the peach-tree sometimes loses all its leaves from 
their ravages. Formica nigra is almost constantly attracted by 
it on the peach-tree; but when it swarms on the sloe in hedges, 
its original condition, large troops of Formica ntfa come to feed 
on its honey. 

73. Aphis Rumicis, Linn. 

Aphis Rumicis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 734. 5 ; Faun. Suec. 979 ; 
Fabr. Syst. Ins. ii. 385. 11 ; Syst. Ent. 735. 10; Ent. Syst. iv. 
213. 12 ; Syst. Rhyn. 296. 12; Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 111. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 2 



18 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

1204; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2203; Stew. El. Nat. Hist.ii. 110; 
Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 81. 58. 

A. Papaveris, Fabr. Gen. Ins. 303; Ent. Syst. iv. 218. 38; 
Syst. Rhyn. 299. 38 ; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2202 ; Schrank, 
Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 118. 1225; Rossi, Faun. Etrusc. 263. 1392; 
Leon Duf. Rech. sur les Hemipt. iv. 242. pi. 9. fig. 114, 115; 
Fonscol. Ann. Soc. Ent. x. 162. 

A.Fabce, Scop. Ent. Carn. 139. 408; Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 
2210; Kirby and Spence, Intr. Ent. i. 175 ; Bingley, Hist. Nat. 
iii. 189 ; Curt. Journ. Royal Agric. vol. vii. 418. pi. R. f. 21, 22, 
x. pt. 1. pi. U. f. 1-4. 

A. Atriplicis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. 216. 

A. Aparines, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 735. 8; Sp. Ins. 385. 2? 9; Ent. 
Syst. iv. 211. 10; Syst. Rhyn. 291. 5? 10; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. 
i. 2208; Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 105. 1183. 

A. armata, Hausm. 111. Mag. i. 439. 30. 

A. Craccce, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 735. 13; Faun. Suec. 986; Fabr. 
Sp. Ins. ii. 390. 46 ; Deg. Ins. iii. 39. 5 or 8 ? pi. 2, fig. 14, 19 ; 
Scop. Ent. Carn. 407 ; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2205 ; Schrank, 
Faun. Boic. 111. 119; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 86. 62. 

A. Vicice, Fabr. Sp. Ins. ii. 390. 46; Ent. Syst. iv. 220. 51 ; 
Syst. Rhyn. 301. 51. 

A. Thlapseos, Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 118. 1227. 

A. Galii ? Kalt. Mon. Pflan. 87. 63. 

A. Genista, Scop. Ent. Carn. 139. 409 ; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. 
i. 2210 ; Fons. Ann. Soc. Ent. x. 103 ; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. 90. 
66. 

A. Laburni, Kalt. Mon. Pflan. 85. 61. 

A. Euphorbia ? Kalt. Mon. Pflan. 94. 69. 

RumicifeXj Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2 me serie, v. 478. 

Meconaphis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2 me serie, v. 478. 

Craccifex, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2 me serie, v. 478. 

Genistifex, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. 2 me serie, v. 478. 

A. Acetosa, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 734. 6 ; Fabr. Syst. Ins. ii. 
389. 43; Ent. Syst. iv. 220. 49; Syst. Rhyn. 301. 49; Geoff. 
Ins. 496. 9 ; Reaum. Ins. iii. 286; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2203. 

A. Galii Scabrit Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 105. 

Cinara Rumicis, Sir Oswald Mosley, Gard. Chron. i. 747. 

A. Dahlia ? Sir Oswald Mosley, Gard. Chron. i. 628. 

The collier or black dolphin feeds on the following plants : — 

Papaver Rhaeas. Rumex crispus. 

somniferum. conglomerates. 

Hydrolapathum. Tragopogon pratense. 

Rumex acutifolius. Serratula arvensis. 

obtusifolius. Centaurea Calcitrapa. 

Acetosa. Euphorbia Paralias. 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 



19 



Arctium Lappa. 
Solatium. 
Scabiosa. 
Inula dysenterica. 
Carduus lanceolatus. 
Eryngium campestre. 
Fumaria officinalis. 
Cochlearia Armoracia. 
Capsella bursa-pastoris. 
Lycopersicum esculentum. 
Brassica Rapa. 
Erodium cicutarium. 
Lotus corniculatus. 
Faba vulgaris. 
Pisum sativum. 
Phaseolus vulgaris. 

coccineus. 
Ononis. 

Spinacia oleracea. 
Vicia. 

Mentha hirsuta. 
Cracca. 

Lamium purpureum. 
Digitalis purpurea. 
Cnicus arvensis. 

palustris. 
Anthriscus. 
iEgopodium. 
jEthusa. 
Galium Aparine. 

verum. 

Mollugo. 
Achillaea Ptarmica. 
Nerium Oleander. 
Atriplex hastata. 



Chenopodium album. 
Senecio vulgaris. 
Arctium minus. 
Valeriana officinalis. 
Hypericum perforatum. 

hirsutum. 

quadrangulare. 
Scorzonera. 
Datura Stramonium. 
Cichorium Endivia. 
Lactuca. 

Matricai'ia Chamomilla. 
Chrysanthemum segetum. 

leucanthemum. 
Helichrysum chrysanthemum. 
Beta vulgaris. 
Cytisus Laburnum. 
Genista tinctoria. 

anglica. 
Ulex europaeus. 
Asparagus officinalis. 
Sium latifolium. 
Dahlia superflua. 

frustrania. 
Polygonum Persicaria. 
Myosotis scorpioides. 
Solidago virgaurea. 
Pastinaca sativa. 
Daucus Carota. 
Anagallis arvensis. 
Angelica sylvestris. 
Verbena. 
Persicaria. 
Urtica urens. 
Viburnum Opulus, &c. &c. 



The winged race migrate to the bean in May, and then bring 
forth their offspring, which at the end of June leave the withered 
flowers, and fix themselves along the sutures of the pods where 
their mouths can find an entrance. 

The viviparous wingless female. When young it is linear, and 
dark red : the limbs are paler : when full-grown it is oval, con- 
vex, plump, and dull black, and has a row of punctures on each 
side : the feelers are white with black tips, and much shorter than 
the body j the fourth joint is much shorter than the third ; the 
fifth is hardly shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is about half the 
length of the fifth ; the seventh is full as long as the third ; the 
mouth is white with a black tip : the nectaries are as long as one- 
eighth of the body : the legs are white j the hind-thighs excepting 
the base, the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks, are 
black. 

1st var. The body is dark green. 

2nd var. The body is purplish black. 

2* 



20 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

3rd var. The body is bronze black. 

4th var. The body is shining. 

5th var. The body is covered with a white bloom. 

6th var. There are two stripes of white powder on the back. 

7th var. The feelers and the mouth are black, dull white 
towards the base. 

8th var. The feelers are nearly as long as the body. 

9th var. The nectaries are as long as one-sixth of the body. 

10th var. The nectaries are as long as one-twelfth of the 
body. 

11th var. The tips only of the hind-thighs are black. 

12th var. The legs are quite black. 

13th var. Like the last, but the shanks and the fore-thighs 
are dull white. 

14th var. The body is dull sooty black, oval, short, and plump : 
the front is convex, and has a tubercle on each side : the feelers 
are much shorter than the body ; the first and the second joints 
are not angular ; the fourth joint is much shorter than the third ; 
the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is much shorter 
than the fifth ; the seventh is more than twice the length of the 
sixth. 

15th var. The body is black, shining, and has a slight purple 
tint : the feelers are white, black at the base and towards the tips, 
shorter than the body : the eyes and the mouth are black ; the 
base of the latter is dull white : the nectaries are as long as one- 
sixth of the body : the legs are white ; the hind-thighs, excepting 
the base, the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks, are 
black. 

16th var. The body is dull black : the feelers are white, blackish 
at the tips, and half the length of the body : the base of the mouth 
i3 dull white : the legs are white ; the feet and the tips of the 
shanks are black : when very young it is dark green with paler 
limbs. 

17th var. The body is very dark green, of moderate size, some- 
times nearly black : the feelers are dull white with black tips, and 
nearly as long as the body : the mouth is also dull white ; its tip 
and the eyes are black : the nectaries are black, and as long as 
one-fourth of the body : the legs are white : the knees, the feet, 
the tips of the shanks, of the hind-thighs, and sometimes also of 
the middle thighs, are black. On Genista anglica during the 
summer. 

18th var. ? The body is oval, dull dark red, covered with a 
white bloom : the feelers are white with black tips, and hardly 
more than half the length of the body : the mouth is white ; its 
tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are black, and as long 
as one-eighth of the body : the legs are yellowish white ; the 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 21 

knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are black : it is smaller 
and narrower than the preceding variety, and its colour is less 
intense : when very young it is linear, and sometimes of a pale 
red or green colour : the pupa agrees in colour with the wingless 
Aphis, and has sometimes a green tinge. This, which may be 
a distinct species, also feeds on Genista anglica. 

19th var. The body is black, oval, convex, plump, smooth, and 
shining, but often covered with a white bloom : the antennas are 
white with black tips, and about half the length of the body ; 
sometimes they are black, dull white towards the base : the 
mouth is white, black towards the tip : the nectaries are as long 
as one-sixth of the body : there is a short tube at the tip of the 
abdomen : the fore- and the middle-legs are sometimes black, but 
more often white, with the exception of their knees, feet, and the 
tips of their shanks : the hind-legs are black with white shanks. 
On the furze in the autumn, often attended by Formica nigra. 

20th var. Black, oval, convex, of moderate size : the feelers 
are pale green, and shorter than the body ; their tips are black : 
the mouth also is pale green ; its tip and the eyes are black : the 
nectaries are pale green, and rather less than one-sixth of the 
length of the body ; their tips are black : the legs are pale green, 
and moderately long; the feet and the tips of the shanks are 
black. Its colour when young is dull dark green. On Dahlia 
superflua in the middle of June 1846. 

21st var. Very dark green, sometimes almost black : the feel- 
ers and the mouth are dull white with black tips, and the former 
are nearly as long as the body : the eyes and the nectaries are 
black, and the latter are as long as one-fourth of the body : the 
legs are white ; the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks 
and of the hind-thighs, and sometimes also of the middle-thighs, 
are black. On Genista anglica in June. 

22nd var. Velvet-like black : the feelers are white with a black 
tip to each joint, and a little shorter than the body : the nectaries 
are shorter than one-twelfth of the body : the legs are white with 
the exception of the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks. 
Middle of October. 

23rd var. Deep black : the feelers are white, and more than 
half the length of the body ; they are brown at the base and 
towards the tips : the mouth is black : the nectaries are as long 
as one- tenth of the body : the legs are white ; the four hinder 
thighs excepting the base, the feet, and the tips of the shanks, 
are black. 

24th var. The nectaries are as long as one-sixth of the body : 
the legs are black ; the shanks are yellow with black tips : the 
wing-ribs are white; the wing-brands are pale brown ; the veins 
arc brown ; sometimes it is covered with a white bloom, and its 



22 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

feelers are gray towards the base and at the tips. When young 
the fore-part of the body is green ; the limbs are white, but the 
feelers are sometimes pale green. 

25th var. Small, black, shining, not very convex, with a 
slight green tinge, and having a row of punctures on each side 
of the body : the feelers are about half the length of the body : 
the mouth is dull green with a black tip : the nectaries are not 
one- twelfth of the length of the body : the legs are dull green. 

26th var. Black : feelers black, shorter than the body, pale 
towards the base : the nectaries about one- eighth of the length 
of the body : legs yellow ; four hinder thighs excepting the base, 
knees, feet and tips of shanks, black. 

27th var. Body dull reddish green. 

28th var. The body is dark green. 

29th var. The body is small, black, slightly covered with a 
white bloom, increasing in breadth from the head till near the 
tip of the abdomen, which has a rim on each side : the feelers are 
shorter than the body : the nectaries are about one-eighth of its 
length. Found on Galium Mollugo in October near Newcastle 
by Mr. Hardy. 

Length of the body 1-1^ line ; of the wings 2|— 3^- lines. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it has a row of 
white spots on each side of the abdomen, and its rudimentary 
wings are very dark green : the fore-border and the hind-border 
of the fore-chest are dark green : the abdomen is black, but its 
colour is not so intense as that of the chest, and sometimes it is 
slightly tinged with green : the feelers are black, and shorter 
than the body : the eyes are black and shining : the mouth is 
black ; its base is dull green : the nectaries are black, and 
rather less than one-sixth of the length of the body : the 
legs are black, and moderately long ; the shanks, and the fore- 
thighs except their tips are yellow : the wings are colourless, 
and much longer than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; 
the wing-brands and the veins are pale brown ; the second vein 
diverges from the third, but more from the first ; the first fork of 
the third vein begins after one-third, and the second still more 
beyond two-thirds of the length ; the fourth is curved moderately 
and equally throughout its length ; the angle of the brand whence 
it springs is distinct. Much infested by Leptus Aphidum. 

1st var. While a pupa it is pale dull olive-green, and covered 
with a white bloom ; the wings are unfolded in the beginning of 
July, and the insect is then small, black, and shining : the abdo- 
men is very dark green or black, and has a slight white bloom 
beneath : the feelers are black, and a little shorter than the body ; 
the fourth joint is a little shorter than the third ; the fifth is as 
long as the fourth ; the sixth is much shorter than the fifth, but 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 23 

more than half its length ; the seventh is longer than the fifth : 
the mouth is dark green ; its tip, the eyes and the nectaries are 
black, and the latter are nearly one-fifth of the length of the 
body : the legs are black ; the shanks except their tips, and some- 
times the thighs of the fore-legs are dull yellow ; in the four 
hinder legs, the shanks except their tips, and sometimes the 
thighs from the middle to the base are pale yellow: the 
wings are colourless, and much longer than the body; the 
wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the wing-brands are dull yellow or 
brown, and the veins are of the latter colour. It often frequents 
the mulberry in the autumn, and brings forth its young ones 
thereon. 

2nd var. The body is black : the abdomen is very dark green : 
the feelers are black, and nearly as long as the body : the mouth 
is also very dark green with a black tip : the nectaries and the 
tube at the tip of the abdomen are black, and the former are as 
long as one-sixth of the body : the legs are black ; the base of the 
fore-thighs and the shanks except their tips are dark yellow : the 
wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the brands are pale brown ; the veins 
are brown. 

3rd var. The body is black : the abdomen is dark green : the 
feelers are a little shorter than the body : the mouth is dull yel- 
low with a black tip : the nectaries are black, and as long as one- 
sixth of the body : the legs are black ; the base of the fore-thighs 
and the shanks except their tips are dark yellow : the wing-ribs 
and the rib- veins are pale yellow ; the brands are pale brown ; 
the other veins are darker. 

4th var. The body is black and very small : the feelers are a 
little shorter than the body : the nectaries are as long as one- 
eighth of the body : the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are yellow ; 
the brands are brown : the other characters like those of the 
preceding variety. 

5th var. While a pupa it resembles in colour the 11th variety 
of the wingless Aphis, but the white parts are more dull : there 
is a row of white powder spots on each side of the body : the 
rudimentary wings are pale green. 

6th var. The body is black and somewhat shining : the feelers 
are rather more than half the length of the body : the mouth 
does not reach the middle hips : the nectaries are about one- 
twelfth of the length of the body : the wings are longer than the 
body ; the wing-ribs are dull green ; the brands and the veins are 
brown. 

7th var. While a pupa it is pale dull olive-green, covered with 
a white bloom, and its limbs agree in colour with those of the 
wingless female on the broom. When winged it is small, black, 
and shining: the abdomen is very dark green, or black, with a slight 



24 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

white bloom beneath : the feelers are black, and a little shorter 
than the body ; the fourth joint is a little shorter than the third ; 
the fifth is as long as the fourth; the sixth is much shorter than the 
fifth, but more than half its length j the seventh is longer than 
the fifth : the mouth is dark green ; its tip and the eyes are black : 
the nectaries and the legs are black ; the former are nearly one- 
fifth of the length of the body ; the shanks except their tips and 
the four hinder thighs from the base to the middle are yellow : 
the wings are much longer than the body ; the wing-ribs are pale 
yellow ; the brands are dull yellow ; the veins are brown. On 
Genista anglica during the summer. 

8th var. Like the preceding, but the fore-thighs and the fore- 
shanks are dull yellow with black tips ; the four hinder shanks 
are pale yellow with black tips : the wing-brands are brown. 

9th var. While a pupa it is gray : the abdomen is black, with 
three interrupted white bands, and has also four white spots near 
the tip : the rudimentary wings are dull green. 

10th var. The body is small, and black : the feelers are longer 
than the body : the eyes are red : the nectaries are as long as one- 
sixth of the body : the legs are yellow ; the thighs from the mid- 
dle to the tips, the feet, and the tips of the shanks,. are black : 
the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow 7 ; the wing-brands 
and the other veins are pale brown. 

11th var. The body is black, stout, and shining: the feelers 
are much shorter than the body : the mouth is pale yellow ; its 
tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are black, and about 
one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the 
hind-thighs except the base, the feet, and the tips of the other 
thighs and of the shanks, are brown : the wing- ribs and the 
brands are dull yellow ; the veins are brown. On Rumex crisjms.. 
While a pupa the legs are black ; the fore-thighs are yellow at 
the base : the rudimentary wings are dark green. 

12th var. The four hinder thighs are quite black. 

13th var. The body is deep black : the feelers are black, and 
shorter than the body : the eyes and the mouth are black ; the 
base of the latter is dull white : the nectaries are black, and as 
long as one-eighth of the body : the four hinder thighs, the feet, 
the knees, and the tips of the shanks are black : the wing-ribs 
are pale yellow ; the brands are pale green ; the veins are pale 
brown. 

14th var. With a row of white spots on each side of the back, 

15th var. Like the last, but the feelers are much shorter than 
the body : the mouth is dark green at the base : the nectaries 
are as long as one- tenth of the body : the legs are black ; the 
fore-thighs at the base, and the shanks excepting their tips are 
dull vellow : the wing-ribs and the brands are brown. 



Mr. F. Walker 9 ! Descriptions of Aphides. H 

The oviparous wingless female . Found with the preceding, which 
it much resembles, but the hind-shanks are black, wide, and 
slightly curved. The eggs are laid in the beginning of October, 
and occur in abundance on the spikes of the furze. 

The winged male. While a pupa it resembles the wingless 
Aphis : the feelers are rather more than half the length of the 
body : the nectaries are as long as one-tenth of the body : the 
legs are dull pale green ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and 
of the shanks are black : the rudimentary wings are dull green. 
When the wings are unfolded it is black, and very small : the 
feelers are nearly as long as the body ; the fourth joint is very 
nearly as long as the third ; the fifth is as long as the fourth ; the 
sixth is about half the length of the fifth ; the seventh is longer 
than the fifth : the mouth is yellow with a black tip : the shanks 
except their tips, and the four anterior thighs at the base are 
yellow : the wing- ribs are yellow; the brands and the veins are 
brown. 



74. Aphis Sympliyti, Schrank. 

Aphis Symphyti, Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 107. 

The viviparous wingless female. In August 1847 1 found this 
species in great profusion under the leaves of the comfrey 
(Symphytum officinale) near Tottenham, but could see it nowhere 
else, notwithstanding the common occurrence of the plant. The 
grub of Agromyza ?, of an orange colour and above one line in 
length, frequently devours it; an Aphidius and an Allotria are 
also among its enemies. It is a small species, oval, plump, 
bright yellow, with dark green nectaries ; the head is often dark 
green, and sometimes this colour extends partly or wholly over 
the body, and is more or less mingled with yellow. It discolours 
the leaves of the comfrey, which are nevertheless adorned by its 
bright and many-coloured clusters. The forehead is convex in 
the middle, and has a slight tubercle on each side at the base of 
the feelers : the mouth reaches the middle hips : the feelers are 
setaceous, and shorter than the body ; the fourth joint is shorter 
than the third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the fourth ; the 
sixth is a little more than half the length of the fifth j the seventh 
is more than twice the length of the sixth : the fore-chest has a 
suture across the middle ; its sides are slightly convex : the nec- 
taries vary in length from one-sixth to one-twelfth of the length 
of the body, and in some cases where they are shortest, the legs 
also are very short, and the feelers are much less than half the 
length of the body : the fore-legs are but little shorter than the 
hind-legs; the shanks are straight. 

1st var. The body is dark green, with a white bloom, and 
mottled with paler green I the feelers are yellow with brown tips, 



26 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

and a little shorter than the body : the eyes are black : the mouth 
is pale yellow with a black tip : the nectaries are black, and 
nearly as long as one-fourth of the length of the body : the tube 
at the tip of the abdomen is pale green : the legs are yellow, and 
moderately long; the feet and the tips of the shanks are brown. 

2nd var. The body like the last, but with a metallic lustre. 

The viviparous winged female. This, as usual, has a dark colour 
on the chest, the breast, and some parts of the abdomen. Soon 
after the middle of the fore-border of the wing its main vein 
begins to widen rather abruptly into an irregularly spindle-shaped 
brand : the fourth vein springs from a hardly perceptible angle 
of this brand, and is moderately curved ; the third vein is obsolete 
at its source ; it is forked after one-third of its length, and forked 
again long after two-thirds of its length : in some instances the 
lower branch and in others the upper branch of the second fork 
are wanting ; the first vein diverges from the second more than 
the second diverges from the third. It sometimes contains ten 
young ones, all of the same size. 

1st var. While a pupa it resembles the wingless insect, but 
the body is elliptical, the feelers and the legs are darker, the 
rudimentary wings are pale green. The winged Aphis is black : 
the borders of the fore-chest are green : the abdomen is dark 
green : the feelers are black, and shorter than the body : the 
mouth is black, dark green at the base : the nectaries are black, 
and as long as one-sixth of the body : the legs are black, and 
moderately long ; the fore-thighs are yellow at the base : the 
wings are colourless, and very much longer than the body ; the 
wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the brands and the veins are brown. 
Length of the body \-\ line; of the wings lf-2^ lines. 

75. Aphis Nymph<B<£j Linn. 

Aphis Nymphcece, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 714. 10; Faun. Suec. 
983; Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. 214. 18 ; Syst. Rhyn. 297. 18; Schrank, 
Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 117. 1224; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2204; 
Miiller, Ins. 1264; Turt. ii. 703; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 104. 79; 
Fonscol. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. x. 

A. Butomi, Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 114. 1212. 

Nymphaeifeoc, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2 de serie, v. 478. 

This species feeds on the following water-plants : Nymphcea 
alba, N. lutea, Alisma Plantago, Butomus umbellatus, Potamo- 
geton natans, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Utricularia vulgaris, Hydro- 
cotyle vulgaris, Fontederia cordata, and some other species. It 
has an unfailing supply of moist and nourishing food, and ac- 
cordingly seems to multiply more abundantly than any other 
species. 

The viviparous wingless female. Deep olive-green, shining, and 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 27 

having a metallic tint : the front has a tubercle in the middle 
and a smaller one on each side : the feelers are black, very often 
pale green at the base, and much shorter than the body ; the first 
and the second veins are not angular j the fourth is much shorter 
than the third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the fourth ; the 
sixth is much shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is about thrice 
the length of the sixth : the mouth is dull green ; its tip and the 
eyes are black : there is a red spot, sometimes obsolete, on each 
side of the abdomen by the nectaries which are reddish yellow 
with black tips, and about one-sixth of the length of the body : 
the legs are black, moderately long, and slightly covered with a 
white bloom. The young one is comparatively pale, narrow, flat, 
and linear. 

1st var. Reddish green, mottled with black. 

2nd var. Nearly black. 

The viviparous winged female. This much resembles the pre- 
ceding form, with the exception of its darker colour, and of the 
usual difference in structure : the wings are colourless, and much 
longer than the body ; the first vein hardly diverges more from 
the second than the latter does from the third ; the third vein 
has its first fork after one-third, and its second still further 
beyond two-thirds of its length ; the fourth vein is more curved 
at its base than towards its tip, and the angle whence it springs 
is very slight. Length of the body 1 line ; of the wings 3 lines. 

Variation in the wing-veins. The upper division of the second 
fork is wanting. 

The glutinous matter which covers this species assumes, like 
that of Aphis Roboris, a fine red colour when mixed with Canada 
balsam. 

76. Aphis Sambuci, Linn. 

Aphis Sambuci, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 734. 4 : Faun. Suec. 998 ; 
Fabr. Syst. Ins. ii. 384. 3; Ent. Syst. iv. 211. 4; Syst. Rhyn. 
294. 4; Lister, Ins. 397. 40; Geoff. Ins. i. 495. 3; Frisch. Ins. 
ii. 14. pi. 18 ; Reaum. Ins. iii. 281-350. pi. 21. fig. 5-15 ; Gmel. 
ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2202 ; Bonnet, Hist. Nat. i. ; Berk. Syn. i. 110; 
Stew. El. ii. 110; Turt. ii. 703 ; Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 111. 
1202; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 83. 60. 

Cinara Sambuci, Sir Oswald Mosley, Gard. Chron. i. 827. 

Sambucifex, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2 de serie, v. 477. 

The viviparous wingless female. This is oval, dull, very plump, 
and of a deep green colour : the sutures of the segments beneath 
are more distinct than those above : the feelers are slender, seta- 
ceous, almost white, and about one-third of the length of the 
body : the mouth is pale green : the eyes are dark brown : the 
nectaries are dark green, and about one- twelfth of the length of 



28 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

the body : the legs are dull pale green, slender, and rather short; 
the knees are somewhat darker. On the leaves of the elder in 
the middle of March 1846. 

1st var. Extremely dark green, apparently black, covered with 
a white bloom, and having a row of punctures on each side of the 
body : the front is slightly convex, and not notched : the feelers 
are black, and rather more than half the length of the body ; the 
first and the second joints are not angular; the fourth joint is 
much shorter than the third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the 
fourth ; the sixth is much shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is 
much more slender than the sixth, and nearly twice its length : 
the eyes are also black : the mouth is very dark green : the nec- 
taries are black, and about one- eighth of the length of the body, 
and slightly tapering : the legs are very dark green, and mode- 
rately long. When young it is green, linear, and somewhat 
narrow and flat. In thick swarms on the shoots of the elder, 
which are sometimes quite hidden by the clusters, from the end 
of May to July. 

2nd var. Like the preceding, but with a reddish tinge. 

3rd var. The body is green. 

4th var. The nectaries are about one-sixth of the length of the 
body. 

The viviparous ivinged female. While a pupa it is elliptical, 
rather paler and more flat than the wingless female, and it has 
interrupted white bands across the abdomen : the chest and the 
rudiments of the wings are green, and they have sometimes a 
reddish tinge. Wlien winged the body is rather large, black, 
shining, nearly linear : the feelers are black, stout and thick, and 
more than half the length of the body ; the fourth joint is much 
shorter than the third ; the fifth is full as long as the fourth ; 
the sixth is rather more than half the length of the fifth ; the 
seventh is longer than the sixth : the abdomen beneath and the 
mouth are very dark green : the nectaries are black, and about 
one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs are black ; the 
fore-thighs are dark green at the base : the wings are slightly 
gray, and not much longer than the body; the wing-ribs are 
yellowish white ; the brands are pale brown ; the veins are black, 
strongly marked, and very slightly clouded ; the first vein diverges 
more from the second than the second from the third ; the latter 
is obsolete at its source, and its first fork is after one-third, and 
its second still more after two-thirds of its length ; the fourth 
vein is moderately curved at its base, nearly straight towards its 
tip, and the angle whence it springs is very slight. Length of 
the body 1-1 \ line ; of the wings 2|-3^ lines. 

[To be continued.] 



Ml*. J. Miers on the genus Salpiglossis. 29 

IV. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. iv. p. 363.] 

Salpiglossis. 

Upon a former occasion (hvj. op. iii. p. 172) many reasons were 
adduced to show why the tribe of the Salpiglossidece, as constituted 
by Mr. Bentham (DC. Prodr. x. 190), could not be maintained, 
and I proposed to limit that tribe simply to Salpiglossis, Browallia, 
Leptoglossis, and a new genus Pteroglossis, all being distinguished 
by their singularly dilated stigma and the peculiar mode of aesti- 
vation of the corolla. A careful examination of Leptoglossis 
schwenckioides has since then offered reasons for placing that 
genus among the Petuniece. The Salpiglossidece, however, as 
thus limited, are evidently most intimately allied to the Petuniecp, 
agreeing with them in a somewhat similar form of stigma, the 
development of their stamens, their capsular fruit, and the very 
spiral form of the embryo in Salpiglossis, and differing from them 
only in their didynamous stamens and the aestivation of the 
corolla. The didynamous arrangement of the stamens does not 
appear to me to offer a sufficient reason for keeping them in an 
ordinal point of view apart from the Petuniece, and for retaining 
them in the Scrophulariacece ; indeed in the Petuniece and Nico- 
tianece, we find an evident tendency towards a didynamous struc- 
ture, for one of the stamens is constantly shorter than the others, 
which are in two pairs, while the anther of the fifth is always 
somewhajt smaller, and frequently almost sterile ; and on the 
other hand, I have observed occasionally in Salpiglossis a fifth 
fertile stamen, showing a disposition to return to its normal con- 
dition • and I have also before me an instance of a flower with 
three pairs of stamens, varying in length, with a seventh shorter 
one, the anther of which, though smaller than the others, is fer- 
tile. The position of the Salpiglossidece in the natural system 
appears to me therefore manifestly in the family which I propose 
to call Atropacece, or if considered only as a suborder, Atropine®, 
according to the arrangement there shown (loc. cit. p. 165). 

There is little in the genus Salpiglossis that calls for observa- 
tion ; one peculiar feature however claims attention, the singular 
form of its pollen-grains : these are comparatively large and rea- 
dily distinguished under a common lens, each granule consisting 
of four agglutinated spherical globules similar in form to the 
simple pollen-grains of most Solanacece and Scrophulariacece : 
three of these globules are on the same plane, the other being 
superimposed in the centre, thus forming a sort of rounded tetra- 
hedron, and they adhere so completely that they cannot be sepa- 



30 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Salpiglossis. 

rated without bursting. The fact is noticed by Mr. Hassall in 
his memoir "On the Structure of Pollen " (Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 
100), who states that so curious a circumstance is not singular, 
as it occurs in Oxyanthus in Cinchonacece, Leschenaultia in Goode- 
niacece, and in some species only of Epilobium in Onagracece : 
the same is also observable in all the genera of the Epacridece 
and of Ericacece, with the exception of Clethra, where they are 
simple. From these analogous facts it is evident that this com- 
pound structure of the pollen-grains is not of sufficient import- 
ance to affect in any way the ordinal position of Salpiglossis. 

Mr. Bentham mentions only a single species of this genus, as 
he considers all our garden kinds as mere varieties of S. sinuata. 
On this head I may remark, that I found in Chile, plants which 
I always considered to be two very distinct species, viz. S. sinuata 
(my S. glutinosa) and my S. purpurea (Trav. ii. p. 531) ; but I 
have little donbt that S. picta, S. Barclay ana, S. fulva, S. inter- 
media, &c. are all hybrid productions from these two species. I 
always met with S. sinuata growing near the coast, its corolla 
being constantly of a yellowish white, with brownish stripes ; on 
the contrary, I invariably found S. purpurea at a much greater 
elevation near the foot of the main Cordillera, or within its 
gorges, its flowers being always of a dark lilac, with deep purple 
lines, and never of the yellowish hue so conspicuous in S. sinuata. 
I cannot however refer to my original specimens, as they were un- 
fortunately lost off Cape Horn with my general Chile collections ; 
but the coloured drawings of both species made in 1820, and 
which I have preserved, serve to impress these facts strongly on 
my memory. From the several dried specimens of Salpiglossis 
in Sir William Hooker's herbarium collected by Gillies, Cuming 
and Bridges, we may detect at a glance the two different species. 
The following I consider as the amended diagnosis of this 
genus : — 

Salpiglossis, R. & P. (char, emend.). — Calyx tubulosus, 10- 
nervis, 5-dentatus, dentibus subsequalibus, attenuatis, obtu- 
siusculis. Corolla infundibuliformis, tubo imo cylindraceo, 
superne campanulata, compressa, limbo 5-lobo, obliquo, sub- 
bilabiato, lobis profunde emarginatis, superiore majore, erec- 
tiore, aestivatione reciprocativa*. Stamina 5, inclusa, quorum 
4 didynama, quinto breviori, sterili ; filamenta subulata, e con- 
strictione tubi orta ; antherce ovatae, 2-lobse, basi cordatse, sub- 
versatiles, lobis adnatis, rima marginali dehiscentibus ; pollen 
compositum, e granulis 4 aggregatis, quorum 1 superpositum. 
Ovarium conicum, disco carnoso sub-2-lobo impositum, 2-locu- 
lare ; placenta centrales, dissepimento utrinque adnatse, multi- 

* Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd Ser. vol. iii. p. 172. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Salpiglossis. 31 

ovulatse. Stylus exsertus, apice compressus, incrassatus, sub- 
incurvus. Stigma majusculum, transverse dilatatum, semi- 
lunar, bilabiato-emarginatum. Capsula oblonga, calyce per- 
sistente tecta, 2-locularis, septicido-2-valvis, valvis chartaceo- 
coriaceis, 2-fidis, placenta centrali demum solutis. Semina plu- 
rima, niinuta, subangulata, hilo laterali ; testa striato-rugosa. 
Embryo intra albumen carnosum spiraliter curvatus, teres, ra- 
dicula arcuata, ad angulum basalem spectante, cotyledonibus 
4-plo longiore. — Herbse Chilenses glanduloso-pubescentes ; folia 
alterna, lanceolata, inferioribus sinuato-laciniatis, petiolatis, su- 
perioribus linearibus, sessilibus, sinuatis, jloriferis linearibus, 
subbracteiformibus. Inflorescentia paniculata, floribus pedicel- 
latisy pedicellis extra-axillaribus ; corolla straminea vel pur- 
purea, lineis anastomosantibus picta. 

1. Salpiglossis sinuata, R. & P. Syst. Veg. 163; Prodr. tab. 19. 
S. glutinosa, Miers, Trav. ii. 531. S. straminea, Hook. Eocot. 
Fl. p. 229. S. picta, Sweety Br. Fl. Gard. tab. 258 • Hook. 
Bot. Mag. tab. 3365 ; — omnino viscoso-pubescens, foliis infe- 
rioribus laxis, lanceolatis, acute pinnatifido-incisis, superiori- 
bus breviter petiolatis, inciso-dentatis, laciniis acutis, floralibus 
sessilibus, linearibus, integris, bracteiforniibus ; corolla lineis 
violaceis picta, tubo lutescente, limbo stramineo. — Chile, ora 
littorali, in herb. Hook. (Gillies, Mathews, Cuming, Bridges). 
This plant, well known in our gardens, grows to the height of 

2 or 3 feet. Its leaves are of more delicate texture, always longer, 
narrower, and more deeply incised into acute segments than in 
the following species: they are 5 inches long, including the 
petiole, on which they are decurrent, and 1\ inch broad, or 7 
lines across at the base of the incisures. I observe a note upon 
my drawings, stating that in this species, the two lower stamens, 
between which the sterile one is situated, form the longest pair, 
while in S. purpurea the same stamens form the shorter pair, 
and I have found this in the dried specimens I have examined, 
but I cannot at this distance of time assert it to be a fact of 
constant occurrence. 

2. Salpiglossis purpurea, Miers, Trav. ii. p. 531 ;— viscoso-pubes- 
cens, foliis radicalibus confertis, elliptico-oblongis, apice obtu- 
siusculis, imo in petiolum elongatum cuneatis, margine grosse 
et obtuse dentatis, crassis, caulinis integrioribus, lanceolatis, 
obtusis,petiolo abbreviato, floralibus linearibus, sessilibus, brac- 
teiforniibus ; corolla tubo purpureo, limbo violaceo, reticulatim 
picta. — In Andibus Chilensibus, v. s. in herb. Hook., Gillies 
(S. andicola, MSS.). 

Var. /3. atropurpurea, Graham. Corolla reticulatim nigro-picta, 
limbo profunde purpureo. Cuming. 



32 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Pteroglossis. 

This plant seldom exceeds a height of 15 or 18 inches : it has 
a stronger and more woody stem, and may easily be distinguished 
from the former species by its radical leaves, which are of thicker 
texture, broader in proportion, shorter and more elliptic, with 
short obtuse teeth, and not deeply divided with acute incisures, 
as in S. picta : the radical leaves, including the attenuated pe- 
tiole, are 3^ inches in length, the limb being 2£ inches long and 
11 lines broad. 

Pteroglossis. 

Among the very curious and interesting plants collected by 
Bridges in the vicinity of Coquimbo, is one that will constitute a 
new genus, near Salpiglossis. It is a plant with pinnatifid leaves, 
only in a few of the lower axils, those above being reduced to a 
linear form; its ascending stems are widely diffuse in many 
spreading dichotomous branchlets, which are very slender and 
terete; the leaves at each axil are gradually diminished to the 
size of very short linear bracts, which support a few solitary one- 
flowered peduncles. The corolla, though smaller, has much the 
shape of that of Salpiglossis, with didynamous included stamens, 
and it possesses the peculiar aestivation of the Salpiglossidece. 
The most remarkable feature consists in the unusually broad ex- 
pansion of its stigma, which hoods the lower pair of stamens, 
somewhat after the manner of Nierembergia, its winged appen- 
dages being quite membranaceous, decurrent for some length 
upon the style, and marked with numerous parallel radiating 
nervures, which terminate in its lacerated or crenulate margins. 
The name above proposed is derived from irrepov, ala, and 
ykwaaa, lingua, because of its broadly winged stigma. 

Pteroglossis (gen. nov.). — Calyx tubulosus, subcylindricus, 
breviter 5-dentatus, 10-nervis, dentibus acutis. Corolla in- 
fundibuliformis, tubo imo coarctato, hinc ventricoso, 15-striato, 
limbo expanso, insequaliter 5-lobo, sub-bilabiato, lobis omni- 
bus emarginatis, superiori longiori et latiori, sestivatione reci- 
procativa*. Stamina 4, didynama, inclusa, postica longiora; 
filamenta dilatata, apice angustata. Antherm ovatse, 2-lobse, 
imo divaricate, apice sine connectivo in sinu apicifixse, rim a 
marginali dehiscentes. Ovarium disco carnoso sub 2-lobo iin- 
positum, stipitatum, 2-loculare, placentis centralibus disse- 
pimento adnatis, multiovulatis. Stylus apice dilatatus, in- 
flexus. Stigma bialatum, emarginatum, superne carinatum, 
infra planum, glandula viscoso in sinu notatum, alis latis, 
membranaceis, in stylum longe decurrentibus, radiatim nervo- 
sis, margine sublaceratis, staminibus inferioribus amplecten- 

• Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd Ser. iii. p. 172. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genu* Pieroglossis. 33 

tibus. Capsula calyce persistente tecta, 2-locularis, 2-valvis, 
valvis semibifidis, placenta centrali denium solutis. Semina 
ignota. — Planta Chilensis subglabra, radice lignosa perenni, 
caulibus plurimis adscendentibus, gracilibus, laxis, divaricatini 
ramosis ; folia alterna, inferioribus sinuato-pinnatijidis ; pedun- 
culi uniflori, axillares, paniculam laxam efformantes. 

1. Pteroglossis laxa ; — subglabra, ramosissima, ramis plurimis, 
teretibus, gracilibus, laxe divaricatis, nodis distantibus ; foliis 
axillaribus, inferioribus oblongis, sinuato-pinnatitidis, in pe- 
tiolurn spathulatis, sub lente minutissime pubescentibus, me- 
diis linearibus, supremis floriferis in bracteis parvis decrescen- 
tibus : pedunculis solitariis, viscoso-pubescentibus, unifloris ; 
floribus parvulis ; corolla straminea, lineis violaceis picta. — 
Coquimbo, in herb. Hook. (Bridges, no. 1839). 

This plant has very much the habit of Schwenkia americana : 
the root is ligneous, as well as a short perennial woody stump, 
from which arise several somewhat erect branches 12 to 18 
inches long, which are evidently deciduous ; these are slender, 
terete, glabrous, flexuosely brachiate at each axil, and again 
dichotomously branched : below, the axils are more approximate, 
above widely distant. The lower leaves are sinuato-pinnatifid, 
about 1 to 1^ inch long including the petiole, and 3 lines broad 
including the segments ; to the naked eye they appear quite 
smooth, but under the lens they are seen to be invested by nu- 
merous, very short, minute hairs : these leaves gradually dimi- 
nish to the size of f to 1 inch long and only half a line broad, 
and as they ascend they become smaller, till they arrive at the 
terminal floriferous branchlets, where they assume the form of 
linear bracts, scarcely a line in length and ^th of a line broad ; 
from each of these springs a very slender glandular pubescent 
peduncle, about half an inch in length, bearing a solitary flower; 
the calyx is l^- line long, tubular, and crowned by five equal 
fleshy erect teeth ; the corolla is about 4 lines long, of a yel- 
lowish colour, marked by about fifteen violet-coloured, parallel, 
branching lines ; the tube is contracted and cylindrical below for 
one-third of its length, above this it is ventricose, with a border 
of five, oblong, rounded and emarginate patent lobes, the upper 
one of which is somewhat longer and broader ; they assume in 
sestivation that peculiar mode of plication which I have called 
reciprocative (loc. cit. 172) ; the didynamous stamens are in- 
cluded, arising from the contracted portion of the tube ; the 
ovarium is oblong, 2-grooved, imbedded in a fleshy 2-lobed cup 
borne upon a short stipitate support, and surrdunded by the in- 
duvial remains of the corolla; the style is slender, the length of 
the stamens, inflexed at its apex, and gradually widening consi- 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 3 



34 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Leptoglossis. 

derably by the broad decurrent wings of the stigma, which hood 
the anthers of the somewhat shorter pair of stamens : the stigma 
is broad, membranaceous, deeply emarginate at its apex, consti- 
tuting two distinct rounded wings, marked by numerous radia- 
ting nervures ; it forms altogether a galeate head, flattened on the 
under side and keeled on the upper surface by the prominent 
sharp margin of the style, which carinated edge is terminated in 
the sinus by a viscous globular gland. The capsule is small, 
consisting of two bifid valves, parallel to the dissepiment, and 
inclosed by the persistent calyx. I had no opportunity of exa- 
mining its seeds *. 

Leptoglossis. 

This genus was founded by Mr. Bentham, in the 'Botany' of 
the Voyage of the Sulphur, for a Peruvian plant, which has not 
yet been figured, nor have the details of its structure been 
hitherto delineated or minutely examined. It possesses much 
the habit of a Browallia, to which it offers some resemblance 
in the form of its corolla; but it differs from that genus in 
having a fifth sterile stamen and in the shape of its stigma, 
which is intermediate between that of Pteroglossis and of Salpi- 
glossis or Nierembergia. No opportunity had presented itself for 
examining the aestivation of the corolla of Leptoglossis when I 
offered the remarks upon the tribe of the Salpiglossidea (Ann. 
Nat. Hist. 2nd Ser. iii. 173) ; but recent observation has enabled 
me to state that it is decidedly imbricative, and as far as can be 
judged from well -macerated dried specimens, it is apparently of 
that modification which I have called replicative {loc. cit. 173), 
the postical lobe being altogether interior, as in Nierembergia 
and Petunia. The alliance of Leptoglossis is clearly with the two 
latter genera, agreeing with the former in its small lanceolate 
leaves, its calyx, its slender tubular corolla, in the dilatation of 
its stigma, in the long stipitate support of the ovarium, in its 
persistent hypogynous glands, and in its stipitate capsule. With 
the latter genus it agrees in the obliquity of the border of its 
corolla, and the somewhat palate-like enlargement of the tube 
below the throat. The position of Leptoglossis is manifestly 
among the PetuniecBj and not in the Salpiglossidea, as suggested 
in the tabular arrangement (loc. cit. p. 165). It appears to me 
to hold no relation whatever to Schwenkia. 

The following generic character has been made, after a careful 
analysis of the plant referred to : — 

Leptoglossis, Bth.nonD.C. Char, emend. — Calyx brevis, tu- 
bulosus, nervis 15 in seriebus 5 ternariis pressius ordinatis, 

* This plant, with its analytical details, will be shown in plate 52 of the 
1 Illustr. South Amer. Plants.' 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Leptoglossis. 3,j 

interstitiis eveniis membranaceis, 5-anguloso-sulcatus, 5-den- 
tatus, dentibus acutis linearibus callo-mucronatis. Corolla 
tubularis, elongatus, tubo imo carnosulo 5-sulcato constricta, 
medio subcylindrica, in faucem antice breviter ventricosa, 
limbo obliquo, 5-lobo, lobis suborbicularibus, 2 anticis mino- 
ribus reflexis, postico erectiusculo, a?stivatione imbricata, veri- 
similiter replicativa. Stamina 5, insequalia, inclusa, quorum 
4 didynama, cum quinto sterili ; filamenta subdilatata, tenuis- 
sima, posticorum e coarctatione tubi orta, anticorum dimidio 
breviora medio corolla? inserta, sterili sub-breviore intermedio; 
antherce in faucem conniventes, stigmate deflexo circumplexse, 
2-lobse, in sinu apicitixse, lobis basi divaricatis, apice sine con- 
nectivo connatis, et rima marginali bivalvatim transverse hian- 
tibus ; posticorum dimidio minore ; sterili oblonga, cassa, erecta. 
Pollen simplex, globosum, 3-sulcatum. Ovarium oblongum, co- 
nicum, longiuscule stipitatum, glandulis 5, carnosis, coloratis, 
subliberis, rotundatis, summo stipitis connatis, et discum hy- 
pogynum cupuliformem persistentem fingentibus, 2-loculare, 
placentis centralibus, multiovulatis, dissepimento utrinque ad- 
natis. Stylus tenuis, inclusus, apice incurvatus, compressus, 
valde dilatatus. Stigma emarginato-2-labiatum, lobis latis- 
siinis, brevibus, truncatis, intus incrassatis et viscoso-glandu- 
losis, inferne longe auriculatis et membranaceis, antheras am- 
plectentibus. Capsula calyce persistente tecta, 2-locularis, 
septicide 2-valvis, valvis semibifidis, placenta centrali demum 
solutis. Semina plurima, parva, reticulato-favosa ; cetera ig- 
nota. — Herba Peruviana viscoso-pubescens ; folia alterna, parva, 
sessilia, lanceolata, integra ; cymse plurimce, alternce, terminates, 
ex axillis foliorum superiorum lateraliter orta, longe et paten- 
tim pedunculate ; flores parvuli, pedicellati, conferti ; corolla 
albida. 

1. Leptoglossis Schwenkioides, Bth. Voy. Sulph. 143; — undique 

viscoso-pubescens ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, 1-nerviis, 

apice callosis, sessilibus, in turionibus ssepe fasciculatis, supe- 

rioribus decrescentibus ; corolla tenui, glabra, intus imo re- 

trorsim pilosa. — Peruvia, v. s. in herb. Hook. (Huamantango, 

Barclay ; Peru, Mathews, no. 1011 ; Cuming, no. 1010). 

This plant has very much the habit of some of the small-leaved 

species of Petunia ; its branches are virgate, the leaves 6 to 9 lines 

long, 1 to 1| line broad; the floral branchlets are about 1 inch 

long, generally with three to five flowers at the extremity of each ; 

the pedicels are very short ; the calyx 2 lines in flower, 3 lines in 

fruit ; the tube of the corolla is 8-9 lines in length, 1 line broad, 

the border 3-4 lines in diameter ; the capsule is 2 lines long *. 

* A figure of this species, with sectional details, will be given in plate 53 
of the ■ Illustr. South Amer. Plants.' 

3* 



36 Prof. Link on the Structure of the Orchidacese. 

V. — Observations on the Structure of the Orchidacese, particu- 
larly the Vandea3. By Prof. H. F. Link*. 

Lindley, who has contributed so much to the knowledge of the 
Orchidacese, gives them the following character in his 'Vege- 
table Kingdom/ He ascribes to them a trifoliate calyx, a tri- 
foliate corolla, the third segment of which, the labellum, is of 
very different form from the other two ; further, three stamens, 
of which either the two outermost are abortive, and only the in- 
termediate one bears an anther, or the intermediate one is abor- 
tive, and the two outer bear anthers ; finally, three divisions of 
the stigma. In reference to the stamens and the stigma he 
wholly follows R. Brown. But he directs attention to an ano- 
maly, relating to the stigma, which consists in the fact that the 
seminiferous portions of the ovary are not opposite to the lobes 
of the stigma, but alternate with them, as the seedless portions 
occur in a line with the lobes ; so that we ought therefore to say 
that the ovary consists of six carpellary leaves. 

R. Brown came to the idea that the Orchidacese have properly 
three stamens, from the circumstance that there occurs very fre- 
quently, especially in the New Holland Orchidacese, on each side 
of the anther-bearing column, an appendix which represents 
those stamens. He observes indeed, that those appendices also 
occur when, from a higher degree of development, three stamens 
are present, for we have examples of this ; and he does not con- 
ceal that these appendices are devoid of vessels, but he adds that 
he does not consider the presence of these as determining an 
organ. It appears to me however, in opposition to the opinion 
of this celebrated observer, that the presence of such vessels is 
indispensably necessary to the determination of an organ. For 
in all the organs of the Phanerogamia the vascular bundles (of 
spiral or pseudo-porous vessels, or both together) form the foun- 
dation of the organ, nay, even determine its form, and there is 
no organ of any importance without them. In the Naiadese, and 
if instead of Phanerogamia we use the more definite word Pha- 
nerophytes, in the Mosses, tubes or elongated cells occur instead 
of them in the interior of the organ. Prom this it follows that 
they are the sap-bringing vessels. It is requisite to know there- 
fore what is the condition of the vascular bundles in the column 
of the Orchidacean flower, when stamens and style are united. 

Before we enter upon this inquiry, the following remarks are 
necessary. All botanists, except Linnaeus, make the labellum a 
division or leaflet of the perigone and of its inner circle, which 

* Extract from a Treatise read before the Berlin Academy of Sciences ; 
translated from the * Botanische Zeitung,' by Arthur Henfrey, F.L.S. 



Prof. Link on the Structure of the Orchidacea?. 37 

Lindley calls the corolla. Yet the labellum never stands in a 
circle with the two leaflets of this corolla, but always with the 
column (columna,gymnostemium), in which stamens and style are 
blended together ; indeed in most cases it is itself confluent with 
this. Lindley himself mentions this, and adds, that in some 
species of the Cape genus Pterygodium the labellum proceeds 
from the apex of the column. If in these cases we should assume 
an external adherence of the labellum to the column, which how- 
ever in some, especially in Scaphy glottis, could not be supposed, 
on account of the insensible transition, then the base of it 
ought to stand in a circle with the leaflets of the corolla, which 
never happens. Even in the cases where the labellum appears 
quite separate from the column, in Cattleya, many Maxillarice, 
and also in our indigenous species of Orchidacese, there is always 
a confluence of the base with the column, above the leaflets of 
the corolla. It does not admit of doubt, that the prevalence of 
the number three in the class of Monocotyledons gave rise to the 
idea that the labellum belongs to the corolla. But facts are pre- 
ferable to opinions. 

Moreover if we examine the upper side of the column in the 
indigenous Orchidacese, e. g. in Orchis itself, we see a part, broad 
below and running up into a point above, embracing the two 
anther-cells. This is evidently a connecticulum ; that is, the upper 
expanded part of the stamen, which bears the two chambers of 
the anther. If we make a transverse section, first through the 
upper part of the column, where the excavation of the stigma is 
still shallow, we see a large vascular bundle on the outer side ; 
further in, another smaller ; but not a trace of a vascular bundle 
on either side. Lower down, where the cavity of the stigma is 
much expanded, we find three vascular bundles, but in a straight 
line from the upper surface to the cavity of the stigma. The 
three vascular bundles cannot therefore denote three stamens, 
but belong only to the one stamen and the style, in which the 
vascular bundles usually surround the stigmatic canal on two or 
three sides. The lateral wings, which are here very thick and 
arched, certainly have delicate spiral vessels, but horizontal in 
direction, while if they belonged to stamens they ought to run 
vertically from below upward. 

When we examine, further, the column of one of the Vandece 
or Epidendrea, we find the operculum of the anther, which like- 
wise represents a connecticulum, distinctly surrounded by another 
part, which is very often furnished with various appendices and 
wings, clearly belonging to the external envelope of the column. 
I have given an enlarged transverse section in my Anatomical 
Plates, pi. 19 & 20, from Epidendrum elongatum. Here the stig- 
matic canal is surrounded by a quantity of vascular bundles, 



38 Prof. Link on the Structure of the Orchidacese. 

among which one on each side might readily be supposed to 
indicate a stamen on each side. The other canal, which is there 
represented, originates from the confluence of the labellum with 
the column, and whenever fertilization was artificially effected, I 
found pollen- tubes in this canal also. Similar transverse sections 
of the column of other Vandece always exhibit a quantity of vas- 
cular bundles surrounding the stigmatic canal. It is clear there- 
fore that there is still another part which surrounds the column, 
and with the labellum represents a special organ, which must be 
referred to the Linnsean nectary or to an accessory corolla (para- 
corolla). This accessory corolla has two lips ; one, the upper lip, 
blended with the column, the lower lip being the labellum. 

The comparison of the Orchidacese with the Alpiniacese lies 
near, and indeed has been occasionally made, although mostly 
superficially. The calyx of the Alpiniacese is spathaceously tri- 
foliate, and, according to Lindley, corresponds to the calyx of 
the Orchidacese : the corolla of the Alpiniacese always has two 
divisions ; the outer tripartite envelope can only be compared, ac- 
cording to Lindley, with the corolla of the Orchidacese, where 
however that third leaflet is wanting, being absorbed, as it were, 
into the labellum situated above it. There is nothing in the 
flower of the Orchidacese corresponding to the inner division of 
the flower of the Alpiniacese, unless the envelope of the column, 
above spoken of, is taken into consideration. This, together with 
the labellum, corresponds to the inner portion of the flower of 
the Alpiniacese, in which there is always a well-marked labellum, 
and very often, for instance in Hedychium and Globba, an upper 
lip, which is merely not blended with the stamens and style as 
in the Vandece. This upper lip is often wanting and the label- 
lum exists alone, as in Alpinia, Zingiber and Kcempferia, just as 
in our indigenous Ophrydece. The connecticulum is very much 
expanded in the Alpiniacese, and so it is in the common anthers 
of the Ophrydece, as well as in the calyptrate anthers of the 
Vandece, and indeed in all Orchidacese the two anther-cells are 
connected above by a membranous or fleshy portion, which may 
be aptly named a connecticulum. 

As to the anthers, I will merely observe that the pollen of the 
Vandece does not always lie naked upon the cellular body which 
serves as its basis, but is inclosed in a delicate membrane of an- 
gular parenchymatous cells, as I have distinctly seen in many, 
particularly in Hunt ley a violacea. 

Cypripedium is not diandrous. The column divides into two 
branches, each of which bears an anther-cell with two pollen- 
masses. This division of the column alone distinguishes this 
genus from the rest. Only one anther exists, but its chambers 
are very much separated, as is usual in the Alpiniacese. My re- 



Prof. Link on the Structure of the Orchidacese. 39 

searches were made on Cypripedium spectabile, as the commonest 
species in our gardens. When we examine a transverse section 
of the column, it may readily be imagined that the two anthers 
are actually separate. There are three vascular bundles around 
the stigmatic canal, and besides these, another above and one on 
each side, as if belonging to two anthers. But we see just the 
same in Calanthe veratrifolia, to which we certainly cannot ascribe 
two separate anthers. As a general rule however, there exist 
other vascular bundles besides the three situated around the 
stigmatic canal ; these have already been spoken of. 

In regard to the stigma, there is no doubt that we must, with 
Robert Brown, call it three-lobed. In every transverse section 
made through the column, we find a triple excavation of the 
stigmatic canal. These excavations are often divided again. Thus 
we find it in Gongora maculata, of which I have given a mag- 
nified representation in the Anatomical Plates (Heft i. tab. 20) ; 
also in Stanhopea ebumea and Maxillaria macrochila, &c. Lind- 
ley's view that the capsule is composed of six carpellary leaves is 
confirmed by transverse sections at the apex of the germen. 

I have nothing new to add to what I formerly made known 
relating to the remarkable structure of the germinating embryo 
(Select Anatomico-Botanical Plates, part 2. pi. 7) ; and I still 
believe that the embryo is not a tuber, in its rudimentary con- 
dition, but is nevertheless formed in an analogous manner. 

It might be said that the formation of tubers is an especial 
peculiarity of the Orchidacese, for when the roots are not tuber- 
ous, the stem strives to become so. The pseudo-bulbi, as Lind- 
ley calls them, are tuberously-developed internodes. The in- 
ternal structure is the same as in the stem of Monocotyledons in 
general ; woody bundles are situated in a circle in a loose paren- 
chyma ; only here, from the thickness of the internode, there are 
more circles than is usual elsewhere. A speciality occurs in 
these. Each woody bundle is composed, as usual, internally of 
spiral vessels, on the outside of which lie pseudo-porous vessels ; 
to these follow pseudo-porous parenchymatous cells which be- 
come successively narrower, and at last appear as prosenchyma- 
tous cells ; at the outside, where the larger parenchyma begins, 
lie the tubercular tubes of which I will speak immediately. To- 
ward the interior, near the axis of the tuberous internode, we 
find the same series, only the pseudo-porous vessels are wanting. 
Those tubes which I have mentioned are relatively rather wide, 
without transverse septa, so far as I have examined, and, at re- 
gular intervals, stand elliptical papillse surrounded by a rim of 
the same form. At first sight they appear like the common so- 
called pores or bright spots, but they project distinctly from the 
front of the tubes, and are more or less filled with a dark gra- 



40 Mr. H. E. Strickland on the occurrence of 

nular mass, which however is sometimes absent. They stand on 
all sides of the tubes, both toward the axis and toward the pe- 
riphery of the internode. I have found them in all the Orchi- 
dacese that I have examined, but never in stems which are not 
thickened, nor in the leaves*. 

Finally, a few observations on the aerial roots of the Orchi- 
dacese. They seldom pass into the earth, even when this is 
placed in their way ; they grow on long and freely in the air, nay 
sometimes in an upward direction. Only to the cracked bark of 
trees, to which the plants are attached, they adhere by means of 
fine hairs. Meyen observed that the outer layer of these roots 
is composed of spiral cells, and this layer is of tolerable thick- 
ness. This is succeeded by a rather lax parenchyma, but in the 
vicinity of the ligneous nucleus, as I will temporarily call it, 
scattered spiral cells occur again, their convolutions being more 
lax. The ligneous nucleus is composed, as in the roots of all 
Monocotyledons, of one or more circles of vascular bundles, in a 
parenchyma of narrow cells, which are narrower than in the rind, 
and therefore form no true pith. In the hairs a delicate spiral 
fibre is rolled up in close convolutions, but the base is expanded 
and devoid of spiral fibres, although spiral cells lie beneath. 
Moreover these hairs, like all radical hairs, have no transverse 
septa. The occurrence of abundance of spiral cells directly in 
these aerial roots, which very seldom descend into the earth, may 
contribute to the discovery of the at present enigmatical function 
of these cells, since they never absorb nor carry onward coloured 
fluids, like the spiral vessels. 
>.'io ,tRfl; 

vl. — On the occurrence of Charadrius virginiacus, Borkh., at 
Malta. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S. 

I haudly know whether the occurrence of a new or unrecorded 
species of bird at Malta is to be regarded as forming an addition 
to the European fauna, because geographers are I believe not yet 
agreed as to whether Malta belongs to Europe or to Africa. But 
in either case the discovery of Charadrius virginiacus at Malta is 
not the less interesting, for this species has not as yet, I believe, 
been noticed in either of those two quarters of the globe to which 
that island is intermediate. 

I have lately found an accidentally mislaid letter, addressed 
to me in 1846 by Capt. H. M. Drummond, 42nd R.H., whose 
valuable papers on the birds of Corfu, Crete, Macedonia, and 

* Lindley remarked the existence of these tubercles in Oncidium altis- 
simurn, in his *■ Introduction to Botany/ but gave no particular account of 
them. — A. H. 



Charadrius virginiacus at Malta. 41 

Tunis are well known to the readers of the ' Annals. ' In this 
letter he mentions having procured at Malta "a little golden 
plover, which, on comparing with C. pluvialis, I find quite di- 
stinct, being only the size of C. worinellus, and much longer in 
the tarsus. It was shot in company with another of the same 
species in March 1845. They are occasionally observed in Malta 
every second or third year, generally early in spring, and have 
never been noticed in company with C. pluvialis, but generally 
solitary or in pairs. They have not been observed with black on 
the breast. The man who shot it informs me that he has fre- 
quently killed them, and that he can immediately recognise 
them by the note, which is peculiar, differing from that of C. plu- 
vialis, and more resembling that of C. hiaticula." 

Capt. Drummond has subsequently been in England, and 
showed a specimen of this bird to Mr. Yarrell, who ascertained 
it to be the Charadrius virginiacus. 

This species possesses a far more extensive geographical dis- 
tribution than the better-known Charadrius pluvialis. The latter 
occurs throughout Europe, and is recorded as far east as Trebi- 
zond and Siberia. But C. virginiacus not only frequents the 
whole of North and South America, but extends over the Poly- 
nesian Islands to the Malay Archipelago and India, as well as to 
Australia and New Zealand*. We have now evidence of its 
visiting Malta for a short time early in spring, a fact which clearly 
proves that it must winter in Africa, and, occasionally at least, pass 
the summer in some part of Europe, though it has never yet been 
obtained in either of these continents. This has probably been 
owing to the resemblance of its plumage to that of C. pluvialis, 
which bird is recorded by Malherbe in his ' Faune Ornitholo- 
gique de la Sicile/ by Schembri in his ' Catalogo Ornitologico 
del Gruppo di Malta/ and by Von der Miihle in his ' Beitrage 
zur Ornithologie Griechenlands/ but without any indication of 
their having noticed the C. virginiacus. 

The distinctions between C. pluvialis and C. virginiacus are 
numerous, and are carefully pointed out by Sir W. Jardine in 
his edition of ( Wilson's American Ornithology/ vol. ii. p. 362. 
It will therefore suffice to mention here that C. virginiacus is 
rather smaller than C. pluvialis, has rather longer tarsi, and has 
the under wing-covers and axillary feathers of a gray brown, 
while in C. pluvialis they are pure white. 

* The Australian C. xanthocheilus of Jardine's * Illustrations of Orni- 
thology/ plate 85, and of Gould's ' Birds of Australia,' vol. vi. plate 13, 
is certainly identical with C. virginiacus. The true C. xanthocheilus of 
Wagler inhabits New Zealand (in company with C. virginiacus) ; and, ac- 
cording to Mr. Gray's Catalogue, there are three specimens of it in the 
British Museum from Van Diemen's Land, though it seems to be omitted 
by Mr. Gould. 



4.2 M. Van Beneden on a new genus of Cestoid Worm. 

American specimens of C. virginiacus are somewhat larger 
than the Indian and Maltese ones. Both varieties however have 
been recently found by Capt. Drummond in Bermuda. In a 
list of the Birds of Bermuda by Mr. H. B. Tristram, which is on 
the point of being published by Sir W. Jardine in his ' Contri- 
butions to Ornithology/ these two varieties are regarded as di- 
stinct species, as appears from the following passage : " No. 46, 
Charadrius marmoratus [i. e. virginiacus], American golden 

plover. No. 47, Charadrius ?, an unnamed species smaller 

than the American and perfectly distinct. Not unfrequent here. 
It has been also found in Malta by Capt. Drummond, 42nd 

R.H." 9f J ' 



VII. — Notice of a new Genus of Cestoid Worm. By M. P. J. Van 
Beneden*. Communicated by J. T. Arlidge, A.B., M.B., 

(Lond.). 

The researches of M. Beneden in the lower forms of animal 
existence have rightly secured him the reputation of an original, 
diligent, and careful observer ; and every communication there- 
fore from him deserves the attention of the naturalist. This 
leads us to give an abstract of his notice of a new genus of Ces- 
toid Worms, and of a proposed amended arrangement of them. 

M. Beneden discovered the new entozoon at the commence- 
ment of the spiral intestinal lamina of the skate, in company 
with other worms of the genus Bothriocephalus. Before enter- 
ing on its description, he would premise that, as the Cestoidece go 
through several phases of existence, a species is not represented 
by the adult state only, but by its several successive generations 
by gemmation, and of which the last only is furnished with 
sexual organs ; and that it is consequently necessary to describe 
separately those various phases and to give them special names. 

Thus the first stage of existence may be called the scolexoid, 
being that of the scolex or young worm on its escape from the 
ovum ; the second, the strobiloid, from the word strobilus of 
M. Sars, designating the analogous stage of the Medusa ; the 
third and last, the proglottoid, from the term proglottis, applied 
by M. Dujardin to the separated joints of the Cestoidea. 

Owing to the striking peculiarities of the newly- discovered 
worm, M. Beneden has felt it necessary to constitute a new ge- 
nus, of which it is at present the only example. This new genus 
is designated Echinobothrium, and presents the following cha- 
racters : — 

First, or Scolexoid generation, unknown. 

* Extracted from vol. xvi. of the ' Bulletin de l'Academie Royale tie 
Belgique.' 



M. Van Beneden on a new genus of Cestoid Worm. 43 

Second, or Strobiloid. The body elongated, flattened, termi- 
nated by a distinct head, assuming the form of a hammer, and 
having two rows of hooks ; neck supporting three rows of spines 
on each side. The lemniscus protrudes in the median line. Length 
of worm 5 to 6 millimetres. 

Third, or Proglottid. Body elongated, rounded, no external 
opening except that for the lemniscus to escape ; lemniscus rugose 
at the base, and when unrolled nearly as long as the body. 
Length of body 1 millimetre. Ova very minute, T Jo tn °f a m ^~ 
limetre in diameter. 

Echinobothrium typus. Scolexoid stage unknown. In the 
Strobiloid, a distinct head, neck and trunk exist. The general 
form is that of Helminthoid worms, — that one mostly assumed 
by naturalists to be the perfect condition of such beings. 

The head resembles in its great mobility that of Scolex, or of 
Tetrarhynchus. It may elongate itself into the figure of an arrow- 
head, or become contracted into a rounded form; and such 
changes take place with astonishing rapidity. The head is flat- 
tened like the rest of the body, and has two overlying very con- 
tractile fleshy lobes applied to one another. Within the head 
and towards its fore-part lies a bulb, rather more transparent 
than the surrounding tissues, and supporting two rows of hooks, 
one beneath the other, as seen on viewing the flat surface of the 
head. This bulb expands itself abruptly, giving off a process on 
each side the head, which then resembles in figure that of the 
hammer-headed shark. The hooks previously seen within the 
head now fringe the extremities of these processes, and in situa- 
tion resemble that of the eyes of the fish just named. This ap- 
pearance is to be seen only in certain positions of the head. 

Nine of these hooks have been counted disposed in one row ; 
they are all of about the same length and shape, tapering to a 
point which is curved inwards, and exhibit near their middle a 
slight enlargement. They are very readily detached. 

In the interior of the head, posterior to, and nearer the sur- 
face than the bulb, are four flexuose cords, extending thence to 
the last joint of the animal. These cords resemble those met 
with in most Tenioid worms, and which M. E. Blanchard has, in 
some examples, succeeded in injecting. 

The neck is clearly defined by constrictions, from the head in 
front and the trunk behind. It is nearly as long as the head, 
flattened like it, but narrower ; and on each side is armed with 
three rows of spines, in which circumstance this worm differs 
from all other Helminths. The spines are nearly of the same 
length, straight, tapering, with a trifid base imbedded in the soft 
substance of the animal. Each row has twelve to thirteen closely 



44 M. Van Beneden on a new genus of Cestoid Worm. 

implanted but distinct spines, directed backwards, and like those 
of the head easily separable. 

The trunk forms the remainder of the body, made up of nu- 
merous segments, first indicated by delicate lines, and towards 
the posterior extremity by deep constrictions, which ultimately 
end in transverse fission. 

The individual joints constitute the last or adult phase of the 
worm on the completion of their development, wdiich may occur 
before their separation from the strobiloid animal. The four 
cords seen in the latter belong also to this third generation, which 
however alone possesses a sexual system. * 

The development of these segments is by gemmation, differing 
it will be found in no essential points from that in Polypes, if an 
extended view of the process be taken. 

Third or Proglottoid generation. Along with yet entire arti- 
culated worms, joints are met with living independently as Tre- 
matodes, but are the analogues of complete or adult Medusa 
derived from the fission of the Strobila. After their separation 
from the strobiloid parent, these joints increase in size so consi- 
derably as to equal that of two or three yet attached segments. 

They also undergo a change of form ; — losing their flat rib- 
bon-like form, they become rounded or purse-shaped. In gene- 
ral characters and in their movements they resemble Planarice, 
but have been yet more frequently confounded with Trematoda. 

Their investing integument offers nothing peculiar. Its sur- 
face presents neither cilia nor folds, but is occasionally furrowed. 
Its continuity is uninterrupted, except at the opening by which 
the lemniscus escapes; no mouth or respiratory organ being 
apparent. The internal organs maintain an adhesion with the 
external wall. 

No evidence supports the notion that the organ variously 
called the lemniscus, cirrhus, cirrhule, and penis, belongs to the 
reproductive apparatus ; and the observation of the passage of 
spermatozoa by it is illusory, for we have examined this organ in 
every stage of development, and at the period of its greatest 
vigour, without perceiving the least indication of such a passage. 
The anatomical character of the lemniscus is also opposed to 
such a phenomenon. 

In our opinion this appendicular organ performs the same 
office as the tubes of the Tetrarhynchus, viz. that of affixing the 
animals to the tissues, or of infolding them more completely in 
the mucus in which they live. 

Its position varies in different genera: in the Helminth in 
question it occupies the median line about the posterior third of 
the body. It is distinguishable when inclosed in its sheath ; is 



M. Van Beneden on a new genus of Cestoid Worm. 45 

larger at the base, where it is covered with asperities, and when 
unrolled nearly equals the body in length. 

The lemniscus is also lodged in a sac resembling the sheath of 
the tube of Tetrarhynchus, and unrolls itself like that tube. A 
very perceptible retractor muscle arises from the bottom of the 
sheath, and thence extends to the extremity of the lemniscus. 

We agree with Siebold, that, like as in the Trematoda, the 
Nematoidea and other worms, there exists one organ for the for- 
mation of the germ, and another for that of the vitellus. The 
germigenitor (germigene) occupies almost the whole length of 
one side of the body, having a coiled form, and is easily detected 
when containing germs. 

The vitellogenitor (vitellogene) is made np of cells more or less 
round, often very clear, and which are distributed throughout 
the parenchyma in large number. Ova in their interior are often 
to be seen in course of development. We believe that the cells 
rupture, scattering the vitelline globules in the cavity of the 
body, which then envelope the germinal vesicles after they have 
undergone contact with the spermatozoa. 

A dull white organ is also seen in the centre of the body, 
which, when the animal is compressed, appears a tortuous cord, 
like the testes of insects. It has distinct walls, and may be com- 
pletely uncoiled. We have supposed this tube might terminate 
at the base of the lemniscus, but have been unable to determine 
this opinion by observation. We regard this organ as the testes, 
but do not think it discharges its product externally. 

In the interior of the body we have observed ova in course of 
development, having experienced the action of the spermatozoa; 
but as there is no perceptible opening externally, we are compelled 
to admit fecundation to result from the spermatozoa of the same 
animal, which implies complete hermaphrodism. 

Helminthologists generally admit the existence of natural 
vents for the escape of the reproductive products, but, in the 
worm described, nothing of the sort is seen. When the skin of 
an animal, on the object-glass of the microscope, ruptures, the 
ova escape through the rent. 

The ova are very small, measuring but y^yth of a millimetre, 
but are not otherwise remarkable. It is worth while to observe, 
however, the great difference in size the ova present in animals 
closely allied. Thus in Bothriocephalus fios the ova at the time of 
their discharge have eight or nine times the volume, and admit 
of the ready observation of their cells in process of organization. 

Affinities. — The Echinobothrium is allied to the Bothriocephalce, 
but cannot be included in that or any established genus. In 
seeking to classify this worm we have been struck with the sin- 



46 M. Van Beneden on a new genus of Cestoid Worm. 



gular confusion presented by the genus Bothriocephalic, and with 
the necessity of another arrangement of Cestoid worms. 

The primary character to be adopted is taken from the pre- 
sence or absence of hooks on the head, according to which we 
divide the Cestoidece into Acanthocephalce and Anacanthocephalce. 
The first, the more numerous, forms two very natural families, 
one of which has a circle of hooks with four surrounding sucking- 
discs, whilst the second possesses from two to four extremely 
contractile lobes. The former family is that of the Tenioidea, 
the latter that of the Bothrioidece, which includes a portion of the 
Bothriocephala. 

The Anacanthocephala are at present constituted of a single 
family, embracing all the unarmed Bothriocephalce. 

We present the following as the first sketch of an arrange- 
ment of the Cestoidea, for numerous investigations are still 
needed to acquaint us with all the genera at each epoch of their 
development. 

CESTOIDEiE. 

Section I. Acanthocephalce. 

Family I. Tenioidece. 



Genera. Tenia . 

Halysis . 
Trienophora 



Tenia Solium. 

H. genettae (Gerv.). 

T. nodosus. 



Family II. Bothrioidece. 

Genera. Acanthobothrium, n. g. Bothriocephaius bifurcatus. 

Echinobothrium, n. g. . E. typus. 

Dibothryorhynchus . D. lepidopii. 

Tetrarhynchus . . . Rhync. corollatus. 

Section II. Anacanthocephal^:. 

Family I. Bothriocephalidce. 

Genera. Phyllobothrium, n. g. . Bothriocephaius tumidulus. 

B. flos. 
Fimbriaria ? . . . . Tenia malleus. 



Bothridium . . . 
Bothriocephaius 

Schistocephalus 
Cryptocephalus, n. g. 



B. megalocephalum. 

B. latus. 

B. punctatus. 

B. solidus. 



Mr. J. Ball on a new species of Veronica. 47 

VIII. — Description of a new species of Veronica. 
By John Ball, M.R.I.A. 

Several years ago I gathered upon the steep crags of the 
Pagna della Croce, one of the highest peaks of the Apuan Apen- 
nines, specimens of a Veronica which accidentally remained un- 
examined until the present year. Although resembling in many 
respects V. aphylla, L., my specimens differ in so many essential 
particulars, that I am induced to distinguish them by a specific 
name; and I subjoin a description of the proposed new species, 
together with that of V. aphylla, from which the diagnosis will 
more readily be made. 

V. longistyla, nobis. Caule brevissimo, repente, csespitoso, filiformi ; 
foliis inferioribus minimis, superioribus subrosulatis, omnibus ob- 
ovato-spathulatis, acutiusculis, grandiuscule crenato-serratis ; pe- 
dunculo scapiformi adscendente, vix pollicari, supra in pedicellos, 
2—4 erectos, bracteis linearibus et capsulis 3-4 longiores, diviso ; 
corolla parva, filamentis styloque breviori; capsula matura late 
obcordata, profunde emaryinata, calycem sesquilonga, stylo bre- 
viori, seminibus lentiformibus, albo-hyalinis, glabris. Herba tota 
pilis brevissimis articulatis, superne glandulosis, adspersa. 

V. aphylla, L. Caule brevissimo caespitoso ; foliis rosulatis, late 
obovato-spathulatis, obtusis subintegerrimis ; pedunculo scapiformi 
erecto, 1-3 pollicari; supra in pedicellos 2-4, bracteis capsulisque 
vix duplum longiores, diviso ; corollas segmentis latis, filamenta 
stylumque superantibus ; capsula matura obovato-elliptica, sinu 
brevissimo emarginata, calyce et stylo duplum longiore ; seminibus 
lentiformibus, luteis, glabris. Herba tota pilis articulatis, glandu- 
losis, crebris, obtecta. 

V. longistyla differs at first sight from V. aphylla in its smaller 
size, more slender habit, and in its less abundant and less glan- 
dular pubescence ; but the most certain characters must be sought 
in the completely different shape and much smaller size of the cap- 
sule, and in the much greater length of the style, which is longer 
instead of being one-half shorter than the ripe capsule, as in V. 
aphylla. I have to call attention to the description of the capsule 
of V. aphylla given by Mr. Uentham in the tenth volume of the 
1 Prodromus/ It is there stated that the capsule is obcordate, and 
that eminent botanist, to whom I have submitted a specimen of 
V. longistyla, observes, " I do not find so much difference in the 
form of the capsule;" he however further observes, "I have but one 
specimen of V. aphylla in good fruit." I have gathered V. aphylla 
in fruit in Dauphine, in the cantons of Berne, Glaris, Tessin, and 
Valais in Switzerland, in the Tyrol, and in several parts of the 
Carpathians, and with the specimens before me I do not find any 
difference in the form of the ripe fruit, which is as I have above 



48 Zoological Society. 

described it, with a very slight notch at the summit, and by no 
means obcordate. The descriptions of other eminent authors are 
by no means concordant. According to Koch and Wahlenberg 
the capsule is obcordate ; Bertoloni describes it as " subrotundata 
emarginata ;" while Reichenbach says, " capsula obovato-trian- 
gulari, vix emarginata/' I am disposed to believe that the Italian 
plant known to Bertoloni, and possibly also the specimen in good 
fruit preserved in Mr. Bentham's herbarium, may be V. longi- 
styla, while the common alpine plant known to Reichenbach is 
the true V. aphylla. 

The difference of habit and appearance between the plant here 
described and the ordinary V. aphylla might be referred to the 
peculiarity of its birthplace upon the arid marble rocks of the 
Carrara Apennines ; but it would be a large concession to the 
views of those who most believe in the modifying influence of 
external conditions, to Mippose that they can so far change the 
form of the essential organs of vegetation as would be required 
if these plants be not specifically distinct. 

Having lately received Corsican specimens of Veronica repens, 
Lois., from my friend M. Jordan of Lyons, I may remark that 
that plant appears to me to be a mere variety of V. serpylli- 
folia, L. It differs from the mountain form of that plant, known 
to the Scotch botanists as V. humifusa, Dicks., in no respect 
except in the somewhat more hairy segments of the calyx, and 
apparently in the leaves being rather more fleshy than in the 
Scotch plant. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Jan. 9, 1849. — William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Descriptions of three new species of Delphinid^;. By 
J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. 

The species which form the subject of the present communication 
were collected by Dr. Dickie, R.N., during his voyage in the Pacific, 
and have been transferred by him to the British Museum. 

Delphinus Eutropia. 

Nose of skull rather longer than the length of the brain-cavity, 
rather dilated on the sides before the notch, very convex and rounded 
above ; triangle elongate, produced before the tooth-line, concave on 
the sides, and strongly keeled in the centre behind ; hinder edge of 
blow-hole rather prominent. Intermaxillar wide, convex above, leaving 
a rather broad open space in front. Palate rather concave in front, 
convex in the centre behind, the hinder part keeled on each side. 



Zoological Society. 49 

Lower jaw thick, blunt, and rather produced beyond the upper in 
front. Skull rather compressed behind. Teeth , rather slender, 

cylindrical, conical at the top. The frontal ridge half the distance 
between the notch and the convexity of the condyles ; condyles large, 
rather oblique ; foramen magnum rather wider than high. 

in. lin. 

Length, entire 15 

of beak 7 10 

of teeth-line 6 10 

of lower jaw 11 11 

Width at notch 3 6 

at orbit 6' 5 

at middle of beak 2 10 

of middle of intermaxillar . . 13 

at condyles above 3 3 

Height of each condyle 1 3 

Skull from notch G 10 

Lagenorhynchus clanculus. 

Skull wide and rather high behind ; beak flat, outline wide at the base, 
rapidly tapering and acute in front, but rather convex on the sides ; 
sides slightly rounded, the hinder edge near the notch only slightly 
turned up and rounded ; lower jaw high behind ; triangle extending to 

33 
near the middle of the beak. Teeth -^ small, cylindrical, curved, ra- 
ther acute at the top ; the lower front one very small, lntermaxillaries 
broad, hard. 

in. lin. 

Length entire 14 6 

of beak 7 3 

of skull 7 3 

■ of teeth-line 6 6 

of lower jaw 11 3 

— of symphysis of lower jaw. . 1 4 

Width at notch 4 2 

at orbit 7 6 

at middle of beak 2 7 

of intermaxillar in middle . 1 4 

— of condyles above 2 10 

Hah. Pacific. 

Very peculiar for the elongation and reflexion of the beak before 
the notch, and the regular beveling of the sides of the beak. 

Lagenorhvnchus Thicolea. 

Skull rather narrow behind ; beak elongate, almost one-fifth longer 
than the length of the head, rather dilated and concave above behind, 
with the side edges in front of the notch elongated, keeled, and turned 
up ; the middle of the beak flat, with flat shelving sides, the shelving 
part being broader, and forming a slight keel in front. lntermaxillaries 
flat, graduallv tapering. Triangle to the middle of the beak concave on 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 4 



50 Zoological Society, 

the sides, and keeled in the middle behind. Teeth — 1 very slender, 

curved, elongate, conical, tapering, acute; the front very small. 

in. lin. 
Length of skull entire .... 14 6 end of nose injured. 

of beak 8 4 

of teeth-line .... 7 

of lower jaw 12 3 entire. 



Width at orbits ". 7 



at n ? tcn 3 11 

at middle of beak. . 2 2 

of intermaxillary ) , Q 

in middle f l l 

Width of condyles ...... 3 

Hab. West Coast of America. 

2. Descriptions of apparently new species of Aptera 
from New Zealand. By Adam White, F.L.S. etc. 

Mygale (Cteniza) antipodum. 

Chelicera deeper than long, ochrey-brown, the top at the base 
somewhat hollowed, smooth ; sides smooth, front and tip with several 
short hairs. 

Cephalothorax rotundo-ovate, pale ochrey-brown, the sides in front 
somewhat grooved. Eyes situated on a slight elevation in front of 
cephalothorax : the two posterior eyes on each side close to each other. 

Legs of a pale brown, but deeper in colour than the cephalothorax. 

Abdomen of the same pale brown as the legs, covered with rather 
long hairs ; the tail nearly as long as the abdomen, the terminal joint 
elongate, slender, gradually thinner. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Mygale (Cteniza) hexops. 

Chelicera deep black, much deeper than long; above somewhat 
narrowed ; the top and the greater part of the sides quite smooth ; 
the front and a narrow line on the sides slightly punctured, each of 
the punctures supplied with a hair. 

Cephalothorax fulvous yellow, oval, somewhat truncated behind 
and slightly sinuated ; two small silky whitish spots on the fore-part 
behind the first row of eyes ; eyes situated on a slight elevation of 
cephalothorax, which is deep brown ; a narrow brown line extending 
down the middle of the back, but not reaching the end. 

Legs of a pale brown, sparingly furnished with rather long hairs ; 
the femoral joints somewhat thickened. 

Abdomen black, covered with shortish hairs, which in some lights 
have a greyish tinge ; the hairs on the under side of the body greyish. 

Tail about half the length of abdomen ; the last joint the longest, 
and gradually more slender from the base. 

Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). 

This species is very remarkable from its possessing only six eyes. 

DOLOMEDES LATERALIS. 

Cephalothorax of a very pale brown, with a faintish line down the 



Zoological Society. 51 

middle ; a very distinct white line from the anterior angle of the ce- 
phalothorax, continuing down the side and carried along each side of 
the abdomen ; the cephalothorax and abdomen on the inner edge of 
the white line of a deeper brown colour ; the legs and palpi of a pale 
ochrey-yellow, with many black hairs. 

Chelicera covered with greyish hairs. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

This species, which is described from a male, differs from the Dolo- 
medes mirificus, Walck. Apt. i. 355, and the Dolomedes sagittiger, 
as well in markings as in size. 

Dolomedes sagittiger. 

Cephalothorax of a very deep brown ; the extreme edge of the sides,, 
where the legs are inserted, pale ; a wide yellowish longitudinal line 
from the anterior angle of cephalothorax; the outside edges with 
some brown points ; the inner edge with some sinuations ; the band 
does not reach the end of the cephalothorax ; the middle of the cepha- 
lothorax with a narrow white line extending from behind the second 
line of eyes, almost to the end ; on each side of it in front a short 
interrupted line, somewhat rounded in front. 

Abdomen deep brown, the sides of a palish hue as far as the middle. 

The eyes of the first row very small. 

Legs deep brown, with darker coloured hairs. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

This species seems to be closely related to Dolomedes mirijicus, 
Walckenaer, Apteres, i. 355. 

Attus Darwin ii. 

Chelicera black, with greenish reflexions, punctured and striated in 
front, and somewhat impressed at the end ; palpi pale brown. 

Cephalothorax deep blackish brown, highly polished, considerably 
paler in the middle of the back ; front part projecting very consider- 
ably over the chelicera ; the front edge behind the first row of eyes 
with several tufts of short close-set black hairs. 

Eyes with the middle pair of first row very large ; the lateral eyes 
of first row placed somewhat behind the middle pair, and larger than 
the two hind eyes ; the eyes on the second line very small, nearer the 
lateral eyes of first row than those of the third. 

Legs : First pair very long, deep blackish brown ; femoral joint 
rather longer than the tibial, which is double the length of the genual 
joint ; the tarsal joint pale at the end ; a small spine near the end of 
the femoral joint on the inside ; a longer spine about the middle of 
the genual joint ; three spines placed after each other on the inner 
edge of tibial joint ; second, third and fourth pairs of legs of a 
pale yellow, smooth, with a few short bristly hairs on the inside and 
outside. 

Abdomen small, at the base projecting slightly over the cephalo- 
thorax with a broad pale line down the middle ; an impressed dark 
longitudinal line in the middle. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

This makes a third species of Attus from New Zealand ; the other 

4* 



52 Zoological Society. 

two recorded species are Attus abbreviates, Walck. Apteres, i. 477, 
and Attus Cookii, Walck. i. 478. Most probably the Attus Phri- 
noides, Walck. i. 479, is from the same country, and doubtless many 
other species will yet be found. 

Sphasus gracilipes. 

Cephalothorax and abdomen covered with shining silvery hairs. 

Legs fulvous. 

Cephalothorax narrowed in front, with a slight groove from the end 
of the narrowed part on each side extending to the middle of the back ; 
the posterior part ovate. 

Abdomen nearly three times the length of the cephalothorax, much- 
elongated and attenuated at the end. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Epeira verrucosa, Walckenaer, Apteres, ii. 135. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

The specimens in the Museum collection are not in very good con- 
dition, but seem to agree in nearly every important particular with the 
species to which I have referred it ; the posterior lateral eye however 
can scarcely be said to be almost on the same line as the anterior. 

Tegenaria antipodiana. 

Labium nearly as wide as long, truncated at the end. 

Cephalothorax gradually convex above, deep ferruginous brown, 
with two wide longitudinal fulvous bands. 

Legs ringed with yellow and brown, the first two legs with the rings 
obsolete. 

Abdomen as long as cephalothorax, but not quite so broad, appa- 
rently without any impressed points in the middle. 

This species appears to differ from the Tegenaria australensis, 
Walckenaer, Apteres, ii. p. 12. Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, in 
many particulars, especially in the marking of the cephalothorax and 
the shape of the labium. 

Dandridgia dysderoides. 

Chelicera as long as the cephalothorax. 

Cephalothorax elongated, square in front, slightly wider just behind 
the middle ; a slight groove down the middle. 

Eyes situated on two lines, the posterior line the longer ; the two 
middle eyes of first line nearer each other than the outer eye ; the 
posterior line with the middle eyes rather nearer each other than the 
side eyes. 

Legs elongated, first pair the longest, second pair rather longer 
than the fourth, the third considerably shorter than the fourth. 

Abdomen small, shorter than cephalothorax, smooth. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

Named after Mr. Joseph Dandridge, an apothecary, who lived in 
Moorfields more than a hundred years ago, and who has left copious 
evidence in his MSS. (now preserved in the British Museum) of his 
love of arachnology. 

Phalangium Listeri. 

Chelicera enormously long ; first joint not quite so long as the 



Zoological Society. 53 

second, and like it rough, with outstanding short spines, the end very 
slightly thickened ; the end of the second joint gradually thickened, 
with two claws, one fixed, with a small tooth inside near the base, 
followed by a deepish notch ; the moveable claw with a largish tooth 
about the middle, which fits into the notch of fixed claw. 

Ilab. New Zealand. 

Chelifer pallipes. 

Claws and body of a deep brown, the legs pale, the claws with a 
greenish hue, and furnished with many pale hairs ; abdominal seg- 
ments edged with palish; the femoral joints of legs much-com- 
pressed. 

Hah. New Zealand. 

3. Notice of the capture of Orthagoriscus mola off the 
Chesil, Bank, Dorsetshire. By Major Parlby. 

In this communication, which was addressed in the form of a letter 
to Mr. Gray, Major Parlby stated that in the beginning of June 1846 
the specimen in question was observed almost daily in the West Bay, 
sometimes sailing about slowly with half its dorsal fin above the sur- 
face of the water, sometimes moving with great rapidity, playing about 
and splashing the water violently, or blowing like a whale or grampus. 
As it generally kept off and on between the mackerel and the shore, 
the fishermen attributed their ill success with the shoals, which never 
left the deep water, to the presence of this unusual visitant ; and it is 
remarkable that on the day after its capture they took upwards of 
20,000 fish. 

The capture happened on the 1 3th of June, in consequence of the 
Sunfish swimming directly into the centre of the line of nets. "When 
entangled in the first net it exerted itself so powerfully that it broke 
through, and was only secured by the yawl or outer net and the co- 
operation of about forty men, who finally succeeded in landing it on 
the Chesil Bank : and even here its vigour was so great that it dashed 
about the pebbles, according to the fishermen's account, like a shower 
of grape. It expired in about three hours, after uttering "hideous 
groans, " like those of a horse dying of the staggers. 

On the capture becoming known to Major Parlby and Mr. Fox, 
surgeon, of Weymouth, they hastened to inspect the fish, and found 
that the skin was entirely covered with a white mucous slime, upon 
the removal of which the real colour of the integument was discovered 
to be of a dull dirty brown colour, and the texture to resemble the 
most beautiful shagreen. 

Major Parlby and Mr. Fox having jointly purchased the fish, pro- 
ceeded to have it prepared for the British Museum, to which insti- 
tution they subsequently presented it. 

The dimensions are as follow : — ft- in* 

Total length 6 3 

Height of dorsal fin 2 5 

Breadth of it at base 1 3 

Height of ventral fin 2 3 

Girth 9 



54? Zoological Society* 

January 23. — William Yarrell> Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. On SOME NEW 7 OR LITTLE-KNOWN SPECIES OF MONKEYSi 

By John Edward Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 

The older authors have described two species of White-nosed Mon- 
keys which have been called Hocheurs by the French. 

In the British Museum we have specimens of each of these species, 
and also of two very distinct kinds, which appear either not to have 
occurred to preceding authors, or to have been confounded by them 
with the species described by Erxleben. 

Cercopithecus melanogenys. The Black-cheeked Monkey. 

Dark olive, minutely yellow grisled ; face, cheek, forehead, chest 
and hands black ; a iarg;e cordate spot on the nose and a small spot 
on each temple white. Throat, under-part of the body and inside of 
the legs whitish ; the front of the shoulders, outside of the limbs, end 
of the tail blackish. Ears, the middle of the back, and upper part of 
the tail, rufous. 

In the British Museum collection there is a half-grown specimen 
of this species which died in a menagerie near London, and was said 
to have come from Western Africa. 

The Black-cheeked Monkey is easily known from Cercopithecus 
nictiians by its yellow punctulated fur and cordate form of the spot 
on the nose ; the latter character equally distinguishes it from Cerco- 
pithecus petaurista, from which it is also separated by the black- 
ness of its cheeks and the greyness of the outside of the limbs, and the 
redness of the middle of the back and the tail. 

This species wa$ indicated in the 'Annals of Natural History' for 
1845, but is redescribed here for the purpose of comparison with 
the next. 

r.fiRCopiTHECus ludio. The Ludio. 

Blackish, minutely yellow grisled ; face, temple, crown of the head, 
shoulders and fore-legs, black ; outer side of the hinder legs and end 
of tail blackish ; large oblong spot on the nose white; throat, upper 
part of the inside of arms, and lower side of the body, whitish ; rump 
and under side of base of tail dark reddish brown. 

Hab. West Africa. 

In the British Museum there is a nearly full-grown specimen of this 
species, which was procured from a menagerie in Liverpool, and was 
said to have been brought from the west coast of Africa. 

This is at once known from two other species which have the fur 
punctated with yellow, viz. C. petaurista and C. melanoyenys, by the 
large size and erect oblong form of the white spot on the nose, and 
especially by the absence of any white on the cheek or temples ; it is 
easily distinguished also by the general black tint of the fur, and 
especially by the red hairs of the rump. 

In the course of last year there was exhibited in the Gardens of the 
Society a short-tailed American monkey, which was regarded by several 



Zoological Society. 55 

eminent zoologists as a species of Cehus which had lost part of its tail ; 
but there was a peculiarity in the position of the thumb as regarded 
the fingers, which at once showed that whatever might be the natural 
length of its tail, it evidently did not belong to the genus Cehus as at 
present restricted. The examination of the animal after death showed 
that it was a most distinct genus, and nearly related to, if not a variety 
of, Brachyurus Ouakari of Spix. 

I may observe that the genus Brachyurns was established by Spix 
in his work on American Monkeys for two species, viz. 1 . the Simla 
Chiropotes of Humboldt (the S. Sagulata of Trail), which has been 
generally referred to the genus Pithecia ; and 2. Brachyurus Ouakari. 
Spix in the same work restricted the genus Pithecia to the Saki or 
Long-haired American Monkeys. 

The examination and comparison of the skull of the short-tailed 
monkey and of the allied genera have induced me to think that the 
American Monkeys with long hairy tails, and with six grinders, may 
be divided into two very natural subfamilies, characterized by the 
position and form of the cutting teeth. 

The first of these groups I should propose to call Callitrichina : 
they have small erect cutting teeth, forming a regular series with the 
canines. This group contains the genera Callithrix and Chrysothrisc, 
with small diurnal eyes, and Nyctipithecus, with large nocturnal eyes. 

The second group, which may be called Pitheciana, have the cutting 
teeth large, converging together, and separated from the canines by 
a large space, and their under ones more or less shelving. This group 
contains three genera, viz. -. — 

1 . Pithecia. The fur elongate, dry, harsh ; the tail club-shaped ; 
the crown like a wig, and the chin slightly bearded ; the lower cutting 
teeth rather shelving. 

This is the genus Pithecia, as restricted by Spix, the Tarkea ot 
Lesson, containing P. monachus, P. leucocephalus, and P. rujiventei 
of Geoffroy. 

Spix (tab. 37. f. 4) figured a skull which appears to belong to a 
species of this genus, but he does not indicate its name. 

2. Brachyurus. The fur silky, short ; tail elongate club-shaped ; 
the crown like a wig, and the chin largely bearded on each side ; the 
lower cutting teeth are rather shelving ; limb short and straight. Con- 
taining Cehus satanas of Hoffmanseg, which is the type of Spix's 
genus. 

Lesson has given the name of Chiropotes to this group, and Cucajao 
to a second group, established on the Simia melanocephalus of Hum- 
boldt, which is probably only a badly stuffed specimen of this species. 

Spix, in his work on Brazilian Monkeys, figures a skull which ap- 
pears to belong to this genus, but it is like several others on the same 
plate, without any name, t. 37. f. 5. 

3. Ouakaria. The fur short, silky ; tail short, subcylindrical, the 
crown with short hair ; the chin scarcely bearded ; the lower cutting 
teeth very much shelving ; legs elongate. 

This genus forms part of the genus Brachyurus of Spix ; and if 
Spix had not evidently described the teeth, &c. of his first species in 



56 



Zoological Society. 



his generic character, I should have heen induced to have retained for 
this group the name of Brachyurus, which is more applicable to it 
than to the one to which it is applied ; and indeed M. Isidore Geof- 
froy appears to have so applied it. 

Several species have been described which chiefly differ in the length 
of the tail ; as, 1 . Ouakaria Spixii ; Brachyurus Ouakari, Spix, 
Brazil, t. 8, with the tail about one-third the length of the body. 
2. Ouakaria calvus ; Brachyurus calvus, I. Geoff. Rev. Cuvier. 1847, 
137, much paler in colour, but it is very doubtful if the shortness of 
the tail does not depend on the imperfection of the specimen, and the 
colour on partial albinism. 

We have specimens of B. calvus in the British Museum, presented 
by M. Bourcier. The skull may be thus described : — 

The cutting teeth projecting ; 
the upper one broad, especially 
the two middle ones ; lower one 
elongate, narrow, more sloping, 
and projecting like those of Indri. 
Canines conical, far away from 
the cutting teeth, leaving a large 
vacancy ; flattened in front ; they 
are flattened before and behind, 
placed rather obliquely, with a 
sharp inner edge. The skull is 
very unlike that of the Cebidce ; 
most allied to that of Pithecia 
leucocephala,hw.t the cutting teeth 
in that species are not so proclined. 

The converging, slender, shelving, cutting teeth in the lower jaw 
of this genus, as well as its slender limbs and the shortness of its tail, 
bear a certain resemblance to the Indri amongst the Lemuridce. 

The form of the lower jaw also offers a good character for the 
distinction of the genera. 
1. Lower jaw not dilated behind. 2. Lower jaw dilated behind. 




Mycetina. 

Mycetes (much). 

Lagothrix (moderately) . 
Atelina (part). 

Brachyteles (moderately) . 
Callitrichina. 

Callithrix. 

Chrysothrix. 

Nyctipithecus. 
Pitheciana (part). 

Brachyurus. Ouakaria. 

2. Description of a new species of Herpestes. 
By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 

Herpestes punctulatus. 

Reddish grey, minutely black and grey punctured ; face redder. 



Atelina (part). 

Ateles. 
Cebina. 

Cebus. 
Pitheciana (part). 

Pithecia. 
Jacchina. 

Jacchus. 

Midas. 



Zoological Society. 57 

Under-fur black ; long hair brown, upper half whitish, with a broad, 
black, subapical band and a bay tip. Tail-end black. 

Hab. South Africa; Fort Natal. 

This species is allied to //. Mutgigella in size, appearance, and the 
black tip of the tail, but differs from that species in being redder, and 
in the face being red bay. 

It agrees with H . badius, A. Smith, in the colour of the end of the 
tail ; but that species differs from it in the nearly uniform bay colour 
and in the length of the hair. 

I may here remark, that //. badius offers two very distinct varieties, 
one being uniform red bay, the hair being of a uniform colour ex- 
cept a few just over the shoulder-nape which have a black subapical 
ring. This is the variety figured by Dr. Smith in the * South African 
Zoology.' The other with most of the hairs of the back and sides 
having long white tips edged below with a black band, giving the 
back a grisled appearance. 



The foregoing papers were followed by an address from Dr. Mel- 
ville, M.H.C.S., in continuation of his observations commenced on 
December 12, 1848, concerning the Ideal Vertebra, of which he 
has furnished the following abstract : — 

I employ the term ' vertebra ' in the extended sense in which it is 
used by M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire and Prof. Owen, as equivalent to a 
segment of the endo-skeleton, or to the proximal, more or less ossi- 
fied, element of that skeleton. 

The ideal or typical vertebra is the most complicated possible ver- 
tebral segment, exclusive of the ichthyic or other peculiarities ; it 
furnishes the key to the actual vertebrae in the same individual series 
or in the skeletons of the different vertebrate classes. 

An actual vertebra may exist as a nnity prior to, or even during 
chondrosis, but becomes resolved by ossification into a variable num- 
ber of distinct and independent ultimate elements ; which therefore 
are not repetitions of one and the same elementary 'body' or 
* lamina.' 

The number of these ultimate elements varies in the actual ver- 
tebrae in the same spinal column, and also in those constituting the 
skeletons of the different vertebrated animals. 

The ideal vertebra contains the greatest number of these elements, 
most of which form arches attached to, or springing from, a central 
piece or element, and protecting the great nervous and vascular axes 
and the visceral system. 

The upper or. neural arch is composed generally of three elements, 
two lateral, (neural laminae, or neuropomata) ; and an upper or mesial 
piece, (neural spine, or neuracantha), which may be subdivided in 
the median plane. 

The inferior or haemal arch is also constituted when most developed 
(tail of the lepidosiren) by three elements ; the two lateral (haemal 
laminae or "angiopomata) and the azygos inferior one (angiacantha 
or haemal spine), which is never subdivided. This arch is most 



58 Zoological Society. 

generally present in the candal region, disappears in the trunk, and 
reappears in the cervix. In man it only exists at the junction of the 
occipital and atlantal vertebrae, forming the so-called 'body of the 
atlas,' which is regarded by me as the haemal arch of the third 
cranial vertebra displaced backwards to the intervertebral interspace, 
as in the caudal region. 

The visceral arch, which is also inferior but external to the last, 
may be regarded as composed of an azygos inferior and two lateral 
elements. The former is the sternal segment and may be subdivided 
mesially. Each lateral piece is also resolvable generally into an upper 
segment (vertebral rib or pleura); and a lower one usually cartila- 
ginous (sternal rib or hypopleura), which may be subdivided into two 
or three pieces (three in Plesiosaurus) . 

The segmentation of the vertebras is partly due to the laws which 
preside over their genesis, and partly determined by teleological causes. 

Several of the elements unite to form the vertebra of. the anthro- 
potomist ; thus the constituents of the neural arch coalesce with the 
centrum in the dorsal vertebrae ; while in those of the cervical, lum- 
bar and sacral regions, the abortive pleural complements also are an- 
chylosed to the elements just mentioned. 

In fishes, the lower part of the vertebral body is formed by the ex- 
panded bases of the angiopomata, which meet those of the neuropo- 
mata and enclose the proper centrum ; but in the higher vertebrata 
the greater development of the centrum excludes the angiopomata 
from any share in the body, and displaces them backwards to the in- 
tervertebral interspace next in succession. 

The coexistence of the visceral and haemal arches is seen in fishes, 
in the cervical region of many lacertae, and in the tails of the lizards 
and crocodiles, &c. 

Therefore the one is not convertible into the other, as has been 
supposed by Professor Owen, who regards the sternum and sternal 
ribs in the thorax as the equivalents of the angiacantha and angiopo- 
mata, the latter being dislocated from their normal attachment to the 
centrum and suspended to the extremities of the corresponding pleural 
elements constituting the sternal ribs, while the former is expanded 
and sometimes divided mesially to form the sternum. 

I am therefore compelled to suggest a new nomenclature of the 
elements of a typical vertebra more conformable to nature than 
that employed by Professor Owen, who has used the same term for 
several distinct objects, and given two different appellations to the one 
and the same element. 

My view of the typical vertebra is that which has been adopted 
by the distinguished German anatomists Miiller, Rathke, &c. 

The cranial vertebrae are three in number, and may be named, from 
before backward, the frontal, parietal and occipital vertebrae. 

The supposed nasal vertebra has no existence, the bones presumed 
to constitute it belonging to different categories. 

Each cranial vertebra is composed of a centrum, a neural and a 
visceral arch ; the haemal arch is present only in the third'or occipital 
vertebra forming the so-called 'body of the atlas.' 



Zoological Society. 59 

Between the neural arches of the cranial vertebra pass out divei ti- 
cula of the cerebral vesicles to the ' sense-capsules,' as well as the 
ordinary cerebro-spinal sensero-motor nerves. The primary segments 
of the brain are three in number. The special sense nerves, and those 
of the cerebro-spinal system, correspond in number to the cranial 
vertebral segments. The auditory capsule is intercalated between the 
neuropomata of the second and third cranial vertebrae ; the optic 
nerve issues between those of the first and second, while the corre- 
sponding capsule is contained in the orbital cavity, protected by cer- 
tain bones, pro-orbital, meso-orbital and meta-orbital, &c. ; the olfac- 
tory capsules are situated in front of the first vertebra, and are thus 
enabled to approximate mesially, separated only by the prolongation 
of the body of the frontal vertebra. 

The occipital vertebra has for its centrum the basi-occipital, for its 
neuropomata the ali-occipital, and for its neuracantha the supra- 
occipital, which is sometimes divided into two. 

The basi-sphenoid is the centrum of the second or parietal vertebra ; 
the neuropomata are termed ali-parietals, and the divisions of the 
neuracantha parietals. 

The centrum of the frontal or most anterior vertebral segment is 
formed by the pre-sphenoid, the neuropomata by the ali-frontal, and 
the divided neuracantha by the frontals. 

The squamosal and mastoid bones may be regarded as belonging 
to the same category as the ossa Wormiana, namely, the accessory 
neuropomatous pieces. 

The post-petrosal bone in the Chelonia is erroneously regarded by 
Professor Owen as the equivalent in the occipital vertebra of the an- 
gioparal element of the body of the vertebra in fishes, or of the infe- 
rior transverse process in the higher vertebrata, since both receive the 
same name in his system. 

The mastoid is also regarded by Prof. Owen as the * parapophy sis ' 
of the parietal vertebra. 

The visceral arch of the frontal vertebra is formed by the palato- 
maxillary apparatus exclusive of the pro-maxilla, and by the malleus 
leucus with the lower jaw in the mammalia, or by the os quadratum 
and Meckel's cartilage with the appendages in birds and reptiles. 

The corresponding arch of the parietal is formed by the anterior 
horn of the hyoid bone, and that of the occipital by the posterior 
cornua and body of the same bone. 

February 13. — William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary reported that a male GirafTe had been fawned in the 
menagerie on the previous day. The produce of the mother, who 
was imported in 1836, thus amounted to five males, all of whom, 
with one exception, were in full health and vigour. 

The papers communicated were — 

1 . Description of a new species of the genus Tomigerus, 
Spix. By G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S. etc. 

Tomigerus principalis, n. sp. Tom. testa rotundato-triyonalis. 



60 Zoological Society. 

compressiusculd, tenui, lcevigatd,pallescente, lineis brunneis non- 
nidlis, per paria dispositis, cinctd ; spird subelatd, anfractibus 
quinque, quorum duobus primis nigricantibus, tertio quart oque 
pallidis, brunneo-unifasciatis, ultimo magno, postice gibbo, infra 
planulato ; aperturd axi parallel d, auriformi ; peristomate late 
expanso, albo, margine dextro producto, rotundato-subangulato ; 
aperturd intus lamellis senis instructd, duobus in pariete aper- 
turaliy quarum posticd compositd, tribus in margine basalt, una 
compositd postice fur cat d antice bifida in margine dextro. 
This is the largest species of this genus we remember to have seen ; 
for which reason we have named it T. principalis. It is of a some- 
what triangular form, rounded at the angles, and rather compressed, 
not being nearly so globular as the remaining three species. The 
substance of the shell is rather thin, it is smooth and of a pale colour 
with several brown transverse lines disposed in pairs ; the spire is 
rather elevated, consisting of five volutions, of which the first and 
second are small and very dark-coloured, the. third and fourth are 
pale with a brown band, and the fifth is large, and gibbose posteriorly, 
its anterior margin white, and it is flattish and brown anteriorly ; the 
aperture is parallel to the axis, ear-shaped, with a broadly expanded 
white peristome, whose right margin is produced and forms a rounded 
angle ; the aperture is furnished within with six lamellar teeth, two 
on the columellar side, of which the posterior is compound, three 
within the basal margin ; and a single compound plate which is fur- 
cate posteriorly and bipartite anteriorly within the right hand margin. 
In Mr. Cuming's collection. 
From Pernambuco. 

2. Description of two newly discovered species of 
Cyclostoma. By G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S. 

1. Cyclostoma formosum. Cycl. testa suborbiculari, subdepres- 
sd, tenuiusculd, spiraliter striatd, tricarinatd,fidvo-rufescente; 
spird brevi, acuminata, anfractibus quinis rapide crescentibus, 
rotundatis, carinis duabus validis, albicantibus castaneo-arti- 
culatis ; antice striis subobsoletis, gradatim majusculis, cari- 
ndque tertid umbilicum circumferente ; suturd validd, Icevi; 
aperturd magna, fere* circulari, postice paululum acuminata, 
peritremate latiusculo refiexo, incisuris parvis tribus, ad carinas 
externas idoneis ; umbilico magno, profundo, spiraliter striato, 
striis exterioribus gradatim majusculis. 
This very handsome Cyclostoma bears a general resemblance to 
C. Cuvierianum, though easily distinguishable by having three distinct 
keels, by having a more acuminated apex, and by the latter having 
the spiral striae decussated by other sharp striae parallel with the 
lines of growth. The C. formosum is nearly orbicular, though some- 
what depressed ; it is rather thin and smooth, and of a reddish fulvous 
or brown colour : its spire is rather short, but acuminated, consisting 
of five volutions which are of a roundish form and increase rapidly, 
and are ornamented with two keels which are of a pale colour, spotted 
with chestnut brown : anteriorly the striae are rather indistinct, but 



Zoological Society. 61 

larger 5 and there is a thick keel surrounding the umbilicus ; the 
suture is distinct and smooth, but belted posteriorly by the middle 
keel ; the aperture is large, nearly circular, slightly acuminated poste- 
riorly, with a rather broad reflected peritreme, in which are three 
little cuts answering to the ends of the external keels ; the umbilicus 
is large and deep, spirally striated within ; the outer striae being the 
larger. 

From Madagascar, in the collections of A. L. Gubba, Esq., Havre, 
and Mr. Cuming. 

2. Cyclostoma aplustre. Cycl. testa suborbiculari, tenuius- 

culd, Icevi, albicante,fasciis nonnullis posticis, anyustis, castaneis, 

subinterruptis, striisque tenuissimis spiralibus, ornatd ; spirdle- 

vatiusculd, subacuminatd, apice obtuso; anfractibus quinis rotun- 

datis, creberrime transversim striatis, striis posticis for tioribus, 

anticis fere obsoletis ; umbilico mayno, intus spiraliter striato, 

striis tenuissimis; aperturd fere circulari, postice paululum 

acuminata, peritremate tenui, acuto, supra umbilicum paululum 

refexo. 

A species somewhat resembling C. ligatum, but differing in several 

characters. It is suborbicular and thin, smooth, whitish, posteriorly 

with several narrow slightly interrupted chestnut-coloured bands and 

close-set very slender spiral striae ; the spire is rather elevated and 

acuminated, but the apex is obtuse : volutions five, very regularly 

rounded, and very finely transversely striated, the transverse striae 

decussating the spiral striae, and the posterior striae being the most 

distinct, the anterior being almost undistinguishable : the umbilicus 

is large, very finely spirally striated within ; aperture large, nearly 

circular, slightly acuminated posteriorly, with a thin, sharp-edged 

peritreme which is rather wide and slightly reflected over a part of 

the umbilicus. 

From Madagascar, in the collection of A. L. Gubba, Esq., Havre. 

3. Description of a new species of Btjlimus. By Lovell 
Reeve, F.L.S. 

Bulimtjs irroratus. Bul. testa acuminato-oblonyd, medio ven- 
tricosd, anfractibus sex, subrotundatis, striis tumidis elevatis 
interruptis oblique exsculptis, infra suturas peculiariter con- 
centrice crenulatis, columella stride uniplicatd ; rufescente- 
purpured, epidermide tenui ciner ascent e, fulvo hie illic punctatd, 
indutd, columella ccerulescente-albd, labro incarnato-roseo. 

Hab. ? 

This beautiful species, received by Mr. Cuming from A. L. Gubba, 
Esq. of Havre, is materially distinct from any hitherto described. It is 
of a swollen ovate form with the spire rather sharply acuminated, and 
the columella is distinguished by a sharp winding plate. The ground 
colour of the shell is a reddish purple, the last whorl being particu- 
larly characterized by a thin ash-coloured epidermis sprinkled with 
light fulvous spots all inclining towards the lip, which is of a delicate 
flesh-pink. 



62 Zoological Society. 

4. Description of a new species of Box Tortoise from 
Mexico. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 

In a collection of reptiles recently received from Mexico are two 
specimens of a Box Tortoise, which, beside differing from the com- 
mon box tortoise of North America, in being of a more elongated 
form, both agree in two characters, which are not found in that 
species or in any other species of the genus ; first, in having an 
additional vertebral plate ; and secondly, in the hind feet being only 
armed with three large claws : there is no appearance of the fourth 
claw, and even scarcely any rudiment of the fourth toe found in the 
other specimens of this genus, and in all other Emydce. 

This species will form a section or subdivision of the genus, which 
may be called Onychotria. 

Cistudo (Onychotria) Mexicana. Three-toed Box Tortoise. 

Shell oblong, dark-brown, pale, spotted and rayed, spot and rays 
sometimes confused. 

Vertebral plates with a nearly continued keel, and with a small 
intermediate one between the usual fourth and fifth plates. 

The hinder margin acute revolute. 

The head pale brown ; the legs yellow or orange spotted, with five 
unequal claws. 

The hind legs brown, uniform, with only three large claws, the 
middle and the front one largest. 

The sternum flat ; the gular plates wide in front, and suddenly 
narrowed behind. 

Hab. Mexico. 

There was a specimen of the Kinosternon scorpiodes, and of the 
Gopher, Testudo gopher, in the same collection : the latter only dif- 
fered from the usual North American specimen in being rather larger 
and blacker. 

February 27. — William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following paper were read : — 

1. Description of seven new species of Marginella. 

By John S. Gaskoin. 
Marginella quadrilineata. Marg. testa oblong o-ov at d, pal- 
lide virescente, nitidd ; lineis rufis quatuor, equidistantibus, 
transversis ; basi rotundatd, Icevi ; aperturd lata antice prce- 
cipub ; canali latissimo ; labio lato, marginato, ultra apicem 
extenso ; columelld antice quadriplicatd, plicis duabus anticis 
concur rentibus canalem intermediam formantibus ; apice oblito. 
Shell oblongo-ovate, of an uniform, opaque, pale-greenish colour, 
highly polished, with four distinct, nearly equidistant, very narrow, 
uninterrupted, even, red lines or bands, surrounding the shell from 
the upper or outer edge of the incrassated margin of the lip, which con- 
tinuing within the columella, extend over the earliest formation of 
whorls : these lines are equally conspicuous on the inside of the last 
whorl, and no doubt throughout the whole inside of the shell. The 
same pale-greenish colour pervades the inside as the outer part ; base 



Zoological Society. 63 

round and smooth ; aperture wide, especially at the anterior portion, 
where the columella suddenly contracts in diameter, subspiral, curved 
posteriorly ; channel very broad, which and the edge of the lip are 
subpellucid and whitish ; at the anterior part of the columella are 
four prominent rather tenuous plaits : the first two conjoin and form 
the inner side of the channel ; the two posterior are on the columella ; 
between the inner side of the channel and the anterior third of the 
columella is a concavity ; lip thick, smooth, extends beyond the apex, 
no trace of crenulation, strongly marginated, and the margin has its 
upper edge or rim of a darker colour than the shell ; it proceeds over 
the arch of the channel, and becomes obliterated just above the third 
plait; apex imperceptible. 

Long, ■^..° 77 of an inch ; wide, ^ s. f an men. 

p> 1 o > ' 100 

Hab. { 

The only specimens I have seen of this species are an adult shell in 
the cabinet of Mr. Metcalfe, and an adult and a young one in my own ; 
all of which were brought to this country in H.M.S. the Samarang. 

It cannot be confounded with any known species of Marginella ; 
the four narrow conspicuous red lines or bands, the two anterior plaits 
being a bifurcation of the inner wall of the channel, the wide aperture, 
and general form of the shell are ample distinctives. 

Marginella pudica. Marg. t est d oblong o-ov at d, albidd, fasciis 
sex vel septem, transversis, continuis, pallidissime viridi-fulvis ; 
maculis distinctis pallidissime brunneis interruptis ; basi rotun- 
datd; aperturd latiusculd ; labio crasso, marginato, ultra api- 
cem extenso ; columella quinqueplicatd ; canalilato et profundo ; 
margine interno labii minute denticulato ; apice lato, obtuso. 
Shell oblong-ovate, of a white colour, having six or seven verv faint 
greenish-brown bands traversing the shell from the border of the 
aperture to the upper edge of the margin, interrupted by rather large, 
distinct, very light-brown spots or markings ; these bands have be- 
tween them broad white lines, which are the colour of the shell ; the 
posterior end of the shell is in an evenly projecting ridge or varix, 
surrounding the spire ; base round, colour of the shell ; aperture 
rather wide, curved (bowed) ; lip thick, extending a little beyond the 
apex, as described in reference to the posterior portion of the shell ; 
margin rather thick, and extending over the arch of the channel ; the 
columella is furnished with five plaits, the three anterior are promi- 
nent, especially the second, which extending over the base obliquely, 
forms a thickened varix ; small obtuse denticulations exist along the 
whole inner edge of the lip ; channel deep and wide ; apex broad and 
obtuse. 

Long, y 2 ^ of an inch ; wide, T ^ of an inch. 
Hab. Central America. 
Cab. Metcalfe, Gaskoin, Cuming. 

In size, form, markings, fewer plaits, the denticulations on the 
inner edge of the lip, &c, separate this species from all others ; its 
nearest affinity may be the Marginella tessellata, Lam., although 
even that affinity is very distant ; in the size remarkably so. 



64 Zoological Society. 

Marginella triplicata. Marg. testa ovatd, ventricosd, ful- 
vescente, Icevi, nitiddque ; aperturd angustd ; labio tenia, injlexo, 
marginato ; columella antice triplicata; canali nullo ; spird 
subelatd, anfractibus distinctis, apice acutiusculo. 

Shell ovate, ventricose, of a general light fawn colour, without bands 
or other markings, smooth and shining ; base round, aperture rather 
narrow ; lip thin, much-inflexed, marginated ; three fine white plaits 
are situated at the anterior portion of the columella, equidistant ; the 
first forms the termination of the columella, the second passes very 
slightly on to the base, in a parallel direction to the first, the third 
not at all so ; these plaits convey an idea as though they were differ- 
ently produced to those of the generality of the Marginellce ; that is, 
in not being formed on the columella, but as though the columella 
had been delved in itself, leaving the lines or plaits projecting ; and 
the semblance of a fourth plait is given by the depth and abruptness 
of the notch beyond the third : channel none ; spire slightly promi- 
nent, with distinct whorls ; apex subacute. 

Long, y 3 /q of an inch ; wide, y 2 ^- of an inch. 

Hab. The Philippines, &c. 

The gibbosity and sudden tapering of this shell, the uniformity of 
its coloration, in having but three plaits, and those at the anterior end 
of the columella, and its short but perfect spire, distinguish it from 
any species yet described. 

I had intended, on determining to describe this shell, to have re- 
tained for it the appellation by which it is so well known to many 
naturalists and collectors — Marginella angy stoma, although by whom 
so designated I have been unable to learn, it never having before been 
described nor figured'; but finding afterwards that M. Deshayes has 
described and published a fossil species found at Grignon under that 
name, I am obliged to forgo my wish, and have called it from perhaps 
a more leading characteristic — Marginella triplicata. 

Marginella serrata. Marg. testa elongatd, subcylindricd, 
pallida; aperturd angustd; columella antice quadriplicatd ; 
labio tenui, injlexo, valde serrato dentibus sex vel octodecim ; 
margine crasso ; spird subelatd, anfractis distinctis, apice obtu- 
siusculo. 

Shell elongated, subcylindrical, of a very light greyish colour, some- 
times with light brown cloudings ; base rather round, aperture narrow, 
columellar side nearly straight, with four nearly transverse equidistant 
plaits at the anterior portion, the first continuing to form the inner 
side of the channel, the second and the third passing obliquely for- 
wards over the base, and the fourth in no degree so ; lip slightly spiral, 
inflexed, thin, and deeply serrated at its entire edge, forming sixteen 
to eighteen teeth ; margin thick, and continuous over the arch of 
the channel, and, like the lip, is of a lighter colour than the rest of 
the shell ; spire somewhat prominent, whorls distinct ; apex rather 
obtuse. 

Lon g' t¥o °f an incn ; wide > ro 6 o of an incl1 - 
Hab. The Mauritius. 
Cab. Cuming. 



Zoological Society. 65 

This species approaches nearest in form to the Mary, triticea of 
Lam., hut has a much narrower aperture, and the edge of the lip is 
strongly serrated its entire length. 

Marginella contaminata. Mary, testa oblonyo-ovatd, pallida 
jloris lactu colore ; extus tenuissime striata; ajjerturd latd y 
labio crassOy columella sexplicatd, plicis tribus anticis prominen- 
tiorihus ; maryine lato, plaittdatoque ; apice prominente obttt- 
sissimo. 

Shell oblongo-ovate, of an uniform pale cream colour, without 
bands or markings ; internally the colour is somewhat darker ; ex- 
ternal texture of the shell is finely striated : the strise terminate ante- 
riorly at the thickened varix over the arch of the channel curving to- 
wards the columella, and in a similar manner at the edge of the white 
deposit around the spire ; base round, aperture wide, slightly curved; 
on the columella are six or more white plaits, the three anterior being 
rather prominent, the first continuing to form the inner side of the 
channel ; the second forms a varix on the base of the shell ; the 
channel broad and deep ; a white deposit exists on the columella 
within the aperture, which widens and thickens outwardly from about 
the anterior fourth of the aperture, covering the plaits and proceeding 
over the arch of the channel, forming there a ridge or varix at its 
posterior edge, and diminishing in width as it approaches the lip, 
along the whole length of which it continues forming a broad flat 
margin, and terminates around the spire, which is also covered by it : 
apex slightly prominent, very obtuse. 

Long, 1 inch ; wide, ^ of an inch. 

Hab. ? 

Cab. Cuming, Gaskoin. 

It differs from Maryinella cornea, Lam., in its more elongated 
form, the number, distribution and construction of the plaits, in its 
broad, flat margin, in the thinness and planeness of the lip internally, 
the varix at the anterior part of the base, &c. 

Marginella lineato-labrum. Mary, testa ovatd, Item, an- 
fractibus postice rotundatis, pallide Jlavescente, niyro lineato- 
punctatd; spird prominente ; bast rotundatd ; aperturd latis- 
simd ; columella quadriplicatd ; labio crassntscido, maryinato, 
lineis octo vel novem transversis, supra labritm et maryinem 
continuis. 
Shell ovate, smooth, the whorls even (not crenulated), of a light 
yellow-brown colour, having on the last whorl nine rows of distinct 
small black spots, or short markings, obliquely longitudinally placed, 
the two posterior rows of which are continuous along the whorls of 
the spire even to the apex ; spire very prominent, whorls rather gib- 
bous ; base round ; aperture very wide ; the columella has four white 
prominent plaits, the two anterior passing obliquely outwards, the 
first to form the inner elevated side of the channel, the two posterior 
are transverse ; lip, slightly bowed, is thick and marginated, and has 
eight or nine nearly equidistant, dark-reddish, somewhat broad lines 
crossing its edge and continuing over the margin ; margin continuous, 
Ann. ty May. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 5 



66 Zoological Society, 

but with much less thickness, over the arch of the channel, and with 
the first or anterior plait ; channel broad and deep, obtuse. 

Long, -^ of an inch ; wide, ^ of an inch. 

Hab. ? 

Cab. Cuming. 

The only specimen I have seen of this peculiar species is not in fine 
condition ; when so, it must be very beautiful. It differs from Mar- 
ginella Faba, Linn., in the evenness of the shoulders of the whorls, 
its less attenuated form, and the linear markings of the margin, &c. 

Marginella pulcherrima. Marg. testa oviformi,fulvescente, 
fasciis albis quinque, angustis, transversis, maculis linearibus 
nigris, in centros fasciarum conspicuis ; inter stitiis fascia primd 
ad secundam fasciam, tertidque ad quartam, lineis plurimis 
tenuissimis fulvescentibus longitudinalibus notatis ; aperturd 
alba, latiusculd ; columella quinque-plicatd ; labio tenui ; apice 
distinct o. 
Shell oviform, shining, of a light fawn colour, with five transverse, 
distinct, narrow, even, uninterrupted white bands surrounding the 
shell, from the edge of the lip, the two anterior terminating at the 
columellar edge of the aperture, the others proceeding inwards over 
the columella ; the posterior is always the least distinct (conspicuous) : 
floating, as it were, in the centre of these white bands, are very dark- 
brown or black, equidistant, linear markings or streaks, and similar 
markings in colour and form radiate obliquely on the slight ridge 
which encircles the spire : the spaces of the shell between the an- 
terior band and the second, and between the third and the fourth, 
are occupied by numerous, fine, longitudinal and parallel light-brown 
lines, the other spaces between the bands are irregularly marked with 
the same colouring, varying in individual specimens, in intensity of 
coloration, especially in the middle space (that between the third and 
the fourth bands) ; base round ; aperture white, rather wide, flexuous 
posteriorly ; five plaits on the columella ; the three anterior project ; 
the first is continuous with the inner side of the channel, the second 
takes a similar direction behind it, passing obliquely over the base of 
the shell, and next this is a white varix following outside the aperture 
a similar direction, on which are four or five dark-brown spots ; lip 
thin, no margin ; apex perceptible. 

Long> Tcnr of an in <* ; wide, T ^ of an inch. 
Hab. West Indies. 

Cab. British Museum, Metcalfe, Gaskoin, &c. 
Differs from the Valuta catenata of Montagu* {Marginella of 
others) in having but four distinct, and one rather obscure, bands ; in 
these being uninterrupted, and the linear markings floating in their 
centres, and not linking interrupted or disjointed portions of the bands, 
as in M. catenata ; in the dark colour, and the more oviform shape. 
I have hitherto found this species among parcels of Marginella sagit- 
tata of Hinds. 

* Which I believe to be a West Indian production only, and not as Montagu 
was led to suppose, a British species. I have found the Marginella catenata fre- 
quently among the small West Indian Marginellae, as have many others, and from 
no other source did Montagu himself obtain it. 



Ipswich Museum. 67 



IPSWICH MUSEUM. 



On Thursday the 13th December was celebrated the second Anni- 
versary of this very promising Institution. By half-past twelve there 
was a very numerous and respectable assemblage, when the Rev. 
Samuel Hinds, D.D., Lord Bishop of Norwich, entered, accompanied 
by the Rev. Robert Eden, M.A., F.S.A., his Lordship's Chaplain, 
the Revds. the Professors Sedgwick and Henslow, the Rev. E. Sidney, 
the Hon. and Rev. F. De Grey, the Rev. A. B. Power, the following 
Fellows of the Linneean, Geological, Astronomical and Zoological 
Societies, Mr. G. Ransome, Mr. May, Mr. John Gould, Mr. Richard 
Taylor, Capt. Ibbetson, Mr. G. Waterhouse, Mr. J. S. Bowerbank, 
Mr. L. Reeve and other gentlemen, several of whom were most hos- 
pitably entertained during their stay in Ipswich by G. Ransome, Esq., 
and C. May, Esq. 

The Bishop of Norwich having taken the chair addressed the 
meeting as follows : — Mr. Kirby, the time-honoured President of 
this Institution, being unable to attend as usual, it has fallen to my 
lot to occupy the chair. Before entering on the business of the day, 
however, permit me to express the great gratification I feel at the 
opportunity which this meeting has afforded me of introducing myself 
to some sort of acquaintance with a great number of those among 
whom my lot is now cast, and whose welfare it will be my duty 
henceforward, as well as, I assure you, my earnest desire, to pro- 
mote in every possible way. I may be permitted to express, at the 
same time, my sympathy with the sadder feeling which, no doubt, 
my occupancy of this chair today will have awakened in the minds of 
many, who remember their connection with one who is now no more ; 
one who was not only a zealous friend of the Ipswich Museum, but 
an ardent supporter and patron of every enterprise which had for its 
object the intellectual advancement and the moral elevation of his 
fellow-men. I regret that my habits and pursuits but ill qualify me to 
contribute to this meeting the enlivening anecdote and the interesting 
information which he, on these occasions, always had at command, from 
the stores of his own observation, and from his researches in a parti- 
cular branch of Natural History ; but I wish to assure you that I am 
not the less alive to the value of this Museum and of Museum meet- 
ings, especially a Museum which is the resort and the property of the 
humbler classes, of the artisan, the mechanic, the mere day work- 
ing man. That I believe is the distinctive feature of this Institu- 
tion. I know of no other characterized in the same manner. Now, 
I conceive this to be a very interesting point of view. No question, 
perhaps, at this moment, is more important, socially and morally, 
than the question, how the humbler classes of our brethren, those 
who have to earn their daily bread by the sweat of their brow, — 
how they are to employ their little leisure time, so as at once to 
make it available for the relaxation and recreation that are necessary 
for them, and, at the same time, to be improving themselves ? A 
museum appears to me to combine the two objects most excellently ; 
it is amusing and it is instructive. The objects which they find in 
the Museum, together with the instruction which they derive from 

5* 



68 Ipswich Museum. 

other sources here, constitute a knowledge which comes across them 
in their daily avocations : things which cross their path in the field, 
or in their workshop, and which would never otherwise, perhaps, 
have been so much as observed, now become the means of interest, 
of instruction, and of improvement to them. The Museum is in this 
manner, I should say, to them the acquirement of a new faculty, of 
a new power ; and I cannot but hope and believe, although the In- 
stitution has been in existence but two years, that the result has 
been altogether satisfactory, and even beyond what could have been 
expected from it. I shall not detain the meeting longer from so much 
that is valuable and interesting, to which we are looking forward, and 
I shall, therefore, at once call upon Mr. Ransome to read the Report. 

George Ransome, Esq., then read the Report, containing a view of 
the objects and progress of the Institution, from which we give the 
following passage : — 

" And how, it may be asked, does the Institution intend to accom- 
plish these purposes ? or how does it tend to advance the education 
of the people? If any presume that we merely gratify an idle curi- 
osity, we answer that we have evidence to assure us that we not only 
very greatly increase the gleaners of knowledge, but that we add to 
the number of the real cultivators and reapers in the fields of science, 
and especially in the various departments of Natural History. We 
lay the foundation of future inquiry ; we awaken the mind. From 
the advantages afforded them in the Museum, by the sight of speci- 
mens, by lectures and classes, the visitors become admirers ; the ad- 
mirers, students ; the students, collectors ; the collectors, donors, pre- 
senting specimens, and adding their ideas to the parent stock. Such 
is the assistance we have received, and are continually receiving, not 
only from our home friends, but from those who visit foreign lands." 

A tribute of well-merited gratitude and respect was then paid to 
the memory of Dr. Stanley, the late bishop of the diocese, and the 
lamented President of the Linncean Society. 

" We have now a melancholy part of our Report to dwell upon, the 
loss by death of Dr. Stanley, the late Bishop of Norwich, an early 
friend and a generous patron of the Museum. Its design and object 
were peculiarly dear to him ; he was a warm advocate in its behalf — 
he was greatly instrumental in promoting its success. He gave us the 
right hand of fellowship, and advanced our interests to the utmost of 
his power. We owe him a lasting debt of gratitude, and his bust and 
faithful portrait will long continue to associate his name and memory 
with an Institution which he admired, loved and cherished." 

The Rev. Professors Sedgwick -and Henslow, and the Rev. E. Sid- 
ney, also dwelt upon the many excellences of Dr. Stanley in terms 
of the most affectionate remembrance. Several gentlemen having 
addressed the meeting, Mr. Ransome proposed the names of the 
Rev. M. J. Berkeley, the eminent cryptogamic botanist, G. Water- 
house, Esq., and Dr. A. B. Garrod, as Honorary Members. Mr. 
R. Ransome rejoiced in common with the company present at the 
success of the Institution ; thus far it had eminently prospered. The 
working classes had shown their esteem for it by the extraordinary 
amount of their visits, and that, too, without one single instance of 



Ipswich Museum. 69 

cither disorderly conduct or damage to anything in the Museum. 
He hailed the circumstance of the Bishop coming forward to walk 
in the steps of his highly respected predecessor, as an omen for the 
future success of the Institution. 

The Bishop of Norwich was much ohliged to the meeting for the 
kind compliment, and for the hearty welcome which he had found in 
Ipswich. In supporting that Institution, in giving it what encourage- 
ment and countenance were in his power, in treading in the footsteps 
of his lamented and honoured predecessor, he felt that he was doing 
no more than a hare duty, for he could not but recollect that the Mu- 
seum was a Museum for the people. He could not hut congratulate 
the meeting on the result of what had taken place that day. These 
meetings were a most important arrangement in conjunction with the 
Museum itself; he might say that they gave life to the dead speci- 
mens with which they were surrounded. 

The Dinner, which was numerously attended, was presided over by 
J. C. Cobbold, Esq., M.P. for Ipswich, supported by H. E. Adair, 
Esq., M.P., A. S. Adair, Esq., M.P., and J. H. Hardcastle, Esq., 
M.P. ; the Bishop of Norwich, and many of the Clergy. His Lord- 
ship, in responding to a toast from the chair, remarked that it was 
quite true, as the Chairman had observed, that this was the first 
occasion upon which he had been called to respond to the toast of 
" The Bishop and Clergy of the Diocese." It was peculiarly gratify- 
ing to him that the first occasion of his doing so should be at a meet- 
ing of this particular description. It was a token of an improved and 
enlightened spirit of the age. The time, he hoped, was now quite 
gone by, when scientific and natural truth was considered not only 
at variance with, and distinct from, religious truth, but principally 
in opposition to it. As Professor Sedgwick had very forcibly pointed 
out that morning, the Word and Works of God were only books 
which we must trace to the same Divine authorship — different vo- 
lumes of a revelation of mercy ; and he was persuaded, that the more 
they compared the one with the other, in an honest and right spirit, 
the more He would enable us to illustrate and confirm the one by 
the other. The Museum and its meetings had a direct connection 
with the ministry ; for an Institution which tended obviously to 
withdraw the humbler classes from debasing scenes and habits, and 
which rendered these classes industrious, sober, and honest, was an 
Institution that was co-operating with the ministrations of the clergy ; 
to a certain extent it occupied the same ground, that was to say, it 
prepared the objects of their ministrations for the more ready ap- 
plication of the Divine word. — A meeting like the present was com- 
mon ground for all. Whatever might be our differences or disagree- 
ments on politics or on religion, here, at least, we were united — we 
were one. The Museum, and its meetings, which were very important 
adjuncts, furnished us with the materials of a temple of charity. 


On the previous Wednesday evening a highly interesting lecture 
had been delivered by Professor Owen upon the extinct gigantic! 
wingless birds of New Zealand, which we hope to notice in a future 
number. 



70 Miscellaneous. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

BOTANICAL NOTES. 

Odontites verna, Reich., and its allies. — In the course of a very 
short tour in the eastern Pyrenees during the past autumn, I did not 
fail to observe the forms of this group which happened to come in 
my way, especially with a view to distinguish the plant which I have 
described in a recent number of this Journal as 0. Bertolonii ; I failed 
however to find any forms which should not be referred to O. verna. 
The state of the latter plant which I found abundantly in cultivated 
land in the mountainous region of northern Catalonia, has larger fruit 
than it is usually found to possess, but the form of the capsule and 
calyx-segments is quite normal, and does not approach to my O. ro- 
tundata. I have recently received from M. Jordan of Lyons spe- 
cimens of three forms of this group detected by that accurate observer 
in the neighbourhood of Lyons, and named by him respectively 
Euphrasia verna, Bell., E. serotina, Lam., and E. divergens, Jordan. 
The first of these agrees with the common European Odontites verna ; 
the second is the more slender plant which I have distinguished as 
var. elegans, and which is not in my opinion specifically distinct ; 
the third is a plant with which I was not previously acquainted, and 
which appears to have strong claims to rank as a distinct species. In 
habit, and in the size and form of the capsule, it resembles O. Berto- 
lonii, but the leaves, instead of being ovate and distinctly toothed, 
are almost linear, with one or two scarcely perceptible teeth, those of 
the branches being usually entire ; the calyx-segments are short (one- 
third of its length) and triangular, as in O. rotundata, and M. Jor- 
dan observes that they are adpressed to the ripe capsule, which is 
not the case in the common species. This latter character it is dif- 
ficult to verify in dried specimens, but it appears to be likewise cha- 
racteristic of O. rotundata. The flowers are too imperfect for de- 
scription in M. Jordan's specimens of O. divergens, but they appear 
to be much smaller than in the other allied species. 

Rhinanthus major and R. angustifolius. — In the tenth volume 
of DeCandolle's ' Prodromus,' Mr. Bentham enumerates England 
amongst the native localities of both, the above-named species of 
Rhinanthus, although the former alone has hitherto been enumerated 
as a British plant. If, as Mr. Bentham seems to consider, the cha- 
racter derived from the presence or absence of a membranous edge to 
the seeds be not trustworthy, it is difficult to assign any more con- 
stant character by which to distinguish these species ; but such has 
not been the result of my observations, so far as they have extended. 
I shall briefly note the forms with which I am acquainted : — 

R. major, Ehrh. ?, Benth. in DeC. Prod. Hairy calyces and 
broadly winged seeds. France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany and 
Hungary. (J. B. spec, in herb.). 

R. major, ft. alpina, Benth. Calyces nearly or quite glabrous, seg- 
ments more acute, broadly winged seeds. Alps, Apennines, Riesen- 
gebirge, and Carpathians. (J. B. spec, in herb.). 

A specimen without ripe fruit from the herbarium of the late Pro- 



ECHINORHINUS SPINOSUS. 



Miscellaneous. 71 

fessor Graham, marked 'Durham, 1836,' seems to me to agree with 
this form, but I have not seen any undoubted English specimens. 

R. angustifolius, Gmel. Calyces glabrous, with acute segments, 
leaves very narrow, seeds nearly or quite wingless. Scotland (Fort 
George, Professor Balfour ; corn-fields in Nairn, Mr. Stables). 

This plant appears to me to be rare on the continent of Europe. 
I have found it near Cracow ; but though Mr. Bentham says, " in 
Europse mediae et prsesertim australioris pascuis," I have never seen 
specimens from the south of Europe. It is true that if the character 
derived from the seeds be not permanent, it is very difficult to distin- 
guish this from R. major, (3. alpina, Benth., as the latter plant has 
frequently very narrow leaves ; but as I have already observed, I am 
not able to confirm the asserted variableness of the form of the seeds, 
which are constantly winged in all the specimens of R. major which 
I have examined. 

It may be suspected that two other described species, R. buccalis, 
Wallr., and R. Reichenbachii, Drejer, constitute between them a va- 
riety of R. angustifolius, having the same relation to that plant that 
the common European R. major has to the variety ft. alpina of 
Bentham. J. Ball. 

Falmouth, Dec. 7, 1849. 

Sir, — I send a short description of a splendid specimen of the 
" Echinorhinus spinosus," Blainv., caught yesterday a few miles from 
the harbour by one of Mrs. Chard's trawl-boats — for your Journal, 
should you consider it worth insertion. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 
R. Taylor, Esq. W. P. Cocks. 

Description. — Head depressed ; eyes bright, copperish ; nose ob- 
tuse ; mouth large ; teeth in both jaws broad and low, the edge nearly 
horizontal. Body thick, 2 feet in depth and 7 in length (from snout 
to commencement of caudal fin) ; pectoral fins small, truncated ; dor- 
sal two, placed very far back, opposite to abdominal fins. 

Surface of skin polished and covered with strong bony spines of 
various sizes and heights, arising from circular bases from ^th to 4 ths 
of an inch in diameter. 

Colour. — Back and sides dark leaden gray ; abdomen, throat, &c, 
dirty yellowish white, clouded all over with light gray and brown ; 
base of fins brownish. 

A white line extended from the base of the pectoral fins to com- 
mencement of the caudal. Five large branchial apertures. 

It weighed more than 200 lbs. 

On the Presence of Entophyta in healthy living Animals. 
By Dr. Leidy. 

From the opinion so frequently expressed, that contagious diseases 
and some others might have their origin and reproductive character 
through the agency of cryptogamic spores, which, from their minute- 
ness and lightness, are so easily conveyed from place to place through 



72 Miscellaneous. 

the atmosphere by means of the gentlest zephyr, or even the eva- 
poration continually taking place from the earth's surface ; and from 
the numerous facts already presented of the presence of cryptogamic 
vegetation in many cutaneous diseases and upon other diseased sur- 
faces, I was led to reflect upon the possibility of plants of this de- 
scription existing in healthy animals, as a natural condition ; or, at 
least, apparently so, as in the case of entozoa. Upon considering 
that the conditions essential to vegetable growth were the same as 
those indispensable to animal life, I felt convinced that entophyta 
would be found in healthy living animals, as well, and probably as fre- 
quently, as entozoa. The constant presence of mycodermatoid fila- 
ments growing upon the human teeth, the teeth of the ox, sheep, 
pig, &c, favoured this idea, and accordingly I instituted a course of 
investigations, which led to the discovery of several well-characterized 
forms of vegetable growth, of which, at present, I will give but a short 
description, for the purpose of establishing priority, and propose 
giving a more detailed account of them, with figures, on some future 
occasion! J ssibI ^to ^Jlr; 

Enterobi-us, a new genus of Confervacece. Simple, attached, iso- 
lated filaments consisting of a long cylindrical cell, (containing pro- 
toplasma, granules, and large translucent globules enveloped in a 
primordial utricle,) with a distinct coriaceous peduncle or stipe of 
attachment, and at length producing at the free extremity one or two, 
rarely three, shorter cylindrical cells (filled with the same matter as 
the parent cell). 

Enterobrus elegans. Filaments olive-brown, brownish yellowish, 
or colourless, at first forming a single spiral turn, and then passing in 
a straight or gently curved line to the free extremity. Peduncle, or 
stipe of attachment, adhering very firmly, coriaceous, uniformly 
brownish, narrower than the frond-cell, papillary, columnar, elon- 
gated conical or pyramidal, expanded at base and at point of attach- 
ment to frond-cell, marked with longitudinal lines, and frequently 
with transverse annular constrictions, with no definite interior struc- 
1 1 ire . Length from 1 -3 750th to 1 -400th of an inch ; breadth 1 -3200th 
to 1-1 666th. Frond-cell much elongated, frequently reaching the 
length of 2 or 3 lines, uniformly cylindrical, excepting at free extre- 
mity, where it is usually clavate ; breadth in full-grown individuals 
pretty uniformly 1 -935th of an inch. Contents consisting of a 
colourless protoplasma, with more or less numerous, fine, translucent, 
yellowish or colourless granules, measuring about 1-1 5,000th of an 
inch, and numerous large, colourless, transparent globules or vesicles 
filled with fluid, averaging the 1-28 70th of an inch in diameter. End- 
cells only existing in full-grown individuals, one, usually two, rarely 
three in number ; the first one cylindrical, l-86th of an inch in length 
by 1-1 000th in breadth, filled with more granules and less globules 
than the parent cell ; end-cell clavate, 1-1 35th of an inch long by 
1 -750th broad, at the clavate end 1 -638th, filled with granular matter 
and a few globules. 

Length of full-grown individual 2 to 3, sometimes 4 lines. 

Hab. Grows from the basement membrane of the mucous mem- 



Miscellaneous. 73 

brane of the small intestine of Julus maryinatus, Say, occasionally 
from the same membrane at the commencement of the large intestine, 
and also from any part of the exterior surface of ^lacaris in/'ecta and 
Aorurus ; entozoa infesting those portions of the intestinal canal of 
this animal. 

The youngest individuals of Enterobrus which I ever detected, 
measured 1 -380th of an inch in length by l-10G()th in breadth, but 
the most usual sizes vary from the 1-1 50th of an inch to the full- 
grown individual. At all ages they contain the same character of 
contents, but in the younger ones the large globules are usually pre- 
dominant, sometimes to such an extent as to exclude the other mat- 
ters. When quite young they are usually more or less clavate and 
straight ; a little more advanced they form a gentle curve, about one- 
eighth of a circle. A little older, the distal half or third becomes 
uniformly dilated, and forms an obtuse angle with the other portion ; 
after this, as it continues growing, it usually forms a single spiral turn, 
becomes uniformly dilated, and thus advances to the full-grown in- 
dividual. The cell-contents consist principally of large transparent 
globules, with granules and protoplasma in the interstices. Frequently 
the cells are found distended with the globules to such an extent that 
the other matters almost, and occasionally even entirely disappear. 
Iodine turns the protoplasma and granules deep yellow or very deep 
brown, and causes the rupture of the globules, when a clear fluid is 
observed to exude ; very slightly coloured purplish, or undergoing no 
change of colour from the iodine. Solution of iodine, acetic acid, salt 
water, or the prolonged action of water alone, causes a contraction of 
the cell-contents from the sides of the permanent cell-wall, but they 
are still held together by an apparent delicate membrane of the cha- 
racter of a primordial utricle. Frequently in dead individuals, the in- 
terior contents shrink to two-thirds, occasionally to one-third the dia- 
meter of the cell calibre, and almost eight to twenty times the diameter 
of the cell from each extremity, when they have the appearance of a 
shrivelled granular membrane. In these latter cases the characteristic 
globules and granules have disappeared, and their place is more or 
less occupied with water, and yellowish globular, highly refractive 
bodies, which resemble oil. These latter globules vary in size from a 
mere point up to one-fourth the diameter of the cell. The smaller 
ones are contained within the shrivelled primordial utricle with a few 
of the larger ones, and a number of the latter occupy a position be- 
tween the primordial utricle and the cell-wall, apparently formed by a 
conjunction of the smaller globules and an exudation through the 
primordial utricle during the act of contraction consequent upon de- 
composition. They are insoluble in alcohol, but are soluble in aether 
and solution of potassa ; in fact in all their properties they resemble 
oil. Can these oil globules be the result of decomposition 1 

The protoplasma or fluid of the cells is colourless or faintly yel- 
lowish, contracts or coagulates upon the application of alcohol, and is 
coloured brown by iodine, having all the characters usually possessed 
by that albuminoid fluid found in all young vegetable cells, and deno- 
minated protoplasma by H. von Mold. 



74 Miscellaneous. 

The clear granules are minute, yellowish, and resemble fine oil glo- 
bules. They are turned deep brown by the action of iodine. 

The clear globules appear to consist of a delicate vesicular membrane 
probably derived from the primordial utricle, filled with a colourless 
fluid. 

No circulatory or other movement, as in Achyla prolifera, exists in 
the cell-contents. The end-cells of the full-grown individuals are 
usually two in number, and much shorter than the parent cell. 
Occasionally I have found three end-cells, more frequently but one. 
These cells are formed from the parent cells by a contraction first 
taking place in the contents with the primordial utricle, a partition 
from the permanent cell-wall forming afterwards. 

The end-cells are probably spore-cases ; their contents are usually 
a dense mass of fine granules, similar to those of the parent cell, with 
a few intermingled globules. I never saw any movement, molecular 
or other, in the contained matter, except during decomposition. 

A question may arise as to the true situation of this plant among 
the Cryptogamia. I have placed it in the order Confervacece, from 
the diagnosis given by Endlicher in his ( Genera Plantarum' : "Fila 
capillaria, membranacea v. filamentosa, intus v. extus articulata, sim- 
plicia v. ramosa, libera (i. e. haud in frondem coalita), interdum tarn en 
reticulatim contexta, viridia v. rarius fusca aut purpurea, in formis 
infimis hyalina," &c. 

Cladophytum, a new genus of Entophyta allied to the My coder- 
mat a. Filaments minute, attached by means of a roundish nucleus, 
simple, or compounded near the base of attachment, with minute 
lateral ramuli, inarticulate, and with no evidence of interior structure. 

Cladophytum comatum. Filaments delicate, regular, colourless, 
simple, more frequently branched near the base at very acute angles, 
growing in more or less dense bunches from a yellowish rounded or 
oval, attached, nuclear body varying in size from 1 -7500th to 1 -600th 
of an inch. Lateral ramuli very minute, measuring in length from 
l-15,000th to l-3000th of an inch, and passing off at acute angles. 
No indication of articulation or interior structure. 

Length from l-666th to 1-1 20th of an inch. 

Hab. Growing more or less profusely from the mucous membrane 
of the small intestine of Julus marginatus, occasionally from the same 
surface at the commencement of the large intestine, from any part of 
the exterior surface of entozoa infesting those cavities, and also from 
any part of the surface ofEnterobrus elegans. 

Arthromitus, a second new genus of Entophyta allied to the My- 
codermata. Filaments always simple, cylindric, articulated, without 
ramuli, attached by means of a nuclear body, and with no evidence 
of interior structure. 

Arthromitus cristatus. Filaments delicate, straight or inflected, 
growing in tufts usually of moderate density, from minute, attached, 
yellowish, rounded or oval nuclear bodies. Articuli short, cylindric, 
uniform, measuring l-9090th in. in length by 1-1 5,000th in breadth, 
with no traces of interior structure. 

Length l-375th to l-46th of an inch ; breadth l-15,000th in. 



Miscellaneous. 75 

Hab. Same as Cladophytum comatum, but rarely growing in such 
dense tufts. 

The three genera of Entophyta of which I have now spoken, are all 
so constantly found in the Julus marginatus, that I look upon it as 
a natural condition, and should I hereafter meet with an individual 
without them, I will consider it a rare exception, because, in one 
hundred and sixteen individuals which I have examined during the 
past thirteen months, in all seasons, and at all ages and sizes of from 
one up to three inches of the animal, I have invariably found them. 
It cannot be supposed that these are developed and grow after death, 
because I found them always immediately upon killing the animal. 
Whilst the legs of fragments of the animals were yet moving upon 
my table, or one-half of the body even walking, I have frequently 
been examining the plants growing upon part of the intestinal canal 
of the same individual. And upon the entozoa, these entophyta will 
be frequently found growing, whilst the former are actively moving 
about. I found among others an Ascaris three lines long, which had 
no less than twenty-three individuals of Enterobrus, averaging a line 
in length, besides a quantity of the other two genera growing upon 
it, and yet it moved about in so lively a manner that it did not ap- 
pear the least incommoded by its load of vegetation. This specimen 
I have preserved in a glass cell in Goadby's solution, and exhibit it 
to the Academy. 

The animals were uniformly enjoying good health, i. e. all the or- 
ganic and animal functions were natural ; they eat, grew, reached 
their definite size, reproduced, and, in fact, presented all those actions 
characteristic of the normal state of existence of the animal. 

The genus Julus is an extensive one, and its species are found in 
all the great parts of the globe, and as their habits are the same, the 
conditions for the production of the entophyta will be the same ; and 
I think I do not go too far when I say, they will be constantly found 
throughout the genus in any part of the world, so that naturalists 
and others may, upon examination, readily verify or contradict the 
statements which I have this evening presented. 

From these facts we perceive that we may have entophyta in 
luxurious growth within living animals, without affecting their health, 
which is further supported by my having detected mycodermatoid 
filaments in the caecum of six young and healthy rats, examined im- 
mediately after death, although they existed in no other part of the 
body. These filaments were minute, simple and inarticulate, measuring 
from l-5000th to l-1428th in: in length, by l-16,000th of an inch 
in breadth. With them were also found two species of Vibrio. 

Even those moving filamentary bodies belonging to the genus 
Vibrio, I -am inclined to think, are of the character of algous vegeta- 
tion. Their movement is no objection to this opinion, for much higher 
confervse, as the Oscillatorice, are endowed with inherent power of 
movement not very unlike that of the Vibrio, and indeed the move- 
ment of the latter appears to belong only to one stage of its existence. 
Thus, in the toad (Bufo americanus), in the stomach and small in- 
testine, there exist simple, delicate, filamentary bodies, which are of 



76 Miscellaneous. 

three different kinds. One is exceedingly minute, forms a single 
spiral, is endowed with a power of rapid movement, and appears to 
be the Spirillum unclula of Ehrenberg ; the second is an exceedingly 
minute, straight and short filament, with a movement actively mole- 
cular in character, and is probably the Vibrio lineola of the same 
author ; the third consists of straight, motionless filaments, mea- 
suring 1-1 125th in. long, by 1-15, 000th broad ; some were however 
twice, or even thrice this length, but then I could always detect one 
or two articulations, and these, in all their characters, excepting want 
of movement, resemble the Vibrio. In the rectum of the same animal 
the same filamentary bodies are found, with myriads of Bodo intes- 
tinalis ; but the third species, or longest of the filamentary bodies, 
have increased immensely in numbers, and now possess the movement 
peculiar to the Vibrio lineola, which however does not appear to be 
voluntary, but reactionary ; they bend and pursue a straight course, 
until they meet with some obstacle, when they instantly move in the 
opposite direction, either extremity forward. 

But it must not be understood that these facts militate against the 
hypothesis of the production of contagious diseases through the 
agency of Cryptogamia. It is as well established that there are mi- 
croscopic Cryptogamia capable of producing and transmitting disease, 
as in the case of the Muscardine, &c, as that there are innocuous and 
poisonous fungi. But to suppose that they are the sole cause of con- 
tagious disease, is to doubt the possibility of other causes, such as a 
change in the chemical constitution of the atmosphere, the elements 
of our food, &c, and is as ridiculous as the psoric origin of most 
diseases of that miserable charlatanry denominated homoeopathy. 
In many instances it is difficult to distinguish their character whether 
as cause or effect, as upon diseased surfaces, in Tinea capitis, aphthous 
ulcers, &c. In a post-mortem examination in which I assisted Dr. 
Horner, a few weeks since, twenty-eight hours after death, in mode- 
rately cool weather, we found the stomach in a much softened con- 
dition. In the mucus of the stomach I detected myriads of myco- 
dermatoid filaments, resembling those growing upon the teeth ; sim- 
ple, floating, inarticulate, and measuring from 1 -7000th to 1 -520th 
of an inch in length, by 1 -25,000th of an inch in breadth. It is 
possible they may have been the cause of the softened condition ; but 
I would prefer thinking that swallowed mycodermatoid filaments 
from the teeth, finding an excellent nidus in the softening stomach, 
rapidly grew and reproduced themselves. In the healthy human 
stomach these do not exist. 

In the stomach of a diabetic patient, I found so very few that they 
probably did not grow there, but were swallowed in the saliva. 

Dr. Leidy afterwards exhibited numerous drawings of the entophyta 
described by him, and also specimens, beneath the microscope, grow- 
ing from the mucous membrane of the small intestine of Julus, and 
from the exterior surface of entozoa infesting that cavity. — Proceed- 
ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. 
p. 225. 
901U81 ■ s Jaseaiq pi m OS bun islwgpiii ^isv 



Miscellaneous . 7 7 

Sfaflia V. 81 DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PARROT. 
BY G. R. GRAY, FSQ., F.L.S. ETC. 

PSITTACUS HiJPPELLII. 

Uniform dark bronze colour, with the lesser and under wing coverts 
bright yellow ; the feathers of the thighs orange-yellow. 

Total length D inches 6 lines; bill, from gape, 10 lines; wings 
5 inches 6 lines ; tail 3 inches 3 lines ; tarsi 6 lines. 

The greater uniformity of colour at once distinguishes it from the 
allied species, Psittacus Meyeri and P. rufiventris of Dr. Ruppell. 

The specimen from which this description is taken lived for up- 
wards of twelve months in the Society's collection, and is believed to 
have been brought to this country from the river Nunez. I have 
named it in honour of my distinguished friend, whose labours have 
contributed so largely to our knowledge of African zoology. — From 

the Proceedings of the Zoological Society . 

* J E * iffroa row team \oni liinu 

Jvmw oi j -hi j Is .notoosiib oriaoqqo 

ON DECAY IN FRUIT. 

' ton Jaimi U Jjra 
Even the meanest subjects afford matter for admiration when 
attentively observed. Nothing at first sight could appear less in- 
teresting than the mode in which decay takes place in fruit ; yet 
several distinct phenomena are exhibited, even in the same individual 
variety. In Apples, for instance, every housewife has observed that 
her fruit sometimes rapidly passes into a moist loathsome mass, while 
at other times it becomes a brown or black mummy. In the former 
case either some Penicillium or Mucor is almost invariably present ; 
in the latter there is sometimes a fungus of a totally different type, 
though frequently there is no indication, at least externally, of any 
parasite. 

An appearance, so very strange, presented itself a few days since 
in a basket of common Codlins, that a specimen was at once brought 
to us for examination. The whole of the outer surface had assumed 
a pale gray opake tinge, as if it had been scalded, the substance 
meanwhile feeling extremely hard and glassy, reminding one forcibly 
of the potatoes described by Martins affected with the dry rot (Trock- 
enfaule). Here and there beneath the cuticle beautiful radiating 
threads were observed, evidently indicating the presence of a fungus, 
but as they did not proceed to any further development, we could 
not ascertain of what species they were the mycelium. The gray 
tinge soon assumed, in portions of the surface, a deep brown tint, 
though the greater part still remained pale. A section exhibited 
three different strata, the central one apparently sound, but rapidly 
becoming reddish brown, and collapsing in a very different way from 
what would have been the case with healthy tissue ; surrounding this 
was a thin layer of brown, evidently diseased, if not actually dead 
cells, and beyond this a superficial stratum of pale gray tissue. In 
none of these was there any trace of fungus threads except where 
the radiating flocci, above mentioned, were visible ; the brown cells 
had lost their granular contents, and the walls of the gray ceils were 
very irregular and collapsed, so as to present a confused appearance 



78 Miscellaneous. 

under the microscope. After exposure to the air for two days, a 
crop of fungi appeared on the cut surface ; but, strange to say, the 
central portion, consisting of the two internal strata, was covered 
with a species of Oidium of a grayish tint, while the external ring, 
which had now lost all rigidity, was occupied with a white circle of 
Penicillium glaucum passing on the inner edge into the greenish 
tinge of adult tufts of that fungus. We do not recollect to have 
seen anything of the kind before, and we record it with the greater 
pleasure, as it shows how much ground there is for observation, 
even in objects which we tread every day under foot. 

The Oidium is a most beautiful object under the microscope. It 
is a form of Oidium fructigenum, differing merely in its rather grayer 
tinge and diffuse mode of growth, owing probably to its having liberty 
of free development, instead of being forced to break out through the 
cuticle, in which it forms little tufts which are often arranged con- 
centrically. In intimate structure it precisely resembles the type 
which i& admirably figured by Corda in his ' Icones Fungorum.' — 
Gardeners' Chronicle. 

PRESIDENCY OF THE LINNjEAN SOCIETY. 

The anonymous writer of the paragraph in the 'Athenaeum/ in 
which it was asserted that there was " a strong feeling among the 
Fellows " of the Linnsean Society " in favour of biennial election to 
the Presidency," is, of course, very angry at the notice on the sub- 
ject in the last Number of the ' Annals.' 

In a paragraph (Athenaeum, Dec. 8) the writer attempts to elude 
the charge of having made a false statement. The expression, " a 
strong feeling among the Fellows," must evidently have been in- 
tended to convey that such feeling prevailed among the majority, 
or at least some considerable number of the Fellows : and this, we 
again assert, is wholly without foundation. "We stated," says the 
writer, "what we knew to be the fact, that many of the Fellows in- 
clined towards a biennial election." Who, then, is this wonderful 
we, that pretends to know so much of the feelings and opinions of 
the Fellows of the Linneean Society ? And what does he call many 1 
ten, five, or two ? Or perhaps he considers his we a host in itself. 
If however he would append his initials, which (to use his own 
phrase) "have not yet transpired," and which probably might be 
deciphered as easily as our R. T., the public might be enabled to 
judge of the value of his statements. The right of the author of the 
paragraph to entertain any opinion he pleases was never questioned 
(although he falsely charges us with assuming " that no opinion dif- 
fering from our own can be held ") ; nor did we enter at all upon the 
question as to a biennial election ; what we protested against was, that 
he should obtrude his private fancies upon the public, pretending that 
they were the strong feeling of a large body of Fellows. We also 
object that recourse should have been had to the hackneyed news- 
paper expedient for setting an unfounded rumour afloat by such an 
insinuation as the following : — "It has not yet transpired whether 
the invitation has or has not been received conditionally by Mr. 



Meteorological Observations. 79 

Brown " — thus pretending to assume either that it was in contem- 
plation to propose to him to accept the Presidency on some conditions 
different from those of the Charter, or that he himself desired to do 
so : whereas the writer, if he has the acquaintance with the affairs of 
the Society to which he pretends, must have been perfectly aware that 
no such question had ever been broached. — R. T. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR NOV. 1849. 

Chiswick. — November 1. Fine. 2. Foggy: very fine. 3. Dense fog. 4. Foggy: 
cloudy at night. 5. Cloudless and fine. 6. Clear. 7. Rain. 8. Densely over- 
cast. 9. Overcast : fine : overcast. 10. Exceedingly fine. 11. Clear and fine : 
foggy at night. 12. Foggy : hazy. 13. Fine : rain. 14. Heavy rain : clear at 
night. 15. Clear : cloudy : clear. 16. Fine. 17. Clear. 18. Overcast : slight 
rain : showery at night. 19. Hazy. 20. Uniformly overcast. 21. Hazy. 22. 
Foggy : overcast. 23. Overcast : rain. 24. Foggy. 25. Foggy : cloudy : clear. 
26. Foggy : cloudy and cold : clear : sharp frost at night. 27. Sharp frost : 
clear : foggy. 28. Frosty and foggy : clear and frosty : foggy. 29. Overcast : 
fine : overcast. 30. Constant rain. 

Mean temperature of the month 41°'99 

Mean temperature of Nov. 1848 41 '18 

Mean temperature of Nov; for the last twenty-three years 43 -41 
Average amount of rain in November 2*56 inches. 

Boston.— Nov. 1. Cloudy. 2. Fine. 3,4. Foggy. 5,6. Fine. 7. Cloudy: 
rain a.m. and p.m. 8 — 10. Cloudy. 11. Fine. 12. Foggy. 13 — 17. Fine. 
18. Cloudy: rain a.m. 19,20. Fine. 21,22. Cloudy. 23. Cloudy : rain p.m. 
24—26. Fine. 27. Fine : snow a.m. 28. Snow. 29. Cloudy. 30. Rain : 
rain a.m. 

The following are the averages for Oct. 1849, with which we have been favoured 
by our correspondent Mr. W. Veall of Boston, whose report did not arrive in time 
for our last Number. 

Barometer. Thermometer. Rain in inches. 

29-46 48-8 3'32 

Applegarth Manse, Dumfries -shire. — Nov. 1. Rain during night: cleared p.m. 

2. Raw frost a.m. : rain : fog p.m. 3. Raw frost again : threatening rain. 4. 
Fine a.m. : rain and high wind p.m. 5. Heavy showers all day. 6. Hard frost 
a.m. : storm of snow p.m. 7. Frost : snow nearly all day. 8 — 10. Slight drizzle : 
damp all day. 1 1. Heavy rain and thick. 12. Dull a.m. : fine noon : wet p.m. 
13. Heavy showers, with blasts. 14. Clear and cold, with showers. 15, 16. 
Frost : clear and fine. 17. Close rain and mist all day. 18. Rain during night : 
mild : rain. 19. Rain during night : cleared : warm. 20. Rain and fog all day. 
21. Fair, but dull. 22. Rain and fog throughout. 23. Rain and fog : cleared 
p.m. 24. Frost, hard : grew mild. 25. Frost not so hard: rain : fog. 26. Frost 
hard again. 27. Frost hard all day. 28. Frost very hard. 29. Snow : hard 
frost : rain p.m. 30. Thick fog : heavy rain : cleared. 

Mean temperature of the month 42°*0 

Mean temperature of Nov. 1848 39 -8 

Mean temperature of Nov. for the last twenty-five years ... 40 *4 

Mean rain in November for twenty years 3*60 inches. 

Sand wick Manse, Orkney. — Nov. 1. Fine : large halo : aurora. 2. Showers. 

3. Fine : showers. 4. Cloudy : showers. 5. Showers. 6, 7. Snow : snow- 
showers. 8. Snow-showers: rain. 9. Cloudy. 10. Showers. 11. Bright: 
cloudy: aurora. 12. Bright: clear: aurora. 13. Showers: aurora. 14. Bright: 
clear: aurora. 15. Bright: frost: showers. 16. Clear: frost: clear. 17. 
Showers: rain. 18. Drizzle: clear. 19. Fine: clear: aurora. 20. Drizzle: 
damp. 21. Cloudy : damp. 22. Fine : clear. 23. Rain. 24. Fine: clear: 
aurora. 25. Fine: frost: clear. 26. Rain. 27. Clear. 28. Clear: frost: cloudy. 
29. Bright : showers. 30. Fine. 



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THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 26. FEBRUARY 1850. 



IX. — On the British species o/Chara. By Charles C. 
Babington, M.A., F.L.S. &c* 

. 1 fo 

Since the genus Chara ceased to be considered as Phanerogamic 

and was placed as a Natural Order of Cryptogamic plants, its 
species have been excluded from our popular floras, and conse- 
quently suffered undeserved neglect from British botanists. The 
kindness of my friend Professor Henslow having recently placed 
in my hands a set of foreign specimens of Chara, which had been 
sent to him by Professor Alex. Braun of Freiburg in Breisgau, 
together with that botanist's notes upon some English Chara 
submitted to his inspection, I have been induced to attempt the 
arrangement of our native species in a more complete manner 
than has as yet been done. 

Since the time of Smith, who described all the British species 
known to him in his c English Flora' (i. 6) which was published 
in 1824, only one complete account of our species has appeared, 
viz. that by Hooker (Eng. Fl. v. pt. 1. 242) in the year 1833, 
for HassalPs notice of them (Brit. Freshwater Alg. i. 94) cannot 
be considered as original. In that work Sir W. J. Hooker has 
characterized eight species, viz. 1. translucens ; 2.flexilis; 3. ni- 
difica; 4. gracilis; 5. vulgaris) 6. Hedwigii - } 7. aspera; 8. hispida. 
More recently two have been added to this list, one by the Rev. 
M. J. Berkeley (Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2824) as the C. pulchella 
(Wallr.), which is considered in this paper as forming one species 
in combination with C. Hedwigii under the name of C. fragilis ; 
and another by Mr. D. Moore (Lond. Journ. Bot. i. 43) as the 
C. latifolia (Willd.). The former botanist has also greatly elu- 
cidated the obscure subject of specific distinctions in this genus 
by his elaborate remarks in the same work under C. Hedwigii 
(Eng. Bot. Suppl. 2762). We have still to add an elegant little 
plant detected many years since in the fens of Cambridgeshire 
by Professor Henslow, and formerly supposed to be C. gracilis, 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Jan, 10, 1850. 
Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 6 



82 Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species of Chara. 

but confidently referred by Professor Agardh, when in the year 
1833 we had the pleasure and advantage of his company in an 
excursion into the fens, to his C. hyalina. Owing to the total 
absence until recently of nucules or globules from the specimens 
obtained, this plant has not, I believe, been published as a native 
species, although very many named samples of it have been dis- 
tributed amongst botanists by Professor Henslow and myself. In 
this paper I have identified it with the C. tenuissima (Desv.), as 
is indeed done by Agardh, although he has preferred the name 
of C. hyalina ; and have added to the list the C. polyspermia 
(A. Braun), C. syncarpa (Thuil.), C. mucronata (A. Braun), C. 
prolifera (A. Braun), C. Borreri (Bab.), and C. crinita (Wallr.), 
thereby raising the number of our species to sixteen. 

All these species, except two, are preserved in the herbaria of 
Prof. Henslow and myself, and as neither of us has paid any pe- 
culiar attention to this genus, but only collected such specimens 
as came accidentally under our notice, it is highly probable that 
several additions to the list will soon be made, and it is chiefly 
with the view of leading to such discoveries that it is now pub- 
lished. 

In Prance, according to the list given by Lamotte (Cat. des 
PI. Vase, de PEurope centrale) in 1847, nineteen species are 
found ; in Germany we learn from the same book that there are 
eighteen species. Reichenbach (PI. Germ. exc. 148 and 843) in 
1833 described sixteen German species; and Pries (Summa Veg. 
Scand. 60) records fifteen species as natives of Scandinavia, but 
adds the remark, " spec, nondum pi. explor." 

Since a considerable part of this paper was written, a valuable 
memoir by Prof. A. Braun has appeared in the f Kew Miscellany ' 
(i. 193), entitled " Charse australes et antarcticse," but including 
remarks upon the differences between the supposed genera Chara 
and Nitella, and pointing out new characters for their distinction. 
Notwithstanding the apparent value of these characters, I have 
thought it better to retain the name of Chara for the whole of 
the group until they have been carefully studied in the living 
plants, and their constancy and universality more fully proved. 
They are prefixed to the usual sectional characters in the en- 
suing arrangement of the species, in which I have followed that 
given by Prof. Braun in the above-mentioned memoir. I have 
also largely availed myself of the same distinguished botanist's 
valuable paper in the ' Plora, oder Botanische Zeitung ' of Re- 
gensburg (xviii. 49), and his " Esquisse monographique du genus 
Chara " in the ' Annales des Sciences Naturelles ' (ser. 2. i. 350), 
and have found the account of the species given by Mutel in his 
!■ Plore Prancaise ' (iv. 159), and the plates in the l Atlas de la 
Plore de Paris ' by Cosson and Germain, very useful. 



Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species of Chara. 83 

Nat. Order. CHARACEiE, Rich. 

Genus Chara, Linn. 

Section I. Nitella. Crown of the nucule of "ten cells, form- 
ing two circles one lying upon the other, never spreading, gene- 
rally falling off before the maturation of the seeds " (A. Braun) . 
Stems more or less pellucid, composed of a single tube. 

A. Nitella vera. Globules terminal at the furcation of the 
branchlets. 

a. Furcatce. Branchlets only once divided with one-jointed segments, 
6-8 in a whorl, similar. 

1. C. flexilis (Linn.) j monoecious, stem slender equal flexible 
transparent, branchlets pointed but not mucronate nearly equally 
forked or trifid, nucules and globules together in the forks of 
the branchlets without bracts. 

C. flexilis, Linn. Sp. PL 1624 (in part) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1070 ; A. 

Braun in Flora, xviii. 50 ; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 351. 
C. Brongniartiana, Wedd. in Cat. FL Paris. 152. 
Nitella Brongniartiana, Coss. et Germ. FL Paris. 682 ; Atl. t. 40 C. 

Rather slender, green, pellucid. Primary branchlets seldom 
more than once divided. Sometimes the axillary branchlets are 
much more divided and clustered, when it has passed for C. nidi- 
fica with collectors. Nucules with six strise. 

Henley near Ipswich, Buddie. Yarmouth, Mr. D. Turner. 
Berrington Pool, Salop, Rev. E. Williams. In the river at Bed- 
ford, Dr. Abbot-, Smith. Richmond, Yorkshire, Mr. J. Ward. 
Stowting, Kent, Rev. G. E. Smith. Whitehorn, Wigtonshire ; 
Clova, Forfarshire, Prof. Balfour. Reche Lode, and Lord's Bridge 
near Barton, Cambridgeshire. 

Annual. May. "April to August," Sm. 

2. C. syncarpa (Thuil.) j dioecious, stem slender equal flexible 
transparent, branchlets bluntish apiculate nearly equally forked 
or trifid, nucules or globules at the forks of the branchlets 
without bracts. 

C. syncarpa, " Thuil. FL Par. 473 ;" A. Braun in Flora, xviii. 51 ; 

Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 352 ; Mutel FL Franc, iv. 160. 
Nitella syncarpa, Coss. et Germ. FL Par. 682 ; Atl. t. 39 (not good). 

A slender diaphanous plant closely resembling C. flexilis, but 
dioecious. Nucules with five striae and scarcely any crown. It 
is the supposed C. gracilis of Mr. W. Wilson in Hook. Bot. 
Misc. i. 336. No. 2. 

Woodmancote, Sussex, Mr. Bower. Cwm Idwel, Caenarvon- 
shire. Ma'am, Galway. 

Annual. May. 

6* 



84 Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species of Chara. 

b. Mucronatce. Branchlets usually repeatedly divided, terminal seg- 
ments of two joints, last joint usually resembling a mucro. Branch- 
lets 6-8 in a whorl, similar. 

3. C. translucens (Pers.) j monoecious, stem thick equal flexible 
transparent, sterile branchlets simple not jointed, upper ones end- 
ing in two or three short points, fertile whorls of small trifur- 
cate branchlets very small and closely placed, nucules small 
oblong usually in threes just below the three bracts surround- 
ing the terminal globule. 

C. translucens, Pers. Syn. PI. ii. 531 ; Eng. Bot. t. 1855 ; A. Braun 

in Flora, xviii. 51 ; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 352 ; Hook. Eng. Fl. 

v. pt. 1. 245 ; Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 160. 
Nitella translucens, Coss. et Germ. Fl. Par. 682 ; Ail. t. 40 B. 

A strong plant. Fertile whorls so disposed amongst the 
branchlets as to appear to be capitate. Globules solitary. Nu- 
cules with seven striae. The fruit appears to be wrongly drawn 
in ' Eng. Bot/ 

Deep stagnant pools. " Near Shrewsbury, Rev. E. Williams ; 
Browston and Belton, Suffolk, Sir W. J. Hooker ; Scotland f* 
Sir J. E. Smith. Bagnley Moor, Cheshire, Mr. W. Wilson. Tot- 
teredge, Middlesex, Mr. E. Forster. Loch Lubnaig, Perthshire ; 
Lochnaw, Wigtonshire ; near Liverpool ; Prof. Balfour. Near the 
Fairlop Oak in Hainault Forest, Essex. 

Annual. July. 

4. C. mucronata (A. Br.) ; monoecious, stem slender equal flex- 
ible transparent, branchlets strongly mucronate nearly equally 
forked or trifid, nucules and globules together at the forks of 
the branchlets without bracts. 

C. mucronata, A. Braun in Flora, xviii. ; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 351 ; 

Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 161. 
Nitella mucronata, Coss. et Germ. Fl. Par. 683 ; Atl. t. 40 D. 

Rather thick for its length. Secondary branchlets once or 
twice forked or trifid, the terminal subdivisions rather shorter 
than the others. " Nucules with four or five strise." 

Marsh ditch at East Grinstead, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. 

Annual. July. 

5. C. gracilis (Sm. !) ; monoecious, stem slender equal flexible 
transparent, branchlets in lax whorls repeatedly divided into 
three or four segments, terminal segments mucronate shorter 
than the others, globules and nucules each solitary but to- 
gether at the subdivisions of the branchlets without bracts. 

C. gracilis, Sm. ! Eng. Bot. t. 2140; Reich. I Iconog. t. 793; A. 
Braun I in Flora, xviii. 53 ; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 351 ; Mutel 
Fl. Franc, iv. 160 ; Hook. Eng. Fl. v. pt. 1. 245 (in part). 



Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species of Chara. 85 

Nitella gracilis, Agardh Syst. Alg. 1 25 ; Coss. et Germ. Fl. Par. 

683; Atl. t. 4 IE. 

A very small and slender plant, its branchlets spreading in a 
lax open manner, and much longer than those of C. tenuissima. 
Nucules subglobose, with four or five striae, large in proportion 
to the plant. 

My judgement of this species is formed from the plate in 
' Eng. Bot/ and a small but good specimen of the original plant, 
for which I am indebted to Mr. Borrer. 

Mr. Wilson's C. gracilis from Cwm Idwel is C. syncarpa. 

St. Leonard's Forest, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. 

Annual. September ? 

6. C. tenuissima (Desv.) ; monoecious, stem slender equal flexible 
transparent, branchlets short in dense compact subglobose whorls 
repeatedly divided into 3-7 segments, terminal segments mu- 
cronate longer than the others, globules and nucules each so- 
litary but together at the subdivisions of the branchlets with- 
out bracts. 

C. tenuissima, Desv. " Journ. Bot. ii. 313 ;" Reich. ! Iconog. t. 792 ; 

A. Braun ! in Flora, xviii. 53 ; MutelFl. Franc, iv. 159. 

C. glomerata, A.Braunl in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 351, notN. glo- 

merata, Coss. et Germ. 
C. batrachosperma, Reich. Iconog. t. 794. 
Nitella tenuissima, Coss. et Germ. Fl. Par. 681 ; Atl. t. 41 F. 
N. hyalina, Agardh ! Syst. Alg. 126, not JDeCand. 

A very small slender plant, its short much -divided branchlets 
forming little globular compact masses which are often much in- 
crusted. Nucules subglobose, with 6-8 striae, three times the 
diameter of the branchlets and placed outside of them. Globules 
much larger than the nucules. 

I have recently (Aug. 6, 1849) found a profusion of ripe nu- 
cules and a few globules upon this plant in Bottisham Fen, and 
with the assistance of Messrs. J. D. C. Sowerby and J. W. Salter 
have succeeded in satisfactorily ascertaining their positions to be 
in accordance with the section in which the plant is here placed. 

In peaty ditches and pits in the fens of Cambridgeshire. 

Annual. July, August. 

B. Tolypella (A.. Braun) . Globules placed laterally on the nodes 
of the chief ray of the branchlets between the lateral rays 
(bracts) which are always shorter than the chief ray. — Rays 
of many gradually decreasing joints. 

Note. — This little group of singular plants presents more dif- 
ficulty than either of the other sections, and I am very far from 
being convinced that a correct view of it is taken below. My 



86 Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species o/Chara. 

original idea was that the plants only formed one species, but 
farther study has convinced me that they are far too different to 
allow of their being lumped to that extent, and I am reduced to 
the necessity of considering them all as distinct. They appear 
to be very short-lived, and in all probability will be found to 
produce two crops in the year, one in the spring and the other 
autumnal. 

7. C. Smithii-, dioecious, stem slender equal flexible transparent, 
branchlets blunt those forming the primary whorls simple sterile 
long jointed (?), the others on axillary branches numerous 
densely crowded bearing four (three short and one long) 
bracts at their first node, globules stalked subtended by the 
three shorter bracts, nucules unknown. 

C. nidifica, Sin. Eng. Bot. 1703 (principal figure). 

A small plant remarkable, like the following species, for its 
birdVnest-hke masses of branchlets which spring from the axils 
of the simple branchlets forming the primary whorls. It is only 
known to me from the figure in ' Eng. Bot/ and from some re- 
marks for which I am indebted to Mr. Borrer, and upon which 
the above specific character is founded. 

As the C. nidifica (Mull.) is stated by Professor A. Braun 
(Hook. Kew. Misc. i. 200) to be "peculiar to the north of 
Europe, and particularly to the Baltic," and can therefore 
scarcely be the same as this plant, which was found " in a ditch 
which I believe the tide never reaches" (Borrer in Eng. Bot. Suppl. 
fol. 2762, note) ; and as the plate in ' Fl. Danica ? is far too im- 
perfect to allow of its identification with either of our Tolypella ; 
I have thought it better, with the concurrence of Mr. Borrer, to 
confer a new name upon this plant, which was unfortunately 
made the representative of his C. nidifica by Smith by placing a 
figure of it in the principal place on the plate in 1 English Bo- 
tany/ I have the authority of the same botanist for saying that 
the following species was the plant really intended to bear that 
name. The confusion has originated from the idea prevalent at 
the time when the figure was published, that the dioecious plant 
from Lancing was a form of the monoecious one found at Cley. 
Unfortunately these plants are so evanescent that it is only by 
chance that they are again found in their original localities, where 
their seeds probably remain dormant until favourable circum- 
stances cause them to germinate. 

Lancing, Sussex (1804-5), in a ditch which the tide probably 
never reaches ; not in Shoreham Harbour, as erroneously stated 
in ' English Botany/ Mr. Borrer. 

Annual. Autumnal. 



Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species o/Chara. 87 

8. C. prolifera (A. Braun) ; monoecious, stem slender equal flexible 
transparent, branchlets blunt those forming the primary whorls 
simple sterile long usually of three or four joints, the others 
on axillary branches numerous densely crowded bearing four 
(three short and one long) bracts at their first node, globules 
sessile (?) in company with one or more nucules and " sub- 
tended by the three shorter bracts." 

C prolifera, A. Braun in Flora, xviii. 56 ; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 

352. 
C. glomerata, Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 161, not A. Braun nor N. glo- 

merata, Coss. et Germ. 

A small plant easily confounded on a superficial view with the 
preceding, from which it is distinguished by being monoecious. 
Nucules small with faintly marked strise. Granules apparently 
sessile. The presence of decided bracts distinguishes this plant 
and the preceding and following from C. polysperma and C. flex- 
Ms, the species with which they are in the most danger of being 
confounded. There can be no doubt that the three smaller ap- 
pendages are really bracts, although, in all probability, the longer 
(fourth) one is a subdivision of the branchlet. 

In brackish (?) ditches. Cley, Norfolk, Mr. D. Turner. Cop- 
ford, Essex. 

Annual. April. "August to October," Sm. 

9. C. Borre? % i ; monoecious, stem slender equal flexible transpa- 
rent, branchlets strongly mucronate those of the primary whorls 
simple sterile long jointed, the others on axillary branches 
numerous densely crowded bearing four (three short and one 
long) bracts at their first and also sometimes second node, 
globules stalked or sessile in company with several nucules 
and subtended by the three shorter bracts. 

C. nidifica, Borr. ! in Eng. Bot. Suppl. fol. 2762, note. 

Closely resembling C. prolifera and C. nidifica, but consider- 
ably larger; agreeing with them in roost respects, but essentially 
different in its branchlets being " suddenly contracted below the 
acute apiculus." It also differs by sometimes producing a second 
cluster of bracts and fructification on its branchlets, and also oc- 
casionally having one on the larger * bract," which is thus shown 
to be more correctly a subdivision of the branchlet than a bract. 
The three true bracts are placed on the under side of the 
branchlet and at right angles with it, the fourth supposed 
" bract " is lateral and usually points upwards ; and their ar- 
rangement is believed to be exactly like that in C. prolifera and 
C, Smithii. This plant is chiefly known to me from the descrip- 
tion in ' English Botany/ and from some manuscript notes, for 



88 Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species of Chara. 

which I am indebted to Mr. Borrer ; and as it does not seem to 
have been noticed elsewhere, I have ventured to record it as a 
new species, and honour it with the name of my valued friend. 

In a marsh ditch at Henfield, Sussex, Mr. Borrer. 

Annual. July. 

10. C. polyspermia (A. Br. !) ; monoecious, stem slender equal 
flexible transparent, branchlets finely pointed those of the pri- 
mary whorls sterile once or twice unequally branched : middle 
subdivision longest, the other branchlets on axillary branches 
numerous densely crowded much subdivided with short inter- 
nodes, nucules and globules placed at the nodes of the branch- 
lets " between the lateral rays " (or bracts ?) . 

C. polysperma, A. Braun " Fl. Bad. Crypt. ;" Flora, xviii. 56; Ann. 

Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 352 ; Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 162. 
C. fasciculata, " Amici" A. Braun. 

A small plant resembling the preceding species, and having 
like them bird's-nest-like masses of branchlets. My specimens 
are slightly incrusted, as is stated to be the case in those found 
in France. Nucules small with faintly marked striae. Granules 
small. 

I gathered this species in the year 1833 near Haslingfield in 
Cambridgeshire, but have not been able to find it there again. 
As numerous specimens were obtained by a party at that time, it 
is probably preserved in many collections under the name of C. 
nidifica, with which denomination it was sent to Prof. Braun and 
named by him as above. Mr. Borrer possesses specimens found 
at Livermere near Bury St. Edmonds by the Rev. G. R. Leathes. 

Annual. April. 

Section II. Chara. Crown of the nucule of " five cells forming 
a simple circle and sometimes spreading, persistent " (A. Braun). 
Stems usually coated with smaller tubes. 

Charce vera. Granule taking the place of one of the bracts. — 
Diplostephana (A. Br.). A double row of spines (stipules) 
at the base of each whorl. 

a. Stem coated with as many tubes as there are branchlets in each 
whorl. — Branchlets coated. 

11. C. crinita (Wallr.) ; dioecious, stem slender coarsely striated 
thickly beset with setaceous patent clustered spines, branchlets 
abbreviated, bracts whorled slender equal, nucules narrowly ob- 
long shorter than the bracts. 

C. crinita, Wallr. Ann. Bot. 190. t. 3 ; A. Braun in Flora, xviii. 70 ; 

Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 355 ; Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 165. 
C. canescens, Reich. Fl. exc. 150. 
Hippuris, &c, Plukn\ Phytog. t. 193. f. 6. Wallr. 



Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species of Chara. 89 

Stems slender, erect, flexible even when dry, smooth, not 
opake, densely crowded, slightly branched, pale green. Lower 
whorls rather distant, upper ones gradually closer, of 8-10 short 
branchlets each with six nodes and a whorl of five bracts at each 
node. Bracts usually as long as the internode. Nucules soli- 
tary with thirteen striae and a prominent crown. My British 
specimens are of the male plant only. 

Wallroth refers Pluknet's Irish plant to this with certainty ; I 
have doubts. 

In stagnant ponds. Burdock Pool, Falmouth, Cornwall, Rev. 
W. L. P. Garnons. 

b. Stem coated with twice as many tubes as there are branchlets in 
each whorl. Branchlets coated, uppermost joints sometimes naked. 

12. C. vulgaris (Linn. ?) ; monoecious, stems scabrous finely stri- 
ated brittle, upper part of the branchlets without external 
tubes, bracts only on the inner side of the branchlets long : 
two 2-4 times as long as the nucules, and two equaling them. 

C. vulgaris, Linn. Sp. PI. 1624 (in part) ; Eng. Bot. t. 336 ; Ag. 

Syst. Alg. 128 ; Hook. Eng. Fl. v. pt. 1. 246. 
C. foetida, A. Braun " Fl. Bad. Crypt." Flora, xviii. 63; Ann. 

Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 354 ; Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 162 ; Coss. et Germ. 

Fl.Par. 679; Atl. t. 37. 

Plant diffuse, almost always incrusted. Branchlets appearing, 
at the first view, jointless, minutely pointed. Nucules with 
thirteen strise and a short crown, accompanied by the globule. 
Bracts thick. 

Varying greatly in appearance, size and roughness, sometimes 
hispid, sometimes much denuded of the outer tubes in the upper 
part. A very much condensed form is the C. montana (Schultz), 
Reich. Fl. exsic. 2143. The Linnsean C. vulgaris appears to 
include this and several other species. 

Ditches and streams : common. C. montana, Gilsland, Cum- 
berland, Mr. W. Christy. 

Annual. June to August. 

13. C. hispida (Linn.) ; monoecious, stem thickened upwards 
spirally sulcate rough brittle beset with setaceous spines, 
branchlets elongated, bracts whorled (inner ones much longer), 
nucules ovate shorter than the bracts solitary, accompanied by 
a globule. 

C. hispida, Linn. Sp. PI. 1624 ; Eng. Bot. t. 436 ; Wallr. Ann. Bot. 
187. t. 4 ; Hook. Eng. Fl. v. pt. 1 . 246 ; A. Braun in Flora, xviii. 
66 ; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 355 ; Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 163 ; Coss. 
et Germ. Fl. Paris. 679 ; Atl. t. 38 B. 

Stems opake, greenish white, usually incrusted, covered with 



90 Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species o/Chara. 

minute tubercles ; spines generally very numerous, sometimes 
almost wanting ; whorls of elongate, acuminate (by having the 
terminal segment denuded of outer tubes) branches, each of 
which has about six nodes and a whorl of 4-5 short bracts at 
each node. 

Pits and deep ditches, especially on a peaty soil. 

Annual. May to August. 

14. C. tomentosa (Linn.) ; dioecious (?), stem thickened upwards 
spirally sulcate rough brittle armed with scattered obtuse pa- 
pitta, branchlets incurved, bracts unilateral ovate-oblong mu- 
cronate- acute, nucule shorter than the bract on each side of it 
longer than the three in front. 

C. tomentosa, Linn. Sp. PI. 1624 ; Fries ! Herb. Norm. v. 100 ; Mu- 

tel Ft. Franc, iv. 163 ; Reich. ! Fl. exc. 150. 
C. latifolia, Willd. ! " Berol. Schr. iii. 129 ;" Hook. Icon. t. 532. 
C. ceratophylla /3. macroptila, A. Broun in Flora, xviii. 65 ; Ann. Sc. 

Nat. ser. 2. i. 355. 

The granules and nucules are probably upon different plants. 
Stem opake, whitish green, covered with very minute tubercles, 
and bearing distant somewhat whorled short obtuse papillae. 
Branchlets like the stem ; their terminal division thicker, inflated, 
of one pellucid tube. Bracts pellucid, barren ones unilateral (?). 
" Nucule with a large ovate bract on each side, and three small 
linear-oblong ones in front, also having three minute acute tu- 
bercles on the opposite side of the stem. Globule from a whorl 
of two or three large bracts not having smaller ones in front, 
but with two or three tubercles on the opposite side of the stem." 
Hooker. 

In the foreign plant (Reich. Fl. exsic. 92, which is the au- 
thentic C. latifolia, Willd.), the bracts are apparently whorled. 
Fries's specimen (Herb. Norm. v. 100) is without any incrusta- 
tion, smooth and scarcely twisted. Our plant is certainly the 
C. tomentosa (Linn.), C. latifolia (Willd.), and the C. ceratophylla 
(Wallr.) is a variety of it. 

Belvidere Lake, Westmeath, Ireland, Mr. D. Moore. 

c. Stem coated with three times as many tubes as there are branchlets 
in each whorl. 

15. C. aspera (Willd.); dioecious, stem finely striate smooth 
flexible beset with setaceous patent spines, branchlets abbre- 
viated, bracts whorled slender (two inner ones longer), nucules 
narrowly oblong shorter than the bracts. 

C. aspera, " Willd. in Berol. Mag. d. N. iii. 298 ;" Wallr. Ann. Bot. 
185. t. 6. f. 3 ; A. Braun ! in Flora, xviii. 71 ; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. 
i. 356 ; Mutel Fl. Franc, iv. 164 ; Coss. et Germ. Fl. Paris. 680 ; 
Atl. t.38 D; Eng.Bot. Suppl. t. 2738; Fries] Herb. Norm. iii. 100. 



Mr. C. C. Babington on the British species of Chara. 91 

Stems erect, not opake, pale green, densely crowded ; spines 
usually scattered, often very short, or irregularly collected in 
whorls (when it much resembles C. ainita, Wallr.) ; whorls of 
6-9 branchlets of six nodes and a whorl of 4-5 bracts at each 
node ; bracts as long as the internode or shorter than it. Nucules 
solitary, with twelve or thirteen stria? and a prominent crown. 

Distinguished from C. crinita, as is well remarked by Prof. 
A. Braun in his letter to Prof. Henslow, " by the more slender 
outer tubes of the stems." I am doubtful concerning the plant 
figured by Greville (Scott. Crypt. Fl. t. 339), for he places nucules 
and granules upon the same plant. 

In stagnant water. Orkney, Mr. Clauston. Prestwich Car, 
Northumberland, Mr. Robertson ; Greville. Irthing, Durham, 
Mr. Bowman ; Hooker. Cleifiog Farm, four miles from Holy- 
head, Anglesea, Mr. Wilson. Carlton, Notts, Mr.Borrer. Bur- 
dock Pool near Falmouth, Cornwall, in company with C. crinita, 
Rev. W. L. P. Garnons. Loch of Skaill, Orkney, Miss Watt. 
In the river Shannon near Portumna, Galway, Mr. D. Moore ; 
Prof. Balfour. 

16. C.fragilis (Desv.) ; monoecious, stems slender finely striated 
smooth not spinous, last 1 -3 joints of the branchlets without 
external tubes, bracts on the inner side of the branchlets about 
as long or longer than the oblong nucules. 

C. fragilis, "Desv. ap. Lois. Not. Fl. Franc. 137 ;" A. Braun in Flora, 
xviii. 68; Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2. i. 356 ; Reich. ! Fl. exsic. 94; Mutel 
Fl. Franc, iv. 164 ; Coss. et Germ. Fl. Paris. 680 ; Atl. t. 38 C. 

C. pulchella, Wallr. Ann. Bot. 184. t. 2 ; Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2824 ; 
Ag. Syst. Alg. 129. 

C. Hedwigii, Ag. Syst. Alg. 129 ; Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2762. 

Slender, green, not incrusted. Main stem and branches 
usually with equally long branchlets. Nucule with thirteen or 
fourteen stria? and a long crown, accompanied by the globule. 
Bracts usually shorter than the nucules, but one equaling them 
in length ; sometimes {C.fragilis longibracteata, A. Braun !, C. de- 
licatula, Ag. ?) longer than them. 

The C. Hedwigii scarcely differs except in being very brittle 
when dry, the bracts shorter, and the branchlets of the main stem 
usually much longer than those of the branches. 

Ponds. Sussex, Rev. M. J. Berkeley. Derwentwatcr, Rev. E. 
A. Holmes. Serk, Rev. T. Salwey. Paradi, Guernsey. — Var. lon- 
gibracteata ; West Chiltington Common, Sussex ; Berrington 
Pool, Shropshire. — C. Hedwigii; East Grinstead, Sussex; Sand- 
wich, Kent, Rev. M. J. Berkeley. 

Annual. June to August. 



92 Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidse of West Africa. 

X. — Observations on the species of Termitidse of West Africa, 
described by Smeathman as Termes bellicosus, and by Linnaus 
as T. fatalis. By T. S. Savage * 

Having read a condensed account and many extracts from 
the communication of Dr. Smeathman to the Royal Society 
of London on the insect in question, it seemed to me that no 
room was left for the discovery of additional facts. But, resi- 
ding in the locality of the Termes, I felt a desire to know per- 
sonally their ceconomy; first, from motives of interest in the 
general subject of natural history; and secondly, in order to 
discover some way of preventing their supposed attacks on our 
buildings. 

As I proceeded, I noticed some mistakes made by Dr. Smeath- 
man or his many copiers, which induced me to record my own 
observations. Of these the following is a summary. 

I would here remark, that I have never seen the original nor 
entire publication of Dr. Smeathman' s paper ; but what I have 
seen, is sufficient to show that he was an acute observer, a 
man of indomitable perseverance and accurate to a remarkable 
degree. The best account that I have read of his paper is that 
of Edward Newman, Esq., E.R.S., in his f Familiar Introduction 
to the History of Insects/ It is free from the marks of a pru- 
rient imagination, and indicates more of a desire to relate the 
simple truth in the history of the insect than any that I have 
seen. The figures, however, which stand at the head of his 
account are decidedly bad. 

The first thing that strikes a visitor who is familiar with 
Adamson's and Smeathman's observations, when he arrives on 
the coast of Africa, is the great sparseness of the Termites' hills. 
Instead of " acres so thickly covered as to appear like the huts of 
native settlements/' his eye may wander over acres without seeing 
one ; one cause of this sparseness may have arisen to some extent 
from the introduction of civilization. The visitor usually lands 
first at the European or American settlements, where the hills in 
their immediate vicinity are mostly destroyed. This has been 
done, first, from the notion that the insect " ate down their 
dwellings;" and, secondly, from the superiority of the clay of 
which they are constructed, which is used for building purposes. 
At no point, however, between Cape Verd and the Gaboon river, 
will the stranger remark them for their numbers. 

They more frequently occur on plane and flat lands ; making 
their appearance especially soon after the lands have been cleared 
for planting, at which time trees are left girdled and prostrate to 
decay. 

* From the Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia, vol. iv. No. 11. 



Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitida3 of West Africa. 93 

The features which first strike the beholder are their great size 
and form. These have been well represented by Smeathman, 
though two hills cannot be found exactly like. Their contour is 
generally that of a hay-stack — the surface never regular, always 
marked with protuberances and upward projections, often not 
unlike " turrets," as termed by Smeathman. 

Sometimes the hill presents the aspect of a mound having 
been worn down by the heavy rains, or, if in the vicinity of a 
village, by children playing upon it. In such cases they may be 
forsaken. 

When they present distinct upward projections or turrets, they 
are known to be in the process of enlargement. This is always 
the mode in which these insects increase their domiciles. Turrets 
are projected one after another, and the intervening spaces filled 
out, so as to make a continuous surface. Within each of these 
turrets is a cavity which leads down as a passage into the inte- 
rior of the hill, or terminates in some other passage, keeping up 
a free communication throughout the structure. When hills 
present in their general outline the form of a hay-stack, they 
have arrived at their maximum size. Their height in such cases 
is from 12 to 15 feet perpendicular measurement, the circum- 
ference at base from 50 to 60 feet ; at two-thirds the height, or 
around the base of the " dome," from 30 to 40 feet. 

The materials have for their base clay, generally strongly 
tinged with oxide of iron in the recent state ; after exposure to 
the sun and atmosphere it takes on a light colour, approaching 
a dull yellow, in some cases white. There is an admixture, more 
or less, of other substances incidentally occurring, as gravel, 
leaves, straw, &c. 

Sometimes the clay presents a dark, slaty aspect, which is in- 
correctly stated in books to be an indication of a different species 
of insect. This fact is owing to different-coloured clays exist- 
ing in different localities. 

The strength of these structures is incalculably great ; as an 
evidence of this, Smeathman states that they are often mounted 
by wild bulls, and four men were known to stand on one to spy 
a vessel at sea. But more than this, they would sustain more 
wild bulls and men than could possibly mount them. The particles 
of clay are cemented together by a fluid excreted from the mouth 
of the insect (not as Smeathman says, by gums elaborated from 
the different kinds of wood on which they feed). This, by ex- 
posure to the sun and atmosphere, becomes exceedingly hard and 
tenacious on the surface, added to which, the action of the well- 
known principle in mechanical philosophy involved in the arched 
form of the structure gives to it a vast degree of strength. This 
feature in the oeconomy of the Termes fatalis — the strength of 



94 Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidie of West Africa. 

the domiciles — is a wise provision in nature. It guards the hills 
against the heavy wasting rains of the country, and enables them 
to resist the shock of decayed falling trees, which so often occur 
on recently cleared grounds. When it is known that it is the 
practice of the natives of Africa not to plant the same piece of 
ground two years in succession, but let it lie fallow four or five 
years, and clear up a new spot every year, and as many trees are 
girdled and left to decay and fall, the wisdom of this feature will 
be understood. 

On clearing away the shrubbery and grass around the base of 
a hill, several covered ways or clay tubes will be seen leading to 
neighbouring stumps and decayed logs. These tubes, sometimes 
12 inches in diameter at base, gradually diminish, ramifying as 
they proceed outward. If their connection with the hill be 
broken, as many holes will be seen, constituting mouths of pas- 
sages, which run in a sloping direction to a depth of 12 or 18 
inches under the domicile. These passages expand into basement 
rooms, bounded by clay pillars, supporting a series of archwork 
on which rest the " cellular work," u royal apartments," and 
superincumbent interior portions of the structure. 

The exterior of the hill consists of a clay wall varying in thick- 
ness on the different sides from 6 inches to 1^ foot. Through- 
out this wall there are cavities, cells and passages, anastomosing 
and running from the base to the apex, forming a communica- 
tion with the " dome." Within, at the base, elevated to a height 
of one to two feet above the surface of the ground, and central in 
respect to the circumference of the hill, is the apartment of the 
king and queen, styled by Srneathman "the royal chamber," 
surrounded by many other apartments or chambers, containing 
eggs and young of various sizes and stages of growth, all sup- 
ported by the archwork mentioned. 

It will be observed, that Mr. Srneathman states that the " royal 
apartments " are on a level with the surface of the ground ; but, 
in every case, I have found them elevated from 1 to 2 feet, de- 
pending on the height of the structure. Indeed, at certain sea- 
sons, this elevation becomes a matter of necessity in many lo- 
calities. Were it otherwise, the royal pair would be in danger 
of inundation during the long and violent rains of that country. 

Immediately above the royal apartments, extending across 
and up the sides of the hill to about two-thirds their height, 
are the " nurseries " of Srneathman, a yellow, dry, comb-like gra- 
nulated substance, inclosed in moist red clay, so moist that it 
can be made by the hands into balls. In this substance are nu- 
merous narrow serpentine cavities or cells, containing eggs and 
young in different stages. Scattered on the surface are perceived, 
in a recent state, many minute white globular fungi. Imme- 



Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidae of West Africa. 95 

diately above, and interior to the nurseries, lie the " magazines " 
of Smeathinan, rising to the height of about a foot. These are 
a cellular arrangement of soft clay, filled with a dark brown gra- 
nulated substance, supposed by Mr. Smeathman to be the "food." 
It is very moist, and appears to be vegetable substance, commi- 
nuted and reduced to this state by the insect. 

Between the royal apartments and nurseries is the first- floor 
of Smeathman ; immediately above the magazines is the second ; 
then comes the " dome," a large cavity in the upper part of the 
structure. With the dome there is a communication by nume- 
rous passages with the different parts of the hill, and thus a free 
circulation of warm air kept up, giving a uniform temperature to 
the domicile. The principles of philosophy known in the tendency 
of air to an equilibrium, its ascent when rarefied, condensation 
and descent in coming in contact with a colder medium, thus 
securing a uniformity of temperature, are all involved in this 
peculiarity of structure. 

The statement of Dr. Smeathman respecting the primary size 
and subsequent mode of increase of the royal apartments is a 
matter of deduction, though undoubtedly correct. In small hills 
the queen is found of corresponding size. As the hills increase, 
the size of the queen and her apartments are known to increase. 
The adjacent portions must be taken down to meet this enlarge- 
ment. This is true also of other portions of the structure. As 
the outer projections, or turrets, are sent up from within, and the 
intervening spaces filled out, a portion of what was previously 
the exterior must be removed, to admit of the expansion of the 
interior arrangements, the nurseries, magazines, &c. This change 
and removal must be more or less true, also, of almost all parts 
of the domicile. 

The community was divided by Smeathman into three orders : 
1st, the workers; 2nd, soldiers; 3rd, the perfect insects, male 
and female, or king and queen ; a fourth order or state was sub- 
sequently noticed by Latreille among another species in the south 
of France, at Bordeaux (Termes lucifugus). It was afterwards 
observed in the East Indies, and incidentally noticed by an ano- 
nymous writer in manuscript on a Ceylonese species (Kirby and 
Spence' s Introduct. vol. ii. p. 33). This was the nympha or 
pupa state of the workers, in which rudimental wings were ob- 
served. The same state was inferred and averred of T.fatalis, 
by Messrs. Kirby and Spence, and adopted by compilers. I have 
never known this inference to be confirmed by any observer wri- 
ting on the African species ; but I am happy in being able to 
assert the fact from personal observation, and, furthermore, to 
declare the same of the soldiers. I have seen both with rudi- 
mental wings distinct. Messrs. Kirby and Spence suppose the 



96 Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitida? of West Africa. 

pupae to be equally active with their respective larvae, which is 
not the case ; they are exceedingly delicate and sluggish. 

Of these several orders, the labourers are by far the most nu- 
merous. They seem to be susceptible of two divisions — larger 
and smaller labourers. The latter exceed the former in numbers, 
and are found chiefly in the domicile. The work about the hill, 
such as constructing, repairing, bearing away the eggs from the 
maternal department, &c, seems to be done by them. Of the 
larger size, some few are found in the hill, but they exist in 
greater numbers in the covered ways, about and in the objects 
of plunder. The mandibles of this division are very hard and 
strong, and admirably adapted to the performance of what I sup- 
pose to be their part in the community, which is the comminu- 
ting of the different kinds of wood on which they prey, and the 
reducing of the clay from which their hills are made to a port- 
able condition. A like division of labour I have noticed among 
the Driver Ants of Africa (Anomma arcens and A. rubella). 
Messrs. Kirby and Spence are incorrect when they say (Intro- 
duct, vol. ii. pp. 40, 41) that " they carry in their mouths a 
mass of mortar half as big as their bodies, ready tempered, made 
of the finer parts of gravel, which, worked up to a proper con- 
sistence, hardens to a substance resembling stone, of which their 
nests are constructed." The amount each insect carries at a 
time is so small as to be hardly perceptible to the naked eye. 
When the work is done it presents a minutely granulated appear- 
ance, like that of the " nurseries." Nor is it already " tempered'' 
ready to be laid. The insect, when it arrives at the place of de- 
posit, stops for an instant, and retaining its hold on the piece of 
clay, undergoes a slight tremulous movement, more perhaps like 
the spasmodic action of vomiting, when a fluid being seen to be 
excreted from the mouth over it, the clay is deposited. This cor- 
rects the supposition of Smeathman, that the cementing medium 
was gum obtained from the trees on which they preyed. The 
outer surface of the work when recent presents a red, moist, 
granulated appearance, but when acted on by the sun and atmo- 
sphere it approaches a dull white or yellow, and is highly indu- 
rated, more so than simple clay dried in the sun can be. It 
however falls far short of the hardness of stone ; as the hill is 
penetrated, the clay becomes softer until the interior is found to 
be so plastic that it can be made into balls under the pressure of 
the hand. The young of this order are seen of all sizes ; the 
nymphte of Latreille differing from the others apparently in no 
respect but that of their rudimentary wings. 

Soldiers. — Of this order there seems to be ground for two 
divisions also^ larger and smaller. 

When a breach is made in the hill, the smaller soldiers are 



Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidse of West Africa. 97 

seen with the labourers in small numbers, arid retreat with them 
to the interior. Then appear the larger soldiers, whose duty 
especially it is to defend the community. Their conduct, fero- 
cious aspect, &c. have been well described by Smeathman, and 
need not be here repeated. It has been said, however, whether 
by Mr. Smeathman or not, I cannot state, that in the act of 
biting " they never quit their hold even though they are pulled 
limb from limb" (Kirby and Spence, Introduct. vol. ii. p. 40). 

This assertion has been correctly made of the Driver Ants of 
Africa (Anomma arcens and A. rubella), but cannot be of the 
Termes fatalis. It is the habit of this insect to let go imme- 
diately after biting, and strike as fiercely at another place, doing 
this several times in quick succession. The manner in which its 
jaws operate will not admit of a continued hold. Like scissors 
(unlike the mandibles of the Anomma) they cross each other, 
separating the fibres by a clear cut through. 

In about fifteen minutes after the attack of the enemy, the 
work of reparation begins by the labourers, who, accompanied by 
a few of the smaller soldiers, and occasionally a larger, appear 
in great numbers. In view of the duty performed by these two 
orders, it is a surprising fact that both males and females are 
without eyes. 

These, at particular seasons, leave the hills in vast numbers. 
" The rains," as they are familiarly termed in Africa, begin in 
May, sooner or later, and continue with some intermissions until 
October. During the month of July, and sometimes extending 
into August, an intermission takes place under the name of 
ff middle dries," dividing them into " early and latter rains." At 
the beginning of these seasons — " early and latter rains," — the 
Termes swarm (if it may be so called) in incalculable numbers. 
At their exit so rapid is their ascent, that they present the ap- 
pearance of smoke rising from all parts of the hill. The holes 
through which they escape are temporary, created for this pur- 
pose, and closed when the swarming ceases. During this pro- 
cess, the atmosphere for many rods distant seems to be filled 
with them. Birds are then seen whirling and darting through 
the air in quick pursuit — all orders of insect-eating animals are 
now on the alert. Barn-yard fowls are seen to jump up several 
feet from the ground to catch them as they descend. Indeed, 
men as well as brutes make them their prey. All tribes of Afri- 
cans however do not eat them. The Grebos, who inhabit Cape 
Palm as, and- among whom these observations were made, reject 
them as food. Why, it is difficult to tell, unless it be from the 
trouble attending their capture. It is not from any fastidiousness 
of taste, for they are known to eat snakes, toads, grubs, beetles, 
and even putrid meat, with zest. Tribes about fifty miles to the 

Ann. §• Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 7 



98 Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidse of West Africa. 

windward of Cape Palmas use them as food. To catch them, 
bowls of water are set on the ground, into which they fall as 
their wings drop off. They are then roasted as shrimps, and the 
larger beetles (Goliathi) are said to be equally sweet. 

The individuals of the two sexes appear to be about the same 
size when they issue from the hill, not exceeding half an inch. 
The largest queen I have ever seen at the head of a community 
measured 4| inches in length. 

Messrs. Kir by and Spence state that the queen lives but two 
years, which is incorrect. I have observed the yearly increase of 
hills for five years or more, and, when dissected, they have yielded 
a queen of corresponding size. To say that a successor to the 
original one might have been elected would be gratuitous. 
Nothing is known of their habits to warrant such an assertion, 
while everything we do know goes to prove that they live for 
many years. 

It is stated also, that but one queen is ever found in a hill. 
This, too, is incorrect. But one is generally found. I have 
known two to occur. They were contained in the same struc- 
ture, called by Smeathman " the royal chamber," but separated 
by a septum of clay. The hill was of the usual size. It was 
" dug down " by a colonist at Cape Palmas, who, knowing that 
I was investigating the habits of the insect, kindly brought them 
to my residence. I regretted exceedingly my inability to decide 
the question which arose to my mind at first sight, " Is it a case 
of bigamy V* The person who discovered them took no notice, 
and was unable to say that he saw even one king. It occurred 
to me that it might be an anomaly. I therefore made inqui- 
ries at Montserrado and the different European settlements that 
I visited, and ascertained that the same thing had occurred at 
those points, though it was considered quite unusual. 

I am able here to confirm the truth of Mr. Smeathman's state- 
ment, that the king and queen are permanently inclosed in their 
apartment, which has been doubted by the eminent writer of the 
article Termitidce, in the ' British Cyclopaedia of Natural History * 
(understood to be J. 0. Westwood, Esq.). 

The sentence in which the doubt occurs runs as follows : — 
" The young queen of the hive swarms is followed by a portion 
of the community ; and the female after swarming, and the loss 
of her wings, is guarded by the worker ants ; there is, therefore, 
so much analogy in these circumstances that we are almost 
tempted to consider that Smeathman must have erred in stating 
that the working Termites imprison both the king and queen 
Termes. That it should be necessary for the latter to be care- 
fully guarded will be very evident ; but why the king in his help- 
less and wingless state (for we consider that the loss of wings is 



Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidse of West Africa. 99 

consequent upon and not precedent to pairing) should be shut up, 
seems questionable. We make these observations with hesitation, 
because Latreille, and Kirby and Spence seem to adopt, without 
hesitation, this statement of Smeathman." 

I feel it my duty to notice particularly this doubt, coming as 
it does from a source of such high respectability as the present 
Corresponding Secretary of the London Ent. Soc, J. 0. West- 
wood, Esq. 

It should be remembered that in penning this doubt, Mr.West- 
wood was sitting within-doors at Hammersmith, England, many 
thousand miles distant from the scene of Mr. Smeathman' s patient 
and prolonged observation, Mr. Smeathman states what he knew 
to be a fact, and respecting which I can see no way in which he 
could be mistaken. Mr. Westwood misapprehends a remark of 
Mr. Smeathman on their " swarming," if it can be so called. I 
do not understand Mr. Smeathman to state that the queen is 
accompanied by any other individuals than those of the two 
sexes — other perfect males and females. He says that as workers 
are always to be found on the surface of the ground, the king and 
queen are captured by them, and thus made to become the heads 
of new communities. On what foundation this statement rests 
I know not ; but must confess that in this part of their ceconomy 
I think there exists a lacuna yet to be filled. As to the state- 
ment, however, involving the perpetual imprisonment of the 
king and queen, I have no doubt. The facts respecting the struc- 
ture of the " royal chamber " sufficiently prove it. Any one who 
has seen a fully-developed queen will say that she is incapable of 
progression, and the fact that no aperture has been discovered 
in the " chamber M among the many hills dissected at different 
seasons, sufficient to admit of the ingress and egress of the king, 
aud hardly of the larger class of soldiers, must suffice. 

It has been stated also by compilers of Smeathman, that the 
insect shrinks from light, which is a reason for their constructing 
covered ways. But if it be remembered that the two orders — 
soldiers and workers — are perfectly blind, the assertion must 
appear to be gratuitous. The true cause of their erection of 
covered ways would seem to lie in the fact that the insect is a 
prey to a vast number of other insects, reptiles, &c. 

Smeathman and others state that Termes bellicosus is the insect 
which devours dwelling-houses, furniture, &c. This also I con- 
sider an error. I doubted its accuracy at the commencement of 
my observations, and made inquiries subsequently of intelligent 
observers at Sierra Leone and Montserrado, all of whom confirmed 
me in my doubts. The white ants found in our houses preying 
on our furniture, books, &c. are smaller, and larger in proportion 
to their breadth, than T. bellicosus. The soldiers which accom- 

7* 



100 Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitida? of West Africa. 

pany the labourers and are found with them in their covered ways 
along the sills, floors and roofs of our houses, differ palpably in 
these respects from those of T. bellicosus. I made known my 
doubts on this point to my correspondent Mr. Westwood of 
London, proving the truth of my statement by specimens taken 
from my own dwellings, but, unfortunately, the bottles containing 
them were broken, and I failed of my object. I consider these 
house-eaters as the T. arhorum of Smeathman. One of their 
nests, indeed, I found in the roof of my office, and by them great 
damage was done to the building ; besides many books were de- 
stroyed, having been eaten through and through. Another nest 
also was found in a small out-building ; the insects of these two 
nests corresponded to those found in my dwellings, &c, while 
marked differences existed between the latter and T. bellicosus. 
I regret exceedingly that the steps to prove this opinion have 
failed in the manner above stated. I hesitate not, however, to 
assert it, confirmed as it is by other observers. 

Hills dissected. 

Hill 1st. — Opened 22nd March, 1842. General outlines very 
much like those of a hay-stack ; situated in a valley. 

Measurement. 

Circumference at base 34 ft. 

„ at § height from base . . . 25 „ 

Height from apex to base on the surface . . 13 „ 

„ „ „ perpendicular . * 9 t> 

The work was begun with three men at 20 minutes past 4 p.m., 
and required 2| hours to accomplish it. * 

The material was red clay, obtained about two feet below the 
surface-soil, the latter being a mixture of sand and decayed vege- 
table matter brought down from the surrounding hills. The 
surface was highly indurated, receiving a slight impression from 
a single blow of the mattock. 

The order first seen was the workers, who instantly retreated 
on exposure to the external air. They were succeeded by one 
and then another, and then many of the larger class of soldiers, 
who, rushing out in great rage with jaws extended, threatened 
vengeance on the intruders. 

The experiment of permitting them to bite was tried several 
times, when it was perceived that a drop of brownish fluid was 
exuded upon the part. The sensation was like that of a minute 
sharp-cutting instrument, the jaws moving in cross direction like 
scissors. 

On breaking several of the upward projections or " turrets," 
they were perceived to be hollow, leading into the " dome," and 



Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidce of West Africa. 101 

the main passages in the walls down to the basement. These 
several passages were smooth, as if by being well-worn by con- 
stant tread, and it undoubtedly is through them that their food 
is brought from below to the " magazines." The first fragment 
of the hill exposed numerous apparent perforations, from the 
size of a shot to that of a dollar, which were increased by every 
stroke ; these were the different passages, running in every direc- 
tion and anastomosing with each other, keeping up a communi- 
cation throughout the domicile. 

The walls seemed to be about 12 inches thick, and contained 
numerous cavities or cells of various sizes and shapes, with young 
in different stages of growth, extremely white and delicate. They 
communicated with each other and with the main passages. The 
number of young contained in them varied from twelve to twenty. 
When several were found in one cell, they were regularly and 
closely packed, with their heads converging towards the bottom. 
The first idea which this arrangement presented to my mind, was 
that of pigs in an autumnal night, stowed in the angle of a u Vir- 
ginia fence." 

Having beaten away the wall of the hill, a layer of light brown 
spongy substance was seen, its structure irregularly cellular and 
inclosed in red moist clay of corresponding form ; the a nurseries" 
of Smeathman, The cells contained young of different sizes ; on 
the surface were visible numerous scattered minute white glo- 
bular bodies, probably fungi. Messrs. Kirby and Spence sup- 
pose them to belong to the genus Mucor. But the Mucorini 
are generated from decayed animal and stercoraceous matter. 
Without a microscopic examination, they seem to me to be as- 
signed more naturally to the Trichocisti, perhaps Trichia, the pin- 
head fungi, which are known to spring from decayed vegetable 
substance. It is highly probable that the material of which these 
nurseries are made is at base vegetable matter. Their extent, 
as thus observed, is from the base to two-thirds the height of 
the sides of the hill. Centrally to these, and lying immediately 
under the floor of the " dome," was a series of cellular work, en- 
tirely of clay, filled with a chestnut-brown substance, very moist, 
having the appearance of rasped or gnawed wood, and other 
vegetable matter. These are Smeathman's " magazines " and 
"food," which, with the nurseries, constitute almost two -thirds 
of the contents of the structure. 

Throughout the nurseries were found young in different stages 
of growth : those in the external cells were smaller and mostly 
without rudimental wings ; those in the interior cells were larger, 
with distinctly developed mandibles and rudimentary wings ge- 
nerally, the pupa of soldiers. The young in the interior of this 
cellular work, with a few exceptions, were assuming the yellow 



102 Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidse of West Africa. 

colour which marks the head and thorax of the workers and 
soldiers in their perfect or active state ; the exceptions were of a 
pure white. 

As the larger passages were opened, a strong current of warm 
air from within was perceptible. I attempted to look down the 
" dome," but was compelled to withdraw immediately, my respi- 
ration being affected, and the glasses of my spectacles coated 
with a film of moisture ; a strong, peculiar, but not unpleasant 
odour was perceived. It was observed, that the deeper we pene- 
trated, the more numerous became the young, and the more ad- 
vanced were they in growth. 

The structure called the " royal chamber" by Smeathman was 
discovered in a position central in respect to the circumference of 
the hill, and about 18 inches above the surface of the ground. 
Around and beneath it was a connected series of clayey cellular 
work, in which were found the young, as before stated. The 
chamber was of an oblong shape, rounded at the ends and sides ; 
flattened and thick above and below. It was supported on one 
side by two pillars about three-quarters of an inch in diameter ; 
on the other, it was attached to the surrounding clay- work. I, 
accidentally broke open the inclosure, being misled by the state- 
ment of Smeathman, that it was situated on a level with the sur- 
face of the ground. The queen was discovered, surrounded by 
a large number of the larger labourers, a few soldiers, and some 
of the more advanced pupae, all of whom were running rapidly 
round her, manifesting the greatest perturbation. The queen 
made great efforts at progression, constantly turning her head 
and thorax from side to side, but without moving in the least 
her huge abdomen. Her whole length was 4| inches. The king, 
evidently in great alarm, made repeated efforts to conceal himself 
under the abdominal folds of his consort. 

On examining further the " royal chamber," a wide cavity was 
observed running horizontally along the upper part or roof, ex- 
ternally, but without any signs of communication with the inte- 
rior. On the under surface of the roof, or ceiling, is a long de- 
pression, corresponding in shape to the body of the queen, which 
gives her that freedom of motion necessary to the extension of 
her eggs. This motion is compound, first in a longitudinal, 
then transverse direction, alternately elongating, contracting and 
widening her body, which is marked with short, thick, transverse 
bands. The skin is thrown into folds, while these bands operate 
as so many fixed points or centres of muscular action, forcing 
the eggs through their ducts to the place of exit. 

Por some time after exposure, the queen continued the expul- 
sion of her eggs, but not, as I am inclined to think, to the usual 
extent. They were white and very minute, and left untouched 



Mr. T. S. Savage on the Termitidse of West Africa. 103 

by the workers, who evidently continued in a state of the greatest 
alarm. 

The floor of the chamber was perfectly plane and smooth, ex- 
hibiting not the slightest impression from the body of the queen. 
The roof in the centre was £ of an inch thick ; the floor about £ ; 
at the line of conjunction about £. Posteriorly in the line of 
junction between the roof and floor was a small aperture, sheltered 
from above by a spur of clay running downwards, which was the 
only way discovered of ingress and egress. It could not have 
admitted an insect larger than the soldiers, and even to them, as 
it then appeared, it must have been a " strait gate." The king 
could not have passed, and, consequently, not the queen. It had 
the appearance of having been repeatedly closed and opened by 
collections of clay around it. 

That the queen is inclosed for life, is evident from the fact that 
she is, from her great size, incapable of progression of herself, or 
of being transported by any means within the power of the com- 
munity. 

On clearing away the refuse at the base of the hill, the orifices 
of the main passages under the basement were discovered ; de- 
scending in a sloping direction, they led to large vacant rooms, 
made by the pillars supporting the archwork, on which rests 
the interior of the structure. These pillars or columns were of 
an irregular, rounded shape, from ^ to 21 inches in diameter, 
and stood on the solid ground about 6 inches high. 

On visiting this hill the next morning, all the passages in that 
portion of the wall not dissected were found well closed with 
fresh deposits of clay, and also a continuous layer spread over 
the remaining central cellular work. This was done during the 
night by the surviving members of the community for their pro- 
tection against the cool air of the night, the rain, and hostile 
insects. 

The opening of a hill is the signal for the gathering of all 
their foes, — ants, reptiles, &c. ; hence the speedy closing of their 
various entrances is a step of primary importance. 

Another hill, previously dissected, was, after a time, so far 
repaired as to be externally perfect. On taking it down again, 
though the cellular work was apparently restored, no queen was 
found nor royal apartments ; a few workers were all the insects 
discovered, and they were collected in the cells in the walls of 
the hill. 

Hill 2nd.— Opened Feb. 3rd, 1847. 

Circumference at base . . . . 26 ft. 10 in. 
Height on the outer surface . 8 „ 6 „ 

A diagonal section was made by a cross cut saw, beginning 
just below the upper floor of Smeathman. 



10-L Mr. F. Townsend on a supposed new species 0/ Glyceria. 

The walls were much the thickest on the north side, nearly 
double those on the south, measuring 1J foot through. 

It being in a locality where sand and gravel abounded, their 
materials were freely mixed with the clay. 

The covered ways leading from the base to objects of plunder 
at a distance were in this case larger and more numerous than 
any I have seen before. The main one measured 12 inches in 
diameter, and gave off several branches which proceeded in va- 
rious directions. These were traced to sticks, stumps and logs, 
which afforded them prey. 

In this case the labourers in the hill were generally of the 
smaller class, while those in the covered ways and in the stumps 
were larger, having strong, stout jaws, well-adapted to the gnaw- 
ing of wood. The "royal chamber" was found raised about 1~ 
foot above the level of the ground. 

Hill 3rd. — Circumference at base, 50 feet. Height, 14 feet. 

The notes do not state whether this is the perpendicular height 
or not. Several fresh turrets were erected on the top, having a 
moist, deep red, granular appearance. 

The structure called the " royal chamber " measured externally 
10 inches in length, internally 8 inches. Its height from the 
level of the ground was 2 feet 8 inches. The length of the queen 
4f inches. 

Shrubs or small trees are frequently seen growing up through 
the hills. Such trees are never seen dead, consequently are not 
eaten by the insect. 



XI. — On a supposed new species of Glyceria. 
By Frederick Townsend, B.A.* 

In 1846 I drew up a description of a supposed new species of 
Glyceria, which had probably been confounded with other de- 
scribed species, viz. G.fluitans and G.plicata ; and a paper on the 
three plants was read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 
on November 9 in that year, but for the purpose of adding the 
results of further observations, it was not then published. Re- 
vised characters for, and some remarks upon, the three supposed 
species are now again submitted to the Society. 

In my former paper I applied the name of G. hybrida to the 
new plant ; but as the use of that word might lead to erroneous 
theoretical conclusions, I now substitute the name of G. pedicel- 
lata. The specific characters may stand as follows : — 

1. Glyceria fluitans (R. Br.). Panicle simple, elongate, sub- 
secund, spreading whilst in flower, otherwise close ; branches 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh Dec. 13, 1849; 



Mr. F. Townsend on a supposed new species of Glyceria. 105 

simple, lowermost mostly in pairs ; rachis smooth ; spikelets 

linear, of 7-12 acute florets ; outer pale oblong-lanceolate, length 

exceeding twice its breadth : apex acute, somewhat apiculate ; 

anthers five times as long as broad; sheaths even; careopsis 

linear-elliptical. 

Var. /3. Inflorescence spiked. 

Rachis perfectly smooth, never swollen as in G. plicata. Leaves 
pungent ; sheaths roughish ; ligule obtuse, frequently obscurely 
three-toothed. Panicle subsecund, elongate ; branches not bear- 
ing more than five spikelets, one branch only of each of the lower- 
most clusters bearing several spikelets ; uppermost spikelets of 
the branches and rachis mostly sessile or upon short rigid pedi- 
cels ; pedicels more or less scabrous. Inner pale equaling the 
outer in length or surpassing it. Anthers purple, sometimes 
yellow. Careopsis linear- elliptical. 

It flowers from June to September, sometimes bearing a second 
crop late in the year, and is universally distributed. It grows in 
stagnant and running water. 

2. G.pedicellata. Panicle simple, elongate, subsecund; branches 
simple, always spreading, lowermost mostly in threes; rachis 
smooth ; spikelets linear, of 7-16 obtuse florets ; outer pale ob- 
long, twice as long as broad : apex entire or slightly and irre- 
gularly denticulate-crenate ; anthers three times as long as 
broad; sheaths sulcate. 

Rachis perfectly smooth, never swollen as in G. plicata. 
Leaves plicate, acute ; sheaths roughish ; ligule obtuse, somewhat 
apiculate. Panicle subsecund, elongate; branches not bearing 
more than six spikelets, one branch only of each of the lowermost 
clusters bearing several spikelets ; spikelets more or less stalked ; 
pedicels slender, flexible. Outer pale strongly ribbed when dry, 
more membranous than in the other two species ; inner pale 
rather shorter than the outer. Squamulse with an inflated ap- 
pearance. Anthers always yellow ; lips incurved after bursting. 
The careopsis has not been observed. 

It flowers from June to September, and has been noticed in 
several places in Cambridgeshire, and at Dovedale near Blockley, 
Worcestershire. It is found in stagnant and running water. 

3. G. plicata (Fries!). Panicle compound; branches compound, 
always spreading, lowermost mostly in fives, uppermost 
crowded; rachis scabrous above; spikelets linear, of 7-12 
rather obtuse florets ; outer pale oval, not twice as long as broad : 
apex obtuse-angled, obscurely three-toothed ; anthers twice as 
long as broad; sheaths sulcate; careopsis roundish-elliptical. 
Var. /3. Panicle simple. 

Rachis more or less rough from just below the panicle and 



106 Mr. F. Townsend on a supposed new species of Glyceria. 

upwards, wavy and twisted above, and frequently with a swollen 
appearance. Leaves plicate, rather obtuse, more flaccid and 
of a darker green than in the other two species; sheaths sili- 
cate, rough ; ligule obtuse, apiculate, obscurely three-toothed or 
entire. Panicle often drooping, not so elongate as in either of 
the above; clusters arranged at shorter distances; branches 
often spreading in all directions from the twisting of the rachis, 
uppermost crowded, a single branch often bearing sixteen or 
more spikelets, two branches of each of the lowermost clusters 
bearing several spikelets ; spikelets shorter than in either of the 
above, uppermost spikelets of the branches and rachis sessile or 
upon short rigid pedicels ; pedicels always scabrous. Florets 
smaller than in either of the above. Inner pale rather shorter than 
the outer. Anthers purple, sometimes yellow. Careopsis round- 
ish-elliptical, and at once distinguishable from that of G. fluitans, 
which is linear-elliptical. 

It flowers from June to September, sometimes bearing a se- 
cond crop late in the year, and is of frequent occurrence. It 
grows in stagnant and running water. This is the G. plicata 
(Fries), 'Herb. Normale Suec' fasc. 5. No. 91, and is thus proved 
to be the plant described under that name by him. 

Glyceria fluitans may at once be distinguished by its even 
sheaths, those of the other species under consideration being 
sulcate. G. pedicellata may be known from G. plicata by its 
spikelets being much longer and florets larger, its panicle simple 
and elongate, one branch only of each cluster bearing more than 
one spikelet, and the whole plant of a lighter green and more 
wire-like. A common observer might at a glance distinguish 
the plants by these characters. 

The character of the inflorescence in G. pedicellata appears 
constant, whilst in the other plants it is variable, and for this 
reason I have noticed varieties derived from the form of inflo- 
rescence. By a compound panicle I understand that the main 
branches develope other branches upon which the spikelets are 
arranged, and the panicle is thus twice compound ; in the simple 
panicle the pedicels of the spikelets spring directly from the main 
branches. 

The name pedicellata has been chosen in consideration of the 
pedicels of the spikelets being longer and more decided in that 
plant than in the others, which have frequently quite sessile 
spikelets. 

I have met with no description of G. pedicellata. From its 
having somewhat intermediate characters, it has probably been 
confounded both with G. fluitans and G. plicata. With regard 
to published figures, of which there are many, I will venture a 
few remarks. The figure given by Reichenbach (Icon. Fl. Germ. 



Mr. F. Town send on a supposed new species of Glyceria. 107 

vii. t. 79) is an excellent one of G. plicata ; except the fruit, which 
is a tolerable representation of that of G. fluitans, as will be seen 
by reference to Nees von Esenbeck (Gen. PI. Fl. Germ. Monocot. 
i. 57), whose figure of the fruit is exactly that of G. plicata; the 
rest of the plate by the latter author is not sufficiently accurate. 
By Parnell (Brit. Grasses, t. 45), as far as I can judge, a fair figure 
is given of G. pedicellata ; and in Curtis (Fl. Lond. i. t. 18) also 
is to be found a good plate of the same plant : the form of the 
panicle is good ; but the outer pale is too long, and the magni- 
fied representation still less accurate ; the anthers and leaves are 
accordant. There only remains one other figure to be noticed, 
viz. that given in 'English Botany ; (t. 1520) ; it is however so 
faulty that I can determine nothing with sufficient accuracy. 

Since the above was forwarded to the Botanical Society at 
Edinburgh on Nov. 29th, 1849, some " Remarks on G. fluitans 
and G. plicata" have appeared in the ? Phytologist ' (iii. 734) 
from the pen of Mr. W. H. Purchas, on whose paper I should 
wish to say a few words. In G. fluitans I have not myself ob- 
served any characters by which specimens with appressed branches 
may be distinguished from those with the branches divaricate ; 
colour is the only distinction which Mr. Purchas has remarked, 
and of this he appears to speak only from recollection and to 
consider almost valueless. 

G. plicata a. of the same paper is certainly my G. pedicellata ; 
but these plants do not agree in the proportion of the outer pale ; 
in the latter the outer pale is twice as long as broad, in the 
former it is less than twice as long as broad. The character 
taken from the position of the apex of the outer pale with re- 
spect to the floret next above (when first attempting to distin- 
guish the plants) I thought might be of value, but afterwards de- 
termined it to be worthless. The plicature of the leaves may be 
found in all these plants, but not generally in G. fluitans, whilst 
in G. pedicellata and G. plicata I have found the plicature pretty 
constant. That a specimen from Mr. Moore agrees with this plant 
is possible, as the two latter plants possess some characters in 
common and were not then distinguished ; but an original speci- 
men from that botanist preserved in Mr. Babington's herbarium 
is the G. plicata of this paper. 

The description of G. plicata /3, which Mr. Purchas thought 
to be my plant, is that of G. plicata (Fries), with the exception 
of the proportion of the outer pale and the character given of the 
leaves. It is curious that Mr. Purchas should never have ob- 
served the leaves to be folded, as I have found them very con- 
stantly so, having examined plants from numerous localities in 
several countries. The panicle has truly a "fuller look," "from 
the greater number of compound branches," as well as from 



108 Mr. J. G. Jeffreys on British Odostomise. 

their being arranged at shorter distances. The same botanist 
also observes, that " two branches of each whorl are almost 
constantly compound/' and this character I have taken the 
liberty of inserting in other words in my observations on this 
plant. The remainder of his paper accords with my own obser- 
vations, with exceptions which have been already noticed. I have 
however frequently found this plant in stagnant pools, and can- 
not as yet discover that either of the three affects peculiar situa- 
tions. 

There is only one more remark to be made, and this respecting 
the suspected hybrid origin of the plant ; Mr. Purchas seems to 
imply that I held that opinion, but in my original but unpublished 
paper it was expressly stated that my convictions were that it could 
not be a hybrid, and the plant was therefore considered by me as 
a species ; the unfortunate choice of a name has not unnaturally 
conveyed a wrong impression of my views. 



XII. — Supplementary Notes on British Odostomise. 
By J. G. Jeffreys, F.R. & L.S. 

Since the publication of my paper on this subject in the ' An- 
nals of Natural History ' for November 1848, the discoveries of 
that indefatigable conchologist Mr. Barlee, and the communica- 
tions of other scientific friends, have induced me to notice the 
following additions of species and localities : — 

Odostomia pallida var. a. Guernsey, Mr. Barlee. 
Var. b. Loch Fyne, A. MacNab. 

O. Rissoides var. b. Lerwick, Mr. Barlee. 

O. alba var. a. This has been lately found by Mr. Alder on 
the coasts of Northumberland and the Isle of Man, and described 
by him in the Transactions of the Newcastle Naturalists' Club, 
under the name of O. fulva. It appears to attain a greater size 
than any other of the true Odostomice. 

O. nitida monstr. Lerwick, Mr. Barlee. 

O. albella var. a, minor, sutura profundiore. Lerwick, Mr. Barlee. 

O. acuta. In this species, as well as plicata and unidentata, 
may be detected, by the aid of a good magnifying glass, faint but 
regular spiral strise. 

O. turrita. Birtabuy Bay, co. Galway, Mr. Barlee. 

O. cylindrical Lerwick, Mr. Barlee. 

O. plicata var. a. Northumberland coast, Professor King. 
Guernsey; Burrow Island; Mr. Barlee. 

O. unidentata. Arran Island and Birtabuy Bay, co. Galway ; 
Burrow Island ; Mr. Barlee. 



Mr. J. G. Jeffreys on British Odostomise. 109 

0. conoidea var. a. Arran Island, co. Galvvay ; Guernsey ; 
Mr. Barlee. 

O. diaphana. Lerwick, Mr. Barlee. 

O. decor ata (n. s.). 

Testa ovato-oblonga, diaphana, nitida, alba, per dimidium in- 
feriorem anfractus cujusque striis impressis undulatis circa 15 
sculpta ; anfractus 5, convexi, ultimo plusquam § testa3 sequante ; 
apex obtusus ; sutura subobliqua, profunde incisa ; apertura 
ovata, subtus rotundata, superne ad mediam anfractus ultimi 
inflexa ; peristoma columellarem umbilicum includens ; plica in- 
conspicua. Long. T \y, lat. -fe unc. 

Burrow Island, Mr. Bean and Mr. Barlee. 

In my former paper I had confounded this species with O. ob- 
liqua, but am now satisfied of its distinctness, by reason of the 
spire being less oblique, the whorls more convex, the regular and 
close striae on the lower half of each whorl, the absence of a fold 
on the pillar, and especially of the well-defined umbilicus. I re- 
ceived the species some years ago from Mr. Bean under the MS. 
name of decorata ; and as this name has been used by British 
conchologists, it may be inexpedient to change it for perhaps a 
more appropriate appellation. It differs from O. diaphana in its 
less cylindrical form and the greater convexity of its whorls, be- 
sides possessing spiral striae and an umbilicus, which are wanting 
in the other species. 

O. obliqua. Lerwick, Mr. Barlee. 

O. insculpta. Dunvegan, Skye; Oban; Burrow Island; Mr. 
Barlej 

O. truncatula (n. s.). 

Testa oblongo-cylindrica, tenuis, nitida, alba, striis subtilibus 
spiraliter corrugata praesertim in anfractibus apicalibus, longitu- 
dinaliter ad suturam striis undulatis sculpta ; anfractus 6, con- 
vexiusculi, turriculati, sensim increscentes, primo velut exciso ; 
sutura obliqua, profunda ; apertura ovalis, superne in angulum 
contracta, subtus effusa ; peristoma fere continuum, postice re- 
plicatum ; umbilicus nullus ; denticulus conspicuus, plicseformis. 
Long, f, lat. y 1 ^ unc. 

Plymouth, very rare ; Mr. Barlee. I have only seen one adult 
specimen. This species has somewhat the form of " Turbo sub- 
truncatus" Mont., which is the young of Truncatella Montagui ; 
and the specimens recorded by Montagu as having been found 
u in sand from Salcomb 9 ? may possibly be referable to it. It is 
however a true Odostomia, and differs in form and markings from 
any of its congeners. The animal appears to have a yellowish 
colour. 

dolioliformis. Burrow Island ; west coast of Scotland ; 
Mr. Barlee. 



110 Mr. J. Curtis on some nondescript or imperfectly 

O. spiralis. Burrow Island, Mr. Barlee. 

O. interstincta. Burrow Island • Bantry Bay j Mr. Barlee. 
Var. a. Guernsey, Mr. Barlee. 

O. indistincta. Guernsey, Mr. Barlee. 

O. excavata. Land's End, Mr. Barlee j Exmouth, Mr. Clark, 
who notices that his specimen has " a strong conspicuous fold or 
tooth about the middle of the columella." 

O. scalaris var. a. This is proposed to be distinguished by 
Messrs. Forbes and Hanley as the typical species, the name of 
rufescens being appropriated by them to the other species or va- 
riety. I however believe the latter to be only a northern form 
or variety. 

O. lactea. Guernsey ; Burrow Island ; Mr. Barlee. 

The variation of form in many of the species appears to be 
very considerable ; and it would be easy to add several others to 
the list. 



XIII. — Notes upon the smaller British Moths, with descriptions 
of some nondescript or imperfectly characterized species. By 
John Curtis, Esq., F.L.S. &c. 

Family Tortricid^e. 

1. Genus 946, 4 b *. Tortrix (JEnectra) Pilleriana, Hub. pi. 27. 
f. 172 9, and luteolana, Hub. pi. 21. f. 136, is a very variable 
species, and differs from the other Tortrices in the form of the 
palpi. Several specimens were taken by W. W. Saunders, Esq., 
at the back of the Isle of Wight. The larva lives principally upon 
the vine, and is very destructive in the vineyards of France, but 
it will feed also on Stachys germanica, and in the capsules of Iris 
faetidissima, which abounds at Niton. 

2. 28. T. croceana, Hub. pi. 19. f. 120; Modeeriana, Haw. I 
took this rare species on 3rd July, 1842, on Bordean-hangers, 
near Petersfield, Hants. 

3. Genus 947, 2. Amphisa Walker -ana ,Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 209. 
In the summer of 1827 Mr. H. Walker took two males of this 
curious little moth near Lanark, which I described and published 
the following year, and he afterwards saw it flying in some abun- 
dance over heathy districts, the end of March, in the sunshine 
about noon, on Tinto, a hill near Lanark. 

* As great confusion often arises for want of references to some access- 
ible work, the numbers of the genera and species of Curtis's Guide, 2nd ed., 
have been added, as well as those of the ' Brit. Ent.' 



characterized species of British Moths. Ill 

On the authority of Zeller, Mr. Doubleday has changed my 
name for " prodromana," vide " Hub. Caterpillars, Tortrices 4, 
Genuinae B, c, fig. c" and on referring to the plate where the 
moth is figured with its wings closed, I am not satisfied that it 
represents my insect : it has simple antennae, it is much lighter 
than any I have seen, and the shoulder-marks are different : 
nevertheless it may represent the female. 

4. Genus 950, 23. Spilonota tetragonana, Step. 1 took a spe- 
cimen 11th July, 1842, on a hedge bounding a wood going to 
Woolmer Forest from Selborn. 

5. 26. Spilonota sylvestrana, Curt., was first discovered by 
Mr. Dale at Bournemouth, and from the 23rd June to the 1st 
July we found it there in 1846. It inhabits the Pinasters on the 
cliffs, and we beat it into our nets in the daytime. It has been 
distributed amongst entomologists by the name of " duplana " of 
Hiibner, pi. 36. f. 229 & 230, to which it is not unlike, but much 
smaller : it also resembles the small dark varieties of S. comi- 
tana, Hub. 

It is gray : head grisly and crested ; palpi horizontal, very 
scaly, second joint rhomboidal, apical not apparent ; basal joint 
of antennae stout ; they are closely annulated with black : wings 
deflexed in repose ; superior oblong, tip rounded ; gray, trans- 
versely but irregularly striped with brown and chestnut, one-third 
of the base and a space towards the posterior margin darker, at 
the centre of this is a brownish-ochreous orbicular but not well- 
defined patch ; the costa is spotted gray and dusky ; the cilia are 
griseous with a black line at the base : under-wings pale golden- 
brown ; cilia tinted, with a darker line : the under-side is of an 
uniform pale golden-brown, the costa slightly spotted: hinder 
tibiae stout, with a pair of spurs below the middle, a little longer 
than the apical pair : expanse from 6 to 6f lines. 

6. 27. Spilonota (Sideria) achatana, W.V. ; marmorana, Hub.; 
Curt. Brit. Ent. pi. 551. The 12th July, 1848, I beat four out 
of blackthorns by Pole Hill, near Uxbridge. 

7. Genus 955, 5. Anchylopera Lyellana, Curt. Brit. Ent. 
fol. 376, having been first added to our British fauna by Sir 
Charles Lyell, who took it in June at Kinnordy in Forfarshire, I 
named it after my friend, but it seems to have been described 
previously by Treitschke under the name of Phoxopteryx myrtil- 
lana, and has been since figured by Duponchel, vol. x. pi. 253. 
f. 4. 

8. 8. A. diminutana, Haw. ; cuspidana, Treit. I have taken it 
the middle of August at Mickleham in Surrey, and Mr. Dale 
finds it at Lulworth in Dorsetshire. 



112 Mr. J. Curtis on some nondescript or imperfectly 

9. Genus 957, 12. Carpocapsa nigricana, Haw. Our speci- 
mens do not agree with the Fabrician description, but Haworth's 
insect seems to be the Grapholitha nebritana of Treitschke, and is 
the " Pisana " of Guene, according to examples from Paris, which 
Mr. Doubleday obligingly showed me. This is a most interest- 
ing species, as it is the parent of the maggots in peas, which we 
have so long endeavoured to rear, but unsuccessfully. 

10. 25. C. Queketana, Dale, was first discovered I believe on 
a bank going to Burkham on the south side of the river the end 
of April 1842. I fear this name will fall, as Doubleday considers 
it the T. fraciifasciana of Haworth, and the Eriopsila caricana 
of the continent. 

11. Genus 959, 1. Cnephasia bellana, Curt. B. E. pi. 100. Im- 
mediately after a most successful entomological tour made in 
Scotland by Mr. Dale and myself, during the summer of 1825, 
I published this beautiful species, being one of the novelties I 
detected ascending Arthur's Seat. Nine years after it was de- 
scribed by Stephens as the T. Penziana ?; T. octomaculana, Haw., 
being given as a variety. Wood of course followed in the same 
wake, and has consequently figured my new species as 'Penziana,' 
and omitted to delineate ' octomaculana,' which is distinct enough 
from C. bellana, but considerably like, if not identical with, Buh- 
ner' s Penziana, pi. 14. fig. 85. 

Here is one amongst hundreds of instances in which names 
have been changed and misapplied from either ignorance or ca- 
price to the destruction of science, creating a mass of confusion, 
which it is to be hoped Mr. Henry Doubleday and Mr. Stainton 
will eventually set right. 

12. 2. C. octomaculana, Haw. MSS., expands from 10 to 11 
lines : it is pale fuscous : superior wings white or grayish-white 
with two irregular brown bands ; the first near the base angu- 
lated, edged with black and not reaching the inner margin, se- 
cond crossing the middle obliquely, very irregular, dotted with 
black, forming a kind of triangle on the costa united to a rhom- 
boidal spot on the disc and detached from a smaller one on the 
inner margin ; towards the apex is a spot leaving a pale patch on 
the costa, and a smaller one nearer the tip ; towards the pos- 
terior margin are two or three irregular oblique lines of black 
dots. 

Of this rare species, which has never been described, I caught 
two the 19th July, 1825, which flew out of a stonewall near the 
Inn at the base of Ben Lawes. 

13. 3. C. wetaceana, Curt. It expands 10 lines, and is chalk- 
white : superior wings with very faint indications of spots and 
bands freckled with gray : inferior wings pale fuscous. I never 



characterized species of British Moths. 1 1 3 

met with this insect but once, and then in abundance on the 
paling round Dover Castle in July 1829. I suspect it is only a 
strong variety of C. octomaculana, as some of my specimens ap- 
proach that insect. 

14. 10. C. rectifasciana, Haw. I am not satisfied that this 
is the insect figured by Hubner (pi. 38. f. 238) under the name 
of T. hybridana : it is larger and darker, and the markings have 
a different character ; indeed it reminds me more of a variety of 
T. comitana. 

Mr. Doubleday having applied my generic name to that por- 
tion of the group which is not typical, it becomes necessary to 
repeat, that the type of Cnephasia is a species abundant on elm- 
trees, the T. logiana of Haworth, which in 1826, when I esta- 
blished its characters, was believed to be synonymous with the 
Linnsean species, as well as with the T. pascuana of Hubner, 
pi. 16. f. 99. The name Sciaphila, which Mr. Doubleday has 
substituted for Cnephasia, was not published by Treitschke until 
1829, and could not therefore be applied to my group, even had 
it not been preoccupied by Schonherr for a genus of Curculionidse 
four years before Treitschke adopted it. It may be as well to 
correct the spelling of Hubner' s name, which in his letterpress 
is pascuana, but by an error of the engraver the s has been con- 
verted into an i, making the unmeaning word pasiuana, and pas- 
sivana of Doubleday's list. 

15. Genus 960, 1. Orthotcenia (Euchromia, Step.) formosana, 
Curt. B. E. fol. 364. This was described by me in 1831, not as 
the T. formosana of Hubner as indicated by Mr. Doubleday, a 
species I am unacquainted with, as well as his T. flammeana, 
neither of which can I find in the Index to Hiibner's works nor 
in Treitschke. 

16. 13. O. Arbutana, Hub. pi. 31. f. 195. Mr. Dale feels 
confident this is the T. Arbutella of the Linnsean cabinet. 

17. 7. O. alternana, Curt. ib. : Daleana, Doub., was also de- 
scribed in 'Brit. Ent/ in 1831, where I adopted the names in 
the 1st ed. of my ' Guide/ and not of the * Wiener Verzeichniss/ 
where I am unable to find T. alternana ; and even if it be there, 
I must protest against the superseding of established specific 
names, unless the name has been employed in the same group 
previously. If such be the case in the present instance, I fully 
approve of the name of my friend, which Mr. Doubleday pro- 
poses. 

18. 8. O. gramineana, Curt, ib., also described on the above 
page of ' Brit. Ent.' At that time I stated it was " most allied 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 8 



114 Mr. J. Curtis on some nondescript or imperfectly 

to and the size of 0. cespitana, Hub./' an opinion which has re- 
cently been confirmed by Mr. Doubleday. 

19. 9. O. cespitana, Curt. ib. Mr. Doubleday being satisfied 
that this is not Hiibner's insect, but one described in the ' Isis ' 
by Mad. Lienig as T. palustrana, my name must be transferred to 
the preceding species. I regret to see it separated from Ortho- 
tcenia and made one of a new genus called Mixodia by Guene, 
for surely it cannot be necessary to form a genus to receive a 
species so closely allied to O. cespitana, that one may be mistaken 
for the other : sections are infinitely better, and to these we must 
come at last, when we have been overwhelmed with the burden 
of generic nomenclature. This extravagant rage for making 
genera has however had its use, having led to a refinement of 
discrimination which has been most beneficial in correcting the 
slovenly habits of investigation that attached even to the mag- 
nates of the last century and somewhat later. 

20. Genus 963, 6. Cochylis marmoratana, Curt. Brit. Ent. 
!bl. 491. The species since described under the name of luteo- 
lana by Stephens, and figured by Wood, pi. 37. f. 1140, appears 
to be a variety of my marmoratana. 

21. Genus 967. Peronea, Curt. Brit, Ent. fol. & pi. 16. Since 
this genus was published in 1824, prodigious strides have been 
made in entomology, and large quantities of these Tortricidce have 
been bred by Mr. Doubleday, who considers a vast number of 
the species merely varieties of two types, viz. T. cristana, W. V., 
and T. hastiana, Linn. If Lepidoptera vary to such an extent, 
it may be well asked, ' What is a species V 

family Crambid;e. 

n 

22. Genus 991 b . Anerastia, Zell. ; Abrades, Guide. 

2. Farrella, Curt. Cab. Expanse 11 lines ; and similar in form 
to A. Marisci or T. lotella, Hub. pi. 48. f. 334. It is whitish, 
the horns are very slender and flesh-coloured, as well as the back 
of the thorax : superior wdngs narrower than in lotella, gray 
freckled with brown ; the costa brown, with a white streak from 
the base to near the tip, and a suffused space of ochreous flesh- 
colour along the centre ; before the middle, on the inner margin, 
is a black dot, and three more beyond the middle in a curve, one 
being on the costa, another on the inner edge of the white streak, 
and a third below it : inferior wings pale silky smoky lilac. 

For a specimen of this pretty and distinct species I am in- 
debted to Mr. H. F. Farr : two or three were taken at the North 
Lighthouse, Lowestoft, the beginning of June 1840. 

23. Genus 993, 9\ Phycita bilineata, Curt. Cab. It is the 



characterized species of British Moths. 115 

size oiP.fusca, Haw., but of a pale mouse-colour with a slight 
ochreous tinge, and the upper wings are narrower with a pale 
irregular transverse line, a little more than one-third from the 
base, but it does not seem to reach the costa, and there is an in- 
distinct blackish dot on the disc : the under-wings are pale smoky 
with a nacreous silky surface : the antennae are very slender and 
apparently simple, but it is a very old and imperfect male which 
I took when residing in Norfolk. 

24. Genus 994, 6. Eudorea Portlandica^ a name given to this 
moth by Mr. Dale, from his finding it only in the Isle of Port- 
land. It seems to me to be the E. phaoluca, described and figured 
in the Linn. Entom. vol. i. p. 306. No. 15. fiar. 13. 

25. 6 b . E. concinnella, Curt. Cab., expands 7 lines, being 
much smaller than E. Mercurella, Linn., which it most resem- 
bles : it is however entirely of a dark brown ; nearly one-third 
from the base of the upper wings is a curved whitish striga, and 
intermediate between it and the shoulder is another ; on the disc 
is an indistinct black Q , beyond it an oblique white line, sud- 
denly curved near the costa ; a line of black dots at the base of 
the cilia, forming a little black spot near the middle, surrounded 
by gray scales, extending irregularly along the posterior margin : 
under-wings pale brown, whitish at the base. 

I cannot remember where I took this distinct and unique spe- 
cimen, unless it was at Bournemouth. 

26. 8. J£. /meo/«. Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 170. It expands 8 lines, 
is white, head, palpi and thorax grisly ; abdomen fuscous, edges 
of segments white : superior wings rather narrow, clouded with 
brown ; the. base is brown with an oblique black and white costal 
stripe, reaching only half across and forming on the costa, with 
the next, a white patch ; this second line is white, very tortuous 
and margined with black externally ; to the centre loop is attached 
a black oval spot ; above it, but nearer the middle, is a small white 
dot in a black ring, and beyond it a black Q, white in the 
centre ; towards the hinder margin is an oblique sinuose white 
striga with a large curve, filled internally by a brown patch, and 
externally at the costa and opposite extremity are two other 
brown patches, the latter with a black arrow-head ; these leave a 
semi-oval white space on the hinder margin, at the centre of which 
is a small brown spot bearing black pointed dots extending along 
the cilia, which is spotted black : under-wings fuscous-white, 
with a transverse pale sinuated line nearly parallel to the mar- 
gin, as noticed in ■ Brit. Ent/ — Wood's fig. 1446 is not good. 

27. 9. E. Resinea, Haw. Lep. Brit. p. 499. Mr. Stephens 
having described this species under the above title in 1834, I 

8* 



116 Mr. J. Curtis on some nondescript or imperfectly 

consider that it is quite unnecessary to disturb a name by which 
it was so well known, to admit one proposed by Guene, who in 
a letter calls it delunella. It was no doubt negligent of Haworth 
to transcribe Linnseus's characters of his Tinea Resinella, which 
he did with ?s, but as there is no such Linnsean insect as Tinea 
Resinea, no confusion can arise from retaining Haworth's and 
Stephens's name, by which it is identified in all our catalogues 
as well as by Wood's figure 1448, and an appropriate name it is, 
as the moth is always found on the trunks of Coniferse. 

28. 13. E. angustea, Curt. B. E. fol. 170, expands 7 lines. 
It is ashy-brown, the upper wings very narrow and gradually 
tapering to the base, towards which is an oblique broadish pale 
curved line, dark outside ; on the disc are a minute oval and the 
usual Q spots, but indistinct ; and beyond them a very oblique 
sinuose pale narrow line well defined, the inner margin brown ; 
base of the cilia gray with a line of black dots : under-wings pale 
yellowish-fuscous. 

Wood's figure 1450 is not my E. angustea, but merely a va- 
riety of E. Mercurella. The only specimen I possess I caught 
in a damp cave at Tunbridge Wells the end of Aug. 1819, where 
I saw many more. 

29. 14. E. alpina, Dale's MS. It expands 9 lines and may 
be only a large variety of the foregoing, but all the examples are 
paler, with an additional black oval spot below the minute one 
on the disc, and upon the under-wings is a pale transverse striga 
nearly parallel with the margin. 

Mr. Dale's specimens were taken on Schichalion. 

Jbamily TiNEiDiE. 

rr 

30. Genus 1008. Depressaria, Haw. ; Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. & 
pi. 221. 

20. D. bipunctosa, Curt. Guide. It expands 11 lines and is 
whitish-ochre, the spaces between the marginal nervures of the 
upper wings are slightly fuscous, and on the disc of each are two 
distinct black dots, forming a longitudinal curved line, with an- 
other at the base, and the apex of the costa and posterior margin 
bear ten black spots : the under-wings are pale fuscous : antenna? 
and legs fuscous. 

This is not a variety of Hubner's T. Verbascella, as I once 
suspected, and it certainly is not of any species I possess. It is 
the form of D. liturella, W. V., but is smaller, and at once di- 
stinguished by the colour of the legs, the uniform tint of the 
upper wings, with the dotted costa and darker under-wings. The 
only specimen I have seen was taken in the New Eorest by Sir 
Charles Lyell about twenty years since. 



characterized species of British Moths. 117 

31. Genus 1009. Anacampsis, Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 189. 

5. A. lucidetta, Step. ; Cleodora lucidella, Wood, pi. 40. f. 1240. 
This rare insect I found on some rushes near Newchurch in the 
Isle of Wight, the 1st of July, 1842, and Mr. Dale has taken it 
in the New Forest. 

32. 26. A. Lyellella, Curt. It expands 6 lines and is cream- 
coloured : antennae and legs mouse-colour, the latter spotted and 
striped with black externally : superior wings with three black 
costal spots, first a long one next the shoulder, a second at the 
centre, and a third further and larger ; on the inner margin is 
an oblong patch, neither reaching the base nor the anal angle, 
yet extending more than midway to the costa ; apex brownish 
with a black semicircle inclosing a dot at the tip : under-wings 
broad, suddenly pointed, pale fuscous and iridescent. 

My specimen was taken by Sir C. Lyell the 9th of April in 
the New Forest. 

33. Genus 1013. Cleodora, Step.; Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 671. 
6 b . C. neuropterella, Zell. This insect, which I supposed was 

the T. falciformis of Haworth, I took in Aug. at Mickleham. One 
of my specimens expands 11 lines : the upper wings are falcate, 
ochreous shaded to white on the interior margin ; the nervures 
and spots between them are rosy-fuscous or mouse-colour. 

34. Genus 1015. Aphelosetia, Step. ? 

6 b . A. Inulella, Curt. It expands 5 lines and is white : scales 
on head depressed ; palpi recurved, scaly to the apex : superior 
wings narrow, lanceolate, ochreous, and freckled ; costa, a line 
along the middle, with the radiating nervures and inferior margin 
white, and sometimes there is an oblique white stripe near the 
inner angle directed towards the tip ; cilia long, pale, and dotted 
at the base : inferior wings silky dove-colour, nearly as broad as 
the superior, truncated at the extremity, the apex produced ; cilia 
long and thick ; hinder tibiae stout, with hairy scales. 

Very like A. rufo-cinerea, Haw., at first sight, but besides other 
differences, the under-wings are not lanceolate, which indicates 
an affinity to Cleodora. I bred two from flowers of Inula dysen- 
terica the 28th of Aug. 1 848, collected near By de in the Isle of 
Wight, and no doubt the caterpillars fed upon the seeds in the 
receptacles. 

35. Genus 1017. Damophila, Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 391. 

3. D. brevicornis of Dale and the ' Guide' is the Butalis aralella 
of Zeller, Mr. Stainton informs me. 

36. Genus 1021. Pancalia, Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 304. 

2. P.fusco-cuprea, Haw., I have taken at Podimore, near Sher- 
borne in Dorset, the 8th of October. 



118 Mr. J. Curtis on some nondescript or imperfectly 

3. P.fusco-anea, Haw., is twice as large as the foregoing spe- 
cies. I have met with it the middle of August on the Downs 
near Lul worth, and also at Mickleham. 

37. Genus 1023. Microsetia, Step. 

4. M. sericiella, Haw. I found this little moth in abundance 
on the flowers of Euphorbia amygdaloides in Grovely Wood, near 
Wilton, the 9th May 1842. 

Genus 1025. Argyromyges, Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 284. 

38. 1. A. Autumnella, Curt. B. E. pi. 284. This species is 
now decided to be the T. Clerckella of Linnseus, and the A. 
Clerckella of our cabinets is called scitella. 

39. l b . A. Acerfoliella, Curt. ; Padifoliella, Stain. The male 
expands 4 lines, and the antennae are longer than the wings : it is 
sickly-white, superior wings very narrow, falcate, fuscous with a 
pure white stripe along the interior margin, surrounding a long 
oblique curved line at the anal angle ; the apex attenuated, in- 
curved, spotted black and white with a very black dot at the tip : 
inferior wings very narrow, smoky as well as the long cilia. The 
female is near 5 lines in expanse, fuscous ; head and thorax white : 

superior wings very narrow, less falcate than in the male and 
terminating like a feather, rich brown, the interior margin pure 
white with the inner edge irregular, forming a square near the 
base, an oblique lobe at the middle, and a loop at the ana] angle, 
inclosing a brown spot ; the cilia of the apex is white with black 
crescents on the extremity of the costa and round the tip, where 
there is a black dot : inferior wings very narrow and tapering to 
a point. 

For a pair of this rarity I am indebted to Mr. T. Desvignes, 
who took several in September and October flying out of maples 
and whitethorns in Whittlebury Forest. The sexes seem to vary 
considerably, but neither of them agrees with Hiibner's figure of 
T. Padifoliella, pi. 46. f. 316, in which the costa is white and the 
interior margin spotted dark, whereas in our species it is exactly 
the reverse. 

40. 16. A. hortella, Fab., I took in a plantation near Wands- 
worth the 19th of May. 

41. 21. A. Cydoniella, Step., is the lautella of Heyden. I 
found a beautiful specimen in Mullens Copse at Glanville'sWoot- 
ton the 18th May 1842. 

42. 6 b . A. maritima, Stain. MS. The 26th of August, 1836, 
I first discovered this species on the banks of the river by St. 
Vincent's Rocks. It was tolerably plentiful. 

43. 7. A. obscurella, Step. 111. iv. 259. This insect occurs 



characterized species of British Moths. 119 

amongst long grass in young plantations. I have taken it near 
Glanville's Wootton, Dorset, the 18th May. 

Genus 1028. Telea, Step. 

44. 2. subfasciella, Step. 111. iv. 247. This I met with the 
30th June at St. Martha's, near Guildford ; the 9th July on 
Turk Mountain, near Killarney ; and the 11th August at 
Mickleham. 

45. 8. Curtisella, Don. ; cainobitella, Hub. It is now believed 
that the black T. obscurella of Hiibner and the T. piccepennis of 
Ha worth are only dark varieties, but I have not seen any inter- 
mediate ones. 

46. Genus 1030, 2. Ypsolophus, Persicellus, Haw., I find is 
not a variety of his Y. bifasciatus, the T. sylvella of Hiibner ; but 
a distinct species. 

Genus 1031. Cerostoma, Lat. } Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 420. 

47. 4. C. Xylostella, Linn. I have a specimen expanding 
1\ lines, with the stripe on the inner margin of the upper wings 
nearly concolorous with the rest, but I believe it is only a variety 
of this common species. 

48. 5. C. Dalella, Stain. Syst. Cat. p. 11. This species was 
first given to me many years since by Sir C. Lyell, who took it 
at Kinnordy, and the beginning of August 1825 I discovered it 
amongst heath on the face of a rock in the Isle of Bute. As it 
agreed pretty well with Hubner's fig. 164. pi. 24, I gave it as 
his T. vittella in my • Guide/ 

Genus 1031 b . Acrolepia, Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. & pi. 679. 

This is a very remarkable group, so greatly resembling the 
Tortricidte, that a careless observer, omitting to examine the palpi, 
would at once include it in the wrong family. In 1838 this ge- 
nus was established in my e Brit. Ent/ by dissection and elabo- 
rate definitions, and as Zeller did not publish the group until 
nearly two years after, his name and not mine must fall by the 
law of priority, which Mr. Stainton very justly recognises to its 
fullest extent. 

49. 1. A. autumnitella, Curt. B. E. ib. I should not hesitate 
to adopt Mr. Stainton's opinion, that my species is the Tortrix 
pygmceana of Haworth's ' Lep. Brit/ p. 439, if he did not give 
4 lines as the expanse of the wings, for my examples measure 
from 5^ to 5| lines. Wood's figure 1 136 of Eupoecilia pygmceana, 
as he calls it, after Stephens, is apparently identical with my in- 
sect, as well as DuponcheFs Hcemilis Lefebvriella (v. 11. p. 141. 
pi. 290. f. 11). Since this genus was published in the l Brit. 
Ent/ I have seen specimens of A. autumnitella, flying in the day- 



120 Mr. J. Curtis on some new species of British Moths. 

time about rose-trees in my garden at Hayes, the beginning of 
April. 

50. 2. A. Betulatella, Curt. B. E. pi. & fol. 679. The only 
specimens I have seen were taken by Mr. Dale off birch-trees at 
Castle Eden Dene the beginning of August 1837. I have how- 
ever a new species to describe which I shall name 

51. 3. Marcidella, Curt. Cab. It expands 6^ lines, and is 
pale rusty-ochre : palpi recurved and tapering ; antennae slender, 
white, and dotted ; head and back of thorax whitish : superior 
wings oblong, very much mottled, the costa arched and minutely 
spotted, with a dusky patch just beyond the middle, terminating 
internally in a longitudinal black line ; from the outer angle pro- 
jects obliquely a short brown line, and at the centre of the pos- 
terior margin may be traced an imperfect ring inclosing two or 
three short black streaks on the nervures ; on the interior mar- 
gin, before the middle, is a pale conical spot, with a dark margin 
next the base ; cilia fuscous with a dark line at the base and two 
little black lines at the tip, forming one or two white dots : in- 
ferior wings as broad as the superior, very pale mouse-colour, 
apex ovate-lanceolate. 

A pair of this moth was given to me by Mr. Robertson I 
think : the specimens have a worn or faded appearance. 

52. 6. A. granitella, Fischer, has been sent to me by Mr. Dale. 
It is allied to the genus Cerostoma. 

Genus 1038. Gracillaria, Haw. ; Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 479 ; Or- 
nix, Treit. 

53. 1. G. Taxella, Curt. Cab., expands 3^ lines, and is si- 
milar to O. Meleagripennella of Hiibner, but the wings are not 
so narrow, and a double white spot near the tip of the costa di- 
stinguishes it. It is white ; the hairs projecting from the fore- 
head are brown : antennae long and dotted : superior wings broad 
towards the apex, fuscous, with a lilac tinge at the extremity ; 
ten white semicrescents ornament the costa, two at the apex 
nearly uniting and inclosing a black dot, which is bounded by 
black and white lines like a feather ; the fringe is white with a 
fine black line ; on the interior margin are two black spots, with 
white ones between them : inferior wings lanceolate and mouse- 
colour : abdomen fuscous spotted with white, the apex tufted in 
the male ; the organs of generation bright ochreous : legs white 
and spotted. 

The 2nd June 1839, I beat a few specimens out of yew-trees 
at Mickleham. 

Genus J 040. Pterophorus, Geoff. ; Curt. Brit. Ent. fol. 161. 

54. 17. P.similidactylus, Curt., Dale. As neither Stephens's 



Rev. W. Smith on Deposits of Diatomaceous Earth. 121 

description nor Wood's figure answers to my insect, I will'add the 
characters of this species, which was unknown until I took three 
flying near the ground by a hedge at Niton, in the Isle of Wight, 
the 30th of July 1828. 

It expands 1 inch and is yellowish-white : the superior wings 
are more or less freckled, deeply cleft, the upper lobe narrow and 
curved, the costa and inferior margins are tawny, forming an 
oblique line towards the extremity composed of two trigonate 
spots, that on the costa being the larger : inferior wings yellow- 
fuscous, divided into three rays, without any lobe on the abdo- 
minal one : legs white ; thighs and hinder tibise tawny, the latter 
tipped fuscous ; anterior tibise clavate and brown, except at the 
base, intermediate clubbed or tasseled with brown scales at the 
apex, and another similar tassel at the middle. 

P. similidactylus varies in colour greatly, for one of my speci- 
mens is of an uniform dove-colour, except the darker markings 
on the upper wings, and the white but spotted legs. It is distin- 
guished from the allied species by the narrow upper lobe of the 
superior wings and the tasseled spotted tibise. 

01191 
18, Belitha Villas, Barnsbury Park, 1st Jan. 1850. 

- 

XIV. — On Deposits of Diatomaceous Earth, found on the sho?*es 
of Lough Mourne, County Antrim, with a record of species 
living in the waters of the Lake. By the Rev. W. Smith, F.L.S. 

During a late visit to the North of Ireland I had placed in my 
hands, by Mr. J. M'Adam of Belfast, a small quantity of earth 
which from its peculiar appearance he fancied might contain the 
shells of " Infusoria." A very slight examination convinced me 
of the correctness of this conjecture, and proved that the entire 
substance of the earth in question consisted of a mass of un- 
broken or fragmental siliceous shells of various Diatomacece. 
Being desirous of ascertaining the exact nature of the deposit 
from which the earth had been procured, and how far it had 
claims to the character of " fossil," a term which has frequently, 
but I fear without sufficient consideration, been given to similar 
collections of these beautiful exuvise, and understanding from Mr. 
M'Adam that the determination of the point would be of some 
importance as regarded a paper on the Geology of the district 
which he hoped in a short time to prepare for the ' Annals/ I 
determined to visit the spot, and record the particulars required 
from personal observation. 

Lough Mourne is a sheet of fresh water of about two miles in 
circumference, lying amidst a range of low hills to the north-east 
of the town of Carrickfergus, at the distance of four miles from 



122 Rev. W. Smith on Deposits of Diatomaceous Earth 

that town, and about fifteen from Belfast. It occupies a basin 
in a plateau which does not appear to have any land of a much 
greater elevation in the immediate neighbourhood ; the lake is 
therefore fed by the surface- drainage of a very small district, and 
has no further apparent sources of supply, with the exception of 
a spring at the north-west corner, the produce of which is of 
little importance. It is however worthy of note, that a small 
stream, sufficient to turn the wheel of a corn-mill in the neigh- 
bourhood, approaches within a few hundred yards of the lake, 
and falling into a natural pit or cavity, is lost to view, and is said 
to reappear at some distance southwards, and there unite its 
waters with those of the streamlet flowing from the lake, to 
whose larger mass it had thus fastidiously refused to contribute 
its supply. However this may be, it is certain that the lake 
itself is not subject to any serious disturbance from the sudden 
increase of its waters by floods or otherwise, and that its quiet 
depths and great purity are peculiarly favourable to the develop- 
ment of Diatomacece. The level of the water however appears to 
have been lowered to the extent of several feet by deepening the 
outlet from the lake, a course which seems to have been adopted 
in the hope of increasing the supply to a mill now in ruins, a 
fate not unnaturally the result of so reckless an expenditure of 
the capital represented by the waters of the natural reservoir, 
thus improvidently drained of its contents. The facts I have 
mentioned will account for the circumstances to which I proceed 
more particularly to refer, and which I noted during a brief sur- 
vey of the shores of the lake in company with Mr. Geo. C. Hynd- 
man and Mr. J. G. Smith on the 6th Sept. 1849. 

On the north-east shore of the lake, at the height of about 
four or five feet from the present level of its waters, there occurred 
a stratum of diatomaceous earth corresponding with that alluded 
to in the opening of this paper. This layer was about six inches 
in depth and of great purity, containing but little foreign matter, 
and that chiefly the decayed filaments of the water-plants to which 
the living Diatomacece had been attached, or in company with 
which they had floated to their present position. This deposit 
when moist was of a dull gray colour, and resembled soft, freshly 
made soap ; when placed upon the tongue, the taste was that of 
a smooth oleaginous substance. The sensation thus perceived is 
no doubt to be attributed to the extreme minuteness of the shells 
and their usually rounded outline, presenting no angles to grate 
upon the papillae of the tongue or finger. When dried in mass, 
the earth is of a delicate cream-colour, when pulverized of a pure 
white, and forms, as I have proved, an excellent material for 
polishing silver plate. This layer must have • required a long 
series of years for its gradual accumulation : its elevation from 



on the shores of Lough Mourne. 123 

the surface of the lake is accounted for by the lowering of the 
level of the waters before mentioned; and its position on the 
north-east shore is no doubt to be ascribed to the circumstance 
that south-west winds prevail at the season when the filaments 
to which the Diatomacece are attached, are loosened by the cold 
of autumn and winter. 

At the present level of the water in the lake, near the spot 
where the layer now mentioned is found, there does not appear 
to be any fresh deposit of a similar character. This may possibly 
be owing to the more abrupt shelving of the bank, not affording 
a resting-place for the floating weeds ; but on advancing towards 
the south and on the level strand of a little bay, there formed by 
a bend in the outline of the shore, a second deposit occurred 
evidently of a more recent formation. It was found covering 
the mud in a very thin stratum, and much more intermixed 
with earthy and other matters than the layer on the north-west 
shore. This layer is probably the result of accumulations made 
since the deepening of the outlet from the lake, and the date of this 
operation, and the comparative thickness of the layer itself, might 
possibly afford materials by which an estimate might be formed 
of the period occupied in the accumulation of the older deposit. 
The hurried nature of my visit did not permit me to make the 
inquiries necessary for such an investigation. No further deposits 
were found, nor were there any appearances of such on the western 
shore of the lake. 

As important in determining the character of the deposits 
found, I made a gathering of such living Diatomacece as were 
within my reach, and I now subjoin a list of the species, disco- 
vered on a careful examination of all the collected materials, 
adhering throughout to the nomenclature of Kiitzing in his 
'Bacillarien oder Diatomeen/ As a curious illustration of a 
" multum in parvo," I may mention that a drop which adheres 
to the point of a knife, dipped into water, holding the earth of 
the earlier deposit in suspension, will be found to contain nearly 
all the species mentioned below, and of some of these hundreds 
of individuals. 

I have marked (f) those species which were found living in 
the lake ; with one or two exceptions all the others were common 
to either deposit. In the older, or that from the north-east shore, 
the most conspicuous species and occurring in great abundance 
was Surirella splendida. The Epithemice were also exceedingly 
numerous. In the more recent deposit, Surirella splendida was 
in very small quantity, but its place was in some degree supplied 
by the beautiful Melosira arenaria, which I could not detect in 
the former. The Epit hernia, which I have dedicated to one of 
my companions in a most agreeable excursion (whose reputation 



124 Rev. W. Smith on Deposits of Diatomaceous Earth. 



as an acute observer in another department of natural history is 
not unknown to the readers of the ' Annals '), is a large and hand- 
some species intermediate between E. zebra and E. granulata, 
but distinguished from both by its stouter habit, the regular 
convexity of its dorsal outline, and its rounded ends. I add a 
description in a note*. 

fEpithemia Musculus. 

\ zebra. 

f ocellata. 

t gibba. 

T turgida. 

granulata. 

Hyndmanii. 






fHimantidium pectinale. 

Fragilaria virescens. 

capucina. 

fCyclotella operculata. 

minutula. 

fMelosira orichalcea. 
f arenaria. 

Campylodiscus noricus. 

Surirella splendida. 

t bifrons. 

-f Solea. 

t elliptica. _;oIo3S 

fSynedra capitata. 

t biceps /3. recta. 

f ulna. 

sigmoidea. 

fCocconeis Pediculus. 
-f Cymbella Ehrenbergii. 

cuspidata. 

•fCocconema lanceolata. 



fCocconema Cistula. 
'fGomphonema acuminatum, 
t constrictum. 

geminatum. 

fNavicula nobilis. 

t major. 

f viridis. 

f sphserophora. 

f radiosa. 

nodosa /3. striata. 

binodis. 

lata. 

dicephala. 

mesolepta. 

t elliptica. 

firma. 

f attenuata. 

fStauroneis Phoenicentron. 

punctata. 

lanceolata. 

cardinalis. 

t lineolata. 

amphicephala. 

Platystoma. 

t Amphora ovahs. 

Tabellaria fenestrata. 

ventricosa. 



•f cymbiformis. 

It is evident from the above that neither of the deposits found 
can with strictness be termed fossil ; that they are simply the 
siliceous coverings of species, the greater number, if not all, of 
which, still inhabit the waters of the lake, having required no 
doubt a lengthened period for their accumulation, but still one 
comparatively recent, and which cannot be regarded as conferring 
a fossiliferous character on the deposit itself. 

In the ' Magazine of Nat. Hist/ for July 1839, an interesting 
description of an " Infusorial " earth found on draining Lough 
Island- Reavey, co. Down — is given by Dr. Drummond of Bel- 
fast : I have been enabled by the kindness of W. Thompson, Esq. 
of that town to compare this deposit with those I have here 
noticed. Although occurring under very similar circumstances, 

* Epithemia Hyndmanii, W. Sm. E. major, a latere secundario valde 
et sequaliter convexa, apicibus obtusissimis rotundatis non recurvatis, striis 
transversalibus moniliformibus vix convergentibus : a latere primario ob- 
longa medio valde dilatata. Long, ^^^-tt^ unciae. 



Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 125 

and in a locality not very distant from mine, the earth from Lough 
Island-Reavey is almost wholly different, including but few spe- 
cies, and the more numerous of these found but sparingly in the 
Lough Mourne deposits. 

The following make up nearly the entire mass of the earth 
described by Dr. Drummond : — 

Navicula gracilis. Tabellaria fenestrata. 

Himantidium arcus. ventricosa. 

pectinale. 

A few frustules of the following also occur : — 

Surirella splendida. Epithemia zebra. 

Navicula viridis, Cocconema lanceolata. 

The profusion in which N gracilis, H. pectinale and T. fenes- 
trata occur in this deposit, would lead to the conclusion that the 
waters of the lake in which it had been found were the drainage 
of a subalpine district, whose surface was almost exclusively 
peat, while the Lough Mourne deposit would, even to the phi- 
lomicros unacquainted with its locality, indicate the neighbour- 
hood of clear springs, grassy pastures and a low elevation. In 
this way these minute organisms may afford matter for interest- 
ing speculation, and when occurring in a fossil state may possibly 
be made available in the researches of the geological inquirer. 

Wareham, January 10, 1850. 



XV. — Notes on Chalcidites, and Descriptions of various new 
species. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

[Continued from vol. iii. p. 210.] 

— t 
Caudonia, n. g. , _ « ■ r . 

Fern. Head and chest convex, very finely shagreened : head thick, 
a little broader than the chest : feelers slender, subclavate ; first joint 
long, slender ; second cup-shaped ; third and fourtH very small ; the 
following from the fifth to the tenth successively but slightly de- 
creasing in length and increasing in breadth ; club long-elliptical, 
broader than the tenth joint, and more than twice its length : chest 
spindle-shaped, much developed : fore-chest rather long, having a 
slight transverse ridge near the hind-border whence it declines and 
grows narrower and forms a short neck : shield of the mid-chest very 
long ; sutures of the parapsides distinct for rather more than two- 
thirds of the length of the chest, but thence quite obsolete ; axillae 
parted by rather less than one-fifth of the breadth of the chest ; 
scutcheon nearly conical, with a slight transverse suture towards the 
hind-border ; hind-scutcheon transverse, but rather large : hind-chest 
well developed, obconical, declining, with a ridge along the middle 
and a suture on each side : petiole short : abdomen long-oval, smooth, 
shining, slightly concave above, rather deeply keeled beneath, some- 
what broader and a little shorter than the chest ; metapodeon occu- 



126 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

pying nearly one-fourth of the back ; octoon and all the following 
segments of moderate size ; the keel beneath forms an angle beyond 
one-half of its length, and thence rises abruptly to the tip, and emits 
the oviduct at about half its length between the angle and the tip : 
legs slender: wings of moderate size ; ulna shorter than the hume- 
rus ; radius full as long as the ulna ; cubitus moderately long, full 
one-fourth of the length of the radius ; brand small, round. — This 
genus is allied to Trigonoderus, Hetroxys and Notanisus. 

Caudonia Agylla, fem. JEneo-viridis , abdomine rufo basi cupreo 
apice viridi, antennis nigris, pedibus rufis, alis subfulvis. 

Head coppery : eyes and eyelets dark red : feelers black, shorter 
than the chest ; first joint tawny, piceous at the tip : chest coppery 
green : front of the fore-chest almost black : hind-chest brassy : ab- 
domen pale red, dark bronze-colour at the base above, green at the 
tip : oviduct tawny : legs pale red ; four hinder feet tawny with 
piceous tips : wings pale tawny ; veins darker tawny ; brand pale 
brown. Length of the body 1^ line ; of the wings 2 J- lines. 

England. In the collection of Mr. Dale. 

Encyrtus Statius, fem. Cyaneus, capite cupreo, abdomine nigro, 
antennis piceis albo-cinctis apice nigris, pedibus nigris, tarsisful- 
vis, alis nigro-fuscis. 

Head and chest convex : head coppery, large, most roughly punc- 
tured, hardly broader than the chest ; crown and front very broad : 
eyes dark red : feelers subclavate, more than half the length of the 
chest ; joints from the first to the sixth piceous ; first joint long, 
slender, broader towards the tip ; second cup-shaped ; the following 
joints to the eighth slightly and successively decreasing in length ; 
seventh and eighth joints white ; club black, long-conical, broader 
than the eighth joint and more than twice its length : chest very 
short, a little longer than broad, dark blue, very finely punctured : 
fore-chest very short, but visible above : shield of the mid-chest short 
and broad ; no traces of the sutures of the parapsides ; axillae long 
and narrow, just meeting on the back ; scutcheon large, obconical, 
rather flat above, with a very slight furrow from the fore-border to 
the disc : hind- chest and petiole extremely short : abdomen trian- 
gular, flat, smooth, shining, black, shorter than the chest, but ex- 
ceeding it in breadth near the base : legs stout, black ; feet tawny 
with piceous tips ; fore-feet darker than the rest ; middle legs having 
the feet dilated as usual, and the tips of the shanks armed with 
two black spines : wings dark brown, somewhat dilated above the 
humerus ; veins piceous ; ulna not half the length of the humerus ; 
radius and cubitus shorter than the ulna; brand extremely small. 
Length of the body \ line ; of the wings 1^ line. 
England. In the collection of Mr. Dale. 

Callimome eurynotus (Foerster MSS.), mas. Viridis, abdomine 
purpureo basi cyaneo, antennis nigris, pedibus flavis, femoribus et 
metatibiis viridibus, alis limpidis. 

Head and chest convex, green, finely shagreened, rather thickly 



Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Clialcidites. 127 

pubescent : head hardly broader than the chest : eyes and eyelets 
red : feelers black, compact, rather stout, nearly filiform, clothed with 
yellow down, nearly as long as the chest ; first joint long, slender, 
green ; second cup-shaped, shining, not pubescent ; third and fourth 
extremely minute ; fifth and following joints nearly equal in length ; 
club long-conical, rather more than twice the length of the preceding 
joint : chest long-elliptical : fore-chest rather long, narrower and 
rounded in front ; its length rather more than half its breadth : shield 
of the mid-chest very long ; sutures of the parapsides very strongly 
marked ; axillae parted by rather less than one-fourth of the breadth 
of the chest ; scutcheon nearly rhomboidal, almost smooth at the tip, 
where it forms a ridge and thence declines very abruptly ; hind-scut- 
cheon short but distinct : hind-chest of moderate size, obconical. de- 
clining, nearly smooth : petiole very short : abdomen convex, spindle- 
shaped, smooth, shining, bright purple, rather hairy, bright blue at 
the base, narrower than the chest and but little more than half its 
length ; metapodeon occupying about one-third of the back, concave 
at the base ; its hind-border convex, and passing over the back of 
the octoon which is short ; ennaton longer than the octoon ; decaton 
longer than the ennaton ; the three following segments shorter : 
sexual parts piceous, rather long : legs yellow ; hips, thighs and hind- 
shanks green ; trochanters and knees tawny ; tips of feet brown : 
wings colourless, pubescent ; veins brown ; ulna full half the length 
of the humerus ; radius rather more than one-third of the length of 
the ulna ; cubitus very short, not more than one-third of the length 
of the radius ; brand very small, forked, emitting a short branch. 
Length of the body 1^ line ; of the wings 3 lines. 

Allied to C. versicolor and to C. cyaneus. 

Prussia. In the British Museum. 

Ormyrus cseruleus (Foerster MSS.), fem. Viridi- cyaneus, purpureo 
et cupreo varius, antennis nigris, tarsis fulvis, proalis plerumque 
fuscis. 

Head finely shagreened, bright green, purplish blue on the crown, 
broader than the chest : eyes and eyelets red : feelers black, clavate, 
not longer than the chest ; first joint long, slender ; second cup- 
shaped ; third and fourth very small ; the following from the fifth to 
the tenth successively increasing in breadth, but hardly decreasing in 
length ; club conical, broader than the tenth joint and about thrice 
its length : chest blue, nearly elliptical, very convex, shining, trans- 
versely rugulose, but appearing almost smooth, the marks being very 
slight : fore-chest very short ; its length not more than one-eighth of 
its breadth : shield of the mid-chest large, roughly punctured, much 
broader than long ; sutures of the parapsides indistinct ; scutcheon 
obconical above, having a rim behind whence it declines abruptly 
and forms a right angle ; axillae parted by nearly one-third of the 
breadth of the chest : hind-chest transverse, rough, very short : 
petiole extremely short : abdomen long, obconical, convex, shining, 
rather hairy, especially towards the tip, finely punctured, denticulate 
and with rows of large punctures across each segment, smooth at 



128 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

the base, tapering towards the tip, keeled beneath, about twice the 
length of the chest ; metapodeon bright coppery green along the 
hind- border, rather less than one-fourth of the length of the abdo- 
men ; octoon coppery green, not half the length of the metapodeon ; 
ennaton a little longer than the octoon, coppery, purplish blue at 
the base ; decaton a little longer than the ennaton, with which it 
agrees in colour ; protelum coppery, much shorter than the decaton ; 
paratelum spindle-shaped, slightly compressed, much longer than the 
decaton ; telum about half the length and breadth of the paratelum : 
oviduct springing from the base of the abdomen and reposing in a 
groove from thence to the tip : legs bluish green ; shanks armed with 
two spines at their tips, those of the four hinder shanks long ; tro- 
chanters piceous ; knees and feet, tawny ; tips of the latter piceous : 
wings pubescent, but nearly naked at the base, and along two nar- 
row lines which have a common source and pass along nearly the 
whole length of the wing ; there is a large pale brown spot in the 
disc of each fore-wing beneath the ulna; veins piceous ; ulna a little 
more than half the length of the humerus ; radius about one- fourth 
of the length of the ulna ; cubitus thick and extremely short, not 
half the length of the radius ; brand none. Length of the body 1^ 
line ; of the wings 2 lines. 

Prussia. In the British Museum. 

Pachyneuron Pruni (Foerster MSS.), fern. Viridi-cyaneus, abdo- 
mine angusto, aniennis nigris, pedibus fulvis, mesotarsis et meta- 
t arsis flavis, alis limpidis. 

In structure like P. formosum : head and chest greenish blue, 
finely shagreened : feelers black : abdomen oval, smooth, shining, 
green or bluish green, depressed above, keeled beneath, much nar- 
rower but not longer than the chest : legs tawny ; hips green ; middle 
and hind feet yellow with piceous tips : wings colourless ; veins 
piceous ; ulna thick, less than half the length of the humerus ; radius 
nearly twice the length of the ulna ; cubitus as long as the ulna ; 
brand small. Length of the body 1— | line ; of the wings \-\\ line. 

Prussia. In the British Museum. 

Pteromalus laticeps (Foerster MSS.), fern. ^Eneo-viridis, capite et 
scutello cyaneis, abdomine purpureo-cupreo, basi viridi, antennis 
nigris, pedibus flavis, femoribus protibiis et protarsis fulvis, alis 
limpidis. 

Head and chest convex, finely shagreened : head dark blue, a little 
broader than the chest : eyes and eyelets red : feelers pubescent, 
black, clavate, as long as the chest ; first joint long, linear, bright 
pale yellow ; second piceous, shining ; third and fourth very small ; 
the following joints from the fifth to the tenth successively increasing 
in breadth and decreasing in length ; club conical, hardly broader 
than the tenth joint, but about twice its length : chest coppery green, 
nearly oval, narrower behind : fore-chest rather short, convex in 
front, concave behind ; its length about one -fourth of its breadth : 
shield of the mid-chest broader than long ; sutures of the parapsides 



Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 129 

very indistinct; axillae parted by nearly one-fourth of the breadth of 
the chest ; scutcheon dark blue, truncate-conical, with a very indi- 
stinct transverse suture across the disc : hind-chest well developed, 
obconical, declining, somewhat excavated at the base, and having a 
ridge along the middle and a rim on each side : petiole very short : 
abdomen nearly oval, smooth, shining, purplish bronze, bright green 
at the base, flat above, keeled beneath, slightly tapering at the tip, 
narrower and much shorter than the chest ; metapodeon conical, 
convex till near its tip, occupying nearly one -fourth of the length of 
the back ; octoon not half the length of the metapodeon ; each of the 
four following segments as long as the octoon ; telum narrow, some- 
what longer ; the abdomen forms a very obtuse angle in the middle 
of the underside : legs tawny ; four hinder legs with bright pale yel- 
low shanks and feet, tips of the latter piceous : wings colourless, 
pubescent ; veins tawny ; ulna full half the length of the humerus ; 
radius longer than the ulna ; cubitus rather more than half the length 
of the ulna, slightly curved ; brands very small. Length of the 
body 1 J line ; of the wings 3£ lines. 
Prussia. In the British Museum. 

Smiera Ampyx, fern. Ferruginea, pedibus flavis , alls limpidis. 

Tawny : feelers linear, rather longer than the chest: mouth yellow: 
petiole as long as the abdomen, which is elliptical, smooth, shining, 
slightly compressed, much shorter and narrower than the chest : 
fore-legs and middle-legs yellow : hind-coxse large, armed above 
toward their tips with a few small teeth ; hind-thighs dilated, beset 
with a row of small teeth along the underside, and armed with a larger 
tooth at the base : shanks curved, fitted to the thighs, each ending 
in a spine : wings colourless ; veins piceous ; a small brown spot on 
the stigma. Length of the body 1^ line; of the wings 2 lines. 

West Indies. In Mr. Clear's collection. 

Smiera Fidius, fern. Uvfa, nigro flavoque varia, antennis nigris, 
alls limpidis. 

Red : head finely punctured ; front and underside yellow : eyes and 
eyelets pale red : jaws curved, each armed with three short brown 
teeth : feelers linear, black, somewhat piceous beneath, as long as 
the chest ; first joint long, slender, yellow, black at the tip : thorax 
roughly punctured ; sides marked with yellow : breast mostly black : 
a black line passes along the back of the scutum of the mesothorax : 
metathorax black r petiole short : abdomen obconical, downy, shining, 
very finely punctured, black towards the tip, narrower and a little 
longer than the chest : fore-legs and middle-legs bright yellow ; hind- 
coxse yellow, tinged with red above, and each having a black spot 
on the outside ; hind-thighs red, each armed beneath with a row of 
small teeth along the lower edge, and having a larger tooth at the 
base : hind-shanks curved and applied to the thighs, yellow towards 
the base which is black, having a black band across the middle, 
reddish at the tips which are produced into spines : hind-feet yellow, 
their tips piceous : wings colourless ; veius piceous ; ulna above half 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 9 



130 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

the length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than the ulna ; cu- 
bitus short, hardly one-fourth of the length of the radius, with which 
it forms a very acute angle ; stigma very small. Length of the body 
2^ lines ; of the wings 3 lines. 

West Indies. In Mr. Clear's collection. 

Smiera Pratinas, mas. Rufa, nigro varia, antennis nigris, pedibus 
$d1 nigro flavoque variis, alisfuscis. 

Bright red : head and chest roughly punctured : crown of the head 
black ; a spot of the same colour along the lower edge of the eye : 
fore-chest with a large black spot on its back, and a smaller spot on 
each side ; there is also a small black spot on each of the epimera of 
the middle chest : petiole long : abdomen smooth, shining, short, broad 
not nearly so long as the chest : feelers black, nearly linear, as long 
as the chest ; first joint rather broad, red at the base, forming a very 
obtuse angle beneath ; second and third joints very short ; fourth and 
following joints of moderate size, hairy, closely joined together, and 
successively decreasing in length ; tenth and three following joints 
yellow : fore-legs and middle-legs simple, hairy ; hips and thighs red, 
the latter tinged with black ; shanks black with yellow tips ; feet 
yellow; the joints successively decreasing in length till the fifth, which 
is somewhat longer than the fourth : hind-legs red ; hips large, ob- 
clavate, black towards the tips, and that especially on the upper side ; 
thighs very large, compressed-oval, armed beneath with about twelve 
small teeth ; shanks dark red, black at the base and towards the 
tips, curved and fitted to the thighs : wings dark brown ; veins pitch- 
colour. Length of the body 2 lines ; of the wings 4 lines. 

West Indies. In Mr. Clear's collection. 

Chalcis Resus, fem. Nigra, pedibus flavis, metafemoribus nigro 
vittatis, alis sublimpidis. 

Black : head and thorax dull, punctured, clothed with bright yel- 
low hairs, especially at the tip of the scutellum : abdomen smooth, 
shining, clothed above with a few hairs : antennae black : legs yel- 
low ; hind-thighs black on the inside and having a large spot of the 
same colour on the outside, armed beneath with eight small black 
teeth, and having also one larger yellow tooth near the base : wings 
nearly colourless or slightly tinged with brown ; squamulae yellow ; 
veins piceous, paler towards the base of the wings. Length of the 
body 3 lines ; of the wings 5 lines. 

Sierra Leone. In Mr. Clear's collection. 

Palmon Idomene, mas et fem. Cyaneo-viridis, abdomine ceneo aut 
ov/.t purpureo, subtus fulvo, oviductu corporis longitudine, antennis 
pedibusque flavis, metapedibus purpureo-fulvis, alis sublimpidis. 

Male. Head and chest scaly : head green, hardly broader than the 
chest which is bluish green : eyes and eyelets red : abdomen obclavate, 
slender, flat, bronze- colour, tawny beneath towards the base, nearly 
as long as the chest : feelers subclavate, yellow, less than half the 
length of the body ; first joint long, slender, linear ; second cup- 



Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 131 

shaped ; third and fourth very minute ; fifth and following joints 
subquadrate, of moderate size, successively but slightly decreasing 
in length ; eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth joints forming an oval 
club which is broader than the tenth joint and more than twice its 
length : legs yellow ; fore-legs and middle- legs of moderate size ; 
fore-feet having the first joint long and dilated, the second, third 
and fourth very small, the fifth longer; middle- feet with the first 
joint dilated and very long ; the second large, but smaller than the 
first ; the third, fourth and fifth very short : hind- legs tawny, tinged 
excepting the feet with bluish purple ; hips very long ; thighs very 
large, compressed-oval, armed on the inside with several teeth, 
rather less dilated than those of the female ; shanks curved and fitted 
to the inside of the thighs ; first and second joints of feet dilated, 
second much shorter than the first ; third, fourth and fifth pale yel- 
low, very small; claws and foot-cushions black: wings rather narrow ; 
fore-wings slightly tinged with brown ; veins tawny ; humerus long ; 
ulna much shorter ; radius about one-third of the length of the ulna ; 
cubitus much shorter than the radius ; stigma very small. ^ 300 

Female. Abdomen purple, compressed, nearly as long as the chest, 
tawny and keeled beneath ; the keel increasing in depth from the 
base to the tip : oviduct and its sheaths yellow and as long as the 
body : thighs and hind-hips tinged with bluish purple ; feet simple, 
first joint long, second and following joints very small. Length of 
the body li-li line ; of the wings 21 lines. >(irr<ur -,1**',, 

«/ 4 2 ' o ^ 

Sierra Leone. In Mr. Clear's collection. .\ DM l 

Urolepis Cychreus, mas. Cupreus, antennis fulvis, pcdibus rvfes- 
centibus, alis immaculatis. 

Copper-colour : head and chest convex, very minutely shagreened : 
head a little broader than the chest : eyes and eyelets piceous ; the 
latter near together on the crown of the head, the middle one a very 
little in advance of the other two : front green, slightly impressed : 
feelers tawny, nearly filiform, rather shorter than the chest; first 
joint long, slightly curved ; second long cup-shaped ; third and fourth 
very small ; fifth and five following joints of moderate and nearly 
equal size ; eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth joints forming a long 
conical club, which is twice the length of the tenth joint : chest large ; 
fore-chest short, narrower in front : scutum of the middle-chest 
broad ; sutures of the parapsides indistinct, especially towards the 
hind-border where they approach each other ; axillae large, separated 
by rather less than one -third of the breadth of the scutum ; scutel- 
lum nearly hexagonal, with a transverse line near its hind-border: 
hind-chest large, obconical, slightly declining, having a ridge down 
the middle and one on each side, whereby it is divided into two 
compartments ; it is rugulose on the outer sides of the compartments, 
on the tip of whose middle ridge there is a shield-shaped protu- 
berance : petiole very short : abdomen nearly round, smooth, shining, 
slightly convex, a little more than half the length of the chest ; first 
segment large, its disc hollow ; second large ; third and following 

9* 



132 Mr. F. Walker on some new species of Chalcidites. 

segments short : legs dull red ; feet pale red, their tips brown : wings 
ample, tinged with tawny colour ; veins tawny ; ulna hardly half the 
length of the humerus; radius longer than the ulna; cubitus much 
shorter than the ulna; stigma small, brown. Length of the body 
1£ line ; of the wings 2^ lines. 

"Found on the edge of the pond in the Zoological Gardens, 
Phoenix Park, Dublin (in September), where Notiphila cinerea and 
Ephydra littoralis (or coarctatd) were abundant. Perhaps a parasite 
of the latter, as Ur. maritimus is of Ephydra riparia." Haliday MSS. 

In the collection of Mr. Haliday. 

Panstenon Pidius, mas. Cyaneo-viridis, abdominis disco purpureo- 
cupreo, antennis fulvis , pedibus flavis , alis perangustis. 

Body bluish green, very long and narrow : head and chest scaly : 
head much broader than the chest ; front impressed : feelers tawny, 
slender, filiform, inserted in the front, nearly half the length of the 
body ; first joint long and rather stout ; second stout and cup-shaped ; 
third and fourth hardly visible ; fifth and following joints small, 
nearly equal in size; eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth forming a 
spindle-shaped club about twice the length of the tenth joint : chest 
spindle-shaped : fore-chest short : scutum of the middle-chest rather 
long ; sutures of the parapsides not distinct ; scutellum obconical, of 
moderate size : hind-chest large, subquadrate, hardly declining : 
petiole yellow, nearly one- sixth of the length of the abdomen, which 
is spindle- shaped and somewhat shorter than the chest; disc pur- 
plish copper ; segments of moderate size, slightly decreasing towards 
the tip : legs pale yellow, long and slender ; middle-feet and hind- 
feet pale straw-colour ; tips of the feet tawny : wings extremely nar- 
row, with a slight yellow tinge, more or less shorter than the body ; 
veins yellow ; ulna much shorter than the humerus ; radius shorter 
than the ulna ; cubitus of moderate length ; stigma small. Length 
of the body J line ; of the wings j-1 line. 

Distinguished from P. Oxylus by its much narrower wings and by 
other characters. 

Ireland. In Mr. Haliday's collection. 

Panstenon Oxylus, reared by Mr. Haliday from the pupa of a Di- 
pterous insect {Agromyza Pisi, Kaltenbach) on the pea. 

Prosopon montanum. — Female. Head and chest brassy green, 
covered with fine scales : feelers black, clavate, twelve-jointed, about 
one-third of the length of the body ; first joint long, rather slender, 
tawny beneath and at the base ; second cup- shaped ; third very short ; 
fourth and following joints short, closely joined together, successively 
but slightly decreasing in length ; tenth, eleventh and twelfth joints 
forming an elliptical club which is broader than the ninth joint and 
more than thrice its length : abdomen smooth, purple varied with 
green and copper colour on the sides and at the tip, somewhat ellip- 
tical, nearly flat above, slightly keeled beneath, a little broader and 
longer than the chest ; first segment short, convex along the hind- 
border ; second rather longer, also convex on the hind-border ; third 



Zoological Society. 133 

short, with a straight hind-border ; fourth, fifth and sixth of mode- 
rate size, with straight hind-borders ; seventh extremely small : 
middle-legs not dilated. 

In other characters it resembles the male. 

Found by Mr. Haliday with the $ on mountain heaths near Belfast, 
both pretty common. 

Ericydnus iEmnestus, fem. Viridis, antennis nigris, abdomine basi 
pedibusque rujis, alis vice ullis. 

Head and chest dark green, shining, convex, very finely sha- 
greened : head broader than the chest ; crown large ; front convex : 
eyes and eyelets dark red : feelers black, clavate, much shorter than 
the body; first joint long, slender; second long cup- shaped; third 
and following joints to the ninth successively shorter and broader ; 
tenth, eleventh and twelfth joints forming a spindle-shaped club 
which is more than twice the length of the ninth joint : chest ellip- 
tical : fore -chest short, narrower in front : scutum of the middle- 
chest short and broad ; scutellum obconical : abdomen sessile, con- 
vex, dark green, obconical, pale red towards the base, narrower and 
much shorter than the chest ; there are a few hairs towards the tip 
which is deeply keeled beneath : legs pale red ; middle legs dilated 
as usual, their shanks armed with long spines ; hind-shanks rather 
dark ; tips of the feet brown ; wings rudimentary. Length of the 
body | line. E. strigosus $ ? 

Ireland. In Mr. Haliday's collection. 

, — doilq 

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Feb. 27, 1849.— William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — ' 

1. Description of two new species of Cypr^ea. 
By John S. Gaskoin. 
CYPRiEA cribelltjm. Cyp. testd subcylindricd, Icevi, albd, bruneo 
omnino obtectd, prceter maculis numerosis, testd concoloribus, 
fere circularibus, incequalibus et irregulariter dispensatis ; mar- 
ginibus bruneo-rufescente punctatis ; basi subplanulatd, albd ; 
aperturd latd, prcecipue antich ; columella ventricosiusculd ; den- 
tibus labii prominentibus> cequalibus, circa quindecim ; dentibus 
columellaribus subobsoletis (prceter denteprimo) circa duodecim; 
dente primo majus prominente deinde antice est incisura pro- 
funda ; sulco columellari nullo, extremitatibus anticis leviter 
productis, extern^ valde convergente ; canali lato et pro/undo ; 
extremitatibus posticis obtusis ; canali postico lato, aperturd 
recte continuo ; margine externo incrassato ; spird late umbili- 
catd. 
Shell subcylindrical, smooth, white, covered by a dark-brown coat- 
ing except at numerous nearly circular white spots, of unequal sizes 
and irregular distribution, thus leaving at those spots the colour of the 



134- Zoological Society. 

shell to view ; tlie line of meeting of the two mantles of the mollusc 
on the dorsum is generally perceptible ; internally of a brown colour ; 
outer edge of the margin more or less dotted with rather large dark 
reddish-brown dots, similar dottings, but less in degree, on the colu- 
mellar side of the base ; base rather flat, white (white deposit, on the 
centre of the columellar side, semi transparent) ; aperture wide, espe- 
cially anteriorly, inner edge of the lip spiral ; columella slightly ven- 
tricose ; teeth on the lip prominent, even, extending partly on to the 
base, about fifteen in number, those on the columella very slightly 
prominent (excepting the first), not extending on the base, — about 
twelve in number ; the first greatly projects, between which and the 
inner anterior extremity is a deep notch, — no columellar groove, — and 
at the posterior half of the aperture the teeth exist along the outer, 
those on the inner edge being mere indications of teeth ; extremities, 
anterior very slightly produced, the outer one converging greatly ; 
posterior extremities obtuse, very slightly produced ; channels, ante- 
rior wide and deep, posterior rather wide and in a straight line with 
the aperture ; margin, only on the outer side, incrassated ; spire 
widely umbilicated. 

Long, -1-4. of an inch ; wide, -fe of an inch. 

Hab. Mediterranean Sea. 

Cab. Gaskoin, Saul, &c. 

This species differs from Cyprcea Cribraria of Linn, in the general 
conformation of the shell, being more cylindrical, in its short, obtuse 
extremities, its wide aperture, particularly anteriorly, the large dot- 
tings on the margin, the character of the teeth, the internal colour of 
the shell, &c. om i oi '1001101 

Cypr.e,e pulicis varietas. Cyp. testd longiore, dentibus nu- 
merosioribus minutioribusque, supra labrwn circa viginti-novem, 
supra columellam circa viginti-tribus ; canali postico denticu- 
lato. 

Shell longer in form, of a light reddish-brown colour, aperture 
narrower and straighter, teeth finer and much more numerous than 
the ordinary form, being about twenty-nine on the lip, while the pro- 
totype has about nineteen, and on the columella side, about twenty- 
three, against from fourteen to seventeen ; posterior channel more or 
less denticulated. 

jJab. 1 

Cab. Cuming, Gaskoin. 

boiiji: .2. Description of a new species of Nutcracker. 
By John Gould, F.R.S. etc. 

NuCIFRAGA MULTI PUNCTATA, Gould. 

Crown of the head and nape of the neck brownish black ; feathers 
of the face, sides of the neck, back, chest and abdomen brownish 
black, with a broad and conspicuous mark of dull white down the 
centre ; wings glossy greenish black, the coverts and secondaries with 
a lengthened triangular mark of white at the tip, a faint trace of a 
similar mark appearing on the tips of the primaries ; tail glossy green- 
ish black; the two centre feathers slightly, the next on each side more 



Zoological Society. 135 

largely, and the remaining three extensively tipped with white, the 
extent of the white increasing as the feathers recede from the centre ; 
under tail-coverts white ; upper tail-coverts and thighs striated with 
white. 

Total length, 14| inches ; bill, 1 J ; wing, 8| ; tail, / ; tarsi, \\. 

This species exceeds in size both the N. caryocatactes and N. he- 
mispila, but at the same time has a smaller and more slender bill than 
either of those birds ; it also differs from both of them in its lengths 
ened and cuneiform tail ; it has a greater quantity of white on the 
apical portion of the tail-feathers than the European species, but less 
than is found in the N. hemispila ; the white markings of the back 
and the entire under surface are also much larger and more numerous 
than in either of the other species, and are most remarkably developed 
on the scapularies. *orf) 

The only specimen I have seen of this fine species is in the Museum 
of the Philosophical Society at York ; its precise habitat is unknown, 
but as other species which were certainly from Simla in India accom- 
panied it, we may reasonably conclude it was from that country* orfj 



3. Notes on the dissection of the Paradoxurus Typus, 
and of Dipus jEgyptius. By H. N. Turner, Jun. 

Having received, through the liberality of the Society, a few of 
the animals that have died in the menagerie in the course of the pre- 
sent winter, I feel bound to lay before them, as well as I may be able, 
whatever details of structure I observe which may be new, or may 
give rise to ideas calculated to assist in the advancement of the science. 
Since the Society have done me the honour to insert in their Pro- 
ceedings * the somewhat lengthened communication which I was last 
permitted to lay before them, I hope that the remarks T have now to 
offer, some of which have a bearing on the same subject, may also 
prove acceptable. 

It formed part of my object in that paper to demonstrate that the 
Viverrine group, (of which the Paradoxuri are now universally ad- 
mitted to form a part,) are so closely allied to the Cats as to safely 
warrant their being united with them in one family, instead of being 
looked upon as a section intermediate to the canine and feline groups, 
or, on account of their number of tuberculous molars, more closely 
allied to the former, in which light they have very frequently been 
considered : and I think it will be apparent, from the observations I 
have now to bring forward, that the genus Paradoxurus, one of the 
least exclusively carnivorous of the order, and formerly associated 
with the Bears in the plantigrade division, has a much closer relation- 
ship with the group, which, from its being pre-eminently carnivorous, 
is usually considered as " typical " of the order, than naturalists have 
been wont to anticipate. It is not unfrequently the case, that when 
an affinity between two species or genera is established upon essen- 
tial peculiarities of structure, certain minor details, or even habits and 
actions of the animal, remind one so forcibly of the relationship we 

* See also vol. Hi. p. 307 of this Journal. 



136 Zoological Society. 

have already proved to exist, that they assume an unlooked-for de- 
gree of interest ; and, having kept for some time a living specimen 
of the common Paradoxurus, I think a few of the observations I have 
made upon it may on this account be interesting, in connection with 
the structural peculiarities which the receipt of a dead one has enabled 
me to remark. 

The claws are as retractile as in the domestic Cat, although from 
the absence of the long and soft hair, with which the sides of the toes 
are clothed in the latter animal, they are fully exposed when in the 
retracted position. But on examining the claws of the Paradoxure, 
it becomes obvious that the raising of the point from the ground is 
not the only means employed by Nature to maintain their sharpness. 
Every one must have observed in the common Cat, as well as in the 
larger species preserved in our menageries, the habit of occasionally 
scratching or dragging with the claws against the surface of any hard 
substance, a process not apparently calculated to improve their sharp- 
ness, but obviously intended to aid the shelling off of the outer layer 
of the claw, which is continually renewed by growth from the root, 
and the blunted point is thus occasionally replaced by a new one. I 
have not observed this habit in the living Paradoxurus ; but on ex- 
amining the claws of the dead one, I noticed that some of them were 
much larger than others, these being worn and blunted at the point, 
while the smaller ones were sharp ; also that the series of claws on 
each fqot were irregular as to their sizes, and that the corresponding 
claws on the opposite feet in some cases differed greatly in size ; so 
that it would appear, that in the absence of the scratching propensity, 
the claws scale off naturally, and to a much larger extent at a time 
than in the Cats. I have occasionally noticed my living specimen with 
a claw apparently loose, but the casting off of the outer layer of the 
nail is a difficult thing to verify by actual observation. 

On one occasion, my specimen having escaped from his cage, on my 
seizing him by the neck for the purpose of replacing him therein, he 
made use of his claws to defend himself, just as a cat would naturally 
be expected to do ; while it is well known that any animal of the dog 
tribe, being seized in that manner, is helpless,, having no instinct 
prompting him to make use of his extremities against his captor ; in 
this tribe also the paws are never used for seizing, but only for the 
purposes of locomotion, and to steady the prey upon the ground, 
while the teeth perform their office. The positions sometimes assumed 
by the Paradoxurus in a state of repose, also resemble those of the 
cat ; for instance, it frequently lowers the body between the fore-paws, 
approximating the shoulder to the foot, while the elbow remains raised 
by the side : the canine animals, on the other hand, never crouch with- 
out applying the elbow to the ground. The Paradoxurus again re- 
sembles the Cat in the habit of occasionally bending the head verti- 
cally beneath the neck while asleep, a position never assumed by the 

In all the anatomical characters which in my former communica- 
tion I assigned to the Felidae (in which family the viverrine section is 
included), the Paradoxurus fully agrees ; those presented by the gene- 



Zoological Society. 137 

rative and odoriferous organs are the most remarkable. There is no 
true musk -bag, simply the two secerning pouches situated one on each 
side the anus, which are so common among the carnivora. In addition 
to these, there is at the base of the prepuce, an oval, flat, naked space, 
which is not simply a secreting surface, as stated by Mr. Gray in a 
paper contributed to the Proceedings a few years back, but contains 
a number of minute orifices, each opening into a somewhat cylindrical 
glandular sac : these are arranged vertically side by side, and, toge- 
ther with the anal pouches, secrete the substance which imparts to 
the animal its characteristic odour. The generative organs are alto- 
gether very largely developed ; the prostate is large, of a slightly 
tabulated form, and the urethra passes obliquely through its centre. 
Cowper's glands, whose presence is characteristic of the Felidse, are 
remarkably large, causing a prominence externally posterior to the 
scrotum ; and, as usual in the family, each is surrounded by a power- 
ful muscular envelope, which is at least an eighth of an inch in thick- 
ness ; the fibres converge to a tendinous portion, which extends, from 
the point where the duct issues, some distance on each side of the 
gland ; the size of these organs altogether is about equal to that of 
the testes. The length of the penis, from the orifices of Cowper's 
duct to the meatus urinarius, is a little more than three inches ; it is 
perfectly flexible in every part, and therefore the os penis must be 
either very minute or wanting ; this is another feline character, since 
in the Bears and Weasels, as well as in the Dogs, the bone forms a 
considerable part of the organ. The glans is cylindrical, it tapers a 
little for about six-tenths of an inch, then terminates suddenly in a 
small conical point, in the groove around the base of which is situated 
at the lower part the urethral orifice. The body of the glans has a 
slight median groove beneath, and its whole surface is covered with 
horny spines directed backwards. Cuvier, who alludes to a similar 
peculiarity in the Cats, makes no mention of it, either in the Ichneu- 
mon, the Civet, or the Hyaena. Its existence is therefore an interest- 
ing mark of affinity between two genera apparently so dissimilar, al- 
though, from its inconstancy, it will not serve as a character of the 
family. In the Paradoxurus the spines are minute, very numerous, 
and regularly distributed*. 

The same organs in the Jerboa present some peculiarities worthy 
of notice. I will observe, in addition to what has before been described, 
that Cowper's glands are each curved upon itself in a manner similar 
to the vesiculse seminales. The two sharp-pointed bony stylets with 
which the upper part of the glans is armed, and which have been 
mentioned by authors, arise about the middle of the dorsum of the 
glans, one on each side of a prominence of its substance ; they are 

* Since the above was written, I have received the body of a male Coatimondi. 
I alluded to that animal in my former paper, as being placed by Cuvier among the 
list of those possessing the vesiculae seminales, which, I observed, required con- 
firmation. I can now assert that they do not exist ; the walls of the vasa defe- 
rentia are swollen immediately before these vessels enter the urethra, and the 
prostate has a more sudden projection at its upper end thau I have observed in 
the musteline animals that I have dissected. The absence of the vesiculae semi- 
nales is then a constant character of the true Carnivora. 



138 Zoological Society. 

gently curved, and rather suddenly pointed at the end. In the re- 
cumbent condition they incline a little towards each other, just over- 
hanging the extremity of the glans, and bear some resemblance to the 
pointed lower incisors of some small Rodent. The glans itself appears 
tripartite at the extremity, there being a deep fissure running the whole 
length of its under surface, and just at the extremity another on each 
side : at the meeting-point of the fissures is the urethral orifice. Just 
behind the origin of the bony stylets the presence of a small ossicle 
can be distinctly felt within the substance of the glans. 

A very remarkable peculiarity in this little animal is, that amidst 
the long white hairs which clothe the lower part of the foot is a small 
sharp horny spike, situated just below the base of the middle toe, as if 
it were intended to enter the ground, and thus prevent the animal from 
slipping when it alights. This I have reason to believe is not generally 
known, although it must I think be alluded to by Dr. Shaw in his Ge- 
neral Zoology, since he there remarks, " There is also a very small spur 
or back-toe, with its corresponding claw : " and subsequently adds, 
" nor does any vestige of it appear in the figure given by Dr. Pallas of 
the skeleton." This may well be, since it is simply a cutaneous deve- 
lopment, having no connection with the skeleton whatever. I have 
looked at the specimens of the Jerboa in the British Museum, but in 
consequence of their being dried and mounted, the little appendage, 
which is concealed by the hair, was not to be perceived ; but in the 
Alactaga, as well as the same circumstances would permit, I could see 
that a little horny process existed, but was rough and blunt. 

In the dissection of an animal whose only mode of progression con- 
sists of leaping with the hinder extremities, and which differs from 
the other jumping Mammalia in the circumstance, that in the position 
of rest the extremity only of the metatarsus is applied to the ground, 
the muscles of the leg may be expected to afford some points of in- 
terest. The most striking of these are, that none of the muscles situ- 
ated upon the tibia remain fleshy for more than about half the length 
of that bone, each terminating in a long tendon ; and that upon the 
foot itself there are no muscles whatever, the actions of the flexors 
of the toes being relieved by a strong ligament, which arises from the 
os calcis, and divides into five, giving one to the middle toe, two small 
sesamoid bones being developed in it ; and two divisions to each of the 
other toes, the index and the annularis, each of which has also its 
sesamoid bones, those furthest from the axis of the foot being rather 
largely developed, extending some distance over the sides of the arti- 
culation. The ligament near its origin contains three little supernu- 
merary bones, one on the outer, two on the inner side ; the latter are 
grooved for the passage of the tendon of the flexor perforans. On 
the homology of this tendon I have next to remark. It might very 
naturally be expected, that in animals having no thumb on the hinder 
extremity, and in which the fibula is in great part wanting, the flexor 
longus pollicis, which in man has its origin in the fibula, would be 
either much reduced or absent ; but so far from such being the case, 
it will be seen, on reference to any work on the comparative anatomy 
of the muscular system, that this muscle exists, and that its tendon 



Zoological Society. 139 

becomes entirely confluent with that of the flexor longus digitorum. 
But further, I think it will appear that in those lower Mammalia, in 
which the thumb or the fibula, or both, are wanting or imperfectly 
developed, it is the flexor longus digitorum that is reduced in size, and 
the flexor longus pollicis that becomes the principal muscle acting on 
the toes. The dissection of the Jerboa made this homology very 
evident. The large flexor muscle which gives the perforating tendons 
to the toes arises, as may be expected, partly from the tibia as well 
as from the fibula ; but it is distinctly shown to be the flexor longus 
pollicis, from the fact that its tendon passes through a distinct sheath, 
separate from and posterior to that which contains the tendons of the 
other two muscles, namely the flexor longus digitorum and the tibi- 
alis posticus. Of these, which are both very small, the former shows 
its homology most clearly, by arising from the surface of the tibia, 
immediately below the insertion of the popliteus. The tibialis posticus 
is an extremely minute and delicate muscle, arising only from the 
tibia. 

In the Rabbit the two perforating flexors form a single muscle, 
having the proper origins of both ; lower down they become to a cer- 
tain extent separable, but the tendons are completely reunited before 
they pass the ankle, which they do in the place belonging to the 
flexor longus pollicis. This compound muscle, occupying the whole 
posterior surface of the bones of the leg, so pushes round the tibialis 
posticus, that it takes the chief part of its origin from the inner side 
of the tibia, which in Mammalia generally is free from muscular 
attachment. In the Paradoxurus I found that the flexor longus 
digitorum has, in addition to its usual attachments, a point of origin 
in the head of the fibula ; but then the bones are separate, and the 
flexor longus pollicis is a distinct muscle, having also origin in both 
bones, and each tendon passes the ankle in its usual place*. 

March 13.— W. Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — MtiMiimvrt ii^as t 9nod Jarjj '*o 

1. Notice of a peculiarity of structure observed in the 

Aorta of the Wild Swan. By John Davy, M.D., F.R.S. 

L. & E., Inspector-General of Army Hospitals, etc. 

(Communicated by Mr. Gulliver.) 

When engaged in examining anatomically this bird (a full-grown 

female, killed in the neighbourhood of Chatham in February 1839), 

my attention was arrested by a peculiar appearance in the inferior 

* Since writing the above I have taken opportunities of looking at the same 
muscles in a Fox and in a Monkey (Cercopithecus pygerythrus). The former animal 
differed from the Paradoxurus, and resembled the Jerboa, in the great extent of the 
flexor longus pollicis and the much-reduced size of the tibialis posticus, which here 
also terminates in a long slender tendon, showing an interesting correspondence of 
adaptive character in two animals, in which the motion of the hind-limbs is vi- 
gorous, but of one kind only. In the Monkey the flexor longus pollicis is a much 
larger muscle than the flexor longus digitorum, and has considerable attachment 
to the tibia. 

Meckel and Cuvier allude to the union of the two long flexors in the Rabbit 
before they pass the ankle, but neither author informs us at which point that takes 
place. 



140 Zoological Society. 

portion of its aorta, which I shall briefly describe with the hope of 
leading to further inquiry. Before the ischiatic arteries are given off, 
the aorta is comparatively large and is enveloped externally in a dense 
fibrous coat, possessing very little elasticity : below the origin of these 
arteries, the trunk of the aorta suddenly becomes small, and continues 
small and tapering to its termination ; and this change is accompanied 
with an alteration in the structure of its external coat. In place of a 
dense fibrous envelope, it is now sheathed in a substance very like 
muscular fibre, and which from its properties I believe to be a mus- 
cular layer. It is of some thickness, of a reddish hue, slightly elastic, 
easily broken, and divided by a ligature and easily separated into 
longitudinal fibres of considerable length. Under the microscope 
each filament appears to be composed of nearly parallel fibres of ex- 
treme delicacy, and destitute of those peculiar markings which be- 
long to the fibres of the voluntary muscles generally and to some of 
the involuntary. Moreover, when placed in a warm damp atmo- 
sphere, at a temperature between 80° and 90° Fahr., it rapidly putre- 
fies and is reduced to a poultaceous or semifluid consistence. These 
properties seem to characterize it as a muscular structure ; I would 
not dwell on any one in particular, but rather on the assemblage of 
them. An attempt of late has been made to revive the old doctrine 
of the muscularity of the middle coat of the arteries, founded almost 
exclusively on microscopical appearances. The structure described 
above, I consider not of the nature of the middle arterial coat, be- 
lieving that that coat is not truly muscular, but rather of the nature 
of the muscular coat of the intestines, to which, in point of colour, 
consistence, the effect of a ligature, its microscopical appearance and 
proneness to putrefy, it is so very similar. 

If this structure be admitted to be muscular, it may be viewed as 
accessory and of a use similar to that of the accessory hearts of the 
Chimeera and Torpedo, and destined to some peculiarity of function 
which further research is required to determine. 

Before concluding this notice, I may mention incidentally that I 
availed myself of the opportunity afforded by this Swan to examine 
the air contained in its osseous air-cells. I found it to be composed 
of about 83*3 per cent, azote, and of 16- 7 per cent, oxygen, tested by 
means of lime-water and phosphorus. It was collected from the cells 
belonging to the cervical vertebrae, — cells by means of which this part 
of the bird is happily buoyant, floating in water, even when deprived 
of its feathers and integuments and detached from the trachea. And, 
further, I may mention, which was new to me, that its large intestine 
is almost as amply provided with villi as its small ; and that even the 
isthmus or narrow neck of each of its large caeca is similarly provided 
with villi. Some other animals, especially birds, may be analogous 
in this respect ; but in no other instance in which I have yet examined 
the large intestines in search of villi have I found them. 

2. Notes on the Skull of Equus Hemionus and Equus 
Kiang. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. 
Mr. Hodgson has lately sent to the British Museum three speci- 
mens of the Horse, which he had described under the name of Equus 



Zoological Society. 141 

Kiang ; unfortunately they were so destroyed by insects during their 
passage from India, that it was impossible to preserve any part of 
them except the skull and the bones of the limbs. 

As a doubt had arisen as to the distinction of this species from the 
Hemione, Equus Hemionus, of Kutch, I have compared these skulls 
with the skull of the latter belonging to an imperfect skeleton, which 
was kindly presented to the Museum, with the skin, by the Earl of 
Derby, from an animal which lived some time in Knowsley Park. 

The forehead of all the three specimens of E. Kiang is rather con- 
vex between the eyes, and the centre of the face is narrow and keeled 
on the sides ; while in the skull of E. Hemionus the forehead is flat 
between the eyes, and the centre line of the face is rather broader and 
rounded gradually off on the sides, and the incisive bone is longer and 
more gradually arched, making the incisor more perpendicular in the 
latter than in any of the former. 

But the most distinctive character between the four skulls is in the 
position of the infraorbital foramen. In E. Hemionus it is high up, 
about one-third the space between the face-line and the back edge of 
the teeth ; it is far back, being directly over the front end of the cheek- 
ridge and the back edge of the third grinder : while in all the three 
specimens of the skulls of E. Kiang this foramen is lower down, being 
nearly in the centre of the space between the face-line and the base 
of the teeth, and it is placed in a line over the back edge of the 
second grinder, some distance in front of the end of the cheek- 
ridge. 

The under surface of the body of the posterior sphenoid is narrow 
and convex in E. Hemionus, and broad and flat in E. Kiang. The 
vomer is much more compressed in the latter than in the E. Hemionus. 

I am not certain that the distinctions here described may be suffi- 
cient to show that these two animals are separate species, but they 
indicate the necessity of the subject being more fully examined. 

In the position of the suborbital foramen the E. Kiang more nearly 
resembles the E. asinus, and the E. Hemionus that of E. Zebra and 
E. Burchellii. 

Two of the skulls of the E. Kiang show the small rudimentary 
grinder in front of the other ; but this tooth is to be more or less di- 
stinctly observed in the skulls of the other Equidce in the Museum 
collection. I may observe, that in the skull of Equus Burchellii in 
the British Museum collection, this tooth is placed on the inner side 
of the first true grinder. 

3. Description of the animal Of Trigonia, from actual 
dissection. By G. Huxley, Esq., R.N., with an intro- 
ductory note by Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. etc. etc. 

The accompanying account of the animal of Trigonia was forwarded 
to me by Mr. Huxley, Assistant-Surgeon to the Rattlesnake, now sur- 
veying in the Eastern and Australian Seas, under the able command 
and scientific zeal of Capt. Owen Stanley. 

The great number, beauty and geological importance of the species 



142 Zoological Society. 

of this interesting genus have made especially valuable a knowledge 
of the structure of its animal. Quoy and Gaimard were the first to 
give any account of it, and a figure and description of the animal of 
Trigonia were published from their drawings and notes in the zoolo- 
gical division of the Voyage of the Astrolabe*. Since then I am not 
aware of this curious creature having been re-observed, though much 
has been written respecting its systematic position. As in such a case 
a verification of the evidence we possess, through a new and accurate 
set of observations, is of almost as much importance as the descrip- 
tion of an unobserved animal, the Zoological Society may consider 
Mr. Huxley's notes in the light of a valuable contribution to mala~ 
cology. 

Both accounts confirm the idea suggested by the shell of its position 
among the Arcacece, and its close affinity with Nucula and Area. The 
degree of union of the mantle-lobes, and the development of siphonal 
tubes in this family, as among the neighbouring Mytilidce, is of ge- 
neric and not sectional significance. 

I add the description of the animal given by the French naturalists 
for comparison : — 

" L' animal a le manteau ouvert dans les trois quarts de sa circon- 
ference inferieure. II est frange sur ses bords, avec de petites taches 
ou lunules blanches qui alternent avec des stries rayonnees. On voit, 
au sommet de ce manteau, les impressions denticulees de la charniere, 
et en avant et en arriere, les muscles qui unissent les valves. Le pied 
est grand, robuste, securiforme, tres recourbe en arriere, tranchant et 
denticule sur son arete, de chaque cote de laquelle sont des laciniures, 
au tiers anterieur seulement. II ne nous a pas paru se dilater comme 
dans les muscles. Les branchies sont grandes, libres, subtriangulaires, 
en pointe, reposant, de chaque cote de la racine du pied, leur doubles 
lamelles. Les palpes buccaux sont excessivement petits, reunis dans 
une partie de leur etendue. L'anus est a l'extremite d'un court 
pedicule. La disposition du manteau et le manque de tubes rap- 
prochent ce mollusque de celui des Nucules, dont il differe cependant 
par la disposition des branchies et la brievete des appendices de la 
bouche." 

Description of frigoma. 

The mantle-lobes are rounded and plaited, to correspond with the 
ribs of the shell. The edges of the mantle are marked with white 
spots ; posteriorly, opposite the anus they are provided with short 
convex appendages. The mantle-lobes are disunited throughout, not 
joining until they reach the upper surface of the posterior adductor, 
some distance above the anus. 

The gills are somewhat triangular, extending backwards almost 
horizontally on each side of the visceral mass. Each gill is formed 
of three stems, fixed at one extremity, free and pointed at the other, 
and giving attachment throughout their whole length, on one side to 
depending filaments, which become shorter as they are more posterior. 






* Vol. iii. p. 476, Mollusques, pi. 78. f. 5. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 1 43 

The filaments are formed of a tubular horny thread, supporting on 
one side a broad membranous fringe. I could perceive no trace of 
vessels in this fringe, but it appeared to be covered by an epithelium 
(ciliated ?) . 

The mouth is placed at the anterior and superior part of the ani- 
mal, between two thickish horizontal lips. The labial tentacles are 
two on each side, rather long, lanceolate, and slightly pectinated. The 
anus is placed posteriorly and superiorly between the gills, and just 
about the posterior adductor muscle. 

The so-called " foot " is composed of two portions, an upper and 
quadrilateral (properly the abdomen), and a lower pointed part (the 
true foot), the two being set at right angles to one another. 

The first portion is sharp-edged and slightly pectinated posteriorly, 
marked by a groove bounded by two folded lips anteriorly. The 
second portion is slightly pectinated along its lower edge, pointed 
anteriorly, prolonged behind into a curved process, where it joins the 
superior portion. 

Visceral mass. — The mouth opens by a very short oesophagus into 
a wide pyriform stomach, surrounded by a dark dendritic liver. The 
stomach narrows into a long intestine, which descends for the whole 
length of the abdomen, and forms one or two loops in the substance 
of the generative gland ; then passes up again above the stomach, 
penetrates the heart, and passing between the two small lateral mus- 
cles of the foot, terminates in the anus. 

.bmn*j JB9 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. &Ifdf*aS$f 

December 13, 1849. — Dr. Lowe in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1 . "On the Plants of the Valley of Fatana, Taheite," by Archibald 
Sibbald, M.D., R.N. The author gave a list of the species observed 
by him in the Valley of Fatana, in Taheite, with their native names, 
and remarks on their properties, and the uses to which they are ap- 
plied by the inhabitants. The paper was accompanied by specimens 
of the " Tapa " cloth, and an account of the mode in which it is pre- 
pared from the bark of the bread-fruit-tree, Artocarpus incisa. 

Mr. M'Nab exhibited a book containing specimens of native cloths 
collected during Captain Cook's voyages among the South Sea Islands. 

2. " On some Scotch Freshwater Algae/' by Wyville T. C. Thom- 
son, Esq. The author laid before the Meeting specimens of fresh- 
water Algae, collected during the past summer chiefly in the west of 
Scotland. Of the genus Batrachospermum, specimens of B. atrum 
were exhibited, of a very large size, found in Ayrshire during the 
month of October. Mr. Thomson remarked, that the supposed 
rarity of this species probably originated in its being sought for at 
the wrong season ; he had found it sparingly during the early part of 
the summer attached to stones at the bottom of still, clear pools, the 
specimens being usually about an inch or an inch and a half high. 
When found in the end of autumn, however, the plants were free, 
floating on the surface of the water or attached to the ice. At this 



144 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

time the specimens occupy, when laid out, a space from six to nine 
inches in diameter. Specimens were also exhibited of B. moniliforme, 
stagnate and proliferum from Ayrshire, the latter two being consi- 
dered by Mr. Thomson as forms of the first depending on situation. 
Mr. Thomson corroborated Mr. Berkeley's observations on the 
capsular fructification of Chcetophora tuberculosa, and exhibited a 
series of specimens connecting this species with C. elegans, of which 
he considered it the mature state, enlarging, softening, and breaking 
down, by the imbibition of water, for the escape of the spores from 
its ripe capsules. He exhibited a number of other beautiful speci- 
mens of freshwater Algse. 

3. " On peculiar Cells found in the Style and other parts of cer- 
tain species of Grevitlea, Banksia, Manglesia, and other Proteacece," 
by Spencer Cobbold, Esq. The author mentioned the occurrence, in 
the stem, leaves, floral envelopes, and fruit of various Proteacece, of 
certain peculiar cells, which in their simplest stage of development 
are transparent, fusiform, and of variable size, but generally much 
larger than the cells composing all other tissues of the same organ, 
and containing in their interior cellules of various colours, and a 
nucleus attached to or bulging out from the cell-wall. He considered 
that whatever be the function of these bodies, there is one special 
end to which they seem destined, viz. the formation of peltate hairs, 
which occur in great abundance over nearly all the organs of some of 
the species examined. 

4. "On the Plants used for forming Hedges and Fences in 
Southern India," by H. Cleghorn, M.D., H.E.I.C.S. The author 
adverted to the remarkable prevalence of thorny shrubs and prickly 
plants in the flora of the Peninsula ; where they are a continual an- 
noyance to the traveller, and a frequent cause of admission into hos- 
pital — especially during the hotter months, when the leaves having 
dropped off, the spines are left bare and exposed. Notwithstanding 
the abundant provision for the extensive diffusion of hedges and 
fences, it is universally admitted that the bleak and barren tracts 
stand pre-eminently in need of these appliances, for the development 
and preservation of their agricultural resources, which suffer from the 
depredations of wild animals and stray cattle. 

He exhibited drawings of Opuntia Dillenii, Haw., prickly pear ; 
Agave cantula, Rox., aloe (with a sample of its fibres used for cordage) ; 
Euphorbia tirucalli, L., milk bush, and E. antiquorum, L. These, 
with the bamboo, are commonly employed in the enclosures of South- 
ern India. 

Ccesalpinia sepiaria, Rox>, Mysore thorn, is invested with histo- 
rical interest, Hyder Ali having encircled the village fortifications 
with this plant. The fences are handsome and almost impenetrable. 
This, with Pterolobium lacerans, R. Br., and other species, seems 
worthy of general introduction, and grows rapidly from seeds. 
Capparis sepiaria, L., forms an excellent hedge round Shikarpoor. 
Tropins aspera, Retz., is well adapted for the same purpose from its 
ramous branches and rigid character. Acacia latronum, Willd., was 
also pointed out, aptly designated by Willdenow Frutex horridissimus. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 145 

This paper will appear in the * Annals of Natural History ' and in the 
Transactions of the Society. 

Dr. Cleghorn exhibited the fruit of Aristolochia indica, L., and the 
strange-looking tuberculated pod of Bignonia xylocarpa, Rox., three 
feet long — about the size of a walking-stick. When pendulous from 
the tree, it is a conspicuous object on the Malabar Ghauts. 

5. u On a supposed new species of Glyceria" by Frederick Towns- 
end, B.A. (Seep. 104.) 

The following office-bearers were elected for the ensuing year : — 

President. — Professor Fleming. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Neill, Dr. Lowe, Professor Balfour, Dr. 
Seller. 

Councillors. — Mr. Lawson, jun. ; Mr. Win. Ivory, W.S. ; Dr. Par- 
nell ; Mr. James Cunningham, W.S. ; Mr. J. T. Syme ; Professor 
Christison ; Professor Goodsir ; Mr. Charles Murchison ; Mr. J. S. 
Sanderson ; Mr. Benjamin Carrington. 

Treasurer. — Mr. Brand. 

Honorary Secretary. — Dr. Greville. 

Foreiyn Secretary. — Dr. Douglas Maclagan. 

Assistant Secretary. — Mr. Evans. 

Curator of Museum. — Mr. Wyville T. C. Thomson. 

Artist.— Mr. J. M'Nab. 

Assistant Curator. — Mr. G. Lawson. 



Jan. 10, 1850. — Professor Fleming, President, in the Chair. 

Many donations were announced. 
The following papers were read : — 

1 . " On the British species of Char a" by Charles C. Babington, 
M.A., F.L.S. &c. (Seep. 81.) 

2. " On the Watery Secretion of the Ice-plant, Mesembryanthemum 
crystallinum, L.," by Dr. Augustus Voelcker, Professor of Chemistry 
in the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. (This paper will ap- 
pear in our next Number.) 

3. " List of Plants found in the Island of Rathlin," by Miss C. Gage. 
The picturesque and interesting island of Rathlin or Raghery is situ- 
ated on the coast of Antrim, being three miles distant from the pro- 
montory of Fair Head, on the mainland, and nearly five and a half 
miles from Ballycastle. In its geological formation it is basaltic, and 
presents fine cliffs, with some remarkable columns, more especially at 
Doon point on the south-eastern side. Among the plants noticed 
were the following : — Galium pusillum, Anagallis tenella, Beta ma- 
ritima, Cuscuta epilinum, Helosciadium nodiforum, Cicuta virosa, 
Conium maculatum, (Enanthe fstulosa, Smyrnium Olusatrum, Scilla 
verna, Alisma ranunculoides, Elatine hexandra, Sedum reflexum, S. 
Rhodiola, Nymphcea alba, Nuphar lutea, Ranunculus hirsutus, Oro- 
banche major, Draba muralis, Crambe maritima, Brassica oleracea, 
Raphanus maritimus, Lavatera arborea, Ulex nanus (introduced), 
Hypericum Androsamum, Artemisia maritima, Inula Helenium, I. 
dysenterica, Pyrethrum maritimum, Malaxis paludosa, Littorella 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. [0 



146 Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

lacustris, Eriocaulon septangular e, Ceratopkyllum demersum, and 
Asplenium marinum. From Miss Gage's list there would appear to 
be nearly 300 phanerogamous plants and ferns in the island. 

Dr. Cleghorn stated that in August last he visited the Giant's 
Causeway and Isle of Rathlin in company with Dr. Merriman of 
Kensington and Mr. T. Merriman. They traversed a considerable 
portion of the island, observing many of the plants mentioned in the 
list, TJlex nanus being in profusion. Sedum refiexum occurs at Fair 
Head and in various localities along the Antrim cliffs. Whoever has 
experienced the strong currents or boisterous gales in these seas, 
will not hesitate to attribute the dissemination of species to their 
agency — along with the transport of innumerable migratory sea birds 
which whiten the cliff. The party received much kindness under the 
hospitable roof of the Rev. R. Gage. 

Dr. Cleghorn exhibited the large ligneous fruit of Hydnocarpus 
inebrians (Vahl), which is used for poisoning fish in Malabar. Lamp 
oil is extracted from the seeds. He showed a drawing of Erythropsis 
Roxburghiana (Lindl.), an extremely handsome tree. The rich scarlet 
panicles of flowers burst forth after the monsoon, long before the 
foliage appears. Also the fruit of Sterculia fcetida (Linn.), a com- 
mon forest tree of stately size, widely diffused : the flowers yield an 
offensive odour, indicating to the traveller its immediate vicinity when 
riding through the jungle. The seeds are roasted and eaten like 
chestnuts. Dr. Cleghorn adverted to the difficulty of studying timber 
trees in the primaeval forests, and stated it to be one of the most dif- 
ficult departments of tropical botany. 

Dr. Balfour read a letter which he had received from Professor 
Fries, dated Upsal, 1st November 1849. In this letter, Fries thanks 
the Society for the specimens of Hieracia which had been transmitted 
to him, and states that he had found them useful in compiling his 
recent work, e Symbolae ad Historiam Hieraciorum.' He promises to 
send some critical species in return. 

Mr. Wyville T. C. Thomson read a letter from Mr. Westwood, 
Dollar, mentioning the discovery of Potentilla tridentata on Ben 
Wyvis several years ago. No specimens were sent, and some doubts 
were expressed as to the discovery. 

Mr. Thomson also exhibited a specimen of Salix retusa which had 
been gathered by a friend of his on Ben Lawers. 

Mr, M'Nab exhibited a specimen of the spathe and flowering spa- 
dix of Euterpe montana (mountain cabbage palm), and noticed the 
rapidity with which the branched spadix is developed. It would ap- 
pear that the branches of the spadix are confined by the spathe until 
their resiliency bursts it, and the branches at once spread out at right 
angles from the common rachis. Although this palm has flowered 
frequently of late in the Palm House of the Botanic Garden, it has not 
produced perfect fruit as it used to do many years ago. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited a specimen of wood hyacinth (Agrapkis nu- 
tans), gathered by Mr. John Jeffrey, Edinburgh Botanic Garden, near 
Lochar, in Fife, in which all the bracts were converted into green leaves, 
many of them four to five inches long and one-eighth broad, giving 



Ipsivich Museum. 147 

the plant a very peculiar aspect. This variety was originally intro- 
duced from Inverness-shire, and has been cultivated many years in 
the Garden at Lochar. 

A letter was read from Mr. Hailstone, mentioning that he had 
gathered specimens of Cynosurus echinatus near Thorpe Arch, York- 
shire. 

Mr. J. T. Syme exhibited a specimen of Melilotus arvensis picked 
between Inverkeithing and Limekilns. This plant has been observed 
in several spots near Edinburgh, more especially at St. David's and 
other parts of Fife. 

Dr. Balfour exhibited a specimen of Eriophorum alpinum picked 
by him in Durness, Sutherlandshire, 21st August 1827, when accom- 
panying the late Professor Graham on a botanical trip. Dr. Balfour 
stated that, at that time, he had just commenced the study of botany, 
and that the plant was put by him among specimens of Scirpus cce- 
spitosus. 

IPSWICH MUSEUM. 

" On the Gigantic Birds of New Zealand, and on the Geographical 
Distribution of Animals :" the substance of a Lecture delivered at the 
Anniversary Meeting of the Ipswich Museum, by Professor Owen. 

After some appropriate introductory remarks, Professor Owen en- 
tered upon the subject of his discourse by narrating the circum- 
stances which first brought to his knowledge the fact of the exist- 
ence, at some former period, if not at the present time, of gigantic 
birds, incapable of flight, in the islands of New Zealand. He exhi- 
bited a single fragment of bone, which had been submitted to him 
in 1839, which was affirmed to have been found in New Zealand, and 
he defined the steps in the series of comparisons which led to the con- 
clusion that it must have formed part of a bird as large as the Ostrich, 
but of a heavier and less agile species. He next gave an account of 
the different species of wingless or struthious birds which were known 
to science at that time ; he more especially described the Apteryx of 
New Zealand, and the Dodo of the Mauritius ; and pointed out the 
remarkable character of their geographical position. The progressive 
steps in the restoration of the probably extinct wingless birds of New 
Zealand were then explained and illustrated by the plates of the works 
which Professor Owen had published on the subject, and by enlarged 
diagrams. The importance attached to the first fragment of bone 
stimulating the colonists to special researches, the remains of these 
extraordinary birds, which had escaped the notice of Banks and 
Solander, and successive naturalists, up -to the year 1839, were soon 
obtained, and in unexpected abundance and perfection. The bones 
of the leg were first transmitted in October 1843, by the Rev. Mr. 
Williams; a church missionary, now Archdeacon of the Diocese of 
New Zealand. Casts and figures of some of the most remarkable of 
these bones were exhibited and explained. They indicated at least 
five distinct species, varying in height from three feet to eleven feet. 
The average stature of the Ostrich is six feet. The absence of air- 
cells in these bones, and their dense structure, confirmed the original 

10* 



148 Ipswich Museum. 

deduction as to the terrestrial character of the birds, and the relative 
shortness of the ankle-bone (metatarsus) as compared with that in the 
Ostrich, proved the original surmise as to the more sluggish character 
of the bird to have been correct. 

Successive sets of bones of the great extinct birds were subsequently- 
acquired, either by purchase or donation, by Professor Owen, who in 
1846 published his third memoir on the subject, describing the 
structure of the back-bone (vertebrae) and the breast-bone (sternum) 
of the Dinornis. The latter he described as one of the most charac- 
teristic bones in the skeleton of a bird ; it usually presents a part 
called the "keel," the depth of which is in the ratio of the size and 
power of the muscles used in flight, the keel being totally wanting in 
birds that are unable to fly. Thus the breast-bone resembles a shield 
in the Ostrich, Emeu, Cassowary, and Apteryx, but each of the 
existing wingless birds has the shield-shaped sternum of a peculiar 
pattern. The sternum of the Dinornis was equally devoid of a keel, 
and in its shape it most resembled the sternum of the Apteryx. From 
the size and strength of a bone of the neck (cervical vertebra?), also 
described and figured in the third memoir, the author had been led to 
certain inferences as to the kind of food on which these gigantic birds 
found subsistence in the small island to which they had been so singu- 
larly restricted ; but still the head and beak were wanting, upon which 
any precise idea of the food of the species could be founded. 

In 1847, the researches of Mr. Walter Mantell in New Zealand 
were rewarded by the discovery of the much-wished-for bones of the 
head and beak, and these specimens formed the subject of a memoir, 
published in 1848, in which they were described and figured, and 
referred to four distinct genera of birds. To two of these genera 
belong the largest bones of the wingless birds that have been dis- 
covered in New Zealand. They were called Dinornis and Palapteryx 
respectively. Magnified diagrams of the skull and beak of each were 
exhibited and explained by the Professor ; who concluded by some 
general remarks on the geographical distribution of the known exist- 
ing and extinct birds, the laws or conditions of which were illustrated 
by analogous facts in the distribution of the species of quadrupeds. 

Had all the terrestrial animals, he observed, that now exist, diverged 
from one common centre within the limited period of a few thousand 
years, it might have been expected that the remoteness of their actual 
localities from such ideal centre would bear a certain ratio with their 
respective powers of locomotion. With regard to the class of Birds, 
one might have expected to find that those which were deprived of 
the power of flight, and were adapted to subsist on the vegetation of 
a warm or temperate latitude, would still be met with more or less 
associated together, and least distant from the original centre of 
dispersion, situated in such a latitude. But what is the fact ? The 
species of no one order of birds is more widely dispersed over the 
earth than the wingless or struthious kind. Assuming that the 
original centre has been somewhere in the south-western mountain 
range of Asia, there is but one of the species of flightless birds whose 
habitat can be reconciled with the hypothesis. By the neck of land still 



Ipswich Museum. 149 

uniting Asia with Africa, the progeny of the primary pair created or 
liberated at the hypothetical centre might have travelled to the latter 
continent, and there have propagated and dispersed themselves south- 
ward to the Cape of Good Hope. It is remarkable, however, that 
the Ostrich should not have migrated eastward over the vast plains 
or steppes which extend along the warmer temperate zone of Asia, or 
have reached the southern tropical regions ; it is in fact scarcely 
known in the Asiatic continent, being restricted to the Arabian De- 
serts, and being rare even in those parts which are most contiguous 
to what we may call its proper continent — Africa. If we next con- 
sider the locality of the Cassowary, we find great difficulty in con- 
ceiving how such a bird could have migrated to the islands of Java, 
the Moluccas, or New Guinea, from the continent of Asia. The 
Cassowary is not web-footed like the swimming birds ; for wings it 
has only a few short and strong quills. How could it have overcome 
the obstacles which some hundreds of miles of ocean would present 
to its passage from the continent of Asia to those islands ; and 
furthermore, how is it that no individuals have remained in the 
warm tropical southern border of Asia, where the vegetable suste- 
nance of the Cassowary seems as abundantly developed as in the 
islands to which this wingless bird is now exclusively confined ? If 
the difficulty already be felt to be great in regard to the insular posi- 
tion of the Cassowary, it is still greater when we come to apply 
the hypothesis of dispersion from a single centre to the Dodo of the 
island of Mauritius, or the Solitaire of the island of Rodriguez. How, 
again, could the Emeu have overcome the natural obstacles to the 
migration of a wingless terrestrial bird from Asia to Australia ? and 
why should not the great continent of Asia have offered in its fertile 
plains a locality suited to its existence, if it ever at any period had 
existed on that continent ? A bird of the nature of the Emeu was 
hardly less likely to have escaped the notice of naturalist travellers 
than the Ostrich itself ; but save in the Arabian Deserts, the Ostrich 
has not been found in any part of Asia, and no other species of 
wingless bird has ever been met with on that continent : the evidence 
in regard to such large and conspicuous birds was conclusive as to 
that fact. In order that the Rhea, or three-toed Ostrich, should reach 
South America, by travelling along that element on which alone it is 
organized and adapted to make progress, it must, on the hypothesis 
of dispersion from a single Asiatic centre, have travelled northward 
into the inhospitable wilds of Siberia : it must have braved and over- 
come the severer regions of the arctic zone : it must have maintained 
its life with strength adequate to the extraordinary power of walking 
and running over more than a thousand miles of land or frozen ocean 
utterly devoid of the vegetables that now constitute its food, before 
it could gain the northern division of America, to the southern divi- 
sion of which it is at present, and seems ever to have been, confined. 
The migration in this case could not have been gradual, and accom- 
plished by successive generations. No individual of the large 
vegetable-feeding wingless bird that now subsists in South America 
could have maintained its existence, much less hatched its eggs, in 



150 Ipswich Museum. 

arctic latitudes, where the food of the species is wholly absent. If 
we are still to apply the current hypothesis to this problem in Natural 
History, we must suppose that the pair or pairs of the Rhea that 
started from the highest temperate zone in Asia capable of sustaining 
their life, must have also been the same individuals which began to 
propagate their kind when they had reached the corresponding tem- 
perate latitude of America. But no individuals of the Rhea have 
remained in the prairies or in any part of North America — they are 
limited to the middle and southern division of the South American 
continent. And now, finally, consider the abode of the little Apteryx 
at the Antipodes, in the comparatively small insulated patch of dry 
land formed by New Zealand. Let us call to mind its very restricted 
means of migration — the wings reduced to the minutest rudiments, 
the feet webless like the common fowl's, its power of swimming as 
feeble ! How could it ever have traversed six hundred miles of sea, 
that separate it from the nearest land intervening between New Zea- 
land and Asia? How pass from the southern extremity of that con- 
tinent to the nearest island of the Indian Archipelago, and so from 
member to member of that group to Australia — and yet leave no 
trace behind of such migration by the arrest of any descendants of 
the migratory generations in Asia itself, or in any island between Asia 
and New Zealand 1 

If these facts were inexplicable on the hypothesis of the dispersion 
of the species of the air-breathing animals from a singular Asiatic 
centre, we must next endeavour to collect analogous facts, and classify 
them, and so try to explain intelligibly, i. e. agreeably with the facts, 
the true law or cause of the actual geographical distribution of ani- 
mals. The time allotted to the lecture obliged the Professor to 
limit his remarks on this subject to the quadrupeds of the class 
Mammalia. 

The dry land of our planet might be divided, in relation to this 
inquiry, into the following parts : — 1. Asia and Europe, which ob- 
viously formed one natural tract or continent ; 2. Africa ; 3. North 
America; 4. South America ; 5. Australia; 6. Scattered islands, as 
New Zealand, separated by hundreds of miles of sea from any con- 
tinent. The most characteristic aboriginal quadrupeds of the first 
division were the elephant, rhinoceros, ox, deer, tiger, bear, hyaena, 
beaver, hares and rabbits, certain kinds of ape and monkey. In 
Africa, the quadrupeds were for the most part similar as to genus, 
but different in species. The elephant differed in the structure of 
its teeth and feet from that of Asia. The rhinoceros of Africa had 
two horns, that of Asia one horn. The camel of Asia has two 
humps, that of Africa one hump. The lion represented in Africa 
the tiger of Bengal. The hyaena of Southern Africa was spotted, that 
of Asia was striped. There were also several quadrupeds of which 
no species now exists in Asia, and which are peculiar to Africa ; e. g. 
the hippopotamus, the giraffe, the orycteropus, &c. Africa is also 
remarkable for its numerous species of large antelopes, of which but 
few exist in Asia, and none at all in America. In the northern 
division of the American continent, many of the mammalian genera 



Ipswich Museum. 151 

of the old world were represented, but by distinct species. The 
black bear of North America differed from the brown bear of 
Europe ; the bison from the aurochs, or any other bovine animal of 
Europe, Asia, or Africa. The beaver of Canada was distinct from 
the beaver of Europe ; but there were some genera of the smaller 
quadrupeds quite peculiar to North America. 

When we come to compare the mammalia of South America, 
almost every aboriginal species belongs to a genus unknown in any 
other part of the world. The monkeys which abound in the tropical 
part of this continent differ from those of the old world by having an 
additional number of certain teeth, and, for the most part, a pre- 
hensile tail ; they have also a different physiognomy — the nostrils are 
wider apart, giving greater breadth and flatness to the nose : this is 
the case without exception among the South American monkeys, 
whence they are called Platyrhincs in Systematic Natural History. 
All the monkeys of the Old World, equally, without exception, have 
the nostrils approximated, and they are called Catarrhines : none of 
them have the prehensile tail. This fifth member in the Platyrhine 
group gives them additional power of grasping and climbing — makes 
them even more peculiarly arboreal ; and a similar relation to a forest 
country may be traced through most of the peculiar forms of South 
American mammalia. The sloths are so expressly adapted for living 
in trees, that every other kind of life and mode of locomotion has 
been sacrificed, so to speak, to the perfection of their organization as 
climbers. Much compassion has been wasted upon their helpless 
condition when contemplated in their awkward attempt to move on 
level ground — the common theatre of the activities of mammalian 
quadrupeds. At the foot of these trees lived the races of armadillo 
and ant-eater, also peculiar to South America. Both were destined 
to feed on the countless swarms of termites that subsist on the de- 
caying timbers, and the armadillos were particularly protected by 
their bony armour from the effects of falling boughs and trees. 

In Australia the native quadrupeds were not merely distinct in 
species and genus from those in other parts of the world, but belonged 
to a peculiar division of the class Mammalia, characterized by a port- 
able nest for the young, called the "marsupium." Some of these 
" marsupial " animals were carnivorous, others herbivorous, — some 
terrestrial, others arboreal, — some were burrowers, others swimmers : 
among the latter was the curious Ornithorhynchus, w r ith the tail of 
a beaver, the skin of a mole, the beak of a duck, and the spurs of a 
cock. These creatures performed in Australia all the parts which 
the other kinds of quadrupeds performed on the larger continents, 
but were of a different and lower grade of organization. New Zea- 
land was remarkable for the total absence of any aboriginal species 
of terrestrial quadruped. Those that now abound in the island had 
been imported by the colonists from Europe, and there was no 
natural obstacle to their well-being and increase in New Zealand. 

Finally, the Professor entered upon the question — How long has 
this geographical distribution of animals prevailed upon the earth ? 
and showed that the results of the acquisition and determination of 



152 Miscellaneous . 

the fossil remains of the animals buried in the newer tertiary strata, 
established the fact that in Europe and Asia, during the period ante- 
cedent to any natural evidence of the existence of man, the same 
peculiar forms of mammalia, which he had cited as now characteristic 
of that tract of dry land, were distributed abundantly over that great 
natural continent, from which England had not then become sepa- 
rated. That in South America, instead of elephants, rhinoceroses, 
oxen, deer, bears, hyaenas, &c, there were found, in the freshwater 
deposits of the corresponding period, fossil remains of sloths, arma- 
dillos, ant-eaters, many of them of larger size than the existing kinds, 
and some, as the megatherium e. g., gigantic. That in Australia the 
bone-caves and newer tertiary deposits had already revealed fossil re- 
mains of both existing and extinct " marsupial " animals, some also 
of gigantic bulk, and all allied or belonging to the present peculiar 
genera of that continent. But that no fossil relic of any genus or 
species of quadruped known in the rest of the world had been found 
in Australia. Lastly, in New Zealand, the strata contemporary with 
those from which the fossil quadrupeds above mentioned had been 
obtained, had not been found to contain the fossil remains of any 
species of land quadruped, but abounded in the remains of the 
wingless birds allied to the little Apteryx, now peculiar to New Zea- 
land, but of larger dimensions, and some towering to the extraordinary 
height of eleven feet. 

. 

ox $B9il'v7 on p-x;// y'loiii 

.„ sfa v MISCELLANEOUS. 

Notice of specimens of the Wheat Midge from Nova Scotia. 
By J. W. Dawson. 

This destructive little creature has, within the last four or five years, 
extended its ravages to Nova Scotia. It made its appearance first in 
the western counties, and has gradually extended its limits eastward. 
It is now found in every part of the province, and has, in some di- 
stricts, caused an almost total abandonment of wheat culture. The 
specimens accompanying this notice were reared from the larva state ; 
and as I believe this has not often been attempted with success, I shall 
shortly state the means by which they were obtained. 

When I first became acquainted with this insect, I procured speci- 
mens of the full-grown larvae and placed them in a phial, with the 
view of observing their assumption of the perfect state in spring. 
None of them however appeared, and I subsequently learned that 
similar experiments had been tried without success ; the belief among 
entomologists being, that the larva descends into the ground to com- 
plete its changes. I could not however ascertain that this belief 
had been confirmed by actual experiment or observation. 

To satisfy myself on this point, (obviously of importance in refer- 
ence to the means which may be devised for destroying these animals,) 
I obtained a fresh supply of the larvae in that motionless and appa- 
rently torpid state in which they are found in the ripe wheat in au- 
tumn. In the month of November, a few dozens of these larvee were 



Miscellaneous. 153 

placed on the surface of moist soil in a flower-pot, in which a carna- 
tion was growing. In the course of two days they had, with the 
exception of a few which were crushed or otherwise injured, descended 
into the ground, leaving their delicate membranous cases on the sur- 
face. Their power of burrowing having been thus ascertained, they 
were allowed to remain undisturbed during winter, the spot where 
they had disappeared being covered with a glass shade. During 
winter the flower-pot was watered as the growth of the carnation re- 
quired. 

A similar experiment having been tried in another pot, the insects 
were sought for in the ground after their disappearance. Very few 
were found, and these had still the larva form. They were however 
most flexible, and showed some degree of activity. On being placed 
on the surface they endeavoured to burrow, by means of a worm-like 
motion, and in doing so they seemed to have the power of fixing the 
anterior part of the body pretty firmly to the soil. They were found 
to have penetrated to the depth of about an inch. It thus appeared 
that the stiffness and torpidity of the larvae in the ripe grain are but 
temporary, and that when they fall from their place within the chaff 
scales, upon the moist ground, and cast their skins, they acquire the 
activity and strength necessary for penetrating into the soil, while 
still in the larva form. 

The insects were not again seen until the last week of June, when 
they began to appear in the imago state, and as early as the 10th of 
July the whole had emerged. At that date there was no wheat in 
blossom in this vicinity, but the development of the insects had pro- 
bably been hastened by the warmth and shelter of the house. The 
emergence of the midges appeared to take place in the evening, but 
was not actually observed. After they had taken wing, their pupa- 
cases remained projecting from the ground, and were white and 
membranous. When examined by the microscope, they showed the 
true chrysalis form, the wings and other external organs being di- 
stinctly marked on them. 

The remainder of the larvae procured in autumn having been kept 
dry in a paper box, have lost their orange colour, and appear to be 
quite dead, moisture being apparently absolutely necessary to their 
entering on the pupa stage. 

The insects obtained in the above-described manner were of both 
sexes. The females agree in their characters with the figures and 
descriptions of the European Cecidomyia Tritici*. The males, 
which I have not seen figured or described, are distinguished by their 
smaller size, differently-formed abdomen, and longer and more hairy 
antennae. 

I am not aware whether the mode of hybernation of the wheat 
midge or " weevil " is generally known to farmers in the United 
States. If not, it is well worthy of attention, since, by cutting the 
wheat early, and carefully collecting the larvae contained in the chaff, 
and dust separated from the grain, a large proportion of the ensuing 

* Curtis, Journ. of Agric. Soc. England. 



154 Miscellaneous . 

year's brood may be destroyed. On the other hand, if the larvae be 
allowed to be scattered over the fields or barn-yard, a plentiful supply 
of " weevils " for the next crop is secured. This method was pro- 
posed several years since by Prof. Henslow, but I have not been able 
to ascertain whether it has been used extensively in America. — Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. IT. 
p. 210. 

On the Characters and Intimate Structure of the Odoriferous Glands 
of the Invertebrata. By Dr. Leidy. 

Nature has supplied most or all animals with some means of de- 
fence or protection, through which their destruction is rendered 
limited. The character of such means varies exceedingly : some are 
encased in hard armour; some are endowed with great muscular 
strength, some with great rapidity of movement ; others trust to their 
minuteness, some to their colour ; others feign death ; many are fur- 
nished with formidable instruments, such as teeth, claws, aculei, &c. ; 
others are supplied with organs which emit an odour so oifensive that 
an aggressor is frequently compelled to leave what otherwise would 
have been its victim, &c. It is to the last-mentioned organs to 
which I at present wish to direct, for a few moments, the attention 
of the members ; to the organs denominated odoriferous glands of 
animals. Bodies of this, or of a homologous character, are possessed 
by nearly all animals, but they are not in all used as a means of 
defence. They give origin to the odour which appears to be more 
or less peculiar to each species of animal, and which probably is in 
some way connected with the sexual instinct. The scent-bag of the 
Moschus moschiferus is the homologue of the glandulse odoriferse 
Tysoni of the human prepuce ; the tegumentary mucous glands of 
mollusca, of annelides, of fishes, the tegumentary glands of reptiles, 
the perspiratory and sebaceous glands of birds, and of mammals, the 
odoriferous glands of insects, the anal sacs of carnivora, &c, are all 
probably of a homologous character. 

Although varying in the degree of their complexity in different 
animals, and in the character of their secretion, yet the essential 
structure is the same throughout. Consisting of tubes or follicles 
of basement membrane, their complexity depends upon their greater 
or lesser length, their being simple or compound, straight or more or 
less convoluted, and isolated or aggregated, in connection with the 
mode of supplying to them their nutritive fluid. 

On the interior these cavities or tubes are covered with a single 
layer of nucleolo-nucleated organic cells, the true elaborators or 
manufacturers of the secreted matters of the glandular bodies. 

The secreted matter varies exceedingly in its properties in different 
animals ; in odour being found from that of the perspiratory fluid of 
man, through a great variety of shades, to that most powerful and 
odious of all odours, the secretion of the anal glands of the Mephitis 
Americana ; in consistence from a semi-fluid state to the gaseous 
fluid of the Brachinus crepitans, &c. It is this which constitutes 



Miscellaneous . 155 

the material contained within the organic cells intermediate to the 
cell-wall and the nucleus. 

The cell-wall and nucleus are the agents in connection with the 
organic force which produce or elaborate the contained matter. And, 
indeed, this is the ultimate fact of all organization ; for all the innu- 
merable objects of living nature, with such variety of form, composi- 
tion, and colour, from the simplest to the most complex ; from the 
vibrionic filament to the noble oak, from the Bodo, or Monas, up to 
man, are the result of a force in connection with an amorphous vesi- 
cle, the organic cell-wall, with the contained nucleus. Wonderful, 
indeed, is it that the human mind at length has been enabled to 
penetrate so deeply into the mysteries of nature as to discover the 
starting-point of life, the stile at which an invisible intangible cause 
operates in the production of all those beings we call organized. 
From this digression I return once more to the consideration of the 
odoriferous glands. In many of the higher animals, the structure 
of these has been carefully investigated, but not to the same extent 
in the lower animals. 

In Hemipterous insects these bodies are situated within the pos- 
terior part of the metathorax or anterior part of the abdomen, and 
consist of one or two, more or less long and convoluted caeca, which 
open exteriorly usually between the coxae of the middle and posterior 
legs. 

In the carnivorous Coleoptera they are situated in the posterior 
part of the abdomen, on each side of the rectum, and usually open 
exteriorly upon the membrane, connecting the inferior and superior 
plate of the last abdominal segment on each side of the anal aperture. 
They generally consist of a number of follicles, which converge to 
one or more ducts, which join the neck of a reservoir for containing 
the secreted fluid. A number of these are figured by Dufour in the 
'Annales des Sciences Naturelles ' for 1826. 

In the genus of Myriapoda, Julus, the odoriferous glands are 
placed upon each side of the body, every segment which has a double 
pair of legs possessing a pair of the glands, commencing anteriorly 
with the sixth segment, excepting the head, and terminating pos- 
teriorly with the penultimate segment. As the number of segments 
of the animal varies with its age, so will also the number of the 
odoriferous glands. The adult Julus marginatus has usually fifty 
pairs ; the Julus maximus, from New Grenada, S. A., has fifty-eight 
pairs, &c. 

The orifices of these glands opening exteriorly, correspond to a row 
of minute black dots on each side of the body, situated about midway 
between the superior and inferior median line. 

The glands of Julus consist of a globular body or sac, with an elon- 
gated conical neck, and resemble in form a Florence flask with the 
mouth drawn to a point. In Julus marginatus they measure 1^ line 
long, the body being f of a line in diameter. In structure they con- 
sist of an amorphous transparent basement membrane covered upon 
the interior surface with a single layer of secreting cells. The cells 
are polygonal, from mutual pressure, measure 1-16 12th inch in dia- 



156 Miscellaneous . 

meter, and are filled with a yellowish, fluid, and a fine purplish gra- 
nular matter, which in mass gives them a dark purple colour, and 
which, in the aggregate of the cells, gives the glands a very deep pur- 
ple or almost black colour. When the cells are compressed, or the 
contents pressed out, the granules exhibit lively molecular movement. 

In the centre of the mass of granular matter of the cell, and only 
seen upon compressing the latter, is a round, translucent nucleus, 
measuring the 1 -5000th inch in diameter, and containing a minute 
refractive nucleolus. 

The secreting cells vary in colour in different insects, and in the ag- 
gregate give the colour to the glandular bodies. The reservoir also is 
lined with cells. In Upis Pennsylvania they are brownish, or nearly 
colourless, measure the l-750thinchin diameter, contain some finely 
granular brownish matter, and a large round or oval translucent, 
faintly granular nucleus, measuring 1-1 250th inch, with a large, 
round or oval nucleolus 1-272/th inch in diameter. 

The secretion of the glands of Julus marginatus, contained within 
the interior of the body, is deep yellow in colour, and contains a few 
of the purplish granules of the cells. It resembles oil in consistence, 
but is soluble in water and alcohol. It is neither acid nor alkaline ; 
evaporates at a temperature of 250° F., without residue ; is acrid to 
the tongue, Schneiderian membrane, and conjunctiva ; smells like hy- 
driodic acid, and stains the cuticle brown. The last two properties 
led me to suspect the existence of iodine, but the usual reagents pre- 
sented none. It probably belongs to a class of peculiar organic com- 
pounds, found in the odoriferous principles of animals, not yet in- 
vestigated. 

Exteriorly the reservoirs of the odoriferous glands of insects are 
furnished with transverse muscular bands of a brownish colour, about 
1-1 578th inch in breadth, and separated by wide intervals. 

In Julus the body of the glands possesses no distinct muscular 
bands, but the neck is provided with them. — Proceedings of the Aca- 
demy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 234. 

JOURNEY TO EXPLORE THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, 24 Bloomsbury Street, Jan. 19, 1850. 

In the January Number of your valuable Magazine for 1849, you 
were good enough to insert extracts from a letter I had received from 
Messrs. Wallace and Bates, two gentlemen who are investigating the 
Natural History of the Amazon River and its tributaries in South 
America, and who consign their collections to me for sale. I now 
send you extracts from a letter just received from Mr. Wallace, dated 
Sautarem, Sept. 12, 1849, which, if you think sufficiently interesting, 
you may perhaps feel inclined to insert : — 

"I have got thus far up the river, and take the opportunity of 
sending you a few lines. To come here, though such a short distance, 
took me a month. I am now waiting here to get to Montalegre, but 
the difficulties of getting men even for a few days are very great. Here 



Miscellaneous. 157 

the country is very sandy and dry, with a scrubby, shrubby vegeta- 
tion ; there are however some patches of forest, and in these, Lepi- 
doptera are rather abundant ; there are several lovely Erycinidce new 
to me, and many common insects, such as Heliconia Melpomone 
and Agraulis Dido, abundant, which we hardly ever saw at Para : 
Coleoptera I am sorry to find as scarce as ever. I hope however to 
do better at Montalegre, as the hills there are near a thousand feet 
high, and must I should think produce some. I wish to know what 
is thought of Cuyaba in the province of Matto Grosso as a locality ; it 
is at the head of the Tapajoz and Paraguay River ; there is a com- 
munication from here, salt being taken up. I could also from Rio 
Nigro get up the Madeira to Matto Grosso city, or up some branches 
into Bolivia. Is Bolivia at all known ? I see in the Museum Cata- 
logue only five or six Erycinidce from it, from Mr. Brydges' collec- 
tions. I see there is a branch of the Andes in it the highest in 
America, and its capital cities appear higher ground than even Bogota 
or Quito. Either of the localities can be I think quite as easily reached 
as the Andes up the Amazon ; at all events I should like to know if 
the ground is open and likely to be good, for some future time, if not 
just at present. I shall I think get up the Rio Nigro towards the 
sources of the Orinooko, but I am rather fearful that all N. Brazil 
is rather poor in Coleoptera. 

" September 14th. — I believe I shall now start for Montalegre 
tomorrow, having a canoe lent me ; I have however found so many new 
species of Lepidoptera, that I shall probably stay here a month on my 
return before going to Rio Nigro, unless indeed I find Montalegre so 
very good as to induce me to spend till December there. I do not 
think that you need send me anything till I write again. Pray write 
whenever you can, and give me all the information you may be able 
to obtain, both as to what things are wanted in any class or order and 
as to localities. 

" The Tapajoz here is clear water with a sandy beach, and the bathing 
is luxurious ; we bathe here in the middle of the day, when dripping 
with perspiration, and you can have no idea of the excessive luxury 
of it ; the water is so warm that then is the healthiest time. Oranges 
are about fourpence a bushel here, and are far the best fruit ; large 
pineapples twopence to fourpence, but we seldom eat them. The 
more I see of the country, the more I want to, and I can see no end 
of, the species of butterflies when the whole country is well explored. 
Remember me to all friends." 

I am, Gentlemen, your obedient Servant, 

Samuel Stevens. 

on the genus gregorina. 

M. L. Dufour has applied the name of Gregorina to some micro- 
scopic organisms which live as parasites in the intestinal canal of 
some insects, especially of larvae. M. Koelliker found that these 
creatures were composed of a single cell, and are as simple as some 
of the lower genera of plants. Some objections urged against this 
monocellular nature, by Henle and Fantzius, have induced M. Koel- 



158 Miscellan eous . 

liker to submit the Gregorince to fresh observation. The following- 
are the conclusions at which he arrives in his last memoir : — 

1. The Gregorince are animals. 

2. The simple Gregorince are decidedly composed of a single cell. 
Their membrane corresponds to the cellular membrane ; their con- 
tents are those of a cell ; the vesicle which it contains represents the 
nucleus ; the granulations (sometimes there is only one) of the latter 
are simple or disaggregated nucleoli. These simple Gregorince are 
only met with in Annelides. ', 

3. The Gregorince with constricted body most probably correspond 
also to a simple cell of a peculiar form. They are met with in in- 
sects and Crustacea. 

4. There is no reason for not considering the Gregorince as animals 
which have attained their most perfect state. 

5. The cases of pseudo-navicellae with granular contents and with 
vesicles probably proceed from a transformation of the Gregorince. 

6. The presence of two nuclei or of two cells in the interior of 
certain Gregorince indicates either the commencement of their repro- 
duction or their transformation into pseudo-navicellae. — Zeitschrift 

fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, i. p. 1 . 

Nyctotherus, a new genus of Polygastrica allied to Plesconia. 
By Dr. Leidy. 

Body ovate, dilated posteriorly, compressed anteriorly, granulated, 
longitudinally lined, with an apparent operculum covering its an- 
terior half, and having a semicircle of cilia just within its margin in- 
feriorly and posteriorly. Centre of the operculated portion furnished 
with a large trapezoidal finely granular areola. Posterior part of the 
body with a short fissure passing inwards and downwards. 

Nyctotherus velooo. Body white, ovate, conoidal, anterior margin 
rounded, obtuse ; posteriorly acute. Posterior margin of the apparent 
operculum passing in a curved line upwards upon the middle of the 
body to within a short distance of the back, and furnished inferiorly 
with a point projecting backwards ; with a line passing down from 
the back about the middle of the operculum to the trapezoidal areola, 
giving the part of the body anterior to this the appearance of a head. 
Trapezoidal areola with curved sides, finely granular. Posterior 
fissure communicating with the exterior, just above the acute termi- 
nation of the body, and passing inwards and downwards, resembles 
an anal aperture. Areolae of the interior sarcous mass generally 
minute, one large and round pretty constantly to be observed at the 
inner termination of the posterior fissure. 

Length from l-254th to l-180thin. ; breadth from l-320th to 
l-254th in. 

Hab. Commencement of the large intestine of Julus marginatus, 
often found in considerable numbers. 

Remarks. This genus is closely allied to Plesconia, but possesses no 
appendages excepting the semicircle of cilia, just within the edge of 
the apparent operculum. 

The animal swims in water with great ease and grace. After being 



Meteorological Observations. 159 

in this fluid some time, the external investment bursts, and allows the 
protrusion of globular masses of sarcous matter, as in Leucophrys, but 
not to such a great extent. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. iv. p. 233. 



METEOROLOGICAL, OBSERVATIONS FOR DEC. 1849. 

Chiswick. — December 1. Very fine. 2. Heavy rain throughout. 3. Rain. 
4. Hazy clouds: fine : frosty. 5. Rain with fog : overcast at night : slight frost. 
6. Clear sky and low ground-fog : exceedingly fine. 7. Overcast. 8. Rain : 
cloudless, and very fine. 9. Frosty and foggy : fine : dense fog. 10. Foggy : 
uniform haze: overcast. 11. Overcast. 12. Foggy: cloudy and cold. 13. 
Slight drizzle : hazy. 14. Rain: drizzly. 15. Rain : clear at night. 16. Cloudy: 
very fine: drizzly. 17. Boisterous: fine: clear. 18. Densely overcast: rain. 

19. Cloudy: fine: clear. 20. Clear and fine. 21. Slight snow-showers. 22. 
Frosty : densely clouded. 23. Clear and frosty : cloudless : clear and frosty. 
24. Hazy : slight snow : cloudy at night. 25. Clear and fine. 26. Drizzly : 
densely overcast. 27. Clear. 28. Drifting snow : clear and frosty throughout : 
severe frost at night. 29. Cloudy : clear. 20. Clear. 31. Cloudy : fine : overcast. 

Mean temperature of the month 37°*17 

Mean temperature of Dec. 1848 41 '75 

Mean temperature of Dec. for the last twenty- three years 39 "85 
Average amount of rain in December 1*58 inch. 

Boston. — Dec. 1. Fine. 2. Rain: rain a.m. and p.m. 3. Rain: rain a.m. 
4. Fine. 5. Cloudy : rain a.m. and p.m. 6. Fine. 7. Cloudy. 8. Rain : 
rain a.m. 9. Fine. 10. Cloudy. 11. Rain: rain a.m. and p.m. 12. Fine. 
13,14. Cloudy. 15. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 16. Fine. 17. Cloudy: rain 
early a.m. 18. Cloudy: rain a.m. and p.m. 19. Fine: rain a.m. and stormy. 

20. Fine. 21. Cloudy: rain a.m. 22. Cloudy. 23. Fine. 24. Cloudy: 
rain a.m. 25. Cloudy. 26. Fine. 27, 28. Fine : stormy. 29. Fine : 
snow a.m. 30. Fine. 31. Cloudy. 

Applegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Dec. 1. Frost a.m.: fog: wet p.m. 2. 
Storm of wind and rain. 3. Blowing hard : wet : calm p.m. 4. Fine clear frosty 
day. 5. Snow a.m : wet p.m. 6. Rain and wind. 7. High wind: rain p.m. 
8. Rain, but not heavy. 9. Fog and light rain. 10. Fog all day. 11. Fair and 
frosty. 12. Clear and cold. 13. Dull and cold: sleet p.m. 14. Fine a.m. : 
cloudy and stormy p.m. 15. Foggy, with showers. 16. Fine a.m. : dull and 
damp p.m. 17. Fine, with slight showers. 18. Wet all day. 19, 20. Slight 
frost: fine. 21. Slight frost : fine : cloudy. 22. Slight frost: clear and fine. 23. 
Hard frost : cloudy p.m. 24. Change : soft : slight shower. 25. Frost again : 
mild p.m. 26. Slight frost: shower p.m. 27. Frost: clear: high wind p.m. 
28,29. Very hard frost : sprinkling of snow. 30. Frost: clear and fine. 31. 
Frost very hard : thermometer 18°. 

Mean temperature of the month 37°*1 

Mean temperature of Dec. 1848 39*8 

Mean temperature of Dec. for the last twenty-five years ... 38 *1 

Mean rain in December 1*40 inch. 

Ditto average for twenty years in December 2*94 inches. 

Sandwich Manse, Orkney. — Dec. 1. Fine : cloudy. 2,3. Showers. 4. Snow- 
showers. 5. Showers. 6. Cloudy : clear. 7. Cloudy : drizzle. 8. Showers : 
drizzle. 9. Cloudy : showers : rain. 10. Drizzle : clear : aurora. 11,12. Cloudy: 
clear : aurora. 13. Cloudy. 14. Rain: cloudy. 15. Cloudy : showers. 16. 
Rain : showers: clear. 17. Cloudy : showers.. 18. Showers: damp : showers. 
19. Bright : showers : sleet. 20. Fine: frost: fine. 21. Fine : frost : aurora. 
22. Clear : frost : hazy. 23. Rain : cloudy. 24. Fine : damp. 25, 26. Showers. 
27. Hail-showers. 28. Snow-drift: thunder: snow-drift. 29. Cloudy: clear. 
SO. Showers • cloudy. 31. Clear : cloudy. 



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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 27. MARCH 1850. 



XVI. — On the recent Foraminifera. 
By William Clark, Esq. 

To the Editors of the Annals of Natural History. 

Gentlemen, Norfolk Crescent, Bath, Dec. 1, 1849. 

There appeared in the f Annals ' for May 1849, a paper of mine 
on the recent Foraminifera, containing some new facts and hy- 
potheses on the anatomical structure of these polypi ; a further 
examination during the summer months of this year has enabled 
me to confirm the facts I have already made known, to add much 
new matter, and to afford such rectifications of the hypothetical 
inductions as will stamp them with their proper value. I per- 
sist in my view, that all the calcareous organisms styled Fora- 
minifera are fixtures for life, as is the case with every other 
polyparium of the calcareous division. I considered the speci- 
mens alluded to in my first paper decidedly recent, but the pos- 
session of others which were undoubtedly alive an hour before I 
received them, has convinced me of my mistake. The first spe- 
cimens of Dentalina linearis and Marginulina legumen exhibited 
in the same shell one half hyaline, and the other with the ani- 
mal remains, from which I concluded that the polypi inhabited 
only the two or three anterior cells, and the posterior ones were 
rendered hyaline by the withdrawal of their contents, either by 
absorption or desiccation ; but it is more probable that the entire 
shells so often met with, having all their chambers perfectly 
hyaline, have been cleared out, at least in those species that have 
decided visible apertures, by very minute parasites, and that 
where the chambers are partially emptied the enemy has died 
before its work was accomplished, in consequence of the orifice 
being closed up by agglutinated fine grains of sand. I confi- 
dently rely on this explanation, as in long and careful examina- 
tions of the Miliolida, I have found in them so many variously 
Ann. if Mag. N. Hist. Ser.2. Vol. v. 11 



162 Mr. W. Clark on the recent Foraminifera. 

formed parasites as to baffle, as yet, any positive determinations 
of the real animal inhabitant. It is necessary at once to describe 
the animal of Dentalina linearis, an inhabitant of the coral- 
line zone of the Devon coast, six miles from shore, in fifteen 
fathoms water, as it appeared in a beautiful recent adult speci- 
men of many chambers, that it may be referred to in illustration 
of the additional observations I propose to make. I believe they 
will be found more comprehensive than any that have hitherto 
appeared on this very distinct section of the calcareous polypi. I 
consider this animal and that of the Marginulina legumen as the 
types of a great majority of the Foraminifera. 

Genus Dentalina, D'Orbigny. 

Dentalina linearis, Mont. 

Animal elongated, yellowish or pale red-brown ; it has a con- 
tinuous subcylindrical membranous tube, coasting one of the 
sides of the polyparium or shell from the posterior to the an- 
terior chamber. The lobes or parenchymatous matter forming 
the mass of the body of the animal are deposited in the palest 
brown membranes, and fully fill each and every division of the 
shell, being moulded on their forms ; these segments are united 
to and open into the common canal, which appears to serve for 
defsecation, the admission of aliment, as an oviduct, and to con- 
vey moisture to the animal : the orifice thereof is in the adult 
shell terminated by eight slender equidistant pale red pointed 
minute tentacula. 

In the genial season, July and August, each lobe on its flat 
surface is marked with a circle of deeper red than the other part, 
and which I may safely term a gemmiferous pullulation, as 
therefrom a line of minor gemmse is seen proceeding from each 
bud to the margin of the common canal to discharge therein 
these undoubted germs of reproduction. Thus far, as regards the 
animal, no doubt can exist ; but with respect to respiration, the; 
circulation, the mode of growth of the animal and polyparium, 
these points must be received with caution, as they have not the 
test of certainty, though I believe they are substantially correct. 
I now state what I have perceived of the increase of the animal 
from segment to segment, and the corresponding formation of 
the same parts of the polyparium. In the examination of nume- 
rous specimens of this species and of Marginulina legumen, in 
which the last chamber was incomplete and not domed over, I 
have seen at the neck of the antepenultimate chamber a mem- 
brane encircling and lining the unfinished wall, and a mass of 
parenchyma adjacent, and apparently growing pari passu with 
the common membranous tube, which is always kept free and 
open, and thus the lobe, tube and chambers are gradually formed 



Mr. W. Clark on the recent Foraminifera. 163 

by the pullulation of the parenchyme and exudation of calcareous 
matter from the enveloping membrane until the lobe is complete 
and receives the final stigma of eight new tentacula, the old ones 
being merged in or become the germs of the new production, 
and so on, until nature has finally completed her work. We thus 
see that this animal, when the first germ is cast, increases by 
pullulation, and at the same time performs the function of re- 
production by committing its gemmse to fix themselves in their 
natural habitats. From these circumstances it is probable that 
the calcareous organisms are solitary, distributed without order, 
and fixed to rocks, corals, and other hard submarine substances 
by the pointed stylet which is attached to the posterior terminus 
of many of the species ; and in fresh specimens of this genus and 
Marginulina legumen, the fracture of the attaching stylet is very 
visible by a lens of common power ; but from the tenuity and 
fragility of the penultimate appendages, these organisms almost 
always come to us detached, as the substances on which they are 
naturally fixed are probably rocks and coral reefs ; we therefore 
can scarcely hope to see them in situ ; and if they ever come into 
the dredge on fragments, they have from their small volume been 
passed over without observation, and again cast into the deep. 
I still however hope to see them in a state of nature : I have 
directed my dredger to bring in all masses from the coralline 
zone. 

To return to the animal, a curious question arises : Is it a com- 
pound being, though a solitary organism ? Does the formation 
of gemma3 on all the lobes indicate that each is a distinct being, 
which, instead of opening exteriorly as in many of the other sec- 
tions of the compound polypi, receives sustentation from the 
common canal ? can this continuous tube be merely to serve as 
an oviduct ? is it not also to supply each lobe with water, food, 
and for depuration ? If these questions are answered in the affir- 
mative, each segment may be so far a distinct being, as a com- 
mon connection between the whole mass admits of; on the other 
hand, does the isochronal development of gemmae in all, the 
almost isolated lobes, evidence that the animal is a simple one ? 
If this creature had the segments inclosed in a simple tube, as 
in the Annelidae, I should answer, it is not a compound animal ; 
and perhaps even in the first case, those better qualified to judge 
than myself, will decide it is a simple being, and that the con- 
temporaneous appearance of gemmae merely shows that each 
lobe is under a similar stimulus. 

As to the movement of the fluids, I cannot believe that the 
common canal serves for four distinct functions — for food, the 
dejections, regeneration, and aeration, without an inconvenient 
interference of one organ with another ; I am therefore in- 

11* 



164 Mr. W. Clark on the recent Foraminifera. 

clined to think there are longitudinal vessels attached to the 
walls of the common canal to supply some of these functions, 
particularly that to administer, in conjunction with the capillary 
filaments, the oxygen. I do not believe there is a circulation be- 
yond that of flotation, arising from nervous contraction — I say 
nervous, because I shall presently enunciate the reasons for using 
this term. The respiration is effected by the very fine capillary 
filaments which issue from the foramina of such of these animals 
that have them, and which have been named " pseudopodia," or 
"pedes spurii f the filaments are only protruded from the last- 
formed chambers, which, until new ones are constructed, consti- 
tute the limits of the respiratory apparatus, the preceding ones 
being closed by the exudation of calcareous matter from the en- 
veloping membrane of each lobe, and though the punctures of 
former foramina are always seen, they are imperforate. The 
sustentation of these animals is undoubtedly the minute animal- 
cule received through the orifice into the common canal — the 
eight tentacula prove this — and are there digested, and the nutri- 
tive fluids enter probably by absorption into each mass of paren- 
chyme, the rejectamenta being discharged by the aperture. 

On the question of the nervous aud muscular influences, which 
Lamarck only admits, as independent of sensation and interior 
sentiment, in his apathetic animals, amongst which are the Po- 
lypi, I must be allowed to make a few observations, to explain 
my reasons for not concurring in the views of that great natu- 
ralist. Lamarck contends that sensation, or interior sentiment, 
does not exist in the lower animals, and that in them all move- 
ments arise from irritabilities excited by external impressions : I 
demur to this doctrine, and firmly believe that no created being 
can exist and exhibit evidences of vitality, by motion, without 
having implanted in it a certain degree of sensation or interior 
sentiment, by the influence of which the nervous and muscular 
powers are put in action. I grant that external causes may pro- 
duce motions and contractions, not I think by exciting an irrita- 
bility independent of sensation, as Lamarck terms it, but by the 
agents and after the manner I have just stated. 

It will be admitted that the sensations in the lower animals, 
which are the origin of the nervous and muscular influences, are 
of the most subdued qualities ; and though their points of de- 
parture, and the muscular supports dependent on them, may not 
be discernible by the most powerful instruments, still I believe 
that they exist, and produce those movements which are observed 
in the monad as well as in man. In the superior and larger ani- 
mals, we can perceive the causes of these influences and admit 
their existence, because they are apparent ; and why not in the 
smallest, though they escape our vision ? In the nearest fixed 



Mr. W» Clark on the recent Foraminifera. 1G5 

stars we can observe their proper motions, but in those which are 
plunged in the deeper regions of the sphere, these motions, 
though we may presume that they undoubtedly exist, are inap- 
preciable. Why may we not apply a similar reasoning to the 
doctrine of the sensations or interior sentiment, and the resulting 
nervous and muscular influences, being implanted in the lowest 
as well as the highly organized animals, according to their seve- 
ral structures, and not consign vast classes to exist without sen- 
sation ? It appears to me that the lines of separation between 
apathy, sensation, interior sentiment, and intelligence, as laid 
down by Lamarck, are erroneous and arbitrary. I believe that 
apathy in its strict sense, as applied to animals, does not exist ; 
and I repeat, that the most inferior created animal being is not 
without that portion of sensation or interior sentiment, and its 
concomitant nervous and muscular influence, that produces the 
motions which are the tests of vitality. I may state that Lamarck 
does not admit the distinction of intelligence and instinct; he 
very justly considers the different degrees of what is called in- 
stinct, in animals, as only subdued intelligences consequent on 
their imperfect organs, when compared with the highest standard 
— man. 

There is a great gulf between the intelligence of the brute 
creation and that of man ; the impassable line is, that the one 
does not fear death, and has no idea of the future, because the 
beneficent Creator has not given it sufficient intelligence to rea- 
son on matters which will never be granted ; but man fears death 
and ardently desires immortality, because his Maker has con- 
ferred on him the knowledge of life and death, and it may 
therefore reasonably be inferred, that we shall not be tantalized 
with a prospective view and hope of these things, if they were not 
to be accomplished. 

To return to the Foraminifera : I am inclined to think that the 
major part of these organisms, whether straight, arcuated, dis- 
coid, alternate, enveloping, rolled en peloton, or whatever confi- 
guration they may take, will conform in all the essential gene- 
ralities with the structure of the animal — I mean of those parts 
of it which I have clearly determined in the Dentalina linearis 
and Marginulina legumen, and which I consider may fairly be 
constituted the type of that section of the calcareous Polypi 
termed Foraminifera : these organisms, from their distinct and 
separate growth, show an advance in organization that justly 
places them at the head of the calcareous Polypi, and I think it 
will be long before this assigned position in the progressive order 
of creation will be disturbed. That specialty-differences of a 
more or less decided character exist in the component parts of 
this group cannot be doubted j such variations are seen in every 



166 Mr. W. Clark on the recent Foraminifera. 167 

division of nature. In this class the greatest deviations are the 
polyparia of certain of the Nodosarice , improperly called Lagence, 
as the L. Icevis and its variety L. amphora, and the L. striata 
of authors and its numerous varieties, which undoubtedly have 
their chambers piled on each other, and form polypiferous stems 
varying in the number of the strangulations of separation of 
one globe from another; these constrictions are often so in- 
tense, as to afford the smallest possible, often doubtful perfo- 
rations ; they taper from bulb to bulb, and perhaps may only be 
hollow on the principle of the wheat straw, to afford increased elas- 
ticity to the stems to withstand the agitation of the waters in 
their natural habitats of fixity. When a stem is broken into frag- 
ments, as I have seen in the Nodosaria Icevis, the Lagena Icevis 
of authors, by the mere contraction of the drying of a solution 
of gum arabic to fix it on a card, in consequence of the extreme 
brittleness of the necks of the flask-shaped globules, the ter- 
minus, or what conchologists term the aperture, will always be 
found under the microscope to be formed, in fresh specimens, of 
five or six rough-edged radiations, of a very different character 
from the symmetrical ones of those polypi that have eight ten- 
tacula, and the counterparts of these irregular radiations in shape 
and number will be seen at the basal part of the same object ; a 
very strong argument that these fragments have parted from 
succeeding bulbs at the smallest part of the strangulation, or in 
other words at the aperture, leaving the base of the bulb from 
which it has been separated imperforate, and showing that the 
cylinder of strangulation is only hollow up to that point in 
which the principle of flexibility is involved. Conchologists have 
always considered the long tapering tubes, often as long or longer 
than the bulb itself, to be the aperture of an inclosed animal : 
if they are right, it must become enveloped and die, having 
first deposited the germ of the succeeding nodule. This un- 
usual and extended form of the neck and aperture only exists, 
I believe, in two species of the entire class of Foraminifera, the 
Nodosaria Icevis and N. striata ; every other form rarely extends 
its neck or aperture much beyond the bulb. These two very sin- 
gular exceptions, combined with the extraordinary length of the 
strangulations, almost amount to a demonstration, that the Nodo- 
sa?^ striata, the only organism admitting of the slightest doubt, 
falls into the same category as the N Icevis, of which I have seen 
a stem of four united strangulations or chambers, and others of 
two and three. I therefore think it not improbable that the orga- 
nisms, Nodosaria Icevis and N. striata, are the frames of polyparia 
forming stems of nodules, which, when fresh from the coral zone, 
are always more or less incrusted, like many of the corallines, 
with pulpy cretaceous matter that serves as a nidus for the mi- 



Mr. W. Clark on the recent Forarninifera. 167 

nute polypiferous constructors, which may be either compound 
or single animals. Cabinet specimens are almost always polished 
by attrition. 

This statement is, I believe, the true solution of the condi- 
tions of the only two Forarninifera about which doubts can 
exist as to the animal ; all the rest, without exception, follow 
the type of the animals I have described above as to gene- 
ralities. I may add, that I have examined with the highest 
powers many of the Nodosaria striata, and have not detected a 
membranous animal lining, which better observers say they have 
seen. When there is a minute perforation at the side of the 
neck of the bulb, occasioned by a boring animal, in such, the 
chambers sometimes contain the remains of parasites and fine 
mud and sand that cause discoloration of the globules, which 
authors may have mistaken for parenchymatous matter. It is 
also possible that very minute parasites may enter at the stran- 
gulated necks when the stem is broken up, and locate themselves 
within, in like manner as in the Miliolidce, which, I have stated 
above, are constantly inhabited by parasites of various species. 
Whatever doubt may exist as to the animals of Nodosaria Icevis 
and N. striata, I think there can be none of the N. striata having 
its unilocular globules piled one on the other. In this opinion 
I am strongly supported by an article in the February Number 
of the { Annals' for 1849 by Mr. M'Coy, who thus observes on 
his Nodosaria fusulinaformis : — 

" Shell of two or more inflated, pyriform, easily separable 
lodges, the first one having a small mucronate point at its 
posterior end, and contracted to a very slender, short neck at 
the anterior end which joins the pyriform second cell, which is 
also contracted to a similar minute neck in front; surface 
smooth." 

Mr. M'Coy also observes, " that the lodges or cells are almost 
always found separated (from the minuteness of the connecting 
neck)." Mr. M'Coy also says, " I have however heard of several 
of them being found united in a line by their little necks, and 
the posterior cell not being a terminal one." 

This is substantially my account of Lagena lavis in my first 
paper, and I can truly say, that Mr. M'Coy's article never came 
to my knowledge until long after it and the present notes were 
written. I have scarcely a doubt from the extracts, that these 
organisms are of a nearly, if not absolutely identical structure 
with Montagu's Vermiculum lave, our Nodosaria, and the Lagena 
lavis of authors ; they have the same slender strangulations of 
the nodulous Lagena, the fragments of which have so long been 
mistaken for distinct objects. The typical Nodosaria have nothing* 
like the aspect of the very recent lageniform species, first, I 



168 Mr. W. Clark on the recent Foraminifera. 

believe, introduced into that genus by myself; the necks of the 
typical Nodosarice are strangulated, but generally so slightly as 
scarcely to detract from their strength, and are consequently 
usually found united. 

It has been stated that the rough sketch of Nodosaria Icevis, in 
my first paper on the Foraminifera, and which had no reference 
to the exact outline of that species, and was merely intended to 
illustrate the structure of this organism, has been mistaken by 
me for a Nodosaria, not the Icevis ; I therefore in decided terms 
state, that the mistake is not with me, and that the fragment 
which all authors constitute the Vermiculum lave of Montagu, 
alias their Lagena Icevis, is the true and identical object I have 
seen in a stem of two, three, and four united nodules with elon- 
gated necks. 

I exclude the family of the Miliolidce, hitherto and perhaps 
correctly included in the Foraminifera ; I have them now under 
investigation ; and will at present only observe, that whatever 
their position may turn out to be, they are all inhabited by an 
internal animal, as my observations on the buccal pouches of the 
Dent alia sufficiently prove. 

I hasten to conclude with some remarks on the neglect in which 
this microscopic branch of natural history has long been involved. 
The causes that have prevented the due consideration of the ani- 
mals of the Foraminifera, and their singularly beautiful orga- 
nisms, are entirely owing to mistaken ideas of the difficulties at- 
tendant on their investigation, the acquisition of the objects, and 
the supposed injury to the sight by the use of high microscopic 
powers. These objections I think I shall prove to be ideal, and 
if we apply the trite aphorism " Omne ignotum pro magnifico n 
to our case, we shall find that if we devote ourselves determi- 
nately to careful examination and investigation, all difficulties 
will soon disappear, and we shall be surprised at their simple 
solutions, because in many cases they have assumed the aspect 
of something miraculous, merely from being enveloped in the 
meshes of ignorance. 

The acquisition of these elegant objects, adorned with sculp- 
ture of surpassing beauty, presents no insurmountable difficul- 
ties ; every shore coated with sands has a certain line which is 
instantly perceived by the experienced observer, and will furnish 
a supply of the more common species, and the finer sands of the 
coralline zone, five or six miles from the shore, by the dredge, will 
afford abundance of the rarer species. There are also in certain 
districts marine deposits formed by the subsidence of the waters, 
which, though of great antiquity, still exhibit the freshness of 
recent origin without a trace of fossiliferous aspect. 

As to the sight being injured by a continuous examination of 



Mr. W. Clark on the recent Foraminifera. ]69 

these minute objects, I can truly say that this idea is wholly 
without foundation if the pursuit is properly conducted, and that, 
on the contrary, it is materially strengthened by the use of pro- 
perly adapted glasses even of high powers ; and in proof I state 
that twenty years ago I used spectacles, but the continued and 
daily examination of these minutiae has so greatly increased the 
power of vision, that I now read the smallest type without diffi- 
culty and without aid. The great point to be attended to is not 
to use a power that in the least exceeds the necessity, not to 
continue the exercise of vision too long, and never by artificial 
light, and to reserve the high powers of certain lenses and the 
microscope for important investigations of very moderate conti- 
nuance : the really observant eye seizes at a glance the intelli- 
gence required, whilst strained, poring, and long optical exertions 
are delusive and unsatisfactory, and produce those fanciful ima- 
ginations of objects which have really no existence. The proper 
time for research after microscopic objects is for one hour after 
breakfast, when we are in the fittest state for exertion. 

The very minute Foraminifera are always in fine sand, and the 
best way to find them is to take from the parcel of sand only as 
much as will lie on the point of a very small penknife blade, 
spreading it by a slender-pointed cedar stick on a large card, 
covered with dull black paper, when, with a proper lens, the 
objects by their symmetry and beauty are at once distinguished, 
and gathered up by a sable brush into proper receptacles. This 
apparently slow but sure mode of finding these minutiae by 
purely optical exertions will produce a greater supply than by 
the wholesale immersion of sand in water and the resulting 
collection of a few buoyant objects ; for after all that can be done 
by this mode, the sand, when abandoned, will then produce three 
times the number that have been acquired otherwise. In the 
search of shells of one-tenth inch diameter, perhaps the plan of 
immersion may succeed well. 

Having disposed of two of the greatest drawbacks in the in- 
vestigation of the Foraminifera, it only remains, as concisely as 
possible, to conclude the present paper by some remarks illus- 
trative of my views in being anxious to rescue this branch of 
natural history from its present, I may say, retrograde position, 
as regards the knowledge of the animal. 

The field of the British testaceous mollusca has been for many 
years so sedulously cultivated, that although its products are not 
yet exhausted, they have nevertheless become so much dimi- 
nished, as is proved by the increasing far-betweens in the disco- 
very of new species, as to render it almost a matter of necessity 
to look out for " fresh woods and pastures new ; " and where 
can we find a more delightful resource, partaking so much of the 



170 Mr. W. Clark on the recent Foraminifera. 

same character of our accustomed researches amongst the mol- 
lusca ? Indeed the two pursuits will march in line, as the rescue 
from their present neglected and false position of those beautiful 
microscopic structures the Foraminifera, which have nearly run 
the gauntlet through the invertebrate portion of the order of 
nature in search of a resting-place. These objects are not only 
interesting to the mere collector, as they admit of an indefinite 
preservation without diminution of their singular structural and 
sculptural elegances, which, with lenses of ordinary powers, can 
be so well observed if they are properly mounted ; but to the geo- 
logist the examination of these microcosms and the constructors 
thereof, and the bringing to light the vast numbers of still un- 
discovered species, are objects of the highest interest and greatest 
importance to assist in the solution of many intricate problems, 
relative to the structure, conditions, and changes of the crust of 
our globe. 

To accomplish the important views I have endeavoured to 
sketch, and to infuse life, activity and interest into this portion 
of zoology, nothing more is required than a point of departure, 
which can only be effected by an energetic naturalist imbued 
with the " divinus afflatus," and whose years are not numbered 
as mine, who will undertake the useful and delightful task of 
giving a start, or rather an impetus to the present dormant 
position of this section of natural history, by throwing our indi- 
gena into divisions, genera and species, accompanied by faith- 
ful figures. As to classification, the work would be very light. 
"We cannot adopt one characterized more concisely and distinct- 
ively than that of M. D'Orbigny, which I believe will prove 
more than sufficiently comprehensive for our hitherto discovered 
species. His first prodrome, the Foraminifera, 'Voyage dans 
PAmerique meridionale, de Tile de Cuba, des iles des Canaries/ 
&c. &c, must form the bases of the classification. The mere sub- 
stitution of one artificial system for another will be of no advan- 
tage to this branch of science, which, from its malacological neg- 
lect, must remain for some years in an unsatisfactory position, 
until the animals are more thoroughly investigated ; and when 
that is done, the membranous sac, the continuous tube, the 
lobes from one to twenty or more, and the terminal tentacula, 
will form the main features of all the animals of this class, ex- 
cept perhaps a small section of the Stichostegidce, and possibly the 
Miliolidce ; these two latter points I fully expect in the approach- 
ing summer, with the aid of the coralline zones of the South 
Devon coasts, to settle in such manner as will be conducive to 
the interest of this branch of zoology. 

The principal labour would be the collection of the British 
articles from various cabinets ; and who will hesitate to offer the 



On the Secretion of the Leaves and Stems of the Ice-plant. 171 

necessary contributions from his stores in furtherance of such 
objects, if undertaken under favourable auspices and competent 
qualification ? 

I have opened a new field for exertion, particularly for the 
younger naturalists, in which honour is to be acquired, and fur- 
nished in the higher walks of observation, — a new theme, and I 
trust that the " Hanc exorna" will be carried out with a zeal cor- 
respondent to the importance of the subject. 

I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

William Clark. 



XVII. — On the Watery Secretion of the Leaves and Stems of the 
Ice-plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, L.). By Dr. 
Augustus Voelcker, Prof, of Chemistry Royal Agricult. Col- 
lege, Cirencester*. 

A few months ago I had the pleasure of communicating to the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh the results of an examination of 
the watery liquid in the ascidia of Nepenthes destillatoria. Those 
present at the meeting, as well as the readers of the 4 Annals of 
Natural History/ will remember that, in opposition to the state- 
ments of most botanists who have directed their attention to the 
subject of the watery secretions of the leaves of plants, I found 
the liquid in the ascidia of Nepenthes to differ materially from 
pure water, inasmuch as it contained from 0*30 to nearly 1 per 
cent, of solid substances, partly organic partly inorganic. I 
stated at that time my doubts as to the watery secretion of 
plants being nothing but pure water, and gave some reasons for 
this opinion ; Prof. Balfour, with whom I discussed the subject, 
kindly furnished me with the means of investigating this point 
still further by favouring me with fresh specimens of the curious 
Ice-plant [Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), a plant which is re- 
markable on account of the gland-like vesicular eminences with 
which its leaves and stems are covered. The result of the examina- 
tion of the fluid secreted by the leaves of this plant has fully con- 
firmed the opinion expressed in regard to the watery secretions of 
plants; at all events it has shown me that the secretion of the leaves 
of the Ice-plant is not merely pure water, but water containing 
several substances in solution. Though I was unable to determine 
quantitatively the composition of this secretion on account of the 
small quantity of liquid at my command — a quantity insufficient 
even for a minute qualitative analysis — yet I had no difficulty 
in detecting the chief constituent parts of the fluid. The secre- 
tion I procured by lacerating the gland-like eminences with 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Jan. 10, 1850. 



172 On the Secretion of the Leaves and Stems of the Ice-plant. 

which the leaves are covered, with a needle, and collecting the 
fluid in a glass bottle. The fluid thus obtained was colourless 
and nearly clear, without smell, and possessing no distinctly 
pronounced taste. Litmus-paper dipped in it was very slightly 
turned red, showing the presence of merely traces of a free acid 
or an acid salt. In order to free it entirely from any particles of 
epidermis which might accidentally have mingled with the liquid, 
I filtered it through white filtering-paper. The fluid passing 
through the filter slowly was now perfectly clear. On heating 
to 212° F. white flakes were separated, which proved to be iden- 
tical with vegetable albumen. They were collected in a filter, and 
the filtrate evaporated to dryness on a water-bath. During the 
evaporation the liquid turned yellow, particularly when evapo- 
rated to a small bulk, and left a brownish-coloured, very hygro- 
scopic residue, which redissolved in a small quantity of distilled 
water, leaving but a trace of a humus-like, dark-coloured organic 
substance undissolved. 

The chemical nature of the fluid from which the albumen had 
been separated, was ascertained as far as possible by the follow- 
ing tests : — 

Ammonia produced no change. 

Carbonate of ammonia gave no precipitate. 

Carbonate of soda on boiling gave a white precipitate. 

Oxalate of ammonia produced no change. 

Phosphate of soda and ammonia, added to the concentrated 
liquid, gave a crystalline white precipitate of phosphate of mag- 
nesia and ammonia. 

Chloride of platinum, added to the concentrated liquid after 
the removal of the magnesia, produced a crystalline yellow pre- 
cipitate. 

The presence of soda was indicated by the yellow colour given 
to the alcohol flame. 

Lime-water produced a white precipitate. 

Sulphate of lime likewise produced a white precipitate. 

Chloride of barium gave a heavy white precipitate. 

Nitrate of silver gave a white flaky precipitate, soluble in am- 
monia, but insoluble in nitric acid. 

Acetate of lead produced a white precipitate. 

Basic acetate of lead gave a voluminous white precipitate. 

A portion of the water evaporated to dryness and heated to 
redness left a white ash which effervesced with acids, indicating 
the presence of carbonates, originated from organic acids present 
in the fluid. 

The nature of the organic acids, which in all likelihood ac- 
companied the oxalic acid, I could not determine from want of 
material. The presence of oxalic acid however is distinctly indi- 



Arm, 8c May. Nat Hist S. 2. Vol b.TU/. 

I i a 




.1. Hn/icock, del . 



Arvn.&Mag. Nat. Hist. S. 2.\o\. S.TL m. 



A. Hanrock del, 




ben .,(■. //W Wat. & st S.2.Y6L. 5 . /'/. // \ 




_A.BancueJ? f/r/ ■ 



./ &OS&V s6 



Vat. ffi&t.S. 2. 76LS. Fl. 



1 «M 




i -•/• del. 



Mr. Hancock on the Anatomy of the Freshwater Bryozoa. 173 

cated by the above reactions. They likewise show the presence 
of chloride of sodium, potash, sulphuric acid and magnesia. 

In comparing this secretion of the leaves of the Ice-plant with 
the fluid in the ascidia of Nepenthes, we find a material difference 
in their respective compositions, as will be seen by the annexed 
table, which exhibits the composition of both fluids. : — 

Composition of the fluid in the Composition of the watery secretion 

ascidia of Nepenthes. of the leaves of Mesembryanthe- 

ffium crystallinum. 

Organic matter, chiefly malic and a Organic matter (albumen, oxalic 

little citric acid. acid, &c). 

Chloride of potassium. Chloride of sodium. 

Soda. Potash. 

Magnesia. SdpS acid. 

_ . 

XVIII. — On the Anatomy of the Freshwater Bryozoa, with de- 
scriptions of three new Species. By Albany Hancock, Esq.* 

[With four Plates.] 

During a ramble made last July in company with "The Tyne- 
side Naturalists' Field Club " to the Northumberland lakes, I was 
fortunate enough to find two or three species of Bryozoa. Since 
then I have revisited the locality twice, and on each occasion 
additional species occurred. Thus six or seven forms of these 
interesting animals have been found to inhabit two of these 
lakes, namely Bromley Lough and Crag Lough. Three of the 
species appear to be undescribed ; these I propose to characterize 
towards the close of this communication, giving previously an 
account of the anatomy of the freshwater Bryozoa so far as I 
have been able to determine it. 

Amongst the known species was a fragment of Alcyonella, 
most probably A. stagnorum; but its characters could not be 
determined on account of the imperfection of the specimen. 
Fredericella sultana occurred abundantly and of very luxuriant 
growth, spreading over the under surface of stones in patches of 
three or four inches' extent. Of the new species two belong to 
Plumatella and one to Paludicella, a rare genus, of which there 
was but one species previously known, and that I believe had 
been found only in Ireland, and in two or three localities on the 
continent. 

The anatomy of the freshwater Bryozoa had been very little 
studied on this side of the Channel before Professor Allman took 
up the subject, and he has handled it so well that little is left to 

* Read at a Meeting of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, Dec. 1849. 



174 JMr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

be done. Indeed so complete are the results of this naturalist, 
that, perhaps, the publication of my own may appear almost un- 
necessary. My investigations, however, carried on as they have 
been perfectly independent of the researches of others, may not 
be without some value even where novelty is wanting. Micro* 
scopic investigations conducted by the aid of transmitted light 
are liable to error. Frequent examinations in such cases are 
therefore necessary, and observations independently prosecuted 
are of peculiar value. Consequently I do not hesitate to give the 
result of my own labours on this subject, fraught as it is with 
difficulty, not fearing to mislead in a path already so well trodden. 

Of the anatomy of these animals I shall have to confine myself 
almost entirely to that of Plumatella, Fredericella and Paludicella. 
Of Alcyonella I can say but little, having seen only an imperfect 
specimen, and none of the other freshwater forms have come 
under my notice. 

Plumatella and Fredericella resemble each other very closely in 
their anatomical structure, notwithstanding the external differ- 
ence of their polypes. Paludicella however shows some very in- 
teresting modifications, particularly in the muscular system : but 
before entering on the internal anatomy it will be necessary to 
examine the characters of the polypidom, and to trace its rela- 
tionship to the polype. 

The polypidom of Plumatella Allmani, PL V. figs. 3, 4 & 5, 
and of Fredericella sultana is tubular, branched and carinated on 
the upper surface ; the walls opake, tough and membranous, in- 
clining to horny. Those of the latter, when examined through 
the microscope, exhibit a sort of dendritic structure ; the divisions 
or branches passing in an irregular spiral direction round the 
tube, are flattened, and extensively anastomosing form for the 
most part a dense tissue, nowhere more open than just to display 
the branched character. The walls of Plumatella do not in the 
least exhibit this structure. In Paludicella the polypidom, fig. 2, 
is likewise branched and tubular, but not carinated ; it is mem- 
branous or horny, and becomes enlarged and contracted at cer- 
tain intervals, dividing the whole, as it were, into cells or com- 
partments, the external surface being smooth and very glossy. 

All these genera have the polypidom lined with a delicate 
membrane — the tunic, PI. III. figs. 4 b, b & 5 k, and PL IV. 
fig. 1 b, which is attached only at certain points to the inner sur- 
face of the external tube or cell-wall. This in Plumatella and 
Fredericella becomes excessively delicate towards the orifice, where 
it apparently blends with the tunic. But in Paludicella the union 
at this point of the horny wall and tunic cannot be mistaken, 
though the blending is so gradual that it is impossible to say 
where one ends and the other begins. And when this polype is 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 175 

exserted, there is a delicate membranous cup, PI. IV. fig. 1 d, 
projecting upwards from the inner surface of the mouth of the 
cell. This cup is the homologue of the circle of setae surrounding 
the aperture of Bowerbankia and other marine genera. In Palu- 
dicella the tunic is sprinkled with large nucleated cells, fig. 4 m, 
and at certain intervals bends abruptly inwards, figs. 1 & 2 u, r, 
dividing the polypidom into cells at the points indicated by the 
constrictions in the horny tube. Thus each polype is isolated, is 
contained in fact within a distinct membranous cell, the end-walls 
of which abut against the end-walls of the adjoining cells. The 
divisions are therefore double, and being of living membrane and 
in contact, it is probable that all the inhabitants of the polypidom 
are in some degree connected in vital action. The end-walls are 
considerably thickened in the centre, forming a bulb or boss pro- 
jecting into the cell. The polypes of Fredericella are not sepa- 
rated the one from the other, though a few divisions appear to 
exist at distant points. Thus it would seem that groups of ani- 
mals are associated together as it were in one tube. Neither in 
Plumatella are the polypes separated. 

The polype lies in the longitudinal axis of the cell, Plates II. 
& IV. figs. 2, 2, being provided with numerous muscles for pro- 
trusion and retraction. It is held in its place principally by a 
membranous tube — the tentacular sheath, PI. II. fig. 2 m, n, and 
PI. IV. fig. 2 d', d l y which blends with the inverted lips of the 
tunic, PI. II. fig. 2 /, a little below the orifice of the cell, and con- 
tinuing downwards within the cell incloses the bundle of re- 
tracted tentacles, and is attached round the tentacular disc a'. 

Digestive System. — The organs of digestion, comprising nearly 
the whole of the polype, float freely in the visceral cavity. The 
entrance to the alimentary canal is furnished with tentacles, 
PI. II. fig. 1 b ; these arise from a margin surrounding the oral 
opening in two different fashions ; in the one they form a com- 
plete circle round the mouth, in the other they are arranged in 
a crescentic manner, the limbs of the crescent being two arms, 
PI. III. figs. 1, 2 & 3 c, e & c, extending from the sides of the 
mouth, fig. 3 a, having their bases confluent and with a row of 
tentacles on their inner and outer margins. Paludicella and 
Fredericella, PL IV. fig. 1/, and PL II. fig. 1 b, are examples of 
the first mode of arrangement; and Plumatella, PL III. figs. 1, 2 
& 3, and Alcyonella of the second. In Paludicella the tentacles 
when spread out form a very exact inverted cone, closely resem- 
bling the shape they assume in some of the marine species. The 
base or disc supporting the tentacles is not exactly circular in 
Fredericella ; in this genus it is a little flattened at the point cor- 
responding to the space between the oral arms in Plumatella ; 
and there is also a delicate transparent membrane, PL II. fig. 1 



176 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

C 1 , c, uniting the bases of the tentacles. In these respects Frede- 
ricella shows an approximation to those with oral arms, or as it is 
generally termed, a crescentic disc. In these there is always a 
similar membrane, PI. III. figs. 1, 2 & 3 e,f& d, at the base of 
the tentacles, and in all of them, as well as in Fredericella, this 
membrane is attached to the external surface of the tentacles, and 
is much wider at the margin than the spaces between them, and 
consequently it bags out, giving to the upper portion a flounced 
appearance, particularly in the latter, PL II. fig. 1 c. 

The tentacles themselves in all these genera are rather stout 
and linear with the end obtuse; they have the appearance of 
being tubular, as have likewise the oral arms of Plumatella : the 
tentacles are clothed with long cilia, which vibrate upwards on one 
side and downwards on the other in the same manner as de- 
scribed in the marine species ; and as in them, when the polype 
is retracted the tentacles are drawn down in an erect position, 
having first been brought together into a compact linear bundle, 
PI. II. fig. 2 a, and PI. IV. fig. 2 d. They do not appear to be 
at all contractile, and in all the species are transparent and almost 
homogeneous in their structure. There can be little doubt that 
they are not merely tentacles, but that they are likewise respi- 
ratory organs : food is brought to the mouth by their ciliary 
currents, and also by the action of the tentacles themselves, one 
or more of which may frequently be seen bending suddenly in- 
wards, and securing such particles as come within their reach. 
They occasionally act in concert in the capture of animalcules by 
bringing their tips together, thus forming, in those with a cir- 
cular disc, a very elegant oval cage, within which the imprisoned 
prey may be seen for an instant or two dashing about previously 
to passing into the oesophagus or to liberation, which not unfre- 
quently happens, the captive proving distasteful to the polype. 
The tentacles then may be considered prehensile labial or oral 
appendages, notwithstanding their respiratory function, and as 
such they are a portion of the alimentary system. 

The oral orifice of Plumatella is semicircular, PI. III. fig. 3 a, 
and protected by a strong, rounded, fleshy valve, b, which, ari- 
sing from the side of the mouth at the point on the inner margin 
of the crescent where the two arms unite, projects upwards and 
slightly overhangs the opening. This valve is completely under 
the control of the animal, and can be made to act as a sort of 
operculum, closing the orifice to prevent the admittance of food ; 
or it can be used to force food into the pharynx. The mouth, 
PI. II. fig. 1 d, of Fredericella is likewise semicircular, and is also 
provided with a similar valve, e. It is immediately behind it that 
the tentacular disc is a little flattened, proving that this point 
corresponds to the space between the arms in Plumatella ; indeed 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 1 77 

in some points of view the angles formed by this flattening have 
not a little the appearance of rudimentary arms just sprouting. 

The oesophagus descends at once in a straight line from the 
oral opening. In Fredericella, PL II. figs. 1 / & 2 b, it is rather 
short and wide, and the walls, which are thick and fleshy, 
are parallel throughout, except at the commencement, where 
they are a little bulged, forming a sort of pharynx which is lined 
with vibratile cilia : the other extremity communicates with the 
stomach by a distinct valvular orifice, PI. II. figs. 1 g & 2 c, — 
the cardiac, projecting downwards. The whole surface is covered 
with minute circular cells resembling very much the peculiar 
structure observed in the marine species, and pointed out by 
Dr. Farre in his valuable paper on the Marine Ascidian Polypes 
published in the ' Philosophical Transactions' for 1837. 

The stomach, figs. 1 h & 2 d, is more than twice the length 
of the oesophagus, tapering slightly downwards and truncate 
above ; the lower extremity being obtuse : the walls, like those of 
the oesophagus, are thick and fleshy, and are covered with nu- 
merous, minute, close-set cells of a glandular character. The 
pyloric orifice is circular and well marked, and has the appearance 
of being guarded by a sphincter muscle ; it is likewise supplied 
with vibratile cilia which extend some little way into the stomach. 
This orifice is situated above, at one side and a little below the 
cardiac opening. The intestine, figs. 1 & 2 i, e, is straight, and 
a little longer than and nearly as wide as the oesophagus, with 
which it lies in contact and to which it is apparently attached ; 
the pyloric extremity is obtusely pointed, and communicates by 
the side with the stomach ; from thence the intestine tapers a 
little upwards towards the anal extremity, which, turning out- 
wards, passes through the tentacular sheath just below its attach- 
ment to the disc supporting the tentacles, and there terminates 
in an obtuse perforated point, figs. 1 & 2j &/, which can be 
either protruded or retracted to a considerable extent at the will 
of the animal. The whole of the alimentary canal is highly irri- 
table, particularly the oesophagus and stomach, in the walls of 
both of which, minute, transverse striae are distinctly visible, pro- 
bably indicating the presence of muscles. The stomach is per- 
petually in motion when the animal is displayed, contracting in 
an undulating or vermicular manner from above downwards. 
The contractions of the oesophagus, too, are very decided on re- 
ceiving food, which for a second or two rests in the pharyngeal 
enlargement, and is then hurried to the stomach with great 
rapidity. 

The alimentary canal of Plumatella and Alcyonella does not 
vary in any important manner from that of Fredericella. In the 

Ann. % Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 12 



178 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

two former, however, both the oesophagus and stomach are shorter 
than they are in the latter genus. 

In all these genera no disturbance of the parts of the alimen- 
tary canal takes place on the retraction of the polype : the ani- 
mal sinks into the cell with the oesophagus, stomach and intes- 
tine erect as they were when the tentacles were exserted and in 
full play. Not so however in Paludicella, PL IV. fig. 2; in this 
genus the alimentary canal is doubled upon itself when the po- 
lype is retracted ; and moreover the parts are somewhat modified, 
approximating this form more closely to that of the marine 
species. 

When the animal of Paludicella is protruded, the oesophagus, 
fig. 1 h, is observed to be long and slender, and to have a di- 
stinct pharyngeal dilatation at the commencement, where vibra- 
tile cilia can be seen in vigorous action. It communicates with 
the upper extremity of the stomach by a circular orifice, fig. 2f. 
The stomach, fig. 1 i, is rather short, considerably enlarged above 
and tapering to the inferior extremity, where it is rounded : the 
walls are thick, and apparently filled with yellowish brown co- 
loured granules, probably hepatic as in the marine species. The 
intestine,^', arises from the superior extremity close behind and 
a little above the cardia. The pyloric opening is well defined and 
circular ; soon after its origin the intestine is suddenly enlarged, 
forming an oval swelling, k, in which the fseces may be seen col- 
lecting ; it contracts above this swelling, and continues afterwards 
for nearly its whole length of equal diameter ; it passes upwards 
in a straight line parallel with the oesophagus, but unattached to 
it, and terminates in a rounded anal extremity, /, immediately 
below the base of the tentacles where it perforates the tentacular 
sheath. The upper end of the stomach, close to the pyloric ori- 
fice, is furnished with vibratile cilia, and here the alimentary 
matters may be seen rapidly rotating by their influence. The 
fseces are formed into small pellets, which, coming from the en- 
larged portion, pass up the intestine and are expelled at the 
anal orifice. The whole of the canal is as highly irritable as in 
the other species ; the stomach undulating from above downwards 
in the same manner, and the oesophagus is equally expert in 
transmitting food to the stomach. But neither in Paludicella 
nor in the species before alluded to does the pharyngeal swelling 
exhibit in any marked manner the sudden puffings and contrac- 
tions so conspicuous in the marine species, and noticed originally 
by Dr. Farre. 

On retraction of the polype, the alimentary canal of Paludicella 
is doubled upon itself in much the same way as in Bowerbankia. 
The basal disc of the tentacles is then brought down as far as 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 179 

the upper extremity of the stomach, and the consequence is that 
the intestine, fig. 2 h, is doubled upon itself a little above the 
enlargement, i, and the oesophagus, e, is forced down by the side 
of the stomach, g, and turning upwards again is bent into the 
form of an S. 

Vascular System. — This appears to be entirely wanting in 
these animals : a species of circulation nevertheless exists. I 
have seen on two or three occasions a pretty regular flow of the 
fluid in the visceral cavity of Plumatella and Fredericella. Under 
ordinary circumstances no fluid can be recognized in this cavity, 
from the apparent deficiency of blood-globules or corpuscles of 
any kind. Such however probably exist, but the thickness and 
opacity of the cell-walls are sufficient to prevent the detection of 
minute bodies of this nature. On the occasions alluded to some 
of the tissues of the animal appear to have been ruptured, and 
small fragmentary particles mingling with the contained fluid 
were perceived moving in certain directions. By the aid of these 
particles, which were numerous and of various forms and sizes, it 
was easy to ascertain that the fluid which bathes the polype cir- 
culates in a regular manner within the cavity in which the viscera 
float. There can be no doubt that this circulation is caused by 
the action of cilia which cover the inner surface of the lining 
membrane or tunic, and also clothe the external wall of the re- 
tracted tentacular sheath. The current flowed regularly and 
steadily ; but when the floating particles approached the surface 
of the tunic or tentacular sheath, their motion became accelerated 
in a manner that sufficiently evinced the presence of vibratile 
cilia. Those on the tunic chiefly determined the direction of the 
current, which went with great regularity up one side, crossed 
over at the top of the cell, and then went down the other side ; 
it crossed again in an opposite direction a little below the stomach, 
and so completed the circuit. It was not difficult to ascertain 
that the cilia of the tunic on one side of the cell vibrate upwards, 
on the other side downwards ; and that all those on the tentacular 
sheath vibrate upwards. On one side therefore the currents of 
the sheath and tunic oppose each other ; and consequently an 
eddy was visible near the top of the cell. 

It is quite evident then that fluid circulates within the visceral 
cavity. What is the nature of this circulation ? Is it merely 
respiratory, or is it nutritive ? It can scarcely be considered an 
aerating current, as there is no visible communication between 
this cavity and the external water ; and indeed if an orifice exists, 
it must be minute and under the control of the animal, or the 
protrusion of the polype could not be effected in the manner to 
be afterwards described. It is more likely to be for the purpose 
of nutrition, — standing, indeed, in the place of a vascular system. 

12* 



180 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

The fluid must therefore hold in suspension the products of di- 
gestion. These may be supposed to exude through the walls of 
the intestinal canal, probably from the enlarged portion of it in 
Paludicella, and perhaps also from the upper portion of the 
stomach ; and passing into this circulation will go at once to 
nourish the various organs of the animal, all of which are bathed 
with this vivifying fluid, except the tentacles, which we shall 
afterwards see, in all probability, receive blood into their interior 
for the purpose of aeration. In this way, too, we can understand 
the nourishment and growth of the tunic and the maintenance 
of the buds (which germinate from it) until they are able by the 
aid of their own tentacles to procure food. In no other way can 
the development of these buds be so easily explained. The mem- 
brane in which they take their origin must either be supplied 
with the nutritive fluid in this way or by the agency of vessels ; 
but none can be discovered either in the tunic or elsewhere. The 
external cell-walls whilst in a growing state must also be nou- 
rished by the tunic, which we have seen is united to the external 
walls at the orifice of the cell. 

The respiratory function we have stated to be exercised by the 
tentacles, but there can be no doubt that all the exposed parts 
will assist in aerating the blood. The tentacles are hollow, 
and though I could not detect any fluid within them, it is pro- 
bable that the blood finds its way into th^ir tubular cavities 
through the basal disc; and as they are clothed with strong 
vibratile cilia which keep a constant flow of the oxygenating 
medium over their surfaces, they would appear well adapted for 
breathing organs. It is however difficult to understand how the 
oxygenation of the blood goes on when the polype is retracted ; 
for at this time the orifice is completely closed by the folding in 
of the lips of the cell, and by muscles provided for the purpose. 
Professor Allman has supposed that the tube retractors of Palu- 
dicella exercise the function also of opening the aperture when 
in this state for the purpose of admitting the surrounding fluid. 
But I have seen nothing to warrant such supposition j and in- 
deed the tentacles being then packed close together within the 
sheath, the cilia cease to vibrate, and there is no room in which 
the water can flow around them, even supposing an opening to be 
so maintained. The tips of the tentacles too of Paludicella and 
of several of the marine species when retracted are generally 
bent down in a manner to forbid the flow of any fluid whatever 
amongst them. It would therefore seem clear, that when not in 
action the oxygenation of the blood must almost, if not entirely, 
cease in these polypes, as it must do in most of the Mollusca 
when closed up in their shelly armature. 

Nervous System. — Some years ago Professor Allman discovered 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 181 

a ganglion in these animals, and has more recently ascertained 
the existence of nerves. I have also detected a large ganglion, 
PI. II. fig. 1 k, in Plumatella and Fredericella. It is situated just 
below the entrance to the oesophagus on the external surface, close 
to the base of the tentacles and just above the anal orifice. It is 
therefore placed between the oral arms in Plumatella, and in 
Fredericella at the corresponding point. In the latter I have 
observed two or three nerves passing from the ganglion upwards 
in the direction of the tentacles, and one apparently going to 
embrace the oesophagus ; another that comes from the lower ex- 
tremity of the ganglion may also be seen passing downwards 
close to the oesophagus. This is all I have been able to make 
out respecting the nervous system, though undoubtedly more is 
to be learnt. 

Muscular System. — There are three distinct sets of muscles in 
Plumatella and Fredericella ; one for the retraction of the polype, 
another to assist in the act of protrusion, and the third probably 
accessory in closing the orifice. The first and most conspicuous 
set of muscles, the polype retractors, PI. II. figs. 2 g, g & 4/, 
and PI. III. figs. 4 g & 5 i, i, is divided into two equal bundles, 
one passing on each side of the polype. These bundles are com- 
posed of numerous, stout, isolated fibres, having their origin in 
the walls of the cell a considerable way below the retracted po- 
lype ; and passing upwards have their superior extremities in- 
serted at the tentacular disc or base of the oral arms and at the 
upper portion of the oesophagus. There are also two similar 
bundles of muscular fibres in Alcyonella, but in this genus they 
have their origin at or close to the bottom of the cell. When the 
animal of Plumatella is exserted, two or three of the stoutest, 
PI. II. fig. 4#, of these fibres are seen to be attached on each 
side further forward than the rest at the base of the oral arms. 
Also in Fredericella similar fibres are inserted at the correspond- 
ing parts of the tentacular disc. These stout fibres have their 
origin a little lower down the cell than the rest. 

The function of these two bundles of muscular fibres cannot 
for a moment be mistaken : they are for the purpose of drawing 
the polype back into the cell ; and when it is so withdrawn, the 
fibres of this, the most powerful muscle of the animal, may be 
seen in a relaxed state and bent upon themselves in a loose un- 
dulating manner about the tentacular disc and downwards to 
their origin. The few strong fibres alluded to undoubtedly as- 
sist in the retraction of the polype ; but are also apparently the 
principal agents in rotating the head, so to speak, of the polype 
when exserted. 

The second set of muscles, PI. II. figs. 1 & 2 m, h, is composed 
of a circle of stout, isolated, radiating fibres, all placed in the 



182 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

same horizontal plane, considerably apart from each other, and 
attached by their outer extremities to the inner surface of the 
tunic some way below the opening ; their inner extremities con- 
verging towards the tentacular sheath are attached to it about 
one-third from its superior termination. Plumatella has fifteen 
or sixteen of these fibres, Fredericella about fourteen. Their ar- 
rangement is perfectly symmetrical. They are for the purpose 
of preventing the inversion of the whole of the tentacular sheath 
on the protrusion of the polype ; and thus to confine the oral 
extremity within a convenient distance above the mouth of the 
cell. 

The true value of these muscles will be fully understood if we 
refer to the marine genus Bowerbankia, in which they are defi- 
cient, and of course the tentacular sheath can be completely in- 
verted, and accordingly the animal is enabled to reach to a greater 
distance than it could otherwise have done. But an apparatus 
of extraordinary beauty is provided to obviate the inconvenience 
that must have arisen from the great elevation of the tentacular 
disc above the support of the horny cell. This is effected by 
what may be considered an elongation upwards of the cell. 
Numerous setse bound together by a membrane are attached to 
the lips of the orifice, so that when the polype is exserted they 
stand up in a circle surrounding the lower part of the exposed 
portion of the animal and give support to it. By this means the 
far-outstretched tentacular disc is brought completely under the 
control of the muscles for directing its movements*. We thus 
clearly see that this set of radiating muscles is a compensation 
for the deficiency of the circle of setse in the freshwater polypes. 

The third set of muscles, figs. 1 & 2 n } i, consists of numerous, 
separate, fine thread-like filaments placed considerably apart, 
without order, but in the same radiating manner as those last 

* Dr. Farre has described this apparatus in his paper so frequently re- 
ferred to, but seems scarcely to have arrived at a full knowledge of its func- 
tion. He considers that it is " for allowing of the freest possible motion to 
the upper part of the body in its expanded state, to which it affords at the 
same time support and protection." On examining the animal in action it 
is evident that the use of the apparatus is as I have pointed out. The circle 
of setae is then seen to compress the lower portion of the extended polype ; 
and when the tentacular disc moves from side to side the neck always bends 
from the top of the setae at a decided angle, and does not gradually arch 
away from the lips of the cell as might be expected were this contrivance 
for the purpose of giving flexibility. The delicate membrane uniting the setae 
is strengthened with numerous, minute transverse fibres, forming the whole 
into a powerful sphincter, thus giving great firmness to the part. By this ar- 
rangement Bowerbankia is enabled to raise the tentacular disc far above the 
polype-cell, and yet to remain as perfectly under the control of the rota- 
tory arid retractor muscles as is the tentacular disc of Fredericella and Plu- 
matella, in both of which it is confined close to the orifice of the cell by the 
action of the radiating muscular fibres. 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 183 

described, immediately above them and extending upwards to 
the termination of the cell. These filaments have their outer ex- 
tremities attached to the inner surface of the tunic ; and con- 
verging towards the axis of the cell, their inner extremities are 
attached to the upper portion of the tentacular sheath and the 
inverted margin of the tunic. These fibres are equally numerous 
and fine in both Plumatella and Fredericella, and appear to be 
for the purpose of assisting in closing the orifice, acting in har- 
mony with the contraction of the upper portion of the tentacular 
sheath and the inverted lips of the orifice. They may, acting in 
the opposite direction, also assist in opening the channel, but the 
tentacles themselves would appear quite adequate to force a 
passage on the relaxation of the contractions about the orifice. 
The function of these fibres is in fact to keep in unison the tunic 
near the opening and the upper portion of the tentacular sheath. 

The upper portion of the tentacular sheath and inverted lips 
of the tunic are highly contractile, and it is by their agency prin- 
cipally that the orifice is closed when the animal is retracted. I 
have not however been able to detect any muscular fibres for the 
purpose, though at the point, PL II. fig. 2n, where the inverted 
lips of the tunic join to the tentacular sheath, it is suddenly con- 
stricted as if by a powerful sphincter muscle. In fact the whole 
of the tunic is undoubtedly contractile, yet in no part of it have 
1 detected muscular fibres. By the contraction of this lining 
membrane the capacity of the visceral cavity is diminished ; and 
thus by the pressure of the contained fluid the protrusion of the 
polype is effected. This matter however will be discussed more 
fully when we come to speak of this portion of the anatomy of 
Paludicella. 

To understand the combined action of the various sets of 
muscles in Plumatella and Fredericella, we have only to watch 
the animal when about to issue from the cell. The first change 
observed is the contraction of the tunic, PI. II. fig. 4 j,j, and 
PL III. fig. 4 b, the walls of which are brought nearer together 
towards the lower portion of the cell. The pressure thus occa- 
sioned on the contained fluid compels the polype to begin its 
ascent ; at the same time the sphincter contraction of the upper 
portion of the tentacular sheath relaxes, so that the bundle of 
tentacles can force their way without difficulty. As the polype 
gradually advances upwards the circle of strong radiating muscles 
comes into play, and it is a sight of no little interest to watch 
them drag upon the tentacular sheath, allowing the inferior por- 
tion of it to roll upwards attached to the tentacular disc. As soon 
as the ascent is arrested by these muscles, the sheath being in- 
verted as far as they will permit, protrusion is complete, and the 
tentacles at once assume their proper arrangement. 



184 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

The muscular apparatus of Paludicella differs in some respects 
from that of Plumatella and Fredericella. In the former there 
are six sets of muscles — three in connexion with retraction, two 
with protrusion, and one for closing the orifice on the retreat of 
the polype. Of the retractors one set acts directly upon the ani- 
mal, the other two upon the tubular orifice of the cell. The 
former set, PL IV. fig. 1 o, the most powerful in the animal, is 
similar to the tentacular retractors of Dr. Farre : it differs only 
from the polype-retractors in Plumatella and the other genera 
already spoken of in not being divided into two bundles. It is 
composed of numerous, stout, long, linear fibres originating from 
the inner surface of the anterior wall of the cell more than half- 
way down ; then passing up in front of the polype the superior 
extremities are inserted around the base of the tentacular disc. 
These fibres draw the polype down into the cell, and like those 
of the same muscle in the other Bryozoa, when unemployed lie 
in a somewhat cramped and disordered state, fig. 2 /, /. 

The second and third sets of muscles are the tube-retractors ; 
the former or inferior, figs. 1 p & 2 m, m, is much the larger; it 
is composed of four compressed bundles of stout, linear fibres 
placed close together, but distinct from each other. These bundles 
are associated together in pairs, one on each side of the tube ; the 
inferior ends of these pairs of bundles arise wide apart from the 
posterior wall of the cell opposite the orifice. As they pass up 
the tube the bundles converge, and reaching within a short di- 
stance of the lips of the orifice, they are inserted upon the inner 
surface of the tube-walls at four opposite points ; the fibres of 
each bundle being attached one above the other in the same lon- 
gitudinal plane. This peculiar arrangement causes the margins 
of the orifice to fold into four portions on the retraction of the 
tube ; and its end, fig. 3, consequently assumes a square form, the 
angles corresponding to the insertions of the muscular bundles. 
The third set of muscles, figs. 1 q & 2 n, n, the superior tube- 
retractors, are made up of only four fibres, two on each side of 
the cell, having their origin immediately below that of the set 
just described; their other ends are attached to the inner surface 
of the tube above the insertion of the inferior set, and at the base 
of the membranous cup, fig. 1 /, before alluded to, at the mouth 
of the cell. The inferior and superior tube-retractors are ho- 
mologous to the double set of opercular muscles described by 
Dr. Farre in the marine species, differing only from those in 
Bowerbankia densa by being divided into four bundles instead of 
into three as they are in that species. The action of these muscles 
is obvious. The superior retractors, having their insertion at the 
base of the membranous cup at the mouth of the cell, draw it 
down base first in the axis of the tube, at the same time folding 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 185 

in around it the lips of the cell. The inferior set then taking up 
the work complete the inversion of the tube. Dr. Farre, how- 
ever, supposed that the opercular muscles were not merely for 
drawing the tube in after the retreating animal, but also for the 
purpose of closing the orifice. Professor Allman has pointed out 
the error of this opinion, and endeavoured to explain the closing 
of the orifice by the pressure of the fluid within the cell against 
the walls of the inverted tube. We shall directly see, however, 
that this theory is unnecessary, there being special muscles pro- 
vided for the purpose. Professor Allman is likewise disinclined 
to believe that the opercular muscles are really tube-retractors, as 
he supposes the muscles for drawing in the polype are sufficient 
for the purpose also of drawing in the tube. Were these latter 
muscles used to invaginate the tubular orifice of the cell, we 
should expect to find them in action so long as the animal was 
retracted ; but we have already seen, that when the polype is 
in this state, they are invariably relaxed and lie in a disordered 
undulating manner, perfectly at rest. The tube-retractors on 
the contrary are always tense and in vigorous action during the 
retracted state of the polype, evincing I think in a satisfactory 
manner that their function is to retract the tube and to maintain 
it in an invaginated state, — unless we are to suppose that they 
are constantly employed in keeping open the channel as sug- 
gested by Professor Allman. They will certainly have a tendency 
to pull asunder the walls of the inverted tube, yet I have never 
seen the channel thus opened, although these muscles are never 
otherwise than as represented in PI. IV. fig. 2, when the polype 
is retracted. And moreover the tips of the tentacles, as exhibited 
in this figure, are frequently doubled down, showing that the 
tentacular sheath must be to some extent relaxed, and that 
there is no stress whatever on it, as there would be were the 
polype-retractors used to draw in the orifice. 

The fourth set of muscles to be described is for closing the 
orifice. This set is composed of two sphincters : one, fig. 2 o, of 
these is made up of several fibres passing round the tube at the 
place of insertion of the inferior tube-retractors, and is of consi- 
derable breadth ; the other, p, is formed of only two or three 
fibres, which encircle the same tube at the insertion of the supe- 
rior tube-retractors. The action of these sphincters cannot be 
mistaken ; they effect the closing of the orifice on the retraction 
of the animal ; being at the same time antagonistic to the open- 
ing tendency of the tube-retractors, which, diverging from their 
insertions, must in some measure bring the walls of the inverted 
tube asunder. These sphincters are not readily distinguished, but 
having seen them in several individuals, I have not the slightest 
doubt of their existence. Deeming however that it would be 



186 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

satisfactory to see whether a similar apparatus for closing the 
orifice could be found in the marine species, I examined specimens 
of Bowerba7ikia, and had the satisfaction of detecting sphincter 
muscles in the same situations. At the point of insertion of the 
inferior tube-retractors — according to Dr. Farre of the upper set 
of opercular muscles — the circular fibres are very distinct and nu- 
merous, forming a large portion of the inverted tube into a broad 
sphincter. These fibres are so conspicuous that it seems strange 
how they could have escaped the notice of so close and accurate 
an observer as Dr. Farre. It is possible enough, however, that 
they might be less developed in the species examined by him*. 
The sphincter at the point of insertion of the superior tube-re- 
tractors is not readily observed ; but when the polype is exserted 
there can be no doubt of its existence. 

The fifth set of muscles, figs. 1 & 5 /, h, is in connexion with the 
tunic or lining membrane of the cell, and is precisely similar to 
the parietal muscles described by Dr. Farre in the marine spe- 
cies. This set is formed of short, transverse belts, arranged in 
pairs, considerably apart from each other, which are to be found 
almost from end to end of the cell, but most conspicuously to- 
wards the lower extremity. There appears to be two sets of these 
fibres, one down the back, the other down the front of the cell ; 
but I could not arrive at any very satisfactory conclusion respect- 
ing their arrangement, neither could I determine their exact re- 
lationship to the tunic, — whether they are attached to it by their 
extremities only as supposed by Dr. Farre, or connected with it 
throughout their entire length. Professor Allman appears to be 
of the latter opinion, and certainly I saw nothing in confirmation 
of that expressed by Dr. Farre ; though I am not sure that the 
extremities are not attached to the cell-walls, thus giving to these 
muscular belts fixed points of action. Howsoever this may be, 
these parietal muscles undoubtedly have the power of contracting 
the tunic, and so lessening the space within which the polype is 
confined; the contained fluid is made to press on the surface of 
the polype, constraining it to pass upwards, and thus to effect its 

* In the species examined by Dr. Farre and named by him Bowerbankia 
densa,the tube-retractors have a "triradiate arrangement/' and consequently 
the orifice is puckered into three folds when the polype is retracted. The 
species referred to in the text we have seen has four such folds — the tube- 
retractors being divided into as many bundles. The circle of tentacles also 
assumes a different form in the two species : in that examined by me the 
tentacles rise from the disc in a straight, slightly diverging line, and arch 
considerably outwards at the tips. In Dr. Farre's species they arch out- 
wards immediately above the disc, and are very little recurved at the tips. 
It is therefore pretty evident that there are two species, and that jB. densa 
should not be merged in B. imbricata, which is most probably the form that 
I have seen. 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 187 

protrusion much in the same manner as in Plumatella and Fre- 
dericella. In these however there is some little difficulty, the 
cells being continuous ; but in Paludicella, in which they are all 
separated, this act can be clearly understood. I have certainly 
observed in Plumatella and Fredericella the appearance of divi- 
sions here and there, forming as it were the cells into groups or 
systems, but nothing to warrant the belief that each cell is iso- 
lated. It might therefore be thought that protrusion of a few of 
the polypes would necessitate that of the others, or at least would 
cause an inconvenient pressure on the other members belonging 
to the same group. 

It is difficult to arrive at a full explanation of the propulsion 
of the polype in these cases ; but there can be no doubt that in 
them, as in the other Bryozoa, the contraction of the tunic is the 
sole agent. Dr. Farre believed that the act of protrusion did not 
so much depend on the contraction of the tunic as on the 
straightening of the alimentary canal, which in the marine spe- 
cies and in Paludicella is doubled upon itself when the polype 
is retracted. But in Plumatella, Fredericella , and Alcyonella it 
is always straight ; in these genera, therefore, protrusion cannot 
in the least be assisted by the alimentary canal. Professor All- 
man has referred to this fact to prove the error of Dr. Farre's 
opinion ; and indeed, if it be allowed, and I suppose it must, that 
the pressure of the fluid maintains the protruded animal in its 
position, it is more than probable that the same power would be 
sufficient to perform the act of protrusion. From the movements 
of the alimentary canal it is pretty evident that it has the power 
of straightening itself: but when quite straight only a portion 
of the tentacles would be protruded beyond the cell ; and here 
they would remain, for it is very clear that whether straight or 
bent, the alimentary canal will displace the same quantity of fluid, 
and that there would be no increase of pressure to force the ani- 
mal upwards. It is at the moment when the alimentary canal is 
being straightened that the parietal muscles come into play, and 
compel the animal to rise above the cell : these acts are perfectly 
simultaneous. The protrusion therefore of the polype with a 
bent oesophagus and intestine is effected in the same manner as 
that in which these organs are straight ; only that in the former 
it is accompanied with the straightening of the alimentary canal. 

The sixth and last set of muscles to be described is for the 
purpose of preventing the entire eversion of the tentacular sheath. 
This set, PI. IV. figs. 1 r, r & 2 q, q, is the homologue of the 
strong radiating muscles in Plumatella and Fredericella ; but the 
fibres are much less numerous. Iu Paludicella they are only four 
in number, and take their origin from the inner surface of the 



188 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

cell, two in front immediately below where the tube joins the cell, 
and two behind in a line with the upper wall of the tube ; hence 
the fibres are placed in front of and behind the polype, and are 
inserted into opposite points of the tentacular sheath a little way 
below its summit, having on each side of them the two bundles 
of the tube-retractors. In the retracted state of the polype these 
fibres are seen passing downwards towards their insertion. When 
the polype is protruded these muscles cause the sheath to double 
upon itself, and thus retain a portion of it within the tube ; but 
not to the same extent as in Plurnatella and Fredericella. It has 
already been pointed out that in these genera this set of muscles 
compensates for the want of the circle of setae which surmounts 
the orifice in the marine species. In Paludicella, however, we 
have already seen that there is a wide, delicate, membranous cup 
which rises from the inner surface of the tube a little within the 
orifice. This cup is undoubtedly the homologue of the circle of 
setae alluded to, but in a very rudimentary state, and probably of 
little or no functional utility : consequently these muscles are 
still present, though, as might be expected, not so fully developed 
as in those genera entirely deprived of this appendage. 

We have now gone through the whole of the muscular appa- 
ratus for retraction and propulsion, -and to verify the use of the 
various sets of muscles, we must once more observe the animal 
while issuing from the cell. The first symptom indicative of the 
polype's inclination to come forth is the contraction of the parietal 
muscles, causing the tunic in certain places to leave the walls of 
the cell, particularly towards the lower portion ; on this the polype 
commences to move up the cell, and at the same instant the tube- 
retractors relaxing the inverted lips of the orifice begin to be 
evolved, and as the contraction of the parietal muscles goes on 
the polype advances upwards, and more and more of the tube is 
turned out, in the manner of the eversion of the horn of the com- 
mon snail ; at length the membranous cup makes its appearance, 
not doubled upon itself, but in an erect position — the margin first, 
just as the circle of setee is exserted in Bowerbankia. The cup at 
first is laterally compressed, having been packed longitudinally 
in the axis of the tube : the tips of the tentacles now emerge 
through the centre of this cup, and as they pass upwards pressed 
together in a line side by side, its lateral folds give way, and by 
the time that the tentacular disc has reached the mouth of the 
cell, the cup is perfectly expanded. The muscles preventing the 
entire eversion of the tentacular sheath may now be seen in ac- 
tion near the upper extremity of the tube, holding back the mem- 
branous sheath and causing it to roll upon itself. The polype is 
now fairly above the mouth of the cell, and as the tentacles ex~ 
■ 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 189 

pand it has attained its greatest elevation ; the cilia then com- 
mence to play, and all kinds of particles are hurried towards the 
mouth. 

The retraction of the polype is instantaneous, so rapid indeed 
that it is quite impossible to follow with the eye the actions of 
the muscles; — such is the velocity with which this feat is per- 
formed, that from complete protrusion to invagination nothing 
can be perceived but the settling of the polype upwards, after 
having apparently been dragged too far down the cell. It is not 
difficult however to understand how the act of retraction is ac- 
complished ; the operation of the muscles will be reversed. First 
the parietal muscles must relax, allowing the tunic to assume its 
place close to the cell-walls ; at the same instant the polype-re- 
tractors will contract, and as the animal sinks into the cell the 
superior tube-retractors will also contract ; next the inferior tube- 
retractors will come into play; and finally, after retraction is 
complete, the sphincters will close the orifice. 

On comparing the muscular system of the freshwater Bryozoa 
with that of the marine forms, a great similarity is observed ; 
some interesting modifications however are deserving of notice. 
The most remarkable of these are found in connexion with the 
orifice. In Plumatella and Fredericella there is no tubular in- 
version on the retreat of the animal ; the tunic is certainly doubled 
upon itself for a short distance within the orifice, but it remains 
permanently so. Paludicella on the contrary has the walls of the 
tubular orifice invaginated to a considerable extent when the 
polype is retracted, and when protruded nearly the whole is 
evolved. But Bowerbankia and other marine forms differ from 
the freshwater species in having the mouth of the cell completely 
unrolled when the polype is protruded, the same having been 
invaginated to a great extent when it was retracted. Thus in 
the first and last modifications we see the extremes of variation, 
and consequently the most extensive alterations in the muscular 
arrangements of these parts. Paludicella being in a middle state 
has the muscular apparatus to some extent of both ; and in this 
respect connects the freshwater with the marine forms. 

The tube-retractors are wanting in Plumatella and Fredericella, 
and are present in Paludicella and in all the marine species, 
being most developed in the latter. Neither in these nor in 
Paludicella , however, is there anything like the small radiating 
muscles near the orifice in Plumatella and Fredericella ; and the 
marine species, too, are destitute of the large radiating muscles 
in connexion with the tentacular sheath. These, though present, 
we have seen are less developed in Paludicella than in Plumatella 
and Fredericella, the former resembling Bowerbankia in having 
a cup at the mouth of the cell. The polype-retractors are very 



190 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

similar in all the Bryozoa, only those at the inferior extremity 
of the stomach in the marine species appear deficient in the 
freshwater forms. They all have, however, one or more appen- 
dages to this part, but these we shall afterwards see are most 
probably connected with the reproductive system. The parietal 
and sphincter muscles are common to both Paludicella and the 
marine forms. On the whole, then, in the muscular system as 
well as in the digestive apparatus, Paludicella shows a close re- 
lationship to Bowerbankia and its congeners ; and is, in fact, 
an intermediate link between them and the other freshwater 
Bryozoa. Even the minute structure of the muscles themselves 
would seem to confirm this. In all they are composed of trans- 
parent, linear tibres separated from each other and apparently 
homogeneous. When broken they become irregularly nodulous ; 
but I have not succeeded in detecting transverse strise observed 
by Professor Allman, probably from having used insufficient mag- 
nifying powers. The small knot-like swelling so remarkable in 
the centre of the fibre of the marine species is not to be found in 
either Plumatella or Fredericella ; in Paludicella, however, I have 
observed it in the parietal, but in no other muscles. 

Reproductive System. — In the freshwater as in the marine 
Bryozoa there are two methods of reproduction, — one by buds, 
the other by eggs. The buds always germinate from the same 
part of the cell, hence the definite form of the polypidom. In 
Fredericella the germ is found in connexion with the inner sur- 
face of the tunic not far below the orifice of the cell on its lower 
side. As the bud enlarges the wall bulges, showing externally 
the appearance of a new shoot. At first the bud, PI. II. fig. 3 a, 
is small and oval, and is attached for nearly its whole length ; it, 
fig. 2 o f soon becomes irregular in form, with the upper portion 
broad and somewhat bifid, the lower extremity prolonged : the 
upper portion then gradually exhibits a circle of short rudi- 
mentary tentacles, fig. 4 / ; and the lower end is seen to be di- 
vided longitudinally into oesophagus and intestine, fig. 5 b, d, 
continuous at their lower extremities, which still elongating form 
the stomach, figs. 4 m & 5 c. To this is seen an appended fila- 
ment binding it below to the wall of the cell. Imbedded in this 
filament there is a large, distinct globule with nucleus and nu- 
cleolus : this we shall afterwards learn is the incipient ovum, 
figs. 4 o & 5 e, lying in the ovary. The polype-retractors, 
figs. 2 q & 4 n, now make their appearance, passing from the 
tentacular base to the side of the cell formed apparently out of 
the lower portion of the original attachment of the bud; the up- 
per portion of this attachment dilating becomes the tentacular 
sheath, fig. 2j9, into which the tentacles are gradually insinuated 
as they are developed. The polype being now, as it were, 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 191 

sketched out within the cell of the parent, its own chamber ra- 
pidly forms, and in the course of a day or two, the muscles in 
connexion with the orifice being added, the fresh-born member of 
the community bursts from the extremity of its cell, and is ready 
to take upon itself the work of its own maintenance. 

The development of the bud in Plumatella differs in no respect 
from that of Fredericella ; and in Paludicella there is no very im- 
portant deviation, except at the commencement of the process. 
In this the first apparent step in the growth of a new polype is 
the preparation of a distinct cell for its reception. If the top of 
the last-formed cell be carefully examined, even before its tenant 
is fully grown, the lining membrane may be seen terminating in 
a blind sac, PI. IV. fig. 4 b', a little below the extremity. Within 
this extremity will also be observed a membranous sac, I; at first 
the base of this sac is moulded on the convex blind termination 
of the lining of the old cell. The convexity however soon fiat- 
tens and the sac rapidly increases in size, the external horny 
covering becoming at the same time elongated and attenuated. 
After awhile, an oval, somewhat opake body, the new bud, fig. 5 m, 
germinates from the inner surface of the lining membrane, /. 
This body is attached by its side to the front wall of the cell, and 
resembles the young bud in Fredericella. A long and very deli- 
cate membranous sac, fig. 6 d, afterwards the tentacular sheath, is 
now observed to be forming in contact with and above the oval 
bud ; whilst from the lower extremity filaments, e, are seen to be 
produced which form the polype-retractors. From the upper end of 
the bud, the tentacles, fig. 4 d, soon make their appearance within 
the lower part of the membranous sheath, i ; at first very short, 
no more than the scalloped margin of the cup-formed disc ; but 
rapidly lengthening, fig. 5 a, they soon advance more than halfway 
up the sheath. The polype-retractors, figs. 4<j & 5 g, by this time 
are considerably developed, and the retractors, /c, i, of the tube 
are distinctly visible ; the tube, fig. 4*j, now begins to bulge, and 
the inverted margins of the orifice are seen within, united to the 
upper end of the tentacular sheath : the parietal muscles, h, also 
make their appearance at this time, and the stomach, c, intestine, 
d, oesophagus, b, and tentacles having all assumed their proper 
forms, the young animal is ready for protrusion. The buds of 
Paludicella, however, do not all originate from the extremity of 
the old cell ; some sprout from the side, and then a slight swell- 
ing takes place on the inner surface of the tunic. The horny 
sheath soon afterwards begins to bulge, and an external cell 
being formed with its lining membrane, an oval bud makes its 
appearance, and development goes on as just described. 

It has been long known that these animals propagate by eggs 
as well as buds ; Raspail appears to have described the anatomy 



192 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

of the egg and the hatching of it, and the subsequent growth of 
the young polype has been minutely investigated by Sir J. G. 
Daly ell. But the generative organ remained unrecognised until 
it was pointed out by Professor Allman. The appendage to the 
lower extremity of the stomach, considered by Trembley to be 
muscular, Professor Allman believes to be an ovary : that it is 
so there can be no doubt, as eggs may occasionally be seen in 
connexion with it. Appendages of this kind exist in Alcyonella, 
Plumatella, Fredericella and Paludicella, and will probably be 
found in all Ascidian polypes. In Plumatella and Fredericella 
there are however three of these appendages or filaments, PL III. 
figs. 4/, d,*/, & 5 eydyh^h, which are all attached to the lowest part 
of the stomach, and passing down have their other ends attached 
to the wall of the cell not far from the insertion of the polype-re- 
tractors. It is difficult to say whether all three are connected with 
the generative function, or whether some of them are not muscles 
for the retraction of the stomach. A bundle of such retractors 
has been described by Dr. Farre in the marine species, attaching 
the inferior end of the stomach to the base of the cell ; but one 
of them is generally thicker than the rest, and may probably be 
connected with the reproductive system. Paludicella has two 
such filaments ; one, PI. IV. figs. 1 & 7 n, g, passing in the usual 
manner from the lower end of the stomach ; the other, m, d, from 
the upper. These two filaments are inserted upon the posterior 
wall of the cell, one a considerable way above the other. When 
the polype is retracted these insertions are found to be a little 
above the gastric attachments, and the filaments, fig. 2 j, k, 
doubled upon themselves. These are thick, cylindrical and ap- 
parently tubular, and do not at all resemble muscles, and indeed, 
from the relative position of their attachments, they seem ill 
adapted for retraction. 

In Plumatella and Fredericella, one, PI. III. figs. 4 d, dk 5 e, e 1 , 
of the filaments is generally stouter than the other two, and this 
has frequently an egg, e,f, attached to it. When the ovum is 
much developed, it is difficult to make out its relationship to the 
filament or ovary ; but when quite young, it has all appearance 
of originating from the interior. On one occasion I observed two 
eggs in connexion with the ovary, one almost mature, the other 
only forming. The former, fig. 5f, was. attached rather below 
the middle of the generative organ. When the polype was pro- 
truded, this organ dragged forward the upper end of the egg ; 
the other end of it was then seen to be attached to the wall of 
the cell by the continuation of the filamentous ovary e r . A little 
below the egg there was a slight oval swelling, in the interior of 
which was seen a nucleated cell, (/, undoubtedly an ovum in a 
very early stage of development, and apparently in the interior 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 193 

of the ovary*. In Fredericella a similar nucleated cell, PI. II. 
figs. 4 o & 5 e, has been observed in the appendage to the 
stomach, while the polype was yet in a very rudimentary state, as 
exhibited in the bud before alluded to. In this genus I have 
likewise seen the ovum in a considerably advanced state, in which 
also its relationship to the ovary could not be mistaken. In this 
instance the lower portion of the generative organ had dilated 
into a sort of capsule, within which the egg, PI. II. fig. 6 a & 
PI. III. fig. 4 e, was enveloped. The portion of the ovary, PI. II. 
fig. 6 c, below it was short and thick, having the appearance of 
a pedicle, by which the egg was fixed to the side of the cell ; 
above the capsule, the ovary, d , was much thinner, contracting 
suddenly upwards. This would seem to demonstrate that the 
egg is developed in the interior of the ovary. 

I have also seen what I take to be the ovum of Paludicella, but 
as it differs considerably from the egg of the other freshwater 
Bryozoa, we must not pronounce with certainty. This supposed 
egg was first observed in the cell of the dead polype ; two or 
three occurred; they were attached to the upper portion of the 
interior of the cell. Afterwards one, PI. IV. fig. 7 e, was found 
in connexion with the living animal, and in this case was fixed 
by a delicate membranous sac, /, to the side of the cell at the 
point of attachment of the filament coming from the upper end 
of the stomach, the base of the filament being apparently sur- 
rounded by the sac. This filament then, in Paludicella, is pro- 
bably an ovary ; and if so, the egg must pass in a very early stage 
from it into the membranous sac at its base, and there be ma- 
tured. And, judging from analogy, the other filament is also pro- 
bably connected with generation. 

In Plumatella and Fredericella however there can be no doubt 
of the ovarian character of one of the filaments attached to the 
stomach ; but the nature of the other two, PI. III. figs. 4/& 5 
h, h, is not so easily determined. They certainly do not look al- 
together unlike muscular fibres ; but from their attachments 
close to that of the ovary, and from their resemblance to it, they 
are most probably connected with the generative function. It 
may be that each filament is a separate ovary, or that one or two 
of them is the male organ. These polypes are most probably 
hermaphrodites — at least, in all the specimens of Plumatella All- 
mani that I have examined, there was scarcely a cell that did not 
contain one egg or more. It may therefore be presumed that 
each individual is provided with male and female organs. Dr. 
Farre discovered moving bodies in the visceral cavity of Valkeria 
and some other of the marine forms, and described them as re- 

* I have also seen a similar nucleated cell in the enlarged filament from 
the lower end of the stomach of Bowerbankia. 

Ann. $ May. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 13 



194 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

sembling Cercarice. I have detected similar bodies in Bower- 
bankia with large rounded heads and long tails ; they were very 
numerous, and moved rapidly about in the interior of the cell in 
the manner of tadpoles, that is, with a lateral undulating motion, 
and are assuredly Spermatozoa. A testis may then be expected 
to exist in the freshwater Bryozoa coextensively developed with 
the ovary, and from analogy to be associated with it. It is not 
unlikely therefore that these additional filaments from the stomach 
may be really the male organ. 

Each polype does not appear to produce more than two or 
three eggs; in P/wm«fe//«, frequently only one. In P. Allmani 
they, PL III. fig. 5/, are considerably depressed, of an oval form, 
sometimes very long with the sides almost parallel ; they are very 
large, being sometimes almost as wide as the diameter of the cell, 
within which they are placed lengthwise ; the margins are reticu- 
lated, yellow, pellucid, thin, and sharp, forming a well-defined rim 
about the central portion, which is opake and black ; the covering 
is smooth, tough, and membranous. In Fredericella the egg is 
broader and more regularly oval, of a brownish colour with the 
margin narrow, plain and of a paler hue. The egg, PI. IV. fig. 7 e, 
of Paludicella, if egg it be, differs considerably from the above. 
It is of an irregular oval shape, about half as wide as the cell, 
colourless and pellucid ; the surface is marked with a few indi- 
stinct, irregular, nucleated cells ; one larger and much more con- 
spicuous than the rest, with a distinct round nucleus in the cen- 
tre, is always to be seen on one side. The circumference of the 
egg exhibits a double margin indicating an enveloping shield. 

The great size of the egg forbids the possibility of its escape 
without the destruction of the polype*. In Plumatella, the 

* The polype of the marine species must also perish on the escape of the 
gemmule. On examining some specimens of Bowerbankia in August, al- 
most every cell was found to contain a large, round, opake, bright yellow 
corpuscle. These corpuscles were for the most part in the lower portion of 
the cells ; some however were halfway up, and others not far from the top : 
those lowest down were the smallest, and as they approached the top they 
increased in size until their diameter was nearly equal to that of the cell. 
As long as the corpuscle remained near the lower extremity of the cell, the 
polype was alive and active ; but was invariably dead when it had advanced 
far upwards. At first the corpuscle does not appear to have any envelope, 
but as it increases in size a distinct margin makes its appearance, which 
afterwards becoming wider and perfectly ' transparent, the corpuscle can 
be seen rotating within by the aid of the long cilia that clothe its sur- 
face. While watching one in this state under the microscope, I observed it 
gradually elongate itself and pass with a slow gliding motion to the top of 
the cell ; then forcing its way through the previously closed orifice, and 
passing into the surrounding fluid, commenced to rotate with extraordinary 
velocity : in an instant after this its enveloping membrane was torn open 
and cast aside, and the little being, a broadly ovate gemmule, dashed at 
once beyond the field of view, it afterwards kept moving about in various 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 195 

ova on maturity become attached to that side of the cell which 
is connected to the substance sustaining the polypidom. And 
here they remain fixed, indicating the track of the various branches 
of the Bryoozon long after its decay and disappearance in autumn. 
The free branches however must scatter their eggs. Most likely 
in Fredericella, too, they are dispersed, and borne away by the 
currents on the destruction of the polypidom, which is very freely 
branched ; and in no instance have I seen its eggs left adhering 
to the surface of its attachment. 

Having now gone through the details of the anatomy and de- 
velopment of the freshwater Bryozoa as far as I have been able 
to study them during a very short but laborious investigation of 
the subject, it is quite evident that these animals are as highly 
organized as the marine Ascidian polypes. Plurnatella and Fre- 
dericella certainly show some interesting deviations from that 
type ; but in Paludicella we perceive an almost complete resem- 
blance to it ; proving the close affinity that exists, and the pro- 
priety of uniting the whole into one group. The approximation 
of this genus to the marine forms is evinced not only by the 
muscular system, but likewise by the digestive apparatus ; and by 
the bright, pellucid, horny character of the external polypidom. 
It is also equally evident that the organization of this group is 
very much above that of the typical Radiata. This Professor 
Allman has already clearly demonstrated ; and yet perhaps we 
ought to hesitate before removing the Bryozoa into the subking- 
dom Mollusca as proposed by this naturalist. 

The immediate relationship of these animals to the Ascidice is 
too obvious to be called in question, — a relationship which has 
long been acknowledged, though the homology of the parts does 
not appear to be correctly understood; at least it will bear 
another interpretation, which I am inclined to look upon as the 
true one. Dr. Farre observes in his paper, that " in Tunicata 
the tentacles are reduced to mere rudiments at the entrance of 
the respiratory sac, and the cilia are distributed over the surface 
of this cavity, which is in proportion magnified, and is analogous 
to the pharynx of Ciliobrachiata. The more immediate entrance 
to the alimentary canal, thence called mouth, being situated at 
the bottom of this sac, corresponds with the part that I have 
called cardia." 

This view of the relationship of the parts has with some 
modifications been generally followed by subsequent writers. In 
all the Ascidians however, there is a well-defined oesophagus, 

directions and evinced great activity, cilia densely clothing it from end to 
end. The cell after the escape of the gemmule continued gaping ; and the 
polype, which before was indistinctly visible, had now quite disappeared, 
nothing but slight traces of the retractor muscles remaining. 

13* 



196 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

which in Clavelina is frequently of great length. Why then 
should the entrance to it be considered to correspond to the 
cardia in Bryozoa ? These as well as the Ascidiae have a well- 
marked stomach with cardiac and pyloric orifices ; in both, too, 
there is a distinct oesophagus ; then should not the orifice leading 
to it be assumed to be the mouth, or analogous to the mouth in 
both ? In the polype a series of respiratory tentacles, in the 
Ascidia the branchial sac, surrounds this mouth ; should not these 
then be considered homologous ? The affirmative of this would 
appear to be the natural inference in the first instance. But we 
are referred to the tentacular filaments at the entrance of the 
respiratory sac as the true representatives of the tentacles of the 
polype. With the view to ascertain how far this is correct, I 
examined with much care Ascidia sordida and Molgula arenosa, 
and found that these tentacular filaments are not anatomically 
connected with the branchial sac, but are developments from the 
tunic. The sac terminates a little way below these filaments, and 
they fringe the inner circumference of the belt of sphincter 
muscles which guard the respiratory orifice. These tentacular 
filaments, then, originating in the tunic, cannot possibly be the 
homologue of the tentacles of the polype, as these undoubtedly 
belong to the alimentary canal ; but are in fact a new develop- 
ment in connexion with the sphincter of the tunic, and share its 
function. The tentacles then of the polype and the branchial 
sac of the Ascidian would appear to be homologous; — unless 
indeed the tentacles of the one have died out, and the branchial 
sac of the other is altogether a new development, which is not 
by any means likely. 

In confirmation that the former is the fact, we have only to 
look at the growing bud of the polype, which so closely resembles 
an Ascidian, particularly when young, that it might at first sight 
be taken to be one. The tentacles at this time, all lying parallel 
to each other within the membranous sheath, have quite the ap- 
pearance of a branchial sac ; and when we take in connexion with 
it the alimentary canal, the resemblance is almost complete. 
Indeed, all that is wanting to turn the polype into an Ascidian, 
so far as the alimentary and respiratary organs are concerned, is 
the union of the tentacles by a vascular membrane. And we 
have already seen that such an union has commenced in Frede- 
ricella, Plumatella and Alcyonella. We have seen that in all 
these genera the tentacles are united at the base by a delicate 
membrane ; and in the former this membrane is so extensive as 
to suggest the idea of a rudimentary form of the branchial sac 
of the Tunicata. 

Taking this view of the homology of the parts, the longitudinal 
laminae in the interior of the branchial sac of the Ascidia will 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 1 97 

represent the tentacles of the Bryozoa ; and the membrane at the 
base of the tentacles being external corresponds exactly in posi- 
tion to the vascular membrane of the Ascidia, which is also ex- 
ternal to the laminae. The position of the nervous ganglion in 
the two forms might at first sight appear to favour the contrary 
opinion ; but on closer inquiry it is evident that the ganglion of 
the Bryozoa is not homologous with that of the Ascidice : in the 
former it is a cerebral ganglion resting on the oesophagus imme- 
diately behind the mouth ; in the latter, if it has relationship 
to any of the nervous centres of the Mollusca, it is apparently 
analogous to the branchial ganglion of the Lamellibranchiata ; 
but its position in the mantle is anomalous. 

We thus see how very intimate is the connexion between the 
Bryozoa and the Ascidice ; and as the latter are generally sup- 
posed to be as closely connected with the Lamellibranchiataj no 
great distance would appear to divide them from the former. 
They are not, however, so closely related as might be supposed. 
At first sight an Ascidian undoubtedly seems very closely to ap- 
proximate to a bivalve shell; but this similarity on careful 
investigation would appear to be more that of analogy than 
homology — a mere resemblance rather than a true relationship. 
The branchial sac of the Ascidian is frequently assumed to be 
the same organ as the gill- plates of the Lamellibranchiata some- 
what modified ; — in function there is no difference ; but anato- 
mically they are distinct. The former is a development from the 
alimentary canal ; the latter, according to Professor Owen, " are 
essentially internal folds of the pallial membrane." The breathing 
organs then of these animals are not homologous. To turn 
therefore an Ascidian into a Lamellibranchiate mollusk, a new 
branchial organ must be developed. The vascular system, too, 
if not anatomically different in the Ascidian, is in a remarkable 
manner functionally so. In this the heart is at once systemic 
and pulmonic. And it is worthy of remark, that thus, on the 
first appearance of the vascular apparatus in this type of animals, 
it should shadow forth the peculiarities of both the molluscan 
and the piscine heart ; and this, too, in connexion with a pha- 
ryngeal gill. The test or outer sac, and the inner sac or tunic 
of the Tunicata are not related to each other in the same manner 
as the shell and mantle of the mollusk. In this the shell is 
extra-vascular, and is secreted by the mantle ; in the former the 
test is vascular, and its growth is therefore not dependent on that 
of the inner sac or tunic. The reproductive system of the La- 
mellibranchiata is likewise very different from that of the Tunicata. 
In these it is formed on the type of the Radiata ; another and 
very striking proof of the relationship that exists between the 
former and the Bryozoa. These and other points of difference 



198 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

led Professor MiJne-Edwards, in his valuable memoir on the 
1 Ascidiens Composees/ to propose the separation of the Tunicata 
from the Mollusca, and the formation of them into a distinct 
group to be placed between the bivalves and the polypes. 

We then cannot find a passage from the Bryozoa through 
the Ascidiat into the Lamellibranchiata. There are however two 
distinct branches of the Ascidian polypes, — one with the tentacles 
arranged in a circle about the mouth, — the other having them 
supported on two lateral oral arms. The former of these branches 
passes into the Ascidian, — the latter I shall endeavour to show 
is connected with the Brachiopoda. 

This connexion is at once suggested by the resemblance that 
exists between the oral arms of Plumatella and Alcyonella and 
the characteristic brachial organs in the Brachiopoda, parti- 
cularly of those in Lingula. In both the Brachiopoda and the 
Bryozoa, the arms rise from the sides of the mouth in the same 
manner, the bases of the arms being confluent ; and the tentacles 
or cirrhi forming a continuous series. In both the arms are 
hollow, and the tentacles and cirrhi are tough and non-contractile ; 
and in both they are prehensile organs after the same fashion. 
The digestive organs of both are very similar ; and the whole of 
the Brachiopoda are fixed, and so are the Bryozoa, with but one 
exception. 

But what is still more remarkable, the muscular systems of 
both are arranged much in the same manner, particularly as 
respects Terebratula and Paludicella w r ith most of its marine 
congeners. In Terebratula, as the animal is fixed within the 
shell, of course there can be nothing resembling the polype 
retractors ; but the shell muscles of Terebratula will be found to 
work exactly on the same principle as those provided to draw in 
the margins of the cell-orifice in Paludicella and Bowerbankia, 
and called by Dr. Farre opercular muscles. 

There are four sets of muscles in connexion with the shell in 
Terebratula chilensis as dissected by Owen, two from each valve ; 
and they all pass diagonally downwards, and with one exception 
go to be inserted in the pedicle ; so that when they contract the 
valves will be closed. These muscles then have in fact their 
origin in the pedicle as stated by Owen, and acting from thence 
upon the moveable points of their insertions, operate precisely 
in the same way as the tube-retractors of the polypes last men- 
tioned do on the lips of the orifice. The action is the same in 
both ; and were the cell-walls of Bowerbankia, for instance, cal- 
cified and divided longitudinally into two portions or valves, they 
would be made to close just as the valves do in Terebratula. 
The set of muscles alluded to as not passing into the pedicle 
comes from the perforate valve, and inclining downwards is 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 199 

attached by the other end to the base of the imperforate valve* 
binding the parts of the hinge-joint together — a substitute in fact 
for a ligament. In some species this set assumes in part the 
function of an adductor muscle. 

We have then evidently some reason for supposing that the 
Brachiopoda as well as the Ascidice are related to the Bryozoa ; 
and it is in this way that these latter are connected with the La- 
mellibranchiata. After a careful examination of the Brachiopoda, 
it is impossible to doubt the connexion that exists between the 
two great divisions of the testaceous Acephala. Indeed this is 
evident, whether we look to the digestive organs, the vascular 
system, or to the reproductive apparatus. It is in these animals, 
too, that the respiratory organ is first found in connexion with 
the mantle, — in Terehratula quite rudimentary, in Lingula to 
some extent specialized. On comparing Anomia with Orbicula, 
this relationship is best seen. In both the mantle is completely 
separated, and in both it is connected with the ovary ; the large 
oral palpi of the one form the homologue of the branchial organs 
of the other ; and we see this relationship in the deficiency of 
pedal organ in Anomia, and in the extensive union that still 
subsists between its breathing apparatus and the mantle : the 
perforation of the under-valve of both is also remarkable ; but 
not more so than that the great muscle of both should be 
divided, — part forming the adductor, part the adhesive disc. 

We have now endeavoured to trace the affinities of both 
branches of Bryozoa ; one appears to pass at once into the As- 
cidice, which, how closely soever related analogically to the Lamelli- 
branchiata, are nevertheless removed far from them by the nature 
of their vascular, respiratory and reproductive systems. In the 
Mollusca the heart is always systemic, and the gill is universally 
an appendage to the mantle. In the Ascidia? the heart is as 
much pulmonic as systemic, and the breathing apparatus is a 
development from the alimentary canal — is in fact pharyngeal. 
In these respects the Ascidian deviates from the Molluscan type 
and approximates to that of the lower Vertebrata, — the fishes, in 
which the heart is pulmonic and the breathing organ pharyngeal. 
The reality of this relationship is revealed by the anatomy of the 
Lancelet so ably described by Professor John Goodsir, who has 
pointed out the resemblance of its respiratory system to that of 
the Tunicata. Indeed the branchial sac and vascular apparatus 
of this curious fish almost completely resemble those organs in 
the Ascidian. 

The other branch of the Bryozoa, comprising those with oral 
arms, passes into the Brachiopoda ; or at least this is rendered 
more than probable by the resemblance of the brachial organs of 
the latter to the arms of the former, and by the similarity of the 



200 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

muscular arrangement. Thus the Bryozoa become related to 
the Lamellibranchiata, which are apparentlyclosely related to the 
Brachiopoda. We may conclude then, if we have arrived at a 
right understanding of the affinities of these animals, that both 
the Mollusca and Vertebrata are connected with the Bryozoa. It 
would be well therefore to pause before including the Bryozoa in 
the Mollusca, and consider the propriety of uniting the former 
with the Tunicata, and perhaps with some of the higher forms of 
Rotifera, into a group to be placed at the head of the Radiata. 

Descriptions of new Species. 
Plumatella punctata. PI. V. figs. 6 & 7, and PL III. fig. 1. 

Polypidom adhering throughout, coriaceous, pellucid, of a pale 
watery green colour, irregularly but not much branched, seldom 
extending more than half an inch ; branches composed of a series 
of large, conical cells tapering upwards towards the aperture, 
sometimes considerably and rather suddenly dilated at the base ; 
resembling in form some of the Ascidians ; the upper portion of 
the cell almost colourless and freckled with minute opake white 
spots, most crowded towards the orifice. Tentacles white, not 
more than sixty in number; membrane at their origin rather 
wide, scalloped, the points of the scallop extending for some di- 
stance up the back of the tentacles in the form of broadish laminae 
arched outwards. (Esophagus and stomach appearing through 
the transparent walls of the cell of a pale yellow colour. Egg 
perfectly black, large, broad and oval. 

Upwards of a dozen specimens of this fine species occurred in 
Bromley Lough, adhering to the underside of stones ; it was like- 
wise taken in Crag Lough. None of the individuals much ex- 
ceeded in size that represented in the figure, nor did they vary 
in any remarkable manner either in form or colour. It is not, 
however, without hesitation that I have ventured to characterize 
this as a new species, as Professor Allman informs me that it 
may perhaps turn out to be P. repens ; but that form is stated 
to be large and of luxuriant growth, and to have the polypidom 
tubular with the cells dilated at the orifice — characters which do 
not at all agree with P. punctata. Indeed it can scarcely be 
considered a true Plumatella. 

P. Allmani. PI. V. figs. 3 & 4, and PI. III. figs. 2 & 3. 

Polypidom attached to the underside of stones, adhering 
throughout, membranous, opake, yellowish brown, slightly 
branched, extending in patches sometimes three or four inches 
wide, the patches being made up of several polypidoms; the 
branches composed apparently of a series of tubular cells, 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 201 

tapering to their origin, and attached for more than half their 
length ; the enlarged extremity, being free and bending upwards, 
inclines a little to one side, and is occasionally bifid, forming 
two cells ; an obtuse ridge or keel extends the entire length of 
the cell, increasing imperceptibly in thickness upwards ; orifice 
somewhat constricted, the walls immediately below being pellucid, 
and suddenly dilating become abruptly opake and thickly covered 
for some distance downwards with agglutinated sand. Tentacles 
forty-two in number, slightly tinged with yellow, the colour best 
seen when they are formed into a compact bundle; membrane 
at their base distinct, scalloped, the points being prolonged a 
little up the tentacles. Egg black, long, oval; sides nearly 
parallel ; margins pellucid, yellow, sharp, broad and reticulated. 

This species was procured rather abundantly in Bromley Lough, 
and does not appear to vary much. At first sight large patches 
of it have the appearance of being formed of a single polypidom ; 
but on close examination are found to be composed of many, and 
rarely to number more than six or eight cells in each. The com- 
mencement of each polypidom has the black envelope of the ori- 
ginating egg adherent. 

Two or three specimens of a more branched form of carinated 
Plumatella were taken in Bromley Lough, which may probably 
prove a distinct species ; more individuals however are necessary 

before it can be characterized. 

j 

Paludicella procumbens. PI. V. figs. 1 & 2, and PL IV. 

Polypidom membranous, subhorny, pellucid, smooth and glossy, 
of a brownish horn-colour, much and irregularly branched, form- 
ing large patches on the underside of stones, for the most part 
adhering, with rather numerous, short, free, almost simple 
branches ; the branches composed of a single series of narrow 
cells arranged longitudinally, contracting towards the base and 
widening upwards ; aperture lateral, near to the upper extremity 
of the cell, forming a rather long and somewhat constricted tube 
inclining upwards ; margin entire, surmounted by a widish, deli- 
cate, hyaline, membranous cup. Tentacles sixteen in number, 
arranged in a complete circle, and when spread out forming a 
very exact inverted cone. 

This, the second species of the genus, resembles very closely 
P. articulata of Allman, but that form appears to have about 
twenty-six tentacles, and is likewise more densely and luxuri- 
antly branched ; the cells, too, are larger and of a different colour. 

The P . procumbens occurred in both Bromley and Crag Loughs, 
but most abundantly in the latter, where it spreads over the 
under surface of stones in patches of 5 or 6 inches diameter. 



202 Mr. A. Hancock on the Anatomy of the 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES II., III., IV. and V. 
Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Upper portion of Fredericella sultana seen as a transparent object 
very much magnified : a, tentacular disc ; b, tentacles ; c', mem- 
brane at base of ditto ; c, flounced margin of ditto ; d, mouth ; 
e, oral valve ; /, oesophagus ; g, projecting lips of cardiac orifice ; 
h, stomach ; i, intestine ; j, anus ; k, nervous ganglion giving off 
nerves ; I, tentacular sheath doubled upon itself ; m, strong ra- 
diating muscles for preventing complete inversion of ditto ; n, de- 
licate radiating muscles in connexion with the orifice of cell; 
o, outer wall of cell ; p, inner wall or tunic ; q, inverted lips of 
orifice ; r, the point where the same unite to the tentacular sheath, 
immediately below which is the sphincter for closing the cell. 

Fig. 2. Retracted polype of Plumatella Allmani seen by transmitted light 
and much magnified : a, bundle of tentacles enveloped in mem- 
branous sheath ; a', tentacular disc ; b, oesophagus ; c, project- 
ing lips of cardiac opening ; d, stomach ; e, intestine ; /, anus ; 
g g, muscles for retracting the polype ; h, large radiating muscles 
for preventing complete inversion of tentacular sheath ; i, delicate 
radiating muscles in connexion with the orifice of cell \ j, outer 
wall of cell ; k, inner membrane or tunic ; I, inverted margin or 
lips of orifice ; m, tentacular sheath ; n, sphincter contraction of 
ditto ; o, bud in second stage of development ; p, tentacular sheath 
of ditto forming ; q, retractor muscles in an incipient state. 

Fig. 3. Upper portion of the cell of Plumatella Allmani much enlarged : 
a, bud in first stage of development attached to the inner surface 
of lining membrane of cell. 

Fig. 4. Cell with exserted polype of Fredericella sultana much enlarged 
and seen as a transparent object : a, tentacular disc ; b, oral valve ; 

c, oesophagus ; d, stomach ; e, intestine ; f, the two bundles of 
polype retractors ; g, two fibres of same for rotating tentacular 
disc ; h, egg in connexion with ovary, attaching it to lower end of 
stomach and wall of cell; V, appendage to the lower end of stomach, 
probably generative ; i i, outer wall of cell ; jj, lining membrane 
or tunic ; k, bud in third stage of development ; I, tentacles of 
ditto as they at first appear ; m, stomach of do. ; n, retractor muscles 
of ditto ; o, nucleated cell — the incipient egg in connexion with 
the ovary. 

Fig. 5. Bud in third stage of development more highly magnified : «, ten- 
tacular disc ; b, oesophagus ; c, stomach ; d, intestine ; e, incipient 
egg in enlarged portion of ovary ; /, wall of cell. 

Fig. 6. Egg and ovary much enlarged of Fredericella sultana : a, egg im- 
bedded in ovary ; b, wall of cell to which lower end, c, of ovary 
is attached ; c', upper portion of ovary leading to stomach. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1 . Side view of exserted tentacular apparatus much enlarged of Plu- 
matella punctata : a, oesophagus ; b, oral valve ; c, tentacular or 
oral arms ; d, tentacles ; e, membrane at base of ditto ; /, laminaj 
at back of ditto. 

Fig. 2. Enlarged view of under side of tentacular apparatus of Plumatella 
Allmani : a, margin of orifice of cell ; b, intestine ; c, oesophagus ; 

d, oral valve ; e e, oral arms ; f, membrane at base of tentacles. 
Fig. 3. Enlarged view of the upper side of tentacular apparatus of Pluma- 



Freshwater Bryozoa, with descriptions of new Species. 203 

tella Allmani : a, mouth ; b, oral valve ; c c, oral arms ; d, mem- 
brane at base of tentacles. 
Fig. 4. Much-enlarged view of the reproductive organs of Fredericella sul- 
tana : a a, outer wall of cell ; b b, lining membrane or tunic ; 

c, lower portion of stomach ; d d, ovary ; e, egg imbedded in same ; 
/, two filaments attached to the lower end of stomach, probably 

connected with the reproductive system ; g, retractor muscles. 
Fig. 5. Enlarged view of a cell of Plumatella Allmani exhibiting reproduc- 
tive organs : a, base of oral arms ; b, oesophagus ; c, stomach ; 

d, intestine ; e e', ovary ; f, egg nearly mature, still attached to 
ditto ; g, an egg just forming likewise attached to ovary ; h h, two 
filaments attached to the stomach, probably connected with the 
reproductive system ; i i, the two bundles of retractor muscles ; 
j, outer wall of cell ; k, lining membrane or tunic. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Enlarged view of a cell of Paludicella procumbens seen as a trans- 
parent object, the polype being exserted : a a, outer wall of cell ; 
b b b, lining membrane or tunic ; c, tubular orifice ; d, membranous 
cup surmounting ditto ; e, tentacular disc ; /, tentacles ; g, pha- 
ryngeal swelling ; h, oesophagus ; i, stomach ; j, intestine ; k, en- 
largement at commencement of ditto ; I, anus ; m, supposed ovary ; 
n, filament attached to the lower extremity of stomach, probably 
connected with the reproductive system ; o, polype retractor 
muscles ; pp, inferior tube-retractors ; q, two fibres of superior 
tube-retractors ; r r, muscles to prevent the complete inversion of 
tentacular sheath ; s, tentacular sheath doubled upon itself ; t, pa- 
rietal muscles; u, end-walls of two cells abutting against each 
other. 

Fig. 2. Enlarged view of a single cell of P. procumbens with polype re- 
tracted : a, outer wall of cell ; b, lining membrane of ditto ; c, re- 
tracted tubular orifice ; d, tentacles ; d' d', tentacular sheath ; e, 
oesophagus ; /, cardiac orifice ; g, stomach ; h, intestine ; i, enlarged 
portion of ditto ; j, supposed ovary doubled upon itself; k, filament 
attached to lower end of stomach, probably connected with repro- 
ductive system ; 1 1, polype retractor muscles ; m m, inferior tube- 
retractors ; nn, superior tube-retractors ; o, sphincter muscles for 
closing orifice ; p, do. do. ; q q, muscles to prevent complete in- 
version of tentacular sheath ; r, end- wall of cell formed by the 
tunic exhibiting enlargement in the centre. 

Fig. 3. End of retracted tube of P. procumbens exhibiting the manner in 
which it folds in. 

Fig. 4. Termination of a branch of P. procumbens comprising two cells in 
different stages of development : a, outer wall of cell in fourth 
stage of development ; b, lining membrane of ditto ; b', blind ter- 
mination of do. do. ; c, place of future orifice ; d, tentacles of 
polype in state of development ; e, oesophagus ; /, stomach ; g, in- 
testine ; h, lower reproductive organ ; i, tentacular sheath ; j, po- 
lype retractor muscles ; k, tube-retractors ; /, new cell in first or 
earliest stage of development, exhibiting lining membrane and ex- 
ternal wall ; m, nucleated cells in lining membrane. 

Fig. 5. Two terminal cells of P. procumbens containing buds in different 
stages of development : a, tentacles of bud far advanced or in 
fifth stage of development ; a', tentacular sheath ; b, oesophagus ; 
c, stomach ; d, intestine ; e, anus ; /, lower reproductive organ ; 
g, polype-retractors ; h, parietal muscles ; i, tube-retractors ; j, tube 



204 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Browallia. 

just forming ; k, outer wall of last-formed cell exhibiting bud in 
second stage of development ; I, lining membrane of ditto ; m, bud 
as it appears at first. 

Fig. 6. Terminal cell exhibiting bud in third stage of development : a, outer 
wall of cell ; b, lining membrane ; c, bud ; d, tentacular sheath ; 
e, polype-retractors just making their appearance. 

Fig. 7- Enlarged view of a portion of the polype of P. procumbens exhibit- 
% ing reproductive system : a, oesophagus ; b, stomach ; c, intestine ; 
d, supposed ovary with the egg, e, attached ; /, membranous en- 
velope of the egg; g, lower filament supposed to be connected 
with the reproductive system. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Polypidom of Paludicella procumbens slightly enlarged. 

Fig. 2. A portion of ditto much enlarged, exhibiting two or three series of 
cells. 

Fig. 3. A patch of Plumatella Allmani magnified two times, comprising se- 
veral polypidoms. 

Fig. 4. Two or three polypidoms of ditto more highly magnified, exhibiting 
the polypes exserted and the envelope of the originating egg a a. 

Fig. 5. A single cell of same still more highly magnified : a, keel or ridge 
on the upper surface of cell. 

Fig. 6. Plumatella punctata five or six times magnified, exhibiting polypes 
exserted : a, envelope of originating egg. 

Fig. 7- Three cells of ditto more highly magnified and more produced than 
usual, with the polypes exserted. 



XIX. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Mters, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 35.] 

Browallia. 

The affinity of Browallia with Salpiglossis is sufficiently evident, 
but in many respects it approaches very closely to Petunia. ' In 
the tabular arrangement suggested on a former occasion (huj. 
op. hi. p. 172), Browallia was associated with the Salpiglossidece, 
on account of the apparent aestivation of its corolla, combined 
with its other characters. I regret very much, that since my 
attention has been directed to this investigation, I have had no 
opportunity of examining a flower in its living state, as by this 
means only could its precise mode of prsefloration be ascertained : 
it is certainly not imbricative as in Franciscea, but is either re- 
plicative or reciprocative, as in Petunia or Salpiglossis ; judging 
from its appearance after being pressed and dried, it seems to 
be rather that of the last-named genus. The following generic 
features have been derived wholly from an examination of dried 
specimens : — 

Browallia, Linn. (char, reform.). — Calyx tubulosus, subcylin- 
dricus, 10-nervis, 5-dentatus, dentibus insequalibus, 3-nerviis, 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Browallia. 205 

augescens et persistens. Corolla hypocraterimorpha, tubo an- 
gusto, cylindrico, calyce 2-3-plo longiore, superne et antice 
ventricoso, fauce in oram clevatain constricto, limbo obliquo, 
piano, breviter 5-partito, lobis rotundatis, emarginatis, insequa- 
libus, rarius oblongis, acutis, antico. paulo majore, sestivatione 
reciprocativa ? Stamina 4, didynama, inclusa ; filamenta brevia, 
2 antica inferiora, sublongiora, hem icy dice curvata, imo dila- 
tata, apice expansa, inflexa et pilosa ; antherce sagittato-bilobae, 
inversse, lobis ovatis, rima marginali dehiscentibus, superiorum 
lobo altero minimo casso. Ovarium obovatum, apice pilosum, 
inferne glaberrimum, ssepe stipitatum, rarius omnino glabrum, 
2-loculare, placentis carnosis prominulis dissepimento utrinque 
adnatis, multi-ovulatis. Stylus simplex, apice incrassatus, in- 
flexus, transversim rugulosus. Stigma dilatato-bilobum, lobis 
emarginatis altero majore, intus septis cruciatim in locellis 
4 stigmatosis divisum. Capsula membranacea, calyce per- 
sistente tecta, 2-locularis, 2-valvis, valvis bifidis, dissepimento 
tenuissimo demum libero parallelis. Semina plurima, minuta, 
obovata, lateribus angulata, dorso convexa, ventre concava et 
infra medium hilo notata ; testa reticulato-foveolata. Embryo 
in axi albuminis carnosi homotrope subincurvus, cotyledoni- 
bus ovatis, compressis, radicula tereti infera 3-plo brevioribus 
et 2-plo latioribus. — Herbse America intertropical indigent, 
plus minusve viscido-pubescentes. Folia alterna, Integra. Flores 
ad axillas foliorum superiorum solitarii, cum petiolis sublate- 
ralibus, inter dum foliorum minutione in cymas irregular es termi- 
nalibus dispositi; pedunculo florifero brevi, inter dum fructifero 
mox elongato ; corolla violacea, ccerulescens, out albescens. 

In addition to the species enumerated by Mr. Bentham in 
DC. Prodr. x. 197 et 590, and the B. speciosa of Sir Wm. 
Hooker, Bot. Mag. tab. 4339, I have now to mention two others 
yet undescribed : — 

Browallia tenella (n. sp.) ; — herbacea, humilis, parce puberula, 
foliis membranaceis, lanceolatis, vel ellipticis, in petiolum elon- 
gatum cuneatis; floribus paucis, solitariis, axillaribus, calycis 
membranacei dentibus lanceolatis, obtusis, insequalibus ; co- 
rollas tubo gracili, calyce 4-plo longiore, limbo brevi, piano, 
sinuato-pentangulato, lobis brevissimis, emarginatis, rotun- 
datis, antico majori ; ovario apice piloso. — Rio de Janeiro. 

This species, which I found growing at Pertininguy in 1830, 
has very much the habit of B. demissa, but is readily distin- 
guished by the much greater length of the petiole, fewer flowers, 
a more slender corolla with a much narrower border, a more 
membranaceous calyx with less prominent nervures, and by the 
simple flairs and almost obsolete pubescence of the whole plant. 



206 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Browallia. 

It is remarkable as being the first instance of any species grow- 
ing so far to the southward of the equator and upon the eastern 
side of the continent. It is scarcely more than 6 or 8 inches 
high, with a very slender and almost glabrous stem, but little 
branched ; its leaves are \\ inch long, f inch wide, upon a very 
slender filiform petiole of f inch ; the peduncle of the flower is 
barely 2 lines long, growing to a length of 7 lines ; the tube of 
the calyx is 2 lines long, with teeth scarcely a line in length ; it 
is cylindrical, J line in diameter, growing to a length of 4 lines 
in fruit and a diameter of 2 lines, wholly enclosing the capsule ; 
the tube of the corolla is very slender, 8 lines in length, of a 
greenish lurid white ; the border is 4 lines in diameter, at first 
of a pale bluish colour, afterwards becoming of a violet hue. 
The internal structure of the flower, capsule and seeds entirely 
agrees with that of the typical species*. 

Browallia nervosa, n. sp. ; — foliis ellipticis, acutis, in petiolum 
longiusculum canaliculatum attenuatis, ciliatis, utrinque spar- 
sim scabrido-pilosulis, penninerviis, nervis subtus prominulis, 
floriferis fere bracteiformibus ; floribus axillaribus laxe sub- 
racemosis ; calyce parvulo, angustato, cylindrico, dentibus 
acutis, erectis, ciliatis, nervis 10 violaceis picto, glabro ; corolla 
hypocraterimorpha, tubo angusto, calyce 2-plo longiore, limbo 
lato, piano, violaceo, lobis brevibus emarginatis ; ovario ob- 
ovato, apice piloso. — Ecuador, v. s. in herb. Hooker. (Villa Sa- 
saranga, prope Loxam). Seemann, no. 740. 

This plant is intermediate with B. peduncularis and B. grandi- 
flora, from both of which it is evidently distinguished by the re- 
markably contracted form of its calyx and peduncle. It differs 
also from B. demissa by its leaves being more acute at their base, 
with a comparatively longer and more winged petiole, and by its 
more racemose flowers. The leaves are 1J inch long, 8 lines 
broad, on a petiole half an inch in length, with the coriaceous tex- 
ture and general appearance of those of B. peduncularis. The 
calyx, having five short pointed erect teeth, is at first extremely 
narrow, 4 lines long, J line in diameter, swelling to a much 
larger size in fruit ; the tube of the corolla is 8 lines long, 
i line in diameter, slightly swollen below the very narrow mouth ; 
the border is large in proportion, quite plane and rotate, 9 lines 
in diameter, and of a purple colour ; the capsule, 3 or 4 lines long, 
is hairy at the summit of its bifid valves. 

It appears desirable to divide the species of Browallia into two 
sections ; the first including those whose corolla presents a plane 
border, with short emarginate lobes, and an ovarium with its 

* A figure of this species with generic details will be shown in jplate 54 
of the ' Illustr. South Amer. Plants.' 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Streptosolen. 207 

upper moiety densely covered with long white hairs, which are 
even persistent on the capsule ; the second will comprise such as 
do not possess these characters, and is confined at present to a 
single species : thus — 

§ 1 . Eubrowallia. Corollas limbus planus, rotatus, lobis bre- 
vibus, emarginatis ; ovarium cuneatum, apice obtusum, et dense 
pilosum. 

1. Browallia demissa, Linn., DC. Prodr. x. 197. 

2. viscosa, H. B. K. ii. 373. 

3. tenella, n. sp. supra descript. 

4. nervosa, n. sp. ibid. 

5. peduncularis, Bth., DC. Prodr. x. 197. 

6. grandijlora, Grah. ibid. 

7. abbreviata, Bth. ibid. 

§ 2. Leiogyne. Corollse limbus profunde incisus, laciniis ob- 
longis, acuminatis, 3-nerviis ; ovarium subglobosum, sessile, 
omnino glaberrimum. 

8. Browallia speciosa, Hook. Bot. Mag. tab. 4339. The much 
larger flowers of this species, its more acutely-lobed and deeper- 
cleft border, and constantly smooth ovarium, are characters of 
hardly sufficient importance to constitute a generic difference ; 
but at all events, with such marked distinctions, Leiogyne will 
form a good subgenus. 

From the above enumeration B. Jamesoni has been excluded, 
because it differs in its characters, in the number of divisions of 
its calyx, in the shape of its corolla, the form and position of its 
stamens, and the structure of its stigma. 

Streptosolen. 

I have already alluded to the propriety of excluding from 
Browallia the species described under the name of B. Jamesoni, 
as it possesses many essential characters at variance with that 
genus. All the species of Browallia are herbaceous, while the 
plant above mentioned is suffruticose, forming a branching shrub 
4 or 6 feet high, with very rugous, coriaceous and scabrid leaves ; 
the inflorescence is also more corymbose, and the structure of 
the flower differs from that of Browallia in the following parti- 
culars. The calycine tube is crowned with four, rarely with five 
teeth ; the corolla is not hypocrateriform, and its tube, instead of 
being slender and cylindrical, swells into a funnel-shape, imme- 
diately as it emerges from the calyx, and the contracted basal 
portion soon twists half a revolution, so that the border becomes 
actually resupinate ; owing to the want of the contraction in the 
throat, the border does not assume the figure of a rotate 5-lobed 



208 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Streptosolen. 

plane, but enlarges more in a campanular form with five short 
rounded lobes, the front lobe being broadest ; it is however often 
4-lobed by the confluence of the two upper smaller segments; 
the two' lower stamens are not short, dilated, hemicyclical, and 
fixed in a ventricose swelling below the throat, but are here 
straight, slender and filiform, originating in the contracted base 
of the funnel-shaped tube and opposite the broader lobe of the 
border; the two upper filaments are also straight and nearly 
erect, although they are fixed in the mouth of the campanulate 
border, with one of the lobes of each anther almost abortive or 
dwarfish, as in Browallia ; all the filaments are terete, not greatly 
dilated, and although at first hairy, they become at last quite 
glabrous. The style resembles that of Browallia in being swollen 
at its summit, where it is hollow and corrugated into numerous 
transverse folds ; but the stigma is of an essentially different form, 
being suddenly expanded into two broad, compressed, auriculate, 
equal lobes, at first con ni vent, afterwards ringent, with a large 
opening in the sinus into the tubular summit of the style (and 
which in the living state is probably filled with mucous matter), 
thus approaching more to the form of the stigma of Petunia. 
The whole plant possesses much the habit of Stemodia suffruti- 
cosa, with which genus and with Pterostigma there exists some 
analogy in the form of the stamens and stigma. It will however 
constitute a genus belonging to the tribe Petuniea, connecting 
this group still more closely with the Salpiglossidece by Browallia. 
The name now proposed for this genus is derived from arpeirrb^, 
tortus, aooiXrjv, tubus, because of the torsion of the lower portion 
of the tube of the corolla. 

Streptosolen (gen. nov.). — Calyx tubulosus, 4-5-nervis, reti- 
culata, 4-5-dentatus, dentibus insequalibus, persistens. Co- 
rolla infundibuliformi-tubulosa, subcurvula, limbo campanu- 
lato, subobliquo, brevissime 5-lobo, lobis apiculatis aut eraar- 
ginatis, antico paulo latiore, tubi torsione mox resupinato, sesti- 
vatione replicativa. Stamina 4, didynama, inclusa, valde in- 
sequalia, 2 inferiora (in alabastri antica) imo tubi orta, 2 supe- 
riora brevissima fauce inserta ; filamenta teretia, recta, pilosa, 
mox glabra ; antherce 2-lobse, subdeclinatse, lobis ovatis, imo 
late divaricatis, margine dehiscentibus, singulo receptaculo 
pollinifero globoso intus instructo, superiorum lobo altero mi- 
nimo casso. Ovarium ovatum, disco glanduloso stipitato imo 
cinctum, apice parce pilosum, demum glabrum, 2-loculare, 
placentis carnosis dissepimento adnatis, multiovulatis. Stylus 
filiformis, apice incrassatus, subincurvus, tubulosus, et trans- 
verse rugoso-crenulatus. Stigma valde dilatatum, imo late 
cordatum, 2-labiatum, lobis sequalibus obtusis conniventibus, 



Mr. J. Micrs on the genus Streptosolen. 209 

mox hiantibus, in sinu cavcrnosum. Capsula ovata, coriacea, 
calyce tecta, 2-locularis, 2-valvis, valvis 2-fidis, dissepimento 
libero parallclis. Semina plurima Browallia. — Suffrutices 
Nova-Granadenses et Ecuadorenses strigoso-hispidula. Folia 
ovata, coriacea, rugosa, aspera, petiolata, florifera ad bracteas 
redacta. Flores pedunculati, terminates, conferti, subcorymbosi. 
Corolla aurantiaca, extus valde pubescens. 

1. Streptosolen Jamesoni. Browallia Jamesoni, Benth., DC. 
Prodr. x. 197; — fusco- et scabrido-hispidula, foliis ovatis, 
utrinque acutis, subcoriaceis, bullato-rugosis, subtus nervis 
valde prominulis, utrinque scabridis, longiuscule petiolatis, 
corymbo ampliore, calycis dentibus 4 subsequalibus, acutis, 
erectis, fusco-viridibus, tubo cylindrico, angustato, medio con- 
tracto, concolori : corollse aurantiacse tubo infundibuliformi 
ampliore extus molliter tomentoso, limbi campanulati lobis 
fere sequalibus, brevissirnis, mucronulatis. — Ecuador, v. s. in 
herb. Hook. Loxa, Hartweg,no. 818. Sasaranga, prope Loxam, 
Seemann, no. 872. 

I have already described in the foregoing page the peculiar 
habit of this species ; the leaves are 1^ inch long, 8 lines broad, 
on a narrow channeled petiole of 4 lines ; above they are deeply 
furrowed at the nervures with prominent reticulate veins, hispidly 
pubescent below, scabrido-hispid above, of a very dark green 
colour, opake and brittle when dried ; the peduncles are 4 lines 
long; the calyx of equal length is l~ line in diameter, somewhat 
contracted in the middle, with almost lanceolate acute erect teeth ; 
the corolla is 1 inch in length, the tube at base only a line in dia- 
meter, swelling to a diameter of 4 lines at the mouth, the border 
being about 8 lines in diameter ; externally it is softly pubescent 
and almost smooth within. The lower pair of stamens have their 
origin somewhat fornicated, about 2 lines above the base of the 
tube, opposite the reflexed broader lobe of the border, are about 
6 lines in length, quite smooth at base, minutely pubescent 
above; the upper shorter pair are inserted at 7 lines from the 
base and below the mouth of the tube, which is here slightly 
pubescent ; they are all stiff and rigid, and want that peculiar 
arching expansion with long glandular hairs that forms so pecu- 
liar a character in Browallia. The style is about 7 lines in 
length, with a broadly expanded stigma, which is quite bilabiate 
and of a distinctly different form from that of the very remarkable 
stigma of Browallia. The pedicel and calyx do not sensibly en- 
large in size ; the capsule, which is wholly inclosed within the 
calyx, is quite smooth, but in other respects like that of Browallia 
and Petunia*. 

* This species will be figured in plate 55 of the ' 111. South Amer. Plants,' 
Ami. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 14 



210 Mr. J. Alder on Montacuta ferruginosa. 

2. Streptosolen Benthami (an nov. sp. vel prsecedentis var. ?) ; — ra- 
mulis griseo-hirsutulis ; foliis ovatis, minus rugosis, lsete viri- 
dibus, nervis supra impressis, utrinque pilosulis, supra vix sca- 
briusculis, breviter petiolatis; floribus subcymosis, pedicellis 
calyce vix longioribus; calyce subinflato, late tubuloso, ore valde 
obliquo, tubo pallide viridi, nervis fuscis lineato, dentibus 5, in- 
sequalibus, ovatis, obtusis, cserulescentibus ; corolla? limbi lobis 
brevibus, emarginatis, lobo antico (in alabastro postico) multo 
majori, subreflexo. — Nova Granada, v. s. in herb. Hook, (inter 
Mivir et Naranjas, altit. 7000 ped., Jameson). 

I have seen only a single and very meagre specimen of this 
" small shrub," which has few flowers : the leaves are of the 
same shape but somewhat smaller than in the foregoing species, 
much smoother and of a lighter colour ; the flower is about the 
size of that of S. Jamesoni ; the calyx is however larger, wider, 
with much broader and more obtuse segments ; it increases some- 
what in fruit to a length of 6 lines and a diameter of nearly 3 
lines, and conceals the capsule, which is about 3 lines long ; it has 
four thick coriaceous valves, is seated upon its stipitate support, 
and encircled at base by the induvial remains of the corolla. 

XX. — Notes on Montacuta ferruginosa. By Joshua Alder. 

[With a Plate.] 
9{jj • ffhioo 

The interesting little bivalve Montacuta ferruginosa, though 
pretty generally diffused round the British coasts, has seldom 
been observed in a living state, and no account of the animal has 
been published, if we except the very imperfect one furnished by 
myself to Professor E. Forbes for the * History of British Mol- 
lusca/ This, though correct as far as it goes, is by no means a 
complete description, having been taken under very unfavourable 
circumstances. I was glad, therefore, to meet with another living 
example of this species, which seemed less shy in displaying itself 
than the former one. It was taken from the stomach of a had- 
dock, — a very unpromising locality certainly for meeting with 
anything in a living state, — but the little creature on being placed 
in sea-water appeared quite lively, and not visibly the worse for 
the uncomfortable quarters from which it had been extracted. In 
a short time it protruded the mantle beyond the shell, extended 
its large foot, and began to crawl about. The mantle of this 
species is curious and interesting from its showing a new modi- 
fication of that part, intermediate between the plain anterior si- 
phonal fold of Kellia rubra and the more elaborate form of mantle 
in Lepton squamosum, and thus supplying the desired link to 
* 



Mr. J. Alder on Montacuta ferruginosa. 211 

connect two genera, which had previously been placed in the 
same family from the characters of the shell, but whose ani- 
mals, though agreeing in habits, presented a marked difference 
in their general appearance. The anterior part of the mantle 
in this species is ample and produced considerably beyond 
the shell, forming a kind of frill, which becomes gradually 
smaller and more even as it passes along the base of the 
shell. The exterior circumference of the mantle, lining the 
shell, is fringed with very delicate filaments, rather short and 
blunt, which extend completely round the margin of the valves, 
with the exception of a small space at the umbones. In these 
two particulars this species reminds us forcibly of the peculiar 
characters of Lepton squamosum, though they are displayed in a 
much less degree ; and we may also recognise in them a resem- 
blance to the anterior undulated portion of the cloak in the 
curious genus Galeomma, which, though distinctly observable in 
spirit specimens, I do not recollect to have seen well represented 
in any published figure. Thus then we trace a beautiful gra- 
dation of form in nearly all the genera of this family [Kelliadce), 
the distinguishing character of whose animals is to be found in 
the large development of the mantle, especially in its anterior 
portion. From the largely developed cloak in Galeomma Turtoni 
(if I am right in its character, for I have not seen it alive), we 
pass to the still more developed and undulated mantle of Lepton 
squamosum : in Montacuta ferruginosa the enlargement is chiefly 
confined to the anterior portion, which is undulated like the 
latter ; in Kellia rubra the front of the cloak is still largely ex- 
tended, but the margins are even and folded into a tubular form ; 
while this part becomes an ample closed siphon in Kellia subor- 
bicularis. Taking these characters into consideration, the idea 
suggested itself, that these genera might possibly agree in re- 
ceiving the branchial currents anteriorly, as has been observed in 
the genus Kellia, For the purpose of ascertaining this point, I 
placed my specimen of Montacuta ferruginosa several times under 
the microscope, but without being able to make out anything 
satisfactory. I have however since ascertained that in Montacuta 
bidentata, a living specimen of which I fortunately procured, the 
principal ingress current is decidedly anterior, though the water 
is admitted occasionally through the whole length of the open 
mantle ; the exit, which was less distinctly seen, being by the 
posterior aperture. In this species a short fringe surrounds the 
margin of the shell, but during the time I was able to keep it 
alive, no extension of the mantle was observed in front ; though 
from the capricious manner in which these little animals display 
themselves, it would be premature to decide upon the absence of 
this character from a single observation. I had, on a previous 
occasion, had this species alive without seeing the fringe. 

14* 



212 Mr. J. Alder on Montacuta ferruginosa. 

But to return to Montacuta ferruginosa. The mantle, which 
is open throughout the entire front and base of the shell, is 
closed posteriorly, forming a small excretory orifice, not produced 
into a siphon. The foot, as might be concluded from the much- 
elongated anterior portion of the shell, is very large and mus- 
cular ; there is a slight angle about half-way down in front, be- 
yond which it is rather narrower and tapers to a blunt point : 
the base is slightly undulating and grooved through its entire 
length, though it does not appear to spread out into a flat disc 
like that of Lepton squamosum : the hinder portion is abruptly 
truncated. 

After having kept my specimen for some days in sea-water, I 
found one morning that the bottom of the glass was covered with 
a minute white dust, which I immediately concluded would be 
the spawn, and on placing a small portion under the microscope 
I found that such was the case. I consequently had it removed 
into a separate glass with a fresh supply of water, in order to 
observe its development. Though nearly round at first, the ova 
soon assumed a subtriangular shape, and about the third day, 
strong cilia were observed on one of the sides, and they began to 
rotate very quickly. One after another assumed the rotatory 
state, till nearly the whole were in motion. After rotating for 
about a day, they apparently burst the envelope, and swam freely 
about in the water in all directions,' by means of their vibratile 
cilia, and at the same time assumed more or less of a bell-shape ; 
a slender style or thread projecting from the centre of the ciliated 
base. This organ, which has been observed in the embryos of 
other species, has been described as a kind of byssus, by which 
the little creature can fix itself securely to other bodies. This, 
however, I did not observe to be the case in the present instance. 
It soon appeared to be absorbed ; the animal became gradually 
elongated, and the cilia were withdrawn into the shell, which 
then began to appear, but at what time it was actually formed I 
could not make out, as, from its extreme transparency and simi- 
larity of colour to the rest of the animal, it was very difficult of 
detection. The cilia could be seen vibrating within the shell for 
some time after the animal became quiescent ; a few isolated cilia 
at one of the extremities, not observed before, being the only 
ones that remained to perform their functions externally. These 
produced a partial current without propelling the animal through 
the water, as at this stage it gave up its natatory habits and took 
to a quiet life. The internal portion, the parts of which could 
not be very distinctly made out, appeared to be undergoing a 
process of development. The mass was continually changing its 
form, the separate parts being extended alternately in different 
directions, and a portion, probably the incipient foot, was occa- 
sionally pushed beyond the margin of the shell. At this point 



Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Helices. 213 

of development further observations were unfortunately arrested 
by the death of the whole colony, in consequence of the water 
becoming impure, and my situation at a distance from the sea 
preventing my getting an immediate fresh supply. The whole 
period that I had kept them was not above five or six days, so 
that their development had been pretty rapid. After the death 
of the animals the shells remained at the bottom of the glass. 
They were of an elliptical form, straight at the upper margin, 
where they were attached, though the hinge did not appear to 
be yet formed : the whole, excepting in the elongated form, had 
very little resemblance to the adult shell. 

The process which this embryo undergoes in the course of 
development is similar to what has been observed in the fresh- 
water bivalves by some continental naturalists, as well as more 
recently by Professor Loven of Stockholm in the young of Kellia 
rubra, but as these are viviparous, the metamorphosis takes place 
before extrusion. Professor Loven has, however, traced the same 
metamorphoses in the young of Modiola discors (marmorata), 
commencing about the third day after the deposition of the 
spawn. In the present instance the process likewise commenced 
about the same time after extrusion, but from the artificial po- 
sition in which the animal had been placed, there is a possibility 
that the birth may have been premature, especially as some spe- 
cies of the family are known to be viviparous. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. B. 

Fig. 1. Montacuta ferruginosa, magnified. 
Fig. 2. Anterior portion of the cloak more highly magnified. 
Fig. 3 to 7- Different stages in the development of the embryo. 
Fig. 8. Shell in the embryo state. 



XXI. — Characters of several new East Indian and South African 
Helices, with remarks on some other species of the Genus occur- 
ring at the Cape of Good Hope. By W. H. Benson, Esq. 

1. Helix Ampulla, nobis, n. s. 

T. imperforata, oblique globoso-ovata, tenuissima, irregulariter pli- 
cato-striata, striis antice obsoletioribus, transverse et oblique ru- 
gosa, olivacea ; anfractibus 3 velociter crescentibus, ultimo inflato, 
apice convexo-depresso ; apertura parum obliqua, rotundato-ovali, 
intus concolori, peristomate acuto, margine columellari arcuato, 
tenui, intrante. 

Diam. maj. 42 mill., minor 31 mill., axis 30 mill. 

Had. Khoorda Ghat, in montibus Nilghiri dictis, Indiae Meridionalis. 
Teste Jerdon. 

The strong horny epidermis occupies nearly as much of the 



214 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Helices. 

substance of the shell as the calcareous matter, which is exceed- 
ingly thin and tender. The shell bears very much the appear- 
ance of a large globular Vitrina, for which it has been taken ; 
but the rough surface of the shell shows that it has been formed 
by an animal of very different organization, and its affinities place 
it near the singular and beautiful Helicophantoid Helices Wal- 
toni of Ceylon, and magnified of Madagascar. 

2. H. eacuminifera, nobis, n. s. 

T. obtecte perforata, conica, trochiformi, cornea, spira versus apicem 
attenuata, apice papillari, obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 8, lente cres- 
centibus, supra planatis, spiraliter lineis septem minute moniliferis, 
lineisque intermediis minutioribus similibus munitis, ultimo acute 
compresso-carinato, subtus convexo, polito, radiato-striato ; aper- 
tura securiformi, peristomate acuto, labio superne vix dilatato, 
reflexo. 

Diam. major 19, minor 16, axis 10 mill. 

Hah. in cacuminibus montium Nilgheries, teste Jerdon. 
Auto ° 

A shell singular both in form and sculpture. The profile of 

the spire is somewhat concave owing to the attenuation of the 

spire towards the apex. 

3. H crinigera, nobis, n. s. 

T. anguste umbilicata, depresso-trochiformi, cornea, radiato-costulata ; 
apice obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 6-6 J, vix convexiusculis, linea 
unica elevata supersuturali munitis ; ultimo carinato, carina su- 
turaque pilis elongatis ciliatis, basi planiuscula, ad umbilicum com- 
pressiuscula, lineis impressis concentricis frequentibus ornata ; aper- 
tura obliqua angulato-lunari, securiformi ; peristomate simplici, 
acuto. 

Diam. major 12^, minor 12, alt. 6^ mill. 

Hab. ad latus montium " Nilgheries " versus Orientem spectans. 
Teste Jerdon. 

This shell in size and characters is intermediate between Helix 
Guerini, Pfr., an inhabitant of the summits of the Nilghery 
Mountains, and H. retifera, Pfr., which inhabits the warmer val- 
leys of the same range according to Dr. Jerdon, to whom I am 
indebted for specimens of all the three species from the localities 
indicated. 

4. H. acuducta, nobis, n. s. 

T. perforata, tenui, lenticulari, conica, acute carinata, superne costu- 
lato-striata, lineis impressis confertissime granulato-decussata, sub- 
tus laevigata, lineis impressis frequentibus concentrice notata ; spira 
vix elevata, apice obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 5, planulatis, fere con- 
tabulatis, ultimo subtus tumido, carina infra compressa ; apertura 



Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Helices. 215 

angulato-lunari, subsecuriformi ; peristomate tenui, simplice, mar- 

gine columellari superne brevissime reflexo. 
Diam. major 22, minor 1 9, alt. 1 1 mill. 
Hab. in sylvis ad apicem montium " Nilgheries," Indise meridionalis. 

Jerdon. 

This form seems to rank between the perforate H. anceps, H. 
Indica, &c., and the umbilicated H. Guerini, H. retifera, &c. At 
first sight it has the aspect of a depressed and much-carinated 
dextrorse Helix interrupta, Bens., a species which is, however, 
invariably sinistrorse. , „, 

5. Helix regalisy nobis, n. s. 

T. perforata, sinistrorsa, conoideo-depressa, carinata, eleganter fasciata 
vel unicolori ; anfractibus 6, angustis, subplanatis, supra striis acute 
corrugatis, obliquis, strias spirales decussantibus, medianis obsolete 
noduloso-costatis, ultimo carinato, carina infra compressa, subtus 
nitido, convexo, radiato-striato, striis circularibus versus umbilicum 
obsoletis ; periomphalo excavato ; apertura obliqua, subsecuriformi, 
peristomate acuto, margine inferiori arcuato, versus umbilicum 
sinuato, columellari brevissime reflexo. 

The following is a more extended description of the differences 
observable in the specimens examined : — 

A. costis inconspicuis ; anfractibus supra fascia media luteo-fusca, 
utrinque linea fusco-nigra marginata, fasciisque albido-csesiis mar- 
ginalibus ornatis, ultimo subtus fascia media, cinereo-lutea, lata, 
utrinque fascia angusta purpureo-fusca cincta, margine albido, pe- 
riomphalo albido-luteo. 

B. unicolori, extus intusque purpureo-fusca, costis magis conspicuis. 

Diam. maj. 27, minor 25, axis 13 mill. 

Hab. ad Sarawak, Insulae Borneo. Teste W. Taylor. 

A couple of specimens of each variety, found on the ground, 
in jungle, near Sir Jas. Brooke's house at Sarawak, were brought 
to England by Lieut. W. Taylor, Madras Artillery, to whom I 
am indebted for an example of each kind. The subnodulous 
costate appearance of the whorls, above the ultimate one, forms a 
very peculiar feature in this handsome sinistrorse species. 

The following corrected and more extended characters of a 
fine and remarkable East Indian Helix, published by me in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta for 1836, and copied 
thence into Pfeiffcr's ' Monograph/ will not be out of place here. 

(j. Helix Oxytes, nobis. Amended character. 

T. late umbilicata, orbiculari, depressa, oblique subplicata, ferrugineo- 
cornea, spira convexa, apice planato ; anfractibus 5£ subplanatis, 
contabulatis, ultimo carinato, subtus tumidiusculo ; sutura vix mar- 
ginata ; apertura subquadrato-lunata, valde obliqua, intus albida, 



216 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Helices. 

polita, marginibus acutis expansiusculis, callo tenui junctis, inferiori 

valde arcuato, subreflexo ; umbilico lato, profundo, omnes anfractus 

exhibente, margine subcompresso. 
Diam. major 47, minor 40, axis 15 mill. 
Benson, J. A. S. vol. v. p. 351. 
Pfeiffer, Monograph, vol. i. p. 395. no. 1028. 
Hab. in montibus prseter fines provincial Bengaliae orientales versus 

septentrionem spectantes. 

The remaining species belong to the south-western termination 
of the African continent, and are not the only species which 
escaped the researches of Krauss in the immediate vicinity of 
Cape Town. 

7. Helix Cotyledonis, nobis, n. s. 

T. imperforata, depresso-turbinata, tenui, laeviuscula, diaphana, cor- 
neo-fusca, opaciter albo-zonata ; spira elevata, apice obtuso ; anfrac- 
tibus 5, convexiusculis, fascia lata alba superficiali, fusco interrupte 
striata, superne ornatis ; ultimo subtus convexo, rude radiato-sub- 
plicato, fasciis duabus similibus angustis cincto ; apertura obliqua, 
lunata, intus fuscata ; peristomate recto, acuto, margine columellari 
breviter reflexo, arcuato, intrante, calloso ; callo umbilicum omnino 
tegente. 

Diam. major 16, minor 14, axis 9 mill. 

Hab. prope Simon's Bay, P. B. S. 

I got a single fresh and perfect example adhering to the fleshy 
leaf of a species of Cotyledon, among bushes, on the sand-heaps 
near the Bound Battery at Simon's Town, Cape of Good Hope, 
in October 1846. Weathered shells, which were whitish, with 
a fuscous stain underneath, occurred in the drifting sands, with 
the reversed Pupa Pottebergensis, Krauss, and Cyclostoma affine, 
Sow. 

There is a single bad specimen of H. Cotyledonis in Case 25 of 
the British Museum collection, without name or locality ; and in 
Case 26 are two smaller examples, in worse condition, presented 
by Professor M'Gillivray, and marked " from Simon's Bay." 

8. Helix vorticialisj nobis, n. s. 

T. late umbilicata, subdiscoidea, superne depresso-planata, tenui, ru- 
fescente-cornea ; spira concaviuscula ; sutura profunda ; anfractibus 
4, angustis, convexis, confertim radiato-plieatis, penultimo promi- 
nente, ultimo subtus valde convexo ; umbilico lato, profundo, omnes 
anfractus exhibente, margine subangulato ; apertura verticali, lu- 
nata, subcompressa, marginibus rectis tenuibus, callo tenuissimo 
junctis. 

Diam, major 6, minor 5, axis 3 mill. 

Hab. ad Promontorium Bonse Spei, rarior, sub lapidibus. 

Unfrequent near Three-anchor Bay, Green Point ; and at Camp 



Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Helices. 217 

Ground near Rondebosch, adhering to the undersides of stones ; 
alive in May and July 1846; dead at "the Strand," False Bay. 

Helix pulchella, well-distinguished by PfeifFer's diagnosis from 
H. costata, Muller, and which has been noticed as occurring in 
Europe, from Ireland to Russia, and from Sweden to Switzerland, 
as well as in Madeira, and through a considerable portion of 
North America, has extended its range to the Southern hemi- 
sphere. I gathered specimens under stones lying on the lawn of 
High Constantia, near the south-east extremity of Table Moun- 
tain. Another European species, H. cellaria, is tolerably abun- 
dant in the hollows of decayed oaks and willows, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rondebosch, as well as under stones, &c. on the 
ground. It was probably imported originally from Holland with 
the trees which it frequents. 

Among described indigenous shells, Helix Menkeana, Pfr. (of 
which Krauss obtained only a single specimen on the stem of a 
Protect, near Elim in Zwellendam) occurred to me in bushes 
shooting out of the sand-hills which border the head of Hout 
Bay, south of Table Mountain ; but it was deficient in similar 
localities explored near Cape Town and in False Bay. 

Helix globulus, Muller (H. Lucana, Lamk., nee Mull.), is to be 
found within a few hundred yards of the coast, both of Table and 
False Bays, and never, as far as my observations extended, much 
inland. It burrows in the earth and in sand, and only makes its 
appearance in the very wettest weather during the winter season, 
when it may be taken emerging from the ground, or may be 
traced from its earth-cast. The deserted shells are alone ob- 
servable at other seasons. The specimens obtainable on the 
shores of False Bay are larger and more brilliantly coloured than 
those of Table Bay, and belong to the var. rosacea (H rosacea, 
Lamk.). Krauss notes the species as being only subfossil at 
Green Point, but I have taken it alive on several parts of that 
shore. 

Helix Capensis, Pfr., is also exclusively a shore-loving species. 
It is exceedingly abundant on the borders of Table and False 
Bays and at Green Point, on stones and grass above high-water 
mark, and for a few hundred yards inland. Those of the south- 
ern shores exceed in beauty the shells of the western coast, being 
variously marked with reddish brown bands or radiate stripes. 
An internal rib rarely occurs in the right lip, a character which 
is not noted by Pfeiffer. 

February 1850. 



218 Bibliographical Notices. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

The Natural History of Ireland. — Vols. I. and II. Birds, compri- 
sing the Orders Raptores, Insessores, Rasores, and Grallatores. 
By William Thompson, Esq. — London : Reeve, Benham and 
Reeve.. iJ j l j Y & II i ^ \ m 

The first and second volumes of a work bearing the above title now 
lie upon our table ; and the portion devoted exclusively to the Birds 
of Ireland will be completed in the third, which we believe is now in 
an advanced stage of preparation. Two volumes out of the three on 
this subject having now appeared, we feel we are in a position to state 
to our readers the plan and general arrangement of the work, and to 
express our opinion of its value as a contribution to our scientific 
literature. 

In the pages of this journal, under its former title, there was com- 
menced in the year 1838 a series of papers by Mr. Thompson on the 
Birds of Ireland, which was continued at intervals until 1843. It 
related to the birds comprised in the orders Raptores, Insessores and 
Rasores. All that was valuable in those papers has been transferred 
to the first volume of the present work and to the early part of the 
second volume, but with copious and valuable additions. Neither the 
Grallatores nor the Natatores have hitherto been systematically 
treated of by the author. 

It is obvious that the two volumes now before us present in many 
respects a striking contrast. One treats of the birds of prey, and also 
of those "feathered choristers" which give melody to every brake, 
or whose graceful and easy flight realise to our eye the very poetry of 
motion. It comprises the birds of two orders {Raptores and Inses- 
sores). The other also treats of two orders (Rasores and Grallatores), 
and brings before us the heathy slope on which the grouse is sought 
by the sportsman, the bog with its " wisps " of snipe, and the calm 
sea-bay where flocks of dunlins, comprising many hundred individuals, 
dazzle the eye one moment by their brightness, and, in their changeful 
flight, become invisible the next. Such and so varied are the contents 
of these two volumes. We shall now state the purpose for which 
they appear to have been written, and a few of the leading points of 
interest which they embrace. 

The author states his opinion — in which we entirely concur — that 
" every country should possess a natural history specially appertain- 
ing to itself.'* For such a work he has been for a quarter of a cen- 
tury assiduously collecting the materials, on nearly every branch of 
which, as he himself informs us, he has matter almost ready for the 
press. The present volumes he expressly states are " put forward 
merely as supplementary to the several excellent works already pub- 
lished on British Ornithology ." For this reason, descriptions of form 
or plumage are in most instances omitted; when introduced they 
refer to some rare visitant, where critical examination and measure- 
ment seem, from the circumstances of each case, to be demanded. 

In Mr. Thompson's " Additions to the Fauna of Ireland," and in 
all his former papers, our readers may recollect the precision with 



Bibliographical Notices. 219 

which dates and localities were given, and the scrupulous exactness 
with which he acknowledged to all his correspondents his obligation 
for the facts they had communicated. The same trait of character is 
apparent throughout the present volumes. In fact, he modestly re- 
marks in the preface, " that the work should rather be considered 
that of Irish ornithologists generally than of the individual whose 
name appears on the title-page." 

To one who takes up a volume merely for the purpose of amuse- 
ment, and who, in the words of Sterne, is " pleased with a book he 
knows not why and cares not wherefore," the detailed enumeration 
of dates, names and localities will no doubt be irksome, although 
even to such a reader, the work, replete as it is with varied anecdote, 
cannot fail to be attractive. But to those who read with a higher 
aim and for a loftier purpose, such details will assume a different 
aspect ; and those whose range of ornithological reading is the most 
extended will most prize this positive information, and will draw from 
it oft-times an inference, perhaps a generalization, which but for such 
well-attested facts, they would not feel warranted in doing. 

There is another light in which these details, though detracting 
to some extent from the popular character of the work, are even 
more valuable. They vouch for the fidelity of this record of the 
Birds of Ireland, as at present known by one who has spent a large 
portion of his life in their investigation. Fifty years hence, if any 
writer should take up the same subject, the present work will afford 
him a firm basis from which to start. Taking its record as true at 
this time, he will compare it with what he then finds around him, and 
note the changes that have taken place. Such changes are continually 
in progress, as evidenced in the present volumes. In the preface to 
the first, we have, a very striking example of the extent to which 
birds are influenced by the labours of man :— 

" It is interesting to observe how birds are affected by the opera- 
tions of man. I have remarked this particularly at one locality near 
Belfast, situated 500 feet above the sea, and backed by hills rising to 
800 feet. Marshy ground, the abode of little else than the snipe, 
became drained, and that species was consequently expelled. As 
cultivation advanced, the numerous species of small birds attendant 
on it became visitors, and plantations soon made them inhabitants of 
the place. The land-rail soon haunted the meadows ; the quail and 
the partridge the fields of grain. A pond, covering less than an acre of 
ground, tempted annually for the first few years a pair of the graceful 
and handsome sandpipers (Totanus hypoleucos), which, with their 
brood, appeared at the end of July or beginning of August, on their 
way to the sea-side from their breeding haunt. This was in a moor 
about a mile distant, where a pair annually bred until driven away by 
drainage rendering it unsuitable. The pond was supplied by streams 
descending from the mountains through wild and rocky glens, the 
favourite haunt of the water-ouzel, which visited its margin daily 
throughout the year. When the willows planted at the water's edge 



220 Bibliographical Notices. 

had attained a goodly size, the splendid kingfisher occasionally visited 
it during autumn. Rarely do the water-ouzel and kingfisher meet 
* to drink at the same pool,' but here they did so. So soon as there 
was sufficient cover for the water-hen (Gallinula chloropus), it, an 
unbidden but most welcome guest, appeared and took up its perma- 
nent abode ; a number of them frequently joining the poultry in the 
farm-yard at their repast. The heron, as if conscious that his deeds 
rendered him unwelcome, stealthily raised his ' blue bulk ' aloft, and 
fled at our approach. The innocent and attractive wagtails, both 
pied and gray, were of course always to be seen about the pond. A 
couple of wild-ducks, and two or three teal, occasionally at different 
seasons, became visitants ; and once, early in October, a tufted duck 
(Fuligula cristata) arrived, and after remaining a few days took its 
departure, but returned in company with two or three others of the 
same species. These went off several times, but returned on each 
occasion with an increase to their numbers, until above a dozen adorned 
the water with their presence. During severe frost, the woodcock was 
driven to the unfrozen rill dripping into it beneath a dense mass of 
foliage ; and the snipe, together with the jack-snipe, appeared along 
the edge of the water. The titlark, too, visited it at such times. In 
summer, the swallow, house-martin, sand-martin and swift displayed 
their respective modes of flight in pursuit of prey above the surface 
of the pond. The sedge-warbler poured forth its imitative or mock- 
ing notes from the cover on the banks, as did the willow-wren its 
simple song. This bird was almost constantly to be seen ascending 
the branches and twigs of the willows (Salix viminalis chiefly) that 
overhung the water, for Aphides and other insect prey. In winter, 
lesser redpoles in little flocks were swayed gracefully about, while 
extracting food from the light and pendent bunches of the alder-seed. 
Three species of tit (Parus major, coeruleus and ater) } and the gold- 
crested regulus, appeared in lively and varied attitudes on the larch 
and other trees. In winter, also, and especially during frost, the wren 
and the hedge-accentor were sure to be seen threading their modest 
way among the entangled roots of the trees and brushwood, little ele- 
vated above the surface of the water. 

" So far only, the pond and bordering foliage have been considered : 
many other species might be named as seen upon the trees. On the 
banks a few yards distant, fine Portugal laurels tempted the green- 
finch to take up its permanent residence, and served as a roost during 
the winter for many hundred linnets, which made known the place of 
their choice by congregating in some fine tall poplars that towered 
above the shrubs, and thence poured forth their evening jubilee." 

The bittern, which has been observed in several localities in each 
of the four provinces of Ireland, is now becoming scarce, owing to the 
drainage of the bogs and marshes. A time may come when 

" Deep-waving fields and pastures green " 
will occupy the swampy solitudes in which it now dwells, and the 



Bibliographical Notices. 221 

species, after gradually becoming more and more rare, may hereafter be- 
come altogether extinct. The records now given of its occurrence will 
then acquire an importance beyond that with which they are at present 
invested. The same observation applies to many other birds yet in- 
digenous to Ireland. Already several species, which were at one 
time abundant, have become extinct, or are only known as rare vi- 
sitants, and the author has not failed to supply, from all authentic 
sources, such particulars respecting them as are most worthy of pre- 
servation. 

The situation of Ireland gives interest to a comparative list of its 
birds with those of Great Britain ; and accordingly Mr. Thompson has 
appended to each order a valuable summary, snowing at a glance the 
species peculiar to the respective islands. The differences between 
them are not to be accounted for by local causes, such as mineralo- 
gical structure or climate, but must be attributed to the laws of 
geographical distribution. In this respect, all that pertains to Ireland 
and distinguishes it from other European countries becomes of philo- 
sophical interest, considered in connexion with its insular position, 
and its being the most western of all European lands. 

In reading Mr. Thompson's pages, we do not receive information 
merely with reference to the birds of Ireland as compared with those 
of Great Britain, but not unfrequently we have tidings of their mi- 
grations, habits and comparative abundance, both in the Arctic circle 
and in the sunny isles of the iEgean. In this way it occasionally 
happens, that the author leads us with him almost insensibly to 
brighter skies and classic scenes, so fraught with pictorial and poetic 
interest, that we are tempted to forget the measured language of the 
reviewer of a scientific work, and express without reservation the 
delight which the reading of certain passages has afforded. As an 
example, we would refer to the bee-eater, vol. i. p. 367 : — 

" I have had the gratification of seeing the bee-eater in scenes with 
which its brilliant plumage was more in harmony than with any in 
the British Isles. It first excited my admiration in August 1826, 
when visiting the celebrated grotto of Egeria, near Rome. On ap- 
proaching this classic spot, several of these birds, in rapid, swift-like 
flight, swept closely past and around us, uttering their peculiar call, 
and with their graceful form and brilliant colours proved irresistibly 
attractive. My companion, who, as well as myself, beheld them for 
the first time, was so greatly struck with the beauty of their plumage 
and bold sweeping flight, as to term them the presiding deities over 
Egeria' s Grotto. Rich as was the spot in historical and poetical as- 
sociations, it was not less so in pictorial charms ; all was in admirable 
keeping : — the picturesque grotto with its ivy-mantled entrance and 
gushing spring ; the gracefully reclining, though headless white 
marble statue of the nymph ; the sides of the grotto covered with 
the exquisitely beautiful maiden-hair fern in the richest luxuriance ; 
the wilderness of wild flowers around the exterior, attracting the bees, 
on which the Merops was feeding ; and over all, the deep blue sky of 
Rome completing the picture." 



222 Bibliographical Notices. 

Or another instance may be selected relating to the rock-dove, 
vol. ii. p. 13 : — 

-,, . tnod.B ebisft v|L;jji>9 'j/.ok-iooT 

" The mention of various places in connexion with this bird induces 

me to remark, though at the expense of the repetition of a few names, 
that nearly as the ring-dove and the rock-dove, distributed in suitable 
localities over the British Islands, are allied, their haunts are very dif- 
ferent ; the former being associated with the tender and the beautiful, 
the latter with the stern and the sublime in nature. The ring-dove 
is most at home in the lordly domain, rich in noble and majestic trees, 
the accumulated growth of centuries. The stately beech, beautiful 
even in winter, when with grayish-silver stem it towers upwards from 
its favourite sloping banks, — richly carpeted in the russet hue of its 
fallen leaves, — and expands into a graceful head of reddish branches, 
affords the species nightly shelter. The same tree, too, may have 
cradled the infant ring-dove ; and when the bird became mature, fed 
it with its * mast.' The rock-dove, on the other hand, has its abode 
in the gloomy caverns both of land and sea. How various are the 
scenes — nay, countries and climates — brought vividly, with all their 
accompaniments, before the mind, by the sight of this handsome 
species ! A brief indication of the nature of a very few may here be 
given ; and in the first place, of two similar in kind, but \ yet how 
different ! ' The most northern great water-fall at which this bird 
has come under my notice is that of Foyers, in Inverness-shire, where 
its habitation, 

' Dim-seen through rising mists and ceaseless showers, 
The hoary cavern, wide-surrounding, lowers.' 

" Over this fall * the evergreen pine ' presides in majesty, and the 
surrounding scenery partakes of the fine bold character of the * land 
of the mountain and the flood.' From the banks above, we may, 
however, in a serene day, gaze across the lengthened expanse of Loch 
Ness as it sleeps in azure, and over the steep mountain-sides that rise 
from its margin richly wooded with the graceful weeping birch (the 
predominant species), the hazel, and other indigenous trees, until the 
eye rests on the somewhat distant and lofty pyramidal summit of 
Maelfourvonie. The most southern locality of a similar kind, in 
which rock- doves attracted my attention, was amid the enchanting 
scenery of the Sabine hills, about the celebrated cascade of the Anio 
at Tivoli, where, numerous as domestic pigeons in a well-stocked 
dove-cot, they appeared flying in and out of the gloomy recesses of the 
rocks close to where the mass of waters was precipitated. The cliffs 
above these falls are crowned by the ruins of the Corinthian temple 
of Vesta; from the neighbouring hill-sides the great aloe and the 
myrtle spring spontaneously, while the most antique of olive-trees, 
many of them even grotesque from the decrepitude of age, form the 
chief features of the foliage. Afar, over the dreary Campagna, Rome, 
once mistress of the world, appears. 

" In the snow-white caves adjacent to Dunluce Castle, near the 
Giant's Causeway, and those darkly pierced in the long range of stu- 
pendous cliffs at the Horn in Donegal, which boldly confront the At- 



Bibliographical Notices. 223 

iantic, southward to those of Sphacteria whose precipices are laved 

by the waters of the eastern Mediterranean, I have remarked that the 

rock-dove equally finds a home ; as it likewise does in islets from the 

high and rugged promontory of Oe, in I slay, off the south-western 

coast of Scotland, to the * Isles of Greece.' " 
afoBJ 

If from considering the range of species, and the circumstances 
which invest them with adventitious interest, we confine our attention 
to individual species as observed in Ireland, we find abundance of 
material, carefully collected and judiciously brought together. Under 
this head we might refer to the full and accurate manner in which 
the food of each is noted, after the author's personal examination of 
the contents of the stomachs of different individuals. His critical 
knowledge of species, both of plants and of those invertebrate animals 
that afford the means of subsistence to numerous families of birds, 
becomes here of great importance, and has enabled him to treat this 
part of his subject with a completeness which is rare, if not un- 
equaled. 

The number of quails which appear to winter in Ireland, forms a 
singular point of contrast between Great Britain and the sister 
island. The woodcock, on which notes of the highest interest are 
given, suggests a similar comparison. But perhaps there is no species 
which offers more numerous topics than the heron (Ardea cinerea) . 
We are accustomed in Britain to regard it as solitary in its habits 
during the winter ; in the Bay of Belfast it becomes gregarious, and 
flocks of from thirty to sixty are mentioned. Their appearance, 
whether perched on trees, congregated in meadows and ploughed 
fields, or mustered on the beach, is described — sometimes as seen in 
bright sunshine, and at others as they pursue their piscatory vocation 
by the light of the moon. 

The book abounds with anecdotes illustrative of habits, and told 
in a most attractive style. We might refer as examples of this to the 
land-rail (vol. ii. p. 317), or to the heron in confinement (vol. ii. 
p. 152). Perhaps however a still more attractive little "bit" of 
biography may be found in the history of a pet magpie, vol. i. p. 334, 
or that of three redbreasts, vol. i. p. 167. 

One who studies, as Mr. Thompson has done, the habits of birds 
amid their native haunts, where alone the true enjoyment of orni- 
thological pursuits can be felt, is brought at times into the midst of 
scenery, which the mind that is alive to what is beautiful in nature, 
cannot contemplate unmoved. It is but natural therefore that the 
author should occasionally turn from the birds to the scenery in which 
they are found. Of this we have examples in vol. ii. pp. 55, 246. 

On the whole, we have no hesitation in saying that this book must 
take its place by the side of those which are justly regarded as 
standard works on Ornithology. Its facts will commend it to the man 
of science, and the manner in which they are conveyed will win for it 
a ready admission to many a domestic circle. We hail it as a valuable 
addition to our literature, and shall look forward with impatience for 
the remaining volumes. 



224 Zoological Society. 

PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

April 24, 1849.— William Spence, Esq., V.P., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On a new species of the genus Glareola. 
By G. R. Gray, F.L.S. etc. 

Glareola nuchalis. 

Brownish ash tinged with bronze, paler on the throat and breast, 
and darkest on the quills and tail ; a white line commencing at the 
gape and extending round the nape, thus forming a prominent collar ; 
the base of the tail-feathers, with the space gradually enlarging to 
the outermost, and the tips of the third, fourth and fifth feathers, 
white; the abdomen and under tail- coverts ashy- white ; the two 
longest of the latter with a broad patch near the tip of each dark 
brownish ash. 

Bill black, with the base yellow ; feet yellow, with black claws. 

Total length, 5£" ; bill from gape, 8'" ; wings, 5" 7'" ; tarsi, 9'" ; 
middle toe, 8'". 

The bird here described was discovered by Francis Galton, Esq., 
at the fifth cataract of the Nile. This species may prove eventually 
to be found also on the Quorra, Western Africa, as is partly shown 
by an immature specimen in rather bad condition, which is contained 
in the collection at the British Museum. 

2. Description of a new species of the genus Cultrides. 
By G. R. Gray, F.L.S. etc. 

Cultrides rufipennis. 

Head, neck, and breast, blue-black, tinged in some lights with green; 
the back and smaller wing-coverts olivaceous ; the greater wing-coverts 
and the outer webs of the secondaries bright cinnamon ; the inner 
webs of latter and primaries dark violet ; the throat and lower part 
of breast and abdomen ashy-white ; the middle feathers of the tail 
changeable bronzy-green ; the second, third, and fourth feathers, dark 
green slightly tinged with bronze on the outer margins, the first 
feather on each side dark violet-blue. Bill black, with the tip white ; 
the legs and feet pale. 

Total length, 1' 10"; bill to gape, 2" 4'" ; wing, 7J" ; tail, 1'; 
tarsi, 2" 7'". 

This bird, which is supposed to be a native of Mexico, forms a 
second species of the genus Cultrides, which was established by M. 
Pucheran, with the Coccyzus Geoffroyi of M. Temminck for its type. 

May 8, 1849.— Harpur Gamble, Esq., M.D., in the Chair. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. On AVERY LARGE RoE-DeER (C. leucotis) IN THE COLLECTION 

of the Earl of Derby. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 
The President has sent for exhibition a stuffed specimen of a female 



Zoological Society. 225 

Deer, which has lately been obtained by him from Valparaiso, and 
is a native of South America. It evidently belongs to the genus 
Capreolus or Roebucks. 

I may observe that most of the groups into which the Deer have 
been divided are strictly geographic divisions ; the only exception is 
in the Stags, or the restricted genus Cervus, one species of which is 
found in America. The following animal appears to be a similar ex- 
ample in the genus Capreolus, which has hitherto been restricted 
to species found in the Old World. 

In size it agrees with the specimens of the male Ahi or C. pygar- 
gus from Siberia in the British Museum collection, being at least 
three times as large as the usual European Roebucks ; but it differs 
from that species in being much darker, in not having the white spot 
which extends over the upper part of the sides of the haunches, and 
in having the greater part of the front ot the chin and a spot on each 
side of the upper lip white, instead of the lip and chin being nearly 
black, as in that species. 

In all the characters above noted it agrees with the European Roe- 
buck, as it also does in the greater stoutness of the legs and the 
greater length of the face. Indeed I can see no difference between it 
and the European Roebuck, except in th: j greater size, the greater 
length of the quills, and their more distinct and broader subterminal 
yellow bands, and in the hair on the inside of the ears being whiter ; 
but in the latter character it also differs from C. pygargus. 

I think it may be distinguished by the provisional name of C. leu- 
cotis. 

Sundevall observes of C. pygargus, " A priori (C. Europceus) non 
minus differt quam omnes Cervi indici inter se ; hi igitur, non minus 
quam ille, distinguendi, sed rectius forsan ut merae varietates ha- 
bendi." — Pecora, 61. 

I have seen six specimens of the Ural species, and they were all 
alike, and very distinct from any variety of the European Roebuck I 
have seen, especially in the form of the head and the extension of the 
white disk over the sides of the rump, forming a broad oblong white 
spot ; while in the European species it is an erect longitudinal disk 
only, occupying the back part of the haunches. 

The height at the shoulder of Lord Derby's specimen is 38 inches. 
His Lordship's correspondent states, "It was brought to Valparaiso 
by Don Benjamin Munoz, a Commodore in the Chilian Navy. The 
animal was shot by one of the Chileno officers about twenty leagues 
from Port Famine in the Straits of Magellan. The Indians assured 
the officer that there was another similar kind of Deer there, but 
quite white. He did not see any of them, but the other kind (C. leu- 
cotis) did not seem uncommon." 

2. On the Genus Bradypus of Linnaeus. By John Edward 
Gray, Esq., F.R.S. etc. 

Illiger, and afterwards F. Cuvier, divided the Linnteau genus Bra- 
dypus into two, according to the number of the claws and the absence 
or presence of the canine, and the form of the crown of the grinders. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 15 



226 Zoological Society. 

The examination of the collection of skulls of the family in the 
collection at the British Museum, has induced me to believe that the 
recent species may be divided into three very distinct subdivisions, 
and that there are at least seven distinct species. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

1. Cholcepus. — Hands two-clawed, feet three-clawed; front 
grinder large, like a canine ; pterygoid bone rather swollen, sub- 
vesicular. 

2. Bradypus. — Hands and feet three-clawed ; front grinder small ; 
pterygoids swollen, hollow, vesicular. 

3. Arctopithecus. — Hands and feet three-clawed ; front grinder 
small ; pterygoids compressed, crest-like, solid. 

I. Cholcepus, Illiger (1811) ; Bradypus, F. Cuvier, Dent. Mamm. 
t. 77 ; Bradypus, sp. Linn. ; Tardigradus, sp. Brisson. 

Hands two-clawed, feet three-clawed. Grinders : front upper and 
lower large, like canines ; the upper ones separated from the other 
grinders by a broad space, with a deep concavity in front, at the back 
edge of the teeth. Intermaxillary bones small, distinct, and produced 
in front, with a long canal behind them ; pterygoid bones separate, 
rather swollen, spread out on the sides, thick, with a moderate internal 
vesicular cavity. 

Lower jaw much-produced in front between the teeth. 

The skull of this genus is well-figured by M. Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. 
t. 5, and M. De Blainville, Osteograph. Bradypus, t. 1 ; skeleton, t. 3. 
f. 1, 2, old and young skull. 

1. Cholcepus didactylus. 

Bradypus didactylus, Linn. ; Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. 73. t. 6 ; t. 7 . 
f. 3, 5 ; skull, cop. Cuvier, Reg. An. Illust. t. 70. f. 2 ; Blainv. OstSog. 
Bradypus, t. 1. 1. 3. f. 13 ; GuSrin, Icon. R. A. t. 33. f. 2-2 a, skull. 

B. Unau and B. Curi, Link. 

"We have three more or less perfect skulls from different-aged indi- 
viduals of this species. 

The projection in the front of the lower jaw in the young specimen 
is narrow and acute ; it then becomes thin, wider and rounded at the 
end, and in the adult skull it is thickened, prolonged, and again be- 
comes rather more acute. 

In the adult skull there are very large air-cavities between the pari- 
etes of the bones, and a considerable cavity in the pterygoid bone..™ 

In the younger skull the pterygoid bone is small, and appears to be 
nearly solid, but there is a very large circular perforation which com- 
municates with a cavity under the pterygoid bones, which is nearly 
entirely obliterated in the adult skull ; and the intermaxillary bones 
of the two young skulls are much less projecting than those of the 
adult one. 

The young skull exhibits a small, distinctly tapering, produced, 
additional central nasal bone, which is not preserved (or not to be 
found) in the adult one, or in any of the other skulls of the family 
which have come under my observation. 



Zoological Society. 227 

The hinder angle of the lower jaw of the two skulls, the one of a 
young and the other of an adult animal, in the Museum collection, is 
nearly similar in form. The condyloid process of the young is short 
and truncated behind, that in the older jaw being produced and bent 
back at the tip. 

In the British Museum collection there are five skins of adults, two 
very young, one dry, the other in spirits, and three skulls more or 
less perfect. 

The very young specimen in spirits in the British Museum is figured 
in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, and Seba figures the foetus from spirits. 

II. Bradypus. ? Acheus pars, F. Cuvier, Dent. Mamm. t. 78 ; 
Guerin. Bradypus pars, Linn. Bradypus, Illiger. Tardigradus, sp. 
Brisson. Arctopithecus, Gesner. 

Hands and feet three-clawed. Skull flattened above on the fore- 
head. Grinders : front upper small, cylindrical ; front lower small, 
transverse, compressed. Intermaxillary bones none, or very rudi- 
mentary. The upper process of the zygomatic arch with a broad 
process in front, forming a back edge to the orbit. Pterygoids sepa- 
rate, much-swollen and raised, very thin, enclosing a large vesicular 
cavity. 

Lower jaw produced in front between the teeth, flattened. 

Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. 88, described the skull of this subgenus. 

Blainville (Osteograph. Bradypus, t. 3) figured an imperfect skull 
of a young animal under the name of B. torquatus, but it does not 
show the characters of the pterygoid process, and it has no appear- 
ance of the anterior process on the upper part of the zygomatic arch 
forming the upper hinder part of the orbit, which is found in most 
of the skulls of this genus. This skull may be the one described by 
Cuvier, as M. Blainville observes that the skull he figures formed 
part of the old collection, and was taken from a skin collected in 
Brazil by M. Delalande. 

1. Bradypus crinitus. 

Greyish, sides reddish ; back of the neck with a mane formed of 
elongated black hairs. 

B. crinitus, Browne, Jam. 489. 

B. tridactvlus, Linn. Am. Acad. i. 487 ; Syst. Nat. ; Shaw, Mus. 
Lever t 3 {Nat. Misc. t 5 ; Griffith, A. K. v. t. 135. 

B. tndactylus, var. c. Desm. Mamm. 

? "B. variegatus, Schinz. Cuvier, Thierre, iv. 510"? 

B. torquatus, Illiger, Prod. 109; " Ternm. Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. 
vi. 212. t. 91 ;" Fischer, Syn. Mamm. ; Geoff. Ann. Mus. 

Acheus torquatus, " Geoff." Guerin, Iconog. R. A. t. 33. f. 1 & 1 a, 
skulls. 

B. cristatus, " Temm. MSS" fide H. Smith, Griff. A. 

Ai a, collier, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. 88. 

Three-toed Sloth, Penn. Syn. t. 29 (from B.M.). 

Ignarus, Clusius, Exot. 110 fig. 372 fig. 

Unau, Laet. Amer. 618. f. 618. cop. Clusius fig. at p. 3/2. 

Ai sive Ignarus, Marcgrave, Brazil, 221. fig. cop. Clusius, 372. 

Hab. British Guiana ; Schomburgk. 

15* 



228 Zoological Society. 

This is evidently the species described and figured by Clusius 
(Exot. Ill), for he observes, " Collum non adeo crassum ut pictura 
refert, quia oblongioribus densisque pilis, quemadmodum et totum 
corpus, tectum erat : pilorum color ex fusco quodammodo spadiceus, 
sive potius qualis fere in crassiore ilia lanugine magnas et crassas 
Indicas nuces tegente conspicetur ;" and better described and figured 
at p. 373 as follows : " Universum corpus a summo capite ad ungues 
usque, densissimis Usque prolixis villis erat obsitum, coloris partim 
nigri, partim cineracei, pcene ut meles, quern vulgus tassum sive taxum 
appellat, mollioribus tamen, atque a collo secundum dorsi longitudi- 
nem, usque ad posterior a fere crura, nig rorum pilorum quadam serie 
erat insignitum: totum collum a cervice ad anteriora usque crura 
velutijuba quadam nigrorum crinium in utrumque latus propenden- 
Hum tectum habebat." 

Marcgrave gives a copy of the second figure in Clusius (at p. 221), 
but with a rather different description, viz. " Totum corpus prolixis 
et duo digitos psene longis pilis est vestitum cinerei coloris. Tarsi 
similis sed mollioribus et cum abbedine nucis in dorso pilis magis 
albescunt et per medium dorsi tendit linea fusca a capite, per colli 
longitudinem pilis jubse modo ad latera explicantur paulo longiores 
quam in reliquo corpore." (p. 221.) 

The forehead (of the skull) flat over the orbit, rather concave be- 
tween the front of the temple, wide and rather depressed over the 
occiput. The pterygoid bones much-swollen, very thin, paper-like. 
The lower jaw with a broad square truncated process in front between 
the teeth, the sides converging, with the outer edge reflexed ; the angle 
broad, acute, slightly produced beyond the back edge of the condyles. 
Teeth large, broad, the lower front one oblong, transverse : the lower 
process of the zygoma broad, flat, dilated. 

The skull is easily known from the next by being much wider in 
all its parts compared with its length ; this is especially visible at the 
occipital ridge and the palate, and on the under side of the lower jaw. 

The Sloth figured by Edwards (Gleanings, t. 310) is from a badly- 
preserved specimen in the collection of Lord Peters, brought from 
Honduras. It appears to belong to this species, being the only one 
having long hair on the neck, but the black colour of this crest is not 
mentioned in the description. 

Bradypus tridactylus, Linnaeus, was first described by that author 
in the Amcenitates Acad. i. 487, but the description is so slight that it 
is not possible to determine with certainty the specimen for which it 
is intended, the only specific character being the following : " facie vero 
pilis fiavis vestitum ; gulafava, totum corpus ursorum instar, pilis 
longis et asperioribus vestitur colore ex fusco sive griseo et albo vari- 
ante.*' In the Mus. Adolph. Fred. p. 4, Linnaeus refers to this de- 
scription. The mixed colours of the first description and the habitat 
Surinam best agree with this species. 

Gmelin merely described this species as " Corpus pilosissimum gri- 
seum, fades nuda, gulaflava." 

Browne (Jamaica) mentions it as an animal which is sometimes 
brought from the mainland to Jamaica (not as a native of the 
island) ; his name at once shows that it must belong to this species. 



Zoological Society. 229 

The skull above described was taken from the skin of a specimen 
in the British Museum. We have also a skeleton of a second speci- 
men, which was received from M. Becker under the name of Brady- 
pus torquatus, from Brazil. 

2. Bradypus affinis. 

Fur unknown. 

The forehead of the skull rather convex, with a slight convexity 
over the orbits and a higher convexity over the front part of the tem- 
ples. The occipital ridge very concave and rather narrow. The ptery- 
goid bones rather swollen, rather compressed on the sides, and mode- 
rately thick. The lower jaw with a broad, gradually tapering, trun- 
cated process in front between the teeth ; the sides rather curved, 
simple-edged beneath ; the angle broad, acute, slightly produced 
beyond the back edges of the condyles. The lower process of the 
zygoma slender, tapering. Teeth moderate, the lower front one much- 
compressed, transverse, linear. 

Hah. Tropical America. 

The skeleton from which this skull has been described was received 
by the British Museum from M. Brandt, under the name of Bradypus 
torquatus, from Brazil. 

It has been suggested that the two skulls in the Museum which 
have been extracted from skins of Bradypus crinitus 3 may both belong 
to male or female animals, and that the skull here described may 
belong to the other sex. As this is a matter of doubt which can only 
be settled by the examination of more specimens the sexes of which 
are known, I have considered it desirable that the skull should be 
figured and described. I may remark that the form of the hinder side 
and angle of the lower jaw of all the three specimens of these skulls 
are very similar. 

Skull. B. torquatus. B. affinis. 

in. lin. in. lin. 

Length 2 9| 

Length of palate 1 2 

from palate to occipital hole . 1 4 

Breadth at occipital ridge 1 A\ 1 2J 

at front of ear-hole 15 1 2£ 

at front of zygoma 110 1 8 

Lower jaw. 

Length 2 4 2 2\ 

Width at condyles 1 8 1 A\ 

of back part of them 11 10 

III. Arctopithecus. Bradypus, sp. Rilppell ; Pr. Max. ; Cu- 
vier, Oss. Foss. ; Blainv. Acheus, F. Cuvier, Dent. Mamm. t. 78. 
Tardigradus, sp. Brisson. 

Hands and feet three-clawed. Skull rounded above on the fore- 
head. Grinders : front upper very small, cylindrical ; front lower 
smaller than the others, subcylindrical. Pterygoid separate, com- 
pressed, erect, thin, simple. Intermaxillaries none. 



230 Zoological Society. 

Lower jaw not produced on the upper edge between the teeth, but 
slightly keeled in front of the chin. 

Face with a black streak from the back angle of the eye. 

Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. t. 4, figured the skeleton, and t. 5, the skull 
and bones of the feet of this genus ; the skull is copied R. A. Illust. 
t. 70. f. 1 a. Wiedemann, Arch. Zool. und Zoot. i. t. 1 and 1*, and 
Spix, Cephal. t. 7. f. 12, figure the skull, and Blainville figured two 
skulls belonging to this genus in his ' Osteographia.' 

In the young skull there is sometimes a slight projection on the 
front edge of the zygomatic arch, assisting to form the back edge of 
the orbit, but this process seems soon to disappear as the animal 
increases in size, and I hare not found it in any of the older skulls. 

Cuvier, Desmarest, and most French authors, have considered all 
the individuals of this genus as belonging to one species, and have 
given an indefinite description, so as to include them. Cuvier (Reg. 
Anim. ed. 1. 217) thus describes that species : " Sa couleur est grise, 
souvent tachetee sur le dos de brun et de blanc : plusieurs individus 
portent entre les epaules une tache d'un fauve vif que traverse une ligne 
longitudinale." He refers for the species to both Bufforis figures, 
xiii. t. 5 & 6. In the second edition he remarks, "On commit un 
Ai dit la dos brille, parce qu'il a entre les epaules une tache noire en- 
toure'e de fauve { ce n'est selon M. Temminck, qu'une variete resultant 
de C3 que des longs poils de ses epaules sont uses." — Cuvier, Reg. 
Anim. ed. 2. p. 225. 

Desmarest describes it in nearly the same words, but he notices 
four varieties, including amongst them B. crinitus (var. c.) ; the spe- 
cial description of the species and var. b. appear to be A. gularis ; 
var. a. appears to be from a female, and var. d. from a male of A. 
flaccidus. 

Knorr (Delices, i. 97. t. K. f. 3) figures the fcetus of a species of 
this genus. 

a. Fur moderately rigid ; the back white-spotted ; dorsal streak 

elongate. 

1. ARCTOPITHECUS GULARIS. 

Dark grey-brown ; back white varied, with an elongated black 
streak, with a broad patch of soft yellow hair on each side between 
the shoulders. Skull with a broad forehead, rather convex over the 
back part of the orbits. The upper front grinder rather large. The 
hinder side of the lower jaw coneavely cut out, and with the lower 
angle slender and acutely produced ; front of the lower jaw flat, not 
keeled up the suture. 

Bradypus gularis, Ruppell, Mus. Senckenb. iii. t. 11. 

Ai a dos brule, Buffon, Hist. Nat. xiii. 62. 

Ai adult, Buff on, Hist. Nat. xiii. t. 6. 

B. tridactylus, Griffith, A. K. iv. 271. 

B. tridactylus, description and var. b. Desm. Mamm. 

D'Ai B. tridactylus, var. Cuvier, Beg. Anim,. Illust. Mamm. t. 70. 
f. 1. 



Zoological Society. 231 

A. tridactylus, var. Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. t. 5. f. 1, 2, 3, skull ; cop. 
Cuv. R. A. Ed. Illust. t. 70. f. 1 a. 

B. tridactylus (3, Fischer, Syn. 387. 
Hab. Bolivia, Bridges ; Guiana, Ruppell. 

This species was well-described by BufTon, and is at once known by 
its dark colour, white varied back, and the yellow patch of soft hair 
between the shoulders. 

Cuvier states (Reg. Anim. ed. 2) that M. Temminck thought that 
the yellow spot on the back depended on the skin being worn in that 
part. Probably he never saw a specimen, or he could hardly have 
made such an observation. 

According to Mr.Waterhouse, Mr. Bridges considers the specimens 
here described as the males of A. marmoratus. 

Cuvier's upper figure of the skull (fig. 1) most accurately represents 
the form of the hinder end of the lower jaw, the other figures being 
distorted by the perspective position. 

There are two specimens in the Museum collection, one half the 
size of the other ; the smaller specimen is yellower on the face and 
much darker on the neck, forming a nearly black collar, and the 
white is smaller in quantity and more mixed with the grey-brown of 
the back. The larger one is probably a male, which according to the 
observations of the Prince of Wied is whiter than the female. 

2. Arctopithecus marmoratus. 

Grey-brown, back and outer side of the arms white varied, with an 
elongated narrow streak extending nearly the whole length of the 
back. 

The angle of the lower jaw longly produced, narrow, subacute. 

B. tridactylus, var. Griffith, A.K.t. 136. 

Bradypus tridactylus Guianensis, Blainv. Osteogr. Brad. t. 3. 

Hab. Brazils ; Gordon Graham, Esq. 

This species, which is the most common in English collections, is 
easily known by the whiteness of the back and limbs, which is well- 
defined from the uniform dark grey-brown tint of the rest of the body ; 
the dorsal streak is always very distinctly marked, and, as in A. gularis, 
reaches nearly to the rump, while in A.flaccidus it is confined to the 
upper part of the back. 

In • Griffith's Animal Kingdom ' there is a figure by T. Landseer of 
this species, taken from an adult specimen in spirits in the British 
Museum, which appears to have formed part of Sir H. Sloane's col- 
lection ; but the character of the colouring of the back is not well- 
shown, and it may represent either A. marmoratus or A. Blainvillii. 

In the British Museum there is a nearly adult and a young speci- 
men of this species. The specimens agree in all points of external 
colouring with the following species (A. Blainvillii) \ but the form of 
the lower jaw at once separates it both from A. gularis and A. Blain- 
villii. It may be the female of the former, the skull having more al- 
liance to that species than to A. Blainvillii. 

The front of the lower jaw of the older specimen is rather promi- 



232 Zoological Society. 

nent, while that of the younger individual is truncated and quite de- 
stitute of any convexity or keel, like the adult skull of A. gularis. 

'3. Arctopithecus Blainvillii. 

Grey-brown, back and outside of the arms white varied, with an 
elongated narrow streak extending nearly the whole length of the 
back ; the forehead very convex and swollen over the back of the orbit. 
Teeth rather large ; front lower compressed. 

Lower jaw distinctly keeled up the symphysis, and slightly angu- 
larly produced on the front edge. 

B. tridactylus Braziliensis, Blainville, Osteog. t. 2, skeleton ; 3, 
skull partly broken. 

Hab. Tropical America. 

We have three specimens of the animal agreeing with the skulls 
here described, but they offer no external character by which I can 
distinguish them from the preceding specimens (A. marmoratus) ; 
yet the skulls all agree in the greater convexity of the forehead and 
in the form of the angle of the lower jaw. Two of the lower jaws 
have a distinct angular ridge up the front symphysis. 

It has been suggested that the differences in the form of the hinder 
part of the lower jaw, which, it should be observed, are not the only, 
but are the most easily described characters to separate these species, 
are not sufficient for specific distinction. I am willing to own that 
it is a fair question of discussion, and one that can only be settled by 
the comparison of more specimens than we at present possess. Should 
these variations prove only individual, and not specific, then it must 
lead us to be very cautious in the formation of species on the exami- 
nation of skeletons alone, as is of necessity the case in the animals now 
only found in a fossil state. 

b. Fur elongate, very Jlaccid, whitish; dorsal streak very short, 
indistinct, only seen where the hair is worn, 

4. Arctopithecus flaccidus. 

Pale grey-brown ; back, sides of the back and hinder part white 
varied, with a short blackish dorsal streak between the shoulders. 
Skull with a broad rather convex forehead. (3 spec.) 

Ai (seconde), Buff on, Hist. Nat. xiii. 62. 

Jeunes Ais, Buffon, H. N. xiii. t. 5. 

Bradypus tridactylus, Temm. Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. vi. 51, not 
Linn. ; Pr. Max. Abbild. Nat. Braz. t. . <j> & jun. ; Beitr. zur 
Nat. ii. 482. 

B. tridactylus, var. a. £ ?, Desm., and var. d. <$, Mamm. 

Var. 1 . White grey-brown ; back of the hairs blackish, with a short 
black streak, and with a white spot on each side between the shoulders. 
(1 spec.) 

Hab. Venezuela; Mr. Dyson. 

Var. 2. Nearly uniform whitish grey-brown ; base of the hairs 
blackish, without any dorsal streak. (1 spec.) 

Hab. Para ; J. P. G. Smith, Esq. 



Zoological Society. 233 

This species, of which we have four specimens of different ages in 
the Museum, is easily known by the length, very loose and flaccid 
nature of its hair, and the indistinctness of its markings. The black 
on the back appears to arise from the hair of the shoulders being 
worn away. Three, of very different ages, are pale grey-brown, 
with a short, broad, blackish streak between the shoulders, and 
have the rump and each side of the dorsal streak more or less white, 
and an indistinct whiteness on the outer side of the upper arms. 

Buffon's description of his second specimen of Ai agrees better with 
this species than with any other which has come under my observation. 

Prince Maximilian gives a good figure of the female and young of 
this species. He observes, " Les males a de chaque cote du dos une 
ligne longitudinale blanche" 

In the British Museum there is a specimen about half the size of 
the largest of the former, which is very like it in the flaccid nature of 
its fur, but the whole upper part of the body is pale whitish grey, 
with two or three indistinct white spots on the sides, and there is a 
short black streak edged with a white spot of soft hair on each side 
between the shoulders. This was brought from Venezuela by Mr. 
Dyson. 

There is another specimen rather smaller than the former, and like 
it in colour and appearance, but it has no indications of the back streak 
or white soft hair on the shoulders. Brought from Para by my son- 
in-law, Mr. J. P. George Smith. 

I am by no means certain that these specimens may not be indica- 
tions of the existence of other species, which can only be proved by 
the comparison of more specimens. 

Besides these species of which we have skins and skulls, there is in 
the British Museum the skeleton of a species of this genus, which was 
sent from Para by my son-in-law, which differs essentially from all 
those before described, both in the greater length of the head and in 
the form of the hinder edge of the lower jaw, and which I have there- 
fore indicated under the name of 

5. Arctopithecus problematicus. 

Fur unknown. Skull rather elongate ; forehead broad, rather con- 
vex on each side over the middle of the orbit. 

Lower jaw with a broad rather produced angle, bent up at the tip 
and regularly rounded beneath, and with a distinct angular keel up 
the symphysis, rendering the upper edge angularly produced. 

Hab. Para ; J. P. George Smithy Esq. 

The keel in the lower jaw is similar to that of A. Blainvillii, but 
the angle is much more produced. In the form of this part it most 
resembles that which I have considered as the young of A. Jlaccidus ; 
but the angle is much broader and more recurved, and it differs from 
both skulls of that species in the skull, and especially the lower jaw, 
being much more elongated behind compared with the length of the 
tooth -line. 



234 Miscellaneous. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Notice of Powerful Bears, probably coceval with the Great Fossil 
Deer of Ireland. 

[From Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Dec. 10, 1849.] 

Mr. Ball, on the part of Abraham Whyte Baker, sen., Esq., of 
Ballaghtobin, a member of the Academy, and one who has always 
endeavoured to promote its objects, presented accurate casts of two 
bear skulls found in the county of Westmeath. The following is a 
summary of the information Mr. Ball has been able to obtain relative 
to these very interesting relics of a powerful species long extinct in 
this island. Mr. Underwood, the well-known and industrious col- 
lector of antiquities, who has rescued from destruction many of the 
best specimens of human art now in the Academy's museum, being 
in 1846 on one of his tours through the country, discovered at the 
house of Mr. Edward Fermon, of Forgney, County Longford, on the 
borders of Westmeath, between Moyvore and Ballymahon, the skull 
of an animal to him unknown. This he lost no time in securing, and 
in the following year obtained a second specimen, found in the same 
place, in a cut-away bog, about seven feet from the original surface. 
These skulls were purchased by Mr. Baker, and are the originals of 
which casts are by his desire presented to the Academy, being du- 
plicates of others given by him to the University Museum, where are 
now to be found, through the generosity of the Earl of Enniskillen, 
the East India Company, and our Zoological Society, a very instruct- 
ive collection of the remains of bears, both fossil and recent. 

On the discovery by Mr. Underwood of the larger skull, it was 
somewhat hastily announced as that of a great Irish wolf-dog, and 
was published in the newspapers as such. Under this impression it 
Was brought to Mr. Ball, who, without hesitation, pronounced it to 
be that of a bear, which, on a little further investigation, he consi- 
dered to be the black bear of Europe. Soon after, Mr. Baker, with 
laudable liberality, purchased both specimens, and has thus preserved 
evidence of the existence of bears in Ireland, of which we had before 
no tangible proof or historical evidence. Dr. Scouler, in a paper on 
extinct animals of Ireland, published in the first volume of the Geo- 
logical Transactions, observes, that while bears still maintained their 
ground in England, they were unknown in Ireland. The Venerable 
Bede states, the only ravenous animals of Ireland were the wolf and 
fox. Giraldus makes no mention of the bear ; and St. Donatus, who 
died in 840, states it was not a native, " ursorum rabies nulla est 
ibi," &c. 

The late Mr. Richardson, through whose kind interference Mr. 
Ball obtained leave to make moulds of the skulls, appears to have 
been in much doubt as to their nature. He states (in his History of 
Dogs, p. 36) his opinion, that " they are the remains of an extinct 
animal allied to, but by no means identical with, the dog ; and an 
animal with which we are now unacquainted, partaking somewhat of 
the characteristics of the bears, and perhaps, also, of the hyaenas.' ' 



Miscellaneous. 235 

Mr. Ball observed that the discrimination of skulls of bears presented 
zoological difficulties quite sufficient to account for the erroneous views 
which had been taken : the alterations of age in the occipital and 
sagittal crests, the dropping of the premolars, and, in some cases, of 
the incisor teeth, were quite sufficient to mislead, and had often misled 
naturalists ; but the structure and arrangement of the molar teeth, 
and the peculiar depressed form of the bullae tympanies, are unerring 
proofs of the Ursidse, at all times distinguishing them from Dogs. 

Mr. Ball then proceeded to remark, that if any evidence were 
wanted to prove that the skulls alluded to were Irish, he could supply 
it by producing a cast of a third specimen, from which he had been 
kindly allowed to take a mould for the University Museum by its 
owner, Mr. Cooke of Parsonstown ; the original had been found in 
Mr. Cooke's neighbourhood, as Mr. Ball understood, in deepening a 
river. He mentioned also that he had heard from the late Mr. John 
Robinson, of that locality, of the discovery and wanton destruction of 
skulls on his grounds, which were very possibly those of bears. It 
is probable that the bear and great Irish deer were involved in one 
common catastrophe, and perished together. 

Mr. Ball stated, that being desirous of confirming the accuracy of 
his own views, he submitted casts of the skulls to the greatest living 
authority, merely stating that they were supposed to be Irish, and 
requesting an opinion as to their species. The following note is the 
reply to his questions : — 

"College of Surgeons, London, Dec. 7, 1849. 

" My dear Ball, — The casts of the fine crania of bear duly ar- 
rived, and I have been comparing them this morning. They all differ 
from Ursus spelceus in the minor elevation of the forehead, and what 
is more decisive, in the smaller relative sizes of the last molar, upper 
jaw ; they also retain the first premolar. The largest of the three 
skulls presents a close correspondence of general form and of flatness 
of forehead with the largest of our old male skulls of Ursus maritimus, 
but the molars are relatively larger, especially the last, in the Irish 
skull ; this is decisive against Ursus maritimus. I regret that I have 
no skull at command of a good old male U. ferox. A young female 
skull of that species indicates the proportions of the molars to be 
similar to those in the Irish specimens ; but then the proportions of 
the teeth in question are likewise those of Ursus arctos ; and the two 
smaller skulls from Ireland show an elevation of forehead, which, 
though less than in U. spelceus, is greater than in any specimen or 
figure that I have seen of U. ferox. There remain, therefore, for 
comparison, the varieties of U?*sus arctos, for the tropical Indian and 
Malayan bears have characteristics too well-marked and well-known 
to be dwelt on. 

" The great black variety of the European U? f sus arctos is that to 
which the Irish skulls offer the nearest resemblance. I can find no 
character in the casts of the skulls which you have sent that I could 
point to as a specific distinction ; but then I must add, that I feel 
equal difficulty in laying down the specific distinction between the 



236 Miscellaneous. 

TJrsus priscus of Goldfuss from Gailenruth cavern, and the existing 
largest varieties of TJrsus arctos, or the Irish bears. These specimens 
have much strengthened, if not quite confirmed, a growing suspicion 
that TJ. priscus is specifically identical with, and was the progenitor 
of, our European TJ. arctos ; at the same time, they prove that TJ. 
priscus was not the mere female, as M. De Blainville believes, of TJ. 
spelceus. Your three specimens are all of the same species ; the 
largest is the male, the smallest with well-worn molars, the female. 
Now the large male skull establishes the specific distinction of the 
equally large male TJrsus spelceus, and consequently the specific and 
not merely sexual distinction of TJ. priscus ; but at the same time, the 
Irish crania show that the character of the forehead alluded to in my 
'British Fossil Mammalia,' p. 83, is not constant, and not good for 
a specific difference with TJrsus arctos. To conclude, then, as at 
present informed, I should refer your Irish skulls to TJrsus arctos ; 
and the least degenerated representative of that species now living, 
viz. the great black bear, or very dark brown variety of the Scandi- 
navian wilds, is that which comes closest to the old Irish bears. 
"Whether this respectable carnivore continued to exist after the 
slaughter of the last megaceros, will be shown by the precise bed in 
which the specimens were found. I should like to know the authority, 
if any, for their derivation from peat bog, and not from shell marl, if 
the case be so. 

" Ever yours, 
" (Signed) R. Owen." 

Mr. Ball was of opinion, from examination of the original bear 
skulls, that they were not in the peat, but In the marl below it, where 
he believed all the heads of the megaceros, probably fifty, which he 
had closely inspected, were found. In no case was peat to be dis- 
covered in the cavities, while in many marl wes present. He ex- 
pressed his gratification in finding that his own views were supported 
by those of Professor Owen, from whom, on this and other occasions, 
he had received kind aid. He also expressed his obligations to the 
Earl of Enniskillen, Mr. Baker, Mr. Cooke, and Mr. Warren, and 
concluded by moving the thanks of the Academy to Mr. Abraham 
"Whyte Baker, sen., for his kindness in presenting casts of his valuable 
specimens to its museum of antiquities. 

On the employment of Tar to preserve Wheat from the Attack of the 
Weevil. By M. Caillat. 

In a late number of the ' Comptes Rendus ' a note appeared by M. 
G. Barruel relative to the action of carbonic oxide upon weevils and the 
employment of this gas for their destruction. Some journals, and 
among others ' L'Echo Agricole,' very lately published another means 
of destroying these insects, pointed out by Mr. William Little, and 
which consists in the use of ammoniacal gas. This young English 
chemist states that in the presence of this gas the weevils perish 
instantly, as if struck by lightning. 

I have proved, before several witnesses, /that ammonia does not kill 



Miscellaneous . 237 

the weevils, for after remaining some minutes in the gas or in the 
ammoniacal liquid, they get on their feet again, and run about per- 
fectly when removed from the influence of the caustic alkali. How- 
ever, the prolonged action of this gas, like that of carbonic oxide, car- 
bonic acid, or any other gas not respirable for large animals, kills these 
insects in a shorter or longer time. I know not what arrangement of 
a simple and ceconomical kind, within the reach of all cultivators, large 
and small, rich or poor, would be adopted by M. G. Barruel for the 
application of the carbonic oxide, or by Mr. W. Little for that of am- 
monia ; but I must point out a substance, the use of which is much 
more practical and less expensive, namely tar. The efneacy of this 
substance against the weevils is known to many agriculturists and 
corn-merchants. 

I placed, in a half-pint bottle, well closed by a cork, three very 
lively and healthy weevils ; at the same time I introduced a small 
open phial containing a little tar ; presently the uneasiness of these 
animals was perceptible ; they soon fell on their back, shaking their 
feet without being able to use them to get up again. The smell alone 
of the tar, in a close space, is therefore fatal to these insects. If the 
upper part of the closed vessel in which the weevils are shut up be 
smeared with tar, they die more quickly. 

The efneacy of tar, in driving away these insects and preserving the 
corn, is an incontestable fact. My father had, a long time ago, his 
granaries, barns and the whole house infested by weevils, so much so 
that they penetrated into all the chests and among the linen. He 
placed an open cask impregnated with tar in the barn, and then in 
the granaries ; at the end of some hours, the weevils were seen climb- 
ing along the walls by myriads, and flying in all directions away from 
the cask. On moving this tarred vessel from place to place, the 
house was in a few days completely cleared of these troublesome and 
pernicious guests. 

The agriculturist who wants to get rid of weevils, may, as soon as 
he perceives their presence, impregnate the surface of some old planks 
with tar, and place them as required in his granaries ; care must be 
taken to renew the tar from time to time in the course of the year to 
prevent the return of the insects. — Comptes Rendus, Oct. 15, 1849. 

DR. ROBERT BALL. 

We have had much pleasure in noticing and commending the en- 
couragement which the study of Natural History receives in Ireland, 
and to record with great satisfaction that the degree of LL.D. has 
been conferred by the Board of Trinity College, Dublin, upon Robert 
Ball, Esq., who has for some time had the Museum of the College 
under his superintendence, and whose efforts for the advancement of 
Natural History in general, and of Zoology in particular, are univer- 
sally known. With similar feelings of pleasure, as to the interests of 
our favourite pursuit and of other, branches of learning, we look upon 
the appointments in the recently established colleges, from which the 
happiest results are to be expected. 



238 Miscellaneous. 

METAMORPHOSES OF DONAC1A SAGITTARIA. 

In this notice M. Perris gives some details on the mode of life of 
the larvae of the Donaciae, of which little was previously known. 
They live on Sparganum ramosum, near the roots and at the base of 
the leaves, which are immersed, for the greater part, in water, feed- 
ing on the sap rather than on the tissue of the plant. 

How do these larvae respire under water, as they have no branchial 
organs ? M. Perris thinks that the respiration is effected by means 
of endosmosis, which occurs through the membrane covering the 
stigmata. 

When the larva is about to undergo its metamorphosis, it buries 
itself in the mud in which the plant is rooted, and forms upon the 
root an elliptical cocoon, which id not of a silky nature, but of a dry 
gummy substance, about the thickness of a sheet of paper. 

The author was not able to observe this larva whilst forming its 
cocoon, and only ventures suppositions as to the mode which it em- 
ploys to construct this case without allowing a single drop of water 
to penetrate into it. — Bibliotfieque Universelle de Geneve, June 1849. 

WILD ANIMALS OF ANCIENT BRITAIN. 

To the Notes in Vol. iii. Ser. I. p. 356 and Vol. iv. Ser. II. p. 423, 
on the Wild Animals of Britain, and the Huntings of the Citizens of 
London, may be added the following, in which it appears that the 
Wild Cat is enumerated. — R. T. 

Rotuli Hundredorum. 3° Edwardi I. Membr. 13. 

Item dicunt, Quod Libertas Civitatis Domini Regis talis est : Quod 
Cives, cum canibus suis possunt currere ad Lepores Vulpes Cuniculos 
et Murelegos [Catos *] usque ad Pontem de Stanes ; et ad januam 
Parci de Enefende, et ad Arcubus de Stratforde, et ad Crucem de 
Wautham ; sed ista libertas impeditur per Warennam Comitis Cor- 
nubiae, apud Histleworth f, et Warrenam Willielmi de Say, apud 
Edelmeton J ; nesciunt quo warranto. 

"Wild cats," says Pennant, "were formerly reckoned among the 
beasts of chase ; as appears by the charter of Richard the Second to 
the Abbot of Peterborough, giving him leave to hunt the hare, fox, 
and wild cat. The use of the fur was in lining of robes, but it was 
esteemed not of the most luxurious kind ; for it was ordained ' that 
no abbess or nun should use more costly apparel than such as is made 
of camel's or cat's skins.' In much earlier times it was also the ob- 
ject of the sportsman's diversion. 

Felemque minacem 
Arboris in trunco longis praefigere telis. 

Nemesiani Cynegeticon, L. 55." 

* In the copy of the roll in the Chapter-house, Westminster, Membr. 3, 
the reading is " Catos." — Murilegus, Voss. Felis. — Du Cange, v. Catta, 
Cattus. 

t Isleworth. f Edmonton. 



Meteorological Observations. 239 

Errata in Mr. Babingtorfs Paper on Chara. 

P. 84. C. mucronata was found at West, not East Grinstead. 
P. 91. C. aspera. Mr. Borrer did not find this nor any other 
species at Carlton, Notts ; that station therefore must be erased. 
P. 91. C. Iledwigii. For East read West Grinstead. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR JAN. 1850. 

Chiswick. — January 1. Sharp frost : fine : cloudy. 2. Hazy: fine. 3. Foggy: 
hazy. 4. Foggy: overcast: clear. 5,6. Frosty: very fine: clear and frosty. 
7. Sharp frost : clear : severe frost at night. 8. Frosty : overcast. 9. Slight fall 
of granular snow : overcast. 10. Snowing slightly : overcast. 11. Hazy through- 
out. 12. Slight snow : dusky: hazy. 13. Hazy: clear and frosty. 14, 15. 
Cloudy and cold. 16,17. Densely overcast. 18. Foggy: snow at night, with 
heavy rain. 19. Cloudy: drizzly. 20. Frosty. 21. Cloudy. 22. Hazy. 23. 
Hazy : clear at night. 24. Foggy and drizzly. 25. Foggy : densely overcast : 
rain at night. 26. Densely clouded : showery. 27. Sudden rise of barometer : 
frosty : very fine. 28. Overcast. 29. Very fine : rain. 30. Foggy : very fir*e. 
SI. Hazy and cold : heavy rain at night. 

Mean temperature of the month 33 0, 11 

Mean temperature of Jan. 1849 39 '56 

Mean temperature of Jan. for the last twenty-four years . 36 '60 

Average amount of rain in Jan 1*60 inch. 

Boston. — Jan. I. Fine. 2. Cloudy. 3,4. Cloudy: rain p.m. 5 — 8. Fine. 
9 — 11. Cloudy. 12. Cloudy: snow a.m. 13. Fine. 14 — 17. Cloudy. 18. 
Cloudy : snow and rain p.m. 19. Cloudy : rain early a.m. 20. Cloudy : snow a.m. 
21,22. Cloudy. 23. Fine. 24. Cloudy. 25. Fine. 26. Cloudy: rain and 
snow p.m. 27. Fine. 28. Cloudy. 29, 30. Fine. 31. Fine : rain p.m. — 
N.B. This has been the coldest January since the year 1838. 

Applegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Jan. 1. Frost : dull and threatening change. 
2. Thaw : small rain. 3. Thaw : drizzle. 4. Slight frost early a.m. : rain and 
wind p.m. 5. Snow half an inch deep : frost. 6. Frost very hard : snow lying. 
7,8. Frost very hard. 9. Frost very hard: thermometer 11°. 10. Cloudy, 
looking like change. 11. Cloudy, but still freezing. 12. Still slight frost, but 
unsettled. 13. Frost still slight : cloudy. 14. Frost, slight a.m. : harder p.m. 

15. Bright and clear : hard frost : a little snow. 16. Frost : slight shower of snow : 
looking dull. 17. Hard frost : clear : snow lying. 18. Hard frost, and heavy 
snow 4 inches deep. 19. Frost not so hard : thaw p.m. : frost again. 20. Frost : 
additional sprinkling of snow. 21. Frost hard again. 22. Frost moderate. 23. 
Thaw : mild : cloudy. 24. Thaw : snow melting fast. 25. Rain in the night : 
thaw continuing. 26. Thaw a.m.: came on to freeze at 6 p.m. 27. Hard 
frost a.m. : thaw and rain p.m. 28. Heavy rain : snow nearly gone. 29. Slight 
frost a.m. : keener p.m. 30. Frost moderate : snow all gone. 31. Slight shower 
of snow a.m. : frost : rain p.m. 

Mean temperature of the month 30 o, 8 

Mean temperature of Jan. 1849 36 '3 

Mean temperature of Jan. for the last twenty-eight years . 34 *9 
Average amount of rain in Jan. for the last twenty years . 2'60 inches. 

Sandwick Manse, Orkney. — Jan. 1. Cloudy. 2. Bright: fine: rain. 3. 
Showers : sleet-showers. 4. Thunder: sleet-showers. 5. Thunder: showers. 
6. Sleet-showers. 7. Sleet-showers : clear. 8. Cloudy. 9. Rain : cloudy. 10. 
Cloudy : sleet-showers. 11. Cloudy : clear. 12. Snow- showers : cloudy. 13. 
Cloudy: clear : frost : aurora. 14. Snow-showers : snow-drift. 15. Snow-drift. 

16. Snow-drift : snow : thaw. 17. Rain : clear : frost : aurora. 18. Clear : frost : 
cloudy. 19. Snow-showers : cloudy : aurora. 20. Cloudy. 21. Cloudy : thaw. 
22. Showers : drizzle. 23, 24. Drizzle. 25. Cloudy : snow-showers. 26. Snow - 
showers : snow : clear. 27. Snow : frost : snow-showers. 28. Showers : drizzle. 
29. Bright : large halo. 30. Fine : frost : clear : aurora. 31. Bright : rain. 






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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY, 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 28. APRIL 1850. 



XXII. — Notes on the Salmon and Bull-trout, 
By John Blackwall, F.L.S. 

In a short paper on the Salmon, Salmo salar, published in the 
( Annals and Magazine of Natural History/ vol. xi. p. 409, I 
have endeavoured, on physiological principles, to establish the 
fact, that the growth of that valuable fish is not by any means so 
rapid as it is commonly supposed to be by ichthyologists. Ob- 
servations having relation to this subject and also to the oeconomy 
of the bull-trout, Salmo eriox, have been continued to be made, 
as suitable occasions presented themselves, up to the present 
period, on a plan similar to that previously adopted, and I am 
induced to insist upon the decided advantage which a recourse 
to physiological phenomena possesses in investigations of this 
kind over the customary practice of mechanically marking fish 
as objects of experiment, in consequence of the various sources 
of error to which the latter mode of proceeding is exposed. 

Persons, in their endeavours to determine the rate of growth 
in fish by marking specimens, too frequently employ subordinate 
agents to carry their intentions into effect, to whom not only 
their system of marks is of necessity made known, but the anti- 
cipated result is also communicated. Now should it so happen 
that the agents are dependent upon their employers, or in any 
respect interested in making the event appear to coincide with 
their preconceived opinions, the desired object may be easily 
attained either by secretly marking specimens of a larger size 
than those which they were instructed and perhaps observed to 
select for the purpose, and by exhibiting them alone when re- 
captured, or by adapting the marks to fish subsequently taken, 
whose dimensions appear to be best suited to promote the end 
they have in view. Besides, it often happens that all the par- 
ticulars of the undertaking transpire, and becoming widely cir- 
culated, other parties resident in the neighbourhood may apply 
similar marks to fish of different sizes captured in the same 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 16 



242 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Salmon and Bull-trout. 

stream, more especially to kelts, which are comparatively of little 
value ; and that this is not merely a supposititious case, or an 
imaginary cause of delusion, I can confidently affirm from personal 
experience. Perforations, and the total or partial excision of any 
of the fins, may be objected to on account of the modifications 
which such marks undergo with the growth of the fish, and also 
on account of the mutilations to which those members are liable 
from incidental circumstances. 

Having thus succinctly directed attention to a few of the ob- 
jections which may be urged against the manner in which 
attempts to ascertain the rate of growth in fish by employing 
artificial marks are generally conducted, I shall revert to the 
method pursued m my own researches, already referred to at 
the commencement of this article ; namely careful and frequently 
repeated observations on the gradual loss of the teeth from the 
vomer, on the order in which they are shed, and on the changes 
known to take place in the figure of the caudal fin. 

The usual number of teeth on the tongue of the salmon-smolt 
and bull-trout- smolt of six or seven inches in length, when none 
has been lost, is ten, arranged in a row of five on each side ; 
occasionally I have counted as many as twelve in both species, 
but ten appears to be the normal number. These teeth are not 
shed, but most of them are torn away by violence in an irregular 
manner as the fish advance in growth, so that a want of symmetry 
in the two rows is conspicuous in much the greater number of 
individuals. I may remark that such is the case also in every 
particular with the teeth on the tongue of the common trout, 
Salmo fario. 

The teeth on the vomer of the salmon-smolt and bull-trout- 
smolt commonly exceed twenty (in numerous instances I have 
noticed twenty-four), a fact which the minute inspection of the 
heads of both species, after having been placed in nests of the 
great wood-ant, Formica rufa, and subjected to the anatomical 
process so admirably effected by that industrious insect, fully 
confirms. Unlike the teeth on the tongue, those on the vomer 
are shed gradually, commencing at the posterior part and dis- 
appearing in nearly regular succession as the fish increase in size ; 
consequently, the loss of teeth from the vomer, taken in con- 
junction with the form of the tail and the growth of these species, 
affords to experienced observers a sufficiently exact criterion for 
determining their relative ages within certain limits. 

Smolts of the salmon and bull-trout have the caudal fin much 
forked ; but a progressive alteration in the shape of this organ is 
effected by the more rapid elongation of its central rays as the 
fish advance in growth, till, on the acquirement of its perfect 
development, the posterior margin becomes straight in the 



Mr. J. Blackwall on the Salmon and Bull-trout. 243 

salmon and actually curved outwards in the bull-trout, thus 
supplying the means of forming a comparative estimate of the 
ages of both species. 

In accordance with what is here stated, I find that specimens 
weighing from half a pound to a pound and a half have the 
caudal fin more or less forked, and the vomer well supplied with 
teeth except at its posterior part, from which some are lost in- 
variably. Specimens weighing from two to five pounds have 
the posterior margin of the caudal fin either moderately forked, 
nearly straight, or curved outwards, according to their size and 
species, and usually have from three to seven or eight teeth on 
the anterior part of the vomer, the number, after making a suitable 
allowance for differences in condition, being almost always in- 
versely as the weight ; and individuals of large dimensions con- 
stantly have the posterior margin of the caudal fin straight or 
conspicuously curved outwards, and retain one or two teeth 
only at the anterior extremity of the vomer, or are even without 
any. 

Young salmon and bull-trout weighing from about half a 
pound to a pound ascend the river Conway during the month of 
August in much greater numbers than at any other period of the 
year, and as many of them are infested with that marine parasite 
the Caligus curtus of Miiller in various stages of growth, there 
can be no doubt that they have very recently quitted the salt 
water. These fish, which from oft-repeated examinations of 
numerous individuals are found to have the tail forked in a 
greater or less degree, and uniformly to have lost some teeth 
from the posterior part of the vomer, though its anterior part is 
still amply provided with them, I feel thoroughly convinced are 
identical with smolts of both species which descended the same 
river in the preceding spring, having then the full complement 
of teeth on the vomer; for salmon and bull-trout of smaller 
dimensions do not at any time come up the Conway from the 
sea, as may be ascertained by actual inspection in calm bright 
weather, when the water is low and clear and the shoals of fish 
can be distinctly seen ; and if further proof be required, it is 
abundantly supplied by the conclusive evidence obtained from 
the large number of specimens taken annually. It is true that 
I have occasionally procured salmon and bull-trout in the months 
of March and April which have weighed six ounces only, but 
they have always been males which had milted or females which 
had deposited their ova and were out of condition, or what in 
Scotland are denominated kelts. 

I shall here introduce to notice a few examples illustrative of 
the loss in weight which salmon and bull-trout undergo by the 
act of spawning. 

16* 



214 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Salmon and Bull-trout. 

On the 12th of November 1844, a salmon was captured 
weighing fifteen pounds, the weight of the lobes of roe, which 
contained a large quantity of ova in an advanced state of deve- 
lopment, being two pounds and three-quarters. 

A salmon captured on the 13th of November 1844 weighed 
seven pounds and a half, and the weight of the lobes of roe, 
which comprised ova almost in a fit state to be deposited, was 
two pounds. 

A bull-trout taken on the 18th of November 1844 weighed 
five pounds and a half, the weight of the lobes of roe, which 
contained ova in an advanced state of development, being one 
pound and a quarter. 

On the 11th of October 1847, a bull-trout weighing half a 
pound was captured, whose lobes of roe, comprising ova nearly- 
ready for deposition, weighed two ounces. 

A salmon weighing fifteen pounds and a half was taken on the 
22nd of October 1847, and the lobes of roe, which contained ova 
in an advanced state of development, weighed three pounds. 

The lobes of roe, comprising highly developed ova, taken from 
a salmon weighing twenty pounds, which was captured on the 
10th of November 1847, weighed three pounds and fourteen 
ounces. 

Took the lobes of roe, containing ova on the point of being 
deposited, from a salmon weighing sixteen pounds, which was 
captured on the 26th of November 1847, and found their weight 
to be four pounds. 

. From these instances it is apparent that the weight of salmon 
and bull-trout may be diminished one-fourth by the emission of 
their ova alone, the weight of the collapsed ovaries with their in- 
cluded germs being too insignificant to be taken into considera- 
tion ; and if to this cause of decreased ponderosity be added 
another, namely deterioration in condition during the sojourn of 
these species in fresh water, the absolute loss in weight may be 
estimated at one-third or more, a circumstance which ought on 
no account to be overlooked in attempts to determine their rate 
of growth by marking individuals ; and this remark applies with 
peculiar force when the subjects selected for experiment are kelts, 
as, unfortunately, it is too commonly the practice to omit mea- 
surement altogether on such occasions and merely to give a 
statement of weight, which, unaccompanied by other data, is 
evidently insufficient to decide the point in question. 

In drawing up this paper I have purposely avoided applying 
the Scotch term grilse to young salmon which have not spawned, 
as I entertain the opinion that few appellations employed by 
ichthyologists have been more abused or have led to greater con- 
fusion and misapprehension than this. 



Mr. J. Blackwall on the Salmon and Bull-trout. 245 

It appears then, from the physiological facts detailed above, 
that the growth of the salmon and bull-trout during their first 
visit to the sea is much less rapid than it is commonly supposed 
to be; and as in the shoals of these species, which are more 
abundant in the Conway than any of the other migratory Sal- 
monida, fish may be observed presenting every gradation of size 
from the least to the greatest, it is reasonable to infer that their 
rate of growth is not accelerated materially at any subsequent 
period of their existence, especially as individuals of large dimen- 
sions are found to be very disproportionate numerically to those 
of a small or even of an average size. 

By the cautious inspection of salmon and bull-trout in one of 
the tributaries of the Conway running through my father's land, 
up which, when swollen with rain in the months of October and 
November, they ascend for the purpose of depositing their spawn, 
and by the frequent examination of their progeny in different 
seasons of the year, I have satisfied myself that in their ceconomy 
as well as in their rate of growth these species bear a close re- 
semblance to each other. Both remain two years in the fresh 
water after their extrication from the ovum, during which period, 
notwithstanding the result of the conclusive experiments so 
skilfully conducted by Mr. Shaw of Drumlanrig, they are still 
indiscriminately named parr in this district*, and do not descend 
to the sea till they have acquired their migratory dress or have 
been converted into smolts, when they usually measure six or 
seven inches in length and weigh from an ounce and a half to 
two ounces. I have ascertained also, by the dissection of very 
numerous specimens, that the males of the salmon and bull-trout 
shed their milt before they make their first descent to the sea, 
but that the females do not spawn till they return from their 
first visit to the salt water ; indeed the ova are so little developed 
in the month of May, at which time the principal migration sea- 
ward takes place, as scarcely to be discerned without the aid of 
a magnifier. 

Among the external characters which serve to distinguish the 
bull-trout-smolt from the salmon- smolt are a more robust and 
trout-like figure ; a more decided prominence of the row of scales 
forming the lateral line ; a greater number of spots below that 
line ; a yellowish tinge on the lighter-coloured pectoral fins ; a 
bright red tint at the extremity of the adipose fin ; and a firmer 
adhesion of the scales to the skin. 

In conclusion, I shall briefly notice a few cases of rapid 
changes in the colour of fish which have come under my own 

* A bull-trout in its second year more nearly resembles a trout than a 
salmon of the same age. 



246 Mr. J. Blackwall on the Salmon and Bull-trout, 

observation. Trout, suddenly transferred from their natural 
haunts into wooden, metallic or earthenware vessels supplied 
with water recently taken from the same stream in which they 
were captured, speedily assume a lighter hue ; and as this change 
does not appear wholly to depend upon the colour or capacity 
of the vessels in which they are placed, I am inclined to attribute 
it primarily to the influence of fear, and in this opinion I am the 
more confirmed from having frequently perceived a similar 
transition in the hue of salmon soon after they have been hooked 
by the angler. That this is not the sole occasion of sudden 
alterations in the colour of fish I readily admit, for I have often 
disturbed small flounders in the Conway, which on changing 
their situation and reposing upon objects of a different hue from 
those they had last quitted, soon became accommodated to this 
circumstance of their novel position by undergoing a modification 
of shade which harmonized with that of their resting-place and 
effectually served to conceal them from ordinary observation. 
Even death, as the disciples of Isaac Walton are well-aware, and 
as the following anecdote clearly proves, does not immediately 
put a stop to this chameleon-like transition of tint. 

A gentleman of my acquaintance, a proficient in the art of fly- 
fishing, had taken a young salmon weighing about a pound and 
a half, which, in consequence of having been a long time in the 
fresh water, had lost its brilliancy and had acquired a very dark 
aspect ; this fish one of my children requested to be permitted to 
carry, so after having inserted the longer and smaller end of a 
slender forked twig under one of the gill-covers and drawn it 
through the mouth till the prize was retained in the angle formed 
by the fork, I gave it to the boy, who held it suspended with the 
tail downwards. After the lapse- of several minutes, perceiving 
that the fish had lost all its blackness and had become perfectly 
bright, I directed the attention of my acquaintance to it, who 
could scarcely be persuaded that it was the same which he had 
captured a short time before, but supposed that I had secretly 
substituted another for it ; however, the speedy resumption of its 
former dark complexion, which underwent no further mutation, 
completely convinced him of its identity. 

I shall not attempt to offer any explanation of the remarkable 
physiological phenomenon here recorded; but, apart from the 
mysterious operation of psychological agency, its cause must un- 
doubtedly be sought for in the organization of the rete mucosum. 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brunsfelsia. 247 



XXIII. — Contributions to the Botany of South America. 
By John Miers, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 210.] 

Brunsfelsia. 

Upon a previous occasion (huj. op. iii. 176) I suggested the pro- 
priety of again separating Franciscea from Brunsfelsia, which 
genera had been united into one, by Mr. Bentham, in his ex- 
cellent Monograph on the Scrophulariacece (DeCand. Prodr. x. 
198). With the view of carrying out this suggestion, I now offer 
at greater length the observations on which that recommenda- 
tion was founded. Although there exists a remarkable similarity 
in several of their respective features, many essential points of 
distinction may be observed between them : thus, in Brunsfelsia, 
independently of the constant difference in the yellow colour of 
the corolla, its tube is always comparatively of much greater 
length, often ten or twelve times that of the calyx, and in all 
cases is wider and somewhat funnel-shaped in the mouth ; the 
border too is much broader, of more fleshy consistence, more 
deeply and unequally lobed, the segments being more or less 
crenated and crispate and somewhat reflexed; while in Franciscea 
the tube is seldom more than three or four times the length of 
the calyx, and though suddenly a little inflated above, is again 
much contracted in the mouth, presenting a conspicuous and 
prominent rim around its very narrow orifice ; the colour of the 
corolla is constantly of a violet or bluish hue, more or less intense ; 
the lobes of the border are quite flat and rotate, and not at all 
crispate. The anthers in Brunsfelsia are at first 2-celled, with 
the confluent lobes affixed transversely, thus forming an oblong 
body grooved across, four times broader than long; this bursts 
by the upper marginal suture assuming the appearance of being 
unilocular : it takes a vertical position by the inflection of the 
filament. 

In Franciscea, the anther, on the contrary, is always distinctly 
1 -lobed, 1 -celled, almost circular and reniform, fixed at its sinus 
upon the apex of the filament ; it is 2-valved, bursting by a nearly 
marginal hippocrepiform line, and exhibits in the bottom of the 
cell a fleshy prominent globular receptacle, to which the pollen- 
grains are attached, as in Verbascum. The stigma is similarly 
constructed in both genera, as is also the ovarium. In Fran- 
ciscea the fruit is an oval capsule, inclosed within the persistent 
calyx, and covered with a thick coriaceous pericarp, which in one 
species almost prevents its dehiscence : in such instances the su- 
tural line is always evident, and by pressure the fruit bursts by 



248 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Brunsfelsia. 

these sutures: in most cases, the capsule (which is 2-locular) 
splits at its apex by four vertical lines : it presents few seeds 
(about ten) without any intervening pulp. In Brunsfelsia, on 
the contrary, the fruit is a globular deep orange-coloured drupe 
many times larger than the calyx, about the size of a small apple, 
with a soft pulpy envelope inclosing a coriaceous put amen, con- 
taining many seeds immersed in a fleshy pulp. Franciscea grows 
only to the size of low bushes or small shrubs, while Brunsfelsia 
attains the dimensions of large trees, B. undulata being 20 feet 
high, and B. americana growing to the size of an apple-tree with 
a trunk as thick as the human body. 

Brunsfelsia, Sw. (char, reform.). — Calyx brevissimus, urceo- 
latus, profunde 5-dentatus. Corolla hypocraterimorpha, car- 
nosa, tubo gracili, cylindrico, calyce 4-12-ies longiore, fauce 
paulo infundibuliformi, limbo valde expanso, obliquo, ad 
medium 5-fido, lobis insequalibus, carnosis, rotundatis, undu- 
lato-crispatis, subreflexis, inferiore majori, 2 superioribus mi- 
noribus, sestivatione valde imbricatis, maximo exteriori. Sta- 
mina 4, didynama, inclusa; filamenta sursum incrassata et 
incurva, 2 breviora inferiora et lobo majore opposita : anther <b 
oblongse, sub-bilobse, sub-biloculares, lobis transversim latiori- 
bus et confluentibus, rima marginali 2-valvatim hiantes, hinc 
pseudo-1-loculares. Ovarium conicum, sessile, glandula basali 
fere obsoleta, aut nulla, 2-loculare, placentis carnosis, valde 
prominulis, dissepimento utrinque adnatis, multi-ovulatis. 
Stylus gracilis, filiformis, longitudine tubi corollse, apice in- 
crassatus, interdum subincurvus. Stigma clavatum, 2-labia- 
tum, lobis rotundatis, semi-globosis, glandula magna viscosa 
prominula interposita. Drupa magna globosa, calyce parva 
patente suffulta, epicarpio carnoso; putamen cartilagineum, 
indehiscens, rarius in valvulis 2 separabile. Semina plurima, 
ovata, compressa, subreniformia, testa tentii fragili, minute 
scrobiculata, integumento membranaceo, angulo basali chalaza 
fusca notato. Embryo in albumine carnoso arcuatus, hetero- 
tropus, cotyledonibus ovatis, compressis, accumbentibus, radi- 
cuia tereti 2-plo latioribus et 3-plo brevioribus. — Arbores An- 
tillani, foliis alternis, integris, oblongis, sapius nitidis ; floribus 
speciosis, solitariis, vel paucis, subcymosis, terminalibus, corolla 
fiava vel pallide ochroleuca. 

1. Brunsfelsia americana, Sw., DC. Prodr. x. 200. 

2. undulata, Sw., DC. Prodr. x. 200. 

3. — nitida, Benth., DC. Prodr. x. 201. 

4, violacea, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t.792. — Subglabra, foliis 

lanceolato-ellipticis, utrinque acuminatis, subundulatis, supra 
glabris, minute punctato-rugosis, subtus pallide glaucis et pube 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Franciscea. 249 

glanduloso-pruinoso vestitis, apice utrinque, costa, nervisque 
subtus prominulis,rubro-violaceis; floribus subsolitariis, corolla3 
limbo magno, undulato-crispato, flavo, tubo ochroleuco calyce 
12-16-ies longiore. — In Antillis, v. v. in hort. Kew. cult. 

The leaves of this species are 8 inches long, 2| inches broad, 
on a thick and deeply channeled petiole less than half an inch 
in length. The peduncle is i inch long, the calyx 2£ to 3 lines, 
cleft half-way into five obtuse erect teeth with ciliate margins : the 
tube of the corolla is 2| inches long, 2 lines in diameter, swelling 
below the mouth to a width of nearly half an inch ; the border is 
much expanded, and is %\ inches in diameter*. 

Franciscea. 

Having offered under the preceding head, the reasons that 
appear to justify the separation of Franciscea from Brunsfelsia, I 
now give the amended character of the former, as contrasted with 
the latter genus. 

Franciscea, Pohl. (char, emend.). — Calyx inflato-tubulosus, ore 
obliquo, 5-dentato. Corolla hypocraterimorpha, tubo angustato, 
apice dorso subinflato, fauce in oram valde prominulam obli- 
quam constricto, limbo obliquo, rotato, expanso, ultra medium 
5-fido, lobis insequalibus, rotundatis, integris, superiore max- 
imo, sestivatione quincuncialiter imbricatis, sinubus introflexis. 
Stamina 4, didynama, inclusa, brevia, infra dilatationem tubi per 
paria inserta, 2 longiora infra lobum maximum et superiorem 
sita ; filamenta carnosula, compressa, corrugata, apice inflexa ; 
anther (2. reniformes, compressse, sinu affixse, 1-loculares, rima 
marginali 2-valvatim hiantes, receptaculo pollinifero globoso in 
sinu conspicuo. Ovarium obovatum, glandulo carnoso stipitato 
imo cinctum, 2-loculare, placentis carnosis, prominentibus, 
dissepimento utrinque adnatis, multiovulatis. Stylus filiformis, 
apice valde incrassatus et inflexus. Stigma 2-labiatum, lobis 
brevibus, crassiusculis, obtusis, intus glandulosis. Capsula 
ovata, calyce persistente inclusa, coriacea, 2-valvis, 2-locularis, 
valvis placenta demum libera parallelis. Semina pauca, ma- 
juscula, oblonga, subangulata, dorso convexa, hilo ventrali, 
conspicuo, cavo : testa reticulato-foveolata. Embryo hilo con- 
trarius, in axi albuminis carnosi incurvus, cotyledonibus ovatis, 
compressis, radicula tereti gracili infera triplo brevioribus et 
2-plo latioribus. — Suffrutices Brasilienses et Peruviani. Folia 
alterna, integerrima, oblonga. Cymae terminates, dense capitu- 
Iceformes vel laxius pauciflorae, rarius adflorem unicum redacted ; 

* This species with generic details will be delineated in ' Illustr. South 
Amer. Plants,' plate 56. 



250 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Margaranthus. 

bractese parvce : flores speciosi, violacei, interdum pallidiores, 
corolla tubo calyce subcequante, rarius 2-4<-plo longiore *. 

1. Franciscea macrophylla, Cham. Schl. Linn. ii. 601. 

2. hydrangaformis, Pohl. PI. Bras. i. 7. tab. 7. 

3 capitata. Brunsfelsia capitata, Bth., DC. Prodr. 

x. 198. 

4. pauciflora, Cham. Schl. Linn. ii. 600. 

5. Bahiensis. Brunsfelsia Bahiensis jJSth.,~DC. Prodr. 

x. 590. 

6. calycina. Brunsfelsia calycina, Bth., DC. Prodr. 

x. 199. 

7. obovata. Brunsfelsia obovata, Bth., DC. Prodr. 

x. 199. 

8. confer tiflor a, Pohl. PI. Bras. i. 6. tab. 5. F. di- 

varicata, Pohl. ibid. tab. 6. 

9 # ramosissima, Pohl. PI. Bras. i. 5. tab. 4. 

10. — acuminata, Pohl. PI. Bras. i. 4. tab. 3. 

11. latifolia, Pohl. PI. Bras. i. 3. tab. 2. 

12. grandifiora. Brunsfelsia grandiflora, Don, N. 

Edin. Phil. Journ. 1829. 

13. « maritima. Brunsfelsia maritima, Bth., DC. Prodr. 

x. 200. 

14. Hopeana, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2829. F. unifiora, 

Pohl. PI. Bras. i. 2. tab. 1. 

15. australis. Brunsfelsia australis, Bth., DC. Prodr. 

x. 200. 

Margaranthus. 

On a former occasion (huj. op. vol. iv. p. 136), although I had 
not seen any specimen, I noticed this genus in order to contrast 
it with other allied genera. Since then, I have been glad to 
meet with a second very distinct species, that has enabled me to 
comprehend more fully its structural features, and these I find 
correspond well with the very accurate observations of Prof. 
Schlechtendal, upon which the generic character (loc. cit.) was 
founded. I proceed therefore to describe the plant alluded to. 

1. Margaranthus tenuis (n. sp.) ; — herba glaberrima, dichotome 
ramosa, ramis divaricatis, tenuibus, angulato-sulcatis ; foliis 
lanceolatis, utrinque acutis, caulinis obsolete pauci-dentatis, 
longe et tenuissime petiolatis, junioribus floralibus linearibus ; 
floribus pedunculatis, solitariis, axillaribus. — Mexico {v. s. in 
herb. Lindley. Coulter, n. 1220 bis). 

This plant bears much resemblance to that figured by Prof. 

* Sectional details showing the characters of this genus will be given in 
vol. ii. plate 59 A. of the " Illustr. of South Amer. Plants.' 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Margaranthus. 251 

Schlechtendal. Its stems however are far more slender, more 
deeply angular, quite smooth, with internodes about 2 inches 
apart ; the radical leaves may probably be of greater size, but the 
largest leaves in the specimen referred to, are about 1. j inch long, 
upon a very slender petiole of J inch, and are about 4 lines broad, 
with four or five somewhat obsolete teeth on the margin. The 
flowers are seen only in the nascent axils, while the young leaves 
have not attained the length of 4 lines ; the capillary peduncle is 
very hairy, and about 2 lines long ; the calyx is scarcely a line in 
length, cylindrical, and is densely covered, especially below the 
middle, with articulate and rigid white hairs: the corolla is 
tubular, and contracted at base to the diameter of one-third of a 
line, but as it emerges from the calyx, it swells suddenly in a 
somewhat globular form to a diameter of 2 lines, marked with 
five grooves opposite the stamens, and five intermediate saccate 
projections, which are below the five minute short teeth, that 
crown the suddenly contracted mouth of the corolla, which is here 
even narrower than the inferior portion of the tube ; it is entirely 
smooth and apparently of a lurid white, the saccate lobes seeming 
of a dull violet hue ; outside it is smooth, inside somewhat hairy ; 
the stamens, nearly the length of the corolla, are wholly included, 
the filaments being very short, smooth, somewhat arcuate, and 
inserted into the basal contraction of the tube ; the anthers are 
four times the length of the filaments, linear, with two narrow 
cells, fixed along their whole length, upon a narrow dorsal con- 
nective which forms an extension of the filament ; the cells burst 
by a longitudinal line in front, and also by an apical pore, for 
the external valves are there reflected on each side. The ovarium 
is small, obovate, superior, and fixed upon a somewhat two-lobed 
annular gland; the style is exserted beyond the mouth of the 
corolla, is smooth, somewhat subulate, and truncated at its apex 
by a small stigmatic pore. The matured fruit, in consequence of 
the apparently quick growth of the plant, is found only in the di- 
chotomy of the branches, where the peduncle is from 2 to 3 lines 
long : the calyx is now become greatly enlarged, having acquired 
a globular form, 4 lines in diameter, very finely reticulated, and 
contracted in the mouth, which is closed by a very small five- 
toothed orifice ; the included berry is globular, 2^ lines in dia- 
meter, with a very thin membranaceous pericarp, apparently 
without pulp, and probably once filled with an aqueous juice ; it 
is two-celled, and contains about fourteen seeds, which are of a 
large size compared with the smallness of the berry ; these are 
flat, thin, nearly oval, reniform ; the testa is scrobiculate and 
brittle; the horny and rather translucent albumen incloses a 
somewhat spiral filiform embryo, in which the radicle (at least 
three times the length of the cotyledon of equal diameter) points 



252 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Leucophylluin. 

towards the basal angle of the seed below the hilum, which is 
seen in the marginal sinus*. 

Leucophyllum. 

This genus was first published and figured in the ' Plantse 
iEquinoctiales/ and Bonpland in his observations upon it re- 
marks, that although it appears to belong to Scrophulariacece, on 
account of its didynamous stamens, it bears in its habit more 
the aspect of the Solanacece, and from this circumstance, the 
specific name of L. ambiguum was evidently given to the species 
he described. 

Professor Kunth, in his f Nov. Gen. et Sp/ ii. p. 360, observes, 
that this genus may be considered as nearly allied to Maurandia 
and Antirrhinum molle, but I cannot perceive any such analogy. 
Dr. Lindley, in his f Nat. Syst. Bot/ p. 292, placed this genus 
in Scrophulariacece, among the tribe Veronica 3 , and Dr. Endlicher 
in his ' Gen. Plant/ follows this example ; lastly, Mr. Bentham in 
his admirable monograph of this order arranges it in his tribe 
Gratiolece, and his sub tribe Aptosimece (DC . Prod. x. 344) . After 
a careful examination of the structure of this genus, I have come 
to a very different conclusion, and hope to show, by good evidence, 
that its true place is near Atropa and Lycium, and therefore not 
among the Scrophulariacece. The structure of the corolla in 
Leucophyllum precisely corresponds with that of Atropa, having 
a campanulate tube, with a small border slightly oblique, of five 
nearly equal rounded lobes, which are imbricately disposed in 
aestivation, and five somewhat unequal stamens, two being always 
shorter ; and it sometimes happens that the anthers of one of the 
three other stamens are abortive, or the fifth stamen altogether 
wanting; and such is the state, I conclude, of the species described 
by Bonpland, as I have noticed in Hartweg's specimen, although, 
in Galeotti's plant of L. ambiguum, I have found the flowers to be 
always pentandrous, as in L. campanulatum. All the species of 
Leucophyllum resemble Lycium in their fruticose habit, with 
solitary, axillary, violet-coloured flowers, and one species has an 
evident tendency to become spinous, like this last-mentioned 
genus. Had Leucophyllum possessed a baccate fruit, its position 
would unquestionably have been between Atropa and Lycium ; 
but as it is capsular, it will fall into a new tribe, which may be 
called Leucophyllece, that will stand between the Hyoscyamea and 
Atropece (huj. op. iii. 166). The following is an outline of its 
generic features : — 

Leucophyllum, Bonpl. (char, reform.). — Calyx parvus, pro- 
funde 5-fidus, laciniis sequalibus, lanceolatis, erectis. Corolla 

* A figure of this species and its analytical details will be given in plate 57 
of the ' Illustr. South Amer. Plants.' 



Mr. J. Miers on the genus Leucophyllum. 253 

campanulata, tubo amplo infundibuliformi, limbo 5-lido, sub- 
bilabiato, lobis fere sequalibus, antico subminori reflexo, 2 
posticis erectiusculis, omnibus oblongis, obtusis, a3stivatione 
imbricatis. Stamina 5, insequalia, inclusa, corolla? dimidio 
longitudine, 2 antica breviora, quinto interdum rudimentario, 
rarius omnino deficiente ; filamenta imo tubi affixa, glabra, basi 
crassiuscula, apice subdeclinata ; antherce sagittato-bilobse, lobis 
apice nexis, longitudinaliter intus dehiscentibus, quinti inter- 
dum minima?, aut abortivse. Ovarium oblongum, glandula 
annulari fere obsoleta imo cinctum, 2-loculare, ovulis plurimis, 
dissepimento medio prominulo et incrassato utrinque adnatis. 
Stylus erectus, filiformis, apice declinatus, longitudine sta- 
minum. Stigma breviter bilabiatum, lobis adpressis. Capsula 
ovata, coriacea, calyce persistente cincta, septicide dehiscens, 
valvulis apice 2-fidis, marginibus introflexis, imo basi columnse 
subglobosse placentiferse adhserentibus. Semina plurima, mi- 
nuta, transversa, oblonga, compressa, dorso plana, quadrato- 
angulata, longitudinaliter curvata, striato-rugulosa, hilo ventrali 
et fere basali. Embryo in albumine carnoso oblongus, curvatus, 
subcompressus, cotyledonibus oblongis, radicula basali tereti 
vix latioribus, et 2-plo longioribus. — Suffrutices Mexicani,pube 
brachiato densissime tomentoso vestiti; folia alterna, subparva, 
crassa, uninervia, breviter petiolata; flores solitarii, axillares, 
folio subcequales, breviter pedunculati, corollce tubo calyce 2-3- 
plo-ve longiore. 

1. Leucophyllum ambiguum, Humb., Bonpl. PL iEquin. ii. 95. 
tab. 109; H. B. K. ii. 361 ; — foliis ovatis, basi apiceque acu- 
tiusculis, utrinque densissime tomentosis, cinerascentibus, ju- 
nioribus pallide incanis; laciniis calycinis lineari-lanceolatis, 
extus tomentosis, intus glabris, nitidis, 3-nerviis, corollse tubo 
amplo 3-plo brevioribus ; ovarii apice, stylique basi pilosis. — 
Mexico. Actopan, Prov. Mexico, alt. 6600 ped., Bonpland. 
Atotonilco el Grande, Prov. Durango, Hartweg, n. 357. Zi- 
mapan, Galeotti, n. 7210. 

This is described by Bonpland as a tall shrub, 8 to 15 feet in 
height, with a stem slightly tortuous, 4 or 6 inches in diameter, 
covered with a slightly rent bark. It is a very conspicuous ob- 
ject in the forests, showing itself at a distance by its silvery leaves, 
and forming a striking contrast with the dark green foliage of 
the surrounding trees. Its leaves are from ^ to J inch long, 
5 or 6 lines broad, with a petiole 2 lines in length; its calyx 
measures 2 or 3 lines, and is smooth within ; its violet-coloured 
corolla is ^ an inch long, smooth outside and pilose within. This 
species may readily be distinguished from the others, by its leaves 
being acute at both ends ; in the older ones the tomentum is of a 



254 Mr. J. Miers on the genus Leucophyllum. 

blackish gray, in the younger leaves of a pale yellowish white ; 
the small branchlets are 4 to 8 inches long, almost bare, pro- 
minently knotty at the articulation of the fallen petioles, with 
only a few leaves towards the extremity, and with solitary flowers 
in their axils. Bonpland describes the stamens to be didynamous, 
quite glabrous, and the upper lobe of the corolla woolly within, 
and the tube pilose inside to the insertion of the stamens. Kunth, 
who probably examined very imperfect specimens, says, on the 
contrary, that it is quite smooth within, and that it has a convex 
palate marked with orange-coloured glandular spots, but I can 
perceive no indication of such a palate. In the above-mentioned 
specimens, the calycine segments are smooth within ; the corolla 
is also smooth, and hairy only in the mouth and upon the lobes 
of the border. Galeotti's specimen, as I have before observed, 
has distinctly five fertile stamens, Hartweg's has only four. 

2. Leucophyllum Texanum, Benth., DC. Prodr. x. 344 ; — ramis 
glabris, tortuosis, nodosis, subspinescentibus, junioribus to- 
mentosis; foliis obovato-oblongis, apice rotundatis, utrinque 
cano-tomentosis ; calyce extus tomentoso, laciniis lato lanceo- 
latis, intus pubescentibus et 3-nerviis; corolla prsecedentis, sta- 
minibus 4 didynamis, cum quinti rudimento, filamentis com- 
planatis, lsevibus : capsula apice pilosa. — Mexico, Prov. Texana, 
v. s. in herb. Hook. (Laredo, Berlandier.) 

In this species the branchlets are more glabrous, more tortuous, 
and more knotty at the axils of the fallen leaves, often spinous 
at the short abortive branchlets, the leaves more obovate-oblong 
and rounded at the apex, the younger leaves incanous, not fer- 
ruginous, the calycine segments more oblong and broader ; the 
leaves are 7 or 8 lines long, 4 or 5 lines broad, the petiole being 
scarcely appreciable; the calyx is 1| line in length; the corolla, 
including the lobes of the border, is \ inch long : the calyx, 
though persistent, does not increase in size in fruit ; the capsule 
is small, ovate, \\ line long, the two valves being inflected at the 
margin, very thick and coriaceous, and bifid nearly to the base. 

3. Leucophyllum campanulatum (n. sp.) ; — ramis substrictis, ra- 
mulis abbreviatis; approximatis ; foliis ovato-orbicularibus, 
crassis, utrinque densissime tomentosis, adultis incanis, ju- 
nioribus confertissimis, ferrugineis; floribus axillaribus ideo 
arctis, folio superantibus, calycis laciniis crassis, lanceolatis, 
apice obtusiusculis ; corolla prsecedentibus dimidio majore, 
glabra, intus simpliciter hirta, ovarii apice, stylique basi, 
dense pilosis. — Mexico, v. s. in herb. Lindl. et Hook. (Zimapan, 
Prov. Mex., Coulter, n. 1271). 

This species is very distinct from the two former, its leaves 



On the Heights of some of the Cotswold Hills. 255 

being more orbicular, 8 lines long, 7 lines broad, on a channeled 
petiole 2 lines in length, the older ones being always incano- 
velutinous, the younger of a deep ochreous colour ; the branchlets 
are very much crowded, and not longer than 1 or 2 inches ; the 
axils much closer, with more copious foliage, hence the flowers 
appear densely crowded : the corolla is of a deep violet-blue, 7 or 
8 lines in length, broader in proportion ; its border is somewhat 
oblique, with five rounded lobes, the anterior one more reflected, 
the two posterior lobes more erect ; it is nearly smooth outside, 
and very pilose within. Another characteristic feature is, that 
the upper moiety of the ovarium, and the lower portion of the 
style, are densely covered with white hairs, the basal gland being 
smooth ; it has constantly five stamens, of which the three anterior 
are somewhat shorter. The hairs of the corolla and pistillum 
are simple and articulated, those of the calyx stellately plumose, 
as in the rest of the plant*. 

XXIV. — Heights of some points of the Cotswold Hills, with some 
experiments with the Aneroid Barometer. By W. Henry 
Hyett, Esq., F/R.S.f 

A few months ago, in a formal Report, an Inspector under the 
Board of Health stated that " Cheltenham has been estimated to 
stand 200 ft. above the level of the sea, and the height of the 
Cotswold Hills above the same level is about 300 ft. :" — he meant 
probably to say " above the level of Cheltenham ;" thus making 
the absolute height of these hills 500 feet above the sea — still 
an estimate rather wide of the mark when given under the nose 
of Cleeve Cloud, which exceeds 1000. 

It is true the case required no accuracy, but such a degree of 
^accuracy could scarcely have appeared had a more general 
knowledge of the trutlj prevailed in this part of the country. 
Indeed it has been for years matter of complaint that even the 
relative heights of the several remarkable points of our Cotswolds 
were unknown — Painswick, Birdlip, Leckhampton and Cleeve 
Cloud each having their respective champions, but with no 
authority to quote, nor umpire to determine between them. 

Having consulted some of the scientific Members of the Cots- 
wold Club on the point without success, I ventured to suggest 
that they at least should try to set it at rest. The coincidence of 
the present Ordnance Survey for the improvement of the river 
Severn, having their signal staffs actually standing on the very 

* A drawing of this plant with sectional details will be shown in plate 
58 of the ' Illustr. South Amer. Plants.' 

f Read to the Cotswold Nat. Hist. Club, Sept. 27, 1849. 



256 Mr. W. H. Hyett on the Heights of some of the 

eminences in question, offered an opportunity not to be lost of 
having measurements made. 

I therefore proposed to our excellent President to get (as best 
I could) a list of the heights of those hills from which we derive 
our name, and which in the course of our excursions we so fre- 
quently climb ; — a subject of peculiar interest therefore to our- 
selves, and not without importance to all who study the geology, 
botany, &c. of this range. Immediately on receiving his con- 
currence I wrote to Capt. Yolland, R.E., who has the mapping 
department of the Ordnance under his direction, and the com- 
mand of the parties now executing the survey of the Severn. 
Observing that the signal staffs of their present Trigonometrical 
Survey afforded the easy means of taking the vertical as well as 
the horizontal angles, and of acquiring all the information 
which the public needed, I ventured to express a hope to that 
officer that he would afford it. 

In reply he promised to communicate the information re- 
quested, and has since most obligingly supplied the approximate 
heights above the mean level of the sea of sixteen remarkable 
points in our vicinity which I shall presently read to you, together 
with other data which I have myself obtained by the aid of the 
aneroid barometer lately invented in France, and much vaunted 
as applicable to the measurements of heights. 1 then procured 
one of these instruments from Dent, with his pamphlet upon it, 
and will now give the results of its comparison with the mea- 
surements received from Capt. Yolland. 

It may be as well however first to make a few remarks on this 
new instrument, with a view to show how far it may be appli- 
cable in its present state to the purpose of measuring altitudes. 
It is probably known to most of you, that in carrying a mercu- 
rial barometer to the top of a high mountain, the mercury sinks 
from two causes, the one purely barometric, the other thermo- 
metric. Whilst for every 850 feet of perpendicular ascent the 
weight of the air decreases so as to show a fall, in its counterpoise 
the quicksilver, of about an inch — for every 300 feet of ascent there 
is also a decrease in the temperature of 1° Fahrenheit, occasioning 
a proportional contraction in the quicksilver in the tube, making 
it stand so much lower than it ought to do were its descent due 
to the diminished pressure of the air alone. To calculate there- 
fore correctly the height indicated by the mercurial barometer, 
allowance is always made for decreasing temperature, and tables 
have been compiled for this purpose from the known rate at 
which mercury contracts by cold. 

The same double effect is doubtless produced in the aneroid 
barometer, which Mr. Dent says is compensated by means of gas 



Cotswold Hills } with observations on the Aneroid Barometer. 257 

in the " vacuum-vase " of the instrument. This however is, I 
believe, a mistake*. 

In its present form, then, I conclude that a correction for 
temperature is needed for the exact measurement of heights. 
There are also two palpable defects, one of which is that the hand 
or index is frequently so far from the face of the dial, that its 
parallax leads to error in reading off the scale, which may easily 
amount to 20 feet in height. This however may be somewhat 
corrected by bending the hand so as to make it nearly touch the 
face of the dial. The other fault is that the inch is subdivided 
into only forty parts, one of which corresponds to 22 feet in 
height. It would be better to have it graduated to hundredths 
— so that the actual reading off should tally at once with the 
barometric tables now in use — or if the size of the dial will not 
admit of this, to subdivide the inch into fifty instead of forty parts, 
so that each division should be "02 of an inch. At present, in 
order to use the tables, it is necessary in reading off to change 
the vulgar fractions into decimals, which, in jotting down, fre- 
quently leads to troublesome mistakes. 

It is full time however to come to the table which I promised 
of the 

Approximate altitudes above the mean level of the Sea supplied 
by Capt. Yolland, R.E. 

By Ordnance By Aneroid Difference 
Survey. Barometer, by Aneroid, 
feet. feet. feet. 

Tewkesbury Church, surface of ground ... 47 
Gloucester Cathedral, surface of ground ... 56 

Barrow Hill, surface of ground 1 9& 

Corse Hill 292 

Christ Church tower, Cheltenham (top)... 343 

Robin's Wood Hill 652 634'2 — 178 

StandishHill 715 691'4 —23*6 

Stinchcombe Hill a 725 740-27 +15-27 

Finger-post on top of Frocester Hill 780 

Oxenton Hill 733 

Firs at Symond's Hall 810 

UleyHill 823 8255 +25 

Painswick Hill 929 935'9 +6*9 

May Hill 966 

BirdlipHill 969 9605 -8*5 

Leckhampton Hill 978 969*9 —8-1 

Base of Bredon Hill tower 979 

Cleeve Hill or Cleeve Cloud 1081 1066-8 -14-2 

Malvern 1396 

With the exception of Standish and Robin's Wood Hills, the 

* I have since ascertained it to be one. M. Vidi himself informed me in 
November last, that although he at one time made some experiments on 
the use of gas in the "vacuum" — (qy.) "vase," — he has now rejected it 
altogether. 

Ann. if Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 17 



258 On the Heights of some of the Cotswold Hills. 

height of each of which is the result of a single observation with 
the aneroid, the agreement of its indications with those of the Ord- 
nance determinations is very remarkable, considering the errors 
to which the present construction of that instrument render it 
liable. I must observe, however, that they are brought nearer to 
the trigonometrical measurements by my having rejected some 
of my first attempts, in which I am almost certain that I made 
mistakes, and by subsequently adopting the mean of two or three 
observations, a process which always reduces the extremes of 
error. Thus for Painswick Hill I had three observations — 

One giving it . . . 919 feet. 

Another 934*8 „ 

The third .... 954 „ 

giving a mean result of 935*9 feet, which differs only 6*9 feet 
from Capt. Yolland's figures. 

I am sorry that I have not had time to try more of our heights ; 
but I thought it better to repeat the observations on the same hills 
in order to obtain mean results, and thus to sift my own probable 
errors, than to persevere in them undetected. 

Throwing out of consideration, then, some of my first trials, 
before I was quite up to the use of the instrument and its tables, 
the results which I have just given are highly satisfactory. But 
on the other hand I tried it against the published sections of the 
Cheltenham and Great Western Railway with less success, as the 
following comparison will show : — 

By Company's By Aneroid. Error, 
sections. 

feet. feet. feet. 

Stroud station above Gloucester station 116*3 12475 +8'45 

Summit-level at top of Saperton tun- \ ^kq-o 41 3-7 4-fil -S 

nel above Gloucester J . ' ' } 

Now these were the means of two trials; in the latter case 
the discrepancy is greater than I can easily explain, unless the 
oscillations of the railway carriage have any effect on the instru- 
ment, which I can hardly suspect ; for in all other cases, however 
carefully carried, it must have been exposed to rough shaking*. 
On the whole therefore I must suspend my opinion as to the 
merits of the aneroid for measuring heights till after further ex- 
periments, and at any rate would recommend the improvements 
in the construction, to which I have before alluded, to be effected, 
viz. the decimal graduation to be adopted, and the index to be 
placed closer to the face of the instrument. 

P.S. Since the compilation of the above paper I have been 

* The error may be this — that the Company's sections were published 
before the completion of their line, which was eventually carried at a rather 
higher level than these sections show. 



On the Embryogeny o/'Hippuris vulgaris. 259 

fortunate enough, on a visit to Paris, to make the acquaintance 
of the ingenious inventor of the aneroid — which I find, in its 
present state, he regards as a domestic rather than a scientific 
instrument, — an estimate of its capabilities in which its continued 
use leads me very much to concur. Still, while I find it per- 
fectly well adapted to the house purposes of a common weather- 
glass, I can say no less of it as an instrument for taking heights, 
than that it is far more commodious and much less likely to get 
out of order than a mercurial barometer — and when limited, as 
my trials were, to heights not exceeding 1.200 feet, that it 
exhibits quite sufficient accuracy for general purposes— a power 
which I have no doubt in its present form may be extended to 
heights of some 2500, and were the index graduated to 24 or 25 
inches of the mercurial barometer, probably to the height of any 
hills in Great Britain. 

M. Vidi, however, has made some elaborate trials towards a 
more purely scientific instrument. If he persevere, I have no 
doubt he will succeed. 

The grand Exhibition of Works of Art in London in 1851, 
offers him a good opportunity for submitting his invention to more 
general notice, — and, to the judges perhaps, a not inappropriate 
object for a premium. — W. H. H. 



XXV. — On the Embryogeny of Hippuris vulgaris. By John 
Scott Sanderson, F.B.S.E., Member of the Royal Medical 
Society of Edinburgh*. 

The subject of the origin and development of the embryo has 
been lately brought before botanical readers so frequently in the 
various journals appropriated to vegetable physiology, and so 
much has been done by so many observers in the elucidation 
of the subject, that it must appear somewhat uncalled for to 
occupy your time with facts and observations which are only re- 
petitions of what has been much better detailed by others in 
regard to other species, and by which therefore these results can 
only be corroborated. « 

As however the observations referred to are contained in foreign 
journals, and may have escaped the notice of many members 
whose attention has not been directed to this particular branch 
of botanical science, I trust that the following details will not 
prove wholly unacceptable, more especially as they will enable 
me to lay before you some of those highly important generaliza- 
tions, which are to be obtained from the splendid researches of 
Hofmeister, Unger, Tulasne, and others, on the subject of em- 

* Bead before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Feb. 14, 1850. 

17* 



260 Mr. J. S. Sanderson on the Embryogeny 

bryogeny. We shall see as we proceed, that we are now enabled 
to construct a morphological type of development complete in all 
its part3, and applicable to all the hitherto investigated orders of 
phanerogamous plants. 

Hippuris vulgaris belongs to the natural order Halorageacece, 
which contains only three British genera, Myriophyllum, Hip- 
puris and Callitriche, all the species of which are water-plants 
with floating and submerged leaves. They appear to be distin- 
guished by their submerged leaves possessing distinct bundles 
of spiral vessels, a fact which may be well seen in the common 
Callitriche verna, and has been lately shown by Barneoud in those 
curious plants the Trapas which float on the rivers of Southern 
Europe, and are considered by many botanists as belonging to 
this order. 

The ovary of Hippuris is one-celled, containing a single pen- 
dulous ovule, attached nearly at its apex by a fleshy funiculus. 
In its earliest condition I have not had an opportunity of ex- 
amining it. If however it be examined at a period considerably 
before that of impregnation and before the development of the 
solitary anther is completed, it is observed to have become com- 
pletely anatropous. The nucleus lies loosely in the cavity formed 
by the envelopes, which completely surround it, attached to the 
chalaza. The envelope is not distinguishable into primine and 
secundine, and extends considerably beyond the apex. It con- 
sists of small hexagonal cells arranged in series, each containing 
a nucleus. On one side, the raphe, consisting of a bundle 
of imperfect spirals, is seen passing from the hilum to the 
chalaza. 

The nucleus, the structure of which cannot be seen on account 
of the opacity of the envelopes without dissecting it out, consists 
of a large cell, the embryonic vesicle, extending from its apex to 
about two-thirds of its length, which is surrounded by a single 
layer of very transparent, gelatinous-looking nucleated cells, 
which are however deficient at the apex, at which point the em- 
bryo-sac seems to be totally uncovered. 

Contained in this embryo-sac is seen the embryo-vesicle. This 
body consists of a single elongated cell attached to the free ex- 
tremity of the embryo-sac. This cell (the embryo-vesicle) con- 
tains a granular protoplasm in which here and there globules are 
observed to float. It probably originates at a very early period 
from the micropyle-end of the embryo-sac, but I have not been 
able to trace it at any earlier stage than that represented. The 
form which it presents, of an elongated cell attached to the end 
of the embryo-sac next the micropyle, and smaller at its attached 
than at its free extremity, is prevalent throughout the Scrophula- 
riacece, Crucifer&, and other orders. 



of Hippuris vulgaris. 261 

From the fact that the embryo-vesicle is developed at so long 
a period before the bursting of the anther, little doubt can remain 
as to its existing prior to the act of impregnation, and not being, 
as supposed by Mirbel and Spach, a consequence of that act. 
Still less can it be supposed to be the end of the pollen-tube, ac- 
cording to the theory of Schleiden and his followers. 

"We now proceed to notice the changes which the embryo- 
vesicle undergoes subsequently to the act of impregnation. After 
impregnation, the granular protoplasm, which has accumulated 
at the larger extremity of the embryo-vesicle, becomes trans- 
formed into a spheroidal cell. A septum is then observable at 
the lower part, crossing it horizontally, by which it is divided 
into two cells. Of these the inferior is developed downwards by 
successive merismatic division, so as to form a confervoid fila- 
ment, the suspensor. The upper assumes at the same time a 
spheroidal form, and is distinguished from the rest by being 
filled with granules, exactly as occurs in the Orchidacece. Soon 
after it divides by a longitudinal septum, and subsequently by a 
transverse. These are followed by successive divisions, and the 
embryo with its suspensor is formed. While these changes are 
taking place, the embryo- vesicle, which in the early stage is ad- 
herent by one of its extremities to the micropyle-end of the em- 
bryo-sac, becomes correspondingly enlarged and elongated. It 
however never becomes completely filled with the cells of the 
suspensor, or at least not until a very late period. It seems to 
be narrowed at its apex, either by the absorption of its contents 
by the developing embryo, or by the pressure of the contiguous 
parts. Subsequently the round mass of cells described above, 
to which the term embryo-globule has been applied, undergoes 
further development, and the cotyledons and other parts being 
gradually formed, the embryo assumes its characteristic appear- 
ance. ! 

Thus we see in this plant — 1st. That the embryo- vesicle exists 
at a period previous to the act of impregnation ; 2nd. That after 
impregnation a number of cells are formed by an endogenous 
process in its cavity which assume a confervoid arrangement ; 
3rd. That of these one is selected to be developed into the em- 
bryo; 4th. That the rest undergo no further development, but seem 
to conduce to the nutrition of the embryo. These facts are in every 
respect conformable to what is known of the embryogenic pro- 
cess in the Orchidacece, Onagracece, Scrophulariacece, Cruciferce, 
and other natural orders. 

Since the above observations were made, I have had the oppor- 
tunity of seeing the results of two very important series of re- 
searches by Hofmeister of Leipzig and Tulasne. These researches 
lead to the conclusion, that the mode of development above dc- 



262 Mr. J. S. Sanderson on the Eirlbryngeny 

scribed in Hippuris is that which holds universally throughout 
phanerogamic plants. The results of Hofmeister, as detailed in 
his Monograph on the origin of the vegetable embryo, published 
at Leipzig last year, are as follows : — 

A long time previous to the period of fecundation a certain 
number of free cellular nuclei are formed in the embryo- sac. 
These generally occur at the end of the sac next the micropyle. 
After this, free spherical cells are observed to be formed at the 
same part of the embryo-sac, which are usually three in number, 
an arrangement which probably depends on merely mechanical 
causes, and is well seen in the Orchidacece. 

These cells are destined for the formation of the embryo itself, 
and are to be distinguished from those of a smaller size which 
are often observed at the same period at the opposite extremity 
of the 'embryo-sac, and conduce merely to the formation of the 
endosperm. 

These cells are the embryo -vesicles, and from them the em- 
bryo is produced. One of them only remains active, while the rest 
abort. This being acted on by the fovilla at the period of fecun- 
dation, undergoes the development detailed below and becomes 
the embryo. 

At the period of impregnation the pollen-tube arrives at the 
embryo-sac. Sometimes the sac-membrane is so firm as not to 
be indented by it. Sometimes it is considerably indented, and 
adherent for a longer or shorter period. At other times it ap- 
pears, from its great tenuity, to be pierced by it. In all cases the 
embryo-vesicle remains perfectly closed, so that any communi- 
cation between it and the end of the pollen-tube is impossible. 

After impregnation the embryo-vesicle becomes divided into 
two cells by a transverse septum. These two cells are the first 
of those which form what Hofmeister calls the pro- embryo. The 
distal cell then in most cases divides by horizontal septa into a 
row of smaller cells. The terminal cell of this row then becomes 
more developed than the rest, and gives birth by an endogenous 
process to the embryo-globule. This then becomes developed 
into the embryo by the successive formation of new cells. 

These results will be seen to harmonize perfectly with what 
has been already said with reference to Hippuris. They were 
obtained from the examination of a very great number of species 
belonging to various natural orders ; among which may be men- 
tioned Orchidacece, Gramineae, Liliacece, Iridacece, Amaryllidaceae, 
Polygonacece, Caryophyllacece, Ericacece, Geraniacea, &c, and there 
is every reason to depend on their accuracy. 

In the last two numbers of the ' Annales des Sciences Natu- 
relles/ which have only appeared in the course of last w r eek, 
M. L. R. Tulasnc has published the most complete and beautiful 



of Hippuris vulgaris. 263 

series of researches, as far as they go, among the many to which 
this controversy has given origin. ' The facts which are brought 
forward by this author are confirmatory in the most important 
particulars of what had previously been ascertained by Hof- 
meister, linger, and others, but are distinguished by the author's 
inquiries having been carried to an earlier period in the develop- 
ment than had been arrived at by any previous observer in the 
families to which they refer, namely the Scrophulariacea and the 
Crucifera. 

In the Scrophulariacea generally, as in Hippuris, the embryo- 
vesicle assumes at an early period an elongated form, and its 
subsequent development is identical. Tulasne has traced it to 
its earliest origin in several species. He has shown that it is 
developed originally on the inner surface of the wall of the em- 
bryonal sac near its summit, but at a point quite separate from 
that at which the pollen-tube is applied. This vesicle, at first 
exceedingly minute, grows upwards in the cavity of the embryo- 
sac, until it assumes a form similar to that seen in Hippuris. 
These facts are important, as serving to point out more distinctly 
the strict correspondence between the morphological modifications 
of the same development as observed in the Scrophulariacea and 
other orders, with those possessed of distinct embryo-sacs, as the 
Orchidacecs. 

The researches before us also derive an additional interest 
from their showing the total inaccuracy of the observations of 
. Prof. Wydler of Berne, (which were made on the same natural 
order,) who in the year 1838 set himself to support the theory 
of Schleiden, and from whose alleged facts that physiologist de- 
rived some of the most powerful supports of his views. 

In the Crucifera M. Tulasne has also accomplished all that 
can be done to perfect our knowledge of the embryogeny of the 
order. In particular he has described and figured distinctly the 
embryonal sac, the existence of which was doubted in that order, 
and has traced the embryonal vesicle from its earliest condition, 
that of a minute cellule attached to the micropyle extremity 
of the embryo-sac, up to that of a cylindriform cell filled with a 
granular protoplasm, at the period at which it should seem that 
fertilization takes place. 

Numerous other points of great importance might be men- 
tioned as illustrated by this admirable series of researches. They 
will well reward the perusal of all who take any interest in vege- 
table anatomy and physiology, and they are illustrated by draw- 
ings, which exceed in beauty and detail all their predecessors, 
although many of these have been beyond all praise. 

From the accurate knowledge of the facts connected with the 
origin and development of the vegetable embryo, into the pos- 



264 Mr. J. S. Sanderson on the Embryogeny 

session of which the researches of Unger, Hofmeister, and Tulasne 
have put us, we need be at no loss to arrive at certain general 
conclusions as to the order in which the various steps of the em- 
bryogenic process are brought about, and the laws by which it is 
governed. We shall therefore occupy the remainder of this 
paper in enumerating as shortly as possible the most important 
of these generalizations. 

In order to facilitate description, we shall divide what seem to 
be the essential phenomena of the embryogenic process in the 
higher plants into three classes, in the first of which we shall 
consider the process of development of the embryo-sac ; in the 
second the changes which take place within the embryo- sac be- 
fore, and in the third, after the act of impregnation. 

We shall first speak of the development of the embryo-sac, or 
the individualization of a cell of the female organ for reproductive 
purposes. 

At a very early period a constituent cell, of what is called in 
descriptive language by a singular misnomer the placenta, gives 
rise by successive division to a cylindrical body, which consists 
of a central series of cells surrounded by others of smaller size. 
This, by another equally obvious misnomer, is called the ovule. 
From the central series of cells just mentioned one is separated 
and set apart for reproductive purposes, while the rest are va- 
riously developed so as to form coverings to this one. It enlarges 
at the expense of the rest, and receives the name of embryonal 
sac* and is strictly analogous to the animal unimpregnated ovum. 

We next consider the changes which take place in the cavity 
of the embryo- sac previous to impregnation. 

At a period considerably prior to impregnation a vesicle is de- 
veloped, always at the micropyle-end of the embryo-sac, and pro- 
bably always from a cytoblast. This vesicle enlarges more or less, 
and contains a fluid granular protoplasm. To this the name 
embryo-vesicle is assigned. It is analogous to the germ-vesicle 
in animals, both in its production and subsequent development. 

Besides the embryo-vesicle other cells are frequently developed 
at this period, which are destined to conduce to the nutrition of 
the future embryo. 

Lastly, we have to consider the changes which take place in 
the embryo-sac after impregnation. 

At this period a cell belonging to the male organ (the pollen- 
grain) becomes so developed that its membrane and that of 
the embryo-sac are brought in contact ; in consequence of which 
an interchange of their contents takes place, and under the pe- 
culiar influence of the one upon the other, the embryo-vesicle 
begins to develope within it two cells divided from each other 
by a transverse septum, in the same way as the first change ob ■• 



of Hippuris vulgaris. 265 

served after animal impregnation is the development of two 
cells in the germ-vesicle. These cells then multiply to a greater 
or less extent by transverse division so as to form a confervoid 
filament. At last, either at the centre or termination of this fila- 
ment, one cell becomes developed by an endogenous mode of cell- 
production into a body to which the term embryo-globule is 
applied, and which is in fact the future embryo, while the rest 
perform a subordinate function, being probably merely subser- 
vient to the nutrition of the embryo. This last process corre- 
sponds in animals to the successive divisions of the two cells 
previously referred to, what is called the " cleaving of the yelk 
mass/' on the surface of which the embryo is subsequently de- 
veloped. 

The foregoing sketch of what may be considered as the morpho- 
logical type of the embryogenic development in the higher plants 
will, it is believed, include all those modifications which occur in 
those families which have been hitherto investigated. And consi- 
dering that of late years, since the means of research have been so 
much more complete than formerly, there has been such a remark- 
able consonance in the results obtained by different observers, 
there is little reason to apprehend that any new facts are likely to 
arise, which will render it necessary to modify our generalizations 
to any great degree. We may therefore consider the controversy 
for the present settled. The doctrine of Schleiden is now only 
a matter of history, and as such possesses very great interest. 
When in 1837 he first brought forward his splendid discoveries 
as to the previously unknown nature and functions of cells, he 
founded upon them another doctrine, according to which the 
existence of sexes in plants was denied, and the so-called male 
organ alone was supposed to originate the germ. The history 
of this celebrated doctrine exemplifies in a remarkable manner 
the truth of the observation, that, although false facts may do 
an infinity of mischief in science, false theories are often produc- 
tive of the greatest benefit. 

The numerous researches which have been set on foot within 
the last ten years with a view to the refutation of the doctrines 
of Schleiden, have not only established the utter baselessness of 
these last, but have furnished us with a series of details more 
complete and more conclusive than any which we possess in con- 
nection with any other subject in the whole range of vegetable 
anatomy. 



266 Mr. J. T. Syme on some Plants observed in Orkney. 

XXVI. — Notice of some of the rarer Plants observed in Orkney 
during the Summer o/"1849, By John T. Syme, Esq.* 

Having passed the greater part of last summer in Orkney, and 
during that time having examined the natural history of the 
parts of it which I visited, I now lay before the Society a notice 
of a few of the rarer plants which I observed. I would have 
drawn up a list of all the species which I met with, but as I had 
opportunities of botanizing only in the southern part of the 
mainland and in the islands of Hoy, Burray and Flota, I have 
thought it advisable to defer this until I shall have made some 
acquaintance with the botany of the other islands, which I hope 
to accomplish next summer. 

The flora of Orkney is by no means extensive, and excepting 
some alpine plants which are found at a lower elevation than 
usual, it embraces very few species of interest ; — as is to be ex- 
pected from its bare and treeless condition and the uniformity 
of its geological formation; the old red sandstone, with here 
and there a trap-dyke, being the only rock to be met with ; while 
the incessant winds charged with saline particles and the low 
summer temperature forbid the growth of the more tender 
plants, as well as those which rise above the shelter of the sur- 
rounding vegetation. 

In addition to these adverse circumstances, by far the greater 
proportion of the ground is flat and moorish, which still more 
contributes to give a sameness to the vegetation ; so that I think 
we may account for the paucity of species from the physical con- 
ditions of the Orkney islands, without having recourse to any 
theory of centres of vegetation and migration of plants. 

I shall now proceed to give the names of the plants I met 
with, nearly in the order in which I noticed them, with the 
dates when the various trips were made, as extracted from my 
journal. 

On the 5th of June last, I went on board the screw steamer 
" Northman," at Leith, and after a tedious passage of forty hours, 
arrived in Kirkwall Bay. The morning was wet and windy, but 
being impatient to examine the botany and entomology of a 
district new to me, and feeling the desire of again walking on 
terra firma, as is natural to a landsman after a sea voyage of 
longer duration than he is accustomed to, I set out for Swan- 
bister, the place of my destination, about eight miles south-west of 
Kirkwall. I soon found, however, that novelties or even rarities 
were not to be expected, for I did not in the whole of my walk 
find a single plant worth drying. 

In the town of Kirkwall I saw Stachys ambigua (not yet in 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Feb. 14, 1850. 



Mr. J. T. Syme on some Plants observed in Orkney. 267 

flower), growing among the nettles at the sides of the lanes. 
About two miles from Kirkwall there is a pond and marsh at 
the side of the road, where Menyanthes trifoliata was growing 
along with Equisetum limosum and Carex ampullacea ; and in the 
moors along the sides of the roads, I saw Luzula multiflora, Ly- 
copodium Selago, Salix repens and Primula acaulis, but nothing 
of any interest until I reached Swanbister, where Scilla verna 
was in great profusion, and Gymnadenia albida just coming into 
flower. 

A few days after I found at Smoogro a curious variety of 
Plantago lanceolata, with very woolly leaves, lying flat on the 
ground and much broader than usual. Near this place Sten- 
hammaria maritima used to occur, but there was no appearance 
of it. I suppose it must have been covered up with shingle by 
the sea, during the winter. 

On the 12th of June I went to Howton Head, about three 
miles west of Swanbister, to see the station for Primula scotica, 
which was easily found, but appeared to have flowered very 
sparingly, as I only saw two plants in seed. Here I also found 
Lycopodium selaginoides and Thalictrum alpinum, about 200 feet 
above the sea ; a curious fact, as where alpine plants are found at 
so low a level, it is usually where there is high ground behind, 
from which they have been brought down by burns, &c. ; but 
here there are no hills of any considerable height near, and, in- 
deed, I never found this nor any alpine plant elsewhere on the 
mainland. 

On the 25th of June I had an excursion, in company with Mr. 
Robert Heddel, to Kirbister Loch, about two miles north-west of 
Swanbister. Here we found Potamogeton filiformis, 4 or 5 feet 
long, and with the peduncles 18 inches long (a form which I 
afterwards observed in the lower Loch of Stennis growing in the 
brackish water along with dwarfed and discoloured plants of 
Fucus vesicidosus) . 

In old marl-pits in the loch we found Zannichellia palustris and 
Potamogeton heterophyllus and P. perfoliatus. After completing 
the survey of the loch we went to Neversdale, where Dr. Duguid 
used to find Ajuga pyramidalis abundantly, but which had dis- 
appeared for the last four years ; and after a very careful search, 
Mr. E. Heddel found a single plant of it, of which of course the 
root was carefully left. Here we also saw Eleocharis uniglumis, 
Melampyrum pratense /3. montanum, and Botrychium Lunaria. 
But by far the most interesting excursion I made was to the 
Wast hill of Hoy, on the 28th of June, which I owed to the 
kindness of Mr. Heddel, who took me across in his yacht and 
pointed out the habitats of most of the very interesting alpine 
plants which are to be found there. Unfortunately our time 



268 Mr. J. T. Syme on some Plants observed in Orkney. 

was very limited, as we had to beat against wind and tide, and 
so did not reach the Bow (at the foot of the hill) till the after- 
noon. The ascent to the hill is at first not quite so steep as 
the slope of the debris of Salisbury Crags at Edinburgh, and 
here Galium pusillum, Saxifraga aizoides and Silene acaulis were 
abundant, even at the very foot of the hill. After ascending 
about 500 feet, the red sandstone rock rises nearly perpendicu- 
larly for about 150 feet, and here we gathered Thalictrum alpi- 
num, Saussurea alpina, Oxyria reniformis, Sedum Rhodiola, and a 
Hieracium not in flower, which appeared to be H. murorum y.Law- 
soni. Above the rocks the hill is nearly bare of vegetation, and 
covered with debris, among which Dry as octopetala was growing 
in great perfection. Saxifraga oppositifolia and Draba incana 
also occur on the hill, but we had not time to look for them, as 
I was most anxious to see the station for Ajuga pyramidalis, 
found by Mr. Robert Heddel, at the Burn of Berridale. We 
accordingly descended into the valley of Rackwick, gathering 
Lycopodium annotinum on our way, and reached the Burn of 
Berridale about six o'clock in the evening. This ravine is re- 
markable as being the only place in Orkney where the birch and 
mountain-ash are to be seen growing wild. We soon found the 
Ajuga pyramidalis, which is confined to the west side of the burn 
near its mouth, and is by no means easily noticed. The barren 
plants resemble very much young plants of Digitalis purpurea, and 
they usually flower under the shelter of bushes of Calluna vulgaris. 
The plants were small, from 1-3 inches high, but were still in 
flower, while that which I had seen in Neversdale some days 
before had its seeds nearly ripe. Melampyrum pratense /3. mon- 
tanum, Scirpus fluitans and Drosera anglica also occurred here, 
and Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi in great profusion. There are also 
bushes of Corylus Avellana and Hedera Helix among the rocks. 
Rubus suberectus was found by Dr. Duguid on the north-west of 
Hoy, but we had not time to visit the station before embarking 
on our return to the Bow. 

My next trip to Hoy was on the 3rd of July, when I ex- 
amined part of the south-west coast, in company with Mr. Hed- 
del. About two miles from Melsetter, Stenhammaria maritima 
occurred, and on the hills in several places Arctostaphylos alpina 
and Vaccinium uliginosum. Mr. Heddel has found Lobelia Dort- 
manna in several of the lakes in Waas, but I did not meet with 
it myself. 

On the 17th of August I again visited Howton Head, but 
found Primula scotica out of flower. I was misled by the plants 
of it in the garden at Swanbister, which came into flower at this 
time, being probably delayed in flowering by having been trans- 
planted in the spring. Anagallis tcnella and Habenaria vvridis 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 269 

were now in flower at this place, but I saw nothing else of any 
interest. 

On the 28th of August I paid a visit to the north-west coast 
of Hoy, and found Drosera anglica in abundance, and Vaccinium 
uliginosum sparingly, and in the marshes above Rysay Schcenus 
nigricans and Eleocharis multicaulis, both of which I also found 
in several places in the mainland. 

On the 31st Stachys ambigua was in flower at Kirkwall. Near 
Piggar, and in several other places round Swanbister, Anthemis 
nobilis occurs in plenty and apparently wild in one marshy 
field in particular, where it covers a large extent of ground, and 
is now at all events perfectly naturalized. 

At Swanbister there is a tract of low land called the " Fidge," 
which used to be overflowed by the sea at spring tides, but is 
now protected from this by a sea-wall built by Mr. Fortescue. 
Here there are a good many of the plants that are to be found 
in salt marshes, Salicornia herbacea, Cakile maritima, Alsme ma- 
ritima, Sagina maritima, Carex extensa, Eleocharis uniglumis, 
Ruppia rostellata, Potamogeton filiformis, Blysmus rufus, and one 
plant of Stenhammaria maritima. On the rocks called " Bar- 
nory," to the south of this, Ligusticum scoticum and the maritime 
form of Pyrethrum inodorum were seen ; both of these plants also 
occur in profusion in the island of Burray along with Silene 
maritima. 

Avena fatua and strigosa are found in most of the turnip- 
fields, &c, and appear to be quite indigenous. Festuca ovina 
var. vivipara is also common, and Radiola millegrana is to be seen 
in most of the moors. 

There are a few bushes of Populus tremula and Rosa villosa 
on the clhTs, on the east side of the Wauk-mill bay between Kirk- 
wall and Swanbister. 

These are all the plants which I met with that are worth 
noticing ; but on my next trip to Orkney I hope to be able to 
visit the north isles, which may perhaps add some others to the 
list, and make a trip to Orkney of sufficient interest to attract 
botanists more competent than myself to examine its flora. 

84 Great King Street, Edinburgh, Feb. 5th, 1850. 



XXVII. — Descriptions of Aphides. By Francis Walker, F.L.S. 

[Continued from p. 28.] 

77. Aphis Mali, Fabricius. 
Aphis Mali, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. 216; Syst. Rhyn. 298; 
Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 116; Gbtze, Ent. Beit. ii. 317; Stew. 



270 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

El. ii. Ill ; Turt. ii. 706; Shaw, Gen. Zool. vi. pi. 58; Kalt. 
Mon. Pflan. i. 72. 52. 

A. Pomi, Deg. Ins. iii. 36. pi. 3. fig. 18-21 ; Latr. Gen. Cr. 
iii. 173. 

A. Oxyacantha, Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 116. 1219. 

Oxyacanthaphis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2 de serie, v. 478. 

This species feeds on Pyrus mains, P. communis, Cydonia vul- 
garis, Mespilus germanica, Sorbus aucuparia, and Crataegus oocy- 
acantha. 

When very young, and in the middle of March, it has a dark 
green colour : the head and the limbs are still darker : the eyes 
are dark brown : the feelers are half the length of the body : the 
mouth reaches to the hind-hips : a dark stripe runs along each side 
of the body : the nectaries are about one-eighth of its length : the 
legs are rather short and stout : it dwells on the buds with the pale 
orange young ones of Psylla Pyri. When full-grown it is green, 
shining, oval, and convex: the limbs are brownish green : the feelers 
are setaceous, rather stout, brown, pale green at the base, and less 
than half the length of the body : the legs are pale green ; the 
feet are brown : the front is broad and convex, and there are no 
tubercles at the base of the feelers; the first and the second 
joints of the latter are not angular ; the fourth joint is much 
shorter than the third ; the fifth is a little shorter than the fourth ; 
the sixth is a little shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is slender, 
and rather shorter than the third. 

1st var. The body is pale yellowish green with three vivid 
green stripes. 

2nd var. The body is grass-green, varied with yellow towards 
the head : the limbs are pale yellow : the feelers are one-third of 
the length of the body : the nectaries are one-twelfth of the length 
of the body. 

3rd var. The body is green ; the limbs excepting the tips of 
the feelers are paler. 

4th var. The body is green : the feelers are pale green, and 
very much shorter than the body : the nectaries are green, and 
from one-fourth to one-fifth of the length of the body : the mouth 
is green ; its tip and the eyes are black : the legs are pale green 
with brown feet. 

5th var. The feelers are shorter than the body, and the nec- 
taries equal one-tenth of its length. 

6th var. The body is pale green : the feelers are pale brown, 
pale green at the base, and rather more than half the length of 
the body : the eyes are dark brown ; the mouth is pale green 
with a darker tip : the nectaries are less than one-twelfth of the 
length of the body : the legs are pale green, and rather short ; 
the feet and the tips of the shanks are brown. 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 371 

The viviparous winged female. This as a. pupa and when very 
young is reddish green, but afterwards acquires a rose or pale 
red colour : the nectaries are as long as one-eighth of the body : 
the rudimentary wings are pale red ; they are unfolded before 
the middle of May, and then the insect is deep black : the hind- 
border of the fore-chest is dark green : the abdomen is green, 
and sometimes it has a row of black spots on each side : the 
feelers are black, dull green at the base, and much shorter than 
the body ; the fourth joint is much shorter than the third ; the 
fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is a little shorter than 
the fifth ; the seventh is quite as long as the third : the mouth is 
green ; its tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are black, 
and vary in length from one-sixth to one-tenth of the body : the 
legs are dull yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of 
the shanks are black : the wings are colourless and nearly twice 
the length of the body ; the wing-ribs are green ; the wing-brands 
are pale brown ; the veins are dark brown : the second fork is 
very short. 

1st var. Black : the front and the back of the fore-chest, the 
fore-breast, and the abdomen are dark green : the feelers are a 
little shorter than the body : the mouth is pale dull yellow with 
a black tip : the fore-thighs, the shanks except their tips, and 
the four hinder thighs towards the base are yellow : the wing- 
ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow 7 ; the wing-brands are pale 
brown ; the other veins are brown. 

2nd var. Green : the head, the disc of the chest, and that of 
the breast are black, and there is a row of black spots on each 
side of the abdomen : the feelers are black, and about half the 
length of the body : the nectaries are afeout one-twelfth of the 
length of the body : the legs are black ; the shanks except their 
tips, and the thighs towards the base, and sometimes nearly the 
whole of the fore-thighs are pale yellow : the wing-ribs are some- 
times pale yellow, and the colour of the wing-brands varies from 
pale brown to dull green. 

3rd var. The fore-thighs are black with the exception of the 
base. 

4th var. The body is grass-green : the discs of the head, of the 
chest and of the breast are pale reddish brown : the feelers are 
brown, and shorter than the body : the mouth is pale green with 
a brown tip : the eyes are dark brown : the nectaries are pale 
green, and about one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs 
are dull pale green ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are brown : 
the wing-ribs and the rib-veins are dull green ; the brands and 
the other veins are brown. On the whitethorn in the middle of 
May. 

5th var. While a pupa it is green, with two darker green 



272 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

stripes : the feelers and the legs are pale green ; the tips of the 
former and the feet are brown. When the wings are unfolded 
the insect is black : the borders and the underside of the fore- 
chest and the abdomen are green : the feelers and the eyes are 
black : the mouth is green with a black tip : the nectaries are 
black, and as long as one-tenth of the body : the legs are pale 
yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of the shanks are 
black : the wing-ribs are pale yellow, the brands are pale brown. 
On the whitethorn in the middle of June. 

6th var. The body is dull green : the head and the disc of the 
chest are varied with black : the feelers are brown, green at the 
base, and shorter than the body : the wing-ribs are pale green ; 
the veins are brown. 

7th var. While a pupa it is pale greenish yellow, with three 
vivid green stripes on the back : the feelers are pale yellow with 
brown tips and much shorter than the body : the mouth and the 
nectaries are pale yellow with brown tips, and the latter are 
nearly one-sixth of the length of the body : the legs are pale 
yellow ; the feet are brown. The winged Aphis is black : the 
abdomen is green : the feelers are rather short : the nectaries are 
black : the legs are pale green ; the feet and the tips of the thighs 
are black : the wing- veins are pale dull green. 

The fourth branch vein of the wing has a more gentle curve 
than that of many species, and the angle whence it springs is 
slight ; the third as usual is obsolete at its source, and it runs 
nearly half its length before it sends forth its first fork, and 
more than three-fourths of the same before it sends forth its 
second ; the second vein diverges slightly from the third as it 
proceeds to the hind-border; they are nearer to each other at their 
source than the third is to the fourth ; the third converges gra- 
dually towards the fourth from the base to the "tip ; the first and 
second are nearer to each other at their source than are the 
second and third, but more remote at their tips. 

Variations in the wing-veins. — 1st var. The second fork is 
wanting. 

2nd var. Both forks are wanting. 

3rd var. Like the last, but the second and the third veins 
meet, and after a short space part, and proceed to their re- 
spective destinations. 

4th var. The second fork in one wing is moderately long, in 
the other it is very short. 

The oviparous wingless female. It appears in the middle of the 
autumn, and when very young it is pale yellow or greenish yel- 
low : the tips of the feelers, the eyes, the tip of the mouth, and 
the feet are dark. When a little older it is elliptical, and of a 
soft pale velvet-like yellow hue : the feelers are black, pale yeHow 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 273 

at the base, and rather more than half the length of the body ; 
the knees and the tips of the shanks are black. AVhen still older 
it acquires a green tint, especially on the abdomen : the nectaries 
have black tips, and they are one-sixth, one-eighth or one-twelfth 
of the length of the body : when full-grown the body is green 
and spindle-shaped, and the abdomen is lengthened towards the 
tip : the hind- shanks are hardly thicker or darker than the 
others. 

1st var. Dark green with a bluish black hue. 

2nd var. Buff. 

3rd var. Pale orange. 

4th var. Pale red. 

5th var. The body is pale yellowish green, whitish green 
beneath : the head is brownish : the feelers are about half the 
length of the body : the mouth is pale yellow ; its tip and the eyes 
are black : the nectaries are black, and about one-twelfth of the 
length of the body : the legs are yellow ; the knees, the feet, and 
the tips of the shanks are black. 

The winged male. It pairs with the oviparous female at the 
end of October, and is black : the front and the rear of the fore- 
chest, the fore-breast and the abdomen are dull yellow; the latter 
is slightly traversed by black bands : the feelers are very nearly 
as long as the body, and like those of the female are thick, with 
the exception of the last joint ; the fourth joint is about half the 
length of the third ; the fifth is very nearly as long as the fourth ; 
the sixth is a little shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is rather 
longer than the third : the mouth is dull yellow with a black tip : 
the nectaries are as long as one-sixth of the body : the legs are 
yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of the shanks are 
black : the wing-ribs are pale yellow ; the veins and the wing- 
brands are pale brown ; the second fork is sometimes wanting. 

1st var. The mouth is black ; its base is dull yellow : the four 
hinder thighs are black, with the exception of the base. 

2nd var. The thighs are black excepting the base. 

Length of the body 4—j line ; of the wings 1^-2^ lines. 

In the beginning of November the winged female is still occu- 
pied with bringing forth young ones, while the oviparous female 
is laying eggs. The leaves of the mountain ash are sometimes 
crowded with this Aphis in the autumn, and the wind carries 
them away with their insect-load. The apple-trees sometimes 
put forth new blossoms soon after the middle of June, the earlier 
flowers having been much injured by thi& Aphis and by Psylla 
Pyri. Mr. Spence mentions that the abundance of Aphis mali 
caused the failure of the apple crops in Worcestershire, Devon- 
shire, and Herefordshire, in 1838. 

Ann. % Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 18 



274 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

78. Aphis Padi, Linn. 

Aphis Padi, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 734. 8 ; Faun. Suec. 981 ; 
Fabr. Ent. Syst. iv. 220. 50; Reaum. Ins. iii. pi. 23. fig. 9, 10; 
Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 115. 1216; Stew. El. ii. 110; Turt. ii. 
708 ; Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 74. 53. 

Padifex, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2 de serie, v. 477. 

The viviparous wingless female. This Aphis feeds on Prunus 
Padus, is hatched before the middle of March, and is then dull 
green: the feelers are blackish green, and less than half the 
length of the body : the eyes are dark brown : the mouth is 
dull green with a darker tip, and reaches the hind-hips : there 
is a dull red spot on each side of the abdomen near the nectaries, 
which are almost black, and about one-tenth of the length of the 
body : the legs are blackish green. In April it becomes rather 
broad, oval and convex, increasing in breadth from the head till 
near the base of the nectaries ; its colour is now pale green, or 
grass-green tinged with yellow ; the red spot at the base of each 
nectary is larger than before ; and it is quite filled with young 
ones, and even the fore-chest is occasionally occupied by these 
little embryos, which sometimes exceed thirty in number : the 
feelers are pale yellow with brown tips, and not more than one- 
fifth of the length of the body ; the fourth joint is more than 
half the length of the third ; the fifth is very nearly as long as 
the fourth ; the sixth is more than half the length of the fifth ; 
the seventh is more than twice the length of the sixth : the eyes 
are black : the forehead is prominent in the middle, and has a 
slight tubercle at the inner base of each feeler : the mouth is 
yellow with a brown tip, and reaches the middle-hips : the legs 
are yellow ; the feet and the tips of the shanks are black ; the 
four hinder shanks are slightly curved; the fore-legs are but 
little more than half the length of the hind-legs : the nectaries 
are yellow with brown tips, and about one-twentieth of the length 
of the body : there is a short tube at the tip of the abdomen. 
Before the end of April the mother of a colony gives birth to a 
progeny of young ones that are very unlike their parent, being 
much darker and of a blackish green colour, and covered with 
white powder which increases in quantity as they advance in age. 
The colour when the skin has been lately shed is sometimes pale 
orange or dull olive- green, with a pale green head and almost 
white limbs. Mr. Hardy has sent me this species from the 
neighbourhood of Berwick in July, but it disappears from the 
bird-cherry near London in the beginning of summer, when the 
foliage is often almost destroyed by it and by Yponomeuta Padella, 
and it does not return to that tree till the autumn. 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 275 

1st var. The body is dark brownish green. 

2nd var. The feelers are nearly one- fourth of the length of the 
body. 

3rd var. The feelers are half the length of the body. 

4th var. The feelers are three-fourths of the length of the 
body. 

5th var. The nectaries are one-twelfth of the length of the 
body. 

6th var. The fore-legs are longer than usual. 

The viviparous winged female. The pupa is not only distin- 
guished from the wingless insect by its structure, but also by its 
darker colour and by its greater activity : the feelers are brown, 
pale green at the base : the legs are pale green ; the feet and the 
tips of the shanks are brown : the rudimentary wings are pale 
green. The wings are unfolded in May, and the insect is then 
pale olive-green ; the limbs are still paler, and the wings are milk- 
white : it is afterwards black : the abdomen is brassy black above, 
very dark green and covered with white powder beneath : the 
feelers are much shorter than the body; the fourth joint is 
shorter than the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; the 
sixth is much shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is more than 
twice the length of the sixth : the nectaries are as long as one- 
twelfth of the body : the legs are dull green ; the feet, the tips 
of the thighs and of the shanks, and the whole of the hind- 
thighs are black : the wings are colourless, and very much longer 
than the body : the wing-ribs are almost white ; the wing-brands 
are green ; the veins are brown. 

At least eight young ones may be seen in its body while 
it is yet a pupa : the feelers are a little shorter than the body ; 
the fifth joint is much shorter than the fourth ; the seventh 
is nearly thrice the length of the sixth : the fore-legs are only a 
little shorter than the hind-legs ; the fore-shanks are slightly 
curved, and very much longer than those of the wingless female : 
the nectaries are about one-twelfth of the length of the body : 
the widening of the main vein into the wing-brand begins at 
about half the length of the wing; it is very gradual in its ap- 
proach towards, and union with, the fore-border, which is rather 
convex towards the base of the wing : the brand is irregularly 
spindle-shaped, and the fourth branch-vein springs from the 
middle of its hind-border; the third branch-vein is, as usual, 
obsolete before its source from the main-vein ; its first fork 
occurs soon after one-third of its length, and its second fork 
soon after five-sixths of its length. 

1st var. The legs are black, with the exception of the yellow 
base of the fore-thighs. 

2nd var. The wing-brands arc pale brown. 

18* 



276 Mr.F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

3rd var. The second fork in the third vein of the fore-wing is 
wanting. The length of this second fork is often very variable 
in the same species, and even in opposite wings of the same 
Aphis. 

Length of the body f-1 line ; of the wings 2^-3 lines. 

79. Aphis Sorbi, Kaltenbach. 

Aphis Sorbi, Kalt. Mon. Pflan. i. 70. 51. 

The viviparous wingless female. This species is hatched in the 
middle of March or somewhat later, and then begins to feed on 
the buds of the apple-trees : it is very small and of a dark green 
colour : the head, the limbs, and a stripe on each side of the body 
are still darker : the feelers are not more than half the length of 
the body : the eyes are dark brown : the mouth reaches the base 
of the hind-legs : the nectaries are about one-eighth of the length 
of the body : the legs are rather short and stout. When full- 
grown the body is nearly round, dark reddish brown, and thickly 
covered with white powder : the limbs are black : the front is 
nearly straight, but has three slight tubercles : the feelers are 
half the length of the body : the nectaries are about one- ninth of 
its length. 

1st var. Dull green, short, and very plump : the feelers are 
brown, dull green at the base, and shorter than the body : the 
eyes are black : the mouth is dull green with a brown tip : the 
nectaries are black, and as long as one-tenth of the body : the 
legs are pale yellow, and rather long ; the feet, the tips of the 
shanks and of the four hinder thighs are black. 

2nd var. Very dark green : the thighs are black with the ex- 
ception of the base which is pale yellow : the nectaries are one- 
eighth of the length of the body. 

3rd var. Nearly round, dull reddish green, paler beneath : the 
feelers are black, and nearly as long as the body : the tip of the 
mouth is black : the nectaries are as long as one-sixth of the 
body : the legs are gray, excepting the base of the fore-thighs 
which is dull yellow. 

4th var. The feelers are hardly half the length of the body. 

5th var. The young one has a large dull tawny spot at the 
base of each nectary. 

6th var. Dark reddish brown : the limbs are black : the feelers 
are half the length of the body ; the nectaries are one-ninth of 
its length. 

7th var. Pale orange. 

8th var. Dark orange. 

9th var. Pale green. 

10th var. Pale buff, darker towards the tip of the abdomen. 

11th var. Pale red, short- elliptic : the feelers are white with 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 277 

black tips, and as long as the body : the mouth is white ; its tip 
and the eyes are black : the nectaries are also black, and as long 
as one-fifth of the body : the legs are white ; the feet and the tips 
of the shanks are black. 

32th var. Dull green, plump, and nearly elliptic: the feelers 
are white with brown tips, and longer than the body : the eyes 
are black : the mouth is white with a brown tip : the nectaries 
are black, and as long as one-fifth of the body : the legs are dull 
white ; the knees and the tips of the shanks are black. 

13th var. Dull green, oval, mottled with red at the tip of the 
abdomen : the feelers are pale brown, and nearly white towards 
the base : the mouth is dull green with a brown tip j the nectaries 
are brown, and as long as one-fifth of the body; the feet and the 
tips of the thighs and of the shanks are also brown. 

14th var. Dull green, oval, more or less tinged with red, and 
covered with a white powder, or mottled with red and green, or 
all red, or varied with black ; there is a row of black spots on 
each side of the body: the feelers are black, pale yellow towards 
the base, and nearly as long as the body : the mouth is pale 
yellow ; its tip and the eyes are black : the nectaries are pale 
yellow with black tips, and nearly one-fourth of the length of 
the body : the legs are yellow ; the feet, the knees, and the tips 
of the shanks are black. On the mountain -ash. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it resembles the 
wingless female, but it is rather narrower, and its rudimentary 
wings are whitish ; these organs are unfolded in May, and the 
insect is then black and shining : the fore-chest is red, which 
colour also prevails on the base and the underside of the abdo- 
men : the feelers are shorter than the body : the mouth is pale 
yellow with a black tip: the nectaries are as long as one- sixth 
of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; the thighs except the base, 
the feet and the tips of the shanks, are black : the wings are 
colourless, and longer than the body; the wing-ribs are pale 
yellow ; the veins and the wing-brands are dull yellow ; the 
second fork is very long. 

1st var. The fore-border and the hind-border of the fore-chest 
are green : the abdomen is dull yellowish green ; its disc is black, 
and there is a row of black spots on each side : the wing- brands 
and the veins are brown. On the mountain-ash. 

This species feeds on Crataegus oxyacantha, Pyrus malus, Sor- 
bus aucupavia and S. domestica ; it appeared in thick clusters on 
this last tree near London in the summer of 1847, and gave the 
leaves autumnal red and yellow tints, and great numbers of 
humble-bees (Bombi) came to feed on its honey. 

The oviparous wingless female. This appears at the end of Oc- 
tober ; it is oval, yellow, and rather flat, and has a distinct rim 



278 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

on each side of the body : the feelers are black towards the tips, 
and much longer than the body : the eyes and the tip of the 
mouth are black : the nectaries have black tips, and are nearly 
one -fourth of the length of the body : the legs are pale yellow ; 
the knees and the tips of the shanks are black. 

The winged male. This appears in the autumn and pairs with 
the oviparous female at the end of October : it is deep black : the 
abdomen is sometimes dark red with a black line along the mid- 
dle ; it has a white bloom beneath : the feelers are slender, and 
much longer than the body; the fourth joint is much shorter 
than the third, but more than half its length ; the fifth is shorter 
than the fourth ; the sixth is about half the length of the fifth ; 
the seventh is a little longer than the fourth : the nectaries are 
nearly one-fifth of the length of the body : the thighs towards 
the base, and the shanks except their tips are dark yellow : the 
wings are very much longer than the body ; the wing-ribs, the 
rib-veins and the wing-brands are pale brown ; the second vein 
diverges rather more from the first than it does from the third ; 
the first fork of the latter vein begins a little after one-third, and 
the second beyond two- thirds of its length; the fourth vein 
is much curved near its base, but nearly straight towards its tip : 
the angle whence it springs is slight. 

It sometimes couples also with the oviparous female of Aphis 
Mali. 

Both these species very abundant in the autumn of 1846, but 
very scarce during that season in 1847. 

Length of the body f-1 line ; of the wings 2|— 3 lines. 
■ 

80. Aphis Euonymi. 

Aphis Euonymi, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 736. 14; Ent. Syst. iv. 214. 
21 ; Syst. Rhyn. 294. 21 ; Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. 2206 ; Schrank, 
Faun. Boic. ii. 1. 108; Turt. ii. 705; Sir Oswald Mosley, Gard. 
Chron. i. 684; Kaltenbach, Mon. Pflan. i. 79. 57. 

Euonymaphis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2 serie, v. 478. 

The viviparous wingless female. This appears on the spindle- 
tree (Euonymus europaus) in April : it is black, oval, convex, 
short, broad, very plump, and covered with a white bloom : the 
feelers are white, and about one-third of the length of the body ; 
their tips are black : the nectaries are about one-fifteenth of the 
length of the body : the legs are rather short, the shanks are 
white with black tips ; the fore-shanks are dirty white with brown 
tips. The young one is like its mother, but more flat and 
linear, less intensely black, and without bloom ; its limbs are 
blackish green, and at the moment of its birth its body is dark 
green. The front of the head is slightly convex, and not notched ; 
the first and the second joints of the feelers are not angular ; the 



\ 



Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 279 

fourth joint is shorter than the third ; the fifth is a little shorter 
than the fourth ; the sixth is a little shorter than the fifth ; the 
seventh is nearly twice the length of the sixth. 

1st var. Dark bronze colour. 

2nd var. Pale whitish green ; limbs darker. 

3rd var. Black and white, or piebald. 

4th var. Dark velvet-like red : the feelers are white with black 
tips : the mouth also is white ; its tip, the eyes and the nectaries 
are black : there is a large and somewhat pale spot on the disc of 
the body: the legs are white; the four hinder thighs, the fore- 
knees, the feet and the tips of the shanks are black. When very 
young it is pale red, and its legs excepting the feet are nearly 
all white. 

It is infested by an Apkidius. The clusters of dead bodies 
which stick to the leaves are consumed by little Acari. 

The viviparous winged female. While a pupa it has spots of 
white powder in a row on each side of the body : when the w ings 
are unfolded it is stout, thick, black, shining, and has a slight 
metallic tinge : the feelers are more than half the length of the 
body; the fourth joint is shorter than the third; the fifth is 
shorter than the fourth ; the sixth is much shorter than the 
fifth ; the seventh is hardly twice the length of the sixth : 
the mouth is dull green with a black tip : the nectaries are 
not more than one-tenth of the length of the body : the legs 
are black ; the shanks except their tips, the base of the thighs, 
and nearly the whole of the fore-thighs, are yellow : the wings 
are colourless, and are very much longer than the body ; the 
wing-ribs and the rib-veins are pale yellow ; the wing-brands are 
dull buff; the other veins are brown ; the second vein diverges 
much more from the first than it does from the third ; the first 
fork of the latter vein begins after one-third, and the second still 
more beyond two-thirds of its length ; the fourth vein is more 
curved at its source than near its tip : the angle whence it springs 
is very slight. 

1st var. Pale whitish green with dark limbs. 

2nd var. Body black and white. 

3rd var. Wings with a slight yellow tinge. 

4th var. Body small, black : abdomen dark green : the seventh 
joint of the feelers is more than twice the length of the sixth. 

Length of the body i-f line ; of the wings If -2^ lines. 

Variations in the veins of the wings. 1st var. — The fourth 
branch- vein forms an angle, and a short cross-vein passes from 
it to the second fork of the third branch- vein : in the opposite 
wing the branches of the second fork having separated reunite, 
and form a little elliptical areolet, and then again divide to form 
the fork. « 



280 Mr. F. Walker's Descriptions of Aphides. 

2nd var. The second and the fourth branch-veins are forked 
near their tips. 

3rd var. An additional vein connects the lower branch of the 
first fork with the second fork of the third vein. 

4th var. There is a spurious or supernumerary vein which 
proceeds from the third vein a little before its first fork, and 
passes towards the hind-border of the wing, which however it 
does not attain. 

5th var. The fourth vein is forked near its tip. 

6th var. With an areolet like that of the second var., but 
larger and triangular. 

81. Aphis Lychnidis, Linn. 

Aphis Lychnidis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ii. 734. 7 ; Faun. Suec. 980 
Fab*. Syst. Ent. 737. 1; Sp. Ins. i. 2. 384. 4; Ent. Syst. iv 
210. 2; Syst. Rhyn. 294. 2; Gmel. ed. Syst. Nat. i. 2203 
Schrank, Faun. Boic. ii. 114. 1214; Berk. Syn. i. 119; Stew 
El. ii. 110; Turt. ii. 703; Kaltenbach, Mon. Pflan. i. 92. 67 
Reaum. Ins. iii. 281. 340. 

A. Cucubali, Linn. Faun. Suec. 719. 

Lychnidaphis, Amyot, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2 de serie, v. 478. 

This species feeds from April to November on Lychnis viscaria, 
L. diurna, and Cucubalus Behen. 

The viviparous wingless female. This is hatched in April, and 
is remarkable for its shining and glutinous appearance : the body 
is rather small, black, oval, very convex and plump, dark green 
beneath : the feelers are black, slender, more than half the length 
of the body, pale yellow towards the base which is black : the 
eyes are dark brown : the mouth is pale green : the nectaries are 
about one-twelfth of the length of the body : the legs are pale 
yellow; the knees, the feet, and the tips of the shanks are 
brown. When young it is dark green, or pale greenish red, or 
pale brown : the head is pale green : the limbs are almost or 
quite white. 

The viviparous winged female. The pupa unfolds its wings 
in the middle of May : it is then black and shining : the fore- 
border and the hind-border of the fore- chest are dull tawny, 
which is also the colour of the abdomen beneath, and at the base 
above : the feelers are as long as the body ; the fourth joint is 
much shorter than the third ; the fifth is shorter than the fourth ; 
the sixth is much shorter than the fifth ; the seventh is nearly as 
long as the third : the mouth is black with a pale yellow base : 
the nectaries are about one-eighth of the length of the body : the 
legs are dull yellow ; the feet and the tips of the thighs and of 
the shanks and the greater part of the hind-thighs are black : 
the wings are colourless, and much longer than the body ; the 



. bin . & . Wag. . I *at. ///.V . S. Z . Vol . 5. PC. 17. 




A. Hann v/- rM . 



JMo n kzcitta. ferriugifiosa 



• Mag. JVat.Eist. S. 2. Vol. 5 VI, IT/. 




A-JTancoek. deZ 



Mr. A. Hancock on a species of Hydra. 281 

wing-ribs and the rib-veins are yellow ; the brands and the veins 
are brown, and the latter are very distinct. 

1st var. The seventh joint of the feelers is hardly longer than 
the fourth. 

2nd var. The mouth is dull yellow with a black tip. 

3rd var. The nectaries are one-tenth of the length of the 
body. 

4th var. The legs are black : the base of the thighs is yellow 
in the fore-pair, and has a slight tinge of yellow in the rest. 

The oviparous wingless female ? The head, the underside, and 
sometimes the chest, and even the whole body, are red: the 
mouth is pale yellow with a black tip. Found in the autumn. 

The winged male ? Black, and very small : the abdomen is very 
dark green : the feelers are a little longer than the body : the 
mouth is dull yellow; its tip and the nectaries are black, and 
the latter are as long as one-sixth of the body : the legs are black ; 
the base of the fore-thighs, and the shanks, except their tips, are 
dark yellow : the wings are nearly twice the length of the body ; 
the wing-ribs are pale yellow. In the beginning of November. 

Length of the body J -f line; of the wings lf-2^ lines. 
[To be continued.] 

XXVIII. — Notes on a species of Hydra found in the Northumber- 
land Lakes. By Albany Hancock, Esq. 

[With two Plates.] 

On visiting the Northumberland lakes last August for the pur- 
pose of prosecuting my inquiries respecting the freshwater Asci- 
dian Polypes, I took a very beautiful Hydra abundantly in 
Bromley Lough. On a subsequent occasion numerous speci- 
mens of the same species were also obtained in Crag Lough. 
They were found associated with the various Bryozoa that 
inhabit these waters, adhering to the under side of stones that 
lie scattered by their margins, and in situations where there was . 
neither mud nor vegetation. From the peculiar character of the 
locality, so different from that of the usual habitat of the Hydra, 
I was induced to examine the specimens with great care, and 
find that they do not exactly agree with any of the known forms, 
though they come very near to H. fusca, of which they may pro- 
bably prove to be a variety. 

On removing from the water a stone to which these Hydra 
are attached, they appear as irregular, minute, depressed globules 
of gelatine of a pale red flesh- colour, dispersed over the surface, 
sometimes in great numbers on one stone, but never crowded on 
each other. When placed in a bottle of water they soon become 
fixed to its sides, and spreading out their tentacles display them- 



282 Mr. A. Hancock on a species of Hydra 

selves to great advantage. They are now seen to be very variable in 
form, PI. VI. figs. 3, 4, — or rather that they have great command 
over it, contracting themselves until they are almost globular or 
vase-like, with the tentacles very short and swelled out in the 
centre ; then, extending themselves, they become linear, much at- 
tenuated, and frequently half an inch long, — the tentacles, fig. 5, 
being very delicate, and tapering imperceptibly towards the ex- 
tremity which is enlarged and rounded, forming a nodule or bulb 
of no great size, but quite visible to the naked eye. The polype, 
however, is usually much less extended, and is generally a little 
bulged in the centre; the tentacles are then somewhat longer 
than the body, but are shorter than it when the animal is fully 
stretched out. There are usually six tentacles, occasionally five, 
rarely seven ; they are white, never coloured in the centre like 
the body, which, as already stated, is a red flesh-colour ; it is also 
sometimes yellowish. The colouring, which is apparently much 
affected by exposure to light, depends on the granules that line 
the internal or digestive cavity, and is most intense near the 
mouth. 

When in their native haunts, attached to the under side of 
stones, the Hydra must be nearly in total darkness ; but on being 
placed in a bottle they become exposed to the solar rays, and in 
the course of a few days are almost completely bleached. Sup- 
posing that this loss of colour was occasioned by the want of 
food, the specimens were supplied with animalcules ; but their 
original hue was not in the least restored. 

During the first week or ten days the captives added greatly 
to their number by gemmation, the buds sprouting from the 
lower portion of the body, — rarely more than one at a time. 
Afterwards the budding was much less frequent ; and in about 
a month from the time they were taken, most of the specimens 
had perished. Two or three, figs. 1 & 2, more favourably placed 
than the rest, continued to live on for some time longer, and 
thrived well ; but they changed considerably in appearance. A 
short way below the tentacles two tubercles, a, a, had developed 
themselves opposite to each other, and were in every respect 
symmetrical ; and the body was considerably enlarged towards 
the lower extremity. In this state the animal had a pedunculate 
appearance, and I was quite at a loss to account for the change. 
These specimens belonged to the first batch procured in Bromley 
Lough. On visiting the lakes again, however, in September, and 
getting a fresh supply, nearly all the individuals exhibited the 
same appearances ; the tubercles being invariably a little below 
the tentacles, though not always symmetrically placed ; and oc- 
casionally they were three and even four in number : the swelling, 
too, on the lower part of the body varied in different specimens. 



found in the Northumberland Lakes. 283 

On placing one of them, PI. VII. fig. 5, under the microscope, 
the tubercle was found to be vesicular, of a conical form, with the 
apex obtuse, and to resemble in texture the general surface of 
the animal : the basal portion contained an opake, rosy, granular 
body, a, of a glandular appearance, which completely filled the 
base of the tubercle ; the apex, b, was pellucid, and on being 
attentively examined a crowd of very minute moving bodies were 
observed within it. 

Whilst watching with great earnestness the motion of these 
mysterious bodies, all of a sudden the apex of the tubercle burst, 
and a great number of them, cloud- like, rushing into the sur- 
rounding fluid, dispersed in all directions. The rupture appeared 
to close again, and the apex was seen to be almost empty ; but 
fresh bodies making their appearance the receptacle was soon as 
full as ever. I have seen the eruption of these corpuscles on 
several occasions, and have no doubt that it is a natural pheno- 
menon ; — not resulting from any artificial means, — certainly 
not from pressure, as the animals were always quite free. On 
examining these moving bodies, fig. 12, which are exceedingly 
minute, with £th of an inch object-glass, they were found to be of 
an elliptical form, and to resemble spermatozoa ; tails, however, 
were not detected, though with a higher power it is not impro- 
bable that they may be found; for I could not satisfy myself of 
their non-existence. 

The nature of these tubercles or sacs is a matter of much 
interest. They were discovered by Ehrenberg, and described 
by him as the male organ, — the moving bodies being considered 
spermatozoa. Though I have not seen the original memoir on 
the subject, I think there can be little doubt of the accuracy of 
this opinion. How else can we account for the constancy of the 
appearance of these sacs ? — for their development at the time the 
eggs are being produced, as we shall afterwards see is the case ? 
— for their being situated always on the same part of the ani- 
mal ? — for the contained gland-like body, and moving corpuscles ? 
— for the eruption of these latter bodies, and for their resem- 
blance to spermatozoa ? 

Having thus detected what I believed to be the male genera- 
tive organ, I was anxious to watch the development of the egg, 
which appears to have been already described more than once ; 
but as it has rarely been observed by British naturalists, I will 
venture to give my own remarks on the subject. The lower 
portion of the body, as before stated, is enlarged at the time when 
the male organ makes its appearance. On examining the en- 
largement, PI. VI. figs. 1 & 2 b, b y carefully, it is found to be 
usually greater on one side than the other ; here it is opake and 
of a pale rosy hue, notwithstanding that the animal is faded 



284 Mr. A. Hancock on a species of Hydra 

under the effect of light. The opake swelling extends nearly 
round the body, — the margins being generally distinct. This is 
the nascent ovum, as it appears at first ; it gradually increases 
in size, PL VII. fig. 1 d ! , and ultimately becomes very protu- 
berant, bulging the body excessively on one side : the egg at this 
time is confounded with its covering ; but it, d, is soon seen as 
a rounded, somewhat flattened body contained within a trans- 
parent envelope, e } resembling the general surface of the body, 
of which it is apparently a continuation. This envelope, fig. 2 b, b, 
shortly opens at the highest point of the swelling, and the egg, a, 
gradually makes its way through the orifice, which as gradually 
enlarges until the egg, figs. 3 b & 4 e, is completely exposed, and 
rests, as it were, within the mouth of a shallow cup, figs. 3 e, e, 
& 4 g, the contracted envelope. The egg remains in this position 
for a day or sometimes longer, attached to the body of the parent 
by a short, thin pedicle, figs. 3 d & 4/: the margins at first are 
generally undulated, as in fig. 4 ; afterwards the egg becomes 
almost completely globular. It is ultimately detached, and soon 
fixes itself to some foreign body. On watching one individual 
through the microscope, the egg was observed to separate from 
the parent, and to move slowly away. No ciliary action could 
be detected to account for the motion ; but it assuredly passed 
out of the field of view as often as the instrument was adjusted : 
in another instance, however, no motion could be observed. The 
egg, PL VI. fig. 6, in the course of an hour or so became 
stationary, and several minute globules, a, a, a, which had been 
noticed sticking to it from the first, PL VII. fig. 3 c, c, enlarged, 
and others made their appearance : they soon assumed the cha- 
racter of delicate cells, fig. 7, filled with globular bodies with 
dark margins. These globules are probably composed of some 
tenacious mucus with which to glue the egg to any substance on 
which it may happen to settle. Soon after attachment these 
bodies disappear, and the egg, which is now perfectly circular, is 
seen to be surrounded by a narrow, transparent rim, indicating 
the presence of a distinct chorion ; the under side of the egg being 
flattened, the upper side convex, opake and rosy as at first. 

I have not been able to determine with precision how many 
eggs are produced by each polype, but certainly no great number, 
probably not more than three or four, and in some instances 
perhaps only one. On one occasion after the egg separated from 
the animal, the latter gradually dwindled in size and ultimately 
disappeared. Most frequently, however, the polype is not 
materially altered on giving birth to an egg; and occasionally 
two, PL VII. fig. 1 d', d, are in process of development at the 
same time, generally from opposite sides, one being more advanced 
than the other. 



found in the Northumberland Lakes. 285 

The male organ is only developed at the time the eggs make 
their appearance. In August, shortly after the polypes were 
procured, they multiplied rapidly, as we have seen, by gemmation, 
and at this period none of the sacs containing spermatozoa were 
observed. It was not until they had ceased to propagate in this 
way, some time in September, that the male organ was developed, 
and it was always visible afterwards, though variable in size. 

All the individuals apparently produce eggs, and all are alike 
provided with the spermatic sacs ; at least the ovum in various 
stages of development and the male organ are seen at the same 
time in most specimens : it is not uncommon, however, to ob- 
serve the male organ only, the egg probably having just left the 
body of the parent, though I do not recollect having seen the 
egg in process of development in individuals unprovided with 
the sperm-vesicles. 

It is worthy of 1 em ark, that the buds sprout from the same 
part of the body in which the eggs are developed ; but I have 
seen nothing to warrant the assertion that the ova after im- 
pregnation "sometimes are retained and then grow out like 
buds." Indeed it is probable that fecundation does not take 
place until the egg bursts through the integument, and is attached 
to the parent only by a delicate pedicle. This would appear more 
likely than that impregnation should be effected through the 
skin of the animal. Whilst watching an individual when the 
egg was about to separate from the parent, the sperm-vesicle was 
frequently brought, by the contractions of the body, almost in 
contact with the ovum ; thus fecundation might very easily be 
effected, and at a moment, too, when from analogy it might be 
expected to take place : more observations, however, are required 
to settle this point. 

I have also observed sperm-vesicles, PI. VII. fig. 6, in H. 
viridis : in this species they are much smaller than in the speci- 
mens from the Northumberland lakes, and are generally two or 
three in number, near the anterior extremity of the body, but 
without symmetrical arrangement. They are irregularly conical, 
with the base wide, within which there is likewise a distinct 
glandular body of a green colour ; the moving bodies are very 
numerous, and occupy, as in the other species, the transparent 
apex. The sperm-vesicles were noticed in H. viridis after it had 
ceased to bud, some time early in October. 

The tentacles, Pis. VI. & VII. figs. 5, 7, of the flesh-coloured 
species are very rough and beautiful, exhibiting an imperfect 
spiral arrangement of the nodular enlargements. There are two 
kinds of vesicles immersed in the nodules, as have been described 
in some other species; one being much more numerous and 
smaller than the other. The former are for touch, the latter for 



286 Mr. A. Hancock on a species of Hydra 

prehension, according to Corda, who appears to have examined 
these organs with great care, but whose description of one of 
them is erroneous in several respects : the original memoir, how- 
ever, I have not seen. Neither have I had an opportunity of 
consulting Ehrenberg's account of the minute structure of the 
tentacles of these animals. The smaller vesicles, PL VII. fig. 
7 a, and fig. 8, seem to agree with Corda's description as given 
in Johnston's 'British Zoophytes'; they are elliptical, being com- 
posed of an inner and outer sac, both very delicate, transparent 
and membranous. These bodies are placed with their long axis 
perpendicular to the surface of the nodule in which they are 
imbedded, and have a non-contractile hair-like process projecting 
from the external end. 

The larger vesicles, fig. 7 b, are very complicated, and appear 
to have been only partially understood by Corda, though he had 
arrived at a full comprehension of their functions. They are 
not merely prehensile organs, but are undoubtedly also stinging 
instruments, as supposed by this naturalist, and are at least twice 
as large as those for touch : they, fig. 9, are of an ovate form, 
short and stout, immersed in the substance of the nodule with 
the narrow end uppermost, and immediately beneath the surface. 
At the bottom of the vesicle, which though perfectly transparent 
has rather thick walls, is seen a delicate lining membrane, d, 
folded down upon itself, having a cup- or saucer-like appearance. 
This, according to Corda, is " a saucer-like vesicle." Standing 
up from the centre of this is a transparent membranous stalk, 
c, irregularly bulged a little at the sides, and surmounted by a 
sharp arrow-like head, b, with the barbs much depressed. This 
supporting stalk is described by the naturalist just quoted as 
" a solid, ovate corpuscle." But to get a full knowledge of this 
apparatus, it must be examined when exserted and ready for 
action. The saucer-like vesicle is then seen to have disappeared, 
and the outer vesicle, fig. 10 a, is lined throughout with a delicate 
membrane, b ; in fact the lips or margins of the saucer- like vesicle 
have unrolled themselves and now form the upper portion of the 
lining membrane, the saucer itself being the lower portion of it. 
And moreover the lining membrane is continued through the 
neck of the outer vesicle, and is seen to be prolonged into the 
stalk, c, supporting the arrow-head; the barbs, c', of which, three 
in number, are now very much elevated, being almost horizontal ; 
and thus protruded beyond the surface of the tentacle are ready 
to lay hold of prey in the manner of a grappling-iron. 

The animal would appear, however, to have the power of 
throwing the whole apparatus from the tentacle. If a specimen 
be laid on a piece of glass and examined through the microscope, 
a number of these organs with the barbs fully extended will be 



found in the Northumberland Lakes. 287 

seen scattered about like as many minute Florence flasks ; the 
bulbous extremity being elegantly rounded. For the purpose of 
ascertaining if the animal really possessed this power, a small 
worm was given to a polype when under the microscope, and 
carefully watched. The animal was exceedingly cautious in 
using its tentacles, not applying them in their whole extent as 
might have been expected, but keeping by far the greater portion 
of these organs perfectly free and unattached to its prey. Very 
few of the arrow-heads were exserted, and apparently never till 
required ; occasionally certain parts of the tentacles were brought 
into contact with the worm, and then, as it was forcibly drawn 
further into the mouth, the protruded barbs might be seen sticking 
in the surface of the struggling victim. At other times, as it 
rolled about in its vain endeavours to escape, the bulbous extre- 
mities of several of these formidable weapons were seen pro- 
truding from the skin, undoubtedly placed there by the pungent 
embrace of this deadly and determined foe ; while others lay 
scattered about in every direction as if just cast from the tentacles. 
It is therefore evident that these weapons can be used either as 
grappling instruments for securing food, or having been plunged 
into some living prey, can be left half-buried in the wound. In- 
deed when the barbs have been once fairly immersed, it is difficult 
to conceive how they can be withdrawn ; and therefore it is pro- 
bable that the tentacles can only be disengaged by moulting these 
organs, which seem to be very slightly attached by the neck of 
the flask-like portion. 

This, however, may not be the only reason why these weapons 
are left in the wound. It has been stated that they are stinging 
as well as captor organs, and if so may require time to pour the 
poison into the wounded animal. The deadly fluid is probably 
contained in the bulbous portion of the instrument, and by the 
contraction of its walls may be forced through the other extre- 
mity which is perforated ; at least from the extreme point a long, 
delicate filament, fig. 10 d } almost invariably protrudes, re- 
sembling very closely the appearance of the long process attached 
to the stinging bodies thrown out of the papillae of Eolis, and 
from the tentacles of Actinia. But other bodies much more 
closely resembling the stinging organs of these animals were 
found strewed about associated with the captor organs. These 
bodies, fig. 1 1, are minute elliptical sacs with a long, slender 
filament from one end like that just mentioned from the pointed 
extremity of the captor organ. The filaments of both these 
bodies have a double margin, and are apparently tubular. Now 
it is more than probable that these elliptical sacs are thrown out 
of the captor organ, and that the filament, so frequently seen 



288 Mr. A. Hancock on a species of Hydra 

issuing from its pointed extremity, belongs to one of them about 
to be exserted. 

We thus see that Hydra is provided with a most efficient 
stinging apparatus, which having penetrated the surface of its 
prey remains fixed there, discharging into the wound its poison- 
bearing filaments. No wonder then that the embrace of these 
animals should be so deadly to the animalcule that comes within 
their reach ; and that the worm so tenacious of life should fall 
paralysed from their touch and die, as we are told, almost without 
a struggle. 

The captor organs of Hydra viridis are exactly similar to those 
just described, but are scarcely more than half their size. In 
this species, too, they are cast from the tentacle. 

Corda considers the arrow-head, and what he calls the ovate 
corpuscle, which we have seen is the membranous stalk sup- 
porting the barbs, to be calcareous. Acetic acid, however, has 
no effect on these parts ; and they resist nitric acid for some 
time, but in the course of an hour or two almost disappear under 
the influence of this powerful fluid. It is therefore evident that 
neither of these parts is calcareous : the arrow-head and barbs 
are probably composed of horny tissue, or some other substance 
with which we are unacquainted. 

It appears that Corda has also determined the existence of an 
anal outlet at the posterior extremity of the animal. I have like- 
wise seen what I take to be a similar outlet. On examining a 
specimen in a highly contracted state, and which was about to 
discharge an egg, a distinct, constricted, linear channel, PL VII. 
fig. 4 b, was observed passing from the digestive cavity through 
the substance of the adhesive disc, apparently about its centre. 
From this channel issued a long, linear mass, c, of excrementi- 
tious matter composed of a tenacious mucus imbedding a granu- 
lar substance resembling both in colour and texture that which 
lined the digestive cavity. 

The true nature of this outlet is enigmatical, since it is known 
that the refuse of digestion is discharged by the oral orifice. 
Professor Owen suggests that "it may give passage to certain 
excretions of the villous lining membrane of the alimentary 
canal." From the facts just mentioned it would appear that 
this conjecture is probably correct. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES VI. and VII. 

Plate VI. 

Figs. 1, 2. Two much-enlarged views of the Hydra from the Northumber- 
land lakes after development of the sperm-vesicles : a, a, sperm- 
vesicles ; b, ovum in early stage of development. 



found in the Northumberland Lakes. 289 

Figs. 3, 4. Two much-enlarged views of the same before development of 
the sperm-vesicles. 

Fig. 5. Two highly magnified views of the terminal portion of the 
tentacle, exhibiting nodular enlargements, a, and terminal bulb 
or nodule, b. 

Fig. 6. Egg after attachment to some foreign body much magnified, ex- 
hibiting chorion : a, a, a, a few of the mucus-globules contained in 
vesicles adhering to the egg. 

Fig. 7. A few of the same vesicles containing mucus-globules more highly 
magnified. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 1. Hydra much enlarged, exhibiting development of ova: a, basal 
portion of tentacles ; b, mouth ; c, c, sperm-vesicles ; d\ ovum 
considerably advanced ; d, ovum just before it bursts through its 
envelope, e. 

Fig. 2. Much-enlarged view of egg as it appears immediately after it has 
burst the envelope : a, egg ; b, b, margins of envelope ; c, c, por- 
tions of the animal. 

Fig. 3. A portion of Hydra much magnified, exhibiting the egg when ready 
to separate from parent : a, portion of the animal ; b, egg ; c, c, 
mucus.-globules as they at first appear ; d, pedicle attaching egg 
to parent ; e, e, contracted margins of envelope. 

Fig. 4. Enlarged view of Hydra much contracted with egg attached, ex- 
hibiting anal orifice : a, mouth ; b, anal orifice as seen through the 
substance of the adhesive disc ; c, faeces passing out of same ; d, 
sperm- vesicle ; e, egg with undulated margins ; f, pedicle attaching 
same to parent ; g, contracted margin of envelope. 

Fig. 5. Sperm-vesicle much enlarged of the Hydra from the Northumber- 
land lakes : a, gland-like body within the base of same ; b, apex of 
same containing spermatozoa ; e, c, a portion of surface of animal. 

Fig. 6. Sperm- vesicle much enlarged of H. viridis : a, gland-like body 
within base of vesicle ; b, apex of same containing spermatozoa ; 
c, c, surface of animal. 

Fig. 7- Much-enlarged view of portion of tentacle of the flesh-coloured 
Hydra as seen in the compressor, exhibiting captor organs and 
organs of touch imbedded in the nodular enlargements : a, organs 
of touch ; b, captor organs. 

Fig. 8. Two of the organs of touch greatly magnified, exhibiting inner and 
outer vesicles and cilium. 

Fig. 9. Greatly enlarged view of retracted captor organ : a, outer vesicle ; 
b, arrow-head with barbs depressed; c, membranous stalk of 
same ; d, inner or lining membrane doubled down upon itself. 

Fig. 10. Captor organ exserted : a, outer vesicle ; b } inner or lining mem- 
brane ; c, membranous stalk supporting arrow-head with the 
three barbs, c', elevated ; d, filament passing out of the pointed 
extremity of arrow-head. 

Fig. 11. Two enlarged views of elliptical sacs with filaments supposed to 
be poison-organs cast from captor organ. 

Fig. 12. Two of the spermatozoa highly magnified from sperm-vesicle of 
flesh-coloured Hydra. 

■ 



Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 19 



290 Zoological Society. 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

March 27, 1849.— Wm. Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary communicated to the Meeting a letter which had 
been addressed to the Council by Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 
G.C.St.S., &c. &c, in which he gave the gratifying intelligence of 
his having been assured by the Count Kisselef, Minister of the 
Imperial Domains of Russia, that if it was possible to obtain another 
Male Aurochs, it would afford his Excellency the greatest pleasure to 
receive the high command of His Majesty the Emperor for its 
transmission to the Society. Although the communication of Count 
Kisselef did not amount to an absolute promise, Sir Roderick ex- 
pressed his conviction, that with so earnest an intention of assisting 
the Society on the part of the confidential Minister of his Imperial 
Majesty, there was still a chance of the Aurochs again living and 
reproducing its species in Britain. 

The following paper was read : — 
Monograph of the large African species of Nocturnal 
Lepidoptera belonging or allied to the genus Satur- 
nia. By J. O. Westwood, F.L.S. etc. 

Linnaeus, in pursuance of the plan which he generally adopted, of 
placing the largest species of any group at its head, introduced as the 
first species of the Nocturnal Lepidoptera (the whole of which con- 
stituted in his System but one genus, Phalcena) those gigantic moths 
of which the Phalcena Atlas may be considered as the type, distin- 
guished both by himself and Fabricius by the character " alls pa- 
tulis." Placed thus at the head of this great division, and being in 
themselves some of the most gigantic and at the same time most 
beautiful of the insect tribes, — valuable also to the human race on 
account of the product obtained from several of the species, — I have 
thought that a synopsis of the African species (a considerable number 
of which are now for the first time described and figured, and several 
of which, being inhabitants of Southern Africa, appear as likely to 
afford a supply of silk as their Indian relatives,) would not be with- 
out interest. 

So little however has hitherto been effected in the classification of 
the nocturnal exotic Lepidoptera, even of the larger species, and in 
fact so completely have the chief characters, on which a real distri- 
bution of these insects can alone be established — I allude more espe- 
cially to the arrangement of the veins of the wings and the transfor- 
mations of the insects — been neglected, that it is impossible, without 
a revision of the whole of the family Bombycidce, to arrive at the most 
satisfactory plan of arrangement of a geographical selection of the 
species. It will however not be useless to notice the attempts which 
have been made relative to the arrangement of these insects. Dr. 
Boisduval, in his * Genera et Index Methodicus,' has divided the 
Heterocera into a number of tribes of equal rank, amongst which is the 



Zoological Society. 291 

Saturnides*, characterized thus : " Larvae obesae arboricolae, segmen- 
tis prominulis, modo tnberculis piligeris, modo spinis verticillatis vel 
pennatis instructs . Folliculum tenax. Alae patulae latae ssepius macula 
ocellari vel diaphana ornatae : lingua nulla." The tribe comprises the 
single genus Saturnia of Schranck and Ochsenheimer (Attacus, Ger- 
mar), with the four European species Pyri, Spini, Carpini, and C<c- 
cigena as its types. The characters given by Boisduval are suffi- 
ciently precise, but those obtained from the peculiar structure of the 
antennee and of the veins of the wings, which Boisduval has not no- 
ticed, are far more distinctive. M. Boisduval's next tribe, Endromi- 
des, is a very artificial one, consisting of the two genera Aglaia and En- 
dromis, which possess but little in common : Aglaia Tau, in fact, pos- 
sesses the broad, flat, pennate, male antennas of Saturnia, with which 
it also agrees in each joint emitting four branches, two at the base and 
two at the apex, the latter pair being shorter and more slender than the 
former ; moreover, each branch of the former pair has its fore-margin 
fringed with very delicate hairs, directed of course to the tip of the 
antennae, and its apex is furnished with two stronger bristles, also ex- 
tended in the same direction, and each of the latter pair of branches 
has its hinder margin similarly fringed, the hairs of course being di- 
rected towards the base of the antennas, and nearly meeting the op- 
posite row of hairs supplied by the basal branches of each joint. This 
very peculiar structure, also possessed by the giant Saturnine (alone, 
as I believe), has not been previously noticed by any writer with whose 
works I am acquainted, and would most probably afford physiological 
peculiarities of much interest. The veins of the wings of Aglaia are 
also disposed on the same general plan as in the Saturnia, namely 
the apical portion of the fore-wing is traversed by six branches, three 
arising from the great median vein and three from the post-costal 
vein, the two hindermost of the latter uniting together near the 
middle of the wing: there is however this difference between the 
wings of Aglaia and Saturnia ; namely, that whereas in Saturnia the 
first branch of the post-costal vein is very minute, consisting of a 
scarcely visible, almost transverse vcinlet, occurring halfway between 
the tip of the costal vein and the extremity of the wing, in Aglaia 
this first branch of the post-costal vein is longer than all the rest, 
arising at about one-third of the length of the wing from the base. 
Thus Aglaia and Saturnia agree in possessing a simple costal vein, a 
post-costal vein with five branches, a median vein with three branches, 
and a simple anal vein. We also find that, like Saturnia, all the wings 
in Aglaia are marked in the middle with an eye-shaped spot. Bois- 
duval however appears to have considered that the transformations 
of Aglaia were the chief grounds for separating it from the Satur- 
nides : he describes the larva? of A. Tau as " rugulosae, per juventu- 
tem spinigerse ; adultse muticae. Folliculum sub-nullum. Puppa 
muscis vel foliis demortuis obtectaf." 

From the preceding considerations I am induced to regard Aglaia 
as belonging to the same subsection or tribe as Saturnia, considering 
the differences of metamorphosis existing between them as more than 

* Op. cit. p. 73. t Op. cit. supr. p. 74. 

19* 



292 Zoological Society. 

counterbalanced by the striking similarity of their more important 
characters in the perfect state. As to the connexion between Aglaia 
and Endromis, proposed by Boisduval, I cannot consider it as pos- 
sessed of any real existence, Endromis having a totally different 
arrangement of the wing-veins, the apical portion of the fore-wings 
being traversed by seven branches, namely four arising from the me- 
dian vein, and three simple ones arising from the post-costal vein, the 
wing being furnished with a simple costal, a 5-branched post-costal, 
a 4-branched median and a simple anal vein. Now this is the typical 
number of branches which a lepidopterous wing ought to possess, 
according to the theory of Mr. Edward Doubleday, that we are to 
suppose the existence of a discoidal vein traversing the middle of the 
discoidal cell, and that this discoidal vein, as well as the post-costal 
and median, are respectively furnished with three branches, Ac- 
cording to this theory therefore, the two branches of the post-costal 
vein which run to the tip of the fore-wing of Endromis, together with 
the first branch traversing the front of the disc of the apical portion 
of the wing, are the only real branches of the post-costal vein ; the 
two following branches of the post-costal vein, as I have regarded 
them, and the first branch of the median vein, are the branches of the 
supposed discoidal vein, and the three remaining branches of the me- 
dian vein are its only true branches. I do not intend in this place 
to enter into a detail of the reasons which induce me to refuse assent 
to this theory ; I may however observe, 1st, that with regard to the 
functions of these branches, it is evident that the fourth branch of the 
median vein, where present, must form a portion of the system of cir- 
culation effected by the branches of the median vein, just as in like 
manner the three branches of the post-costal vein of Saturnia, which 
traverse the apical portion of the fore-wing, must be considered as ef- 
fectually forming a portion of the post-costal vein ; 2ndly, that it seems 
to me contrary to analogy to admit the existence of fully-developed 
branches of a vein, the base of which has no real existence ; and 3rdly, 
that instances occur (e. g. Psyche Stettinella, Cochleophasia tes- 
selled) in which the number of branches exceeds the supposed typical 
number of nine (i. e. three post-costal, three discoidal, and three me- 
dian), those insects having ten branches, in which case one of the 
veins must have an extra branch ; whilst in Saturnia for instance, the 
supposed discoidal vein can only have two branches, — hence I see no 
reason why cases may not be supposed in which one vein should have 
more, and another vein fewer, than the typical number of branches ; 
or, in other words, why the median vein in Endromis should not 
have four branches, whilst there are only five branches for the post- 
costal and supposed discoidal veins. 

The antennae also of Endromis, as well as its transformations, are 
quite different from those of Aglaia and Saturnia ; indeed the tribe 
Endromides of Boisduval seems to possess no single connecting cha- 
racter. 

Hiibner, in his ! Verzeichniss bekannter Schmetterlinge*,' has at- 
tempted an arrangement of these insects which appears to me unna- 
tural, so far as the prrmary divisions are concerned, whereas his inferior 
* Augsburg, 1816, 8vo. 



Zoological Society. 293 

groups (Coitus), founded almost entirely upon the form and marking 
of the wings, appear to bring together the closely allied species. His 
first tribe of the Bombycoid Nocturnal Lepidoptera is termed Sphin- 
goid os, and contains five stirpes: — 1st, Bimorphce (Endromis, Chao- 
nia, Petasia, &c.) ; 2nd, Ptilodontes (the Prominent Moths) ; 3rd, 
Andrice (Stauropus, Centra, &c.) ; 4th, Platyptericides (Drepana, 
Platypteryx, &c.) ; and 5th, Echidnce, composed of Aglaia and a 
number of Saturnice. The second tribe of the Bombycoid Nocturnal 
Lepidoptera is termed Verce, and consists of the remainder of the 
Saturnice (S. Pavonia, Pyri, &c.) ; Apollonia, Cram. ; Maia, Drury ; 
perspicilla, Stoll ; Cedo nulli, Cram. ; and Pandiona, Cram., in 
separate coitus, forming a first stirps Hercece ; the remaining stirpes, 
composed of the Penthophorce, Larice, Orgyice, Lithosice, Arctice, 
Lasiocampce, Gastropachce, &c. ; and the third tribe of the Bombycoid 
Lepidoptera being composed of Hepialus, Cossus, and Zeuzera. 

By this arrangement it will be seen that S. Pavonia, Pyri, &c, 
and the other species above named, are separated from the great body 
of the Saturnice, a step for which I can see no real grounds, the charac- 
ters of those species in the preparatory and perfect states agreeing 
with those of the stirps Echidnce far more intimately than with any of 
the other Bombycoid Nocturna, constituting the tribe named Verce. 

Mr. James Duncan, in the volume of Exotic Moths forming part of 
Sir W. Jardine's Naturalist's Library (vol. vii. 1841), has suggested 
a mode of distribution of the Saturnice, founded upon the form of the 
wings in the two sexes of the different species, of which the following 
is a sketch : — 

1 . Those with the hind-wings rounded in both sexes. 

Genus 1 . Hyalophora [or the Speculares Attaci and Samice of 
Hubner], with large vitreous spaces on the disc of the wings: 
Atlas, Hesperus, Cecropia, iLc. 

Genus 2. Attacus, with eye-like spots on the wings, containing 
the great majority of the species. 

2. Those with the hind-wings furnished with an angular projection 

posteriorly. 
Genus 3. Arsenura [Rhescyntes of Hubner]. Hind-wings of 

male alone angulated. Sp. Erythrince, Fab. 
Genus 4. Lomelia [Imbrasia of Hubner]. Hind- wings of both 

sexes angulated. Sp. Epimethea, Drury. 

3. Those with the hind -wings produced into a long tail. 

Genus 5. Actias, Leach [Tropcea, Hubner]. Tail about the 

length of the body. Sp. Luna, Linn. 
Genus 6. Eustera [Eudcemonia, p. Hubner]. Tail very long ; 

apical margin of fore-wings rounded. Sp. Argus, Fab. 

Genus 7. Copiopteryx [Eudcemonia, p. Hiibner]. Tail very 

long ; fore-wings truncated. Sp. Semiramis, Cram. 

The application of the character derived from the variation in the 

form of the wings in the two sexes of the different species is a step 

gained in their arrangement ; it must however be admitted that the 

species with rounded hind- wings, forming Mr. Duncan's first section, 

must be cut up into a considerable number of subsections to place 



294 Zoological Society. 

them on an equivalent footing with the species with angulatcd or tailed 
hind-wings. Moreover the existence of large vitreous patches on the 
wiags is not sufficiently important for the formation of genera among 
these insects, since it is found gradually obliterated in a series of the 
species by the space being more and more clothed with scales, until, 
as in our common Saturnia, all that remains of the vitreous spot is a 
narrow lunule at the base of the pupil of the eye-like spot. Although 
Mr. Duncan's observation, that " the species in which the fore- wings 
of the male are most decidedly falcate have this form much less 
strongly marked in the female ; where the former are not very strongly 
falcate, in the female they become subfalcate (H, Promethea may 
serve as an example), while the females of subfalcate winged males 
have the exterior outline of their fore-wings either straight or slightly 
curved outwards " — is correct, yet he has carried it too far in proposing 
to unite together two insects belonging to dirTerent genera, and equally 
far removed in their geographical range, namely the curious Saturnia 
Lucina of Drury (which possesses very strongly falcate fore-wings, the 
veins of which, as is evident from Drury' s figure, are arranged as in 
the typical Saturnice, and which I find recorded in Drury's MSS. to 
be a native of Sierra Leone) and the Assamese Bombyx spectabilis* , 
described by Mr. Hope in the Linnsean Transactions (vol. xviii. part 3, 
figured in pi. 31. fig. 3. from my drawing), which possesses an out- 
wardly rounded apical margin of the fore-wings, and which, as may be 
seen from my figure, has a dirTerent arrangement of the veins of the 
fore-wings, the apical portion of the disc of which is traversed by seven 
branches, the innermost pair of the post-costal vein not being united 
together in a fork on the disc ; the insect in fact belonging rather to 
the group of which Lasiocampa is a good typef. 

* This species is the Bombyx Certhia, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. 412 ; Bombyx 
Wallichii, Gray in Zool. Misc. p. 39 ; and Phalcena maxima, Chusan, Petiver. Gaz. 
t. 18. fig. 3. 

f I may take this opportunity of describing a very fine new species of Lasio- 
campa from Tropical Africa, in my own collection. 

Lasiocampa strigina, Westw. L. alts anticis pallide incarnato-albidis strigis 
quatuor fuloo-castaneis, posticis basi fuscis strigis tribus transversis albis, 
pone medium fulvo-castaneis. 

Expans. alar, una 6. 

Hab. Sierra Leone. In Mus. nostr. 

The general colour of this insect is a rich chestnut-fulvous or sorrel colour. The 
basal half of the fore-wings is of a pinkish buff, the pink tint being strongest at 
the base, and extending across the hind part of the thorax. Between the base 
and the distance of one-third of the length of the wing, are two straight, trans- 
verse, chestnut-fulvous strigse, which are shaded off gradually to the pale ground 
colour of the wing ; at the distance of one-third is another abbreviated striga of 
the same kind (indicating the situation where the discoidal cell is closed). Across 
the middle of the wing is a broad, more oblique chestnut-fulvous bar, shaded off 
in the same manner ; and beyond this, and parallel with it, is another narrow, 
darker chestnut-fulvous, oblique striga, leaving a broad apical margin of chestnut- 
fulvous, slightly clouded with an obscure paler wave. The principal veins of the 
wing are indicated at a little distance beyond the middle by a double row of 
minute chestnut dots, and along the apical portion by a brighter tint. The fringe 
is claret-brown. The hind-wings are blackish-brown at the base, with three 
transverse white fasciae, the outer ones being close together, and running nearly 
across the middle of the wing ; the apical half of the wing being chestnut-fulvous, 
with a slight indication of a paler fascia. The antenna; are very pale buff and 



Zoological Society. 295 

As already stated, the insects of the genus Saturnia are among the 
largest of the Nocturnal Lepidoptera, a few Hepialidce and Erebi 
alone equaling them in size. How far this circumstance gives them 
the character of a typical group may be reasonably questioned ; to me 
indeed it appears that an increased size in the species of any group is 
in itself a proof of a certain degree of aberration : certainly if strength 
of flight and compactness of form be considered, we must regard the 
Lasiocampce and allies as much rather the real representatives of the 
Linnaean Bombyces ; just as in the Butterflies, no one would consider 
the species of Papilio on account of their large size as the types, but 
would confer that title on Vanessa and its allies, notwithstanding the 
want of well-developed fore-legs. Another circumstance which might 
be alleged as a proof of the typicality of the Saturnia, is the wide geo- 
graphical range of the species, which occur in all quarters of the globe, 
which peculiarity extends even to the minor divisions of the genus ; 
thus we have very closely-allied tailed species from North America, 
India and South Africa ; I believe however that naturalists have at 
length agreed in refusing to this circumstance the right of conferring 
typicality on groups. 

Saturnia in fact appears to me to be one of those groups like Pa- 
pilio among the Diurnal Lepidoptera, Carabus among the Carabidce, 
Feronia among the Harpalidce, or Cicindela among the Cicinde- 
lidce, which are of great extent and comprise a number of species, 
generally of comparatively large size, which it is difficult to group 
into well-defined sections or subgenera, although their forms are very 
varied. One or more species may be detached and characterized as 
distinct subgenera, but when the whole group is carefully studied, it 
is ascertained that these particular species do not possess more im- 
portant characters than the rest. I shall not attempt therefore, in 
describing the African species alone of this group, to introduce a system 
of distribution among the species, further than the artificial division 
given below. 

The beautiful markings of the wings, and especially of the hind- 
wings, of many of these insects, appear to indicate the character laid 
down by Linnaeus and Fabricius, namely " Alae patulae," by which 
we are to understand, that when the insect is at rest the fore-wings 
do not closely cover the hind-ones, as is the case in the species with 
dingy-coloured hind-wings, but leave their beautiful markings exposed 
to view. Mr. E. Doubleday indeed informs me that the North 
American S. Luna generally sits with its wings perpendicularly ele- 
vated over its back, like a butterfly at rest. These beautiful eye-like 
markings of the wings are indeed a good character of the group, al- 
though that which is afforded by the arrangement of the veins above de- 
scribed is of higher importance. The latter indeed, together with the 
emission of four branches from each joint of the flat pennated antennae, 
may be considered as the essential characters of the genus, although 
they have never hitherto been employed to distinguish it. Another 

bipectinated ; the tips are broken off in my specimen, the part remaining having 
seventy-three pairs of rays. Beneath, the wings are paler chestnut-fulvous, with 
a darker duplicated striga across the middle, and some slightly indicated waved 
strigae beyond the middle. 



296 Zoological Society. 

character, also hitherto unemployed, which will I think prove of im- 
portance in determining the minor groups of Saturnia, consists of the 
difference in the number of branches in the antennae of the different 
species ; this I have carefully noticed in the following descriptions, as 
well as the differences in the formation of the female antennae, in which 
sex some of the species possess those organs almost filiform, whilst in 
others they are nearly as strongly pennated as in the males. 

In the following pages thirty-three African species are introduced, 
of which seventeen are now for the first time described. 

For convenience the following artificial mode of division is em- 
ployed in their arrangement : — 

A. Fore- wings very sickle-shaped ; with a small eye-like spot near 

the tip. 

a. All the wings with a glassy lunate central spot. Sp. 1. 

b. Fore-wings with a central bean-shaped vitreous spot ; hind- 
wings with large oval one. Sp. 2. 

B. Fore-wings less strongly sickle-shaped or rounded externally ; all 

the wings with an eye-like spot. 

a. Hind-wings not tailed. Sp. 3-10. 

b. Hind- wings tailed. Sp. 11, 12. 

C. Fore- wings with a small triangular or quadrate vitreous central 

spot ; hind-wings with a large eye. Sp. 13-24. 

D. Wings without eyes or vitreous spots. Sp. 25-28. 
£. Aberrant species. Sp. 29-33. 

Section A. 
Subsection a. 

Sp. 1. Saturnia Vacun a, Westw. S. alis maris falcatis fuscis, 
fascia communi media alba, omnibus lunula magna media vitrea, 
utrinque albo Jlavoque marginata ; anticisque macula ovali 
nigra subapicali (albo supra circumdata). 

Expans. alar. ^unc. 6£ ; $ unc. 5^. 

Inhabits Ashantee. In the British Museum. 

The male has the fore-wings considerably falcate at the tips, and 
the hind ones almost triangular. The female has the fore-wings 
somewhat emarginate in the middle of the hind margin, and the 
hind-wings less elongated. The general colour of the wings is brown, 
thickly irrorated, especially in the males, with white. The fore- 
wings have a broad suboblique bar, extending from the base of the 
inner margin and directed forwards in a right angle immediately in 
front of the central lunule, the margin of which is formed of a nar- 
row brown bar, within which it is dirty yellow, internally edged with 
white, the central part being vitreous. This is followed by a white 
oblique nearly straight bar, the brown space beyond which is much- 
powdered with white ; the apical margin is pale livid buff, traversed 
by a very slender undulating brown line, with a 'black oval dot near 
the apex, which is powdered at its base with white ; the apex of 
the wings being rosy fulvous, separated from the livid brown ante- 
cedent part of the wing by a very much-angulated white line. 

The hind-wings are white at the base, which extends on the out- 



Zoological Society. 297 

side and joins the central white fascia ; the apical portion is coloured 
as in the fore-wings. The lunule is smaller and more curved than in 
the fore-wings, but similarly coloured. 

The antennae are fulvous. The abdomen whitish bun 7 . 

The male antennae are broad, and have forty-six rays on each side 
lying flat ; the four rays of each joint of equal length. The female 
antennae are of considerable breadth, and with forty-eight or fifty 
rays on each side. 

The palpi are very short but distinct and rather slender, and the 
spiral tongue is also distinct and composed of two flattened free fila- 
ments. 

Subsection A. b. 

Sp. 2. Saturnia Mythimnia, Westw. S. alls anticis subfal- 
catis, omnibus purpureo-fuscis albo-irroratis ; et pone medium 
striga alba valde curvata ; anticis lunula magna vitrea albo 
flavoque marginata ; maculaque parva subapicali nigra albo 
irrorata ; posticis ocello magno ovali vitreo albo flavoque mar- 
ginato, serieque catenata submarginali punctorum nigrorum. 

Expans. alar, antic, unc. 4f-5i. 

Hab. Port Natal. In Mus. Britann. 

The fore-wings are considerably emarginate along the outer mar- 
gin in the male, and more slightly so in the female. The veins agree 
in arrangement with the typical Saturnice. The general colour of 
the wings is a dark livid brownish purple, thickly powdered with 
white atoms ; the middle of each wing is occupied by a large trans- 
parent spot, kidney-shaped in the fore-wings and oval in the hind 
ones ; the vitreous portion is surrounded by a slender line of white, 
which is succeeded by a yellow one, and this by a slender black line ; 
these eyes are of nearly equal size. The fore-wings are also marked 
near the base with an oblique white fascia, extending from near the 
base of the fore- wings to the base of the large eye ; beyond the eye 
is a curved white bar, internally edged with a darker bar of livid 
purple; the apical part of the fore-wings is brown shaded to fulvous 
and buff; the outer margin of the wing dusky buff, with a series of 
greenish buff spots edged with a slender brown deeply undulating 
line ; near the tip of the wing is a black spot irrorated with white at 
the base, from which runs a very slender and much-angulated white 
line. The hind- wings have a fulvous edge gradually shaded to buff- 
brown, bearing a row of dark brown catenated spots followed by a 
slender dusky line. The under side of the wings resembles the upper 
side, with the costa of the hind-wings white. The body is purplish 
brown, the thorax behind with a white fascia, and the segments of 
the abdomen have the hinder margin white. The antennae, head and 
legs are fulvous. The antennae are broadly pennate, with the rays 
continued to the tip. The males have fifty-eight rays (arranged in 
double pairs to each joint), with single rays at the tip. The females 
have also fifty-eight long rays (four to each joint), with eight or ten 
single rays at the tip. The palpi are porrected, but do not extend 
beyond the hairs of the clypeus. 



298 Zoological Society. 

Section B. 
Subsection a. 

Sp. 3. Saturn ia arata, Westw. S. alls flams ; anticis apice 
acutis basi livide maculatis, medio ocello livido cincto circulo 
tenui albo, alteroque purpureo marginato, linea tenui dentata 
media, strigaque obliqua subundata, posticis ocello magno multi- 
annulato ornatis. 

Expans. alar. unc. 4-i~5j. 

Hab. Ashantee, Sierra Leone and Port Natal. In Mus. Britann. 

The fore-wings are nearly alike in both sexes, being but very 
slightly emarginated in the male, with the tips acute ; wings rich yel- 
low, with several livid or reddish patches near the base, followed by a 
much-waved livid striga ; in the middle of the wing is a moderate- 
sized ocellus, the centre vitreous, outwardly edged with black, sur- 
rounded by a livid ring, and this by a white circle, outside of which 
is a narrow purplish or reddish ring. Connected with the outer edge 
of the ocellus is a slender, very strongly denticulated dark brown line ; 
beyond this is a nearly straight purplish brown striga, extending from 
the fore-margin, where it is rather angulated and extending to the 
middle of the inner margin ; beyond this line the outer margin of the 
wing is marked with confluent livid or reddish patches, the margin 
itself being of the same colour except at the tip. 

The hind-wings are more or less tinged with red at the base, fol- 
lowed by an angulated dark denticulated striga arising from the anal 
margin. In the middle of the wing is a large brilliantly coloured 
ocellus ; the pupil is black, with a slender vitreous line towards the 
base ; the iris is livid, outwardly shaded to red, surrounded by a 
slender white circle and this by a red ring. From the inner margin 
of the eye runs a dentated brown line to the anal margin, and behind 
it is a waved or dentated brown striga, the apical portion of the wing 
being coloured as in the fore-wings. The thorax is yellow, with the 
head, collar and legs livid brown. The wings are much less brilliantly 
coloured on the underside, and the great ocellus of the hind-wings is 
almost obliterated. The vitreous part of the ocellus of the fore-wings 
is much smaller in the male than in the female; and the ocellus of the 
hind-wings in the female is much more vividly coloured than in the 
male. 

The antennae of the males are 32-jointed with forty-eight rays on 
each side, the two apical rays of each joint being rather shorter than 
the two basal ones. 

The palpi are short, but distinct and broad ; the basal joint with 
scales extending beyond the second joint. The antennae of the female 
are 37-jointed, the rays being about three times as long as the thick- 
ness of the antennae, and the two apical rays of each joint being quite 
short. 

Sp. 4. Saturnia Belina, Westw. S. alis anticis flavo-griseis, 
striga subangulata ante, alteraque fere recta pone medium ; 
ocello mediano hyalino fulvo-cincto ; alis posticis rubidis ocello 



Zoological Society. 299 

magno vitreo iride fulva nigro circumdata strigaque subapicali 
alba, fusco externe marginata. 

Expans. alar, antic, unc. 4-|~4J. 

Hab. Port Natal et Zoolu. In Mus. Britann. 

The fore-wings are nearly alike in both sexes, the outer margin 
being scarcely emarginate. The general colour is uniform obscure 
yellowish grey, covered with minute black irrorations ; at the distance 
of about one-third of the length of the wing from the base is a rather 
narrow white transverse striga, slightly angulated outwardly, having 
a dusky edge on the inside next the base of the wing. In the middle 
is a rather small ocellus, the centre being semi-oval and vitreous, edged 
with fulvous, and surrounded by a thin black circle ; this is surrounded 
by a dull buff ring, and this by a white one ; beyond the middle is 
an oblique nearly straight white striga, nearly parallel with the outer 
margin, outwardly edged with a dark brown line. Hind-wings pale 
livid pink at the base and along the anterior portion ; near the base 
is an obscure white striga, and in the middle is a large oval ocellus, 
coloured in the same manner as the ocellus of the fore-wings, and 
followed by a curved white striga edged outwardly with brown. 

The thorax is coloured as the fore-wings, with a narrow transverse 
white ring across the front. The abdomen is more strongly fulvous- 
coloured. Wings beneath grey, the fore-ones tinged with pink on the 
inner margin ; across the middle is a fulvous cloud ; the basal fascia 
and the eyelet of the hind-wings are wanting. The veins are arranged 
in the typical manner. 

The male antennae are 35-jointed with fifty-six rays on each side, 
the rays rather long ; the two basal rays of each joint are obliquely 
porrected, so that the rays form four series instead of all being on the 
same plane ; the six apical joints minute and not producing rays. 
The antennae of the female are setaceous, the rays being scarcely 
visible without a lens. The palpi are flattened, short and deflexed. 

Sp. 5. Saturnia Hersilia, Westw. S. alls maris integris flams 
fusco subirroratis, striga angulata transversa ante medium alte- 
raque ante apicem subundata fuscis ; ocello magno mediano 
vitreo iride lata obscure lutea, tinea tenui circulari nigra cir- 
cumdata ; alis posticis basi roseo-flavis, ocello maximo mediano 
vitreo circulis concentricis obscure luteo, nigro, late rufo, et 
albo cincto, strigaque subapicali subundata fusca. 
Expans. alar, antic, unc. 5. 
Hab. Congo. In Mus. Britann. 

Male with the fore-wings entire, and slightly rounded along the 
outer margin. General colour yellow; fore-wings finely powdered 
with small brown scales, having a slender, angulated, brown striga 
before the middle, slightly tinged on the outside with rosy ; in the 
middle of the wing is a large eye, having a subovate vitreous centre, 
surrounded by a broad dirty luteous brown ring, succeeded by a 
narrow black circle with a white outer ring ; halfway between this 
and the outer margin is a narrow brown striga parallel with the outer 
margin, inwardly edged with rosy white. Hind-wings rosy yellow at 



300 Zoological Society. 

the base, near which is an oblique, very pale brown striga ; followed 
by a very large eye with an oval glassy centre, surrounded by a 
broad dirty luteous brown ring, and this by a narrow black circle : 
this is succeeded by a broad red ring, and this by a white one, the 
adjoining space being rosy buff: between the eye and the apical mar- 
gin is a subundulated blackish striga, edged internally with white. 
The fore-wings beneath want the anterior, angulated, brown striga ; 
the ocellus is coloured as on the upper side, and the hind-wings are 
fulvous yellow, with the ocellus smaller than above, the black ring 
being surrounded by a white one, and this by a narrow rosy one ; the 
white waved subapical striga is also narrowly bordered within with 
rosy. 

Antennae of the male chestnut-yellow, rather broad and flat, with 
forty-eight rays on each side, the two apical rays being very short, 
four rays being produced from each joint. 

Body entirely orange-yellow, the outside of the tibiae and tarsi 
blackish. 

Sp. 6. Saturnia Menippe, Westw. S. alisintegris testaceo-rufis 
apicibus fuscis, striga curvata ante alteraque pone medium an- 
gustis albis, communibus, alis omnibus ocello nigro (medio sub- 
vitreo) iride alba. 

Expans. alar, antic, unc. 5-J. 

Hab. Port Natal et Africa Austral. In Mus. Brit, et Hope. 

Fore-wings of the male entire and slightly rounded along the 
outer margin. Wings rich testaceous red ; fore-wings with the costa 
pale buff-brown, base carmine-red, having a white slightly curved 
fascia running across all the wings, each of which is also marked in 
the middle with an equal-sized oval eye ; the centre vitreous, but 
clothed with black scales, surrounded by a broad black ring, and this 
by a rather broad white one ; this eye is followed by a uniform white 
bar, nearly parallel with the outer margin, which is rather dull buff, 
finely irrorated with brown scales ; fringe dull buff. Wings beneath 
greenish buff, the anterior with the eye nearly similar to that of the 
upper side, followed by a white streak edged outwardly with black, 
and with a grey triangular patch near the tip of the wing, the outer 
margin somewhat paler, the middle dotted with brown. Hind-wings 
buff-white, irregularly clouded with dirty buff ; across the middle is 
a nearly straight brown fascia, the apical half of the wing darker buff- 
brown, with two large lilac-grey spots, one near the anal angle, and 
the other towards the outer angle. 

Antennae dark brown ; those of the male rather broad, with fifty-two 
joints in each, and about 100 rays on each side, extending consequently 
nearly to the extreme tip. Female antennae nearly resembling those 
of the male. 

Thorax dark carmine-red, brown in front, with a narrow white 
collar. Abdomen and under side of the body pale whitish buff. 
Head and legs pale buff-brown. 

Sp. 7. Saturnia Tyrrhea, Cramer. S. alis griseis nigro irro- 
ratis ; anticis striga ante medium alba valde dent at a ; omnibus 



Zoological Society. 301 

ocello mediano (majori in alis posticis) vitreo, iride griseo-fulva 
annulis concentricis nigro, fulvo et albo circumcincta ; omnibus 
etiam striga versus marginem duplicata undata communi. 

Expans. alar, antic, fere uric. 5^. 

Syn. Phalcena Tyrrhea, Cram. Ins. 4. tab. 46. fig. A. Bombyx 
Tyrrhea, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii. part i. p. 415. 

Hab. Cap. Bon. Spei et Africa australi. In Mus. Britamv. 

The antennae of the male are moderately broad and flat, with fifty- 
two rays on each side ; the four or five terminal joints very short, and 
not producing any rays ; the rays are for the most part of nearly equal 
length, so that the broad part of the antennae has its sides nearly 
parallel. 

The antennae of the female are compressed, and with scarcely any 
rudiment of pectinations. 

The palpi are distinct, but very short. 

The outer margin of the fore-wings of the female is entire. 

Sp. 8. Saturnia Cytherea, Fabr. &. alis anticis margine ex- 
terno parum emarginato; griseis, strigis duabus albis, anterior e 
undata, omnibus ocello mag no (in alis posticis majori) vitreo ; 
parte vitrea in anticis magna ovali, in posticis parva rotundata ; 
iride jlava, annulo nigro alteroque albo circumdata. 

Expans. alar, antic, individui typici Banksiani unc. 6± ; individ. in 
Mus. Brit. unc. 5. 

Syn. Bombyx Cytherea, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. a. p. 410. Echidna 
communiformis Cytherea, Hiibner, Auss. Sch. F. 3, 4. Phalcena 
Capensis, Cramer, Ins. tab. 302. fig. A, B; tab. 325. fig. G ( $ ), (nee 
Phalcena Capensis, Linn.). Sulz. Hist. Ins. tab. 21. fig. 1. 

Hab. apud Cap. Bon. Spei. 

In Mus. Banks. (Soc. Linn. Lond.) et Britann. 

The male antennae are moderately broad, with 126 rays on each 
side, affixed obliquely, the joints being very short, the ten terminal 
joints very short, with only one ray on each side, gradually diminish- 
ing in size. 

The female antennae are slightly serrated, each joint emitting two 
oblique serrations on each side, the basal pair being the largest, the 
size of the serrations gradually diminishing to the tip. 

The palpi are short and broad, but do not extend beyond the hairs 
of the face. 

I have seen a variety from the Zoolu country much varied with 
yellow, especially on the thorax, at the base of the wings, and along 
the apical portion beyond the subapical striga. 

Sp. 9. Saturnia Dione, Fabr. S. alis sulphur eo-fiavis, anticis 
in mare parum falcatis, strigis duabus, anteriore antice recta, 
postice dentata carnea, posteriore (communi) recta obscuriore, 
anticis etiam plaga albo-carnea basali alteraque versus apicem 
costce nubilaque lata undata pone strigam externam griseo- 
carneis, omnibus in medio ocello (in alis posticis majori), pupilla 
minuta vitrea, iride fulva annulis nigro, albo carneoque circum- 
cincta. 

Expans. alar, antic, unc. 5-5£. 



302 Zoological Society. 

Syn. PhalcenaGuineensis flava perelegans, Petiver, Gazoph. pi. 29. 
fig. 3. c. 478. Bombyoc Dione, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. a. p. 410. Pha- 
Icena Paphia, Linn, (ex parte). 

Hah. Congo, Ashantee (Mus. Brit.), Sierra Leone (Mus. Hope). 

The fore-wings in the female are not so subfalcate as in the male, 
but the apical margin is slightly emarginate. The male antennae are 
rather broad and flat, with forty-four rays on each side, four being 
emitted from each joint ; about six of the terminal joints are furnished 
only with short, gradually diminishing spurs. The female antennae 
are almost filiform. The palpi are short, but distinct and deflexed. 

The nomenclature of this species is involved in some difficulty. 
Old Petiver rightly figured it as above referred to, under the name 
oiPhalcena Guineensis flava perelegans et pulchre oculata. Linnaeus, 
in the 10th edition of the * Systema Naturae' (p. 496), described an in- 
sect under the name of Bombyx Paphia, thus : " P. Bombyx elinguis 
flava alis patulis falcatis concoloribus ocello fenestratis. M. L. U.," thus 
indicating that the typical specimen of his species was contained in the 
museum of the Queen of Sweden. But Linnaeus referred not only to 
Petiver' s figure, but also, in the second place, to Catesby's 'Carolina,' 
ii. p. 91. t. 91, where is represented an insect described by Catesby 
as " Phalaena ingens Caroliniana oculata e luteo fusca lineis dilute 
purpureis insignita," which Cramer and Fabricius subsequently figured 
and described under the name of Polyphemus. Linnaeus however, in 
this 10th edition of the ' Systema Naturae,' gave to his B. Paphia the 
" Habitat in Guinea." 

In his ' Museum Ludovicse Ulricae,' Linnaeus however treated his 
B. Paphia in a different manner. Without altering his specific cha- 
racter, he refers in the first place to Catesby's 'Carolina' (S. Polyphe- 
mus); 2ndly, with a query, to Petiver' s Phalcena Guineensis; and 
3rdly, to an insect figured by Rumphius in his ' Herbarium of Am- 
boyna ' (iii. t. 75), which, from the observation of Rumphius, " Fol- 
liculus est Erucae Bengalensis Tesser vocatae," is evidently the Tusseh 
silk moth of Roxburgh (S. Paphia), thus confounding three American, 
African and Indian species under one name. He moreover in this work 
gives the "Habitat in America Septentrionali," and his detailed de- 
scription evidently proves that he had the American species of Catesby 
in view in proposing the name of Paphia ; indeed his reference to the 
" M. L. U." in the 10th edition of the 'Systema Naturae' likewise fully 
proves that, although giving in that work Guinea as the habitat of his 
Paphia, the American insect was the one before him. 

But in the 12th edition of the ' Systema Naturae,' we find Linnaeus 
making the matter still more confused ; for we now find the reference 
to Petiver restored to its first position, that to Catesby given with 
doubt, and the reference to Rumphius added in the third place, the 
locality being " Habitat in Guinea, Asia." 

Now if we are to regard the last work of an author as containing 
his matured opinions, and allow him at the same time the right to 
modify his opinions to an extent involving the change of specific 
names, in the manner followed in this instance by Linnaeus (which is 
however a power which I deny that an author ought to possess), we 
must remove from the Carolina species all right to the name of Paphia 



Zoological Society. 303 

and confer it on the African insect ; but I contend that as Linnaeus 
clearly denned the American species under that name in the * Museum 
Ludov. Ulr.,' and in his subsequent work made no attempt to dis- 
criminate the three species, we are warranted, 1st, in retaining the 
name of Paphia for the American insect, in which case it will be ne- 
cessary to sink the Fabrician name of Polyphemus into a synonym of 
Paphia ; 2ndly, in giving to the African one the Fabrician name of 
Dione (striking out the incorrect Fabrician reference of Petiver's 
Guinea insect to the Asiatic species) ; and 3rdly, in giving a different 
specific name to the Tusseh silk moth of India, to which Fabricius 
restricted the name of S. Paphia, but which it ought certainly not to 
retain, seeing that Linnaeus, when he first proposed that name, knew 
only the African and American insects. Drury has however enabled 
us to clear up the difficulty as to this third species, having figured it 
in the second volume of his • Illustrations' under the name of Mylitta 
(pi. 5. fig. 1 =Paphia, Cramer. Ins. 13. tab. 147. fig. A), which name 
Fabricius also adopted, giving the Asiatic species twice over under 
the names of Paphia and Mylitta. 

The synonyms of the three species will stand thus : — 

1. Saturnia Paphia, Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. 
B. Polyphemus, Fabr. 

Hab. North America. 

2. Saturnia Dione, Fabricius. 
Phalcena Guineensis, Petiver. 

Ph. Paphia, Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 10. ex parte. 
B. Petiveri, Guerin, Ann. Soc. Sericicole. 
Hab. Africa. 

3. Saturnia Mylitta, Drury, Fabr. 
B. Paphia, Cramer, Fabricius. 
The Tusseh Silkworm Moth. 
Hab. India. 

Saturnia Wahlbergii, Boisduval in Delegorgue, Voy. dans 
l'Afr. Austr. ii. p. 600. 

Of this supposed species, which inhabits Port Natal, I have seen 
specimens, but I cannot consider them distinct from S. Dione, of 
which they are highly coloured individuals. The following is M. 
Boisduval' s description : — 

" Elle est un peu plus grande que la Saturnia Pyri d' Europe, et 
son port est assez different. Le dessus des quatres ailes est jaune, 
fortement saupoudre d'atomes bruns avec une bande etroite, brune 
doublee interieurement de gris violatre commune reguliere ; com- 
mencant pres du sommet des superieures et arrivant au bord interne 
des inferieures, juste au niveau de l'extremite de 1' abdomen. Vers le 
base des quatre ailes on voit une autre bande commune tres-sinueuse 
irreguliere, violatre precede a la base des superieures d'une espece de- 
tache de sa couleur. L'ceil des ailes superieures est petit, transparent, 
cercle de jaune et entoure d'un peu de violatre surtout dans le male ; 
l'ceil des ailes inferieures est plus grand, jaune, a prunelle diaphane 
et a iris noir cercle' de violet. Decfte a M. Wahlberg, l'un des com- 
pagnons de M. Delegorgue." 



304 Zoological Society. 

In addition to the above characters, it may be noticed, that the bar 
beyond the middle of the wings is slender, grey, outwardly edged with 
a dusky line, and inwardly with purplish brown ; outside the bar is a 
series of large, triangular, lilac-white patches united together, and the 
disc of the wings, especially towards the base, is much more irrorated 
with lilac-pink. 

Sp. 10. Saturnia Apollonia, Cramer, Ins. vol. iii. pi. 250 A. 
S. alis pallide fuscis albo flavoque variis ; anticis fascia subapi- 
cali flava extus fusca ; alis posticis albis strigis duabus fuscis 
pone medium, exteriore flavo intus marginata ; omnibus ocello 
nigro in medio subvitreo iride alba; in anticis etiam annulo 
flavo cincto : corpore albo thorace macula media fusca. 
Expans. alar, antic, unc. 3f . 

Hab. Caput Bon. Spei et apud Portum Natalensem. 
The antennae are fulvous and short ; the pectinations forming an 
elongate ovate outline, pointed at the tip, with only thirty- eight 
rays on each side, four being emitted from each joint. The rays lie 
flat, and several of the terminal joints are destitute of rays. The 
female antennae are 24-jointed, the pectinations forming a much nar- 
rower oval outline than in the male ; the pectinations of the basal 
part being short, each joint emitting four rays, of which the apical 
pair is not above half the length of the basal ones. 

This species is well-figured in Mr. Angas's plate of Lepidoptera of 
the Zoolu country, fig. 14. 

Subsection B. b. 

Sp. 11. Saturnia Mimosa, Boisduval (Voy. de Delegorgue dans 
l'Afriq. Austr. p. 600). S. alis glauco-viridibus, anticarum costa 
grisea linea vel striga undulata griseo-fusca paullo pone me- 
dium maculaque grisea ad unguium posticum ; omnibus ocello 
cequali, flavo, iride tenui castanea anticeque lunula tenui grisea 
notata ; posticis in caudam longissimam spatulatam basi griseo- 
fuscam, apice flavo-viridi productis. 
Expans. alar, antic, unc. 5^, long. alar, postic. unc. 4-^. 
Hab. apud Portum Natalensem. In Mus. Britann. &c. 
This species belongs to the subgenus Actias of Leach, and is allied 
to S. Selene of India, S. Luna of North America, S. Isis* of Java, 
S. Cometes of Madagascar, described by M. Boisduval in his ' Fauna 
of Madagascar,' (apparently identical with the species captured at 
Nosse Be, on the east side of Madagascar, by M. Mittre, exhibited 
by M. Guerin at the Entomological Society of France (see Annales 
de la Soc. Ent. 1846, p. civ.) ; S. Mcenas of Silhet (figured in my 
Cabinet of Orient. Entomol. pi. 22), and S. Leto, Doubleday, also 
from Silhet (figured in the Trans, of the Entomol. Soc. vol. v. pi. 15. 
A very fine specimen of this last-named insect, with the markings on 
the wings much more distinct, is contained in the Ashmolean Mu- 
seum at Oxford) . 

* This very rare species, of which M. Boisduval was acquainted with only a 
single specimen in the collection of M. Robyns of Brussels, will require a new 
specific name to distinguish it from the S. Isis of this monograph. 



Zoological Society. 305 

The wings of S. Mimosa? are pale yellowish -green with the apical 
margin waved, that of the fore-wings of the male being somewhat more 
emarginate than in the female. The costa of the fore-wings is broadly 
purplish-grey, mueh-irrorated with white ; beyond the middle arises 
on the costa an oblique dark chestnut spot, which emits an undulating 
line across the wing (which forms a waved fascia in the female), and 
near the tip of the wing the pale costa is separated from the green 
ground by a dark chestnut dash. In both sexes the anal angle of the 
fore-wings is occupied by a grey-brown patch which extends narrowly 
into the wing parallel with the outer margin ; the incisures of all 
the wings are tinged with chestnut-purple ; from the middle of the 
pale costa of the fore-wings arises a purplish-brown spot to which is 
attached the ocellus, which is rather small, oval and transverse ; the 
centre formed of a small glassy spot surrounded by fleshy-brown and 
this by yellow, more orange-coloured on the side towards the base of 
the wings, where it is also surmounted by a black-brown km trie pow- 
dered with white scales along its middle. The hind-wings are more 
uniformly green above, with an ocellus similar to that of the fore- 
wings, the anal angle produced into a slender tail longer than the 
body of the wing and spatulated at its extremity ; this tail is chestnut- 
brown throughout its narrow part, where it is much-powdered with 
white, the dilated apical part being green. The body is yellow and 
the antennae are fulvous. 

The underside resembles the upper, except that the undulating 
line beyond the middle of the wing is wanting, and is replaced by a 
similar one nearer to the outer margin of the wing, and running along 
the hind-wings. 

The underside of the abdomen is marked with purple spots along 
the apical margin of the segments. The antennae of the males are 
very broad, emitting 50 rays on each side, the five or six terminal 
joints with very short rays. The rays on each side of each joint 
arise at a little distance from the base and extremity of each joint, so 
that there is a more decided space between the second ray of one joint 
and the first ray of the next joint than usual. 

The veins of the fore-wings are arranged as in the typical Saturnice, 
and those of the hind-wings as in S. Mamos (as exhibited in my figure 
above referred to) and as in S. Luna, the peculiarity in the subgeneric 
group Actias of Leach containing the above-named species, bein ^ 
that the three branches of the median vein of the hind-wings are 
compressed closely together, arising on the inside of the ocellus and 
extending into the long tail, a transverse vein running across the 
middle of the ocellus, closing the discoidal cell, and uniting the inner 
branch of the post-costal vein with the outer branch of the median 
vein. 

Boisduval informs us that this species " est tres commune a quatre 
a cinq lieues dans l'mterieur du pays sur les Mimosa. Les cafres se 
servent du cocon qui est tres-gros et tres-solide pour se faire des 
tabatieres. Pour cela ils y font un trou pour extraire la chrysalide, 
et ils le bouchent eusuite avec une cheville de bois." 

A beautiful figure of this species is given by Mr. Angas in his 
plate of Zoolu Moths, fig. 18. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 20 



306 Zoological Society. 

This is evidently the species alluded to in the following note, pub- 
lished by M. Signoret in the Journal of the Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of France, Annales 1845, p. xcvii : — " M. V. 
Signoret presente a la Societe un dessin d'une nouvelle espece appar- 
tenant au genre Saturnia, et il communique une note a ce sujet. M. 
V. Signoret dit que le Chenille de cette espece est inconnue, que les 
chrysalides en furent trouvees en Novembre 1844, sur un Mimosa 
pres de la riviere Toogela, limite des frontieres du royaume Aucayoolao, 
situe entre Lugoo-Baie et Port-Natal : l'insecte parfait a ete rapporte 
par M. Campion de Douai, et notre collegue propose a la Societe de 
lui appliquer le nom de Saturnia Campionea" 

Sp. 12. Saturnia Argus, Fabr. S. omnibus pallide carneo- 
albidis, anticis margine postico rotundatis, disco punctis sex 
in medio approximatis,fenestratis, annulofulvo nigroque cinctis; 
posticis punctis quinque sparsis ejusdem coloris ; margine anali 
in caudam longissimam extenso. 

Expans. alar, antic, unc. 3, long. alar, postic. unc. 4. 

Hab. the Isle of Banana (Smeathmann). 

In Mus. Britann., Banks. (Linn. Soc), Westwood, &c. 

Syn. Bombyx Argus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. Ilia. p. 414 ; Stoll, 27. 1 ; 
Donov. Nat. Repos. 5. 173; Oliv.'Enc. Meth. 5. 29. 22; Drury, 
Ent. vol. hi. pi. 29. fig. 1. Phalcena brachyura, Cramer, Ins. pi. 29. 
fig. 1. Eudcemonia Uroarge, Hiibner, Verz. No. 1586. 

The fore-wings are considerably rounded along the apical margin, 
and the tails of the hind-wings are much longer in proportion than 
in Mimosce, Luna, &c. The veins of the fore-wings are similarly ar- 
ranged to those of S. Mimosa, &c, but those of the hind-wings are 
peculiar in having the veinlet which connects the inner branch of the 
post-costal vein and the outer branch of the median vein closing the 
discoidal cell so oblique (as well as subangulated in the middle), that 
it seems like a real fourth branch of the post-costal, running down 
within the outer margin of the tail, the base of the outer branch of 
the median vein being so thin and short that it resembles the ordinary 
condition of the veinlet closing the cell, although its nearly longitudi- 
nal direction indicates its real nature as a branch of the median vein*. 

The antennae of the females (I have seen no male) are 26-jointed, 
each joint after the second producing only a pair of rays, arising close 
to the base of the joint. The palpi are also as long as the head and 
deflexed, with the terminal joint long and pendulous. In these re- 
spects it will be necessary to separate this insect at least subgene- 
rically from the other Saturnice ; it may therefore be advisable to use 
Hiibner' s subgeneric name Eudcemonia for it. 

* Saturnia (Eudcemonia) Semiramis, Cramer, pi. 13 A, differs materially in the 
veining of its wings from S. Argus. In the fore-wings the inner branch of the 
post-costal vein, instead of arising from the preceding branch in an acute fork, as 
in the typical Saturnice, arises from the middle of the transverse vein closing the 
discoidal cell, whilst in the hind-wings the inner branch of the post-costal vein 
runs within the outer edge of the tail throughout its whole length, the first 
branch of the median vein arising nearly opposite to the base of the tail, and the 
second branch at some length down the tail. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 307 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

Feb. 14, 1850. — Professor Fleming, in the Chair. 

Mr. M'Nab exhibited the flowering rachis with terminal bracts of 
the red-fruited variety of Musa sapientum, and stated that the plant 
in the Botanic Garden was received from Mr. Lockhart, Botanic Gar- 
den, Trinidad, during the year 18 -12. It had frequently ripened its 
fruit in the Botanic Garden at Edinburgh. The plant which produced 
the rachis shown was only twenty months from the sucker state wheu 
it first showed its fruit in May 1849. It continued to ripen gradually 
till the end of December, when a few of the first, or best ripened of 
the fruits, were gathered. The rachis, from the point to its insertion 
into the plant, was 6 feet long, and produced five matured clusters 
averaging 8-9 lbs. each in weight, and each having fifteen perfect 
and well swelled fruits. Besides the five perfect clusters, it had two 
imperfect ones, with fifteen immature fruits, varying from 1 to 3 inches 
long. The fruiting plant is 14 ft. 6 in. in height above the tub, ex- 
clusive of its leaves, which are 10 ft. long and 2 ft. G in. broad ; the 
stem is 35 inches in circumference at its base. The weight of the 
head of fruit, when in its perfect state, was estimated at from 75 lbs. 
to 80 lbs. The plant is one of the largest in cultivation, and also one 
of the most prolific, the fruit ripening successively over a period of 
two months. 

Mr. M'Nab made the following report of plants in flower in the 
Botanic Garden, &c. : — 

Feb. 8. Rhododendron dauricum in flower, sparingly, in Botanic 
Garden. 
9. Eranthis hyemalis in flower in Dr. Neill's Garden. 

11. Galanthus nivalis in flower in Botanic Garden — Gentian a 
verna flowering in a cold frame in Dr. Neill's Garden. 

14. Galanthus plica tus in flower in Botanic Garden. 

14. Tussilayo fragrans, Helleborus fostidus, Primula veris, P. 
vulgaris, Eranthis hyemalis, Garry a ellijitica, Arbutus 
Unedo, Viburnum Tinus, Cydonia japonica, and cultivated 
varieties of Viola tricolor, in flower in Botanic Garden. 

14. Helleborus odorus and //. atro-purpureus in flower in Expe- 
rimental Garden. 

14. Ilepatica triloba and Corylus Avellana in flower in Dr. Neill's 
Garden. 
The following papers were read : — 

1 . " Notice of some of the rare Plants observed in Orkney during 
the Summer of 1849," by John T. Syme, Esq. (See p. 266.) 

2. " On the Embryogeny of Hippuris vulgaris," by John Scott 
Sanderson, Esq. (See p. 259.) 

3. " Account of an Excursion from Simla to the Burenda Pass, 
and other parts of the Himalaya, in July and August 1847/' by 
Lieutenant Robert Maclagan, Bengal Engineers, Principal of the 
College of Civil Engineers, Roorkee, North-West Provinces of India. 
The author of this paper left Simla on the 10th of July 1847, and 

20* 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

proceeded to Nagkhunda ; thence he visited the hill called Whartoo 
or Huttoo, and followed the valley of the Puhhur. A general ac- 
count was given of the vegetation of the district, and remarks made 
on its geological features, natural scenery, and the modes of travel- 
ling through it. The summit of the Burenda Pass was reached on 
the 21st. The elevation of the pass was found, on a rough estimate, 
to be 15,263 feet above the level of the sea. Goitre was noticed as 
prevalent among the inhabitants of these regions. The village of 
Booroon was visited. It is situated about 1500 feet above the river 
Buspa, near its confluence with the Sutlej. Vineyards were common 
in this district (which receives the name of Koonawur), and apricots 
are abundantly cultivated, both on account of their fruit and the oil 
which is obtained from the kernels. From Booroon Mr. Maclagan 
ascended the river Sutlej to Pooaree and Zginam ; and, after crossing 
a hill called Skerung, reached Nesung. He subsequently ascended 
the Sutlej to Namja, a village close to the Chinese frontier. He de- 
scribed the general features of the Tartars, their dress and habits ; 
and also noticed the shawl goat and the yak (Bos grunniens). Leaving 
Namja he reached the Chinese village of Shipkee, and afterwards 
passed through Keookh without interruption, following the Sutlej as 
far as the junction of two roads, one leading to Garoo and the other 
to Chapnung. From this point he returned to Shipkee and Namja, 
and thence followed the Spiti to Shalkur, a so-called fort in lat. 32°, 
long. 78° 30'. He crossed the Lapcha Pass, which is about 13,800 ft. 
above the level of the sea, and rested at Dunker on the 14th August. 
The fossil locality near Geoongool was examined. The Taree Pass 
was ascended on the 16th. This pass is, on a rough calculation, about 
16,000 feet above the level of the sea. On the summit of the Pass 
at sunrise the thermometer stood at 35° Fahr. After crossing the 
pass, the author journeyed by Rampoor to Simla, which he reached 
on 1st September 1847- The plants met with during the route were 
noticed, and specimens of several of them were exhibited at the meet- 
ing. The following is a list of the natural orders to which the plants 
observed during the trip belonged, with the names of the genera and 
of the species, so far as they were ascertained : — 
Ranunculacece. — Ranunculus, Delphinium velutinum, and another 

species ; Anemone, two species ; Aquilegia glauca, Clematis graveo- 

lens. 
Papaveracece. — Meconopsis aculeata. 

Cruciferce. — Erysimum like E. cheiranthoides, Sisymbrium, Draba. 
Capparidacece. — Capparis . 
Tamaricacece. — Tamarix. 
Caryophyllacece. — Stellaria, two species; Silene, a species very like 

S. italica ; Cerastium ; Dianthus, two species ; Sagina, Lychnis, 

Spergula, &c. 
Malvacece. — Sida. 
Sapindacece. — /Esculus. 

Geraniacece. — Geranium, three species ; Erodium. 
Oxalidacece. — Oxalis corniculata. 
Leguminosce. — Lotus corniculatus, Lespedeza juncea? 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 309 

Rosacea. — Rosa tetrapetala and another species, Potentilla atrosan- 
guinea, P. nepalensis and two others, Spiraea vacciniifolia, S. Lind- 
leyana, Sibbaldia purpurea, Fragaria vesca, Agrimonia nepalensis, 
Armeniaca vulgaris. 

Onagracecc. — Epilobium laxum, E. angustifolium var., and another 
species. 

Crassulacea. — Sempervivum, and another genus. 

Grossulariacece. — Ribes glacialis and another species. * 

Umbelliferce. — Hymenolsena, Pycnocycla glauca, Chserophyllum, Bu- 
pleurum, and Myrrhis ? 

Rubiacece. — Asperula odorata ?, Galium, and another undetermined. 

Compositce. — Aster, Erigeron like E. alpinus ; Gnaphalium, two spe- 
cies ; Antennaria, Scorzonera ; Achillsea, two species ; Artemisia, 
Calameris Doronicum, Prenanthes, Senecio, and two other genera. 

Vacciniacece. — Vaccinium . 

Aquifoliacece. — Ilex. 

JasminacecB. — Jasminum. 

Oleacece. — Fraxinus like F. xanthoxyloides. 

Gentianaceoe. — Gentiana, three species, and another genus. 

Polemoniacea. — Polemonium caeruleum. 

Convolvulacece. — Ipomsea. 

Boraginacece. — Myosotis, two species ; Echinospermum ?, Anchusa 
tinctoria. 

Scropkidariacece. — Veronica; Pedicularis, two species; and Euphrasia 
officinalis. 

Labiatce. — Acinos, Calamintha, Salvia, Prunella like P. vulgaris, 
Colquhounia vestita 1 and other two genera, one of which is like 
Hyssopus. 

Verbenacece. — Verbena like V. officinalis. 

Acanthacece. — Morina longifolia, and a genus like Justicia. 

Primulacece. — Androsace rotundifolia. 

Plantaginacece. — Plantago. 

Polygonacece. — Rumex like R. hastatus, Polygonum like P. Brunonis, 
and another genus. 

Euphorbiacece. — Euphorbia cashmeriana ? 

Amentacece. — Betula, Fagu3. 

Juglandaceee. — Juglans. 

Coniferce. — Taxus baccata?, Pinus Neoza, Abies, and a genus like 
Callitris. 

OrchidaeecB. — Orchis. 

Zingiber acece. — Roscoea alpina ? 

Liliacece. — Lloydia Kunawurensis 1 

Cyperacece. — Carex ; Cyperus, two species, one of which is like C. 
muricata. 

Graminece. — Phalaris, Alopecurus pratensis ; Bromus (like B. erec- 
tus) ; Milium, two species ; Phleum, two species ; Poa, one like 
P. annua ; Setaria, Triticum, Stipa like S. pennata, and Dactylis 
glauca. 

Filices. — Adiantum Capillus- Veneris, and others. 



310 Miscellaneous. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Descriptions of new species of Birds of the Family Caprimulgidre. 

By John Cassin. 

Genus Hydropsalis, Wagler, Isis 1832, page 1222. 

1 . Hydropsalis limbatus, nobis. 

Adult $ ? Form.— Wings long, pointed, with the shafts of the 
primaries strong and slightly curved ; first primary longest, second 
and third deeply sinuated on their outer webs, and, with the first, 
having their external margins distinctly serrated. Tail excessively 
long, graduated, the two external feathers surpassing the next by 
about 14 inches ; others regularly receding to the two in the middle 
which are shortest. Tarsi feathered slightly below the knee. Webs 
of outer tail-feathers narrow. 

Dimensions. — Total length of skin, from the tip of bill to end of 
tail, about 2 feet 5 inches ; of the wing 9 inches ; of the tail to end of 
external feathers about 22 inches ; length of two middle tail-feathers 
about 3 inches. 

Colours. — Upper surface of the head, body and wing-coverts 
brownish black, spotted and sparingly lined with pale fulvous. The 
wing-coverts with round spots at their points of the same colour. 

Superciliary region grayish white, every feather having narrow 
irregular lines of black. Hind-neck with a semi-collar of bright 
reddish fulvous. Under the eye an irregular whitish stripe. 

Scapular feathers with their external webs black, with a few curved 
lines of fulvous remote from the tip, which is broadly margined with 
black ; internal webs of scapulars nearly white, irregularly striped and 
spotted with black ; other scapulars nearly black, with pale fulvous 
margins externally. 

Throat before with a white collar. Chin, breast and belly irregularly 
mixed with brownish black and pale yellowish white, the latter colour 
assuming upon the breast the form of semicircular segments and 
lunular spots upon the tips of the feathers, and the former (blackish) 
disposed to form very irregular narrow bands upon the flanks and 
belly ; ventral region and under tail-coverts paler. 

Quills brownish black, having upon their internal webs four or five 
narrow transverse lines of pale yellowish white, conspicuous when 
viewed from below ; and upon their external webs (except the first) 
several rounded or irregular-shaped spots of the same colour. Second 
and third quills where sinuated upon their outer webs, with a very 
slight margin of white. Secondaries obscurely tipped w'.th whitish. 

First, second and th'ird tail-feathers throughout their whole length 
with their outer webs and about two-thirds of their inner webs brownish 
black ; other portion of the inner webs, being the internal margin of 
those feathers, white ; a few bright fulvous spots near the base upon 
the outer webs. Fourth and fifth tail-feathers with similar colours, 
but more broadly bordered with white, which upon those, as well as 
the third, is sparingly spotted with brownish. 

Young ?? Form. — Tail deeply emarginate, but not excessively 
long; external feathers exceeding the next by about \\ inch only. 



Miscellaneous. 311 

Dimensions. — Total length of skin, from tip of bill to end of tail, 
about 1 2 inches ; wing 8 inches ; tail to end of external feathers 7\ 
inches ; length of middle tail-feathers about 3^ inches. 

Colours. — Entire upper surface, tail included, brownish black, 
with numerous rounded spots and lines of reddish fulvous, assuming 
upon the tail the form of irregular or curved bands, which are more 
or less mottled and mixed with the brownish black of the other pre- 
dominating portion. Throat with a semi-collar of yellowish white. 
Entire under-parts brownish black, banded and spotted with fulvous. 

Hab. South America. 

Obs. — This very remarkable species may readily be distinguished 
by its very long forked tail, the feathers of which are irregularly gra- 
duated. In the latter respect it differs from the Tlyd. psalurus 
(Temm.), to which however it bears but little resemblance. 

There are in the collection of the Academy three specimens of this 
species, two males in the Rivoli collection, and a female which was 
fortunately procured in Paris by Mr. Edward Wilson. 

2. Hydropsalis segment atus, nobis. 

$ middle age 1 Form. — Wings moderate, second primary slightly 
longest, second, third and fourth deeply sinuated on their outer webs ; 
first with its outer edge serrated, inner edges (of primaries) presenting 
a fringed appearance. Shafts of primary quills strong and curved. 

Tail very long, the two external feathers of which surpass the next 
by about 10 to 12 inches ; second, third and fourth graduated ; fourth 
and fifth about equal — that is to say, the four middle feathers of the 
tail nearly equal. 

Bill rather long and slender. Tarsi bare, slender. Webs of outer 
tail-feathers very narrow. 

Dimensions. — Total length of skin, from tip of bill to end of tail, 
about 20 inches ; wing of ; tail to end of external feathers about 
1 o\ inches ; length of four middle tail-feathers about 4 inches. 

Colours. — Upper surface of head, body, scapulars and wing-coverts 
brownish black, spotted and obscurely lined with ferruginous rufous, 
which colour almost predominates upon the scapulars. 

Neck, behind, with an obscure ferruginous semi-collar ; before, 
with a semi-collar of rufous white. Body beneath brownish black, 
with rounded ferruginous spots upon the breast, and upon the belly 
with obscure bands and spots of pale ferruginous and nearly white. 

Wing-feathers brownish black ; first primary with a narrow pale 
reddish border upon its outer web for about half its length, second 
and third with a pale ferruginous spot at the point of sinuation. 
Secondaries with irregular bars of reddish and with narrow tips of 
the same colour. 

The two external feathers of the tail with their shafts white upon 
the upper surface, outer webs white tinged with rufous, and hand- 
somely marked (upon the outer webs) with semicircular segments of 
black, having for their bases the shaft of the feather. This marking 
is more conspicuous towards the base, and upon the under surface 
the black colour of these semicircular segments extends to the shaft 
of the feather. All the other tail-feathers brownish black, with bars 



312 Miscellaneous. 

of ferruginous rufous ; upon the two middle feathers these bars are 
mottled with black. 

Young % ? Form. — Tail ample, e marinate, and regularly graduated, 
the two external feathers being but little longer than the second. 

Dimensions. — Total length of skin, from tip of bill to end of tail, 
about 9 inches ; wing 6^ ; tail to end of external feathers about 5 
inches ; length of middle feathers of the tail about 4 inches. 

Colours. — Entire plumage very similar to the male, but with all 
the tail-feathers brownish black, barred with ferruginous. 

Hab. Bogota, New Grenada. 

Obs. — The two specimens now described belong to the Rivoli col- 
lection, and have the appearance of being either young birds, or with 
the plumage of winter. The male may, however, be easily recognized 
by the curious marks upon the external webs of the outer tail-feathers, 
described above. The colours in the present specimens, black and 
ferruginous, are peculiar to this species, so far as I have seen. 

Genus Antrostomus, Gould. 

3. Antrostomus serico-caudatus, nobis. 

Adult £ Form. — Wings rather long, third primary longest ; second, 
third and fourth sinuated on their outer webs ; shafts slightly curved. 
Tail cuneiform, four middle feathers equal and longest. 

Bill rather long and flat ; tarsi short, slightly feathered below the 
knee. 

Dimensions. — Total length of skin, from tip of bill to end of tail, 
about 1 1 inches ; wing 7\ ; tail 5 J inches. 

Colours. — Head above, back, rump, scapulars and wing-coverts 
variegated with black and dark fulvous, the latter in rounded spots 
and narrow irregular lines, predominating upon the wing-coverts, but 
the former (black) upon the head and scapulars. This colour disposed 
to form a broad longitudinal band on the head. Sides of the head, 
over the eyes, grayish ; every feather with transverse black lines. 
Neck behind with a semi-collar of deep reddish fulvous ; before with 
a semi-collar of yellowish white, the feathers of which are tipped with 
black. 

Throat nearly black ; breast below the collar with deep fulvous 
spots and irregular lines ; belly and ventral region with a predomi- 
nating pale fulvous white, and some nearly pure white spots, every 
feather transversely lined and barred with black ; under tail-coverts 
fulvous, unspotted. 

Wing-feathers brownish black ; primaries with about ten to twelve 
irregular-shaped but rather triangular marks of deep fulvous upon 
their external webs ; secondaries with irregular bars of pale fulvous, 
which bars are mottled with black. 

First, second and third feathers of the tail brownish black, with 
several obscure and badly defined- bands of reddish fulvous, and ob- 
liquely tipped in a very conspicuous manner with fine, silky white. 
Fourth feather of similar colour, but without the white tip, and with 
the reddish fulvous bands more definite. Two middle tail-feathers 
brownish black, and with about ten to twelve bars on each web of 
deep reddish fulvous, well defined, and which are disposed obliquely 



Miscellaneous. 313 

from the shafts of the feathers like a pinnate leaf ; those bars broad 
and mottled with black ; two middle feathers without white tips. 

Younger 1 *, form. — As above described, but with the second primary 
slightly the longest. 

J)i mentions. — Total length of skin, from tip of bill to end of tail, 
about 10£ inches ; wing 7-j ; tail 5} inches. 

Colours. — Very similar to the above, but with the grayish colour 
extending over the whole of the head. Under parts much darker, but 
with more numerous white rounded spots. Under tail-coverts fulvous 
with black lines. The fine white tips of the external tail-feathers 
tinged with fulvous. 

Hab. South America. 

Obs. — The distribution of the colours upon the upper surface of 
the body, in this handsome species, resembles in some degree that of 
Scoloj)ax rusticola, or of $. minor. 

It is not similar to any other species known to me, and can at once 
be recognized by the silky white tips of the external tail-feathers. 
These cross the feathers obliquely, and are so arranged that when the 
cuneiform tail is expanded, they form a continuous margin upon the 
ends of those three feathers. 

This is one of the few species of this family which have pretensions 
to beauty. Two specimens are in the collection of the Academy. — 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
vol. iv. p. 236. 

FORMER EXISTENCE OF GIGANTIC BEARS IN IRELAND. 

To Richard Taylor, Esq. 

Phil. Hall, Leeds, March 5, 1850. 

My Dear Sir, — Having just read with much interest in the last 
number of the 'Annals,' my friend Dr. Ball's announcement of the 
former existence of gigantic bears in Ireland, probably coexistent 
with Megaceros, together with Professor Owen's valuable remarks on 
the same, it appeared to me that a ray of light is thrown on this 
question in one of Archdeacon Maunsell's letters respecting the gi- 
gantic deer, found at Rathcannon, and now in the Museum of the 
Royal Dublin Society. It is addressed to Lord Viscount Northland, 
and dated Limerick, April 7th, 1824, in which, after describing the 
above noble skeleton, he says, " I have also a skull of a dog of a large 
kind (at least of a carnivorous animal), which I found lying close to 
some of the remains, and which I will transmit with the bones of his 
old acquaintance." 

Now, as Archdeacon Maunsell appears somewhat uncertain whether 
the said skull was really that of a dog, might it not have been that 
of the gigantic bear ? If the identical specimen can still be traced 
and examined, after so many years, it might afford additional evidence 
upon so important a discovery. 

Again, Professor Owen thinks it an interesting question to ascer- 
tain whether these ursine remains were contemporaneous with Mega- 
ceros or not, which could be decided by the relative antiquity of the 
formation in which they are found, i. e. peat or marl. Dr.* Ball di- 



314 Miscellaneous. 

stinctly says, the skulls contained fragments of the latter and none of 
the former ; upon this point the Archdeacon also expressly states, 
" they were both found lying close together." If therefore the 
above skull eventually proves to be that of a bear, the period of its 
existence is decided to have been coseval with that of the Megaceros ! 
Believe me, my dear Sir, yours very truly, 

Henry Denny, A.L.S, 

On some new genera and species of Entozoa. By Dr. Leidy. 

1. Ascaris cylindrica. Body nearly cylindrical throughout, an- 
teriorly moderately attenuated; tail curved, 1 -214th of an inch in 
length from the anus ; oesophagus elongated, gibbous in the middle, 
with the oesophageal bulb and pharynx 1-1 00th of an inch in length ; 
oesophageal bulb pyriform, l-75th of an inch in diameter ; ventricle 
or intestine somewhat tortuous, cylindrical, dilated at both extremi- 
ties ; rectum pyriform ; female generative aperture about half-way 
between the mouth and tail. Whole length 4-5th of a line, breadth 
1-1 2th of aline. 

Hab. Small intestine of Helix alternata. 

Remarks. — I found the female only of this species in fifteen out of 
forty specimens of Helix alternata, in numbers of from one to three. 
The ovaries in all were distended with ova, the latter measuring 1 -430th 
of an inch in length by 1-5 76th in breadth. 

2. Ascaris infecta. Female. — Subcylindrical, gradually diminishing 
towards the extremities, white, with a brown streak down the lower 
two-thirds of the middle line ; anteriorly obtusely rounded ; tail 
slightly curved, l-80th of an inch long from the anus. The three 
papillae of the mouth projecting ; oesophagus strongly muscular, thick, 
oblong, pyriform, l-80th of an inch long, greatest breadth 1-1 75th 
of an inch ; oesophageal bulb cordiform, 1-1 66th of an inch long by 
1-1 66th of an inch broad ; ventricle slightly dilated at commencement, 
contracted posteriorly ; generative orifice projecting, just below the 
middle of the body ; vagina furnished with a large ovate seminal 
receptacle. 

Male. — Dilated at both extremities ; tail thick, 1-1 74th of an inch 
long, furnished upon its inner aspect with two minute tubercles. 
Above the anus are two rows, each of four tubercles, connected by 
delicate folds of integument. (Esophagus 1-1 11th of an inch long 
by 1 -260th of an inch broad; oesophageal bulb depressed cordiform, 
1-2 14th of an inch long by 1 -250th of an inch broad. Penis formed 
of two curved spicules, measuring in length, in a straight line, l-78th 
of an inch. 

Length of adult female 3 to 4-i- lines ; breadth at origin of ventri- 
culus 1-1 23rd of an inch; middle of body l-83rd to l-60th of an 
inch ; just above anus l-144th of an inch. Ova 1-3 19th of an inch 
long by l-428th inch broad. 

Length of male 2 lines ; breadth at origin of ventriculus 1-1 76th of 
an inch ; middle of body 1-21 1th of an inch ; just above anus l-202nd 
of an inch. Spermatophori oval, 1-1391 inch long by 1-1 666th 
inch broad, with spermatozoa 1-3 750th inch long by 1-1 0,000th 
inch broad. 



Miscellaneous. 315 

Hab. This species is found in numbers of from three up to fifty or 
more, of various ages and sizes, pretty constantly in the small intes- 
tine of Julus marginatus, Say. The males are found in the propor- 
tion of about one in eight. 

Aorurus, a new genus o/Nematoidece. — Body cylindrical, strongly 
annulated, with a tail nearly as long as the body, straight or nearly 
so, inflexible, spiculate, ensiform, shining, and pointed. Mouth un- 
armed. Female generative aperture near the middle of the body. 

Remarks. — This genus is divisible, by several well-marked cha- 
racters, into two distinct subgenera. 

1st subgenus. Streptostoma. — Body cylindrical, very strongly 
marked with broad annuli. Mouth moderately large, round, bordered 
by a collar (formed by the second aimulus projecting beyond the 
general outline of the body). (Esophagus divided into two distinct 
pyriform muscular bulbs, with a small intermediate rounded bulb. 
Tail four-fifths the length of the body. 

Streptostoma agile. Female. — Body larviform, cylindrical, nar- 
rowed anteriorly and posteriorly, opalescent white, divided into from 
sixty-one to eighty-eight broad annulations, of which there are 
twenty-one from the mouth to the commencement of the ventriculus. 
Tail very straight, occasionally slightly sigmoid, or bent at the point, 
narrow and sharply pointed, inflexible and brittle. Mouth moderately 
large, round, projecting ; pharynx almost null ; oesophagus consisting 
of three bulbs : the first elongated pyriform, strongly muscular, mea- 
suring 1-19/th in. long by l-319th in. broad; second bulb small, 
rounded, muscular, 1 -882nd in. long by 1 -882nd in. broad ; third, or 
true oesophageal bulb, pyriform, l-294th in. long by l-312th in. 
broad. Ventriculus dilated at commencement to nearly the diameter 
of the body, afterwards straight and cylindrical to near its termina- 
tion, where it is slightly dilated. Rectum elongated, pyriform. 
Generative aperture situated about twenty-four rings above the anal 
aperture, which latter is placed between the last two annuli of the 
body. Ovary double ; ova 1 -333rd in. long by 1 -400th in. broad. 

Length of body from l-13th to 1-1 1th inch ; breadth at commence- 
ment of ventriculus 1-1 18th. inch; at middle of body l-97th inch. 
Tail from 1-1 6th to 1-1 5th inch long, by 1 -888th in. broad at its 
middle. 

2nd subgenus. Thelastoma. — Body cylindrical, attenuated an- 
teriorly, strongly marked with moderately broad annuli. Mouth 
small, opening at the extremity of a small papilla. (Esophagus 
divided into two distinct portions, the first long and cylindrical, the 
second constituting the true oesophageal bulb. Tail more than half 
the length of the body. 

Thelastoma attenuatum. Female. — Body attenuated anteriorly to 
commencement of the ventriculus, opalescent white, divided into from 
140 to 160 annulations, of which there are from fifty-two to fifty- 
seven from the mouth to the commencement of the ventriculus. 
Tail very straight, or very slightly curved or bent, slender, inflexible 
and brittle, and sharply pointed. Mouth always projected, small, 
surmounting a small papillary elevation formed by the first annulus 



316 Miscellaneous. 

of the body. Pharynx very short and narrow ; oesophagus strongly 
muscular, cylindrical, l-47th in. long by 1 -533rd in. broad ; oeso- 
phageal bulb pyriform, 1-1 78th in. long, 1 -222nd in. broad. Ven- 
triculus dilated alaeform at commencement, cylindrical throughout. 
Rectum short, pyriform. Generative aperture forty-two annulations 
above the anal. Ovary double ; ova l-333rd in. long by l-400th in. 
broad. 

Length of body from 1-1 Oth to l-8th in. ; breadth at middle l-95th 
in. Tail 1-1 4th in. long by 1-1 11th in. broad at middle. 

Hah. and Remarks. — Streptostoma agile and Thelastoma attenu- 
atum are found together principally in the commencement of the 
large intestine oiJulus marginatus, in numbers of from one to fifteen, 
and less frequently in the small intestine with Ascaris ivfecta, in 
numbers of from one to six. It is remarkable, that although I have 
found from one to fifteen of these two genera in nine-tenths of the 
animals examined, I have never yet been able to detect a single male. 

Thelastoma always has the mouth projected, whilst Streptostoma 
has it retracted, producing, in some measure, but by no means wholly, 
the difference in size of the oral aperture. 

At first I was inclined to think these two animals were different 
stages of the same species, but the adults uniformly correspond to 
the descriptions given, and in all cases contained more or less per- 
fected ova. 

Their movements are active, wriggling the body in a sigmoid manner 
and vibrating the delicate spiculated tail, which in sunlight resembles 
a shining acicular crystal. 

Thelastoma, from its form of oesophagus and narrower annulations 
and shorter tail than Streptostoma, occupies a position between the 
latter and Oxyuris. 

Gregarina, Dufour. Body consisting of two distinct cells. In- 
ferior cell the larger, marked with delicate, parallel, longitudinal 
lines, (muscular ?) and filled with a fine granular matter, obscuring 
one or two nucleolo-nucleated-organic cells. Superior cell placed in 
a depression of the inferior, surmounted by a slight papilla in which 
may be .detected two lines, apparently outlines, of an oral canal to 
the interior of the cell which is filled with granular matter ; cell-wall 
amorphous and transparent. 

Gregarina larvata. Body opake white, cylindrical or fusiform, 
frequently considerably dilated at the middle of the upper third. 
Superior cell a flattened or depressed sphere, received about one-half 
into a depression of the inferior cell, surmounted by a papillary eleva- 
tion with traces of a communication with the exterior ; interior filled 
with a finely granular mass resembling oil-globules, and measuring 
from 1-1 5,000th to 1 -7500th in. Length of cell, in smallest indi- 
viduals, l-123rd in. ; in largest l-80th by 1-6 1st in. broad. Inferior 
cell elongated, cylindrical or fusiform, not communicating with the 
exterior nor with the interior of the superior cell ; filled with a mass 
of granules resembling that of the superior cell, rendering the larger 
individuals opake, but translucent in the smaller ones, and usually 
obscuring one or two comparatively large nucleolo-nucleated-organic 
cells, measuring from 1 -888th to 1 -308th in. in diameter. Cell-wall 



Miscellaneous. 317 

nicirked with exceedingly regular, delicate, longitudinal, parallel lines 
about 1-93 /5th in. apart, apparently muscular in character. 

Length from 1-1 60th to l-30th in., by 1 -830th to 1-1 11th in. in 
breadth. 

Hah. Found in numbers of from half a dozen to over a hundred, 
in the ventriculus of Julus marginatus. 

Gregarina is probably the larva condition of some more perfect 
animal, but in the 1 1 6 individuals of Julus which I have examined, 
I have not been able to detect any form which could be derivable from 
it. Creplin doubts its animality*. When I first discovered this 
body, thinking it to be a larva, I did not examine it carefully, and it 
was not until some time afterward, when, being desirous of ascertain- 
ing its true nature, upon examining some fresh specimens beneath 
the microscope, I detected movements of an animal character, and this 
led me to seek for muscular structure, which resulted in the discovery 
of the longitudinal lines of the inferior cell. These escaped the ob- 
servation of Siebold, for he says, "Nach meineBeobachtungen bestehen 
die Gregarinen aus einer harten glatten den Eihullen der Insekten-Eier 
ahnlichen Hautf." The movements of the animal are exceedingly 
sluggish, and consist of a very slow bending in any direction of any 
part of the inferior cell, most usually above the middle, rarely at the 
inferior extremity, but most frequently near the superior cell which 
is entirely passive. The superior cell is also frequently drawn or con- 
tracted within the inferior, and again protruded by the contraction of 
the latter, and the propulsion of the granular contents against it. 
The inferior cell is also frequently, more especially in younger indi- 
viduals, intus-suscepted within itself through a partial contraction, and 
again relieved by a general contraction of the cell-wall. 

In the state in which Gregarina is found, it would probably hold 
a rank between the Trematoda and Trichina, the lowest of the Ae- 
matoidea. — Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phi- 
ladelphia, vol. iv. p. 229. 

On the mouthless Acari which have been formed into the genus 
Hypopus. By F. Dujardin. 

Degeer, Hermann and Geoffroy found upon various insects some 
very small parasitical mites, to which they gave the name of Acarus 
muscarum and Acarus spinitarsus ; they were not, however, able to 
study them on account of their extreme minuteness. Duges, who 
examined a single one only, constituted the genus Hypopus of it, 
characterized by a sucker, provided with two rigid bristles, but re- 
gretting at the same time that he had not sufficiently studied it. 
Since that period, M. Leon Dufour has made known two other 
species, and M. Gervais has described a fifth species ; but he has 
mistaken the projecting lines resulting from the contiguity of the 
hips for a nervous system. M. Koch in Germany has also described 
two other species of them, but without making any attempt at inves- 
tigating their organization. M. Dujardin, who in 1842 described, 

* Nachtrage zu Gurlt's Verzeichniss der Thiere bei welchen Entozoeu 
gefunden worden sind. Wiegmann's Arehiv, 1846, 1 Band, S. 157. 
f Wiejjmann's Arehiv, 1838, 2 Band, S. 308. 



318 Miscellaneous . 

under the name of Anoetus, an Acarus found by Dr. Manceau de Cha- 
labre upon the wing of a bee, has been led to extend his researches 
to several allied species, and he has recognized that they ought to be 
united with Hypopus ; i. e. that they, like his Anoetus, have neither 
a mouth nor a digestive apparatus ; also that they are provided with 
suckers upon the posterior part of the abdomen, and that these 
suckers merely serve to fix them at their will, in readiness for their 
last metamorphosis, which is effected at the expense of the internal 
nutritive matter which they have received at their birth. 

In 1847, M. Dujardin first found, xnponMusca stabidans of Fallen, 
a Hypopus in the same state as the Acarus muscarum of Degeer, and 
it was in the case of this Acarus, which was y^yths of a millimetre in 
length, that he was enabled to determine the absence of the mouth 
and intestine. Since then, he has found other species upon Sta- 
phylini and Cryptops, but having the same organization ; lastly, in 
September 1849, he found some upon a fern, Ceterach officinarum, 
among which there were a certain number of shells or teguments ; 
these were perfect, but empty, transparent, narrower, and consequently 
more like those which he had seen upon the wing of the bee : the 
greater number were living, and continued to live in water ; and the 
power with which these Acari are able to fix themselves to a plate of 
glass was then noticed. Some of them, which were few in number, 
and had become immoveable, exhibited through their integument 
another form of Acarus which filled the whole of its internal cavity, 
and which were furnished with a mouth, having at the same time 
palpi and chelicera like the Gamasi and the Bermanyssi which live 
in great numbers in the same situation. From that time it became 
evident that the Hypopi, which had no mouth, nor any possible 
mode of growth, and which lived fixed upon polished surfaces that 
could yield them nothing— it was evident, shall we say, that these 
Hypopi are the larvae, or rather, if we may use the expression, the 
ova furnished with feet, in the interior of which, without any food 
derived from without, the young Gamasus is formed, solely at the 
expense of the contained substance. 

Consequently, M. Dujardin has been enabled to search for and find 
other Hypopi upon all the insects infested by the Gamasi, such as 
the Geotrupidce, the Necrophoridte, the Humble-bees, &c. They are 
most commonly found at the base of the abdomen, or beneath the 
first rings, or in the anfractuosities of the metathorax ; but judging 
from the diversity of their forms, we should think that there would 
be different species of Gamasi, or Bermanyssi, or even Uropodi. Other 
species have been found by beating the branches of trees ; and lastly, 
one species, which is very remarkable by its method of fixation, has 
been found upon subterranean rodents (Arvicola suhterraned), upon 
which also the Gamasi are parasitic. The latter Hypopus, in fact, 
would not have been able to fix itself upon the hairs or upon the skin 
by the suckers ; hence it is furnished, beneath the upper part, with a 
pair of striated lobes or tubercles, which becoming approximated like 
two lips, firmly embrace the single hairs of the mammifer. 

In short, the Hypopi are Acari with eight feet, without either 
mouth or intestine, and which, being deprived of all means of alimen- 



Meteorological Observations. 319 

tation, fix themselves at will so as to undergo a final metamorphosis, 
and they become Gamasi or Uropodi, from which they differ as much 
at least as the swimming Hydrachni or Acari differ from their larvae ; 
but these fix themselves by their mouth, and increase by sucking the 
nutritive fluid of the insects of which they are the parasites. Ought 
therefore the Ilypopi to be called larvae, when under this denomina- 
tion have hitherto been comprised animals capable of nourishing 
themselves by aliment derived from without, thus accumulating the 
materials requisite for their ulterior transformations, so that in those 
insects the metamorphosis of which is complete, the pupa takes no 
further nutriment, and the perfect insect is sometimes in the same 
case, as in Bombyx for example 1 Here, on the contrary, we have a 
Hypopus provided with limbs like an active larva, but taking no nu- 
triment : the Gamasi alone in their perfect state can feed and grow. 
— Comptes RenduSy Feb. 5, 1850. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR FEB. 1850. 

Chiswick. — February 1. Densely clouded : showery. 2. Slight rain. 3. Cloudy: 
clear. 4. Very fine. 5. Slight rain : very fine : showery. 6. Boisterous. 7. Fine. 
8. Hazy. 9. Very boisterous. 10. Clear: very fine. 11. Rain: boisterous. 

12. Overcast: boisterous. " 13. Clear and dry: frosty at night. 14. Rain: 
drizzlv. 15. Cloudy : rain. 16. Clear. 17. Overcast. 18. Cloudy : very fine. 
19. Overcast. 20. Densely overcast : rain. 21. Overcast: clear at night. 
22. Cloudy : very fine. 23. Overcast and fine. 24. Overcast. 25. Foggy. 
26. Foggy : overcast : clear. 27. Foggy : very fine : clear. 28. Foggy. 

Mean temperature of the month 42°*80 

Mean temperature of Feb. 1849 41 -35 

Mean temperature of Feb. for the last twenty-three years. 39 '56 

Average amount of rain in Feh 161 inch. 

Boston. — Feb. I. Cloudy. 2 — 4. Fine. 5- Cloudy: stormy pjm. : distant 

lightning. 6. Cloudy : stormy a.m. 7. Fine. 8. Cloudy. 9. Fine : rain p.m. 

10. Fine. 11. Cloudy : rain a.m. and r.M. 12 Cloudy: rain and snow p.m. 

13. Fine : rain p.m. 14. Cloudy: rain a.m. 15. Fine. 16. Fine: rain a.m. 
17. Fine. 18. Cloudy. 19. Fine. 20, 21. Cloudy. 22. Fine. 23—28. Cloudy. 

■dpplegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire. — Feb. 1. Heavy rain nearly all day. 2. Rain 
all day : storm p.m. 3. Rain, wilh high wind. 4. Dull and cloudy. 5. Dull a.m. : 
severe storm of wind and rain. 6. Hurricane, with heavy rain. 7. Snow -j%ths 
of an inch deep: rain p.m. 8. Frost early : rain and wind p.m. 9. Rain and 
high wind all day. 10. Fine: frost a.m. : showery p.m. 1 1. Snow : rain : wind. 
12. Rather fine : slight shower. 13. Hard frost : clear and fine. 14. Rain thick 
and close. 15. Rain ; stormy p.m. : very wet. 16. Showers: very changeable. 
17, 18. Wet a.m : dull and moist all day. 19. Rain, and fog and wind. 20. 
Showers, short but severe. 21. Rain : storm of wind. 22. Fair, but unsettled- 
looking. 23. Fair : cloudy. 24. Fair and fine. 25. R lin during the night : 
moist. 26. Fine a.m. : showery p.m. 27,28. Dull, but fair and mild. 

Mean temperature of the month 41°*7 

Mean temperature of Feb. 1849 41 *2 

Mean temperature of Feb. for the last twenty-eight years. 37 *6 
Average amount of rain in Feb. for the last twenty years. 204 inches. 
Sandwick Manse, Orkney. — Feh. 1. Cloudy: rain: cloudy. 2. Showers: 
thunder : cloudy. 3. Showers 4. Sleet : cloudy. 5. Cloudy : sleet-showers. 
6. Showers: clear: aurora. 7 Showers: clear. 8. Cloudy: frost : sleet-showers. 
9. Snow-showers. 10. Bright : snow-showers. 1 1. Cloudy : clear. 12. Bright: 
snow- showers : aurora. 13. Snow-showers : cloudy : aurora. 14. Rain : drizzle. 
15. Cloudy : hazy : aurora. 16. Sleet-showers: hazy. 17. Rain : drizzle. 18. 
Hazy: drizzle. 19. Rain: hazy: cloudy. 20,21. Sleet-showers: showers. 
22. Cloudy: showers. 23. Cloudy: hazy. 24. Drizzle : fine. 25. Cloudy: 
fine. 26. Clear : fine. 27. Drizzle : cloudy. 28. Cloudy : fine. 



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THE ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[SECOND SERIES.] 
No. 29. MAY 1850. 



XXIX.— On the Nostochinese. By John Ralfs, M.R.C.S., 
Penzance*. 

[With two Plates.] 

Frond gelatinous, containing simple, jointed, generally monili- 
form filaments. Some joints enlarged, all finally separating. 

The Nostockinece may be regarded as a tribe of freshwater and 
terrestrial Algse, for only a very few of its species are either lit- 
toral or inhabitants of brackish waters. They are allied on the 
one hand to the Oscillatoria and on the other to the Palmellece ; 
but I consider they have a closer affinity to the former than to the 
latter. Some species of Nostoc, to the naked eye, have considerable 
resemblance to fronds of Rivularia. Without the use of the mi- 
croscope we are sometimes unable to distinguish Trichormus and 
SpluBrozyga from Oscillatoria, and even with its assistance the 
young filament in Spermosira is liable to be regarded as an 
Oscillatoria. So closely too is this family allied to the Palmellece, 
that some distinguished naturalists have united them. Hormo- 
spora in the latter scarcely differs from it except by its uniform 
and more distant cells. 

In the Nostochinece the filaments are always imbedded in gela- 
tine. In Nostoc and Hormosiphon this gelatine is very evident, 
and, especially in the young plant, is comparatively firm. It is, 
indeed, often fleshy or even cartilaginous, and externally is always 
condensed so as to form a distinct covering or epidermis (gene- 
rally smooth and glossy) which limits the frond and gives it a 
definite form. In Trichormus and the remaining genera the plant 
forms a stratum of no determinate form or extent. 

In all the genera the filaments are simple, jointed and usually 
moniliform, and finally break up into single joints. Their joints 

• Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, April, May, June and 
July 1849. 

Ann. $ Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. v. 21 



322 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochineae. 

or cells are commonly more or less orbicular, but sometimes dis- 
ciform or cylindrical, and in a few instances confluent. At first 
they are uniform ; they divide in the same way as they do in 
other simple Algse, and during division are geminate. 

I believe that the filaments multiply in consequence of the 
division of the joints being here and there complete in the same 
way as in Oscillatoria ; because we find that the filaments in 
an early state (as Mr. Hassall has correctly noticed) are but spa- 
ringly scattered through the mass, whereas in mature specimens 
they become very numerous. Mr. Hassall considers that this 
increase results from the separation or dislocation of the enlarged 
cells. I believe, on the contrary, that when the enlarged cells 
are fully formed the plant approaches maturity, and the filaments 
cease to multiply. The following facts will, I think, prove that 
the multiplication of the cells has no essential connection with 
the enlarged joints. In Cylindrospermum they terminate the 
filament, yet here the filaments are as numerous as in the other 
genera, nor do we find them of more unequal lengths, which 
would however necessarily be the case if the enlarged terminal 
joints separated to form new filaments ; and further, the enlarged 
joints themselves are not developed until after the filaments have 
become numerous. 

As I have stated above, the joints or cells are at first uniform 
in size and figure ; but in the mature plant they are of three 
different kinds, all of which are generally, though not I believe 
invariably, present in the same filament. These are — 

1st. Ordinary joints or cells. — Of these I shall only observe, 
that they divide by separating into two hemispheres, each gra- 
dually acquiring a new portion in the room of that from which 
it has separated, and that until this process is complete they ap- 
pear geminate. As this geminate state is common to every spe- 
cies during growth, it cannot be employed as a specific character, 
and as the other cells do not divide, the elongation of the fila- 
ment must be solely due to the ordinary ones. Their endo- 
chromes are slightly granular, which gives them a dotted ap- 
pearance. 

2nd. Vesicular joints or cells*. — These make their appearance 
at an early period. They are generally orbicular, but sometimes 
elliptic, and are usually larger than the ordinary cells. They are 
evidently analogous to the vesicles present in Rivularia and in 
some of the Oscillatoriece. They do not contain granular matter, 
but are filled with a bluish fluid, which eventually acquires a brown 
tint. When mature they are frequently furnished with diverging 
hairs or cilia. They seem to be connected with the adjacent 

* By Mr. Thwaites they are named, from their usual position, " connect- 
ing cells;" they have also been called " Heterocysts." 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 323 

cells by a minute orifice at each end, which in situ looks like a 
minute globule; by this peculiar appearance and by the ab- 
sence of granular matter the vesicular cells may be easily recog- 
nized. 

3rd. Enlarged cells or sporangia. — These are produced by en- 
largement of the ordinary cells, and are the last formed. They 
are filled with a dense granular matter which becomes homoge- 
neous and opake, and finally turns from green to brown like the 
sporangia in the Conjugate and Desmidiece, When they are fully 
developed the filament has fulfilled its function, separates into 
single joints and disappears. The sporangia in Nostoc and Tri- 
ckormus differ but little except in size from the ordinary joints, and 
are more or less orbicular. In Sphcerozyga and Cylindrospermurn 
they are either elliptic, oblong or cylindrical. Usually they are, 
even before the appearance of granular matter, easily distin- 
guished from the vesicular cells by the absence of the remarkable 
puncta-like globules I have just noticed. The sporangia continue 
to enlarge after their separation from the filament. 

That these enlarged cells are true sporangia I cannot doubt ; 
but the nature of the vesicular cells is less certain. The coex- 
istence of the vesicular cells and sporangia in the same filament 
may lead to a better understanding of their office in other tribes. 
As the former are evidently of the same nature as those present 
in Rivularia and in some of the Oscillatoriea, we cannot pro- 
nounce that they are reproductive organs in the one family and 
not in the other. 

On the present occasion I shall examine only those genera of 
the Nostochinea in which the plant forms a stratum. As I have 
before remarked, they form more or less extended patches, either 
on the damp soil or on aquatic plants, or at the bottom of pools 
and ditches. Their colour is bluish green or verdigris, and the 
stratum is extended by the filaments radiating at its margin, 
Hence both in colour and habit, as well as in general appearance, 
they resemble species of Oscillatoria ; the stratum, however, is 
usually more tender and gelatinous. The mass, which in an 
early state is somewhat translucent, at length commonly becomes 
opake and presents a pulverulent appearance. 

The facility with which the filaments break up, especially in 
warm weather, considerably increases the difficulty of studying 
these plants. When the plant is mature, the destruction of the 
filament so frequently takes place in a few hours, even though it 
be kept in water, that recent specimens forwarded to any distance 
seldom arrive in a condition fit for examination ; I am therefore 
less able to profit by the examination of those sent me from other 
districts. Even when they are mounted in fluid, the labour is 

21* 



324 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochineae, 

often rendered useless by the separation of the filament into 
single cells. The destruction of the filament is attended by the 
escape of the colouring matter, which stains the water or what- 
ever is in contact with the mass, and is usually the first sign of 
that destruction. 

I find the best method of preserving specimens is to dry them 
as quickly as possible on talc or glass. Specimens preserved on 
paper can rarely be removed without injury. In examining spe- 
cimens that have been dried, it is necessary to bear in mind, that 
although, when revived by adding a little water, they present cha- 
racters apparently but little altered from their recent ones, yet 
their joints are then more distinct and orbicular from contraction 
at their junction ; hence a cell quadrate in the recent plant will 
be orbicular in the revived one. I have elsewhere mentioned 
that from a similar cause the dried frond in Closterium appears 
more attenuated at the extremities than is natural, and I fear 
that from inattention to this fact descriptions taken from dried 
specimens are sometimes faulty. 

Until the publication of Professor Kutzing's ' Phycologia Ge- 
neralise the described species belonging to this group were few 
in number, and usually retained in a single genus either as Ana- 
baina, Bory, or Spharozyga, Ag. Professor Kiitzing has now 
determined upwards of thirty species, which he has distributed 
in four genera*. 

Attempts to ascertain the earlier synonyms in tribes which 
require the aid of the microscope to detect the generic and spe- 
cific differences are necessarily attended with much difficulty. 
Not only are our present instruments far superior to those used 
a few years ago, but when natural history began to take its 
proper rank in science, the higher tribes sufficiently taxed the 
time and skill of collectors and writers ; it is therefore not sur- 
prising that the more minute Cryptogamia should have been 
comparatively neglected. The descriptions were chiefly taken 
from characters obvious to the naked eye, and besides were often 
so brief and at the same time so vague, that they were equally 
applicable to members of very different genera ; hence authors, 
unable to determine with certainty the species of their prede- 
cessors, were frequently compelled either to depend on chance in 

* I take this opportunity of directing attention to his 'Tabulae Phycolo- 
gicae,' now publishing in numbers in a cheap form, and containing magnified 
figures of every species known to him. To those who wish to identify our 
British freshwater Algae it is indispensable. Of British species of Oscilla- 
torui we have no figures of the slightest value, for unfortunately Mr. Hassall, 
many of whose figures in other genera are very useful, has, in every figure 
which he has given of that genus, omitted to give the ends of the filaments, 
though they are often essential to the determination of the species. 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 325 

the employment of old names, or, renouncing the task as hopeless, 
to invent new ones. In the present group all these difficulties 
have been experienced, and unless authentic specimens, in a fit 
state for examination, exist in the collections of Linnaeus and 
other early botanists, it must in some instances be impossible to 
affix their names with any certainty. I cannot flatter myself that 
my nomenclature will be free from error ; but I venture to hope 
that by pointing out the essential peculiarities of these plants, 
and by more detailed descriptions of the species, I shall facilitate 
the labour of those who can find opportunity for inspecting the 
herbaria of original authorities. 

Should I succeed in my endeavours to elucidate the British 
species, the success will be due in a great measure to the kind 
assistance of my fellow-students. Mr. Thwaites, who in Harvey's 
1 Phycologia Britannica ' was the first to recognize three kinds of 
cells, has supplied descriptions of some species which I have not 
met with. Other friends, especially Professor Allman, Mr. An- 
drews, Mr. Jenner, Mr. Moore, the Rev. T. Salwey, and Mr. W. 
Thompson, have aided me by specimens accompanied with re- 
marks ; whilst Mr. Borrer has enabled me, by means of his rich 
botanical library, to clear up points on which I must otherwise 
have remained in doubt*. 

* The following synoptical table will, it is hoped, convey a clear idea of 
the characters distinguishing respectively the various genera proposed to be 
described. The genus Nostoc is not included in the present paper on ac- 
count of the necessity which exists of a further examination and study of 
its several species, some of which have been stated by Professor Kiitzing 
and M. Fries to be merely a condition of species of Collema. 

Synoptical Table of Genera. 

I. Filaments not included in a membranous sheath. 

a. Frond definite. 

1. Monormia, Berkeley. 

b. Frond indefinite. 

2. Trichormus, Allman. Vesicular cells interstitial and terminal. Spo- 

rangia formed first from the cells at the greatest distance from the 
vesicular cells. 

3. Spkcerozyga, Ag. Vesicular cells interstitial. Sporangia formed 

first from the cells nearest the vesicular cells. 

4. Cylindrospermum, Kiitzing. Vesicular cells terminal. Sporangia 

as in Spheerozyga. 

5. Dolichospermum, n. gen. Vesicular cells interstitial. Sporangia 

without any definite arrangement, and of unequal length. 

II. Filaments included in a membranous sheath. 

6. Aphanizomenon, Morren. Vesicular cells none ? Sporangia usually 

single and of unequal length. 
7- Spermosira, Kiitz. Vesicular cells interstitial, single or sometimes 
two together. Sporangia as in Trichormus. 



326 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 

Monormia*, Berkeley. 
Frond definite, gelatinous, elongated, linear, spirally curled and 
convoluted, inclosing a single continuous moniliform filament. 

Monormia is very closely allied to Trichormus, Allman, differ- 
ing principally, if not solely, in its definite linear frond, which 
incloses a single moniliform filament to be traced throughout all 
the peculiar convolutions of the frond. The vesicular cells are 
interstitial and occur singly. The sporangia are numerous, and 
are first formed from the cells at the greatest distance from the 
vesicular cells. 

Without due attention Monormia might easily be mistaken 
for a species of Nostoc, but the mass formed by its convoluted 
frond is not inclosed by a common membranous pellicle as in 
that genus. 
Monormia intricata, Berk. Gleanings of British Algae, p. 46. t. 18 

(1832); Harvev, Man. of Brit. Algae, p. 185; Phycologia Bri- 

tannica, t. 256 f Hassall, Brit. Fresh. Algse, p. 286. t. 75. fig. 11. 

Nostoc intricatum, Meneghini, Mon. Nostoch. Ital. p. 122 (1842). 

Anabcena intricata, Kiitzing, Phycologia Germanica, p. 1 71 (1845); 

Species Algarum, p. 288 ; Tabulae Phycologicae, p. 50. t. 94. fig. 1 . 

In ditches of the marsh to the south of Frindsbury Canal, near 
Gravesend, Rev. M. J. Berkeley; in brackish ditches at Shirehampton, 
near Bristol, G. H. K. T. ; near Wareham, Rev. W. Smith. Germany, 
Kiitzing. 

This species occurs in slightly brackish ditches as floating ge- 
latinous masses, each about as large as a walnut, and usually of 
a reddish brown colour. When a small portion of the plant is 
examined with a lens of moderate power, it is seen to consist of 
an elongated continuous moniliform filament included in a de- 
finite linear gelatinous sheath, which is very much curled and 
convoluted, and the apposed surfaces of which are more or less 
coherent. The vesicular cells are somewhat oblong, and rather 
larger than the nearly spherical ordinary cells. The sporangia 
are numerous, twice the diameter of the ordinary cells, and per- 
fectly spherical. 

When the sporangia are mature the definite outline of the 
linear frond is almost lost, and then there is little to distinguish 
the plant from Trichormus but the peculiar convolutions of the 
moniliform filament. The original colour of the gelatinous frond 
has also then disappeared, and the plant has assumed a pale 
greenish tint. 

In drying, the plant stains paper of a deep blue or purplish 
colour. 

Plate VIII. fig. 1. 

* Bv Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites. 



Mr. J. Rolfs on the Nostochinese. .327 

Trichormus, Allman. 

Filaments simple, moniliform, distinctly jointed, aggregated into 
an indeterminate gelatinous stratum ; sporangia separated from 
the vesicular cells by the ordinary joints, which they more or 
less resemble in form. 

(Anabaina, Bory, Brebisson, Kutzing, Montagne and others.) 

In Trichormus the stratum is indeterminate and very gela- 
tinous ; at first it is nearly colourless and transparent, and the 
filaments are only sparingly scattered through the matrix ; but 
the filaments rapidly increase in number, and the mass, gra- 
dually becoming more opake, acquires at length a deep bluish 
green colour, which is occasionally mottled with brown, especially 
beneath. 

The filaments are mostly short, distinctly moniliform, and fre- 
quently as much curved as those of a Nostoc. The cells are all 
more or less orbicular, and the sporangia differ less from the 
ordinary cells than they do in the following genera. Viewed 
under the microscope the filaments scarcely differ from those of 
a Nostoc. In both genera they are usually curled, their cells are 
orbicular, the vesicular ones are interstitial and terminal, and the 
sporangia are often not apparent, or are known only by their 
denser endochromes. 

In some of the aquatic species the stratum separates into large 
floating gelatinous masses, and then can only be distinguished 
from Nostoc by the gelatinous portions having no definite form 
or size, and by the absence of an epidermis. 

Professor Kutzing refers Monormia intricata, Berk., to this 
genus. I have never gathered that plant, and I was unable to 
determine the genus from recent specimens sent me by Mr. 
Thwaites from Bristol; but, judging from Mr. Berkeley's figures 
and description, I should suppose that the more definite frond 
and the elongated, solitary and peculiarly convoluted filament 
are sufficient to sustain the genus. 

As Professor Harvey has reminded us in his f Phycologia Bri- 
tannica ' that Bory's name Anabaina has been appropriated to a 
genus of flowering plants, and it becomes necessary to choose 
another, \ have adopted Professor Allman's name Trichormus as 
next in priority. 

Trichormus differs from Dolichospermum in its sporangia, which 
are more or less orbicular, and from Spharozyga and Cylindro- 
spermum by the different arrangement of the sporangia and vesi- 
cular cells. 

1. T. Flos-aquce (Lyngbye). Filaments flexuose or curved, monili- 
form ; cells orbicular, vesicular ones larger, terminal and interstitial. 
Nostoc Flos-aquce, Lyngbye, Tentamen Hydrophytologiae Danicte, 



328 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 

p. 201. t. 68. fig. D (1819). Anabaina membranina, Bory, Arthr. 
fig. 7 d (according to Kiitzing) ; Mougeot et Nestler, Stirpes Cryp- 
togamiae Vogeso-Rhenanae, no. 896. Anabcena Flos-aquce, Trevir. 
in Linn. 1843, t. 3. fig. 5-7; Kiitzing, Phycologia Generalis, p. 209; 
Phycologia Germanica, p. 171 ; Species Algarum, p. 289. Sphcero- 
zyga membranina, Endlicher, Mantissa Bot. Alterum Sup. tertium, 
p. 12 (1843). Trichormus incurvus, Allman, Annals of Nat. Hist. 
vol. xi. p. 163. t. 5 (1843) ; Hassall, Brit. Freshwater Algae, p. 285. 
t. 75. fig. 1. 

Stagnant pools and other still waters. Portmore Lough, Antrim, 
Mr. W.Thompson ; Ayrshire, Rev.D.Landsborough ; Dolgelley, J.R. ; 
Oswestry, Shropshire, Rev. T. Salwey ; Grand Canal Dock, Dublin, 
Professor Allman. 

Finland, Lyngbye ; France, Bory ; Germany, Kiitzing. 

Trichormus Flos-aquce rises to the surface of the water in gela- 
tinous masses of considerable size, and is generally of a rich 
bluish green colour. Filaments curved and beautifully monili- 
form. Cells spherical ; vesicular ones resembling the ordinary 
ones, but larger and without granular matter. Sporangia I have 
not detected, but since cells, not different in form from ordinary 
ones, are often filled with granular matter, there is probably no 
very obvious difference between the latter and the sporangia. 

Plate VIII. fig. 2. 

2. T. spiralis (Thompson). Filaments coiled or spiral ; ordinary cells 
subquadrate or orbicular ; vesicular cells and sporangia orbicular. 
Anabaina spiralis y Thompson in Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist, 
vol. v. p. 81 (1846). Spirillum Thompsoni, Hassall, Brit. Fresh- 
water Algae, p. 278. t. 75. fig. 7 (1845). 

Ballydrain Lake, near Belfast, Mr. Thompson ; Petersfield, Mr. 
Jenner. 

I regret that the specimens Mr. Thompson has sent me are 
too imperfect to serve for the identification of the species. I am 
by no means certain that Mr. Jenner' s plant is identical with the 
Irish one, and I have referred it to this species in deference to 
the opinions of Mr. Thwaites and Mr. Jenner, rather than from 
my own conviction. 

The filament in Mr. Jenner* s specimen is somewhat coarse, and 
coiled rather than loosely spiral. The ordinary joints are more 
or less quadrate, the vesicular cells orbicular, and the sporangia 
similar to the ordinary cells, but larger and more orbicular. 
Mr. Thompson's figure represents his T. spiralis with perfectly 
orbicular ordinary cells, and a slender filament which, except in 
being spiral, scarcely differs from Trichormus Flos-aqua?. 

Plate VIII. fig. 3. a, Mr. Jenner's specimen; b, fragment of Irish spe- 
cimen with sporangium between ordinary cells ; c, mature sporangium. 



Mr. J. Ralfs en the Nostochinese. 329 

3. T. Thwaitesii (Harv.). Filaments moniliform, slightly flexuose ; 
ordinary cells globular or nearly so ; vesicular cells larger, globular 
when interstitial, ovate when terminal, ciliated ; sporangia oval, 
catenate. Sphcerozyga Thwaitesii, Harvey, Phycologia Britannica, 
t. 113 B (1847). 

Salt-marshes, Dolgelley, North Wales, and Hayle, near Penzance, 
J. R. ; Shirehampton, near Bristol, Mr. Thwaites ; Portbury, Somer- 
setshire, Mr. Broome ; near Hastings, Mr. Jenner. 

Trichormus Thwaitesii forms thin, gelatinous, dark green 
patches either on the damp soil covered at spring-tides or at the 
bottom of brackish ditches or pools. Filaments moniliform, 
elongated, pale bluish green. Ordinary joints nearly orbicular, 
except when dividing. Vesicular cells interstitial and terminal, 
ciliated, twice as large as the ordinary ones, ovate when terminal, 
otherwise spherical. Sporangia oval or nearly globular, larger 
than the ordinary cells, beginning near the centre of the fila- 
ment and forming chain-like groups of six or more together. 

Mr. Thwaites' s specimens vary in some respects from those I 
have gathered. I find the stratum very thin and tender, and the 
sporangia rarely produced ; but Mr. Thwaites informs me, that at 
Bristol, on the contrary, it forms, after a time, large, floating, 
gelatinous masses, and then abounds with sporangia. 

Trichormus Thwaitesii is more likely to be confounded with 
immature specimens of Sphcerozyga Carmichaelii than with either 
of the preceding species of this genus, especially as they often 
grow intermixed. In the present plant however the filament is 
longer, the ordinary cells are more globular, and the terminal 
cell either resembles the others or is ovate and vesicular. Its 
ciliated and globular vesicular cells distinguish it from T, oscil- 
larioides and T. recta. 

A specimen oiAnabaina variabilis sent me by Professor Kiitzing 
is apparently identical with the present species ; but, as the former 
is described as lacustrine, with attenuated ends, I have thought 
it advisable not to unite them*. 

Plate VIII. fig. 4. a, immature filament ; b, mature filament. 

4. T. oscillarioides (Bory). Filaments elongated, flexuose; ordi- 
nary joints subquadrate, distinct ; vesicular cells barrel-shaped or 
elliptic, naked ; sporangia oval, catenate. Anabcena oscillarioides, 
Bory, Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat. Sphcerozyga oscillarioides, Kutz. 
Species Algarum, p. 291 (1849); Tabulae Phycologicse, t. 96. fig. 5. 
Trichormus affinis, Ralfs in lit. 

Brackish ditches. Shirehampton, near Bristol, Mr. Thwaites. 

* " Anabaina variabilis, lacustris, mollis, viridi-rcruginea ; trichomatibus 
attenuatis, aerugineo-viridibus, laxe implicatis ; articulis ellipticis, majoribus, 
granulosis." — Kiitzing, Phyc. Gener. p. 210. 



330 Mr. J. Ralis on the Nostochinese. 

Stratum bluish green; filaments elongated, flexuose, monili- 
form, often attenuated at the ends. Ordinary joints quadrate, 
with rounded angles, frequently longer than broad, terminal ones 
conical. Vesicular cells oblong, usually flattened at the ends so 
as to appear barrel-shaped, broader than the ordinary joints, and, 
according to Mr. Thwaites, always naked. Sporangia elliptic, 
catenate, and somewhat larger than the ordinary cells. 

Trichormus oscillarioides differs from T. Thwaitesii by its more 
quadrate ordinary cells and by its smooth and elliptic vesicular 
cells. It may be known from T. recta by its elongated filaments 
and by its more quadrate ordinary cells. 

Plate VIII. fig. 5. 

5. T. rectus* (Thw. MS.). Filaments bright green, straight, short, 
slightly tapering towards the extremities ; ordinary cells subsphe- 
rical, rather shorter than wide ; vesicular cells oblong, smooth, 
scarcely wider than the ordinary cells, and never terminating the 
filament ; sporangia spherical or oblong, numerous! 

Pools. Hanham, near Bristol, August 1847, G. H. K. Thwaites. 

This little species differs from every other we have seen in its 
short, straight filaments, which are of a beautiful green colour. 
The vesicular cells, of which there are seldom more than one or 
two in each filament, are of a reddish colour, and about. half as 
long again as wide. The ordinary cells are nearly spherical, 
somewhat compressed, so as to be rather wider than long. The 
sporangia vary in shape from spherical to oblong. 

Plate VIII. fig. 6. 

SphjErozyga, Ag. 

Filaments simple, generally moniliform, aggregated into a gela- 
tinous stratum ; sporangia interstitial, in groups of two or 
more connected by a vesicular cell. 

(Sphcerozyga, Agardh, Endlicher, Kutzing, Montagne. Ana- 
baina, Bory, Brebisson.) 

Sphcerozyga agrees with Trichormus, Dolichospermum, Cylin- 
drospermum, Aphanizomenon and Spermosira in its mode of growth 
as well as in the colour and general appearance of its stratum, and 
differs from those genera solely in the microscopic characters of 
its filaments. 

The filaments are somewhat elongated. The joints, though 
seldom so orbicular as in Trichormus, are usually very distinct. 
The sporangia are generally elongated and cylindrical ; they oc- 
cur in little groups of two or four, with a vesicular cell inter- 
posed at the centre. Sometimes a vesicular cell has a sporangium 

* For the description of this species I am indebted to Mr. Thwaites. 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochineae. 331 

on one side and apparently an ordinary cell on the other, but 
this occurs only when the sporangia begin to be developed, and 
the individual on one side is more forward than that on the 
other. In such a case close examination will detect a slight pre- 
liminary elongation of the incipient sporangium. The sporangia 
indeed are always developed, first on one side of the vesicular 
cell and then on the other, and whatever number may occur 
together they follow the same rule, and are produced alternately 
adjacent to those previously formed, and as they are thus pro- 
duced in succession they all vary in size (except in the mature 
plant), the inner ones in each group being the largest. 

Sphcerozyga differs from Trichormus and Dolichospermum by 
producing its sporangia adjacent to the vesicular cells ; its fila- 
ments also are straighter, and its sporangia more elongated than 
in the former genus. The interstitial position of the sporangia 
and vesicular cells distinguishes it from Cylindrospermum, and 
the ordinary cells are not disciform as in Spermosira. 

* Filaments moniliform ; sporangia elongated, not turgid. 

1. S. Carmichaelii (Harvey). Filaments moniliform, with tapering 
extremities ; ordinary joints distinct, subquadrate ; sporangia ob- 
long ; vesicular cells spherical. Belonia torulosa, Carmichael, 
Alg. Appin ined. ; Harvey in Hooker's Brit. Flora, vol. ii. p. 379 
(1833) ; Manual of Brit. Algae, p. 167. Sphterozyga compacta, 
Kiitzing, Phycologia Generalis, p. 211 (1843); Phycologia Ger- 
manica, p. 1 72. Anabcena marina, De Brebisson in Ann. Sc. Nat. ! ; 
Kiitzing, Species Algarum, p. 287 ; Tabulae Phycologicae, t. 92. 
fig. 111. Sphcerozyga Carmichaelii, Harvey, Phycologia Britan- 
nica, t. 1 13 A (1847) ; Kiitzing, Species Algarum, p. 294 ; Tabulae 
Phycol. t. 99. fig. 4. 

/S. tenuissima ( ). Filaments very slender. 

On the damp soil in salt-marshes flooded at spring tides, more 
rarely in brackish ditches or upon decaying marine algae. Appin, 
Capt. Carmichael. Anglesea ; Barmouth ; Penman Pool near Dol- 
gelley ; Braunton near Barnstaple ; Penzance, J. R. Shirehampton 
near Bristol, Mr. Thwaites. 

fi. Shirehampton, Mr. Thwaites. 
France, Brebisson ; Germany, Kiitzing. 

Stratum tender, very thin, of a dark or bluish green colour 
when recent, but opake and glaucous when dry. Filaments short, 
straight, slender, moniliform, with attenuated ends. Ordinary 
joints distinct, the terminal ones longer than broad and trian- 
gular or conical, the others nearly equal in length and breadth, 
at first quadrate, finally rounded at their angles, and when dried 
orbicular. Whilst dividing they are geminate and longer than 
broad. Vesicular cells orbicular or oval and generally ciliated. 



332 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 

Sporangia oblong, three times longer than broad, much broader 
than the ordinary cells, one or two on each side of the vesicular 
cell, the outer ones generally smallest. 

The best distinctive mark of this species is the subacute extre- 
mities, combined with the short filament and littoral habitat. 
There are rarely more than one or two groups of enlarged cells ; 
when only one is present it is situated near the centre of the 
filament. I believe that the attenuated extremities are constant, 
at least in the young plant, unless the filament has been broken. 

The var. fi. differs in having much slenderer filaments : I am 
not sufficiently acquainted with it to determine whether it be, as 
Mr. Thwaites supposes, a distinct species. 

Plate VIII. fig. 1. «, b, ordinary form ; c, var. /3. 

2. S. Jacobi (Ag.). Filaments elongated, their ends usually attenu- 
ated ; ordinary cells subspherical ; vesicular cells spherical ; spo- 
rangia oblong or cylindrical. Sphcerozyga Jacobi, Agardh, Icones 
Algarum Europsearum! ; Berkeley in Eng. Bot. t. 2826. fig. 2. 

Upper Mill, Dolgelley ; near Swansea, J. R. Durham Down near 
Bristol, Mr. Thwaites ! 

Carlsbad, Agardh ! Madeira, Rev. T. Salwey. 

Sphcerozyga Jacobi occurs in thick bluish green gelatinous 
masses, from which the filaments issue in long rays. The fila- 
ments are moniliform, elongated, and generally taper at their 
ends. Ordinary joints at first somewhat quadrate but finally 
orbicular, the terminal one longer than broad and usually coni- 
cal. Vesicular cells spherical, larger than the ordinary joints, 
but not so broad as the sporangia. Sporangia oblong or cylin- 
drical, one or two on each side of the vesicular cell. 

Agardh's figure represents his Sphcerozyga Jacobi as having 
the ordinary joints closely united, in fact separated merely by 
transverse dissepiments, and consequently so unlike the present 
plant, that I should scarcely have suspected their identity if 
Mr. Boner had not afforded me an opportunity of examining an 
authentic Carlsbad specimen which he received from Agardh 
himself. 

Sphcerozyga Jacobi in some respects agrees with S. Carmichaelii; 
but the filaments are stouter and more elongated, the ordinary 
cells are more orbicular, its habitat is also different, and the dried 
plant wants the opake verdigris appearance so usual in the latter. 
The orbicular ordinary and vesicular cells distinguish it from 
S. elastica and S. leptosperma. 

Plate VIII. fig. 8. a, immature filament ; b, mature state. 

3. S. elastica (Ag.). Filaments moniliform, dissepiments conspi- 
cuous ; ordinary cells quadrate ; vesicular ones elliptic ; sporangia 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 333 

cylindrical, truncate. Sphcerozyga elastica, Agardh, Icones Alga- 
rum Europsearum. Cylindrospermum elongatum, Kiitzing, Spe- 
cies Algarum, p. 294 (1849) ; Tabulae Phycologicse, t. 99. fig. 11 1. 

Cromlyn Bog near Swansea, J. R. 
Sweden, Agardh ; Germany, Braun. 

Stratum deep bluish green, tender. Filaments elongated, 
constricted at the dissepiments. Ordinary cells about equal in 
length and breadth ; but when dividing they lengthen, and though 
quadrate in the recent plant they acquire slightly rounded angles 
when dry. Vesicular cells at first barrel-shaped, finally elliptic. 
Sporangia cylindrical, four to eight times longer than broad, 
their ends at first truncate, but rounded after separation. 

The moniliform filaments and shorter joints distinguish this 
species from Sphcerozyga leptosperma, and its elliptic vesicular 
cells from S. Jacobi and S. Carmichaelii. 

Plate VIII. fig. 9. a, immature filament ; b, mature state. 

** Filaments moniliform; sporangia turgid, much broader than the 
ordinary cells. 

4. S. Broomeii (Thwaites). Filaments moniliform, elongated ; ordi- 
nary joints suborbicular ; vesicular cells barrel-shaped or elliptic ; 
sporangia elliptic, catenate. Sphcerozyga Broomeii, Thwaites. 

Brackish ditch at Shirehampton, near Bristol, Mr. Broome. 

Stratum bluish or yellowish green. Filaments elongated, ob- 
tuse ; ordinary cells at first nearly quadrate, but finally orbicular. 
Vesicular cells smooth, at first barrel-shaped, then elliptic, 
broader than the ordinary joints, but not so broad as the spo- 
rangia, which are elliptic and numerous. 

The gelatinous matrix is firmer than in many species of this 
genus, and under the lens can be detected without difficulty. 

The numerous sporangia in each series distinguish Sphcerozyga 
Broomeii from every other species I am acquainted with. 

Plate VIII. fig. 10. a, immature filament; b, mature state. 

5. S. Berkeley ana (Thwaites). Ordinary joints spherical or slightly 
compressed ; vesicular cells spheroidal, compressed, as broad as the 
large turgid-elliptic sporangia. Sphcerozyga Berkeley ana, Thwaites. 
Brackish ditch at Shirehampton, near Bristol, Mr. Thwaites. 

Filaments elongated; ordinary joints nearly globular, some- 
times compressed and slightly broader than long, terminal ones 
longer and somewhat tapering. The vesicular cells are globular 
in dried specimens (but Mr. Thwaites informs me that in the re- 
cent state they are compressed) ; they are nearly as broad as the 
sporangia, which are large, broadly elliptic, and sometimes almost 
globular. 



334 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochineae. 

The turgid sporangia and large, compressed vesicular cells 
characterise the species. 

Plate VIII. fig. 11. a, immature state; b, mature state. 

6. S. Mooreana ( ). Ordinary joints subspherical ; vesicular cells 

barrel-shaped, much narrower than the large broadly-elliptic spo- 
rangia. 

Ireland, Mr. Moore, to whom I am indebted for specimens. 

Ordinary cells minute, somewhat orbicular. Sporangia very 
turgid, often nearly orbicular, much larger than either the vesi- 
cular or the ordinary cells. Vesicular cells minute, smooth and 
barrel-shaped. 

I regret that I have only seen imperfect and dried filaments of 
this species intermixed with Nostoc variegatum, Moore ; in a re- 
cent state therefore the form of the ordinary cells may not agree 
with the above description, still the large turgid sporangia must 
distinguish it from every species but Sphcerozyga Berkeley 'ana , 
and from that it differs in its vesicular cells, which are compara- 
tively much smaller and also longer than broad. 

Plate VIII. fig. 12. Mature filament. 

*** Dissepiments obscure, cells longer than broad. 

7. S. leptosperma (Kiitzing). Filaments elongated, not constricted 
at the dissepiments ; ordinary joints longer than broad, confluent ; 
vesicular cells elliptic ; sporangia linear. Cylindrospermum lepto- 
spermum, Kutzing, Bot. Zeit. 1847, p. 198; Species Algarum, 
p. 294 ; Tabulae Phycologicse, t. 99. fig. 11. 

Ditches and pools. Near Carnarvon and near Barmouth, J. R. 
France, Lenormand. 

Sphcerozyga leptosperma occurs in large, shapeless, gelatinous 
masses in still waters. Its colour varies from deep green to pale 
yellowish green, but when the filaments are comparatively few it is 
nearly colourless. The ordinary joints are longer than broad, sepa- 
rated only by transverse dissepiments, which are not contracted, 
and indeed are often so obscure, that, in the recent state, they 
can hardly be detected, whilst the filaments, in all respects but 
their enlarged cells, appear not unlike those of an Oscillatoria. 
Vesicular cells at first barrel- shaped, finally elliptic, and as broad 
as the sporangia, the early state of which they somewhat resemble, 
but they may be recognized by the absence of granular contents 
and by their globules. Sporangia cylindrical, four to six times 
longer than broad, truncate, slightly broader than the ordinary 
cells. 

The confluent ordinary cells with their obscure dissepiments 
distinguish Sphcerozyga leptosperma from every other British 
species. 

Plate VIII. fig. 13. Mature filament. 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 335 

Dolichospermum, Thwaites MS. 

Filaments simple, generally moniliform, aggregated into a gela- 
tinous stratum ; sporangia interstitial, elongated, separated 
from the vesicular cells by the ordinary joints. 

Dolichospermum differs from Sphaerozyga only in the different 
arrangement of its cells. In the latter genus the vesicular cells 
connect the sporangia, whereas in the former they are situated 
amongst the ordinary cells. 

The sporangia are much elongated and mostly cylindrical. 
They are developed from the ordinary cells, which are more or 
less remote from the vesicular ones. Mr. Thwaites finds that 
their extremities are invariably truncated, and the endochrome 
escapes in an undivided mass, a circumstance he has not noticed 
in the other genera belonging to the Nostochinece. 

This genus is distinguished from Cylindrospermum by the in- 
terstitial position of the sporangia and vesicular cells, and from 
Trichormus and Spermosira by its elongated sporangia. 

1 . D. incequale ( ) . Filaments moniliform ; ordinary cells at first 

quadrate, finally orbicular; vesicular cells large, spherical; sporangia 
linear, catenate. 

Boggy pools. Dolmelynlyn near Dolgelley, J. R. 

This plant forms extensive strata, composed of thick gelatinous 
masses of a deep green colour. Filaments elongated, consisting 
of from 100 to 200 cells, and, being stouter than in most species 
belonging to this family, visible to the naked eye. Ordinary cells 
distinct, quadrate in immature specimens, but at length nearly 
spherical, appearing punctate on account of the scattered gra- 
nular matter which they contain. Vesicular cells spherical, 
broader than the ordinary joints and occurring at short intervals. 
Sporangia three or four times longer than broad, with truncate 
ends, in chains of from two to five members. 

Dolichospermum in<equale may be known from the following 
species by its spherical vesicular cells and catenate sporangia. 

Plate IX. fig. 1. 

2. D. Ralfsii (Kiitzing). Filaments moniliform; ordinary joints 
spherical ; vesicular cells elliptic ; sporangia elliptic or cylindrical, 
one or two in each series. Cylindrospermum Ralfsii, Kiitzing, Bot. 
Zeitg. (1847), p. 197 ; Species Algarum, p. 293; Tabulae Phyco- 
logicae, t. 98. fig. 7. 

Bog and rivulet at Llyn Gwernan near Dolgelley, J. R. 

Dolichospermum Ralfsii occurs in extensive strata of a velvety 
rich dark green colour, sometimes verging towards seruginous 
green. A portion placed in water threw out, in the course of one 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 

night, rays an inch or more in length. Filaments elongated, 
comparatively stout, visible to the naked eye, under the lens full 
green when grouped, but bluish green when scattered. Ordi- 
nary joints orbicular. Vesicular cells elliptic, broader than the 
ordinary ones. Sporangia near the middle of each series of 
ordinary joints, most frequently solitary, rarely more than two 
together, at first oval, afterwards oblong, finally cylindrical, and 
about six times longer than broad. In their early state they 
resemble the vesicular cells in form ; but the presence of granular 
matter and the absence of junction-globules reveal their true 
character : the longer ones are frequently contracted at the mid- 
dle, a circumstance I have occasionally noticed in those species 
which have elongated sporangia. 

Dolichospermum Ralfsii is distinguished from D. inaquale by 
its elliptic vesicular cells (which are comparatively less broad), by 
its more orbicular ordinary joints and by having fewer sporangia. 

Plate IX. fig. 2. 

3. D. Thompsoni ( ). Filaments spirally curved; ordinary and 

vesicular cells spherical ; sporangia oblong, curved, usually solitary. 
Anabaina Flos-aquce, Harvey, Manual of Brit. Algae, p. 186 (1841) ; 
Hassall, British Freshwater Algse, p. 282. t. 75. fig. 2. 

" Floating like powdered verdigris on one of the small Lochs Ma- 
ben, Dumfries-shire," Mr. W. Thompson. 

A specimen of this plant, given me by Mr. Thompson, forms 
on paper a thin stain of a bluish green colour. Filaments mo- 
niliform and loosely spiral. Ordinary and vesicular cells orbi- 
cular, and so much alike in form and size that in the dried state 
I am unable, with absolute certainty, to distinguish the latter 
from ordinary cells which have lost their granular matter. Mr. 
Thwaites however informs me, that by a careful adjustment of 
the lens, he has detected the puncta in the vesicular cell, in which 
also he finds the membrane firmer than in the others. Sporangia 
solitary (rarely two together) in each series, two or three times 
longer than broad, curved, so as to appear somewhat reniform, 
and more rounded at their ends than is usual in this genus. 

This species is easily distinguished from the others by its 
curved filament and reniform sporangia. Its moniliform, spiral 
filament agrees better with Trichormus than with Dolichospermum, 
but in its elongated sporangia it differs from every species of the 
former. 

Plate IX. fig. 3. 

4. D. Smithii* (Thwaites MS.). Filaments straight, each included in 

* For the description of this and the following species I am indebted to 
Mr. Thwaites. 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinere. 337 

a definite gelatinous sheath; ordinary cells subspherical, com- 
pressed, about as long as wide ; vesicular cells subspherical, some- 
what barrel-shaped, half as wide again as the ordinary cells, puncta 
very distinct ; sporangia cylindrical, very unequal in length, and 
with the ends rounded and somewhat truncated. 

Occurring amongst other algae from a freshwater boggy pool at 
Wareham, Dorsetshire, Rev. TV. Smith. 

D. Smithii is immediately distinguishable from its congeners 
on account of its possessing a definite gelatinous sheath to 
each of its filaments, which are of smaller diameter than those 
of any other species of Dolichospermum we are now describing. 
The ordinary cells are subspherical, somewhat compressed, and 
of less diameter than the vesicular cells, which are barrel-shaped 
and with very distinct puncta. The numerous sporangia, which 
are of about twice the diameter of the ordinary cells, are elon- 
gated and cylindrical, very variable in length and in the number 
which occur together, and their ends are slightly truncate. 

Plate IX. fig. 4. 

5. 1). Thwaitesii ( ). Filaments straight or nearly so ; ordinary 

cells quadrate ; vesicular cells oblong, subquadrate, puncta very di- 
stinct ; sporangia numerous, cylindrical, with truncated ends, very 
variable in length. Sphcerozyga Ral/sii, Thwaites in lit. (1849). 

In a freshwater pool, Dendham Down near Bristol ; also in a brack- 
ish ditch near Shirehampton, G. H. K. Thwaites. 

D. Thwaitesii is nearly allied to the foregoing species, but its 
filaments are not included in a definite gelatinous sheath. Its 
filaments are also stouter than those of D. Smithii, and there is 
a difference in the form of its ordinary as well as of its vesicular 
cells. The vesicular cells of D. Thwaitesii are quadrangular, and 
hardly exceed in diameter the ordinary cells. The cylindrical 
truncated sporangia are numerous, occurring many in a chain, 
and very variable in their length ; they are of about twice the 
diameter of the ordinary cells. 

Plate IX. fig. 5. 

Cylindrospermum, Kutzing. 

Filaments simple, jointed, nidulating in a gelatinous stratum ; 
vesicular cells terminal ; sporangia oblong or elliptic, inter- 
posed between the vesicular and ordinary cells. 
(Anabaina, Bory and others.) 

In Cylindrospermum the stratum is similar to that described 
under the preceding genera ; but as the filaments radiate less 
than is usually the case in Sphcerozyga, I was, in one instance of 
admixture, enabled to separate the Spharozyga from the Cylin- 

Ann. &$ Mag. N. Hist. Ser.2. Vol. v. 22 



338 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 

drospermum, by availing myself of the greater radiating capacity 
of the former. 

The filaments, as in the other genera, have at first all their 
joints uniform, but the terminal joint at each end soon enlarges 
into a vesicular cell, which is either orbicular, elliptic or ovate, 
and is generally furnished with fine scattered hairs or fibres : the 
penultimate joints then elongate and become cylindrical, after- 
wards they increase considerably in breadth, and when mature 
are always elliptic or elliptic-oblong. Sometimes two or even 
three sporangia are formed between the vesicular and the ordinary 
cells. The additional sporangia however are not uniformly pre- 
sent even in filaments from the same stratum, and are sometimes 
double at one extremity and not at the other ; in fact, few mature 
specimens can be examined without observing examples of these 
variations. Hence, although the doubling of the sporangia oc- 
curs more abundantly in some specimens or species than in others, 
I cannot rely upon it as a specific distinction. 

There can be no difficulty in recognizing this genus under the 
microscope. The filaments, especially when only one extremity 
is visible, are remarkable for their animal-like appearance. The 
chain of ordinary cells resembles a slender-jointed body; the 
enlarged elliptic sporangium, at least twice as broad as the re- 
mainder of the filament, represents the thorax, and the head is 
mimicked by the vesicular cell, which, in colour, shape and ge- 
neral aspect, differs from the other cells, whilst the presence of 
fine hairs renders the imitation more perfect. 

It will thus be seen that the terminal cells are invariably vesi- 
cular, the penultimate ones always become sporangia, and the 
central ones remain unaltered. 

When the filaments break up, the sporangia separate from the 
ordinary cells, but remain for some time crowned by the vesi- 
cular ones. The filament in Spharozyga frequently breaks at the 
vesicular cells, after which the portion retaining one attached to 
its sporangium, appears, at first sight, to belong to this genus. 
In the recent state however the slightest attention will show its 
true character, for the vesicular cell of the broken Sphcerozyga 
retains the punctum or globule at each end, which is not the 
case in Cylindrospermum, as it is only present where another cell 
has been conjoined. 

1. C. catenatum ( ). Filaments moniliform ; ordinary joints or- 
bicular ; vesicular cells oval ; sporangia oval, catenate. 

This species was probably gathered in South Wales, but I 
omitted to note the habitat when the specimens were preserved. 

Stratum bluish green ; filaments very fine, elongated, straight 
or slightly flexuose, generally parallel. Ordinary cells orbicular, 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 339 

numerous, very minute. Vesicular cells oval. Sporangia (two 
to eight in each chain) at first similar to the ordinary cells, but 
usually less orbicular ; finally they become more or less oval, the 
shorter ones approaching to orbicular, and the longer ones to 
oblong j they are frequently but little broader than the vesicular 
cell ; in fact their size never differs so much as in many species. 

Cylindrospermum catenatum differs from every other species in 
its numerous sporangia. 

Cylindrospermum contains many other species, several of them 
by no means uncommon in this country; but their descriptions 
must be deferred to some future period, as my friend Mr.Thwaites, 
who had paid great attention to them, was prevented by his ap- 
pointment at Ceylon from fulfilling his kind promise to describe 
them for this paper. 

Plate VIII. fig. 14. a, immature filament; b, mature state. 

Aphanizomenon, Morren. 

Filaments simple, flaccid, obsoletely jointed, " cohering laterally 
into flat lamellae," aggregated into a mucous stratum ; vesicular 
cells none ; sporangia linear, interstitial. 
(Aphanizomenon, Morren. Limnochlide, Kiitz.) 

Aphanizomenon forms a thin, tender, mucous stratum of a 
bluish colour. The filaments are extremely slender, flaccid, and 
very obscurely jointed. No vesicular cells have been detected. 
The sporangia are much elongated, either scattered or, more 
usually, solitary near the centre of the filament. 

I have examined an authentic specimen of Limnochlide Flos- 
aqiue, and as there seems to be no essential difference between 
Aphanizomenon and Limnochlide I have united them, retaining 
the former appellation on account of its priority. The filaments 
in both genera are described as cohering in flat lamellse, but that 
character is sometimes so little obvious in dried specimens, that 
I am not inclined to place much dependence upon it as a generic 
distinction, especially as I could not detect it in recent specimens 
of a plant, presently to be described, which I think should by no 
means be placed in a different genus. 

Authors differ widely respecting the proper situation of this 
genus. In Harvey's ' Manual of British Algae ' it is placed at 
the end of the Confervea, Montagne appends it to the Oscilla- 
toriece, Endlicher omits it altogether, and Kutzing instituted for 
it a distinct family, which he placed between Leptotrichece and 
Nostochinece. Mr. Hassall, I believe, first placed it in this family, 
and I fully concur with his observation that * the true position 
of the genus is undoubtedly amongst the Nostochinece, connecting 
them with the Oscillatoriece." 

22* 



340 Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 

Aphanizomenon agrees in its filament with Oscillaturia, but is 
sufficiently separated by its conspicuous sporangia, which are si- 
milar to those of Dolichospermum. It differs from all the other 
genera in the Nostochinece by the absence of vesicular cells and by 
its obsoletely articulated filament. 

1 . A. Flos-aquce (Linn.) . Filaments cohering laterally in flat lamellae 
which separate at their extremities into fasciculi ; sporangia cylin- 
drical with an inconspicuous covering. Byssus farinacea virescens, 
aqucB inspersa, Linnaeus, Flora Lapponica, no. 532 (1737), ed. 2nd, 
p. 388 (Smith, 1792) ; Flora Suecica, ed. 1st, no. 1128. Byssus 
Flos-aquce, Linn. Species Plantarum, no. 1168 (1753), ed. 2nd, 
p. 1637. Conferva Flos-aquce, Roth, Catalecta Botanica, fasc. 3. 
p. 192 (1806). Oscillatoria Flos-aquce, Agardh, Synopsis Alga- 
rum Scandinavian, p. 107 (1817) ; Syst. Algarum, p. 59. Nostoc 
Flos-aquce, Jiirgens, Algae aquaticae. Limnanthe Linncei, Kiitzing 
in Linnaea, vol. xvii. p. 86. Limnochlide Flos-aquce, Kiitzing, 
PhycologiaGeneralis, p. 203 (1843) ; Phycologia Germanica, p. 168; 
Species Algarum, p. 286 ; Tabulae Phycologicae, t. 9 1 . fig. 2 a. Apha- 
nizomenon incurvum, Allman in lit. cum specimine. 

Probably not uncommon. Grand Canal Docks, Dublin, Professor 
Allman. 

Sweden, Linnceus ; Germany, Kiitzing. 

I am indebted to Professor Allman for a beautiful and cha- 
racteristic specimen of this species. In its dried state the stra- 
tum appears to be composed of minute flocculi, and, with the 
exception of colour, might not unaptly be compared to scattered 
snow-flakes. The colour is opake, seruginous green, which how- 
ever becomes more or less altered after being dried a second 
time. The microscope shows that the flocculi consist of parallel 
filaments united together laterally, and forming a flat layer which 
appears plumose from the filaments converging at the ends into 
little conical or subulate tufts or pencils. The filaments are 
straight, obtuse, not attenuated ; the joints are rather longer than 
broad, faintly visible, and especially difficult of detection in con- 
sequence of their granular contents. Kiitzing describes the spo- 
rangia as elliptic. In the Dublin specimen they are few in number 
and immature; but in specimens given me by Professor Kiitzing 
they are linear, much elongated, often ten or twelve times longer 
than broad, and resemble those of the next species except in 
having a far less conspicuous hyaline covering. The best di- 
stinctive mark between these species is the lateral coherence of 
the filaments in A. Flos-aquce. 

In the dried state, the only condition in which I have seen it, 
the Aphanizomenon Flos-aquce is easily recognized by its floccu- 
lent appearance, even to the naked eye. I believe that not only 
was it one of the earliest-known plants in this group, but that it 



Mr. J. Ralfs on the Nostochinese. 341 

is the true Flos-aqua of almost every algologist prior to Lyngbye, 
whose error has misled many succeeding writers and confounded 
plants of widely different aspect. The descriptions of Linnaeus, 
Roth and Agardh, although more or less deficient, agree far 
better with this species than with any others which have been 
confused with it. Lyngbye, indeed, suspected that his Nostoc 
Flos-aqua was distinct from the plant of the two latter writers*, 
an opinion confirmed by Agardh so far as regards himself. 
Mr. Borrer has sent me a specimen of Byssus Flos-aqua distri- 
buted by Mohr, who, there is every reason to suppose, was fully 
acquainted with the plant then known by that name : the speci- 
men, which is a very good one, scarcely differs even in colour 
from those recently gathered by Professors Kutzing and Allman. 
I cannot obtain the slightest clue to the Flos-aqua of our earlier 
British writers. They give no habitats, and although the specific 
definition of Hudson, Lightfoot and Withering agrees with this 
species ("filamentis plumosis natantibus"), yet, as it is a mere copy 
from Linnaeus, no dependence can be placed upon it. The two 
former authors give no original remarks, and Withering' s own 
observations agree but indifferently with his specific quotation ; for 
his description, "jointed filaments straight or curled like a cork- 
screw/' is more applicable to a Trichormus. 

Plate IX. fig. 6. a, portion of foreign specimen magnified ; b, Dub- 
lin sp. ditto ; c, filaments highly magnified. 

2. A. cyaneum ( ). Filaments free, aggregated into a thin mucous 

stratum ; sporangia linear, eight to twelve times longer than broad, 
furnished with a conspicuous hyaline covering. Limnochlide Flos- 
aqua, $. hercynica, Kutzing, Species Algarum, p. 286 (1849) ; 
Tabulae Phycologica?, t. 91. f. 11 ? 
On aquatic plants in boggy pools at Llyn Gwernan and Dolmelynlyn 

near Dolgelley, J. R. 
Germany, Kutzing. 

Stratum minute, thin, tender, of an opake light blue colour. 
Filaments very slender, straight, nearly colourless, having a 
slightly dotted appearance from the scattered granular endo- 
chrome, not constricted at the dissepiments, which are very in- 
distinct, and only to be detected by careful examination in a 
favourable light ; ends obtuse, not attenuated. Joints or ordi- 
nary cells nearly equal in length and breadth. Sporangia elon- 
gated, cylindrical, generally solitary near the centre of each fila- 
ment, but sometimes scattered, each inclosed in a broad, hyaline 
covering. 

* " An sit Conferva Flos-aqua, Roth, Oscillatoria Flos-aqute, Ag., justo 
ambigitur ; illae enim filis rectis et parallelis gaudere describuntur, haec vero 
filis curvatis, implexis instructa est." — Lyngbye, Tentamen Hydrophyto- 
logia? Danicaj. p. 202. 



342 Mr. J . Ralfs on the Nostochineae. 

Aphanizomenon cyaneum differs from A. Flos-aqua by its stra- 
tum not appearing flocculose, by its paler inconspicuous filaments, 
which do not cohere in laminae, and would often escape detection 
under the microscope but for the presence of the sporangium, 
which has a far broader hyaline covering in this than in the latter 
species. 

Plate IX. fig. 7. Filament highly magnified. 

3. A. incurvum (Morren) . " Filaments articulated, cohering together 
in flat laminae, laciniated at the apex ; articulations two to eight 
times longer than broad." Trichodesmium Flos-aquae, Ehrenb. in 
Poggend. Annal. 1830, p. 168 (according to Kiitzing). Aphani- 
zomenon incurvum, Morren in Memoir (1837) ; Thompson in An- 
nals of Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 82 ; Harvey, Manual of Brit. Algae, 
p. 145 ; Hassall, Brit. Freshwater Algae, p. 280. t. 76. fig. 6. Lim- 
nochlide Flos-aquce y. Harveyana, Kiitzing, Species Algarum, 
p. 286 (1849) ; Tabulae Phycologicae, t. 91. fig. 2. 
Ballydrain Lake, Mr. W. Thompson ; Lough Neagh, Mr. D. Moore. 
Belgium, Morren ; Germany, Kiitzing. 

I regret that I am unable to afford any satisfactory informa- 
tion respecting this plant, for although Mr. Thompson has sup- 
plied me with specimens, they are unfortunately preserved upon 
paper, and could not be removed in a condition fit for examination. 
Respecting the Ballydrain species, one would suppose there could 
be no reasonable doubt as Dr. Morren has determined it. Still 
it is very possible that his Aphanizomenon incurvum has been 
rightly supposed by Kiitzing to be merely the Flos-aquce, for 
nothing in the descriptions renders the opinion improbable. The 
Dublin plant at least is decidedly the A. Flos-aqua. Mr. Thomp- 
son's A. incurvum however differs materially from all my speci- 
mens of the A. Flos-aquce both in colour and in the form of the 
particles, which are circular and dot-like, very unlike the larger 
and lobed flakes of the other. Mr. Hassan" s figure represents 
the filaments as tapering — a character, indeed, amply sufficient 
to distinguish the A. incurvum from the preceding species ; but 
unfortunately, if the filaments really possess this character, 
neither Dr. Morren nor Mr. Hassall have noticed it in their de- 
scriptions, and so the matter is still in doubt. 

Since the above was written, I have received from Mr. Moore 
some specimens better suited for examination. Although not 
from the same station as Mr. Thompson's plant, they exactly 
agree with it in appearance ; the specks are unlike any other spe- 
cies that I have seen, and in form as well as in size and scattered 
habit resemble the small dots made by house-flies. Under the 
microscope the filaments appear parallel ; they do not closely 
cohere as in A. Flos-aquce, but are rather held together by the 



Ann. M^.M. Hist. S.^Jol.YPl.I. 








—Ijcttb. ekl. 



JDe C. Jffwerij, vn /op. a^/,. 



MJetyiB-uuv JtnilinftmO'Strmul. 



On Trichites, a fossil genus of Bivalve Mollusks. 343 

mucous matrix, and are neither fasciculated nor laciniated at 
their ends ; they are so very slender that the triplet is not suffi- 
ciently powerful to afford a proper examination. I was unable 
to perceive either dissepiments or sporangia. In no respect, 
except in their parallel arrangement, did the filaments correspond 
with Moreen's description. 

Plate IX. fig. 8. a, portion of stratum from Lough Neagh ; b, filament. 



XXX. — On Trichites, a fossil yenus of Bivalve Mollusks. 
By John Lycett, Esq.* 

[With a Plate.] 

This generic form is distributed over an extensive area both in 
this country and upon the continent ; it occurs in more than one 
of the oolitic formations ; the Cotteswold Hills more especially 
produce it abundantly ; nevertheless it is almost entirely absent 
from the cabinets of English collectors ; and if we examine that 
section of modern literature which professes to illustrate fossil 
conchology, our search will scarcely be more successful or satis- 
factory. In both cases the defect may be accounted for by a dif- 
ficulty almost insurmountable experienced in obtaining illustra- 
tive specimens in a condition perfect, or even approaching to 
perfect ; fragments indeed are easily detached, but these alone do 
not convey any precise or adequate idea of the generic characters. 
The shells are large, the very Titans of their period, sometimes 
extending to upwards of a yard across, of a thickness far sur- 
passing that of bivalves generally, but of a structure peculiarly fra- 
gile (prismatic crystalline), consisting of fibres closely arranged, 
placed perpendicularly to the surface and breaking readily in the 
direction of the fibres with any slight concussion ; this is a serious 
obstacle to their separation, to which may be added, that the up- 
per ragstone bed of the Inferior Oolite in which they most com- 
monly occur is very hard and intractable in the nature of its 
fracture. In almost every open quarry of this rock, and more 
especially in the stratum called Trigonia grit, these thick fibrous 
masses may be noticed ; more rarely also in the middle portion 
of the same formation and in the shelly beds of the Great Oolite. 
They have usually been referred to a gigantic species of Pinna, 
probably from a similarity of structure. The Cotteswolds have 
produced two species, which are distinct from another recorded 
from the Jura which will subsequently be noticed. Dr. Plott, 
the historian of Oxfordshire, appears to have been the first per- 
son who applied the term Trichites to these shells. Woodward, 

* Read to the Cotswokl Naturalists' Club, Jan. 22, 1850. 



344 Mr. J. Lycett on Trichites, 

in his ' Catalogue of English Fossils/ 1725, part 2. p. 101, 102, 
' De testis aliisque incerti generis/ mentions that Lhwyd sent a 
specimen of this genus from the Oolite of Bullington Green near 
Oxford, with the title " Trichites Plottii, Hist. Oxon. Veneris crines 
forsan Plinio/' and adds the caustic remark, that these two writers, 
Dr. Plott of mere simplicity, and Lhwyd of design, " darken 
counsel by words without knowledge," Job. xxxviii. 2; he also 
records fragments in his collection from Risington and Birdlip 
Hill in Gloucestershire. The generic name was of course de- 
rived from its capillary or hair- like structure. Far from joining 
in the foregoing censure, we are rather disposed to respect the 
discrimination which recognized this obscure generic form in the 
earliest infancy of conchology. It was observed by Saussure in 
the Coralline Oolite of Mount Saleve near Geneva, and described 
by Deluc in the first volume of the great work of Saussure on 
the Alps, p. 192, and figured in part 2. fig. 5, 6. This eminent 
naturalist ascertained some of the general features of the genus ; 
the great thickness of the test, its fibrous structure, analogous, he 
observed, to that of Pinna, and its inequivalve form ; this latter 
character, he observed, compelled a generic separation, and he 
proposed to call it Pinnegene. Deluc seems to have been unac- 
quainted with the prior claim of Lhwyd. Guettard and De- 
france observed it in the oolitic rocks of Normandy ; they re- 
garded it as a distinct genus, but do not appear to have con- 
tributed anything material to its elucidation. The latter author's 
views are contained in an article contributed by him to the 'Dic- 
tionnaire des Sciences Naturelles/ torn. lv. 1828. 

Deshayes, in his last edition of Lamarck's Conchology, does 
not recognize its generic value, but describes Deluc' s species 
(torn. vii. p. 68) under the designation Pinna Saussurei ; the 
materials at his disposal seem to have been very imperfect, and 
in consequence his description is incomplete and calculated to 
give an erroneous idea of its characteristic features. The term 
• subsequivalvis ' for instance does not accord with Deluc's figures ; 
it is stated to gape posteriorly, which, judging from our speci- 
mens, must be an error ; the character of the terminal extremity 
and interior of the hinge-line are not mentioned. The only other 
recent notice of the genus which we have discovered is contained 
in the volume of Dr. Pictet, which is devoted to fossil concho- 
logy, where the figures of Deluc are copied on a reduced scale, 
but no additional information is given. From the absence of all 
notice of the genus by the leading systematic writers on concho- 
logy, it may be concluded that they did not recognize the di- 
stinction of Deluc's shell from Pinna, or having no personal 
knowledge of the form, they hesitated to allow it a place with 
recognized genera. It has therefore hitherto existed almost on 



a fossil genus of Bivalve Mollusks. 345 

the horizon of science as an obscure and problematical object, 
which it will be our present endeavour to bring more nearly 
within the grasp of the conchologist. 

Generic Character. 

Shell of fibrous structure, thick, ovate, oblong, inequivalve, ine- 
quilateral and irregular ; umbones terminal, produced and 
funnel-shaped, the apex gaping. Hinge-margin oblique and 
elongated, the margins undulated, anterior margin corrugated 
and thickened beneath the umbones. Hinge lateral, linear and 
without teeth. 

Our specimens, though not numerous, exemplify the genus in 
a satisfactory manner, and place its characters free from ambi- 
guity. The valves are both separated and in apposition ; in one 
instance the interior of the cardinal border and terminal extre- 
mity have been cleared, but the muscular impressions have not 
been seen. The general figure is oblique and nearly quadri- 
lateral, one valve being convex, the other flattened or even a little 
concave ; the margins undulate, are rather irregular, including 
even the hinge-line, and there is always a considerable undula- 
tion occupying the posterior border, at which part the valves are 
thinner, more expanded and flattened ; the undulations of both 
valves correspond ; they are rounded, having no posterior trun- 
cation, and when closed leave no hiatus. In the concavity of the 
anterior border is a corrugation which marks the probable place 
of exit for a byssus, a feature exactly corresponding with that in 
Perna, Avicula, &c, but there is scarcely any distinct hiatus per- 
ceptible. The umbones form a hollow funnel-shaped cavity nar- 
rowing to the extremity, but open, the opening being rounded, 
and formed by the termination of both the valves; the shell 
about its middle and anterior parts attains a thickness exceeding 
any recent bivalve, and comparable only with the fossil genus 
Catillus ; the smaller valve is the thinnest. With respect to its 
affinities, that to Pinna, which has engaged the attention of natu- 
ralists, would appear, to say the least of it, to be very remote. 
What do we find in conformity with a delicate, almost papyra- 
ceous shell, straight, equivalve and regular, with a truncated, 
widely gaping posterior extremity ? Absolutely nothing j on the 
contrary we have a shell of monstrous thickness, very oblique, 
inequivalve and irregular, its posterior side being neither trun- 
cated nor gaping — in fact nearly every generic feature of import- 
ance is reversed ; the fibrous structure common to both seems to 
have misled observers into a supposed generic identity. But even 
the structure of the two genera when carefully examined presents 
a difference equally marked and characteristic : the strength of 



346 Mr. J. Lycett on Trichites, 

the thin and delicate Pinna is produced by a double structure, 
by its substance consisting of two layers, the outer being fibrous, 
the fibres placed perpendicular to the surface as in Trichites; 
but the inner one is nacreous or lamellar, a contrivance which 
effectually obviates the fragility which pertains to the fibrous 
structure. Trichites on the contrary has one structure through- 
out ; the perpendicular fibres are crossed by a few extremely fine 
parallel laminse, which do not break off the continuity of the 
fibres, and impede fracture only to a very limited extent. The 
genus Catillus, found only in the cretaceous rocks, is that which 
seems to approximate most nearly to the present form. Both have 
very much the same general figure, fibrous structure and thick 
substance ; on the other hand, the Catilli are nearly equivalve and 
regular, the hinge consists internally of a linear series of crenu- 
lations, and the terminal character of the umbones is likewise 
distinct. 

The position of Trichites in the concbological series should 
therefore be near to Catillus-, its irregularity is such that no 
two of our specimens are exactly alike either in outline, con- 
vexity or surface. Two individuals were nearly covered with small 
adherent shells, a sufficient indication that their habits were se- 
dentary or sluggish. The great fragility is certainly not the effect 
of fossilization, but a consequence of its structure, and must 
always have existed ; the condition in which the shells are found 
presents a sufficient confirmation of this idea. After frequent and 
persevering, but for the most part fruitless exertions with the 
hammer and chisel, we are enabled to state that Trichites usually 
occurs in the state of distinct portions or fragments, and that 
entire individuals are rare ; the fracture too not unfrequently is 
found across the thickest part of the test. A mollusk, whose 
shell was thus constituted, could scarcely have been the denizen 
of a shelly beach within the influence of the tide, or exposed to 
frequent rolling and collisions with other fragmentary bodies ; 
its habitat must have been tranquil, and probably covered deeply 
and defended by soft mud or sand. Specimens which occur in 
the chaotic shelly beds of the Great Oolite, locally termed * plank- 
ing/ may be regarded as travelled, and, as might be anticipated, 
are usually in portions only, and these seldom large ; individuals 
perfect or approaching to perfect are the exceptions to the rule. 
In the upper portion of the Inferior Oolite the conditions of sea- 
bottom appear to have been somewhat different ; there is an ab- 
sence of shelly detritus ; the valves of the Conchifera are most 
frequently in apposition, and Trichites, as far as can be ascer- 
tained, appears more frequently to approach to the perfect con- 
dition. 



a fossil genus of Bivalve Mollusks. 347 

Example. 

Trichites nodosus. Plate X. 

(Great and Inferior Oolite.) 

Shell quadrately curved, with longitudinal waved nodose ribs ; 
ribs few, diverging, some bifid. The larger valve convex, the 
lesser rather concave, with nodules nearly obsolete, disposed 
in two concentric series. 

Our specimens differ much in the degree of convexity and cha- 
racter of the ribs, the latter being occasionally scarcely distin- 
guishable; the terminal umbones are very much curved and 
turned forwards. The planking beds of the Great Oolite at Min- 
chinhampton Common and freestone of the Inferior Oolite near 
to the same locality produce it, but it has not been recognized in 
the upper portion of the Inferior Oolite ; from the intractable 
character of that rock, however, this circumstance must not be 
considered as conclusive of its absence. Our examples in point 
of size convey but a very inadequate notion of the magnitude 
often attained by the genus ; but it would appear that the larger 
sections belong to the second, or possibly even to a third and 
more gigantic species. The Pinna Saussurei [Pinnegene of Deluc) 
is distinct from our Cotteswold shells ; his figures, taken from 
specimens broken and partly enveloped in the stone, do not con- 
vey any precise idea of the external form, but the portion which 
exhibits the character of the surface is altogether different. 

Trichites undatus. 
(Inferior Oolite.) 

Shell oblong ; umbones „ . . . ; ribs obscure, few, concentric, irre- 
gular and undulated, sometimes obsolete in the larger valve. 
The smaller valve unknown. 

Length 9 inches, breadth 1\ inches. 

The only well-preserved example in our possession has lost the 
terminal extremity, but in other respects is nearly perfect ; the 
hinge^line is more nearly horizontal than in the T. nodosus, and 
the entire form is less convex ; the other valve, though attached, 
cannot be cleared from the hard matrix. It occurs abundantly 
in the upper ragstone of the Inferior Oolite, a rock which usually 
defies all attempts to separate the shell in a tolerable condition ; in 
this instance a large portion of the surface fortunately coincided 
with the natural parting of the bed. 



348 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species 0/" Planorbis 

XXXI. — Characters of nine new or imperfectly described species 
of Planorbis inhabiting India and China. By W. H. Ben- 
son, Esq. 

li Planorbis hemispharula, Cantor MSS.; Benson, Ann. Nat. 
Hist. vol. ix. 

Testa nitida, olivaceo-cornea, leviter exilissime radiato-striata, subdia- 
phana, supra valde convexa, spira planulata, apice vix depresso ; 
sutura impressa ; anfractibus 4£, ultimo extus declinato, majusculo, 
inferne obtuse subangulato, intus laminis raris radiantibus munito, 
subtus excavato; umbilico mediocri profundo, margine subangulato; 
apertura obliqua subcordata, margine superiori arcuato, prominente, 
inferiori recedente. 

Diam. major 6 mill., minor 5, axis vix 3 mill. 

Hab. in insula Chusan Imperii Sinensis. Theo. Cantor. 

In describing this shell I formerly omitted any notice of the 
internal laminae, which indicate an approach to the more regular 
structure observable in the English PI. lineatus (segmentina of 
Leach), as they were not very apparent through the substance of 
the shell in the specimen examined, and are not visible in the 
aperture. This species as well as PL papyraceus of the same paper 
having been originally named by Dr. Cantor, will retain his name 
as the authority, although the asterisks denoting that circumstance 
have been too indiscriminately placed, as in the case of Helix ra- 
vida, mihi, and Novaculina (Solen) constricta, Lamarck. 

2. Planorbis Calathus } nobis, n. s. 

Testa nitidiuscula, albido-cornea, vel lutescente cornea, subdiaphana, 
exiliter radiato-striata, supra convexa, versus apicem planulata, 
apice concavo, sutura impressa; anfractibus 4, ultimo extus de- 
presso, inferne angulato, intus laminis denticulisque radiatis fre- 
quentioribus munito, subtus subplanulato, versus umbilicum an- 
gustum, profundum excavato ; apertura obliqua, cordato-sagittata, 
intus remote labiata, margine superiori arcuato, prominente, infe- 
riori subrecto, recedente. 

Diam. major 4f, minor 4, axis 2 mill. 

Hab. in lacubus Bhimtal et Neini Tal, regionis Kemaonensis Hima- 
layanse ; necnon in stagnis nonnullis agri Rohillani, prope urbem 
Moradabad, Indise septentrionalis. 

In a note to a paper on the singular genus Camptoceras, and 
on the minute Melaniadous genus Tricula, contained in the 
' Calcutta Journal of Natural History ' for 1842, I noticed the 
unusual structure of this species, but omitted to add a specific 
description. The shell belongs to the same type as the Chinese 
forms above described, and with the English species PL lineatus, 
and the Bengal PL trochoides, forms a fourth species of analogous 
but varying internal structure. 



inhabiting India and China. 349 

It is a very local species, but abundant in the places indicated. 
Besides size, it differs from the Chusan species in sculpture, in 
its more angular form at the periphery, and in its less excavated 
lower disc, and narrower umbilicus. It is somewhat singular 
that the only species of Planorbis which have been observed with 
internal laminae, should inhabit such widely separated localities 
as westernmost Europe, the eastern part of Asia (both of them 
insular situations), the north-western part of India, and the mouth 
of the Ganges. Planorbis umbilicalis, nobis (Journ. As. Soc. 
vol. v.), an allied Bengal form, is utterly destitute of any internal 
teeth or laminae, as is also the species next to be described. 

3. Plano7'bis camosus, nobis, n. s. 

Testa nitida, luteo-cornea vel olivaceo-cornea, oblique et rude (praecipue 
subtus) radiato-striata, subdiaphana, supra depresso-convexa; spira 
parvula, apice excavato ; sutura impressa; anfractibus 3j, ultimo 
majori, extus depressiusculo, inferne carinato, subtus planato, versus 
umbilicum majorem leviter excavato ; apertura obliqua, sagittiformi, 
margine superiori arcuato, prominente, inferiori recedente, recto. 

Diam. maj. vix 6 mill., minor 5, axis 1 J. 

Hah. in stagno prope urbem Moradabad, agris Rohillanis. 

Less abundant and still more confined in locality than PL Ca- 
lathus. The specimens taken by Dr. Bacon and myself were 
supposed to be merely a large variety of that species, but on 
clearing them, lately, from a thick ochreous deposit with which 
they were disfigured, I perceived that not only were they 
destitute of internal laminae, but that the shells were more de- 
pressed and more angular at the keel, and that the relative pro- 
portions of various parts differed. 

4. Planorbis Cantori, nobis, n. s. 

Testa nitidula, cornea, subdiaphana, radiato-striata, depressa, supra 
convexiuscula, spira planata, apice concavo, sutura bene impressa ; 
anfractibus 5£, convexiusculis, lente crescentibus, ultimo antice 
majori, subtus convexo, periphaeria subcarinata ; umbilico aperto, 
profundiusculo ; apertura obliqua subcordiformi, margine supra 
valde arcuato, fuscato, infra leviter rotundato. 

Diam. maj. 7, minor 6^, alt. 2 mill. 

Diam. spirae 3£ ; lat. anfract. ult., antice, 3 mill. 

Hab. in stagnis Bengalensibus prope castra Barrackpore. Teste Theo. 
Cantor. 

This shell, of a sublenticular form, is intermediate between the 
subtrochoid species and the more symmetrical smaller Planorbes. 
It comes much nearer to PL convexiusculus, Hutton, Journ. As. 
Soc. Calcutta, July 1849, than P. umbilicalis, nobis, which, from 
the tenor of his foot-note in page 657, Capt. Hutton has never 
seen. The forms of the European and American shells with 



350 Mr. W. H. Benson on new species of Planorbis 

which I compared it, and the slope of the last whorl, underneath, 
towards the penultimate whorl, independently of other characters 
noted, ought to have indicated that the description was quite in- 
applicable to PL convexiusculus, which is wound on a regularly 
increasing open spiral, instead of rapidly increasing in the 
breadth of the last whorl. This rapidity of increase, but in a 
less degree, is observable in PL Cantori. PL umbilicalis, moreover, 
could never, by possibility, have been overlooked among examples 
of PL compressus, as Capt. Hutton states to have been the case 
with his Pinjore specimens of PL convexiusculus. 

5. Planorbis labiatus, nobis, n. s. 

Testa solidiuscula, plano-depressa, nitida, albido-cornea, subdiaphana, 
oblique arcuato-striata, striis remotiusculis spiralibus decussata ; 
apice profunde concavo ; sutura profunda; anfractibus 3 J, cito 
crescentibus, convexis, ultimo antice majori, ab axe superiorum 
discedenti, rotundato, carina mediana levissima submembranacea 
instructo, infra valde convexo ; umbilico subaperto profundiori, 
margine interiori subangulato ; apertura obliqua, cordiformi, intus 
albo-labiata ; margine superiori arcuato, inferiori rotundato. 

Diam. maj. 5, minor 4, axis vix 2 mill. 

Hab. in stagno prope urbem Moradabad. Inter specimina PI. com- 
pressi (Hutton) detexi. 

This little shell is remarkable for the departure of the last 
whorl from the axis which governs the previous volutions. This 
is especially apparent underneath, where the earlier whorls in 
the umbilicus proceed regularly, the last whorl becoming suddenly 
excentric. The whitish rib within the lip is also a marked cha- 
racter, as well as the proportion of the axis to the diameter. 

6. Planorbis Sindicus, nobis, n. s. 

Testa minuta, perforata, sublenticulari, albida, lsevi, subdiaphana, 
supra convexa ; spira planulata, apice depresso ; anfractibus 2\, 
ultimo medio obtuse angulato, subtus convexo ; apertura cordata, 
obliqua, margine superiori arcuato, prominente, inferiori recedente. 

Diam. 2^ mill., axis f mill. 

Hab. in fluvio Indo, regione Sindica superiori. 

This very distinct and minute species, remarkable, after PL 
trochoides, nobis, for its small umbilicus, but of a less trochoid, 
and more lenticular form, I found adhering to the inside of a 
specimen of Paludina Bengalensis sent to me, with other shells 
common to the Gangetic Provinces, from the banks of the Indus 
above Sukkur, by my friend Major FitzGerald, Bengal Cavalry, 
from the expedition which accompanied Shah Shujah under Lord 
Keane to Cabul. No other specimen appears to have been met 
with. 



inhabiting India and China. 351 

7. Planorbis rotula, nobis, n. s. 

Testa minuta, depresso-planata, apertissime umbilicata, luteo-cornea, 
diaphana, impolita, spiraliter obsolete striata ; anfractibus 3£, cy- 
lindraceis, lente horizontaliter iucrescentibus, supra et subtns sequa- 
liter apparentibus ; ultimo ad periphaeriam rotundato, nullo modo 
angulato ; sutura supra infraque profunde impressa ; umbilico 
minime profundo ; apertura vix obliqua, rotundato-lunata ; margine 
superiori arcuato. 
Diam. maj. 2§, minor 2, paulo plus, axis 1 mill. 
Hab. in agro Rohillano, prope urbem Moradabad, raro occurrens. 

Tbis is tbe most agile freshwater mollusk which has ever 
fallen under my observation. I discovered it in 1841, on high 
ground westward of a house belonging to the Nuwab of Rampore 
at Moradabad, which became flooded during heavy rain, and 
which had no communication with tank, marsh, or other body 
of water. The shells must have lain under ground during at 
least nine months in the year, and I failed to find them in the 
same spot at the corresponding season in subsequent years. The 
little animal suspended itself below the surface in the shallow 
water, and projected itself at a rapid rate by a series of quick 
and sudden jerks, the disc of the shell acting below as a kind of 
oar. The sudden starts called to mind the manner of the oceanic 
Pteropodes. The motions of PL compressus and other allied 
species exhibit nothing similar. I had ample opportunities of 
ascertaining this point from having kept P. compressus for 
months in a glass vase in which I watched its habits. PL rotula 
is thus enabled to escape from the drying-up shallows, and to 
enjoy, for as long a period as possible, its short-lived liberty, 
which a slower mode of progression would much tend to abridge. 
The inaccessibility of the work, in which I originally described 
the two following species, to the generality of readers, induces me 
to take advantage of the present opportunity of redescribing them 
more fully. Comparative remarks on the species, and other ob- 
servations on the genus, will be found on reference to the journal 
quoted. 

8. Planorbis umbilicalis y nobis. 
Testa polita, luteo-cornea, subopaca, leviter radiato-striata, supra con- 
vexa, spiraplanulata; apice concavo; sutura impressa; anfractibus 4, 
ultimo extus depresso, majusculo, inferne obtuse angulato, infra 
planiusculo, majori, versus umbilicum subapertum, profundum 
declivi ; apertura obliqua, subcordata, margine superiori arcuato, 
prominente, inferiori recedente. 
Diam. major 7 mill., minor 5 £, axis 2 J. 
Diam. spirse 3 mill., anfr. ult. 4, supra. 
PL umbilicalis, Benson, Journ. As. Soc. Calcutta, 1836, vol. v. 

p. 741-2. 
Hab. in rivis Bengalis orien talis. 



352 Mr. W. Clark on the Littorinidse. 

9. Planorbis trochoides, nobis. 

Testa vix perforata, diaphana, nitida, inconspicue radiato-striata, sub